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Full text of "A view of Spain; comprising a descriptive itinerary, of each province, and a general statistical account of the country"

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A 

VIEW OF SPAIN; 

COMPRISING 

A DESCRIPTIVE ITINERARY, 

OF 

EACH PROVINCE, 

AND A 

GENERAL STATISTICAL ACCOUNT 

OF THE COUNTRY; 

INCLUDING 

ITi POPULATION, AGRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, COMMERCE, AND FINANCE»; 

ITS GOVERNMENT, CIVIL, AND ECCLESIASTICAL ESTABLISHMENTS} 

THE STATE OP THE ARTS, SCIENCES, AND LITERATURE} 

CT8 MANNERS, CUSTOMS, NATURAL HISTORY, ^C. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF 

ALEXANDER DE LABORDE, 



IN FIVE VOLUMES. 
VOL. I. 



LONDON *. 

riD K>a LONGMAN, BURST, MUM, AM) ORME, PATEA 
'STLK-HOW J AM) K. DCJ.AU AND C'U. BOJtlO SQUARE. 

1809. 



J. G. Barnard, Printer, Skiuner-street, Loudon. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



M 



. ALEXANDER DE LABORDE, the author of the 
following work, is well known as an elegant scholar, and 
erudite antiquary, possessed of a highly cultivated taste, 
and extensive information on all literary and philosophical 
subjects. 

For a publication of the nature of the present he was in many 
respects eminently qualified, as well from his intimate ac- 
quaintance with most of the subjects it would necessarily 
embrace, as from his love of travel, and previous habits of 
observation and research ; but for a work on the interesting 
country which he has here chosen for his subject, he possessed 
many peculiar and exclusive advantages of great value. He 
was himself personally known to several Spanish families of 
rank and influence, and, through their mean*, had every de- 
sirable facility for obtaining introductions to such persons as 
could be thought capable of aiding him in his pursuits, and 
access to every object <>f curiosity, and every source of in- 
f Tination, worthy the attention of the intelligent and philo- 
:cal traveller. Of these :-<lv.tntages he appears as much 
a* possible to have availed himself. His " Voyage Pittoresque 
(1 l'Espagne/' one of the most splendid works that has ever ap- 
peared, and the present publication, evince bow d< serving he 
of everj patronage and assistance he received. Few 
men, indeed, could have pro6ted by them to the - me i «ct< : t. 
T>> travel as our author bas done, ■■">■ i with so much 

minuteness, a country so e, so abundant in objects to 

arrest the attentioi i loui it, and withal 10 destitute 

latiom h<r journeying from place to 



Ï2067057 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

place, could not be cfH cted but at an expense which few have 
either the ability or the disposition to meet. It is supposed» 
and our information is derived from the most respectable 
authority, that our author's travels in Spain, including the 
various expences incurred with a view to his two works on . 
that country, have not cost him less, upon a moderate calcu- 
lation, than twenty thousand pounds sterling. 

The" Itinéraire Descriptif de l'Espagne," &c. of which these 
volumes arc a translation, has experienced a most favourable 
reception in France, having in a short period passe\l through 
several editions. To this success the immediate interest of the 
subject could not indeed fail to contribute : but the work 
itself possesses great intrinsic merit, and may perhaps be 
considered as the most complete account we possess of any 
country in the world. 

In the translation few liberties have been taken with the 
original text : some compliments to the reigning family of 
France, and particularly to Joseph Buonaparte, in our au- 
thor's estimation the destined, if not the reigning, monarch 
of Spain, have been omitted, as too fulsome for an English 
ear ; the chapter on the language of the country, wherein the 
author entered into an elaborate comparison of the Spanish 
with the French tongues, has been retrenched in such par- 
ticulars as appeared of no value or interest to the English 
reader ; the chapter on Natural History in the fifth volume 
has received some necessary corrections in the scientific clas- 
sification of the subjects; in other respects it remains in its 
original state. All that it is deemed necessary to remark 
farther is, that a few short notes have been occasionally in- 
troduced, particularly in the fourth volume, where the text 
appeared to recpaire illustration. 

ÎLISH EDITOR. 



CONTENTS 



FIRST VOLUME. 



Pag» 

INTRODUCTION i 

Observations on travelling in general, and on tra- 
velling in Spain in particular .... cxxviii 
Manner of travelling in Spain .... cxxxiv 
Natural geography of Spain .... clvni 
Observations on the face of the country and on 

the climate of Spain clix 

Historical geography of Spain . . . i clxxiv 

Chronological table of the king's of Spain . . clxxvi 

Division of Spain clxxviii 

CATALONIA. 

Road from Perpignan to the frontiers of Spain . . l 

Observations on Catalonia 2 

Road from Col-de-Pertus to Gironna .... 9 

from Gironna to Barcelona IS 

■ by the Sea-side if) 

Baucelona. .... .27 

Excursions from Barcelona 63 

Environs of that town C7 



CONTEXTS. 

Page 
Road from Barcelona to the frontiers of the kingdom of 
Aragon , 69 

— — trou» the Frontier? of the kingdom of Valencia to 

Tarragona 85 

from Tarragona to Barcelona ib. 

Statistical Abstract relative to Catalonia 104 

View of the Natural Hi-tory of Catalonia 123 

Character, manners, customs, 6iC. of the Catalans . . 129 

VALENCIA. 

General observations on the kingdom H6 

Road from the frontiers of the New Castile to Valencia 140 

from the frontiers of the kingdom of Murcia to 

Valencia 143 

— - from the same frontiers near Almanza to Valencia 167 

Valencia 175 

Excursions in the environs of Valencia 251 

Road from Valencia to Segorbe 257 

- to San-Felipe 266 

2d to the same ib. 

— — 3d to the same ib. 

Road from Valencia to the frontiers of Catalonia . .271 
Statistical abstract relative to the kingdom of Valencia 293 
Table of the productions of the kingdom ..... 306 
Commercial Tables 314 

ESTREMADURA. 

General observations on this province .... 337 
Road from the frontiers of New Castile to the frontiers 

of Portugal 339 

Truxillo 34-3 

Merida 349 

Road from Merida to Badajoz 353 

2d to the same 355 

Badajoz ... 356 



CONTENTS. 

Page 
Road from Almaraz to Talavera-la- Vieja : . . 359 

from Almaraz to Plasencia, Coria, Alcantara, and 

Caceres, and thence to Merida 361 

Plasencia 363 

Coria , 369 

Alcantara 371 

Caceres 374- 

Cross-road from Caceres to Merida . . . .375 

Statistical abstract relative to Estremadura . . . ib. 

Manufactures and commerce 379 

Roads, carriage, and inns 380 

Natural History 381 

Arts and Sciences 383 

Character, Manners, &c. . . . . , • 381 



ALPHABETICAL TABLE 

OF THE ROADS DESCRIBED IN 

THE ITINERARY OF SPAIN; 

Contained in the 1st, 2d, and 3d Volumes. 



Page 

ALAVA (from the frontiers of) to Burgos, Valladolid, 
and the frontiers of New Castile on the port of 
Guadarrama, G I leagues. III. 10 

Albacete (from) to the frontiers of the kingdom of Va- 
lencia, 14leagues. (PI. 15.) II 209 

Almaraz (from) toPlasencia, Coria, Alcantara, and Ca- 
cerez, from thence to Merida, 57 leagues. (PI 25.) 
I. 3G1 

Aranjuez (from) to Reqnina and the frontiers of Va- 
lencia, 42 leagues. (PI. 5 cS: I .'{.) III. 176 

N.B. The ancient road ran only he travelled on 
horseback. 



TABLE OF THE ROADS. 

Pag, 

Aragon (from the frontiers of) by Daroca and Urzes to 
Madrid, 35 leagues and a quarter. (PI. 5, 10& n.) 
III. 07 

iY 1'.. Head from the frontiers of France through 
P< rpignan, Barcelona, and Saragossa to Ma- 
drid. 
Aragon (from the frontiers of) by Calataynd and Si- 

samon lo Madrid, 31 leagues. (PI. 5, 10 & 11.) III. G9 
N. B. Road from the frontiers of France by 
Perpignan, Barcelona, and Saragossa to Ma- 
drid. 
Astorga (from), in the kingdom of Leon, to Lu<n> in Ga- 
licia, and St. Ja^o or St. James of Compo.-,tella, 49 

leagues. (PI. 26&27.) II. 4-27 

Astorga (front) to Zamora and Toro by Benevente, 28 

leagues. II. >. 484 

BARCELONA (from) to the frontiers of the kingdom of 

Aragon, 34 leagues and a quarter. (PI. 8.) I. 69 

Bedazoa (from) to St. Sebastian, Bilbao, and Orduna, 

25 leagues. II 347 

CADIZ (from) to the fiontiers of the kingdom of Gra- 
nada, 19 leagues. (PI. 21.) II 83 

N. B. Road from Cadiz and Xercd de la Fron- 
tera to Ronda and Malaga. 

Carmona (fruin) toCadiz, 26 leagues. (PI. 23.) II 62 

Catalonia (from the frontiers of) to Saragossa, 22 

leagues. (PI. 9.) II. _ 245 

N. B. Su ih. road through Perpignan and Bar- 
celona to Saragossa and Madrid. 
Ceuta, Spanish possessions on the coast of Africa (from) 
to Penon de Veltz, Penon de Alhuzemas, Marzal- 
cjuivir, and Oram III. 403 



TABLE OF THE ROADS. 

Page 
Col de Pertus (from) the frontier of France, to Gironna, 

11 leagues. (PI. 6.) I 9 

N. B. '1 his road leads from Perpignan to Bar- 
celona, Saragossa, Valencia, and Madrid. 

Cordova (from) to Seville, 21 leagues. (PI. 20.) II. 38 

Corunna and Ferrol (from the coast of) to Biscay and 

the Asturias. II. 453 

Corunna (from) to Ferrol, 9 leagues. (PI. 26.) II. 438 

ECIJA (from) to the frontiers of the kingdom of Gra- 
nada, 6 leagues. (PI. 20.) II mm 85 

Estremadura Spanish, and the kingdom of Leon (from 

the fronti; rs of) to Salamanca, 19 leagues. II 488 

Estremadura (from) to Cordova, by the Sierra Morena, 

84 leagues. II , j 

FRANCE (from the frontiers of), by Bayonne, to Pam- 

peluna, 7 leagues. II __ 3]g 

>,'. B. The distance from Bayonne to Pampe- 
luna is reckoned at 17 geographical leagues. 
France (from the frontiers of) over the mountain of 
Atienza to Madrid, 19 leagues and three quarters. 

in. ---- go 

France (from the frontiers of) by Bayonne, to St. Se- 
bastian, Bilbao, and Orduna. II. 34g 

France £from the frontiers of) from Rayonne to the 
frontiers of Old Castile, by Guipuzcoa and Alava, 

22 leagues and a half. II. 300 

N. B. Tiie road from the frontiers of France to 
Burgos, Yahadohd, and Madrid. 



'J AH LE OF THE ItO ADS. 

rage 

GIRONNA (from) to Barcelona, through the interior, 

16 leagues. (PI. (>.) 1. -- IS 

N. B. FSrel road. This is the road for the post and 
muleteers. 

ad road. By the sea-side road 17 

leagues and a quarter. I „«,,..• 19 

Granja and St. [ldefonso (from) to Segovia, and further 

en to Cuella and Tudela, 19 leagues and a half. III. 33 

LEON (from) to Astorga, 7 leagues. (PI. 28.) II. 4-78 

Leon (from the frontier of the Kingdom of) to Oviedo, 

13 leagues. (PI. 28.) II. 405 

Llerena (from) to Seville, 17 leagues. (PI. 23.) II. 2 

Lugo (from) to Mondonedo, 9 leagues. (PI. 26.) II. *5l 

Lugo to Corunna, 14- leagues. (PL 26.) II 433 

MADRID (from) to Rcqucna and the frontiers of the 

kingdom of Valencia, 4 t leagues. (PI. 5 & 13.) III. 176 
N. B. Old Post-road from Madrid to Valencia, 
it can only be travelled an horseback. 
Madrid (from) to Requcna and the frontiers of the king- 
dom of Valencia, passing through Cuenca in the 

Sierra of that name, 55 leagues. HI 184 

Madrid (from) to the frontiers of Estremadura, 27 

leagues. (P1.5&25.) III. 204 

N. B. Road from Madrid to Portugal through 
Estremadura. 

Madrid (from) to Toledo, 12 leagues. (PI. 5.) Ill 173 

Madrid (from) to Aranjuez, and the frontiers of La 

Mancha, 9 leagues. (PI. 5.) III. 168 

Y B. The road from Madrid to Murcia, Cartha- 
gena, and Valencia. 
Madrid (from) to the 1'scurial and San Lorenzo, 7 
leagues. (PI. 5.) III. - 143 



TABLE OF THE ROADS. 

Page 
Mahon, island of Minorca, (from) to Cuidadella. (PI. 29.) 

III. - 453 

Malaga (from) to Gibraltar by the sea coast, 20 leagues. 

(PI. 21.) III.„ 364 

Mancha (from the frontiers of) to Cordova, 12 leagues. 

(PI. 20.) II. 22 

Mancha (from the frontiers of) to Murcia, 25 leagues. 

(PI. 16.) II. 158 

N. B. The road from Madrid and Aranjuez to 
Murcia and Carthagena. 
Medina del Rio Seco (from) to Tordesellas, 7 leagues. 

II. 431 

Merida (from) to Badajoz, by La Puebla de la Calzada, 

9 leagues. (PI. 24.) 1 353 

Merida (from) to Badajoz, by Lobon, 9 leagues. 

(PI. 24.) I. ^ 353 

Murcia (from) to the frontiers of the kingdom of Valen- 
cia, 3 leagues. (PI. 16'.) II - 206 

Murcia (from) to Lorca, 13 leagues. (PI. 16.) II. 192 

Murcia (from the frontiers of) above Orihuela to Valen- 
cia, 32 leagues and a half. (PI. 14&16.) 1 143 

Murcia (from the frontiers of the kingdom of) near Al- 
manza to Valencia, 15 leagues and three quarters. 

(PL 14.) 1 167 

N. B. Tiie road from Madrid and Aranjuez to 
Valencia. 

NAVARRE (from the frontiers of) below Valtierra, to 
those of New Castile on Mount Atienza, 23 leagues 
and a half. III. 7 

New Castile (from the frontiers of) through Aranjuez 
and Ocana t>. the Sierra Morena, the frontiers of 
Andalu,ia, 27 leagues. (PI. I HI 34] 



TA 15 LE OF Till: HO ADS. 

Page 
New Castile (from the fronti irt of) ah ive Aranjuez to 

the frontiers of Murcia, 23 leagues. (PI. 15.) HI-- 327 
New Castile (from the frontiers of) to Valencia, 7 

leagues. (Pi. 13.) 1 - 140 

New Castile (from the frontiers of ) through Talavera 

delà Reyna, to the frontiers of Portugal, 38 leagues 

and three quarters. (PI. 25.) 1 339 

OLD Castile (from the frontiers of) on the Puerto de 

Guadarrama to Madrid, 9 leagues. (PI. 5.) III. ._ 65 
Note. — Road from the Frontiers of France, by 
Bayonne, Burg «, and Valladolid to Madrid. 

Orense (from) to Requejo, frontier of the kingdoms of 
Galicia and Leon, 24 leagues. (PL 27.) II 450 

Oviedo (from") to Santillana, through Onis, La Fuente de 

Nansa, and Cabezon. II 413 

Oviedo (from) to Aviles, 4 leagues. (PL 28.) II. 410 

Oviedo (from) to Gijon, 4 leagues. II. 409 

PALEXCIA (from) to Leon. (PI. 28.) II 468 

Palencia (from) to Medina del Rio Seco, 8 leagues. II. 480 

Palma, in the Isle of Majorca, (from) to Alcudia and 

Pollenza. (PI. 29.) Ill — 424 

Pampeluna (from) to St. Jean Pie de Port, capital of 

French Navarre, by Roncevaux, is leagues and a 

half. II -- 321 

Pampeluna (from) to the frontiers of Old Castile, 19 

leagues. II. _ 323 

Ponte Vedra (from) to Orense, 1 t leagues. (PI. 26.) II. 443 

\M \NCA (from) to Cuidad Rodrigo, 16 leagues. 

II -- 504 

Salamanca (from) to Medina del Rio Seco, 14 leagues. 

II. 502 



TABLE OF THE ROADS- 

Page 
Salamanca (from) to Avila, on the frontiers of New Cas- 
tile, 21 leagues. II. -. 4-99 

Sant Jago (from) to Corunna, 10 leagues. II 438 

Sant Jago (from) to Tuy,, by Vigo, 17 leagues and a 

half. (PL 20.) II. 442 

Saint Jago (from) to Orense, 14 leagues and a half. 

(PI. 26.) II 449 

Saragossa (from to the frontiers of New Castile, by Da- 

roca, 14 leagues. (PI. 10.) II 272 

Saragossa (from) to the confines of New Castile, by Ca- 

latayud, 20 leagues and a half. (PI. 10.) II 276 

Seville (from the frontiers of the kingdom of) below 
Grazalema, as far as Malaga, 14 leagues. (PI. 21.) 

II _ 85 

Seville (from the frontiers of the kingdom of) below 
Alameda, as far as Granada, 10 leagues. (PI. 20.) 

II 83 

Sierra Morena (first passage in the) 19 leagues. (PI. 19.) 

II. 4 

(Second passage) 12 leagues. (PI. 19.) 

II. 8 

Sierra Morena (from the) to Jaen, by Linares, 14 leagues 

andahalf. (PI. 19.) II. - 112 

Sierra Morena (from the) to the frontiers of La Mancha 
as far as Alcala Real and the limits of the kingdom 

of Granada. (PI. 19.) II 108 

Sierra Morena (from the) as far as Jaen, by Anduxar, 

9 leagues. (PI. 19.) II Ill 

TALAVERA de la Reyna (from) to Toledo, 11 leagues. 

(PI. 5.) Ill 242 

Toledo (from) to Aranjuez, 7 leagues. (PI. 5.) III. _^._ 279 
Torre d<- Si Has (from) to Medina del Campo, 4 leagues. 

II. 483 



TABLE OF THE ROADS. 

Page 
Tuy (from) to Orensé, 13 leagues. (PI. 26.) II. 447 

VALENCIA (from) to San-Felijie, <) leagues andahalf. 

(PI. II) 1 266 

Valencia (from) to the frontiers of Catalonia, 21 leagues 

and thitee quarters. (PI. 12.) I. __ 271 

Valencia (from) lo Liria, Xerica, and Segorbe, 21 

leagues and a quarter. (PI. 12.) I. 257 

Valencia (from the frontiers of the kingdom of) to Tar- 
ragona, and from Tarragona to Barcelona, 34 
leagues. (PI. 7.) 1 85 

Vigo (from) to Orensé, It leagues. (PI. 26.) II.-.. 447 



INTRODUCTION. 



Y 

JlN the existence of nations, as in the life 

of men, there are certain events, which, 
as it were, bring their history to a point, 
and indicate tue time for describing them. 
The historian, acquainted with their past 
and contemplating their present situation, 
may compare the latter with the former, 
and observe their relations and distinctions, 
without feeling himself called upon to dive 
into the unknown ocean of futurity. 

Such is the present state of Spain, now 
terminating an important period of her 
history, and taking a new form. This 
noble country, which has always been go- 
verned by some foreign House, though 

a 



li INTRODUCTION. 

never conquered by any, always swayed 
but never debased, seems to rise with 
greater vigour, and to derive fresh lustre 
from changes which usually cause the de- 
cline of empires. Fortunate would be the 
writer who was prepared at this moment 
to trace the events, which, through every 
period, have contributed their influence in 
the fate of this monarchy. We might 
hope to receive from him a history, not 
the stale one of its kings, but of its pro- 
vinces, of their customs, of the progress 
of their industry, of their civilization; 
above all of their prosperit} r , that true, 
that important era in the annals of nations. 
He would not, like his predecessors, lose 
his time in detailing all the campaigns in 
the Milanese, from Charles V. to Maille- 
bois. He would spare us those never-fail- 
ing rebellions of the Low Countries against 
the princes of the house of Austria, those 
long sieges of small towns, those great 
battles of little armies, which generally led 
to negotiations, no less tiresome and insig- 
nificant. 

Unconnected as these events are with 



INTRODUCTION. U* 

Spain, they compose three-fourths of the 
works written on that country, while its 
philosophical and political history, perhaps 
the only important one, is the only one 
neglected. Though too much engaged to 
attempt this task myself, I hope that I 
have contributed to render the execution of 
it easier to those who may be inclined to 
undertake it, by communicating to them 
the enquiries I have been able to make, 
and the information I have obtained. 
All the materials I have collected I here 
present to the public in a form which ap- 
peared to me the most convenient for the 
different classes of readers, particularly 
for those whom a taste for travelling, or 
other motives, may induce to visit Spain. 
The three first volumes contain a descriptive 
Itinerary, and a statistical account of each 
province : the two last are devoted to a 
general view of the country in whatever 
relates to the different branches of the go- 
vernment and of political economy. These 
delineations are not digested wifh all the 
pains I might have taken with them, had 
I been less eager for their appearance ; 
a2 



IV INTRODUCTION. 

,but I have preferred publishing them such 
as they are at a moment when they may 
be of the greatest utility, and throwing my- 
self upon the indulgence of the public for 
the faults they contain. The work, indeed, 
is of that kind in which, perhaps, elegance 
is not so requisite in the style as accuracy is 
necessary in the facts ; and in this, at least, 
it has been my strenuous endeavour to de- 
serve no blame. 

Spain, long neglected in our political 
interests, in our commercial views, and 
scarcely an object even of our curiosity, 
is becoming interesting in all these respects, 
and will completely fix our attention, when 
she makes a part of the same system, and 
adopts the same European habits, and 
when travelling is rendered less difficult: 
but to judge of what she may then be, we 
ought to know what she is at present, and 
what she was formerly. The social organi» 
Nation of Spain is still less known than her 
monuments, though her historians are more 
numerous than her travellers, and one is 
astonished to find the received opinions on 
her present state, and her situation in the 



INTRODUCTION. V 

diiïcrent periods of history, contrary to 
real facts and authentic documents. 

I bad occasion, in another work on this 
country *, to scrutinize sonic historical tra- 
ditions which did not appear to me found- 
ed on truth ; I shall do the same in the 
following volumes, in all that relates to 
industry and government, whenever it ap- 
pears to me that the public is misinformed. 
I am, nevertheless, sensible of the difficulty 
of combating ideas generally received ; 
but these ideas are not so rooted in Spain, 
and as lam supported in my opinion by se- 
veral enlightened men of that kingdom, I 
cannot but hope some indulgence from 
others. 

It will, no doubt, appear strange to 
assert, that Spain was never more flourish- 

j, better cultivated, or perhaps, more 
populous than at present : 

That it has never experienced any de- 
cline, never having attained any eminent 
degree of prosperity : 

That the splendour of the boasted reigns 

* Picturesque Travels in Spain 

a3 



VI INTRODUCTION. 

of Ferdinand V., Charles V., and Philip 
II., were owing only to military glory and 
foreign politics, without the welfare of the 
country being a step advanced : 

That the fifteenth and sixteenth centu- 
ries, which are considered as the most 
brilliant ages of Spain, were less prosper- 
ous than the eighteenth, which constitutes 
a part of its supposed decline : 

That the discovery of America was never 
injurious either to its population or indus- 
try, and that it is at present eminently 
advantageous to both: 

That the inquisition, atrocious and san- 
guinary as it was in the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries, did not in those times 
prevent the increase of population, or the 
progress of knowledge, while its influence, 
which seemed to be null, has, for sixty 
years past, been prejudicial to every kind 
of improvement: 

And lastly, that if Spain were governed 
by an enlightened prince, it would, from its 
present state in the two worlds, be able in 
a very short time to rise to the highest de* 



INTRODUCTION. Vil 

grée of wealth and splendour, and rival 
the great powers of Europe. 

A brief examination of the state of this 
kingdom in its different revolutions will 
illustrate these assertions, and serve as a 
connecting chain to the different parts of 
this work. 

The philosophical history of Spain may 
be divided into four great epochs*: the 
first under the Carthaginians and Romans, 
till the invasion of the northern nations ; 
the second under the government of the 
Goths and Arabs till the reign of Charles 
V.; the third under the princes of the 



* I have likewise divided the History of Spain relative 
to its monuments into four epochs, but in a different way : 
the first epocha comprehends the Romans and Goths toge- 
ther, the arts of the latter having been only the continu- 
ation and decline of those of the Romans ; the second is 
confined to the Arabs; the third to the Gothic style hi 
use among the Christians from the eleventh century, 
gradually introduced as the monarchy was forming anew ; 
trie fourth comprehends all the modern monuments from 
the revival of the arts under Ferdinand and Isabella to 
our days. Voyage, pittonsyuc d'Espagne, Vol, I. 
Introduction, 

a 4 



vm ixTiionrcTinK, 

house of Austria ; the fourth under+those 
of the house of Bourbon. 

In the first epoclui, the Spaniards made 
part of the grand system which governed 
the world; but, lather allies than subjects 
of the Romans, becoming like them civi- 
lized, but not. civilized by them ; they 
equalled them in almost all useful know- 
ledge, and were at once, the prop and 
wealth of their empire. In the second 
epocha they began to compose an inde- 
pendent state, subject to new laws, 
and under sovereigns of their own nation : 
bttt, soon reduced by the conquests of the 
Moors to a small territory, they were oblig- 
ed to form their monarchy anew, and the 
improvement of their laws, commerce, and 
agriculture, was necessarily slow. Divid- 
ed into several kingdoms which had not 
even a feder.: .; ad like other states of 

Europe, they long languished under an im- 
perfect order of things, till at length the 
crowns of all the provinces united on the 
bead of Ferdinand V., one of their most 
. ringuished sovereigns. That monarch, 
no longer having enemies to combat at 



PRODUCTION. IX 

home, and desiring no conquests abroad, 
devoted his whole attention to the welfare 
of his subjects. 

This period, regarded by historians as 
that of the splendour and felicity of Spain, 
was, however, only remarkable for a false 
gleam of prosperity, no sooner seen than 
vanished. Spain, escaping from the dis- 
astrous wars of Henry IV, Ferdinand's 
predecessor, was involved in still more dis- 
astrous oik * which followed the reign of 
the latter monarch, in that of Charles V, 
his successor, and v. inch blasted all hope 
of internal improvement. 

This is our third epocha, during which 
the Spaniards dared to pretend to univer-» 
•sal monarchy, for the transient glory of 
which they paid very dear. Torn from 
their families, and despatched to fight with- 
out reason against distant nations, or cm- 
ployed without any advantage in quelling 
rebellions, thev were doomed to see th* 
produce of their soil, the treasures of their 
colonies, and the (lower of their population 

it far from their native land. The feeble 

tfteeessom of Charles !. and Philip II. , 



X INTRODUCTION. 

persevering in the system of these mo- 
narchs without their talents, aggravated 
the calamities of the nation, and Spain, 
disheartened and distressed, wished the 
extent of her dominions diminished with 
as much reason as other countries covet an 
augmentation of theirs. 

The fourth epocha begins in the 18th 
century, when the grandson of Louis XIV. 
took possession of the throne of Spain. 
At this juncture a general commotion took 
place in all the provinces of this empire, 
which proved favourable to each. It hap- 
pens with political bodies as with the hu- 
man body, when it sinks into a kind of 
stupor and relaxation ; a spontaneous agi- 
tation brings it to itself by compelling it 
to make use of its strength : if this move- 
ment be not too violent, or too long, it 
will be followed by a developement of all 
the organs, a revival of all the faculties 
eminently favourable to ameliorations of 
every kind. Such was the effect produced 
by the change of dynasty among the Spa- 
niards. They had been industrious under 
the Romans, warriors under the Goths, 



INTRODUCTION XI 

ambitious under the Austrian princes, and 
they found themselves, under Philip V., 
in that happy state of equanimity, in that 
age of wisdom as it were, which leads 
men to employ the experience of the past 
in improving the advantages of the future. 
Then it was that enriched by the loss of 
their distant provinces, they concentered 
their industry within the limits of their 
empire, and enjoyed a repose and welfare 
which they had never experienced in the 
most brilliant periods of their history. The 
manufactures of Flanders and the Mila- 
nese were soon established in Catalonia, 
Aragon, and the kingdom of Valencia; 
ports and arsenals multiplied along the 
coasts, and population rapidly increased: 
agriculture, relieved from some of its fet- 
ters, drew the attention of sensible men, 
and all the efforts previously directed to 
objects beyond the limits of the empire 
now turned towards its centre. 

Could I here enter into a full examina- 
tion of the state of Spain during those dif- 
ferent epochs, the truth of the opinions 
I have advanced might perhaps be made 



Ml INTRODUCTION". 

to appear at once ; but I think that the 
J acts being stated in their proper places 
through the course of the following work 
-will have a better effebt, and that they will 
in that way be illustrated to greater ad- 
vantage. Still, before we set out upon 
Hits long journey, i judge it right to recall 
to the reader's memory the principal revo- 
lutions which have had an influence in the 
fate of Spain, and to present them to him 
in a light conformable to the opinions I 
have expressed, in order that he may be 
satisfied beforehand that those opinions 
are neither unlikely, nor dictated by par- 
tiality. 

" We follow what is probable," says 
Cicero, " and resolving not to go farther, 
we are prepared to receive criticism with- 
out anger, and to reply to it without per- 
tinacity*." 

Spain, situated, in a manner, between 
Europe and Africa, uniting the productions 
of both these quarters of the world, and 
enriched with every gift of nature, was 

* Tuscul. Lib. II. C. c. 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

long an object of desire to nations, and a 
theme of fabulous histories to writers. 
While the Phenicians and the Grecian* 
confined themselves to trading with the 
inhabitants, these readily gave up to them 
riches of which they felt not the value ; 
but they defended them the moment thny 
discovered that they were to be robbed of 
them. The Carthaginians and Romans 
felt the effects of their courage, and found 
that while the bosom of their soil teemed 
with every treasure, the bosoms of its 
inhabitants flowed with everv virtue. 
After a long resistance however, the 
whole peninsula, compelled to submit to 
the masters of the world, delivered up 
their triumphal gold, their captive zzealtk, 
to adorn the trophies of Rome; but it was 
not long before, oppressed by the avarice 
of the Roman governors, they resumed 
the avenging steel of their forefathers. It 
does not belong; to this work to describe 
those remote times, the great exploits of 
which have been so often re-achieved by 
the Spaniards. "Without hope of succour, 
without even an object in their resistance, 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

those proud barbarians slaughtered in their 
mountains armies sufficiently numerous to 
conquer kingdoms, and were not com- 
pletely subdued till the reign of Augustus, 
when incorporated with the Roman empire 
Spain partook its tranquillity, and received 
at least in exchange for her liberty wise laws 
and a mild government. If she could not 
prevent herself from falling under the do- 
minion of the masters of the world, she was 
at least the most powerful, the richest, and 
the happiest province of their empire. Co- 
lumella has left us an interesting account 
of her agriculture under the first emperors. 
The tradition of her ancient population is 
probably exaggerated, but the ruins of 
several towns prove it to have been con- 
siderable. It was increased by a great 
many Roman families after the conquest: 
several legions were established in Spain ; 
five and twenty colonies were distributed 
in the most fertile parts of the country, 
and intermarried with the inhabitants. 
After a while the Spaniards, seeing in their 
masters only countrymen, were the first to 
solicit the rights of Roman citizens, by 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

which they were completely consolidated. 
Some municipal towns went so far as to 
desire permission to take the title of colo- 
nies, though in the change they lost their 
independence nearly in the same manner 
as certain proprietors of lands under the 
feudal system converted their domains into 
fiefs, in order to enjoy the honours attached 
to them. The government was, in general, 
milder in Spain than in the other Roman 
provinces. The administration was carried 
on in the towns by magistrates named by 
themselves, and the different provinces 
were under the superintendence of praetors, 
proconsuls, and legates or deputies, ac- 
cording to the different eras of the Roman 
empire : these in their respective depart- 
ments took care of all the works of public 
utility, the aqueducts, baths, circuses, and 
highways, whose magnificent ruins are still 
existing; but they were principally employ- 
ed in collecting the revenues of the state, 
which were singularly analogous to those 
of the present times. They principally Jarose 
from dues, fines, or alienations of property, 



XVI INTRODUCTION". 

and the produce of the mines. Spain at 
that lime drew from her own mines the 
same riches she now draws from the new 
world, and they were distributed in nearly 
the same manner ; one part belonged to 
the state, and the other to the people of 
the country, who paid a certain duty on 
the metals they dug ont of the earth. 
Their returns went on increasing, and like 
that of America, depended solely on the 
number of hands which could be devoted 
to working the mines. But this laborious 
employment, which required a numerous 
population, tended to decrease it by the 
excessive fatigues it occasioned. The po- 
pulation of Spain was considerably dimi- 
nished under the last emperors, and its 
ao-riculture suffered by the accumulation 
of estates in the hands of a small number 
of rich people, by the little attention paid 
to it by the proprietors of lands, and by 
the defects inherent in the system of cul- 
tivating by slaves. Commerce and in- 
dustry, in the same manner, became lan- 
guid, and Spain after sharing the grandeur 



INTRODUCTION. XVU 

of Rome was beginning to participate its 
decline, when a new calamity by complet- 
ing her ruin prepared her regeneration. 

If we are to credit the historians of 
the 4th and 5th centuries, it should seem 
that the north must have suddenly poured 
forth innumerable swarms of barbarians 
over civilized Europe. The icy plains of 
the pole, and the forests of the Sarmatians 
and of the Huns, might in that case have 
been justly called the qfficina gentium, a 
term which only the fine countries of the 
east deserved ; but on reflection and an 
examination of those very authors, we find 
that the successes of the barbarians were 
less owing to their number than to the bad 
organization of the Roman troops at that 
time, and to the indifference of the people 
in the choice of their masters*. 



* When the Vandals, under the conduct of Genseric, 
:-. izedoo Africa, they were but 50,000 in number, and yet 
lin J instantly subdued that province, the richest and most 
populous of the empire. Th< y there destroyed, according 
to 1'iocopius, upwards of 0,000,000 of uicn; so much 
can courage and cruelty terrify enervated nations, and so 
fey an- the obstacles opposed b) the latter. 

Vol. j. b 



XVUl INTRODUCTION. 

The Suevi, Alani, and Vandals con- 
tended for Spain, and spread through this 
unhappy country all the evils attendant on 
war and famine; till, vanquished at length by 
the Goths, the inhabitants gave up their de- 
solated country to the new invaders. These, 
far from repairing the losses of the nation, 
aggravated them the more : they seized on 
two-thirds of the lands, which they de- 
voted to the feeding of cattle. Adhering to 
the manners of their fathers, more of herds- 
men than husbandmen, and more of warriors 
than herdsmen, they looked with indiffer- 
ence on all that constitutes the wealth of 
empires and the happiness of nations* 
Their princes, perpetually engaged in civil 
or religious wars, contented themselves 
with conducting the affairs of their states, 
and dispensing justice among their subjects, 
without encouraging industry by any law 
or establishment favourable to it. It is to 
the character of these people, and to the 
idle and warlike life they introduced, 
and which events kept up in their succes- 
sors, that we are to attribute the origin of 
that spirit of indolence which now seems 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

natural to the Spanish nation, having been 
thus transmitted from age to age. The 
history of the Goths, then, offers nothing 
to our contemplation in respect to the me- 
chanical arts or political economj r ; but in 
another point of view it is interesting; it ex- 
hibits Spain to us at length delivered from a 
foreign yoke, concentered within its natural 
limits, governed by princes of its own, 
and forming an independent state, a com- 
pact monarchy, whose laws, manners, and 
religion, have in a great measure remained 
unaltered for fourteen hundred years, in 
spite of all the events that have tended to 
effect a change. 

In reflecting on the condition of Spain 
under the Romans and under the Goths, 
it is to be observed that those two nations 
have left in it memorials of their residence 
nearly equal as to number, but of a dif- 
ferent nature. The public works, such as 
aqueducts, bridges, &c. and the modes of 
agriculture and industry descend from the 
Romans ; and the laws, customs, adminis- 
tration, and form of government, are to 
be traced to the Goths. The rich cultiva- 

». ? 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

tion of the kingdom of Valencia ; the 
horses, the oils, the wines of Andalusia ; 
the corn of the Castiles ; the linens and 
other manufactures of the Taragonnese, 
and the mines of Aragon and Biscay, con- 
tinue the boast of Spain as they were in 
the time of the Romans. We evidently 
trace too the Visigoth ic code and ecclesi- 
astical hierarchy, such as they were in the 
times of the Goths, the intolerance in af- 
fairs of religion, the principles of the in- 
quisition in the persecution of the Jews, 
the origin of the prerogatives of the no- 
bility, and that jealousy of the royal au- 
thority in the great, which, after causing 
the ruin of the empire under Rodrigo, 
constantly impeded its complete re-estab- 
lishment under his successors, and gave 
rise to their bloody wars, which continued 
to the end of the 15th century. The com- 
position and debates of the councils have 
their counterparts in the cortes of the dif- 
ferent kingdoms ; the election and depo- 
sition of kinçs bring; to mind the terrible 
union-junta» of Aragon, and the states- 
general of Castile. Above all, the law* 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

are remarkable for a spirit of chivalry and 
an evangelical character, which by the 
union of parts of the Roman law with the 
christian morality, composed a code su- 
perior to all others then existing. 

Spain thus governed, thus consolidated 
as a nation, not split into petty feudal 
principalities like most of the other states 
of Europe, must no doubt in time have 
attained the degree of perfection to which 
other countries have risen. Its contested 
elections, its tumultuous assemblies, to be 
tranquillized wanted only the influence 
of a distinguished prince to impress this 
multitude with veneration, and render 
his authority hereditary. The founda- 
tions of a temperate monarchy*, wisely 
limited, were already laid by the existing 



* Among conquering nations an aristocratic monarchy 
is naturally formed, on the one hand, by the valour of the 
chief, and on the other by the power of his armies, to 
whom be is under the necessity of granting rewards and a 
certain degree of authority. This is the reason that the 
ii( \v governments of Europe were not the work of legis- 
lators, hut a natural result of tin- spirit that prevails ia 
tamp-, and of the balance existing long after. \W take 

bS 



XXII INTRODUCTION 

institutions, and the people were prepared 
to appreciate the value of them. Religious 
and warlike like other nations in those 
times, they would no doubt like them have 
civilized themselves by bringing back with 
them from the crusades useful knowledge 
in return for useless battles. But that 
happy lot was not reserved for Spain : a 
memorable event took place which gave a 
complexion to its histor3 r different from 
that of the other states of Europe. 

Mahomet had appeared in the east, and 
his religion was putting arms into the hands 
of the tranquil hordes of the Arabs, while 
Christianity was instilling a peaceful spirit 
into the warlike nations of the north. 
Stimulated by the presence of the prophet, 
and, when they no longer had himself, by 
his doctrine, the Mussulmen extended 
their conquests from the frontiers of India 
to the shores of the Atlantic ocean. AVhen 



pleasure in observing the resemblance of modem con- 
stitutions to that of the Goths, as we recognize in the 
Egyptian temples the model of the Greek beauties, with-» 
out being able to determine the origin of either. 



INTRODUCTION. XXU1 

they had reached those limits of the known 
world, Spain appeared to them an import- 
ant and easy conquest. By one battle they 
acquired the possession of that extensive 
country. There is scarcely an historian 
who does not impute that calamity to a 
supposed crime of Rodrigo, for which there 
is no authority, and which ought to be 
ranked in the number of those fables so com- 
mon at the origin of empires. It was not 
to revenge an injury done to his daughter, 
that Count Julian, the governor of Africa, 
drew the Moors into Spain, but to raise a 
faction that was hostile to the king, and 
to gratify that ambition with which we 
have reproached the Gothic nobility, and 
of which they soon became the victims. 
It was much less owing to Rodrigo's weak- 
ness that he w r as ruined than to the con- 
stitution of his empire, which, by keeping 
the royal authority in a state of dependence 
on the nobility and clergy, prevented the 
general union of resistance against the 
common enemy. 

The wrecks of the army of the Goths 
b4 



XXIV INTRODUCTION- 

and some of their faithful leaders, retired 
to the mountains of the Asturias to seek 
the asylum and reflect on the virtues of 
the ancient Cantabrians. The rest of 
Spain submitted to the Moors. Exulting 
in so noble a conquest, the Mahometans 
scorned to complete it, but conceived the 
(lesion of penetrating bej-ond the Pyrenees 
to iound a new empire. The whole of 
Europe would have been lost, had not 
t f bose i. -rrible invaders met with soldiers 
I <îîerdiscipli!ied,and with abler chiefs. The 
lie of Tours forever secured the empire 
;i the Franks to the Gauls, and led to the 
revival of that of the Goths in Spain, 
The whole of the country occupied by 
that handful of warriors, was confined to 
the little principality of the Asturias, of 
which the hamlet of Cangas was the capi- 
tal ; but towards the conclusion of the 
eighth century, the successors of Pelagius 
extended their states into Galicia, Biscay, 
Ts avarie, and a part of Aragon. The 
conquests of Alphonso E and of Alphonse 
HE farther enlarged the limits of this em, 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

pire, and though the victories of Almanzor, 
over the feeble Veremont weakened the 
Christian States in 1020, they acquired 
new lustre under Ferdinand I. and under 
Alphonso VI.; who at length re-establish- 
ed his seat of Government at Toledo, 
which had before been the capital of the 
kingdom. I shall not enter into a detail 
of the wars and events which led to the 
formation of the kingdoms of Leon, Na- 
varre, Castile, and Aragon, and which 
were signalized by heroic actions.: suffice 
it to say that no history records a succes- 
sion of princes so remarkable as those who 
shone in those different states. Eleven 
kings of the name of Alphonso were most 
of them distinguished characters : the tenth 
invented the Alphonsine tables, and super- 
intended the digesting of the code of laws 
which likewise bears his name. Three 
F< rdinands were no less celebrated, and 
the last reigned over the whole of the 
Spanish monarchy, by virtue of his mar- 
riage wiih the heiress of Castile. That i>e- 
neral and important union would have 
ken place much sooner, had it not been 
G 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

for the dismembering of the territories, oc- 
casioned by alliances, by the personal 
wars of sovereigns, and the portions which 
they always had the imprudence to settle 
upon their children. At length, after the 
duration of a balance of power for eight 
centuries, the Moors were reduced to 
nearly the same space of territory as the 
Romans preserved in the reign of Justinian, 
and from which they were driven likewise 
by a Gothic king. 

It remains for us to enquire what was 
the political, agricultural, and commer- 
cial state of Spain during those trouble- 
some times, under the government of its 
ancient, and of its new masters. Divided 
anion»; sovereigns of different nations and 
religions ; parcelled out in little states 
without frontiers or guaranty, and perpe- 
tually a prey to war, Spain could not hope 
for prosperity, or any improvement of its 
industry. Besides the general w r ars of na- 
tion against nation between the Christians 
and Arabs, both sides were torn by dissen- 
sions among themselves, caused, on the 
part of the Moors by the difference of 



INTRODUCTION. XXV11 

sects, family animosities, and the multipli- 
city of nations of which their empire was 
composed ; and on that of the Christians 
by the defects of the feudal laws, the 
rights of private wars, and the jealous 
power of the great and of the clergy. The 
Goths particularly could hardly be induced 
to relinquish their ancient habits, of which 
there are still traces in the later laws, and in 
several parts of the form of government. 
Heedless of the experience of former calami- 
ties resulting from such a form of government 
the kingdom of Leon continued lone elec- 
tive, and the right of election remained in the 
palatins and bishops. Notwithstanding the 
advantages of agriculture, of which they 
were fully sensible, they preferred the wan- 
dering and martial life of their fathers. The 
care of flocks and herds, which from time 
immemorial had enriched the kingdoms of 
Leon and Castile, appeared to them a 
seeurer source of wealth, as it was more 
easily removed from the inroads of an 
enemy. In fact, their armies in those days 
were composed of all the inhabitants, who 
followed (lie standards of* their lords or the 



XXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

colours of their parish. They left behind 
only their old men, women, and children, 
to whom thev might trust the care of flocks 
and herds, but whom they could never 
leave to till the land, which requires con- 
stant and laborious occupation, and a 
se tablishment. The small quantity 

o grew in the interior parts of 

i and in the northern pro-» 

v sufficed for their consumption. 

To them to purchase grain and 

nu. i fàctured commodities, of which they 
were likewise in want, they sold their 
wools, hides, iron and oil, which from the 
tenth century, were always resorted to for 
balancing what they took from foreigners. 
The wool was, even in the ninth century, 
so fine, that the kings of Persia and Africa 
sent a certain quantity of it to Charlemagne 
as a present, and added to it some Spa- 
nish horses and mules, which were highly 
prized. 

r i he aversion of the Spaniards to agri- 
culture, was nothing compared to that 
which they showed to the mechanical arts. 
This of course rendered them constant tri- 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

butaries to the industry of other nations, 
even during the boasted reigns of Ferdi- 
nand, Charles V. and Philip II. Then- 
situation was never better in this respect; 
and the complaints of decline which we 
perpetually meet with in the latest authors 
of the sixteenth century, prove nothing 
more than that men in general have a ha- 
bit of looking back to past times, to find 
consolation for present ills, laudatores 
temporis octi : such are the inhabitants of 
every country, the historians of all times, 
Man feels a certain uneasiness in his pre- 
sent condition, a regret or impatience of 
happiness which renders his writings as 
well as his hopes fallacious : hence that 
uncertainty respecting the periods of the 
greatness, and of the decline of nations, 
those accounts of their power always the 
more exaggerated the nearer they ascend 
to their origin, and which are at length 
lost in tradition so remote as to. be no 
longer subject to the test of reason. 

This was the case with Spain, and we 
are astonished to find the account of its 
riches and population more and more bril- 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

liant the higher we go into times when its 
territory was less considerable* In the 
history of the wars we always find more 
soldiers when there are fewer people. 
Ytfithout taking into consideration the fa- 
bulous exploits of the battle of Clavijo, 
suffice it to adduce that of Las Navas, in 
which, according to eye-witnesses, and all 
the Spanish historians, 200,000 Moors were 
killed, and only twenty-five Christians. 
From this exaggeration we may form an 
idea of* the confidence to be placed in the 
same writers on other points. 

If agriculture had been in a flourishing 
state in the reigns of Ferdinand, and of 
Charles V., as is generally believed, how 
comes it that we hear of no public esta- 
blishment of those times that proves it? 
Where are the canals, the highways, the 
bridges, the dikes, the parish roads, and, 
above all, the ordinances of the kings, and 
the statutes of corporate police, which show 
the protection of the government, and the 
zeal of the governed ? On the contrary, is 
not the principal object of the laws of 
those times, institutions in direct oppose 



INTRODUCTION. XXXÎ 

tion to agriculture, such as, the privileges 
of the Mesta, the removing of flocks and 
herds, and the management of bees? And 
why do all the historians of that age com- 
plain of the bad state of that important 
branch of public welfare? 

Cardinal Ximenes, at the end of Ferdi- 
nand's reign, engaged Don Alonzo de Her- 
rera, to write a treatise on agriculture, for 
the encouragement of that neglected sci- 
ence. Several passages in this work show 
how little cultivation was attended to, and 
what obstacles were in the way of its im- 
provement. We shall be still more con- 
vinced of this in reading the rescript of Phi- 
lip II., in 1594, which begins thus : " We 
" have been informed thai the husbandmen 
" are in want of seed to sow their lands, 
" and of cattle to plough them ; that the 
" earth being badly cultivated does not 
" return what it ought, and that persons 
M possessing farms reap no advantage from 
" them. Therefore to remedy these evils 
M we are desirous of employing the means 
" proposed to us by the Cortes now as- 
Y sem bled in our city of Madrid. Having 



5XX11 INTRODUCTION". 

" consulted our council, we desire that 
" tillage should not cease, hut on the con- 
" trary that it should be carried on and 
" increased, Sec." Some time after, there 
appeared on the subject of this rescript, a 
commentary by J acobo Collante*, which 
shows still better all the evils to be reme- 
died. The same proofs are likewise to be 
found in a work of Lope de Deza's, en- 
titled Political Government of agriculture +. 
Such is the sterility of our country, says 
the preamble of a law of Aragon, that if 
we did not find amends for our poverty 
in our rights and in the liberty which dis- 
tinguishes us from the other inhabitants of 
Spain, we should quit the kingdom and 
seek a settlement in a better country J. 

Let any one go through Andalusia and 
Estrcmadura, and judge whether the towns 

* In three volumes 4to, Madrid, ]0OG, intitled ' Com- 
mentariarum pragmatica in favor em rei frumentaria et 
Jgricohnum, by Jacobo Collante of AveUaoeda. 

-j- G obierno politico delà Agricultura, tome ], Madrid,, 
iClS. See the History of the Commerce of Barcelona 
by M. Campany. 

X Blanca, Comment, p. 751- 



introduction. xxxiii 

and villages are not the same that existed 
there three centuries ago,, and enquire 
■whether any other places were ever men- 
tioned in any chronicle or account of the 
journeys and expeditions of the kings. 
From Seville to Cordova, a distance of 
twenty-two leagues, there never were any 
other towns than Carmona and Ecija ; and 
from S. Lucar to Seville only three petty 
villages without the vestige of a farm, 
which does not say much in favour of the 
cultivation of the country. If the kins:- 
dom of Leon and old Castile be very defi- 
cient in villages, as we have had occasion 
to observe, on the other hand Madrid, 
which then was nothing, has increased in 
population 130,000 souls; new towns have 
every where risen in the environs of Cadiz, 
Malaga, and Valencia; and the Sierra 
Morena, once the haunt of robbers, is set- 
tled in various places by foreigners. Be- 
sides, how could agriculture have tlourish- 
ed after all the plagues and epidemic dis- 
by which Spain was overwhelmed 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 

In L483j the plague raged in Catalonia : 

Vol. i. c 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

in I486, in Aragon ; it spread, in 1488, 
into Andalusia ; in 1 100, into the kingdom 
of Granada; and raged so violently at Sa- 
ragossa in 14,95, that kino- Ferdinand was 
obliged to hold the States at Tarazona. 
It was the same in 1501 and in 1506 : but 
the most violent and most general was in 
1507 ; it was so horrible, according to the 
account given by Miguel Martines de 
Leyva, that for a century after, the lands 
were seen lying waste, and the villages 
empty, nor have the disasters then sus- 
tained been repaired since that period. 

It docs not appear that manufactures, 
during the same reigns, were in a better 
state, or that Spain had acquired that de- 
gree of industry and wealth which have 
been attributed to it. Had that been the 
case, how happens it that foreign contem- 
porary authors take no notice of it ? Bal- 
ducciPegalotti*, in his voluminous Treatise 
on Commerce, written in the year 13->9, 

* The Prat tea Mercantile ùf Francisco Balducci Pega- 
lotti, 1339. See Cnpmany's History of the Commerce of 
Barcelona. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

does not make any mention of the ports or 
manufactures of Spain ; yet he speaks of 
all the marts of Europe, of those of Flan- 
ders, Champagne, Provence, Lombardy, 
and England ; and we find that the few 
commercial towns of Spain which he names 
exported only raw materials. His coun- 
tryman Giovanni de Usano*, who wrote 
a hundred years after, also passes over in 
silence those famous manufactures of Se- 
govia, Toledo, Burgos, and Seville, about 
which the pleading historians of Spain 
make so much noise; but he gives an ex- 
act account of the quantity of wool that 
was sent out of the country f . 

In the archives of the crowns of Castile 
and Aragon J, there is a statement of all 

* The Pratica del Commercio of Giovanni de Uiano 
1440. 

f By the 19th article of the Cortes of Barcelona of 
the year 1481, a tax of six deniers per arroba was laid on 
unwashed wool, and twelve on the washed, which was ex- 
ported from Aragon and Castile by the way of Tortosa : 
it paid four times as much if sent by any other port of Ca- 
talonia. Capmany, Qucstionrs varias. 

X Book of the Laws and Rescripts collected by order of 
C 2 



xxxvi iNîTionrcTT 

the duties paid from the thirteenth to the 
end of the seventeenth Century for foreign 
cloths sold in Spain, and for other articles of 
consumption coming from abroad. The 
principal cloths came from Bruges, Mont- 
pellier, and London; the velvets from Ma- 
lines, Courtrai, Ypres, and Florence. This 
trade became so injurious to Spain, that 
Ferdinand and Isabella thought themselves 
bound to limit it entirely to the stuffs re- 
quired for the ornaments of the church, 
which of itself was a considerable quantity. 
Their prohibition is the subject of the re- 
script of Sept. 2, 1494, for the provinces 
of the crown of Castile. Even so far back 
as the ordinances of Barcelona in 1271, 
mention is made of the taxes levied on 
the cloths of Flanders, Arras, Lannoy, 
Paris, St. Dennis, Chalons, Beziers and 
Rheims. When James II. of Aragon, in 
1314 and 1322, was thinking of sending 
presents to the Sultan of Egypt, he made 

the Catholic kings, and printed at Alcala de ilenarez in 
.8, by Miguel de Eguia. Sec what is said on this head 
in the article Manufactura in Vol. IV. of this work. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 

choice of the green cloths of Chalons, and 
the scarlet ones of Rheims and Douay, but 
sent no Spanish stuff, not thinking them 
sufficiently fine to be given as a present. 
By the accounts of Ferdinand Vs. stew- 
ard, we see that that monarch and his 
whole court wore none but foreign cloths *. 
It was the same with all silks, velvets, and 
gold and silver brocades, which were taken 
from Lucca, Florence, and Pisa ; with 
linens, muslins and laces, which were 
brought from Flanders and Ireland ; with 
hard- ware, glass, and gold and silver arti- 
cles, which came from Lombardy and Ger- 
many ; and, which is more extraordinary, 
with ammunition for fire-arms t. All the 
demands of the Cortes from the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth century, tend 
to the prohibition of all those commocU- 

* Capmany, Questiones varias. This excellent memoir 
U vciy accurate on this subject, and has been extremely 
un lui to me. 

t See tli< work of Doctor Francisco Villalobos, phy- 
i' uui t<> the emperor Chuil^V.iuûilwl Problem* ^ (lt ^ ra ^ 
and Moral, 

c 3 



XXXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

ties*, which, they said, robbed the country 
of the treasures which they sent for to the 
new world. This, however, was the period 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, so 
much boasted. 

In the list of duties paid by the com- 
pany of Burgos merchants in 1514, it 
does not appear that they exported a 
gingle article manufactured ; the whole 
trade of the Castiles consisted, as before, 
of wool, iron, wine, oil, and other raw 
materials. The same articles are found in 
the ordinances of 1537. We shall see, a 
little further, that this unfavourable state 
only grew Avorse during the reign of 
Charles V. and Philip II. The little pro- 
gress made by the Spaniards in all kinds of 
industry was owing, as Ave have already 
said, to the continual Avars in which they 
Avere involved. The enthusiasm of honour 
and religion, the grand spring of action in 
chivalrous times, had, during peace, dege- 



* See the petition of the Cortes of Vallkdolkl in 154$ 
and in 1593. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

nerated into a spirit of pride and idleness, 
incompatible with application to mechani- 
cal arts. This fault, which among the 
Spaniards originated more in their insti- 
tutions than in their character, might easily 
have been corrected by their sovereigns, 
had they taken pains to overcome it ; but 
while they had wars to sustain, it was not 
their interest ; and, afterwards, their power 
was always too much limited. The privi- 
leges which most of the commons had ac- 
quired in shaking off the yoke of the Moors 
themselves, or by other services done in 
times ol" difficulty, were so considerable, 
that the kings of the different states pos- 
sessed but little influence over them, and 
still less over the great and the clergy. It 
was not possible therefore to effect such 
an improvement till the reign of Ferdinand, 
who had not time, and was perhaps mis- 
taken in the means of success. 

That prince, one of the greatest mo* 
narchs Spain had ever had, united on his 
own head the crowns of all the provinces; 
hehad conquered the kingdoms oi Granada 
and Navarre, and what was still more dif- 

c 4 



Xl iNTROnrCTÎrtN. 

iicult, he had lowered the power of the 
great, and incorporated in his own domains 
the immense properties that had been an- 
nexed to the appointments of the military 
orders. 

It only remained for him to encourage 
industry in his states, and to set on foot an 
economical system, which he might have 
left to his successors to follow and conso- 
lidate. By a single error, or rather by too 
precipitate a measure, he lost the fruit of 
all his care, and the advantages of his situ- 
ation. I allude to the expulsion of the 
Jews and Moors, the former of whom 
were the merchants, and the latter the 
agriculturists of Spain. There are two 
ways of considering this important ques- 
tion, the one in a political point of view, 
the other in a view relative to industry. 
No doubt it must have appeared advan- 
tageous in the former. Ferdinand, though 
master of Spain, was not yet master of its 
inhabitants; and he had learned by ex- 
perience, that conquered nations are wol 
subjects unless they adopt the same reli- 
gion, language, and habits. The Jews, 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

whom he had determined to banish, were 
the descendants of those who had in the 
reign of Roderic invited the Moors from 
Africa, and who had afterwards fomented 
most of the divisions which brought on the 
ruin of those very Moors; they were the Jews 
who exercised all the trades, who possessed 
all the capitals, who impeded the rising 
efforts of the Catholics in industry, and, 
keeping the nation dependent upon them, 
would have constantly obliged them to 
devote themselves to a kind of life to which 
they were unhappily but too much inclined, 
that of war and idleness. Poland and 
Russia are striking examples of the harm 
the Jews do in a country but little civiliz- 
ed. Masters of the cash of the nation 
without attachment to the soil, possessing 
influence by their fortune and intrigues 
without being citizens, they may be con- 
sidered as foreign plants sucking the juices 
of the state, and their clandestine riches*, to 

Encyclopédie Méthodique, Hv.l. page 72, <>>i Poli- 
tical Economy. I allow that Jews may sometimes be 
.1 • lui to the country in which they reside, but men ii 
j'li^t I" nations naturally industrious, or totally in- 

; e of becoming 



Xlli INTRODUCTION'. 

use the expression of a writer on political 
economy, know neither king nor country. 

The Moors, who were more attached to 
their country than to their religious opinions, 
were, doubtless, less dangerous : nor were 
they expelled at once; but, being oppress- 
ed, most of them withdrew from the 
country in a short time after the conquest, 
and the remainder were driven out in the 
next century. From the time of Ferdi- 
nand to Philip III, more than three mil- 
lions of those two nations quitted Spain, 
and carried with them not only a great, 
part of their acquired wealth, bur industry 
and the love of work, which are the soul 
of it. 

Spain still feels this loss, and it is one 
that it will never completely repair. Cer- 
tainly, it was desirable to do without those 
two classes of industrious subjects ; but 
then it was necessary to be able to replace 
them; it was necessary, by wise laws, re- 
wards, and encouragements, to direct the 
natural bent of the Spaniards for every 
kind of serious occupation towards indus- 
try ; in short it was necessary either to 



INTRODUCTION. xlhl 

naturalize among them the qualities of the 
Arabs, or by proper treatment to bring 
these over to the belief which it was de 
termined should be general throughout the 
kingdom. If the kings of the different 
christian provinces of Spain had adopted 
this s} r stem, as the Mahometan kings had 
done, industry would have been preserved 
in their states in the same manner, and they 
would have learned from their enemies how 
to surpass them in wealth as well as in 
courage and military science : thev had 
only to imitate them. The Goths hardly 
took a few r fields or a town but they found 
themselves, in the one case, masters of plan- 
tations, canals, granaries, and instruments 
of agriculture ; in the other, of looms, forges, 
glass-houses, mills, winding machines, &c. 
which they had only to keep up and con- 
tinue, and thus to extend at once the 
limits of their states and of their know- 
ledge-: the Moors, expert in all the me-, 
chanical arts, and particularly skilled in 
agriculture, bad carried every branch of 
public and private economy to the highest 
d\ gree of perfection. They had introduced 



Xliv INTRODUCTION. 

into Spain the cultivation of -sugar, cotton, 
silk, and rice ; they had made canals for 
irrigation, and reservoirs by means of 
which they conveyed water to the highest 
and driest lands. Their estates, divided 
into little fields and constantly tilled, as is 
the case in countries of confined cultiva- 
tion, formed a striking contrast to the 
immense wastes of the Spanish lords, to 
the domains of the crown, and to those of 
religious corporations. The Arabs obtain- 
ed their knowledge of agriculture from the 
traditions of the east, the works of the 
Galileans, the writings of Mago the Gar- 
thaginian, and some Greek authors whose 
books have not come down to us : they 
possessed, in particular, a treatise on Na- 
bathaen agriculture, which they seem to 
have constantly followed, and which was 
found to be perfectly adapted to the 
climate and soil of the country they in- 
habited. Almost the whole of this invalu- 
able work, which was written in Chaldean, 
has been translated and new modelled in 
the complete Treatise on Agriculture, by 
Abu Zachariah, of Seville, better known 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

by the name of Ebn el Ax am. We see in 
it the minute attention which those nations 
paid to every branch of cultivation, to the 
analysis and classification and manure of 
the soi Is, and to rustic buildings, plantations, 
and the care of animals. It is a memorial of 
the highest degree to which this species of 
industr}' can be carried*; and Spain may 
boast the possession of the three most com- 
plete works, written in different ages on 
this subject ; that of Columella under the 
Romans, that of Alonzo de Herrera in the 
fifteenth century, and the Treatise of which 
we are speaking. 

The Moors were no less skilful in all 
kinds of manufactures : the invention of 
paper is due to them ; and particularly 
Mlk and cotton stuffs, morocco leather, 
Sec. were brought to perfection by them. 
The Geographer of Nubia who travelled in 

* The Moors had gone so far as to unite the tropic 
plants with those of Europe ; they raised in the open air 
the banana, the piatachio, the sesamum, the sugar-cane, 
and a species of rice, the cultivation of which hud the ad- 
vantage of not requiring so much water, and consequently 
inwholeaomn. 



Xlvi IKTTîODUCTIOX. 

Spain about the twelfth century, declares 
that in the kingdom of Jaen alone there 
were six hundred towns or borouohs which 
traded in silk. The stuffs made at Gra- 
nada were prized in the cast, and even at 
Constantinople, where all the arts were 
flourishing at that period. They are fre- 
quently mentioned in the Greek manu- 
scripts of the Low-Empire, among others, 
in a review published on the History of the 
Deacon Leo*; and we find that Granada 
stuffs, the beauty of which was greatly 
admired, appeared in Greece in the reign 
of Comnenus j-. 

* Sec Xotice Je M. liasse, inserted in the extracts of 
the Imperial Library, vol. viii. M. Hasse began a trans- 
lation of that curious work, and it is to be hoped that he 
will soon publish it. 

*}• There is in the Imperial Library, a satirical, but un- 
published work in Greek, something in the style of the 
[Mennipcan satire, and composed in the reign of the Com- 
menuscs. Timario, one of the speakers in the piece, give» 
an account of his journey from Constantinople to a great 
fair held at Salonica on St. Demetrius's day, and treats 
very much at large of the productions and merchandise 
then collected in the great plain on the side of the Axiuf 
to the north of the town. This curious monument rela- 
tive to the history of the commerce of the twelfth century. 



INTRODUCTION, xlvii 

With a state of industry so improved, the 
Moors united the study of letters and the 
sciences ; and so early as in the reign of 
Abderame I. who was contemporary \£ith 
Charlemaine, they had a great many li- 
braries and public schools. The illustrious 
names of Avicenna and Averroes, bring to 
mind the glorious times of Greece. To 
this extraordinary concurrence of talents, 
knowledge, and genius, they added the mar- 
tial and chivalrous virtues. They had no 
sooner subdued Spain by their arms than 
they sought to attach the people by their 
favours. They left the vanquished nations 
their laws, religion and language, and only 
required of them the tribute which they 
had paid to their former masters : and they 
particularly showed great deference and 

which, however, is in many places very difficult to be un- 
derstood, mentions that Sclavonians, Italians, Spaniards, 
and Frenchmen walked about in the long streets formed by 
the booths. The cotton of Livadia and the Morea was 
there iu as much request as it U at this lime ; but the most 
admired tissues were those of the Moors of Granada and 
Andalusia, (the columns of Hercules). 'Hg*KXiti> »$-5?>*»», 



Xlviii INTRODUCTION, 

respect to the women, which proves a high 
degree of civilization. Their noble con- 
duct inspired the Christian princes with 
suc&i confidence, that they sent their chil- 
dren to their schools for instruction, and 
called in their physicians in dangerous 
cases. 

Disposed to a ready adoption of what- 
ever springs from nobleness of sentiment, 
the Spaniards soon surpassed their rivals 
in generous qualities, but scorned to imi- 
tate them in arts, literature, and useful 
knowledge. A false pride, the relic of 
feudal times, a barbarian prejudice that 
considered war as the only noble profes- 
sion, restrained that happy disposition: it 
appeared to them shameful to engage in 
the servile occupations of their vanquished 
enemies. The habit of tempérance, the 
pride of independence, and military glory, 
prevented their being sufficiently charmed 
by luxury to sacrifice to it the tranquil en- 
joyment of life and the prejudices of self- 
love. The Spaniard had always fortitude 
enough to endure privations, but never 
courage enough to encounter work, and 



INTRODUCTION; xlix 

fc tili less the power of surmounting the 
shame which he thinks attached to it. It 
is this old and unconquerable disposition* 
that rendered the expulsion of the Moors 
and Jews fatal to Spain, because it pré» 
vented the loss of them being: remedied. 
The country has surfered no decline, as it 
has been the practice to inculcate, for, in 
fact, it never attained any eminent degree of 
prosperity. The cause just mentioned has 
always prevented every improvement of 
the branches of its industry ; and even now, 
when the progress of civilization, patriotic 
societies, encouragements by sovereigns, 
and the reasonings of enlightened men, 
have combined to honour industry, the 
prejudice against it still exists in the most 
numerous class of the nation. The pro- 
\ inces formerly behind hand in this respect, 
are still so in proportion with the others, 
and it would require new and more active 
means to surmount this terrible obstacle to 



' See what is said on this head i» the account J have 
a of the Spanish character, VoF. V. The Spapiih 
writers have at all tïmei lamented this unfortunate failing 

Vol. i. d 



1 INTÎIODUCTION. 

the prosperity of Spain. No manufactory 
that is established lasts long: the very man 
who argues strenuously against such folly 
would be wretched if he thought that any 
ancestor of his had made a fortune by 
trade*. }3y an unaccountable caprice, the 
condition of a servant in Spain appears 
less degrading than any business what- 
everf-. For the time being, they say, nobi- 
lity sleeps, but in commerce it becomes ex~ 
tinct. 

However absurd such ideas may be, 

* Those who exercise any trade endeavour to ennoble it 
by an alteration of the name. The bricklayer calls himself 
an architect, the farrier a master smith, the workman an 
artist, and the dealer a merchant: his shop he denominate» 
a magazine, where his wife seldom chuses to appear and 
assist him in his trade ; on the contrary, with scarcely 
enough to live upon, she herself bires a servant, who, as 
idle and as proud as her mistress, only serves her to escape 
working in the fields, which is more laborious, and, in her 
idea, still more humiliating. 

•f- Count de Froberg, with whom I travelled for some 
time in Spain, having occasion to hire a servant, was ap- 
plied to by a man from the mountains of St. Andero, whom 
he told to go and bring his certificates, when he would 
determine, if they were right. The man, not knowing what 
was meant, returned with the most authentic documents of 
uobility from king Ordonius II. 



INTRODUCTION. 31 

certain it is that we cannot but admire that 
native loftiness which is inherent in the 
minds of the Spaniards of every class, and 
that hereditary honour which nothing can 
shake; which shows itself in all their con- 
duct ; which gives a nobleness to their ap- 
pearance, to their behaviour, to their 
slightest expressions ; that makes them 
prefer poverty in their native country to 
better living in a foreign land ; which, in 
short, seems to bo a combination of the 
patriarchal dignity of the eastern nations 
and of the austere virtues of the primitive 
Christians. But the more we feel disposed 
to honour these original qualities, the less 
must we think them incompatible with exer- 
tion and activity; yet it is but too common 
to depreciate industry by calling it mean, 
as if the principle which enriches and ren- 
ders states happy had any thing in it that 
tended to degrade them. Did not Venice 
sustain a war against all Europe while she 
was the emporium of the commerce of the 
whole world ? When the Dutch beat the 
fleets of England and Spain, was it not at 
a time when they were the only vendors 

d ( 1 



Hi INTRODUCTION". 

of pepper and indigo ? Have the French 
degenerated since the administration of 
Colbert ? And among the Spaniards are not 
the Catalans, Aragonese, and Biscayans 
the most warlike of the nation, though they 
are the most commercial ? Not reckoning 
that a fourth of the population of Spain is 
composed of persons living on their pro- 
perty without doing any thing, the country 
contains 100,000 individuals existing as 
smugglers*, robbers, mule shearers, pirates, 
and assassins escaped from prisons or garri- 
sons ; about 30 or 40,000 officers appoint- 
ed to take these, and having an under- 
standing with them ; 250,000 servants, ac- 

* While I was laboriously employed in Estrcmadura in 
tracing the Roman ways described in Antoninus's Itinerary, 
I happened to fall in with a band of thirty smugglers, who 
were giving their horses water ; they were come from 
the frontiers of Portugal with a great quantity of to- 
bacco. Wanting information on several things which it 
was difficult for me to obtain in that country, where one 
sometimes travels nine or ten leagues without seeing a 
house, I joined these men and travelled three days in conx- 
pany with them. I never met with better people : they 
called one another cavalleros, and paid me great attention. 
Their leader, who was a good-looking man and excellent 
company, told me all the abuses prevailing in the custom- 



INTRODUCTION. liii 

cording to the enumeration of 1788, of 
whom 100.000 at least are not employed, 
though of a proper age ; and G0,000 stu- 
dents, most of whom beg charity, at night, 
under pretence of buying books. If to 
this list we add 100,000 beggars whom 
60,000 monks feed at the gates of their 
convents, we shall find in Spain nearly 
600,000 persons who are of no use whatever 
in agriculture or the mechanical arts, and 
who are frequently dangerous to society, 
Heaven forbid, however, that I should 
think of advising violent means for recti- 
fying these abuses; the slightest perse- 
cutions might be attended with the most 
serions consequences; but wise laws, en- 
couragements, a strict police, and activity 
on the part of the government, would soon 
remedy them. Meanwhile, the influence 

houses, and the means which he took to avoid the king's 
thodgh he had little fear of the rencontre if they 
to meet. He was related to several manufacturers 
.it Seville, who lent him money, which he punctually re- 
paid, lit- said that he had often been tempted to give up 
this occupation, which he found unpleasant in some thi 
DUl that BjJhâr&l, for which he could dot account, attached 
independent and wandering life lie led. 

d3 



liv INTRODUCTION. 

of the high clergy and the use they make 
of their riches have great effect in main- 
taining peace and good order. They act as 
stewards managing the property of the 
poor, and distributing it to them without 
suffering them to make a bad use of it. A 
rigid economy and an excellent manage- 
ment of their estates enable those religious 
men to support a number of wretched be- 
ings, and at least to save them from despair. 
They do not, as is imagined, encourage 
idleness, but prevent crimes, and supply 
the place of institutions till institutions shall 
supply the place of their ministry. 

In addition to th's repugnance to work, 
with which the Spaniards are so ..much re- 
proached b} T their best writers, there were 
political causes no less injurious to them, 
and which perhaps rendered the over- 
vaunted reigns of Charles V. anc| Philip II. 
brilliant in the annals of the Austrian mo- 
narchy, but of iittleinterest in those of Spain. 
Those princes had immense dominions 
spread over the north, east, and south of 
Europe. To them Spain was but one of 
the provinces of their empire, and all the 
resources of which they exhausted for the 



INTRODUCTION. Iv 

interest of their other states. That period 
gave birth to the science of politics, which 
before it produced the balance of Europe 
was lone the cause of its calamities. In thé 
general shock of those times Spain might 
have stood aloof, as well on account of its 
situation as the little interest it had in aug- 
menting its empire. Instead of sending its 
sons to perish in the rebellions of the Low 
Countries, in fruitless invasions of Italy, 
of the kingdom of Naples, or of the coasts 
of Africa, all its inhabitants and all its riches 
should have been employed in improving 
its industry, and in spreading cultivation to 
the deserted portions of its lands. The only 
return made by most of the distant coun- 
tries to which the blood of its people and 
the treasures of its colonies were sacrificed, 
was the ruin of its commerce and manu- 
factures. 

We have already seen to what a degree 
the commodities of the Milanese and of 
the Low Countries at all times made their 
way in Spain, without the slightest oppo- 
sition or competition ; they succeeded in- 
finitely more when those provinces united 
i d 4 



Jvi INTRODUCTION. 

under the same government, participated 
the monarch's favour, and were even in the 
reign of Charles V. constantly preferred. 
So early even as the thirteenth century, 
Bruges had become the greatest entrepot 
of the merchandise of the east, and of the 
manufactures of the north; thence they 
were sent to the other parts of Europe, and 
principally to Spain. Lombardy had an- 
other kind of traffic no less injurious, that 
of lending its money at exorbitant interest. 
Spain was thus tributary to the Lombards 
on the one hand, and to the Flemings on 
the other, though the mother-country of 
both. It is evident how irksome this state 
of things became to the Spaniards about 
the sixteenth century, by the repeated re- 
bellions that took place under Charles V., 
and by the opposition made to granting 
him the subsidies he demanded for his fo- 
reign wars, while he would easily have 
obtained them by an amelioration of the 
country. The deputies of Castile spoke 
openly on the subject in 15-37 and refused 
every grant, The petition 124 of the Cor- 
tes of Valladolid in 1542 runs thus ; " Your 



INTRODUCTION. Ivu 

w Majesty's enterprises in Germany and in 
" Italy have drawn into this country an 
" enormous number of foreigners, who, 
*• not satisfied with the exchanges, com- 
" missions, and profits they make, and 
<; that your majesty allows them, have 
" monopolized every kind of commerce 
" by which your subjects gained their 
" livelihood. They do not confine them- 
" selves to fanning the estates annexed to 
" Bishoprics, Lordships, Official Reve- 
" nues, &c. and to making a profit of] and- 
M ed property, they even go so far as to 
" buy up, wholesale, wool, silk, iron, and 
K other raw materials, thus cutting off all 
" the means of existence from the greater 
" part of your subjects, who see with grief 
" what belongs to them go into the hands 
" of those covetous people." The Spanish 
merchants discouraged by the advantages 
which the foreigners possessed over them, 
and by the capitals of which those persons 
hud the disposal, resigned all business to 
them ; and the Jews, whose expulsion 
might at lenst have been politic, were suc- 
cecded by other people not it^s avaricious, 



T Vlll INTRODUCTION. 

and more dangerous, from the circumstance 
of their not settling in the country. Da- 
mien de Olivares says that in 1 6 1 there 
were 160,000 foreigners in the Castiles, and 
among those 10,000 Genoese, who filled 
almost all the lucrative places, and trans- 
acted all the business of the country. 
Sancho de Moncada, who wrote in 1 6 1 9> 
complains of the indifference of the people 
of the country, and says that foreigners 
carried five-sixths of the commerce of 
Spain, and nine-tenths of that of the In- 
dies ; and that they drew from the two 
Castiles alone upwards of twenty-five mil- 
lions of ducats yearly, twenty for the mer- 
chandise they sold, and the remaining five 
in pensions, exchange, agency, commis- 
sion, ecclesiastical rents, farms, &c. so 
that eight millions a year was the most 
that Spain derived from its fleets. 

The trade of the Low Countries was so 
unfavourable to Spain in 1545, that Jod 
dam Houder, a Fleming*, who wrote at 

* Tlii.s work is inthled : Dcclamatio pancgyrica in 
laitdcm llhpavitc nationis qua in Flandria jam u/imjixa 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

that period, expresses himself thus : " Of 
• all the nations of Europe, Spain far- 
4 Dishes us the most with every kind of 
■ merchandise. The quantity of wool she 
4 sends us is so great, that what comes to 
4 Bruges amounts annually to from thirty- 
4 six to forty thousand bales and upwards, 
4 each of which costs sixteen ducats and 
' makes tzco pieces and a half of cloth, 
4 which is at once more than double the 
4 worth of the bale after the first prépara- 
4 tion, and before it receives the finish: 
4 all these cloths are sent back in the \ery 
4 Spanish ships which bring the wool, and 
4 are distributed in the kingdoms of Cas- 
4 tile, Majorca, Navarre, Aragon, Portu- 
4 gal, Andalusia, Seville, Valencia, Catalo- 
4 nia, and other rich countries of Spain ; 
4 and from this we may judge of the pro- 
4 fits which Flanders makes by this kind 
' of commerce. Besides these cloths, we 
4 send from Holland, Friesland, Amster- 
' dam, Bruges, Ghent, &c. all the linens, 

sedc celeberrifnam negotiationtm txercet. This celebrat- 
ed trade which Spain carried on was leading bel to the 
finest ruin pOftible* 



ÏX INTRODUCTION, 

cc cambrics, cotton and muslin stuffs, Ou- 
" denarde and Brussels carpets, &c. and 
<c so great a quantity of hardware, that the 
ew Spaniards frequently load fifty ships 
" with it." 

If such was the commerce Spain carried 
on with the Low Countries, what shall we 
say of her trade with the rest of Europe, 
particularly Italy ? It was in vain that the 
Cortes petitioned against the admission of 
foreign merchandise, or that the kings pro- 
hibited it, the frequent journeys of the 
snonaichs, the concerns of politics which 
entirely absorbed them, and the low state 
pf the finances, which made it necessary to 
augment the public revenue by custom- 
houses and to permit importations, render- 
ed all the other measures null. This dis- 
astrous state grew much Avorse under the 
]ast monarch of the House of Austria. 
Following the steps of their ancestors with- 
out possessing their genius, they completed 
the ruin of their country, and enervated 
all the branches of the monarchy. When 
Philip V. ascended the throne, and the re- 
mainder of those distant provinces still 



INTRODUCTION. JX1 

belonging to Spain, was by the treaty of 
Utrecht conveyed to other hands, men 
beheld with astonishment the skeleton of 
that monarchy, the population of which 
was reduced to nothing, and all the bran- 
ches of industry and government in the 
most disastrous state. It seemed as if 
Philip V. had succeeded the last Gothic 
King in the eighth century, rather than a 
descendant of Charles V. in the eighteenth. 
Europe amazed, enquired by what illusion 
it had been subjected to a country which 
had not six millions of inhabitants, which 
it had furnished with its ships, warlike 
stores, clothes, all the articles of luxury, 
and even most of those of necessity ? 

The civilians and political writers who 
had ascribed to Spain alone the power of 
Charles V. and Philip II. sought iikewise 
in Spain alone the cause whence such a 
decline could proceed, and they did not 
perceive that that kingdom, taken singly, 
had never been either richer or more flou- 
rishing, and that it had never even had 
the means of becoming so. 

Among the L r e;;ei - a! causes the I jned 



Ixii INTRODUCTION. 

for this supposed decline, there are two 
that have been particularly received and 
credited, no doubt from their whimsi- 
cal and paradoxical air. The first is the 
discovery of America ; the second the 
establishment of the inquisition. There 
was something acute in maintaining that 
the country of gold had produced poverty, 
and that religious institutions had at all 
times been nurses of ignorance. A mo- 
ment's exam nation of these assertions is 
enough to convince us that they are un- 
founded. 

We know the difficulties experienced by 
Columbus in his application to the power.'; 
of Europe for the ships and crews neces- 
sary for the execution of his enterprise ; but 
we seem to have forgotten that it was 
without the concurrence of Ferdinand that 
Queen Isabella consented to be at the ex- 
pence of that expedition, and that she 
then reserved for her subjects of Castile 
exclusively, all the advantages of an un- 
dertaking, the whole charge and cost of 
which they supported. 

Columbus's expedition could not but 



INTRODUCTION. lxhi 

succeed, and the issue of it was less a 
discovery, though it lias retained that 
name, than the taking possession of a 
country, the existence, and nearly the situ- 
ation, of which was no longer doubtful. 
However, the greater the queen thought 
the hazard in that respect, the more she 
exacted a rigid performance of the com- 
pact entered into ; and in fact, only the 
people of Castile were allowed to go and 
trade in the new possessions, and to settle 
there, not only at first but for two centu- 
ries after the conquest. The states of 
Aragon then could never suffer by a thing 
with which they never had any concern 
whatever ; yet we see that at that time, 
and long after, their situation was at least 
as bad as that of the other provinces, 
whereas, on the contrary we may date 
their prosperity and wealth from the mo- 
ment they were enabled to trade freely with 
America. 

In lSo'8 Catalonia, including Iloussillon 
and Cerdagne, could reckon only 365,000 
inhabitants. In 15.53 the number was 
25,000 less : and thus it continued till the 



Ixiv INTRODUCTION. 

end of the 17th century, without the pos- 
sibility of being affected by the diseovery 
of America. At the end of the 18th 
century its population was doubled, though 
it nolonger had Iloussillon, which had been 
given up to France by the treaty of the 
Pyrenees ; and it is observable that this 
population, though greatly augmented in 
the interior of the province, was much more 
considerable on the coast, where wealth 
flowed chiefly from commerce. The king- 
dom of Valencia, which in 1550 contained 
only 54,555 families, reckons at present 
200,000 ; and that of Aragon has increas- 
ed in population nearly one-half in the 
sarue time. These three provinces have 
chiefly experienced this prodigious increase 
since the edict of free trade in 17?8 ; and 
the establishment of their numerous ma- 
nufactures, may likewise be dated from the 
same period. The case is the same with 
several other parts of Spain, such as Ga- 
licia, Biscay, and the Asturias. Now, as 
both before and since the discovery of 
America, the provinces which had no par- 
ticipation in it, suffered the same diminu- 



INTRODUCTION. lxV 

tiott in their population as the others, it 
follows that this ruinous state through- 
out the monarchy must have been owing 
to other causes more direct and more gene- 
ral. But taking the question in another 
point of view, we shall be still more com- 
pletely convinced. 

The statements published by Baron de 
Humboldt show beyond a doubt that the 
proportion of births to deaths is, almost 
throughout New Spain, as 170 to 100, and 
even in the high plain of Mexico as 230 to 
130. According to this calculation the po- 
pulation must have doubled itself in the one 
case in 19 years, in the other in fourteen or 
fifteen *, and acquired a considerable ex- 
tension, especially when we consider that 
for three centuries the inhabitants of that 
peaceful country have been exempt from 

1 Voyage de M. A. de Humboldt, lib. ii. cap. 4. p.Gl. 
shall Dot think this calculation exaggerated, when we 
recollect that in New Jersey the proportion is three bun- 
dle d to on hundred ; ana that Russia, the inhabitants of 
which in 1783 did nut amount to more than C 25,G77,000, 
^p at present a population of upwards 40,000,000, thouf h 
• nut. d in a rigorous climate. 

Vol. i, e 



ÎXvi INTRODUCTION. 

wars, epidemic diseases, and other cala- 
mities, with which the continent of Europe 
has been infested. Nor do Europeans or 
descendants of Europeans form an eighth 
of the population, and they inhabit only 
the interior of the country which compre- 
hends the States of Montezuma IL, and in 
which the principal mines are situated. If 
the emigration to the new world had been 
so considerable as to depopulate the old, 
as some have thought proper to say, and 
that popidation had increased for three 
centuries in the proportion we have just 
shown, the number of the whites would 
have been much greater, and would have 
spread throughout the fertile countries of 
the coasts, where a more active climate 
unites the productions of the tropics with 
those of Europe, which are found in the 
regions more elevated. The number of 
1,200,000 whites spread over the whole of 
New Spain, is nothing in proportion to the 
extent of the country, the mass of the ori- 
ginal inhabitants, and the increase of po- 
pulation. It does not indicate a mué 
greater emigration than that which still 



INTRODUCTION". Ixvii 

takes place, and which does not exceed 
800 individuals, including the agents of 
the government, who almost make up that 
number, and who are remunerated by the 
American Colonists, whose affairs bring 
them to the continent. 

We may form a judgment of the state 
of Spanish America, in the centuries past, 
by that of the United States in this. These 
provinces left to themselves multiply their 
inhabitants in a prodigious manner entirely 
by affording them a comfortable existence, 
by the extent of property, and by the 
facility of living, and even of acquiring 
wealth in cultivating the land ; they have 
no need whatever of new settlers from Eu- 
rope. The present political writers never- 
theless would fain persuade us still that 
the increased population of the United 
States of America is owing to the emigra- 
tion from Europe. Mr. Page*, in his 
work on St. Domingo, in other respects 
highly valuable, asserts that the United 
States annually receive 100,000 new set- 

# Vol. II. page 427. 
e 2 



Lwiii INTRODUCTION. 

tiers, while in the Statistical statements 
published two years ago by authority of 
the President of the United States*, we 
sec that in the two years when the emigra- 
tion was greatest, that is to say in 1784 
and 1792, it did not exceed five thousand 
individuals, part of whom were going to 
Canada. Nevertheless the population of 
Europe is treble what it was in the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. America is the 
only country in which the unfortunate, the 
dissatisfied, and speculators from every 
part of the world, can find an asylum ; it 
is the only neutral country where agricul- 
ture and commerce still offer a chance of 
acquiring wealth. Now if, notwithstand- 
ing all these considerations, the number of 
people emigrating from Europe is not 
greater, what must it have been when the 
emigration was but from one half of Spain, 
only twice in the year, and that to an un- 
known country at avery hazard? There 
were several other obstacles in the way of 
this emigration, and principally the very 

* Samuel Blgdget's Statistical Manual, 18Q0L 



INTRODUCTION. Ixi 

laws of the country, which included the 
subjects of the crown of Castile. By a law 
of the ?th of August 1584, it is enacted, 
that no persor» shall go to America without 
an express permission from the king, and 
that permission was not to be obtained but 
by producing a certificate of morals and a 
regular life, a condition very unlike the 
customs of other countries, which consider- 
ed their colonies as the proper place for all 
the worthless. Besides this formality, the 
persons applying were obliged to fix them- 
selves in the province they had chosen, 
without the power of removing to another, 
and the priests were bound by the same 
laws. Furthermore, no person who had 
incurred an ecclesiastical censure, or re- 
ceived any reprimand whatever from the 
tribunal of the inquisition, was allowed to 
£0 to America. 

Wé may, even from the marvellous ac- 
counts given by historians, be convinced 
that the first conquerors of America were 
but few in number. Cortez took with him 
only 508 soldiers and 109 sailors badly 
armed, and with those managed to subdue 

• 



IXX INTRODUCTION* 

a country containing 6,000,000 of inhabit- 
ants ; and Pizarro made himself master of 
Peru with 180 men. How absurd soever 
these tales may be, they at least tend to 
prove that the number of those adven- 
turers was not considerable, which is still 
further confirmed by the cruelties they 
committed, as being, doubtless, thought 
necessary to awe, and to supply the want 
of number by terror. Besides, the ships at 
that period could not convey large armies 
to such a distance. 

It is not only believed that America 
was peopled at the expense of Europe, but 
also at the expense of the unfortunate 
inhabitants of the country, the race of 
whom has been thought to be almost an- 
nihilated. Spain would thus have expiated 
the crimes she committed in the new world, 
by the calamities she suffered at home. 
But both the crimes and the punishment 
are imaginary : with the exception of the 
first cruelties committed at the moment of 
conquest, and inseparable from that kind 
of expeditions, never was the lot of the 
Indians so mild as it has long been under 
the Spanish government, and, what will 



INTRODUCTION. Ixi 

no doubt appear more extraordinar) r , never 
were they so numerous*. They were slaves, 
oppressed by the kings of the country ; they 
are now free, protected and happy under the 
dominion of their conquerors ; even the 
laws are so favourable to them, that it is al« 
lowed by all enlightened travellers that 

* In a recent publication, it is said, that in the enumera- 
tion of the inhabitants of Peru, made by the Archbishop 
of Lima, Fray Geronimo de Loaysa, in the year 1551, 
the Indians amounted to 8,285,000. A fact like this must 
afflict those who are aware that in 1793, in the very accu- 
rate calculation made . by command of the Viceroy Gil- 
Lemos, the Indians of Peru, in its present state, Chili and 
Buenos Ayres being separated, did not exceed G00,000 in- 
dividuals. Here then are 7,600,000 Indians whom we 
may suppose to have been swept from the face of the 
earth ; but happily the assertion of the Peruvian author 
proved to be completely false ; for in consequence of the 
careful researches of Father Cisneros in the archives of 
Lima, it was found that the existence of the eight mil- 
lions in 1551, was not supported by any historical docu- 
ment : but, on the contrary, it was discovered in the ar- 
chives of the sixteenth century, that the Viceroy Toledo, 
justly regarded as the Spanish legislator of Peru, calcu- 
lated, in 1575, in the visits which he made in almost the 
whole extent of the kingdom, only about 1,500,000 Indi- 
ans. ( Sute taken from M. dc llumboldCs w irl^lib.ii. 
>:ap. 4. p. 55.) 

e 4 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION. 

they tend to keep them in a state of idle- 
ness and puerility to which they are but 
too much inclined, and from which they 
might be in some degree roused by a se- 
verer government *. The working of the 
mines, against which so much clamour 
has been raised, has for a great while been 
brought to such perfection, that the num- 
ber of deaths is not greater among the 
miners than in any other employment +. 
Besides, this occupation is entirely voluntary 
on the part of the Indians, and out of a po- 
pulation of 6,000,000 of natives there are 
scarcely 30,000 engaged in it. Such, how- 

# M. de Humboldt, lib. 2. ; De Pons, Voyage de la 
Terre-fcime, tome I. See iu Robertson and the Spanish 
writers all the laws in favour of the Indians, and the zeal 
of the bishops in enforcing them. 

•f- In the kingdom of New Spain, at least within thirty 
or forty years, the working of the mines is a free labour; 
not a trace of the mita exists there, though a justly cele- 
brated author, Robertson, has advanced the contrary : in 
no part of the world do the lower people more fully enjoy 
the fruit of their labour than in Mexico for working the 
mines. There is no law to compel the labourers to un- 
dertake this kind of work, or to restrict them to a particu- 
lar mine. If a miner is dissatisfied with the proprietor of 
one mine, he leaves him and offers his services to another, 



INTRODUCTION, lxxiîi 

ever, are the grounds on which rest all the 
sentimental declamations of the last cen- 
tury ; such was the ignorance or treachery 
of certain writers who, becoming enemies 
of their country through philanthropy, de- 
prived France of her colonies, and robbed 
her of a revenue of sixty millions nett, 
her navy and commercial fleets, and the 
most natural means of struggling against 
the power of England. 

If it be at least doubtful that the dis- 
covery of America was injurious to the 
population of Spain, it is not less so that 
it put an end to its industry, and plunged 
its inhabitants into despondence and indo- 
lence, by the increase of specie, and an 
abundance of the precious metals. The 
view we have given of the state of the 

who pays more regularly or in ready money. Another 
mi«take is, that of supposing that the working of the mines 
absorbs and reduces the population. In the whole kingdom 
of New Spain there are not more 28 or 30,000 miners, 
and deaths are not more frequent among them than among 
the other inhabitants ; this is proved by the list of mortality 
drawn up in tin parishes of Guanakuato and Zaeatecas. 
(Vote A/- taken from hi. de Humboldt's IVorlc, 

lib. ii. cup. ,"). ;,. 73. 



lwiv INTRODUCTION'. 

commerce and agriculture of Spain in for- 
mer times, would alone be enough to prove 
that this notion is as little founded. If 
any thing could, an the contrary, rouse 
the Spaniards from their loved indolence, 
it was the discovery of a new continent, 
which providing a prompter allurement to 
speculations, opened a new career to all 
adventurers, and taught them that the ad- 
vantages of commerce and property are 
greater than those of a military or wan- 
dering life. 

The Spanish possessions in the new 
world ought not to be called colonies : 
those immense domains are in some sort in- 
tegral parts of the mother country. The 
monarchy is thus divided into two parts, 
governed by the same laws, containing a 
population nearly equal, and both tending 
to increase their inhabitants rapidly in a 
progression proportionate to the extent of 
their territory. Nothing can be more like 
the ancient system of the Roman empire 
in its colonies than the Spanish and Por- 
tuguese establishments in America. These 
new nations united with their countrymen 



INTRODUCTION. IxXV 

by the bonds of religion, loyalty, and 
habit, have nevertheless a distinct and 
equally complete social organization. They 
have their clergy, their nobles, their trades- 
men, and the natives, who are the com- 
mon people. Their incomes do not con- 
sist, as is generally believed, in the produce 
of the mines alone, but in tiie excessive 
fertility of the soil, a source of wealth no 
doubt more valuable, as it is not liable to 
be exhausted, and as it may increase in- 
finitely ; they consist of the exclusive pos- 
session of cocoa, tobacco, cochineal, ginger, 
Jesuits' bark, all the woods used in medicine 
or dying, all the precious balms, innumer- 
able herds of wild bullocks, mules, horses, 
vicunas, in short in the union of all the 
productions of Europe with those of the 
tropics. 

Where is the country that can even ap- 
proach such wealth ? Is it France ? Her 
possessions are confined to a few islands, 
the most important of which she has to re- 
cover. J s it Holland ? The balance of her 
trade docs not exceed fifteen millions. 
Nay, is it England ? lier colonial power 



ÎXXvi INTRODUCTION. 

is entirely of a different nature, and is 
not embodied with her ; it is not on the 
soil that it depends : counterparts of the 
mother-country, combinations like her 
of industry, the English settlements arc 
rather counting-houses than colonies ; they 
are the means of entrepots for a manufac- 
turing and commercial people, whose only 
object in increase of dominion is increase 
of business, and who, possessed of capitals 
and engaged in turning them to advantage, 

© O CD O ' 

seek no better basis for their power. The 
nations they have rendered tributary in 
India do not become their subjects, and 
the persons sent out to govern them scori) 
to think of settling among them as a home. 
Ever since England lost, the American pro- 
vinces she has been still more afraid of 
fixing disloyal branches at a distance, and 
seeks only to maintain her singular organi- 
zation, that phenomenon in commerce, po- 
litics and legislation. 

Spain alone seems to have in view an 
immense futurity, Latis audax Hispania 
terria*. She traces the limits of new king- 

* Tibullus, lib. IV. carm. 1, v. 137. 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxviî 

doms in the deserts of a new world ; the 
steps of* the wandering traveller or of the 
imprudent missionary daily mark her eon- 
quests, and prepare new riches for her chil- 
dren : the untouched and fertile land 
scarcely requires cultivation to yield every 
fruit: it was that land which formerly 
made Seville the entrepot of the commerce 
of the world, taking it from Venice and 
from Genoa; it was that land which al- 
lowed Charles V. and Philip II. to under- 
take all the wars which they sustained 
during their long reigns ; the rebellion of 
the Low Countries alone cost the latter 
monarch upwards of five hundred millions 
of livres, nearly twenty-one millions ster- 
ling : what sums must he not have sacrificed 
to maintain the troubles of the league in 
France, to fit out the fleets which gained 
the battle of Lepanto, and those that were 
destroyed with the name of the Invincible 
Armada; for the expeditions to the Mi- 
lanese, to the kingdom of Naples, to the 
coast of Africa; for the expenses of sixty 
fortified towns, nine sea-ports, twenty -fwr 
arsenals, as many palaces, and the Escu- 



XXVlll INTRODUCTION". 



rial, which alone cost sixty millions of 
livres, 2,500,000/. sterling? Whence could 
this monarch have derived the means of 
meeting such expenses ? Was it from Ger- 
many ? the imperial crown had just passed 
into another branch of his family: from the 
Low Countries ? he was at war with them: 
from Italy ? it could hardly pay its garri- 
sons : from Spain itself? it was exhausted; 
and besides, to obtain subsidies, the con- 
sent of the states was necessary. All those 
expenses were defrayed by America alone*. 
By the books of the bank of Seville, it ap- 
pears that from the year 1519 to 1620, it 
issued the su m of fifteen hundred millions of 
ducats, and five hundred which had not been 
entered on the books- j-. There is no remark- 

* Spain, said Bocalini, is to Europe what the mouth 
is to the body ; all goes into it, but nothing remains in it. 

y One is frightened at adding up all the specie that was 
put into circulation from l(jy0 to 1800. The quantity 
coined at Mexico alone of gold and silver amounts to 
J ,298/2 17,47- piasters. What became of this enormous 
sum I \V hat channel could it have followed ? This it is very 
easy to determine. Except the little which remains in 
America for the use of the inhabitants, and which is made 
up by what is scut off in contraband, the rest ©f the cash 



INTRODUCTION. Ixxîx 

able event, no critical situation in the history 
of Spain, from Charles V. to Philip V. which 
does not manifest that the revenues from 
America have saved the monarchy, so 
clearly that the arrival of the galleons is 
become a proverb. 

Would Charles V. or Philip II. have 
been less ambitious had America not 
been discovered ? Would they have 
paid more attention to the happiness of 
the Spaniards ? Would they not, on the 
contrary, have found themselves obliged to 
exact of them greater sacrifices to support 
their unfortunate enterprises ? Would not 
Spain, instead of remaining in a stationary 
condition, have really declined to a degree 
from which it would have been difficult to 
recover herself? It was, on the contrary, 

goes to Cadiz, spreads through Spain, passes into England 
and France to pay the balance on the commodities which 
Spain and her colonies take from those two countries; 
and, without stopj ing in England, runs away to India and 
China, where it js inguipbed never to appear Qg&ini beiug 
lhe annual tribute which luxury has doomed Europe to pay 
to Asia, till some unthought of revolution, h; opening new' 
channels of circulation, shall main th< fiches u! the eas! 
hack to the " 



1XXX ÎNTKODUCTION'. 

when she was compelled to share those 
possessions with rebellious subjects, be- 
come her rivals, (hat she began to be 
feeble and her provinces to despond. The 
Dutch, who knew that the sources of her 
power were in the new world, soon con- 
tended with her for them. In 1003 and 
and 1691 j companies of merchants were 
formed, who dared to cope with the most 
powerful prince in Europe, and made Am- 
sterdam the new entrepot of the world. 
Taking advantage of all the faults of the 
Spaniards, and committing none, they en- 
riched themselves at the expense of Spain*. 
America, far from having injured Spanish 
industry, has, on the contrary, ever encou- 
raged it, by opening certain and constant 
■vents for the productions of the manufac- 
tories by the advantages accruing to it from 

* Has Holland been depopulated or impoverished since 
her connection v;ith the colonies ? Is it not, on the con- 
trary since that period that it has become an important 
state in Europe? The same may be said of Switzerland, 
which for four hundred years has suffered an annual emi- 
gration of its inhabitants sent into the service of the dif- 
ferent princes of Europe; audit is the same with England 
and other countries that possess colonies. 



INTRODUCTION". lxxxi 

an exclusive trade*. It is to the wealth 
and increase of population in the two In- 
dies that the provinces of Catalonia, Va- 
lencia, and Biscay, and the ports of Cadiz, 
Malaga, and Barcelona, have been in- 
debted for their improvement and prospe- 
rity. The advocates of the contrary opi- 
nion go farther, and without troubling 
themselves to be convinced that the Spa- 
nish colonies have at present all the ad- 
vantage without any disadvantage, that 
the produce of their mines have been in- 
creasing in an extraordinary progression 
for twenty years, that the emigration from 
Spain is confined to the agents of the go- 
vernment, that, without reckoning forty 
millions which they pour into the treasury 
of all expence, they contribute greatly 
to the king's revenue by the custom-houses 
and the circulation of specie ; in spite of 

V» ages are ^till too high in Spain, industry too little 
improved} and, above all, the custom-house duties too 
. Icrablc, to allow of any competition in manufacture» 
with oth'.r nations, if the trade Were l<> Cease being exclu- 
sive. The only excitement in tbat bate to mercantile con- 
nection! would be habit and fiduhiy. 

Vol. i. f 



Ixxxni INTRODUCTION . 

all these considerations, I say, they serir- 
ously pretend that a sound philosophy and 
the knowledge of ber real interest should 
injure Spain to separate from her colo- 
nies, and declare them independent, con- 
fining themselves, say they, to keeping up an 
amicable intercourse with them. 

h h not an object of this work to enquire 
what the state of Spain would be, separate 
from her colonics ; or what would be the 
fate of her colonies under a government 
independent of the mother-country ; the 
latter question has been fully treated by 
the eloquent writer of the Three Ages of 
the Colonies, whose work acquires addi- 
tional interest from the present situation of 
things. The author, supposing colonies in 
general independent from the moment they 
could become so, and that that period was 
arrived, has endeavoured to find out the 
means of remedying an inevitable evil ; 
but it does not follow from that, that he 
ever considered it as a good, at least in 
regard to the mother-countries. On the 
contrary, " Spain," says he*, "has always 

* Trois Ages (/,\? Coloiues, torn I. p. \ IS. 



INTRODUCTION'. IxXXlli 

c; thought it of the utmost importance to 
" preserve an exclusive intercourse most 
" rigourouslv with those countries, the 
' ; sources of her own wealth as well as that 
" of Europe, the circulation of which she 
" maintains by the metals she provides for 
" it. England, on her part* has always 
" been desirous oï a connection with some 
<: portion of this opulent property, and 
" of turning towards herself the stream of 
" some of its rivers of silver*." 

* Spain was formerly Utile known, although from the 
fifteenth century the events of its history have been con- 
stantly mixed with those of France,, and though its' posses- 
sions formed the half of the two hemispheres. Not to 
mention the philosophical writers, whose mistakes do not 
always arise from ignorance, theie is in other authors-, in 
mpect to Spain, a singular letity, a want ôf investigation 
or accurate notions not correspondent with the other park 
of their works. Montesquieu himself appears always to 
have had erroneous or superficial information respecting 
this country. He sets out with denying the existence of 
its gold and silver mines under the Romans (Spirit of 
Laws, lib. 9.1, c. 11.), though every traveller in Spain 
woulil bave informed him that the galleries of the mint ifl 
v. >rk»d b) the Romans; and since then by the Arabs, prove 
th«ir importance, and are entirely conformable to the tra- 
dition» "lvci/ in authors. The V'isigoihic code, which it 
•i be dlffleult (ft to admire, he scorn* to make kno\m: 
f 2 



IXXXÎV INTRODUCTION. 

The separation of the colonies from the 
mother-country is very uncertain ; but sup- 

" These laws," says he, " are puerile, silly, idiotic ; they 
do not attain their object, but are theoretical and without 
sense, frivolous in reality, and gigantic in style." {Spirit of 
Lazes, lib. 28, c. 2.) So violent a criticism seems to me 
to have required a more detailed explanation. The faults 
imputed to modern Spain are still greater, and Mon- 
tesquieu lets no occasion slip of multiplying them. After 
repeating the trite stories of the cruelties which the Spa- 
niards are said to have committed in America, he thus de- 
duces the consequences of them : *f Since the devastation 
" of America," says he, (i the Spaniards who took place 
" of its ancient inhabitants have not been able to re-people 
" it ; on the contrary, by a fatality, which I might better 
'* call divine justice, the destroyers are destroying them- 
" selves and daily consuming away." (Persian Letters.) 
We have shown how little founded this opinion is; that 
which attributes the ruin of Spain to the discovery of the 
new world is still less so, as we think we have equally 
proved. Besides, the reasons employed by that illustrious 
writer to demonstrate it, are weaker than many others that 
liave been advanced by Spanish authors, which neverthe- 
less did not decide the question in their favour. To have 
given any weight to the positions laid down by Montes- 
quieu, it would have been necessary to prove, l?t. that the 
produce of the mines did not increase, whereas it has con- 
stantly increased for sixty years past; 2dly, that all the 
specie coined remained in Europe, so as to diminish in 
current value by increasing in quantity, whereas the prodi- 
gious efflux of it annually to the East Indies and China 



INTRODUCTION. \XXXY 

posing that it were to take place, the con- 
sequences which would result from it de- 
pend upon the nature of the separation. 
If it be not entirely hostile on either side, 
it would not be entirely injurious. The 
advantages which Spain derives and may 
hope to derive from her colonies, do not 
rest altogether on the tributes which they 

tends to maintain nearly the same equilibrium between the 
medium of wealth and other productions, and to establish 
a balance in favour of the advancement of the mines, aug- 
mented by the diminution of the expellees of working them : 
3dly, that agriculture and population were injured by the 
emigration to America, whereas long before Montesquieu 
wrote that emigration had ceased, and Spain owed her im- 
provement or decline entirely to herself. Montesquieu 
likewise expresses himself thus : " I have sometimes heard 
" the blindness of the council of Francis I. deplored for 
" repulsing Christopher Columbus, who proposed Ame- 
u rica to them. In truth, they did, peihaps through impru- 
'* deuce, a very wise thing. Spain has acted like that 
" foolid» king who requested that whatever he touched 
" might be tamed into gold ; but who was obliged to repair 
u agaiu to the god- to supplicata them to put an end to his 
" misery." (Spirit of Lata, b. v!l, ih. W.) I do not think 
that Spain will ever have cause to express similar sorrow, 
and renounce her advantages; but if it should he the case, 
1 pray to H» averi to bt tow a part of her leavings on my 

» OU! 

: I 



lx'XxW INTRODUCTION. 

pay her, but likewise on the objects which 
they consume, and on the works which 
they encourage : now, in respect to com- 
merce, there exist between the Spanish co- 
lonics and the mother-country the close 
ties which arc drawn by the same religion, 
the same language, the same character, 
and the same origin ; and the Spaniards do 
not easily renounce such ties*. 

The second cause to which the depopu- 
lation and defective industry of Spain are 
imputed, is the establishment of the Inqui- 
sition. Here too it is necessary to go back 
to the origin of things. It has been al- 
ways the fashion to see in the Inquisition an 
institution devised by fanatic priests to 
persecute the people, or by suspicious 
nobles to. enforce their authority over their 
vassals, or by a weak government to aug- 
ment its power : we forget that at that pc- 

* The commerce of America once centered exclusively 
in Cadiz, hut it has heen opened to the othrr ports of Spain. 
Cadiz, however, continues to carry on a great part of the; 
business it had, and preserves all its correspondents; i\ 
\vill be the same with Spain in general in re§pec| to the 
other countries of Europe. 



INTRODUCTION. lxXXvil 

riod every class of men was also fanatic, 
and that the priests were less so than 
others, being more enlightened ; that this 
institution, established by tiie pope alone 
in 1205, and adopted in Spain in 1478, 
could not but have displeased the clergy in 
general, as it took away part of their func- 
tions to confine them to the monks of St. 
Dominic ; that the nobles, already pos- 
sessed of complete power over their vas- 
sals, had no occasion for any indirect 
means to enforce their authority, and that 
on the contrary they lost their seignorial 
jurisdiction over them in consequence of 
it. With respect to the kings, nothing could 
more diminish their power, previously so 
limited, as increasing that of the clergy, 
of whom they had frequently cause to be 
jealous. The Inquisition was not esta- 
blished with any of these views, and had 
not in its origin such importance ; it was 
an institution purely relative, and a means 
adopted for effecting more easity the odious 
measure, the consequences of which we 
have fully deplored; I mean the expulsion 
of the Jews and Moors, or the conversion 

f4 



lxxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

of those who remained. A tribunal was 
then established, specially commissioned 
to attend to the execution of that law ; but 
this cruel office had no effect on the ca- 
tholic subjects, on the nobles, artizans, in 
short, on the mass of the Spanish nation. 
We have only to read, in the archives of 
the order of St. Dominic and the histories 
of the Inquisition, the names of the per- 
sons condemned in the different autos-da-fe, 
to be convinced that they were all what 
were then called new christians, half chris- 
tians, or part christians, which meant 
baptized Jews, and relations or connec- 
tions of Jews and Moors. So true is this, 
that there was an end to the persecutions 
altogether, when in the succeeding gene- 
rations of these people not a trace re- 
mained of the belief of their fathers. The 
Inquisition, in fact and right, could not 
take cognizance of any other offence. 
Inquisitores non possunt se intermittere in 
aliis causis quam in delectis contra /idem*. 
No doubt some vindictive acts were 

* Clem, de Ilœres, cap. mult. prim, parag. propter. 



INTRODUCTION. IxXXlX 

committed under this pretext, and some 
Spanish names are found on those horrible 
lists; but it was only at the period when 
the doctrines of Luther and Calvin set all 
Europe into flames, and had also made 
proselytes in Spain. The Inquisition then 
included the Spaniards in the number of 
its victims. I do not mean to excuse its 
cruelties ; they were atrocious, but not nu- 
merous, nor ever exercised without warn- 
ing. If anywhere innovations in religion 
could be considered as criminal, it was no 
doubt in Spain, where the government had 
always been in a manner theocratic, where 
the catholic religion was the fundamental 
law of the state, and where, long before 
Luther was born, the Inquisition was esta- 
blished, in order to prevent every kind of 
.schism or dissenting whatever. It must 
be allowed, that the Spanish government 
was cruel and intolerant in this respect, 
but it was never treacherous : we do not 
sec in its history that jumble of caprice 
and wavering, of toleration in words and 
persecution in acts, of paternal edicts and 
tardy aEVoc » riONS, which destroy all the 



XC INTRODUCTION. 

benefit of them ; we do not see arnon^ the 
victims of superstition the names of a 
Henry IV. or of a Coligny. Spain seemed 
early to have foreseen all the evils that 
would spring from irresolute measures on 
so important a point ; she adopted a fixt 
plan, which she declared openly, and 
which, far from injuring the progress of her 
population, was, on the contrary, favour- 
able to it, by keeping her out of the reli- 
gious wars which desolated Germany and 
France after the Reformation, and with 
which England is still a Ml ic ted*. This 
unity of worship and belief has contributed 
more than is thought to consolidate all the 
Spaniards in both hemispheres into a single 
uniform nation, one homogeneous mass of 
men having the same ties, the same cha^ 
racter, and the same will. 

* The author surely means wars of words, or he must 
be ignorant ; one woul<l be sorry to think that an ingenuous 
man should be guilty of such a paltry insincerity to deceive 
his countrymen into an idea of the peace of England being 
disturbed by any actual religious war. The author's words 
are, " en lui évitant les guerres de religion qui ont désole 
M l'Allemagne et la France depuis la reforme, et qui aftii- 
** gent encore aujourd'hui l'Angleterre." — Tkanslatou, 



INTRODUCTION. XC1 

It is equally fafee that the Inquisition has 
impeded the progress of the sciences and 
literature in Spain. The epoch of the in- 
stitution of that tribunal, in 1478, in the 
reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, was pre- 
cisely the period of the revival of letters. 
The reigns of Charles V. Philip II. and 
Philip III. during which the sciences at- 
tained the highest degree of splendour, in 
which the Spanish language and literature 
prevailed in Europe, are those which are 
the most remarkable for the ravages of the 
Inquisition, those in which it destroyed 
upwards of 80,000 persons in the Low 
Countries, and a considerable, number in 
Spain. On the contrary, its influence 
ceased at the juncture of the decline of 
letters, and of all the branches of the ad- 
ministration under the last princes of the 
house of Austria. 

It was from this period, at which, accord- 
ing to all authors, the influence of the In- 
quisition appears to have ceased, that I 
think it became really injurious to the 
expansion of all useful knowledge; not, 
certainly, bee use it ceased to be cruel, but 



XCH INTRODUCTION. 

because it changed its nature and acquired 
new powers. 

When the race of the Moors and of the 
Jews became extinct in Spain, when reli- 
gious quarrels seemed at an end in Europe, 
the Inquisition still retained its organiza- 
tion, was still composed of the most dis- 
tinguished persons of the nobility and 
clergy, and observed the same forms in its 
proceedings, but had no more occasion for 
the exercise of its ministry. The mem- 
bers of it then thought that the only means 
of maintaining its power was to unite it 
with that of the throne, and to support it 
by that sceptre which it had a little before 
threatened to break*. They persuaded the 
princes, that as it had been serviceable 
to religion against schismatics, it might 
also be serviceable to the state against 
factions. They pointed out to them that 
new dangers had arisen around them against 
which new preservatives were necessary, 
and that the liberty of the press, which pre- 

* The grand inquisitor upbraided Philip III. violently 
for being affected at an auto-da-fe. 



ÎNTRODUCTIO.N. Xciïî 

vailed "every where, was no less alarmin^ 
than that of worship. 

This opinion for which there might have 
been some foundation in other countries, 
had not any in Spain, neither the organiza- 
tion of which, nor the characters of the 
people, contained the elements of a revo- 
lution. Yet the nature of the books that 
were printed in foreign countries gave an 
appearance of truth to this reasoning, and 
caused it to be favourably received. In 
fact, there are few works on political eco- 
nomy, on commerce, or even on agricul- 
ture, written during the last sixty years, 
which do not contain some digressions upon 
the nature of governments, the principles 
of public law, and the law of nations, and 
particularly on those moral views to which 
the name of liberal ideas has been given, 
and which the Inquisition called danger- 
ous ideas. Spain, at this period, was no 
longer superior to Europe for its learning; 
France and England had gone beyond it, 
and it could no longer hope to equal other 
nations but by imitating then). I fence 
urosu that general dcsnc- of every class of 



XC1V INTRODUCTION'. 

society to become acquainted with new in* 
vent ions, to participate in the improve- 
ments of all kinds which had taken place 
in Europe, and in short to read and com- 
ment upon foreign works. From the fear 
of the evil that these writings might pro- 
duce, the Inquisition thought it better to 
drpri\e the country of the advantage at- 
tached lo them ; they prohibited most of 
die foreign books, and raised a great many 
impediments to the obtaining of others. 
Instead of the obscure names which filled 
die lists of the auto-da-fé, those of Mon- 
tesquieu, Smith, and Robertson, were seen 
at the head of their literary proscriptions. 
The Spaniards then continued behind-hand 
with their neighbours, though perpetually 
anxious to give and receive instruction. 
Proud of their immense possessions in tin 
two worlds, and humbled by their political 
gradation in Europe, they seemed fet- 
tered by the narrow spirit of their laws, 
and lost in the extent of their dominions. 
Envious of other nations, of whom form- 
erly they wmdd only have been jealous, 
they were seen struggling between emula- 



INTRODUCTION. XCV 

tion, which excited them to attempt every 
kind of industry, and local difficulties, 
which prevented them from arriving at 
perfection in any. Several, exasperated 
by this new kind of persecution, even went 
beyond truth in their systems, and the only 
country in Europe where religion is uni- 
versally uniform and the monarchy abso- 
lute, is perhaps that in which there are 
most atheists and démagogues amongst the 

CD CD O 

enlightened part of society. 

If Spain was not able to raise itself to 
an eminent degree of splendour and wealth 
during the reigns of such distinguished 

CD CD <D 

princes as Ferdinand, Charles V. and Phi- 
lip II. what was to become of it under a suc- 
cession of weak and incapable kings, such 
as Philip III. Philip IV. and Charles IL 
At the conclusion of the reign of the la t 
king it had fallen into such a state of lan- 
guor, that the potentates of Europe impa- 
tiently waited for its spoliation, and had 
already signed a treaty of partition to share 
it, when the death of Charles li. brought 
to light a will in favour of the grandsons 
of Louis XIV. and in which it was stipu- 



XCV1 INTRODUCTION. 

kited that its territory should be preserved 
entire. 

Louis XIV accepted this gift with the 
difficult task of defending it. Philip V. 
was at first received with enthusiasm, and 
for some time reigned tranquilly; but the 
storm soon collected from every point over 
his head. The reverses which Louis XIV. 
experienced were principally felt by his 
grandson, who, obliged to leave his capital 
and to retire to Buncos, was indebted solely 
to his perseverance and the talents of some 
of his generals for his throne to which he 
returned, and which was formally confirm- 
ed to him by the treaty of Utrecht. 

It is from this celebrated era in the His- 
tory of Spain that we are to date the pros- 
perity of that kingdom, which a combina- 
tion of circumstances then placed in the 
situation most adapted to it, as well for 
improvement at home as peace abroad. 
Bound in interest with France, its eternal 
rival, it had 110 longer continual wars to 
fear, nor any thing that could retard the 
progress of its industry. The politics of 
Europe were changed, and that ambition 



IXTRODCCTIOX. XCV11 

of universal monarchy which had passed 
from the princes of the house of Austria to 
Louis XIV. at last gave place to the ideas 
of a balance of power, which could more 
lastingly ensure the tranquillity of states 
and diminish the sources of war. Already 
had the treaty of Westphalia proved that 
political legislation was in a state of im- 
provement as well as social legislation. 
That of Utrecht, still more temperate, was 
particularly favourable to Spain, securing 
to her the integrity of her territory, and 
her colonies, the true source of riches 
when their industry is combined with that 
of the mother-country. The government* 
placed in the middle of this exchange of 
productions, of this circulation of revenue 
between the two worlds, profiting by the 
advantages which it drew from both, en- 
couraging one by the other, saw the nuin- 
b'( r of its subjects and the mass of its 
wealth increase, without having any oc- 
casion for address in its politics, strength 
in ils armies, or 'jenius in its ndnmhstra- 
It owed it niccesfl neither to pro- 
found combinations, nor to the decline of 

\ OL. I. 



Xrvill INTRODUCTION". 

its neighbours, but to the nature of thing», 
which tends always to good, when it is not 
thwarted, when a corrupt organization of 
the state does not raise continual obsta- 
cles to its improvement. What rapid 
changes did not Spain experience in that 
happy century! In less than eighty years 
its population doubled itself; the sums of 
money expended in conséquence of the 
wars of the succession remained in the 
country : the energy which it had produced 
had formed soldiers; and at the same time 
the revenues of the state were trebled, and 
a formidable army of 100,000 men assem- 
bled : the arsenals were fdled with work- 
men, seventy ships of the line were built 
in a short time, the genius of Louis XIV. 
'ned to hover over this new empire and 
to promote its restoration. Towards the 
end of the reign of Philip V. Spain be- 
came important in a military point of view. 
What was deficient in this reign was com- 
pleted in the following; Ferdinand VI. 
restored order in the finances, encouraged 
the arts, and founded patriotic societies 
for the improvement of agriculture ; and 



INTRODUCTION. XC1X 

Charles III, whose government at Naples 
had already predicted what he would per- 
form upon a larger theatre, surpassed his 
predecessors. The edict of free commerce 
with America multiplied the connections 
with that country, and spread the advan- 
tages of industry and activity over all the 
kingdom; roads were opened in the prin- 
cipal provinces, canals were commenced, 
the manufactures shook off the yoke of 
foreigners, the arts and sciences, which al- 
ways find a home in tranquil countries, 
fixed themselves in this ; and the Spaniards 
were soon seen to follow the French in 
t very useful and hazardous undertaking. 
Condamine was not long in finding such 
men as Don Georges Juan and Don An- 
tonio Ulloa, as companions of his travels. 
It was a Spaniard who returned alone from 
California, and published the observations 
of {hé unfortunate Chappe. Does learn- 
ing display more brilliant names in Europe 
than those of Bayer, Mayans, Sarmiento, 
Flores, Feïjoo,and Jsla? or philosophy an'd 
political economy, better Works than those 
of Ca'mpo Manes and Jovellànos'? This 
g S 



c î\ï Ronrcnox. 

expansion of every faculty, this encourage- 
ment of every talent, was felt beyond the 
seas. The Spanish possessions iii America 
surpassed the mother-country in the in- 
crease of their riches and prosperity. The 
annual produce of the mines rose from five 
millions of piastres to thirty-live millions, 
by the excellent administration of Galvez, 
and of those who accompanied him; but 
still these revenues, as uncertain as brilliant, 
have not improved so much as agriculture, 
a more lasting basis, and upon which the 
future gigantic prospects of this country 
are founded; the progress which it made 
has spread amongst all classes of the inha- 
bitants that happiness which mild laws 
have for a long time been preparing. We 
have seen above with what astonish- 
ing rapidity population increases; one 
scourge alone retarded its progress ; a 
considerable number of people were annu- 
ally carried off by the small-pox, princi- 
pally among the Indian easts. This mis- 
fortune is no longer to be dreaded ; a 
philanthropic expedition has lately been 



INTRODUCTION. CÏ 

sent out to remedy it forever ; two frigates 
have taken to the countries of gold, a 
treasure more precious than that which 
it possesses, twenty children, some of whom 
had previous to their being embarked re- 
ceived the vaccine principle, which was 
communicated to the others during the 
voyage, that it might be preserved in all 
its freshness ; an ingenious idea and 
worthy of the Spanish character. As sOon 
as intelligence of the arrival of the frigates 
was spread in the country, the Indians 
descended from their mountains on all 
sides ; the bishop of Vera Cruz, attended 
by his clergy, went to the shore to receive 
this precious charge; he took one of the 
children in his arms and raising it to 
heaven, addressed a prayer to God, amidst 
the acclamations of the crowded beach : 
blessings of a holy religion and a paternal 
monarch, what an affecting scene did you 
present upon this distant land ! 

Spain undoubtedly increased in wealth 
and prosperity during the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The descendants of Louis XIV. have 

g 3 



Cil INTRODUCTION. 

Restored this kingdom to the political situa* 
tion which must be favourable to it; they 
have brought forward part of its means 
pf industry : they have restored t he aits and 

sciences to it, but the y have still left fetters 
remaining that prevent a complete ame- 
lioration : though wise enough to reform 
abuses, they were not perhaps sufficiently 
powerful to abolish laws or change habits, 
equally injurious to the increase of in- 
dustry. The greatest part of the lands of 
the kingdom, entailed on the families of the 
nobility or belonging to religious corpora- 
tions, : as uncultivated, and the little 
that [s alienable is sold above its value, on 
account < f the difficulty of obtaining it. 
The v. f communication among the 
pro] . ta the inland commerce, 
anil $ausgs - in sorue, while there is 
a superfluous abundance in others; the de- 
ficiency of highways and cross-roads is, also 
injurious to foreign commerce. Corn 
broughtfrom theUnited Slates to Cadiz in, 
neutral vessels and re-exported under a, 
ianish name to South America, is cheapej 



INTRODUCTION. Clll 

in that country 1 than the Spanish corn 
sent directly from its own ports, notwith- 
standing the risks of the double passage. 
The case is the same with manufactures : 
the productions of the national or fo- 
reign manufactories exported on the na- 
tional account are so overburthened with 
duties at entering and clearing, and fetch 
such a price in America, that smuggling is 
in a manner solicited, and the advantages 
of the exclusive trade rendered null. The 
direct taxes are not less heavy upon agri- 
culture, though they return little or no- 
thing to the Treasury. The revenues of the 
Alcabala and the Almoxarifazgo, as barba- 
rous as their names and as the times in 
which they were devised, produce very 
little, and are very expensive in collecting; 
the tax of Crusade bulls founded on pueri- 
lities and unworthy of a true religion and 
of a wise government, diminishes daily as 
the country becomes more enlightened, or 
as the administration relaxes. AY e have 
seen before to what a degree indolence 
still prevails. In short, the country which 



c iV iKTnODî'CTION. 

furnishes Europe with all its specie is over* 
burthenedwith a paper of no credit, without 
value and without security ; tjie melan- 
choly sign and more melancholy pledge 
of a considerable debt. 

To remedy these serious evils requires a 
union of courage, genius, and activity : 
with these the happiest changes may be 
effected, and Spain may resume alone the 
rank which she formerly occupied in Eu- 
rope only by the assistance of its other 
states. 

It must not be dissembled, that Spain is 
too fertile and its population is too thin, 
to think of any thing but extending its 
agriculture, the chief source of all wealth. 
It will soon become a manufacturing na- 
tion, when a greater abundance of pro- 
ductions shall have increased the popula- 
tion and rendered labour cheaper. As the 
taxes may then be collected on the spot, 
there will no longer be occasion to clog in- 
dustry so much by custom-houses, and 
there will be less to fear from the competi- 
tion of foreign merchandise ; but it is ne- 



INTRODUCTION. CV 

cessavy to begin the edifice at its. founda- 
tion. 

Almost all Spain is the unalienable pro- 
perty of the Lords, of the religious corpo- 
rations, or of the commons ; nothing can 
dismember their domains, while entails, 
alliances, or bequests are continually in- 
creasing them. The little land which is, 
as it were, in circulation, is neither suf- 
ficient for the investment of the capitals 
made by commerce, nor for the industry 
of individuals of small property, who are 
desirous of commencing their fortune in 
that way, or of realising that which they 
have acquired. Thus society is entirely 
composed of usufructuaries, proprietors, or 
farmers, but all equally indifferent; the 
first because they have no power to 
transmit their fortune, the others because 
they never can acquire the property. The 
lords inhabit the towns and pay no man- 
ner of attention to their estates; the con- 
vents spend their revenues in alms and iii 
free gifts to the king; the commons build 
cathedrals, and the tenants of each, having 
for the most part leases of only three or 



fvi INTRODUCTION. 

fbtir yeafs, ciulciivoiir speedily to make the 
most of the land without attempting toim- 
prové it : whole fields remain fallow solely 
because they form part of these gigantic 
accumulations. Such are the reasons of 
the solicitation long made for the abolition, 
or at least restriction, of the civil and reli- 
gions rights of succession. They are so 
considerable in Spain, and swallow up 
such an immense quantity of land, that 
there is no reason to fear that the conse- 
quence will be too great a division of pro- 
perty, as took place in France after the 
law of the seventeenth Nivose ; there would 
be besides other means of remedying this 
abuse, if it Were to be feared; or, if it 
were thought proper to preserve a certain 
number of these rights, it might be by al- 
lowing the rich proprietors to let out their 
hinds upon leases of eighteen years, to be 
binding on their heirs, or to grant very 
long leases, -which would have the double 
advantage of preserving the property in a 
family, while it gives a long term of en- 
joyment to others. By wise laws these 
neglected lands might become cultivated, 



INTRODUCTION. CYU 

so however as not to destroy inheritances 
too much, or tend to impoverish distin- 
guished families, whom it is of -conse- 
quence to the state to preserve in a situa- 
tion suitable to their name. Besides the 
prosperity which this measure would spread 
over the country by the improvement of 
agriculture, it would employ on the land 
the capitals which remain dead in the 
hands of individuals of small property, and 
those of the rich, who purchase public 
paper with them, or invest them in foreign 
banks. By thus increasing the number of 
little landholders, all those who may hope 
in acquire easy circumstances bf it, or at 
least to gain some future profit, would be 
included in and sensible or the value of 
labour. The land-tax would soon be esta- 
blished on a firm footing, and meanwhile 
it would fttrriish a considerable augmenta- 
tion in the alcabala on sales, the return of 
which is the fourteenth of real property, 
but which, from the deficiency of convey- 
ance-;, returns almost nothing. The other 
important changes in the laws would be 
respecting the courts of justice, the civil 



Cviil INTRODUCTION*. 

and criminal codes, the administration of 
the forest laws, the privileges of the Mesta, 
the regulations of the police, the system of 
taxation, and the drawing for the militia ; 
in all of which the organization is still very 
imperfect in Spain. 

The most important object of the admi- 
nistration would be without doubt, the 
consolidation and progressive extinction of 
the national debt by the sale of a part of 
ecclesiastical property. This which suc- 
ceeded in Naples would be still more easily 
effected in Spain, where it would not be 
so novel. It was adopted some years back 
by Charles IV. under the authority of the 
Pope, and its success would have been 
complete if it had been executed on a 
greater scale, and if the money poured 
into the sinking fund (c<ua de consolidacion) 
had been faithfully employed in paying of! 
the royal Vales; but scarcely had this fund 
been created when the wants of the state 
caused it to be put to other uses. The 
buying up of the public debt ceased at 
the moment of the last declaration of war 
against England. The funds which were 



INTRODUCTION. C1X 

intended for that purpose were then de- 
manded by the public treasury for the cur- 
rent expejiees, as an advance to be paid to 
that fund on a peace ; but, instead of ad- 
vancing this sum, the directors of the con- 
solidated fund undertook to defray the 
expences of the treasury, which at the 
same time burdened that fund with a part 
of its returns. The directors thus became 
in fact the ministers of finance, and the 
nature of the institution was changed, or 
at least the object of it deferred to a future 
time. This operation has been of no other 
use than to show how easy it was. The 
property of the reformed convents, and 
that of the other pious establishments, have 
been sold at the same rate as patrimonial 
property, that is to say, at a discount of 
forty and forty-five per cent, which would 
nevertheless give a revenue of four pet- 
cent, on the capital, on account of the de- 
preciation of the Vales, which were taken 
in payment. Supposing that sufficient 
landed property were put up to sale for 
paying off the national debt, that debt is 



CX INTRODUCTION. 

So inconsiderable fpr the country*, there 
exists such a demand for land, and, in 
spite of the received opinion, so great a, 
quantity of capitaH" t» > be invested, that 
the value of landed property, would not be re- 
duced by it. On the other hand, the livings 
of the monks would not in an} r way be hurt 
by it ; because their order has for a long 
time been in fact suppressed, as they are 
not allowed to receive any more novices ; 
and being paid three per cent, for the 
capital arising from the sale of their 
estates, the sum exceeds the revenues 
which they drew from them annually. 
This suppression, besides was effect- 
ed wjth ureal management in Spain J, 
though it might have been more easily 
done at once on çood grounds than in any 

* Sec Vol. IV. article Finances. 

•\ There is in Spain a great deal of capital lying dead 
in the hands of the citizens and country people. The in- 
ability of the possessors to make use of it prevented the 
circulation. 

X They begaa by uniting in a single house the monks of 
8<?v. [a] < <>ii\t His of the same order, and they proposed to 
suppress several entirely. 



INTRODUCTION". CXI 

other country. In fact, the Cavils have at 
all times opposed the alienation of landed 
property in favour of the convents*, and 
have never sanctioned it : this is o'ene- 
rally known by all classes in Spain, and 
removes all scruples on this head. 

The funds arising from the sale of the 
convents would not only be useful for the 
securing and paying the national debt, but 
also for those important improvements 
from which all others spring, and which 
were only begun in the preceding reigns, such 
as roads, canals, public granaries {positon) 
the ports «Sec. on which would be em- 
ployed that crowd oï idle, dangerous 
men, who could not immediately find em- 
ployment in tillage, and who find it difficult 
to fix themselves to that kind of hard and 
continual labour. "What the government 
would do for the general welfare of the 
state and for the works which require con- 
siderable capitals, the administration of 
the provinces should do lor their own par- 



* See on this subject tbe article of Agriculture., ]>. VJO, 

Vol. IV. 



(\ll I \ iCODUCTION. 

tieular amelioration; tne^ would find consi- 
derable resources in local taxes, and in a 
better use of the property of the commons; 
those changes would scarcely take place 
when confidence would revive on all parts, 
and with it the expansion of every faculty, 
and the spring of useful enterprises. The 
system of taxation would become less bur- 
densome and more profitable, m short, the 
/ ales, without its being necessary perhaps 
to buy up the fourth part of them, would 
rise with tiie same rapidity as the three per 
cents in France did, and would, like that, 
be a light debt, scarcely sufficient for the 
investment of the money of minors, batche- 
Ibrs, and men whose middling fortune would 
ruined in purchasing landed property, 
and who prefer a larger income when they 
think it so secure. 

The Spaniard is distrustful and reserved. 
his wariness is of long continuance, but 
when once overcome, when he thinks that 
he discovers in his superiors, and even in 
his equals, the loyal and generous qualities 
which form the basis of his own character, 
he pusses to the opposite extreme, and his 



introduction, cxiii 

confidence, like his attachment, has no 
bounds. This is a tribute which gratitude, 
as well as truth, calls upon me to pay*. 
It now remains to examine the third 

* It was the confidence withwliicli my father inspired the 
Spaniards that enabled him to render the state some im- 
portant services. I shall only mention one circumstance: 
The Marquis d'Aubeterre, the French ambassador in 
Spain, had been commissioned in 1738, to solicit from 
Ferdinand IV. a loan of 30 millions: he had delivered ;i 
letter to that prince from the king of France on this sub- 
ject, and had had the mortification of meeting with a re- 
fusal. The necessities of the state becoming more urgent, 
the king sent my father, then very young, to Madrid, to 
try and renew this negotiation. After many difficulties, 
he received the following answer from Count Valdeparaiso : 
" I know that you aie a good servant of his Most Christian 
" Majestj : I know your heart and its nobleness; you are 
" my friend, and 1 have done on every occasion what you 
" have asked of me. The refusal of the loan of monev, 
" on the part of my master, may disoblige his Most Chrrs- 
u tian Majesty: you are attached to his interest, but vou 
" are also attached to a good understanding between the 
" two courts. Thinking thllSj and knowing your wisdom, 
" I must not keep \ou any longer, in suspense. We shall 

" not giant his Most Christian Majesty the loan of SO 

" million livres which you demand; but I wili lend you, 

" personally, two millions of piastres, which is one-thini 

" of that sum. The conditions and tune of payment shall 

be- arranged to youi satisfaction ; we will treat by cor- 

Vol. i. h 



Cxiv T\M ROD UCT ION. 

means which the government possesses ; I 
mean its influence. 

It is not only bad laws, but bad habits 
that impede the prosperity of empires ; and 
though the power of" sovereigns can change 
the former, their influence alone can have 
weight on the latter ; it is that which gives 
a new direction to men, and points their 
emulation to the kind of merit which is 
adapted to his views. When the kings had 
reason to fear the nobles, it was their poli- 
cy to fix them at their court, neutralize 
them by honours, offices, and pleasures ; 
but as soon as their throne was secured by 
the progress of civilization, more even than 
by their rights, the welfare of the provinces 
called for those powerful men, who, by 
their riches, preponderance, and know- 
ledge, are more formed to animate them 
than common agents, who were, besides, 
vrry few in number. It was by the atten- 
tion of such men that England, France, 
Germany, and Italy, were embellished : 

" rrspondencc. You may depart as soon as you will ; 
M for the English ambassador h;is his eyes upon you, and I 
'' know is bent on discovering the object oi' your journey." 



INTRODUCTION. CXV 

the Spanish nobility lived alone in the 
towns, and seemed to have inherited from 
their fathers only their courage and their 
names : they looked with indifference on 
the estates taken from the Moors with the 
blood of their ancestors, and by that alone 
made sufficiently precious to their de- 
scendants. They had, however, a noble 
example before them in the members of 
the high-clergy, to whom their country 
is indebted for most of the churches, 
hospitals, roads, aqueducts, fountains, and 
other public establishments of their dio- 
ceses. I am delighted to repeat it, those 
respectable men have at all times set exam- 
ples of philosophy and beneficence, as well 
as inculcated Christian morality : their es- 
tates are the best managed in Spain. It 
would have been the same throughout the 
country, if the nobility, instead of spend- 
ing their fortunes at court, instead of con- 
tracting debts in the capital, had lived 
upon their estates, and had had, as in 
England, country meetings for laying out 
private roads, digging canals, making 
bridges, mills, hydraulic machines; for en- 

h 2 



CXVI INTRODUCTION. 

couraging plantations, meadows made by 
art, the different kinds of cultivation, the 
amelioration of the brute creation, and 
whatever requires the use of capitals 
and personal attention. Is it not ex- 
traordinary, that in the whole extent of 
Spain, there is not a single detached sear, 
a single considerable mansion, or a single 
villa in which we could suppose a lord of 
the country resides? The iew edifices of 
that kind we meet with in the country 
arc old towers, the ruins of which equally 
show the glory of their ancient and the 
negligence of their new masters. What 
can change such an ancient, such an in- 
veterate habit, if it be not the influence 
of the head of the state, whose desires 
have frequently more force than the laws, 
and whose favour is more valuable than 
wealth ? The country would then recover its 
natural protectors, the knowledge concen- 
trated in the towns would extend to ham- 
lets, improvements in agriculture and the 
the mechanical arts would supersede bad 
customs, and the convents, suppressed on 
account of the exigencies of the state, 



INTRODUCTION. CXVU 

would be converted into asylums for the 
poor. What a source of good would be 
produced by all these changes, and, above 
all, by the admirable agreement between 
the head of the state, the proprietors, and 
the laborious class of the people ; and be- 
tween the country and the towns. The 
merchants and the manufacturers would 
then redouble their zeal to acquire lands, 
and to enjoy, as they grew old, a noble and 
happy life in their provinces. Idleness 
would no longer be either honourable or 
honoured; and Spain would attain that 
height and splendour to which it seems 
called by its situation, natural riches, and 
the distinguished qualities of its inhabi- 
tants. If within a century it has advanced 
in every thing we have mentioned, what 
would it not do if it were freed from the 
chains which confine it? Its population, 
which has more than doubled in less than 
a century, would augment in a still greater 
proportion; its revenues, which frofti 50 
millions have risen to 240, would make a 
similar progress, Jt would be the same 
: ii industry and commerce, both of whicl» 
ho 



OXviii INTRODUCTION. 

bave no other basis than agriculture and 
population. Its armies would be more 
disciplined, and its fleets more numerous, 
as the country became more populous, and 
the king richer. It would be no exaggera- 
tion to affirm, taking as a ground the pro- 
portion of the present increase and that 
which these happy changes must produce, 
that Spain might have in fifty years a popu- 
lation of 20 millions of inhabitants * on the 
Continent, SO in its distant poesessionsT, 
500 X millions of revenue from the two 
worlds, and all the advantages which must 
accrue to a well governed people, from 
the beauty of the climate, the fertili- 
ty of the soil, and a position every where 
unassailable. 

* Its population, which was not more than six millions 
in 1720, had risen to 13 millions in 1797. It would then 
be 26 millions in 80 yeais, and at least 20 in 50, even 
allowing that the country made no improvement. 

T See the progression of which we have spoken above,, 
page lxv. 

X By this I mean the revenues of the state produced by 
the taxes from all parts of the monarchy. I have only 
doubled those which exist, whereas they may be raised three 
and four- fold, according to the wealth of individuals, which 
must augment in an enormous proportion. 



INTRODUCTION. CX1X 

Yes, I dare to predict it, the Spaniards 
will one day rise equal to the brilliant œras 
of their history ; a new Trajan will be born 
within some of their walls*; another Han- 
nibal will owe his successes to them t ; 
they will carry to battle the names of 
Saountum J, Numancia, the unconquered 
standard of the Cantabrians, and that steel 
which the Romans used to conquer the 
world §; the forests ** of Asturias converted 
into numerous fleets will again be the ter- 
ror of the east f +; and, not less formidable 
to England than the invincible armada, 
they will not always have the elements 

• Trajan was born at ltalica, a town of Spain, near 
Seville. 

+ Hispaniam bellatricem, Annibalis éditait rlce/n. (Flo- 
rus, lib. II. c. 6.) 

| The names of Saountum, Numancia, and Caa- 
tabria, are those of three Spanish regiments which have 
always distinguished themselves. 

§ The Romans adopted the Spanish sword, the temper 
of which is superior to any other. 

*• Tlit' forests of Asturia and Galicia contain wood 
enough for the building ot' several considerable fleets. 
The, battle of Lepanto. 

li 4 



CXX INTRODUCTION. 

against them*; the shade of the Cid will 
see from the top of his rock + harvests co- 
lierrog the uncultivated and uninhabited 
plains of his country, and his countrymen 
listening to his beloved ballad.];, sung amidst 
orchards of fig-trees, pomegranates, and 
oranges, the branches of which, loaded with 
fruit, will be united with the vine, and at the 
foot of which there av ill grow cotton, flax, 
sugar-cane, and corn. lîœtica, celebrated 
by Homer and Fenelon, will again become 
the Elysium of fable, and the country of 
people happy in history. The vast coun- 
tries of America, and those immense di- 
visions which already bear the name of 
the provinces and towns of the mother- 
country, will be soon peopled, and a dou- 
ble nation, warlike, commercial, and agri- 
cultural, will, in either hemisphere be 
worthy of the heroes from whom they 
dëâcencf, 

* Philip II. said, on hearing of the destruction of his 
lli it, " I did not send them to war with the elements." 

•|- The Cid's rock, pena del Cid, in Andalusia. 

% The ancient Romance of the Cid. A masterly trans- 
m of this curious and interesting work has lately been 
given to the English public by Mr. Soil they. — T. 



INTRODUCTION. CXX1 

It is with pain I repeat, that I have dared 
to present to the public a work written 
and printed with such haste; I have left it 
nearly as it was committed to paper on the 
\evy spots where it was written ; but the cause 
of its faults may be an excuse for them. 
It would have taken me three years to exe- 
cute this work tolerably, which it was ne- 
cessary to finish in a few months. If I had 
delayed it, it would have been of no use. 
The works which relate to the laws, cus- 
toms, and even manners of Spain, will 
soon be to that country what the ancient 
ordinances of Avar, the arrets of parliament, 
and of the chamber of accounts, the liber- 
tics of the Gallic church, Sec. are now to 
the French. "Whatever may happen, bounds 
arc now fixed between the past history of 
this country, and the future unknown events 
to which it is destined; and as the " Pic- 
turesque Travels through Spain" will de- 
scribe the monuments, such as they have 
been preserved to this lime, so 1 have en- 
< avoured, in this work, to ascertain the 
state of the législation and of the industry 
i)i' the country before they experienced any 



CXxii INTRODUCTION. 

change whatever. My design is, that these 
two works should illustrate each other, and 
that neither should encroach too much on 
what belongs to the other. Thus the de- 
tails in the Itinerary of the public edifices, 
of the arts, sciences, and literature, will be 
little more than a simple nomenclature* in 
comparison to the. expansion they will re- 
ceive in the other work ; whereas, all that 
relates to political economy, will appear 
simply as a sketch in the Voyage Pitto- 
resque. The reader may convince himself 
of this by examining the province of Cata- 
lonia, the whole of which is published in 
the eleven first numbers of the large work : 
the description of Mont-Serrat, the anti- 
quities of Tarragona, the abbey of Poblett, 
the mountain of Cardona, and the Arabic 
monuments of Gironna make almost three- 

* The reader -will find in this Itinerary a sketch of all 
the monuments of the arts, but given without criticism, and 
perhaps treated with too much indulgence. I have here 
considered the Spanish school independent of others : in 
the Voyage Pittoresque, I shall examine it comparatively 
with the works of other countries, and according to the 
strict rules of art. 



INTRODUCTION. CXXlll 

fourths of it, and arc scarcely mentioned 
in this. 

The form of the Itinerary appears to me 
to be the most methodical, and the most 
conformable to the taste of the generality 
of travellers. It is particularly convenient 
in a country, the face of ivhich is hardly 
known, and of which there are only im- 
perfect maps, such as those of Lopez, 
which, besides, are not to be procured. 
The atlas which accompanies this work 
has been composed for it, and taken from 
Lopez's maps, Torino's charts of the coasts, 
Median's triangles in Catalonia, the king- 
dom of Valencia, and several points lately 
determined by M. de Humboldt. The 
maps arc of the same size as the work, 
that they may be bound up with it 
if desired ; but they are, however, on a 
larger scale than the maps of Spain by 
MeoWlk and Lopez, in four sheets: they 
are by M. Lartigue, ehart-maker to the 
navy, who is at work upon the large map 
For the 7 oj/agc Pittoresque de l'Espagne. 
I ranuot be thankful enough to this mo- 
dest artist, whose work would have been 



CXMV rVTRODUCTrON. 

perfect, it lie, like myself, had not been 
obliged to hasten it. 1 am happy to pay 
the same tribute to the other persons who 
have assisted me in my work, at the head 
of whom I shall place my respectable 
friend baron de Humboldt, who has had 
the sfoodness to communicate to me what 
relates to the finances of America, and to 
tike geological part of Spain. 1 shall not 
attempt to praise this learned man, there is 
BO praise that is not inadequate to his 
rnurage and' talents, and he alone will dare 
to go again among people so barbarous as 
to be unacquainted with his name. I owe 
Hi J information respecting Galicia and the 
Astunas to count de Marcillac, a Spanish 
officer, who has already published several 
works on the last wars in Spain. Not 
having been in the Balearic islands, the 
details concerning them are taken from the 
Travels of M. Grasset de S. Sauveur*; 
but I am most indebted to M. Carrere, a 

* I may say the same with regard to some roads which 
I have not travelled, and which I have taken from the Spa- 
nish Journey by the abbé Pons, which has been of great 
iervke to me. 



INTRODUCTION. CXXV 

physician of the academy of Montpellier, 
■who died in Spain, where he had long re- 
sided. This estimable man has left infor- 
mation on different subjects, which has 
been of «Teat service to me. The whole 
article of medicine, a part of those which 
concern the sciences and natural history 
are from him, as well as many other partial 
details. 

As to the Spaniards, it would be to» 
long to enumerate all the learned, obliging, 
and disinterested men whom I have met 
with in my travels: there was no place of 
the least importance where I did not find 
some one, and often several, perfectly well 
acquainted with every thing relative to the 
place he lived in, and sometimes with the 
whole province. "Without having occasion 
for letters of introduction, I asked, on ar- 
riving, where the learned man of the place 
lived (el hombre erudito del lugarjy on 
which I was carried to some canon for his- 
torical information, or to the botkurio (apo- 
thecary) fur things relative to natural his- 
tory, or tu sumo merchant or lawyer for 
what relates tu eommcrae and agriculture: 



cwvi iNirvOiucTioN. 

the lawyers in Spain are in genera] well in- 
formed on these heads, from the habit they 
are in of deciding all disputes relative to 
them. 1 have also met among the nobility 
and high clergy men of the highest merit : 
all at first received me very coldly, and in 
a rough manner, waiting to discover my 
design, and who 1 was ; but after half an 
hour's conversation they confided in me all 
that I could desire, and heaped attentions 
on me ; my very curiosity becoming a title 
to their kindness. I have no where expe- 
rienced that painful sensation, which ap- 
pears to me to be the misery of travellers, 
and sometimes of those who receive them, 
that attendant upon saying to one's self, 
" It is useless to attach myself to this man, 
I shall never see liim again." 

Good Spaniards ! who have thus heaped 
kindnesses on me without even looking for 
my gratitude, who have rendered these un- 
happy times so easy to me, may you in 
turn find some asylum amidst the troubles 
which rend your country ! Alas! perhaps 
liâmes are about to consume those houses 
in which [ have been received! Perhaps 



INTRODUCTION. CXXVli 

cannon are already destroying those mo- 
numents of your religion and history, of 
which you are so proud ! Ah ! may you 
yourselves, at least, escape these disasters, 
and soon recover a tranquil existence ! You 
will then know that there are still comforts 
in life after great misfortunes, when we 
have preserved an upright heart, the esteem 
of our friends, and the love of our own 
countrv. 



rxxvni 



OBSERVATIONS 



CPON TRAVELLING IN GENERAL, AND PARTICU- 
LARLY IN STAIN. 



A 



mon gst the modes of employment which for thir- 
ty years have been supported by fashion, there is none 
perhaps more rational than the taste for travels, whether 
it be considered as a method of instruction, of re-establish- 
ing health, of diverting sorrow, or as the ambition of be- 
ing useful and of promoting the sciences. It is singular 
that a custom which unites so many advantages, and plea- 
sures was so little followed in the middle of the last cen- 
tury. If a history of the French travellers were to be 
written, the greatest part of them would be found to be 
missionaries and pilgrims, and the remainder merchants or 
naturalists ; no man of the world and but few learned men 
passed the frontiers. The first persons who travelled 
through Switzerland spoke of it as of a discovery, and 
were looked upon on their return as extraordinary people. 
-Almost all the travels written before that period treat only 
of laws, the etiquette of courts, and diplomatic negoti- 
ations; not a word as to the arts, the face of nature, as- 
tronomical and geological information, or even what 
concerns public and domestic economy. Several cir- 



TRAVELLING, &C. CXXix 

cumstances have contributed to render the taste for tra- 
vels in late times more general. The American war obli- 
ged a great number of Frenchmen to travel in the English 
provinces of that country, and made them desirous of be- 
coming acquainted with the language and customs. The 
philosophical notions which were then broached, and the 
study of different branches of administration turned atten- 
tion towards England, whose laws, customs, and improve- 
ments of all kinds were considered as models for adop- 
tion ; on the other hand the taste for the arts, which was 
introduced into society towards the end of the reign of 
Lotus XV. and the discovery of Herculaneum and Pom- 
peia, created an cagc-ness to become acquainted with 
Italy and Greece; lastly, descriptive poetry, so much in 
fashion for these thirty years, unfolded the great beauties 
of nature, and made men sensible of their value. At that 
time a kind of enchantment spread itself over the monu- 
ments of antiquity, over those of the revival of the arts, 
and over the picturesque aspects of mountainous countries. 

If new ideas encouraged travels, travels in their turn 
improved ideas ; in the forms of edifices, in dress, furni- 
ture, pictures, they revived a purity of style, a polish 
which was for a long time lost ; in works of literature they 
produced a fidelity of description, sometimes minute, but 
always interesting; they taught, particularly in more se- 
rious subjects, such as the laws and morals of nations, to 
truth and justice in every thing, without being preju- 
diced by national attachment or the vanity of ignorance. 
They showed that there is no people who have not from 
particular circumstances perfected something more than 
others, though perhaps they arc behind other countiies in 
ry thingelse. Hence men became more impartial intheif 
ment and showed less pretentious in 
ourse of life. 

V )L. i. i 



CXXX OBSERVATION'S ON 

The taste for travelling was however too novel to spread at 
once into all countries, the knowledge of which was int. - 
re-ting. There sprung up in this respi ct, as in all customs 
at their commencement, a habit of imitation, a kind of 
routine that people w< re contented to foHow. A line was 
laid down in Europe which was mechanically adopted'by 
all travellers, according to the different reasons which in- 
duced them to go from home. Persons in ill health went 
to Nice, and Montpellier: the more enterprising to Pisa ; 
naturalists followed the steps of M. de Saussure, travelled 
over the glaciers of Switzerland, and climbed to the sum- 
mit of Mount Blanc; the amateurs of the arts traversed 
Italy bv the post road, without reflecting that to the right 
and to the left, and in the interior of the Apennines, they 
passed bj the most beautiful sites of nature, and the most 
curious monuments. Lastly, economists conceived that 
there was nothing to be learned out of the country of Smith 
and Arthur \ oung. 

Hence it followed, that there were soon a hundred works 
descriptive of some countries, and none respecting those 
which Mere not included in the received list. Spain was 
fora long time amongst the latter, and not being on the 
road to any other country, it was neglected, and did not 
even enter into what the English call the g rand tour, which 
lasts for two years, and which, in that country, forms a 
part of the education of the rich as much as rhetoric and 
philosophy. 

It must be allowed, however, that no country in Europe 
united more advantages for every class of travellers than 
Spain. Those who went abroad for their health might have 
found in some province of this kingdom a mildness of cli- 
mate perhaps no where else to be met with. I doubt whether 
any thing can be conceived equal to the soft and balsamic 



TRAVELLING, &C. CXXXÎ 

air which we breathe in winter in the plain of Valencia 
(Vega de Valencia), in those of Mnrcia, in the environs of 
Seville, and in some parts of Ëstrèmadtira. I have bathed 
in the Betis, now the Guadalquivir, 0.1 the 20th of Fe- 
bruary. There are mineral springs in Spain, in greater 
number and of a better quality than are to be found in any 
other part of Europe. The greater part have never been 
analysed; but those that have and which are frequented, 
produce such effects, that they are the onlv remedies for 
complaints difficult to be treated elsewhere by the strongest 
drugs. They are found in all the provinces, but particu- 
larly in Andalusia. The fruit* are superior in quality to 
any thing that can be conceived, and are more numerous 
than in any other part of the world; extraordinary cures have 
been performed entirely by the juice of sugar canes and 
dates. The climate is in general sufficiently mild, and the 
Bummers are perhaps not >o hot as in some northern coun- 
tries. Except the high plain of the Caatilesand some parts 
of Andalusia, the country is either covered with mountains 
or situated upon the sea shore, and cooled by the east and 
north winds : besides none of those unwholesome airs 
prevail in it which are endemic in some countries, and 
which destroy «very charm of them, such as the Cazita 
aria of the environs of Rome from Radicofani, on the road 
from that town to Naples; and the Calabrian fever, of 
which Virgil died, Calabri rapuere, and which still ar- 
rests the progress of population. 

In what country will those who f mploy themselves in 
natural history find more interesting objects ? Three-fourths 
of the mountains in Spain are composed of admirable mar 

tndalabaster. [n Cot alone there are 177 < 

Kinds, without including theja pet ofTorl >sa. The g • 
t>ie< f Granada and. the flesh colo ised I avea briJ 



OBSERVA 110. V S OS 

tin » yi and a fineness to the touch which rank them with 
the moal beautiful oriental sub.-tauct s. Several of the pro- 
vint ( s of Spain are still enriched by mines of gold and sil- 
ver, ped lead ami quicksilver. A FlOf a and a herbal of 
tiiîs kingdom are desiderata* and no other couptry would 
afford such complete ones. 

Those who are interested by (he love of the art», histo- 
rical recollections, and the nionmnenls of antiquity, may 
in Spain walk over the ruins qf Baguntutn, Numantia, Tar- 
ragona, and Merida ; the theatre of the campaigns of Han- 
nibal, the Scipios, and the unfortunate sons of Pompeyj 
they nay repose in the shade, of the anli que cypresses of the 
fountain of Sertorius, and read the name of Optima* in the 
inscriptions, in the native country of Trajan and Adrian, 
lint the monuments which the iimiian people left profusely 
in every pat t of the empire are not the only ones in Spain. 
Ijk. people less .powerful though as celebrated, less known, 
though as worthy of being so, have left in this country 
perhaps the only monuments which exist of them in the 
world. The Arabs spent ages in embroidering, if I may 
use the expression, the walls of Granada and Cordova, 
and in completely clothing them with an assemblage of 
ornaments, the grace and lightness in the details of which 
liit 6.«rUaJ to the grandeur of the masses. While those vo- 
luptuous people ornamented in this manner, the baths and 
11 tired cabinets of their seraglios in the south, the Goths 
raised the dark and austere monuments of their religion in 
the north : forests of columns supporting pointed roofs, 
• d Uj windows stained with glaring colours; immense 
p gates, loaded with carved ornaments; and marble, 
mausoleums casting long shadows upon funeral inscrip- 
tions, present another kind of monument, more solemn and 
more historical j at last the era of the revival of the arts in 



TRAVELLING, &C. CX.XXili 

the age of the Medicis commenced in the reign of Charles 
V, and it may be supposed that Spain, which at that pe- 
riod was superior to the rest of Europe, was not inferior 
to it in this kind of glory. In line, persons who delight in 
the knowledge of politics, laws and customs, will find in 
Spain a primitive people, whose character retains all its 
purity, and a fresh soil whose principle of vegetation is in 
full vigour. Half of this beautiful country still lies fallow; 
but the other half proves what it might be made. All its 
productions are of a remarkable quality : the corn only 
loses five parts in a hundred in grinding, while every where 
e.-se it loses fifteen. The olives are twice as large as those 
of Provence, and would produce as good aa oil, if the peo- 
ple knew how to make it well. The wines of Malaga, 
Xeres, and Alicaut, arc sufficiently known. The 
wools will long excite the admiration and jealousy of 
-hbouring nations. It is in Spain only that we meet 
with forests of palm trees without crossing the desert, and 
plantations of sugar canes w ithout seeing slavery. As to 
social organization by means of a gradual unfolding, we shall 
not repeat what we have said above. An exalted destiny 
awaits Spain, and the improvements of every kind that it 
must one day experience, will render travels still more in- 
teresting and undoubtedly more commodious. The princi- 
pal reasous that have hitherto kept travellers from Spain, 
are the numberless inconveniences which they experience 
in travelling through that country: there are few roads, the 
iuui arc bad, and the means of proceeding slow, dear, and 
incommodious. If these three inconveniences were reme- 
died there U undoubtedly no country in which so much en- 
| >\in< ut of i very kind is to be found. To go to it from 
M « v.i- ptM tl rough tli'' ino-t beautiful of the I'Yellch 
provi i one rtdfl v,< (ratal along the banks of the 



CXXXlV OBSERVATIONS OV 

Loire, on the other along those of the Rhone ; we çrowl 
the Pyrenees by convenient and easy roads, without being 
obstructed by the tempests, the falling of the snow from 
Mount Cenis, the overflowing of the rivers of Piémont, 
&x. Those whom health carries to Barrege have only a 
Jew leagues to travel to pass the mildest winter on the other 
side of the Pyrenees. liut for this purpose travelling must 
be easier. Meanwhile, till the country is organised as it 
ought to be, I shall give an idea of what it is, and of the 
different modes of travelling through it. 

Manner of travelling in Spain. 

There are no posts for carriages in Spain except 
only on the road from Madrid to Cadi/., and from Madrid 
to the different royal palaces. The project of the Count 
de Florida lilanca, to whom we ure indebted for this esta- 
blishment! was to place them upon all the grand commu- 
nications of the kingdom. He also established a diligence 
from iiayonne to Madrid, in which travellers p;tid only 12 
piastres and went this journey very quickly ; but the demands 
of the coachmen and innkeepers, and parti» ularly the loss 
which resulted to the royal chest, chocked this kind of enter- 
prise, and even put an end to v\hat was already begun. 
The post from Madrid to Cadiz, and those to the royal 
palaces, nevertheless Continue, and are a model for the 
other roads. We should have nothing to wish for in this 
respect if the communications were us good, and travellers 
as well served through the whole of Spain. Mules are em- 
ployed on this road, and carnages are furnished to those 
who are in want of them: there are four-wheel carriages, 
chaises that hold two, and sulkies, or cabriolets, with room 
for only one. These carriages are of different kinds ; some 
of them are handsoimr and more convenient than others; 



TRAVELLING, &C. 



CXXXV 



these ar^ called distinguished, and are charged at a higher 
rate. The following table of the charges of the posts from 
Mu^! id to tin» different royal palaces, will give an idea of 
the expences attending this manner of travelling. 



From Ma '.rid. 


to ih 
i Le 


Pardi 

.. ii . 




curjal? '• 


tbi i 
eagues. 


t.. Saint 
IS L. 


Id.foruo 




r.al» r,( 
vi lloa. 


Bterl 


IB;:. 


.ii- .i 
>. Hon. 


sterling-. 


reels oi 
velloa. 


st riirMf. 


A Tto. or six 
















rnul>s wiili yoar 




s. 


d. 




1. s. d. 




1. g. d. 


own carriage. 


45 


9 


4] 


S94 


3 13 


616 


cat 


Iiitto with a 
















jK^t coach. 


45 


9 


41 


336 


3 10 


-( 


7 5 10 


Four mules. 


ay 


a 


l\ 


106 


S JO 


4w 


4 7o 


Two mule» 
















■with a chaise for 
















two people. 


£6 


5 


5 


147 


1 10 7i 


jo:i 


3 4; 


Onto, with a 
















post chaise. 


32 


6 


8 


175 


1 16 t\ 


364 


3 15 10 


Ditto, aud a 
















distinguished 
















chaise. 


36 


7 


6 


ICO 


1 19 4\ 


392 


4 1 8 


Males with 
















yourown sulky. 


20 


4 


2 


98 


1 5 


210 


2 3 


Ditto, with a 
















post Milky. 


24 


5 





1C6 


1 6 3 


266 


2 15 5 


Ditto, and a 
















<ii<tii-_'„ishid. 
















sulky. 


£3 


5 


10 


110 


1 9 2 


294 


3 13 



As to the road from Madrid to Cadiz, the following are 
the particulars relative to it. The post is obliged to carry 
two persons whose baggage does not exceed two hundred 
pounds weight, with two horses, and the price is four reals 
three quartillos or lid 7-Sths a league for each horse ; this, 
with two reals which it is customary ta give the postillion, 
and four reals which is the charge for a carriage when you 
have not one of your own, makes the expences of the jour- 
ney twelve or thirteen reals or O.S. Sàl a league (or legua); 
but then we go on well, and travel, for instance, the iOO 
leagues from Madrid to Cadiz in four days and four nights. 
The distance of the posts varies in the different roads ; 
but as we fount only by leagues, we cannot be cheated. 
'I In re is a little post book to be found in all the large towns 
v. hit h it is right to be provided with : but what is more ne- 
, and without which nobody will furnish yotiwith 
14 



C'X'XXVl OBSTRUAT IOXS ON 

horses, if to take the permission of the directors apd agent* 
of the posts. This permission coats thirty-seven reals and a 
halt" or 7fi. 9id. for every person. 

Though the posts for carriages are only established upon 
the road fromMadrid to Cadiz, they are upon all the other 
communications for horsemen j and as nothing but horses 
are furnished, and as those of the country are excellent, they 
are in a state of great perfection. I have rode full speed 
from Lisbon to Madrid in three days, without fatiguing 
myself, the long gallop of the horses is so easy. Yet the 
post for saddle horses is seldom found en the grand 
roads, but most frequently upon cross roads, or roads that 
have been formerly great roads, but are given up. A pos- 
tillion always rifles before, of whatever number the party 
consists. The charges are double for the first post on 
leaving Madrid or the roval palaces when the court is 
there. The rate of horses varies : in all the provinces of 
the crown of Castile it is the same as for carriages) four 
reals, three quartillos, or ] id 7-8ths a league for each 
horse; but in Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia, and the kingdom 
of Valencia, it is five reals and a half or Is. Ifd. besides 
the two reals at each post for the postillion, to which some- 
thing is generally added. We are carried on fast, and if 
we have but tolerable health and a good English saddle this 
manner of travelling is the most expeditious and the most 
convenient; we may even take a good deal of luggage with 
us, the postillion takes care of your portmanteau, which 
may weigh as much as sixty pounds. Yet travellers who 
wbh to become acquainted with Spain seldom take tins 
method, which does not allow time for enquiry, and only 
leads through uninteresting roads. 

The best manner of travelling in Spain is to follow the 
common custom, that ii to say, to hire horses, or to buy 



TKÀVELI IX G, SCC. CXXW il 

them, if one intends to stay long in the country. Conduct- 
ors are to be found in all the considerable towns, and are 
almost all from \ alencia, Murcia, or Catalonia, and who 
convey travellers every where ; they even go as far as Per- 
pignan, Bourdeaux, and Lisbon. They travel six or eight 
léguas a day, twelve French leagues at most, and their 
charges are according to the number of mul s. They are 
generally paid two piastres a day ; but it is necessary to ob~ 
strve what follows : 

You hire a carriage, expressly for yourself, or one ou its 
return. In the first case the journey as well as return of the. 
coach must be paid for at the place from whence you set 
out; which, for great distances, amounts to a considerable 
sum ; but it is seldom that you are obliged to hire a carri- 
age for yourself, as, very frequently, most of the coachmen 
go to the great towns upon speculation*. Thus in the con- 
siderable inns of Madrid, Cadiz, Seville, Badajoz, &.c. 
people, called corredores de carrnages t/ coches, are every 
day to be met with who have a list of all the carriages for 
which they are commissioned to find passengers. It is 
easy therefore to obtain return carriages', for which you 
merely pay for the journey which you make ; but it is 
necessary to treat with the driver coolly and pay no 
attention to the advice of the innkeepers, or to the 
loud voice of the corredores, and to mist absolotdj upon 
your own terra. When they perceive that you are deter- 
mined not to give them more, the master of the carriage 
cornea himself, 'and endeavours to settle matters with you. 
If it happen*, as is often the case, that several coachmen 
going to the same town and paiticulaily to the sea-ports, 

* This, ami the three following pages, as well as some other hinti 

• ■■•■•■'.• j ■ . the aiannej oi ira\c!ln»g 



CXXXV11! OBSERVATIONS ON* 

where tluy like to go in preference, should be found in the 

place, xon have th« choice, and mav even sometimes be 

able t<> make them lo\ er their price sonic piastres. 

Tims then the fit 'St rule that must be observed, is to 
agree that you are not t< pay for the retint) of the carriage; 
the Wteonà '.. to take care not to be cheated as to the num- 
ber d ■ be spent on the road. Tor instance, Ba- 
yonne is sixty léguas from Madrid, and tin- journey may 
be made in eight days. The charge lor six mules at two 
piastres each, a day, amounts for eight days to ninety-six 
piastres ; but a dishonest conductor, can make ten days 
journey of it, either to spare his mules, or to make you 
pay for two days' journey more. To avoid this inconveni- 
ence, it is necessary, before you set out to obtain exact in- 
formation, and to stipulate with the coachman that he shall 
make the journey in a reasonable and fixed time, under the 
penalty of losing a third of the money that he is to receive. 
The third rule is never to agree to give a farthing over 
either for the coachman, or the mules, tolls or repairs, Sec. 
If the traveller should think proper to defray the expellees 
of the coachmen's dinner, or to add other mules, the 
r.umber being always restricted to two, the duly cxpi 
would be enormous ; in general it is better to allow theru a 
reasonable sum to get something to dtiiiK with, about 
four piastres. Nor must he agree to pay for their to- 
bacco, which they very frequently ask; an inexperienced 
traveller would consider this as a trifle, but before long he 
would see with what effrontery the coachmen would abuse 
his indulgence, and how freely they would at all the inns make 
provision at hisexpeiice for their acquaintance ; which, con- 
sidering the ( nortnous price of tobacco in Spain (three pias- 
tres :i pound) would not fail to amount to a large sum: it is 
much better, upon the road, to give them cigars, for which 
they will be very thankful to you. ïvurth rule : ;v; in pay 



TRAVELLING, &C. CXXxix 

ing for the six mules you obtain an exclusive Tight to the 
carriage^ the coachman cannot without your express con- 
sent take up another person, even upon his box ; but the 
traveller has a right to underlet the empty places, or to allow 
them to be occupied giatis. Fifth rule : it" you wish tostop iu 
some place on the road for one day, the coachman must 
stay for yon, it being understood that you will pay him for 
his day's ifroi k ; it is the same if you wish to turn out of 
the road to any place ; and in this case, three or four 
léguas will be considered as half a day. But as it is some- 
times the interest of the coachmen themselves to rest 
their mules, the traveller is often able on these occasions to 
make them charge one-third less. Sixth iule: the coach- 
man is responsible for every trunk or package that is trust- 
ed to him ; except iu the case of an open robbery. Seventh 
rule : in making these arrangements about their charges, it 
is necessary to mention the coin with which the payment is 
to be made ; for, as at Barcelona, for example, and at 
Bilbao, one gains by money, it is customary at the forme* 
place, to ask only doublons or quadruples, and at the lat- 
ter place piastres. The traveller then should agree to pay 
them with the cash he has about him, and not engage to 
change on purpose to pay them the odd money. 

It may be easily supposed that a person travelling alon 
will not feel much inclined to hire a carriage with six mules 
to himself. These are only hired by families, Or by com- 
panies of travellers ; when a traveller is alone, it is better 
for him to take a single place. In this case, when the 
coachman canitot let the whole of his carriage at once, he 
1 tokfl out for several travellers, and charges for the first 
place at the rate of three or four piastres, and something less 
forth, others: these places are often advertised in the pub- 
lic papers. If the two or three first aie previously taken, the 



Cxi OBSJEftVATIOBTS OS 

coachman, to hasten his departure, frequently disposes of the 
last place-ut a piastre, or a piastre and a balfa day. The 
persona who have the two first places hare a right to carry 
a trunk with then, but the coachmen make no difficulty iu 
taking porAmanieausj packets, &c. 

If it happens that there an no single places to he had, 
the traveller may take half a chaise (ca/estii) ; in which, 
with respect to its return, it is necessary to observe what 
we have said above. The charge then is two piastres a 
day for one mule. If you have not much baggage, that is 
to day, if it does-not exceed fifty pounds weight, you may 
take another traveller with you to lessen the cxpence. To 
determine the weight that is allowed, it is sufficient to 
know, that it is calculated at the rate of from seven hun- 
dred and fifty to eight hundred pounds to one draft mule. 
The Cah'teros being generally proprietors of these carri- 
ages, ami fearing to stay long in the large towns, the tra- 
veller may be able to make them abate a third of th:ir 
price; but the precaution that we have before meuttotied, 
namely, to fix the number of days on the road, should n 
be forgotten. 

Jo general, it is necessary to treat the c and 

cacheras, in a very particular manner^ never with rudeness 
or incivility, but at the sane time with no respect or defer- 
ence; a serious air, calm and even manners; dignity and 
firmness are indespen.-able qualities to manage matters 
well with this sort of people. There is no occasion for 
written agreements with them; for in spite of their coarse- 
ness they are faithful to their bargains. You may, how- 
ever, make them sign the terms agreed on, with a coun- 
terpart subscribed by both partie*. The carriages in 
Spain are commonly of three kinds: volantes or calc- 
chines, cakchas, and coches de culleras, all tolerably 



OVERLING, <XC. Cxli 

« enunodious, but in general very clumsy:. The rolante- 
or calechines are small cabriolets, on two wheels, with 
leather curtains before, and a seat able to hold two per- 
sons, but rather close; they ar* drawn by a mule or horse, 
and driven by a mlantero or conductor, who goes some- 
times on foot by the side of his beast and sometimes sit- 
ting on the shaft. These little machines carry considerable 
loads; two trunks may be put inside and a bed behind. 
The charge for these was tolerably moderate before the 
last war; b< leg generally from twenty to four and twenty 
reals of vellon, that is to say, from four to five shillings a 
day, taking them to go and come back ; they were dearer, 
if they were not paid for returning, more or less, accord- 
ing to the likelihood of finding other travellers at the placi s 
thev were going to. The charges are double since the 
These carriages are suspended by very short and 
thick straps, so that they follow every motion of the 
wheels and shafts, and the persons in them are violently 
and continually jolted; they let in the weather on all sidi -; 
the leather curtains never shut; they always remain half 
Open, and the traveller is exposed to wind, rain, s,un, and 
du^t. 

Tu» ..re also a kind of cabriolets, of the same 

form and construction as the volantes, and they arc almost 
always confounded with them, but thev are larger and 
deeper; they are drawn by two mules or horses, upon one 
of which the calechero or conductor rides; yet he almost 
always goes part of the way on foot. Though these car- 
ive tv.o mules or hoi ses, thev do not go the 
kei , and are as many daj i on the road a i the volantes , 
the only advantage that a traveller <:u:io is, that he iq * 
little mon- at bis ease, and is enabled to carry more lug- 
gage. The price of them is rather hjghcj than that of 



cxln observations on 

tin* volailles, but the difference is nor great. }\ e are less 
■ncotnfortable in them than in the volantes, more at case, 
and better supported: some of them are better bung and 
more sheltered ; but they are seldom to be met with, ex- 
ei pt m Portugal; in Spam then is scarcely any thing to 
be seen but volantes drawn by a single horse. 

The coches de cutlc/as are carriages which hold four 
persons, built with greater solidity than elegance, close 
and on better springs, easy and much more commodious. 
TIk-v are drawn by sis mules, two abreast, and harnessed to 
each other and to the pole by common ropes, which are 
I rag enough to allow a considerable distance between the 
mules; this is called a tiro. These carriages are under 
the direction of two persons, the principal of whom is 
called mayoral, and the other zagal, or mozo, the for- 
mer arts as coachman and the latter as postillion; hut they 
are never mounted; they carry very considerable loads both 
behind and before. They perform almost always the 
journey in the same time as the volantes and calcchas, 
unless by a particular agreement, which is paid for extra- 
vagantly, the proprietor or mayoral undertake to go 
quicker, and to perform the journey in a certain number of 
days. The fare of these carriages is not always the same; 
ji varies according to circumstances ; but maybe always 
ulated at three piastres a day for two persons, and two 
piastres at the least for a single person, without reckoning 
wli'ji l- given to the conductor. The standard for all the 
prices, and which may serve as a guide, is one piastre a 
day each mule, and one piastre or half a piastre at least 
for iho conductor ; we are then to calculate the return, 
which would greatly add to the sum, but it seldom hap- 
that return carriages are not t'> I» found, as we have. 
m* nti .)♦ d above. 



j îiAVi.LLixG, kc. cxliii 

The manner in which the coches de ailleras move 
on is singular enough, laughable, and sometimes alarm- 
ing, but never dangerous. One cannot be easy while the 
mules without bridles or guides, fastened only by traces 
of a surprising length, which allow them to go to a 
distance, to return and wander at pleasure, and this 
over roads, often winding, uneven, rugged, sometimes 
steep, and sometimes unbeaten; you think every moment 
that thcv are going to overset the carriage*, to drag it over 
dangerous heights, and throw it down deep precipices; 
but \our fears are soon removed by the vigilance, by the 
active and prompt dexterity of the conductors, and by 
the docility of the animals which draw it. These have no 
other bridle, guide or spur, than the voice of the con- 
ductors; they know it, they know the different inflexions 
and meanings of it, which they obey with an astonishing 
promptitude: a sound from the mayoral is sufficient to 
stop and direct them ; his voice encourages them, puts 
them on, makes them go faster or slower, turn to the 
right or Left, go farther or come nearer, and stops them 
instantly : if a mule goes on one side, moves too fast or 
too slow, the mayoral calls him by his name, which is 
commonly that of a military rank, as generate, capitana, 
commissariat and tells him in his language what he ought 
to do; the docile animal hears, understauds, and obeys 
him : he also animates and brings in those that go out of the 
path by thr wing small pebbles ut them, which method, 
without hurting, gives them a warning that they understand. 
The mayoral and zngal keep watch at the front of the 
Carriage, which serves them as a scut; on the slightest 
appearance of danger, the zagal springs forward with a 
-in piisin^ agility, walks by the sid«- of die mules, runs 
;.'J'>ni; side of them, encourages them with his "voire., (ies 



cxlîv OBSERVA'I 1 

11" ta the traces with which they are harnessed, and 
>%Iiiiîi lie directs: sometimes it he thinks there is any 
danger» especially in difficult places, he puts himself at 
their head between the two reading milles, and guides 

m with skill; lie then n turns to his post until some 
danger obliges him to renew the same operation. 

One may also travel through Spain in one's own carri- 
age ; but then it would cost double, and sometimes trebles^ 
•what it would otherwise; For as the conductors cannot 
carry people back, the return must ho paid for: besides 
s . h thei make what agreements they please, for one 
is obliged to rive what they demand when there are not 
muleteers enough to raise a competition. \\ lien a tra- 
veller takes his own carriage, he is obliged to pay on 
entering Spain a considerable duty, or he must be re- 
commended to a merchant on the frontiers, to engage 
that it shall be carried out of the kingdom in a stated 
iitne ; an alteration must also be made in the carriage, 
and one is sometimes delayed two days on the frontiers, 
to adapt a new pole suitable to the harnessing of the 
mules : by this, however, an advantage is gained in the 
m$yorai*s not sitting on your box, which is left free for 
the servants. This mode of travelling is undoubtedly 
expensive, but it is the only one really commodious. 

If ybu do not choose to take either post-horses, or 
hire puWic carriages, you may go on horse back (à caballo ) 
*s. the Spaniards say, even when they ride mules, hi 
that case you hire a mule with its conductor (nwzo de es- 
lus, literally groom of the spurs) and may make the 
common journey of six or seven leagues tolerably quick, 
- • -• conductors, who act as servants, are generally 
very good foot travellers. The price of a mule is one 
sometimes, however, it is one and a half. 



TRAVELLING, &C. Cxlv 

Then the conductor besides his victuals, has another 
liait" piaster for his trouble. With regard to eating and 
drinking, one is expected to have two common dishes and 
a quartillu (a pint) of wine each meal ; all more than that 
is at the pleasure of the traveller. The conductor of 
whom we are speaking, is usually a faithful and serviceable 
companion in travelling, perfectly acquainted with t!;^ 
roads from having often travelled them. He takes care to 
bespeak dinner for his master, and, by his connection at 
inns, and his knowledge of the prices, reduces the reck- 
onings to a just and reasonable price. One may travel, 
with these conductors, from Vittoria to Cadiz, and there 
are no return expences to be defrayed. 

it was in this manner that I generally travelled in Spain y 
and I am persuaded that all who adopt this mode will do 
well: it requires only to have good mules and to hire them 
for a long time, not to be perpetually changing; it 
>sould be better to puichase them, arid to hire a vouuc" 
and intelligent muleteer. Nothing can be more agreeable 
than travelling the beautiful country of Spain on horseback 
in this manner; all the roads are embalmed with the odour 
of aromatic plants, the aspect of the country varies per- 
petually among the mountains we go over, where we 
now have an extensive view, and now a wild and pictu- 
rc-qiie scene. 

The badness of the roads is not perceived on horseback, 
and by going a little out of our way we find different pro- 
visions to buy as we proceed, chiefly game. We sleep for 
ill. ijj« v,t pari on beds of straw, but they are covered with 
ibe woollen counterpanes which are fixed to our saddles, 
and \\c wiap ourselves up in our cloaks; the habit once 
acquired we deep as well i* this maimer ai in the beet 
bed, and an- read) to proceed at daj br<.:ik and breathe the 

V.ji. t . 



Cxlvi OBSERVATIONS ON 

fine morning air : we dress at noon at the place where we 
stop to dine, and take an hour of siesta after dinner before 
. t ont on our evening's journey. This free and wan- 
dering life in a country where nature is beautiful, and in 
which there are fine monuments, is more delightful than 
can be imagined. 

Those who think that all these modes are still too ex- 
pensive, may travel with the carriers (arrieros) — these have 
mules also, or carriages. In the first case, the mule costs 
a piécette the league, or a piaster for five leagues, and the 
traveller may carry his baggage weighing as much as ten or 
eleven arobas, that is to say, from £50 to 272 pounds. 
In travelling this way there is no occasion to keep with the 
other mules which travel in a body; but if you choose, 
may go on before to get sooner to the inn; only taking 
care that you have not a lame, blind, or restive mule, 
which often happens; this manner of travelling is not at- 
tended with the expence of changing your cattle or with 
any additional disbursement. 

If one is not accustomed to the Spanish cookery, 
it would be right to make at the same time a bargain with 
the carrier, or arriero, for eating, wine, and lodging, and 
to rely on him for settling the account. In this case a 
journey of sixty or seventy leagues, costs in all from six- 
teen to nineteen piasters, and much expence at inns Î3 
avoided, without being worse served ; for a traveller 
must of course pay treble what an arriero does, who goes 
the roue every month, and with whom consequently the 
inn-keepers wish to keep friends. I should particularly 
recommend this last manner of travelling to mineralogists 
and botanists. In the first place the journeys are short 
and slow; and then the arriéres pass over the highest 
parts of mountains, where there are most objects for the 



TRAVKLLINO, See. CXlviî 

researches of naturalists. Another advantage is that of 
often travelling with a great deal of company; it is not 
uncommon to see thirty mules together: a person if he 
likes may then stay behind without being in danger of 
straggling. Besides there is nothing disgraceful in this 
manner of travelling: it is the way ecclesiastics, mer- 
chants and gentlemen travel. It would be otherwise with 
those who choose to hire only half a mule, and to go in 
the file with the animal haJf-loaded. In this case the per- 
son pays, as for a portmanteau> according to weight ; and 
as the arrvba (twenty-five pounds) is charged a piaster, 
a person weighing near a hundred and twenty-five pounds 
(five arrobas) pays for the same distance five piasters; but 
this mode is so despicable and incommodious, that it is 
the custom in Spain to say in contempt of a person who 
adopts it, that he travels por arrobas, by weight. 

Other arrieros carry merchandise in carts. We meet 
with these more frequently in the interior of Spain, es- 
pecially to the south, than in the northern provinces; it 
would however, considering the improvement that ha3 
taken place in the mountainous roads, be as easy as ad- 
vantageous to introduce this mode of travelling. A mule 
cannot carry above three hundred weight, and even then 
is very much loaded ; but it will draw nearly eight hun- 
dred. Since the passage by sea has been put a stop t > 
by the war, there are carriers of this kind from Lisbon 
t<> Barcelona, and from Cadiz to Bayonne. They have 
two-whiffled covered carts, drawn by four mules; and. 
contain com m for travellers. The laic is les3 

for tins kind of carriages, and one may travel in this 
manner a hundred leagues, at the rate of eleven or twelve 
i , including a large portmanteau. As the distance 
in a day ie very ikort and ÙQ¥f t fol example, the 
k'J 



CXlVlii OBSERVATIONS ON 

hundred leagues from Cadiz to Madrid lake up fifteen 
days, thej would be likewise very convenient for mineral- 
ogists and botanists. Add to which the advantage of 
'< eping all night in the carriage, particularly in summer, 
which, it one carries one's maltrass, is far preferable to 
the filthy and infectious beds o( the inns. 

In general, there are ordinaries or couriers, going back- 
wards and forwards to all the great towns, either with 
mules, or carriages; lor example, there is a courier goes 
regularly once every fortnight, and also once every week 
from Bilbao to Madrid. There are ordinarios going 
every fortnight from Madrid to Malaga, Barcelona, 
Badajoz, &c. Every one has his particular inn where 
be puts up; which is easy to be known: besides which it 
may always be found in the Mercantile Almanack. 
One sometimes is at a loss for an opportunity of going 
directly from Madrid to Lisbon; but then the distance 
from Badajoz to Elvas the first Portugese fortress is but 
three leagues more or three leagues to Estremos, where 
there are always a great many return carriages. Th« 
ordinario del rey goes every month with the dispatch* s 
of the cunt to Lisbon, and takes travellers who are re- 
commended to linn at a \evy reasonable rate. 

A- to the manner of travelling on boricos or asses, it 
is as follow*: when a person is only going a lew leagues, 
he may very well make use of them ; if the conductor 
belongs to the place he is going to, he only pays at most 
two reals a league, but on a great road, if he wishes to 
hire a borico expressly to go from village to village, he 
not only runs a risk of not finding one, on account of 
the distance; but, .supposing he does, he must pay for 
going and coming six reals a league. Add to this, that 
it U a very inconvénient mode, to be stated on a coarse 



TRAVELLING, &C. Cxlix 

and unsteady pack-saddle, on an animal often restive, 
without curb or bridle, made to go on with a stick, and 
which, at every blow he receives, kicks, jumps from side 
to side, and keeps you always on the watch. 

H alkers. — Travelling alone and on foot in Spain ex- 
poses one to many inconveniences. I do not remember 
to have met a single foot traveller in this country, except 
between two villages very near each other. Pilgrims, 
soldiers, beggars, and in short all who travel on foot, go 
always in company with an arriéra, or some carriage. A 
single foot traveller runs a risk of. not being admitted into 
the inns. If we add to this the great distances between 
the different towns, and the insecurity of the roads, an in- 
convenience not exaggerated, it will be easily imagined that 
travelling on foot in Spain, is not so practicable or so 
common as in France or Germany. 

What I have said respecting the insecurity of the roads, 
k not to be understood of all Spain. It is true that rob- 
beries and assassinations are not uncommon ; but the go- 
vernment sends soldiers on the highways, and have been 
endeavouring for a long time past, to render the roads se- 
cure. It is necessary to be well armed in travelling in 
Spain, less perhaps to defend one's self than to prevent an 
attack. The greatest part of the robberies are made from 
intelligence gained by the robbers themselves at the places 
where the travellers alight; I shall mention only one ex- 
ample which happened to my own knowledge. Travel- 
ling on horseback, I arrived with my servant at Antequcra, 
a town situated half way between Grenada and Malaga; 
there had bei □ a heavy rain all day, and in spite of OUT 
lotions, our anus were all wet J the first thing we 
Hid on alighting at the inn, was to clean and Vj take them 

to pieces with the greatest care There were two good 

k .3 



Cl OBSERVATIONS ON 

looking men near the fire preparing their supper ; I asked 
them if they would allow us to put into their pan the same 
quantity of rice, saffron, fat, and a rabbit, as we could 
rot attend to the* dressing of them; we supped in compa- 
ny, and in the morning, after taking some chocolate, 
lighted our cigars together, and separated. I was very 
much surprised at my arrival at Malaga, to hear that 
these two very men (and it was impossible to mistake the 
description given me of them) had robbed M. Martens, 
the son of a rich merchant at Hamburg, who travelled 
without arms; they had forced him to go out of the road 
and enter a hollow way in the middle of a despobladn, on 
the read. They would, without doubt, have done the 
same thing by us, had they not feared they would have 
nut with more difficulty and doubtless less profit. 

We are now to speak of the inns of Spain; and these 
do not form any part of its splendour. There is a general 
clamour, and with reason, against the difficulties travellers 
meet with in this country, in procuring lodgings and re- 
freshment, and against the inconveniences of the places 
meant for their accommodation. 

Inns are not common, good ones are still more scarce, 
in many places they have only bad public houses ; dirty 
loathsome places, where the beds are vile, aie in most of 
the provinces, the only resource. 

The houses for the reception of travellers are divided 
into three classes: the fondât, tne posadas, otherwise 
called casas de posada, or mesones, and the tentas. The 
fondas and posadai are always situated in the towns and 
villages ; the ventas are detached houses in the country by 
the side of roads, at a distance more or less removed from 
the villages. 

fondas are real inns, where travellers may find 
lodging and every thing they want; there is always some- 



TRAVELLING, &C. cil 

thing ready cooked in several of them, particularly in great 
towns ; the dinner at the table d'hote is fixed for a certain 
hour and at a certain price ; those who wish it, however, 
are served in private, which makes a difference in the 
price. In others, travellers do not intermix, but are 
served by themselves; and the price varies according to 
the quantity and quality of what is ordered. 

The fondas are divided into two classes in the great 
towns ; the one more and the other less distinguished 
in proportion. 

The inns of the first class are dearer at Cadiz and at Ma- 
drid, than any where else; we pay at the table d'hote, 
twelve reals or half a crown English, a meal ; in the latter 
town, we also pay for lodging, the price of which varies 
according to the beauty of the apartments ; it is from six 
reals or fifteen pence to twenty-four reals or five shillings a 
day. There are some tolerably decent inns in Madrid, in 
which we only pay from six to eight reals, from fifteen to 
twenty pence a meal. The common price at almost all 
the other inns of Spain is eight reals, or twenty pence, for 
a dinner at the table d'hote; it is in most of them 
fixteen reals or 35. Ad. ster. a day, in which are reckoned 
dinner, suppes, and lodging*. 

The poscdas, or casai de posada, or mesones, are houses 
in different quarters of the towns and villages, where the 
.traveller is provided only with lodging, where nothing is 
.furnished for the tabic and whither he must carry every 
thing, or have it bought, the master or mistress of the 
place undertaking only to prepare the eatables given to 
them. These are in general nasty and disgusting; there 
;irt: scaicfly even paltry bedsteads, with old Hock mat- 

• [hMC pricts have beta raisul io lèverai places, within ten years, 
k 4 



Cliî OBSERVATIONS ON 

trasses fulling to pieces, and coarse sheets, badly washed, 
scarcely larger than a good sized napkin ; benches for seats, 
greasy plates, pewter or iron spoons, always very dirty} 
oil lamps, and, to complete the picture, landlords filthy, 
inattentive, rude, coarse and brutal; the manner of dress- 
ing the victuals detestable 1 ; and one is often unable to 
procure any thing in the places where these houses are 
situated. 

A traveller who is unprovided with the necessary pro- 
visions, cannot on arriving, repose himself from the fa- 
tigues of his journey; though often very weary, he is 
forced to run from house to house t" buy, in one bread, 
in another wine, in a third oil, ami in others meat, eggs, 
and salt; and he may think himself well off if, after 
having run about, often in the dark, he can piocure 
any thing. 

These houses of posada arc very numerous in almost 
every part of Spain ; there is scarcely any other place of 
accommodation; the fondas are only in a few considerable 
towns, and there are even some great towns in which there 
are none: the tentas, of which we shall speak,, are only 
in detached places, at a distance from the villages. 

Some of these houses of posada, however, are less dis- 
agreeable than others; some have tolerable chambers, 
passable beds kept in a clean state, and the land- 
lords of which are more complaisant and attentive; but 
such are very uncommon; and we may travel a good way 
without meeting with one. 

There are others where the traveller finds persons whose 
office it is to offer their services, and who, for a little 
money, undertake to go and buy whatever is necessary ; 
the landlords cannot in this case undertake it, and they are 
cfterj expressly prohibited from intermeddling with it. 



TRAVELLING, &C Clui 

The Dénias are detached houses, situated on the great 
roads, more or less distant from the villages ; they are tor 
the accommodation of travellers. They are in general as 
bad and as disagreeable as the casas de posadas ; but they 
ofteu have provisions, tlrough not the best, and in a small 
quantity. The distance from the villages obliges the laud- 
lords of the tairas to keep provisions, in order to furnish 
travellers with things they cannot purchase on the spot. 

There are neither casas de posadas nor Veritas in Catalo- 
nia ; there they are all hostal, that is to say inns ; the tra- 
veller need not take care about his provisions, for he may 
depend on finding plenty wherever he puts up. There 
are tolerable inns in this province, those of Figucras, 
Martorell and Emposta, are passable; those of Gironna 
and Calelhi are good; those of Mataro, at the sign of 
Monserat, of Lerida, at the sign of St. Louis, and of 
Villa Franca de Panadez, and some of those at Barcelona 
are excellent. 

In every other part of Spain, the fondas, those houses 
in which provisions are kept ready, and in which we are 
served without any trouble, are uncommon. There are 
none of them in Galicia, the Asturias, the kingdom of Leon, 
Lstremadura, la Mancha, and the kingdom ofjaen: that 
of Cordova has only one, which is in the town of the 
same name. There is only one in the kingdom of Murcia, 
at Albacete, wbû h is tolerable, and another at Carthagena, 
which is better; the town of Murcia, the capital of that 
province, bas none. There are several in the kingdom of 
ille, at the town of that name, and at Cadi/, most of 
them very good. Biscay has some at Bilbao ; GuipuZCOa 

at S. Sebastian, and Tolosa and Alava at Vittoria. 'Hie 

kingdom of Valencia has three m the town of that name, 
f-" at Aluant, two at Vinaro/, two ut Cssteilo de 



Cliv OBSERVATION'S OS 

îa Plana, and one at Fuente de la Higuera. There 
arc onlv two in Arragon, one at FVaga, which is tole- 
rable, and one at Saragossa, which is bad. New Cas- 
tile lias one at Puerto de Guadarrama, which has fallen 
off a great deal from what it was ; one at Toledo, which 
is excellent ; one at Acala dc Hcnarez, which is good, 
and several at Madrid, among wliich those of the Golden 
fountain, the S. Sebastian, and the Cros6 of Malta, are 
the principal, and" several tolerably good, at the different 
royal residences, when the court is there. 

The casas de pusadas and the ventas of Arragon, Ga- 
iicia, the kingdom of Leon, Estremadura, Old Cas- 
rile, the kingdoms of Jaen, Cordova, and Murcia, are 
dttcstable ; nothing can be worse, more disagreeable or 
more disgusting. Those situated on the roads from Mad- 
rid to Cadiz, and to Valencia, are infinitely better kept, 
cleaner, better provided and better provisioned. All those 
on the great road which goes through the kingdom of Va- 
lencia are the real fondas, where travellers are comfortable 
enough. 

Several causes contribute to keep up those detestable- 
lodging houses, which are the pest of travellers. 

I. Most of those houses belong to towns, villages, and 
particular lords, who let them out at a very high price ; 
and at the same time subject them to considerable taxes. 
The inn of Fraga in Arragon, pays 65 reals, or J 3s. Old. 
a day for the rent of the house and the right of keeping an 
inn-, and 23,725 reals or 2341. 12s. 3^d. sterling a year 
for different duties, services, and taxes, which amount an- 
nually to a sum of 47,241 reals or 4061. 5s. lOd. sterling. 
The ram de posada of Murcia pays 30 reals, or 6s. 3d. 
a day for the rent, and 750 reals, or 71. 15s. lOd. sterling 
a year for the duty of alcabala, which amounts yearly to 
11,500 reals or 1 181. 4s. 7d. sterling. 



TRAVELLING, &C. civ 

II. Almost every where, in the provinces of the crown 
of Castile, the landlords of casas de posadas are prohibited 
from keeping any kind of provisions, or even, iu some places, 
jiv ■ poultry. 

Ill In many places every inhabitant is bound, to keep 
in turn, the casa de posada fora certain time; they are 
obliged t!» d ) it, and cannot refuse until their stated time 
is expired» ' ' ie consequence is, that those who perform 
this office by force, do it badly and with an ill grace ; the 
v of habit occasions ignorance of the buiness and want 
dress in the exercise of it, and the new possadero 
I . ;;oor, cannot provide their casas de posadas with fur- 
niture and other necessary things. 

IV. in a great part of Spain the trade of an innkeeper 
and passadero is regarded as mean and abject ; and those 
who exercise it are generally despised. Hence few are 
willing to undertake it; hence those who are forced to it 
perform the task with reluctance and disgust; and hence 
too they, from having amassed some money, are able 
to be at the necessary expences for keeping a good inn, will 
not undertake this business, which renders them con- 
temptible in the eyes of their fellow citizens. 

V. There are in general but few travellers in Spain, 
.iiher natives or foreigners; most of those who travel are 
settled in the country and engaged in commerce, some pro- 
fession, or busine88, and seldom have the towns where 
th(-\ have fixed their residence. Great inns could not 

be ftffpported but in great towns where people assemble : 
tbej could not be kept up long on the toads. 

As to the season for travelling in Spain, I think the most 

convenient time is from April to October. Townsend, 
indeed, gives the preference to winter for the south pro 

On account of the heat; but i am not of hi| 



Chi OBSERVATIONS ON 

opinion: for in fact the heat is much greater in the bearl 
of Spain and in the mountains to the north, than on the 
south side, where the sea always softens the air, and 
where the nights are almost always Cool. I have passed the 

hottest months, those of July and August, in Andalusia, 
and have often remained in the streets till eleven o'clock 
in the forenoon, without ever having had a coup de soleil 
or an}' other accident*. Resides, in the southern pro- 
vinces of Spain, the frequent rains which fall during the 
winter, render this season very inconvenient for travelling; 
and add to this the shortnesss of the days, a cloudy sky, 
and the tiresomeness of the long evenings in the ventaa 
and detached posadas. When we travel from north to 
south in Spain, we hecome accustomed hy degrees to the 
climate ; and if, in the hot months, we travel according 
to the ancient Spanish custom, in the morning and evening, 
we suffer little from the heat, and enjoy in the three best 
seasons all the charms of the country. 

As to specie, it is to be observed that only money 
of the country is current in Spain. We may now 
however get rid of French money, though at a loss. The 
best way therefore is to take Spanish pieces at Bayonue; 
which may be done, if not with profit, at least without 
loss. When I went from Bayonue in the spring of :7Q7, 
I changed my French pieces of six livres for Spanish 
doubloons, at one and a half per cent, gain, on account of 
the scarceness of the one and the quantity of the other. 
In France and Italy there is a considerable profit in using 
piasters ; but in Spain the carrying them out of the coun- 
try is prohibted, so that a person «ho has no other resource, 

* This last paj:e and part of the precedii g are from Mr. I idler. 



TRAVELLING, &C. civil 

must obtain a licence, by winch he loses four per cento : 
but unfortunately not more is allowed to be taken than to 
the amount of seventy pieces, so that when a man has a 
greater sum, he finds himself encumbered, 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY 

OF 

SPAIX. 



X HE best panegyric that could be bestowed 
on Spain would be to give a view of its situation, 
its temperature, the direction of its mountains, 
the beds of its rivers ; in a word of the compo- 
sition of its territory. We should then see a 
vast country situated between two seas which 
spread its commerce into every part of the 
world, and protect its bounds from all invasion. 
The only part that unites it to the Continent, at 
the same time separates it ; and the Pyrenees 
furnish it either with a formidable barrier, or 
an easy communication. The whole of those 
mountains, forming a semi-circle close to the 
eastern shores, shelter them from the north 
winds, and produce the mildest climate on that 
side. On the other side they surround an ex- 
tent of country large enough to allow the rivers 
which rise in those mountains, and all of which, 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. cl'lX 

with the exception of the Ebro, throw them- 
selves into the Atlantic, to expand themselves 
sufficiently for the commerce and agriculture of 
a great country. An inspection of the map 
will give a better idea of this happy distri- 
bution. 

No. 1. 

Jlap cf the Mountains of Spain. 

Spain is situated between 55 degrees 57 
minutes south, and 43 degrees 44 minutes north 
latitude, from Gibraltar to Cape Ortegal, and 
between 8 degrees 20 minutes and 21 degrees 
longitude* from Cape Finisterre to Cape Créas ; 
which makes it lyô leagues from north to south, 
and 219 from east to we^t in its greatest 
breadth towards the north. Exclusive oi' Por- 
tugal its surface is 25,137 square leagues. It 
lies between the fifth climate on the south, and 
half-way between the sixth and seventh on the 
north; therefore the longest days are fourteen 
hours and a half in the southern part, and fifteen 
and a half in the northern. 

From the inspection of this map it would 
appear, that all the mountains of Spain arc 
composed of one tingle mass ; and in f I 

* Meridian of Talis. 



CÎX NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN". 

they arc nil ramifications from one another, 
which follow, correspond, and leave between 

them considerable intervals, yet all linked to 
thé same ^tock. We shall now take a rapid view 
of tht m. 

The first chain that we perceive, on leaving 
Cape I inisterre, stretches along the whole of 
the north of Spain, and joins the Pyrenees; in 
this are the sources of the Mino and the Duero, 
which throw themselves into the Atlantic; and 
that of the Ebro, the course of which is tow aids 
the Mediterranean. These mountains, advancing 
towards the south-east, divide the streams which 
flow into the Ebrô from those which augment 
the Duero. On one side they form the outline 
of Aragon, and on the other that of Old 
Castile. They advance thus as far as Cuença 
and .Molina, the name-, of which they take, and 
soon after give rise to the Tagus on the right, 
and the Xuear and the Guadalaviar on the left. 
Here we find the nucleus, and, as we may say, 
the knot of the whole chain; Mount Cayo, which 
seems to he the reservoir of all the waters that 
rise in springs around this point, and ta-ke 
their course towards the two seas. This same: 
chain, slill advancing towards the south, forms 
a mass from whence the Guadiana flows, and 
further Oti the Guadalquivir; it then stretches on 
and terminates at the cape de G at te. Let us novn 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. clxi 

reflect, that the rivers which rise within this 
chain, in a manner divide it into so many large 
valleys and intermediate plains, yet leaving in 
the intervals considerable ramifications, all of 
which are attached to the principal trunk. Just 
as they all flow in parallels towards the ocean, 
so do the mountains which overhang and swell 
them with their waters, run in parallel ridges 
from the mountains of the Asturias in the north 
to the Alpuxarras in the south. Thus the 
mountains of Saint Andero, which join the 
Pyrenees, run along between the Duero and 
the sea. The mountains of Guadarrama, which 
separate Old from New Castile, run between the 
Tagus and the Duero. Another chain, which 
divides New Castile from the plains of La 
Mancha, rises from the north-east to the south- 
east between the Tagus and the Guadiana; in 
this we find the Sierra de Guadalupe, On the 
other side of the Guadiana is the famous Sierra 
Morcna, from which we descend into the beau- 
tiful plains of Andalusia, which are watered by 
the Guadalquivir, and overlooked by the la.st 
chain of mountains in Spain, the Alpuxarras, 
which extends to the coast. 

The direction of the mountains and rivers of 
this country sufficiently points out what are ita 
natural lines of" defence. To set out from the 
defiles of Pamorv», four barriers shut up the 

Vol.. r. i 



clxii NATtrnAi. ceography' of stain*. 

avenues of Spain from north to south, and these 
Id»* retarded the progress of the Christians 
:ist the Moors. They would have protected 
them much longer, if those people, driven into the 
AlpuxarraS as formerly the Christians were into 
the Asturias, had known how to maintain them- 
selves with equal obstinacy. The mountains of 
Spain are almost all calcareous, and no traces 
are to be seen in them of Volcanoes. I shall 
give a description of the different chains, and 
of the rivers which run from them, «with that 
of the provinces which contain them ; but one 
observation, which I must make here, from the 
influence the object of it has upon the tempera- 
ture of Spain, is the singular height of this 
country above the level of the sea. Though 
from the north-east the country gradually be- 
comes lower, yet the high plain, or table land 
of the Castiles, has an elevation of upwards 
of 300 fathoms. This singularity may lead to 
curious observations, and I imagined that my 
•readers -would be pleased to hâve it placed in a 
view more" striking to the senses, by a represen- 
tation of it in two geological engravings*, for 
which, as well as for the interesting explanation 
that accompai/ies them, I am indebted to the 
great kindness o.? &. tie Humboldt. 



Sec 



niâtes -i and 3. 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. clxiîl 
{ 

Observations upon the Face of the Country of Spain 
and its Climate. By M. A. de Humboldt. 

Ko country of Europe presents so singular 
a configuration as Spain. It is this extra- 
ordinary form which accounts for the aridity 
of the soil in the interior of the Castiles, the 
power of evaporation, the want of rivers, and 
that difference of temperature which is observ- 
able between Madrid and Naples, two towns 
situated in the same degree of latitude. We 
shall only be able to give a rough sketch of 
this meteorological view of Spain. Very few 
observations have hitherto been made on the 
mean temperature, or on the height of the 
barometer. A great deal of valuable materials 
perhaps remains unknown in the manuscripts 
of enlightened persons, who, without com- 
municating with one another, or with the learn- 
ed of other nations, have given themselves up 
to researches of this kind. When we do not 
possess exact observations, we must content 
ourselves with the analogy seen in neighbouring 
countries. It is easier to trace the natural aspect 
of New Spain than that of Old ; and in this re- 
spect we are better acquainted with the colonies 
than with the mother countiy. 
1 S 



Clxiv NATURAL GKOGRAFHV OF SPAIN. 

The interior of Spain is an elevated plain, and 
is the highest of any of the same kind in Europe 
which occupies a large extent of country. Swit- 
zerland, the Tyrol, and Scotland, contain ranges 
of mountains close to one another. These are 
masses furrowed with deep valleys, and sur- 
rounded with low plains. Switzerland is not 
really a raised plain. The cantons of Berne, 
Fribourg, Zuric, and all those countries covered 
with a new formation of free-stone, are plains, 
the height of which is only from 240 to 280 
fathoms above the level of the ocean. They 
form part of the grand longitudinal valley which 
extends from the south-west to the north-east, 
between the chain of the upper Alps and Mount 
Jura, as appears by the beautiful geological 
maps just published by M. Ebel. In France, 
and particularly in Germany, there are raised 
plains, not of very great extent certainly, but 
well worth being mentioned. In France, the 
highest plain is that of Auvergne, in which 
Mont-d'Or, Cantal, and the Puy de Dome stand. 
It is S70 fathoms above the sea, according to 
the barometrical calculation of a celebrated 
mineralogist, Ml de. Buch. Lorraine forms a 
raised plain that extends between the Vosges 
and the chain of mountains, which, passing by 
Epinal and Saint-Mihel, joins the Ardennes. 
This elevated plain, however, is only from 130 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIX. clxv 

to 140 fathoms high. The centre of the plains 
of France, the department of Loir and Cher, is 
from eighty to ninety fathoms high. 

Bavaria is the most extensive and the highest 
level land of Germany. A vast plain, the bed of 
an ancient lake, extends from the granite moun- 
tains of the upper Palatinate (Fichtel Gebiirge) 
to the foot of the Alps in the Tyrol. These 
plains (and this fact is very curious and hither- 
to little known), like the small plain of Au- 
vergne, are from 250 to 260 fathoms above the 
level of the ocean. 

The interior of the two Castiles presents a 
raised plain which exceeds in height and extent 
all those that we have just mentioned. Its mean 
elevation appears to be three hundred fathoms. 
The height of the barometer at Madrid is twenty- 
six inches two lines and two-fifths, according to 
a notç communicated by M Bauza, a distin- 
guished astronomer, employed in the depot of 
charts for the navy at Madrid. It is therefore 
two inches or one-fourteenth lower than the mean 
height of the mercury at the level of the ocean. 
This is the difference of the pressure of the at- 
mosphere which is experienced by all bodies 
exposed to the open air at Madrid, Cadiz or 
Bordeaux. At Madrid the Barometer falls as 
low as twenty-five inches six lines, and even 
lower. The Diario de los mtevoi descubrimientus dc 

\ 3 



elXTT V..TURAL GEOGRAPHY* OF SPAIN". 

tcdas las Ctencias -Jmca's, volume iii. page* 56, 
200, 407, contains a series of very interesting 
meteorological observa tionS, but which unfor- 
tunately to not include a whole year. 

The following is a table of the variations of 
the pressure of the air in the nine fir.st months 
of the year i 79 3— • 



1793." 
Months, 


Maximcm. 


MlNIMTJÏ. 


» 

Mean Height 
of the 

Barometer. 

• 




Inch. Lines. 


Inch. Lines. 


Inch. Lines. 


January, 


26 5 8 


25 9 


8 


26 2 6 


February, 


25 5 3 


26 6 


2 


26 1 6 


1V1 arch, 


126-4 7 


25 6 





25 11 6 


April, 

Juno, 
July, 

AllgUSf, 


26 4 6 
W 4 
26 4 3 
26 5 2 


25 5 

25 10 
2.5 n 

26 

25 11 


9 
5 

8 
7 
5 


25 11 6 

26 8 
26 1 6 
26 2 4 

26 1 4 


September, 


25 4 3 


25 J I 





36 J 7 



The mean height of the barometer at Madrid 
observed by Don Felipe Bauza shows that capital 
to be elevated three hundred and nine fathoms 
three-fifths * above the level of the ocean, ac- 
cording to M. de Laplace and the new coefficient 
of AI. Ramond, allowing the barometer on the 



* Recueil d'Observations Astronomiques; by M. de Hum" 
boldt, page 18. 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN, chiyii 

coasts, with Shuckburgh and Fleurieu Bellcvuc, 
to be at three hundred thirty-eight and twenty- 
four lines. Madrid consequently stands as high 
as the town of .Jnspruck, which is .situated; in 
one of the very high defiles of the Tyrol. The 
elevation of Madrid is fifteen times greater tliau 
that of Paris, three times greater than.rthat °* 
mount Valerian, and also three times greater 
than that of Geneva*. 

Irlande, was the first who made known the 
elevation of Madrid, according to the observa- 
tions which were communicated to him by the 
celebrated geometrician Don George Juan, 
(Mémoires de t Académie , ifes &'fi|}ç^; de jParis f 
i'or the yfiar 1776, page 148). He says, that 
in the street of lus Presiados, near the portijo de 
Scui Alartin, the town is 21)4 fathoms higher 
than Paris ; which makes it three hundred and 
fourteen fathoms above the level of the ocean. 
According to M. Thalacker, the mineralogist, 
who has taken several heights with the baro- 
meter iu the euviïons of Madrid, the king's 
palace at St. Ildefonso is five hundred and 

* The level of the Seine at the Pout tfoyal, at No. 13 of 
the old scale, was elevated nineteen fathoms five feet above 
the surface of the Ocean. The gallery of the church of 
Mount Valerian is elevated seventy-four fathoms above the 
mean height of the Seme. (Cotte Journal des Mines, April 
o. 313) Geneva is one hundred and eighty-eight fa- 
<.>...„„ ulo.elhe level eft),-: Sea. 



Clxviii NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. 

ninety-three fathoms, which is higher than the 
edge of the crater of Mount Vesuvius. No 
other monarch in Europe is possessed of a palace 
in the regions of the clouds : in our countries the 
heavy summer clouds are from five hundred and 
fifty to six hundred fathoms high. 

The height of the plain of the Castiles has 
an effect upon its temperature. We are astonish- 
ed at not finding oranges in the open air in the 
latitude of forty, the same as that of Tarentum, 
part of Calabria, Thessaly, and Asia Minor. The 
mean temperature * of Madrid appears to be 
59 degrees of Fahrenheit, while that of Peters- 
burgh is 30 degrees 52 minutes and 30 seconds; 
that of Berlin 46 degrees 57 minutes and 50 
seconds * that of Paris 53 degrees 56 minutes 
and 15 seconds; that of Marseilles, 58 de- 
grees 33 minutes ; that of Toulon 61 degrees 
15 minutes; that of Naples 63 degrees 30 
minutes ; and that of the countries situated 
under the equator and on the level of the ocean 
from 79 to 81 degrees. Genoa is 4 degrees 
more to the north than Madrid, and yet the 

* Naturalists find the mean temperature of the year by 
adding together all the heights of the Thermometer observed 
in the course of the year, and dividing the total by the num. 
ber of observations. The mean heat of a place in the tem- 
perate zone differs sensibly from the medium taken between 
the maximum and the minimum of the thermometer. 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN - , clxix 

temperature of Genoa raises the glass almost 
2 degrees higher than that of the capital of 
Spain. Such is the influence of local causes, 
of the elevation of site, the proximity to the sea, 
a chain of mountains which keeps off the cold 
northerly winds, and a great number of little 
circumstances, the combination of which mode- 
rates the temperature of places. 

Rome, which is 2 degrees 32 minutes to the 
south of Genoa, but 1 degree 29 minutes to the 
north of Madrid, has almost the same mean 
temperature as the latter town. It is between 
60 degrees 7 minutes and 30 seconds, and 6 1 
degrees 15 minutes of Fahrenheit's, according 
to a great number of very exact observations 
made by M. Calandrelli and the elder M. de 
Humboldt, minister of the king of Prussia in 
Italy. The following table shows the mean 
temperature for nine months observed at Madrid 
and at Rome in 1793 and 1807. I have not 
been able to procure observations made at the 
same period; bat in mean temperature we know 
the variation of one year from another is hard Im- 
perceptible. 



CiXK NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OP SP.AUO 

MEAN TEMPERATURE. 
AT MADRID. AT ROME. 

deg. min. sec. deg. min. sec. 

Latitude 40 25 IS Latitude 41 53 54 

Elevation SO:) fathoms. Klevation 

Fahrenheit. Fahrenheit. 

January 3c, 3 40 1 1 15 January 

February 43 24 47 49 30 February 

March 47 54 &° 50 15 -15 March 

April 52 B 30 à 3l 50 April I 

May 50 4 30 5 50 15 May 

June 72 32 15 7g £f 0O V June 

July 77 13 30 7> y July 

August Ù 34 30 79 15 August 

September tt |g 72 34 30 September' 

Even at Rome orange-trees are not able to 
endure the rigours of winter, and it is neces- 
sary to house them. The mean temperature 
vT.rtainîy docs not alone decide what kind of 
cultivation, is proper for different climates, yet 
it has the greatest influence upon cultivation, 
and the following table points out with suffi- 
cient certainty what is the mean temperature 
below which particular productions cannot be 
cultivated with success. 

Fahrenheit, 
min. deg. sec. 

Vineyards yielding wine - 48 52 30 

Olive-trees ------ 55 37 30 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. clxxi 

Fahrenheit, 
deg. min. sec. 
Orange-trees - - - - - 62 c 22 30» 
Coffee - 64 37 30 

Sugar-canes -----68 

If the mean temperature of the elevated plains 
of Spain is 59 degrees of Fahrenheit, that of the 
coasts from the 41st degree of latitude to the 
36th, is between £1$ anc ^ ^8 degrees Fahrenheit. 
Thus we see banana-trees, heliconias, and sugar- 
canes growing upon these coasts in situations 
that are sheltered from the cold winds. 

The geological profile annexed to this work 
is drawn upon the same principles as I thought 
it necessary to follow in my natural atlas of the 
new continent. This profile (Pi.. 2.) presents 
to the view of the observer the extraordinary 
structure of this country, part of the coasts of 
Avhich appear to have been swallowed up by the 
waves, while the central elevated plain resisted 
the irruption of the ocean. Recollecting the 
traditions of the Samothracians, and the great 
catastrophe which occurred in the Mediterra- 
nean, we do not pretend to decide a question 
Which has recentlv eimaoed the attention of 
learned men of distinguished merit. 

The analogy of form and geological structure 
[>. ^uted by the peninsula and Mexico, has led 
to a comparison which m:;y be interesting to 



Clxxii NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OP SPAIN. 

naturalists. We have given an outline of Old 
and one of New Spain, engraved upon the same 
scale (Pl. 3) These are the outlines of countries, 
the central elevations of which enjoy different 
climates from that on the coasts. The capitals 
of both are placed in the middle of the interior 
plain ; but the plain of the mother-country may- 
be said to be the miniature of that of the colony. 
The difference in height between the highest, 
mountains of the old and new world is only j)00 
fathoms. The Chimborazo is only one-fourth 
higher than Mount Blanc, whilst the high plains 
of the Castiles are four times lower than the 
central one of Mexico. The mean temperature 
of Mexico is eight degrees lower than that of 
Vera Cruz and Acapulco. That of Madrid is 
probably no more than from two to three de- 
grees below that of the coasts of Valencia. The 
climate of the capital of New Spain, like that 
of Madrid, is not quite so cold as might be sup- 
posed from the height of the two towns, as the 
extent of the elevated plains imparts a degree of 
warmth to the air. The mean temperature of 
Mexico is 62 cleg. 22 min. 30 sec. Fahrenheit; 
it is below that of Cadiz, and is almost a de- 
gree and a half within that of Madrid. The 
height of the barometer at Mexico is 21 inches 
7 lines. The pressure of the air is indicated by 
a column of mercury five inches shorter than at 
Madrid. 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. clxXHl 

European Spain, situated in a latitude under 
which palm trees (phœniv dactilifcra, chamcerops 
humilis) grow upon the plains, presents the ma- 
jestic spectacle of a chain of mountains, the 
tops of which shoot up into the regions of 
everlasting snows. Don Clémente Roxas* has 
discovered by a levelling survey, executed with 
the greatest care, that in the Sierra Nevada of 
Granada, the Pico de Venleta is elevated 1781 
fathoms 16, and the Mulahaceh 1824 fathoms 
47, above the level of the ocean. None of the 
mountains of the Pyrenees are of so great a 
height ; for Mount Perdu, the highest ridge of 
the Spanish Pyrenees, is only 1763 fathoms, 
and the highest of the French Pyrenees is only 
1722 fathoms. The peak of Mulahacen m the 
Sierra Nevada of Granada wants only 76 fa- 
thoms of being as high as the peak of TenerifTe. 
Yet even this summit, if situated in the same 
latitude as the town of Mexico, would not be 
perpetually covered with snow; for the never 
inciting snows begin f under the equator at 

M tnuscfipt note communicated by M. Iîauaa. M. Tha- 
iackt-r, in the Annals of Cicn<ias Natvralcs, published bj 
CavanilU-, bas c-tim'ated the Peak of Veleta to be only 1154 
fathoms high. Tin barometer of this traveller must have 

been out of order. 

J laj upon the RcfractiotM in the Torrid Zone, by A. dp 
E!mnb< Idt, p 'i 



CÎXXlV NATURAL CEOSRAPHY OF SPAIN. 

2460 fathoms high ; under the 20th degree of 
latitude at 2350 fathoms; under the 46th at 
1300 fathoms; and under the &2d at 900 fa- 
thoms. Such is the depression of the curve from 
the equator to the pole. 



Civil and historical Geography of Spain. 

The first known division of Spain took place 
under the Romans, originally into two parts 
only, under the names of Spain citerior and 
ulterior, but was soon called by three denomi- 
nations Lusitania, Bcetica, and Tarraconensis. 

Lusitania comprehended the eastern part, and 
extended as far as the Atlantic ocean ; its limits 
were marked on the north hy the Duero, on the 
south hy the Guadiana, and from one to the other 
by a straight line drawn from Simancas to Puente 
de TArzobispo, and from thence as far as the 
•country of the people called Oretani, in which 
-the town of Almagro at present stands; it in- 
cluded in its extent the towns of Avila, Sala- 
manca, Coria, the territory of Plasencia, Trux- 
jdlo, Mcrida and Portugal, the kingdom of 
Leon and part of Estremadura. 

Bcetica was almost surrounded on two of its 
sides by the Guadiana, bounded on the south 



NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. clxXl* 

by the Mediterranean and the Ocean, and ter- 
minated on the east by a line drawn from Mur- 
gis or Muxacra, a village near the ancient pro- 
montory of Charidemus, now called the cape de 
Gatte, to the territory of Castulo, which was 
nearly in the same situation as the modern Caz- 
lona, and to the country of the Oretani ; it 
formed what is called Andalusia, containing the 
kingdoms of Seville, Jaen, Cordova, and Gra- 
nada ; it also included a part of modern Estre- 
madura, and extended as far as Badajoz, which 
was within its boundaries. 

Hispania Tarraconensis comprehended all 
the other parts of Spain, and was the same as 
what was previously called citerior Spain. 

This division of Spain underwent some al- 
terations under the last Roman emperors, and 
was totally changed after the invasion of the 
northern nations. Spain was at that time a 
great power, which was overthrown in a single 
battle, and reduced to the small province of 
the Asturias by the conquest of the Arabs. It 
is from that era that we date the modern di- 
vision of Spain, and the origin of the different 
kingdoms and principalities which were formed 
progressively from the middle of the 8th cen- 
tury to the end of the 15th. As I am going 
to describe them tepuiately, I shall confine 



ClxXVÎ NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. 

thyself here to presenting a chronological table; 
of the periods of their formation, and of the 
kings by whom they have been governed, with- 
out entering into any critical examination of 
the subject. 



Chronological Tabic of the Kings of Spain from 
Pela<rius. 



This table might have been more complicated 
but it would have been more confused ; and I 
have thought it better to confine myself to the 
principal transmissions of inheritance or of 
conquests until the complete formation of the 
Spanish monarchy by the marriage of Ferdinand 
the 5th, king of Aragon, with Isabella of Cas- 
tile. The kingdom of Spain then arose from 
the union of the provinces of these two crowns, 
the number being four for that of Aragon, and 
twenty-two for Castile, not including the lord- 
chip of Biscay and Navarre. The provinces of 
the crown of Aragon consist of the kingdom 
«)f that name, the kingdom of Valencia, the 
principality of Catalonia, and the kingdom of 
Majorca; those of the crown of Castile consist 
of the kingdom of Calicia, the provinces of 
Burgos, Leon, Zauiora, Salamanca, Estrcma- 
dura, Palencja, Valladolid, Segovia, Avila, Toro, 



\ 

NATURAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN. Clxxvii 

Toledo, La Mancha, Murcia, Cuadalaxara, 
Cuença, Jaen, Granada and Seville. 

Though this division of Spain is the most 
ancient, and serves as the basis for the impo- 
sition and levying of the taxes, for the muni- 
cipal laws and the nature of privileges, the 
modern division of Spain, with respect to the 
administration, is limited to thirteen provinces, 
kingdoms, or lordships, all of which have a 
captain general except Navarre, the intendant 
of which has the title of Viceroy. These pro- 
vinces are laid down upon the general map, 
and form the geographical division most com- 
monly adopted. 

The order that I have followed in the de- 
scription of them is the same as that which 
I have adopted in the Picturesque Journey 
through Spain, that these two works may il- 
lustrate each together. Thus both of them are 
divided into four parts ; the first comprehending 
the provinces of Catalonia, Valencia, and Es- 
tremadura ; the second, the four kingdoms of 
Andalusia; the third all the northern pro- 
vinces ; and the fourth those of the centre and 
the other Spanish possessions detached froiu 
the continent but in the Mediterranean. I shall 
take no not ire of the Spanish colonies, ;ts the 
most important of them are so well described in 
Jtf. de Humboldt's work. 

Vol. i. m 



clxxviii N.\rnt.\i. olograph v of spain. 

No. 4. 

General Map of Spain. 

This map, like every other of Spain, pre- 
sents the thirteen provinces which we have just 
been speaking of, and which we are about to 
describe; but Ï must just observe that, following 
the ancient division, I have incorporated the 
kingdom of Granada with the three others of 
Andalusia, that I have separated the country 
of the mountains of St. Andero from old Cas- 
tile, and that of La Mancha from new Castile, 
and shall describe them by themselves. These 
trifling alterations are more suited to the course 
of the work. There are other demarcations 
besides this division of Spain into thirteen pro- 
vinces, to facilitate the levying of the taxes 
and the drawing for the militia. It is subdi- 
vided into thirty provinces and into six districts, 
which form six separate departments; but this 
new organization is principally carried into ef- 
fect in Castile and the kingdom of Leon; it 
will be mentioned under the article finances. 
Spain has besides two other divisions, the one 
relating to religion and the other to the courts 
of law ; these will be taken notice of in the 



NA TUBAL GEOGRAPHY OF SPAIN - , clxxix. 

articles concerning the ecclesiastical and ju- 
dicial administration. 

\ofe. — There not being time to engrave 
maps of all the roads contained in the Itinerary, 
the principal ones and those or* that part of the 
country the description of which is most de- 
tailcdj have been selected. 



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14 



Chronological Tabic of the Kings of Spain from Pelagii S. 



I.F.ON 


K 1NGS 


COUNTS. 


KINGS 


KINGS 


MONARCHY 


A«I> THE Annuls. 


o.. Castiib. 


OF Barcelona. 


OF Araoon. 


op Navarre. 


OF SrilN. 


113 Pelaoils is As- 








331 AzHAtt, count 


1516 Ciiae.i 


7S7 Faviia. 








35 ■'• Garcias, count 


emperor of Ger- 


739 ,u phi «J I. the 








857 Garcia». Kimi 




Cal ill 










Be abdicates. 


717 Fa.iiLA I. 








880 Forwkio I. firs 




7:16 AtniL.o. 










1555 Pinup II. his 


774 Iilo 








905 San :ho 1 




. U ■ JECAT, ail 








926 GaRCIAS I. 




Usurper. 




801 Bera. 
320 Bernard. 
844 Aldsran. 




973 Sancho IL 


Union of Portugal 


788 Bermudus I. 






994 Garcias II. 


until 1640. 


791 Alpiionsu 11. Hie 
Chaste. 






100U Sa>ciio HI. or the 


1598 PniLielll. 


842 IlAMinus I. 








1035 Garcias III. 


1621 Pinup IV. 


B50 Ohdocko Ï. 








1054 Sanciio IV. 




B66 Alfbonso III. or 
tin Great. 

911 Cahus. 




872 Salomon. 

B80 WlFRED II. TIIE 

Warlike 
911 M iron. 




Ii.i76 Sancho V. son ô 
Ramirus king 
Aragon. 


1605 CHAULES IL 

Dies without issue. 


914 Qe.uoc.xu II. 






1094 Peter I. also king 




9M Ftuit» II. 








of Aragon. 




58.1 limoHSOlV. 








1104 Aiphonso also 




927 Ramibui 11. 








king of Aragon. 


OF BpURBON. 


95U Oauocito ill. 








1134 Garcias IV. 




955 0» cisio.anusiir. 








115*0 Sancho VI. 


1700 Pump V. 






907 BORBLLVS. 




194 Sancho VII. 












234 Thibaut I. als.. 


17Î3 Louis I. in eon- 


Mh7 Ramirus 1IL 
989 Be.-mudus 11. 
g 1 iLPBOMSOV. 
1UJ7 Bbiimudus III. 




h'l? Berencer I. 
K»3J RaymoncIL 
1067 Raymond III. 
1031 Raymond- Bl- 

niM.cn IV. 
[131 Raymond- Be- 

rbngbr V. died 

in 1162. 


1035 Ramiri-sI. 
!U70 Sancho I. 

1094 Peter T. 
110+ AlphONsq I. 
1134 Ramirus II. 
1137 Petonille and 


count of Chain 
pagne. 
1253 Thibaut II. 

1270 H.NRY. 

1274 Joanna Land Phi- 

Bome .ilio, king 
of France. 


sequence of the 

abdication of his 
father. 

1724 Philip V. again 

1746 Febdina.sd VI. 


1 . kings ol 

1 -i le beoail e 


1035 PanDiSAKDl, "* 




of Castile. 


Raymond Ueeien- 


13115 Louis Huxin, also 


1759 Charles III. 


of Leon anil ol 


Hi7fl Sancho II. 






king of .France. 


the Austurias, 


1072 AtraoHM VI. re- 






Interregnum. 


1788 Charles IV. 




p rod aimed. 
1109 * u "* c * a ' ld 

Iuy t Alhioi.su VIII 
1151 SahchoIII. 

1158 F.RDINAND II. 

king of Leon, aï 

1183 Alfhombo IX. 

1214 Henry I. 




1316 John 

1316 Philip the Long 
also, king 
France. 
1322 Charles the hand 
some also king 
of France. 
1329 Joanna and PniLir 
count of Evreux 




1162 The county of 
Barcelona p.is-- 

Aragon. 

Also king of Miircia 
and Valencia. 


1162 Raymond, sur- 

II. 
1196 Peter II. 
1213 Jayme or James 

the Victorious. 
1276 Peter 11. de- 

1235 AlphonsoIII. 
1291 James II. 


1217 Lec» united to 


1217 Flbdinano III. 




1349 CuiRiES the Bad 




Castile."™" °' 


125*2 Uphomo X. the 
Wise. 




1387 Charles III. 
1424 John, son of Per 






1284 Sancho IV. de- 
thrones his Util r 
119' PUDIMAKD IV. 




1336 Peter IV. 

1337 John I. 

i:95 Martin. 


Aragon. 
1479 EleONora. 






1312 AxstUrMso XI. 




1479 Gaston- PhœoUs 






1350 Peter the Cruel 




Inu-negnum. 
1412 Ferdinand. 
1416 Ar.HoNsoV. 
1458 John II. 








1369 Henry II. 




1481 Interregnum. 






1379 Fob» I. 

. t III. 




I4S3 Catherine 
1512 They are dis] 






1406 John II. 
1454 Henry IV. 


Also king of Navarre. 


1479 Ferdinand 11. 
The kingdom of Ara- 


' 




1474 Isabella andFsa- 




gon passes to the 


Navarre hy Pm- 










kiogs of Castile by 






Catholicjierlius- 




Ferdinand V. 


Lir . 


: 
























1 




HOUSE OF AUSTRIA. 




15 


94 Joanna AND PHIIIP. 






The kin 


gdoms united to the cro. 


D ofC ■ tile form the Spanish Monarchy, See C€ 


uniiiVI. 



To face page 






ACCOUNT 

OF 

SPAIN. 

CATALONIA. 



THE ROAD FROM PERPIGNAN TO THE FRON- 
TIERS OF SPAIN, THROUGH CATALONIA. 

X here is a good road from Perpignan to Bolo, 
of three leagues*, which passes through a part of 
the plain of Roussillon. On the right we leave 
the Masdeu, the ancient seat of the Templars, 
and the villages of Pollestras, Vilamulaca, Passa, 
and Tresserra ; and on the left, on an eminence, 
that of Banuls dels aspres. Bolo, now only a 
village, was formerly a fortified town : some of 
its walls and the ruins of the fortification are 
still to be seen. It is in a fine situation on the 
right hank of the Tec, and close to a fertile 

♦ Throughout this work we shall confine Otirseltei to the 
Spanish league of 20 to a degree. 
Vol.. Is M 



«J CATALONIA. 

plain. A Roman military road passed through 
this ancient town, the name of which was Sta- 
bulum. 

Leaving Bolo we cross the Tec, the bed of 
which is very broad and sometimes dangerous 
from the swelling of the river and the shifting 
of its sands. In the ordinary state of it, car- 
riages and cattle cross by the ford, and foot 
passengers on rafts, or in a little boat. There 
ought to be a bridge here. At some distance 
from Bolo we begin to ascend the Pyrenees by 
a gentle rise, which gradually becomes steeper. 
The road is fine, wide, and supported on the 
precipices by very good walls. Having tra- 
velled two leagues we arrive at the village of 
Ecluse, the Clausura of the Romans, and soon 
after reach the summit of the Pyrenees, which 
we cross through the Pass of Pertus, the ancient 
Portus : the castle of Rcllegarde, standing on a 
lofty insulated mountain, defends this defile. 
There is an office here for the examination of 
passports, and a guardhouse. 

A little farther on we come to a bridge which 
separates France from Spain: their limits were 
marked by columns which were destroyed dur- 
ing the last war. On crossing this bridge wc 
are in Catalonia. 

AN ACCOUNT OF CATALONIA. 

Catalonia is situated at the North-East ex- 



CATALONIA. 3 

tremity of Spain, extending 40 leagues from East 
to West, and 44 from North-East to South-East. 
It lies to the North on the Pyrenees, where it 
is separated from France ; it is bounded on the 
East by the Mediterranean, on the South by the 
kingdom of Valencia, and on the West by Ara- 
gon. 

It contains an archbishopric, seven bishoprics, 
eight cathedral and eighteen collegiate chapters, 
twenty-two abbeys, enjoying nearly episcopal 
privileges, a grand priory, and sixteen com- 
manderies of the Order of Malta; two thousand 
seven hundred and thirty-eight parishes, two 
hundred and eighty-four religious houses, eighty- 
four hospitals, "a university, fifteen colleges for 
the education of youth, fourteen cities, two 
hundred and eighty-three towns, one thousand 
eight hundred and six villages, twenty-two for- 
tresses, and five ports. 

Its principal towns are Barcelona, a bishop's 
See and the capital ; Tarragona, the See of an 
archbishop; Urgel, Lerida. Gironne, Salsona, 
Vich, Tortosa, Episcopal Sees; Figueras, Aulot, 
Igualda, Reus, Mataro, Villa Franca de Panader, 
Cervera, Manresa, Palamos, &c. 

This province is watered by twenty-six rivers, 
ten of which fall into the sea : the Ebro, the 
largest of them, is very important for its navi- 
gation. Catalonia has five harbours in the Me- 
diterranean, Palamos, Cadaques, Rosas, Salon, 

u 2 



4 CATALONIA, 

and Barcelona. Its mountains make a part 
the chain of the Pyrenees, which runs to the 
North of it from the sea on the East to Aragon 
on the West: the branches of it, stretching for- 
ward far into the country, form second rate 
mountains, of which the chief are those of Mpri- 
Negre, Valgorguina, San-Gran, Alsinellas, Re- 
quesens, Monseny, Montserrat, &c. The prin- 
cipal vallies are those of Barabas, Aran, Car- 
dons, Farrera, Andorra, Ancu, Aro, &c. 

Catalonia was one of the first provinces of 
Spain that drew the attention of the Romans, 
the first in which they established their power, 
and also one of the first freed from the yoke of 
the Arabs. It was taken from the Romans by 
the Goths, under the conduct of E varie their 
kimr, about the year 712; and from the Moors 
by the French at the end of the eighth and be- 
ginning of the ninth century. It was at that 
time that Barcelona became the capital of a 
county of the same name. After the year 839 
it had sixteen counts, including Raymond V. 
the last of them, who died in 1 172, after having 
ascended the throne of Aragon, in consequence 
of his marriage with Petronilla, the heiress to 
that kingdom. As long ago as the ninth cen- 
tury this province formed a separate sovereignty, 
which took a great part in the times of the di- 
vision of the fiefs. The family in possession of 
it, who were originally French, raised it to re- 



CATALONIA. 5 

spectable power; their dominions comprized 
Catalonia, Roussillon, Cerdagne, the county of 
Foix, and a great part of Languedoc. Being 
afterwards divided among several of its branches 
it formed separate states. This house, having 
ascended the throne of Aragon, extended its 
dominion over the islands of Majorca and Mi- 
norca, Sicily, and the kingdom of Valencia; 
and, at length, united under its sway the whole 
Spanish monarchy. 

Under the counts of Barcelona, Catalonia was 
divided into T z iguerics i or jurisdictions, each go- 
verned by a figuier (Vicarius) or lieutenant for 
the counts. This kind of magistracy, which 
enjoyed a very extensive authority, existed even 
after the union of Catalonia with the Spanish 
monarchy. But the viceroys, or governors, on 
whom the king conferred the command of this 
province, gradually undermined the authority of 
the Viguiers, who ceased to enjoy. the elevated 
state of their predecessors in the original insti- 
tution. At the conclusion of the seventeenth 
century these magistrates had lost their most 
important privileges, 

The political revolution which seated a branch 
of the royal family of France on the throne of 
Spain, gave a fatal blow to Catalonia. Having 
taken up arms againsl its sovereign, the pro- 
vince lost its privileges, laws, customs, and \\- 

B3 



6 CATALONIA. 

guiers, and was placed like the rest of the king- 
dom under Corregidors. 

Until this period Catalonia may be said to 
have governed itself. From the middle of the 
eleventh century it had its own laws and iocal 
customs, which count Raymond, in 106'S, sub- 
stituted for the Gothic laws, which had fallen 
into disuse. The vassal^ were serfs of the Lords, 
as in all the countries subject to the feudal sys- 
tem. The custom was gradually abolished ; the 
last serfs of Catalonia, of whom any mention is 
made, were the inhabitants of Remenca, whom 
Ferdinand the Carholic enfranchised iu the year 
J483. 

After the union of Catalonia with the crown 
of Aragon, the province still had its own States, 
which shared the legislative power with the 
sovereign : they proposed to the king such laws 
as they thought necessary, and the monarch ap- 
proved and promulgated them ; or they, on the 
other hand, gave their sanction to those which 
originated with him. Those states assembled at 
Barcelona., and in several other towns of the 
principah:y of Catalonia: after the union of 
Roussillon with this province, in respect to the 
administration, they sometimes met at Perpig- 
nan. The deputies of the three orders of Rous- 
sillon were admitted to the assembly, distin- 
guished, however, from those of Catalonia, who 
were also composed of the three orders ; of the 



CATALONIA. 7 

clergy, xovility, and commons. The first con- 
sisted of the bishops, abbots, the deputies of 
the chapters, and those of some religious bodies; 
the second of all the nobles above the age of 
twenty, and of Proprietors of noble fiefs ; the 
third order was not called the third state but uni- 
versidades, better expressed by the word Com- 
mons ; for in Catalonia the name of University 
is given to the municipalities and corporations 
of towns. The deputies of towns admitted to 
the States were very few. 

The States still assembled at Barcelona in 
1 702, under Philip V ; but, as we have already 
said, that monarch abolished the privileges of 
which the Catalans were extremely jealous, and 
they preserved only the empty right of sending 
deputies to the States-General of the Spanish 
Monarchy, when they are convened. 

Catalonia had three military orders, which 
were confined to the nobility. 

The first was that of Mountjoy, in Latin 
monte gaudio, called by the Castillians Mon- 
franc, and by the Catalans and Valencians, 
Monjoya. It was instituted in 1 143 by Raymond 
Déranger, the last count of Barcelona, and con- 
firmed in 1 189 by the Pope, who subjected it to 
the observances of St. Basil. The uniform was 
white, and the Knights wore a red cross of eight 
points. It was united in 1221 to the order of 

Calatrava. 

b 4> 



S CATALONIA. 

The second, with the title of St. George of 
Alfama, was instituted in 1201 by Peter II, 
king of Aragon. The Castle of Alfama, at the 
south-east point of Catalonia, between the 
defile of Balaguer and the mouth of the Ebro, 
was the chief seat of it. This order was sub- 
jected to the observances of St. Augustin. The 
Knights wore likewise a red cross, but close, 
like that of Montesa at present. They were 
under the government of a grand-master; of 
whom there were ten, the first was in 1202, and 
the last in 1400, the period when it was united 
with the order of Montesa, which had been insti- 
tuted for some time. 

The third was the order of the Hatchet, whose 
chief seat was at Tortosa. It was instituted in 
1150 by Raymond Bérenger, with the view of 
honouring and rewarding the women of Tartar 
gona, for bravely defending their town against 
the Moors. The female knights wore a red 
hatchet, and took precedence of the men on 
public occasions.* This order has long beer; 
extinct. 

* This brings to mind the act of heroism of Jane Hachette, 
v/hoat the head of the women of Beauvais defended th:.'. 
fown in 1472, 



CATALONIA. 5 

-'f 

The Road from the Pass of the Pertus on the Frontier of 
France to Gironne, 1 1 leagues.* 

Bridge at the Pass of Pertus to leagues; 

La Junquera, (a town) 1 

LeLlobregat, (river but no bridge) 

Hostal-nou, (a hamlet) ... „ 2 

La Muga, (a river and bridge of Molins)_„ 

Figueras, (a town) - . .... lil 

Santa Locaya, ( a village) j 

Fluvia, (a river without a bridge, a ferry)--» 

Bascura, (a village) . j 

Pass of Oriols, (a hamlet).... . ._ x 

Villa de Mills, (a village) ._ j 

Medina, (a village) „ o 

Le Ter, (a river, and the Mayor bridge) 

Pont Mayor, (a village) 3 

Gironne, (atown) x 

After leaving the bridge of Pertus, which 
separates France from Spain, we descend to the 
foot of the Pyrenees by a very fine road which 
takes us to La Junquera. 

La Junquera is a little town, situated at the 
entrance of a plain, which Strabo tells us was 
fertile in flax and spart, or sea-rush, whence it 
acquired the name of Campus juncarius, and 
the town that of Juncaria, It has a parish 
church, an office for the king's duties, and a 
guard of lilty men. It lias little hade, though po- 
pulous enough: there is but one inn in the town 

* The road from Perpignan to Barcelona, Saragossa, Va> 
lend a, Btyd Mad i id. 



10 CATALONIA. 

and that a bad one ; yet compared to the posadas 
we meet with in many parts of Spain, it may pass 
as a good one. La Junquera is the birth-place 
of Antonio de Aguilara, an able physician of 
the 16th century, known by his writingson the 
practice of physic. 

At this first office for duties travellers are 
usually very strictly searched : but it is easily 
avoided by means of a few piécettes (coins worth 
lOd. English each) unless the chief officers are 
present, or too great a crowd of curious spec- 
tators flock about the carnage. But there 
is one thing not to be avoided if a man travels 
in his own carriage, and that is paying an 
enormous duty, amounting generally to three- 
fourths of the value of the carriage. The only 
way of escaping this expence is to engage to 
send the carriage out of the country within a 
settled time. In that case it is necessary to 
have a letter of recommendation or credit to 
some person established at Junquera to answer 
for the performance of your engagement, by 
binding himself to pay the supposed duty for 
you. The merchants at Perpignan take care 
to furnish travellers with the letters necessary 
for complying with the formality. 

When we leave Junquera we have no longer a 
fine road: it is stony, neglected, and cut up with 
gutters. It runs a long way by the side of 
the mountains through passages more or less 



CATALONIA. if 

narrow, crooked and deep. We cross seven times 
over the river of Llobregat, which by its sharp 
windings, makes this way dangerous at times : 
it is frequently dry, but in rainy weather it 
compels travellers to stop. After proceeding 
two leagues we come to the Hostai-nou, and 
pass the river Muga over the bridge of Molins 
deRey and enter the district of Ampurdan, with 
an immense plain before us, carefully cultivated, 
and full of fruit and olive trees. Fruit, wheat, 
rice, vegetables, flax, and hemp cover the earth : 
the whole is beautiful, smiling and fertile. After 
travelling a league through this rich plain we 
arrive at Figueras. 

Figueras is a little town situated in the 
middle of the plain. It has a parish church, 
two convents, one of Cordeliers and another of 
Capuchins, an hospital, and a small garrison. 
The streets are tolerably wide, and there is a 
square with piazzas round it. This would be 
handsome if the houses in it were better built. 
The town contains about 4000 inhabitants, but 
has little trade, and the chief of what it has 
is owing to its proximity to France. There are 
two passable inns, in regard to eating and 
drinking ; but the beds are hard, as is the cus- 
tom in Spain. The luggage of travellers is 
searched here by the revenue officers, who are 
got rid of as at Junquera. French money passes 
at Figueras: it is taken at all the shops, am] 



IÎ CATALONIA. 

the loss upon it is frequently no more than a 
real, or two-pence farthing English in a Louis 
d*or ; never more than five pence English. Tra- 
vellers should take care to change their French 
money here for Spanish, for the farther one ad- 
vances into the kingdom the greater is the 
loss incurred in the change. 

In the reign of Ferdinand VI. a citadel was 
built near Figucras, which cost immense sums. 
It stands on a little eminence, and bears the 
name of the Castle of St. Ferdinand : it displays a 
magnificence rarely met with in fortresses. The 
walls are of free stone and thick ; the moats 
deep and wide, and the approaches mined. The 
principal cordon is not seen from without ; the 
ramparts, magazines, stables, cellars, caserns, and 
hospital are defended by a casemate; it is pro- 
vided with every thing necessary for its defence; 
and the firm bare rock on which it is built has 
been turned to such advantage, that trenches 
can scarcely be opened on any side, the ground 
being every where stony. This fortress is an 
irregular pentagon, the shape of which may be 
compared to the flaps of the pointed pockets 
formerly worn- It stands nearly in the middle 
of a great plain, which it can therefore defend on 
every side, serving as an intrenched camp of 
from 16 to 17,000 men. It is one of the finest 
fortifications in Europe. Political motives, the 
discussion of which docs not belong to pu? 



CATALONIA. 13 

subject, caused it to be reduced in the last war, 
but the event was not attended with any re- 
flection on the Spanish valour. In the council- 
room of the fortress there are still to be seen 
spots of ink, occasioned by the rage of an officer 
who threw his pen against the wall, determining 
not to sign the capitulation, or in despair at 
having been obliged to sign it. Since then the 
walls have been whitened, but through negli- 
gence or by chance, the honourable spot still 
appears. 

On leaving Figueras we proceed by an uneven 
road, badly kept, full of stones and mud, which 
leads to the village of Santa Locaya, and far- 
ther on to the river Fluvia, which we cross by a 
ford when the waters are low, or in a bad ferry 
boat when they are high : it is impassable in 
any manner after a hard rain, or during the 
melting of the snows. 

Leaving the village of Bascura to the left we 
go through the pass of Oriols, and the villages 
of Villa de Muls and Medina, and thence to the 
Mayor bridge, on which we cross the Ter. A 
considerable number of houses in two lines form 
a kind of a village here, which may be consider- 
ed as the suburbs of Gironne, where we now 
arrive. 

Gironne, in Latin Gerunda, in Spanish Gerona, 
is a fortified town, situated on the side and 
at the foot of a steep mountain. The Ter runs 



14 CATALONIA. 

through the town, which is surrotnded Vith 
good walls, flanked with fortifications, and de- 
fended hy two forts erected on the mountain. 
This is an ancient city, and formerly gave its 
name to the eldest son of the kings of Aragon, 
who took the title of prince of Gironne : it is 
also famous for the different sieges it has sustain- 
ed, and the defence it has almost always made. 
In 787, when it was besieged by Louis, king of 
Aquitania, the son of Charlemagne, it was sur- 
rendered to him by the Christians, who put 
the Moorish garrison to death. In 1462 it was 
the refuge of the queen of Aragon and her son, 
when pursued by the Catalonian rebels. Count 
Pallas, one of the rebel generals besieged and 
took it, and was about to storm the castle, into 
which the queen had retreated, when a French 
army commanded by the Sire of Albret appear- 
ed and delivered that princess. In 16\56 it was 
taken by a French army; and again, in 1694, 
in seven days after the trenches were opened. It 
was one of the first towns that violated the oath 
which they had taken to Philip V, and it opened 
its gates in 1705 to the Archduke Charles, ac- 
knowledging him king of Spain, under thename 
of Charles III. For six years it persisted in 
this conduct, sustained a long siege, and was at 
length reduced to obedience by a French army 
under the command of the duke de Noailles 
in 1711. Heing again besieged in the follow- 



CATALONIA, 15 

mg year by the Au3trians and Catalonians, it 
was defended by the Count de Brancas, who, 
after a blockade of eight months forced the be- 
siegers to retire. 

The history of the town of Gironne was pub- 
lished in 1673 by Pere Roig : it is a work full of 
absurdities and fabulous traditions, and it is 
singular that it should have been written at the 
time when criticism flourished in Spain, when 
the marquis de Mondejar, don Nicolas Antonio, 
and don Josef Pellicer, were clearing eccle- 
siastical and civil history of all the fables with 
which it had been long inundated by the old 
writers. Gironne is the birth-place of Antic 
Roca, a philosopher of the sixteenth century, 
author of a Latin and Catalonian dictionary ; 
and also the birth place of Rafael Mox, a phy- 
sician of the 17th century, who wrote on the di- 
seases of women. 

Estent and Population. The town is nearly of a triangular 
form. The streets are narrow and crowded, but the houses 
are tolerably well built. It has a good many churches and 
convents. The inhabitants lead a sad and undiversifiedkind 
of life. They have no company, no theatre, no kind of dis- 
sipation or pleasure ; every one seems to live alone. The 
population amounts to above 14,000 persons, a fourth of whom 
at least is made up of priests, monks and nuns, scholars and 
students. 

Ecclesiastical Administration. Gironne is the see of a bi- 
shop, suffragan of Tarragona. His diocese is divided into four 



16 CATALONIA, 

arch -deacon ries, and contains 470 parishes, two collegiate 
chapters, and eight abheys or priories, which enjoy almost 
episcopal rights. There is likewise a collegiate chapter in the 
Church of St. Felix. There are five parishes in the town, nine 
convents for men and three for women, a nunnery of Béguines, 
a college, seminary, general hospital, and a charitable asy- 
lum. 

It is said that in the commencement of the third century,* 
a council of twenty-four bishops assembled at Gironne, and 
that the pagans setting fire to the building in which it was 
keld, all the prelates perished in it. It is more certain, that 
since the time of that dubious event, several provincial council» 
have been held here : one in 5 \J , composed of ten bishops, 
in which divers canons of ecclesiastical discipline were* 
made; another in 10G3, of which cardinal Hughes was the 
president, in which fifteen canons were made against simony 
and the incontinency of the clergy ; and another ten years 
after relative to the same objects, and to tithes. 

Civil and Military Administration. The king appoints a 
governor, who acts both in a civil and military capacity. 
There is besides at Gironne a king's lieutenant, a mayor, a 
governor of the little castle of Mont-Jouy, an alcade major 
lor the administration of justice, a municipal body of twelve 
regidurs, and a small garrison. 

Industry. This town carries on hut very little trade, and 

the only manufactories it has consist of a few looms for 

stockings, coarse cloths, and woollen and cotton stuffs, which 

have only been established in the asylum within twenty 
year 6. 

Public Edifices. The cathedral and collegiate churches are 
the two most remarkable edifices in Gironne. The former 
is built on the ridge of t lie mountain, which gives it a very 
elevated foundation : it displays a majestic front at the top of 
three grand terraces', ornamented with granite balustrades : 

• 3d July, 



CATALONIA. 17 

we ascend to it by a superb flight of steps, eighty-6ix id 
number, and of a breadth the whole extent of the church. 
The front is decorated in a bad taste, with three orders of 
architecture, Doric, Corinthian and Composite ; it is flanked 
with two hexagon towers. The interior of the church is 
large and handsome, it has only a nave in the Gothic ?tyle: 
the chief altar is insulated, and consists of a pavilion, sup- 
ported by four columns of mixed marble ; the pavilion, the 
tabernacle, and the steps are of silver, ornamented with pre- 
cious stones and raised figures. The table of this altar has 
four faces, three are of vermilion, decorated with figures 
similar to the preceding, and it is asserted that the front 
face is of gold ; it is full of precious stones. 

The monuments of Raymond Bérenger, count of Barcelona, 
and of the countess Mahault, or Mahalta, his consort, are 
placed against the wall of the sanctuary, one on each side. 

The treasury of the cathedral is very rich in chalices, pa- 
terns, staves, crosses, shrines, relics, censers, lamps and other 
things of gold and silver, set with jewels. 

The collegiate, or church of St. Feliu, formerly St. Mary's 
extra muros, is of Gothic architecture with a body and two 
aiiles divided by pillars, with a large and beautiful casement 
in the middle. There is a very high and very old tower in 
front of the façade. The body of St. Narcissus is here pre- 
served in a chapel built at the expence of the bishop Loren- 
zana, who died in 1796 : it has the form of two ellipses 
joined, one of about forty-three feet in diameter, the other 
forty by seventy-eight in length. It is coated with a colour- 
ed marble, ornamented with pilasters of the composite or- 
der, and terminates with an oratory, or small chape}, in a 
recew , which the Spaniards call camarin. 

There is a very curious piece of architecture at Gironne, 
in the Capuchin convent ; an Arabian bath, constructed in 
the ino-t elegant style, consisting of columns standing on an 
octagon stylobatc, or low base, encircling a reservoir to 
MDtail water. 

Vol. r. c 



18 CATALONIA. 

About â mile from Gironne there is a Benedictine nunnery, 
dedicated to St. Daniel, under the government of an abbess. 
This is one of the principal in Catalonia of the order of St. 
Benet ; and only ladies who can bring proofs of nobility are 
admitted. 

Public Instruction. The University of Gironne, founded in 
1521, by Philip II. was abolished in 1715, by Philip V. ; at 
that time the Jesuits had all public instruction in their hands, 
except two chairs of philosophy and theology established out 
of their house. After the suppression of that order, the public 
instruction was concentrated in one college, where there are 
nine hundred students, who are taught the Latin grammar, 
rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. The library of the 
Jesuits was left ; it is a very extensive and well-chosen one : 
it has been opened to the public. There are, besides, three 
other chairs supported at the expence of the town. 

The community of the Beguine nuns keep schools for the 
instruction of poor girls gratuitously, and a boarding-school 
for young ladies. This institution is due to the bishop Don 
Thomas de Lorenzana, who held out a helping hand to the 
unfortunate, and who, with a generosity guided by good 
sense, encouraged throughout his diocese, agriculture, manu- 
factures, and all the useful art-^. 

The first Road from Gironne to Barcelona, inland, 
1G Leagues. 

Gironne to leagues. 
Hostal de la Ceba (some houses) 2\ 

t Las Mallorquinas (a village) 2§ 

Hostalric (a village) ..... 2 

Battlloric (a village) . . .._! 

San-Celons (a village) 1 

Linarez (a village) __.. .1 

La Roca (a village)..... .1 

La Tordera (a river and bridge)...... 

:8 



CATALONIA. 



19 



LEAQCES. 



Monmelo (a village) 

Los Hostalz (some houses). 

Moncayo (a village) *.« 

Saint- André (a village).,... 
Barcelona (a city) ..... 



It would be useless to describe this way; the 
roads are very bad, and the inns detestable. 
They are now frequented only by muleteers ; 
it is, however, the post road. 



Another Road by the Sea-Side, 17 Leagues, 1 Quarter. 

Gironne to . leagues. 

La Granota, (three or four houses) .3| 

La Tordera, (a river without a bridge) 

Tordera, (a village) If 

Malgrat, (a village) £ 

Pineda, (a village) . ......1 

Calella, (a little town) 1 

San-Pol, (a village) . 1 

(Le Bellet, a river without a bridge) 

Canet de Mar, (a village) 1| 

Santa-Maria de Mar, (a village) $ 

Arens de Mar, or Santa-Maria de Arens £ 

Mataro, (a town) .. 1 

Vila-ar de Baix, (a village) Î. 

Pr< mia de Baix, (a village) I 

MaMIOUj (a village) .... I 

BgBt, (a village) * 

tlona, (a village) I 

Bm* Ad ri ft , (a village) _. j 

I !■• /"-, (a . .w t without a hi!' 

Barcelona, (a city) | 

c 2 



20 CATALONIA. 

There is a very broad road, but very ill kept, 
leading from Gironne to the river Tordera, five 
leagues distant; it passes through a light soil, 
without substance, which becomes moist with 
the least rain ; it is very muddy in winter and 
dusty in summer; it is cut at all times with 
deep ruts, which render it rough and jolting; 
and it is scarcely passable by foot passengers. 
As it approaches the river it becomes still worse, 
and sometimes dangerous; the soil is softer, the 
road grows narrower, and is frequently covered 
with pools of water which conceal dangerous 
places, from which jt is difficult to clear one's- 
self. 

Almost the whole country is uncultivated. 
We proceed to Granata, a poor hamlet, where 
there is a bad inn not far from the Tordera. On 
the left we see Blanas, a little town situated on 
the sea-side, at the mouth of the river; there 
are some leather manufactories there. It was the 
native place of the historian Gaspard Roig y 
Jalpi, who wrote the History of Gironne, of 
which we have spoken. 

Arriving at Tordera, we cross the river by a 
bad wooden bridge; it is sometimes forded with- 
out difficulty; but, with the least rain, it be- 
comes an impetuous torrent, which inundates 
the neighbouring country. It is the custom to 
cross this river in boats when it begins to fall ; 
"but through the impatience of travellers it some- 



CATALONIA. 21 

times happens, that a boat, on reaching the mid- 
dle of the current, has been carried away and 
overset by the rapidity of the water. The con- 
fidence of the country people, or their avarice 
which blinds them to the danger, frequently 
deceives strangers, and many have been victims 
of it. 

After crossing this river, we come to the vil- 
lage of the rame name ; then to those of Mal- 
grat and of Pineda, in each of which there is a 
forge for anchors, and a distillery for brandy : 
the women and girls are employed in making 
lace and blonds. One league further on is the 
little town Calella, in a charming situation. It 
û well built, and contains about two thousand 
four hundred inhabitants, a parish church, a 
convent of monks, an hospital, forges for an- 
chors, and distilleries for brandy ; various laces 
and fishing-nets are made here. The inn is a 
tolerably good one, and is always abundantly 
provided with fish. 

The sea- coast begins here, on which account 
this way has been called the sea-side road; in 
fact, we never lose sight of the sea again until 
we get to Barcelona ; there is a constant suc- 
cession of villages and houses. 

We now arrive at San-Pol, a new village, situ- 
ated on the river Bellet, which we cross by a 
ford. Its population is about two thousand per- 
sons, and is daily increasing. 
c 5 



22 CATALONIA. 

At Canet de Mar y a considerable village, there 
is a distillery for brandy. 

At Santa-Maria del Mar, another village, we 
find as much industry and activity as in the 
preceding ones ; at Arenez de Mar, or Santa- 
Maria de Aremz, there are three thousand five 
hundred inhabitants. There is a beautiful parish 
church, a convent of Capuchins, forges for an- 
chors, manufactories of cotton and silk stock- 
ings, and callico; a school for navigation, and 
a dock for the building of small vessels. 

These villages are all on the sea-coast, and 
their situation is agreeable ; they possess a pleas- 
ing air of studied neatness. The activity of the 
inhabitants is every where apparent : the women 
and children make laces and blonds; the men 
are employed in fishing, navigation, and com- 
merce. The coast is covered with small vessels 
and barks, which carry on a coasting trade in 
Spain, Roussillon, and Italy, and which some- 
times even stretch away to Spanish America. 

We travel this road with pleasure, and do not 
perceive the length of the way from Calella to 
Mataro, the distance of which is five leagues. 

Mataro is an ancient town : it existed under 
the Romans ; but more inland, on a place where 
vestiges of its ancient buildings are still found : 
being rebuilt by the Moors on the spot which 
it now occupies, it was limited to a middling 
extent by an enclosure of walls. Within twenty 



CATALONIA. 23 

years it has increased rapidly. It is thought to 
be the ancient Illuro of Ptolemy and Pompo* 
nius Mela. Under the Moors it took the name 
which it still bears. 

Malaro is pleasantly situated on the sea-side, 
at the extremity of a small fertile plain, which 
terminates at the foot of a chain of woody 
mountains. The old town, built on an emi- 
nence, retains its enclosure, its walls, and its 
gates. Its streets are narrow, yet less crooked 
than those of the. ancient towns of Spain: the 
largest, called la Riera, which runs through the 
middle, is handsome, broad, straight, tolerably 
well built, and watered by a small stream, with 
a row of trees by the side of it. It would make 
an agreeable walk, if the stream were widened 
and a second row of trees added, with some 
benches among them. The new town, which 
was perhaps ■djauboiirg to the preceding one, is 
much larger, more open, and better constructed. 
It is lately built, and runs towards the east as far 
as the sea-side ; the streets are broad, long, and 
fctraight; the houses are agreeable, simple, and 
most of them ornamented with paintings in 
fresco. It daily increases in extent. The sur- 
rounding country is fertile and well cultivated; 
the town has many fountains of excellent 
water. 

The approach to Mataro, in coming from 
Choline, is beautiful ; we enter by a superb 

C 4 



24 CATALONIA. 

street, in which all the inns are situated : that 
called Mont Serrât is excellent. Leaving 
the town, the view on the Barcelona road is 
still more magnificent. 

Population. Mataro is become a considerable town by its 
industry and commerce; new inhabitants flock thither* and 
its population, which, about 1770, was from four to five 
thousand persons, is now upwards of twenty-live thousand. 

Clergy. It has a parish church, three, convents of monks, 
two of nuns, and a hospital. 

Administration. There is a military and civil governor, an 
alcade major for the administration of justice, a port-captain, 
a minister, an auditor of the navy, and a garrison of two 
squadrons of cavalry. 

Public edifices. The church of the Brothers of the Ecole- 
pie has a tolerably fine nave, ornamented with pilasters of the 
Ionic order. The parish church has a nave, which would be 
a fine one, if it were not 6o disfigured by the small pilasters 
placed against the intermediate piers of the chapels, and the 
extreme smallness of which is a contrast to the grandeur of 
the building. In the chapel of Our Lady of Sorroiçs are two 
good pictures by Viladomat, one of which represents Saint 
James on horseback striking the Moors to the ground. 

Agriculture. At Mataro the labourers form a society dis- 
tinguished for their work and wealth. 

Manufactories. In this town there are four manufactories 
of printed callicoes, two of callico, seven of lace, seventeen of 
blonds, two of soap, fifty-two looms for silk stockings, one 
hundred and sixteen for cotton stockings, forty-eight for silk 
stuffs and velvets, eighty-nine for ribbons and silk galloons, 
six distilleries for brandy, five manufactories of sail-cloth, 
eight tan-yards, and eighteen manufactories of silk twists, 
which yearly make on an average about twenty thousand 
pounds weight. 



CATALONIA. 25 

The road which leads from Mataro, and which 
runs along the sea-coast is a line one. On the 
right we see a chain of hills with green trees, 
and a number of single houses. On the heights 
are the villages Cabrera, Vilasar de dalt, and 
Premia de dalt. "We shortly after come to Vilasar 
de baiv, where there are some brandy distilleries. 
Prejnia de balr is agreeably situated ; the inha- 
bitants are active and laborious. We afterwards 
pass the Masnou, which was formerly only a 
solitary hotel, but which became almost all at 
once a very large village. The village Montgat is 
about a mile farther on ; we then cross a small 
mountain by a deep cut made to open the road, 
having a wall on each side to keep up the banks. 
On the top of this mountain is the castle of 
Montrât ; it has no other merit than its situa- 
tion, which commands the sea, and serves to 
protect the coast against the incursions of the 
barbarians. 

Continuing along the sea side we come to 
the villages of Bagalona and San-Andria. Here 
we see, to the right and left, an immense curtain 
of verdant foliage, formed by a thick wood of 
poplars, covering the banks of the Bezos. This 
river is usually crossed by a ford ; but is fre- 
quently rendered impassable by the waters; it 
easily s utils and overflows in a manner the more 
dangerous, as its sands shift and form excava- 
tions, in which the traveller may lose himself. 



26 CATALONIA. 

The small forest of poplars on the opposite bank 
of the river, is passed in five or six minutes. 
After leaving this forest we discover, to the right, 
the village of Sa/i-JIarti, situated at the foot of 
a mountain, and enter into a long fertile plain 
covered with trees of all kinds, watered by 
numerous streams, and travel through a beau- 
tiful avenue of nut trees all the way to the 
gates of Barcelona. This road, which runs in 
this manner for a league, is well laid out, and 
would be pleasant if it were better kept. 

As we proceed, the scene becomes more live- 
ly. We are surrounded by a country where, in 
the nne season, we see all the riches of nature. 
Every thing is animated ; the fields are full of 
active husbandmen, the roads covered with 
carriages and cattle. 

A great number of buildings gradually show 
themselves to the right, and continue almost 
from the middle of the plain to the side of the 
neighbouring mountains. They have the ap- 
pearance of being a considerable town, but 
these habitations, numerous without confusion, 
are country houses extending to the villages of 
Sarria, Horta, and Gracia, which are themselves 
delightfully situated. 

Barcelona then presents itself with a ma- 
jestic appearance. We perceive the whole ex- 
tent of its buildings, and, on the opposite side, 
the mountain of JShmt-Jowj, which command* 



CATALONIA. 27 

it. We enter the town by the new gate, called 
the gate of France. 

Barcelona, in Latin Barcinona, in Spanish 
Bacelona, is the capital of the principality of 
Catalonia, and one of the principal towns of 
Spain. It formerly existed under the Romans. 
It is celebrated for its situation, extent, the 
number of its population, the richness of the 
country, the industry of its inhabitants, its com- 
merce and its opulence. 

It was founded by the Carthaginians, who 
gave it the name of their General, Annibal Bar- 
cino ; it passed successively under the dominion 
of the Romans, Goths, Saracens or Moors, and 
French ; the last took it from the Moors in the 
ninth century. It afterwards had its own par- 
ticular sovereigns, under the title of the counts 
of Barcelona, who annexed Catalonia to the 
crown of Aragon, and subsequently to the 
Spanish monarchy, when they became possessors 
of it in the sixteenth century. 

Extent. The different limits of Barcelona in the various 
periods of history are still perceptible. The town formerly 
extended only to la Rambla; l>ut it had six hundred houses to 
the \v<-.-,t, which were demolished m the eighteenth century» 
in order to build (he citadel. 

The street! arc by no means handsome, especially those 
within the old limit-: most ofthem arc narrow ami crooked] 

there are L< wevti some that are widej such are the Carrer 
amp la or broad street, the streets of /.</ Porta Ferissa, La 
Jtiera de San Juan, San Pere met bail, S-m Pere me salt, La 
Gamtda del pi, the quare of Sainte Anne, which might be 
patted .1 fine itret I if it were a little longer. In th< new town 



28 CATALONIA. 

lieyond la Rambla there are also some good streets, as those 
of St. Paul, Cannes, St. Antony, and above all the new street 
of Coude del assalto, which is very, straight and long, and 
lead» from la Rainbla to the ramparts. 

AH the streets are paved with square, flat, smooth stones; 
lujt for want of attention, they sink and form inequalities 
where carriages pass. An aqueduct, or rather a common 
sewer runs under most of the streets in the old limits ; it is 
covered in with long narrow stones, unconnected and badly 
put together ; these stones start and sink. An unwholesome 
vapour exhales from it in summer, produced by the filth which 
stagnates there. 

At night these streets are lighted by lamps fixed to the 
walls of the houses and squares : they are placed in a line on 
both sides it small distances from one another. The squares 
in Barcelona are all small and irregular ; and though there 
arc a great many of them, there is but one that deserves the 
name; which is that of the governor's palace; it is square, 
spacious, very open, and ornamented on one side by the front 
ef houses, on another by the General's palace, on the opposite 
side by the beautiful building la Lonja or the Exchange, and 
on the fourth by the sea-gate, having on the left the new 
building of the Custom-house, and on the right the magnifi- 
cent promenade of the quay, called the wall of the sea. 

This would be a superb square, if the design of throwing 
back the sea-gate were executed, and a public monument, a 
fountain, or a statue of a monarch placed in the centre. 

Edifices. Though the town is well built, there are none of 
those sumptuous palaces to be found in it, none of those 
superb hotels, in which architecture and sculpture arrest the 
eye of a stranger. The houses in general are of a tolerably 
pleasing structure, but very simple : they run from four to 
five stories high ; they have large windows ornamented with a 
variety of balconies almost all new, two-thirds of the town 
having been built within about 30 years. On most of the 
fronts of the houses there are paintings in fresco. The house 
of Dnfay in the street of Rcgomir, and that of Cardana, now 



CATALONIA. 29 

the duke of Medina CWj's, in the square of Cocurilla, are re- 
markable. Both of them are ancient ; the former is built 
upon the site of the palace of Gomir, a king of the Moors, 
who, it is said, reigned until this town was taken by the French 
in 802. These two are noble and elegant houses. 

Population. The civil wars in Catalonia in the sixteenth, 
seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries ; the five sieges which 
Barcelona sustained in the space of sixty-two years ; the de- 
cline of its manufactures and the stagnation of its immense 
commerce, has much diminished its population, which was 
formerly considerable. So early as 1715, after the siege of the 
preceding year, it was reduced to thirty-seven thousand per- 
sons; but peace soon restored industry, the arts and manu- 
factures were resumed; commerce returned with vigour; new 
inhabitants came in crowds, and in the course of half a cen- 
tury the population was increased sixteen thousand persons. 
In 17Ô9 there were about fifty-four thousand individuals: the 
increase afterwards became more rapid, and was more than 
doubled in the space of eighteen years ; for by the numbering 
of the people in 1737 there were one hundred and eleven 
thousand four hundred and ten inhabitants, not counting the 
army, which is generally from nine to ten thousand men, and 
foreigners, of whom there are a considerable number. In 
1798 there were one hundred and thirty thousand inhabit- 
ants in Barcelona. The population would still be greater if 
the calculation were extended beyond the ramparts. There 
are now in it twenty thousand live hundred and eight families, 
ten thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven houses, eighty- 
two churches, fifty convents of monks and nuns, thirty foun- 
tain-:, and many large buildings. 

Clergy. Barcelona ha9 an episcopal see, one cathedral, and 
one collegiate chapter, eighty-two churches, twenty-six con- 
vents of monks, eighteen of nuns, two houses of congrega- 
tion» of oratory and missions, three Iraterios, five hospital*, 
one seminary, one mont-de-pit-té, and one tribunal of the 
inquisition. The bishopric of this town existed under the 
Cotbic kinçï ; it va; superseded under the Moors but wa« 



30 CATALONIA. 

re-established by count Raymond Bérenger in 1 14(5, and made 
by lii m a suffragan to the metropo'itan of Tarragona. 

This diocese contains two chapters and two hundred and 
fifty-three parishes. The clergy of the cathedral is numer- 
ous ; its chapter is composed of eleven dignitaries, twenty- 
four canons, and one hundred and forty-two priests of the low 
choir, each possessed of a benefice. The habit of the canons 
is scarlet, with an ermine surplice. The collegiate chapter, 
under the title of St. Anne, is composed of fifteen canons, four 
prebends, with a prior for the president. There are more 
monks in Barcelona than in any other town in Spain ; each 
parish has from twenty to thirty priests ; besides a great 
number that are not attached to any church, and many others 
who perform service in the oratories and chapels of the nun- 
neries. In 179° there were one hundred and thirty-six Fran- 
ciscans in the procession on St. Anthony's day, and those 
were only a part of the monks of the two houses which that 
order possesses in the town. 

There were two councils held at Barcelona in the time 
of the Goths, one in 54-0 or 5-H, and the other m j99 or 600. 
The acts of the latter are unknown ; but the former made 
many canons relative to ecclesiastical discipline : the third 
canon prohibits the ecclesiastics from shaving their beards, 
and from letting their hair grow. 

Hospitals and Asylums. There are six hospitals at Barce- 
lona, a charity house, and one asylum. The hospital of St. 
Anthony's abbey is no longer made any use of, having been 
suppressed since the year 1791. That of Si. Sever is for 
priests ; and in it are contained one for pilgrims, one for or- 
phans, and one for incurabk-. 

The most considerable of all is the General Hospital; it 
receives the sick of both sexes, and foundlings. In 1700, 
some young women who had been sent to Paris for six years 
to receive the necessary education were established here, under 
the name of the Sisters of St. Lazarus ; but no advantage re- 
sulted from the plan. The house for the convalescents is large, 
well distributed, and well aired. 



CATALONIA. 3i 

The Asylum is for all sorts of poor, and children. The wo- 
men and children are employed in spinning, knitting, and 
making lace; and the men in carding or combing hemp, 
wool, and cotton ; and making tissues. There are common- 
ly one thousand four hundred poor, a thousand of whom 
work, the others are either too young or maniacs ; there are 
three hundred of the last. 

Civil and Militari/ administration. A captain-general, or 
governor, and an intendant of the principality of Catalonia, 
reside in this town ; it is also the seat of the royal audience, 
or supreme tribunal of the province. 

The military staff consists of a military and civil governor, 
a lieutenant of the king, a major and two aide-majors. There 
is a contador and war auditor, a port-captain, a marine mini- 
ster and an auditor, a foundery for cannon, a considerable 
arsenal, and a numerous garrison, which usually consists of 
a regiment of cavalry or dragoons, four battalions of Spanish 
guards and Walloons, two regiments of infantry and one 
battalion of artillery. The civil government consists of five-and- 
thirly noble regidors, a procureur-général, a syndic personero, 
and two alcades-majors, who administer justice. 

Fortifications. Barcelona is a fortified town ; its fortifica- 
tions were formerly calculated to make a long resistance. It 
is impregnable on the side towards the sea, it not being deep 
enough to permit large ships to approach ; it is guarded oa 
the land side with many bastions, the approaches to which 
are defended by many advanced works, and principally by a 
citadel, situated at the north-east point, and by the fort of 
Mont-Juoy, situated on the summit of a mountain at the 
south-east point. 

Public Instruction. There was formerly an university at 
Barcelona in which the sciences were taught ; it was suppres- 
sed at the beginning of the Ibth century, by Philip V. 
1 In- building, which il at tin- extremity til' la liambla, and 

which ii called Lo. • Hi is at present Med as barrack*. 
t period tliere hare been only schools i'^r theology 



SG CATALONIA. 

and philosophy, which are kept by ecclesiastics under the 
inspection of the bishop. There are private schools kept by 
several religious orders. There is a private school for ma- 
thematics, for engineer officers and young soldiers ; fortifica- 
tion is taught «.here. 

There is a valuable collection of the productions of nature 
at the house of a private person. Don Jacques Salvador, an 
apothecary of Barcelona, took a liking to Natural History, and 
applied himself to it with success at the commencement of 
the 18th century ; a time when this science was little cul- 
tivated in Spain: he formed a collection, and augmented it ; 
bis cabinet of Natural History soon became very curious, and 
his descendants have preserved it with care. It contains 
some Roman antiqui'.ie-, sepulchral urns, vases, medallions, &c; 
a fine collection of Spanish marble, a great many minerals, 
congélations, crystallizations, a quantity of the wealth of the 
new world, and a valuable collection of shells. This cabinet 
merited the particular attention of Tovrnefort. That famous 
botanist having a great esteem for Salvador, made him a 
present of a fine herbal, which is still to be seen, and which 
contains a great many plants from the Levant. 

There are two public libraries in the town, one belonging 
to the school for surgery, and the other to the convents of 
the Dominicans of Saint-Catherine. The former is only 
for works on surgery, and some parts of medicine. The 
other is considerable : moral, scholastic, and ascetic theology, 
jurisprudence, especially the canon law, paripatetie philo- 
sophy, and history, particularly national ones, form the princi- 
pal part of it. It ha» very few modern, foreign books ; but 
there are excellent and valuable one* of the different kinds we 
have mentioned. 

Though the means of instruction are few at Barcelona, and 
the establishments that might assist it are scarce, the Cata- 
lonians, in their activity, their zeah and their desire of in- 
struction, find resources which enable them to surmount every 
obstacle. This zeal, which never quits them, has been thr 
means of establishing four academies at Barcelona, which 



CATALONIA. 33 

without patronage or revenue is maintained solely by the 
emulation of the members who compose them. 

The first, of Jurisprudence, is formed by the most eminent 
lawyers of the town. 

The second, of Practical Medicine, long languished ; but re- 
covered itself in 1790 ; made a certain advance, and changed 
its form in correcting its institution. It prescribed to itself 
every useful labour, and obtained association with the Royal 
Society of Medicine at Paris. 

The third, of Natural Philosophy, principally owes its 
existence to the liberality of one of its members, the marquis 
of Llupia, who generously made it a present of his interesting 
collection of philosophical instruments and machines, and his 
extensive and well chosen library. 

The fourth, of History, is chiefly occupied on the history of 
Spain, and more particularly on that of Catalonia ; its re- 
searches have already been interesting. In the year 1791 
it met with a loss not easily repaired, in the person of D. 
Jacobo Caresmar, a regular canon, and an able antiquary, 
and one who had a profound knowledge of the geography 
and of the ecclesiastical history of his country. 

Barcelona has not produced any great poets : this town, 
however, formerly had a fraternity of gate-science, which 
was instituted at the end of the 14th century, in the same 
manner as that which existed at Toulouse, and which has 
continued to our times, under the name of Académie des jeux 
Jlorauic. 

The most distinguished persons born in that town, arc 
Pedro liossan, a poet of the loth century ; the historian John 
Pujades; the physician Andrcu; and a female, Jane Morel; 
all three of the hist century. This lady was at once a 
theologian, philosopher, lawyer, mistress of languages, and 
musician. Jacobo Salvador, a naturalist, and Antonio Vila* 
dontat, a painter, equally honoured then country in the 18th 
< . utiiry. 

Antiquitiet and Monuments. Barcelona was s town of 
; . / I) 



34 CATAlôNÏA. 

importance tinder the Romans, tohù embellished it, and t: 
works bore the marks of their grandeur and magnificence. 
Me tôf i he m hare perished. An amplntheatre orcupi'd the 
place which is now covered with houses between the street of 
the Boquera and Trinity-square : the spot for a long time 
retained the name of Arenaria ; but there remain no traces 
of it. 

In a niche on the grand staircase of the college of the 
Cannes of la Rambla there is a colossal half foot of white 
marble; it is a woman's foot, with a sandal on, and finely 
rmed. 

On the ground of the parish church of St. Michael there 
was formerly a remarkable pavement, of which there are now 
but remnants ; it is a mosaic, composed with little white and 
blue stones, representing tritons and fishes. 

The water was carried to Barcelona by an aqueduct; of 
which there re mams a very lofty arch at the entrance of the 
street of the Cnpellans ; there is nothing remarkable in its 
structure ; it is only very massive and solid. It seems to 
run towards the cathedral church and towards the remains 
of the temple which are still to be seen behind this church, 
and of which wt .hall presently speak. There is room to 
believe that it took up the water on the mountain of Colsc- 
rola, in the neighbourhood of Barcelona, where there are 
vestiges of an aqueduct found, which appears to be of the 
game structure. 

A basin of white marble serves at present as a cistern to a 
fountain in the house of the archdeacon, near the cathedral ; 
it forms a parallelogram, rounded at the four corners. Only 
three fronts of it are to be seen ; the fourth is concealed by a 
wall. These three fronts are covered with reliefs 

Some interesting remains of a great and superb monument 
is found in Paradise street, behind the cathedral; it is* the 
highest spot of the town, and centre of the ancient Bar- 
celona. 

There remain six large fluted columns with capitals of the 



CATALONIA. 3i 

Corinthian order, of white marble ; they are 29 feet 10 lines 
high, including the bases and capitals, and are supported by 
pedestals from 7 to 8 inches ; the plinths of the pedestals 
are of the greatest simplicity. The capitals have been in- 
jured ; but the remains show that they were wrought with 
taste and delicacy. These columns are shut up in a house, 
and cased in the thickness of the walls ; they reach from the 
ground of the house higher than the second s,tory ; but wc 
cannot trace them farther. 

There were formerly public baths at Barcelona ; there are 
two streets of that town which have taken the name of 
them ; they are called Carrer dels bans in the Catalonian dia- 
lect, Calk delos banos in Spanish : in a house in the street 
of this name, which is at the corner of the Boquera, there is 
still a remarkable monument, which can only be attributed 
to the Moors : it consists of several pieces, supported by 
columns rather misshapen, with vaults in the shape of a horse- 
shoe 

The walls of the court of a house which is falling into ruins 
on the square of the Cucurulla, and which belongs to the 
Pinos, are ornamented with many antique sculptures ; such 
as medallions, some heads of emperors, an unknown head 
wish this inscription : AVGVSTVS. PATER ;* a little statue 
of Bacchus, wanting the head, but of exquisite workmanship • 
a Qgure in bass-relief in a gallery over the court. This house 
was in a manner deserted and left open to every body ; in- 
truders daily broke or carned>.oft' some of these antiques. Jt 
has just been rebuilt. 

Th«.-y tell an anecdote singular enough concerning it, 
. >», to whom il lekng'-d at the beginning of the 18th 
century, was one of the principal leaders of the Cata- 
lonian rebellion ; this house was almost destroyed by 
bombs during the siege of B-.vrcd<.n;\ in 1713 and 
io 17]4- ; I\'i.'os souk lime after, when he was dyir^ r , 

* It is finely executed. 

1) 2 



36 CATALONIA. 

recommended to bis son not to have it repaired, that if? fuitts 
might be a monument of his fidelity to the sovereign to whom 
he had devoted himself, and of his hatred to Philip V. Hii 
descendants allowed the house to go to ruin till the journey 
which the reigning king took into Catalonia. 

Public Edifices. Some of the public buildings of Barcelona 
deserve the attention of the lovers of the arts, both for their 
exterior beauty and for what they contain within. 

The cathedral church, the building of which was begun at 
the end of the 1 3th century, is not yet finished ; the portal 
yet remains to be done. We ascend to it by large steps of 
free-stone, which extend the whole breadth, and are in a bad. 
state. Yet for upwards of three hundred years a duty has 
been imposed on the marriage licences given by the eccle- 
siastical court, and the produce of it assigned for the build- 
ing of this portal. This duty, which has continued to be 
levied, has already furnished sufficient sums for the purpose, 
and yet the work is not even begun. The whole appearance 
of this church is majestic : its length is one hundred and 
sixty feet, and breadth sixty- two. The nave and aisles 
are separated by twelve large Gothic pillars, formed by clusters 
of columns of various sizes. There are some obscure galleries, 
each ornamented by nine small columns over the arches which 
connect the twelve large pillars. The aisles turn, and meet 
behind the sanctuary. In the middle of the space between 
the great door and the choir, there is a great octagon dome, 
in Gothic architecture ; it has eight galleries, ornamented 
with little columns and balustrades. 

The sanctuary is formed by ten pillars, smaller than those 
of the aisles, which meet at the top, forming a semi-circle, 
where the great altar is, which is aleo of the Gothic style, and 
of delicate workmanship. By the side of the door of the 
vestry there are two sepulchral urns of wood, containing the 
allies of Baymond Bérenger, count of Barcelona, and the 
counte»?, his wife, the founders of this church. The sanc- 
tuary stand» over a subterranean chapel, where the relics of 



CATALONIA. 37 

Saint Eulalia, patroness of the town, are preserved in a superb 
shrine. 

The choir is in the middle of the nave ; it 19 decorated on 
the outside by very slight columns with various ornaments, 
and the part about the door in front of the principal entrance 
of the church, called in Spanish Trascoro, is pargeted with 
red and yellow marble. There are two statues of saints and 
two pieces of bass-relief. The door of the choir is in the 
middle, between two columns of the Corinthian order ; sur- 
mounted by a balustrade. The whole of this decoration is in 
white marble. In 150Q, Charles I. having held a chapter of 
the Golden Fleece, the armorials of the knights who com- 
posed it were placed above the stalls, with inscriptions to 
preserve the memory of it. 

The subterranean chapel of Saint Eulalia is very hand- 
some ; the others are remarkable only for some paintings by 
Antonio Viladomat and Emanuel Tramullas. 

The cloister at the side of the church is extensive.* The 
treasury is fine, but not equal in magnificence to those of 
many other churches in Spain. 

Convent ofla Merci. The church is large; its front is com- 
posed of two stories of architecture, the Corinthian and the 
Ionic ; its portal n of the Doric order. The cloister of this con- 
vent is very fine, and superbly executed : it is sixty feet square. 
There is a portico along the four faces, of sixteen arcades, 
supported by twenty Doric columns of dark grey and mixed 
marble; a like number of pilastres of the same marble, with 
their capitals of white marble, ornaments the interior walls, 
which are besides tiled to a certain height, ornamented above 
with nineteen large paintings relative to the foundation of the 
order <>| !a .Merci. The windows in the roof of the vault con- 
tain the portraits in fresco of the princes who were the patrons 

• I'ti'-y raise and \>; • < m tin iluister. A rent is Mtifocd 

ir support. It ii said to be an endowment of considerable «u- 
U'jn.ty. 



38 CATALONIA. 

and benefactors of the order; some of these paintings are by 
Vinols. 

Over this portico there is a gallery the whole length of the 
four fronts ; it has on the outside thirty-two arcades on Ionic 
columns, coupled, and of white-grey marble ; it is ornament- 
ed all round by a balustrade of grey marble. The floor of it 
is very ancient, and made of inlaid wood. The area of the 
cloisters is spacious; its centre is ornamented with a beautiful 
fountain of white marble, on an octagon plan; it is a great 
basin, in the middle of which stands a large cistern with eight 
cocks, surmounted with a round shell, having eight jets d'eaux, 
and in the middle another jet larger and higher. The appear- 
ance of this cloister altogether is striking. 

The convent of San Francisco belongs to the Cordeliers ; 
the church is very large, Gothic, and handsome. Several 
princes and princesses of the royal house of Aragon were 
buried there. The cloister is ornamented with twenty-five 
\ i... tings, representing the particulars of the life of St. Fran- 
cis, all painted by Viladomat. 

The convent of the Dominicans, under the title of Saint 
Catherine, has a church with a nave, but no aisles; it is 
large, and built of free-stone. The chapel of S. Raymond 
has a dome, ornamented with paintings ia fresco. That of 
Our Lady of the Rosary is remarkable for the confusion of 
sculptures, ornaments, and gildings ; there is a good picture 
of the Descent of the Holy Ghost, by Viladomat, and upon 
the altar a fine statue of the Holy Virgin, in white marble, 
executed at Rome. In the vestibule, leading to the cloisters, 
there is a white marble tomb of Thomas Ripoll, general of 
the order, who died at Rome in 1733. Only one of the two 
cloisters deserves any attention. It is Gothic, and in the 
middle planted with orange trees; two of its fronts are 
ornamented with sepulchral urns, tombs, and marble statues. 
The walls of it are covered with paintings, intended to pre- 
serve the memory of the people who have been condemned by 
the Inquisition. They represent piles, dishevelled heads, 
bodies in the midst of the flames, devils carrying off bodies, 



CATAÎ.OXIA. 5% 

and inscriptions containing the name, country, age, profession, 
and nature " f punishment of each person, with the dates of 
their sentence and execution. The first is in the year 1-1 SS. 
and the list in J726, A very long inscription, placed over 
ope of the doors of the cloister, informs us that the monu- 
ments of uie punishment of the condemned were formerly de- 
ported in tue same place; but t having been almost de- 
stroyed by the injuries of time and the ravages of war, espe- 
cially during the siege of Barcelona, in 1713, the Inqui>ition 
had supplied their place by this picture which they had put 
up in 1745- This inscription likewise tells us, that during 
the same *>iege, three hundred and sixty-five bombs had fallen 
into this convent. 

The parish church of St. Mary of the Sea was built 
in the middle of the fifteenth century; it is the handsomest 
in Barcelona, from its regularity. It has a nave and two 
aisles, separated by lofty arcades, delicately formed. In 
thee there are five pictures of the Passion, by Viladomat. 
The chief altar is a prodigious assemblage of white, black, 
and mixed marble ; but this richness is injured by carvings 
on wood of a bad taste. 

The Ilulel-de-Ville is in a ver} r narrow sheet behind St. 
James's church; its front on that side has no ornament ; in 
the interior there are Gothic columns, with a great variety of 
sculpture» done w th much taste. The front, towards the 
garden, has considerable beauty. 

The HotcJ of the Deputation was the place where the 
States of Catalonia assembled, and is now used for the sit- 
•ldience : it stands opposite to St. James's 
church, ;iud ji accounted one of the handsomest buildings in 
Barcelona. H due*, m fact, bring to mind the beautinjd 
palac - of Bah-, allowing for a few defects. In this hold are 
valuable charters and archives pf tin- crown of 

the treaties of peace, and tin- concetaionp 
grant corporations, and communities. These 

in bin -ire kept ii .: order. 

D 4 



40 CATALONIA. 

The palace of the counts of Barcelona and kings of Ara- 
gon is séparât d from the cathedral only by a little street : 
its principal front looked on a square, which retains the name 
of Plaza del Rey. At present, one part of this antique palace 
is occupied by the nuns of Saint Claire ; another part serves 
for the Academy of Medicine, and another for the Inquisition 
and its prisons. All that it is now remarkable for are its walls, 
the size of its rooms, and its noble simplicity. 

The General's Palace, in the square of the same name, was 
built in 1444, at the expence of the town, as a market for 
cloth?. The municipality turned it into an arsenal in 1514-, 
and kept the arms of the commons there. It was confiscated 
by Philip IV. in 16.52, when he reduced the Catalans, who 
had held out against him for twelve years : he there made 
it the residence of the viceroys of Catalonia. It is a large, 
regular, square building, with battlements on the top, and 
covered on the outside with bad paintings in fresco. 

The Custom- House is a modern edifice, built according to 
the designs and under the direction of Roncali, and finished 
in 1792. It stands close to the Sea-gate, opposite one of 
the side fronts of the General's Palace : it is. a square insulated 
building : the front has two tiers of pilasters and columns ; 
the lower of the Tuscan and the upper of the Doric order. It 
has three porticos, faced with coupled columns of the Tuscan 
order, and a terrace runs round its four fronts. The pilasters, 
columns, and ornaments are in stucco, or cased with stucco, 
to which the colours of different marble have been given, by 
which the neatness of the façade is injured. So early as in 
1798 the stucco began to chip, in consequence of the con- 
tact with the sea air. The windows have iron balconies, 
painted red. The whole of this building betrays the extreme 
of bad taste. 

The Exchange is likewise in the square of the General'* 
Palace. It would certainly be the finest building in the town, 
if a part of it, by projecting much too forward, did not injure 
its principal front : be that as it may, the taste of its decora. 



CATALONIA. 4Ï 

tions corresponds with the nobleness and beauty of the struc- 
ture, and the whole is majestic. It was built by a duty laid 
on the commerce of Barcelona. It is a long rectangular 
building of two hundred and thirty feet, by seventy-seven. 
The body is insulated. Its principal front, towards the 
square, has three entrances by large porticos, and is orna- 
mented with the Doric columns, over hich is a terrace with 
balustrades, :i" • beneath there is a handsome vaulted vesti- 
bule. The upper tury rises from the terrace, and is orna- 
mented with four Ionic pilasters on the sides, and in the mid- 
dle with six columns, between which there are three large 
windows. An attic, decorated with sculptures finishes this 
front, which is all of free-stone. The inside is distributed 
into a multiplicity of rooms ; one of which is appropriated to 
a school for navigation, and several others for drawing. 

The Playhouse is on the promenade of la Rambla. Its front 
has a kind of vestibu , entered by three arcades, which are 
supported by four Ionic columns: above which there are four 
of the Corinthian order; but the facade is small, crowded, 
and poor. The interior is handsome, spacious, well laid out, 
full of out-lets, and adorned with three rows of boxes of an 
elegant simpficity. The theatre is large; the front of the 
stage done with taste, and the decorations are numerous and 
well executed. In the inside it is the handsomest playhouse 
in Spain. 

The School for Surgery, .he amphitheat e for anatomy 
is large, and tolerably well plann , but perhaps not lofty 
enough : there is too much bronze and gilding about it. 
I hen: is a gallery round it. It contains a marble bust of 
Pedro Virgili, a Catalonian surgeon, who, in the course of 
the 18th century, \\a^ the restorer of surgery in Spain, and 
the promoter of ii^ schools* The bust, which i* finely exe- 
cuted, was put up on the 6th of October, 177s, by the pro- 
fessors, ai a U itiroooy of gratitude. 

Atarazana. This i^ a name g yen to a large space which 
was formerly a pari of the COast, but now Crowded with build- 



4- CATALONIA. 

ings erected upon it : a considerable portion of it however 
remains open. It is situated between the sea-wall and the pro- 
menade ol la Rambla, with which it forms the communication. 
An immense range of barracks has been lately erected here, 
and several buildings for casting, polishing, and boring 
cannon, besides which there is an arsenal here for all kinds 
of arms. There is another building opposite the barracks, 
which is al»o used for the fabrication of arms : it has only 
a ground story, with twelve windows in front separated by 
Doric pilasters ; it has a large portal in the middle hetwsi 
four pilasters of the same order, surmounted W ilh a pedim» nt, 
at the top of which are the arms of Spain. 

Promenades of Barcelona. Barcelona has a great many 
handsome walks, both in and out of ihe town. Those with- 
out are on the sides of the fosses ; they are shaded by laige 
trees, and they would be agreeable were it not for the in- 
convenience of the dust. The walks within run roixnd the 
town. Setting out from the sea-gate, we ascend the sea- 
wail,* and go the whole extent of it, then descend on the 
Rambla to the Atarax an as ; on tbifi walk we proceed about 
::00 paces, then turn to the left through the street which 
leads to the land-wall, we ^o round this to the Esplanade and 
the wall lately made there, in which we continue till we come 
to a very short street which leads as again to the sea-gate, 
•whence we set out. It takes about one hour and a half to 
make the tour of this agreeable walk. 

The sea-wall extends in a right line from the sea-gate to 
the foot of Mont- Jouy, about 380 fathoms in length and 46 
feet in breadth. It forms a superb terrace along the harbour 
and seaside. On the riçdit it has a line of houses well built, 
and covered with an agreeable variety of paintings in fresco ; 
on the left is die harbour and an immense extent of sea, on 

• I always make use of the word naif, from its being con- 
secrated in the country : it means however nothing more than the 
rampart, 



CATALONIA. 43 

>hich a multitude of sails and ships of different nations are 
?cen at a distance. There are a number of stone seats in 
this beautiful walk : it wants nothing but trees; of these, 
however, the defence of the place and the vaults over which 
a great part of it is built will not allow. The count de Kicla, 
who was captain-general of Catalonia about the middle of 
the ISth century, beim; desirous of rendering this prome- 
nade more frequented, had coffee-houses and other attractions 
established on it : after Ins time they were put down. 

The laud-wall begins nearly where the sea-wall finishes, 
and terminates towards the Esplanade, thus forming a length- 
ened semi-circle embracing three quarters of the town. This 
wall stands high ; on one side it looks down on the town, and 
ou the other it looks over the country : there we see a num- 
ber of pleasant houses and manufactories, and here rich and 
fertile fields clothed in verdure. 

The Esplanade is a large open piece of ground extending 
from the new gate to the citadel, below and on the side of 
the extremity oT the land-wall : it was turfed and planted 
with trees, but it was not frequented. In 1797 & handsome 
walk was begun to be made, which was finished in ltOl under 
the care and direction of Don Augustin de Lancaster, the 
captain-general of Catalonia. It is 444 yards in length and 
is divided into three alleys, the middle one of which is broad- 
en : a green rail nearly breast-high runs round it, with open- 
ings here and there for walkers; but all the openings have 
turnstiles in thern. In the alleys there are circular places 
surrounded with white marble teats in form of canopies, vwth 
iron backs painted green. In each of these places there is 
a basin with a balustrade round it, and in the midle a jet- 
d'eau which rises to the height of from 25 to 30 feet. The 
■Jleys at their < xtremith b terminate in a semi-circular apace, 
in the middle of which is a chateau d'<au, or reservoir, in the 
I ■ of a triumphal arch, built in grotto work. There is 
a ntw alley, on the outaide, 18 feet wide, intended for car- 



44- CATALAN TA. 

riages. This promenade is only frequented at the fine time 
cfthe year. 

The Rambla, the ancient interior walk of the town, in a 
gully, whence it took its na f\ went round the old limits of 
Barcelona. It joined the two walls, sea and land, forming a 
communication between them, and extended from the des- 
cent of the sea-wall to the Atarazanas, and to the barracks 
called los estudibs. This promenade was 904 yards in length, 
and had trees from the convent of Santa Monica to the 
streets of the Carme and the Puerto Ferissa, where it terminated 
in an open place where the soldiers of the garrison were 
exercised. The ground of the walk, which was distributed 
into several alleys, was muddy in winter, and very dusty in 
summer ; the trees upon it were small, and not sufficiently 
bushy, as they could not thrive in so bad a soil. The ne- 
cessity of opening a way for the carts and wains of the 
adjacent quarters gave the idea of changing the form and 
use of this walk, and dividing it into several parts : the great 
opening at the descent from the sea-wall to the Atarazanas 
has been suffered to remain, to the extent of 110 yards in 
length and 22 in breadth : on one side of it a terrace is 
raised two feet high, paved with brick, having on each side 
walled causeways, serving it as parapets ; it is 27 feet wide 
and falls into another square 14-4 feet by 126, without trees, 
where the playhouse is. There a similar terrace has been 
made 211- yards in length, which in like manner leads to 
another square of 156 feet by 133, into which the streets of 
the hospital and the Boqueria open. The two terraces are 
planted on both sides of the exterior with large poplars close 
to one another, but with openings here and there for passages. 
At the extremity of the latter square a promenade of a dif- 
ferent kind begins: it is 174 yards in length and 30 feet 
in breadth, composed of a single alley, not raised, bat having 
a wooden rail on each side painted green, with turnstiles for 
walkers ; it leads to a large square tolerably handsome, but 
without trees : it has been left in its old state. 



CATALONIA. 4 3 

This walk as well as that of the Esplanade was made at a 
time when the people were deprived of work and stood in 
the greatest want of assistance ; these two extensive under- 
takings served to employ and to support them. Nor must 
the beneficent establishment which furnished the means, pass 
unnoticed here. In 1798, during the war between England 
and Spain, commerce became languid, a great number of 
manufactories were shut up, and others confined to fewer 
hands ; many mechanics also failed, and a multitude of men 
and women were reduced to extreme want. The inhabi- 
tants were every day assailed by the poor of all classes, 
and this beggary, almost general, raised great apprehensions 
for the safety of the streets and houses. At that juncture 
the captain-general of Catalonia, Don Augustin, afterwards 
called Duke of Lancaster, and whose name should be im- 
mortal in Barcelona, undertook to relieve the general distress. 
He obtained the king's permission to give public balls, and 
make lotteries of different kinds. The produce of both was 
applied in assisting the unfortunate : the direction of which 
was confined to a company of merchants, who performed this 
duty with equal zeal and disinterestedness : all who could 
work were employed for public service, and to those of 
either sex who could not, a daily distribution was made of 
food ready dressed. These two modes of relief were con- 
tinued a long time : the latter went by the name of Olla pu- 
blico, or the Public put. The directors themselves attended 
everyday to the distribution to the people, who came up in a 
line with great order and quiet. To each was given a large 
bason of thick rice or vermicelli soap, with ci bbage, pease, a 
bit of the lights of beef or mutton, and a slice of pork or 
mutton. It was not «;i-\ to eat this portion at "one meal. 
rtain number of similar portions were likewise sent to 
the prisons and to the asylum. From the commencement oi 
this charity in March 1799 t<s 1801, 3,83^,746" portions were 
touted, making about 336o portions daily. The weekly 
•onsumptiou was usually as follow 



40 CATALONIA, 

Vermicelli, which was always furnished gratis by thr 

makers of it . ) cwt. 

Rice »* from 30 to 32 do. 

Fease , 32 to 35 do. 

Cabbage*, exclusive of those sent m 

charity 6~0 to 80 doz. 

Beef and Mutton Lights _. 1200 cwt. 

Fork 18 do. 

Mutton |8 do. 

Salt 4 do. 

Wood H2 do. 

This philanthropic establishment was long kept up, and u 
not yet entirely extinct. At the same time, the societies of 
mechanics joined to give assistance likewise to such of their 
own business as had fallen into indigence. The goldsmiths 
lor near three years fed a great number of unfortunate people, 
and the quantity of rations furnished by them alone amount- 
ed to upwards of 36,000. 

Commerce. Barcelona is the centre of the commerce of 
all Catalonia : in this city reside the principal merchants of 
the country, and hither flock the foreign merchants ; here 
are made the great speculations which extend to and include 
the trade of the other ports of the province ; and here too is 
received a great part of the immense coinage which Spanish 
America sends every year into Spain. 

The productions of the earth of a «reat part of Catalonia 
form a no less interesting branch of the commerce of this 
town : the harbour is always full of ships ; a thousand are 
computed to enter every year, of all bulks and of every na- 
tion. Nearly a like number of Spanish clear for Holland, 
France, England, Italy, the North of Europe, and America. 
Barcelona exports silver, gold, and plain stuffs ; silk stockings 
middling cloths, printed callicoes, striped and flowered cot- 
tons, cottons of every kind, stained and plain papers, fire- 
arms, laces, shoes, vines, and brandies. It imports silks 



CATALOXJA. 47 

from Lyon and Nismes, silk stockings from Nismes and Ganges, 
cloths from Elbeuf and Sedan, jewellery from Paris, iron ware 
from Forez, millinery from France, cotton goods and stock- 
fish from England. The amount of the trade outward and 
inward is computed at upwards of 1,750,0001. sterling. 

The cotton cloths and stuffs alone manufactured at Bar- 
celona, exclusive of a great quantity of printed callicoes, 
yield an annual produce of 442,510 1. 8s. 4d. sterling. About 
one-twelfth is consumed in the province ; two-twelfths go to 
the other provinces of Spain : two-thirds of it are sent to the 
Spanish colonies. The exports from the province, therefore, 
amount to about 36 millions of reals, or 375,000 1. sterling. 

The trade in shoes is considerable ; 700,000 pair are an- 
nually exported, the* trade-price of which was two shillings 
and a penny the pair. Since the war the price is increased. 
The Catalonians carry their industry so far as to turn the 
very filth and sweepings of their houses to profit, which they 
collect and sell to manure the lands. It is said that the 
quantity yearly sent out of Barcelona brings in a sum of 
6S75 1. sterling. From the great trade of this town several 
courts have been established for its protection, and foreign 
nations send consuls to reside here. 

The arts arc cultivated at Barcelona, but chiefly those con- 
nected with manufactures. At the expence of the commer- 
cial interest of this town two public free schools have been 
established, from which great advantages are already derived. 
One is a school for navigation, and the other a school lor 
drawing, where every one that desires it is admitted : there- 
are a great many masters in the different branches. This es- 
tablishment has been very successful under the direction of 
Don Pedro Moles, and ha^ lunicd out some very good pupils. 

Barcelona has produced few painter', sculptors, or archi- 
tects ; it owes its celebrity and prosperity to its manufactures, 
and the flourishing industry of the merchants. There in a 
kind of panning, however, in which tin: lia re lonians succeed 
v< ry w. il, tiiittn ïVc;co, with which the houses are covered. 

5 



4R CATALONIA. 

Manufacturée. The manufactures of Barcelona were very 
considerable. So early as the 13th century the inhabitant» 
manufactured a quantity of woollens, silks, linens, hempen 
cloths, and cottons, which supported themselves till the end 
of the IfJth century. They revived in the middle of the 18th, 
and are at present in a very flourishing state, and are more 
numerous and various than ever. They consist principally 
of printed callicoes, silks, silk stockings, ribbons, and silk 
galloon. There are 214 manufactories of printed cottons, 
524 looms of silk stuffs, and 2700 of ribbons and silk 
galloon. 

The printed callicoes are in general rather coarse, but there 
are some tolerably handsome : the designs have been much 
improved lately, and more taste has been displayed in them, 
but the colours rarely stand. 

The s-ilk works consist of taffetas, twilled and common silks, 
satins, velvets of every kind and colour ; these are mixed 
with gold and silver : gold cloths and brocades are also made 
there. The manufactures are not carried on by manu- 
facturing companies, but dispersed among the workmen 
themselves, by which perhaps the qualities may income de- 
gree be injured. It is remarked that the stuffs would be 
better if they were closer, for their texture is commonly 
loose : they are also diffèrent in the gloss, which is seldom fine, 
and is never equal to that in the manufactures of France. 
Another fault in all these stuffs is the silk being badly pre- 
pared, which leaves it almost always shaggy : the cause of 
this is the silk being spun Or twisted in an uneven manner. 
The same unpleasant effect is observed in the silk stockings; 
taey cannot be fine, their stitches being uneven, and often 
large and shaggy : they do not last long, and are as dear as 
the French stockings after the duty on their entrance into 
Spain ha> been paid. 

At Barcelona, laces, blonds, net-work and tapes, employ 
about twelve thousand persons ; galloons, laas, and gold 
and silver fringes are likewise made here ; but these are 



CATALOXIA. 49 

of no great importance. Silk, gold, and silver embroideries 
are very common, and the embroiderers are so numerous, thai 
they are to be found in every street. 

Among the manufactures of all sorts of woollen, there are 
some of blankets, which are neither fine nor handsome, but of 
a good qualitj'. For several years past some manufactories 
of hats have been established, and two manufactories of stain- 
id paper to ornament chambers; the finest designs of the 
manufactures of France are imitated in them. A manufactory 
of cotton stuffs has kcu setup; it belongs to a Swiss : here they 
make flannels, swansdown, dimities, cloths, and blankets; and 
stuffs of cotton and silk mixed, plain, striped, and of se- 
veral colours, fur clothes. This undertaking has been re? 
markably successful: the stuffs are good and pleasant, and of 
a moderate price. Several manufactures of cotton have been 
set up in imitation of it. Formerly printed callicoes were 
stamped on cotton which came from abroad ; which consi- 
derably raised the price of them ; but a new species of in- 
dustry has been introduced, which is become very advanta- 
geous, this is called cotton-spinning, which since 1790 
has made «0 rapid a progress, that there are already a hundred 
workshops engaged in tliis branch ; considerable advantages 
r- ;ilt from it, such as that of making muslins, nankins, and 
velvets. For cottons they reckon about 4000 looms, which 
employ 10,700 persons* The following table will serve to 
show the importance and value of this branch of national 
industry. 



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CATALONIA. 51 

Shoe-making constitutes a new branch of industry at 
Barcelona. There is a great number of shoe-makers ; they 
work incessantly to furnish a great part of Spain, India, and 
Spanish America: the whole amount of shoes exported are 
700,000 pairs a year. 

Lastly, two new manufactories have been established, one 
for gauzes like blond lace, and the other for glass : this fur- 
nishes square glasses of all sizes, even of three feet four 
inches long, by three feet wide. The Barcelonians have not 
much invention in their manufactures, but they easily 
imitate the works of other people. 

C: trader and Manners. The character of the inhabitants 
of this town is the same as that of all Catalonia, of which we 
shall hereafter speak ; however, it is more softened by the 
commercial connections which are produced by the strangers 
that frequent il, yet it retains a kind of asperity natural to 
the Cataloniuns. The people are not mischievous ; they cry 
out, threaten much, and rarely strike. On all remarkable 
occasions, an immense crowd assemble day or night, whether 
for processions or pubhe feasts ; but disputes very seldom hap- 
pen. In spite of the roughness in the character of the Ca- 
talonians, in spite of the concourse of strangers, the streets 
of Barcelona are safe in the night-time ; they are guarded 
by patroles in every quarter. The Serenos, who are the same 
as watchmen in Germany and England, contribute to the 
public safety. They are armed with swords and pikes, and 
carry a lanthorn ; they call out the hour and the slate of the 
weather. We ^hall ^pe-ak more of them in the description of 
Valencia, where this establishment began. In spite of the 
.net of Barcelona, the Wealth is divided in such a mari- 
ner as to render it lcs< apparent, an 1 the ta ..e for economy, na- 
tural to tin- Çatiloi eps it shut up, and as it were m a 
manner in km w.i. Tue p ople live easily herr, but n< t at 
Their ease, and they become very p» or whei e «r Spun 

a marit me war : ou tbe.contrary, th;y g r o"' r 'cbi 
E ( 2 



CATALONIA. 

when there u a war with Trance, by the rmmeasti suttu 
that the armies spend and Leave in the country. 

The merchants and tradesmen may be divided into two 
classes, the one very opulent, and the other barely <^t their 
case. The nobility, some families excepted, were not very 
rich ; but tor twenty vcars past their incomes have increased 
prodigiously : the produce of the funds have almost trebled : 
since the last war rapid fortunes have been made, and the 
nobility have participated in this increase of wealth. 

The ladies of every condition, from the nobility to the high- 
er trades-people, wear the Spanish dress only when they go to 
church or walk in the town ; but at home, in company, at half?, 
and plays, they dress themselves according to the French 
fashion, which they follow very minutely; and most of their 
apparel comes from France. The neatness of the foot is 
important object in the dress of the women : silk stockings are 
very common in every class ; and their shoes are embroi- 
dered with silk, gold, silver, pearls, and spangles. 

No great round hats, no cropped beads without powder, 
are to be seen in the town, among the Catalonians, as in 
almost all the rest of Spain. The mechanic is always well 
>sed j even the common workmen are frequently frizzed 
and powdered in their own shop. The nobility distinguish 
themselves on great days by a richness in thoir clothes ; thr y 
are made of superb embroideries, velvets mixed with gold 
and silver, and tissues entirely of gold or silver. 

Amusements and Society. At Barcelona every thing breathes 
the taste for luxury and pleasure : the inhabitants are pas- 
sionately fond of plays, and every class delights in dan- 
cing. There were formerly public dances during the 
Carnival in the play-house, called Piécettes, from the name 
of the coin which is paid for entrance ; these balls were 
prohibited about the year 1778, and the suppression of 
them has never ceased to be a cause of the greatest regret. 
Bat, as lias been said, the king in \79& permitted the renewal 

6 



CATAI.OXÎ.v. 53 

of public .balls. The passion for dancing then revived with 

all it? ardour; the inhabitants crowded to these- balls; the 
trades-people shewed such eagerness, that some were seen 
there whose earnings were not enough for the subsistence of 
their families. Many women have been even known to sell 
their furniture to defray the expences of this amusement. 

There were likewise brilliant masquerades during the Car- 
nival. High and low, rich and poor, disguised themselves 
under various forms : they assumed the dress of every nation ; 
dresses in character increased every year ; there was a dis- 
play of studied taste, and frequently of magnificence. Thé 
lîrimbla was the principal rendezvous of the masks, the win- 
dows were fdled with ladies, well dressed; the whole was a 
beautiful sight. The Barcelonians have been deprived of this - 
enjoyment by the government. They still speak with enthu- 
siasm of that happy time ; the remembrance and regret of 
which appear to be indelible. 

The inhabitants seldom associate, and their meetings are 
rarely gay. The nobility formerly met every night, some- 
times at one house, sometimes at another ; their parties were 
always very numerous, at times amounting to two hundred 
persons. For some years past they have become very un- 
common, and the nobility live alone. 

There is a play every night ; the representation is alter- 
nate]}' a Spanish comedy and an Italian opera : there are 
Limes, such as the Carnival, when two representations 
are given in the course of the day; first at four o'clock in 
the afternoon, and then at eight or nine iu the (veiling. Tliv 
Barceloniam are very fond of this kmd of amusement ; and 
indeed it is not very expensive, though the- entrance money 
• d snee the year 1800. 

The Larcclonians like the eoimtry, and spend as much of 
the summer then as they can. There is, perhaps, DO town 

h "pain, or perhaps throughout Europe, which has so manj 
country-bouses, oj all sizes, m its neighbourhood, We shall 
peak more at large of tb< ■ of Barcelone 

L J 



54 CATALONIA. 

Festivals and Ceremonies of the Church. The festivals of the 
church at Barcelona are brilliant, ami always accompanied 
with grand illuminations Those in the holy week are the 
most remarkable : some chapels are decorated in every 
church tor grand rtposoirs or oratories; they are made in the 
form of a separate temple ; some are elegant, others majes- 
tic : on Holy Thursday and Good Friday they are lighted up 
with white wax tapers, which burn for four-and-twenty hours. 
In the parish churches this illumination is continued in a line 
round the nave. The cathedral is far superior in this respect 
to all the other edifices : a large oratory occupies the whole 
bottom ; it is full of wax tapers, and the illumination is con- 
tinued in two rows round the great nave and the choir; there 
are ahout three hundred wax tapers burning. There is no 
town, after that of Valencia, where there are so many proces- 
sions, and where they are so much liked as in Barcelona. 
However, none of those superstitious mummeries are capable of 
distracting the attention from the principal object which ought 
to fix it. There are three processions in the holy week; one 
on Palm Sunday, the other on Holy Thursday, and the 
third on Good-Friday. They were formerly made up of 
flagellants, penitents tied in a cross to iron bars, giant» 
in armour, and other personages still more ridiculous ; but 
within twenty or five-and-twenty years they have been sup- 
pressed, and the processions, in consequence, have become 
more respectable. They go out of church at dusk, and return 
three or four hours after; they are formed of individuals of 
every class ; some are in black, and others covered with a sack 
of long-tailed penitents ; it is made of a black and shining 
cloth, open before above the waist, and kept up by a thick white 
cord, to which a chaplet issu>pended: some wear on their 
heads a sort of cowl, which ends in a point reversed behind, 
and falls before as low as the breast, entirely covering the 
face, and having only two openings for the eyes; others 
have a différent sort of cowl, the points of which are about 
twenty-four inches above the head; many have their hea4s 



CATALONIA. 55 

uncovered, antl their hair frizzed and powdered firming upon 
their ; boulders. The noblemen are distinguished by a great 
dagger which they carry at their waist; they are followed by 
several servants in livery. Most of them wear white gloves, 
' and carry white wax flambeaux ; they walk two by two with 
a great deal of gravity, and at a great distance from on? 
another, so as to leave a space for the trailing of their sack- 
tails, which are about five feet long. There are about six 
thousand of these penitents. Among them there aie some 
who walk alone between the ranks, and at the distance of 
twenty paces from each other : the latter go barefoot and 
have their cowls reversed ; an iron chain is fastened to their 
waist, and dragging after them on the pavement : some carry 
on their left shoulder heavy crosses, and others hold in their 
hands the different instruments of the passion of our Saviour. 
Then come a company of soldiers, clad and armed like 
Ron. ans, commanded by a centurion decorated with a purple 
mantle, and carrying another mantle of the same colour, 
having these letters, S. P. C-i. R. 

About thirty litters, which differ every procession, an.- 
distributed at a distance ; each is carried by twelve 
men, concealed by the drapery which ornaments these 
litters, in such a manner, that these machines appear t<" go 
on of themselves ; on them are placed the representa- 
tions and principal events of the life and passion of Our Sa- 
viour. Most of the figures are of wood, or pasteboard, but 
poorly executed. As to the dresses, they are appropriate to 
the personages ; these litters are very magnificently orna- 
mented; they are covered with a drapery, which fulls all 
round to the earth ; it is of black velvet enriched with galoons, 
fringes, embroideries, and gold tassels, of the greatest ndi- 
Dets; and they are decorated with artificial flowers, and bands 
of embroidery with spangles and pearls. I ranee had formerly 
it, brancard, or litter; it was attended in the procession by the 
ettled at Barcelona, with the consul and vice-i • 
i I 



CATALONIA. 

ill carrying a wax candle in their hands ; m Inch has not 
been repeated since the year 1792. This retinue takes op- 
wards of two hours in passing. 

The consumption of wax «luring the holy week is inconeeiv- 
ahlc ; and in the three processions there are burnt nearly 
thirty thousand flambeaux of white wax, weighing from five 
to six pounds each. It is consequently a great branch of in- 
dustry and trade, though the greater part of this wax comes 
from Africa. 

There are two more processions, one on the 1.3th of June, 
for the festival of St. Anthony of Padua; the other fer the 
festival of the Holy Sacrament ; the latter is very long, well 
ordered, and striking. All the arts and trades join in it, 
hearing each a damask standard. The religious communities 
and a part of the secular clergy of all the parishes, and 
of the cathedral chapter are in it; most of them in cbapi s 
and chasubles, every one holding in his hand a taper 
of white wax. Thirty-six priests come next, dressed with 
the richest ornaments, and are followed Ly twenty-four, in 
tunes, carrying large white wax flambeaux. Young children 
dressed like angels, like St. John the Baptist, and like car- 
dinals, carry incense and censers, and strew the streets with 
flowers. Iîands of music are distributed at certain distances, 
A detachment of grenadiers surrounds the canopy. The 
magistrates and others follow it. The procession is closed by 
the grenadier company of the Spanish and Walloon guards ; 
the rest of the troop- arc stationed by detachments in the 
Streets and .-qnares. The report of the artillery firing on the 
ramparts mingles with the ringing of bells, the beating of 
drums, and the flourishing of trumpets.* 

During the octave of this festival, processions less numerous 
go from different churches; whither the inhabitants repair, 
or scud their servants with flambeaux, in consequence of 

* D was formerly pr.crded by giants and animals, 

■I on by men hid in their bodies; Lut all those vere suppressed 
yean ago. The giants a^ain made their appearance in | 



CATALONIA. 57 

which there is always a very long file of lights. Oratories 
are erected in different places in the streets where the proces- 
sions pass, and great pains are taken to decorate them. 

It is certain, lliat the ease which generally reigns in Cata- 
lutiia, contributes greatly to render these people fond of 
amusements, ceremonies, and all that tends to recreation and 
a relief from work; they have several days m the year on 
which they take occasion tu rr.ake a noise in the streets, and 
to enjoy the liberty of which they are so jealous. This prin- 
cipally takes place on Holy Saturday, at (he moment that the 
"Gloria in excelsis to announce the resurrection is sung in the 
church : the stroke of the bed which proclaims it is a signai 
of a dreadful hurly-burly, made by all the workmen in their 
shops, the porters in the streets, and the towns-people in their 
houses ; nothing is heard but shouting and the firing of gun.-. 
Another circumstance not less turbulent takes place on the 
day of Mid-Lent : boys of ten, twelve, and fourteen years 
old, in bands of thirty or forty together, run through the 
streets, some armed with sjw- in their hand», others carry- 
ing logs ai.tl faggots, and others again baskets to receive the 
presenis made to them. They run through the sfcre» 1- sing- 
ing a so :g, which, in the language of the country, expn 
that they are in search of an old woman in the town, to raw 
her body in two, in honour of Mid-Lent. They stop from 
time to time, particularly before the BhopS, roaring tfaen 
.. They have now found the old woman; and at that 
moment seme oi them holding the saw on both sides, put 
tin i. • de of sawing, and mimic the motion. 

in- v meet with a different reception m the different pi 
in which the} re Banned with their play, and 

them money, bread, wine, ej_g*, and wood, which is 
supposed t<» b d i.. burn the o'd woman, after taw- 

ing her m two; othen arc angry :it the noise they make, 
turn them away n glily, and often throw a kittle fall of 
wat< r o\< r them ; th< I k the forax r i> i in ii 

-, and ;•.' vi th hlssaa and thoutifl 



oS CATALONIA. 

Climate of Barcelona. The climate of Rarcclona lias bui: 
ninth extolled; and, perhaps, formerly with cause; the 
inhabitants allow that it is altered of late years. There is a 
searching moisture in the air, and the east winds are \ery 
privaient. The south-east and south-west winds are likewise 
much felt, communicating to that moisture a degree of heat 
which renders it more unwholesome. Those wind.-, are often 
very violent here. The north winds rarely blow, and those 
are the most necessary for purifying the atmosphere, con- 
densing the air, and preventing the effects of a moist heat. 
Kain, it is said, was formerly uncommon; at present it is 
very frequent at all seasons of the year. The climate is 
uncertain ; the four seasons are frequently experienced here 
in one day, and the change is wonderfully sudden. 

The winters are tolerably mild; in some years Reaumur's 
thermometer does not fall helow the sixth or seventh degree ; 
there are times, however, when it falls to the fourth or fifth, 
below the freezing point : it is ascertained that formerly it 
never snowed here ; lately, however, it has snowed almost 
every year ; but the snow does not last long. The cold here is 
rarely of a dry nature ; the humidity, almost constantly pre- 
vailing in the atmosphere, makes it more penetrating and 
more disagreeable ; there are even some years when the 
rains are almost incessant. The spring is seldom fine ; it is 
almost a continued succession of wind, rain, heat and cold ; 
it is the worst season of the year. The summers are warm; 
but the great heats do not last more than from fifteen 
to twenty days ; they are moderated by the east winds, 
which cool the air to such a degree, as to make a sudden 
* bange from heat to cold. The autumn was always the 
finest season of the year ; the sky was serene, and the atmo- 
sphere calm ; but for some years it has become stormy and 
rainy. 

The air is always moist at Barcelona ; which is probably 
owing tu its being near ^ie sea, and to the frequency of the 
east winds. The shape of the basin in which this town is 



CATALONIA. 5$ 

situated may also contribute to it : it is open on the east, 
north-east, and south-east to the sea ; on the north and 
south-east it has the river Bezos, and to the south the Llobre- 
gat ; on the north and north-east it is shut up by little moun- 
tains. The east wind, which frequently blows, is stopped by 
these mountain-;, and beat back into the basin, where it de- 
posits the watry particles with which it is charged; and 
there also the moisture arising from the river is retained. 
The humidity is very perceptible in winter and spring ; in 
summer the heat of the day counteract» it; but as soon as 
the sun sets it becomes very piercing, and leave» a hot and 
disagreeable sensation on the skin. The state of the atmo- 
sphere has a great effect upon the health, and the inhabitants of 
Barcelona are affected with the moisture of the air ; for there 
is a tendency to scurvy in the town. Inflammatory diseases 
and catarrhal fevers are common enough, produced by frequent 
changes in tile atmosphere ; bilious fevers prevail in summer, 
and are inflammatory. Diseases, however, are not very com- 
mon ; epidemic disorders are very rare, and the inhabitants 
are generally healthy enough. It is said that apoplexies 
are frequent ; but, on an exact calculation, not more so 
here than in other towns of equal population : the Academy 
of Medicine has endeavoured to investigate the causes of 
this pretended frequency, but the result has not yet been 
satisfactory. 

//j/i?. Barcelona has several principal inns, the Golden Foun- 
tain, the Arms of France, the Four Nations, and the Fonda*; 
formerly travellers found good rooms and beds, and were u< .1 
provided for two pieectten or i'Od. each meal, or four pica 
the day ; the prices bare been increased since the war to 
three pjccetteê a meal find five piécettes a day. The two 
first of these inns an jn y fallen off and are- at present 
very iodiflbrent. There are several other inns called I>< cos, 

t ,\ , i« UOI, with tlt« name of '. 



00 CATALONIA. 

îvlierc you pay only for what you cat, anil some of them are 
not bad. 

Provisions are dear at Barcelona, beef is usually sold for 
six sol* six deniers Catalonian money, or eight pence half- 
penny English for six-and-thirty ounces ; veal eigbt sols, or 
ten pence three farthings ; mutton nine sols nine deniers, or 
two shillings and two pence half-pénny; fish for two anda half 
or three piécettes, or two shillings one penny ; pork dripping 
for four piécettes and a half, or twenty pence ; lard three piécet- 
tes, or two shillings and six pence ; brown bread five quartos, 
or about three half-pence the pound of fourteen ounces ; coal* 
twenty-pence the hundred weight ; green oak or olive 
wood, two shillings and a half-penny the cwt ; bad wood half 
a crown for a small load ; a common fowl fifteen pence ; and a 
fat pullet two shillings, or half-a-crown ; turkeys three shil- 
lings, or three and six pence each ; they have been sold as 
high as twelve shillings and six-pence ; and lambs as high 
as thirteen, fifteen, and seventeen shillings. The prices have 
risen since the present war with England, and would be still 
higher, should there be an augmentation of the troops for 
the "-arrison of this town audits neighbourhood. 

I shall conclude this account of Barcelona with a sketch of 
the different sieges it has sustained, almost all of which have 
been signalized by acts of intrepidity and of heroism. 

When it wa> in the possession of the Moors, it made an ob- 
stinate resistance in 802, against the generals of Louis, king 
of Aquitania ; and held out against them for seventeen months: 
during the last six weeks it sustained continual assaults; the 
buildings were destroyed, the walls demolished, and one half 
of the inhabitants were killed or perished with famine; notwith- 
ding which it held out : it was however at length taken, 
aud the Moors driven out ; it was then peopled by French. 

It was besieged in 5)^5 by the Moors, and carried in six 
days, after a victory obtained by the troops of Almanzor, king 
of Cordova, over the Ca\alonians : it was set on fire, and 
almost all the inhabitants were carried away into slavery ; but 



CATALONIA. Cl 

the count Borel retook it some time after, and secured him- 
self in the possession. 

Barcelona in the l.'jth century, was the hot-bed of the Ca- 
talonian rebellion agaiiwt John the second, king of Aragon, 
its sovereign ; it sustained a siege against its kino-, and com- 
pelled him to raise it in 1462 ; it made a similar resistance 
against him in 1172; but being besieged by a superior 
force, it fell on the 17th of October in the same year, after a 
siege of six months. 

Engaging again, in 1610, in a new rebellion» it held out 
for twelve years against all the efforts of its king, Philip the 
fourth ; but was at last taken in ]65Z, after a blockade and 
siege of ten months. 

It again resisted Charles the second in iGSp ; but was 
subdued by force of arms. 

In l6f)7, it was taken by the French army, under the 
command of the Duke de Vendôme. Its inhabitants were 
armed ; they were supported by a garrison of 1 '2,000 men, 
and defended by the Prince of Darmstadt ; a superior 
army came to their assistance, under the command of Don 
Francisco Yelasco, which army was beaten, and the town 
compelled to capitulate fifty days after the trenches wcv< 
opened. 

In 170<> it dared to defy Philip the lifth, its sovereign. 
This prince besieged it in person ; but the approach <'i 
an English fleet obliged him to raise the siege. 

The king whom this town had chosen had deserted it ; the 
neighbouring provinces had resumed their allegiance to 
Philip the fifth; the other towns of Catalonia bad submit- 
ted, ami tin- spirit of the Cataloniaos was broken, yet Barce« 
|i>n:i persisted in its rebellion; it dared to Mi-tam a siege in 

171^ and 17 11, against the muled forces «1 France and 

n. This sie 1 will never be forgotten : efTorts of com- 
feats of in roism worthy of tin- finest ages of Home, were b< n 
displayed* The inhabitants, h-ù i>> themselves, without 
troop-, without a gavrisonj dared to brave huge and warlike 



6'2 CATALONIA. 

armies, commanded by celebrated generals ; they feared 
neither hunger, nor misfbrtare, nor death. 

Exploits of the mo>t heroic nature were performed by com- 
mon tradesmen ; the students <>f the university formed in 
battalions which were loiiç invincible ; priests and monks, 
with a sword in one hand, and the «Tueilix in the other, went 
from rank to rank, animated the soldiers, confirmed their 
courage, and excited them to slaughter in the name of the 
God whose image they carried; capuchins were seen with 
their robes tucked up, their beards tied with ribbons, blessing, 
loading 1 , presenting, and firing the cannon; women, more 
inveterate still, prepared what was necessary for the de- 
fence of the place, ran on tin- beach, mixed themselves with 
the combatant-, striking as good blows as ihe soldiers, 
amidst whom they fought. 

Nothing could reduce them ; in their very losses they found 
new motives of courage and perseverance. Berwick re- 
doubled his efforts, he carried the bastion of -Saint-Clair * ; 
which was bathed with the blood cf the French nobility ; 
the besieged returned to the charge and again made them- 
selves master of it. Again repulsed, they beheld their ram- 
parts demolished by cannon-balls ; but incapable of yielding 
rror, they evinced upon the beach the same courage which 
they had shown behind their walls. Forced at la.^t, yielding to 
r ambers, tl i -y retreated in good order into the town where 
they found a new theatre for their courage : the streets be- 
came the fields of battle ; there battle after battle was fought. 
When beaten, they fell back, but enly to return to a new 
charge. Berwick offered them their lives, but still they 
would not surrender. The night concealed feats of heroism, 
which antiqttity would have celebrated; it concealed ex- 
ploit which, would have done honour to the town that was 
toe theatre of them, had they not been tarnished by the 
^s which directed them. 

• It was in the plain now ocrup'el by the citadel. 



CATALOXIA. 63 

Daylight appeared, and showed the horrors which the 
night had enveloped in darkness. Blood every where ran 
in streams; the streets were heaped with dead, and yet tbe 
Barcelonians continued to fight. The women, from the 
tops of the houses threw down upon their assailants showers of 
stones, beams and burning brands. Berwick again offered 
them their lives ; he was not attended to ; they were still 
determined to fight. He then ordered the houses to be set 
on fire ; the flames ascended into the air, and the Barce- 
lonians yielded, and surrendered;* but they retained their 
hatred and their pride. They saw their standards burnt by 
the executioner ; they lost their privileges, and were punish- 
ed for their rebellion; their rage became impotent, but re- 
mained not the less in the hearts of the rebels, where it wa« 
too deeply engraven. 

Thus fell this proud and powerful town, which had so 
often dared to raise iis haughty and menacing head against 
its princes; which had dared to struggle against the two first 
monarchs of Europe, and long withstood their power. It fell ; 
but, subject to new lav\s, and submitting to the tranquil do- 
minion of its lawful masters, it soon recovered a new lustre, 
and again became a town equally rich and powerful. 



EXCURSIONS TX THE ENVIRONS OF BARCELONA. 

CitaJtl. The town is defended by a citadel, situated at the 
( xtremity of it to the north-east. It was built by the or- 
der of Philip V, after he hud reduced the Catalonians to 
obedience. This citadel occupies a tolerably large extent, on 
a place which formed a part of the town, and which Contained 
six hundred houses, three convent*, and one parish church. 
There are good ramparts of overs i ..." with moats. It has 
a ttaff, cotnpoi rnor, a king's lieutenant, a major 

* On *hc 23th BeptCfl b ( t, 1*714. 



64» CATAI.OX i.\. 

and aid-major, and a battalion of infantry, which is i ï s < 01 
mon garrison. This citadel serv< - neither to awe nor defend 
the town, being too little elevated to command the interior of 
it ; it only commands the houses near the north uate, and is 
at the same time commanded by Mont-Jmnj, which is al 
crush it ; it is equally too low on the side towards the country , 
and its distance does not permit it to protect the town i • 
C< pi a very small part of it. 

The Port of Barcelona is situated below the citadel, be- 
tween the town and Harcelonetta, and at the cast end ;*it has 
an anchorage beJow the sea-wall, which extends as far as 
il l ont -Jo in/. Both of them wen: at the beginning of the Hit h 
century an open coast, which however had more water than 
they have now. The ancient port was on the other side of AI 
Jouy and behind this mountain, which separated it from the 
town. It is formed and sheltered by a mole, which was built 
in 1477 by S/ucio, an engineer of Alexandria ; but this port 
was choaked up and the mole destroyed by storms in th< 
lbth century. 

The present port is nothing more than a great bason form- 
ed by piers, kept up by solid quays, and on the whole of one 
side by the ramparts of the town. When it was an open 
shore the depth was considerable, but since it has been nt- 
closed in the form of a bason, the sand which goes into it re- 
mains there, and, there being no issue, forms into banks, and 
is thus filling it up by degrees. The depth is daily insensibly 
decreasing, in spite of the labour of the men employed to 
clear it out. Large stups cannot enter, and frigates can only 
approach at the distance of half a league. 

The entrance to this port is difficult, and even sometimes 
danr/rous, being shut in by a bar, Which is frequently very 
high, formed by the junction of the Bezos and Llobregat ; 
these two rivers fall into the sea, the former behind the citadel 
and the latter behind Mont-Jouy ; this course brings them 
towards one another, and a quantity of sand is thrown into 
the harbour by their meeting. There was an idea of throw- 



CATALONIA. OS 

iog their embouchures further off, and giving: them another 
direction ; this plan however was abandoned. There was also- 
formed a project for removing the port to the south-east 
part of the to«n, that is between Mont-Jouy and the ram- 
parts ; it would have been very large and might l>e continued 
within the walls. This project was never put into exe- 
cution. Within a few years, the project of brigadier-general 
Smith's has been added, which is confined to continuing 
the pier much farther on, and by that means to procure an 
inclosure in which the vessels may find thirty-six feet of 
water. 

In spite of the inconveniences we have mentioned, the 
present harbour is tolerably secure, well sheltered, and much 
frequented ; it is always full of ships of different nations; the 
total for one of the last years amounted to*five hundred (or the 
Spanish, two for the French, one hundred-and-fifty for the 
English, sixty for the Danes, forty-five for the Dutch, and 
more than three hundred of different other nations. 

Mont Jouy. The mountain called Mont Jouy is situated 
to the south, on the sea-side, to the west of Barcelona ; the 
highest part is occupied by a fortress which takes its name 
from it. It is large, spacious, and noble ; the resources of 
art have been exhausted in augmenting its strength, to ren- 
der an attack more difficult, and the defence of it surer. 

This fortress has a particular governor, a major, and a 
garrison formed by a detachment of Spanish guards, or Wal- 
loons, taken from the garrison at Barcelona. Mont Jouy 
commands, in a striking manner, the town, the port, the 
citadel the neighbouring country, and the sea to a great 
extent. 

Iiarreloncttri is a little nt w town dc]>endent on Barcelona, 
and which leemi to have been one of itl faubourgs. It is 
situated to the south-east of the town, bettreeo the sea-gate 
ami t he light-house of the Mole, which projects; into the sea. 

Vol :. f 



66 CATALONIA. 

The place tvhich Barcelonetta occupies was a vast piece of 
useless ground, where there were some straggling fish-huts. 
The marquis de la Mina, captain-general of Catalonia, con- 
ceived the project of turning this ground to advantage, by 
making it at once an entrepot and an asylum for .seafaring 
people. About the middle of the 18th century the new town 
was built according to the plans of Don Pedro Cermeno, and 
under the direction of Ribas, the architect. Its form is a 
perfect square, with four-and-twenty regular streets, each 
being a little more th^n twenty-five feet broad ; fifteen of the 
streets are direct and parallel, intersected by the nine others 
at equal distances. The houses are uniform, and built with 
bricks, having but one story, all of the same height, twenty- 
five feet and a half in front. There are two squares in it, 
that of St. Michael and that of Los Voteros, and two large 
ranges of barracks. This parish is under the invocation of 
."'t. Michael. The front of this church has two large stories 
of architecture ; the one of eight columns coupled, with three 
large gates; the other of four, also coupled. Above these 
stories there is a triangular pediment, ornamented with three 
statues, one of the hoh/ Virgin, the other of St. Michael, and the 
third of St. Gonzalez Tclmo. The church forms a kind of 
Grecian cross, with pillars of grouped columns in the Gothic 
style ; the delicacy and harmony of which are diminished by 
their size. The tomb of the marquis de la Mina, who was the 
founder both of Barcelonetta and of this church, is seen on 
the right of the chief altar. There is a bust of this general 
executed in bass-relief, surrounded with military trophies, and 
ornamented with different devices relative to his family; un- 
derneath is a Latin inscription : he died on the 25th of 
January, 1767. 

'flic view of Barcelonetta excites pleasure at first sight; but 
the too great uniformity of the streets and houses gives it a 
sameness, and renders it less agreeable. It is inhabited 
almost entirely by soldiers* sailors, and other seafaring 
people. 



CATALONIA. 67 

ENVIRONS OF BARCELONA. 

We have already said that Barcelona was 
surrounded by a beautiful, pleasant, fertile, and 
well cultivated country; abounding with trees 
of all species, and productions of all kinds. It 
forms altogether an oblong, irregular plain, sur- 
rounded by gentle hills, and terminates at the 
sea-side. 

The whole surface is covered with country- 
houses, from the gates of Barcelona to the foot 
and on the side of the mountains situated to 
the north-west of the town ; they extend farther 
on to the north towards the river Bezos, and to 
the west on the road leading to the Llobregat. 
They occupy a space of about three leagues ; 
we cannot come on any side into this town 
without seeing the numerous succession of those 
houses, called Torres, which the astonished tra- 
veller takes, at a distance, for considerable set- 
tlements. 

Several of those houses are handsome, and all 
are in general agreeable; many are decorated 
with taste, ornamented with paintings in fresco, 
and have water in abundance; those at some 
distance from the coast are most advantageous- 
iv situated; the eye at once wanders over the 
country-houses which cover the plain, takes in 
the town of Barcelona, ;ind views an immense 
extent of the sea. Almost all these habitati. 



68 CATALONIA. 

have a very essential fault for this country, that 
is, the want of trees. We see no covered alleys, 
thickets, and arbours ; these objects would or- 
nament them agreeably, and would be very use- 
ful in a hot country. 

The village of Sarin, which is at the end of 
this plain, is situated on the slope of a hill, at 
the distance of a league from the city, and op- 
posite to it. It is in a delightful situation, and 
commands all the country-houses that are be- 
fore it. The prospect is magnificent. This vil- 
lage is remarkable for the abundance and purity 
of its waters, the beautiful houses which it 
contains, and the good company who meet 
there in the fine season. 

It has a convent of Capuchins, in which there 
is a great number of monks : their gardens are 
large, having fine alleys, and ornamented with ar- 
bours, terraces, and amphitheatres; all well kept. 
They have monuments which display patience 
and skill; consisting of different representations 
of subjects of piety, is small earthen figures, 
of animals, edifices, and trees, executed with 
much nicety. They are the productions of some 
of the monks of this house. 

The inhabitants of the town retire to this 
village to forget the ceremonies of a city ; all 
ranks seem to delight in seeking a level ; they 
forget all bus-mess, and enjoy the happy calm 
which characterizes nature under a fine climate. 



CATALONIA. ÔV 

ad from Barcelona to the Frontiers of the Kingdom of 
Aragon, 34 Leagues, 1 Quarter. 

Barcelona to leagvus. 

Saint-Félice, (a village) » l£ 

"N'enta de Mi 1ms de Rey _... 1 

Llobr, ?at, (a river) V I 

Pont r • Molins de Rey J 

S.André de la Barca, (a village) I 

Martiorell, (a small town) ") 

La Noya, (a river, with a wooden bridge) J 

VegodaAlta, (a village) J 

Masqi.efa, (a village) 1 

Piera, (a village) } 

La Noya, (a river without a bridge).... 5 

V.'lbona, (a village) « 

Puentedel Rcyna, (a village) § 

La Pobla, (a village) 1 

Vilanova, a (village) . .... , § 

Igualada, (a town) .... l£ 

Yorha, (a vdlage) .. 1 

Venla del Gancho . 1 

Santa Mana, (a village) i 

Por Carists, (a village) If 

.Meson nueva de Monmaneu . i 

llostalets 1 

Cerera, (a town) _ 1 

Curulla, (a village) 1 

Tarrega, (a town) . 1 

Vila-Gras'-a, (a village) 1 

Beflpuab« (a town) *>. 1 

dormez, (a Tillage) .■£ 

Molleruza, (a village) . j 

Vall-Fonga, (a village) 1 

Bellorh, (a tillage) 1 

The Scgro, (a river and bridge) -- 

Lerida, (a town) _ 

F 9 



} 



70 CATALONIA. 

Alcaraz, (a village) the limits of Catalo- 
nia and Aragon.. _. „ ... 2 league». 

We leave Barcelona by the gate of San- 
Antonio; we cross the country which we have 
mentioned, leave the sea to the left, and follow 
a much frequented road, broad, and bordered 
with trees, through which on each side we see 
many villages scattered about ; on the left are 
those of Sans and Sanboy ; on the right, Sarria, 
San-Just Plivces and Ginestcra : we then come 
to the hospitalet and afterwards to Saint-Félice. 
This is large and well peopled ; we pass through 
the whole length, a fine street, in which there are 
a great many houses handsomely decorated. To 
the right at a small distance we leave the village 
of Molina de Rey, and proceed to the Venta of 
the same name ; soon after a short avenue, 
planted with poplars, brings us to the bridge 
of Molins de Rey, over which we cross the 
Llobregat. This bridge, lately built, is rather 
heavy; but is of a solid construction, and is 
ornamented on each side by a foot pavement. 
We quit it by another avenue like the former, 
leaving to the left the road which leads to Tar- 
ragona 'and Valencia, as well as the village of 
Pereja : turning to the right we pass the vil- 
lage San- André de la Barca, and in an hour 
after arrive at Martorell. Before we enter 
this town we see to the right, near the road, a 



CATALONIA. 71 

bridge over the Llobregat ; it lias three arches, 
and is very high and narrow, it is called in the 
country the Devil's bridge. Its building is at- 
tributed to Annibal ; but fragments of Roman 
ruins found at the bottom of the piles prove 
it to have been built at a later period. 

Martorell was the Tclobis of the Romans ; 
it is a small town , dirty, close and ill-built : it 
is situated on the Noya, at the confluence of that 
river and the Llobregat; it has a parish church, 
a convent of monks, and some barracks : the in- 
habitants are laborious; the women make lace and 
blonds : it has a tolerable inn. Near this town 
is a triumphal arch of Roman construction. 
In going from Martorell we cross the Noya 
over a wooden bridge, and a little afterwards we 
enjoy the interesting view of Mont-Serrat, fa- 
mous in Catalonia for a celebrated rich monas- 
tery of Benedictines. This mountain is formed 
by an assemblage of immense cones, situated 
one above another, on a range of rocks, upwards 
of three thousand feet above the level of the 
sea. The rocks are absolutely naked, and at 
a distance present no trace of vegetation ; but 
as we approach them, these wilds assume a 
smiling aspect. There are groves of ever- 
greens, aromatic plants of all kinds, and charm- 
ing retreats inhabited by happy men, whom 
philosophy alone would be sul'ticu nt to retain 
m these abodes, but who find in religion and 

i V 



73 CATALONIA. 

in a regular course of life still greater consola- 
tions. I have dwelt too long on this admira- 
ble spot in the Picturesque Journey through 
Spain* to mention it lightly here, and I choose 
rather to refer the reader to that, or to leave 
the traveller to the impressions which it cannot 
fail to make. 

This mountain, which we do not loose sight 
of for four leagues, fixes the attention of the tra- 
veller, who arrives at Fiera without perceiving- 
it, after having passed the villages of Veguda- 
alta, and Masqucfa. 

Piera is a tolerably large village situated on 
a height. We here observe large iron chains 
suspended to the gate of a house, which is of- 
ten met with in Spain, chiefly in the kingdom 
of Aragon : they indicate that a king lodged in 
the house on which they are hung. The inn of 
Piera is bad. We go from this town down a 
steep road, cross the Noya at a ford, ascend a 
rough and difficult hill, and then travel for a 
long time over dry, barren, and uninhabited 
mountains of granite. In descending we go 
through a number of small charming valleys, 
where the coolness of the streams with which 
they are watered, the verdure that covers, 
and the trees that embellish them, delight 
the senses. We now ascend new mountains, 

* A work recently published by the siunc au'hor. ■■« T, 



CATALONIA. 73 

over which we pass and enter a plain in which 
ïgualada is situated We arrive in this town af- 
ter travelling four hours and a half, and pas* 
sing the villages of Valbona, Fuente, La Rcyna, 
La Pobla, and Villanova. We leave to the right 
that of Esparragnera, and some small villages or 
hamlets to the left. On the way we often follow 
the banks of the Noya, sometimes riding in its 
bed, and ford it a dozen times ; the road is mud- 
dy, difficult, dangerous, and sometimes impas- 
sable in rainy weather. It is enlivened by pa- 
per manufactories or mills, agreeably situated : 
there are a great number of these in this part 
of Catalonia, and they furnish an important 
branch of the commerce of this province. 

Igualada is a town which contains about 
12,000 souls, tolerably large, situated in a plain 
abounding in corn, and olive trees ; it is sur- 
rounded by large suburbs embellished with trees, 
and houses lately built. It has a parish church, 
three convents of monks, a vicar-general of the 
bishop of Toitosa, for the exercise of ecclesiasti- 
cal jurisdiction, and an alcade major for the ad- 
ministration of justice. A great many fire-arms 
are made here, which arc famous. There are 
also several manufactories of printed callicoes 
or stained cottons. 

In going from Igualada the road becomes 
tolerably hue, but spoiled in some parts by deep 

. •-. We again past over parched and uncul- 
tivated mounsainsj we come to Yorboj Venta del 



7i CATALONIA. 

Gaucho, Santa-Maria, Porcari.scs, Jlfeson nueva 
de Jtfonmaneu, and Ilostakts. Cervera is here 
seen situated on a height ; it expands as we ap- 
proach; the country becomes more beautiful, 
and, through openings between the mountains 
that surround us, we have glimpses of a fine 
country. When we arrive at the foot of the 
mountain on which Cervera is situated, we en- 
ter the town by a long, steep hill, made some- 
thing easier by many turnings. 

Cervera, in Latin Cenaria, is a small town 
on aconsiderable eminence on the Barcelona side, 
and which, on the opposite side, is on a level with 
and at the entrance of a large, noble, and rich plain. 
This town is surrounded with walls, in which there 
are seven gates. Some of the streets are tolerably 
well paved. It has a parish church, with a nave and 
two aisles, which is of Gothic construction; five 
convents of monks, one commander, of the order 
of St. Antonio, which became extinct in Spain 
in 1791; a hospital for the sick, an asylum of 
Mercy, five colleges, one university, a governor, 
and about five thousand inhabitants. The con- 
vents of the Minimes and of the Capuchins are 
in a most delightful situation: the former, 
placed on the brow of the hill, overlooks all 
the country on the side of the Barcelona road; 
the latter is situated out of the town on the 
opposite side, and is in the middle of a rich and 
fertile country, surrounded with trees, gardens, 
and rivulets. 



CATALONIA. 75 

This town has been twice besieged, once in 
1652, by count Mortemar, in the name of the 
king, when, with the rest of Catalonia, it re- 
volted ; and the second time, at the commence- 
ment of the 18th century, during the war for 
the succession of Spain, by the combined 
armies of the Catalonians and Germans, this 
town supporting the cause of the new sovereign. 
At the time of the first siege it was taken, but 
defended itself against the last with courage 
and success. 

Publie Instruction and University. Cervera was the native 
place of Jérôme Loreta, a theologian of the 16th century, some 
of whose writings on theology are extant, printed in 1570. 
This was almost the only town of Catalonia which preserved 
the allegiance they had sworn to Philip V. This prince, to 
recompense them, founded an university there in 171 S, 
which he formed by the union of all those of this province 
which he suppressed. The Latin grammar and the sciences 
are taught there. There are forty-three professors, viz. 
For the Latin Grammar and Philological Studies 5 

For the Mathematics — 1 

For Philosophy » ,. .5 

For Medicine .-,.. „ 7 

For the Canon Law J) 

For the Civil Law 

FOV T lieol ogy . „_. 7 



•n 



There are about eight hundred scholars. Some of the pro- 

ort| irbo ire leculaT ecclesiaatjçi, obtain after a certain 

tun».- of teaching cathedral canonriea j one from etch of the 



76 CATALONIA. 

eight cathedrals of Catalonia has been added to llieni : they 
succeed according to seniority. 

A particular education is also given, in the Hospice de la 
Miséricorde, to young girls ; this school is under the direc- 
tion of a mistress and an ecclesiastic. 

There are five colleges united to the University : those of 
Assumption, Conception, the Secular College, and that of the 
monks of Cileaux, have been transferred to it ; the three first 
of Lerida, and the last of Poblct. The fifth, that of Ochenta, 
or the Eighty, is newly created; it is so called from the 
number of the scholars it maintains, taken in an equal num- 
ber from the different dioceses of Catalonia : this is now in the 
ancient house of the Jesuits, and ought to be placed in the 
University itself. 

The Seminary may be regarded as another college of the 
University : it maintains about a hundred students. Notv\itli- 
standing of all these establishments the University does not 
answer the idea we might conceive of it. It still wants many 
establishments necessary for the formation of good pupils in 
some of the branches it professes to teach. It has no anatomical 
amphitheatre, no botanical garden, no laboratory for che- 
mistry and pharmacy, no philosophical apparatus, nor any 
course of clynical medicine. In consequence of which, nei- 
ther anatomy, nor the operations of surgery, nor botany, phar- 
macy, chemistry, nor the materia medica, &c. &c. are properly 
taught. The professors in medicine follow Galen's system ; 
making a mixture of it with that of Boerhaave, the one spoil- 
ing the other. Those of philosophy follow in great part the 
peripatetic, blended with the precepts of Jaquier ; the result 
is that the whole is unintelligible. Those of theology adhere 
to the scholastic morality, and do not extend so far as the 
dogmatic. The building of the University is magnificent, and 
its architecture very fine ; its depth is almost as great as its 
length. Its front, which is three hundred and nineteen feet, 
is tolerably well decorated ; there are in the interior'two-large 
courts surrounded with arcades, in which the students meet 



CATALONIA. 77 

preparatory to attending their classes ; there are here more 
than eighty columns. 

The country of Cervera is extremely fertile, and 
very well cultivated ; it produces wine, oil, corn, 
and pulse in abundance ; the fields are beautiful 
and cheerful, particularly near the plain of 
Urgel'y but the town has a very gloomy aspect; 
the scholars and fellows of the University form 
by far the greater part of its population ; and 
it appears deserted in the times of vacation. 

In going from Cervera, we cross the large 
plain of Urgel, fertile in wheat, vines, and olive 
trees ; the eye wanders a great way over ver- 
« dant carpets, and catches some vistas, which 
form an agreeable whole. AVe soon arrive at 
the village of Ciirulla, and in an hour after at 
Tarrega. 

This town is situated on an agreeable plain, 
and in a country which produces oil, wine, corn, 
pulse, and hemp. It has a parish church, three 
convents of monks, an ancient commandery of 
St. Antonio, now suppressed, an hospital which 
was at the charge of this commandery, a board 
of economy, and an alcade major for the ad- 
ministrât ion of justice. Two ranges of bar- 
racks, out of the town, are formed out of two 
small symmetrical pavilions. There are not 
more than about two thousand inhabitants in 
this town; they cany on a con iderable com- 
merce in corn, wine, and oil ; there arc two 



78 CATALONIA. 

markets a week, which are much frequented; 
they particularly abound in corn which is 
brought from Urgel. This town was the native 
place of Gabriel de Tarrega, a physician of the 
16th century, who has left several indifferent 
writings. 

At a league beyond Tarrega, we leave on the 
sides of the road the two small towns of Vertu and 
single-Solas. The former to the south of Tarrega, 
which has about one thousand seven hundred 
inhabitants, is famous for a fair, very much fre- 
quented, particularly for the sale of mules; it 
is held yearly in the month of April, and lasts 
eight days ; the latter, to the west, has a con- 
vent of Trinitarian monks, and a population of 
one thousand persons. We pass to the village 
of Vilagrassa, containing about live hundred in- 
habitants; and three hours after arrive at Bell- 
puch, a small town, with a population of about 
one thousand two hundred persons. It is ill 
built and badly kept; but is situated in the 
midst of a country which produces a great quan- 
tity of wine, oil, corn, and almonds. 

Edifices of Delljiuch. This town has a Franciscan convent, 
which contains some objects worthy the curiosity of a travel- 
ler. It is situate d at a small distance to the left, on the slope 
of a hill ; it was founded by the House of Cardona, to which 
the seigniory of Bellpuch belongs. This convent has two 
square cloister?, one above the other ; at the extremity of the 
lower cloister there is a spiral staircase which goes up to the 
belfry. It i-j bui't in such a manner that the spindle has an 



CATALONIA. 79 

opening, forming an eye of about two inehes, through which 
we look from the top to the bottom. It is shewn to the cu- 
rious as a wonder, though there is nothing extraordinary in 
it. The upper cloister deserves attention ; it is in the Gothic 
style, supported by small white marble columns in couples, 
breast high ; their capitals are decorated with human figures, 
animals, flowers, foliage, and other things, forming groups 
of different kinds. The church, which was built in 1507, at 
the expence of Raymond de Cordona, viceroy of Sicily, is 
large and well constructed ; the tomb of that nobleman, who 
died in 1521, is to be seen in it. It is a large marble monu- 
ment, and one of the finest pieces of sculpture produced on 
the revival of the arts. 

Leaving Bellpuch, we proceed successively to 
the village of Gomez and that of Mothernza ; 
the houses of which are made of mud, and the 
inn is very bad ; to those of Vallfonga and of 
Bellocli, leaving at a distance on either hand the 
villages of Sidamon, of Fondarella, of Palma, 
and of Alamos. 

At Jielloch the fields begin to look bare; 
they are without trees, parched and -full of little 
hillocks. In about an hour, we discover the 
.spires of Ltrida. This town comes gradually 
into sight as we approach it, and is soon after 
seen to its whole extent. The fields about it 
begin to look handsome, the trees to be mon 
numerous, the cultivation more general and 
more attended to; and Lerida scorns to rise 
..midst superb gardens. We approach this town 

through a line avenue foi a quarter of a league, 

ed like a causeway and planted with poplars. 
2 



B(> CATALOXIA. 

We pass through theSegro over a handsome stone 
bridge, composed of seven arches, and built oir 
the ruins of a Roman bridge. Here we are 
searched by the custom-house officers, and show 
our passports, which are sent to the governor, 
and returned to us at our inn. 

Leiuda, in Latin Ilerda, holds a rank equally 
distinguished in ancient and modern history, for 
the great events which have taken place in its 
interior and at the foot of its walls. It was the 
capital of the country of the Ilergetes long be- 
fore the first invasion of Spain by the Romans ; 
it had then its own particular princes, the last 
of whom Mandonius and Indibilis, after having 
frequently changed sides between the Romans 
and Carthaginians, were at length the victims of 
those two nations; Mandonius was given up by 
his own soldiers to the Romans, and Indibil or 
Indibilis fell in a battle which he fought with 
them. It was in the plains of Lerida that 
Scipio gained a signal victory over Hanno the 
Carthaginian general, in the year of Rome 537. 
It was likewise under the walls of this town that 
Julius Ccesar conquered the Lieutenants of 
Pompey in the year of Rome 705, and 40" be- 
fore Christ. 

The beauty of its situation and the fertility of 
the country attracted the attention of the 
Romans, and as soon as they had made a con- 
quest of it they planted colonics there, and gave 



CATALONIA. SI 

it the title of Municipium Ilerdense. This town 
having fallen under the dominion of the Goths 
embraced the Christian religion, and was the 
jeat of a celebrated council held here in the 
year 528, though according to others in 524*. 
Suffering again the fate of the rest of Spain it 
became a prey to the Moors, and was at 
first subject to the Caliphs of Damascus, and 
afterwards to the Moorish kings of Cordova, 
but its own governor erecting the standard of 
rebellion and usurping the supreme power, it 
had a separate king. At length, in the year 
1 149, Raymond Berenger, the last Count of Bar- 
celona, who had just ascended the throne of 
Aragon, took Le rida from the Moors, and from 
that time it formed a part of Catalonia. Its in- 
habitants did not under their new sovereigns de- 
generate from the virtues of their ancestors : led 
by James I. king of Aragon, they contributed 
much to the taking of Valencia in 1238, which 
procured their town the honour of sending a 
colony to repeople a part of it, and to establish 
there its weights and measures. In later times 
they no less distinguished themselves under Don 
George Brice, their governor, by the most vigo- 

* Several otheri have been since held hen.-. One mei 
eJ to have taken place about tin- year 54fl| is i< m irkable toi 
two of its canons ; one prohibits ecclesiastics from shedding 
human Moot], ami ■ permit! the communion tu be ad- 

ministered to magiciai i tvhen they iredyin 
. J G 



o3 fATALOXr.U 

ions resistance which they twice made against 
the Ere net armies: thus tiny compelled the earl 
of Harcourt to raise the siege of their town in 
1646, and the Prince de Coudé in 1047. But 
joining in the rebellion with the rest of Cata- 
lonia against Philip V. they were besieged by 
the duke of Orleans, their town taken by assault, 
October 12th> 1707, and delivered up to pillage. 
Such of the inhabitants as then took refuge in 
the castle surrendered after a month of fruitless 
résistai 

Situation and Exlent. — Lerida is on the declivity of a hill, 
at the top of which the castle stands on the riglit and west 
bank of the river Segra, which bathes the walls of it. The 
position which it had under the Romans, as described by 
Lucan is still discerned. The town is long, narrow, almost 
triangular, close, and ill built. The streets are narrow, crook-* 
cd, uneven, and paved with pointed stones, unequally driven 
in; there is but one tolerable street, which would be hand- 
some if it was wider ; it is a quarter of a league long. Though 
very gloomy within, one of the quarters of the town is well 
situated, that towards the river. There has been lately built 
a fine qua; 1 extends the whole length of if, uniting the 

double advantage of restraining the waters of the Segra, and 
of furnishing the inhabitants with the means of amusement: 
it would even be a handsome promenade, if it were planted 
with tree» ; it lus a view of the river which runs below, of 
trees on the banks of it, and a vast extent of country richly 
wooded, beautifully cultivated, and rendered fertile by the wa- 
kgft of ill.- river. 

Rapulatim. — About 18,000 inhabitants. 

* For ttlis ttie town is indebted to a Frenchman, Louis Blqj 
-criior of LcriJa. 

6 



CATATONIA* 18 

■ :. It- bishoprié is suffragan t » the mjthcr church of 
Tarragona; its revenue is estimate J at 03,000 C'atalonia'i 
livres, or 10,3331. 6s. Sd. sterling-. Its diocese includes two 
hundred and fifty parishes, three collegiate chapters at Monzo, 
Tamarita, and Alvclda, and two cathedral chapters at Lcrida, 
and Roda in Aragon ; the last is composed of regular canons of 
the order of St. ÀuguStine. Lerid.t has one cathedral chapter, 
four parishes, eight convents of monks, three of nuns, one 
hospital, and one college. There was likewise a commandery 
©f the order of St. Antonio, which was suppressed in 1791. 

The clergy of the cathedral includes six dignitaries, twenty- 
three canons, six prebendaries, eighteen chaplains, thirty- 
three beneficed priests, four psalm-singers, and one silenciariu*. 
The canons have a revenue of 3000 piastres, or 468/. ] 5s. 

Civil and Military Administration. The town has a civil 
and military governor, a king's lieutenant, a major, a small 
garrison, and an alcalde major for the administration of jiu- 
tice. 

i 'tbiic Instruction. A university was established here in 
1300, by James II. king of Aragon, which was famous in the 
ï it h and 1Mb centuries, and boasted of having admitted Saint 
Vincent Terrier and Pope Calisto 1IL to their degrees. But 
at the- commencement of the 1 8th century it was suppressed 
by Philip V. The towtl at present lias only a college, wliicli 
is maintained by the bishop: sixty young cleiks are sup- 
ported and instructed gratuitously. : ici can nun» 
likewise give public and : i instruction to girlsi 

This town g ive birth to the on acher < 'hri tobal tialvez, and 
to the lawyer, Francisco Moli, whose writing on the canon 
law arc extant, 

». At the top of the hill tfo n an th< r< - 
mains of a pal m bad inbabil 

there alto wa e&ral church which has been 

.-. h. 'I bal i bun h conl un. d 

* A t I Ik, to V' ■ ; 



54 CATALONIA. 

monuments, which were left for a long lime exposed to ihi 
injuries of the air, and to the destructive hands of the igno- 
rant; but they were at length, in 1781, removed into the 
town: these were the tomb of Alphonso IV. king of Aragon, 
and Count of Barcelona, who died in 1325, of which there 
•nly remains a wooden urn painted black, with an inscription; 
t he tomb of Nicholas Moratell, a man celebrated in the 16th 
century, for his virtues, and his knowledge of the Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin languages, and Theology; the tomb of 
Luis de Requesens, who died in 1509; a marble statue and 
two Roman inscriptions. 

The cathedral is the only edifice of Lerida that is worth 
attention ; it is but very lately built. We go up to it by a 
double flight of about twenty steps, which lead to a terrace, 
on which the gates of the church open. These flights are 
terminated by two great iron gates, and the terrace is deco- 
rated with ornaments of the same metal. The front has six 
fluted pilasters of the Corinthian order, between which there 
are three large doors, with iron gates of handsome workman- 
»hip; it has two fine scpiare towers terminating in round pa- 
vilions where the bells are hung. These pavilions are sur- 
mounted with gilt ornaments. The whole front is of free-stone. 
The church has a body and two aisles ornamented with Corin- 
thian pilasters. It does not stand in a place where it can 
be seen to advantage ; being in a narrow street, and likewise 
screened by the very lofty edifice of the hospital. 

Commerce and Vroditcliona. Lerida formerly carried on a 
trade in salt-fish, which has absolutely failed. Its present 
commerce is confined to the exportation of some productions 
of the land, chiefly fruits and pot-herbs ; which are sent in 
great quantities to L'rgel and Aragon. The country of Le- 
rida, which runs three leagues from north to south, and two 
from east to west, is very fertile and valuable for the variety 
and abundance of its productions ; wheat, oats, flax, hemp, 
oil, wine, beans, haricots, and all kinds of excellent fruits and 
pot-herbs. The country is intersected with canals supplied 
by neighbouring rivers, and is carefully and tkilfdly watered. 



CATALONIA- 85 

^ilk-worms are likewise bred in this country, but to no ex- 
tent. 

Inns. The sign of S. Luis, kept by Italians, has very neat 
apartments, and the living is good : it is altogether equal to 
a good French inn : one may dine for three piécettes, or half 
a crown English. 

Leaving' this town we enter on the mountains, 
where we continue to travel ; the road is not 
bad but disagreeable, on account of the constant 
view of naked, parched rocks, and the multitude 
of hills. Here every thing is dry and wild, and 
looks as if nature were entirely left to herself ; 
at last the view is perpetually bounded by a 
succession of hillocks. After travelling two 
leagues we pass through a poor miserable vil- 
lage, the last in Catalonia, on this side ; it is 
called Alcaraz, and is said to be the Orcia of 
Ptolemy; it was formerly a fortified town, taken 
from the Moors in 1 149, by Guillémo Raymond 
de Moncada, and by Armengol, count of Ur- 
gel. At the end of this village to the right we 
see a very old square tower, with battlements 
and loop-holes, which appear to be the ruins of 
ancient fortifications. 

About half a mile from this village there are 

two blocks of freestone to show the bounds 

between Catalonia and Aragon, 

The road from tin Frontier! of the kingdom of Valencia, tg 
Tarragon, and from Tarragon to Barcelona, 34 leagues. 

The Ctnia, (a river and bridge) 

: \in-Cailo-, (a Mnall town) I, ]ei 



8o CATALONIA. 

Emposta, (a town). 7 

The Ebro, (a river and ferryboat) 3 ' 

Perillos, (a tillage)». 4, 

Venta del Plata l| 

Venta de Balaguer 3$ 

The Hospitalet 1 

Vèntade Rufa I| 

A Ravine — £ 

Cambrils, (a villas) .__ § 

Villa Seca, (a village) if 

The Francoli, (a river and bridge) „. If 

Tarragona (a town) J 

The (Java, (a river without a bridge)., f 

A'taiulla, (a small town) 5" * 

Torre de Bare, a small town) . . £ 

A hamlet * 

La Figareta venta i 

Lc Vendrell, (a small town) 1| 

E.'Uvey, (a village) ]| 

Gornal, fa village) £ 

Arbos, (a small town) ._.. £ 

without a bridge $ 



{ 



\ small river -, 

with a bridge x 

La Piordeta, (a house) £ 

River and bridge "\ 

Ixjs Alonges, (a village) J * 

Villa Franca de Panadez, (a town) . S 

Venta de Casa roja .. i 

Venta Nova, or Hostal de Orlal If 

La Palma, (a hamlet) _. ^ 

Venta de Lladoner $ * 

Venta del Cipreret J 

Venta del Tnjuet 5 

Le Llobregat, (a river) -\ 

Bridge of Molina de Rey C \\ 

Ventade Molins de Rev \ 



CATALONIA. 8/ 

LFAGUES. 

San-Feliip, (a village) _. I 

Barcelona, (a town).,*». 1 + 

Catalonia, to the south, adjoins the kingdom of 
Valencia; separated only by the little river Ccnia; 
we pass it, over a bridge of one arch. Entering 
Catalonia this way, we travel on a fine road 
from this river to Emposta. The country is 
sometimes cultivated and sometimes not, but 
almost always planted with trees. In about 
three miles we have a view of the sea, travel 
parallel to it a little distance, and having gone 
another league, arrive at San-Carlos, a little 
town, situated on the Mediterranean, opposite 
the point of the Aljaqucs', a name given to a 
narrow semi-circular tongue of land, which is 
only the continuation of the left bank of the 
Ebro, at the mouth of that River. The town 
of San-Carlos was built in 179-, at the expence 
of the crown. We enter it by a 1. reet 

which leads to the very shore, and which is so 
broad, that nine or ten carriages can pais 
a-breast : the houses of the town aie uniform, 
but very low, and the street very short, which 

ms a singular contrast to its pro< 
breadth. There is a church out of the o>\\n, 
erected on a square foundation, the portal of 
•.•'. liieli is composée) of foui large Ionic columns. 
This tow.n had al first very few inhabitants; 



$$ CATALONIA. 

scarcely a hundred persons. The air of it is 
not very wholesome. Here the lands are faU 
low and full of brambles, but half a league 
farther on the soil becomes better, is variously 
cultivated and full of trees : it leads to Em- 
posta, a poor little town on the right bank of 
the Ebro, and above the mouth of that river : 
it is the chief place of a bailiwick of the order 
of Malta ; though it appears very poor it might 
become rich by the execution of the project of 
establishing the navigation of the Ebro. A little 
canal has been dug from Em posta to San-Car- 
los • it is filled and supplied by streams from the 
adjacent meadows : on this provisions and other 
necessaries are conveyed to San-Carlos in little 
boats. The entrance of the Ebro is very dif- 
ficult, the mouth being obstructed by shifting 
banks of sand, which increase and diminish in 
size, and which change their situation after 
storms and the swelling of the water. These 
inconveniences may be avoided by entering the 
Ebro at Emposta by means of the little canal. 
There is a design of widening and increasing 
it by means of water to be taken from the river, 
and of building a harbour at its embouchure 
into the sea at San- Carlos ; by which means an 
easy and safe communication will be opened 
between the sea and the Ebro ; the canal would 
then be attended with the further advantage of 
fertilizing the uncultivated lands of the neigh- 



CATALONIA.' £Q 

bourîiood of San-Carlos, in establishing fire-* 
engines to raise the water into an aqueduct, 
whence it might be easily distributed to every 
part, high and low. The soil, which is good, 
and which has not been turned up for a long- 
time, would be very productive, and the pro- 
prietors would be soon repaid for their ad- 
vances. 

Leaving Emposta, we cross the Ebro in a 
ferry-boat, which takes a quarter of an hour if 
the water be low. We proceed to Perillos 
through an uncultivated country, which is fre- 
quently stony, and without trees ; full only of 
shrubs and aromatic plants. After travelling a 
league we perceive the sea, which we hardly 
ever lose sight of again for nine leagues. Here 
the road begins to wind a great deal and to 
become hilly, and in parts very steep. "We 
come to the top of the mountain, and pass the 
Col and the Puerto de las Forças, whence we 
perceive a valley, which we reach by a short 
and tolerably easy descent : it forms a kind of 
bason, surrounded by mountains, rising one 
over the other; the village of Perillos is situ- 
ated at the bottom of it, where we arrive aft» i 
four leagues from Emposta, which require 
six good hours riding. Leaving the village, we 
pass through the valley, which is handsome, 
Well Cultivated, and full of trees; the road, 
".Inch has been lately made, is good for about 



90 CATALONIA, 

three-quarters of a league ; after which the 
mountains we are obliged to go over are at 
dice very fatiguing and tiresome. Sometimes 
we are raised to a considerable height, where. 
wo only see abysses, on which the eye looks 
down with terror; sometimes we arc, as it were» 
buried in the bottom of narrow, deep gullies, 
and where we see only a small part of the sky, 
locks, and shrubs. La Venta del Plata is the 
cnly house mc meet with at the beginning of 
this • mountain ; but we soon discover another 
: mountain which we must also pass over, 
Formerly travellers despaired at the .sight of it; 
it was impossible to climb it ; it was necessary 
to scale it. It has been made easier by increas- 
ing the windings of the road, and earthing it up. 
This road is three-quarters of a league long, 
and it is secured from accidents by parapets : 
at the top stands the Venta de Balaguer, and 
the passage is called Le col de Balaguer. The 
castle bears the same name ; it is a small fort, 
having a governor and a garrison. 

The road becomes even; we travel along 
the foot of the mountains, then on the sea-side, 
and arrive at the Ilospilakl. This is an old 
building, resembling the ancient Gothic castles; 
it is large, spacious, surrounded with high walls, 
and flanked with towers; a prince of the royal 
house of Aragon founded an hospital here for the 
reception and aid of travellers; the revenues 



CATALONIA. 91 

which he assigned for this foundation are still 
received, and the huilding exists, yet the object 
is no longer attained. One part of the edifice 
serves for an inn, another part for a glass-house, 
and the rest is occupied by a chaplain who en-* 
joys the revenues. Every one at present is ac» 
commodated here for his money, but the travel-» 
1er will only stop from necessity, for the inn is 
detestable. 

The plain into which we afterwards enter be- 
comes wild in about a league ; to the right are 
seen the ruins of an ancient castle, situated by 
the sea-side; it is spacious within and in tole- 
rable preservation ; it is flanked with four square 
towers ; and has one in the centre almost whole. 
A careful cultivation soon again appears, and 
increases as we proceed. We meet with a great 
many vineyards, olive, and carob, and in some 
parts, mulberry, nut, and almond trees. After 
passing the Venta de l\ufa % we go through a 
very wide gulley formed by the rains, and soon 
after arrive at CamhrUs, a village where there 
are good springs, and the church of which has 
a square tower with loop-holes, for a belfry. 
The country becomes handsomer and more di- 
versified as we approach Tarragona* The plain 
woody, with intervals of cultivation: it 
is pleasant, and terminates with a superb cur- 
. dun: formed by a chain ol' mountains, 

in the centre of which Tarragona begins to 



<fc Catalonia, 

appear. In about an hour we discover to the 
right, at no great distance, the tower and har- 
bour of Salona, where a military governor re- 
sides ; we then come to Villa Seca, a poor little 
town, a part of the walls and gates of which 
are still standing : there are some good springs 
in it : the church has a portal with two co- 
lumns. 

The prospect here is exquisite, displaying al- 
most the whole of the rich and fertile Campo de 
Tarragona. Vineyards, gardens, corn-fields, and 
fruit-trees of all kinds appear in the greatest 
abundance. The villages arc numerous, and 
the town of Tarragona, seen at a distance, serves 
to augment the interest of this agreeable land- 
scape. We even forget that the road becomes 
again fatiguing and disagreeable; in wet weather 
it is deep in mud, and when dry, full of ruts 
difficult to pass : after travelling over it for a 
quarter of an hour we cross the river Francoli 
by a bridge of six arches, about a mile from 
Tarragona, into which we enter by a pretty steep 
hill through the gate of San Carlos, which is of 
modern construction. 

Tarragona, in Latin Tarraco, is one of those 
famous towns which only recall the remem- 
brance of their former grandeur, and serve as a 
comparison for the vicissitudes which may fall 
to the lot of the largest and most populous ci- 
ties. We shall not stop here to enquire either; 



CATALONIA. 9$ 

into its origin or foundation, which some au- 
thors have carried back above two thousand 
years before the Christian era. Be that as it 
may, it must have been a considerable place be- 
fore the Romans invaded Spain ; and under its 
new masters its limits extended to the shore and 
harbours of Salona, which at present is a league 
and a half distant from them. It became, un- 
der the dominion of Home, the capital of the 
Tarragonese province, or, in other words Citerior 
Spain. The town of Tarragona was the residence 
of the Consuls and the Pretors. TheScipios, Oeta- 
vius Augustus, and Adrian, made some stay here; 
its antique walls built by Scipio, were repaired by 
Adrian; it had all the advantages of Rome itself 
an amphitheatre, a circus, palaces, temples, and 
aqueducts. In the time of the Emperor Adrian, 
its circumference was 34, li)0 fathoms; its popula- 
tion was adequate to its immense size, if what 
the historian Antonio Augustin says be accu- 
rate; he states it at 600,000 families, which 
would make upwards of 2,500,000 inhabitants. 
This historian, who lived In the lGtli century, 
complaining of the decline of this illustrious 
town, grieves that in his days there were only 
b0,000 families in it, or about 380,000 inhabi- 
tants; but Mariana, who was almost contem- 
porary with him, dec laics that the population 
of it was not above 7000 families, and that t; 

re not 2000 houses in it. Its power first 
declined under the ( Euric their kiri£ 



Û|. CATALOXt.4. 

took it in 46"7, and his soldiers, in revenge fof 
its resistance, destroyed it. It was again sack- 
ed by the Moors, who besieged it in 714, and 
put all the inhabitants to the sword. Louis 
d'Aquitaine drove out the Moors in thé year 
605, but they recovered it. Raymond Berengcr 
took fi i in 1 150, cn(\ repeopled it the 

year following. I laving afterwards fallen again 
under the yoke of the Moors, it was finally re- 
scued from them by Alfonso el Batallador, king 
of Aragon in 1C£0. Tarragona is at present re- 
duced in its size to about MOO fathoms in cir- 
cumference, a population of 0000 soul?, very 
ordinary buildings, and almost to a state of po- 
verty. 

Situation. Extent. Tarragona is at present situated on an 
eminence of rocks elevated about seven hundred and sixty 
feet above the level of the sèa, and near the river Francoli. 
It is surrounded with walls, and has six gates and two castlci 
of little impov bat of the Â7>?£, and that of the Ta* 

tiiarc/i. 

Clergy. Tarragona is the See of one of the most ancient 
archbishoprics of Spain ; it existed under king Waraba ; and 
was reestablished in 10S8, by Raymond Berenger, count of 
Barcelona, after having expelled the Moors from it. For- 
merly its jurisdiction extended very far; but it has been di- 
mi:i .he erection of new superior jurisdictions. At 

7 sent this See has the bishop of Ivica, and the seven bishops 
of Catalonia. jans. Its diocese contains a cathedra] 

chapter, and seven hundred and forty parishes ; the arch- 
fcfishtJp !..'.- the i '.':• of prince of Tarragona; he crowned the 
ling» of Aragon. The tow» haa only one parish, which i? 



' \ TALON I A. ;-■;-> 

• 

i>d to the cathedral; it has monasteries, four nunnei 
and one house of Béguines of the order of Saint Dominic. 

The cathedral has seven dignitaries twenty-one canons, 
twenty-three prebendaries, and forty beneficed clergymen. 

The Slates-general of Catalonia formerly assembled in this 
town, and fifteen councils have been held here, that of 1 
annulled the marriage of James I. king of Aragon, with an 
infanta of Castile. That of 1240 threatened the archbishop 
of Toledo with excommunication if he continued to act a? 
primate of Spain. That in 1-iCi was the most remarkable; 
the cardinal de Foix, legate of Martin the Fifth was the pre- 
sident, the object of it was to put an end to the schism which 
bad long divided the church. Gil sans de Munos, who had 
teen elected Pope by the cardinals, in obedience of the 
anti-pope Bennett the 13th, relinquished the popedom, and 
with his cardinals reentered into the union of the Roman 
church. 

Hospitals. A general hospital for orphans. 

Çi&U and MiHturi/ Administration. Tarragona is the c\. 
place of acorregidorat, which contains one hundred and ninety 
feulements ; it has a civil and military governor, a king's lieu- 
tenant, a major, a garrison of fifty men, an alcalde major for 
the administration of justice, a minister of the marine, a port 
captain, and a board of public economy. 

I'ublic Instruction. A school for the education of young 
adies, aud a college for b 

It likewise had a university, which wa* founded in 15"'2by 
the arebbisbop Gaspard de G and which was includ- 

ed with the universities, of Catatonia suppressed by Philip 
the fifth. 

Sdjfiou. 'I lie cathedral church is at present the only build- 

b eh < .ni is attend ion, nor is it o i to d< I tin us 

Et ii m 6 ne sp i< ioui ■ d ' h iill . one bun* 

dred -, , 

vide, and i» divided into a body and two titles: winch are 



§6 CATALONÏA. 

separated by five arches on each side : they are supported hj 
great pillais of an enormous size, on each of which twelve 
Corinthian columns are clustered; the architecture of the 
vault is Gothic. The cross of the church ia large and open» 
well, forming a kind of octagon dome, but heavy and without 
grace ; the principal altar is almost entirely formed by the 
union of several slabs of very fine white marble in demi-relief, 
representing divers events of the life and death of St. Tecle ; 
the figures being too numerous produce confusion, but there 
are some parts in detail very pleasing. The chapels are 
worth inspection, that of St. Francis for two large pictures of 
him, that of St. Cecilia for the tomb of Cervantes Tautillo, car- 
dinal and archbishop of Tarragona ; that of the Conception 
for its paintings and gildings ; that of the Holy Sacrament for 
the tomb of the famous historian Don Antonio Augustin, who 
was also archbishop of Tarragona, and legate of the holy See 
in Spain ; that of St. Tecle for its form and decorations all in 
marble. We go from the church into a great square cloister 
which has six large arcades on every side, each of which is 
divided into three smaller arches; the latter are supported by 
Doric columns of white marble ; their capitals are ornamented 
with bass-reliefs of great delicacy, representing different things, 
such as foliage, branches of trees, birds, other animals, figure:. 
of infants, of men, and other devices. 

Promenades. There is nothing pleasant in the town except 
its situation ; in other respects it is very gloomy, without 
pleasures, society, or public amusements ; the streets are' 
narrow, short, crooked, and frequently hilly ; the houses are 
ill built, with the exception of a small number, which look 
well enough. Theiv are no squares, fountains, wells, or pro- 
menades ; those in which they walk do not deserve this name, 
being only a beaten road un one side of it, and a kind of ter- 
race, very short, which looks over the sea ; both are without 
trees, or any other cover. Within fifteen years a large street 
bas been built leading to the gate of San-Carlos: it is very 
long, broad, straight, and contains some fine buildings. 



CATALONIA. 97 

Climate. Tarragona has a fine sky, and the climate is tem- 
perate, but rather warm than cdld. There are frequently vio- 
lent winds here. Provisions are good, the fruits are delicious, 
and the wine excellent, but strong. The town had no fountain 
or well water ; the inhabitants were reduced to drink cistern 
water, which was commonly bad, when the last archbishop 
built a superb acqueduct, which conveys excellent water to 
the town. This acqueduct is partly built on the ruins of a 
similar work erected by the Romans. 

"We have already spoken of the several sieges 
which Tarragona formerly sustained : since then, 
this town, revolting with the rest of Catalonia 
against Philip IV. was besieged and taken by the 
troops of its sovereign in 1640. Four years after, 
it was besieged by the French, who were forced 
to raise the blockade ; at the beginning of the 
lgth century it followed the Austrian party; 
gave i 'self up in 170J to the Archduke, and open- 
ed its gates to the English troops, who, after the 
peace of Utrecht, in 17 IS, set lire to the town 
when they left it. This conflagration destroyed 
a part of the buildings and fortifications. This 
vas the period of the total decline of Tarragona: 
it is now beginning to recover itself. 

The new port, the building of which was begun 

en or eight years ago, and which will be one 
of the finest in the Mediterranean, must ncccs- 

:ly contribute to the prosperity of Tarra- 
gona; it will make it an important fortified 
,;, and one of a profitable commerce* 

We Leaflre Tarragona by the Barcelona gate, 

I H 



98 CAIALONÎA. 

and pursue tor twenty minutes the side of asfee*p 
and rocky mountain. '1 his road was forrrferly 
covered with unequal brok( tt marhle ; we then 
proceed along the séa-shore, and travel for 
three-quarters of a league on soft sand; some- 
times so near the sea that the waves break at 
the horses' feet : we then return inland, but to 
no great distance from the sea-shore. A few 
years si nee, this road was entirely new made, 
and is now complete. We see to the left, 
at a small distance, the village Ferrent; and 
cross the river Jaya. Soon afterwards we arrive 
at Alta-Fulla, a town almost entirely rebuilt, 
and situated on the sea-side. 

In the road which we have passed, we leave 
to the left a Roman monument, on a spot called 
Las Plagas Llargas: a pi pular tradition makes 
it the tomb of the Scipios, but without any pro- 
bability. Having passed the small town of 
Torre en Bfrra, surrounded with fields sown 
with corn or planted with vines, we arrive at 
the Venta de la Figareta, near which there are 
seme houses standing together; in a quarter of 
an hour after we see on the road a fine trium- 
phal arch of Roman construction, in free-stone, 
and of the Corinthian order ; the country peo- 
ple call it Portai de Bara. In an hour and a half 
afterwards we arrive at Vendrele, a small town 
on an eminence; its ancient walls are still seen; 
it lias two fauxbourgs\ the one which is the 



CATALONIA. OD 

largest and lower than the town, is separated 
from it by a small river which has no bridge ; 
the parish church has a square tower, with two 
stories of massy architecture, for a steeple, on 
these are placed three other stories, smaller and 
more airy, in the form of an octagon. 

On the left, at a quarter of a league, we leave 
Sauta-Oliba, a large village, in the middle of 
a fine country ; at the same time we see in 
front, at a little to the left, Mont-Serrat, which 
we perceive for a long time. We go to the smali 
village of Belvey, then to Gonial, formerly a for- 
tified town, placed on a hill ; there are still some 
of its ancient walls remaining. To the left we 
see the village of Baueras, situated on a height, 
and at length arrive, by a rugged and difficult 
ascent, at Arbos, a small insulated town, also 
situated on a height, agreeably commanding a 
fertile country; it has still the ruins of gates, 
walls and moats. The steeple of the church is 
in the form of an octagon tower, which ter- 
minates in a terrace, and is ornamented with a 
stone balustrade. We go round this town, and 
a descent leads into a line valley, watered by 't 
small river: it is Surrounded by curtains of ver- 
dure; the fields and vineyards seem mixed and 
confounded one with the other; it is com- 
manded at one end by the village oï J'upio/, 
which we see at three hundred paces to the 
left 

H 2 



100 CATALONIA. 

A wood of pine-trees begins here ; it is more 
than a league long, alternately opening and 
closing-, extending and contracting ; it spreads 
at first over the neighbouring heights, and 
covers a small plain through which we have 
to pass ; it opens circularly, embracing three 
other valleys in succession ; then, continuing, it 
opens and shews a Dominican convent to the 
right, built on the side of a mountain : it after- 
wards agreeably leads to a small distance from 
Villa Franca. We go on to Bordeta, an assemblage 
of small uniform houses, built on the same line, 
opposite the Dominican convent ; we then cross a 
river over a bridge which brings us to the ham- 
let of Los JMonges, where there are several inns. 
An hour and a half afterwards we arrive at 
VU 'la- Franca de Panada. 

Villa -Fraxca, an ancient town, which 
Amilcar Barcas, the Carthaginian general is 
said to have founded, was the first colony that 
that nation had in the peninsula : it is pretend- 
ed that it was, at that time, called Carthago 
retus ; but it is more probable that the site of 
the town was on an eminence, where the her- 
mitage of Saint Michael, of Olcrdofa, is now to- 
be seen. It was subdued by the Romans, 
and Moors, and conquered by the counts of Bar- 
celona ; one of whom, Raymond Borrel, re- 
peopled it in the year 1000, and granted il 
many privileges, from which it acquired 



CATALONIA. 101 

Its present name. This town is the chief 
place of the Pa?iadez, and contains 1 l l 2 villages 
in its circuit : it has a civil and military gover- 
nor, an alcalde major, eight regidors, a parish 
church, three monasteries, one nunnery, an 
hospital, an hermitage of St. Laurent, and one 
chapel of Oar Lady cf Sorrows; the altar of 
which, famous in the country, cost a great 
deal, but is of bad taste. The town is in a very 
fine situation, in the middle of a large and rich 
plain; but within it is gloomy; the streets are 
narrow, and the houses ill built. It wants 
squares, elegant buildings, and even prome- 
nades, though in a situation where very fine 
ones may be made; its population is about six 
thousand persons, whose industry is confined to 
one manufactory for linens; and ten or twelve 
distilleries of brandy. There is an excellent 
inn here, kept in the French style. This 
town was the birth-place of Pedro Camaiia, who 
lias left several works on judicial astrology ; he 
lived in the 17th century. 

We leave I "ilia- Franca by a good road lately 
made; we cross a valley where united beauties 
agreeably h>: the attention; it is an absolute 
garden. We proceed to the I'cnla de l'usaroja, 
! see, at three bundled paees to the kit, the 
village of San-Culuul. The road, though equal- 
ly handsome, begins to be muddy lure, and eou- 
90 for a long way. When wc get into 
n 3 



102 CATATONIA. 

the mountains we do not leave them again til) 
we approach the Llobregât ; but the ascents 

and descents are gentle. We proceed mostly 
through deep and narrow passes, enclosed by 
mountains, sometimes naked, and sometimes 
covered with woods; there are some small cul- 
tivated valleys here which are watered some by 
brooks, and others by small rivers ; there are 
also detached houses, and a considerable num- 
ber of vcntas, or inns: that of the Vaila Xcva, 
or Hosted de Orlal, has the préférence, liait a 
league further, that is, three leagues and a half 
from Villa Franca, the road turns on the side 
of a very steep mountain ; and there is no other 
way than a passage cut out of the rock, where a 
communication between the two pails oi' the 
mountain is established to provide against dan- 
gers ; this structure calls to mind the Romain 
works : it is a succession and a double row of 
arches, of a considerable height, resembling tv. «. 
bridges raised one above the other. The lower 
lias seven arches ; the higher, which is on .1 
level with the road, has thirteen ; each arch 
being twenty-live feet high and thirty-one wide, 
all in free-stone, and built over enormous mas- 
ses of the same stone ; the whole is above seven 
hundred feet long. This superb work, almost 
finished a long time ago, Mas, nevertheless, 
abandoned, and travellers were forced to alight 
from their carriages to walk by a difficult foot- 



CATALONÎA. 103 

path, which leads them above the lower part of 
this building, the whole length of which they 
vent over by means of small gates formed on 
the jams of six of the higher arches ; and while 
they found it difficult to cross to the other side 
of the mountain, they had the disagreeable 
sight of their carriage, which was left on the 
parrow foot-path, exposed to destruction by 
overturning into a deep gulley, from which it 
would have been impossible to extricate it. 
His Catholic Majesty, in his journey through 
Catalonia, gave orders for the finishing of this 
building, and it has for a year past been put to 
the use for which it was intended. 

We now* arrive at the hamlet of la Palma y 
and afterwards at the l\)itci del Lladoner; a 
league further on we find those of del Cipreret 
and del liquet. Houses and detached farms, * 
but at no great distance from one another, ap- 
pear, and enliven the dales and little valleys 
through which we pass: on the mountains, at 
very great depths, we iind layers of schistic* be- 
tween calcareous beds. At length descend- 
ing from the mountains, we leave to the left 
the road which goes from Barcelona to Aragon, 
and perceive, on the saint .side, the vill ge of 
Pereja; we enter an alley of poplars which leads 
to the Llobregat, over which we cross by th< 
bridge of Molina de Rey, of which we have al- 
ready spoken. To the left is the village and 

ii 4 



104 CATALONIA. 

venta of the same name. The road whieli we thea 
lake would be a fine one, if it were not always 
either muddy or dusty ; it leads in a direct line 
to the gates of Barcelona, and is bordered with 
poplars, willows, elms, and mulberry-trees. 
There are frequent ascents and descents, but 
they are gentle and easy. We see the large vil- 
lage of San-Fdiu ; and pass through it by a 
broad and very long street, in which there are 
some good houses. The prospect of the en- 
virons of Barcelona now presents itself to us 
under a new point of view, and with the same 
magnificence. To the left we have a sight of 
the village of Gmesiera, on a hill, and that of 
P hives, also on a small eminence; in front the 
castle of Mount-Jouy, and to the right the vil- 
lage of San-Boy. After having passed some 
country-houses, and to the left the hill on 
which the village of St. Just is situated, we per- 
ceive Barcelona, which we soon lose behind the 
hills, with which this road abounds ; the view 
is terminated by a long row of houses, which at 
one end join the village of Saria, and at the 
other the town of Barcelona. 

STATISTICAL ABSTRACT RELATIVE PARTICU- 
LARLY TO CA TALON JA. 

Population. Catalonia had formerly an immense popula- 
tion, if we may judge by the numerous armies which it kept 
on foot, by the considerable fleets which it equipped, by the 
conquests which it made in Greece, and lastly by the great 



CATALONIA. 105 

number of settlements spread over it, and of which the name 
and memory are alone preserved. 

The frequent wars, of which it was the theatre, or which 
it carried into the neighbouring countries the cruises and 
enterprises of the Barbary corsairs, the fall of its manufao 
tures and immense commerce, and the emigration of its in - 
habitants to Italy, Flanders and America, have gradually 
decreased its population. 

It- greatest decline took place in the 16th century; it was 
- Navajero, the Venetian ambassador say<, 
that having travelled through Catalonia in 1523, he found it al- 
tnost all drpopulatcd, and full of bunds of robbers and brigands. 
The calculation of Don Jayme Carcsmar strengthens this as- 
sertion. Tiiat learned friar, svho did honour to his c >untry 
by the extent of his knowledge and justness of his mind, dis- 
covered that this province had lost a quarter of its ancient 
of which nothing remains but the name. 
The p i of Catalonia, in I3DS, comprehending the 

counties c Von and Cerdagne, amounted to 36'5,0;)O 

iuh.b,; h..-: l.i 1495, to 4-73,000 j-Hbut in the year 1.5 jo, it 
JO souls at least, and was no more than 
. too. It ■ ly in this state that it supported itself 

till the beginning of the 1 ?:h century. A paternal govern- 
ment then re-established order and justice in it; industry 
revived by the establishment of manufactories; agricul- 
ture recovered its energy ", commerce its activity . 
flocked thither and settled, and the population inert 
with • lity. 

table, taken from the diffèrent enumerations, 
• by order of the government, shews tV' progn >&ioool 

Population in 1718 - 

lu -.722 W 

In i?87 & 1788 i '■■< " 



1 06 CATALONIA. 

The last is nearly the state of the present population. Jsî 
the number are, 

Parochial Prie-ls .1082 

Priests _. _ i<) '» 

Monks _ 4544 

Nuns -1257 

12,409 

Nobles ., 1260 

{Students _ 6968 

Writers t»;o 

Lawyers 370 

Servants 20 

30,21? 

Villages, formerly of little note, have also had an increase 
of population which almost equals that of the smaller towns, 
ligueras is enlarged ; Reuss and Mataro are become large 
towns; the sea-coast is covered with handsome villages, popu- 
lous and opulent. Barcelona has enlarged its limits; and its 
population, which, in 1715, was not nuire than 37,000 per- 
sons, was in 1788, 111,400; in 1798 it is said to have 
risen to 130,000. 

Agriculture and Soi!. Of all the provinces of Spain, Cata- 
lonia is the most active and industrious, whether in com- 
merce, manufactures, or agriculture. 

An ungrateful soil, intersected by mountains and rocks, be- 
comes productive, and even fertile, under the hands of the 
laborious Catalonians. Tiny cultivate, with the greatest suc- 
cess, the plains and valley- which their province contains; 
but where their skill appears to greatest advantage is in the 
poorest and driest lands. They cultivate even craggy rocks, 
which seem to have been de-tined only for the residence of 
deer, and which appear by degrees fertilized fields. The 



CATALONIA. 10/" 

Catalonian peasants particularly excel in the art of irrigation; 
the numerous canals which they make wonderfully assist their 
labours. In many places there is a regularity, or rather an 
exact police, maintained for watering, founded on received 
customs and principles, which were the result of their specu- 
lations. 

For example, the country about l«rida, which is three 
leagues long by two broad, is divided by the Segra into two 
portions, the one la Fontanel and the other Noguera ; the 
former is irrigated by the waters of the Ses;ra, taken at three 
leagues distance from Lerida, in the county of Villauueva de 
la Barca, and the latter by the water taken from the little 
river of la Norguera Aragoneza, near Pinana, at six leagues 
from Lerida. Each proprietor enjoys, in turn, the right of 
watering for a limited time, in proportion to the extent of the 
land which he possesses, for an annual duty of a small quan- 
tity of corn. The produce of these duties serves for keeping 
up the canals, and for the salary of the directors employed 
in the conducting and distributing of the waters. The ad- 
ministration of this police is confided to a junto, or commis- 
i-ion, formed by the corregidor, or alcalde-major, a regidor, a 
cathedral prebendary, an inferior ecclesiastic, and two far- 
mers. This is one of the finest and richest cantons; but 
Catalonia contains many others that come near it : the plains 
of Urgel, Cardagne, Valiez, Selva, Panadez, the plain of 
Iqualada, the environs of Cervera, the superb Campo de Tar- 

. na, anil Ampurdan, are all remarkable for their fertility 
and the variety of their productions. 

'I be lands of Catalonia may be divided iato two «lasses, 
into plain? and rallies, and mountains. The former are ex- 
cellent ; less, however, than many others situated in th** 
i of Spain, the cultivation of which is unfortunately 
« ith< i totally unatttndi d to, or greatly neglected. The latt< r, 
pr mountains] <'ll< r few resources, The indusl 1 > of the ( 
lonians however, turns il to agréai advantage ; consequent" 
ly productions of all kind*- aie \ery numesoui ni Catalonia, 



iOS CATALOXIA. 

There arc fruit-trees in abundance, chiefly in the many 
beautiful gardens which are on the bank of the Segra; in 
those about Lerida, Bangier, Organa, Gironne, on the banks 
of the Jdobregat, on the Ampurdan, and on tlie sea-side fiom 
Mataro to Barcelona. There are many almond and fill 
trees in the Campo de Tarragona, and in Segara ; orange and 
lemon-trees in the countries aboui Alella, Taya, Promis, Vila» 
ear, Cabrera, Argcntona., Mataro, and all the south side. Figs 
almost every where, principally in the country of tnea : 

Carobs, at. Yendrell, at Caiasell, on the coast of Tajrag 
on that of Tortosa, and from Badalcna to LWva ,<u\t~ 

trees at Arbuellas, Yilladro, Selva, Ujagostera, Vjdreras, in 
the plain of Bas, and in the innumerable garden 
country. Walnuts in the countries of Vicq, St. Hilary, St. 
Hippolito, Arbucias, Valiez, and Gironne.* There are ches- 
nuts in many places, particularly in the country of Gironne, 
and on the mountain of Santa-Croce de Osso. 

Olive-trees are very numerous in Catalonia ; they yield 
annuall}', on an average, about 1800 loads f of oii, which, at 
als of Vellon (31. 6s. Sd.) produce SO,83Sl. sterling. 

Grain of every kind is raised here : wheat, rye, maize, oats, 
barley, &c. The south side, the country of Lerida, and the 
Ampurdan abound in wheat ; the mountains and some vai- 
lles yield rye and the other grains. 

The following table is the quantity and value of them : 



600,000 loads of wheat at 144 reals, or £\ 10 

120,000 loads of rye at 98 reals, or ... 1 00 

loads of maize at 80 reals, or . . 16 8 



Reals ol 
Velio». 


u»g. 


86,1' 
11,5. 
1,160,000 


£W0,00O 
120,000 
1 1 . 


99,080,000 


£1,038,33;; 



The harvest of oats is not considerable ; that of barley is 
much more abundant. 

* It is said that the walnuts alone annually produce upwards of 

_£35,416 sterling. 

f A load is equal to 2j0 lb. 4 oz. avoirdupois weight. 



CATALOXIA. 109 

The harvest of wheat rarely suffices for the consumption 
*f the province, which commonly obtains what it wants 
from Aragon, Italy, Africa, and France. 

There are a great many vineyards in the east part of Cata- 
lonia the wine of which is excellent ; there are some also to 
the west and north, but the wine is of an inferior quality 
They gather yearly, on an average, about 60,000 loads (a load 
is 120 Paris pints). The price of it is different in the dif- 
ferent cantons, or according to its quality. The average 
price is from fifty to sixty reals the load (from lis. 8d. to 
12s. Gd.) The whole produce amounts to about 4,920,000 
reals (£0 1,250.) 

Rice is also cultivated in many parts, particularly in the 
Ampurdan ; they commonly gather about S,000 loads, 
three quintals each, which sells for ICO reals, or />'.! 13s. 
which gives a produce of 1,280,000 reals, or £13,333 6s. 8d. 
.Since the last war, this produce has diminished : the people 
of Ampurdan, who were the first victims of the unwholesome- 
ness of the air, which was attributed to the cultivation of 
rice, in a moment destroyed most of their rice fields. 

The cultivation of flax and hemp seems to be carried to no 
great extent; it is attended to, however, in some places, 
mostly in the country of Lerida. The average harvest 
Catalonia produces annually 

of Velio». Sfei I 

18,000 quintals, of hem]), at about £. s.d. 

08 reals, £\ 15 each 8,1 64,000 32,750 

8,000 quintals of flax, at 1. r< 

or ^2 10 each 1,603,000 18,750 

There are agréai man] flocks of sheep in the different 
pari- of Catalonia'; thi ■', however, numerous at 

thry might Le. The quantity of wool obtained i 
them rarely exr< . I quintals, which, at the rat 

192 reals, or £1 l6Y d. 1 • gives on an average, annually, 
5,76*0,000 reals (j This quantity is insufficient for 

the want-, of the province, and for iirpplyinf 



110 OATAIOXr>. 

tories ; it likewise obtains yearly about 10,000 quintals {'• , I 
Aragon. 

Planting is one of the principal objects of the attention of 
the Catalonians : they vie with one another in multiplying 
trees of all kinds, and in every part of their province they 
carefully watch their growth. There are beech-trees on the 
mountains of Mont-Seny ; elms in many places; in the Val- 
iez, un the hanks of the BegOS, the Llobregat, &c. poplars 
and willows, pines, cork-tiers, and oaks in great abundance, 
on the Pyrcnnces, in the Valiez, and in the countries of 
Hostalric, San Celoni, llici-de-Arcnas, Palafolls, Los Metges, 
Romana, &c. ; pine forests in parts of Solsona, Beigu, Mon- 
sec, Mauresa, MatarOj andGironne; a great number of green 
oaks in the countries of Vicq, St. Hilairio, Arbucias, Villadrau, 
Kit 11^, Amer, the Ainpnnlan, and on the mountains between 
Gironne and Aulot: a great quantity of shrubs, such as the 
Arbutus, myrtles, &e. as well on the chain of mountains near 
Barcelona, as on those of Mon.t-Negrej Vallgorguina, Mont- 
Serrat, San-Gran, San-Daniel, beyond Gironne, and between 
Blanat andSan-Felieude Guinols ; cork-trees, in the Concade 
Tremp, on the mountains of Alsinella, in the valley of Aro, 
in the county of Darnius, on the mountains of Resequens, &c. 
these last trees are extremely numerous. The oaks yield a 
great quantity of acorns. The cork-trees are stripped of 
their bark, which furnishes about 33,000 quintals annually ; 
this at 720 reals, or .£7 10 each quintal, gives 25,700,000 
reals, or <£2t7,500. This province furnishes almost the 
whole of Europe with cork. 

There are very few mulberry-trees in Catalonia, though 
they thrive very well. They breed consequently fewer silk- 
worms than some other provinces of Spain ; not making much 
mere than 200,000 pounds of silk, which sells for IS reals, 
or 10s. the pound. 

The madder, the root of which is of great use in dying, 
was not cultivated in Catalouia till lately, and is still an in- 
considerable object. 



CATALONIA. 



in 



ïn giving here a table of the productions of ihi*. province, 
we are confined to the most remarkable, and such as are ab- 
solute necessaries ; we have no account to be depended upon 
of other productions, such as barky, oats, almonds, nuts, 
chesnuts, carobs, and other fruits. 







PrtK 






A MO IN r. 


Hull*. 


Quantity. 


Reals of 


Sterling. 


Reals of 


Sterling. 






Villon. 






Vellon. 




Wool •• 


quint. 


192 


•2 





5,760,000 


55,000 O 


Silk •••• 


> lb. 


48 





10 


■0,000 


100,000 


Wheat • • 


600,000 load 


144 


1 


10 o 


87,61 


912,500 


Ry 


1 load 


96 


1 





11,53 


00 


Maize • • 


22,000 load 


SO 





16 8 


1,16 


1S,353 6 8 


Rice.... 


1 load 


160 


1 


13 4 


1,2 


1 \: 33 6 8 


Oil •••• 


Ion! 


320 


3 


6 8 5,76 ,000 


60,000 


Wine •• 


60,000 load 


64 


i) 


13 4 4,920,000 


51,250 


V. 


10 sacks 


96 


1 


3,400,000 


35,416 13 4 


Hemp ■ • 


1 8,000 quint. 


16S 


1 


15 1 5.164,000 


32,750 O 


Max 


8,000 quiot 


196 


2 


10 1,6< 001 


16,750 O 


Cork 


3.3,000 quint. 


7J0 
i 


h 


10 I 
Total 


23,760,000 


247,875 




160,124,000 


1,663,208 6 3 



Manufactures. The labour and industry of the Catalonians 
are not confined to agriculture; they themselves work the 
raw matt-rials which ; t furnishes. 

Catalonia had, m t ht- remotest times, celebrated and con- 
sideiable n anufa ici -. Jt manufactured cloths and various 
other woollen stuff»; all kinds «>f s.lks and velvets, linens, 
hemp and cotton cloths ; and it had excellent dyers. In speak- 
ing of its panerai commerce, we shall mention the causes 
which occasioned the decline of its manufactures, and those 
which revived 'hem in the 18 h centurj ; they have rapidly 
increased in more than one kind, and we shall here give a 
view oi them. 

Silk Si ' . These are manufactured at Manre a, Cardona, 

and M laro, which has forty-eight looms, but principally at 

Barcelona, « ere there are five hundred and twenty-four. 

i tin y make vi ; as, damasks, silk-, tafetas, and 

d silvei nil rhe town ol Barcelona alone uses an* 

nually !iOO,OOU lbs, ol raw silk. 



Il: C A TA tO>* I A. 

• 
Tutlhts, Handkerchief*, and Silk Sashes. They make a great 

quantity of these at Barcelona, where there aie a good 
many little manufactories of this kind : there are a hundred 
and fifty looms at ïteuss, and six hundred at Manresa. At 
the last place sixty-thousand dozen handkerchiefs are made, 
which take about 70,000 lbs. of raw silk. 

Gauzes. The manufacture of these is considerable at Bar- 
celona, where they are made plain and striped, while, and 
of all colours. Some time ago a particular manufactory was 
established there for gauzes in imitation of blond lace. 

Silk Twisters. There are some of these in several towns ; a 
great many in Barcelona. There are eighteen frames at 
Mataro which twist, one year with another, one hundred and 
twenty-four quintals of silk; and thirty^seven at Tarragona, 
which twist eleven thousand quintals. 

Silk Stocking*. These are made at Tarragona, Mataro, 
Aulot, Manresa, and Barcelona. At .Mataro there are fifty- 
two looms, and at Barcelona nine hundred. 

Cotton Stockings. They are made in the Asylum at 
Gironne, at Arens-del-Mar, Villanova, Mataro, Tarragona. 
Aulot, and Vice]. In the fast town there are three manufac- 
tories, at Mataro one hundred and sixteen looms, and at 
«Aulot ninety. 

Worsted Stockings. These likewise are made in the Asylum 
at Gironne, at Arens-del-Mar, Aulot, and Vicq: the town 
of Aulot makes a great number, and Vicq furnishes twenty- 
four thousand pair every year. 

Blankets. There are several manufactories of blankets in 
different parts of Barcelona; they are good, but not fine, 
light, or handsome. 

Rateens. There is a manufacture of them at Aulot. 

Coarse Cloth, Serges, Frieze. There aie a considerable 
number of manufactories of these to be found at Aulot. 
Gironne, Tarrassa, Capelladas, Centellas, Sabadel, Esparra- 

G 



CATALONIA. US 

guera, tJrgell, Camprodon, Cardona, Solsona, Vicq, and 
Monistrol. 

Fine Cloths. Several manufactories are established at Tar- 
rassa, an ancient Roman town, three leagues from Barcelona, 
where Roman relics are still found: it is the ancient Egara. 
There are seventeen manufactories at Tarrassa, the cloths are of 
a quality approaching to those of Elbeuf; but they are not suf- 
ficiently beaten, and they do not take the dark colours 
well. 

Linens. These are in the hands of private weavers settled 
at different places, but there is no manufactory on a large 
scale. Agramunt, Banolas, Capellados, Cardona, and Vicq, 
are the places where we meet most of the private looms. 
They are in general common or household linens. The quan- 
tity made yearly at Ma» aro is about two thousand varas : at 
Vicq the consumption of flax amounts to about three thousand 
quintals, and of hemp to nine thousand. There are also fire 
manufactories of sail-cloth at Mataro. 

Laces and Blonds. These constitute the employment of 
women and children. The work is principally done at Pi- 
neda, Malgrat, San-Celoni, Tosa, Canet, Arens, Callcla, San- 
Pol, Mataro, Esparraguera, Martorell, and Barcel ma. 

Tapes and Nets. These two articles and the making of lace 
e mploy twelve thousand persons in Barcelona alone. 

Ribbons and Galloons. There are eighty-nine looms at Ma- 
taro, five hundred at Manresa, and two thousand seven hun- 
dred at Barcelona. 

Silk and Cotton Bindings. Most of these are made at 
Manresa, where there are four hundred looms; at EteUM 
there are forty for cotton tapes; a» Tarragona they mike, 
one year with another, nin< hundred thousand pieces; and 
gt Hareelona they al>o make a great quantity <>l both sorts. 

C '■itton-spinning. There are ninety-nine placet for spinning 
cotton in Harcelona. At Aulot there are two hundred and 

a machinei ; and at Reusi, where 'here arc three bun- 
I . I. I 



114 CATALONIA. 

tlreil and thirty-three, the quantity of cotton thread spui> 
every day weighs three hundred and fifty pounds, which gives 
employaient to one thousand three hundred women. 

Cotton Stuff's. These are made in the Asylum at Gironne, 
at Arena, and at Tosa. There are two manufactories of them 
at Mataro, five at Aulot, a great number at Reuss, which em- 
ploy two hundred and forty looms; a still greater number at 
Barcelona, where they reckon four thousand looms, which 
employ ten thousand seven hundred persons. Here cottons 
are woven to be stairied in imitation of the Indian calicoes and 
for clothes, white, coloured, plain and striped ; fustians, 
muslins, velvets, ami nankeens. Muslin is also made at Tar- 
ragona. At Barcelona alone the manufacturers make every 
year one hundred and ninety-five thousand pieces of calico, 
fine, middling, and of a common quality for printing; thir- 
teen thousand pieces of nankeen, velvets, and striped cotton, 
nine thousand pieces white for clothes, &c. and three thousand 
seven hundred pieces of fine and middling musliris. 

Printed Calicoes. The manufactories of these are very nu- 
merous : they reckon eighteen at Mataro, nineteen at Man- 
rcsa, nine at Vicq, twelve at Reuss, fourteen at Aulot, eight 
at Igualada, and two hundred at Barcelona. 

Hats. At Barcelona four manufactories ; at Manresatwo; 
«it Vicq two; at Mataro six. These hats are in general coarse 
and heavy. 

Playing Cards. They are made at Aulot. 
Soaps. The soft soap is manufactured by several indivi- 
duals at Tortosa. For the hard soap there are manufactories 
at Aulot, Yillanova, and Tortosa. 

Gim-powder. There are two manufactories at Manresa, but 
they work only in winter. 

Skins, Leather, and Shoe-soles. A sufficient quantity of 
these are prepared and made to supply the province, to fur- 
ni-ii materials for seven hundred thousand pair of shoes, 



CATALONIA. 115 

which are yearly sent out of Catalonia, and to export shoe- 
soles to the value of nearly «£42,000 sterling. There are se- 
veral manufactories of these articles at Barcelona, three at 
Vicq, three at Tortosa, seven at Aulot, and eight at Ma- 
ta ro. 

Shoes. They make shoes at Barcelona to be sent into the 
other provinces of Spain, and for exportation to some of the 
American colonies. Generally seven hundred thousand pair 
are sent every year out of the country, which produce 
7,400 000 reals or upwards of £77,000 sterling. 

White Glass. For some time past there have been glass- 
houses at Barcelona, where panes of every size for windows 
are made. 

Earthen-ware. There are two manufactories at Tortosa, 
where a very common sort is made. 

Aquafortis. It is made at Manresa. 

Salt of Saturn. Two manufactories in the last town. 

Cutlery, Iron-ware, and Locksmith's Work. A great many 
of these articles are made at Cardona and Solsona ; but the 
workmanship is neither delicate nor finished. Shears are 
principally made at Aulot and Monistrol. 

Iron and Brass -j.irc. These are made at Salient. 

Anchors. The forges are at Pineda, Malgrat, San-Pol, Ca- 
Ulla, and Arens del Mar. 

Fire Arms. A great quantity are made at Barcelona, 
Jgualada, and Ri poll : the last place is very famous for them. 

Cannon. There is a very fine foundery at Barcelona, which 
belongs to the king, the cannon are of brass. » 

Paper. This branch of commerce lias considerably in- 
creased. There were but eigbty-ii* mills in Catalonia in 

1776; in \7*'j they reckoned one hundred and sixty, and at 
present there tut more than two liiiiidivd. Th< y have thrm 
Bt Aulot, Alcoccr, Bereytc, M;mre:.i, C'eiiKi, Capelladai, San* 

I tl 



116 CATALONIA. 

Celoni, Vails, all along the road to Martorell, &c # The 
quantity made yearly amounts to four hundred and eighty 
thousand reams. The prices are regulated according to the 
quality: the mean price is 6s. Sd. the ream, and the total 
amount is estimated at „£l60,000 sterling. 

Stained Papers. There are three manufactories at Baree* 
lona. 

Brandy. The distilleries are at Manrcsa, Mataro, Tortosa, 
Villanova, Alellu, Calella, Reuss, Agramunt, Arens, Salon, 
Canet, Vails, Vilasar, Pineda, besides various other places. 
The principal entrepôt is at Reuss. The quantity distilled 
is generally thirty-five thousand pipes every year, which, at 
720 reals or £l. 10s. a pipe, give 2 ^,200,000 reals or ^262,500 
sterling. 

Commerce. While the industry and activity of the Cata- 
lonians are turned to agriculture in the interior of the 
country, those of the inhabitants of the maritime dis- 
tricts are chiefly devoted to the profitable speculations of 
commerce, to which the situation of Catalonia is peculiarly 
favourable. This province has a vast extent of coast, where 
there are several harbours, of no great importance indeed, 
but. as they serve to protect the merchantmen, as entrepots, 
and as points of rendezvous. There are five of them, Rosas, 
Pajamos, Cadaques, Barcelona, and Salon, 

The commerce of Catalonia was in a flourishing state in 
remote times ; and since, under the dominion of the Counts; 
it became still more so under the kings of Aragon. In the 
13th century this province had a great number of manufac- 
tories : it furnished the island of Corsica, the kingdom of 
Naples, Smyrna, Alexandria, and various other places of 
Greece, and even Frizeland and Holland with cloths. It ma- 
nufactured velvets, silks, linpns, and calicoes, and exported 
the produce of its industry to distant countries. It had a 
great number of ships, some of which were armed vessels for 
the protection of the coast : at that time its commerce e.\» 



CATALONIA. 117 

tended to the opposite shores of Africa, the Archipelago, 
Syria, and Egypt. The Catalonians had factories on the 
confines of Europe and Asia, on the banks of the Tanais, at 
the end of the 14th century. We find a Catalonian and a 
Biscayan consul among those of different nations settled at 
Azoph at the mouth of the river, imploring the clemency of 
Timour or Tamerlane, and making him presents, when that 
prince returned triumphant in 1397, from his expedition into 
the Kipzac, to the East and to the West of the Caspian Sea 
and the Wolga. 

The epocha of its decline was at the end of the 15th and 
beginning of the 1 6th century. The introduction of the duty 
of bulla or seal, on manufactured stuffs, depressed the manu- 
facturers ; their looms languished, and the negligence of the 
government, with the vexations created by its subaltern 
agents, put an end to all kind of emulation ; the Barbary 
corsairs harassed, reduced, and destroyed commerce, and 
Catalonia at the same time became the theatre of frequent 
long wars. A considerable decrease of population was the 
consequence of these causes : the province lost its inhabitants, 
industry, manufactures, commerce, wealth, and splendour. 
It was a country without means and without resources when 
Philip V. added it to his dominions. 

The protection it received from that monarch and his suc- 
cessors revived the natural activity of its inhabitants: they 
recovered their energy, and Catalonia became again one of 
the most commercial and wealthiest provinces of Spain. IN 
coasts are covered with ships, and the inhabitants of the parts 
near the sea have become seamen or traders : the whole 
length of the shore furnishes harbours or roads; ships and 
boats are seen all along ; it is impossible to follovr them from 

Blanas to Tortosa, without admiring the prodigious industry 

an<l unceasing activity of the Catalans. 

The natural productions of the province furnish an impor- 
tant branch of .' commerce. The rice, flax, hemp, acorn-. 



118 CATALONIA. 

wool, and silk are consumed in the country. ISIo f t of tliç 
nuts and almonds go to England and the North : of 26,00(K 
sacks of nuts, '«.'0,000 are sent to England every year, and 
produce 26,0001. sterling. Cork in sheets is sent to the 
North ; about 30,000 quintals are exported, with which from 
fifteen to eighteen ships are usually freighted : bottle corks go 
to France ; the quantity is commonly 1200 quintals, together 
31,200 quintals, producing 22,462,996 reals, or 233,9 SQL 
sterling. About 1200 quintals are likewise sent into different 
provinces of Spain. 

A part of the oil is kept in the country for its own con- 
sumption, and for the manufactures : about 8000 loads of it 
are sent into France and Holland, and bring about 2,560,000 
reals, or 26,6661. 13s. 4d. sterling. 

A part of the wine is drunk in the country, but a great part 
is converted into brandy, of which about 4000 loads are sent 
to Italy, and sell for 256,000 reals, or 2,6661. 13s. 4d. sterling. 

The most important branch of the commerce of Catalonia 
consists of the exportation of its manufactures. Muslins, flan- 
nels, cotton counterpanes, mixed stuffs of cotton and thread, and 
of cotton and silk, are likewise partly kept for the consumption 
of the country, but at least two-thirds of them are exported to 
Valencia, Saragossa, and Madrid. One-twelfth and a half 
of the linens and cotton velvets, of the nankeens and muslins 
are used in the province, and the rest are exported, viz. two- 
twelfths and a half to the other provinces of Spain, and two- 
thirds to the colonies. Barcelona alone, one year with an- 
other, manufactures them to the value of 463,3331. sterling, 
and what are exported amount to upwards of 291,6661. 
sterling. 

Silk handkerchiefs and sashes are articles of considerable 
importance, and there are a great many made in Catalonia %. 
Manresa furnishes annually 60,000 dozen, which produce 
8,400,000 reals, or 91,6661. 13s. 4d. at the rate of 140 reals 
4he dozen. Ten thousand dozen are sent to Aragon, Biscay» 



CATALONIA. 119 

and the two Castiles, and 35,000 dozen tô America, which 
together produce the sum of 66.0411. 13s. 4d. sterling. 

A great quantity of worsted stockings are made in this 
province ; the town of Vicq furnishes 24,000 pair yearly, half 
of which are sent into the adjacent provinces, and bring about 
5001. sterling. 

The quantity of silks and silk stockings sent to Madrid is 
but small; the chief export of these is to the American co- 
lonies. 

A part of the coarse cloths and coarse woollens, worsted 
sashes and blankets, linens, tapes, sail-cloth, aj anchors re- 
main in the province : a great part of the coarse ciuths and 
serges serves for the clothing of the troops, and is sent, made 
up in clothes, into the different provinces of Spain : the fine 
cloths are sent to Madrid, Aragon, and other places. Thread 
nets are sent to every part of Spain. 

The cannon are reserved for the king : the fire-arms are 
sent to other parts of Spain, and to Spanish America. 

The iron-ware goes partly to the other provinces, and partly 
to America. 

The laces are almost all shipped for the New World. 
The printed calicoes are sent to Valencia, Saragossa, Ma- 
drid, and the two Castiles, but most of them to America. 
This branch of exportation is very considerable. 

Of 480,000 reams of paper, about 10,000 only are used in 
the province, consequently 470,000 reams are exported, of 
which 220,000 are taken by Aragon, the two Castiles, and 
Kstremadura. It produces a sum of 15,240,000 reals pi 
J \$J5601 13s. 4d. sterling. 

Of brandy 35,0<>0 pipes arc exported, of which 4000 go to 
Guernsey and Aldemey, 10,000 to England, and the re I t.. 
Holland and the North of Europe, even to Ku- u. They 
produce 25 ,200,000 reals, or 262 5001. iterl 

'lli« ralue of the exportation of shoes furnished by B 
lona has been already stated : 200,0) rica a 

and joo,ooo into the interior of Spain 

1 4 



KO 



CATALONIA. 



They ship annually from Barcelona so great a quantity of 
the sweepings of the houses, that the produce amounts t» 
60,000 ducats. 

In Catalonia a commerce is carried on for silver coined, 
which goes to France, and, though it is prohibited under the 
severest penalties, it is very considerable. 



A TABLE OF THE EXPORTS OF CATALONIA. 

EXPORTS TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



Commodities. 



Quantity exported. 



Nuts. . 

Oil 

Cork in sheets 
Bottle corks.. 

Wine 

Barcelona li- 
nens and 
cotton stuffs 
Manresa silk- 
handkerchiefs 

Paper 

Brandy 

Shoes 

Sweepings of 
Houses . 



26,000 
8,000 

30,000 
1,200 
4,000 



sacks 

loads 

quint. 

quint. 

loads 



3,101,000 varas 



35,000 
220,000 
350,000 
200,000 



dozen 
reams 
pipes 
pair 



AMOUNT. 



In reals of 


In Sterling. 




Vellon. 










£. 


s. 


d. 


2,496,000 


26,000 








2,560,000 


26,666 


25 


4 


21,600,000 


225,000 








862,990 


8,989 





10 


256,000 


2,666 


13 


4 


28,320,667 


295,006 


18 


4 


4,900,000 


51,041 


13 


4 


7,240,000 


73,333 


6 


8 


25,200,000 


262,500 








2,114,284 


22,023 


15 


10 


600,000 


6,875 








90,209,847 


1,000,103 


3 


B 



CATALOXIA. 



121 



EXIORTS TO THE INTERIOR OF SPAIN". 



Commodities. 



Barcelona li- 
nens and 
cotton stufl 

Manresa silk 
handkerchief* 

Vicq worsted 
stockings 

Paper 

Shoes .. 

Shoe-soles 

Cork 



Quantity exported. 



1,026,011 varras 

1 0,000 dozen 

12,000 pair 
250,000 reams 
500,000 pair 



AMOUNT. 



In Reals of 
Vellon. 



7,SS6,S<37 



In Sterling. 



82,113 3 4 



1,200 quint. 



Total Interior Exports 
Foreign Exports 

Total Exports _- 



1,400,000 


14,583 


6 


-: 


18,000 


500 








8,000,000 


S3,333 


b 


a 


5,285,712 


55,059 


10 





4,000,000 


41,666 


13 


4 


864,000 


9,000 








27,484,579 


256,256 








90,209,817 


1,000,103 


3 


a 


17,69l,l2o 


1,286,359 


3 


$ 



There are some commodities omitted in the first of these 
tables, such as nuts, almonds, &c. of which it is impossible to 
procure any tolerably accurate statement, but the profits of 
which are in favour of the province. 

If to the above sums were added the amount of detach' .1 
articles dependent on some manufactures, and which the pro- 
prietors keep a profound secret, it would be found that the 
commerce of Catalonia amounts to a very considerable sum. 

With respect to its imports, this province frequently re- 
ceives corn from Aragon and from Franct ; it likewise re- 
ceives about 10,000 quintals of wool and 80)000 lbs. of silk 
from Aragon; and 100,000 lbs. of silk from the kingdom of 
Valencia; it : Lyo , Gang ad Nismei <ilk 

sJockingt, fine clotbs, linens, tssences, perfumes, pomatums 



1'J'J CATALONIA. 

jewellery, and millinery from France. It is furnished with 
superfine cottons, herrings, and codfish, by England, and 
with some spiees by Holland. Nevertheless the amount of 
its imports is much lower than that of its exports. 

Commerce in general, hut particularly exportation, is car- 
ried on along the coast of Catalonia ; in the five ports of the 
province, in the roads of Tarragona and Tortosa, on every 
part of the coast from Calella to Mataro, along which there 
are an infinity of little roads always full of ships ; but Barce- 
lona is the most considerable port ; then follow those of 
Salona and Tarragona, and the road of Tortosa. 

Carriage, Carriages, and Inns. Catalonia, so opulent, so 
industrious, and perhaps the most active province in Spain, 
is nevertheless one of those that have the worst roads, 
and where they are the least taken care of. Those entering 
Catalonia from the French part of the Pyrenees have been 
already noticed, and those also leading from Barcelona to the 
frontiers of Aragon and of the kingdom of Valencia : the 
cross-roads are still worse, and are frequently impassable, 
particularly in rainy weather, and during the melting of the 
snows, on account of the number of rivers to be crossed, 
which are then impetuous torrents. Travellers are continual- 
ly liable to be stopped by the I.lobregat, the Fluvia, the Ter, 
the Muga, the Tordera, the Bezos, the îs'oya, and several 
others: very few bridges are to be met with; not any m 
the most frequented, most important, and most dangerous 
1 art'. 

To atone for the badness of the roads, there are plenty of 
inns throughout Catalonia. In this province we meet none 
of those disagreeable mesones, or posadas, so common in 
Spain, which are a torment to travellers, where they meet only 
with liaic bedsteads, eat only what they bring or send out to 
purchase, and where they are sometimes obliged to cook their 
own vidua!-, without bcincr able to recover from the fatigue 
of their journey. 

( )m the contrary, there aie a g r cal many inns on the roads 



CATALONIA. 123 

in Catalonia, and, though some of them are bad, many are, 
if not good, at least tolerable : those of Figueras, Calella, 
Gironne, Barcelona, and Igualada, are good, and those of 
Mataro and Lerida excellent : their usual price for a meal is 
two piécettes, or twenty-pence. 

They travel in Catalonia, as in the rest of Spain, in coaches 
drawn by six mules, called there coches de colleras, in Cakchas, 
a kind of open chaise drawn by two mules, and in Volantes, 
another kind ofopen chaise, rather smaller, drawn by one mule. 
These carriages travel about eight leagues a day. A covered 
waggon sets out once a week for Madrid ; by this convey- 
ance those persons travel who either cannot or will not afford 
a dearer mode. Those who go post in Catalonia ride on 
horseback, for there are no post-horses to be met with for 
carriages. 

Goods are conveyed in carts drawn by four or five mules, 
yoked in aline following oue another: they carry immense 
weights. The mules are handsome, strong, well fed, and 
skilfully managed. The Catalans are the most adroit, ex- 
pert, and attentive carriers ; those of the other provinces are 
not equal to them either in driving their carts, or in the 
manner of taking care of their mules. 

SKETCH OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF CATA- 
LONIA. 

The natural history of Catalonia is not well kuowti : it 
would furnish many objects of instruction and curiosity, and 
it is a pity that some able naturalist does not bend bis atten- 
tion on this province, and display the treasures it contains. 

We only know that there is a great number of iron mines, 
particularly near Alius and Taull ; that petrifactions are 
found on the mountain opposite to tlie Torre alta dc >iain]>t:n-, 
but on the --idi.- turned from it; lead mines near Tori. 
and amethysts, topazes, and coloured crystals near Vicq, 
;h the goldsmith! of Barcelona cut, mount, anil sell ; coal 



124 CATALONIA. 

mines near the new bridge of Manresa, at Isona, Tarassaj 
San-Saturne,- Subiras, near IMartorell, Sellent, in the terri- 
tory of Llansa, near the sea, and at Montanola. The last, 
which is in the diocese of Vicq, is very considerable ; that of 
Clansa is accounted the best ; and the merchants of Barce- 
lona are endeavouring to have it opened and worked. 

Catalonia contains a great many mineral waters ; some 
cold, some hot. Of the former, the most remarkable are 
those of Monistrol, near Mont-Serrat ; those of Vail de Ebron, 
a league from Barcelona; those of Tortosa, San-Ililario, and 
Rivas, fifteen leagues from Barcelona : the two last of these 
are gazcous. Of the latter the principal are those of Caldas, 
Malavilla, and Taull, in the corregidorat of Talaru ; those of 
Garriga and of Caldetas, in the corregidorat of Mataro ; those 
of Caldas de Mombuy, Gironne, and Esparraguera, near 
iUont-Serrat ; of the Espluga, near the monastery of Poblet ; 
and of Torello, or San-Eeliu de Torello, eleven leagues from 
Barcelona. All these places are more or less frequented, but 
the nature of the waters is not well known, for they have not 
been accurately analyzed. 

Marbles of différent kinds are very common in Catalonia. 
There is a black marble streaked with with white, near the 
Torre dc Sempere, in the neighbourhood of Barcelona. It 
was at a former period used for the columns of the Carmelite 
convent, and for those of La Merci, and lately for the cisterns 
at the new custom-house at that town. There is likewise a 
black marble with white veins, near the Torre aita, belonging 
to the same person, but it is of a superior quality ; a whitish 
marble on the opposite side of the mountain which faces this 
Torre; branching marbles, forming landscapes and figures 
of various kinds, in the environs of Tortosa; marbles of dif-> 
fi. n nt colours in the territory of San-\ icens del Horts, on the 
other side of Molens de Rev, to the right of the Venta del 
Cipreret, near the road of Villa-Franca de Panade/ ; about 
quarries of mixt marbles near Salient : thirty-sere* 



CATALONIA. 125 

specimens, well wrought and highly polished, were presented 
to the king by Messrs. Xipell. 

There are two mountains remarkable for their uniformity, 
situated very near the sea, between Figueras and Gironne; 
they are both of a pyramidal form and of equal heigkt ; their 
bases touch. Mr. Bowles says, that they have all the signs 
of ancient volcanoes. 

Mont-Serrat is equally remarkable for the composition, 
form, arrangement, and position of the rocks upon it. It is 
a compound of calcarious 6tone, sa»>d, and pebbles cemented 
together, forming the kind of aggregation known to natu- 
ralists by the appellation of pudding-stone. '■' le rich earth, on 
part of these rocks being dissolved by the action of the rain- 
water, has formed crevices full of trees and aromatic plants. 
This vegetation is the more extraordinary, as there is no spring 
on the mountain : the streamlets sometimes seen thire ap- 
pear to me to proceed from reservoirs formed by rains in the 
crevices of the mountains, and running in the bed of porous 
stones which lie across the midule of it. This mountain is 
one of the most extraordinary, as well as one of the most 
pleasant places in the world. The cause we have assigned 
for the intermitting -treams on Mont-Serrat is, perhaps, ap- 
plicable to the intermission of a spring at Tamarite, near 
Lerida. 

Among the natural curiosities of Catalonia, certainly the 
most remarkable is the famous Mountain of Salt, near the 
town of Cardona, sixteen leagu from Barcelona: it is an 
immense mass, a real mountain, nearly three miles in cir- 
cumference, composed almost entirely of salt. It is about 
five hundred feet high, without cleft or crevice; and is situ- 
ated close to the river Cardonero, towai i- which its side is 

cut alunit perpendicularly. The salt of which it is composed 

i- v r\ ■ ulntt m almost all parts of it; ;i small quantity of 
a reddish and "t a bluish east is found, which, bow< vt r, be- 

mes white on being reduced to powder. The rains ci 
:i diminution of the mass. The rjver at the fool o\ i( 1» 



1£6 CATALONIA. 

salt., and becomes still salter after rain : it kills the fish, but 
this effect is not perceived beyond three leagues. At Cardona 
they make and sell, at a very cheap rate, various little trans- 
parent articles ; such as altars, figures of saints, crosses, chan- 
deliers, salt-cellars, Sec. ; they are as clear as crystal, and to 
all appearance as lasting. 

STATE OF THE ARTS AND SCIENCES IN CATA- 
LONIA. 

The liberal arts are little cultivated in Catalonia ; the ge- 
nius of the inhabitants is principally turned to the useful 
arts, and especially those connected with manufactures. 
There are, however, at Barcelona, and in some other tow ni 
of Catalonia, painters who embellish the outside of the houses 
with paintings in fresco, from the works of the great masters, 
which they copy skilfully. 

Tuo drawing-schools have been lately established in this 
province ; one at Barcelona and the other at Aulot. I know 
nothing of the latter; the former is a good one, and has al- 
ready been mentioned. Designs relative to manufactures are 
the chief objects of these schools ; they may, however, form 
the painter, the sculptor, and architect. 

But even in the arts connected with manufactures and 
maritime commerce the Catalans have hitherto shown no 
invention, though they are active and intelligent imitators 
of the inventions of other countries : this is fully proved by 
the great number and variety of their manufactures, and the 
ready sale they find for them. They are succes>ful in the 
mechanic arts, which indeed are more cultivated in Cata- 
lonia than in any other province of Spain : this may certainly, 
in some measure, be attributed to the active and intelligent 
genius of the Catalans, but is still more owing to another 
cause, founded on opinion, and that is, that in Catalonia ar- 
tizans are treated with respect, while, in the greater part of 



CATALONIA. 1.7 

the kingdom they are despised, or looked down upon, and 
trades considered as mean. 

The genius of the Catalans is likewise turned to science, 
and Catalonia has produced men who have distinguished 
themselves in that career. In the principal towns, and par- 
ticularly in Barcelona, we find many well-informed men, who 
owe the knowledge they have acquired entirely to their taste 
for study, their application, and the happy bent of their na- 
tive penetrating understanding. There are enlightened theo- 
logians, profound lawyers, and men of letters. Medicine 
may still be a little behind-hand, but modern natural philo- 
sophy and natural history have made some advance. 

This province has produced several writers worthy of praise. 
Ramon Vidal de Bezalu, and Godefroi de Fosca, a Benedic- 
tine, published each, in the 13th century, an " Art of Poetry,'' 
in the Provençal tongue. That of Vidal was the first of the 
kind that ever appeared in Spain. Roberto Selot, Emanuel 
Pier, and Vital de Canellas distinguished themselves in the 
11th and 15th centuries : the first wrote a history of Cata- 
lonia ; the second wrote on veterinary medicine, at a time 
when that science was not known ; the last, bishop ofJIu?sca, 
was a famous lawyer ; by command of the king and of the 
states of Aragon, he compiled the ancient laws of Aragon 
and of Sobrarbe, and formed a new civil and criminal code. 
The l6"th century produced Antic Roca, of Gironne, who 
wrote on philosophy, and published a Catalan 'and Latin 
dictionary; Gabriel de Tarraga, a native of Tarraga, whose 
writings on medicine are extant ; the theologian. Ji rome of 
< - rvi ra Loreta ; the poet, u an Boscan, of Barcelona ; Antonio 
Aguilara, ofjunquera, who lias 1< ft writings on the practice 
of medicine; and the lawyer, Juan Pedro Fontanelle, of Vicq, 
wbowa the oracle of thé bar, and is to this day the guide 
and authority of lb< Catalan lawyer», (nthe 1 7 1 1» century, 
Rafael Mox, of Gironne; Pedro Canana», ofVHla Franca de 
Paneder; and tadreu, "i Barcelona, published their works ; 
the first wrote on the di 1 1 worm d, the second onjudU 



I £8 CATALONIA. 

cial astrology, and the third gave a Practica Gotholanorum. 
The same age cave birth to three historians, Juan Gaspard 
Roig y Jalpi, of Blanas, who published a history of G iron ne ; 
Estevan de Cerbera, who pave one of Catalonia ; and Jerome 
Pujados, of Barcelona, whose writings are esteemed : Bal- 
thazar de Segovia, another Catalan, wrote in the same 
period on the art of engraving. Catalonia also produced 
Francisco Moli, and Cristobal Galvet, of Lerida, the former 
known by his writings on the canon law ; the latter known 
by his sermons. Barcelona was honoured by the birth of a 
learned lady, Juana Morella ; and a painter of distinguished 
merit, Viladomat, was also born there : they have both been 
already mentioned. 

^'e shall just mention here the names of four learned men 
whom we have already noticed, and who did honour to the 
ISth century :' Jacobo Salvador distinguished himself by his 
knowledge in natural history ; Jacobo Cavennar, a regular 
canon of St. Augustin, who died in 1791 ; Jerome Pasqual, 
of the convent of Las Avellanas, near Lerida, a learned and 
worthy man ; and, lastly, Pedro Virgili, who was the re- 
storer of surgery in Spain, who founded the schools at Barce- 
lona and Cadiz, and was rewarded for his labours with the 
appointment of first surgeon to the king. He died in 1/7(5, 
at the age of seventy-seven. 

Besides the academies, the schools of different kinds, and 
the public libraries in Catalonia, there were formerly two 
academies in this province under the title of Gay Science, on 
the model of that which was then established at Toulouse, 
and which has been transmitted to our days under the name 
of Académie des Jeux floraux. One of them was founded at 
Barcelona, towards the end of the 1-ith century, by John I. 
king of Aragon, who began to reign in 1387, and it was 
formed by two supporters of that of Toulouse, whom the king 
of France sent at the request of that prince. A parly sepa- 
rating from this academy, formed a similar establishment at 
Tortosa, at the commencement of the 15th century, undt.r 



CATALONIA. 129 

king Mail in. Hero (be Provençal poetry was cultivated, 
verses were recited ami sung, and prizes decreed to the vic- 
tors. The academy of gat/ science at Tortosa, supported 
itself but a very >hort time ; that of Barcelona had greatly 
declined so early as when Ferdinand I. ascended the throne 
in 1410 : that monarch wished to revive the spirit of it, and 
gave the direction of it lo the Marquis de Villena, at thai 
time celebrated for his literary talents. That nobleman ne- 
glected nothing in his power to accomplish the wishes of his 
sovereign, but his efforts were ineffectual. Since that period 
the Catalans have made little progress in poetry, and, the 
works of Volfongona excepted, nothing striking in their lan- 
guage is known. 

CHARACTER, MANNERS, CUSTOMS, HABITS, 
DRESS, AND LANGUAGE. 

The Catalans are charged with asperity of character, rough- 
ness of expression, and vehemence of action. There are 
grounds for this charge ; but if we enquire into the cause, 
and at the same time recollect the good qualities which atone 
for those defects, we shall perhaps be less disposed to blame 
them, 

The Catalans, accustomed under the kings of Aragon to 

re the legislative power with the sovereign, to look upon 

their prince only as count of Barcelona, and to pay no taxes 

hut such as they chose to grant, considered themselves as all 

partaking of the supreme authority, and each in particular 

m a little sovereign. In those days they had ideas of indc- 

pendence which they long cherished, and which at length 

blican spirit. Hence the haughtiness 

peculiar to the inhabitants of this provint e, the authoritative 

to what» vit bas the ilighte I appear- 

of command in another, or even of subordination. 

the r< ughnesa of « ipn - 
. nplained of its proi i hard, kharp, 



130 CAr.u.oxiA. 

dry, and it often utters the tenderest ami most enrpassîbneci 
sentiment without grace or delicacy. 

Activity is the basis of the Catalan character; it is blunt 
in penoiis «-ho have not received the polish of education; 
But we must do the Catalans justice : this propensity to mo- 
tion, this natural vivacity impelled them to great under- 
takings ; it frequently rendered them victorious in the times; 
of the counts of Barcelona and kings of Aragon; it led them 
into Greece and gained them important conquests ; it car- 
ried them to the island of Majorca, and there destroyed the 
empire of the Saracens ; it established the dominion of the 
kingdom of the kings of Aragon in the island of Sardinia ; it 
guided them on the seas, and carried them to every part of 
the new world; it opened the career of the sciences to them; 
it turned their genius to commerce, and expanded it in every 
branch ; it developed, sustained, and increased their in- 
dustry ; it improved their agriculture; it was the grand 
spring of the establishment of their manufactures, and, in 
fine, of the opulence of their province. 

The Catalans are indefatigable in their undertakings ; they 
have a horror at idleness; no obstacle can deter them. The 
activity of their genius, and the ambition that attends it, lead 
them to every part of the world : there is not a town, not a 
port in Spain, India, or Spanish America, where Catalane 
are not to be found ; they are to be met with in France, Italy, 
England, Germany, in all the ports of Europe-, and through- 
out the colonies. They are valiant, and sometimes even 
rash; they are not to be terrified by the greatest dangers ; 
in war they never fly, nor do they ever give up an enterprize. 
They, the Aragonese, and Galicians, are the best soldiers in 
Spain. Their bravery and firmness have been so often proved, 
that for ages past no doubt has ever been entertained of 
them ; they 'have several times displayed them with the 
greatest energy, and in the remotest periods •* and in the 

* The Catalans conquered the island of Majorca, and reduced that 
M Sardinia. The remain- of the army which had assisted the king of 



CATALOXIA. 131 

beginning of the 18th century, they sustained the united 
efforts of the armies of France and Spain against Catatonia. 

After what has been just said, it will be easily imagined 
that they have very violent passions : in fact, they can en- 
counter any thing to satisfy them. The desire of wealth 
makes them industrious; emulation makes them active, leads 
them to every pari of the world, and enables them lo brave 
the perils of lung voyaqc-s; and glory blinds them to every 
kind of danger. When they love, they love warmly ; but 
their hatred is implacable, they have rarely sufficient strength 
of mind to stifle their resentment. But we are not, therefore, 
to imagine the Catalan disposed to mischief; he is not so 
naturally. He works himself into a rage, and is loud, but 
seldom commits acts of violence. In a political point of view 
the Catalan is restless and factious ; he is for ever sighing 
for a liberty, or rather independence,* which he has often 

Aragon to take Sicily, collected into a body and went, at the beginning of 
the 14th century, to the assistance of Andronicus the elder, emperor of 
Constantinople : they beat the Turks and delivered Asia, but became soon 
after the terror of Greece; and they defeated the emperor Michael, son of 
Andronicus, both by sea and land. Having made themselves masters of 
«iallipoli, they intercepted the commerce of Constantinople and the Black 
Sea, and at the same time ravaged the Hellespont and the frontiers of 
Europe and Asia ; they took Athens, where they placed a prince of 
their own nation, and divided Attica and Beotia, among them. In 
alliance with the Venetians, they again fought in conjunction with them 
for the Greeks against the Genoese : and they distinguished theniselvi 
the famous naval engagement fought under the walls ofConStantii 
on the 13th of February, 1332. 

* Catalonia has rebelled so many times, has 10 frequently and ob- 
rereigns, and has so often ittempteJ ko i 
(en public, that a sketch of its 

. ii wouM almost i tory. 

In 1273 the CataloniaD n d to 

. nd'r 

, retence of L-. i>, | to I 

try. 

I :c:<n. I' UH lit- 



- CATALONIA. 

attempted tu acquire, add which 1 1 a ^ bo frequently impelled 
him to take up arms. But, as devoted in Ins attachment' at 

i, wider put. nee of his having neglected to convoke 
the state*, and to swear to observe its privileges. 

In Us.;, the Catalonian nobility, in league with the Aragouese nobi- 
lity, took up anus against Peter III. at the moment when K<- was at- 
tacked by a French army, aud compelled him to grant them new pri- 
vileges. 

In 1460, thé Catalans rose to deliver Don Carlos, the son and heir 
of John II. icing of Aragon, out of prison. In less than a fortnight Cata- 
lonia equipped a fleet of tuent}'- four galleys, and raised a considerable 
army, which besieged and took Fraga, an Aragcmese town, and forced 
king John to restore his son to liberty, to give him up to the Catalans, 
and to sign a treaty, the terms of which were dictated by the rebels. 
The death of the young prince, which happened on the 23d of September 
1461, and which was suspected to have been caused by poison adminis- 
tered by his mother-in-law, confirmed the Catalans in their rebellion. 
They at first attempted to erect themselves into a republic ; but soon 
after, declaring John to have forfeited the sovereignty of Catalonia, they 
gave themselves to the king of Castile. They besieged the queen of 
Aragon and her son the infant Fernando, at Gironne, took the town, 
&c. Being given up by the king of Castile, they called in Don Pedro 
the infant of Portugal, and proclaimed him king in 1464, in virtue of 
the rights of his grandfather the Count of Urgel. This prince dying iu 
1460, they chose Rene, duke of Anjou, whose son, John de Cakjbre, 
went to Barcelona, and took possession of his new sovereignty, but he 
also died in the end of the year 1470. The Catalans then formed them- 
selves into a republic. During the whole of this time they were never 
without arms in their hands : they had by turns good and bad fortune, 
and they resisted all the forces of the king of Aragon. However, in 

1471, they lost Gironne, Ostalric, and Rosas. After surprising ami 
very nearly taking the king .at Peralta, they were completely beaten 
on the 5th of November, in the same year. At length Barcelona, being 
closely besieged, was compelled to surrender on the 17th of October 

1472, after a blockade of one hundred and forty-four days and a siege 
of six months. From that time Catalonia submitted, afkr having 
persisted for twelve years in this rebellion. 

In 1640, two deputies of Catalonia being arrested at. Madrid, by com- 
mand of Philip IV. the whole province rose iu an instant, and flew to 
: they declared that monarch to have forfeited his sovereignty, abd 



CATALONIA. 13:.' 

terrible in his hatred, he is ready to make every sacrifice for 
a prince who knows how to gain his love. At the commence- 
ment of the war with Fiance, Catalonia made the king an 
offer to defend him themselves against all the troops of the 
enemy. In the number of the volunteers there were 30,000 
monks or priests : this oflfi r was not accepted, chiefly on ac- 
count of the nature of the war, which was to be an offensive 
one, and required an army of regular troops. Catalonia, far 
from having suffered by the campaigns of which it was the 
theatre, grew rich by the sums expended in the province, and 
it is obvious that a war with France is as useful to it as one 
with England is disastrous. 

The Catalans are charged with an eagerness for money, 
which induces them to undergo any labour in the acquisition 
of it, and to take the greatest care to keep it. But the fact is 
they spend as readily as they earn, and are capable of genero- 
sity, of which they gave a striking proof m the unhappy pe- 
riods of the French revolution. A multitude of Trench peo- 

erectcd themselves into a republic; but being «loscly pressed, they 
pave themselves to Louis XIII. kin;: of Prance, whom they proclaimed 
Cunt of Barcelona in it' 5 1. Inky persisted in theii rebellion till 
1652. 

In 1669 it revolted anew, on pretence of a breach of its privileges, and 
again became a republic, but Was soon compelled to yield to superior 
force. 

In 1705, after swearing allegiance to Philip V. it gave itself to 

< îles, Archduke of Austria, and proclaimed him king under the 

III. It obstinately and often successfully sustained the 

ted efforts of the Spanish and French armies. Deserted bj tfc i.n.; 

i it bad chos( n, i< maintain d itself in tin- pair ii had takenj and 

was subdued by numben iftci ■ n m yea' 

I insurrecti taken place to Catalonia sin i thai 

period, particularly in Ban elona, in 1772, and in I78s. 

the i o . i i ../ indi pi ndi n< i and pridi 
It] o( i italonia, thai omi Familii have constantly re» 

■ • ! ■ -, I yk id m this 

■ tin- king' last journey into this pi p, where 'hat 
:.d the royal fan Catalans. 

K 3 



lï>4< CATALONIA. 

pic, men, women, and children of all ranks, found help and 
consolation in' this province. Reuse, Monblanc, Blanas, and 
the frontiers towards France, particularly distinguished them- 
selves in that respect. 

The inhabitants of Catalonia have a decided taste for the 
ceremonies of the church, for processions, public feasts, as- 
semblies, balls/ dances, and other meetings. The romciias 
are in great vogue ; these are journies on certain days to soli- 
tary chapels, and to hermitages, whither the people flock in 
crowds. The bull feasts have scarcely found their way 
here. 

The Catalan has a national pride peculiar to him : he sees 
nothing above himself. He looks down on other Spaniards, 
lie even despises a part of the nation, and his hatred of the 
Castilian is beyond all expression. He does not love stran- 
gers; the French with whom he has most occasion to commu- 
nicate he hates the most ; the cause of which is very ancient : 
it takes its source in the old quarrels and frequent wars be- 
tween the kings of France and those of Aragon ; the wars of 
the last century increased it ; Catalonia gave itself to France, 
and the Catalans can never forgive the French for giving it up 
to its old masters. The war of the succession at the beginning 
of the last century completed the animosity: the French 
sacked Catalonia, subdued the spirit of its inhabitants, and 
compelled them to acknowledge the legitimate authority of 
their king. Thefactsare impressed on the minds of tl 
people with indelible characters, and they retain in their 
hearts an invincible aversion to the nation that brought them 
into subjection. 

The mantle and round hat common in the other parts of 
Spain are not worn in Catalonia ; and the Mayo jacket is 
scarcely ever seen : a close coat in the French fa»hiou is the 
xiMial dress in almost all conditions. The peasants who live 
in the mountains wear a double-breasted waistcoat, and over 
it a kind of wide great coat which "foes no lower than the 
knees, they call it a gambtto. There i> besides these a variety 



CATALONIA.. 

of dresses among the common people of both sexes, the details 
of which would be too long here, but shall be given in an- 
other place.* 

The Catalans have a tongue peculiar to themselves : it is 
the ancient language of the provinces of the South of France, 
the inhabitants of which took Catalonia from the Moors, and, 
peopling it, introduced their laws, customs, and usages ; and 
their patois or dialect, called the Limousine tongue,, has conti- 
nued down to our days in Gascony, Languedoc, and Pro- 
vence ; where it has undergone alterations more or less re- 
markable, occasioned by the mixture of the modern French ; 
it has remained purer in Catalonia and Roussillon, but with a 
mixture of Castilian in the former of these two provinces. 
The Catalan tongue has lost that agreeable sweetness 
which formerly characterized it, and which is better pre- 
served in the kingdom of Valencia; it has taken, in the 
mouth of the Catalan, hard terminations and a rough and dis- 
agreeable pronunciation: it has likewise at present a great 
resemblance to the modern French tongue, in the construc- 
tion and turn of expression, in the grammar rules, and in the 
sameness of a great many of its words, which differ from the 
French only in the termination. It is spoken throughout Ca- 
talonia with considerable variation, according to the different 
districts ; with greater purity in the mountains; and more al- 
liTtd in large towns. The national prejudice of the Catalan 
makes him prefer bis language to that of the Spaniards, the 
Castillan is therefore little in use in Catalonia, and when it 
- beard there, it is di>fii, r ured and scarcely tu be known iu 
consequence of the mixture of Catalan phrases and turns. 

* 






136 



THE KINGDOM OF VALENCIA 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

1 he kingdom of Valencia is one of the small- 
est provinces of Spain. It i3 bounded on the 
north, south, and west by Catalonia, the king- 
dom of Àlurcia, New Castile, and Aragon ; the 
Mediterranean bathes the whole of the cast ; 
forming a coast almost sixty leagues in extent. 
The length of it from north to south is sixty- 
seven leagues; and its breadth from cast to 
vest is ten leagues at the northern extremity, 
which runs in a point between Catalonia and 
Aragon; six leagues at the southern extremity, 
which adjoins the kingdom of Murcia; and 
twenty leagues in the middle part. 

This province formerly contained many in- 
dependent settlements; but this independence 
was destroyed by the Carthaginians, who con- 
quered this beautiful country. Some towns that 
r till preserved their liberty, when the Romans 
made Spain the theatre of the war against the 
Carthaginians, were subdued after a resistance 



VALENCIA. 13? 

more or less protracted. Among those towns, 
Saguntum, now Murviedro, will always be cele- 
brated for the length and vigour of its defence, 
as "well as for the greatness of the courage and 
the heroism of its inhabitants. 

The Romans were driven from this province 
by the Goths, who, in their turn, were sub- 
dued by the Moors: this was the era (713) in 
which the kingdom of Valencia was established. 
It was dependent at first on the caliphs of Da- 
mascus ; but it soon afterwards fell under the 
dominion of the kin^s of Cordova. In the 
frequent revolutions of the Moorish empire, 
the kingdom of Valencia very often changed 
masters ; it even had at times its own kings. 
Don Jayme united this kingdom, in 1C30', to 
that of Aragon : at length the marriage of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic with Isabella of Castile, 
intermixing and merging their rights and states» 
the kingdom of Valencia has since made part 
of the Spanish monarchy. 

This province preserved its privileges for a 
long time after the union : it had its particular 
Jaws, its juries, or heads of municipalities, 
[dtidadanoi] whose authority was great, and 
who acquired nobility when they had exercised 
their fonctions io thé towns of Valencia, Xativa, 
and Orihuela. They had also their particular 
which shared the legislative authority 
with the sovereign. These states, whose chain- 



135 \ali:n'Cia. 

ber for assembling is still to be seen at Valencia, 
were composed of the clergy, the nobility, and 
commons. There now remains only the re- 
membrance of these prerogatives; the province 

lost them all by its rebellion against Philip V. 
at the commencement of the last century. That 
prince, on being obliged to conquer a country 
that belonged tc, him, rigorously used the rights 
of a conqueror. I T e abolished all their privi- 
leges, and subjected the Valencians to the laws 
by which his states of Castile were governed. 

The Guadalaviar, Xucar, aiid Segura, are the 
three great rivers which flow through this pro- 
vince, which is watered besides by fifteen 
smaller ones, the Elda, IMurviedro, Canadez, 
Palencia, Mijarez, Linarez, Minarez, Serval, 
Cenia, Cahiel, Oliena, Millas, Segrez, Chalba, 
and the Siete-Aguas. 

. Its principal mountains are a continuation of 
the Sierra de Cuença. "We distinguish amonjr 
others the Sierra Picochera, in the centre of 
the west part which forms the limits of this 
province with New Castile ; the Sierra de las 
Cabrillas to the west ; las Pedreras de Elche, 
Sierra de Orihuela, Sierra de la Canada, Sierra 
de la Morada, Sierra de Salimctas, Sierra de 
Camara, and Sierra de Santa-Anna, to the south ; 
Sierra d'Almanza to the south-west ; and the 
mountain of Lacobas, Vellido, Cubilo, Mongo, 
Aytana, Peua-Goloza, Mariola, &c. 



VA] EWC [A. 13$ 

- country, though mountainous, contains 
beautiful plains and fertile valleys. Indepen- 
dently of the rivers we have mentioned, there 
are a great many streams and canals that inter- 

t the land, and give to the vegetation an 
astonishing luxuriancy and variety. The mild- 
ness of the climate * augments the fertility of 
the soil, and developes the riches of its pro- 
ductions. The flowers of spring every where 
united with the fruits of autumn, the orange- 
trees and cedars which surround the rich mea- 
dows, and a number of trees which with us arc 
only seen in hot-houses, where they change 
their nature, and which on their native soil 
embalm the air that gives them life, render this 
province a magnificent garden and a delightful 
place of residence ; and in which we conse- 
quently find a great many villas. 

The activity of the inhabitants profits by 
the happy influence of the climate : the most 
ungrateful lands are cultivated, and productions 
of all kinds multiplied every where; manufac- 
tures, commerce, fishing, ami the shipping in- 

' In summer tbethi • rods atb< t\u< a 

1 ', Rod • :i<l m v. >i!t> r i" ; ". < n 7 mid 13 : 

the cold rarely ulakeail fall lower than t" iboto uV 

> . i and fogs hate be< n seen 01 . ei '1 

centuries. Th< air is in •■< and dr^y, that sail 

l i" 1! for wh LlfadU 

1 



140 VALENCIA. 

crease the means of work, and diffuse case 
among the Valencians. The men of this coun- 
try possess the vigour of health, and are frank 
and lively: the women are handsome; their 
embonpoint takes nothing from their graces ; 
they have a suavity of manner, and a spright- 
liness which render their society agreeable. 

Road from the Frontiers of New Castile to Valencia, 

7 Leagues. 
Limits of New Castile on the Mountain of Los Cubrilla.i. 

LEAGUES. 

Venta del Relator _., :1 

Venta de Bunol...... "2 

Venta del Moral I 

Chiva, (a village) \ 

Quarte, (a village) 2 

Mislata, (a village) £ 

Valencia .». \ 

In leaving Aranjucz and Madrid, to go into 
the kingdom of Valencia, we continue to climb 
and descend the mountains of Las Cabrillas, 
which renders the road extremely difficult. 
After an hour's travelling we arrive at the 
Venta del Relator, a lonely house in the midst 
of these mountains, built by a reporter of the 
council of finances, for the convenience of 
travellers. The road, always bad, becomes 
worse at a little distance further on, where we 
are obliged to climb up a very steep and stony 
ascent. 



VALENCIA. 14 î 

The mountains we have now come over are 
calcareous : in spite of their being rugged, steep 
and fatiguing, we here begin to observe the ef- 
fects of the industry of the Valencians, who 
have neglected no part susceptible of cultiva- 
tion ; and who carry it even to places the most 
difficult of access. This view çives a secret 
satisfaction to the traveller, whose pleasure is 
so much the greater, as he has been travelling- 
over some of the sterile plains and rocky arid 
mountains of New Castile. We enjoy a delicious 
prospect when we arrive at the summit of these 
mountains. The immense plain in which the 
town of Valencia is situated presents itself to 
the astonished beholder : it is a view the ex- 
tent of which does not permit a detailed exa- 
mination, but which altogether presents a 
mixture of settlements and cultivated lands, of 
houses and villages rising in the middle of a 
verdant carpet. The town of Valencia is seen 
at the end of this plain ; all the habitations 
which surround it seem as if they were part of 
it, and we imagine that we see the largest town 
io the world : the sea terminates the back 
ground of the picture, and adds to its beauty. 

We descend these mountains by a road as bad 
as that we have quitted. We find at the foot 

of them the Venta de Jjimr 1, two leagues from 
that of del Relator; it is neai a little town of 

the same name, situated on the river Siete- 



Î4£ VAl.KSClA t 

Aguas ; ils population j s abput ISQQ inhabit- 
ants, and it has a paper manufactory : it is said 
that it was formerly called Benqlaron. "We soon 

after come to the \'enia del Moral, then to the 
village of Chiva, and see on either side tliose 
of Cheste and Toris. 

The change of the temperature is here sen- 
sihly felt ; aiul we discover about Chiva the 
brilliant cultivation of the kingdom of Valencia. 
The trees are numerous; hedges, for the most 
part formed of fine aloes, inclose the estates: 
olive and mulberry trees rapidly succeed one 
another; fruit-trees are loaded with fruit, and 
the earth enriches the cultivator with its gifts. 

At half a league beyond Chiva these beauties 
disappear, or at least lose much of their bril- 
liancy; olive and mulberry-trees are scarce; the 
land is often fallow ; and the cultivated part 
yields nothing but shrivelled wheat : the road 
is even, but not handsome. At some distance 
the fields resume their beauty; they arc watered 
with numerous streams, and the most delight- 
ful fertility is every where seen. 

The villages succeed each other quickly ; 
among others we see that of Torrcntc, known 
by its wines and brandies ; that of j\Ianiser, 
where there are manufactories for earthen-ware 
and crockery. ^Ve arrive at. Quarte, a very 
large village, well peopled, and situated in one 
of the finest and richest parts of the hucrta of 



VALENCIA. Ï43 

Valencia. This place was called by the Romans 
Quart urn. 

The country becomes more strikingly beauti- 
ful, as we approach Valencia, here not more than 
a league distant. The road is tolerably broad, but 
very stony. We proceed to Mislata, a village 
which has the title of Barony, and which con- 
tains about 500 inhabitants; it is the rendez- 
vous of tipplers. To the left we leave the en- 
trance of the superb quay, which extends a 
league along the right bank of the Guadalaviar, 
by the walls of Valencia; we take the road to 
the right, and a little afterwards we enter the 
town by the faubourg of Quarte, and by the 
gate of the same name. 

Jload from the Frontiers of Murcia over Orihiula, to Valencia, 
32 Leagues and a half. 

The Sierra o/Orihuela, (Frontiers of Murcia.) 

LLACl Es. 

La Farecia, (a village), g 

Orihuela, (a town) | 

Batara, (a village) 2 

Fiche, (a town) 3 

Mpntfort, (a town; 2 \ 

Elda, (a town).... - 

The river Elda,** (without a bridge) i 

Villena, (a town t) - 

♦ We crow and recro Hwew< 

the kingdom of Mur< ia. 

■ il m the kingdom ol 'i ' l **'■ 

eatti t-Lut oi VaU 

C 



Î44 VALENCIA. 

• H;?, 

Tuente de la Higuera, (a village *) 4? 

Valencia,! 13 \ 

Leaving the kingdom of Murcia, we continue 

to wind round the mountain of Orihuela, which 
is a calcareous rock. We proceed to la Parecia, 

a small village, situated at the foot of this 
mountain ; and half a league further on we 
discover the castle of Orihuela, half way up 
the side of the same mountain, which we go 
along to the left, having the Heurta to I he- 
right ; we soon after perceive the steeples of 
Orihuela : this town, the side of which is first 
seen, gradually opens to the view, and we ar- 
rive there after an hour's travelling from the 
frontiers of Murcia. <#n entering, we discover 
to the right a Franciscan convent, in a delight- 
ful situation ; to the left we see a large and fine 
building, which is a range of barracks ; we then 
go into a short but beautiful avenue of trees, 
which looks over the Iluerta, and which leads 
to the gates of the town. 

Orihuela is a tolerably large town, agree- 
ably situated at the foot of the mountain of the 
same name on both banks of the Segura, which 

* A league from this village, the road joins that which leads from 
the gate of Almanza to Valencia. 

f The itinerary and description of the road from Fuente de la IligH- ra 
to Valencia, may be found with the description of that from the fronti< : ■> 
•f the kingdom of Murcia after Aimanta to Valencia. 



Valencia. 14a 

runs through it, and which, on the confines of 
a beautiful country, forms the continuation of 
the Iluerta of Murcia. 

This town was taken from the Contestani by 
the Carthaginians, from them by the Romans, 
and from these by the Goths; it was conquered 
by the Moors in 7\5, and was at first part of 
the kingdom of Cordova; in 1057 it had its 
own king, whose existence was of short dura- 
tion : it soon afterwards returned to the kings 
of Cordova : a fresh revolution rendered it de- 
pendent on the new kingdom of Murcia, estab- 
lished in 1H36; it remained under the Moors for 
550 years. It was taken from them in 1L'64 by 
James I. king of Aragon, who peopled it with 
Christians; and it received, in 1537, the title 
of city from Alphonso V. In 164S it was de- 
populated by the plague ; and the overflowing of 
the Segura, in 1651, destroyed a great part 
of it. 

Orihuela had almost as many names as mas- 
ters. We are ignorant of that which it bore 
under the Carthaginians ; it M'as called Auriola 
by the Romans, Orzuella by the Goths, Qrgu- 
ella by the Moors, and Orihuela by the Aragon 
and the Spanish, 

Population. This town is narrow, but extei 
<•■.h-.iili.raly!» length, following tin (gpl <•! tin. mountain, round 
which it winds. It is tolerably well built; the streets are in 
Vol. j. i. 



146 VALENCIA. 

gi lierai airy, straight and broad, but not paved. ' : There arc 
«levcn principal ones, tolerably handsome, the broadest of 
which bave on each side convenient foot-pavements. There 
are many regular edifices, and good looking houses. The 
town has two bridges over the Segura, seven gates, and five 
squares. In these squares, which are all large and of regu- 
lar dimensions, nothing is wanting but handsome buildings. 
It has no fountains, and the inhabitants drink the water of 
the Segura. It bas a cheerful, open, agreeable air through- 
out. The population is about 20,000 souls. 

Ecclesiastical Administrât / on. Orihuela was formerly of the 
diocese of Carthaginia and afterwards of Murcia ; it^ prin- 
cipal church was made a collegiate in 1413 by the Anti- 
Pope Benedict XIII. The Council of Basil, at the request of 
Alphonso V. king of Aragon, ordained that it should be a 
cathedral in 11-10, and that an episcopal see should be 
established in it ; this establishment, however, did not take 
place : Pope Eugene IV. united this new chapter, in 14*3, 
to that of the cathedral of -Murcia. At length Tope Leo X. 
in 1564, established a bishop's see here,, which has continued 
ever since, and the diocese of which comprehend? a cathe- 
dral chapter, which is- at Orihuela ; a collegiate chapter, 
which is at Alicante; four vicarages, and fifty-five parishes. 

The chapel of the cathedral of Orihuela consists of five dig- 
nitaries, seventeen canons, twelve prebendaries, twelve semi- 
prebendaries, and forty-one beneficed clergymen. There are 
in this town three parish churches, nine monasteries, three 
nunneries, one church of Our Lady of Mont-Serrat, a hos- 
pital of pity, one for the sick, a foundling hospital, and one 
tribunal for the cognizance of causes arising in the diocese. 

Civil and Military Admit . A criminal judge, an 

alcalde -major for the administration of justice, a certain 

* See (pal) what is said in speaking of the sand which eov< 
streets of Valencia. 



VALENCIA. 147 

number of regidors, half nobles and half citizens, who form 
the municipality ; and a garrison of two squadrons of cavalry 
or of dragoons. 

Public Instruction. Public instruction is much neglected at 
Oribuela. There is, however, a university there, which was 
founded in 1 550 for the four learned professions ; that of medi- 
cine was suppressed in the 1 8th century ; theology, juris- 
prudence, and philosophy are now taught ; but the radical 
vices of the other universities of Spain are found in it, a theo- 
logy purely scholastic, and a philosophy almost entirely 
peripatetic, with a syllogistical form, fertile in subtleties and 
subterfuges : it has none of the establishments proper to ac- 
celerate the progress of the sciences. There are also in tliis 
town one seminary and two colleges; in one of which there 
are about three hundred young men ; but they also partake 
of the bad plan of the university, on which they arc de- 
pendent. 

Public Edifices. There is nothing in the public édifie» >> 
of tliis town to excite curiosity. The cathedral church is 
small and obscure ; the iron-railing of the principal altar is 
a master-piece. The parish-church of St. James's has a 
tolerably fine portal in the Gothic style; that of Our Lady 
of Mont-Serrat has two stories of architecture of the Corin- 
thian order, each of four columns of green marble. The 
front of the Dominican convent is very wide, and without 
ornament: it h ortals that seem lost m the immensity 

of its front, and which would have more effect if they had 
any exterior decoration. The front of the chun h of 
An-.' .- two fine qu u e tow ers, one on 

each side, having three storii ol irehitecture ; the (wo fi 

uament ; tin- third has ''*■•■> fine Ionic pilasti rs 
>. i! by .i fine < oi nic< , w Inch sup- 
ports urns, placed at equal di In the f *ear 1791 they 

ii. chi ch ol th< E ainti J 
■l i ; it j f -, .1 ii ornament 



14S VALENCIA. 

Doric pilasters ; il has a portal ornamented with four Coriiv» 
thian columns of the same stone, supported by pedestals of 
blue and white marble. 

Orihuela is a very gloomy place to live in; there i*> no 
ty, though the inhabitants are nor in want of any of the 
necessary principles to form very agreeable ones. Through a 
mistaken principle of devotion they destroyed the playhouse 
about the middle of the last century. From that time all 
society was broken up, individuals secluded themselves, ea< h 
confined himself to liis own house, and a gloom pervaded the 
whole town. In 17^1, however, M. Aguada, a private gen- 
tleman, gratuitously gave up one of his houses to a person 
who made a theatre of it at his own expence. It is small, 
but handsome enough, though without ornament. It is ver) 
much frequented from the month of October to the mouth ot 
April. A taste for plays will insensibly recal the citizens to 
the pleasures of society. Strangers will visit them the more 
willingly on account of this town being agreeable for th« 
beauty of its situation, the richness of the neighbouring fit Ids, 
and also for the suavity of the manners of the inhabitants, 
who are active and laborious : they are every where indus- 
trious in cultivating the lands to a degree not easily sur- 
passed. 

This town was the birth-place of Danien C avail us, an ora- 
tor of the 16th century ; of Anastasio Vivez de llocamora, 
bishop of Segorba, who published, in 1071-, the Synodal Acts 
of bis Diocese ; and of the historians Gaspard Garzia and 
Francisco Martinez ; both lived in t lie beginning of the 17th 
century : the latter wrote the history of hiscountry. 

There are no inns at Orihuela; there are only posadas; 
that of the Pisada is the best ; it is, however, very middling; 
but the prices are moderate. 

The country about the town is extremely beautiful ; it is 
the continuation of the Iluerta of Murcia, the same land, the 
same soil, the same watering, and under the same climat) , 
but it is belter cultivated, it is also infinitely more beautiful 



^ 



VALENCIA. 149 

fine! there are more productions and in a greater variety. It 
forms a succession of gardens in which fruit trees of every 
kind display their riches, in which the orange and lemon are 
mixed with the almond and pomegranate trees, in which mul- 
berries multiply in great variety, embellishing the fields and 
«nrichtng their proprietors ; inv.liich pulse and the most savory 
and delicate herbs grow in abundance ; and in which the 
lands are never at rest, but always producing : whence the 
proverb Ilueia 6 ne llueva, tri^o en Orihuela ; that is to say, 
* rain or no rain, then' is wheat in Orihuela.' They raise 
a prodigious number of silkworms, which furnish the inhabit- 
ants with a new source of wealth. 

At the beginning of the 18th century Orihuela 
followed the party of the Archduke Charles of 
Austria, who disputed the crown of Spain with 
Philip V. ; but it was attacked in October 1076; 
by Bellinga, bishop of Murcia, who had just 
. ved his episcopal town and preserved it for his 
king. This prelate seconded by M. de Medi- 
nilla, carried the place, gave it up to pillage for 
twenty-four hours, disarmed the inhabitants, 
and took away the original title of their piivi- 
es. 

We leave Orihuela by a fine road, which, for 
half a league, proceeds along the mountain to 
the left and the Huerta to the right ; it termi- 
nates at a cross placed under a dome in the form 
of a large pavilion, sustained by four columns 
of white mai ble. The road then becomes stony, 
edes from the Huerta, which we seenomore, 
i approaches the mountain, which it soon af 



150 VALENCIA. 

leaves and becomes smoother. We see at a 
distance to the left thé continuation of the 

Sierra d'Orihuela, the Sierra de la Canada to 
the right, and the Siena de Morada in front. 
We insensibly approach this last; but leave it to 
the left ; the prospect at the same time becomes 
more extensive, the lands are cultivated, and 
we enter the plain. 

The country becomes beautiful; is covered, 
here and there with trees, which form, in some 
parts, especially to the left, agreeable skreens. 
The villages are near one another; \vc see at 
first at a little distance to the right, the village 
of Co, situated at the foot of a small eminence, 
on which is an old castle of the saine name : 
and soon after, that of La Granja. 

Here the road becomes uneven, broken, stony, 
and often muddy; it is very much incommoded 
by gnats ; it leads to Balara, a small village two 
leagues from Orihuela, and most of the houses 
of which have only a ground floor ; it has a 
parish church, under the invocation of St. 
James. Its architecture is tolerably good. 

^Yc continue in the same plain, in which 
there are a great many thick olive woods, fre- 
quently succeeding one another. After travel- 
ling two hours and a half, we discover Elche, 
where we arrive half an hour after. As we 
approach the town it appears as if surrounded 



VALENCIA. I SI 

tli forests of palm-trees; and on the left there 
is a large handsome square building, which is 
used as barracks for the troops. We enter the 
faubourg by a descent, come to a beautiful 
large bridge, but without any stream under it, 
at the end of which there is a circular marble 
fountain, which throws out water bv eio-ht 
pipes ; and we enter the town. 

Elche is a town of a middling size, situated 
in a plain almost entirely covered with palms. 
It was comprised, under the Romans, in the 
country of the C'ontestani ; it was at that time 
called lllici, and gave its name to the gulf of 
Illicitanus; it had the title and rights of a 
Roman colony. There are in it 2700 houses, 
and about 15,000 persons, of whom some are 
noble families, and about 500 families of labour- 
ers. There are some tolerably good streets, some 
showy houses, several spacious squares,, but 
without any decoration, and six fountains; one 
of which is of marble, and in the form of a. 
tomb ; it throws out water by twenty pipes ; it 
U the only one of which the water is drinkable; 
that of the other fountains is brackish. 
The;; pretend that Elche was formerly an 

jcopal See; that John, who lived in 5 17 was 
the first bishop of it, and Teudegatus who lived 
in 862 the last. 1 am ignorant of the grounds 
of this opinion : it is difficult to reconcile the 

l4 



15C VALENCIA. 

date of sCv2 with that of the invasion of the 
Moors in 714: we know that those people al- 
lowed of no bishopric in the beginning of their 
dominion. 

Tli is town lias three parishes churches, two convents of 
monks, one of nuns, and one hospital with twenty bed*. It 
is the residence of a vicar general of the bishop of Orihuela. 
It is governed by an alcalde major, who is charged with the 
administration of justice, four regidors, and some deputies 
of the commons. There are no remarkable edifices. The 
parish church of St. Maria has a marble portal : it is a mon- 
strous assemblage of plain, twisted, and spiral fluted columns. 
There are some inscriptions in the square of St. Lucia. 

There is in this town a soap manufactory, and also several 
tanneries. It has a great commerce for dates and palms ; 
these are the principal produce of the land, which, to a certain 
distance, is almost entirely covered with them. 

Elcheisvery gloomy; there is no kind of amusement, no 
walk, no play, noplace of assembling ; every one lives alone, 
and never visits except on indispensable occasions and for eti- 
quette. The two most considerable classes of the inhabitants, 
the nobles and labourers, devote themselves entirely to agri- 
culture, and never occupy the:' selves with any other pursuit. 
The ladies of the nobility visit only among themselves, and 
that rarely : which greatly contracts the circle of society . 
the middling class follows this example. They have in con- 
sequence a general appearance of gloominess and ennui, 
■which all acknowledge, but do not e< rrect. The inhabitants 
however are rich, the husbandmen especially ; they never- 
theless live wretchtflly ; a man possessed of 100,000 or- 
150,000 ducats (.£11,458 6*s. $d. or «£17,187 10s. sterling) 
lives on barley bread, and the commonest vegetables. 

This town justly boasts of having given birth to the famous 
George Juan, one of the greatest men Spain produced n\ 



VALENCIA. 153 

the I8th century; be distinguished himself by his knowledge 
in navigation, geometry and astronomy, and the works be 
published on those sciences. 

They eat no beef h? Elche; in lTQp mutton vras sold for 

32 quarts, or 9|, a pound of 35 o-incos ; lamb 33 quarts, or 

; pork 36 quarts, or lOhd. ; wheaten bread 4f <piarts, or 

lid. a pound of 16 ounces, and bailey bread 2 quarts, or a 

little more than a halfpenny. 

In the beginning of the 18th century, Elche 
joined the party of the pretended Charles III. 
during the war of the succession, and received 
an English garrison within its walla; but the 
troons of Philip V. took it at the end of 1706, 
and made a thousand English prisoners. 

Ey going a little out of our way, in leaving 
Elche, we meet, lour leagues to the right, with 
Alicant, a town remarkable tor the fertility of 
its soil, and the extent of its commerce. 

Ar.iCAXT. This town is situated between 
mountains at the entrance of a hay formed by 
the cape of the Huerta and that of San-Pablo, 
in the ancient country of the Illicitani. It is 
defended by a situated on the mountain, 

which was formerly very strong by i; i position, 
but which. g i ecu very much damaged in 

the war i the succession, I :•• r been re- 
paired. 

Ali an1 pa sed From I h Romans I l >ths; 
it was given up in 552 with the country in 
phich it is situated to the Greeks; it returned 



J54 VALENCIA. 

to the Goths in 624 ; it was taken from them in 
71o by Abdelasis, the son of Musa, general of 
the •Moors; it was taken from these in the 
loth century, by Ferdinand II. king of Castile, 
who united it to the kingdom of Murcia; it 
was ceded in J 304, to James II. king of An 
by Ferdinand the Justicier, and then b( t 

part of the kingdom of Valencia. Faithful to 
Philip V. this town, in 1 706 made an obstinate 
resistance to the English troops, who besieged iu 
in the name of the Archduke Charles of Austria ; 
but being attacked soon after by superior forces 
it was reduced and fell into the power of the 
enemies of its king. The Marquis of Asfelt hav- 
ing laid siege to it for Philip V. in the month of 
December 1708; the people, ever faithful to 
their sovereign, rose, and forced the English 
governor to surrender the place; he retired to 
the castle and maintained with honour a siege 
of five months; but was forced to capitulate in 
June I/O9, after a part of the castle, and 
mountain on which it was situated, had been 
destroyed by the blowing up of a mine. The 
family of Pasqual dc Pubill was one of the most 
distinguished by their attachment to their legi- 
timate king. 

In this town it was that Mahomed ben Abdel- 
haman, the Arab, famous for his poetry, was 
born; he wrote the annals of Spain; and died at 



VALENCIA. 153 

Trcmen, in the year o'lO of the hegira, or 1213. 
This town was also the birth place of Ferdinand 
de Loazes, a great theologian, and famous law- 
yer, whose merit placed him in the archipiseopal 

see of Valencia, in 1567. 

Extent and Population. This town is in the figure of a half- 
moon ; the streets are narrow and ill paved ; its population is 
about 17,300 inhabitants. 

Clergy. There are four parish churches, one collegiate 
chapter with three dignitaries, eleven canons, fourteen chap- 
lains, sixteen beneficed clergymen, and eight convents. 

Administration. It has a military and civd governor, a 
king's lieutenant, a major, a king's lieutenant particularly 
for the castle, an alcalde major for the administration of jus- 
tice, a municipality composed of eight hereditary regidors, 
two assessors and two solicitors of the Commons; a posl- 
captain, and a minister and an auditor of the marine. 

Instruction. A drawing school has been established here, 
the expence of which is defrayed by a duty en commerce, 
with annual prizes for the pupils. 

There is a small manufactory where coarse linens, and 
some of a finer quality, and cotton ami thread bandkerchiefi 
are made. It \\u> established by a canon of Alicant in favour 
of the poor; it supports a master, two servant boys, and 
twelve orphans, who are taught this branch of industry. 

Th' \ useful establishments in this town, 

a free »r poor orphans, and the children of 

iers burdened with a numerous family. It is a kind <>i 

military school, in which tiny are taught t<> read, write, and 

cypher, the manual exercise, and every thing i r fa 

ry service, for which they are intended, and in 

v lii« h the rank ol w i : anl i is reserved fo thi rn. 

J l: ation (■! | of all C0J 



ISO VALENCIA* 

under the name of the Brothers of the Tonr, which is com-» 
posed of ecclesiastic.^, noblemen, citizens, merchants, artizans, 

and peasants. 

This society nominates its own governors and trustees ; they 
hare divided the town into twelve parts ; each part is confided 
to the care of a trustee and three assistants ; these inform 
themselves of the number, situation, wants, and civil and re- 
ligious conduct of the poor, and they distribute to them 
weekly the allowance granted them by the governors ; this 
allowance is in money, victuals, medicine, or whatever else 
they may be in want of. This society likewise provides for 
the bringing up of sortie children in common, and directs 
their education towards the mechanical arts and manufac- 
tures. It has no otljer support than the voluntary contribu- 
tions of the inhabitants ; what they distribute yearly amounts 
to 64,000 reals (<£<566 135. \d. sterling). This society has 
stablisbed only since 178b". 

Agriculture. This town is almost surrounded by high, 
steep, bare calcareous mountains, little susceptible of culti- 
vation ; but their valleys, though small, are very fertile ; their 
sod is sandy with beds uf marl and clay. The neighbouring 
extensive and level country, called la Huerta, is very beautiful 
and still more fertile; it has the same productions as the 
richest part of the kingdom of Valencia; it is irrigated with 
water carefully collected in a superb bason, which they 
call panthario, and which is situated between two moun- 
tains, five leagues from Alicant ; it is inclosed with two very 
thick walls; it resemble- a large lake 23b' feet in length 
ISO in breadth, and 12-1 in depth ; an exact and well ordered 
police superintends the distribution of the water, so that all 
the landholders may profit equally by it at a stated pr.ee, 
which is moderate enough. 

Commerce. This town is the principal entrepot of the com- 
merce of the kingdom of Valencia, Murcia, Aragon, and a 
part of New Castile. Next to Cadiz and Barcelona it is the 



VALENCIA. 1^7 

most commercial town in ;>pain ; it has a bay which is a 
great resort of Spanish ships ; it is good, large, and secure, but 
h as very little depth ; eight or nine hundred vessels ofdifferent 
nations, the half of which are Catalans, enter it yearly. In 
17<)I, nine hundred and sixty-one entered, about OOO 01' which 
were Spanish, and most of them Catalans. From this harbour 
are exported aniseed, almonds, brandy, cinnamon, dried-figs, 
raisins, cochineal, licorice, essence of lemon, pomegranate, 
bark, salt, saffron, vinegar, wine, wool, and >ilk from Mur- 
cia. It imports linens from France and Swisserland, cloths 
from Trance, iron- ware from France and England, and 
cod-fish from England. The exportation is estimated at 
iSO,000,000 reals, or £],$1j,QQQ sterling. 

Lias. There is a good inn at Alicant, and well attended. 
Though a great trade is carried on in this town, provisions 
were .at a moderate price in 1799'- bread sold for 4 quarts, 
or ]£</. the pound of 10 ounces; beef 10 quarts, or about 
Sd.) mutton lo^ quarts, or \';tt \ veal 17 quarts, or 5d.\ 
pork 18 quarts, or 5\d. ; fresh fish 8 quarts, or '2]<l.\ and oil 
19 quarts, or about 5\d. 

la leaving Elche, we proceed in the same 
plain, by a road which runs through forests 
of palm-trees. The plain then discovers itself 
to a considerable extent ; it presents a smilii 
country, covered with trees, principally olive, 
v.hkh form, at a distance, agreeable curtains of 

en foliage. We insensibly approach the 
mountains; the ground becomes stony, the, 

d jolting, and we travel at intervals over 

Ju about thrce-quai tei • we 



15S VALENCIA. 

leave Elehe, we begin to ascend by a hollow, 
narrow road, often on the bare rock, but the 
ascent is easy : we soon however come to a deep, 
narrow defile, overhung- by very high marble 
mountains; in half a league it widens, forming 
a small cultivated valley, in which there are 
three small houses, and mulberry, olive, almond, 
and carob trees; it then closes, and soon after 
opens again, forming another valley, smaller 
than the first, partly uncultivated, and partly 
cultivated. 

AVenow push again into the mountains, where 
we admire the patient and laborious industry of 
the Valeneian ; we here sec how he can reap 
advantage from the most sterile land, from 
the most ungrateful soil. lie cuts the sides of 
the mountain, he converts them into terraces, 
which he props with little walls of stones heaped 
one upon another without cement ; and makes 
them into fields, which he ploughs, and sows, 
and which, by their produce, repay him for 
his labour. 

We then enter a narrower and deeper defile, 
in whiffl we continue for five or six minutes ; 
at length, after having, during an hour and a 
quarter ascended this mountain, which has been 
justly called las Pedreras de Elche, we reach its 
summit. We then descend by a narrow aceli- 



VALENCIA. 15g 

vity on the rock : it is very rough at first; but 
soon becomes easier ; we discover at the same 
time a pretty large dry dale a good deal cut, 
but full of olive trees, and which by a narrow 
path runs into a valley, winch we enter after 
passing over a very stony eminence. 

The eye ranges over this valley with pleasure. 
It is rendered agreeable by its extent, by a 
careful cultivation, by the multitude of trees in 
it, and by the villages which present themselvc- 
Axpe is to the left, Monforte in front, and 
Novelda in the back ground of the landscape. 
I laving entered the plain, we soon afterward s leave, 
half a league to the left, the small town of Axpe, 
.situated in a hilly country, on the side of the 
little river TaratTa ; it has a population of 
about 4000 persons. We cross the valley by a 
road, which would h' j a handsome one, if it 
were not muddy; it is surrounded with fields, 
vine-yards, olive and mulberry-trees. We ar- 
rive, three quarters of an hour after, at .Mon- 
forte, a very small town of about îsOO inhabit- 
ants, .situated almost in the middle of the 
valley, 011 a large stream, with a parish church 
and a Franciscan monastery. In twenty mi- 
nutes more we see, about three quarters of a 
mile oil", the small town of Novelda, called 

Nihulla by the Moo; ., situated on the Tarafta, 

and having a population of about 51 lis. 



I GO VALENCIA. 

After passing through forests of olives \. ( 
come to the extremity of the valley, which we 
quit after having been an hour and half in it. 
- We now begin to ascend, and in a quarter of an 

hour see to the left, on the side of an adjacent 
mountain from which we are separated by a 
prolongation of the preceding valley, an old 
castle, winch is said to have been one of the 
palaces of the Moorish kings. 

We soon enter the mountains of Salinctas: we 
ought here to arm ourselves with patience and 
courage, for we are entering on a long and dan- 
gerous passage. We first pass into a narrow, 
close, and deep defile, overhung by very high 
parts of the mountain; we arc ten minute- 
going through it, and we do not travel it with- 
out trembling. Another defile succeeds this : 
it is wider and more uncovered ; it is, however 
equally dangerous on account of its windings, 
its remoteness from all habitations, and its 
length : we are nearly three quarters of an hour 
passing it, during which time we see only three 
or four labourers' huts, which are not able to 
afford any succour; it is closed in by very high 
mountains, all of a red earth with a marble 
bottom; we see with pleasure, however, that 
they are cultivated halfway up to their summit, 
bv an industrv similar to that which we have 



• VALENCIA. 161 

just noticed in speaking of las Pedreras de 
Elche. 

On <roing out of this passage, we look clown 
on a delightful valley. Innumerable trees and 
vast verdant carpets are singularly contrasted 
with the naked dry mountains which surround 
it, whilst die villages that every where appear give! 
it an appeal ance of life*, we enter it over a fine 
stone bridge of one arch, under which there is a 
consideraole defile. We presently see at a certain 
distance to ihe right the village of Patrol. 
We gradually discover the whole richness of the 
valley as we pass along; it is every where 
cultivated, every where beautiful; fields, vines, 
gardens and enclosures succeed one another; 
mulberry, olive, pomegranate, almond, apricot, 
and many other fruit trees there display their 
riches and embellish it. After having travelled 
half an hour we arrive at Elda. 

Eld a is a small town with the title of county, 
situated on the left bank of the small river of the 
same name, almost at the foot of the mountain, 
or Sierra de Camara. It was peopled by t lie 
Mdore, who called it Idtlla, that is to say, the 
house of lea, 'ire. 

Extent, rbe streeti arc narrow, without pavement, nn.l 
dirty; two ônïj re worth noticing, tnd thai on account <.t' 
their léfl -<lth, and itnCM. 'lli- hoUKI are 

■mall and ill built : méfrl i not one of any appearance. Tlu: 

VOL I. M 



(63 VALENCIA. 

population is about 3000 soul?. The house of the posatfa, vT - 
inn, looks tolerably ; but destitute of every accommodation. 
Clergy. It has a parish church of poor architecture, and 
a Franciscan convent, agreeably situated, out of the town. 

In leaving Elcla we proceed by the side of 
the mountain of Camara for a quarter of an 
hour; we cross the little river of Eldu, and 
recross it three times in short distances ; which 
renders this road dangerous, and even impassi- 
ble in heavy rains, this river becoming an im- 
petuous torrent, A steep and stony ascent for 
twenty minutes on the side of the mountain 
leads to an even but muddy road, and then to 
a small valley on the heights, almost entirely 
planted with vines. Cultivated fields full of 
olive-trees lead to another valley likewise plant- 
ed with olives. 

We here leave the kingdom of Valencia, and 
enter that of Murcia, which by a singular prolon- 
gation, runs a great way within the territories of 
the former. 

We soon éee, at a small distance to the left, 
Sar, a large village -built in the form of an am- 
phitheatre on the ridge of a mountain, that 
terminates in a sugar loaf, on the top of which 
are the ruins of an ancient castle. 

We still ascend; then travel over a plain, the 
view of which is agreeable : fields, vines and 
olive trees spread over the surface ; and extend 



VALENCIA, \6C> 

to the foot of the lofty mountains which enclose 
it. Here we again ascend ; the mountains draw 
closer towards the right ; but a small, narrow 
valley three quarters of a mile long appears to 
the left: it is very fine. 

The mountains again open, the plain expands, 
the country becomes richer, the road is fine and 
level, and we discover in front the castle of Vil- 
lena, at the distance of a league from us. We see 
the steeples of the town of that name, which 
gradually shows itself as we approach it ; one 
side appears rising on the foot of the mountain, 
and the other extending into the plain; a moun- 
tain rises behind it, on which its castle is seen, 
and a higher mountain still appears farther off, 
where we discover the hermitages and castle of 
Salvatierra. We at length arrive at Villena by 
a beautiful road, but so muddy that it must be 
very bad in great rains. 

Villlxa, which bore the name of Arbacula, 
under the Romans, is a town of the kingdom of 
Murcia, having the title of a city, and the 
chief place of a marquisate of the same name. 
It is situated in a beautiful rich plain, before, 
and almost at the foot of the mountain of S. 
Christobal with a castle which was formerly very 
strong; it is placed on a height that com- 
mands the town. In ancient times it was sur- 
rounded by walls, which are now in ruin< 



104? VALENCIA. 

Exlent and Population. It has 1 4- principal streets, 4 squares, 
a great many fountains, and a population of about 12,000 
souls. There are several promenades, one of which is toler- 
ably handsome and ornamented with fountains. It has a 
faubourg larger and more modern than the town ; forming ;i 
semicircle, which takes in a large part of it. In arriving from 
Elda we cross this faubourg through three fine streets, which 
are very broad, long, and straight, but the houses of which 
are unequal, low and ill built. 

Clergy and Administration. There are in this town two 
parish churches, 'one house for the congregation of the ora- 
tory, one monastery, one nunnery, a hospital, twelve 
chapels or oratories, and an alcalde major for the adn.inistr a- 
tion of justice, The front of the Ilôtcl-de-ville, and that of St. 
James's church merit attention ; the palace of the Marquasses 
of Villena is likewise shown here. 

Here is a distillery for brandy, and a manufactory for 
soap ; a considerable quantity of coarse household linen is 
also made here. , 

There is no inn at Villena ; they have only posadas, which 
ave tolerably good. Beef was sold here in 1799 for 6 quarts, 
er \$d. for a pound of 10 ounces, and mutton for 12 quarts 
©r 3 {d. 

This was the birth place of P.artolomé de Valverdey Gandia, 
many of whose writings on theology are extant, but are 
more voluminous than useful. 

There is a salt pit in the neighbourhood of this townwhich 
furnishes a great deal of salt ; it is two leagues in circumference. 
The fields about Villena are very fine and fertile; they pro- 
duce corn, wine, oil, and hemp. The cultivation of the 
lands bespeaks the neighbourhood of the kingdom of Valencia ; 
it is much more attended to than in the kingdom of Murcia, 
though this town is a part of it. 

2 






VALENCIA. 165 

We scarcely leave Villena, when we again 
enter the kingdom of Valencia. We con- 
tinue through the same plain by a road as 
muddy as the preceding one. This plain, 
equally rieh near Villena, afterwards contracts 
and becomes in part uncultivated. To the left 
is seen, at a league distance, the town of 
Omelette. 

Caut-ktte is a small town situated at the 
foot, and on the side of the mountain of St. 
Anne, on which is a castle in ruins, having 
four dismantled bastions remaining: it has a 
pirih church, two monasteries, one hospital, a 
palace belonging to the bishop of Orihuela, two 
alcades, three regidors, and a population of 
about 6000 inhabitants. It was taken from the 
Moors in 1240. 

The heights which surround this town, and 
which we see as we go along the road, were the 
scene of a battle that M'as fought in 1706 on tlic 
day after the battle of Almanza, by a detach- 
ment of the combined armies of France and 
Spain against the confederate troops which 
supported the party of the Archduke Charles 
of Austria: five English, five Dutch, and three 

Portuguese battalions were defeated by the 
Marcfuis D'Asfett, who commanded the Spa- 

j-.hh and French troops, and who gained a corn- 
ai 3 



166 VALENCIA. 

1 

plete victory. He attacked and carried the 
enemy's entrenchments, and defeated and made 
prisoners the thirteen battalions; this victory 
consolidated the happy consequences of that 
which Berwick had gained the day preceding 
in the fields of Almanza. 

A mile and a half from Caudette, we ascend, ex- 
cept in a tew places where the road is level, for 
an hour and three quarters, and arrive at the 
top of the mountain, from which, by an easy 
descent, we come in a short time to luente de 
la Higuera, a small town of about 3000 inhabit- 
ants. It has a church, which contains some 
good paintings by Joannes. This town is built 
on a rock at the foot of a calcareous mountain, 
and situated at the entrance of a fine valley, 
which it commands, -while it is itself com- 
manded by mountains of calcareous rocks. 

This valley seems an uninterrupted succession 
of fine gardens ; the sides of the mountains 
which enclose it are cultivated and verdant, 
and form an agreeable termination to it. 

At Fuente de la Higuera we enter into the 
valley, whence we perceive, to the left, the 
mountains and the puçrto (CAlmanza : proceed- 
ing we find ourselves, in about half an hour, in 
the road leading from Madrid to Valencia, which 
we follow till we come to the latter town, a, 



VALENCIA. 16 J 

distance of 13 leagues and a quarter. Thii 
road we shall now describe. 

The road from the frontiers of the kingdom of Murcia, near 
Almanza, to Valencia, 13 leagues and 3 quarters *. 



LEAGUES. 

Venta del Puerto (of Almanza.) 

Hermita de Santo-Christo \ ^ 

Venta de Alcudieta J 

Suria, (a village) . » { 

Rocla, (a village) ^ i 

Venta del Re y . - - - 5 

Jucar, (a river and ferry boat) 1{. 

Alberica, (a town)_. , -1 

Masalabes, (a village) ..... -- \ 

Montarton, (a village)... ,. — ...__._-. § 

Alcudia, (a town) -- i 

The Llombay, (a gulley with no bridge) £ 

<-ineta, (a village).. I 

The Torre Pioca — 1 1 

Catarocba, (a village) .... li 

Maeanasa, (a village) . . 4 

Valencia... -- 1 

We are scarcely past the puerto d'Almanza 
and the Venta del Puerto, when we find our- 
selves in the kingdom of Valencia. Descend- 
ing, we pass by the little town of Fuenta de la 
[liguera, leaving it to the right about thx\ 
quarters of a mile oil. 

• the road from M i<lrid tnd from Araii'icz to V.lrnc.a. 

II 4 



168 VALENCIA. 

The road is the same as that from Madrid 
and Aranjuez ; but it is here haqjj -mer, ai d 
firmer: it runs almost in a direct e to Va- 
lencia, is frequently raise*', in the fori) <<f a 
causeway, and is full of little bridges ti iewn 
over eulleys: it follows the track of the moun- 
tains, and the ascents and descents are so well 
managed that we scncely perceive them. 

This road lies between two great chains of 
calcareous mountains, which extend almost in 
a direct line, six leagues on each side; the 
country between them is a succession of culti- 
vated lands and immense forests of olive and 
carob trees : they form an agreeable prospect, and 
the collective view bespeaks at once the acti- 
vity of the husbandman, and the fertility of the 
soil. The side on the right is delightful : it is 
a narrow valley extending to the foot of a chain 
of mountains, and is both beautiful and rich ; 
the mountains that terminate it are covered 
with trees and shrubs which afar have the ap- 
pearance of a verdant moss. 

After travelling a league and a half we dis- 
cover, to the right, at the foot of the mountain, 
a great square building, with a pavilion above 
it in the form of an open dome, which proves 
to be a beautiful country house. We soon after 
see, on the same side, the village of Mojente, 
situated in a bottom, at the foot and a little on 



VALENCIA. 169 

the slope of a mountain on which stand the 
ruins of an ancient castle. This was the birth 
place of Christobal Moreno, a theologian who 
lived towards the end of the 16th century. In 
another league we perceive the village of Balla 
on the ridge of the mountain. Proceeding a 
league farther we discover, to the left, at a very- 
little disi .iice, the small town of Montesa, 
built in the form of an amphitheatre on a moun- 
tain which stands forward detached from the 
chain : there we see the ruins of the ancient 
castle of Montesa, the seat of the military order 
of that name. Most of the monks perished 
there by an earthquake which happened on the 
23d of May 1 748 : the rock on which the castle 
was built, snht open ami .nuts of it fell otK. 
A very extraordinary circumstance took place 
at the time : a crevice had been formed in a 
rock; a man thinking to save himself sprang 
into it, but the sides of the rock, meeting ai 
the very instant, he was crushed to such a de- 
gree, that, on beinu- afterwards taken out, nota 
vestige could be distinguished of his scull, or of 
any of the bones of hi-, body. A great part of 
this castle is still standing, of a long icefangulai 
form, the walls of which are flanked with 
tower-, and ]>icrec;| with loop holes. 

In lesJS than ;inolh< 1 league we paM by I hermi- 
tage, called Jlciinita de Santo CbrÎBtO, and, 



170 VALENCIA. 

leaving the village of Alcudietta to the left, 
arrive at the Venta of the same name. This 
inn is handsome and the rooms are well distri- 
buted, but it is very deficient in provisions, 
which arc charged very high. Three quarters 
of a mile further we go through the village of 
Suria, and soon after that of Rocla : at the end 
of the latter there is a large handsome house, 
which was built in 1786, by order of the king, 
for the accommodation of travellers : it is callc 1 
Venta del Rey, and is a comfortable place. 
The road is bordered on both sides with mul- 
berry trees. 

In three quarters of a mile, the mountains on 
the right recede, those of the left approach and 
turn in front, where they appear to present a 
barrier to stop the traveller; but they have 
been opened with such skill that we proceed for 
nearly a league among them on a very fine road, 
in which the hills are so gentle and so well 
managed that they are scarcely perceived : at 
about two-thirds of the way we were delighted 
to find a fountain with two pipes, at the bot- 
tom of which was a large cistern for watering 
horses. 

On arriving at the top, the eve ranges over a 
valley of considerable extent, full of habitations. 
Though abounding in trees, it is not so agree- 
able as the valleys we came through; it has 



VALENCIA. 171 

none of those verdant carpets which refresh the 
sight, but a dark and gloomy bottom gives it 
en air of sadness : this is owing to the nature 
of the tillage, which is principally for rice. We 
00 through it along: a road straight and still 
handsome, leading to the river Jucar, which we 
cross in a ferry boat*, leaving the village of 
Manuel to the right, and those of Sumacarccl 
and Benejida to the left, besides several others 
which we could not see, on account of the 
thickness and multiplicity of the trees. 

The Jucar, in its usual state, is no very con- 
siderable river, but it swells in rainy weather* 
frequently overflows its banks, and inundates 
part of the valley and adjacent plain, covering 
even the road, though considerably raised. 
At those times it would be very dangerous to 
attempt passing it. There are several posts 
erected at certain distances, to guide passen- 
gers during the floods. 

Continuing through the valley for a mile, we 
enter into an immense plain which the eye 
cannot take in, and which goes all the way to 
Valencia. It is prodigiously rich, and seems to 
be a succession of beautiful gardens. It re- 
quires the pen of a poet to describe them : the 
eve runs eagerly from object to object, the 

f \ i.n.k": wpbuih livre in the year l80O 



ITS VALENCIA. 

senses are deliciously regaled ; pleasure, admi- 
ration, a sensation almost voluptuous transports 
you : you conceive yourself to be in one of those 
abodes of delight created by the poets, where 
they have placed the seat of bliss. Fields, 
vineyards, gardens, follow in rapid succession ; 
a variety and multitude of trees embellish and 
enrich it; immense grassy carpets blend their 
tints of verdure with those of the ripening corn. 
Pulse and herbs of all sorts intermix their 
sweets. Poplars, alders, mulberry, olive, carob, 
pomegranate, orange, and citron-trees, form 
forests as agreeable as useful ; the villages are 
numerous and close; the fields are covered with 
labourers ; all is in motion, and alive. In conse- 
quence of the climate, the excellence of the 
soil, the fertility of the land, and the great 
variety of its productions, the population is nu- 
merous. 

The Jucar, which runs through this plain, 
distributes every where its fertilizing waters by 
numerous canals. 

About two miles and a quarter after leaving 
the valley we come to Alberica, a little town 
containing about 2000 inhabitants, with a con- 
vent of monks, and a parish church, the steeple 
of which is a square tower. In another mile 
we pass the village of Masalabes, and a mile 
and a half further that of Montartan. From 



VALENCIA. Ï7S 

the last a fine avenue of alders, three quarters 
of a mile in length, leads to Alcudia, commonly 
called Alcudia de Carlet. This little town con- 
tains about 2000 souls, and has a convent of 
Franciscans, and a parish church with a hand- 
some steeple. Alcudia was the birth-place of 
the painter Joseph Vergara, and of the equally 
distinguished sculpture, Ignacio Vergara, his 
brother, who worked for the Basilica of the 
Vatican, and died in 176*1, at the age of 48. 

Another avenue of alders and poplars of three 
quarters of a mile brings us to a gulley, called 
Llombay, where commonly there is little water, 
which, however, in rainy weather becomes very 
considerable: there should be a bridge here. 
Proceeding for a league we come to the village 
of Gineta, in the middle of which we see an 
ancient castle surrounded by moats, furnished 
with battlements, and defended by large round 
towers. We no sooner leave the village than we 
have a sight of the sea at a great distance. We 
now travel through a country completely cover- 
ed with carobs, and at the end of a league and 
a half meet with some houses and the Torre 
PJOCa, a little old square tower of free-stone, 
standing entirely by itself. 

W e now go through a long avenue of aiders, 
and in three quarters of a mile leave the village 
of Chilla to the right, at trl time disco- 



174 VALENCIA, 

vering the city of Valencia presenting a side to 
us to a considerable extent; but we soon loose 
sight of it again to see it no more till we arrive 
at its gates. As we proceed we see to the left 
four villages at different distances. A league 
from this we pass by a convent of Grands-Car- 
mes, go through an avenue of alders three quar- 
ters of a mile long and come to Catarocha, a 
large village of a tolerable appearance, which 
we leave by a short avenue of mulberry-trees, 
and in three quarters of a mile more arrive at 
Mesanasa, another large village of about 1200 
inhabitants, u here there are some good looking 
houses, and a Qreat number of barracks made 
çf canes and earth, thatched with straw, but 
large, handsome, white outside, and with every 
appearance of cleanliness. 

We leave Masanasa by a magnificent avenue, 
a league in length, planted with alders and pop- 
lars, which leads t the very gates of Valencia. 
The greatest beauties are here united : green 
fields, trees in great variety, handsome, clean 
barracks, houses rising every where, and vil- 
lages, if the expression may be allowed, accu- 
mulated, form, with the many passengers on the 
road, and the general and constant moving 
scenes before our eyes, an interesting and de- 
lightful picture. We might imagine ourselves 
in the garden of Eden, especially when we see 



VALENCIA. 175 

in the month of December, a time when the 
trees are every where else stripped of their 
leaves, smiling fields and trees as green as 
elsewhere in May. But this beauty prevents the 
city of Valencia from appearing ; it is hidden 
by the multitude of trees which surround it, and 
we do not see it till we enter it. At length we 
arrive there by the suburbs and gate of St. 
Vincent. 

Valencia*. The traveller agreeably sur- 
prised and prepossessed by the approach to Va- 
lencia, will not be disappointed on his arrival 
is the idea he has formed of the town. A great 
city presents itself to his view, he is struck with 
a .succession of handsome houses, and surprised 
at the majestic masses of noble edifices : the 
variety of the shops elegantly decorated gives 
him an idea of the luxury prevailing here ;, the 
crowd of inhabitants announces a considerable 
population ; he finds every thing in motion, he 
every where perceives the marks of opulence; he 
ices that all is lively, smiling and agreeable, 

that all corresponds with the beautv of the cli- 

\ 

* The description of Valencia will perhaps appear too 
long, but this town requires a detailed examination : there 
are more monuments of the fine arts in it than in any Other 
town in Spain, more beautiful building-., more v.irnd u>agrs 
and different customs, more beauties collected in oik* \m-w, 
and more différence in manners from the rest of the kingdom, 
It require^ thcrtfwrc to be shown in all iu putfc 



176 VALENCIA. 

mate; and this union of gratification mnkcs art 
impression upon him which he never before ex* 
perie i éd in any town of Spain. 

Valencia, which was the Valentin Edetan- 
orum of tne Etonians, and situated in the country 
of the Ederani, is at present the capital of a 
province of the same name, with the title of 
kingdom. It was well known in the time of the 
Romans, but the vicinity ofSaguntum, for which 
they had a predilection, prevented its attaining 
the degree of splendour and celebrity which its 
situation claimed. 

It shared the fate of the rest of Spain ; was 
taken from the Romans by the Goths, and 
from the Goths by the Moors; Abdalasis, the 
son of Musa, general of the latter, made him- 
self master of it in 715; it was then subject to 
the caliphs of the cast; it passed in 756 under 
the dominion of the new Moorish kings of Cor- 
dova; it was separated from the kingdom of 
Cordova, and in 1027 became the capital of a new 
empire, whibh bore itfe natté, Ilui Diaz de 
Bivar, better known by the famous name of the 
Cid, took it from the Moors in 1094, whence 
it was called Valencia del Cid : the gate by 
which this warrior entered, and, to which his 
name is given, is still shown. Though the 
Cid had conquered it for the king of Castile, 
yet he, notwithstanding, maintained it and go- 



VALENCIA. 177 

verned it with entire independence. At his 
death, which happened in 1099, the famous 
Ximene, liis widow, gave it up to the king 
of Castile; she still, however, remained in it, 
and had soon to defend it against the Moors, 
who besieged it in 1100 ; this new heroine con- 
ducted the defence of the place ; she frequently 
joined in the battle, and obliged the assailants to 
raise thé siege; but in the following year Valen- 
cia was obliged to surrender to the generals of 
the king of Cordova. A new revolution sepa- 
rated it, in ] 144, from the kingdom of Cordova, 
and it became once more the metropolis of a 
separate kingdom, belonging to the Moors. 

James I. surnamed the Conqueror, king of 
Aragon, desirous of uniting the kingdom of 
Valencia to his crown, entered it at the head of 
an army, possessed himself of several places, 
laid siege to Valencia in the month of May, 
1238, and established his camp at llusafa. The 
town defended itself for four months; but it was 
obliged to yield to superior force, and it sur- 
rendered on the 88tfa of September in the same 
year, and king .lames made his entry into it on 
the 9th of October following. This prince peo- 
pled it with ( utuluiiians from Gironne, TortoiO, 
Tarragona, Lerida, and, above all, with a num- 
ber of French from the southern provinces of 
Fiance. Trom that time it became united to 
the crown of Aragon, and passed with 
Vot. I H 



1?* VALENCIA. 

kingdom in the 16th century under the dominion 
of the kings of Spain. 

This town, after having acknowledged 
Philip V. abandoned that prince's party, and 
opened its gates to the general of the arch- 
duke Charles, who caused himself to be pro- 
claimed Charles III. Some of the nobility, 
who remained faithful to the king, left it; 
the greater part of the inhabitants joined the 
rebels ; but after the battle of Almanza, this 
town, finding itself without the means of re- 
sistance, abandoned by the prince for whom 
it had rebelled, and with the army of Philip 
the Fifth at its gates, was obliged to implore 
the clemency of the prince to whom it had 
been unfaithful. The inhabitants wept, if we 
may believe the marquis de San Felippc, who 
wrote a history of the war of the succession, 
more from rage than grief.* The victorious 
army appeared before this town on the second 
of May, 1706, and entered it on the following 
day. The Valencians were punished for their 
misconduct by the execution of a great number 
of the rebels, by the loss of their privileges, 
the suppression of the states, the abolition of 
their laws, and by being obliged to adopt and 
to follow the customs of Castile. 

Situation. Valencia is most beautifully and advantageous- 
ly situated. It is in a plain completely open, and of cou- 

* Mas eraii lacrymas de rabia, que- de dolor. 



VALENCIA. 179 

iiderable extent, within half a league of the sea, upon the 
right bank of the river Turia, or Guadalaviaf, which flows 
at the foot of its walls, separating it from part of its sub- 
urbs, and it is surrounded by beautiful, cheerful, and rich 
fields, intersected with canals, which carry water for their 
fertilization every where. It is of a round heure, if the cir- 
cumference of its walls be only considered ; but if the 
whole of its suburbs, which are almost as large as the 
town, are included, its form is oblong, approaching to an 
oval. 

Circumference and Walls. It was formerly a fortified town, 
at the time when the art of sieges was still in its infancy ; 
but it has at present no fortifications ; it is notwithstanding 
•urrounded with ramparts, whose walls are entire, and in a 
state of good preservation ; they are of common brick-work, 
rather high, thick, flanked at equal distances with round 
towers, and without moats. It has a citadel situated near the 
sea-gate; but it is small, very badly fortified, and likewise 
without moats ; it is of no use, and is not in a state to make 
any defence ; it docs not even command the town. 

The river Turia, or Guadalaviar, flows at tha foot of ite 
walls the whole extent of the eastern side. Its bed is about 
three hundred feet broad, but the water is generally very 
low, in consequence of its being let out on all sides to water 
the fields. It sometimes rises very high, and has often 
carried away several of its bridge*;. It is bordered on eacl 
iide by very beautiful, large, and well kept terraces, orna- 
mented with foot-pavements oi freestone. These ten- 
extend along the side of the town beyond the rampart* ; they 
are lined, on the opposite *-ide, with tolerably hands».; roe 
edifices, and only want to be adorned with tia». 

Bridget. There are five blid the Tûl 

all equally handsome ; they are nil Dearly the same length 
and breadth, that is to say, 16 feet broad by270 and ! 
fed long. They ar< built parallel to each other, ;ind at m- 
ible distances, »o that we can tea them all sAthf 



180 VALENCIA. 

s-uiie time. The stone bridge is the first towards the north- 
t!^t: it was fust built m 1591, carried away by the river 
in 1776, and rebuilt in 17 So' ; it lias twelve arches, and 
opens on the Mde of the town, towards the new gate, and on 
the other side into the country. The bridge of Serrano» 
comes next; it was built in 1357, carried away by the river, 
rebuilt, again destroyed, reconstructed in i\bO, one»' nun 
broken down by the river in the 1 6th century, and built for 
the last time in l6'0t>: it has ten arcb.es, and opens on the 
side of the town towards the gate of Serranos, and on the 
other at the entrance of the faubourg of Murvicdro. The 
third is the bridge of the Trinity, which was built in 135o' ; 
it has ten arches, and opens on the side of the town towards 
the gate of the Trinity, and on the other side into the fau- 
bourg of the same name The fourth is the bridge of the 
Real, formerly called the bridge of la Xarea, from the name 
of the gate which is at the end of it; it was of wood, and wa» 
broken in by the weight of the people at the entry of 
Charles I. It was rebuilt in 1599, in the reign of Philip III. ; 
it is of free-stone, and has ten arches and six beautiful seaU 
of stone, three on each side ; it is ornamented with two 
statues of saints, as large as life, supported upon pedestals, 
and placed in triangular pavilions, which are supported by 
three Corinthian columns ; the whole is of white stone, ex- 
cepting the columns, which arc of blue marble ; the exe- 
cution is indifferent, and the eflèct not very agreeable; 
This bridge opens on the side of the town towards the 
gate of the Real ; on the opposite side it joins the square 
which is before the Real, or the palace inhabited by the 
captain general, having on the left the terrace of the college 
of Saint Pius V. and on the right the entrance of the beau- 
tiful promenade of the Alameda. The last bridge is the 
bridge del Mar, or of the sea ; it is upon the same plan and 
decorated similarly to the preceding : it was built in 1590 ; 
it open9 on the side of the town, at the entrance of a fau- 
bourg which is indiscriminately colled by the names of th^ 



VALENCIA. 181 

Sea, of the Rèmèdio, or of the Trinitarians; on the opposite 
side it joins a road which leads to Grao, having the country 
on the right, and the entrance of the promenade of the Ala- 
meda on the left. 

If the hed of this river were full of water, the view of it would 
be beautiful and majestic ; the eye would wander c/tr a con- 
siderable extent, a large body of water, the beautiful ter- 
races which border it, the handsome edifice» which line its 
banks and the five bridges which cross it. 

Division. Valencia includes in its circuit four neighbour- 
ing villages, Campanur, Patraix, Rusafa, and Benimamet; 
which, with their lands, are its dependencies; they are 
called the four quarters of Valencia. 

Population. Its population is computed to be 20,000 
families, or about 100,000 souls ; but the four villages and 
their dependencies are comprised in the calculation ; ihey 
may contain nearly 1>,000 souls, so that the population of 
the town of Valencia and its suburbs is about 82,000 in- 
habitants. 

St nets and Extent. The streets of this town are narrow, 
short, crooked, and intersected by a great number of lanes 
and alleys; there are many where tw<> carriages cann.it 
pa s ; but they are widened at short distances, where they 
form larger spaces, though still very narrow, to which uiv 
improperly applied the name of squares, and which would 
scarcely deserve the name of passable streets if they wew. 
loager. These little squares are very useful, from the oppor- 
tunity which they afford to carriage - t<> turn into t lu m, that 
they may allow those which tlxy meet to past; but the} 
are also \<ry dangl rous in the night from the facility of at- 
;d to villain'-. 

The streets are not paved; they are covered with sand, 
which ia al first jery inconvenient, bul it makes a smooth 
rond u hen it bas been pressed by 1 1 * « - bones and carriai • 

n it ram-, the w< t sand stopi tl : ; 



132 VALENCIA. 

puddles j the streets are then impassable. From time to time 
thi> sand fa taken to manure the land, and is replaced hy 
fresh. This custom, which is very inconvénient, could not 
be easily suppressed: the Valencians are generally persuaded 
that this sand is full of salt particles, which renfler it of gene- 
ral service in manuring the lands, and that the neighbour- 
ing fields owe to it apart of their fertility; this prejudice, 
which has been vainly opposed, is so inveterate, that it 
•would perhaps rahe a riot if the streets of this town were 
attempted to be paved. 

Valencia might be better lighted at night ; there are C 86"0 
lamps against the walls, on both sides, in the form of a zig- 
zag, and not opposite each other; but a sufficient quantity 
of oil is never put in them ; the lights go out early, and 
leave us in darkness. This is very dangerous in a town where 
the houses are high, the streets narrow, crocked, and full 
of turnings. This inconvenience is the greater as there is 
no other patrole than the guard of an alcalde de Barrio, com- 
posed of fifteen or twenty men, who make a great noise in 
speaking and marching, carry lights, and are not distributed 
in different parts at the same time, but go from one to an-, 
ether. 

Most of the streets bave cavities under them, which pass 
also under the houses, and through every part of Valencia; 
they serve as sewers. They are laige, well built, and strong ; 
tradition, true or false, declares them to be the work of the 
Romans. 

Private Houses. Valencia is tolerably well built, though 
among the houses of individuals there is not one to be seen 
which deserves attention. The houses have in general a 
tolerably good appearance, and their exterior is handsome. 
Some can be mentioned which are very handsome and ele- 
gant, as that of the Marquis of Jura Real, opposite the con- 
vent of the Cordeliers. There is one in the square of Villarasa, 
that is distinguished by a contrary effect; it is an incon- 
gruity of architecture, a ridiculous assemblage of statues. 



VALENCIA. 1S3 

Colossal paintings without design, taste, or beauty, which 
hurts the eye, and makes us regret the large sums that the 
marquis de Dos Aguashas expended in its decoration. Must 
of the houses have terraces on the tops of them ; these might 
be made very pleasant, and considerably to contribute to the 
embellishment of the town if they were covered with flowers, 
shrubs, and small trees, particularly citron and oral) 
trees. The interior of the houses is generally decorated with 
earthen-ware tiles, made at Valencia ; they are principally 
used to pave the apartments, and produce an agreeable 
efilct ; they are painted with all kinds of subjects, frequent- 
ly historical; these paintings are covered with a varnish, by 
which means they are washed without being damaged. 

Though this town is close, and the streets are narrow, yet 
it has an open and pleasant appearance. The clear. liness 
which reigns in it contributes to this, and makes it particu- 
larly pleasing, especially to those who have been passing 
some time in the Castiles. 

Valencia has eight gates, a great number of squares, five 
faubourgs, and yet but one fountain, which is frequently 
dry. 

Gaits. The gates are, first, that of Quarte, which was 
opened in 1+++ ; it is supported by two towers, and lead» 
to the faubourg of Quarte ; it is by this that we enter the 
town, coming from .Madrid by the road of New Castile : 
secondly, that of San-Vicente, which opens toward the fau- 
bourg of the same nau:e ; it i- by this we arrive from Madrid 
by the road of la Mancha ; thirdly, that of Rotafa, or Rusafa, 
which opens into the fields ; fourthly, that del Mai, i I 
the Sea, winch, bavrag been formerly opened, and after- 
wards shut, was re-opened in 1701 ; it is on the same sid« 

Citadel, and had-, to the faul 
Trin.ty quay; fifthly, that of del pened in 

• 1 Philip ill. who came i" 

1 lui h lead ' 



184 VALENCIA. 

the Real ; sixthly, that of the Trinity, which is said to have 
been built in 1536, was afterwards closed up, and re-opened 
in 1792; it leads to the bridge and faubourg of the same 
name; seventhly, that of Serranos, opened in 1138, upon 
the conquest of Valencia by king James ; it opens upon the 
bridge of Serranos which leads to the faubourg of Murviedro ; 
it is by this that we arrive from Catalonia ; it is supported hy 
two massive towers, which were begun to be built in 1349» 
and finished in 1418: Sthly, That of St. Joseph or New- 
gate, which was opened in 141'J. The traveller will perhaps 
expect here the gate of the Cid, which has been mentioned, 
and which became famous by the entry of that conqueror; 
but it made part of the ancient limits and is at present includ- 
ed within the new; it is seen on the side of the temple. 

Squares. The public squares at Valencia are not orna- 
mented, and the houses which surround them are very common ; 
yet there are some which ought to be excepted. The two 
squares before the cathedral, the one before the chapel of 
la Virgen de los Desemparados, the other on the side of the 
archiépiscopal palace ; they are of a considerable extent, and 
very irregular figure. The plaza del Arzobispo is very near, 
before the archiépiscopal palace ; it is small but of a tolerably 
regular square and embellished by the front of the house of 
Olocado. The plaza de las Barcas and that of Villaraza are 
very near one another ; they would rather be handsome streets, 
if they were longer. The square of the Carmelites, before 
the convent of that name, ia of a very long rectangular 
form. The plaza de Santo Domingo, situated opposite the 
citadel, and before the convent of Dominicans, is very large, 
but very irregular : the Custom-house would be an embel- 
lishment to it if the houses in \t were better built. The 
square of the congregation is of a middling size, and 
adorned by the front of the house of the congregation. The 
square del Real is situated out of the town, at the end of the 
bridge del Real, and before the royal palace; it is grand. 



VALENCIA. 135 

spacious, perfectly square, open and cheerful. It is embel- 
lished by the view of the river, the bridge which joins it, 
the beautiful terrace of the college of San Pio Quinto, which 
bounds it on the left, the delightful promenade of the Ala- 
meda, where it terminates on the light, and the front of the 
royal palace, which occupies the whole of one side ; it is the 
only pleasant and beautiful square, but it is the most out of 
the way. 

Faubourgs. Valencia has five faubourgs, which, if they were 
joined, would be of greater extent and have a larger popula- 
tion than the town. 1st. The Faubourg of Quarte beyond the 
gate nf the same name ; it is through this that we arrive from 
Madrid, by the road of New Castile : 2dly. The faubourg 
of San-Vicente, beyond the gate of the same name; it is 
through this that we arrive from Madrid by the road of la 
Mancha : 3dly. The faubourg of the Trinity or del llemedio, 
or also of the sea, beyond the gate of the sea, between that 
gate and the bridge of the same name ; it is through this 
that we arrive from Grao • 4-thly . The faubourg of the Tri- 
nity at the end of the bridge of that name; it is divided by 
the river Guadalaviar : .5thly. The faubourg of Murviedro, 
at the end of the bridge of Serrano-;, also on the other side of 
the river; we pass through it in coming from Catalonia. All 
these faubourgs are tolerably handsome, and more open and 
airy than the town ; their streets are broader and more open ; 
that of Murviedro is of the greatest extent, and spreads out 
into the country. 

All that space, extending along the borders and on the 
other s<de of the river, from the end of the bridge of Serra- 
nos and the entrance of the faubourg of Murviedro, to the 
entrance of the promenade of the Almeda, in the square 
and at the entrance of the bridge of the ileal, may also be 
considered ;i ^ tb« suburbs of Valencia : it is covered with 
boutes to ft considerable extent, and the situation of them is 
deligfatfjU ; ia front they look upon the river and the t- : | 



186 VALENCIA. 

that run along both ils bide*, and behind upon beautiful 
fields. 

The holds which surround Valencia may still be considered 
as the extended suburbs of this town, from the great number 
of houses and barracks that are built upon them, very near 
to each other, and which contain a numerous population. 

'Ecclesiastical Administration. Valencia is the see of an 
archbishop, which is said to have existed under the gothic 
kings, and to have been re-established in 1238 by king .lame» 
I. after the conquest of that town by the Moors; it has a re- 
venue of about 300,000 ducats, jf.3 1,37-5 sterling. Its diocese 
includes one cathedral and two collegiate chapters, and 533 
parishes. The archbishop has also an ass-istant bishop, who 
is bishop in partibus infidelium, and who performs many of 
his functions. 

The cathedral chapter resides at Valencia. It is com- 
posed of 7 dignitaries, 24 canons, 10 provosts, and 280 bene- 
ficed clergy. The canons enjoy a revenue of about 60,000 
reals {£.625). 

This town contains 14- parishes, 16" convents of monks, a 
house of minor clergy, a house of the congregation of the 
oratory, a convent of monks of the military order of Mon- 
fesa, an ancient convent of Antonins, suppressed in 17.91 ; 
a house of the brothers of the charity school, two houses of 
secular priests, known under the names of the college of the 
Patriarch and the school of St. Thomas of Villeneuve, the 
ancient house of professed Jesuits; 14- convents of nuns, a 
great number of particular chapels, those of la Virgen de los 
Desemparados, of la Casa de la Ensenanza, the oratory of 
St. Vincent Ferrier, and that of St. Luis Bertrand. There is 
a tribunal of the inquisition here, composed of two inquisi- 
tors, a fiscal, an alguasd-major, and several registers ; and 
a diocesan jurisdiction, composed of an official, a fiscal proc- 
tor, and six registers. 

The clergy is extremely numerous in this town, there are 



VALENCIA. 187 

550 secular priest'. Tlie convents and tie hoas< s of the con- 
gregation contain about 1670 monks, and the convents of nuns 
about 350 person. The total number of secular and regular 
clergy is 2610 individuals, out of a populate n of about 
S 0,000 souls. 

In this town there is a bank of charity, (mont-di'-pictv) 
where money is advanced without interest to the labourers 
and farmers who are unable to purchase the grain necessary 
to sow the fields : the funds of it arc taken from the reve- 
nues of vacant benefices. 

Hospitals. There are several hospitals at Valencia, among 
others a general hospital, a charity-house, and a hospital for 
the orphans of St. Vincent. Sick persons are received into 
the first ; the poor, either married or widowers and their 
children, into the second, and they are occupied with diffe- 
rent employments ; and orphans are received and brought up 
in the last. 

Military Administration. Valencia is the chief place of a 
military government, and the residence of the captain gene- 
ral of the province, who formerly had the title of viceroy; 
Valencia and Mureia are included in his military depart* 
ment. 

This town has its particular military staff, composed of a 
king's lieutenant, a major, two aid-majors, a captain of the 
gates, and an almoner. The citadel has ;l separate governor. 
The Ileal, which is the palace occupied by the captain gene- 
ral, forma a separate government, almost independent of him ; 
it has a governor under the title of alcade \ this officer has a 
separate tribunal ovi r which he presides, assisted by an as- 
sessor, a fiscal, a register, and an alguasil major. 

Here are other military tribunal» : i-t. a tribunal of war, 

composed of the captain general, an auditor of u ir, ■ ii-cal, 

.-ister, and an Blguati] major. 2dly. A tribunal of the 

military order of Mont which the lieutenant-general 



188 va r FACIA. 

of the order presides, and which is composed of two assessors, 
a secular fiscal advocate, an ecclesiastical fiscal, a solicitor, 
a register and two alguasils. 3dly. A tribunal of the mili- 
tary ecclesiastical court, composed of a lieutenant of the 
vicar general of the armies, two assessors, a fiscal advocate, 
two solicitors, and a register. 4thly. An auditor of war. 
Mhly. An auditor and a minister of the navy. 

administration of Justice. Valencia is the seat of a Royal 
audience, the jurisdiction of which includes the whole pro- 
vince; the captain general commonly presides, and after him 
the regent ; it is divided into three courts, the two first hav- 
ing four judges, who are called auditors, and the last which 
is the court, a governor and four judges, who are called 
alcaldes del crimen. This tribunal has two fiscals, an alguasil 
major, a secretary of the acuerdo, a lieutenant of the chan- 
cellor, and several registers. Justice is administered in the 
inferior tribunals by a corregidor and two alcalde majors. 
There are also a great number of tribunals for determining 
special pleas. It has also a port-captain. 

Municipality. The municipality is composed of a corre- 
gidor, and in his absence an alcalde major, 21- regidors, one 
half of whom are taken from among the nobility and the 
other from among the burgesses, four deputies of the com- 
mons, a syndico procurador general, and a syndieo personero. 

Public Edifices. Perhaps there is not a town in Spain in 
which there are so many edifices as in Valencia. Several are 
remarkable, cither for the richness of their decoration, which 
has not always been directed by a correct taste ; or for a 
number of paintings, the greater part of which are by 
artists born in this town. We shall describe the principal. 

El Real. This is the ancient palace of the kings, occupied 
at present by the captain general of the province ; it is out 
of the town, on the other side of the river, is delightfully situ- 
ated, in a large beautiful and open square, having the 

5 



VALENCIA. .139 

bridge del Real before it ; a very large beautiful terrace, 
which borders the river, on the right, the delightful prome- 
nade of the Alameda on the left, and looking down upon green 
and cheerful fields behind ; the prospect is magnificent. The 
building appears rich and graceful ; but we must not examine 
it minutely, for we should find neither beauty nor correctness 
in the architecture, nor elegance, nor proportion in the de- 
corations. It is a large edifice built about the beginning of 
the 15th century; there is a long gallery before it, which 
was afterwards added to it; the front of this is disfigured by 
the principal body of the edifice, which rises unequally above 
it behind, and terminates it disagreeably. 

The apartments are large, ill distributed, and without 
ornaments" ; the gallery is tolerably handsome. In one of 
the halls of this palace there is a very interesting series of the 
portraits of all the viceroys and captains-general of the king- 
dom of Valencia. 

College of St. Pio Quinto. This is a house of minor 
clergy, situated out of the town upon the terrace, on the 
other side of the river, between the bridge of the Real and 
that of the Trinity, not far from the palace of the Real. The 
front of this college, seen at a distance, has a grand effect, 
and gives us the idea of a magnificent building. It is termi- 
nated on both sides by a square tower which rises above the 
edifice. The portal of the college is in the middle; that of 
the church at the end of this front, but in a recess ; it has 
two stories of architecture ; the first is composed of four 
fluted Doric pilasters, which support large square urns; the 
second story has four smaller Ionic pilastres; above them 
there is a small representation of the Resurrection in bass-re- 
lief, a semicircular front on which are placed a cross, and 
lour square urns. 

Church of St. Moniac. This church belongs to a convent 
of Petita-Auguatiit, situated oat of the town at the entrance 

of the faubourg and Itruat of Murviedro. It ha ; t monstlOUl 



190 VALENCIA. 

appearance, like many others in Valencia, from the quantity 
and deformity of sculptured compartments; it is only re- 
markable tor a miraculous crucifix which is kept in it: it is 
•aid that this crucifix, which was intended by the patriarch 
Ribera, archbishop of Valencia, for the college that he had 
just founded, would not remain there, but declared that it 
would be placed in the church of the Petits- Augustin*, to 
which it was carried. 

The Convent of the (.'rands Carmes is situated in the square 
of that name, plaza del Carmen. 

The church is handsome and the roof is well pointed ; it \ = 
ornamented with fluted pilastres of the Corinthian order, and 
a cornice. The principal altar, which is of a handsome Co- 
rinthian architecture, is ornamented with several pictures, 
amongst others a large one of the transfiguration of the Lord, 
one of the Holy Virgin, and some other very small ones, by 
Espinosa ; the door of the tabernacle is covered with a half- 
length picture of our Saviour by Joannez, which is full of 
expression. 

In some of the chapels of this church there are some toler- 
able paintings ; the Conception, St. Francis de Sienna, a 
picture of the Holy Virgin, St. Joachim and St. Anne, all by 
Gaspard de la Iluerta; St. Martin, and a Flight into Egypt, 
by Pedro Orrente ; a St. Koch, by Orrente; the Holy Vir- 
gin de los Desemparados, with a Birth of Jesus Christ be- 
low it, by Joseph Vergara ; a St. Albert, by Conchillos; a 
St. Teresa, by Ribalta ; a St. André Corsini, by Espinosa ; a 
St. Peter, in the style of Joannez. In the chapel on the 
side of the sanctuary, there is a marble mausoleum, very- 
little ornamented ; it supports a recumbent statue, clothed in 
the habit of the order of Mont Carmel. 

The chapel of the communion deserves particular attention. 
It is a large long building, ornamented with fluted pilasters of 
the Corinthian order. The principal altar, which is of wood, 
gilt, is of a handsome architecture ; the pedestals of the 



VALENCIA. 191 

columns of the first story and the tabernacle are covered with 
bass-reliefs ; the middle of the first story is occupied by a 
large picture of the Saviour of the World, painted by Ri- 
balta; two doors, which are on each side of the altar, arc 
covered with two pictures of St. Peter and St. Paul. The 
sculptures are by Gaspard, a monk of the saine convent, who 
died in 1(34-4. 

The chapel of our Lady of Mount Carmel, is remarkable for 
the richness of the ornaments which have been lavished upon it ; 
it forms a large oval, which displays itself with elegance. The 
walls to a certain height are encrusted with pale rose-coloured 
marble, streaked with white. It is ornamented with twelve 
large fluted columns of the Corinthian order, covered with 
white stucco, with gilt fluting, in the lower part, and gilt 
capitals. The spaces between the columns are occupied by 
a door of entrance, handsomely decorated, two side ones, 
and eight statues as large as life; tbt se are of terra-cotta and 
are tolerably well executed; ten pieces of bass-relief appear 
above the statues and side doors. The frieze and the cornice 
are covered with light ornaments delicately worked, and gilt. 
A large and beautiful dome rises in the middle; over the 
vault, which is ornamented with borders and over massive 
medals, a round lanthorn rises ; this is too small, and ha- 
eight windows separated by Corinthian columns with gilt 
capitals. The altar, which, with every thing that belongs to 
it is of marble of different colours, is of a handsome archi- 
tecture. A large picture of the Holy Virgin is placed in the 
middle. A beautiful picture of the discovery of the statue 
of the Holy Virgin covers the door of the tabernacle. There 
are some pictures in the sacristy, amongst which there is one 
attributed to Joanne z : H represents St. Joseph 111 his bed, the 
Holy Virgin gi\mg him broth ; groups and figures in diilerent 
attitudes, and above the eternal Father with two groups of 
angels; this il an excellent picture. 

'J nil convent bai two cloUtcri ; tht first ii tolerably large, 



ty<2 VALtXCTA. 

Miuarc, of Gothic arehitecure, and opens through tour arcades 
m each iront. In one of its angles here i* a picture of mid- 
dling size and tolerably good, the painter of which is un- 
known, though it appears modern ; it is the placing a Jesus 
Cbrist in the tomb, with group* of figures: at two other 
angles there are two chapels; in one of these there are two 
large pictures, the comhat between David and Goliath, and 
Saul following his son Absolom ; in the ether the altar is 
covered with very ancient paintings upon wood, done with 
delicacy and expression. The second cloister is larger, and 
likewise' square, it opens upon a garden by eight arches in 
each front, which are supported by Doric columns; there are 
eight large pictures at its four angle-, which are said to be 
by Espinosa, and which we are told were good ; but from the 
little care that has been taken of them, it is impossible to 
distinguish any thing in them. 

Convent of St. Sebastian. This is a convent of Minims. 
It is in the faubourg of Quarte, in a beautiful situation, over- 
looking a lively country of great extent. 

The church is of a simple architecture of the Corinthian 
order: it would have an air of grandeur, if some heavy orna- 
ments of sculpture, which spoil the appearance of the roof and 
the arches that sustain it, were taken away. The principal 
altar has some bad picture* ; bt;t, behind the sanctuary in 
that part called by the Spaniard- traa sacrario, amends is 
made by a small picture representing the Lord's Supper, 
painted by Joannes, with all the delicacy and taste which 
distinguish the pencil of that artist. Some of the chapels 
contain paintings which deserve notice, particularly the altar 
of the Holy Virgin. A small altar of the infant Jesus, called 
del r.ino de la pasion, has in its base three very small pic- 
tures one of the Holy Virgin, and the other two of the in- 
fancy of Jçsuï. In the chapel of St. Luis there are some by 
Vergara ; but they are the productions of his youth, and by 
no means correspond with the fame he afterwards acquired. 



VALENCIA. 193 

The cross-aisle opens on the right, forming a particular 
chapel under the invocation of St. Francis de Paule. There 
are two large paintings, in an oval medallion, on the two 
sides of this chapel ; one represents St. Francis de Paule, at 
the moment when the Pope ordered him to go to France, on 
the invitation of Louis XI.; the other the arrival of that 
saint at the court of the French king. On the four pillars 
there are four other paintings in fresco ; they preserve the 
memory of four miracles of the same saint: above them are 
the four cardinal virtues, a? large as life, also painted in 
fresco; one of the four, Purity, is said to be the portrait of a 
Madame Soret, a French lady, whose husband was a mer- 
chant at Valencia. These paintings executed in 1744, are 
by Joseph Llaser. In the middle of the altar is a paint- 
ing of St. Francis de Paule leaning on his stick ; Joannez sur- 
passed himself in this work ; the illusion is carried to such a 
degree that one takes the painting for a statue, and fancies 
the saint in the act of setting out to walk. The compart- 
ments of the base of this altar are ornamented with two ex- 
cellent paintings by the same artist, representing two mira- 
cles of the saint. 

This church has another chapel built about the year 1730, 
under the invocation of the blessed Bono. The altar of this 
chapel is ornamented with a painting representing the bless- 
ed Bono in his coffin, surrounded by groups of sick people 
imploring his assistance, and spectators, attracted by devotion 
or curiosity : it is by Salvador Mariano-Maella. This chapel 
built after the plan pf Maitinès, unites taste, elegance, and 
magnificence ; it presents a profuseness of marble, and a 
multitude ofgiltobjecls, without confusion ; the different orna- 
ments which decorate it are executed with delicacy. The 
architecture is in general good. 

There are also in this convent some paintings of Conchillos 
tod r.a&pard de la HuerU, and another painted by Cudt7, 

Vol. 1. o 



194 VAIJ.NCFA. 

and lir. n n ht from Rome in 1701. It represents the blessed 
Bono scourging himself under the arch of a stairca>e. 

Pansh Church of St. Nicholas. This church is as remark- 
able for the inelegance of the sculptures with which it is over- 
loaded, as for the beauty of the paintings it contains. 

Tlie vault and walls are covered with them : they are in 
fresco, and represent the most interesting epochs of the life of 
St. Nicolas tie Bari and St. Peter, martyrs, and titulary dig- 
nitaries of the church ; those in the sanctuary represent thr 
moment of time, when angels are introducing the saints into 
the abode of glory. At the bottom of the church, above 
and on the side of the principal door, is a portrait bf Pope 
Cal^tus III., who ha\3 been the minister of if, and allegories 
relative to the Roman church. All these paintings are by 
Denis Vidal, Palomino's pupil : we cannot look at them 
without great interest; but they must be examined sepa- 
rately, for the whole presents a confused mass, which hurt» 
the beauty of the details. 

The chief altar, of an ordinary architecture, has a large 
painting of the two titulary saints, by Vergara. 

Two small lateral altars are ornamented with paintings by 
Juan de Joannez. On the one are, an Annunciation, a Birth 
of our Lord, an adoration of the Kings, a battle of St. 
Michael with the Devil, two processions, and a battle be- 
tween the Israelites and Philistines ; on the other, the doc- 
tors of the church, the Apostles, some Martyrs, and some 
Virgins. Two other paintings on each side of the lower 
part, relate to the Creation of the World ; and a third be- 
tween the two last, represents the formation of Eve during 
Adam's sleep, in the midst of a beautiful landscape. There- 
is likewise an admirable Last Supper, in which the artist 
has united the beauty of invention, and a correctness of de- 
sign, with expression and justness of colouring. 

'Ibrre are also excellent paintings in the vestry, as well 



VALENCIA. 195 

as on different other altars. That of St. Peter the martyr 
has a large painting of tl>e martyrdom of that 9aint, and 
two small ones, a Birth of our Lord, and a Nativity of St. 
John the Baptist, all by Espinosa,and worthy the reputation 
of that painter. In the chapel of Christ is a good painting 
of the Holy Virgin and the sisters of Lazarus. A small ora- 
tory in a rccedure, near the door of the chapel of the com- 
munion, contains some valuable pieces, particularly a picture 
of the Virgin watching the infant Jesus asleep, and behind, a 
-. Anne reading. These paintings, being in a manner buried 
in the thickness of the wall and in a dark place, escape exami- 
nation, and afford no gratification to amateurs; they deserve 
to be placed in a more conspicuous situation. 

Church of la Purissima. This is a church of the ancient 
professed house of the Jesuits, which is now occupied by 
priests and secular clergy, under the name of the seminary 
of St. Thomas de Villanucva. 

It is a tolerably large building, ornamented without taste 
mi J without elegance. The chief altar has a large picture of 
St. Th ..mas de Villanueva, by Vergara. The lateral altar on 
the left side of the cross-aisle has two paintings by Espinosa ; 
. Ignacio, „to whom the Eternal Father appears, and a 
Holy Virgin giving fruit to the infant Jesus. 

In the chapel of St. Francisco Xavier, there are two large 
paintings of the miracles of that saint, and several in fresco, 
representing him in glory. 

J e chapel of the Conception is also ornamented with two 
large paintings by Cone lillos, which have been spoiled by 
an attempt to repair them. Each of these paintings is be- 
ll two statuts of white marble, as large as life, which 
• m to be four kings ; above each statue is a tolerable bass- 
relief. The higher parts are loaded with sculptures in con- 
fusion. The absurdity of this chapel, however, is comptn-. 
sated by the beauty of the paintings in fresco of the dome, 
which represent an Assumption, and a St. Stanislas, offering 

'J 



l.Ofi VALtVriA. 

the infant Jesus to the Virgin : tliey arc by the Canon Vic- 
toria. A painting of the Conception, with the holy Trinity, 
in the midst of a group of angels, who place a crown on the 
hear! of the Virgin, occupies the middle space of the altar : 
it is by Joanncz, and possesses great beauties. 

Lonja. The Lonjâ is a large oblong building, situated in 
the square of IVIcrcado, and built in 1482, in the reign of 
Ferdinand the Catholic. It was originally an exchange or 
meeting-place for merchants, but afterwards turned into 
barracks, and is now used for what it was fust intended. 
The tribunal of the consulate bold their meetings in it. 

The front, decorated with ornaments in the Gothic style, 
seems to form two different edifices, one without ornaments, 
the other with some Gothic ornaments at two-thirds of its 
height. Above the two columns are placed, in pairs, a series 
of medallions, containing in bass-relief the busts of kings and 
queens. This front terminates in lofty battlement» in the form 
of royal crowns. 

A few broad steps lead to a large oblong hall of a simple 
yet noble appearance ; it is SO feet long by 50 broad. The 
whole of it is in the Gothic style, and of the greatest beauty. 
In this hall the dealers in silk meet to make their bargains. 

An adjacent room, built in the same style and with the 
same elegance, contains a chapel. It leads to two halls, one 
of which serves for the tribunal of the consulate, and the 
other for commercial meetings. 

Parish Church of St. Juan del Mercado. It is in the square 
of the Mercado, opposite the Lonja. 

The interior of it is grand and spacious with a flat vault. 
The frieze and cornice are covered with an absurd and con- 
fused multiplicity of ornaments in stucco, coarsely carved 
and of bad taste : the statues of the twelve sons of Jacob, 
the heads of the twelve tribes of Israel standing against the 
pilasters, are still worse. 



VALENCIA. \g7 

These ornaments are a striking contrast to the admirable 
paintings with which this church is every where enriched : 
as soon as these attract the attention all else is forogttcn in 
the contemplation of their beauties. 

The medallions above the arcades of the chapels contain 
paintings in fresco, emblematic of the lives of St. John the 
Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist, titulars of the church. 

At the spring of the vault there are paintings, also in fresco, 
emblematic of 'lu? gifts of the Holy Ghost, and above, between 
the windows, the twetve apostles sitting on clouds. 

The whole vault : ' the nave is likewise painted in fresco ; 
the principal subject is God on his throne surrounded by all 
the orders of the celestial hieraichy. Among others there is 
a remarkable one of a St. Yincenzo Feirier, with wings, in the 
attitude of taking flight, in allusion to the angel in the Re- 
velations, and several ? lint- of Spain, particularly of the 
kingdom of Valencia. The other parts are filled with difi'e- 
rtnt subject-, several of which are taken from the Revelations. 
At one end there is a battle of St. Michael and his angels 
with Lueifer and his followers. These paintings are by An- 
tonio Palomino, who has displayed in them all the skill of an 
artist with the knowledge of a scholar. 

The same pencil and similar beauties are recognised in the 
sanctuary; Palomino has covered b< vault of it with paint- 
ings in fresco, of which the principal subject is a Holy Tri- 
nity in glory, with groups of angels, patriarchs, and saints. 

The master-altar, of gold work, is of indifferent execution ; 
it is ornamented with fifteen 1 ttle statues by Munos, a sculptor 
of the 17th century little known. At the side.- of the altar 
there are two good pictures by Palomino. 

There are likewise x.uic excel!» m paintings in the chapels 
of this church, a St. Francis de Paule, a picture of all the 
Saints, and a baptism of Christ, all three by Vincent Bru: 
be-i'Jes tfeese there are some little picture , which are ancient 

u J 



)£8 VALENCIA. 

but excellent, by an unknown painter: the pulpit of tlii> 
church is also remarkable; it is of white marble, with pan- 
els of blue and white marbles, and decorated with bass- 
reliefs, garlands, vases, cherubim heads, and other ornaments 
in sculpture tolerably well executed ; they are by Ponzanelli. 
The chapel of the Communion, where neither stucco nor 
gilding has been spared, seems divided into three parts. 
The first is a kind of vestibule, ornamented with three large 
pictures ; the second a kind of cross-aisle with a dome painted 
in fresco; and the third, which is proprrly the Sanctuary, 
has a large picture on each side. The altar is ornamented 
with two paintings, a Holy Virgin and a Last Supper; the 
latter is by Esteban Marc : it is much admired by con- 
noisseurs, 

Escuelas Pias. This is a house of priests for the propagation 
of Christianity; it was built about the middle of the 18th 
century under the direction and at the expence of Andres 
Mayoral, archbishop of Valencia; it stands in a little square 
made on the site of houses pulled down, but too small for 
the size of the edifice, the front of which has two stories of 
architecture, one Ionic the other Corinthian : it is in a very 
bad taste. 

The church forms a vast and superb rotunda, which, in its 
whole compass, is composed of three stories of architecture. 
Although it has a striking and majestic appearance, it seems 
less adapted to divine worship than to the amusements of % 
circus or any other worldly establishment. 

The chief altaj- is composed of four green marble columns 
of the Corinthian order: in the middle there is a large picture 
of St. Joachim, by Vergara. 

There are eight altars placed under the arcades of the first 
story, which are ornamented with pictures by Vergara, Planes, 
and Camaron. 

Convent of la Piedad The entrance to this convent is by 
à httle vestibule in which there is a large picture by Vergara, 



VALENCIA. i, 

representing- the Holy Virgin amidst clouds and surrounded 
by groups of angels, seraphim, and heads of cherubim ; 
St. Pedro Nolasco, a pope, a king, and a multitude of 
monks, nuns, common people and slaves kneeling. 

The cloister is square, middle sized, and of a good ar- 
chitecture. 

The interior is full of paintings. The wall to the height 
of five feet is covered with Delf liles, on which various fanci- 
ful subjects are painted ; amongst the number of paintings, 
there are few good : some are the portraits of iihiNtrious men 
of the order of La Piedad, but most are historical and painted 
by Paul Pontons. Two little ones deserve notice, one in the 
style of Riballa, representing a crucifix with different figures, 
the other a dead Christ with the Virgin at his feet. The 
windows are also full of paintings by Vergara, containing the 
life of St. Pedro Nolasco. 

The church is simple and ornamented with several pictures, 
among which one by E^pinosa catches the eye. 

In the large chapel of St. Juan de Latran there are five 
great pictures on subjects relative to the foundation of that 
chapel: some of these are by Jacobo Donoso, and others by 
Pontons. 

It also contains the monument of Philip of Guimeran, a 
monk of this house; it is of white marble and well exe- 
cuted. 

The church has some other indifferent paintings ; a mar- 
tyrdom of St. Serapio by Sebastian Conca ; a large picture 
by LSpinosa. 

Convent of the Great Augustin». This is at the entrance of 
the town, by the ^ate of St. Vincent. 

In front of the church there i> a great portico with three 
large arcad rated by six Doric pilasters; the portal p 

ornamented with four columm of the ;>a:.ie order, and a 
fctatue ut' St. Augustin in a niche. 

It is of a tolerable size and fine architecture. It h howevei 
o 4 



COO VALENCIA. 

disfigured by a confused and disgusting mass of coarse 
carving. 

The sanctuary is inclosed by a handsome balustrade, the 
tables of which are of white marble and the balu.-ters of yel- 
low and white ; the chief altar is of a bad taste. 

A chapel, dedicated to Nuestra Senora do la Correa, 
has a square vestibule in front, ornamented with Doric pi- 
lastres and two large pictures ; over this vestibule is a little 
dome on four arches, the four corners of which have paintings 
in fresco. There is nothing remarkable in the altar. 

The church contains some good paintings; a St. Joseph, 
and a St. Luis Bertrand, by Espinosa ; a Virgin of Sorrows 
in the chapel of that name; this is an old picture, but pos- 
sesses great expression. In the sacristy are the following : 
a St. Thomas Aquinas, a St. Januarius, at St. Theresa, 
a St. Anthony, an Annunciation, a Resurrection, an Ascen- 
sion, a Conception, a Birth of Christ, an Adoration of the 
Kings, and a Descent of the Holy Ghost : the four first are 
by the Chevalier Maxime, or at least in his style. The others, 
which are by Joannez, are excellent ; in the last three par- 
ticularly the greatest beauties are united. 

The chapel of Neustra Senora de Gracia, which is in one 
of the cloisters of the convent, forms an exact cross, two ex- 
tremities of which terminate in chapels, and at the two other 
extremities are the doors of entrance. Its dome admits a 
good light, and the lower part of the vault is covered with, 
paintings in fresco The altar of Nuestra Senora de Gracia, 
at one of the extremities of the cross, has nothing remarkable. 
At the altar of the communion there is a large picture of 
Jesus of Nazareth. On either side of the door of entrance 
there are two medallions containing the portraits cf the kings 
Henry II. and Ferdinand VI. with inscriptions in honour of 
those princes. This chapel is built with taste, and decorated 
with elegance. The paintings are by Vergara, and the sculp- 
tures by his brother. 



VALENCIA. £01 

Convent of San-Francisco. This is a convent of Cordeliers : 
it is built on the site of the ancient palace of the Moorish 
kings, which was given to the order of St. Francis, by the 
king Zeit-Abu-Zeit, when that prince embraced the Christian 
Teligion, after the conquest of Valencia, and took the name 
of Vincent Velvis. 

The portico is ornamented with paintings in fresco, by 
Villa Xueva, a monk of this house. 

The church is spacious and of an architecture half Gothic. 
It contains a removal of the Santa Casa de Loreto, by Espi- 
nosa ; and a Guardian Angel, by Ribalta. There are pic- 
tures by the Canon Victoria in the Sacristy ; they are histo- 
rical subjects with the figures as large as life ; one of them 
represents the Moorish King Zeit-Abu-Zeit giving up his 
palace to the monks. 

This church opens into the chapel of the third order of 
St. Francis, in the dome of which there are paintings in fresco 
by Vergara, and on the altar a good picture by Estebal Marc, 
in which St. Francis is igving the rule of his order to persons 
of different conditions. Two other contiguous chapels, those 
of St. Anthony and of 'he Communion, contain two paintings 
by La Huerta, representing events in the life of St. Anthony. 
The latter of these chapels is overloaded with gildings dis- 
tributed without taste ; the sanctuary has an altar rendered 
monstrous by the multiplicity and ridiculous variety of paint- 
ing! and gildings ; but it has two pleasing pictures by lluerta, 
representing miracles of the Virgin Mary. 

The cloister of this convent is worthy of particular atten- 
tion. 

It i» of a long rectangular form, divided in the mid- 
tile of ill length into two parti by a transverse aisle, opening 
OH either side, through arcades, into two gardens full of 
palm and orange trees: a handsome octagon pavilion stands 
over ■ well in the middle of one of the gardens. A second 
cloister extends over the first* with -maljer arcades than those 



C0£ VALENCIA. 

below, from which they arc separated by Doric pilasters. 
The whole, collectively, appears pleasing; hut on examina- 
tion the ornaments evince bad taste. 

The inner part of the inferior cloister U airy and handsome. 
Pious inscriptions are placed at intervals within medallions or 
painted borders. The windows are full of painting» by Villa 
Nova, representing divers events in the life of St. Francis. 
A small altar in bad taste, at one of the angles of the cloister, 
is likewise ornamented with pictures ; the subjects arc taken 
from the New Testament, and the natural attitudes of the 
figures are remarkable : they appear to have been done in the 
conclusion of the 1 1th century. 

College of the Patriarchs. This college was founded, in 
1586, by Juan Ribera, under the name of Corpus Christi ; 
but has always gone by that of the dignity possessed by the 
founder*. 

This is a very large edifice, standing partly in a small 
square-that bears its name and partly in a little street. It 
has no exterior ornament but two indifferent portals. 

The church is 108 feet long and 41 broad in the nave, the 
cross-aisle is 47 : it is low, dark, and badly decorated. 

The principal altar is of wood gilt, ornamented with six 
columns of superb green variegated marble, with gilt capitals. 
The middle of it is completely covered with a large picture, 
behind which there is a crucifix as large as life, greatly ve- 
nerated at Valencia: it is uncovered only once a week, 
which is done with great solemnity. First the picture is re- 
moved, then four curtains which are before the crucifix, and 
all so slowly, that it is impossible to perceive any motion. 
White this is doing the Mitircre is sung, and at the end of 
that psalm, the crucifix unveiled presents itself to the eyes 

* Juan de Ribera, born at Seville, after beiTig prufessor of Theology in 
the University of Salamanca, and Bishop of Badajoa, became patriarch 
ofAntioch, raptain-genend of the kingdom of Valencia, and archbishop 
of the capital. He died in J61 1. 



VALENCIA. 1203 

of the faithful. This altar is in a very had taste ; the varie- 
gated columns placed any where else would have a fine < fleet; 
but appear ridiculous where they are, as they hear no propor- 
tion either to the mass or elevation of the altar. 

If there he nothing in this edifice to excite curiosity, it is 
impossible to look without pleasure at the beautiful paintings 
* in fresco on its walls, roofs, and dome : on the roof of the choir 
there are groups of the blessed, on that of the nave groups of 
angels, on the vault of the dome subjects from the Old Testa- 
ment, with the prophets between the windows; in the cross- 
aisle the martyrdom of S. Vincent Ferrier preaching, «Sec. ; in 
the sanctuary the martyrdom of S. IVIaur, that of St. Andrew, 
&c. The paintings in the nave and in the vault of the choir 
are by iJartoloir.é Malarana. 

There are likewise a great many good paintings on canvas: 
a S. Vincent Ferrier receiving the gift of preaching, by Ri- 
balta ; Souls in Purgatory, by Frederic Zucaro; a Guardian 
Angel, by a painter known only under the name of Vicencio; 
and a particularly fine picture in the middle of the chief 
altar-piece : this is a Lord's Supper, by F. Riualta, in which 
the figures are represented as large as life, with equal expres- 
sion and dignity; this picture is generally noticed by con- 
noisseur?. 

The paintings have suffered considerably from the smoke of 
the incense, which is burnt in this church with excessive pro- 
digality ; they were so much blackened, that it ivas found ne- 
ctary some years ago to clean them; but they lost their 
coloui> and expression, and the chin' part of their merit ; and 
jt is to be feftred that nothing will remain to be BÇ£Q of them. 
Incense is notwithstanding continued to be burnt with the 

►âme profusion. 

The WW Wj pMUfllf, only one of which 

i 1 i rvis attention, and thai is a Hirth oi Christ, by Doniiuico 
Preco, «huh is unfinished. 

lu tin. i,t\t room there is at» Lcct Homo, by jn unknown 

5 



204 VALENCIA. 

painter ; and in another room, where the relics are preserved, 
paintings on the roof in fresco, in the Arabesque style. 

The chapel of the Conception, the vault of which is painted 
in fresco, contains two good pictures, attributed to Ribalta; 
these are a Dead Christ, and a Christ praying in the Garden 
of Olives. 

The cloister, divided into upper and lower, is decorated 
with well-proportioned marble columns : the collective ap- 
pearance is majestic ; a fountain in the middle is ornamented 
with the statue of a woman of white, marble. The statue was 
mutilated ; and by a vile attempt to repair the head and 
hands, it has lost much of its value. 

There are four large pictures at the four angles of the 
lower portico. The following, kept shut up in closets, have 
merit; an Ascension, a Nativity, a Lord's Supper, a St. John 
the Baptist, and a St. John the Evangelist. 

Custom House. The custom house is a large handsome 
building, of modern structure, finished in 1700, in the reign 
of Charles III. and situated in the square of St. Dominico. 

This edifice is handsome, well executed, and of a majestic 
appearance. It is one of the finest in Valencia : it ought to 
be insulated, that it may be seen to more advantage ; but be- 
hind and on one side it joins some houses, which deprive it of 
the grandeur it would have if it stood alone. 

Convent del Remedio. It is in the faubourg heyend the 
sea gate, and belongs to the Trinitarians or IMathurins. 

This convent has two lower cloisters and one upper one, 
full of pictures, among which are some by Gregory Bausa, a 
Majorcan; the colours having faded, they were spoiled by 
an attempt to retouch th«m. They are portraits of the mar- 
tyrs of the order of the Trinity. There are also four small 
pictures of the Passion of Christ, which have great expres- 
sion. 

In a little place at the entrance of the choir, there is a» 



VALENCIA. 20 J 

excellent painting on wood, representing Christ with Magda- 
lene at the foot of the cross ; and another of the Virgin holding 
the infant Jesus in her arms, with St. Bernard and St. An- 
selme on each side. This picture deserves to be taken care 
of, but it is spoiling from neglect. 

The choir and entrance of the convent likewise contain 
some good paintings. 

There are three monuments of the Moncada family in the 
church, but only one merits attention, which is that of 
Juan de Moncada, and his wife the lady of Villaragut. It is 
of white marble, and well executed : it is a work of the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth century. 

Convent of St. Domingo. This convent is in the square of 
the same name, and belongs to the monks of the order of St. 
Dominic. 

It has two distinct fronts, that of the convent and that of the 
church. 

The front of the convent, simple but pleasing, is of brick 
painted white. The portal leads to a vestibule, supported by 
several columns, through which we go to the cloister. This 
is handsome, spacious, and roofed with a lofty vault, sup- 
ported by a multiplicity of little crossed arches, in the Gothic 
style, and in fine taste. There are fourteen chapels in two of 
its sides; one of the other sides is ornamented with two altars. 
There are a great many paintings here, some of which have 
real merit. One of these chapels, called El Cabildo, contains 
an antique monument, said to be that of one of the ancient 
family of Rscala. 

In the sacristy there are six good paintings by Ribalta, a 
St. Arnbrosro of Siena, a St. James of Venice, a St. Dominic, 
a Holy Virgin of the Rosary, a Holy Trinity, and a Holy 
Family. 

From this cloister we go into a gallery, the walls of which, 
to the- he, ght of lis feet are comed with painted tilts made 



*J06 VALENCIA. 

at Valencia, representing the events of the lives of S. Vincent 
I'criier and of S. Luis Bertrand ; the upper part, as well as 
the ve.-'.ibule, is ornamented throughout with portraits, as 
large as life , of the sup. riora an 1 of the monks of the order of 
S. Dominic, who had risen to the rank, of IL-hop, cardinal 
and pope. 

The front of the church is beside that of the convent : it 
has no ornament hut that of the portal, composed of two sto- 
ries of architecture : the first is of the Doric order ; the se- 
cond is au attic ornamented with pilasters, and three statue» 
of saints in niches. 

At one end of this front there is a very high square tower, 
with a terrace at the top surrounded with a ballustrade : from 
this terrace a second tower rises ornamented with two Doric 
columns ; a third tower rises above the second with columns 
of the same order, and terminates with a lanthem turret 
finely executed. This tower is one of the handsomest pieces 
of architecture in Valencia; it is built with taste, and has an 
elegant appearance. 

The interior of the church is spacious, and without aisles; 
it is overloaded with massive and useless sculptures, without 
grace of taste ; but in the chapels there are some good pic- 
tures bv different masters, anion» others several by Vcrgara; 
a rferrnif, said to be Espsgnolet's ; a St. Anne with the Virgin 
in her arms; and a St. Joachim, an . xcelient painting by Ls- 
pinosa; besides some good picture», attributed to Joanne;;, 
in the chapel of St. Joseph, the dome of which is embellished 
-vith paintings in fre-ro, which are not without merit. 

The chapel of S. Luis Bertrand is richly decorated with 
panels and pilastres of white and green marbles, and with 
pictures representing divers events in the life of S. Luis Ber- 
trand, by Jeroru Esplnosa; Behind the chief altar, which has 
tiotbing remarkable in it, there is a camarin, a kind of large ora- 
tory, where the he !y of the saint is kept in a silver shrine: 
here also are several paintings by Hippolitus Botira, in which 



VALENCIA. t!07 

the merit ol* the composition is injured by the bad colouring 
and confusion of objects. The chapel likewise contains the 
monuments of two monks of this convent, Juan Mico, and 
Dominic Anadon Loskis; they are of white marble, with co- 
lumns of green. The architecture is fine, but the two re- 
liefs in white marble at the bottom, representing the good 
shepherd, and a Holy Trinity, are of indiffèrent execution : 
still the collective appearance is fine and noble. 

On each side of the body there are two chapels of such 
extraordinary size, that they look like two distinct churches : 
the one, under the invocation of our Lady of the Rosary, is 
overcharged with gildings, and contains some indifferent pic- 
tures ; the other, dedicated to S. Vincent Ferrier, is preceded 
by the little chapel de los Reyes, founded by Alphonso V. 
king of Aragon, built in the Gothic style, and with striking 
simplicity ; it contains two pictures by El Bosco, a Crowning 
with Thorns, and a Christ led by Soldiers, and a magnificent 
tomb erected to the memory of Rodrigo de Mendoza, mar- 
quis of Zenete, and Maria de Monseca his wife : it is of white 
marble, and ornamented with taste. 

This secondary chapel leads to that of St. Vincent Ferrier, 
which occupies half the length, and is but lately built. In 
tbifl we meet with a luxurious display of marble of every kind, 
a pleasing collection of good paintings, and a noble and 
striking magnificence, which do honour to those who directed 
the work, and merit the attention of connoisseurs. 

Temple. This house wa^ built after the enrlhquake of 1718, 
which destroyed the castle of Montesa : it was intended to be 
in future the seat of the military order of that name, and a 
lence for the monks of it, who now occupy it; it is situ- 
ated by the ancient gate of the Cid. 

The front of the church is simp! -, but elrgant and noble; 
bat is, notwithstanding* disfigured by the position of the two 
towers, winch are placed a little too far bilk in the interior 
of the cd.:. . 



£CM VALENCIA. 

Three plates open into a fine portico, which is as it were 
divided into three parts by cross arches, and we enter the 
church by three doors correspondent to those of the gates in 
the front. 

The church is middle sized : it was built on the plan and 
under the direction of IMichael Fernandez, and does him ho- 
nour. Tile architecture of it is simple and noble : it is per- 
haps the handsomest church in Valencia : it has paintings in 
fre>co by Josef Vergara ; some pictures by Camaron ; a Tri- 
nity and an Assumption, by Vergara ; a Lord's Supper in the 
style of Vandyke ; and a Carrying of the Cross, very like the 
Pasmo de Sicilia of Raphael. Two carved medallions are 
still to be seen, one containing a bust of James II. king of 
Aragon, founder of the order of Montesa, with this inscrip- 
tion : Jacobus II. Ara goiùœ rex, Montcsicc dona/ or ; the other 
the bust of Charles III. with these words: Carulus III. Ilisp. 
rex, afundanit ntis t rexit, dotaxit. 

The chief altar is insulated, and forms a kind of pavilion 
supported by eight Corinthian columns of greenish marble 
with gilt capitals, standing before an equal number of red 
marble pilasters. On each side of the altar there is a statue 
of an angel, by Josef Puchol. A statue of the Holy 
Virgin, by Gutierrez, occupies the centre of the pavilion;. 
it is wrought with delicacy, but the marble is not fine. 

There are some good pictures in the sacristy, amongst 
others a crucifix with Saint Jerome and a holy bishop kneel- 
ing, as large as life, by Pedro Orente. The treasures of the 
church are preserved here, and a Pix in a tabernacle 
of silver made in the gotbic .style, of rich and delicate work- 
manship. 

The parish church of San Salvador has a crucifix which ha» 
acquired the reputation of being miraculous, and which is* 
greatly venerated by the inhabitants of Valencia. There arc 
two picture» here relative to the history of this crucifix, which, 
bave much expression ; they are by John Conchillos. 



VA LEX CI A. Si/'O 

The'parish church of Saint Estevan or Saint Stephen. It has 
no exterior ornament. I sought in vain here for the Doric 
pilasters with a Holy Virgin over them in a niche, which M. 
Pons says he saw at one of the doors. This church is of 
middling size, and is covered with an irregular, confused, and 
disgusting mass of bad sculpture ; we must, however, except 
that of the great altar, which is tolerably well executed. 
There are some paintings here, relative to the passion of Jesus 
Christ, to the life of S. Stephen, and to that of St. Vincent 
Ferrier, in the style of Joannez ; and a fine Last Supper, said 
to be by Espinosa. 

The church of S. Juan del Hospital, belonging to the order 
of Malta, was built towards the end of the thirteenth century, 
by the empress Constantia, who had retired to Valencia after 
the taking of Constantinople by the Turks. That princess 
chose this for her burying-place, and we still read near the 
font for holy water, the following inscription : Aquhjacc dona 
Constanta, Augusta Emper at riz de Grecia. Valencia seuned 
destined to afford an asylum to dethroned Greek princesses; 
Constantia retired to it in the thirteenth century after the 
of her empire ; Irene, countess of Lascaris, infanta of 
Greece, and a relation of James II. king of Aragon, retired to 
it in the following century after having lost li< r slates: she 
too was interred in this church. Here are two fine paintings re- 
presenting the battle of Lepanto, by Josepl ited 

with equal taste and skill ; and an excellent p cture of Saint 
nui, Saint Anne, and the Holy Virgin in her infancy, by 
Ribalta; a Christ, with two children weeping, by Julio Ca- 
, at th( commencement of the eighteenth century j it is 
■ 

ion, belonging to thi < tratoriartf. 
ill with In :< '. - <>u the plan of P. Tow a, a pi 
of il of the bad « \< cution ol the b 

effect, and il an orna« 

i. 



210 VALENCIA. 

ment to the square where it is situated. Tbc church has i 
a nave of the Composite order, with a dome that admits n 
good light, and decorated with fluted pilasters slightly gilt. 
This edifice has neither grace nor elegance ; the ornami 
are without taste, and only disfigure the architecture. There 
are some statues by Ignatio Vergara, three pictures by his 
brother Joseph Vergara ; a Holy Virgin by one of the dis- 
ciples of Leonardo da Vinci ; a S. Joseph, by Espinosa; a 
St. Francis de Soles, by Gaspard de la lluerta, and some 
paintings by Ricarte and Vergara. 

The church of Saint Tecle. This church belongs to a con- 
vent of nuns in the street de la Mar. It has nothing remark- 
able but the decoration of a grotto, in which it is said S. Vin- 
cent suffered martyrdom. This subject is represented in a 
bass-relief of white marble. At the bottom of the grotto a sta- 
tue of S.Vincent is to be seen in good sculpture; it was 
brought from Italy. 

Parish church of Saint Catherine. This is situated at the 
extremity of the square of that name, in a very retired situ- 
ation, where a door opens that leads behind the sanctuary; 
the principal door is in a very narrow street. The angle that 
it forms at the extremity of the square of St. Catherine ii 
flanked by a lofty tower entirely of free-stone, and of a hexa- 
gonal figure ; it has five stories of architecture, each separated 
by a projecting plinth ; the ornaments are massive, except 
those of the fifth row, which are wrought with sufficient deli- 
cacy, and distributed with taste. In an inscription which we 
read on the first story, this tower is called sumptuous, and is 
very much prized in the country. 

The church is of Gothic architecture, and had a mag- 
nificent appearance, but it has been spoiled by endeavours to 
improve it with ornaments in stucco of a very bad taste. The 
vaulted roof is fine, well pointed, and also in the Gothic style. 

The aisles, however,, have been spared; their ancient fc-fn* 



VALENCIA. 21] 

£nd Gothic simplicity have been allowed to remain, and the) 
are.consequently handsomer and nobler. 

The ancient paintings of the chapels have been taken dow* 
and modern ones put up; some pictures of Riballa's have 
been destroyed. A Resurrection of the Dead, with two other 
pictures in the chapel of St. Eloi, are the only ones preserved, 
and they have been inserted within the wall. It is sufficient 
to see these to regret the loss of the others ; they will be an 
everlasting monument of the bad taste and ignorance of those 
who presided at this pretended improvement of the church. 

The Hotel of the Deputation, in the street of the Cavalleros, 
is an irregular building, which has no other merit than that 
of having been the place where the states of the kingdom 
were formerly held. The royal audience now hold their sit- 
tings there. 

The decorations on the ceilings of some of the rooms of this 
hotel may gratify curiosity : several are wrought with deli- 
cacy ; and in general, though very ancient, they have pre- 
served their freshness. 

The hall where the states assembled particularly deserve» 
observation ; it is still entire On entering it we feel an invo- 
luntary respect for the ancient use to which it was put. 'Hie 
paintings in fresco, with which the walls are covered, repre- 
sent the assembly of the states ; the three orders are sup- 
posed to be convened, those who compose it are, according to 
their rank, dressed in clothes of ceremony, and drawn in such 
a manner, that each individual is easily distinguished. It i-. 
the only remaining monument of that precious liberty which 
the Valenciani might -till hare enjoyed, had they not vio- 
lated the faith which they owed to tin ign. 

The chapel ( eNuesI mp< rados,situ- 

ated behind the cathedral, li- principal front is placed in a 
very narrow street, and concealed under the ridiculous n 
ofabalconj in form oi a bud-.', which forms the communi- 



VALENCIA. 

ration between ,his chapel and the cathedral. The lateral 
front on the contrary, is towards a square, and decorated ra- 
ther pleasingly. The dome, which rises above the edifice, 
forms a sort of crown to this front, and is surmounted by a 
turret, which terminates it agreeably. 

The interior arrhitecture of this chapel is good ; its orna- 
ments are distributed with taste: there are. paintings 
fresco ; amongst others, a Holy Trinity on a throne of clouds, 
with all the orders of the celestial hierarchy. These paintings, 
finely executed, are by Antonio Palomino. The ostentatious 
and ill-applied inscription which is placed on the inside of the 
principal door, might however have been very well omitted: 
Kon est invention talc opus in wniversis regtiis. 

The tower of Miqueléte, which is seen on one side of 
the principal door of the cathedral, is extremely simple, and 
of a monstrous bulk; its figure is octagonal, and its circum- 
ference equal to its elevation. It is terminated by a terrace, 
and surmounted by a turret extremely small, which forms a 
ridiculous contrast with its enormous size. 

This tower, which is neither handsome nor pleasing, de- 
stroys the church, and injures the appearance of its portal. 
It advances far into an adjacent street, very narrow of itself, 
and confines the thoroughfare in the most frequented part of 
the town ; it has not even the merit of antiquity, which alone 
could render to useless a monument respectable. 

This critique will probably displease the Valencians, who 
are so very much attached to this tower that they cannot hear 
it censured without being out of humour. But their town 
contains so many valuable objects, that a monument the less 
can be of little importance. 

From the top of this tower we behold the beautiful country 
>vith which Valencia is surrounded ; but this is not the only 
place where we can obtain this pleasure, there are several 
steeples and houses which have towers, terraces, and belve? 
deres; that of count Carltt affords the same prospect. ' 



VALEN< IA 213 

The cathedral church. The cathedral, or at least the church 
Which previously stood on the same site, was, it is commonly 
supposed, a temple of Diana under the Romans, a temple 
consecrated to Christ under the Goths, a mosque under the 
Moors, and again a christian temple consecrated to the apostle 
St. Paul after the conquest of Valencia hy the Cid : the 
Moors having taken this town again, converted it into a 
mosque; and James the Conqueror, king of Aragon, be- 
coming master of Valencia, re-established the catholic wor- 
ship, and made this the principal church of the town, with 
the title of the Virgin. It was enlarged in 1262 by Andrès de 
Albalud, archbishop of Valencia; its dome was built in 14-Ot 
at the expence of the chapter. In fine, pope Alexander Vf. 
again enlarged it at his own expence. 

It is a great building without a façade, irregular in every 
part, and the outside of it has neither beauty, grandeur, nor 
majesty. Its principal front, situated at the extremity of the 
street of Saragossa, is a confused assemblage of irregular 
buildings. It has three doors; the two side ones are in the 
(ioihic style, and open at the two extremities of the cross- 
aisle : the principal door faces the grand altar. This is orna- 
mented with a portal erected at the commencement of the 
eighteenth century, on the plans of Corrado Rodulpho, and 
which, contrary to all the rules of architecture, forms a re- 
ceding semi-circle. The tower, of which we have spoken, 
was the cause of this deformity ; it confined the architect, and 
rendered the edifice ridiculous. 

The portal has three stories of architecture : the first, of the 
Corinthian order, is ornamented with statues of sainte placed 
in niches; they are of indifferent execution ; a cypher ofthe 
Virgin with groupa of angels on each side in bass-relief is 
placed above the door; it is a good piece, by Ignacio Vergafa. 
On the second story, which is also of the Corinthian order 

» of S. Vincent Ferriei I Vincepl the martyr, S. !.. 
rence, and bt. Luis Bertrand. The third <.unv 



2 H VALENCIA, 

sumption between two medallions in bass-relief, by Kodulpho, 
well executed. This portal is m mum! by a semi-circular 
iron gate rounded outwards on a marble supporter, formii 
circular inclosurc tolerably agreeable, which compensates in 
c For the recedure of the portal. 

The church i- of Gothic Cbnstructibri, to which were 
added, towards the end of the la<i a -ntury, ornaments of the 
ithian order. It has a nave and two aisles, the vaulted 
roofs of which are supported by Square pillars ornamented 
with (luted pilasters; that of the nave is highest and longest. 
The vaults of the aisles are very flat and low. A greater 
decree of elevation would have given more majesty to this 
temple. 

The choir is spacious; it has two rows of stalls separated 
by Corinthian pillar*, and has on the side of the .sanctuary a 
handïome iron gate of gilt bronze. 

The side which the Spaniards call Trascora is particularly 
decorated on the outside. On this there are tablets of ala- 
baster on divers subjects of sacred history, some in bass- 
relief, and others in demi-relief, several of which are well 
executed. The sanctuary is of the same height, size, and 
architecture as the nave. 

This church is pleasing to the eye, but the stucco and gild- 
ings with which it is decorated destroy the impressive gran- 
deur which ought to characterize a temple of religion : these 
ornaments, generally very delicate, are much more appro- 
priate to a concert-room than to a church. They are as nu- 
merous in the chapels ; but there, they have a better effect : 
to these they give an appearance of elegance, which does in 
no degree suit the serious architecture of a church. 

The chapel of S. Peter, or of the Communion, contains a 
profusion of ornaments without taste ; the paintings in fix -co, 
which are in the dome, are, however, worthy of remark. The 
attitudes are graceful, and the perspective agreeable, but the 
colouring is weak. Some other paintings in fresco, relative to 



VALENCIA. '215 

the life of S. Peter, are on other parts of this chapel; they 
are by Antonio Palomino. A Jesus Christ giving the Keys 
to S. Peter, and a Conception at the Altar, by the same 
painter. Two pictures cover the sides of the chapel, but 
neither of them approaches to the beauly of a figure of the 
Saviour, by Joan nez, placed on the door of the tabernacle. 

There are five other chapels, repaired and ornamented in 
the modern style, and much alike. They are large, well 
lighted, surmounted by fine domes, ornamented with stucco, 
and Corinthian pilasters of the same materials. In the chapel 
of S. Thomas de Villanueva there is a picture by Romaguera ; 
m that of S. Francisco de Borgia, there are three paintings, 
one representing the motive which determined that saint to 
quit the world ; another his separation from his family, and 
a third a miracle which he performed at his death. The first 
is by Maella, the two last by, Goya. 

The chapel dedicated to S. Sebastian is of a different con- 
struction. It contains a painting of the martyrdom of & 
Sebastian, a Saviour giving his Benediction, an Annunciation, 
a Visitation, and a Nativity, all by Pedro Orente, and of an 
execution which does not belie that painter's reputation. Two 
I white marble are ornamental to the sides of this 
chapel; they contain the bodies of Diego de Covarrubias, 
chancellor of the crown of Aragon, who died in 1607, and 
that of Maria Diaz, his wife. 

Amongst the paintings which ornament the cathedral, we 
r< mark above the fonts a Baptism of Jesus in the Jordan, ac- 
companied by angels and seraphim, by Juan Joannez; the 
heads arc given in a superior manner. 
The grand altar of this church, constructed in 1493, is all 
(T, and divided into compartments containing pictures 
in relief, u!-'> in silver, on various subjects of the life of JesÛs 
■ and the Virgin. The statue of the Virgin holding her 
ton m her arm, [| larger than life ; this is also silver as Well 
•- angels. The doors of tbil altar core of wuud and co- 

r 4 



£16 VALENCIA. 

vered with paintings of the school of Leonardo da Vinci, done 
in 1.506, by Paul d'Aregio and Francisco Neapoli ; tliey re- 
present passages of the life of Jesus Christ, and of that of the 
Virgin : the figures arc as large as life. In these we find every 
thing that can characterise the pencil of the greatest masters, 
the fire and accuracy of invention, the exactness and correct- 
ness of the design, the beauty and just proportions of the co- 
louring, the vivacity of expression, richness of drapery, and a 
commanding whole in the assemblage of the figures, which 
occasioned king Philip IV. to say, " if the altar be of silver 
the doors are of gold." 

The treasury of this church contains some precious things. 
The sacred vessels and all the articles appropriated to divine 
service are of silver, and most of th'em of delicate work- 
manship; we find, besides, the statues in silver of S. Viticent 
Fenier, of St. Luis the bishop, of St. Thomas dc Villanueva, 
a grand and superb chalice of agate ; but nothing equals the 
richness of the tabernacle; it is eight feet eight inches high, 
of silver gilt, and weighs 424 marks; the work is Gothic, and 
was executed in 1452; it is enriched with diamonds and 
other precious stones : amongst others, there is a small statue 
of St. .Michael all of diamonds; the pyx is of gold, and 
weighs sixteen marts. 

Antiquities. The antiquities of Valencia consist of Roman 
inscriptions and fragments of ^antique statues and pavement, 
which have been brought here from neighbouring places. 
They might have been more numerous, if, when the rid^e 
of Serranos was building, the directors had not been bar- 
barians enough to throw into its foundations a great quantity 
of stones which had inscriptions on them, and other frag- 
ments of antiquity. 

An obelisk, in free-stone, is raised at a little distance from 
the town, on the banks of the rirer. There are two antique 
stones with inscriptions, and we read on a third the period 
in which these stones were found. 



VALENCIA. £17 

The finest remains of antiquity are in two balls of the 
archiépiscopal palace, near the library : in these there are 
Fragments of stones lately found at Pugel and Puch, heads, 
arms, trunks, and some statues almost whole. All these 
fragments are extremely well executed. It is a pity that it 
should have been thought necessary to mutilate them, in order 
to conceal their sex ; the archbishop D. Francisco Fabian y 
Fuero, doubtless no amateur of the beautiful antique, was 
the author of this ridiculous operation, which has disfigured 
these precious remains. 

The second hall contains urns, vases, and sepulchral lamps 
•f earths ; they were found in the same places ; some are 
entire, others are only fragments; there is also a cabinet 
containing upwards of (J000 medals, most of them Roman, 
and some Greek ; there are a few Punic, and some others, 
but very few, with unknown characters : they are believed, 
without any certain grounds, to be of the primitive times of 
Spain; there are also many modern medals; they are almost 
all of bronze and copper ; there are some of silver and gold : 
these last are few in number. 

The pavement of this hall demands particular attention ; it 
is formed of antique pavements, discovered in the month of 
February 1777, three hundred paces north-east of the town 
«fPuch, between Valencia and Murviedro; some were en- 
tire, others were only fragments. They were separated with 
care, and placed on the floor of this ball, where they are 
carefully preserved. They are different mosaics, formed by 
little stones of three or four lines in diameter, curiously en- 
chased. They are distributed into seven squares, in each of 
which medallions and divers di igns have been drawn: 
their compartments are of blue on a white ground. We 
observe in one ol : resan imitation of the pavement 

of Bacchus, discovered at Murviedro, and of which there 
remained but av< ; il was copied in a draw- 

j'jok whii b a"] pn served : it is 



21 S VALENCIA. 

executed with such art and exactness, that no difference can 
be observed between thi> modem work and that of the 
Romans. In another we see a Neptune seated in a car, in 
one hand holding a whip, and in the other a trident and the 

runs of the horses by which hia ear is drawn : these appear 
to he gal lopping. 

In the same hall are also seen other pavements, of which 
only fragments could be preserved. Some serve for borders 
and ornaments to the preceding pavements. On these are 
represented a tyger, fishes, buds, houses, flowers, and gar- 
lands, well executed. There are particularly five stuck on 
wood and shut up in a closet; on these are birds, fruits, and 
flowers, figured in diffi rent colours, the execution of which 
is very curious ; they are perhaps' the most precious of the 
whole. 3Iost of these pavements are to be found engraved 
in my work, entitled, the description of the Mosaic of 
Italic a. 

A monument, which has never been spoken of, fixed my 
attention at Valencia ; it consists of the armorial bearings of 
the ancient family of the Cabanillas, now extinct: they 
are placed over the door of the bouse of the Count de Casai, 
near the church of St. Juan del Mercado ; the supporters are 
two young women whom two hands hold suspended by the 
hair. According to the tradition which has preserved the 
remembrance of the event that was the origin of these sup- 
porters, Francis I. being made a prisoner at the battle of 
Pavia, passed through Valencia and lodged in this house, 
where the monarch saw two young ladies whom he desired to 
dance with ; they refused and fled. The father, whose name 
was Cabanillas, flattered by the honour which Francis I. 
intended them, ran after them to bring them back ; but 
they again refusing, he took them by the hair, one in each 
hand, and thus brought them to the king. Another tradi- 
tion delivers the fact in a contrary way, reporting that 
Francis I. was dancing with these young ladies, when the 



VALENCIA. 219 

father dragged them by the hair out of the room in which 
were. In the first instance the young ladies must have 
been extremely wild, and insensible to the gallantry of a 
sovereign prince ; in the second, the father must have been 
brutal and ungrateful for the honour intended him by one of 
the first monarchs of the age. 

Promenades. Amongst the public walks of Valencia, those 
of Brio, Mount-Olivet, and particularly Alameda, are dis- 
tinguished, and are, pu ithout exception, the most 
magnificent in Europe. They extend without the city to 
the east from the bridge del Real to that of the Sea, a space 
of 1800 feet. They are adorned throughout with stone-seats, 
and shaded by elm, poplar, plantain, orange, lemon, and a 
great number of other trees, brought from South America, 
which here display the same beauties as in their native soil. 
A beautiful footway of free-stone extends along both sides of 
the principal walk ; and marble seats are placed at short in- 
tervals. Here the best company in Valencia assemble. The 
great alley, which is carefully watered, is appropriated to 
carriage ; the others are for walkers. This promenade, inter- 
sected by canals bordered with flowers, is still more embellished 
by the prospects on each side, and by the number of t: 
the tufted and green foliage of which gives new pleasure. A 
broad and well-kept road runs along the whole extent of this 
promenade, and forms another walk of a different sort, but 
not less agreeable. This road is edged on each side 
thick masse* of pomegranate trees, from amidst which arise, 
without order, and without symmetry, cypresses, palm-trees, 
lars, and other trees, 'liiis irregularity resembling nature 
ar!y, produces a rural and deli ht. The trees 
have still their leav< - m the month of November, at which 
Km tin. company walk as late as five o'clock in the 
evening. 

turn. Education n y consigned to 

the Jesuits ; at the time of the expulsion of tin society, it 



520 VALENCIA. 

transferred to the university of this town; three profea 
there teach the elements of the Latin grammar and rhetoric; 

three other professors give lessons in the Greek and Hebrew 
languages. The fathers of the congregation of christian 
schools also keep public schools for Latin grammar, huma- 
nity, and rhetoric. Two private colleges, independent of the 

university, receive young people as pensioners, who are like- 
wise instructed: the one is kept by secular priests, the oth< 1 
by priests of the congregation. The academy of St. Charles 
gives- lessons in painting, sculpture, and architecture : there 
are free schools for drawing ; and a free school for girls, under 
the title of Ca^a de la ensenanza. 

Sciences. The establishment of the university of Valencia 
is due to S. Vincent Ferrier, in 1411. Ferdinand V. con- 
firmed it in 14-49; it received a new form by the changes 
which Charles III. made in it in 1 /Sc> : its revenues being 
small, that monarch extended them to 8000 pezos, or 1250 /. 
sterling, and has again augmented them to 12,000 pezos, op 
18751. sterling, taken from the revenue of the archbishopric 
of Valencia. This university is unquestionably the first in, 
Spain*. Here are sixty professors who teach theology, phi- 
losophy, canon and civil law, the practice and theory of me- 
dicine, chemistry, botany, anatomy, astronomy, mechanics, 
and mathematics. They give lectures from the month of 
October till the end of May. The library is not consider- 
able; but it contains, besides the collections of Peres Bayer, 
the best authors in medicine : it is open daily for four 
hours. 

Arts. The arts have been long cultivated at Valencia, 
particularly painting. This town has produced good artists. 
The taste of the Valencians for this branch of the fine arts 

* This university lias produced several celebrated personages: 
amongst the ancients are Vivez, Qelida, Peres, Perea, Trillas, Ma- 
fnm, and many others $ among the moderns Juan Mayans, and 
?f uaez. 



VALENCIA. 221 

. rise to the establishment of an academy. Some painters 
uniting- in 1752, under the protection of the municipal body, 
laid the foundation of it, and they found assistance in the ge- 
nerosity of Andres Mayoral, then archbishop of Valencia. 
In 1705 Charles III. granted it. a revenue of 30,000 reals, or 
312/. 10v. sterling; in 1/6'S, made it a royal academy with 
the title of St. Charles, and doubled its revenues: it has 
professors, who form scholars in painting, sculpture, and 
architecture ; and there are prizes annually distributed 
to those who distinguish themselves most. There is also a 
drawing school much frequented, where prizes are also dis- 
tributed for encouragement. 

:ieia had paper manufactories under the Moors in the; 
twelfth century; it was the first town in Spain where printing 
introduced; they have a Sallust, and a Latin vocabulary 
under the title of Comprehensorium, printed in 1475; there 
are still excellent presses, amongst which we ought to mention 
that of Benoit Montfort. 

There are two libraries at Valencia, that 
ty and that of the archiépiscopal palace. The 
- founded towards the middle of the eighteenth, cen- 
tury by the archbi bop M tyoral, who gave the greatest part 
oft tit. His portrait is in the library. This library 

gallery; it is in two row;, each has six 
Above the cases there are at intervals por- 
trious in var'n si ces and literature, 
which contain works relative to 
the for which they were respectively distinguished* 

re are fifty-two ;> irtraits, amongst which are those of n - 
: learned men burn at Valencia. There are upwards of 
fifty thousand volumes in the library: theology is the sub- 
ject of one half. It contains all thé Spanish works which 

. the bi il fon i^n works on 
. rapbv and b Jto y. Thi i i of Natural Hit 

.'• ■: mi 'I ill of little value. : . 



££2 VALENCIA. 

library is open six hours a day. The building is handsomer 
than that of the royal library at Madrid. An ecclesiastic is 
the librarian. 

At Valencia there are likewise libraries sufficiently numer- 
ous at the monasteries, and in the houses of individuals. The 
former are almost wholely formed of ancient books, of which 
scholastic theology, peripatetic philosophy, and the national 
historians compose the greatest part. Amongst the latter 
should be placed a tolerable fine collection of good books 
which the count de Carlet made in his travels through i 
land, France and Italy : he added some machines of experi- 
mental philosophy, a rich collection of the best engravings of 
every kind, and several excellent copies of ancient and good 
pictures, which he had made during his residence at Paris, 
Rome, and London. The Marquis de la Romana has a large 
collection of the best modern books and some very valuable 
ancient works. 

The library of Don Juan, Baptiste llermon y Aranda, a 
canon of the cathedral of Valencia, is very numerous and well 
chosen. 

Learned Men. Litterati,Artists. Valencia has produced many 
persons who were distinguished for their piety and knowledge 
in the sciences. The most remarkable are St. Vincent Ferrier, 
S. Luis Bertrand, S. Francis Borgia, the bishop of Segorba, J. 
B. Percy, known by his works on ecclesiastical history ; the 
theologians Balfhazer Sorio and Benito Oliver the Jesuit 
Benito Pereyra, the lawyers Pedro Bèlluga, called in the 
fifteenth century the Bartolo of the Valencians ; Francisco 
Jerome de Leon, Christobal Crespi de Voldaura, Francisco 
Roxas, Grtgorio Mayans, and Laurcnto Mathen ; the mathe- 
maticians, Jerome Cortez, and Bartolomé Antic, Thomas 
Vincent Josca, Jerome Munos, an astronomer of the middle 
of the sixteenth century; Gaspard Torella, who wrote in 1570, 
on prodigii -, food, and drink ; C;a.-.pard Tri-ton, of whom we 
bave a book de Clerico Medico, published in lCOL Andres 
Ô 



VALENCIA. l 2 ( 2$ 

Piquer, professer of medicine, and physician to the king of 
Spain. 

There are several other distinguished Ktterati who were 
born in this town : the grammarians Pedro Juan Nunez and 
Luis Vivefe, Frederic Furius Seriolanus, who is extolled by 
de Thou ; Andres Strany, known l>y his commentaries on 
Pliny, Seneca, and Valerius Maximus, Gaspard Geran, a rhe- 
torician ; Francisco Decius, an orator of the sixteenth century; 
Jerome de Castro, known in the seventeenth by some good 
plays; Juan Mortorell, whose romance o r Tyran le Blanc, has 
been translated into several languages; several poets, of whom 
we shall speak at the end of this province, and some paint- 
ers, amongst others Pedra Oriente, Francisco Riballa, and 
Juan Joannez. 

Manufacturée. The quantity of manufactures is a proof 
of the industrious character of the Valencians: they are 
numerous and of di fièrent kinds, occupying a multitude of 
persons. They manufacture reins for horses with the fibres 
of spart and of aloes ; rigging for ships, leather, stuffs, pa- 
loons, laces, and gold and silver fringes. In 1790, a French- 
man established a manufactory of pot-ash ; another of nee- 
dles, nails, and yellttw brass v. ire was established n< arly at the 
same time, by Francis Ros. The manufactories of silk are 
the most considerable : they employ nearly 25,000 persons; 
they make tafFeties, serges, silks, >atins, plain damasks striped, 
printed, of one colour and of mixed colours, full velvets, flow- 

' velvets, plain and of various colours. Thé plain stufl 
those in which they succeed best. T e re are also fi.i 
made and worked with large dowers. They have broug t to 
great perfection the art of making mohair, in which the y imi- 
tate the works and try them according 
to the fashion. A great many silk stockings are also / made J 
galoons and silk riband-, b gr< at many handkerchiefs, sashes, 
and other things. Tl ecies of industry ha» 
i d, thai h 1700 th< re were 423 looms 



î£4 VALENCIA. 

more than in I7.6& There arc 3618 silk looms, which work 
about SOO,000 pounds of silk annually ; the handkerchiefs-, 
sashes and other little articles of lace consume 100,000 pounds. 
These looms are not united in a general establishment ; the 
weavers work on their own account, or for the merchants. 
These manufactories might have a greater < d be more 

flourishing if the process of winding and twisting of the silk 
were 1 1 1 1< r understood. A manufacturer, Joseph de la Payesa, 
formed, at a league from Valencia, an e.-t it to twist 

silk : the success which it obtained ought to induce him to 
redouble his efforts to carry this establishment to that point 
of perfection which it might attain. It is at Valencia that 
the tiles of earthern Mare are made, with which they incrust 
walls and pave apartments, of which we have already- 
spoken : those tiles are of a clayey earth, which is found in 
the territories of Quarte near Valencia ; they harden the 
earth long after soaking it in water ; the tiles are formed in 
moulds, and are dried in the sun ; they are then beaten 
with apiece of square wood of the dimensions of which they 
are wanted. They are then put into the oven where they 
undergo a slight baking. As soon as they are done they are 
glazed, and are afterwards painted in water colours with 
whatever subject is intended to be represented. The tiles are 
then replaced in the oven so as not to touch o.ie another, and, 
that the action of the fire may penetrate them all equally : 
as the colours change by baking, the workmen apply them 
anew in proportion to the changes that take place ; the rod 
alone alters entirely. The varnish with which they are glazed 
is made with lead, tin, and white sand. These three sub- 
stances are ground in a mill to powder, which is mixed with 
water, to form a paste, and baked in the oven ; it is again 
pounded and put into the oven where it crystalises: being 
once more reduced to powder and diluted with water, it be- 
comes varnish. There are two kinds of it ; one is whiter 
i the oilier, though the same materials are used, the mode 



VALENCIA. 225 

Af mixing alone makes the difference ; the whiter the clearer 
the tiles. It takes a certain number of tiles to form a picture: 
they are of different dimensions ; the smallest are three 
inches nine lines, the largest seven inches nine lines. The 
price varies according to the size of the tile, the beauty of 
the varnish, and the variety of the drawings : the lowest price 
is eight pe/os, (23s.) a thou.-<ai;d, and the highest lOOpezos or 
of. 1 5 12*. 6d. There is a considerable demand for them; 
they are superior both in beauty and strength to those used in 
Holland. 

Commerce. The town of Valencia has long carried on a 
considerable trade, which formerly extended to Barbary, the 
Archipelago, Syria and Egypt; but the establishment of the 
[icy of Algiers, and the Barbary Corsairs have been very 
injurious to it. Its commerce is at present confined to the 
provinces of Spain, and to some exports to several powers of 
Europe. It has, however, neither harbour nor road ; it 
ships its merchandise at a poor place on the coast below the 
village of Grao, of which we shall presently «peak. This 
commerce is not limited to the town, for it includes that of 
tiie greater part of the province, but the provincial mer- 
chants have their houses there. There are some societies for 
the security of commerce m the town, several courts for the 
regulation of it, and consuls and vice-consuls of different 
nations. 

Climate. The temperature of Valencia is mild and agree- 
able, notwithstanding the east and west winds which fre- 
:ntly prevail there. The winters are scarcely ever cold ; 
»ringa are sometimes rainy ; the summers are very hot; 
.it- heat is moderated by the moisture of the adjacent 
. and by easterly breezes which cool the air ; the 
autumn is the finest season, it frequently lasts till the end of 
December \ tin- In i - are all thai lirai as green as in spring- 
tnd the fields as smiling as elsewben in May: the wky is 
continually serene , high wines are uncommon, and rain 

Vol, i. 



856 VALENCIA. 

Scarcely tvtt falls. The vicinity of the sea, and the quantity 
of water spread over the country round Valencia for the pur- 
pose of irrigation, render the atmosphere damp ; but it is not 
a searching dampness ; it is favourable to delicate people, 
especially such as are subject to nervous complaints, but the 
contrary to hypochondriacs, and those who have pulmonary 
consumptions. It is surprising that the English, who so fre- 
quently go for the recovery of their health to distant climates, 
have never tried that of Valencia. 

Provisions. The fruits, vegetables, and grains have not the 
same relish as in Aragon : this is perhaps owing to the num- 
ber of canals for irrigation, which, while they fertilize the 
land, may impart too great a share of aqueous particles to its 
productions, and attenuate their nutritive principles. These 
aliments, however, are very good, and of easy digestion : it 
is probable that the pure and elastic air one breathes here, 
and particularly the excellent Alicant wine one drinks, con- 
tribute to give a spring and a tone to the stomach, for one 
eats with great appetite at Valencia. Rice is the food most 
used ; the'rich have it at their tables every day ; it is the prin- 
cipal article of the artizan's diet, and the poor live upon it ; 
consequently a great deal of it must be consumed. The in- 
habitants are fond of cool beverages, and ice their liquors even 
in winter. They eat a quantity of sweetmeats, biscuits, and 
preserves of every kind. They have bad water ; there is but 
one fountain in the town which is often dry, and they are 
obliged to drink well-water. Vegetables are very cheap ; 
fish is cheaper than any thing else, and is plentiful and good. 
The other eatables are in general dear, especially poultry. 
The dearness is owing to an excise which the town has im- 
posed, for out of Valencia the prices fall almost one-half. 

Tfceprki of provisions at Valencia m 1199* I> re f ]s 2J. 
a pound, of 3b Valencian ounces, which is equal to 2 pounds 
10ouncesavoiidupoi.se; mutton 16;/. ; veal I6d.; pork 1&&, ; 
rice, though a production of the country, Id. a pound, of 12 



VALENCIA. £27 

VatenCiari ounces, or 14- ounces avoirdupoise ; middling wine 
at least 2},d. a pint. Bread was not dear in proportion to the 
price of other provisions; it sold for 4- quart?, about \\d. a 
pound of 12 Valencian ounces. 

Inns. There are at Valencia a good many Mcsoncs or 
houses dc potada, where only lodgings are provided, but 
where they will cook any thing that travellers bring with 
them or send out to purchase. There are three great inns : The 
Three Kings, The Four Nations, and The Golden Lion, kept 
by Frenchmen. The last is the best : the house is comfortable, 
and the meals are served in a cleanly manner. The price at 
these three Inns is four pincettes or 3s. id. a day, for lodging, a 
breakfast of chocolate, dinner, and supper ; and two piécettes 
each meal to those who do not lodge there. 

Character, Manners, Habits, and Customs. Valencia, take 
it altogether, is an agreeable town, inhabited by an opulent 
nobility, a great number of rich merchants, an active and 
industrious people, and a wealthy clergy ; it has playhouses, 
and other places of resort; a taste for pleasure is manifested 
every where; the streets are clean, the houses agreeable, and 
•. meet with smiling faces ; all is gaiety, pleasures arc multi- 
plied and feast succeeds feast : we scarcely believe that we are 
in Spain on finding ourselves in the midst of an airy, lively 
people, passionately fond of singing and dancing, of all that 
can amuse them, and who outwardly appear warm and 
cordial. 

The Valcncians are described as light, inconstant, and only 
sociable for the sake of pleasure, not associating through af- 
i' ctioh. Tins is the picture drawn of them throughout Spain, 
the picture given by their own authon : "The agreeable town 
" of Valencia," says Gracian, ''noble, handsome and gay, 
• letc with all that is unsubstantial V Munllo has paint- 

* A'rmhbit mucho /aci!tg'f,/orid* y mil. Undid de VultntiA\ Uena de tod» It 
■ I 

Q 8 



£2S VALENCIA. 

ed the Valenciansas "light both in mind andbody*." It is 
even become a proverb among the Spaniards, who gay in 
speaking of Valencia : 

L.i came es yerva, In yerva agua, 

Los hombres mugeres, Ins mugeres aada : 

that is, the meat is grass, the grass water, the men are wo- 
men, thé women nothing. But they have been judged too 
harshly ; the contrast of their manners with that of the rest of 
Spain, of their lively disposition, ever ready for pleasure, with 
Spanish gravity and reserve, have been the grounds of this 
opinion. 

It is very true that the Valencians have a great degree of 
levity, a fickleness of disposition, and a gaiety in their man- 
ners ; that they are swayed by the love of pleasure ; that 
they are fond of singing dancing, banqueting, and all kinds 
of feasting ; that these are perpetually running in their head, 
at work or at prayers, abroad or at home, in the streets or in 
company; the very festivals of the church become with them 
objects of recreation ; but, notwithstanding all this, they can 
be serious when circumstances require it ; they are not the 
less active in commerce, the less industrious in the arts, the 
less assiduous in agriculture, or the less profound in the sci- 
ences ; Valencia can adduce scholars, literary men, artists, 
and able merchants enough to overturn the imputation of fri- 
volity, which the imposition of appearances only could have 
driven rise to. 

The women are still less deserving of reproach, they are 
mild and amiable, and sometimes show more courage and 
energy than the men. 

On juster grounds are the nobility of Valencia charged 
with an excessive pride, which the prejudices of an erroneous 
education keep up. They are, by themselves, divided into 

* L'geroS) no mipos J r - ar.if.w, qui de cuerpt. 



VALENCIA. £'29 

three classe?*, blue blood, red blood, and yellow blood. 
Blue blood is confined to families who have been made gran- 
dees, and to some other houses thought intitled to it. Red 
blood comprehends families of great antiquity, and the old 
titles of Castile and Aragon. Yellow blood comnrehends the 
modern titles of Castile, and families the date of whose nobi- 
lity extends no farther back than two centuries. This division 
generates envy in the second class against the first, and in 
the third against the two others, so that no attachment takes 
place except among the nobles of the same class. 

The tradesman of Valencia loves pleasure and good living; 
so would the lowest class of people if they had the means of 
gratification. These appear gentle, hut are charged with 
concealing their hatred : they were formerly accused of 
making frequent use of the dagger, and it has been even said 
that there were a great number of professed assassins for hire 
in Valencia f. One shudders in passing through the streets, 
particularly those near the Mercado square, at the sight of 
crosses on the walls with inscriptions containing the names of 
persons assassinated near the spot. We must, however, do 
justice to the modern Valencians : they are more civilized ; 
there are no assassins for hire among them ; the dagger is no 
longer used; and murders are much lees frequent, though they 
are still heard of now and then. 

The Valtncian women are naturally gentle, but the ascend- 
ancy they have acquired over the men renders them at times 
imperious ; they know their superiority, and some of them 
abuse it. The more active and industrious the men of the 
middle clussrs are, the more lazy are the women of every class, 

* Tb is division, however, is not peculiar to the Valencian nobiJitj ; il 

■ jjii to almost all the Spanish nobility. 
f S< <-, in tU- y.i.-.unt oj .1 Journey m Sj>.iin t by .Madam d'Aulnoy, 1ft 
: ' m.,, vol.:;, pa^eT*, a Inter !>y Ma- 

dame 1» Aolooy on the Bandoleros ui Valencia. 

y 3 



230 VALENCIA. 

the more do they fly from every kind of occupation. The 
women of the lowest class work against their inclination to 
gain their living; but the moment they can do without work- 
ing, they give themselves up to sloth, till necessity compels 
them to work again : those of a higher class never think of 
work at all, not even of such as belong to the sex, or of read- 
ing: this indolence is the fault of their parents, who accustom 
them to idleness from their infancy. 

However, in consequence of the mutability of disposition 
peculiar to the country they live in, the Valencian women arc 
always in motion ; they walk about the streets, go from shop 
to shop without buying, and frequently into the churches : 
the festivals, and the variety of appointed times and occasions 
for prayer afford them excuses for their trips. They have a 
singular predilection for St. Catherine square, which is a 
place for the men to meet in ; they never go abroad without 
passing through it, if it be ever so much out of their way. If 
man were to remain a whole day in the square, he would see 
three-fourths of the women of Valencia go through it twice or 
thrice. 

The Valencians are among the most superstitious people in 
Spain : they mix religious works with profane customs, and 
think by exterior observances, which have nothing to do with 
the worship due to the Divinity, to obtain pardon for their 
sins. They have particularly great confidence in the saints, 
to whom they attribute the power of protecting from acci- 
dents and diseases. St. Roch protects against the plague, 
St. Anthony against fire, St. Barbara against lightning ; St. Ca- 
salida cures the loss of blood, St. Apollonia the tooth-ach, St. 
Augusta the dropsy; St. Raymond has the care of pregnant 
women, St. Lazarus of lying-in women, and St. Nicholas of 
marriageable girls. Every waggoner carries about him the 
image of asaintto whom he expresses his gratitude if his jour- 
ney be fortunate; but should any mishap overtake him on the 
road, woe be to his protector ! he tramples him under foot, 

5 



VALENCIA. 231 

loads him with ahusc, and sends him al Dpnonio suntu Bar- 
bara ! a los Diabolos S. Francisco! al inferno nostra senora 
del Carmen ! There are several other superstitions, but we 
shall only notice that called the mal de ojos, fascination : the 
Valencian women secure themselves from it by little ivory 
hands, moles' feet, or scarlet tufts, and likewise tie them about 
their children's necks. 

Though the Valcncians, in general, are rich, they do not 
know how to make life agreeable : each class of nobility, as 
we have said, live among themselves ; they have a great many 
useless servants. They are pillaged by attorneys and advo- 
cates, whom they cannot do without ; drained of their money 
by priests, convents, churches, and saints daj 7 s, and ruined in 
their income by the excessive luxury of the women ; so that at 
the end of the year happy is he who is not in debt. Sometimes 
they give entertainments in which gallantry and magnificence 
unite ; these, however, rarely take place but on two occa- 
sions ; where a nobleman marries, or when it comes to his 
turn to take the lieutenancy of the maeslranza: in the latter 
case, tournaments, balls, and refreshments thrice a year create 
a great expense, but nothing equal to that incurred by the 
old French lords in the feasts they gave. 

The merchants are not surrounded by those apoderados, 
those lawyers and agents who prey upon the nobility: they 
transact their own business, and of course know better how 
to turn their wealth to account. 

The tradesmen would all be in easy circumstances if they 
knew how to make a better use of their business; but their 
gains are squandered in expenses for the table and in gam- 
ing; in gills to monks, convents, chapels; in payments to 
pion- s, in illumination of altars, and in alms to sturdy 

by which a great many persona who would rather 
live by begging than by honest labour are supported in idle» 
and vice, and consequently it is impossible to go into tlift 

Q 4 



£33 VALENCIA. 

streets, particularly in the night, without being assailed by a 
crowd of those wretches. 

Valencia, in spite of its opulence, of the taste of its inhabi- 
tants for pleasure, and of their natural affability, is far front 
being an amusing town. It is difficult to gain admission into 
private houses; and without great intimacy, no one sees the 
ladies but from twelve at noon to one o'clock. There are no 
coffee houses ; some out of the way places, called botelleriàs, 
6upply their place, but are not used for sociable meetings. 
The Valencians seldom give dinners. The nobility meet ge- 
nerally in large and boisterous parties, in which they do not 
converse but play, an amusement of which the women are 
passionately fond. In these assemblies strangers are ad- 
mitted without much difficulty : the party meet because it is 
necessary, and separate with indifference, going away with 
minds as vacant as they came. The second rale societies are 
much less numerous, but are perhaps more amusing: they 
often make parties to go and dine at Grao, or other adjacent 
places, and spend the time agreeably enough. 

There was formerly a playhouse at Valencia said to have 
been very handsome. An archbishop of the town through a 
mistaken zeal, caused it to be demolished. After the death 
of that prelate, a temporary one was erected, decorated simply 
but with taste. There are plays in it every night, and the 
prices of admission are moderate. 

The women of every class carry the luxury of dress to the 
highest pilch : those of the first and second never wear Spa- 
nish clothes but when they go out on foot or to church ; at 
home, in visiting, in parties, at balls or plays, in carriages or 
on the promenade, they dress in the French fashion.' Their 
Stuffs are handsome and choice ; they are elegantly made up, 
and arranged with taste : they come from France. In their 
head-dresses they wear flowers and feathers, and they are 
yery attentive to their shoes and stockings. With all this 



VALENCIA, 233 

(richness of dress, their ear-rings and other trinkets are of false 
stones: there are very few who wear diamonds. 

The women are not more elegant than the men arc simple 
a,nd modest in their dress. The nobility find the uniform of 
the maestranza very economical, as it exempts them from fol- 
lowing the fashions. 

The same luxury appears in the carriages. There is a 
great number of coaches and many of them very elegant. 
The physicians have a peculiar kind of carriage of a ridicu- 
lous appearance. 

Luxury, however, does not extend to the interior of the 
houses: the furniture is simple; tapestry and carpets are 
very rare. 'We sec none of those glasses or clocks, none of 
those diversified pieces of furniture which embellish our apart- 
ments; no elegant cliimnies, girandoles, chandeliers, bronzes, 
and china ornaments; the walls are bare, or at most lightly 
painted with some festoons; the floors are matted; the 
chairs are straw-bottomed ; and their large lustres, which 
constitute the principal ornaments of their rooms, are of white 
glass. 

The women are tolerably handsome ; their pesons, which 
are above the middle size, are slim and light : they have 
large fine eyes, and a whiter skin than is commonly met with 
in Spain. 

We have already said something of the scrtxus in spcakit<~ 
of the guard of Valencia, we shall here add some particulars 
relative to their institution. Valencia is the first town in 
.-viiii in which they were established, and that was in 1777- 
,An alcalde, named Joachim Van, finding the firei ork-makera 
reduced to want by the prohibition of fireworks, conceived 
the idea of giving them an employment useful to the public 
without being a harden to the town or the kinu . he stationed 
a certain number of them in every quarter. These men have 
each a lantern and a halberd, they walk through thestreets 
. j ned (hem; call the hour and btate of the weather, give 



234? VALENCIA. 

notice to housekeepers of doors left open, guard against fire, 
give a light to those who ask it, accompany and light those 
who want their assistance, and in urgent cases go for doctors, 
surgeons, midwives, notaries, and confesiors: tiny have no 
salary, but depend upon the voluntary bounty of the inhabi- 
tants lor a weekly recompence. There have been much fewer 
thefts and murders by night since their establishment They 
are called serenos, because the sky being generally serene, 
sereno is their usual call. 

A singular custom, founded on a mistaken charity, is ob- 
served at the hospital. Oq Good Friday night every year a 
splendid supper is provided for the patients at the expense of 
the archbishop. Persons of every rank and condition go in 
crowds to the hospital, where they squeeze and push to get at 
the dishes, and to help the sick with then» : as they think that 
they are doing a good work, to render it still more meritorious, 
they force the poor patients to gorge themselves with victuals. 
There is a general contention as to who shall give them motf, 
who shall compel them to eat on in the name of God, and for 
God, in the name of the Virgin and all the saints, and lor the 
Virgin and all the saints. How can so pernicious a custom be 
kept up in an enlightened age, and in a civilised town ? .Several 
men of sense have protested against this abuse, but their ar- 
guments have had no effect. 

There are peculiarities in the Valencian festivals, both reli- 
gious and profane, which may gratify curiosity, and we shall 
therefore give the particulars of some of them. 

The maestranza is a body of the nobility leagued in a corps 
of chivalry : to be admitted into it, it is necessary to prove a 
descent of four degrees. There are similar corps at Seville, 
Granada, and Ronda. Each has its own officers and particu- 
lar uniform. They have no appointed duties to perform, no 
service to attend to ; yet on urgent occasions their assembling 
might furnish the sovereign with' a corps of well-mounted ca • 



VALENCIA. 235 

valry. In being acquainted with that of Valencia, we shall 
Le pretty nearly a quainted with the others. 

The maestranza is commanded by a lieutenant, with the 
name of hcrmano mayor, who is usually a prince of the royal 
family, and elected every year. It has several officers, a fis- 
cal, two assistants, to whom the functions of the ancient judges 
of the field are assigned, a secretary, treasurer, and two almo- 
ners : these are chosen from among the knights, and elected 
yearly. It keeps in pay a draught-man, a pricker, two assist- 
ant prickers, a horse-breaker, a surgeon, an armourer, two 
farriers, an alguazil mayor, a kettle-drummer, two trumpets, 
and eight musicians. The knights exercise themselves in 
their evolutions at a riding-house appropriated to that pur- 
pose. The maestranza is divided into four squadrons, each 
commanded by a knight called therefore quadrillera. 

The uniform of the corps is a blue coat faced with red, a 
red silver-laced waistcoat, and blue breeches: the coat is 
laced in double rows on the lappels, single on the seams, and 
with three pieces on the pockets and sleeves. The officers and 
(he subaltern agents wear a plain lace, the musicians narrow 
laces in lozenges. 

It gives three feasts every year, on the birth-days of the 
kin/, queen, and the prince, who is at their head. The \\ hole 
expense falls upon the lieutenant, who invites, the nobility of 
Valencia, the officers of the army, and strangers of distinction 
who happen to be in the town. These feasts are given in a 
spacious place, where temporary galleries, handsomely deco- 
rated, are erected for the ladies. The incl< Hire U a long rectan- 
gular urea, fenced in with a railing breast high ; the railing 
uck round with paintings and armorial trophies. A 
great dot in the middle, opposite to which, at the top, 

the portrait of the prince or princess whose binh-day is cele- 
brated appean in a gilt frame under a canopy of crimson vcl- 
Ornamented with gold hue and fringes. A large wooden 
gallery occupies mit of the sides it i* ornamented with six 



235 VALENCIA. 

pilaster?, and covered with hangings interspersed with mili- 
tary trophies, and curtains of yellow tatifety. The collective 
view of the enclosure and its decorations is pleasing. 

A military march, the beating of drums, thé sound of trum- 
pets, and other instruments, announce the arrival ofthe maes- 
tranza. The corps, however, stop two hundred paces from 
the ground. The fiscal, and the assistants, or rallier judges of 
the field, (their title in ancient chivalry,) preceded by Beveral 
subaltern officers, appear on horseback ; the gate is opened, 
they ente», go round the enclosure, reconnoitre it, then go 
out and return to inform the maestranza that everything is 
ready f'>r their reception. 

The corps advance and enter, drums heating, trumpets 
sounding; they form in column, march up the middle to the 
top, where they divide anil file off on both sides; the two files 
proceed to the bottom where they meet, and, again forming in 
column, advance towards the portrait: the two judges of the 
lists take their station at an angle ofthe enclosure. 

The knights now begin their evolutions. On a constant 
gallop they intermix, separate, form into a close body, and 
break into small divisions: they sometimes go round the en- 
closure, sometimes cross it, and form themselves into squares 
and circles. These various movements are executed with 
exactness. They afterwards form the line, run at the ring, 
and at heads which they beat down ; they arm themselves 
■with bucklers, and engage in shanf fights ; they attack and 
repel, dart their lances, and throw balls made of a spongy 
earth. This imperfect representation of the ancient tourna- 
ments recals the times when our worthies, equally faithful to 
the laws of honour and of beauty, delighted in consecrating to 
them their skill and valour. 

When the tournament is over, the company repair to the 
house of the lieutenant ofthe maestranza. The apartments 
are handsomely decorated, and lighted up with a great num- 
ber of wax candles. The ladies, dressed in the French fashion 



VALENCIA. £37 

w\\h taste and elegance, assemble in (he most spacious hall, 
and the men in the adjacent rooms. When the company 
are all seated, the servants come in with cups and baskets, 
presenting chocolate, sweetmeat?, ices, and biscuits. After 
this collation the ball begins. A sideboard is set out in one 
of the rooms furnished with every refreshment that can 
be desired. Great order, politeness, and good manners are 
kept up in these enlertaiments : the gentlemen of the maes- 
tranza do the honours in an agreeable manner, uniting French 
civility with Spanish gallantry. 

The private entertainments of the Valencian nobility yield 
neither in pleasantness nor magnificence to those of the maes- 
tranza. A stranger present at these assemblies is astonished 
to find in a provincial town ladies dressed with as much 
splendour, elegance, and taste, as at the most brilliant courts 
of Europe. 

Customs in respect to Marriages. ^Marriages at Valencia 
are attended with an enormous expense, which is the more 
preposterous, as few of the young women have any fortune. 
On these occasions Spanish vanity displays an extraordinary 
magnificence, lor some da\s previous to the ceremony, the; 
gowns, linen, and ornaments of the intended bride, the jewels 
to be presented to her, and the presents, she has received, are all 
publicly shown: these matters are so carefully arranged, 
indeed in so studied a mamur, that a stranger might nii-ta!,c 
the room where the lady's parapharnalia are exhibited for ;i 
milliner's or a jeweller's shop. To different companies, as 
they com. in, a I. mil. relation enumerates the articles ex- 
poised : Bhe U lis what place- the stuffs came from ; she care- 
fully points out what belongs to the bride, what the owes to the 
t< nderness or the vanity of her lover, and what is given to her 
by her parents, whose generosity i- always the gn ater for their 
knowing that the public Will not be unacquainted with it 
The luxury in the wedding feasts in the balls that follow, and 



238 \ ALE S Cl A. 

in the equipages of every kind w ith which it. is necessary to b« 
provided, is still more considerable. 

An opposite practice sometimes prevails among 1 the com- 
mon people, which bring-, to mind the golden ago when our" 
tir.-t parents had nothing more than a hillock of moss or turf 
for a bed. After the marriage ceremony the bride return-; to 
her father's house, where she remains all the day with her 
friends and companions. At midnight the bridegroom, ac- 
companied with his relations, goes for her and takes her to the 
yard belonging to the house, where the nuptial hed has been 
prepared in an arhour of flowers : in the morning they return 
to the father's house, when breakfast is prepared for their 
guests, who soon meet, and the girls present the bride with a 
cradle made of spurt. The day Concludes with various di- 
ver>ions. 

Festivals of the Saints in the Streets. Images of the Virgin 
and of several saints are very numerous in the streets of Va- 
lencia ; on their days the statues are ornamented, the streets 
where they are situated are decorated, great illuminations 
take place, music is employed, and the inhabitants in the 
quarter form processions. The people, and even persons of 
superior .dations, assemble in crowds, pressing and pushing ; 
the greater the crowd the finer the show, and accidents are 
frequently the consequence. 

Processions. The Valencians are very fond of procession», 
and perhaps there is not a town in all Christendom where 
there are so many. Some of them present odd things : 1 will 
five an account of the most remarkable. 

No procession, of however little importance, takes place 
without being preceded by eight statues of giants of a pro- 
digious height ; four of them represent the four quarters of 
the world, and the other four their husbands ; their heads 
are made of pasteboard, of an enormous size, frizzed and 

dressed in the fashion ; their bodies of wooden frames, dress- 

i 



VALENCIA. £39 

ed in coats, or robes, and various ornaments, all altered ac- 
cording to the prevailing fashions : men, covered with dra- 
pery falling to the ground, carry them at the head of the 
procession, making them dance, jump, turn and twist about, 
and make bows. The people, quite enchanted, pay more 
attention to the gesticulations of these giants, than to the 
religious ceremony which follows them. 

The existence of the giants has been deemed of sufficient 
importance to require attention as to the means of perpetu- 
ating them. There is a considerable foundation in Valencia 
for their support ; they have a house belonging to them, 
where they are deposited ; two benefices have been particu- 
larly founded in honour of them, and it is the duty of the 
ecclesiastics who possess those benefices to take care of them 
and of their ornaments : particular revenues are assigned for 
the expences of their toilets. 

Procession of Holy Thursday. There are two processions 
at the same time in the afternoon of Holy Thursday, one 
following the other. The first is composed only of the nobi- 
lity ; every one attends it in his common clothes : it is simple 
and decent. The other is ridiculous: we see penitents co- 
vered with red sack-cloth, their heads cased in conic, or 
tr-loaf COwls, slouched behind, and lengthened before, so 
a- to cover the face. This procession opens with two trum- 
pets, flu- sound of which art monotonous and discordant; 
ihey are followed by twenty-three little flags, on which the 
instruments of ouï I.' r l'a pa -ion are painted. The proces- 
. is made up of a multitude of men in their usual dress, 
carrying large white wax tapers; of boys walking in the 
middle dressed m long violet robes, drawn in about the 
waist with a cord, with wigs on their heads falling over their 
. ..v. h- of thorn- on the wigs, and crosses on their 
'■boulders. Hen and there appear penitents in red, flags of 
colour, little stages carried by penitent!, on which 

ent represent • « xlalviti d : the first ; the J 



240 VALF.NCiA. 

Supper of Christ with the Apostles; it is monstrous from its 
excessive length, the ridiculousness of the figures and their 
grotesque apparel : the second is an EcCe Homo, preceded by 
two men in cuirasses, and with pikes reversed ; the thud ha» 
only three bad statues, as large as life; ue are here sur- 
prised to find the Virgin Mary wearing a scapulary on the 
arms of the order of the Trinitarians, in a representation re- 
lative to a time when neither scapularies nor Trinitarians 
were known : after this stage comes a crucifix elevated, fol- 
lowed by the Trinitarian monks : ,a fourth Stage* carrying 
the Holy Trinity, terminates the procession; the lather 
eternal here appears in an alb, stole, and cope, a^ a prelate 
going to perform divine service. The various représentations 
are accompanied with no ornaments, the figures- in them are 
badly done, and tht ir dresses are ridiculous : the procession, 
taken altogether, far from edifying, provokes laughter, or at 
lea.-^t excites pity.* 

Procession of Good Friday. There are five d. fièrent pro- 
cessions set out ut the same time, and follow one after the 
other in the afternoon of Good Friday : they are much the 
same a- those of the day before; the nobility take their part 
in them. Ore of the five, and the most numerous comes 
from the village of Rusaffa; it is con. posed of labourers, 
most of whom are covered with blue mantles. The trumpets, 
the red and violet flags, the children clad in red carrying 
crosses, the stage.- with their representations, are still more 
numerous. Children ate seen as Veronicas, thai i-, as i mages 
of our Saviour, and likewise dressed as nuns, representing 
Magilulenes, penitents no doubt, in long gowns made of spart ; 

* They are not fortunate at Valencia in the choice of costume for 
the saints. In a street leading from the square of la Yerva to the Corn 
Magazine, near the corner of the street of the Salvador, there is a pic- 
ture of St. Anthony of Padua, in which the saint, who is dtvssed in the 
habit of a Cordelier, has on his head a cocked hat, gold laced, with a 
fine white feather stuck in it. 



VALENCIA. 241 

a Christ disgustingly naked, lying on a red bed; tambourins 
dressed in black, and flageolets in black likewise, accompany 
Christ to the tomb ; idiots or crazy people from the hospital, in 
large yellow and blue coats, with handkerchiefs round their 
necks and sticks in their hands, which they hold with a 
towel; a garden of olives surrounded with an ozier treillis, 
and other things equally ridiculous. 

Procession of Corpus Christi. The procession of the Cor- 
pus Christi is preceded by very singular customs. 

On the eve of it, masqueraders run up and down the streets 
to the noise of tambourins and sound of trumpets and Ya- 
lencian hautboys, called dulzaynas *, to announce the solem- 
nity of the coming day. At the same time they act in the 
streets the massacre of the infants; aman in the dress of 
a woman, and mounted upon an ass represents the Virgin 
Mary ; he holds in his arms an infant, which is meant for the 
infant Jesus ; a man, clad as Saint Joseph, leads the ass by 
the halter ; an ox and a horse follow them, and thus they go 
through the streets in imitation of the flight into Egypt. 
Men in the Jewish costume run about like furies, with knives 
and cutlasses, and sabres, as if looking for them, and 
going to put all the male infants to death ; they stop 
those whom they meet, menace them, and put their knives 
against their throats; they confound the girls with them, and 
by way of attention put their knives against their bosom» 
also. 

On the day of the festival, the procession is prepared with 
great bustle. It is preceded by six large carts, each drawn 
by six mules covered with ribbons. Each cart has a wooden 
stage which completely CODC4 all it, and which it called tacOÊ, 
On the first are represented tlie creation of the world ; Adam. 
made out of the earth; Eve coming from th< side of Adam, 
the serpen! seducing Erej Eve seducipg ber husband, both 
eating the apple; the exterminating angel, with a flaming 
Vol n 



243 VALENCIA. 

sword in lis hand, driving them out of paradise, the eternal 
Father lecturing Adam, and declaring to the disobedient 
couple the punishment of their crime, &c. ^< - . All this is 
performed in reality bv persons clothed in différent costumes, 
who only appear in their turn, when it is time to show them- 
selves <m the stage, and who gravely rtcitc verses in the 
Italian language relative to their ] arts. The other stages are 
covered with men and women dressed in different costumes, 
who perform 1 several dances. These representations are ac- 
companied throughout by music, and the dulzaynas, or Va- 
lencian hautboys are not wanting. 

The procession follows. It is composed of the sev< ral ob- 
jects which will be mentioned in the description of the festival 
of Saint Vincent ; dulzaynas, tambourins, standards and their 
balancers, children as shepherds, and sailors with their tam- 
bours dc basque, dancing and making gambols ; grown up 
persons dressed in while, likewise dancing to the sound of 
their castanets, Moorish kings bearing banners ; white men in 
red mantles throwing canes; giants and giantesses with their 
pages. 

In every place where the procession stops, four children 
dressed in an extraordinary manner, which does not resemble 
any known costume, dance upon a large table before the host, 
playing with castanets. 

Festival of St. Joseph. Every year on the ISth of March, 
the eve of the festival of St. Joseph, the upholsterers and car- 
penters represent scenes in the streets before the doors of their 
shops, perfectly theatrical ; these are figures as large as 
life, dressed in clothes appropriate to the characters they are 
intended to represent. They consist of bodies of very light 
wood; their face is formed by a mask ; their cloihes, their 
head-dress and their apparel are made of paper, and are 
often very well done. These figures are raised upon a large 
wooden pile, which is not seen, and which is surrounded breast 



VALENCIA. 243 

high by a thick bundle of faggots curiously arranged, that 
presents something of the form of a small theatre. 

A hundred and fifty of these representations are frequently 
seen in one year, and many of them are very handsome ; 
amongst them are a Bacchus astride upon a barrel, a family 
a-embled to kill a hog, a Spanish gentleman and lady dan- 
cing the bolero to the sound of a guitar which is played by 
another figure, a giant dressed in the Dutch costume, who 
makes a bear dance, while another figure beats the drum; on 
one side are seen figures supporting each other, each per- 
forming different tricks yet all joining to assist in a greater 
one, performed by a figure raised entirely above them. 

At the close of the evening, the faggots are set on fire ; in 
an instant the scene disappears in the middle of flames, and 
1:- reduced to a->hes. These representations are called full an 
il. Saint Joseph. 

The people crowd ; persons of a higher condition take (he 
dress of the people and mix with them ; they run together 
from all quarters, and the most important affairs are forgot- 
ten. 

In the afternoon these representations are followed by 
multitudes ; every one wishing to see them at his ease. A stran- 
ger baa n<> occasion for a guide; he has only to follow the 
croud, and lie may \x sure of seeing every thing. When 
night arrives, each person takes his stand near the represen- 
tation which he thinks th<- mosl interesting, to have the 
p!' asure of seeing it reduced to ashes. This is the mo>t cri« 
tical moment, the night favours Licentiousni is and adventun - 
pocket! ply their craft in safety ; lover-, keep their ap« 
itments; the) seek and find : this night is generally fer- 
tile m adventures. In the parties which are afterward* 
d, nothing is talked of but the/alias; every other sub- 
. < very one praiu - that which stn 
l: '.' 



544 VALENCIA. 

him the most ; the eulogiums are inexhaustible; un the 
following day they are thought of no more. 

This custom might be productive of great inconveniences, 
besides those which always accompany nocturnal festivals. 
The streets of Valencia arc generally narrow ; and those 
wooden piles are built in the narrowest as well as the broadest 
streets ; the flames rising very high, and the sparks flying- 
above the tops of the houses, these might easily be set on fire. 

Festival of St. Vincent Terrier, This saint, who was born 
at Valencia, is the patron of the town ; his festival is cele- 
brated on guusimodo Monday; or the Monday after Easter 
Monday. 

The baptism of this saint is represented in the church of 
St. Stephen. A theatre is raised, upon which are placed 
twenty btatues or puppets as large as life, which represent 
the priest and clerk, two ancient wardens of Valencia, now 
railed regidors, who are supposed to have been the god-fa- 
thers of the child ; one of them holding the new born infant 
in his arms, the godmother of the child, the mid-wife, the 
viceroy of the kingdom of Valencia, his wife, ten ladies, as 
if invited to the baptism ; a negro and a negress, servants of 
the viceroy. The priest and the clerk are clad in sacerdotal 
habits, the two wardens in grand robes of crimson damask ; 
the god-mother, and the midwife, are dressed in black, like 
modern Spaniards ; the viceroy has a blue coat in the French 
fashion laced with silver ; the ladies are likewise dressed in 
the French fashion; their gowns, their head-dresses, their 
trimmings are changed every year ; they are made according 
to the prevailing fashion ; ribbons, feather?, flowers, brace- 
lets, earrings, and watch-chains, are not spared. This scene is 
thus exposed for three days to the eager curiosity of the 
people, who flock in crowds to see it. It is useless to draw a 
picture of the indecencies committed in the church. 

At the same time a great number of altars are built, some 



VALENCIA. 

large, some small, more or less ornamented, in the different 
streets, in the shops, and at the entrances of the houses. 
Each of these altars is surrounded by a company of musi- 
cian.-, uho play at intervals on their instruments during the 
continuance of the festival. There are three distinguished 
altars, where the scene becomes more interesting, and to 
which the crowd more eagerly jun, that of the square del 
Mercado, that of the street Bolseria, and that of the street 
del Mar : the last is always the handsomest, the most fol- 
lowed, and most costly ; it is changed every year according 
to the fancy of him who pays for the festival ; this is one of 
the inhabitants of the street del Mar who bears all the 
expences : each of them takes his turn. We will now de- 
scribe this festival as it was celebrated some years ago. 

The altar of the street del Mar was built of wood, and 
covered with printed linen ; it was raised higher than the 
houses against which it stood. It had two stories of archi- 
tecture, the first was composed of six large Doric columns, 
with the statues of Hope and Charity, and four large 
vases of flowers placed upon the cornice ; the second 
was filled with borders and several other ornaments, two 
groups of angels and two pictures of Saints, of the order of 
St. Dominic. An almost triangular frontispiece was raised 
above the second story, which was filled by a picture in me- 
dallions representing a miracle of St. Vincent Ferrier, and 
surmounted by the arms of the town of Valencia. A large 
niche, the arch of which was ornamented with garlands ol 
flowers, was placed in tin middle of the second stury, it 
contained a statue of St. \ nc< nt, Burroundi d by ;i glory, and 
oups of cherubim. A sea, the waves of which 
i -i the bottom of the altar, and il 
appeared on it in full sail. Tins altar was placed upon a 
kind of theatre, raised about five feet; it was lighted by two 

i. (I candles <■! white u.ix. 'J be , i ren <! 

canvas, which prevented th< , .,,, jt 



£46 VA] i \ci.\. 

neighbouring: houses were hunc: with tapestry, and the fraise 
oftheir balconies and their windows were decorated with 
carpels of crimson damask ; two galleries raised on the two 
sides contained two bands of musicians. The whole of (he 
street and of its decorations formed an agreeable appearance ; 
it would have been dignified, had it not been degraded by a 
mixture of theatrical machines ; but it is absolutely neces- 
sary to represent annually the miracles of the saint and to 
represent them in a striking manner to the comprehension of 
the multitude. 

It was the same in the Bolseria and the Mercado ; the 
altars were there also placed upon theatres and accompanied 
by theatrical machines. 

The miracle which was chosen for the altar of the street del 
Mar, was one which is supposed to have been performed by 
the Saint at Barcelona, at a time when that town was abso- 
lutely in want of bread ; it is said that the saint preaching 
on the sea-shore, gave his blessing to the watery element, 
and immediately, ships loaded with corn arrived in the har- 
bour. To produce this effect, the saint was placed upon a 
chair on the stage, before the altar, preaching, some figures 
were introduced to form his audience, and a sea appeared in 
motion. The miracle of the street of the Bolseria was the 
same: the chair, the saint preaching, the audience, the sea 
were also there, to which were added two flour-mills. The 
miracle of the square del Mercado was of another kind ; it 
related to a repast given to the saint, for which a husband 
having desired his wife to bring the be-t that she had in the 
house, she had killed and prepared her own children; the 
table was placed upon the stage, and had on it a cloth, nap- 
kins, bread, wine, and a stewpan. 

The festival was announced on the Saturday of the feast of 
the Passover, at noon, by ringing all the bells in the town. At 
the same instant four drums, eight tambourins, and twelve 



VALENCIA. 247 

dulzaynas were carried up and down the street del Mar 
from one end to the other. 

At that instant the festival began. Persons playing drums, 
tambourins, and dulzaynps, divided and distributed them- 
selves in different parts of the same street ; they never ceased 
beating and playing for three days, except at the time when 
they met to go up and down the street together, which they 
did very frequently in the course of the day. 

On the following night there was a general illumination in 
the town ; all the windows of the fust floor were ornamented 
with large flambeaux of wood, in imitation of flambeaux of 
white wax, with small lamps at the end of them. This me- 
thod appears to be a very good one, the flambeaux always 
remained at the same height, and produced magnificent 
streams of light. This illumination was repeated on the 
nightâ of Sunday and Monday. 

On the Sunday morning, the representations of the miracles 
be^an at the three altars. 

In the street del Mar, the saint, in the chair where he 
was supposed to be preaching, made some of the gestures of 
a preacher, and at last gave his benediction to the sea ; the 
waves were then put in motion, the billows were agitated, 
and tos-cd about ; bhips, without sailors, which were seen to 
be loaded with corn, arrived at full sail from opposite direc- 
tions ; they cut through the waves, passed rapidly before the 
of the pleased spectators and disappeared ; an instant 
after Bailors were seen upon the shore with sacks of com upon 
their shoulders which they put down on the shore ; tiny then 
vent away and returned again and again until it might be 
pn -uiiimI thai they had landed the whole cargo, every thing 
was tin h re-placed m its first situation, 

In the street of tin Bolsei ja tin same miracle was better 
p. rformed ; the ships stopped, the sails were lowered, and the 

anchor- call ; sailors ran in '.;reat number- upon tin shore, and 

- isted in unloading the ships ; those who were within gav< 

it 4 



248 VALENCIA. 

the sacks of corn to those who were without, who placed them 
upon their shoulders, and carried them to the two mills which 
were always at work, and the corn was then immediately 
turned into flour. When the ships were unloaded the sails 
were spread, the anchors were raised, and they went away. 

The miracle of the square of Mercado was of another kind: 
the husband and wife expressed by their gestures the grief 
which they felt for the death of their children : Saint Vincent 
arrived in the habit of the order of Saint Dominic, followed 
by a lay-brother of the same order ; the master of the house 
informed him of the cause of their distress; during this time 
a servant entered, carrying a pye ; but, stupified by what had 
passed under his eyes, he forgot to put it on the table, and re- 
mained motionless; the saint, affected by the situation of the 
good people who had received him into their house, ap- 
proached the table, and gave his benediction to the stewpan ; 
immediately the two children, restored to life, came out of it; 
they played, they leaped, they sprang upon the table, they 
Tan to all the company one after the other, they jumped upon 
the neck of the father, of the mother, of the good monks, and the 
maid, and overwhelmed them with kisses and caresses. The 
servant, astonished at the prodigy, and filled with gratitude 
towards the good Dominican, offered him the pye, which she 
still held in her hands, and which the monk refused ; the holy 
man gave his benediction to the pye, and a pigeon which it 
contained, though thoroughly baked, instantly came to life, 
took wing, and flew away. 

All these figures were kinds of puppets of different sizes; 
those of the altar of iMercado were almost as large as life. 

These representations were frequently repeated during the 
days and nights of Sunday and Monday. The people ran to 
see them in crowds, and beheld them with an eager curiosity; 
fascinated every time with the wonders that they had wit- 
nessed, they remained stationary to see them performed 
again. 



VALENCIA. 249 

In the afternoon of Sunday the fishermen of Valencia 
formed a procession, in which they walked two and two with 
a wax candle in their hands, several of them in black velvet 
coats, and swords by their sides, and some of them in hand- 
some dresses of -figured velvets : they carried eight stages with 
representations of the Holy Virgin, Saint Peter, St. Vincent 
Ferrier, &c. Very extraordinary things were seen in this 
procession ; two men dressed as Moorish kings, with great 
beards, and royal crowns on their heads, carried banners ; a 
great number of children, some dressed a» shepherds, others 
as sailors, others in a costume which cannot be defined, 
shook their tambourins, dancing and leaping along the pro- 
cession; twelve men, dressed in white, played the ca>tanets, 
also dancing and leaping about ; twelve other men, in Turkish 
habits, marched with a grave and formal step; a great num- 
ber of others, in white breeches and waistcoats with red 
mantles on their shoulders, masks upon their fjce>, and long 
white sticks in their hands,, repeatedly throwing the stick into 
the air, and catching it as it fell, and playing various tricks 
with it. 

Another extremely numerous procession, set out from the 
cathedral in the afternoon of the Monday. It was preceded 
by all the companies of tradesmen, each company inarching 
in a body, with two long enormous standards btfore them, 
accompanied with a tambourin and a dulzayna. A forest of 
standards was seen following very near, which continued for a 
g time, and rising from the middle of an immense crowd, 
seemed to proceed from a moving ground ; the men who car- 
ried them played a thousand tricks with them, tricks of 
strength and balancing; somi times the standard slipped from 
their hand», and m its fall sti uck the inconsiderate head ofthe 
gaping multitude; at tin same time the noise of so many 
tambourin--, and the slmll and dissonant sound of so many 
dulzav nai made a hurly-burly, the dis* ordant noises of which 
mijjht excift laughter at fir*t, but soon becomes tin -omc. 



2 50 VALENCIA. 

The eight giants followed, also playing antics ; they marched, 
they .-lopped, they turned, and made bows ; their pages, four 
,in number, preced.nl them ; these were men disguised as 
dwarfs; they wore pasteboard heads, which were monstrous 
from the enormity of their size and their figure ; they were 
dressed in a grotesque maimer, playing castanets and dancing 
as they proceeded. The regular clergy, who are very nu- 
merous, followed; then the secular clergy of the parishes, 
preceded by their crosses ; and in the same manner the 
lower clergy and the chapter of the cathedral; after which 
were carried the relics of Saint Vincent Terrier. The muni- 
cipal body closed the procession. 

!S<une other processions which took place on the same day. 
at ten o'clock at night concluded the festival ; they only went 
through those streets where there were altars ; in each of 
them was carried a statue of the saint to be deposited in the 
house of the person who was to pay the expenses of the 
festival on the following year ; they were composed of persons 
of all ranks, with wax candles, and preceded by drums, tam- 
bourins, dulzaynas, and other musical instruments. 

It is difficult to describe all that passes at these festivals. In 
the day every business is neglected but that of walking and 
running about, going from one altar to another, seeing, being 
seen, and returning ten times to the same place. The streets 
and squares where there are altars, are tilled with an immense 
crowd; the streets leading to them are also full of persons of 
both sexes; we have only to go with the stream, and we are 
sure to pass by all tue altars. The multitude stop before the 
altars to see the representations of the miracles; they seek 
their friends, find, and get near to one another ; the crowd fa- 
vours concealment ; the stupid attention to the representation 
turns the attention from innumerable tetê-d-tetês which are 
going on in an immense crowd. Night arrives, everything 
is again in motion, and the crowd increases; slouched hats 
for the men and hoods for the women favour intrigues 



VALENCIA. 251 

which night covers with its shades ; the mother often searches 
in vain for her daughter, and the husband lor his win. ; they 
lose themselves iu the crowd, and are not to be found: 
the darkness of the night hides the consequences. There 
is little fear of discovery ; they are surrounded by indivi- 
duals who have the same intentions, indulgence is reci- 
procal. 

EXCURSIONS IN THE ENVIRONS OF VALENCIA. 

El Socas is 3 convent of Great Augustins, situated out of the 
town, to the left of the faubourg of Quarte, at the entrance of 
the beautiful country which surrounds Valencia. 

We arrive at it by a short and broad avenue, at each end of 
which are orange trees cut breast high, and the sides are planted 
with orange, palm, and cypress trees. It leads to a portico 
of six large arches, supported by separate Doric columns» 
There is a story over the portico ; it has six balconies which 
correspond to the six arches below; they are ornamented 
with iron-railings, and decorated with small pilasters of the 
same order. 

The church is simple, of Ionic architecture; there is no- 
thing remarkable in it but some paintings by Vergara. The 
ceiling of the sanctuary is covered with paintings in fresco, 
but the execution cf them is below mediocrity ; they arc by 
Francisco Bru. Some ancient paintings upon wood ornament 
the altars of St. Claude and of the Incarnation : the nanus of 
the painters are not known ; they appeal to bave be< n painted 
in the beginning of the sixteenth century. All these pictures, 
though good, do not come neai to the beauty of a BtnaU pic- 
tun which i" placed behind a glass a! the bottom 1 f the altar 
of Sain! Augustin; it is a Virgin raising bei eye» towards 
heaven with her bead covered with a veil ; d< i. icy, expres- 
sion, truth, colouring, and uncommon beauty in the drapery, 
are found in this picture; it is by Guido. 

In tb chapel of Christ ol the good Death, there is a cm 
cifixj the sculptor of which ha express* ! in the features of the 



'251 VALENCIA. 

countenance all the pangs of the agony ; the name of the 
artist is not known ; it is believed to have been a production 
of the reign of Philip II. 

In the saerisly there are likewise some good paintings, one 
of the birth of Jesus Christ upon wood, the painter of which 
is not known ; a Virgin of ihe Sorrows, by Moralez ; a Sa- 
viour of the World, by Ribalta; and two very small pictures 
which are amongst the relics ; one of the Birth of Jesus 
Christ, and the other of the Adoration of the Kings ; the 
former appears to be of the school of Raphael, the latter 
seems from another pencil and of a more remote date. 

The chapel of Saint Thomas de Villanueva, which is of 
modern construction, forms a small distinct church, and has 
a handsome appearance; but there are a number of orna- 
ments in it without either taste or proportion. The paintings 
are by Vergara ; but they prove the youth of the artist, and 
the hurry in which they were done. The statues of the four 
cardinal virtues are by the brother of this painter; and the 
execution of tjie principal altar is by a monk of the same 
convent. 

Convent of Saint Mary of Jesus. This is a convent of Ob- 
servantin Cordeliers, situated about a mile from Valencia, sur- 
rounded by a magnificent country; it is inhabited by 130 
monks. The church 'of it is simple, and has nothing remark- 
able but the chapel of the blessed Nicholas Factor, which was 
built in 1787- 

This chapel is ornamented with Corinthian pilasters, cased 
in stucco, with gilt fillets and capitals; they are supported by 
pedestals of red, yellow, and white marble. It has a hand- 
some dome, which is ornamented with paintings in fresco. 
Similar paintings ornament three sides of the chapel above 
the cornice, and the four angles of the spring of the dome; 
all these paintings are by Planes. Two large pictures, repre- 
senting the miraculous achievements of the saint decorate the 
two sides of the chapel; they are by the same painter. The 



VALENCIA. 253 

altar is simple ; it has a picture by Vergara, representing 
Philip II. opening the tomb of Nicolas Factor, to see the 
mortal remains of that holy monk. 

The church of St. John de la Rivera. This is the church 
of a convent of reformed Franciscans situated out of the town, 
almost at the end of the Alameda, below the bridge of the 
Sea. It has nothing remarkable but some pictures, one of the 
baptism of Jesus Christ upon the principal altar, by Alfonso 
Cano ; one of the Conception, in the chapel of that name ; 
one of Saint Franci*, one of Saint Pascal, one of Saint Claire, 
and angels, upon brass, by Lazarus Baldi, at the entrance of 
the choir. The sanctuary is ornamented with paintings in 
fresco, by Antonio Eicarte. 

The monastery of Saint Michael de los Reyes. This is a 
monastery of Jeronimites, situated upon the road which leads 
from Valencia to Murviedro and into Catalonia, about a mile 
from Valencia, leaving it by the gate and bridge of Serannos, 
and by the faubourg of •Murviedro. It was founded by Fer- 
dinand of Aragon and Ursula Germaine de Foix, his wife. 

This monastery i^ in a delightful situation, in the middle of 
varied and ever-verdant fields. It is rich and contains fifty 
monks, who acknowledge that it has a revenue of 20,000 
pezos (3,125/.) It is easy to believe that they do not exagge- 
rate; report give» them double that sum. 

Its appearance is not striking. A low wall without orna- 
ment présenta itself, through which a very ordinary gate 
is; we enter into a large court, at the bottom of which 
we perceive the fironl of the church, and on one side the gate 
of the monastery. 

The front of the church, which is of ! has three 

stories of architecture of six columnseach; the first of the 
Doric oider, tin second of tin- Ionic, and the third of the Co- 
rinthian; some wreathed, and others with spiral flutes J ami 
- 



Ç5-t VALENCIA. 

large square towers, which rise on each side above the edifice ; 
these towers have three stories of architecture, the two first 
without ornaments ; an arched window opens on each side of 
the third between four Doric pilasters, and is terminated by a 
balustrade 

In the interior of the monastery there is a large cloister,, the 
architecture of winch something resembles that of the cloister 
of the Evangelists in the Escurial, but the roof of it is perhaps 
too flat. 

This monastery has a library, which is not very large; 
there are scarcely 30;'0 volumes, almost all of theology and 
history, and all ancient ; but a collection of manuscripts of 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries is present d there, re- 
markable for the beauty and neatness of the writing, as w< !1 
as for the delicacy and good preservation of the vignctw s 
: -s, and other paintings. 

The church has only a nave, of a good Doric architecture ; 
it is ornamented with fluted pilasters, and galleries decorated 
with Ionic columns and pediments. The roof of it is rather 
.1 it, but well shot ami with good taste. The cross-aisle is 
targe and handsome, but not sufliciently extended ; it is sur- 
mounted by a well-formed dome, something like that of the 
Escurial. 

The sanctuary is raised in the form of a terrace, and sur- 
rounded by a handsome balustrade that extends along the 
by which it is asc< <\<h-d ; it is paved with large squares 
of blue, marble, inlaid with lace and flower- work, which is 
f! ; med by incrustation-; of white marble. Two monuments of 
similar structure of the two founders are placed on the two 
si ■!■ - of tli< sanctuary ; their execution is but middling. 

The principal altar it; a ridiculous mixture of wooden orna- 
ments, confused, without taste, and of columns made of dif- 
ferent pieces of marble, which are badly polished and badly 
put together. The tabernacle is simple, but noble and hand- 
some; the front of the alrar is a mixture of marble of all co- 



VA LEX CIA. 255 

lours, put togeîher with great art, in imitation of birds and 
other animals, houses, Chinese pavilions, urns, vases, flowers; 
there are a number of similar fronts of altars in this church ; 
they are the work of some monks of the monastery. 

The sacristy is a handsome Gothic room, which has the ap- 
pearance of a small church; thereare some good paintings in it 

upon stone and upon copper. 

This church contains a Crucifixion, by Ribalta; an Appa- 
rition of the Holy Virgin to Saint Bernard, which is by some 
attributed to Ribalta, and by others to Zurinena ; some pic- 
tures of the school of Joannez, hut more correctly designed; 
some paintings upon wood relating to the birth of Jesus 
Christ and the life of Saint Jerome, have been removed from 
the church to a gallery near the choir ; they are antiques, 
but good: they are thought to he the productions of the 
earliest times of the revival of the arts. It is a pity that they 
are kept in a dark plate, where they cannot be seen without 
a candle. 

Sichaa. In a great number of villages in the environs of 
Valencia we find monuments of the industry of the Moors; 
these are large excavations, the openings of which are narrow, 
but which enlarge in the interior; they are dug straight 
down, tolerably deep, and cased with free-stone. In these 
places the Moors preserved their corn, and the modern Va - 
lencians make them serve the same purpose. They are called 
richaa and 8ilho8. The handsomest are at Burjasot; this vil- 
lage is the place where the celebrated actress [/Advenant was 

b'Jli: I. 

Tke Albufera ii a large lake, which begins near the village 
ofCatarroja, a league south of Valencia, and «Mends four 

£ues, as far as Cullera. Wh n it it full, it is lour leaj 
in. length, tu » in breadth, and »i* in circumference ; yd il .. 
mall boats are scarce! able to float in itt JVhen 
there is not enough of water in it, it m filled by m 



'256 VALENCIA. 

machine which draws into it the neighbouring waters; when 
it is too full it is carried into the sea by means of an opening 
made on purpose ; it contains a great many fish, and there are 
a number of aquatic birds upon it. On certain days' in the 
year, the inhabitants of Valencia amuse themselves with going 
out to shoot these birds, and the lake is covered with boats. 

Mdnisi z is a village situated a league and a quarter north 
of Valencia. It is seen on the left coming from New Castile. 
It is noted for its manufactories of earthen ware, which em- 
ploy thirty kilns, and occupy a great part of the inhabitants. 
The women are employed in forming the designs and applying 
the colours. There are two large manufactories of a superior 
kind, the earthen ware of which is tolerably fine, of a beau- 
tiful white, and à moderate price. They also make here vases 
worked with a great degree of delicacy. 

The society of these workmen possess the secret of the 
compostion of a colour which in the fire takes the tint and 
brightness of a beautiful gilt bronze. It has been unsuccess- 
fully attempted to be imitated; the heads of the society com- 
pose the colour themselves, and distribute it to the masters 
who take care of it; it is a liquid of the colour of Spanish 
tobacco, but a little deeper. 

Grao. We leave Valencia by the gate of the Sea, follow 
the faubourg of the Trinity, the bridge of the Sea, the road 
which is opposite the bridge along the left side of the Ala- 
meda, pass the convent of Saint John de la Ribera, after- 
wards take a lower road and arrive at Grao. This village was 
formerly surrounded by a wall, part of which still remains. 
It has two gates, one on the side of Valencia, the other to- 
wards the sea. On the latter side there is a bad fortress, 
where a governor resides ; a lighthouse on the most elevated 
part, and which is lighted every night, serves as a guide to 
sailors. 

The coast of Grao is very low, and exposed to the violent 



VALENCIA. 257 

east and west winds. It has neither shelter for ships, depth 
of water sufficient to allow them to approach, nor a conve- 
nient spot for landing, so that they must remain half a league 
out at sea; the cargoes are put into boats which bring them 
towards the shore, and they are drawn by oxen to the dry 
land. 

Notwithstanding these inconveniences, there are always 
several ships seen at anchor at Grao, and others which are 
refitting or preparing to put to sea ; they carry on a coasting 
trade along the Mediterranean ; on one side, on tjie coasts of 
Catalonia, Roussillon, Languedoc, and as far as Marseilles; 
and on the other side, to Alicant, Carthagena, and Malaga ; 
some even pass the Straits of Gibraltar, into the Atlantic, 
and go to Cadiz; sometimes they go round Portugal as far as 
the ports of Galicia. The largest of these ships are from fifty 
to sixty tons, their crews do not exceed eleven men ; they 
carry out wines, silk, wool, dry fruits, and kali, and bring back 
in return linens, woollens, ironmongery, spices, and corn. 

It was upon this flat shore that the troops of the archduke 
Charles of Austria attempted, in 1700, to effect a debarkation 
to surprise Valencia ; but they were repulsed by Antonio del 
Valle, who commanded in the town for Philip V. 

Grao is very pleasant in summer, on account of the sea- 
baths which are there ; a great number of people resort to it 
in tartanes by water, or in one-horse chaises by land, to 
l»athe; and several families pass a part of the fine season in 
their country houses near this village. 

no A D PROM VALENCIA TO LIMA XE1UCA AND SECORDE, 1 
I.I AGUES AND A QUAllTER. 

LE AG UT 

Valencia to - 

B nifarach (a village) -.-- I 

Moncada (a town) .__. ,--- 

Vor. i. 



258 VALENCIA. 

LEAGUES. 

Porta-Ccli (a Carthusian monastery) 3 

La Torre (a barn) . .. T § 

Liria (a town) '- 1£ 

Alcublas (a village) .<> + 

Andilla (a town) ._ ^ '2 

Canales (a village) _ 1 

Canalcs (a river without abridge) . 1' 

Bexis (a town) ... .... I 

Toras (h village) ^ £ 

Vivel (a town) If 

Xerica (a town) £ 

Palencia (a river and bridge) 1__ \ 

La Esperanza (a monastery of Jeronimites) I 

.Segorbe (a town) . „ \ 

We leave Valencia by the faubourg of Mur- 
viedro, and cross the village of Benifatach . 

after travelling a league we come to Moncada, 
an old town now reduced to a village, at the 
entrance of the beautiful country which sur- 
rounds Valencia : it has a parish church, a con- 
vent of Dominicans, and a population of about 
a thousand inhabitants 

The country here begin to be parched; it is 
nevertheless covered with vines, olive, and 
carob-trees. The land rises insensibly, and after 
travelling a league we pass near the village of 
Vetera, which we leave on the left. We con- 
tinue to ascend for a league, then enter a wood 
of pines, intermixed with fields and plantations 
of olive trees, which leads to Porta ecli. 



VALENCIA. c 259 

Porta cf.i.i is a Carthusian monastery built 
on an eminence, in a fine situation amidst fertile 
lands, commanding a vast extent of sea, and a 
rich and delightful country. Every thing here 
breathes peace and tranquillity ; ail is simple 
and rustic, but agreeable. The cells are clean, 
the buildings of an elegant simplicity, the 
gardens are variegated and well kept ; the 
tombs, where the bodies of the monks are depo- 
sited, have a peculiar beauty ; pdm-irces shade 
them, and ro,es* diffuse through the air a sweet*- 
ness which counteracts the infectious odour of 
the miasmata, that exhale from the dead bodief. 

The church has several good pictures by Cano, Espinosa, 
and Ribalta, amongst which we distinguish a Virgin feeding 

an infant Je>us ; a statue of the Virgin by Ignacio Vergara ; 
paintings in fresco by Luis Planes, cover the vault <>f the 
sanctuary. In Ibe sacristy is an infant Jesus surrounded by 
seraphim, a St John the BaptUt in his infancy, and St. John 
the Evai>£t!i 3 t al>o in infancy, a Birth of Christ, 

On leaving the Carthusian monastery, We fol- 
low the road to the west; after travelling half a 
league we come to la Tone, a barn belonging to 
the same monastery; it is here that the good 
wine de la Cartuxa is made, which is sold as 
high as ten reals a bottle. The land her* be- 
comes \e\ el, and is nted j mo I throughout 
h olive and carnb-tn ■-. The plain is b 
d on the. rij ;ht, ••<! •'■ mall di e mc -, by a 



260 VALENCIA. 

mountain of no great elevation, on which are seen 
the villages of Gatova, Marines, and Olla. Wc 
now arrive at Liria, two leagues distant from 
the monasteiy. 

Li u ta is a very ancient town, which, it is said, 
existed before the arrival of the Phenicians in 
Spain. It bore the name of Edera under the 
Carthaginians, and of Edeta and of Laurona un- 
der the Romans, when it was the capital, or chief 
place in the country of the people called Edc- 
tani. There are some Roman monuments to be 
seen here, amongst which we distinguish an in- 
scription found in 1759 in one of the channels 
of a fountain, and placed at the door of the ab- 
bey de la Cure. 

This town was almost destroyed during the 
wars of Sertorius and Pompev ; but being after- 
wards rebuilt, was taken by the Goths from the 
Romans, from the Goths by the Moors, and 
from them in 125'i by James the Conqueror, 
king of Aragon, who changed its position a 
little. 

It is situated between two little hills. It has 
a parish church, two chapels of case, two con- 
vents of Trinitarian and Franciscan monks, and 
a population of about six or seven thousand 
souls. The front of the parish church, which 
has three stories of architecture, is well exe- 
cuted. 



VALENCIA. l 2b} 

This town has the title of duchy. It was 
given by king Philip V. to marcsehal Berwick, 
whose descendants possess it to this day. 

On leaving Liria we cross, for the space of two 
leagues and a half, a plain interspersed with 
fields and vineyards, and abounding in olive 
and carob-trees. A steep and long ascent 
called Las Lacobas leads to the top of the moun- 
tain on which there is a plain, and at its extre- 
mity the village of Las Alcublas, four leagues 
from Liria, and which has a population of about 
fourteen hundred inhabitants. 

We proceed for two leagues amidst lofty yet 
agreeable mountains, covered with shrubs, me- 
dicinal plants, and occasionally with plots of 
vines; and then arrive at the entrance of a very 
deep valley, where we find the little town of 
And ilia. 

An dill A was only a farm under the Moors, 
and became a town under James I. king of 
Aragon, who built and peopled it. It is situ- 
ated on a mountainous site, and its population 
is only about five hundred inhabitants. Its 
church has some good paintings, amongst which 
we distinguish several by Castaneda, and parti- 
cularly four by Ribalta; a Presentation of the 
Virgin Mary in the Temple, a Circumcision, a 
Nativity of the Holy Virgin, and a Visitation. 
Chi leaving Andilla we still follow a steep 
s 3 



262 VALENCIA. 

ascent, come to the village of Canales, con- 
tinue along the side of the mount iin called 
Vellkla, and perceive very near va that of 
Cubillo. The road becomes very had from a 
constant Succession of acclivities and declivities, 
on the very brinks of precipices. On reaching; 
a dell we cross the little ii\ei Canalcs, and again 
ascend an eminence, where we find Bexis. 

Tkxis, a little town of about a thousand in- 
habitants, formerly a fortified town, and now a 
commandery of the order of Calatrava. It is in 
a situation not very agreeable, on the top of a 
mountain, surrounded by other mountains, 
which being more lofty cover and command i". 
It was inhabited by the Romans; there are still 
legible two Roman inscriptions on the barn of 
Alcaydon, which is only a quarter of a league 
from it. 

Haifa league beyond Bexh we come toToras, 
a little village. The land becomes more even, 
and rhe road is bordered with vineyards. In 
the course of a league and a half we reach 
Yivel 

Vivj l is a little town ;n a fine situation near 
the river Paiencia. It has a parish church, a 
convint of minim monks, and a population of 
about thirlcen bundled inhabitants. Some think 
that it is the ancient Behinum, afterwards Vi- 



VALENCIA, §63 

variiim of Ihc Romans. We still find in h 
veral Roman inscriptions. 

Soon after leaving Vivel we perceive to the 
left the villages of Candiel and of Maté, ami 
half a league more brings us to Xerica by a 
pleasant road, through a fertile country well 
wooded and cultivated. 

X Line a, according to some, is the ancient 
Ociserda or Etobesa; according to others the 
Lexeta or Laxataof the Romans. This town is 
situated near the river Palencia, on the side of 
a mountain at the top of which are to be seen 
the ruins of a strong castle: it is surrounded 
with walls flanked with towers, and was taken 
from the Moors in lSi^o by James I. king of 
Aragon. Its population is &8ÛQ inhabitants. Jt 
lias a parish church served by a considerable 
number of clergymen, two convents of Capu- 
chins and Great Augustins, a hospital, three 
hermitages or private chapels, three fountains, 
and a bridge. We here iind some Roman in- 
scriptions, the greater part of which are se- 
pulehral. It is said that the Romans had sçliools 
hoe, where the sciences' i+nd the me of arms 
were taught. This little town gave birth to 

Francisco Loscos, who wrote on philosophy. 

We proceed on a road between little moun- 
tains, sometimes separated by small vales. We 
. the river Paleacia u\cr a bridge built 

• i 



£64 VALENCIA. 

1570, at the expence of Juan de Muîiatones, 
bishop of Segorbe. After travelling a league 
and a half we come to la Esperanza, a monas- 
tery of Jeronimites, situated on a mountain, at 
the foot of which a spring produces sufficient 
water to turn two mills, and water the countries 
of Navajas, of Segorbe, and Altura; it is pre- 
tended that these waters have the property of 
petrifying bodies which continue any time in 
them. About a quarter of a league farther we 
arrive at Segorbe. 

Segorbe is a town with the title of duchy, 
agreeably situated in a very fertile vale, abound- 
ing in grain and in fruit, on the river of the 
same name, which there takes that of Mur- 
viedro. Its population is twelve hundred fa- 
milies, or about six thousand souls. 

Some people relying on the similarity of 
names, pretend that this is the ancient Sego^ 
briga, which we find on many Roman medals ; 
others, on the contrary, place that ancient town 
in Castile, and others again in Aragon. 

Segorbe is the see of a bishop, suffragan to Valencia, the 
diocese of which comprehends forty-two parishes. The clergy 
of its cathedral are composed of four dignitaries, ten canons, 
twenty-four beneficiaries, and thirty-three chaplains. 

This town has four convents of monks; Franciscans, Do- 
minicans, capuchins, and of Mercy ; a convent of nuns, a 
seminary, a hospital, five hermitages, oratories or chapels, a 
provisor, who is at once official and vicar-general of the dio- 
5 



VALENCIA. C6"5 

eese ; nine gates, and six squares. It abounds in fountains ; 
there are three which are public, and about forty in private 
houses. It was taken from the Moors in 1215 by James L 
king of Aragon. 

The cathedral church has some paintings of the school of 
Joannez, and of that of Ribalta. 

The church of the convent of nuns is of a good architecture, 
and has some good painting*. In parts of this church are 
paintings of superior merit, for instance a Descent of Jesus 
Christ into hell by Ribalta. A Conception in the style of 
Joannez; a Transfiguration, a Resurrection, an eternal Fa- 
ther, &c. 

The seminary is kept in the ancient house of the Jesuits. 
In the church is the monument of the founder of this house, 
by Pedro Mirallez, a native of Bexis, whose life was a series 
of singular adventures, by which he became very opulent. 
The statue of Minllcz is well executed. ; Antonio Ximcn, a 
poet of the commencement of the sixteenth century, and 
Juan Valero, a theologian of the beginning of the seventeenth 
were born in this town. 

At a quarter of a league from Segorbe stands 
the Charthusian monastery of val de Christo 
founded by the infant don Martin, son and 
successor of Peter the IV. king of Aragon 
We find good paintings here by Vergara, Çama- 
ron, Donoso, Joannez, and Oriente. The 
monks have established a paper manufactory at 
Altura, a village of about 1500 inhabitants, 
which belongs to them, and which is at a quar- 
ter league's distance between their monastery 
and Segorbe, 



g66 VALENCIA. 



ROAD FROM VALESCI\ TO SAN-FELIPE, NINE LEAGUES AN» 
A HALF. 

Three different roads lead from V dencia to 
San-Felipe. 

The first has already been described from Va- 
leneia to Jucar on the road to Madrid. Cross- 
ing the ferry on this river we turn to the 
left and arrive at San-Felipe, after travelling 
two leagues. This road is nine leao-ues. 

The second is on the same road as far as the 
Venta del Rey and to the village Rocla, where 
we turn to the left, and it is but three quarters 
of a league farther to San-Felipe. This road is 
also nine leagues. 

The third is the following; half a league lon- 
ger than the two others. 

LEAGUES. 

Valencia to 

Catarroja, (a village).. .. ... 1 

Silla, (a village) __.l 

. Almosafez, (a village) 1 

Algemesi, (a town) 1 

Alzira, (a town) m Jt 

f'arcajente, (a town) \ 

Cullada, (a village) .. . 1 

La PueLtlalarga, (a village) . . § 

Manuel, (a village) 1 

San-Felipe, (a town) § 



VAfcEXCtA, 267 

On leaving Valencia we go through the fine 
countiy which surrounds that town. A league 
after, we come to Catarroia, a vil lose of about 
three thousand inhabitants, the greater part 
fishermen ; and after an other league to that of 
Silla, both situated near the lake of Albufera. 
YVc afterwards came to«£he village df Ahnosafez, 
and the lit tie town of Algemesi, a league from 
each other. Proceeding for two leagues further 
we arrive at Alzira. 

Alzjka or Aleira (Sacré under the Carthagi- 
nians, Scctabicula under the Romans, Algezira, 
or Algecira, under the Arabs) is a considerable 
town, of about ten thousand souls, situated ou 
the Jucar, which surrounds and gives it the 
appearance of an island. It has a parish church, 
two chapels of ease, six convents, a corregidor, 
a hospital, and two fine bridges on the Jucar; 
its streets are narrow, and crooked. It gave 
birth to the poet Vincent Gascô de Siurana, 
who flourished in J 406, and who was highly ex- 
tolled by Lopez de Vega. AX half a league from 
Alzira we reach Carcagente, a little town of 
about fow thousand son: and tolerably 

:i built, with a parish chinch, a convent Of 
monks, and one ol nun-. In another league 
we come to the village of Cullada, thena 
U> ti>e PueLU laiga, another village. la 

6" 



268 VALENCIA. 

one league more we come to the village of Ma- 
nuell, and very soon after arrive at San Felipe. 

San-Felipe is a very ancient town, which 
was famous under the Romans by whom it was 
subdued ; it then bore the name of Setabis : the 
Moors changed this name to that of Xixona and 
afterwards Xativa, which it preserved till the 
commencement of the eighteenth century, when 
it took that of San-Felipe. 

Xativa was one of the towns most exasper- 
ated against Phillip V. and the most obstinate 
in their rebellion against that pi ince. The town 
within was the theatre of exploits which would 
have done honour to the warriors of any age, if 
courage and honour alone had directed them. 

This rebellious town was besieged by the 
chevalier d'Asfelt in the month of May 1706. 
Its garrison consisted of some battalions of 
English troops only ; but the courage of its in- 
habitants constituted its principal force. 

Though the French army was at the foot of 
the breach, menacing the town with an assault, 
the inhabitants, equally deaf to the fear of death 
and to the offers of pardon, would not yield. 
The assault was made, they every where fought 
with a courage supported by ungovernable rage; 
but at length they were overcome and the town 
was carried. The sword was raised, the inha- 
bitants braved the fury of the soldiers, and pre- 



VALENCIA. îl69 

fer red death, they said, to obeying Philip. The 
order for slaughter was given ; these unhappy 
victims of obstinacy, presented themselves to the 
sword and mutually animated each other to die; 
but wishing to bury their town with them they 
set fire to it. The soldiers seconded them ; the 
sword in one hand, the fire-brand in the other, 
they fought and set fire to the buildings. 

In a little time rivers of blood filled the squares 
and inundated the streets; heaps of dead and dy- 
ing bodies covered the surface, volumes of flame 
rose in the air, the cries of soldiers, the groans 
of the dying, the crash of falling houses, and an 
atmosphere on fire, formed a spectacle of horror 
sufficient to appal the most insensible. All 
perished, men, women, old and young ; the 
French general could save only a few women 
and priests ; it was no longer possible to con- 
troul the soldiers. No more of Xativa remain- 
ed, neither ramparts nor edifices, nor inhabit- 
ants, nor even the name it had borne until then. 
A new town arose from its ashes, and it 
called San-Felipe. 

The inhabitants of the new city have not yet 
forgotten that it \\a> the French who destroyed 
Xativa; and their resentment is transmitted 
from father to son. 

ni and Situation. 'îhis town is situated on the side o( 
a calcareous mountain, and below tWO ea .lies which are 

■ ling to decay. Its extent i* considerable, but its populs 



270 VAX EN G I A» 

tiou is only about 10 000 souls. It has 22 fountain 9, a pa 
manufactory, and suburbs, in which there arc fountains and 
walks. 

Administration, Ecclesiastical and Civil. The ancient Xativa 
liad formerly and in remote times an episcopal st •<?. Modern 

San-Felipe has a Collegiate chapter, the ehureh of which, 
lately built, is tolerably handonie, in imitation of the (iothic 
style, three parish churches, six convents of monks, two eon- 
vents of nuns, a hospital for the sick, and a hospital for 
poor widows; this town is governed by a corregidor, and an 
alcalde mayor for the administration of justice. 

It is commanded by a castle built on the rock, and which 
has in it a convent of Pernardins. It contains seme cisterns; 
and there are vestiges of the works of the Romans and Moors, 
and several Roman inscriptions. 

Xativa is also celebrated for the distinguished men which 
it has given birth to. The celebrated historian Mohamcd- 
Abu-Amer, better known by the name of Almoncarral was born 
here in the eleventh century. This historian did not confine 
himself to doing honour to his country by his writings, 
he founded an academy of history, which was celebrated, 
and which existed until the expulsion of the Moors. Juan 
Mingues, Jerome Tamarit, and Francisco Gutierrez, theolo- 
gians of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, were born 
here, as were Francisco Franco, a physician, who wrote in 
the sixteenth century on contagious diseases; Jaeobo 
Beltran, whose poetry is in the Valencian tongue. This too 
was the birth-place of Pope Calixtus III. ; of Alexander 
VI., and of the painter Joseph Ribera, better known by the 
name of the Espagnolet ; he died in 1636. 

The territory of San-Felipe produces every kind of fruit, 
corn, maize, silk, wine, oil, carobs, and particularly rice, 
which is one of the principal articles of cultivation. It was 
formerly famous for the fineness of its hemp, its flax, and es- 
pecially its linens, which Pliny placed amongst the best of 



VALENCIA. 27 î 

Europe, and which Silius Italicus preferred to the finest of 
Arabia. It was indeed the beauty of its linens which caused 
the manufactories of paper to be established at Xativa ; these 
were the first in Europe. They existed so long ago as the 
twelfth century, and it was to the INIoors they owed their 
existence and success. 

ROAD FROM VALENCIA TO THE FRONTIERS OF CATALONIA*, 
TWENTY-ONE LEAGUES THREE-QUARTERS. 

LEAGUES. 

Valencia to _„__ 

S. Miguel de los Reyes, (a monastery) \ 

Tabernes, (a village). _. .__. j 

Casas de Barsena, (some houses) -J 

Albalat, (a village) -f 

Venta del Emperador , 

Masa Ivlagrell, (a village) I 

La Cruz del Puch, (a village) _ x 

Ara Christi, (a Carthusian monastery) { 

Mesones de Puzol _ £ 

Murviedro, (a town) . I [ 

A guilty, (without a bridge) 

Almenara, (a town) _ if 

A hamlet _ __ i 

«lunches, (a village) 

Nules, (a town) l£ 

Villareal, (a town) * || 

Mijares, (a river and bridge) 

Castellon de la Plantj (a town) \} 

Casa* de Benicasi, (a hamlet) % 

Oropesa, (a town) 

Venta de lu Sanieta 1 1 

Torrcblanca, (a village).. _ ]^ 

A gulley, (without a bridge). 

Alcala d< I il 



£72 VALENCIA. 

LEAGUE». 

A hamlet ■£ 

A deep pulley, (without a bridge) J 

Benicarlo, (a town) I 

A pulley ___„ 

Vinaros, (a town) 1 

Serrol, ( river without abridge) . / 

A gidley.» | 

La Cena, (a river and bridge) \ 

We leave Valencia by the bridge of Serranos, 
pass through the large faubourg of Murviedro, 
and for some time travel through the beautiful 
country which surrounds Valencia. 

The road we follow is the continuation of that 
which leads from Madrid to Valencia; this too 
is fine, and extends through a space of eleven 
leagues; the bridges here are numerous even over 
the smallest rivulets, and there are many cause- 
ways raised with brick work ; parapets, properly 
placed, provide for the safety of the traveller ; 
windings are managed with skill on the decli- 
vities of hills; handsome houses are seen at in- 
tervals, mile stones are placed at every league; 
and direction posts are erected wherever ne- 
cessary on the road. 

We soon pass by the monastery of San Miguel 
de los Reyes ; and perceive on the right the 
village of Oriols ; we then reach that of Tabcr- 
nes, after which we cross a large and fine bridge 
without water. We come afterwards to the 



VALENCIA. 273 

Casas de Barsena, which consist of a row of 
houses forming a line on the side of the road, 
and whence we perceive at three hundred paces 
to the left, the village of Foios. 

Wc proceed rapidly toAlbalat, a large village, 
the houses of which are tolerably well built, to 
the Venta del imperador, where we find on the 
right a long row of handsome houses, and a 
very pretty pavilion which we perceive on the 
top of a tower. We leave on the left the 
village of Museros. We then pass on to Masa* 
magrell, a very long, narrow, and ill built vil- 
lage, to Cruz del Puch, also a village, and to 
Ara Christi, a Carthusian monastery, which we 
see on the left, the lands of which extend to 
the road. We come to the village of Rafelbunol 
also on the left, and leave the town of el Puch, 
very near us on the right. It is in a plain, but 
turrounded with mountains; it has a convent 
monks of Mercy, a parish church, a hospital, 
a fine square with a fountain, and a population 
of three hundred families 01 about fifteen hun- 
dred inhabitants. 

All the places we have named are within the 
short distance of a league and a half. The 
plain is celebrated for the victory which 
Jame-> the Conqueror gained in \'2S7 over 
the Moorish king Zaen, and which led to 
the conquest Valencia. A convent of monks 
Vol. /. 



VA I. EX i 

of the order or' Mercy, occupies on a small 
neighbouring' hill the site of the ancient castle 
of Puch ; a collection of portraits of great men 
is preserved here. 

Here begin forests of olives and vines, which 
become thicker and thicker. We perceive, 
fronting us, mountains at a distance, which un- 
fold themselves as we advance; and soon after, 
the eye discovers, but far off, the vestiges of 
ancient castles, which the .Moors had erected on 
the ruins of ancient Phenician and Roman for- 
tifications. 

We proceed to Mesones de Puzol, where we 
find a long range of inns. We perceive at the 
same time, at a short distance on the right, ihe 
town of Puzol, which was only a hamlet under 
the Moors, but was built and peopled in 1042, 
by Salido de Gudal, to whom James I. gave it; 
it has now about fifteen hundred inhabitants. 

The ruins of ancient Saguntum gradually ap- 
pear as we advance; they look on the mountain 
like seven castles one after another, which per- 
haps were only divisions of the ame fortress: 
some of them are completely in ruins, while the 
others are almost entire; formerly they had all 
subterraneous communications one with the 
other. Sublime recollections occupy the mind, 
and we arrive at Murviedro without perceiving 



VALENCIA. 1275 

the length of the road, although that town is a 
league and a half from Mesones de Puzol. 

Murviedro is a long and narrow town, a 
league from the sea at the foot of a mountain 
of black marble veined with white. It stands 
at the extremity of a vast plain, where nature 
assisted by art developes abundant riches, where 
contiguous villages give it an air of life and 
motion, and where we perceive at short dis- 
tances, the villages of Fauro, Benifayro, Cuar- 
it'll, Uenabites, and Santa-Coloma, whose in- 
habitants with industrious activity vie with one 
another in fertilizing fields, formerly tlowing 
with the blood of the Saguntines, Carthaginians, 
and Romans. 

The modern name of Murviedro is said to be 

derived from muri -ceteres or from muros vie/os, 

because this town is erected on the ruins of 

Sagnntum*. 

/ ,•> and Population. — Thi* town, situated in the ancient 
country of the Edetani, is surrounded by lofty walls and 
flanked bv Miiall round towers. The inclosure has several 



* If \vp ;ire to credit Livy, de hello Ititpanico, lib. xxi. c 
7; Apollodorus, Chronic, lib. ni. ; Pliny, lib. îtii, chap, ii; 
Silius Italiens, lib. ii.; and Strabo, lib. in. Saguntuni 
founded ! ony of Grecians, from the ill Zante, 

whose inhabitants, called ZaCinthiant, srere ;i mixtan 
Arcadians and . rhe period U fi\n\ at 

. 

t 9 



£76 TALENXTA. 

gates, which arc all defended by square towers ; the interior 
is disagreeable and dark; the streets narrow, crooked and 
steep, and the houses have a bad appearance. The suburbs 
are very extensive, more agreeable and airy than the (own, 
and perfectly level. The inhabitants amount to about 5000. 

Clergy. Administration. — Here is one tolerably fine parish 
church, three chapels of ease, two convents of monks, one of 
rigid Franciscans, the other of Trinitarians; (the church be- 
longing to the last contains some pictures by Minana, a 
monk of this house, who united a taste for the arts with exten- 
sive literary knowledge) a convent of nuns, and a corregidor. 
This town gave birth to Joseph Garcias, a tolerable painter of 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

Commerce. — Here are some distilleries of brandy, which 
is exported to the north of Europe and to America ; but it 
bas a more certain resource in the productions of the neigh- 
bouring lands, in oil, wine, wheat, barky, hemp, and carobs. 

Antiquities. — It is impossible to go over Murviedro without 
experiencing a sentiment of veneration for the memory of its 
ancient inhabitants ; at every step we take we are put in 
mind of the courage of the Saguntins, the triumph and the 
vengeance of the Carthaginians, and the grandeur of the Ro- 
mans ; we cannot examine it without reflecting at once on its 
glory under the Saguntins, its destruction under the Cartha- 
ginians, its magnificence under the Romans, and the annihi- 
lation of the monuments of the luxury, greatness, and power 
of those nations, under the destructive hands of the Arabs. 

The vestiges of the Roman power which we now find here 
are only the insignificant remains of what they were formerly ; 
it still retains, however, something impre;.sive and majestic. 

Celtiberian and Roman inscriptions are seen on every side; 
we find on several modern edifices and in ancient fortifications, 
the stones on which they are engraven; we walk over them 
on the thresholds of the doors, and on the stairs; and ofteft 



VALENCIA. 277 

Ument the ignorance of those who have degraded them, or 
who, by putting them to different u>o than those i ie] were 
intended for, have reversed or destroyed them. 

There are several in unknown characters, which a:v s.id to 
be Celtiberian ; at the entrance of the cloisters of the con- 
vent of the Trinitarians at tne side of the gate of la Villa, 
and on the walls of the chapel de la Sangre. 

Numerous statues ornamented the temples and the other 
public edifices of SagunKim, most of which have been desli oy- 
ed; some of them have been conveyed to the archiépiscopal 
palace of Valencia; and there remains at Murviedro only a 
single statue, which is of white marble without a head, and a 
fragment of another- 

Saguntum had its temples, of which very few vestiges re- 
main : thjt consecrated to Diana occupied the spot ou which 
the Trinitarian convent now stands ; but not a trace of it is. 
to be found. It is said that part of its ruins Was con? rted 
into materials for building the church of this convent, and that 
of the monastery of St. Michael de los Reyes, near Valencia. 

We find the ruins of three steps in that part of the castle 
called the Ilerraita, near the cistern ; they are "the remains of 
a greater number which led to a temple, the bases and plinths 
of tlie columns of which are still visible. 

Another temple seems to have stood on the spot where that 
part of the castle stands, which forms the third division; we 
still see its foundations, the extent ami solidity of which are 
admirable; they are at the side of the rums <>i an immense 
cistern. It is supposed to have been dedicated to Hercules. 
An adjacent square bears the name of that demi-godj and m 
the middle of the square there is a tower, half destroyed^ 
which tradition reports to be a burial place of a companion, of 
Hercules; somci with mon probability believe it to be the 
burying plate of a Carthaginian general 

Saguntum had a circus» the walls of which are still dfetin* 
gnisbable in thi lower pan of the enclosure! of a succession 
T 3 



27* VA LEX CI A. 

of orchards, behind the convent of the Trinitarians. Tins 
circus had the form of a semi-ellipsis, the two extremes of 
which terminated at the little river Valencia. 

In digging to make a road from Valencia to Murviedro in 
1755, at the entrance of the latter town a mosaic pavement 
was discovered ; it was entire and of sucli beauty that it was 
thought worthy of preservation: Ferdinand VI. caused it to 
be surrounded with walls; but the king's internions were not 
properly fulfilled; the gates were suffered to rerhain open, 
and every one carried away some part of the pavement, which 
consequently soon became despoiled ; it was rectangular, and 
measured 24 feet by 1 -t. There are still some fragments of it in 
several houses at Murviedro. A priest of that town, don Diego 
Puch, an antiquarian, took a drawing of it, which he afterwards 
had painted at Valencia on the tiles fabricated there, and paved 
an apartment in his house with them. It was likewise copied 
with the greatest exactness, with small stones perfectly simi- 
lar, in an apartment of the library belonging to the archié- 
piscopal palace, as we have already stated. 

A greater portion of the theatre remains than any other 
Roman monument. It is at the foot of a mountain which 
shelters it from the south and west winds, we still see the se- 
micircle where the spectators sat, the doors by which the 
magistrates entered, the judges' seats, those appropriated to 
the lictors, and to courtezans. The vomitoria, or passages by 
which the public came out, are still to be seen. 

Some years ago a corregielor of Murviedro desirous of giv- 
ing an exhibition of the entertainments formerly represented 
there, caused the parts of the theatre that were destroyed to 
be reconstructed in wood-work, and had a play performed in 
the very place where the Romans had so long embellished, 
the drama. How gratifying must it have been to the specta- 
tors to think that they were occupying a place formerly filled 
by the masters of the world ! It was probably this entertain- 
ment which suggf s'.ed to the minister D'Aranda, the idea of 



VALENCIA. £79 

of appointing a keeper to take care of tins monument, which 
would otherwise ; aw been entirely lost, notwithstanding the 
most positive orders x>f the court. 

The Proscenium was already crowded with thatched cot- 
tages and a row of mulberry trees ; and the stage was occu> 
pied by the wheels of rope makers; every thing, however, has 
been cleared away by the assiduity of M. d'Aranda; and the 
inhabitants now enjoy the sight "f an edifice which, by re- 
calling the glorious remembrance of '' e people who raised it, 
ought to stimulate them to imitate their virtues. 

On leaving Murviedro \vc- cross a large gulley, 
which, though commonly without water, be- 
comes dangerous during the rains. We proceed 
to the right along an immense plain, sown with 
corn and planted with olive trees, and Aines; 
and on the left we have mountains which we 
approach and leave alternately. After three 
quarters of a league we perceive on the leit a 
multitude of villages, which seem to stand in 
clusters; we distinguish particularly Cuartell, 
Fauro, Benifyaro, Benabites; and Santa Coloma. 
In three quarters of a league farther we come to 
Almenara, a little town, situated at the foot of a 
mountain, a continuation of those by the sides of 
which we have been riding, and which turns round 
in a semi-circle as if to cover it ; here we see the 
ruins of an ancient castle. This town is sur- 
rounded by waited it has two suburbs, a parish 
church, and a Dominican convent. 

till pi< deed along the side of the moun- 
I 4 



280 VALENCIA, 

tain ; and going over a little eminence on (he 
right by a short and easy ascent, discover an 
immense plain covered with trees and habita- 
tions, and terminated by the sea; to the left are 
barren mountains. We pass on to a hamlet, 
and a little more than a mile farther perceive the 
village of Chinches, which we pass at the dis- 
tance of two hundred paces. Here the country 
widens, the mountains retire, and we find our- 
selves in an extensive plain, where we see only 
fields, vines, olive and mulberry trees. In an- 
other league we discover Nulez, which opens 
upon us agreeably; we enter it leaving to the 
left Villavieja, a village where there are cold mi- 
neral springs. 

Nulez is a small town, and has the title of 
jnarquisate. It is square, and surrounded with 
walls flanked with towers: it has four gates. Its 
streets are narrow, but straight, and the houses 
have a poor appearance. It has a parish church, 
a convent for barefoot Carmelites, a convent of 
Carmelite nuns, a hospital, an alcalde mayor, 
four regidors, and a population amounting to 
about three thousand four hundred inhabitants. 
We enter this town by a suburb, which has a 
fine street, and we leave it by another suburb in 
which the convent of Carmelite monks is situated. 
This town declared against Phillip V. ; but inti- 
midated by the fate of Villareal, the inhabitants 



VALENCIA- £81 

laid down their arms, and surrendered to the 
count de Torrez, in 1706. 

On quitting Nulez we leave to the right Mus- 
carell, a village that has the title of marquisate ; 
and we discover Villareal, which we reach after 
travelling three quarters of a league. 

Villareal was only a pleasure house built by 
James I. king of Aragon, in 1272, for his chil- 
dren: it then bore the name of placio real or 
royal palace. It increased in the course of time, 
became a town , and changed its name to that of 
villa real or royal town ; it has now the title of 
marquisate. 

This town, which is nearly square, retains some 
vestiges of its ancient walls; the remains of the 
fortifications which defended its approaches are 
still seen : its gates are modern, but they are 
placed on the same spots where the ancient ones 
stood. 

Villareal declared for the archduke Charles 
during the Mar of the succession; but it was 
taken in 1706 by the troops of Philip V. who 
destroyed the walls, put the inhabitants to the 
sword, and reduced the houses to ushes: conse- 
quently we neither see houses nor édifiées of an 
ancient date ; they are all of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. 

B tent and Population. — This town, ittuited i& the plain on 

the banks of Mj irff, has Mvu convents for munks, OtH of 



•28a VALENCIA. 

Franciscans, the other of grand Carmelite; ; a convent for 
nuns, and a parish church, the steeple of which is a hand- 
some octagonal -tower, very lofty: the population amounts to 
about 5,500 persons. It has two suburbs; we enter by one 
and go out hy the other, and cross the town through a rery 
long regular street, the houses of which are tolerably well 
built. The first suburb leads too gate of the town, which is a fine 
structure, having two Doric pilasti rs, with a grand balcony, 
surmounted by a pavili n. The other suburb is perhaps 
larger than the town and first suburb together. 

Francisco Juan Mas, a character of considerable literary 
eminence in the seventeenth century, <;il .Trallench, and I)i- 
dax Mas, theologians, were born in this town. 

In less than halt a mile from Villareal we pass 
the Mijarez over a very lotig bridge built with 
free-stone, furnished with stone seats at regular 
distances, and ornamented at its two extremities 
with two small circular places, where four in- 
scriptions engraven on large squares of black 
marble inform us, that it was finished in 1790, 
and that it was built at the expense of some 
towns of the kingdom of Valencia there named. 
We begin here to perceive thesteeples of Caslcl- 
lo de la Plana, seeing at the same time, to the 
left, the village of (hula and the little town of 
Altura, the population of which amounts to 
about three thousand souls, and where we find 
a manufactory of earthenware : on the right, 
between the road and the sea, we observe the 
villages of Almanzora and Burriana : the latter 
(the -Medina aladra of the' Moors) was the birth* 



VALENCIA. £S:> 

place of "Martin clc Viciosa, an historian of the 

sixteenth century, who wrote the Chronicle of 
the kingdom of Valencia. 

The soil of Alurviedro, so often covered with 
the blood of the Saguntins, Carthaginians, and 
Romans, was again, in the thirteenth century, 
drenched with that of the Spaniards, Catalans, 
French, and Moors. 

The plain of Almenara, which we have just pass- 
ed over, was also bathed with blood, at the com- 
mencement of the eighteenth century ; it was 
the field where Philip V. in person, and the ge- 
nerals of the archduke Charles had a sanguinary 
battle on the <27th July, 17(K), where the cou- 
rageof the former not being seconded by fortune, 
the latter obtained a victory over his adversary ; 
where Stahremberg remained master of the held 
of battle; and where thousands fell victims on 
both sides. 

It is impossible to pass over these places with- 
out thinking of the events of which thev were 
the theatre. These fields, lovely, smiling, and 
fertile as they DOW air, were so often divastated, 
so often deluged with the blood of innumerable 
warriors, that we earn. pe the painful feel- 

ing excited by the thought of their owing per- 
haps the fertility we admire to the torrents of 
blood which have flowed over them, and the 

thousands of human bodies which have mingled 
the soil. 



2S4 VALENCIA. 

The land soon becomes bad and covered with 
carob-trees. Tor three quarters of a league we 
proceed to the left by the side of a wood of firs; 
and soon after arrive at Castello de la Plana, 
which we enter by a great suburb, and proceed 
through it by a long, wide street, but of which 
the houses are low and badly built. 

Castello de la Plana, called Castalia in 
the time of the Moors, was then situated on an 
eminence, half a league farther to the north ; 
James I. king of Aragon, after having conquered 
it in 1233, transferred it to the place where it 
now stands; from which time it took the name 
it bears. 

Extent and Population. — This town, situated in the middle 
of • an extensive plain, and half a league from the sea, has 
still the ruins of its ancient walls and of some square towers j 
It has eight gates and two large suburbs ; several of its streets 
are straight and wide; we particularly distinguish the calle 
mayor or great street, and the calle del medio which pass 
through the length of it in direct lines. The houses here are 
simple hut welt built, and of an agreeable appearance. There 
^are two great squares, that of the town-hall and that of Ra- 
valet; the first is embellished by the façades of the town- 
hall and of the principal church ; which is the larger of the 
two. Trees were planted round it in 1701. Its population is 
about eleven hundred souls. 

Clergy. Castello has three parish churches, four con- 
vents for monks, two convents for nuns, two hospitals, one 
for sick poor, the other for travellers and pilgrims, and three 
chapels or oratories. 

Caii and Militari/ Administration. — It has a civil and mi- 



VALENCIA. 285 

litary governor, and an alcalde mayor tor the administration of 
justice. 

Some of the buildings of this town contain objects worthy 
observation. 

La Ermita del C/ir/sto is a chapel out of the town ; the 
vault is covered with paintings in fresco, the appearance of 
which is agreeable. 

The chapel de la Sangre^is a little private church, ornament- 
ed with Corinthian pilasters,, covered with stucco, the chapi- 
ters of which are gilt. The grand altar has four pictures of 
a middling size, relative to some of the events of the Passion of 
Jesus Christ, by Ribalu : some other paintings by this 
master once ornamented this altar, but they have been lo>t 
through the negligence of those who suffered them to be de- 
stroyed by the worms and dust. 

The chapel of the Sepulchre has some paintings by Ver- 
gara ; the grand altar is a mass of gilt wood, where a sepul- 
chre is preserved, affirmed to have been made by ihr angels : it 
is covered with a fine painting of the Transfiguration of Jesus 
Christ, by Vergara. 

The town-hall has a facing of free-stone, with three stories 
of architecture, Doric and Corinthian. A fourth story w.i- 
begun to be raised at each extremity ; but the work was in- 
terrupted. This façade is handsome and the architecture 
good. 

The tower of the Bells is an insulated tower, Bitual 
the square of the town-hall, and In* i d nified appi tr- 
ance. It is octagon and has five itoriea of architecture! each 
separated from the other by cordons i-li^btly projecting. The 
building of this tower was begun in \'>$\, and ended in look 
It is nhorjt 2uo feet high, and 1 1 '» in circum 

The Igle*ia .Mayor is also situate. I m the Mjuare oi" the 

town -ball ; its façade appears very ancient, of free stone, tod 
in the Gothic style : The portal is a composition of light 

airy arcbv-., one over the oilier, but in such » way that tlici 



'186 VALENCIA. 

diminish and enter gradually from the (op of the opening to 
the lintel of the door. The church baa a larg< nave of beau- 
tiful Gothic architecture, but disfigured l>y monstrous orna* 
merits. The ailar has nothing remarkable but tv. o small 
pictures at the sides. 

This town gava birth to Francisco Jovcr, a theologian 
of the middle of the sixteenth century : and to Andres Ca- 
pero, who published a Collection of Sermons in 1(>70. 

Castello de la Plana is rich in the quantity and variety 
of productions in the country around it ; in no part do we see 
the marks of poverty. There is a threat deal of sail-cloth ma- 
nufactured here, and rigging for ships. There arc two inns, 
that with the sign of the Lion is new and handsome ; one is 
not badly accommodated in it, nor charged very high. 

The line road we travelled from Valencia does 

not go beyond Castello de la Plana; the one 
wc take on leaving this town is very stony and 
rough, it passes through a plain bounded on 
the right by the sea, at a distance of half a 
league, on the left by mountains which we see 
at a distance, and before by other mountains 
which appear nearer. We occasionally get a 
glimpse of the sea, and should have a full view 
of it were the trees not so numerous : these are 
ail carol; i. 

The road keeps continually turning to the 
right, so as to be always at the same distance 
from the mountains which seem to fly before 
the travellers. It is sometimes stony, sometimes 
sandy, and always bad. The land becomes dry, 
patched, and uncultivated, but covered with 



VA LEW CI*. 287 

caiob trees; After travelling for about three 
leagues from Castello de la Plana, the trees 
disappear ami the sea presents itself in its whole 
extent at the distance of a quarter of a league. 
We now proceed along the sea-shore, and perceive 
on the same side las Casas de Benieasi, a little 
hamlet where the Abbe Bayer, of whom we 
have spoken several times, caused a small 
church to be built on the plan of Don Marc 
Ibanez : we find in it some paintings by Joseph 
Camaron. We afterwards come to one of the 
worst Ventas in Spain. 

We proceed along the sea-shore for a quarter 
of a league, wb.cn we reach the mountains, and 
go up a steep ascent, where heaps of rocks very 
difiicidt to get over alarm the most intrepid 
travellers. We ascend along the side of a pre- 
cipice, at the foot of which the waves of the 
sea break; a simple wall crumbling with age 
is the only protection we have against being , 
ci pi ta ted to the bottom. 

We now descend and enter into a 
unequal valley, filled with cuts and sun funded 
with steep rock)- mountains covered with shrubs; 
it is tilled and planted with carob-tr< We 

leave this through the ra \ ol a frightful \ 

'-, where the mountains approach each other, 
where great itonej that have rolled do . p lie do 



CSS Valencia. 

the road, where the irregularities of the broken 
rocks fatigue and bruise the horses' feet, and 
on which we cannot proceed without being 
violently jolted : thus we arrive at the 
foot of an eminence on which is situated 
the small and ancient town of Oropcsa, 
which was the birth-place of au excellent critic 
of our days, Bartolomé Marti, dean of the 
chapter of the college of Alicant, better known 
under the name of Dean Marti. We still see a 
part of the ancient fortifications. Opposite this 
eminence we find a Venta, which we reach after 
travelling a league and a quarter from Benicasi. 
The mountains w r e have just passed over are 
covered with rosemary, thyme, lavender and 
juniper trees. 

The road improves, the country expands, the 
mountains become more distant to the left, 
they disappear on the right ; we enter on an 
extensive plain that terminates in the sea, which 
we approach and proceed along the shore for 
near a mile, at the distance of three hundred 
paces from it. We leave this again, and pass 
over land almost uncultivated, with carob trees 
scattered over it. At one league from Oropcsa, 
we pass a house That has the appearance of 
a farm, and in a quarter of an hour after 
reach the Venta de la Sanieta. We find from 



VALENCIA. 289 

time ty time parts of the road, very stony, rough 
and rugged, and after a league and a quarter we 
arrive at the village of Torreblâncà. 

Here the road, becomes still worse: at about 
half a league we cross a gulley where there is 
scarcely ever any water, but it is dangerous in 
times of rain. After travelling two leagues and 
a half, we enter a line vale, where all the 
ground is cultivated and covered witli trees ; 
and a half league farther we arrive at Aleala de 
Chi vert. 

Aleala de Ouvert is a very little town, very 
close, badly paved, and still worse built; the 
streets are almost all hilly, narrow, and winding, 
the houses low and disagreeable. It has neither 
squares, nor fountains ; every one is a labourer 
or a peasant. It has a parish church, a convent 
of Franciscans, and a population of about 3600 
inhabitants. It belongs to the military order 
of Montesa. 

The pari-h church of this town is of a modern construction ; 
it was finished in 17 6'6. 

The façade of the church bas three porluls ; the two lateral 
smaller ones have each two column* of the Done order at thr 
first -itory, and two pilaster» of th< tonic at the second. The 
middle onebasthn i; the first of four fluted columns; 

the second of two Corinthian fluted columns ; the ih.rd of two 
small pile d which a window m medallion il sur- 

mounted by an attic almost triangular, ornam< oted with urnj 
and bord< n l ils ol a go d art bitectore - f 

some of ttu 'stat iblj wellexi uted, ar< Ian 

Vol I I! 



C'JO VALENCIA. 

in the immensity of the façade, the surface of which, without 
ornament, is so large that it appears naked. 

1 lie church is large. It has a body and two aisles very 
light, the latter are covered with bad paintings in fresco. 
The dome, well shaped and lighted, is ornamented with Ionic 
pilasters : the gilding is slightly put on. The grand altar is or- 
namented with some ancient pictures which have merit. 

In 1792, a great tower was built near this church, it is of 
free-stone and intended for a steeple ; it is one hundred and) 
ten feet in circumference. 

On leaving Alcala de Chivert the road is 
not bad as far as Vinaros for the space of six 
leagues, except some places where it is stony or 
runs over bare rock, which is some times steep; 
there are, however, very few ascents and de- 
scents. 

We continue to go through the same vale for 
a length of time, then enter a cultivated plain. 
After travelling three quarters of a league we 
go by the side of a little village on the right, 
and soon after cross a deep gulley. Three quar- 
tersof aleague farther on we see the sea, which we 
do not quit again, but it is hidden for some time 
by the trees. The country here becomes much 
finer, the cultivation richer, and more taken 
care of, the trees are very numerous, consisting of 
olives, carobs, mulberries, and figs : travelling 
through these for a quarter of a mile we arrive at 
Benicarlo. 

BENiCARi.ois a small town, situated near the 
sea, in a rich and fertile country, which is wa- 



VALENCIA. £91 

tered by water-carts. It is surrounded by walls 
and has a fosse, an old castle and faubourgs; 
there are some tolerably straight streets in it, but 
they are narrow, dirty, and ill built; tbe houses 
have a miserable appearance, though one should 
think this town ought to be rich from the pro- 
ductions of the country. It has one pà'iïsn 
church, one convent of Franciscan monks, situ- 
ated without the walls, and one hospital ; but 
it lias no fountains. Its population is about 
3200 inhabitants, among whom there are a great 
many fishermen. 

In leaving this town, we pass a gulley, the 
bottom of which is full of pebbles. The road 
becomes handsomer ; runs along close to the 
sea; goes through a fertile and smiling country, 
and brings us to Vinaroz. It is a league and a 
half from Ben i carlo to this town ; we enter it by 
a faubourg, thé street of which would be hand- 
some if it were better built. 

Vinaroz is a small town situated on the river 
Servol and on the sea side, almost at the end of 
the plain we have just passed. There are some 
remains of its gates and ancient walls ; the streets, 
paved with sharp pebbles, are by no means 
handsome; there are some, however, that are to- 
ler. and straight ; but they have no 

handsome build very few of the houses have 

• tolerajble ap£earanc< ; it has one parish church, 



-9- Valencia. 

ornamented with marble pilastres, two convents 
of Franciscan and Grand Augustin Monks, a 
hospital, a port-captain, and a population of 
about 5000 persons. 

Tiie Duke of Vendôme died of an apoplexy 
in this town on the 1 lth of June 1712. Philip V. 
had his ashes removed to the tomb of the kings 
at the Escurial. 

The commerce of Vinaroz has greatly de- 
creased since that town was included in the 
number that are forbidden importation. It has 
a dock, in which only vessels of thirty, forty or 
fifty tons are built. The coast is covered with a 
great many chalops and small vessels ; there is 
however neither port nor bay; it is an open 
coast. The principal export consists of brandies. 

We scarcely leave Vinaroz, when Ave ford the 
Servol, which is almost always dry : the road be- 
comes stony; the country is equally so, and 
the cultivation neglected. Half a league far- 
ther we pass a gulley which is generally dry ; 
another half league on, a square tower, which 
marks the limits of the kingdom of Valencia, is 
seen to the right ; we pass the small river Coma 
over a handsome bridge of one arch, and enter 
Catalonia, 



VALENCIA, 



STATISTICAL ABSTRACT RELATIVE TO THE 
KINGDOM OF VALENCIA. 

Population. The fineness of the climate, the fertility of the 
lands, and the lighter, but more juicy food, of the south pro- 
vince» of Europe, giving more play to the vital force than in 
the north, is more favourable to population. The number of 
inhabitants of the kingdom of Valencia consequently annually 
increases. It is true that there are many places that are 
now almost deserts, which were formerly inhabited : this is 
owing to the wars, proscriptions, and political banishments of 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, which considerably 
reduced the population ; but since that time it has increased 
more than double what it was then. The following tabic 
contains the proof of it; it is drawn up from calculations 
made by the kinsd». command. 

«• INHABITANTS. 

In 171 A 318,850 

1761 and 17b'-' 702,640 

In 176s 716,880 

fn 1-7.88 and 1789 783,084 

In 1795 932,150 

In tli is number are 

Priest* -..- 17.T 

ilar Priests.. - ',7 1 

Monks -..Ml 

N ns -. 1 ' 

Noblei 1 

Ad'.' 

Writer. 

Students 5*499 

Servants 



294 VALENCIA, 

agriculture. Cultivation here is the best attended to r and 
the richest in Spain ; the country consists of orchards, fields, 
and gardens; the land yields its gifts in profusion, and is em- 
bellished by the land of the industrious cultivator. The 
whole is fertile, and contains a germ of active vegetation 
which easily developes itself. The plains are supcrh, the 
valleys delightful, and even the mountains enrich the labourer. 

Nothing can equal the beauty cf the plains of this pro- 
vince. We have already described that which surrounds the 
town of Valencia to an extent of twenty-five league?. There 
are others less considerable, but which almost equal it in beauty 
and richness ; the finest are those of Alicant, and Orihuela. 
The former is two leagues long and one broad ; the latter is 
not so large, but is more fertile, and richer. Those of Mur- 
viedro, Benicarlo, and Vinaroz would appear very handsome if 
we had not first seen the former ones : that of Liria is still 
handsomer than the last ; but none of these small plains can 
be compared to that of Gandia : it is a league and a half in di- 
ameter; it is enclosed on one side by an almost circular 
chain of little mountains, and terminated on the other side 
by low lands, the bottom of which is a black earth that 
produces, with as much ease ?s abundance, trees of every 
species, and fruits, and pulse of all kinds; there are more 
than thirty villages, the houses of which are confounded with 
the trees which surround them, forming a picturesque appear- 
ance ; the whole announces ease, and has an air of felicity. 

The valleys and dales are equally fertile ; and the pro- 
ductions are in great abundance. We travel with pleasure 
through the dales of Axpe and Elda, the valleys of Bunol, 
Alcala de Chivert, Fuente de la Higuera, that which is be- 
tween this last and the Venta de Alcudieta, and that above 
Alberico, and which is watered by the Jucar. 

The country is not so handsome as we approach the 
mountains, and the soil becomes less fertile; there are a 
tolerable number of valleys which display riches and beauties, 



VALENCIA. 295 

r.ot commonly found in many plains ; the mountains them- 
selves are often covered with verdure, embellished by trees of 
different species, and enriched by their productions : we travel 
those near Andilla, near Segorbe, and several others with plea- 
sure. Those between the village Ibi and Alicant to the north- 
east of that town, are covered with oak, turpentioe, mastic, 
custard-apple,juniper, laudanum, cestus, rosemary, and low firs. 

The- Valencian carries cultivation to the highest part of the 
mountains ; in some places he makes excavations in others 
sustains the lands by means of little low walls which he builds, 
by laying stones one on another. A .storm often destroys his 
work in an instant ; but his activity and patience soon re- 
place it. 

The watering of the lands of the kingdom of Valencia con- 
tributes to their fertility. The Valencians turn the waters 
that flow on every side to the greatest advantage. Eighteen 
large rivers run through this province, and all furnish 
branches more or less considerable for irrigation. The Guada- 
laviar and Jucar fertilize the plain of Valencia; the Segura, 
the fields of Orihuela ; and the others, the different terri- 
tories through which they run. 

There remain several canals which were the work of the 
Moors, and which are preserved with care. The modern 
Valencians are no less industrious than their predecessors 
the Moors in the art of making canal and conducting wa- 
ter, even to the highest places; they make basons, reservoirs, 
and dams, in which they collect water to be distributed where 
ever it is wanted. There is one at a mile and a hall from Va- 
h ucia, which we cannot Ivut admire. The great bason or 
Panthano, mid» in the mountains for watering the HuerU 
of Alicant is no leu remarkable. 

This almost continual watering would gradually deprive 

:li. (and of the utine parue! .1 the 

1 nol pr<vcnt it by the CMC they take to hate 

iiniied They make u>e of l 1 .< ding from tu<- 
' 4 



£96 



VALENCIA. 



stables, the sweepings of the houses and streets ; they colli ct 
the excrement of animals, and pieces of earth which they 
think contains the least excremental parts ; by this means 
the roads are spoiled ; they make holes, at the least, very in- 
commodious, as they are never repaired. 

The Valencians never leave the earth at rest ; they plough 
the fields nine or ten times a year, and are sowing every 
month. Thus in the Iluertas, and in general all the country 
to the east and south-west, the lands yield four or five harvests, 
the meadows are mowed nine or ten times, the mulberry 
trees are stript from three to four, and yet are always covered 
with new leaves ; the soil never wears out, but is constantly 
presenting its productions. 

Wines. There are many vines in the valley above Elda, 
at Murviedro and in its environs, at Segorbe, Liria, Quarta, 
Chiva, Cheste, Benigani, Cosentana, IMuro in the county of 
Carlct, at Porta Celi, Puch, Benabites, Nulez, Valera, Beni- 
fayrô, Castellodela Plana, Cuartel ; or Chinches, Ara Chisti, 
Santa Coloma, Benicarlo, &c. The wine, though not of a 
very superior quality, is full bodied and makes a good brandy ; 
that of Murviedro is esteemed the best. 

About 3,500,000 cantaras* are made annually upon an 
average. Thecantara is commonly sold for 5 Valencian reals, 
Is. 3d. sterling, the whole giving a produce of 17*500,000 
Valencian reals, (21S,750/. sterling). 

Among these wines we distinguish those of la Torre, a de- 
pendence on the chartruese de Porta Celi ; those of Mas de 
Santo-Domingo, Mas de Perales, and, above all, those called 
Rancio. The last are common ones, but of a superior quality, 
the age of which add to their goodness : proprietors have a 
long range of pipes each >>f a different year ; there are some 
of sixty, some of eighty, and some of a hundred years old ; 
they always draw the wine from the first pipe, which is the 

* A Valencian cantara contains about tlircc gallons English uiuu mea,» 
pure, the former being 7"5, and the latter 231 cubic inches, 



VALENCIA. 297 

oldest; they fill it from the second, that from the third, and so 
on successively to the last, which they 611 with new w in*. These 
wines are not in great abundance ; nevertheless they send 
some to several parts of Spain ; tli«_ prices differ according to 
their age ; the inferior are soid for 20 reai> of vellon each ean- 
tara, and the superior for 60 reals. 

The territory of Alicant produces a rich wine known 
throughout Europe; there are both red and white; the ndis 
most in request, and the dearest ; the priée varus, according 
to its quality, from 20 reals of vellon to 120 reals, each cau- 
tara. The wine is distinguished according to live plants: the 
vine of Muscatelle, Fercallade, Blanquet, Panell, and Monas- 
telle. The wine of Alicant comes from Muscatelle; that of 
Malvoisie comes hum Muscatelle, Forcallade, and BlanqoeL 
The annual exportation is computed on an average at 3*500 
measures of 100 cantaras each. 

A kind of syrup, which they call arrope, is likewise made 
here from sweet wine, which they place for half an hour over 
a low fire, and add to it oui -twelfth of calcareous earth. 
The liquor is clarified and boiled till it conn» to the con- 
sistence of syrup: they pit une it m pitchers, to he n-«d 
when v. anted. 

Besides the vineyards there are a great many treillisesiu the 
kingdom of Valencia, which yield excellent and verj I 
grapes; there are some bunches which weigh six, eight, ten, 
and t vt a fourteen pounds. 

ftaititu. Another advantage is derived from the vine : rai- 
principally towards Liria, Denis, in the couuty 
ofCarlet,and tfialltbi part near the sea; the quantity is com. 
pnterl to l.i about 400,000 quintals annually. They an 
m rally sold for about two p >■ ' • quintal; which amount 
to a turn of 12,500/. 

jt ib pi j '■• rent method ^ 1 

in Spam to dry tin- gi apt s. [|] tin kin; 'i.,111 (/I Vali m 1 ih> y 

make* kind of lie with the ishei pfroscmarj and \ ine branch » 



298 VALENCIA. 

to which they add a quart of slake lime. This lie is healed, 
ami a vessel lull of holes containing the grapes is put into it. 
When the hunches are in the staff desired, they are generally 
carried to naked rocks, where they are spread on beds of the 
field artimesia, and are turned every two or three days till 
they are dry. In the kingdom of Granada, particulaily towards 
Malaga, they are simply dried in the sun without any other 
preparation. The former having a more pleasing rind, but 
a less mellow substance ; the skin of the latter are not so su- 
gary, but their substance has a much greater relish; there- 
fore the raisins of Malaga are preferred by foreigners, and are 
sold at a higher price ; to this their quality may likewise con- 
tribute, they are naturally larger and more delicate than those 
of the kingdom of Valencia. 

Oil. There are a great many olive trees here; some of 
which in several parts of this province were planted in the 
time of the Moors: they are principally cultivate! in tlui 
territories of Coscentayna, Albayda, in the county of Carlet, 
at Elche, Valera, Porta-Ceii, G a to va, Marines, Olla, Liria, 
Puch, Ara-Christi, Cuartell, Murviedro, Benabites, Santa-Co- 
loma, Chinches, Benifrayo, Nulez, Benicarlo, Bunol, Chiva, 
in the dales ofOxpe and Elda, in the valley which is be- 
tween Fuente de la Higuera, and the venta of Alcudieta, in the 
fields and valleys between Elda and Villena, &c. The olives 
are good, but the oil is generally sharp ; which is owing to 
the manner in which it is mad*. The olives are gathered too 
late, so that they are already spoiled, and are carried to the 
press without being picked. With a little care, the oil might 
be made equal to that of Provence. There are some cantons 
in which it is tolerably good. The quantity made, annually, 
on an average, is computed at 350,000 arobas of 36 Valenci- 
an pounds (1 10,200 cwt. avoirdupoise). The mean price for 
a Valencian aroba is three piastres or pczos, equal to i5 reals 
©f vellon, which amounts to 1,050,000 piastres or pezos. 



VALENCIA. S:99 

The cultivation of olives might be of more importance, and 
the trade in oil more advantageous to the province, it it 
were not prohibited to be exported from the kingdom, ex- 
cept when the price falls to 'JO reals of vellon the aroba, which 
rarely happens; for the Marseilles soap boilers buy it chiefly 
on account of its acidity. 

Mulltny Tree» and Silk. The mulberry-trees are of great 
importance; the fields of Valencia are covered with them, 
particularly in the environs of that town, in the dale of Elds. 
in the county of Carlet, in almost all the places situated on 
the sea coast, &c. There are white mulberry-trees, which 
are lopped every two years. 

The leaves of these trees serve as nourishment to bilk 
worms, which are raised almost every where in the kingdom 
cf Valencia : Aljcmesi, Alzira, Carcajente, Castello of San- 
Felipe, the county of Carlet, I'ndasuar, Ga:uiia, Denia, Ori- 
huela, and all the villages near the sea are places in which the 
greatest quantity is raised. 

The silk made from them, is the finest in Spain ; it would be 
equal to the best and finest silks of Europe, if the Valcncians, 
in spite of the vivacity of their imagination, did not obsti- 
nately persist in their old routine in the skeining: for in the 
skein they put an undetermined number of threads The 
government bas hired a man the mo-* experienced it) this 
kind of work; but in vain dots he give his instructions, the 
manufacturer.* do not the less continue their bad custom. The 
quantity of silk which i> annually wound, is 0D an average* 
about 1,300,000 pound- of 1 .' Yal< QCiac Ounces j (1,31'J.JOO 
pound-, of l6 OUBCei avoirdupois»') ; it i 3 commonly s.. Id 
raw lbr 50 reals ol yellon a Valenciau pound, which give» a 
total of 7^,000,000 reals of vtllon (73L,250£ sterling). 

Almond Treett The climate and sod of the kingdom of 
Valencia are very favourabll I I ■•< cultivation of the almond 
t~- • ] but the Valencia», attend rerj little to it. There 



:300 VALENCIA. 

are,ho\vcvt j-, somet e •> in different parts of this province, from 
which the j gather annually, on an average, about 1,500 quin- 
tals of almonds. The price of them is commonly 35 pezos or 
5t5 reals of vellon the load, which i» two quintals and a half # 
The whole produce of almonds returns 915.000 reals of vellon 
(0813/. 15a\ sterling). 

At Ilbe, a vjllage six leagues north-east of Alicant, there is 
a particular method for cultivating almond trees. There are a 
great number of them in the country belonging to this vil- 
luge ; they are almost all ingrafted on wild almond trees. It 
appears that this process brings the fruit to perfection ; the 
almonds they produce are superior to' all others inf Spain j 
they have a smooth shell, and can be kept for several years, 
whereas the others are spoiled in a little time. 

Dried Tïgs. There arc a great many fig-trees in the terri- 
tories near the sea, and in that of Elche ; there are not so many 
in the other parts of this province. The people eat and sell 
ripe figs; but they dry about 2R, 000 quintal» : they are of a 
tolerable quality. The dried figs are commonly sold for 
eight reals of vellon the aroba, that is to say, thirty-two reals 
the quintal, which make 896,000 reals of vellon (5533/. 6s. Sd . 
sterling). 

faims and Dates. Tim palm-trees grow in different parts 
of the kingdom of Valencia; they chiefly abound in the 
territory of Elche, where there are whole forests of them. 
The inhabitants of this country chiefly apply themselves to 
the cultivation of this tree, which is their principal wealth. 
We will here give some details on this subject. 

The palm-trees, as we know, grow from date stones. The 
planters transplant these shrubs at the third or fourth year into 
a slimy soil, at the distance of six feet from one another, taking 
care always to place one male palm-tree between two female 
ones, and to water them twice a week. After they have been 
planted ten years, and are grown forty an,d even sixty fee 



VALENCIA. 301 

high, they begin to bear fruit, which are distinguished into 
sweet fiuits or candits, and bitter or âcrelets. 

On account of their height, the palm-trees give very little 
shade; and as their roots are very short, the cultivators inter- 
mingle the plants of pulse and pot-herbs with them. 

In other puts of the kingdom of Valencia there are a gn 
many dwarf palm-trees. The inhabitants eat the roots, which 
resemble the taste of an artichoke. Cattle are also fed upon 
them. 

The women and children of Villa- Nueva, Silta, Senija, and 
other places, make mat-work of their leaves and stocks, which 
are tolerably lucrative. 

The cultivation of the palm-tree requires constant great la- 
bour : the cultivator is obliged to climb up the rough and waving 
stem to the top of the tree, in order to examine the flowers 
and fruit, and turn them towards the sun. This work, which 
is often repeated, is not so dangerous, compared to that for 
making the barren branches profitable. In spring and during 
the month of August, they tie all the branche* in a single bundle, 
which they cover with spart : to make this bundle, the culti- 
vator is obliged to leap, as it were, over the flexible branches 
of the tree, to surround and unite them with a cord. 
first operation done, he places a laddi r at the bottom of the 
tree, on which he ascend*, that he may make a second band : 
he then places hi* ladder on tl I band, and a 

ascends, and ties the top with a third cord : his bund 
he thrown away his instruments, rep 1 Idei by ■ 

dation contrary to the former, and descends from band to band 
to the stock, from winch h< slid* i rapidly to the bottom. 

The fruit which they gatb< r from them ire commonly con- 
sumed in Spain; thej also export some to France. Bui the 
most considerabli ] roducc is that of the branches of the mala 
trci -, which are w m t.. Italy, where they a-e used at tin i 
1:10: y of Palm Sunday ; they arc aUu made into ma' 



302 V.M.KNC1A. 

chairs, and o'bcr utrr, : ils. This mmmerre, and that of the 
fruits, return annually about oOC^OOO reals (6250/. sterling). 

Carobs. Carob-lrees are to be found almost every wherein 
the kingdom of Valencia ; there are whole woods of them of 
an immense extent, often on the most indifferent soil. They 
produce a very great quantity of fruit. 

Fruits. There are a great many fruit-trees every where 
throughout this province; they grow in the plains, valleys, and 
on the mountains ; the greatest number ore in the environs of 
Valencia, Orihuela, and S*»gorbe. Fruit» of all kinds are ga- 
thered here ; oranges and lemons are a very important and 
considerable articles by which a great quantity of money is 
made. 

ATocs. The cultivation of aloes is not attended to ; they 
grow naturally on the sides of the roads, and in the interior oi 
the lands. Their filaments ate wrought. It is an object of 
little value. 

Sugar Canes. Formerly sugar cane? were cultivated in the 
southern part of the kingdom of Valencia ; they were given up 
on the introduction of the West India st:gar, and are now only 
attended to in the duchy of G and ft and the places near it, 
where the canes succeed very well. The method of cultivating 
is as follows; the planters divide the field into two parallel parts, 
-arid each part into small beds intersected by parallel and trans* 
yerse furrows at a foot distance ; they plant in these farrows, at 
fire inches asunder, joints of the canes of the prec< ding year, 
from eight to ten inches long, and having four eyes ; they water 
them when necessary. When they are about fifteen inches 
high, the canes ought to be earthed up with the monld of the 
bed; this work is continued till crop time, which commences 
in the month of November. This crop is a kind of diversion^ 
during which every one is gay, not unattended with a degree 
of intoxication produced by the juice of the cane. The crop 
is disposed of to Provençal merchants. 



VALENCIA, 303 

Spart. Spart is gathered in some places, particularly in 
the territory of I.iria. It is an object of little importance. 

Barilla, such, aqua-azul, and salicornia. Barilla, soda, aqua* 
azul, and salicornia, are productions of great importance in 
Spain. Barilla is the salsola soda of Linnseus ; there are live 
kinds of soda, the mlsola kali, the chenopodwm maritimwn, 
the ckcnopodium album, the salsola vi rmicularis, and the salsola 
rosacea ; the aqua-azul is the mescmbru anthemum, and th< 
licornia the salicornœa europea. Barilla is used in the compo- 
sition of minors, soda in making soap, a:id aqua azul and the 
salicornia in making common gla-< ». 

Barilla, soda, and aqua-azul, are cultivated in the kingdom 
of Valencia ; the salicornia grows wild. It is principally found 
in the territories of Alicant, Elphe, and Albatana. 

They gather annually, on an average, about 100 .000 quintal s 
of barilla, '25,000 of soda, and 4000 of aqua-azul ; the quan- 
tity of salicornia is undetermined. Their étmtnpn price, by 
the quintal, is 50 reals of vtllon for barilla, 40 m ils of vellon 
for soda, and 24- rtals of vellon for aqua-azul. Which gives a 
total of* 5,000,000 reals for barilla (52,083/. 8». Bd. sterling), 
1,000,000 reals for soda (10,416/. i3.c id. Bterling), sod 
96,000 reals for aqua-azul (1000/. sterling) : the « 
amounting to S.< ; • »U [63',500l. sterling). 

Barilla gives the cultivator a great d« al of trouble. A kind 
of beetle often lays its eggs in the roof of this pTant , 
which sre eery dainty mouthed, srould i at up in oi 
whole field of barilla, M Inch often obli 
the nights in banting that animaV, in order to present their 

bar'. I 

Flax. The '• rritory of « >ri1 Imost the only i 

the kingdom of Val< m i » in which fl • grown. I 
tity gathered \t considerable enough : 

but it is not an important object. Th 



304 VALENCIA. 

ab< at 8000 quintals of it ; tlir common price is 200 reals of 
vellon the quintal, which gives a total of 1,600,000 reals 
(16,066/. 13s. M. sterling). 

Hemp. Hemp is cultivated throughout the plain of Valen- 
cia, in Ilia) of Castello de la Plana, and the neighbouring ter- 
ritories ; it is of a superior quality. They gather annually, on 
an average, about 300,000 arobas, or 75,000 Vaflencian quin- 
tals, which is equal to 65,625 hundred weight avoirdupoise. 
The common price is three pezos the quintal, that is to say, 
45 reals of vellon, which gives â total of 900,000 pczos, or 
13,500,000 reals (140,025/. sterling.) 

Oats. Oats are very little cultivated in the kingdom of Va- 
lencia ; they are an object scarcely attended to. 

Barlnj. Barley is cultivated here, particularly in the terri- 
tories of Elche and Alicant. It is of little importance ; a 
small quantity, however, is exported. 

Maize. Maize is also cultivated ; and is in great abun- 
dance every where. 

lilicat. Wheat is cultivated in a great many places of this 
province; but not enough for its consumption. There is an- 
nually, on an average, about 500,000 or 600,000 loads, which, 
at the rate of 14 t reals of vellon the load, gives a produce of 
about 37,600,000 reals of vellon (912,500/. sterling). 

Rice. Rice is one of the important productions of the 
kingdom of Valencia. It is cultivated in great quantities at 
SanrFelipe, Alzira, Sueca, Sollana, Alberife, Castello de la. 
Plana, Cullera, in several other places in the plain, and gene- 
rally in the neighbourhood of rivers, along the sea coasts, and to 
the south of Valencia, from Gandia toCatarrojo. They gather 
annually, on an average, about I 10,000 loads, of ten arobas 
or two quintals and a half each, which makes 1,470,000 aro- 
bas or 350,000 quintals in Valencian pounds, which is equal ts> 
30C,2iO hundred weight avoirdupoise. The common price la 



VALENCIA. 303 

J 50 reals of vtl'on (or ]/. 1 1*. Z<L sterling) the load ; which 
gives 60 reals (or ]Qs. (id. sterling) the quintal. The total of 
which is about 1, ±00,000 pezos or CI ,000,000 reals of vellon 
(213,750/. sterling). 

The following is the manner of cultivating rice in the king- 
dom of Valencia: the earth is prepared by being turned up, 
but it is left even and without furrows ; the rice is then sown, 
covered with water upwards of a foot above its surface (the 
rice grows in the water), and left so till harvest time; the 
reapers then cut it wading; up to their knees in water: they 
put the sheaves on drays which follow them ; it is then trodden 
on by horses or mules, which serve the purposes of threshing. 
The rice remains covered with its husk, to disengage it from 
which they pass it through a mill ; these mills are the same 
as corn ones, but the mill-stone is covered with a coating of 
cork. 

Hunt)/. A small quantity of honey is made in the king- 
dom of Valencia ; it is of little importance. That gathered 
on the mountains which are to the north-east of Alicant, be- 
tween this town and Ibi, is the most delicate ; it is in such 
estimation, that it is sent for a great way, even from Italy : it is 
probable that it owes its quality to the aromatic plant», espe- 
cially rosemary, with which those mountains are covered. 

Wool. There are not many flucks of sheep in this province ; 
the quantity of wool they give is still less considerable; it is 
even insufficient to the wants of the country. It is reduced, 
on an average, to about 20,000 quintals annually, which if 
v.-oith 3,200,000 reali of vellon (33,333/. sterling), at the rate 
of 1G0 reals (or 1/. 13». lc/.) sterling) the quintal. 

Salt. Salt may be counted among the production! of the 
kingdom of Valencia. It is taken from ralt-pitt near Elche 

and Villena. It is enough for the wants <>f the province, -uid 

atmut 6ooo tons arc inmmllj eiporu d of it, wh i wn 

of 888,000 reals of vellon 

Vm I, x 



" 



Y Al 1 i 



A', riin'x. £ormes is gathered Irnn the \rcr- called'/;/ 

cyf conffkra ; 't is a kind of worm known properly by 
the ikiiiiu c&çcvjs (the gall insect), erf which the ancients 
thought so much, which they used it in dying flesh colour, 
and which we should still prize, it the discovery of America 
had not procured us cochineal. It is found on the mountain.» 
where the villages of las Aguas and the mineral waters of 
Buzot are situated, at a quarter of a league from Alicant. 
The peasants gather it, and sell it in the town for reals 
(\0s. .)c/. sterling) (he pound. They gather about 200 quintals 
annually, which give a product of 1,000,000 reals (10,UG/. 
13*. \J. sterling). 

TABLE 

OF THE PRODUCTION'S OF THE KINGDOM OF VALENCIA. 



Articles 





Wine of Alicant 
r.:us.>i)S 

Djcted 1 

Oil 

Almonds 

Dates andPalpa 

Silk 

Wool 

liarilla 

Kali 

Aqua-Azul • • • 

Flax 

Hemp 

Kiee 

K<T'I1CS 

Salt 

Wheat 



. 100 cantar. 



rwls of 



40.000 quint. 
,00 i quint. 

■ i arobas 
4,500 quint. 



1,500 
20 

4, 



140 



6. 
600 



000 pounds 
10 quint. 

01 (juint. 

000 quint. 
00 quint. 

1 00 quint. 

01 l 1 quint. 

oou load 
200 quint 
000 ton 
,1 0( load 



30 
3 2 

45 
210 



50 
160 



40' 



150 

■)U0O 






Total-. 



Reals ol 
Vellon. 


Sterling. 




£. 


f . A. 


96,250,000 


' 


10 


B00,000 




6 8 


1,900,1 00 


1<2,500 





S%,000 


9,333 


6 i 


15,7 


164,062 


10 


945,'UH» 


1 


3 4 


000,000 


6,2 





75,< OitPfo 


761,250 





3,'2OO,0OO 


33,333 


6 8 


6,691 


63,500 





1,600,000 


10,666 


13 4 


1 ,500,1 00 







21,000,000 


218,750 





1 ,-000,000 


I0.4T6 


13 4 


8 B.OOO 


9,250 





86,4! 


900,000 





. 1 25,00( 


- 


10 



There are several articles left out in this table, the amount 
of which 1 have not been able to ascertain, as carobs, sugar- 



V.AT ENCJ \. 

canes; fruits, spart, kelp, barky, oats, maize, boni y. Though 
tht amount of these commodities separately is trifling, taker. 
t' gi tber it must he considerable. 

Notwithstanding the fertility of the sr.il, the variety and 
multiplicity of it productions, the activity and industry <>f the 
inhabitants, riches are very unequally divided. The \ 
pot sess scarcely any thing : they easily manage to live, b< ( 
they subsist upon the productions which srrow to their 
hands, or buy them at a low price : but they do not in any 
degree share in the opulence o( the country which they in- 
habit; the farmers are in narrow circumstances, mnnv even 
poor; this i? in consequence of the high rents of farm-. ■ 
arise from the great number of persons applying lor them ; 
the almo-t certain effect of a population winch is perhaps too 
numerous. 

Notwithstanding its wealth, the kingdom of Valencia is not 
able to support itself without the assistance of its neighbour.-; 
it has neither oxen nor a sufficient number of sheep ; the corn 
which it grows it only enongh for part of the year; it maki •> 
a great quantity of wine, but the greatest part of it is con- 
verted into brandy ; the remainder is not sufficient for its 
consumption. 

Manufacture». The kingdom of Valencia proc noes littk 
wool, yet there are five manufactories off iveoHena and i 
and fine cloths; they are at .\h.i lia, Rogner*, B 

niente, and Alcoy, The amatt woollen itufis are pri 
pally made at 1. nguera ; nothing but the coaraest cloths arc 
a y rente, aad ûnliniente. Rhe manu- 
,,iy at A' Milerable ; the cloths, tl. 

finer, ar. • r quality foi then 

with h'tu nap upon it ; the finest are scarcely . 
nor to the 1» aalitul ■ ion* 

( are tin. r ii t 

ManiseZ; and '••'• ora. I ^ lj - 

,. II. at ot V 



305 VALENCIA. 

com \$ the largest ami inoft important ; it belongs to tin.' fa- 
mily of Arandi ; it< earthen ware is tolerably fine, though it 
is not (.1' the first qnality ; porcelain is also made in it, but in 
«ma 1 quantities, and it is commun. This manufactory might 
have become more considerable, but the count d'Aranda had 
entrusted the direction of it to ait overseer completely unac- 
quainted with the business, consequently his ignorance lias 
been injurious to the progress of the establishment. I do not 
know whether this has been changed since*the death of the 
count. 

In Valencia there are three manufactories of earthen ware 
tiles, calUd azulejos: they have been mentioned in the de- 
scription of that town; they are alsu made at IWanisez, but 
th< y are inferior to those of Valencia. 

This province contains seven paper manufactories, one at 
Ontiuiente, one at Bocay rente, one at Altura, between Se- 
gorbe and the Carthusian monastery of Vrl-de-Chiisto, one at 
San-Felipe, one at Bunol, and two at Alcoy. The five first 
are the least important ; altogether tiny only employ abuut 
forty-five mills ; those at Akoy are the most considerable ; 
in 1799 tnc y nau * forty-eight mills at work. The paper which 
is made at these manufactories is badly beaten, soft, and 
without consistency. 

Coarse or household linen is made at several places; at 
Valencia, Torrento, Castello de la Plana, and San-Felipe ; 
very little is made in the two first towns, more in the third, 
but a great quantity at San-Felipe. There is no establish- 
ment at large for this manufacture; the weavers, dispersed 
and detached, work less on their own account than for indi- 
viduals, who furnish them with the raw materials. 

Sailcloth and rigging are made at Orao near Valencia, and 
at Castello de la Plana ; this manufacture is not consider- 
able. At Grao there is also a dock-yard where vessels are 
built only of about fifty ton, the same as at Vinaroz. 



VALENCIA. 509 

Bridles for horses are made almost every where with the 
filaments of aloes; this i> an inconsiderable article. 

At Elche and at Valencia there are several placet for cur- 
rying leathers, which, however, are nut sent out of the 
country. 

Galloon, laces, and gold and silver fringe, are made at Va- 
lencia ; these are inconsiderable, and used in the country. 

There is a manufactory of potash, or vegetable alkali, at 
Valencia, established in 1790. 

There is another manufactory in this town for wire and 
needles, which is not considerable. 

In the kingdom of Valencia two sorts of soap are made ; one 
black and soft, which serve-, for washing; and one hard and 
mottled white and blue, which is used for shaving : the 
former is made every where, even in the houses of individuals ; 
there are two manufactories of the latter, one at Alcoy, the 
other at Elche. 

Spart is worked here; it is made into mats, carpets, co- 
verings for plants, ropes, and shoes ; this is frequently the 
work of the peasants when they have nothing else to do. 

The brandy distilleries are objects of the first im- 
portance in the kingdom of Valencia. There are a gnat 
homber of them, particularly at Torrento, Liria, Pedralva, 
Murviedro, Xerica, Segorbe, Altura, Aldaya, Cbtva, la <>l- 
lena, Cheste, Benigani, Ontiniente, in the county of Carlet, 
ore. In 1791, it exported about 500,000 Cantatas of brandy, 
which gave a return of upwards of a hundred and twenty-five 
thousand pounds. The price of it 1- generally from 
reals of vellon (from k». 2rf. to St. ■>(!.) the cantata, which i$ 
equal to ten pints and a half Paris mi asure. 

The -ilk manufactories are sidl mon important than the 

distilleries of brandy ; they are extremely numerous in the 

dom ol \ bU n< ia. 'I bote ol the town oi thai Rame have 

been already mentioned -, they occupy upwards 0/ three thou- 

mod iii hundred looms for Mik ttufl», stockings g illoon, and 



310 VALENCIA. 

silk ribbonds; and a great number of little articles of lace are 
made there, ai retz, redezillas, handkerchiefs, bilk lasbes, &C, 
There are besides two hundred and forty-two looms for silk 
stud's in several other places in this province. These looms 
consume annually a million pounds of silk, and occupy 
twenty-eight thousand persons, twenty-two thousand ut" whom 
are in the town of Valencia alone. 

bilk is twisted in different places in the kingdom of Va- 
lencia, for which purpose machines and mills are established 
at Gandia, San-Felipe, Carcajente, Orihucla, and Valencia ; 
the most important establishment of this kind is at Mdanesa, 
near the last mentioned town ; nevertheless, these machines 

are not able to furnish as much as the manufactures of the 
f 

country require ; part of the silk is sent to Priego and Toledo 
in Andalusia, whence it is returned into the kingdom of Va- 
lencia to be worked. 

Commerce, The commerce of the kingdom of Valencia, 
after having been very flourishing, was almost annihilated 
by the civil wars : it had, notwithstanding, resumed its an- 
cient vigour; but the shutting of the ports of the continent to 
the English most necessarily be prejudicial to it; for, inde- 
pendent of the interior of Spain, its commodities were carried 
to Portugal, Holland, France, England, and the Spanish co- 
lonies of America. 

The exports of this province consist in the productions of 
its soil, and in its manufactures. 

Part of the silk studs which are made here is consumed in 
the country ; but the greatest part is carried to Madrid, and 
into some provinces of Spain; the remainder is exported to 
Portugal and Spanish America. 

The tine cloths are hardly ever sent out of the country ; 
part of the coarse cloths are used in it also* and the rest is 
aent to America for clothing the troops. 

The earthen ware of Onda and that of Manisez remain in 
the country ; that of Alcoy is sent into Cataloma, Aragon, the 



VALKXCIA. 31 1 

kingdom of Murcia aid Castile: it is almost the only 
which is to be found in Madrid. 

The paper serves for the consumption of the cocntr. 
the greater part is sent into New Castile, into the kingdom of 
Marcha', and to Cad:/., where it is shipped for America. 

The painted earthen-ware tile-, or afeulejosr, aie used i:i the 
country, but only a small part of them ; a great many are 
sent into the interior of Spain as well as to Cadiz, v. lure they 
are shipped lor Spanish America ; and to Marseilles, whence 
they are conveyed into Africa. 

Soap, bridles fur horses, linens, galloon, lace, and gold and 
silver fringe, are not sent out of the province. 

Nails, wire, and needles are sent to different provinces of 
Spain. 

Spart, worked into rcpes, coverings for plants, mats, car- 
pi ts, i- used partly in this province, partly in Catalonia and 
New Castile. A g re at quantity of it was formerly exported 
raw to the different French ports of the Mediterranean, par- 
ticularly to Marseilles, but the exportation was prohibited in 
1783; permissions are sometimes given to individuals te ex- 
port a specified quantity but it must be worked. The inten- 
tion of this condition is ju>t, as it produces another employ- 
ment for the people., a new branch of industry, and another 
currency in the province. The spart thus Worki d g* - td the 
Coast ot Provt DC) . 

J'art of the oranges lemon, and other fruits arc consumed 
in the country; the surplus is sent into New Castile, puiti- 
cularly to Madrid. 

P<dm are * nt all over Spain and into Italy ; they are eon- 

• n. 
Wool . exported from Alicant, but il ii produce 

of the kingdom ol Valencia; it is sent thither from tb 
bouring pi"'. in 
Poi | :,d quintal ire drii d upi n n o - 

r; about 2,000 qu mal i i m the 



312 VALENCIA. 

province; nearly 4,000 are sent into Catalonia and Castile ; 
6,000 into France, and the remainder to England. This ex- 
portation produces 1,110,000 reals of vellon (11,875/. ster- 
ling). 

Nearly 4,500 quintals of almonds are gathered every year; 
about 500 are consumed in the province, about 1000 quintals 
are exported to Catalonia and Castile, and 3000 to Marseilles 
and to Holland. The common price being 210 reals of vel- 
lon the quintal (2/. 3s. 9d-), the exportation into the interior 
produces 210,000 real cf vellon (2, IS?/. 105.) and the foreign 
exportation 630,000 reals of vellon (6,541/. 13s. 4 J.) 

Barilla, kali, aqua-azul, and kelp, are exported into France, 
England, Genoa, and Venice. Upon an average 100,000 
quintals of barilla, 25,000 of kali, and 4000 of aqua-azul are 
sent out yearly. The port of Alicant alone exports 1 50,000 
quintals of barilla ; but a great part comes from the king- 
dom of Murcia. These articles produce a total of 5,000,000 
reals (52,083/. 6s. 8<i.) for the barilla; 1,000,000 reals 
(10,416/. 135. 4c?.) for the kali ; and 96,000 reals (1 ,000/) for 
the aqua-aznl. 

About 2S.000 quintals of figs arc dried, almost 8,000 of 
which are consumed in the country, the other 20,000 are sent 
out of it; 4,000 into the Castilts and Catalonia, and 16,000 
into England and Holland. A product results of 610,000 
reals of vellon (6,6661. 135. 4d.) 

Pates are sent to France, England, Holland, and the north 
of Europe. This article, including the commerce of palms, 
amounts to 600,000 reals (6,250/.) 

Upon an average, about 3,500,000 cantaras of wine are 
made yearly. This quantity would be sufficient for the con- 
sumption of the province, and would furnish besides a consi- 
derable branch of exportation ; but that so great a quantity 
of it is made into brandy, that there does not remain enough 
fir the use of the inhabitants, who are obliged to import some 
from Aragon. However, about 1,200,000 cantaras of it were 
exported, which went lo Cadiz to be sent to Spanish Aune-t 



VALENCIA» 3; 3 

rica, as well as to France, to Cette, Bourdeaux, Rouen, and 
Ilavre-de Grace, and to England; hence results a product of 
S',120,000 reals of velkm (95,000/.) The wines of Murviedro 
are preferred for exportation into France, from their being 
very full-bodied and high-coloured. The sweet wines of 
Alicant are sent to France, England, and the north of Europe; 
the quantity annually exported amounts to 800,000 reals of 
vellon (8,333/. 6s.) 

The greatest part of the brandy made in the kingdom of 
Valencia is sent into England and Holland ; hut that of France 
is preferred, as being les» acrid, and both mellower and plca- 
santer. In 1701 five hundred thousand canturas were ex- 
ported, which produced upwards of 12,000,000 reals 
(125,000/.) 

The harvest of rice, upon an average, produces 120,000 
loads; 40,000 loads are consumed in the country, the other 
60,000 are sent to the two Castilea, La Mancha, Aragon, An- 
dalusia, Catalonia, and Majorca: this article amounts to 
12,800,000 reals of ve'.lon (133,333/. 6s.) 

There is no foreign exportation of hemp. A third of the 
quantity produced serves for the consumption of the country; 
the other two-thirds, which one year with another amount to 
about 50,000 quintals, are sen! into the interior of Spain, and 
are consumed in the arsenal of the royal navy ; they produce 
9,000,000 reali of vellon (93,750/.) 

A great many impediment! are thrown in tin nay of the 
exportation of silh ; it is only allowed for SIX months after 
file fa ..,'.- it If in that period the national manufacturers 
want it, they are at lib rty to lake a from the merchant! who 

hive bought it, on reimbursing them the purchase-in y. 

with six per cent interest; tb< consequence is, thai the mer- 
chants, uncertain whether they trill be allowed to export the 
silk which they bare purchased, no longer take any foreign 
commissions Ibr it, and thus, this branch of exportation has 
fallen. i dut] bai been laid opon the silk seal 

put oi ;. ,.!<., ninerea n so and one quartillo 



314 



VALENCIA. 



(\s. M\d. sterling) on every pound, of twelve Valencinn 
ounces, winch is almost a fi fill of its value : this is another 
obstacle to the c\\n> nation <i it. A very small quantity, 
twisted and dyed, is «cut into Portugal. 

Generally 1/>00,000 pounds of silk are made annually; of 
uhieh 1,100,000 are Consumed in (lie province, and -i-00,000 
pounds are exported to Talavera de la Reyna, Requina, ToU - 
do, Granada, Seville, Priego, and Catalonia. From this re- 
sults a product of '20,000,000 reals (208,333/. 6s.) Part of 
this silk is twisted and dyed : It costs 

Raw silk 50 reals. .10*. Sfd, sterling. 

Fur twisting it__ S 1 8 

For dying it with common 

colours 3 U 

(7T 12.v. $.\<l. 

About 200 quintals of kernits are gathered ; nearly 20 
quintals remain in the country ; 10 quintals of it are vent into 
the other provinces of Spain where there are manufactories, 
and 40 into France. This exportation produces 900,000 reals. 

Six thousand tons of salt are sent to England, Holland, and 
the north ; which produce 8SS,000 reals of vellon (9250/.) 

STATEMENT OF THE EXPORTATION OF THE KINGDOM OF 

VALENCIA. 

rxi'onTATios OUT or stain. 



ARTICLES OF 

COMMM'.' !.. 



Wine 

Wine of Alicant 

Raisons 

Dried Figs 

Almonds 

Dates and Palms 

Barilla 

Kali 

Anqna-azul 

Kermès 

Salt 

Brandy 



QUANTITY. 



1 ,200,000 cantar 



34,000 «juin. 

16 oMdqum. 
3,000 quirk 



1 00,000 ( 

_•■..()()()« 

4,000 < 

1 10 quiii. 
(),000 tons. 
mo cantar, 



>quin. "J 
iquin. > 
> quin.- J 



VA 1. 1 K 



REALS OP 

Yi.r.i,' :•. 

9, 120,000 

800,000 

1,020,000 

ô 1 2,000 
6 .0,000 
000,000 

l,.':2t,000 

7 1 >0,000 

SSH,000 



£. 



95,000 

8,333 

10,6*25 

.5,333 
0,5 u2 
0,250 





ti 
vO 

6 
10 





15,S75 

7,2.(1 13 4 
9,250 



12.000 O IJ.,000 



total.— |'j:.7 • I 000 289,52 ) le 8 



VA I EN CIA. 



31. 



EXPORTATION INTO TUF. lXTr.l!!OU Ol" SPAIN. 





m'Asrm'. 


VALUE. 


AV.JICtV.f OF 
COMMERCE. 


■BALS OF 

VF. 1 1 


•£. s. 


Raisins - 

Almonds 

Oil- 

Uice _.- 


4,000 quintals 
1,000 quint. 
- u arabes 
8O,00p leads 

00 quint. 
400,000 pounds 
4,000 quint. 

10 quint. 


120,000 

2 1 OUO 

10,000 

12,800.000 

9,0 
20,000,000 
128,000 
200,000 


1,250 

7 10 

40,625 

133,383 6 8 


Hemp- 

Silk 


03,750 
208,833 G 8 


Dried Figs 

Kermès 


1,333 ()' 8 
2, OS a 6 8 




TOTAL 


46,358,000 


482,895 10' S 


Foreign Commerce.... 
Interior c • mou rçe 


27,704,000 

[h.:', s 06 


289,520 H) K 

10 S 


General Total 


71,152,001' 


772,416 13 V 



If to this sum be a M< I the produce of the manufactures and 
of the exportation of Spart, and of fruits, fur winch 1 have qq 
data of calculation, the amount will be found very consider- 
able. Thesingle articlt of silks goes a great way towards it; 
about «lcren hundred thousand pounds of silk are worked ; the 
productions of two hundred thousand pounds remain in the 
country : the merchandise arising from the working of nine 
hundred thousand pounds an sent i ni ol il ; Ibis quantity of 
silk is- worth 54,000,000 ol v. linn j ;i.s,. , namely 

-l -,<■ Oi : i »r tin raw silk, 7,200,000 i 

; for twisting it, and 2,7*00,000, («£.28,125) for 
dying it with common colours» I !ia\ * heard the lam total df 
Ibis i Jtporiation stated to bt 
and it a;- 



316 VALENCIA. 

are person 1 who make it amount to 210,000,000 real», 
(«£•0,500,000) which is perhaps a little too much. 

The kingdom of Valencia has likewise an importation, but 
very much inferior to its exportation. It receives wine 
from Aragon and Catalonia ; woollens, fine cloths, trinkets, 
some silks, millinery, and wheat from France; ironmongery 
from France and England ; spices from Holland and France ; 
linens from France, Silesia and Switzerland ; scents, perfume-, 
pomatums from France ; salt butter from Holland; and salt 
fish and herrings from England and Holland. 

This province carries on this trade without any harbour; 
it has buta few roads, one of which only is good; its 
coast is very dangerous, particularly when the wind blows 
violently from the east. The trade is carried on through 
Alicant, Cullera, Grao, Santa Pola, Gandia, Denia and Vi- 
naroz. 

Alicant has a very safe good road, which large vessels can 
easily enter : dried fruits, barilla, kali, wine, and woollens are 
exported from it ; the last are not the produce of the king- 
dom of Valencia. It receives linens from Switzerland and Si- 
lesia, spices from Holland and France, ironmongery from 
England and France, camlets, woollens, fine cloth-, trinkets, 
and linens from France. It is the principal commercial town 
of the kingdom of Valencia, and the residence of the consuls 
of other nations. A great deal of business is transacted in 
it, and before the war with England, the flags of all the na- 
tions of Europe might be seen dying there almost all the year 
round. 

Cullera has only a bad road, where there is very little im- 
portation ; its exportation is confined to rice, which is sent 
to the island of Majorca and Andalusia. 

Grao has neither road nor harbour; it has nothing but 
a flat shore, where vessels are unloaded, in a very in- 
convenient manner. In 1792, a place of debarkation was 
begun to be built, for which the merchants raised a subscrip* 



VALENCIA. 317 

tion ; the bank of St. Carlos advanced five millions of real;, 
(£.52,083 Go-. Sd). and the government also furnished funds ; 
but in a twelvemonth the works were neglected and even 
given up, and bad weather has so damaged them that the 
success of the undertaking is become problematical. The 
trade of Grao, both exports and imports, is all carried on with 
Trance ; it receives linens, woollens, ironmongery, trinkets, 
spices and corn, and returns wines, dried fruits, barilla, and 
kali, nearly to the amount of half the importations; brandy 
is likewise exported to Holland and the north of Europe. 
The amount of the exportation in I7T3 was twelve millions 
•f reals {£. 125,000). 

Santa Pola is a ?mall port fur shelter, and has no com- 
merce. 

Gandia, Denia, and Vinaroz, are merely open shores with- 
out either harbours or roads. Their importation was toler- 
ably considerable, but it has ceased for some years, their cus- 
tom house having been suppressed ; at present they export 
brandy, and some trifling articles. 

Roads, in/is, and modes of carriage. If we except the 
three cantons of Biscay, there is not a province in Spain, 
the roads of which are so good as those of the kingdom of 
Valencia. We have given a description of the road which 
leads from the gate of Ahnanza to the capital of this pro- 
vince, through an extent of thirteen leagues and a quarter ; 
it continues from Valencia to Castello de la Plana, a dis- 
tance of tf-n leagues and a half, and the rich fields through 
which it lies all the way contribute to embellish it. 

The roads of the interior arc by no meat» so good ; yet 
many of them are not absolutely bad : thai which leads from 
Valencia to Maniacs, that from the same town to Grao, that 
from Onbuela to Fuente dr la Higuert, here and there ex- 
cepted, that from Alcala d<- Chiverl to Vinaroz, and a great part 
of thnt «rbk h leads from Valencia into Aragon, ire tolerably 
good; that from Valencia to LiriaVAndellft, Xericjj and 
gorb»', though most frequcn.lv &9tt tBOvntalht, ».. not b*4> 



3] S VA LIA CI A. 

The roads have been I ah en cut of in tln> province ; Lut 
there «re nota sulii dooX Dumber ofJto'idges: repass *c- 

vi-ral little rivers and guUeys, wh cli in rainy seasons bacooofl 
impetuous torrent* over which there are no bridges j there is 
none over the r i \ « r lvda, which is creased three times, in the 
road i rot u Qrihuela to Valencia j there is none over the river 
Car.ales, in the road fro:; Vienna to Segorbe ; there is none 
over the river Servol, nor over the Llozobay, nor the J near, on 
the road lVotn Madrid to Valencia ; it i> true, it would he dif- 
ficult to build one across the Jucar, as that river sometimes 
swells so much asto overflow half a league of ground. 

A custom, perhaps improperly allowed, considerably rouiri* 
hutes to the breaking up of the roads o! the kingdom of Valencia, 
particularly the cross-roads. Peoph continually go along tin m 
roads picking up the » xi it 'inents of animals, to convert them 
into manure ; at the same time they raise light layers of earth, 
«hie!; they believe to be impregnated with salt, proper for 
fertilizing the & oii : the consequence is that the roads become 
uneven, excavations are farmed in them, and they grow 
worse and worse every day. 

The great road which crosses the kingdom of Valencia, 
from the gate of Ahnanza to the frontiers of Catalonia, i» 
full of inns. There are several in the town of Valencia, 
amongst which the Golden Lion and the Four Nations, are 
tolerably good ones. The other inns 01 this road are often 
called vent as; but we find tolerable provisions in almost all, 
we are well treated. The venta of Alcudieta and the 
tenta del Rey are good and very neat : we are tolerably will 
off at Murviedro, and Vinaroz, and still better at Castello 
de la. Plana;, but the accommodations are very hadat Alcab 
de Chivert and Benicasi. 

We are not so well accommodated in the inns on the cross 
roads; there are a great many, and they are generally bad : 
yet there is no want of provisions, which are abundant al- 
r.'.c^ every where. The venta de Fucnle de la I liguera i- 
toleiably good : every thiug is to be found in it, A> l£]«ke> 



VA LEX CI A. 3\9 

though rather a large and populous town, they are all bad ; 
Orihuela, an episcopal town, of a considerable population bas 
not a single inn : even tbe posadas, of this town are but mid- 
dling; but there are very capital inns at Alicant, even better 
than those of Valencia. The prices are every where mode- 
rate : in the large inns we pay two piécettes (Is. 8<f.) a din- 
ner at the tabic d'hôte. 

The kingdom of Valencia nearly vie» with Catalonia in the 
beauty and goodness of its carriages : there are a great many 
coaches and calashes, which are drawn by good mules, as 
are the carts, which are large and well made. .Most carriages 
are drawn by mules ; yet sometimes asses are used, but 
for trifling services. Covered waggons regularly set out once 
or twice a week from Valencia, Alicant, and Onhuela for 
Madrid, loaded with provisions for that town. There are 
some also for the purpose of conveying travellers, whose for- 
tune will not permit them to take more convenient carriages. 
Covered waggons also set out from Valencia at stated periods 
for Barcelona ; they carry merchandise and travellers ; these 
belong to the Catalans. 

Natural History. The natural history of the kingdom of 
Valencia is not yet well known. At first it does not appear 
very interesting. The animal kingdom presents nothing 
which merits attention. There are no mines worked, except 
some iron ones. 

Amongst the animals of this province, wc are only abl< to 
particularize the Kermcs, or gall insect, a worm which i< taken 
from the tree called quercus-COCCifera, and which gives the 
Ih >h colour : it i» Pound upon tbe mountains near Alicant : it 
ba> been already mentioned in speaking of tbe agriculture of 
the kingdom of Valencia. 

The vegetable kingdom is here very rub ami important: 
the Abbé CavanHIas, a botauUt alreadl known by some inte- 
resting works, is employed m describing tl»«- rare plants and 



320 VALENCIA. 

flowers that are found in Valencia, and particularly upon 
the mountains of Mariola, Pena-Golasa, Mongo, and Aytana. 
A Qoral of these lias been published, containing a great variety 
<>t genera and species. 

The mineral kingdom presents some objects worthy the 
attention of naturalists. We may mention the following as 
the most important : 

Amine of copper in sheets of slate, full of white and red 
mica, near the Carthusian monastery of Val-de-Christo. 

Iron mines between Biar and Villena, to the south ca^t of 
Diar, near Fredas and la Pobla, near Forçai, Castelfort, in 
the Sierra d'Espadan, near Canaret, Ant ilia, Ayodar, and l>e- 
tw-een Rotava and Marchuquera. 

lilood-stones on the Sierra Gitana, four leagues from 
Alicant. 

Veins of red-lead in the calcareous rocks upon the moun- 
tain of Alcoray, two leagues from Alicant, and upon the 
mountains between Valencia and San-Felipe. 

A mine of virgin mercury among calcareous rocks, in a 
hard white and calcareous soil, at the fo >t of a steep mountain, 
near San- Felipe. It was given up a long time ago, but was 
worked again in IÏ93 ; it produced from a quintal of mine- 
ral, thirteen pounds of mercury, twenty-one pounds of cop- 
per, eighteen of sulphur, and of arsenic, and a hundred and 
tweuty-eightb part of silver. But it is s-aid that it is again 
given up. 

Another mine of virgin mercury in separate globules, but 
very abundant, scattered in a clayey and drossy soil, which 
crises the town of Valencia from cast to west two feet in 
depth; it passes under the houseof the marquis de Dos Aguas, 
iu the square of Villarasa, where a well was dug about the 
middle of the eighteenth century to prove its existence. 

A mine of cobalt, near Ayodar ; but it has been neglected 

A mine of alum, near Castel-Favi. 



VALENCIA. 

Of ochre, between Villena and Biar, to the south-east of the 
latter place. 

Of amber in small quantities, in the mountain of Alcoray, 
fifteen feet deep. 

Of small coloured crystals, with two very regular points irt 
the form of diamonds, at the foot and to the cast of a high 
mountain, two leagues south-west of Alicant. Some of them 
are white, some red and some yellow ; the red and yellow 
ones are hyacinths. 

Of IMadraporite, in the mountain Alcoray, and in a steep 
mountain near San-Felipe, above the mine of virgin mercun 
which has already been mentioned. 

Several petrified sea substances, above the same mine of 
virgin mercury. 

Some singular fossils on the mountain Alcoray. Some halt 
petrified shells on the top of a rock upon which the castle of 
Alicant is built. 

Oysters, and other bivalve fossil shells on the Sierra Gifana, 
and on the mountain of St. Julian ; thé latter are inclosed in 
a bed of gypsum surrounded with pieces of slate. 

Several other petrified sea substances, as oyster-shelh, 
muscles, tellina, buccina, and ursina, in the environs of Ali- 
cant : some are in a rock of lime, others in banks of calcareous 
stone, mixed with fine sand, others in banks of round stones 
upon beds of yellow, red and grey marl. 

Spiral land shells, in a cave in the mountain of Tufal. 

Chalk in abundance, at Picacente, two leagues from Va- 
lencia. 

Coloured gypsum, resembling red leaJ, upon the mountain 
Alcoray, two leagues from Alicanl. 

A beautiful quarry of fine red uyp^um w'th white \. iri», at 
the foot of the mountain of Tural, some leagues fr< 
cia, as well a- on the mountain Vic 

Banks • ii of different colouri, in the ert 

Alicant, undci banks ol round itonei, in which some I 

Vol. i. v 



VALENCIA. 

sea substances are said to have been found; they are of grey, 
yellow, red, black, chesnut and rose colour. 
A great deal of silex half way up the calcareous mountains, 

between lbi and Biar; it i* mad.- into gun flint.-. 

Tin re are some peculiarities on the mountain on which 
the castle of Alicant is situated. Besides the fossil shells 
vci.ch are on the highest part, and which I have already men- 
tioned, there are on the cast side some fragments of agate, 
enclosed in calcareous rocks, and some red silex, waved; and 
on the west side, towards the town, toiue false asbestos, and a 
little lower down some banks of tripoli. 

Haifa league to the north-east of the same town, there are 
some fields covered with a great quantity of those stones often 
called lenticular stones, and which are the true nummular! ; 
the country people call them the Magician'* money. 

The kingdom of Valencia contains some quarries of the 
finest marble. These are, first to the east of San-Felipe; 
„'d. at Barclieta, near that town ; 3d. at Buscarrô, which is not 
far from it; 4th. on a very high mountain three leagues 
north-east of the same town; 5th. on mount Sagarra, near 
Segorhe ; tith. at Nincrola, three leagues from Valencia ; 
7tb. on an eminence on the side of the village of Naguera, 
three leagues from the same town. The marble of Ninerola 
is white ; it was used in making the statues and bass-reliefs in 
the house of Dos Aguas at Valencia. That at three leagues 
north-east of San-Felipe, forms the entire mass of the mountain ; 
it is of four kinds; white, rose colour, yellow, and a straw 
colour or paler yellow. Those of mount Segarra were famous 
in the times of the Romans, who dug very fine ones from it. 
Those of Naguera arc of a dark red, full of very fine black- 
capillary veins; they are very handsome, very hard, and sus- 
ceptible of a fine polish. 

There are also some large veins of alabaster inclosed in 
white calcareous rocks, between Vilhna and Biar, to the south- 
east of this last place, and a great quantity of superb white 



VALENCIA. SS'3 

ttlubaster at two leagues from Ahcant, in a cavern, of which 
we shall presently speak. 

There are several caverns in this province ; hut only 
two merit attention ; one is in the mountain of Tufal, some 
leagues from Valencia, the other two from Alicant. The 
former is particularly remarkable for its great extent ; it con- 
tains many spiral land shells. The latter is full of handsome 
white stalactites, which are formed by drops of water filtering 
through stones and calcareous earth : there is also in this a 
most beautiful alabaster. 

The Sierra Gitana, situated at four leagues from Alicant, 
merits particular attention. It forms a high chain of calca- 
reous rocks, of various heights ; in some places it is of a cal- 
careous earth saturated with vitriol ; in others, of a metallic 
marble, and in others again, of an earth loaded with gypsum. 
This mountain is subject to frequent earthquakes. 

There are several salt-pits in the kingdom of Valencia ; 
particularly near Elche, Alicant, and Villena; the first 
i- tolerably large ; the second, called de la Mata, is almost 
at the sea side, with which however it has no commu- 
nication; the last is two leagues in circumference. A great 
quantity of salt is obtained by evaporation ; the water is left, 
to be exhaled by the sun, the salt crystalizes, is gathered, 
and made into enormous masses. The pit, near Alicant, sup- 
plies the most. 

Rock salt is likewise found in Valencia. A detached 
hill, four leagues from the Salt-pit at Villena, is one 
IIlas^ of r>.ck salt, covered with a bed of gypsum of dif- 
ferent colours. There is also a very good salt-pu on the chain 
of mountains which form the boundaries towards Aragon, 
near the Sk ria of Vclticbl and tbat of Cubilla, between tbc 
■ourcj of the two liulc riven which run to Andilla and 
Bexis. 

At the bottom of the mountain on which the monastery of 
Esperanza . . rrcar Sego:b\ B fountain issu«-», thtJ 

v 9 



934 VALENCIA. 

water of whHi is said to have a petrifying quality : it ha» 
already l>ecn menti. 

Mineral waters are not very' numerous in the kingdom of 
ncia ; there are only three cold ami I wo tin ■rmal springs. 
The- three fir- .ir Navaja.-, at Villa -Vieja near Nules 

and at Sai ..ioha in the territory ofliuiml. '1 his is called the 
i-untain of S t Vineent. The two hot springs are not far 
from Alieanl ; one, culled Fuente-Caliente, is two leagues 
soutb-west of the town, at the foot and to the east of a hlfb 
mountain of lime stone; the other is four leagues from the 
town, in the territory of Buzot, at the foot of the Sierra 
Gitaua; there are some baths in this last ; it raises Farcn- 
heit's thermometer to 10 1°. It is pretended, hut without any 
proof, that it contains iron, and Glauber, salt. None of 
these waters have been properly analiz» d. 

Arts and Sa. • ■ .-. The learned men whom the kingdom 
of Valencia has produced, owed for a long time their success 
entirely to themselves ; they found in their country no estab- 
lishment consecrated to the cultivation of the sciences; there 
were only some spiritless schools, episcopal and monastic, 
where nothing was taught but scholastic theology, Aristotle's 
philosophy, and, at t ; mes, the canon law. 

It was not till the fifteenth century that universities 
began to be established. That of Valencia was founded hy 
S.Vincent Terrier in 1411, and received the royal sanc- 
tion in 1440. A second was soon afterwards established at 
Orihuela, and Francis Borgia founded one at Gandia in 
J549. 

In thc-e three universities theology, the canon and civil 
law, medicine, and philosophy were taught. There were a 
great many professors: that of Gandia, which was the 
smallest, had eigbleen ; four for theology, two for the canon 
anil five for the civil law, four for medicine, and three for phi- 
losophy. 



EXCTA. 325 

Education in these three universities, however, was incom- 
plete and insufficient ; their professors were ill paid, and often 
iH chosen ; their schools had all the defects of the other uni- 
versities <•; . Kothing was taught in them btrt scho- 
lastic theology, Galenic med cine, and paripatetic philosophy. 
lime was lost in dis] \v\i_: en nothing; subrtiltfes, Yt rbo 
and sophistry tobk place of learning, eloquence, and truth. 

At length these inconveniences were felt. The university 
of Gandia was supero-ed in the eighteenth century, and the 
schools of ih.it of Orihuela permitted to subsist in their an- 
cient form ; but the faculty of medicine was entirely sup- 
pressed. The government directed it's attention chiefly to the 
university of Valencia, whose n veinv. 1 .menlod. Se- 

veral useful establishments have been made there; a new 
form of interior administration has been given to if, and new 
chairs erected. These changes were made in 1786 by Charles' 
III. We think it the more important to show the actual 
-'ate of this university, as it is the only one in Spain whose 
form can become useful to the progress of the sciences. 
- There are now fifty-eight professors in the university of Va- 
lencia, two for the Latin grammar, one for poetry and oratory, 
two for Greek, one for Hebrew, six for philosophy, two for 
the mathematics, one for mechanics and natural philosophy, 
one for astronomy, eleven for medicine, seven for the civil 

five for the canon law, one for ecclesiastic. d ttféCrpime, 
.and eighteen for theology. They are all for life; with the 
exception of thr< e of philosophy, live of medicine, two ot 
civil law, one of th<- cam n, and seven of tbeohjgj i li.» are 

substitute-, to ih their functions constitute a 

kind of noMciate, by which they khi y improve their leflffl 
and i-:.w r themselves able to fill in COWSe of t rne the 
■ .'s ot tb< . lor life All tin ^e chairs an given 

Ml 11. 

• . : these professors, and thé th intra 



326 VALENCIA. 

they arc to teach, have been fixed by a regulation issued from 
royal authority. 

The course of philosophy is to last three years. In the first 
year, the professors teach logic and ontology ; in the second, 
metaphysics, moral philosophy, and the elements of the ma- 
thematics ; and in the third, natural philosophy : they are to 
follow in their lessons Jacquier's Institutions of Philosophy. 

The course of medicine is to last five years. It is entrusted 
to eleven professors, one for chemistry and botany, one fur 
anatomy, three for the theory of medicine, and one for prac- 
tical medicine : these are all for life ; one triennial for botany, 
another triennial for anatomy, and three others, also triennial, 
for the theory of medicine. The students begin their studies 
with botany and chemistry, then go to the theory of medi- 
cine and anatomy, and lastly attend the lessons of clinical 
medicine. 

The professor of chemistry and botany is to teach che- 
mistry during the autumn and winter twice a day, and every 
day an hour and a half each time : in the morning, chemistry 
relative to mines, arts, and manufactures, according to the 
principles of Baume ; and in the afternoon, medicinal che- 
mistry according to the precepts of Macquer. In spring, he 
lectures in the botanic garden on the virtues of plants, ac- 
cording to Murray. 

The professors of anatomy teach anatomy during the whole 
year, from plates, skeletons, and artificial pieces of anatomy ; 
and give, in the time of vacation only, thirty lessons on dead 
bodies, always according to Heister's Anatomy. 

The professors of theoretical medicine, in turn, explain, in the 
the course of three years, physiology and pathology, according 
to Boerhaave ; the materia medica, according to Tessari ; the 
Aphorisms of Hippocrates and Boerhaave; and the description 
of diseases from Home's Principia Medicinae: it is recom- 
irer.dcd to them, in their explanations, to make use of the 



Valencia. :'>:t 

works of Van-Swietcn and other good author-;, chiefly nati 
ones. 

The professor of clinical medicine is to give his lessons in 
the hospital, morning; and evening, and then carry his pupils, 
the number of which is confined to twenty, to visit the sick. 
He is to open the dead bodies, and to make an exact journal 
of his observations. This mode is very well conceived ; and 
the known execution of it must be of the greatest utility. 

It is the part of one of the professors of the civil law to 
teach the law of nature and of nations, taking for the basis 
of his lessons the Institutionis juris natuns et gentium of 
J. B. Alsaici. The others are to explain successively, in the 
space of four years, the History of the Roman Jurisprudence, 
of Ch. Ant. Martini ; the Institutes of Justinian, with the 
commentaries of Vinarius; the Syntagma Antiquitatum Ro- 
manorum of the same; the Pandects, according to Reinec- 
cius; and the civil law of the crown of Castile, according to 
Asso y Manuel. 

The lessons of the canon law have for their bnsis the works 
Lackics and Van-Espen: wha regards countries unconnected 
with Spain, is left out ; the decrees of the council of Trent 
are added, and the ecclesiastical laws peculiar to this kingdom, 
conformably to the decrees of those councils, concordats, and 
national laws. 

One of the professors of theology explains do Locis Theo- 
logis, according to Juenia, Nina, and Cano ; another, Eccle- 
siastical History, according to Laurent Berti ; four others the 
Master of the Sentences, with the commentaries ofEstibs ; 
three others morals, according to Genetto and the books of 
Wisdom; and two others the Holy Scriptures. 

The lessons on ecclesiastical discipline have fir their basis 

the Christian Antiquities of Selvagius; those on mathematics 

the works of la Caille, with the notes of Maria; ami those of 

astronomy tli<- works of the same la ('aille: tin s^ last o jht 

• on spherical trigonometry, and geometrical utso* 

v 4 



3£S VALENCIA. 

nomy. Besides these lessons, which the professor is to g Lvq 
in the schools, tin re is one twice a week, in the night time, 
a: ih observatory, to explain the use of the instruments, and 
to mate astronomical observations in the pc^îwc of the 

pupils. 

The lessons of mechanic? and natural philosophy are to be 
given on statics, hydrostatics, hydrodinamics, optic», catop- 
trics, diôptrios, and perspective : they are given for two hours 
every day ; the first hour is devoted to explanations, and the 
second to experiment. 

The masters are excited to emulation by rewards. The 
professors, besides their appointments, enjoy a pension of a 
thousand reals: of yello» (10/. Ss. <-</. sterling) aft r tw ve 
years professorship, and tlouble that after twe;;;.. Pensions, 
of a thousand reals are likewise given to ;ny prof) .-.-or who 
shall publish three good dissertations un the subject he 
teaches, and three thousand reals u> any author of a book 
thought worthy of being taught in the schools. Prizes for 
the pupils are. also fixed. 

This university has a library,, which it owes to the gene- 
rosity of the abbey Bayer. It does not contain more than 
fifteen t'c usand volumes, among which there.:. ■ I 

works, principally on medicine. I i.- Miperintcnded by a li- 
brarian and two under librarian/, and i^ opi n to the public 
every day, except on holidays, for two hours m the naming, 
and two in the afternoon : it is very much impieniud. 

This is a noble establishment, It has masters of ovtry 
k'md. Education is easy, and freed from a part of the pré- 
indices Vrhiçb have loug paraliztd tin: schools of Spain. The 
yoke of the p ripai.' lie ph losophy has he. u ihro n (uf; the 
form employed is something similar to that of the schools of 
other nations. A school of clinical medicine has been added 
to it, the plan of which is admirably conceived. The greatest 
advantages may be expected from it; but it still want.- unr.c 
things necessary to render in^tiuction completely useful, 



VALENCIA. 329 

Courses of chemistry, botany, natural philosophy, and astro- 
nomy are given, but there arc very fen machines and instru- 
ments: there is no laboratory, no botanical garden, and no 
observatory, except some rooms in the building of the uni- 
versity consecrated to astronomical observations. The king 
has settled the funds for the construction and acquisition of 
these ani les; but tiie sinallness of tnese funds leaves no hope 
01 kbeir soon posses^")! them. 

It appears too that the professors are very much restrained 
in the choice of the bo<.ks firm which they are to give their 
lessons : they are also deprived of tiie assistance of those 
which might cuntam a more clear and certain doctrine, new 
view» and discoveries which would overturn the principles 
established in those given to them as guides. Tue professor 
of chemistry, for example, is obliged to follow Butiné in che- 
mistry applied to the arts, and Maquier in medicinal che- 
mistry; chemistry has, however, since tiie publication of 
the works of those chemists, been brought to greater perfec- 
tion ; it is enriched by many modern discoveries and dif- 
ferent principles are now followed to what those books con- 
tain. Thi i f Murraj have been given as :l guide to the 
r of botany, who is not enjoined to make use of any 
ol the 1) toks winch contain the methods most generally fol- 
i d hitherto, neither those of Tournejbrt, of Linna-us, i.or 
of Jussjeq. The physiology and patbologj of Boprhaave, which 
have ïov a long timi be< n almt -i forgotten, are directed tube 
Jit. In determining the subjects for the thème of the 
r of in 1 . i ral philosophy, they have de- 
toe |ib< ; wing the importai? 

: .,ci ii c\|r n. c nt- on ;ur and lire, (ienius 
; heeoiiu s OMn 
ng u oieii alone eau ac- 
celerate; the | 

i : the pro. 

j ,:d perform cxperiw 



330 VALENCIA. 

twice a da}' ; they have imposed a task on him which the most 
profound and experienced chemist could not perform : some 
cif the experiments require three or four days preparation; how 
can the time from morning to evening suffice ? their lectures of 
course can be but superficial and of little use. 'Hie memory 
of the pupil, who is not equal to such forced labour, is also 
overburdened. Not more than three lessons a week have 
ever been given on this science ; and it is as much as the 
greatest chemists can do. The same fault with regard to the 
course of natural philosophy and astronomy has been com- 
mitted. Another inconvenience is the smallness of the ap- 
pointments of the professors; the most considerable arc seven 
thousand reals of vellon (72/. 18.?. id. sterling). At this price 
it is impossible to procure good matters. It must neverthe- 
less be allowed, that this establishment is still in its infancy : 
it is much to have taken the first step; time will show these 
inconveniences, and the same zeal that directed the first re- 
gulations, will prompt to correct whatever is defective. 

There are likewise some monastic schools in the k ngdom 
of Valencia, in which philosophy and theology aie taught; 
but the professors, absolutely independent, follow at will the 
routine which they have drawn up according to their masters, 
or which they found already established in their cloisters. 
By this means, these schools have all the inconveniences of 
the others of Spain, and have not the advantages of those of 
the university of Valencia. 

The library of that university is not the only one that offers 
its resources to the public; the town of Valencia contains 
another much more considerable, that of the archbishopric: 
it has been spoken of in the description of that town. 

The arts have for a long time been held in honour in Va- 
lencia. There are some academies now in this town, and 
some schools, in which one can instruct and improve one's 
self. I could only repeat here what 1 have said of them io 
the description of that town. 



VALENCIA. 331 

The kingdom of Valencia is one of the provinces of Spain 
■which have produced the must distinguished men in the 
-sciences, literature, and the arts. It would be useless to re- 
peat here the long list of those whom the single town of Va- 
lencia has produced; suffice it to give a list of those born in 
the different other places of this province. 

The theologians have been the most numerous. John Va- 
lero of Segorbe, Ferdinand de Loazez of Alicant, Francis 
Josser of Gasteîlo de la Plana, Cnristobal Moreno of Mo- 
jente, and Juan Mingues of Xativa, were born in the sixteenth 
century ; Loazez was at once a profound theologian and great 
lawyer. The following century produced Francisco Cutticres 
and Jerome Tamarit of Xativa, and Didax Mas and Juan- 
Gilles Trench of Villareal ; Andres Capero, a famous preacher, 
who?e sermons were published in l6"70, was born at Castcllo 
.do la Plana ; Anastasio Vivez of Rocamora, bishop of Se- 
gorbe, who died in lr>74, and who published the Synodus Se- 
gurbiensis, Mas born at Orihuela. 

Francisco Franco, a physician, known in the sixteenth cen- 
tury for li is writings on the medicinal use of ice and on conta- 
gious diseases, was born at Xativa. Bartolomé Marti of 
Oropesa, a judicious critic, better known by the name of Dean 
Marti, on account of his being dtan of the chapter of Ali- 
cant, and George Juan of Elche, who was at once a good 
sailor, an exact geometrician, and a profound astronomer, 
and who passed the equator with the members of the royal 
academy of sciences of Pans, to ascertain the true fignre of 
the earth, were born in the eighteenth century. 

'1 !n historians of th< sixteenth century, Francis Diagoand 
Mart. a <1«- Viciana, m re, the former of Vive!, and the latter of 
Buriana; this hist wrote the chronology <>t' the kingdom (if 
Valencia. The historians of the following centurvi Gaspard 
< . tr. i;i .iiul Francisco Martinez; were of Orihuela : the latter 
wrote th<- history of bis country. The Arab Mahomed ben 
Abdallamen, who u- both poet and histori who d*cd 



532 VALENCIA. 

at Tremen in 1213, was bom at Alicant in the twelfth cen- 
tury ; be wrote the Annals of Spain. The poets Vincent 
> de Shiran», Antonio Xinicn, and Jacobo Beltram were 
born, the first at A!/ira in the B urteenth Century, the second 
at Segorbe in the fifteenth, and the last at Xativa in the six- 
teenth. The rhetorician Andres Sarnpere was born at Alcoy 
in 1409s and the orator Damien ( 'avallas of Orihuela, flou- 
ri-hed towards the year 1530. Francisco Juan Mas, who di- 
rected bis attention to different branches of literature with 
success, was born at Villareal, at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. 

Among the artists we have to mention Gaspard San-Marti, 
a monk of the Great Carmelites, born at Lucéna, who was a 
sculptor, and died in 1641; and Ignacio Vergara, an able 
statuary, born at Alendia de Calet, and who died in 17'» I. 
A brother of the latter, Francis Vergara, likewise distinguished 
himself in painting ; Vincent Victoria, a canon of Sun-Fe- 
lipe, Josef Garzias, and above all Josef de Ribera, belter 
known under the famous name of Espagnolet, who was i o:n 
at Xativa, and who died in 1056', had all followed with suc- 
cess the same profession in the seventeenth century. 

Character, Manners, Customs, Dress, and Language. " The 
Valenciaus are gay, ingenious, studious, light, fond of dancing, 

balls, and all the exercises that require activity Some of 

them travel through Spain and gain a livelihood by dancing*.'" 
This is the portrait drawn of the Valencians by a Spaniard, 
Vlurillo; it contains in a few words the character of those 
people. They are equally gay throughout the province, 
equally swayed by pleasure, fond of songs, music, and 
dancing, readily joining in all the exercises that require acti- 
vity of body. They love work, emulously and unremittingly 

* Los Valeaciatios son gente jovial, alegre, ingeniosa, aplicada à las 
litras, ligero», dadis a clanzas baylcs y otras pruevas «le ligereza, fa- 
ciles Aljfunos andan ^or i'spana ganando su vida dauzando. — Muri!^. 



* ALALIA. 333 

applying themselves to it; but letting no opportunity escape 
of gratifying their taste for pleasure. 

The description I have given of the manners of the town of 
Valencia is common to the inhabitants of the province, respect 
hting had to the relative differences, the tlL-iance of the 
places, and to the state and fortune of individuals. 

The Yaîencians aie justly reput the best dancers in 

Spain. ?ûany are constantly goi'.ij into the different pro- 
vinces of this monarchy, where their dances and ballets at- 
tract great crowds, and who return to their own country to 
eujoy the money they have gained by their agi! toy. There 
are some who even leave Spain, and spread tfctemseivea through 
foreign kingdoms. 

They have dances peculiar to themselves ; among the rest, 
there are two that are executed in the form of a ballet, in 
which they chiefly show their activity and precision. In the 
first they place a great many eggs on the ground pretty close 
to one another, and dance round them ; they appear every 
moment to be going to tread on them, and to crush thorn 
under their feet; but in spite of the variety and celerity of the 
.steps they dance, they never touch them : in the other the 
dancers are each provided with ft small stick about two feet 
and a half long ; they strike on one another's sticks and thus 
mark all the measures of the music ; they never cease striking 
in all their movements, in adva treating, and in all 

the possible positions: and th j never, lose the Pleasure; 
they all strike at the same moment; they sometimes acceje* 
rate their blow-, and redouble them with q* . but 

always return to the measure, and their blows fall ia perfect 
time. 

They are equally practised and expert in equilibriums; 
tbey sometimes unite m several i on 

which other | in» pl&a 

number, and thai : -T till the 

ma . 



33* VA LENT TA. 

in diffèrent positions, but combined with such precision as to 
preserve a perfect equilibrium ; this mass, which has the ap- 
pearance of a walking tower, is sometimes considerably 
higher than the first stories of the bouses. They carry their 
agility to their work : the peasant with bis spade in his hand, 
the mechanic at his work or in his shop, i> constantly active 

The Valencians are accused of being as light m mind as m 
body ; of being inconstant, and little susceptible of durable at- 
tachments. I have already answered this imputation in the 
description of the town of Valencia. 

They are generally ingenious and expert, easily entering 
into the spirit of whatever they undertake: they pursue the 
sciences with success, and their province has furnished many 
learned men distinguished in various branches; but their ge- 
nius more naturally turns to the arts, in which they are suc- 
cessful. The industry of the people is chiefly directed to agri- 
culture. We have seen in a preceding part, that it would not 
be easy to carry cultivation, the conveyance of water, and the 
irrigation of lands to a greater degree of perfection. 

The Valencians have an easiness of disposition which ren- 
ders their address open, unconstrained, and agreeable, in- 
fluences their connections and affections, and makes their so- 
ciety pleasing and amiable; but, in consequence of this 
easiness, they take prejudices as readily as prepossessions; 
they withdraw their affections as easily as they grant them; 
they change their connection? with as great facility as they 
form them; and take disgust to things and persons as promptly 
as they become fond of them. 

The people in the towns are civilized ; the peasants are to- 
lerably gentle in their manners, and appear of a peaceable 
disposition ; but on occasion they discover a ferocity «re 
should not have thought them capable of. Their quarrels 
are always attended with bloodshed, and a very little thing 
serves to provoke them. The pleasure of revenge is irre- 
sistible, and a gun, a daggT, a sword, or the instrumenta ©f 



VALENCIA. 335 

husbandry are the weapons with which they satisfy it : they 
fight with a degree of rage, that may be termed barbarism. 
The treachery which sometimes accompanies their revengr 
easily leads them to assassination. It is well known, that for 
a long time there ver« many mercenary assassins in the king- 
dom of Valencia, who, for small sums, charged themselves with 
the vengeance of others. There are none of these now; but 
murders are still frequent : I have known six perpetrated at 
Valencia in five months ; in a small town, at no great distance 
from it, there were fourteen in eighteen months. A coun- 
sellor of the criminal court of the Royal Audience assured 
me, that there was nearly one a day committed in the pro- 
vince. The prisons consequently are always full : and though 
there are ten or twelve at Valencia, they are often insuffi- 
cient. 

The example of the capital influences the towns of the se- 
cond order, where luxury is also carried to a very great 
height : the dress is the same as in the rest of Spain; but the 
great round hats and cloaks are much less frequent. The 
peasants of Valencia are habited like those of Murcia. 

The Valenciansare very fond of the festivals of the church, 
which are celebrated with solemnity, we may even say with 
luxury. They are also very fond of processions : there is no 
province in Spain in which there are more, or where the mix- 
ture of profane things, and additions foreign to religion, ren- 
der them more ridiculous than in any other place in Christen- 
dom. Tiie priest- and monk-; have more influence and credit 
in Valencia than in the rest of the Spanish monarchy; the 
order of St. Francis particularly, enjoys a great preponde- 
rance. 

Though in the towns every body t;dks Spanish, properly so 

called, that is to say Castillan, tin- people of Val< ncia have a 
language peculiar to then elv< , called the l'aie. , . Tongue, 
h is the rinciriit tongue of Languedoc and Provence, which 

fL.' French Carried into Catatonia at the tune they conquered 



33ft VALENCIA. 

that province: four hundred years afterwards the Catalans 
and French, uiuK r the standards of the Icings of Ar&gbin, car- 
ried it into the kingdom of Valencia, .vhere it is better pre- 
served than in Catalonia, and retains almost its ancient pu- 
rity : its terminations and pronunciation, very harsh in the 
month of a Catalan, are very soft in that of a Valencian, 
and particularly the women ; it is almost the same language 
as that spoken in Catalonia, hut the Valencians pronounce it 
with a delicacy that renders it 6ofter and more harmonious. 



337 



ESTREMADURA, 



GEXEfiAL OBSEBVATIONS ON THIS PROVINCJ 

JIjstkemadura is one of the largest provinces 
of Spain; it would perhaps be also one of the 
most fertile if it were not the least populous, 
and the least cultivated. It is inclosed between 
the kingdom of Leon, Old and New Castile, 
Andalusia, and Portugal. Its length is fifty 
leagues from north to south, and its breadth 
forty leagues from east to west. The kingdom 
of Leon is to the north and north-east, New 
Castile to the east, the kingdom of Seville in 
Andalusia to the south and south-east, and 
the three provinces of Estremadura, Beyra, 
and Kntre-Trajo-et--Guadiana in Portugal to the 

This province, in ancient days, attracted 1 lie 

i Dtion of the R< etjesa of its cli- 

--. and tb fertility of its soil, rendered it 

in their eyes; tl ded it ; 

! of puoi 1 he ' on « how ÛU 

..-• . iicd. 
Vol 



338 ESTEEM A DURA. 

had the same predilection for il; they knew its 
value, and flocked in crowds to people it. Their 
expulsion was the epoch of the almost total depo- 
pulation of this province j and from that time it 
has remained in a state which renders it of little 
use to Spain. 

Estremadura contains three bishoprics, Ba- 
dajoz, Plasencia, and Coria; three cathedral 
chapters in the same towns, thirty military com- 
manderies, four hundred and fifteen parishes, 
a hundred and seventy-two convents, thirty- 
one hospitals, two asylums, two colleges for the 
education of youth, seven cities, two hundred and 
twent}'-eight small towns, ninety-four villages, 
one grand military government, eleven particu- 
lar military governments, one intendant at 
Eadajoz, and a royal audience at Cacerez. The 
principal towns are Badajoz, which is the ca- 
pital; Plasencia, Coria, Mérida, Truxillo, Xeras 
de los Cavalleros, Llerena, Almatana, Zafra, Ca- 
cerez, Albuquerque, and Oiivenca. 

It has two navigable rivers, the Tagus and 
the Guadiana; and eighteen others, namely, 
the Alagon, the Cuyar, the Sabor, the Savar, (lie 
Allegrette, the Alamontc, the Guyar, the Na- 
vazo, the Naluenga, the Lentrin, the Rivillo, 
the Guadajira or Guadajiera, the Cava, the 
Mutachel, the Guadarranque, the Gevara, the 
Albarragena, and the Abrilongo. Here we sec 



ESTREMADURA. 33f) 

very elevated mountains, some of which are 
considerable branches of the Sierra Constantina, 
in the centre of the kingdom of Seville, which 
it crosses in a direction from the north-east to 
Ihe south, projecting also ramifications into the 
kingdom of Cordova, and uniting to the north 
with the Sierra Morena. Here too we distin- 
guish the Sierra de Bejar, and the Sierra de Gua- 
dalupe, the latter of which is remarkable for its 
elevation, its immense extent, and the great 
number of branches which it stretches into dif* 
ferent parts of Estremadura. 

This province has always formed a part of the 
kingdom of Leon; it was taken by the Moors 
at the same time with that kingdom : being af- 
terwards united to that of Castile, it became in 
the course of time a paît of the Spanish mo- 
narchy. 

Road from the frontiers of New Casiile by Talavera de la. 
Reyna, to the frontiers of Portugal, 33 leagues t; 
quarters. 

LHACL! -. 

La C ilcada de Oropesa to 

"Naval Moral (a village) ......... .. 4 

Eipadanal (a Tillage) .... . 1 

Aim iraz fa toun) . . 1 

The Tamils (a river) ? 

hnô^f. «it Aluiai. 12 ) 

ita Niieta „.- , 1 

tl Poerta ... ^) 

■ ■ 



310 7 ST R P. M A DURA. 

LEAGUES. 

vccjo (a town) > 

Alamonte (.1 river an-1 bridge) * 

Puerto de Miravete (some bouses) \\ 

Troxillo (a town) 2 

Puerto de S'ama-Ciuz -- 2 

The Pera'es (a torrent or gnlley without a bridge) 
ÀJiqjadas (a village) ) 

The Burdalo, (a river and bridge) J 

Venta de la Aguia --'2 

San-Pedro (a village) 3 

Tru\iliaiio (a rfllage) _. _ 2 

'rida (a town) __ 1 

Badajoz (a town)* 7 

The Guadiana (a river and bridge) > 

Tlie Caya (a liver) j 

Frontiers of Portugal S z 

Soon after leaving- Calzada de Oropcsa, the 

last village of New Castile, we enter Estrcma- 

dura, and the country over which we arc about 

to travel is in many places fallow, in many more 

laid out in pasture, and In some cultivated, but 

1 

generally in a feeble and languid manner, is still 
less furnished with trees than Old Castile, and 
frequently intersected by mountains more or 
less lofty. 

After proceeding four leagues without meet- 
ing any habitation, we come to Naval Moral, 
a wretched village; and in another league to 

* Two different roaâfi, each of nine leagues, lead from Méritla K> 
joz ; they will be each BeparateJyxieseTibed. 



ESTIIF.MADURA. 341 

Espadaîîal, another equally miserable village. 
A league and a half farther we enter Aimaraz, 
a small town, the population of which hardly 
amounts -to one thousand inhabitants; it has a 
parish church, the portal of which is ornamented 
with four Doric columns. At three quarters of 
a league from this town we pass the Tagus by a 
bridge named after Aimaraz : it was built to- 
wards the middle of the sixteenth century, a 
time when the Spanish monarchy was in the 
mo->t brilliant state. In beauty and solidity it 
may be compared with the best works of the Ro- 
mans. It resta on either side oft rocks, and is 
supported by enormous pillars resembling very 
lofty towers. Trie one in the centre is .: 
built on a rock, is higher than the others, and 
terminates ou both sides of the bridge with large 
semi-circular projections forming a sort of 
square, T] • ; has two enormous arches; 
the 01 rds the north, through which the 

riw . rally runs, is sixty-nine feet high, and 

a hundred wide ; the other is 

sixty-six fei nd a hundred and nineteen 

fri ! ; . e: in the whole-, ic is twenty-five feet 
ami a half wide, five hundred and i . in 

length, and a hundred and thirty four high. 
On one side we see the arms of the town of 
Plasencia, and on the other the king's, beneath 
which I an inscription. 

7 \\ 



242 iSTREMADURA. 

A league from the bridge of Almaraz, which 
ought rather to he called Plasencia, as we are 
informed by the inscription that it was built by 
that town in the reign of Charles V. we find 
the Venta Nueva, and at a like distance las 
Casas del Puerto, an assemblage of houses. We 
then traverse mountains, and at the end of two 
leagues arrive at Xaraycejo or Jaraycejo, a small 
and very ancient town, which was formerly in- 
habited by six hundred families, and which now 
can hardly reckon nine hundred inhabitants. 
It has a parish church and a convent of nuns ; 
and is also the residence of a vicar-general to 
the bishop of Plasencia. It is the birth-place of 
Dona Louisa de Carvajal, who died in London in 
the seventeenth century, and whose body being 
carried into Spain, was deposited in the convent 
of the Incarnation at Madrid, by order of Phi» 
lip III. 

On leaving Jan^-cejo, we cross the river Ala- 
monte, on a bridge of nine arches. We pene- 
trate again into the mountains, which are fre- 
quently rough and dangerous, and which are 
a continuation of the famous mountains of 
Guadalupe. After ascending two leagues we 
reach the Puerto de Miravete, a passage consi- 
dered dangerous, in consequence of the robberies 
which have been committed here : these arc not 
pow so frequent, the houses that have been built 



ESTREMADURA. 343 

here and there have in some degree contributed 
to the security of travellers. We now de- 
scend from time to time, get a full si^ht of 
Truxillo, and arrive at that town, which is situ- 
ated two leagues from the Puerto dc Mi ra- 
ve te. 

Truxillo is an ancient town; hut there is 
nothing certain with regard to its origin and 
antiquity. If we are to believe some Spanish 
historians, it existed long before Rome, under 
the name of Scalabis ; which name it lost after 
the erection of a tower supposed to have been 
built by Julius Caesar, and which took the 
name of Turris-Julia, afterwards given by it 
to the town. According to other authors, tins 
town is the ancient Castra Julia of which Pliny 
speaks, whilst the archbishop Don Rodrigo has 
called it Tur Gellun. The people of the coun- 
try attribute its foundation to Hercules, relying 
ou an inscription which was formerly on one of 
the stones of the fortress ; but this was too re- 
cent an inscription to merit any confidence. 

This town passed from under the dominion 
of the Romans to that of the Goths ; the Moors 

took it in 713, and retained it for 520 years; it 

v i * r. c 11 from them in 1 1 Xj by AlphoÛSO, 
king of Castile ; but this king ha\ oil;- been van 
quished a short time after at Sotillo by the 

wrecks of the army of the Almohades, it fell 

/ 4 



344 ESTÏIT MADl T RA. 

again into the hands of the conquerors ; it was 
at last besieged and taken from the Moors in 
1233, by the combined troops of the military or- 
ders of Spain and of the bishop of Plascncia. 

The enclosure of this town bespeaks it to lune 
been rather considerable in extent and popula- 
tion : the latter is now reduced to about four- 
thousand persons. 

Truxillo is situated on the summit and south 
side of a mountain. It may be divided into 
three parts, the castle, the town, and the city. 

The castle is on the highest part; it is appa- 
rent that it was extremely well fortified, and 
provided with a great many cisterns, several of 
which still exist; we also see a grand reservoir 
where spring water is preserved, to which we 
descend by a winding staircase. This castle 
is the most ancient part of Truxillo ; here it was 
that the los hombrcs viaduros, that is to say, 
the elders, assembled in council. This circum- 
stance we learn by the registers of the town- 
house. 

The second part of Truxillo is the town, built 
likewise on the mountain, and attached to the 
castle; it appears to have been built very little 
later than the castle; it is surrounded with 
walls, flanked with very high towers, and hav- 
ing a parade. This was the part the nobility 
of the town formerly inhabited ; wc still see 



ESTH 1VV.A DURA. 345 

their houses, which have towers, sarbacanes, 
parapets, embrasures, and loop-holes, and are 
ornamented with the escutcheons of the pro- 
prietors. The streets are crooked and very 
narrow. 

The third part, or the city, is of a much more 
modern construction; it extends from the 
southern si le on the declivity of the hill to the 
plain ; the streets are mere regular. It has one 
fountain and a great many wells: one of which 
is twenty-live feet wide ; here we see the houses 
of the nobility who abandoned the ancient 
town to inhabit this. 

Truxillo was the birth place of Gaspard de Meli, a theo- 
logian of the sixteenth century, of Francisco Carrasco-del- 
Saz, a lawyer ; of Francisco Diaz de Vargas, who pub- 
lished, in 1580, a history of the Portuguese war; and of Juan 
Pedro d'Aragon, known by his Discursos de la Razon, 
published in 1629. This town also gave birth to two cele- 
brated warriors, who did honour to their country by their 
splendid exploits, and, still greater successes, the one 
Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror of Peru, the other Diego 
Garzias de Paredes, who, returning from the war against the 
Turks, died at Bologna, aged t years, and vhose body was 
removed to Truxillo in 1545. 

Truxillo baa five parish churches, ibnr convents of monks, and 
four of nun- : admission into one of the latter requires proof 
of nobility; on I where children are brought up, 

four hospitals, one criminal judge one alcalde mayor for the 
administration ofjustice, a municipality composed of a deter* 
i. idors, and ■ board ■>! public economy ; 

ten of a battalion ol ; r a maul militia, :in<l 



$4:6 ESTREMADURA. 

the place of residence of a vicar to the bishop of Plasencia for 
the exercise of ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 

The oily has a square built in lj^o*, which is remarkable 
tor its beauty and regularity. It is a perfect, square ; its four 
sides are formed by porticos which open by arches, borne on 
columns of the Tuscan, Doric, and Ionic orders intermixed. 
Over one of these arches called del pan, the city arms are placed 
between two pilasters of the Corinthian order, and above it 
a statue of Justice. In this square, we find a large handsome 
house built in 1651, which belonged to the counts del Puerto, 
and is now turned into barracks for the militia : it has a 
superb front, and the court is ornamented with piazzas and 
balconies over them, supported by forty-four columns of the 
Doric order. 

The parish church of St. Martin, situated in the same- 
square, is built of free stone. We enter it by a handsome portal, 
ornamented with Doric columns, over which there is an attic; 
it is large and has no aisles ; it contains two pictures, a St. 
Peter in the chapel of the Regoilones, and an Adoration of 
the Kings near the sacristy ; the latter was sent from Rome by 
Cardinal Gaspard Cervantes de Gueta. 

St. James's church has a grand altar of four Corinthian 
columns, with a semi-circular corona, and a fine statue of St, 
James, executed by Gregory Hernandez. 

The church of the noble nuns, called de Coria, has two 
remarkable altars ; that opposite the door, and that facing it ; 
the one is ornamented with Corinthian pillars, and a statue of 
St. Anne, the other with Doric columns, with several bass- 
reliefs of the life of St. John. 

The church of St. Mary, situated on almost the highest 
part of the town, is of the Gothic style ; it has an ancient 
tower, which is said to be the Turris Julia. In the interior of 
this church we find themausolt i in of Diego Garzias de Paredes. 

The town-bouse has a very fine saloon, in which are some 
tolerable paintings amongst others an historical picture 



ESTREMADUEA, S47 

representing Alouzo Guzman the Good, witnessing the mas- 
sacre of his son by the Moors at Tarifa. 

On leaving the town of Truxillo, we proceed 
along the mountains ; still ascend for three 
leagues ; pass the puerta de Santa-Cruz; descend 
and cross the Perales, a torrent, the bed of 
which is often without water, but in rainy 
weather dangerous from the great quantity of 
it, as well as from the violence and rapidity of 
its course. Three leagues beyond the puerta de 
Santa-Cruz ; we arrive at Miojadas, a poor little 
village, after which we cross, by a bridge, the 
river de Burdalo. We pass on to the Venta de 
la Aguia, which is two leagues from Miojadas ; 
three leagues farther on to the village of San- 
Pedro, and two leagues more to that of Truxil- 
lano. We soon begin to perceive Merida; it 
displays itself more sensibly as we approach it, 
announcing the ancient grandeur of the town, 
and it {.resents the melancholy vestiges of the su- 
perb monuments which it contained. We reach 
it after travelling a league from Truxillano. 

Mi hi pa. This town, formerly large, popul- 
ous, and one of the most flourishing, now pré- 
sents but a feeble image of what it was in re- 
mote times ; the Romans were very fond of it, 
and it was one of those places they took de- 
light in embellishing, one of those where they 
most displayed their grandeur and magnificence ; 



343 rSlREMALH KA 

and it is now one of the poorest and most neg- 
lected towns of the Spanish monarchy. Every 
thing here still bespêfcka its past grandeur. 
every thing announces the power of its ancient 
masters; we cannot proceed a step without 
walking on the remains of some monuments, or 
without perceiving on all sides the deplorable 
vestiges of its ancient splendour. In fine, tra- 
versing it, we sigh over human vicissitudes, over 
the decay of so many monuments, and regret the 
neglect with which they have been treated. 

This town became a Roman colony under 
the Emperor Augustus; after the war with the 
Cautabrians it was peopled with soldiers of the 
fifth and of the tenth legion, took the name 
of that prince, who called it Emerila Augusta, 
and became at the same time the capital of 
Lusitania, that is to say, of that part of Spain 
which included Portugal, the kingdom of Leon, 
a part of old Castile, and a great part of Estre- 
madura ; its inhabitants were called Emcritenses. 
Ils extent was eight miles according to some, 
according to other six leagues in circumference. 
If the descriptions that remain of it be true, few 
towns can be compared to it. The Moor Al- 
bentcrique gives it a circumference of eight 
miles, and a garison of 80,000 infantry and 
10,000 cavalry. The chronicle ot king don 
Rodrigo outdoes Albenteriquc, and enters into 



ESTREMADURA. 349 

move extensive details ; it gives it a circumfer- 
ence of six leagues, fifteen stadia in length, 
and ten in breadth, eighty-four gates, 3700 
towers, five palaces, straight streets opening into 
the grand square, and furnished with pipes which 
conveyed water from a principal reservoir into 
all the houses. It adds, that the Moor Musa, 
who took it from the Goths, was terrified at its 
grandeur. These details are perhaps exaggerated ; 
however that be, it is a fact, that this town v. 
of immense extent, and the largest in Spain, 
under the Romans. Under the dominion of 
the Goths, it preserved its monuments; but 
besieged and taken in 7"- by the Moors, their 
destructive hands spared nothing they could 
overthrow. It was retaken from them by Al- 
phonso IX., king of Castile and Leon, in 1230, 
in con-jequence of the victory which he ob- 
tained with 20,000 men, over an army of 80,000 
Moors. From that period it has been alv. . 
attached to the kingdom de. 

Merida is in that part of S| t i:i which the 
Roi -ailed Vetonia. I:- I ion ;> I" r- 

deiing on the Gu.idiana, ou a hill whence it < \- 

tends far into the neighbouring plain, but this 
extent has dee, to such a ' that at 

present its population hardly amounts to 5000 
inhabitants. I the Gothic kin re this 

town was the sec of aa archbishop; some pro- 



vincial councils were then held here, àtnOHgst 
which, that of the year 666 is the only one 
known : its decrees tended to repress the tyranny 
of some bishops. It was also under its arch- 
bishops that this town was the focus and theatre 
of a conspiracy against the king's life, to crush 
the catholic religion, and render Arianism the 
prevailing one; it burst forth in 587- Already 
had blood begun to flow under the swords of 
the Arians, when duke Claudius hastened to 
the support of the king and persecuted catho- 
lics, and the Arians were subdued in their turn. 

The archiépiscopal see of Merida was remov- 
ed to Compostella by pope Calistus IL, under 
king Alphonso VII., whilst this town was in the 
possession of the Moors. When retaken by Al- 
phonso IX. he gave it to the military, order of 
St. James, who provided for its government, 
ecclesiastical, military, and civil; it still belongs 
to this order. It has an ecclesiastical provisor, 
nominated by the prior of the convent of St. 
Mark of Leon, of the same order, who exer- 
cises ecclesiastical jurisdiction throughout his 
whole district ; a military and civil governor for 
the order of St. James; and an alcalde mayor, 
who administers justice, civil and criminal. 

The town had also a king, but this royalty was 
of short duration; the Moor, to whom the king 
of Cordova confided the government of it, re- 



ESTUEMADl'RA. 351 

belled in 820, and caused himself to be crown- 
ed; but being vigorously attacked by the king's 
troops in 8'-'4, he fled and took refuge in the 
Asturias. 

Merida took as arms the reverse of a medal 
struck under Augustus to commemorate its erec- 
tion into a Roman colony ; it is a gate of a town 
formed by two arches accompanied by two 
towers, one on each side, with a sort of semi- 
circular enclosure, which extends from one to 
the other. Merida affords considerable wrecks 
of its ancient magnificence under the Romans, 
and the splendid works of those people: the 
pavement of the streets, of the houses, and of 
the churches, are so many traces of their works; 
the walls are covered with those precious re- 
mains, and the cellars are filled with them. AVe 
find some also out of the town, in the gardens, in 
the fields, on the roads, and, in .short, every where. 
Inscriptions are numerous, and the ruins of 
columns, of vases, of capitals, frizes, statues, and 
bass-reliefs, are observable in every quarter. 

Here the Romans built superb bridges and 
magnificent temples ; here they erected tri- 
umphal arches and beautiful aqueducts ; here 
they raised edifices necessary to public feasts, 

to the games and pleasures of the citizens ; a 
circus, .1 theatre, a naumacbia. We still 

the vestiges of tliese grand public monuments; 



352 EST ftEM A DURA. 

some are in the town, others out of it; but 
they were all comprised within the ancient 
boundaries. 

Merida had several aqueducts, of which the 
remains give a grand idea of their beauty: we 
see two of them still, as well as the vestiges 
of a fortress. The baths are in a better state of 
preservation than most of the other monuments. 

Two other fine works, which are also attribut- 
ed to the Romans, are still in existence near 
Merida: these are two very large reservoirs full 
of water, appearing like two lakes ; the country 
people call them Albufera and Albuera. One is 
uinety feet in length, and fifty-one deep; it is 
surrounded by thick walls, and ornamented 
with two beautiful towers, a very fine flight of 
steps leads to the bottom : this reservoir is a 
league from the town. The other reservoir is 
two leagues ; it is small, but the Avails which 
contain the waters and the great lower which 
serves it for an apperture for air are much finer. 
These two basins are supplied and filled by rain 
water and by springs. The first has abundance 
of fish. Here we perceive some steps, which 
led to a supposition that these reservoirs were de- 
signed for combats on the water, and that these 
steps were intended as seats for the spectators; 
but there is no authority for this conjecture. 
May it not be supposed that these basins were 



ESTREMADURA. $53 

destined to water the land? May they not 
have been the works of the Moors, who 
excelled in this way? AVe still find similar 
ones made by this people, in the kingdoms of 
Murcia and Valencia. 

Merida gave birth to the poet Decianus, who 
flourished at Rome under Augustus ; to the his- 
torian Juan-Antonio de Vera y Zuniga, who 
died in 1658; and to Balthazar Moreno de 
Vergas, well known by a history of his country, 
some researches on the Spanish nobility, and still 
more by his notes on the work de X r ita et Mira- 
culis Pat rum emeritensium de P aulas Diaconus. 

To proceed from Merida to Badajoz we have 
the choice of two roads, both of nine leagues. 
One passes by Loban, the other by Puebla d« 
la Calzada. 



Pisad from Merida to Badajoz, by la Puebla de la Calzada, 
cine leagues. 

MERIDA 

A rivuk-t, (with a bridge ) . ... \ 

Le Puebla de la Calzada, (a village) ...... S i 

The Guadiana, (a river and bridge) 5 

Iiadajoz, (a town) • 

On leaving Merida we continue on the light 
bank of the river Guadiana half way to Puebla, 
Vol. i. a a 



55-1 ESTltEJIAtiURA. 

crossing a small rivulet by a bridge of one arch, 
built of free stone, and the work of the Ro- 
mans. Some time after, we perceive to the 
right, at a little distance from one another, the 
villages of Espar ragalcjo, Garobilla, and Torre- 
Mayor ; and to the left, on the other side of the 
river, those of Lobon and Talavera la Real. 
After travelling four leagues more, we arrive 
at Puebla de la Calzada, so named on account 
of the causeway, or Roman military road, which 
led from Merida to Lisbon. This village con- 
tains about 1800 inhabitants. In its parish 
church may be seen several fine paintings by 
Moralez. 

A quarter of a league in the country we dis- 
cover the little town of Montijo, situated on the 
Guadiana; it was formerly more considerable. 
It has at present a population of 3600 souls, 
a parish church, and another which was formerly 
parochial, under the name of St. Salvador. 

Advancing on this road we find a great many 
gardens ; there are numerous fruit trees, and 
verdant carpets in succession a great way ; the 
plain we pursue is otherwise uninteresting ; and 
when we have crossed the river (the Guadiana) 
we arrive at Cadajoz. 



ESTREMADURA. 355 



Another road from Merida to Badajoz, by Lobon, ninr 
leagues. 

LEAGUES. 

Merida to 

Lobon, (a village)...... .... --.».. ........ 4- 

The Guadaxira, (a torrent) - .... 

Talavera le Real or Tulaveruela, (a village).... 2 
The Lentrin, (a river without abridge)........ 

The Revillo, (a river without a bridge).. . 

Badajoz, (a town) ....... 3 

In going from Merida to Badajoz, we enter 
a large sandy plain, formed by the Guadiana ; 
this river, running in différent directions, in- 
sensibly wares away the hills, and forms in itSv 
course a great many islands, where flocks are 
fed. After travelling four leagues through the 
plain we arrive at the village of Lobon, situated 
on the banks of the river ; it has a parish 
church and a convent of Franciscans. Some- 
time afterwards we meet with the Guadaxira, 
which is almost always dry, but impassable, 
or dangerous in the rainy season, there being 
no bridge. We arrive at a village of little im- 
portance, called Talavera le Real, and also Tala- 
veruela. We then go over an even country, little 
cultivated, and almost all of it in pastures. Hav- 
ing successively crossed the livers JLcntiin, aud 
Itivillo, we arrive at liadajoz. 
a a % 



556 MTREMADCRA. 

Badajoz, was a town of some fame under 
the Romans, who gave it the name of Pax Au- 
gusta, whence by corruption comes that which 
it now bears. The Moors called it Beiedaix, 
that is to say, land of holiness. This term 
of predilection did not change its former 
name. 

This town was formerly situated in the high- 
est part, where the castle now stands, and was 
of great extent ; in the foundations and ruins 
we recognize the different styles of the build- 
ings of the Romans, Goths, and Moors ; wc 
likewise find on the site some deserted churches. 
The town at present is situated lower, and ex- 
tends into a handsome plain on the bank of the 
Guadiana. 

It has always been, since the Romans, a 
fortified town, and is now one of the barriers of 
Spain towards Portugal, from which it is not 
further than a league and a half: it consequently 
contains all the fortifications that can contri- 
bute to its defence. It is protected besides by 
two forts, the castle of S. Christobal to the 
west, and that of las Pardaleras to the east. 

Badajoz experienced the fate of its province; 
its ancient town, subject to the Romans, wa* 
conquered by the Goths in the fifth century, 
and by the Moors in the eighth. It was be- 
sieged and taken from the Moor* in 1 168, by 



T.STREMADUttA. S57 

Alphonso Henry, a prince of the house of Bur- 
gundy, and founder of the Portuguese Monarchy. 
This siege gave rise to a memorable event : the 
Moors, possessors of Badajoz, placed themselves 
under the protection of Ferdinand II. king of 
Leon, and payed him a tribute ; that prince 
hastened to the assistance of his vassals, and 
arrived just as the town was taken : he immedi- 
ately laid siege to it ; and Alphonse» Henry not 
being able to resist the king of Leon, endea- 
voured to escape in a sortie ; but failing from 
his horse he broke his thigh and was made pri- 
soner. Ferdinand used his victory like a hero, 
he consoled the prince, set him at liberty, and 
returned the town to the Moors. But in 31 SI, 
Alphonso Henry besieged it again, and took it 
from the Moors, who once more got possession 
of it through the treachery of the governor. 
At last in 1230, according to some, the Moors 
were for ever expelled by Alphonso IX. king of 
Castile; and according to others, in 1235 by 
the troops of the bishop of Plasencia and those 
of the military orders of Spain. 

In 1660, Badajoz withstood all the efforts of 
the Portuguese, who were compelled to raise the 
liege. It was likewise, during the war fol the 
Succession, fruitlessly besieged in 170.3, by the 
combined troops of England and .1, 

A A J 



558 ESTRÏMADUHA. 

Extent and Situation. There are five gates to the town. 
The streets are narrow and often crooked. There are no 
fountains. There is, without the gate of las Palmas, on the 
road to Portugal, a very fine bridge over the Guadiana ; it 
was built in 1596, with a very hard stone ; it has twenty- 
eight arches, the largest of which is seventy-eight feet wide, 
and the smallest twenty-one. Its length is 1874r feet, and its 
breadth twenty. There is a fine promenade out of the town 
formed by poplars on the bank of the Guadiana. 

Ecclesiastical Administration. The bishopric of Badajoz. 
suffragan of the metropolis of San-Jago, comprehends in its 
diocese a cathedral chapter, arch-priesthood, and 50 parishes. 
The chapter is composed of seven dignitaries, twelve canons, 
four prebendaries and six sub-prebendaries, besides twenty 
priests ; eleven chaplains, one chief vestry-man and several 
under ones, who make a part of the clergy of the same 
church, which also has a music chapel, three orgainsts, two 
sub-chanters, five musicians for chanting, five for instruments, 
and eight young choristers. There are besides in this town five 
parish churches, seven monasteries, five nunneries, and five 
hospitals. 

Military Administration Badajoz is the residence of a 
captain-general, and intendant of the province of'Estrema» 
dura, and the head quarters of a battalion of militia. It has 
a military and civil governor, a king's lieutenant, a major, z 
military governor for the castle of Christobal, an alcalde mayor 
for the administration of justice, a principal contador of war, 
a military auditor, fourteen companies of militia belonging 
to the place, a garrison more or less numerous according as 
they are required, and an arsenal, called la Maestranza, in 
which all kinds of arms and instruments of war are kept. 

Public edifices. The cathedral church is the only edifice 
that is tolerable ; but it deserves little notice. The choir, 
placed in the middle of the nave, is covered with orna- 



ÏSTREMADURA. 35<J 

aients in sculpture, some of which are not without merit. The 
organ is very large. In some of the chapels there are 
tolerably good paintings; among others a Magdalen, thought 
to be by Mateo Cerezo ; there are also paintings in the 
chapter room, and in the other churches ; some are attribut- 
ed to Moralez. 

Manufactories. There is only one manufactory in the 
whole town ; which is one for hats established within a very 
few years by a Frenchman. As for the population it is at 
most from fourteen to fifteen thousand persons. 

Abu-Mohamed-Abdalla, who has left a method of writing, 
in which there are several excellent precepts of rhetoric and 
poetry, was born at Badajoz, at the end of the ninth century. 
It was likewise the birth-place of the painter Chrjstobal Perez 
Moralez, and of Fernandez-Bejara, a physician, who has left 
some writings. 

Here, supposing that we are going to Portu- 
gal, we leave Badajoz by the gate of las Palmas ; 
cross the Guadiana over the bridge that has 
been mentioned ; travel througli the plain for 
a league and a half, and ford the small river 
Caya, after which we find ourselves in Por- 
tugal. 



Boad from Almam to Talavera la Vieja, three leagues. 

LBACUXS. 
\lMaRaZ tO ......... 

Belvis, (a village) 1 \ 

TbeTagas (a river without a bridge» a ferryboat) f , 

Talavera la Vieja. ........ . I 

In leaving Almaraz, wc quit the great road, 
a a 4 



300 ESTREMAIHiRA. 

cross the country, and travel on to Bel vis, 
which is in an elevated situation, and from 
which we discover an immense extent of lands, 
and the chain of mountains which separates 
old Castile from Estremadura. Belvis contains 
one parish church and two convents of nuns. 
Soon after quitting this town we fall in with 
the Tagus, and keep along its banks for 
near a league, travelling through valleys and 
over agreeable lulls, watered by streams and 
small rivers. We leave to the left the hamlet 
of las Casas de Belvis, and to the right a Fran-» 
ciscan convent ; we cross the Tagus in a ferry- 
boat, and soon after arrive at Talavera la Vieja. 

Talavera la Vieja, or the old, was a town of 
which the Romans were very fond : they took 
delight in lavishing their works on it ; yet there 
are very slight vestiges of them. There are 
several wrecks, however, which show what it 
was; there is hardly a house in which there arc 
not some to be found ; bases, columns, pilasters, 
fragments, more or less considerable, capitals 
of various orders, and inscriptions cased in the 
walls ; all these make a part of the commonest 
houses. 

The remains of two temples are the most im- 
portant objects. Don Ignacio de Hermosilla, pu- 
blished in 1762, a description of the monuments 



ESTRF.iklADCRA. 26l 

of this town with engravings. There is also out 
in the Memoirs of the Academy of History at 
Madrid. 

Talavera is in a delightful situation, on the 
left bank of the Tagus, in a country on part of 
which there are vines and corn, and the other 
is pasture, or covered with a small kind of oak. 
The population of this town is small ; there arc 
about ,500 inhabitants. 



jRoad from Alrnaraz, to Plasencia, Coria, Alcantara, and 
Cacerez, and from thence to Merida, fifty-seven league*. 

tEACtiB. 

Almaraz to ...... ---,. 

Tonl, (a village) ...Î? 

The Tietar, (a river without a bridge, a boat) 1 

Malpartida, (a small town).... 

Plasencia, (a town) __1 

Villar (a village) 3 

Ambroz, (a river and bridge) "l 

Aldea Nueva, (a village) . > * 

Ambroz, (a river and bridge) ... 3 

Abadia (a village) . \ 

Ambroz, (a rircr and bridge) 

La Cranja, (a Tillage) l 

Ambroz, (a river and bridge) 

Caparra. ._ 

JLa Olivu, (;i rUlage) i 

parcobotco, (a vill ige) - 

AUK. tjuetla, (a village] ...I 



}■- 



36*2 ESTREMADURA. 

lEAOUEf. 

Xertc, (a river and bridge) _. 



Cïalisteo, (a village) _.._........_......« 

Coria, (a town) .. ................. I. 

A bridge without a river ......... ....... 

Tlie Alagon, (a river without abridge).....,., i 

Pescueza, (a hamlet) . .. ......... . » 

Ctciavin, (a village) ..... ..........3 

Alcantara, (a town) .... .._._....._.. )„ 

The Tagu*, (a river and bridge) ............ 

Villa de Rey, (a village). «... .-2 

Brozas, (a village)....-. ........ ...1 

Arroyo del Puerto, (a town) ... . .* 

Çacerez, (a town) ... . .... 3 

Merida, (a town).. . ............12 

In going from Almaraz we leave the great 
road of Portugal; and travel through fields 
which are alternately covered with oak and 
pastures, and with wells and lagoons at distances, 
which serve for watering the cattle. Leav- 
ing to the left the village of Serrajon, and to 
the right those of Saucedilla and Casa-texada, 
we arrive at that of Toi il. Two leagues beyond 
Toril we ford, or cross in a boat, the river 
Tictar, in the neighbourhood of which there is 
a great quantity of oak of various kinds, cork- 
trees, &c. The country then becomes desert 
and uncultivated, covered with heath, except a 
few oak trees which we see here and there ; we 
then arrive at Malpartida. 

Malpartida is a small town, containing a 



±31 RE MADURA* 363 

population of about 1C00 inhabitants. It is 
tolerably well built; its parish church is hand- 
some and built with granite, brought from an 
adjacent quarry called that of the Five Brothers. 
The front is majestic ; it has two stories of 
architecture of the Corinthian order, four co- 
lumns in the first aud two in the second ; orna- 
mented with statues of St. Peter and St. PauL 

The country as we leave this town is any 
thing but agreeable : there are however some 
oak and shrubs of different kinds here and 
there. Soon after, the land becomes arid, sterile, 
or at least uncultivated for more than half a 
league; but as we approach Plasencia, the soil 
resumes its fertility, and we enter the town by 
a very rapid descent. 

Plasencia. This little town is situated in 
the middle of mountains, in a narrow valley, 
tolerably fertile, nine leagues long and which 
is watered by the river Xerte; on the banks of 
which the town stands, partly surrounded by it, 
as if in a peninsula. Its situation is also em- 
bellished by an agreeable promenade. 

It was pretended that this town was the ancient 
Anibraeia of the Romans, and this opinion was 
founded oq the territory bearing the name of 
Ainbroz in the twelfth century, and also be- 
cause the river which passes at some leagues 
distance till bears that name; and lastly oq 



3ff4 ESTREMADURA. 

some antique inscriptions ; but there is ground 
to suppose that the Ambracia of the Romans 
was more likely the Capara of our days, which 
we «hall presently mention. 

Plasencia is a suffragan of San-Jago. Its 
diocese comprehends a cathedral chapter, and 
a hundred and fifty-two parishes. The bishop 
was probably very powerful formerly, as we find 
from history that he several times levied troops 
to fight against the Moors, as noticed in 
treating of Truxillo and Badajoz. The cathe- 
dral chapter includes eight dignitaries, sixteen 
canonries, and eight prebends ; besides nine be- 
neficed priests, thirty-two chaplains, twenty 
young choirists, and eighteen young boys called 
miseros, to serve at masses. The young choristers 
are promoted, after taking holy orders, to the 
places of chaplains, and the miseros, who are 
gratuitously taught chanting, take the places of 
the young choristers. 

This town is the chief place of a corrcgi- 
dorat; it has a criminal judge, an alcalde mayor, 
and a municipality composed of a certain num- 
ber of regidors. There are seven parish churches, 
three convents of monks, four of nuns, and se- 
veral chapels or oratories. The church of the 
Dominicans has a handsome front of the Com- 
posite order; it has a single nave, line,, large, 
and in the Gothic stvle. with a chief altar of 



E6TUEMADURA. 265 

tolerably good architecture. -Among its chapels 
that of St John contains the tomb of Martin 
Nieto; the statue of the deceased, which is 
armed and kneeling, is graceful, noble, and lull 
of expression : it has been thought by many 
persons to be one of the tinest monuments exe- 
cuted in Spain since the revival of the arts. 

The cathedral church, built with granite, was 
erected at different times ; we easily distinguish 
in it the taste of the different centuries and 
epochs of the progress and decline of the arts. 
Its front, which looks to the north, has three 
stories of architecture with two towers, and is 
loaded with a whimsical mixture of singular or- 
naments. Its interior is little worthy of atten- 
tion ; the stalls of the choir are confusedly co- 
vered with paintings and sculptures in bass- 
reliefs of figures of men and animals, equally ex- 
travagant and ridiculous, which arc multiplied 
without end. In the sanctuary is placed the tomb 
of Pontius de Leon, bishop of Plaseucia ; it is exe- 
cuted with tolerable taste. The chief altar lias 
three stories of architecture of the Corinthian 
order ; the two first of eight columns each, on 
pedestals ornamented with bass-reliefs. The 
third is of four columns. An Assumption of 
the Virgin, in sculpture, with groupes of u gcil 
and apostles occupy the middle; other Bta* 
tues are distributed in different parti. There 



566 ESTREMADVRA. 

are also some good pieces executed by the fa- 
mous Spanish statuary Gregory Hernandez, 
The high chapter-room also contains some good 
paintings; among others a Betrothing of St. 
Catherine in the manner of Rubens, a Nativity 
of Jesus Christ by Diego Velasquez, and a St. 
Augustin by Espagnolet. 

The house of the marquis de Mirabel is the 
principal private house of this town. It has a 
large court surrounded by a double row of por- 
ticos, one above the other, supported by co- 
lumns ; but the most interesting thing in it is 
a fine collection of antiquities, which are kept in 
a gallery of this mansion. It contains urns, heads, 
busts, altars, and inscriptions ; we notice in it a 
colossal head of Tiberius, a foot, also colossal, 
with a buskin on it; a head of Charles V. in 
marble, one of Leon Leoni, another of Pompey 
his son, and a handsome bust of Antoninus Pius, 

The situation of this town is pleasant on the 
side of the Xerte ; this river forms a kind of 
island covered with trees, which shade charming 
walks. There is also a very fine aqueduct, 
which conveys the water from a distance of two 
leagues ; it has upwards of eighty arches. 

In leaving Plasenciathe road becomes bad for 
one league ; we are, however, in the valley in 
which the town is situated; in half a league we 
ascend a hill tolerably furnished with trees, and 



£STREMADURA. S6*7 

•n descending, enter the territory called Tra- 
sierra, which leads us to Villar. We see at a 
distance a chain of mountains which extends 
from Pena de Francia to the mountain of Xalama 
on the frontiers of Portugal ; besides these two 
mountains we distinguish those of el Gamo. 
los Angeles, and Guta. Villar is a village 
agreeably situated; there are Roman inscriptions 
en the walls of several of the houses ; the en- 
virons are full of chesnut and fruit trees; it has 
great advantages from the abundance and ex- 
cellence of the waters which rise in its territory : 
the Romans conveyed them to Caparra by an 
aqueduct, the remains of which are still to be 
seen. We pass Aldea Nueva, a village of 1500 
inhabitants ; it is on the side of a mountain co- 
vered with chesnut-trees : we there twice cross 
the river Ambroz over two bridges, one at the 
entrance and the other at leaving the village; 
this last is called that of Doncella. We go 
along the river, perceive to the right the Puerto 
of Gunilla, and arrive at Abadia, a small village 
belonging to the duke of Alva, whose gardens 
are ornamented with superb fountains, busts, 
and statues in marble, both ancient and modern. 
A little after, we re-cross the river Ambioz over 
a bad bridge, and pass a convent of Franciscans ; 
half a league farther we sec a shattered mile- 
stone, and arrive at laGranja: from thence to 



36S ESTREMADURA. 

Caparra we are continually traversing woods of 
green and hard oak. We leave to the left the 
hamlet of Villeria, and to the right the village 
of Lazarz.i. 

Capakka. This place, now depopulated, was 
the Amhracia of the Romans and some of the 
valuahle remains of their works are still pre- 
served here. The town was situated on a small 
eminence on the bank of the Ambroz, which 
we cross over a bridge of four arches, also built 
by the Romans. It is now reduced to a state 
below that of a paltry hamlet, but interesting 
ruins cover its ancient site. There is a triumphal 
arch built with large stones on the Roman mili- 
tary way, with some fragments of an inscrip- 
tion. In quitting this place we continue to 
traverse woods of green oak, and pass through 
Oliva, a small village of about 240 inhabitants, 
where the poet Jnvencus was born: we then 
come to a village in a plain quite as insignifi- 
cant, called Carcaboso, and Aide Huela, which 
was nearly deserted and almost destroyed, but 
Which has been re-built, and whose population 
increases every day. We then cross the river 
Xerte o%-er a fine bridge of seven arches; we 
ascend and arrive at Galisto*, another village, 

* There is a palace here of fine architecture, ornamented 
with many columns ; its structure, of tolerahly good taste, 
sêems*of the sixteenth century. It belongs to the duke d'Arco; 



F.STRIIMADL'R*. 36*9 

of about 1200 inhabitants, and which is in a 
very elevated situation. Tins road shows on all 
sides the traces of depopulation and the ravages 
of time, but still leaves something* to feed the 
curiosity of the lovers of antiquity : it i- almost 
entirely covered with wrecks of Roman gran- 
deur, which are seen in the remains of monu- 
ments, inscriptions, mile-stones, and fragments 
of the military way, all which occupy the at- 
tention of the traveller to Coria, where he ar- 
rises through a plain of four leagues, lying along 
the right bank of the Alagon. 

Com a. This small town, situated on the 
liver Alagon, existed in the time of the Romans; 
it is the Cauria and Caurium of Ptolemy. It* 
present population is about 1500 inhabitants. 
The limits of the Roman fortifications still 
exist; the walls are of large stones regularly 
placed, being twenty feet and a half high, 
and sixteen feet four inch.es thick, flanked at 
intervals by large square towers of the same 
construction : there are fou: gates, each thirteen 
feet nine inches high by twelve broad, and de- 
fended by two towers ; there are many antique 
inscriptions found here. 

This town is now protected by a very incon- 
siderable fort, but which i> advantageously si- 
tuated; it was built in the fourteenth century; 

Vol \ v b 



37<Ô ESTHEMADLRA. 

we ascend to it by a flight of a hundred and odd 
steps. 

Coria is the see of a suffragan bishop of the 
metropolitan of St. Jago, whose diocese compre- 
hends a ca-thedral chapter and I99 parishes. The 
chapter of this cathedral reside in the town ; 
they have succeeded to a monastery of regular 
canons of St. Augustin, which lias been secu- 
larized ; it is composed oi eleven dignitaries, 
fourteen canonries, and six prebendar ies. There 
is in the same church a beneficed cure, which is 
served by seven ecclesiastics. The cathedral 
church has no aisles; it is large and in the Go- 
thic style, but neither handsome nor majestic ; it 
contains, however, some tombs, which merit a 
little attention ; they ore all in marble. 

In leaving Coria we pass over a fine bridge of 
seven arches without a river; it was built over 
the Alagon; but this river, changing its course, 
the bridge is without water, and must remain so 
unless the river should happen, to resume its an- 
cient channel. We ford the Alagon, and two 
leagues after arrive at Pescueza, a hamlet, where 
we leave to the right the village of Cachorilla; 
at a little distance the road is intersected by an- 
other, which leads to Portozuelo*, a small village 

* The council cf this village lias a singular privilege of 
giving letters of qualification for the exercise of the different 
mechanical and some liberal arts throughout Estremaduraj 



ESTUIOfADUi-. 

at the distance of two leagues». The country to 
Célavin is covered with nothing hut useless 
shrubs. 

Celavix, a small but ancient town, which 
was formerly opulent, has no more than about 
three thousand inhabitants, who attend to the 
cultivation of the lands, chiefly vineyards: they 
have some gardens, which arc watered by gar- 
den engines. We travel for a league and a half 
through the midst of vineyards; the road becomes 
narrow, and is nothing more than a by-path, 
which passes over uneven rocks ; it leads by a 
long descent to the bank of the Tagus, which wc 
cross in a bad ferry-boat, and arrive soon after at 
Alcantara. 

Alcantara, according to some authors, j- 
an ancient town, for they pretend that it was 
the Xorba Ciesarea of Ptolemy, the Norbcnsis 
Colonia of Pliny, and the Lancia of the Romans; 
but it is certain that it did not exist under any 
of those- nations; it is a modern town built by 
the Moors; it is situated upon the banks of the 
'Ja^us, and was taLen from îjthem in 1'Jls by 
Alphonso IX. king of Leon, and given u> the 
military order of (aiatra\a: the knights of this 
order established themselves in it, and in the 

!'vi lli.n (; 
; i'< dro -< 'lei }\> y M«ririf »1 ind 

u b 



JTJ ESTREMADÛRA. 

very next year formed a distinct order, of which 
this town became the chief place, and gave its 
name to it. The knights of the order of Al- 
cantara bave a council-house, the building of 
which was carried on during four reigns. It v. 
lx'oun in 1503, under Ferdinand V. continued 
under Phillip I. and Charles I. and finished un- 
der Philip II. The church is large, and has a 
nave and two aisles ; it is not yet finished : upon 
some altars, and in the sacristy, there are several 
good pictures painted by Morales. 

Alcantara lias a separate military and civil 
o-overnor for the order of the knights, a king's 
lieutenant, a major, and an aide-major for the 
same order, and an alcalde-major for the admi- 
nistration of justice. Its population is about 
3000 persons. In this town there is a superb 
bridge over the Tagus, a magnificent work of 
the Romans: its height is 175 feet 8 inches 
above the ordinary level of the water, or 211 
feet 10 inches above the bottom or bed of the 
river; ils length is 576 feet 11 inches, and ils 
breadth 27 feet and a half: it is formed of six 
unequal arches ; the two middle ones are 94 feet 
wide, and their piers S2 feet 8 inches thick. 
There is a triumphal arch in the middle of the 
bridge, extending the whole of its breadth; it i- 
40 feet and a half high, and is built of huge gra- 
nite stones, each three feet and a half long U 



ESTRF.MADURA. 375 

■one foot three-quarters wide. At the end of 
this bridge, on the side of the town, there is a 
small temple of similar construction; it is 20 
feet h'uh by 12 and a halt' wide, and is built of 
a small number of enormous stones. In the in- 
terior is the tomb, which contains the ashes of 
Caius Lucius Lacer, the architect of the whole 
work. This little monument has since become 
a chapel dedicated to Saint Julian. 

The Moors, besieged in Alcantara, demolished 
in their defence, the smallest arch of this bridge ; 
Charles the First had it rebuilt in the sixteenth 
century. On the peace of Utrecht, the Portu- 
guese, who were obliged to evacuate this town, 
blew up two arches of the bridge : they were 
rebuilt by Charles III. 

On quitting Alcantara, for three leagues we 
travel through a country most of which is pas- 
ture, pass Villa de Rey, a small village, and af- 
terwards Brozas, a small town, which contains 
about 2500 inhabitants, with two churches and 
two convents. It has an alcalde-major for the 
administration of justice : it is the birth-place of 

Francisco Sanchez, known by his writings on 
grammar, the art of poetry and oratory. We 
afterwards enter a ver) thick wood of oaks, and 

travel through it for upwards of three leagues; 
it leads to Arroyo del Puerco, a town of about 
.0000 inhabitants, in which th< ood 



J " 4 E 8 T R L M A D C R A . 

cloth manufactories. Its parish church is onia- 
mentetl with sixteen good paintings by Moralez. 
We go two leagues further through plantations 
of oaks, and come to a place where wool is 
washed for the manufactories of A nova. The 
country soon after begins to be Cultivated and 
attended to, the fields appear better kept as we 
approach Caceres, where we arrive in three 
leagues and a half from Arroyo del Puerco. 

Caceres. This town is ancient; it was a 
Roman colony with the name of Castra Cœcilia ; 
the building of it is attributed to Quintus Ceci- 
lius Metellus. The town of Caceres is situated 
upon an eminence ; it has four parish churches, 
and seven convents. It is the residence of a vicar- 
general of the bishop of Coria for the exercise 
of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction; it has a royal 
audience, which includes Estremadura in its ju- 
risdiction, and which has been only established 
since 1791. It is the chief place of a corregi- 
dorat; it has a penal judge, and an alcalde- 
major. Its population is about 8000 persons. 
This town is neither large nor well built; it 
boasts of no edilice that is worth the attention 
of the traveller : yet we must remark the court 
of the hospital of Mercy, which is surrounded 
by a double portico, one over the other, sup- 
ported by columns of the Doric order. Besides* 
several vestiges of Roman inscriptions, it has 



ESTREMAPVRA. 575 

some antiquities, amongst others there is, in the 
square, a marble statue larger than lite ; it has a 
cornucopia in the left hand, and its head is co- 
vered with its mantle. 

Notç. There is a cross-road from Caceres to 
Merida, its length is twelve leagues. 

STATISTICAL ABSTHACT RFLVT1VE PARTICULARLY TO EST11E- 
MADURA. 

Population. The population of Estremadura was consi- 
derable under the Romans; it continued so under the Moors, 
and gradually decreased under their conquerors : in short, 
it diminished every day under their successors. According to 
the return made in 1787 and 173*, it only contained 416\9'.!'2 
inhabitants ; yet it is '2000 square leagues in extent. On com- 
paringthis with the population of Galicia, which i» n< t fur from 
it, we shall be astonihed at the enormous difference ; the latter 
is only 1660 square leagues, and has 1,345,803 inhabit int.-, 
and that too, notwithstanding a continual emigration. Con- 
sequently, m Estremadura, we travel through immense spaces 
without meeting a settlement, a house, or a man, and without 
perceiving a tree or an atom ( f c.ltivuti d land. 
In the population of this province, there are, 

Parish priests ._ 34| 

Priests 2,111 

Monks 2,060 

Nuns Ijftfl 

Nobles 3,794 

Advocat» - _ •> 

Writer» 505 

Studml-. |,+M 

.nt- II A'lo" 

Th- depopohttion of tbii province it generally attributed 

to the no >t<j, that is to l»y, 1 1 . « « u-tom of n c< mng in uiuu r 

j. b 4 



S76 



ESTREMADI1RA. 



/locks sent from some provinces in Spain, and of sending the 
flocks of Estremadura some where else in the summer, The 
-.number of men who are employed for this amounts to 40,000, 
who, continually travelling, never marry, and are thus lo>t in 
the scale of agriculture and population. 

Besides this, proprietors who sell or let out their pastures, 
find it more agreeable to draw an income from them without 
being obliged to have them cultivated; from this neglect of 
cultivation, the labourers are not able to obtain work ; and 
the productions of the land being extremely limited, are con- 
sequently sold very dear. The peasant, who does not other- 
wise obtain employment, is not able to procure the necessaries 
of life; he languishes in misery, he grows weary of his coun- 
try, he leaves it, and seeks in another the employment which can 
furnish him with the means of subsistence. Thus this pro- 
vince daily experiences fresh losses of its inhabitants. 

Some other causes have likewise conspired to produce the 
same effect. A great number of the Moors inhabited Estrc- 
madura; their final expulsion in 1614, left a great many 
.houses and villages completely deserted. Pistant wars, during 
two centuries, tore a great number of soldiers from the coun- 
try. The discovery of America injured the population of 
Estremadura almost as much. The conquerors of the new 
world were natives of this province, they inflamed the ambi- 
tion of their fellow-citizens, they strongly persuaded them to 
fight under their standards, and to obtain the riches of the 
country which they had conquered. The emigration from 
this province was greater than from any other province of the 
Spanish monarchy. 

There i? no doubt that the suppression of the westa, or at 
least ?ome modifications of its system, would have the effect of 
clearing the lands ; and the re-establishn;ent of agriculture, 
giving a new birth to emulation and industry, would be the 
means of re-peopling a province which might be able of itself 
to supply food for a third of Spain. 



EST It E M A D U B A . 377 

Agriculture. The Romans were fully sensible 0> the value 
©f Bstremadura, and the Moors made a garden of it. Its -.oil 
is of the most fertile earth : it abundantly contain» the 
principle of a rich vegetation, which developes itself with the 
greatest activity ; the heat of the climate is favourable to 
growth : and the numerous rivers which run through this 
province are ready to produce an increase of fertility, and 
scatter round the richest abundance: but the earth is, as it 
were, given up to itself; if it yields some productions it dors 
not owe them to the industry of man, bot to its own vigour; 
and frequently the natural germ which would in time em- 
bellish it, is by the ignorant husbandman stifled in it's be- 
som. It is almost completely reduced to the lamentable state 
of rank pasturage. Zavola calculates, that in the district of 
Badajoz there is a space of twenty -six leagues long by twelve 
broad of waste lands. 

Throughout the whole province there are scarcely any gar- 
dens or orchards to be met with ; neither fruit, mulberry- 
trees, nor hemp ; wheat and rye are almost the only pro- 
ductions. These arc generally sufficient for the support of 
the population, because, as has been said, it is exc« edingly 
small, and because the principal part of the country people eat 
very I : tile. 

Olive-trees are but thinly planted ; vines arc- not much more 
multiplied ; cbesnut-trees arc more numerous, happily for the 
inhabitants of the country, win» partly live upon th«ir fruit. 
It is the neglected state of agriculture which ruins thepopuhv- 
tion. '1 in pi oprietors find th-ir account in m ither ploughing nor 
sowing th< n lii Ids, a- they run no ri^k of hud barvesti : their 
income ia always the same, and always equally certain, by 
keeping their lands in grass, which they let to feed the no> 
merous flocki ienl into the province every year about 

autumn, and n main througb the w inter ; the number 1 1 meat 
Limited OOhead. It it easy to imagine what 

eatery foi tin d>« Bui what 



ft ESTRLMADLRA. 

will appear Mtonifihiag is, that in tins nun. Her of flocks that 
the province supports foe six month.-, it has not a suiheicut 
quantity of its own to improve its soil. 

Yet there are cantons vhicli furnish different sorts of pro- 
ductions in abundance ; for example, there is a great number 
of gardens and fruit-trees between the Puebla de la Calzada 
and Montijo, in the Vera de Plasencia, &c. a great number of 
olive-trees at Banos, a great number of vines at Talavera la 
Vitja and Ranos, numerous plantations of oak, chesnut, and 
other kind of trees round Talavera, between las Brozas and 
Arroyo del Puerco, in the Vera de Plasencia and its valley ; 
lastly, near Ervas, Banos, and Bejar. The sides of the moun- 
tain of Guadalupe, near the monastery of that name*, are 
covered with trees, and are particularly full of medicinal 
plants. There are also some cantons where we find a cultiva- 
tion directed with more care and skill; such are the environs 
of Caceres, of Plasencia, the valley in which that town is si- 
tuated, the Vega, which is separated from that valley by 
mountains, upon which vines, olive, mulberry, lemon, cedar, 
and all kind of fruit-trees are every where found in abund- 
ance. In the valley of Bejar, the people even appU great 
labour to agriculture, there being great difficulties to surmount 
in the soil, from the mountains, hills, and gnlleys; but we 
every where see fields raised one above the other, forming so 
many terraces supported by walls ; in looking at them, we 
might believe ourselves transported to the mountains of the 
kingdom of Valencia. But these extraordinary cantons, 
which form an exception, are also a striking contrast to the 
rest of Etremadura. 

* This is a monastery of Jeroniir.ites, very famous in Sp-'iin, and very 
rich. In the treasury, hesides a skiver throne for the Holy Virgin, two 
large anjcls of the same metal, and a quantity of gold and silver shrines and 
relics enriched with precious stone*, there is a ca>ket of silver silt With 
beautiful bass-rëfiefa in enamel, a silver tabernacle weighing î it mark*, 
and a gold cru iûx weighing tour marks, ôùc. 



ESTREMAIU'RA. 379 

Manufactures and Commerce. The excellence of the soil 
Iiaving principally attracted the attention of the Moors, their 
industry was more directed towards that than to manufactures. 
It does not appear that this province ever had large establish- 
ments of this kind; yet it possessed during several centuries 
some good manufactories of broad cloths and other woollens ; 
those established at Alhanchel were the best, but have beeu 
long shut up from the want of workmen, and of vents for sale. 
Some manufactories, which are still carried on, are so unim- 
portant, that they scarcely deserve to be mentioned. They con- 
sist of a manufactory of hats established ten years ago at Ba- 
dajoz by a Frenchman, two similar manufactories at Zafra, a 
great number of tanning yards also at Zafra and at the hamlet 
of Caceres; and a manufactory of broad cloths at Arroyo del 
Puerco. There are besides some single looms for second 
cloths at Ervas, and for common cloths at Began This last 
establishment is the most considerable ; it furnishes CastiU 
and Andalusia with a certain quantity of these cloths. 

A province which produces hardly any thing, which manu 
factures still less, and which must receive every thing from 
other countries, cannot give an idea of advantageous com- 
merce; every thing most be imported, every thing must be 
burdensome to it; its impoverishment must daily increase. 
I»y Considerable tillage and rational agriculture, which would 
multiply productions of the best quality to be exported, or t<> 
obtain raw materials proper for different manufactures, it 
might be thought that commerce would in this case flourish 
with a certain vigour^ yet, it must he allowed, that one ob- 
stacle wouid appose great success, which is the difficulty of 
exportation. Estremadura is inland, far from the tea, aud 
rromalli ivigation; merchandizes can only be trans* 

ported m mall tart--, and in many places on the basin of 
mutes. This obstacle, however, ia not insurmountable j the 
province is on the bonk n ol Portugal, which would furnish ■ 

the kingdi in of Sc\ iUe, whi- 



3S0 ESTREMADURA. 

ther merchandizes and commodities might be transported, 
and afterwards shipped. 

This commerce would he an addition to the great resources 
of Spain, would be very active, if the Tagus, which runs 
through Estremadura, and the Guadiana, which also runs 
through it, were both navigable. The latter might easily br 
rendered so; the former was once so ; boats of a considerable 
6ize went up and down from Toledo to Lisbon. So useful an 
undertaking will no doubt engnge the attention of the 
government. A society of public economy established at 
Truxillo appeared to be occupied with the means of encou- 
raging agriculture; but nothing hitherto appears to hate been 
done which answers the aim of its institution. 

Roads, Transport, and Inn.?. Nature has formed the roads 
of Estremadura, art has scarcely contributed to them at all. 
The grand road which leads into Portugal is the best kept; 
it was repaired every time that any of the royal family of 
Spain and Portugal were going to travel that way, which has 
happened more frequently since the two families became al- 
lied by marriages. This road is neither good nor bad, and, 
with the exception of some parts more difficult than others, it 
is very passable ; it is even rendered in some degree pleasant 
by bridges being built over all the rivers as far as Merida. 
Of the two roads which lead from that town to Badajoz, that 
which passes by Lobon is the pleasantest in rammer; but it is 
sometimes dangerous in winter, in the time of the rains, on 
account of a torrent and two rivers which must be passed, 
and over which there are no bridges. The other roads of 
Estremadura are more neglected ; there are even a great 
many of them almost impassable, and others where no car- 
riage can possibly go. 

The traveller in entering E.»tremadura should arm himself 
with courage and patience; the inconveniences which he has 
experienced in the pr^adas of the other parts of Spain are no- 
thing compared to those which attend him in this pioviuce. 



ESTREMADURA. 381 

These houses where the traveller seeks shelter and repose are 
for the most part like bad stables: the rooms, the kitchens, 
the persons who inhabit them are all Glthy : we are sometiincb 
by the side of a hog, an ass or a mule ; the bedsteads are not 
equal to a truss of straw: we find nothing to eat in the po- 
sada, and frequently nothing is to be bought in the pla 
where they are situated. 

The carriages are generally drawn by oxen, scarcely any 
by mules : no other coaches are to be seen than those which 
come from Madrid on the way to Portugal. 

Natural History. The mountains of Estreraadura would 
furnish an interesting pursuit to a naturalist if they were « 
amined with care. They have tdl now been neglected . 
Bowles is the only person who has observed any part of them. 
The particulars known respecting their natural production»; 
are limited to a very small number of objects, and may be 
reduced to the following: 

Klines of Copper in several parts of Estremadura: one is 
particularly noticed in the mountain of Guadalupe, t" I 
south of the village of Loyrosen ; it is in a blue and green 
mixed stone. 

A mine of lead upon an eminence called Vadija, or valley 
of las Minas, two leagues and a half from Logrosen, on ii: : 
toad of Zalamea : it has been worked. 

Another lead mine, a league from Alcoccr, in a plain in- 
fected by banks of calcareous stone and slate I it 
never been worked. 

Blood-stones, near Nabal Villar. 

A vi in of phosphoric stun.-, which obliquely eross.-s the 

road from north to south, on leaving the Tillage of Logi 
at tin; foot of the Sierra of Guadalupe : to is. wbitiafa 

and tasteless : when pounded and put upon burning coal it 
takes fire, and glfCJ a bllM flame without any imelL 

A black earth* upon a p mountain, on the road 

fio.n Alco.cr io Nabal Villar; it becomes ibiniog v»L«n 



382 ESTRElIADimA. 

nibbed between tlie hands. It is a mine of refractor} iron 
from which nothing ean be obtained. 

Blood-stones upon the same mountain. A mine of iron 
between Ateoeev and Orellosa : it is in a sandy stone which 
contains very fine red ochre. 

A blackish mineral, so hard that it striked fire with the steel. 
Mr. Bowles considers it as a unfnsible iron : it contains a real 
emery* It is in the mountain of Lares, three miles from the 
•lain that has been mentioned, which is a league from Al- 
cocer. 'Ibis mountain, upon which the ruins of a fortress of 
the Moots are still to be seen, is composed of a brown free- 
stone mixed with quartz : this mine was worked by the 
Moor.-». 

A smooth emery, without grain, near Alcocer; it contains 
a small quantity of gold ; this was likewise worked by the 
Moors. 

Silver Mines upon the mountain to the north of Logrosen, 
making part of the Sierra of Guadalupe, and upon an emi- 
nence called Chantée, towards Zalaiw-a, two leagues from 
the eminence which has been noticed by the name of Vadija, 
inclining towards the south. The former is in a whitish stone 
•uhb a white mica* The latter is without lead, in a rock of 
granite cut against its natural direction ; the vein likewise 
contains spar, quartz, while and yellow pyrites, and a black 
shining, crumbling, and pyritous matter. This has been 
v. orked, but having filled with water it was abandoned ; it 
appears that it would be difficult to dry it. 

There is an intermitting fountain a quarter of a league 
from Acebo, in the diocese of Coria, in the vineyards near 
a convent of Franciscans; it has no regular periods. 

Several of the mountains of Estremadura, particularly 
that of Guadalupe, are covered with medicinal plants of all 
kinds. Various animals are to be found on them, that oS 
Guadalupe among others has a good many .stags and roebuck*. 



i:>trfmaduha. 38S 

There are five principal mineral spring* known ; four arc 
coU, the nab is tbermah The first are tho=e of Chalet* nine 
leagues from Tulavtrala Real ; the Fuente del Carra^co, near 
the village of Ahtrah urin, the Fuente de las Aguzaderas, 
near Z .fra. npi.a the mountain Castellar, and the Fuente de 
Bernardo Estevard, near Barearrota, a snvdl town seven 
k.iLTUes from Ba&joz, and a quarter of a league out of the 
road from los Caxallcroa; this appears to be chaly- 

beate. The last 16 thermal ; it is by the side of the hermitage 
of St Bartolomé. near Alange, a town three leagues to the 
east of Mcrida. It is very copious and has baths, which were 
very much frequented in the time of the Romans: the re- 
mains of a bason and an oval edifice with four niches and 
four flights of steps which lead to the bath, are still to be 
seen. 

Arts and Science» in E.strcmadura. This is the most neg- 
lected and most backward province of Spain in the arts and 
sciences ; it may perhaps in this respect be placed by the side 
of la Mancba. It has neither schools nor establishments of 
any kind ; the people live in ignorance, particularly of any 
thing relative to these different objects, they have no d< 
for knowledgi ; and have no idea of appreciating the works 
of the fine arts. The inhabitants of this province, fonder of 
war than sciences, have always disregarded or neglect» d 
study ; and if any of them have deserved to be greatly distin- 
guished, it ia as warrior.-, and not as learned men. Vet with 
respect to literature thib province has produced some persona 
who ought to be noticed, for instance* Gaspard de Mclo, a 
theologian, Francisco Cairasco del Sug, a lawyer; the hit» 
tonan brancoz-lq-diaz de Yajgas; the netaphjrsiciaii.Juan 
PLzarro de Arayon, all bom. at Truxillo ; the poet Decianus. 

tl* historian- Juan-Antonio de Vera ) ZtUUDga ami lialr. 
Moreno de Vargas, all of Merida, the in . - lh .in ou- author 
laj Bro^a» ; t|ae phjuit an .M-tey Fer- 



384 ESTREMADUltâ. 

ratifiez Egara, ami the painter Christobal Perez enraies, 
bothofBadajoz. At the end of the ninth century this town was 
the hi rth -place of the Moor Abu-Mohamed Abdalla, who pub- 
lished the principles of rhetoric^ We may also mention an 
able lawyer of the sixteenth century, Gregorio Lopez, a native 
of Guadalupet who has left a commentary on the code of 
laws of las siete part/dits, and lastly the comic poet Bartolo- 
méNaharrOj a priest, born at Torre. 

Character, Manners, Customs, and Habits. The inhabit- 
ants of Estremadârà live in a country which seems to be in- 
tilated from every other, and where opportunities of com- 
municating with the different parts of the Spanish monarchy 
ire not frequent. Hence this province appears to be con- 
centrated in itself, and to think only or its own existence* 
The people of it neither know the comforts or the conveniences 
of life, nor the means of procuring them. Little habituated 
to the world, they dread mixing with it, and avoid society. 
Hence they appear taciturn, and are perhaps the gravest of 
all the Spaniards. They fear to be accosted by strangers, 
shun their company, and take a pleasure in confining them- 
selves all their lives to their own province. A certain dis- 
taste for employment and the want of knowledge keep them 
from work, and make them constantly idle. 

They possess in other respects excellent qualities; they 
ure frank, sincere, full of honour and probity, slow in plan- 
ning enterprises, but firm in their projects and consistent in 
their notions. They have always been excellent soldiers ; 
they are strong, vigorous, and robust, supporting without 
murmuring the fatigues and dangers of war; they have always 
displayed an astonishing courage; they prefer the cavalry to 
the infantry. 

This province has produced several great captains, who did 
honour to their country by brilliant exploits. It gave birth 
to the famous Garcias de Paredes, and to several of the con- 



rSTREMADURA. 3S5 

querors of America, Fernando Corte», Francisco Pizarro, the 
marquis del Valle de Goanaea, and some other of their com- 
panions in arms. 

The labourers or workmen of this province are likewise ac- 
cused of an excessive sloth. The charge appears to be true ; 
but they ought to be treated with indulgence, when it is known 
that they are necessarily led into the habits of idleness, being 
in spite of themselves without work, without resource for two- 
thirds of the year, and without any means of industry to sup- 
port their existence. Being paid for their work a very mo- 
derate price, living in a country where commodities are very 
dear, and out of their reach, without hope of ameliorating 
their condition or their lot, they sink into listlessness. If hey 
are observed when they are employed, they will be found, 
alert, indefatigable, working without relaxation at noon-day, 
in a burning climate, and under a scorching sun. 

No kind of dissipation or pleasures are known in Estremadttra, 
there is no variety, every thing is regular, and melancholy. 
Persons of high birth, and those who have fortune or are at 
their ea-c, seldom associate and that but accidentally. 

It is still worse with the common people, they are so poor 
that they are constantly experiencing deprivations of every 
kind, and often want tin necessaries ol life, without looking 
forward to any favourable change of this pitiable Condition. 
This excess of poverty, which ipn ids from family to family, 
oppresses the soul and enervates the body. What I situation 
to *tek for pleaMire, and to be .bit to give ones* If up to the 
gaiety, which attend 

We find in this province :i lingular example of uh.it maybe 
called a democratic constitution, which excludes ill superi- 
ority of men over on< mother. The inhabitants of the little 
town of ( I sa% tuolc. 

in nuini" 00 pel consider (hen i Ivi -, among 

each otl \§i in rank, quality and condition; they 

Voi. f. c c 



$$6 ÏSTREMADURA. 

►take tbe greatest care to prevent this equality ever being al- 
tered by any exterior sign of honours or distinction. In short 
they have carried their vigilance in this respect so far, 
that, some yearn ago, they had an inscription which had 
been placed over the grave of one of their fellow citizens 
removed, though he was generally "steeoned and regretted 



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