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Eastern District of Pennsylvania, to wit .■ 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the tenth day of December, in the fifty- 
second year of the independence of the United States of America, A.D. 1827, 
Cephas G. Childs, of the said district, hath deposited in this office the title of 
a book, tlie right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words following, 
to wit; 

" Views in Philadelphia, and its Vicinity ; engraved from Original Draw- 
In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, intituled, " An 
Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing thecopiesof maps, charts, 
and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times 
therein mentioned" — and also to the Act, entitled, "An Act supplementary to 
an Act, entitled, ' An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the 
copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, 
during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the 
arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ D. CALDWELL, 

Clerk of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania 

Clark fy Raser, Printers 


f^fstortcal ^octets of ^rnnissltianta, 









Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2009 witii funding from 

University of Pittsburgii Library System 


fHall oi the W»tovital SocCrts ot llcnnssltantM. 

At a meeting of the Council of the Historical So- 
ciety of Pennsylvania, held Sept. 23d, 1830, on mo- 
tion of Roberts Vaux, Esq., seconded by Joshua F. 
Fisher, Esq., the following resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted, and the Secretary was requested to 
furnish Col. Childs with a copy thereof: — 

Resolved, That this Council enlDrtain a respectful sense of the public 
spirit and taste of C. G. Childs, Esq., a member of the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania, in undertaking and executing a series of engraved views of 
public edifices, &c., in and near Philadelphia. 

Resolved, That this Council regard the preservation by such skilful de- 
lineations of objects illustrative of history, and which are liable to decay, or 
to be otherwise removed, as an important auxiliary of the purposes of the 
society, and deeming the work in question correct, and highly valuable, ear- 
nestly recommend it to general ])atroiiage. 

J.H. Tv-so.v, 



The concluding number of this work being noAv 
before the pubUc, the Proprietor embraces the oppor- 
tunity of repeating his acknowledgments to those 
professional gentlemen to whose valuable assistance 
he has been indebted during the execution of it. In 
a more especial manner, he would express the great 
obligations he owes to those gentlemen who have 
voluntarily contributed the appropriate descriptions 
with which the embellishments are accompanied. To 
his friends and patrons he expresses his gratitude, for 
their liberal patronage. 

In taking leave of his subscribers, the Proprietor 
confesses the hope, that his "Views" will not be with- 
out interest to those who, at a future period, may de- 
sire to review the history of our rapidly improving 
city, and that they may serve to illustrate, not unfa- 
vourably, the state of the Arts at the present period. 

Philadtlphia, .Vov. 1830 


Pictures by 

1. Philadelphia from Kensington . . . T. Birch, P. A. 

2. Swedish Lutheran Church . . . . T. Sullv, P. A. 

3. Christ Church G. Stkickland. 

4. Friends' Meeting-house at Merion . H. Reinagle. 

5. St. Stephen's Church G. Strickland. 

C. First CongregationalUnitarian Church H. Reinagle. 

7. State House G. Strickland. 

8. Fairmount Water Works from the > rp Doughty P A 

West 5 ' > • ■ 

9. Fairmount Water Works from the ) rp poug„.i.y p a. 

Reservoir j i • • 

^°- ^Vf w''^^"''" ''™'" *^' ^'"^ \ Capt. Watson. 

Water Works ) 

11. Bank of the United States .... G.Strickland. 

12. Bank of Pennsylvania G.Strickland. 

13. Girard's Bank G. Strickland. 

14. Pennsylvania Hospital G. Strickland. 

*^' ^'S'lnd Dumf ""°" ^°' ."" } ^ Strickland. 

16. University of Pennsylvania .... G.Strickland. 

17. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine ) q Strickland 

Arts 5 

18. Eastern Penitentiary of Pennsylvania W.Mason. 

19. Plan of the Eastern Penitentiary . . J. Haviland,P. A 

20. United States Mint W.Strickland, P.A 

Sil. Widows' and Orphans' Asylum . . G. Strickland. 

22. Schuylkill Canal at Manayimk . . . G. Lehman. 

23. Eaglesfield W. Mason. 

24. Sedgley Park E. W. Clay. 

23. Academy of Natural Sciences .. . G. Strickland. 

26. Title Page T. M. Raser. 

^7. Lathe Work on the Cover— Embellishments ■ . . 5 

Engraved by 
J. Cone. 
C. G. Childs. 
C. G. Childs. 
J. W. Steel. 
C. G. Childs. 
C. G. Childs. 
C. G. Childs. 
J. Cone. 

C. G. Childs. 

C. G. Childs. 

W. E. Tucker. 

C. G. Childs. 

C. G. Childs. 

( G. Fairman,P.A. 
I & C. G. Childs. 

C. G. Childs. 
C. G. Childs. 
C. G. Guilds. 
W. H. Hay. 
J. W. Steel. 
C. G. Childs. 
C. G. Childs. 

C. G. Childs. 

H. E. Saulnier. 

Fairman, Draper, 
Underwood & Co. 
«kS. H. Carpenter. 

Clark S^ Raser, Printers. 

^ I 

11 I i 

4 1 > .1 



Many of our most flourisliiiig towns and cities look very 
much like tlie results of accident. There is scarcely any in- 
timation of plan or arrangement in their appeai-ance. The 
paths worn by the infrequent feet of the fii"st settlers, have 
been insensibly widened into busy and crowded streets. Or, 
if the design of founding a city has been conceived, it has 
often liappened tliat the site at first selected and laid out, has 
been forsaken by personal convenience or caprice, and the 
next generation sees a prosperous community spreading itself 
out, as if in mockery of human foresight, upon another spot, 
and along the narrow, crooked, and irregular paths thrown 
open by tlie impatient spirit of individual enterprise, which 
seldom takes into account the accommodation of postei'ity. 
It is peculiarly the distinction of Philadelphia that it is the 
successful fulfilment of the original design. The spot upon 
which it now ilourishes, was chosen for a town shortly after 
tlie landing of William Penn at Newcastle, Oct. 1682; and 
the present city realizes, in all important respects, the plan 
and intention of its illustrious founder. Its regularity, tliere- 
fore, if it has no other cliarm, cannot fail to impress us, in- 
asmuch as it is powerfully expressive of the prospective wis- 
dom and benevolence of the human mind. 

Before the site of Philadelphia was fixed upon, the place 
was occupied by a few emigrants who had preceded William 
Penn, and who lived in huts after the manner of the natives, 
or in caves dug in the high banks of the Delaware. In one 
of these caves the first native Philadclphian was born. In 
less than a year after the town was established, eighty houses 
were erected, and the various occupations of civilized life 
busily carried on. In about ten years the private estates in 
Philadelphia were valued at £75,000 and upwards — a decisive 
proof of the astonishing rapidity of its increase. 

In 1701, Philadelphia was incorporated as a city, and it 
was declared by the charter to be bounded by the rivers De- 


laware and Schuylkill on the east and west, and by Vine and 
Cedar streets on the north and south. The limits of the town 
had embraced a much larger surface, extending beyond the 
Schuylkill. In the course of time the population of the city 
has spread itself out far beyond the boundaries fixed by the 
charter, until its amount without the limits of the city exceeds 
the amount within them. The suburbs, thus populous, have 
from time to time been divided into corpoi-ate governments, 
under the names of the Northern Liberties, Kensington, 
Spring Garden, Southwark, Moyamensing, and Passyunk. 
The population of these districts, together with that of the 
city, amounted, in 1820, to 119,931. From the census of 
the present year we are enabled with considerable accuracy 
to state an increase of 50,000, making tlie present population 
of Philadelphia and its suburbs amount to upwards of 170,000. 

In 1789 a new act of incorporation superseded the char- 
ter of 1701, and continued in force until 1796, when the 
present form of municipal government was established. A 
mayor, a recorder, fifteen aldermen, and a select and com- 
mon council, compose the chief authorities of the city. The 
recorder and aldermen are appointed by the governor. 
The mayor is annually chosen by the councils from among 
the citizens. He appoints the city commissioners, the high 
constables, &c., and receives an annual compensation of 
two thousand dollars. The members of the select and com- 
mon councils are chosen by the people | the former serve 
three years, and vacate their seats in rotation; tlie latter are 
annually elected. They receive no compensation, sit in sepa- 
rate chambers, and each body has a negative on the legisla- 
tive acts of the other. The mayor, recorder, and aldermen, 
or any three of them, whereof the mayor or recorder must be 
one, constitute "the Mayor's Court," which has a jurisdiction 
similar to that of the Quarter Sessions in the counties. The 
aldermen have the powers and perform the duties of justices 
of the peace. 

Philadelphia is forever consecrated, in our political history, 
as the place where that immortal Congress first assembled, 
to whose energy and wisdom tlie foremost minds and the most 
eloquent lips of the British Senate, in the very excitement of 


the contest, paid the tribute of their admiration and respect. 
On tliis spot the independence of the country was formally 
prochiimed, and here in a manner is the print of the boldest 
step yet taken in the progress of free institutions. Philadel- 
phia shared in the trials of the Revolution, and was for nearly 
nine months in the possession of the British. Some of the 
severest passages of the war took place in its neighbourhood. 
It was the seat of the general government for eleven years 
after the adoption of the Federal constitution. 

At an early period, Philadelphia took the lead in commerce 
among the cities of the United States. And if its commercial 
importance has since been lessened by those causes which 
gave a check, greater or less, to the trade of the whole na- 
tion, it may be safely affirmed that at this present time it 
enjoys a commercial and a general prospei'ity, as secure and 
solid as can be witnessed in any part of the country. 
Throughout the city, tlie spirit of sure, although gradual im- 
provement, is discernible — and the extraordinary abundance of 
the common comforts of life, the variety of the manufactures, 
the increasing means of communication with the interior, the 
marble, clay, and exhaustless beds of coal in the neighbour- 
hood, the capital of Philadelphia unexcelled in its soundness 
and amount by that of any city of the Union, the public spirit 
of the inhabitants seldom excited by the fever of specula- 
tion, but exhibiting itself in a quiet and steady pursuit of the 
useful — all these are pledges of the pre-eminence to which 
Philadelphia is destined in every particular that helps to con- 
stitute a beautiful, enlightened, and prosperous city. 

To the claims of Philadelphia, in respect of its public, 
benevolent, litcrarj', and religious institutions, the pages of 
our work will, we trust, bear some testimony. To the cha- 
racter of its inhabitants, their works bear witness. The 
stranger who walks througli the streets, will see in their re- 
gularity and cleanliness, and in the fondness every where 
shown for a simple and chaste architecture, no slight indica- 
tion of the moral tastes and habits of the people. For almost 
every variety of human suffering, Philadelphia has opened a 
noble asylum ; and we believe that no well-accredited stranger 
can go from tiie city without tlie remembrance of its polite 


and generous hospitality. Its pretensions, in a literary and 
scientific point of view, are by no means inconsiderable. In 
many substantial forms it evinces its respect for that wealth 
which is of the mind ; and the love of utility which character- 
izes all its institutions, shows it to be peculiarly worthy of 
the honour it enjoys in being entrusted with the ashes of 



This simple building, which stands nearly on the edge of 
the Delaware, in Southwark, was consecrated in the year 
iroo, nnder the name of " Gloria Dei." It is sixty feet long, 
about thirty feet wide, and its height to the eaves is twenty 
feet. It has been so often repaired, that scarcely any thing 
remains of the original structure except the brick walls, 
which are still firm, and promise to survive the new but 
frailer materials that they support. From this slight descrip- 
tion, and from the view annexed, it will be seen that the 
claims of this rustic edifice are very modest in point of archi- 
tecture. There are other respects however in which it de- 
mands attention, and will continue to awaken an increasing 

One cannot step within its humble precincts without being 
filled with the genius of the place. The visiter on a week 
day enters the churchyard through the shady grounds of the 
parsonage, and by a path imperfectly indicated by a few^ 
bushes of overgrown box. The parsonage itself, standing in 
affectionate pi-oximity to the Church, separated from it only 
by a fence, whose decayed condition tells you that it serves 
merely as a landmark, and is not intended to divide the ser- 
vant of God from the home of his heart and his labours — the 
Church, as a work of art, entering into no proud rivalry with 
nature, but harmonizing w itii the rural character of tlie spot 
— the gray stones, that mark the places where the congrega- 
tion of the dead repose, and in addition, the recollection of 
the venerable years of the present pastor — all conspire to 
make a deep and tender impression on the mind. The effect 
is probably somewhat licightened by tlie sudden transition 
from the noise and hurry of tlie city to the comparative seclu- 
sion of this spot. The interior of the church has nothing to 
attract attention except tlie inscriptions at the foot of the pul- 
pit, beneath w hich the remains of the departed pastors of this 
flock of Christ arc deposited. So, although dead, they yet 


speak — but not in an unknown tongue — from the same place 
where their living voices wei-e heard. 

The Swedish Lutheran Church is interesting for its anti- 
quity. A foreigner woukl smile perhaps at this pretension. 
We ourselves are free to confess, that if the building of which 
we speak were the relic of a period of oppression and barba- 
rism, it would require more than a hundred and thirty years 
to hallow it in our eyes, and to give it the charms of anti- 
quity. To our strong republican taste, the remains of a be- 
nighted age would need the consecration of many centuries 
ere dignity or interest could be imparted to the crimes and 
abuses they commemorate. But around such a monument of 
peace and piety, of the innocence and worth of our ancestors, 
of the pure origin and healthy birth of our country as the 
Swedish Church, all that is attractive in antiquity gathers 
full fast and appeals to us with a subduing eloquence. 

This Church advances yet another claim upon us. It is 
here that the ashes of Alexander Wilson repose. His tomb 
is a prominent object in the engraving. His biographer 
tells us that it was the wish of this sweet lover of nature 
to be buried in some rural retreat where the birds might sing 
over his grave, and regrets that this wish was not known to 
those who bore him to his last home. The spirit of his re- 
quest, however, has been unconsciously observed. It is meet 
that he who cherished so deeply that common sympathy that 
unites all created things, and sought to awaken it in others, 
by bringing them acquainted with one of the most delightful 
portions of the great household of nature — it is meet that the 
memorial of him should be found in a place, whose primitive 
appearance so powerfully recalls to the imagination the thou- 
sand melodious voices and all the wild music of nature, with 
which these shores resounded a little more than a century 

Piiiby C.O.Ck;Ui. Kudrxvtr PkHaiL; - lS>S. 



Owing to the destruction by fuc of the early records of this 
venerable building, the precise date of its erection cannot now 
be ascertained. Enough, how ever, is known to prove, that a 
building stood upon the site of the present church, prior to 
the year 1696; and that the only assistance obtained from 
England in aid of its erection, was a stipend of fifty guineas, 
given by king William. 

The body of the church, together with the basement and 
superstructure of the steeple, is of the Roman Doric order : 
its dimensions in front on Second Street, is sixty-three feet : 
its depth, including the base of the steeple and the projection 
of the chancel in front, is one liundred and twenty-three feet 
two inches : — The steeple is thirty-one feet square, and the 
total height one hundred and ninety feet, including the rod 
which supports the ball, vane, and mitre: it is built of brick 
to the height of eighty-five feet. The cupola and spire is of 
wood, octangular in plan, which rises eighty-five feet above 
the brick work. 

Originally the windows of the front and flanks of the church, 
of which there are two rows, were formed with leaden sash, 
somewhat in the Gothic style; indeed it would seem from the 
disposition and general arrangement of the various parts of 
the whole edifice, that a Gotliic model had been kept in view 
by its projectors as far as respects some of the details of its 
external and interior distribution. The high pitched roof, 
surrounded by piers and balusters ; the subdivision of the 
flanks with pilasters, togctlicr with the columnar separation 
of the nave and side aisles of the interior, indicate strongly 
some of the leading features of a Gothic model. 

The proportions of the steeple particularly are good; it 
was erected from a design by Robert Smith, about 1745 : but 
there are unquestionably many crudities in the details of the 
building, which mark an era of profusion in architecture that 
belonged to the Anglo-Palladian school in the reign of George 
the Second. 


I i' 



Among the companions of the iUustrious founder of Penn- 
sylvania, when lie arrived on the shores of the Delaware, 
in the year 1682, were a large number of Welsh people of 
great respectability and substance. These excellent persons, 
before they left their native country, had purchased of the 
proprietary several thousand acres of land on the western 
side of the river Schuylkill, about six miles from the spot 
fixed upon for the city of Philadelphia; and this tract was 
called Meeioneth, in honour of tiieir birth-place. 

Immediately after their landing they proceeded to occupy 
and improve their possessions ; and one of their earliest cares 
was the erection of a meeting house for public worship, and 
for the transaction of the affairs of the Religious Society of 
Friends, of which they were members. 

The venerable structure here exhibited is a monument of 
the pious labours of those devoted men. It is built in the 
form of a cross ; the walls are granite, and the timber that 
enters into its composition is hewn, saws of a large size not 
being tlijn employed in the settlement. The simplicity of 
the workmanship, and tiie style of the edifice, form together 
a record of the taste, and of the capacities of our ancestors, 
to execute plans of this kind, even under the most unfavour- 
able circumstances. A patriarch of that day, and whose 
means were liberally contributed toward the erection of this 
building, was Hugh Roberts; he caused a sun-dial of 
ample dimensions to be placed near the house, which re- 
mained for more than a hundred years, the only public regu- 
lator of the time-pieces of that neighbourhood, his design 
being, to use his own words, "that Friends might be punc- 
tual, and orderly in tlicir attendance at meeting." Many 
interesting anecdotes are related of the primitive people who 
worshipped at Merion Meeting House, a building which has 


been consecrated to religious purposes for almost a centui-y 
and a half. 

It is a gratijication which we cannot too much appreciate, 
often to reflect upon the devotedness of our forefathers, wiio 
<.ame hither to establish and enjoy civil and religious free- 

We owe to those distinguished pioneers a debt of gratitude 
which never can be paid. Let then a generous sense of their 
services be manifested, by the homage which we lender to 
their principles, the honour that we confer upon their names, 
and the regard with which we contemplate even the trees that 
they have planted, and the fabrics they have constructed. 



The cx|)erience of tlic United States furnishes conclusive 
evidence of tiie fallacy of that theory, which supposes religion 
to depend for her influence and success upon the support of 
the temporal government. In no country — at least of modern 
times — has tiie doctrine of the lawfulness of an union between 
church and state been more thoroughly repudiated than in 
this republic; wliich set the first example of a solemn and 
constitutional prohibition of religious establishments. Single 
and self-poised, but not in hostility with the civil institutions 
of men, religion draws her nourishment from the great mass 
of the community, and returns her healing influences exactly 
in proportion witli the breadth of tiie popular interest. It 
may be aflirmed with confidence, but without any vain glo- 
rious emotion, that whether we regard the state of morals or 
tiie means of worship, the evidences of the diff'usion and efli- 
cacy of religion are at least as numerous and convincing in 
tills country, as in those in which she is sustained and counte- 
nanced by the civil government. In Great Britain, for ex- 
ample, tlie temples of worship have generally been erected 
by the public authorities at the public expense, and the mi- 
nisters of the established faith are supported by tythes or 
taxes imposed by law, and collected without the pi'etence of 
co-operation on the part of the people. In this country, every 
thing that is expended on the churches or their ministers, is 
derived from the free and spontaneous liberality of indivi- 
duals. Such, however, is the effect of free institutions, and 
freedom of choice and opinion, that if we compare our atlan- 
tic cities, at least, with the chief towns of Great Britain, it will 
be found that the number of edifices devoted to religious wor- 
sliip, and the number of ministers actually engaged in the 
offices of the pulpit, is much greater with us in proportion to 
tlie population, than in that country which has devoted so 
much of the public funds, and employed so extensively the 
machinery of the law, to the support of a religious establish- 


ment. In the year 1 824, there were in London 333 places 
of worship of all kinds, sizes, and denominations, from the 
humble meeting house of the Friends, up to the gorgeous 
cathedral of St. Paul's. At the same time, it was calculated 
tliat the metropolis contained a population of about 1,270,000 
persons, which will give one place of worship for each 3813 
persons. In Dublin, in 1821, there were 82 churches, and 
about 250,000 inhabitants, averaging 3048 persons to each 
church. In Edinburgh the proportion is about the same. In 
Philadelphia, in 1830, there are supposed to be about 160,000 
inhabitants. The number of churches of all denominations 
is not short of 96; averaging one church to about 1666 per- 
sons, and thus exhibiting more than txvice as many places of 
worship, in proportion to the population, tlian London. In 
Boston, New York, and Baltimore, tlie relative number of 
places of worship and inhabitants is nearly the same as in 
Philadelphia; and in all, tlie increase of churclies is at least 
as great as that of the population, although the progress of 
the latter is at a ratio of which Europe affords no example. 

S^j^Sf'y SB'l£iPISSiV& iS!Enm©3£. 



Among the religious edifices of Pliiladeiphia, St. Stephen's 
chiircii is one of the most distinguished. It was intended by 
the arciiitect (Mr, Strickland) to present a specimen of the 
gotiiic architecture of the middle ages, and he has happily 
executed the design ; but it is to be rcgi-etted tiiat the position 
of the building, standing, as it does, on the line of the street, 
prevents the full observation of its great merits. The church 
is situated on the east side of Tenth street between Market 
and Chcsnut streets. Its extreme length is one hundred and 
two feet. The breadth of the body of the building is fifty-five 
feet; that of the front, including the towers, is sixty-one feet. 
The towers are eighty-six feet high, comprising five stories 
with svindows and offsetts terminating in an embattled para- 
pet. The curtain or space between the towers is tliirty -three 
feet front, by sixty feet in height. The windows are sepa- 
rated by nmllions into four compartments, and decorated with 
pannelled ti-acery; the head of each window is ornamented 
with stained glass imported from England, repi-esenting che- 
rubim. The interior of the church has a vestibule or anti- 
chamber separated from the body of the building, which com- 
municates with a stairway in each tower leading to the gal- 
lery and organ loft. The pulpit and chancel are highly 
finished with recessed screen pannels, tracery, and clustered 
columns supporting four projecting canopies. There are 
three large windows immediately beiiind the pulpit covered 
with highly enriched gotiiic soffits supported by brackets pro- 
jecting from the walls. The gallery screen is parallel with 
the sides of the church connected in a semicircular form oppo- 
site to the pulpit. It is enriched witli perforated tracery and 
pannel work, and lined with purple di-apery, and supported 
by clustered columns. The massy ribs which sustain the 
ceiling spring from the upper part of the intervals between 
the windows of the flanks. Each rib is supported by brack- 
ets, and terminates in a key or pendant ; the spandrils being 


pierced with pannels. These ribs, brackets, and pendants, 
being regularly dispersed along the ceiling, dividing it into 
many compartments, produce a beautiful perspective effect. 
The organ loft or choir is situated at the western front in the 
rear of the circular pews of the gallery. The organ, which is 
a very superior instrument, and remarkable for the sweetness 
and power of its tones, was finished and erected in the spring 
of 1827, at a cost — including the screen — of upwards of three 
thousand dollars. The screen is a very rich but chaste spe- 
cimen of workmanship, in perfect harmony a\ ith the character 
and ornaments of the edifice. The ground floor contains one 
hundred and twenty-two pews ; the gallery fifty-four. The 
church was consecrated on the 27th of February, 1823. The 
i-ector is the Rev. James Montgomery, D. D. 



This edifice was erected during the past year, and stands 
at the corner of Locust and Tentli streets, facing soutli. 

Tiie design of the building was furnished by W. Strick- 
land, and is exceedingly simple: the whole style of the work 
does honour to the spirit of those who worship within its walls, 
and have so liberally contributed towards its completion. 

The plan of the building is a pai-allclogram, 61 by 83 feet. 
The south front elevation is a plain unbroken surface of Penn- 
sylvania marble, embracing a tetrastyle portico, of the Gre- 
cian Doric order. The columns are tiiree feet in diameter at 
their bases, and suppoi-t a full entablature and pediment which 
project nine feet from the front of the building. 

Tiie approach is by a wide flight of steps leading to the 
portico and door of entrance into the vestibule and body of 
the building: from the vestibule, to the right and left, stair- 
ways communicate with a large front gallery and organ loft. 
In the rear or north end of the ciiurch, a recess is formed, 
embracing the pulpit, which is flanked by two Doric pillars, 
supporting an entablature, the frieze of which contains the 
following inscription : 

•' This is life eternal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and 
Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." — John xvii. 3. 

The idea produced in the mind of a spectator on viewing 
this edifice, is its peculiar fitness to the purpose for which it 
was intended — a temple dedicated to the worship of the Al- 



In the year 1729, less than half a century after William 
renn had proclaimed, on the shores of the Delaware, amid the 
silence of its wilderness, his great charter of religious and civil 
liberty, this edifice was commenced by the freemen of the pro- 
vince of Pennsylvania. — It was finished and ready for the re- 
ception of the Legislature and the Courts of Justice in 1733, 
having cost about sL\ thousand pounds. 

The plan is rectangular, 110 feet in front, by forty-four feet 
in depth, with an offset of 32 by 35 feet in tlie rear for the 
stairway and main passage, over which a steeple was origi- 
nally erected, but having been removed in consequence of its 
decayed condition, is at present replaced by a small wooden 
pinnacle. — The building, two stories in height, is constructed 
of brick; the facade being of the Roman cliaracter, with rus- 
tic corners, and an enriched Corinthian cornice, with flush 
pannels of marble between the stories. The main entrance is 
by a Corinthian door-way of recent construction, and opens 
into a commodious vestibule, dividing the building in its centre 
in a latitudinal direction, highly enriched, by architectural or- 
naments, in the prevailing taste of that day. The rooms on 
either side have a modern appearance, from alterations made 
a short time since, in violation of every principle of goixl taste. 
In the attic story of the basement of the steeple is suspended 
the great bell, which bears the following prophetic inscrip 

"Proclaim liberty throughout all the land, unto all the inhabitants there- 
of" Lev. XXV. 10. 

" By order of the Assernbly of the Province of Pennsylvania, 

for the State House in Philadelphia. 





This venerable edifice has become one of the most interest- 
ing in the history of the world. Beneath its loof was assem- 
bled, the august body which pronounced the freedom and 
sovereignty of the United States. — In the same liall (that on 
the east) which enclosed tliose patriots who framed the Decla- 
ration of Independence, at the distance of little more than Ten 
years, a national council peaceably deliberated upon a genera! 
and comprehensive system of government for the American 
Union. — It is difficult to determine, vvl-ether greater gratitude 
is due to those illustrious citizens, whose courage oi-iginally 
asserted the liberties, or to those whose wisdom afterwards 
provided the means, for perpetuating the ha])piness of the 

On either side of the State House arc w ings erected for tlie 
accommodation of the public offices, terminated on the west 
by the County Court House, and on tlie cast by the City Hall. 
The State House, with the squai-e annexed to it, remained 
the property of the Commonwealth until 1 8 1 6 — when they were 
purchased by the Corporation of the City of Philadelphia, 
for Seventy Thousand Dollars. The grounds have been laid 
out and improved with considerable taste, and are enclosed 
by an iron railing, elevated from the level of the pavement by 
a terrace wall. 

By an ordinance of Councils this memorable portion of our 
City is denominated Independence Square, and forms one 
of its most decided ornaments. 

During the recent visit of the venerable La Fayette, into 
the ancient capital of the Colonies, the Hall of Independence, 
with singular felicity, was appropriated as his drawing room ; 
thus, presenting to the eye, the memory, and the feelings, a 
combination, animating and interesting beyond tlie power of 
language to express. 

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The erection of those vast works of art, wliich add to the 
comforts, and minister to the wants of a people, are the most 
acceptable efforts of a government, and secure to it the surest 
praise and lasting glory. By such works, men who have 
stained themselves witli blood and trampled on unregarded 
laws, have soothed the sufferings which they caused, and 
even blended tlie wreatli of popular applause with the crown 
of conquest and triumpli. By such works, monarclis who 
have lavished thousands on tiieir own caprices, have been par- 
doned, by the gi-atitude of those who were willing to forget 
what they suffered in the enjoyment of what they gained. To 
such works we turn our fust attention, in estimating the hap- 
piness and pointing out the glories of other nations ; and we 
look upon their relics, among the ruins of past glory and 
grandeur, with feelings which are never roused by the more 
splendid and more perfect trophies of useless magnificence. 

These then should be our arts ; and sincerely do we hail 
every rising edifice, which is to confer some new blessing, by 
adding to the innocent enjoyments of our people, and enno- 
bling while it adorns the increasing prosperity of the re- 

From the earliest times, Philadelphia has not been wanting 
in the spirit which leads to such enterprises, though it has not 
always been accompanied either with the knowledge or taste 
which renders them successful as works of utility, and beau- 
tiful as specimens of art. With the present century, how- 
ever, a new era commenced, and, with few exceptions, our 
public works have been such as may be viewed without 
shame, while their benefits can never be too highly estimated. 

Among these, the Water-works at Fairmount are perhaps 
the most conspicuous. After several plans had been tried 
with more or less success, to supply the city with abundance 
of wholesome water, the scheme of elevating and turning into 
it the river Schuylkill, by means of an immense dam and 


water power, was determined upon in the year 1818. This plan 
was at once boldly adopted, and has been crowned with com- 
plete success. Its principal features are — the consti-uction of 
a dam, fourteen hundred and sixteen feet in lengtli, across the 
Schuylkill, whicii backs the water up the river about six miles, 
and creates a power sufficient to raise into the reservoir ten mil- 
lions of gallons a-day; the forcing pumps, at present four in 
number, placed in a horizontal position, worked by cranks on 
the water-wheels, and connected with four mains of sixteen 
uiches diameter each, and about two hundred and ninety feet 
in length, which convey the water into the reservoirs; the 
leservoirs, situated on the top of Fairmount, at an elevation 
of one hundred and two feet above low tide of the Schuylkill, 
and fifty -six feet above the highest ground in the city of Phi- 
ladelphia, covering an extent of more than three hundred 
thousand square feet, and capable of containing twenty mil- 
lions of gallons of water; and finally the mains and pipes, 
which pass from the reservoirs to the city, and are then laid 
along the different streets, extending, at this time, to the length 
of thirty-two miles. Though the cost of this work has of 
course been great, not indeed falling short of a million of 
dollars, yet the advantages derived from it are such, as 
more than to redeem all expense; and it has even been 
found to be a source of profit in a financial point of view. 
The water-tax, which is exceedingly small, after providing 
lor all the present expenses, and paying the interest on the 
sum laid out, produces a surplus which is applied to the re- 
duction of the principal, and will entirely liquidate it, at no 
\'ery remote period. 

The situation of Fairmount is exceedingly picturesque, and 
the works themselves are constructed with great neatness ; it 
is a favourite resort of the citizens, and the view of it is 
highly interesting, blending as it does the beauty of nature 
with the ornaments of useful art, and the gaiety and anima- 
tion of groups of well diessed people. 

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Rivers in all ages and countries have been regarded with 
a species of exclusive, even of patriotic feeling. They are 
the favourite theme of poets, they have been adorned by fancy 
with a thousand new beauties, they have been endued with 
miraculous atti-ibutes, and assigned as the abode of deities. 
In the burning and sandy regions of the East, rivers are 
said to exist in icy coldness ; others, to bear fertility in their 
waters, and to distribute new blessings among the regions 
through which they flow. Travellers can yet discover in dry 
plains the once famous fountains of Greece, from the graphic 
descriptions in which her writers delighted to indulge. There 
is scarcely a stream in Italy, from the silent Liris to the ma- 
jestic Po, that is not adorned and immortalized by genius. 
All the waters that wander through the irriguous valleys of 
England, from old father Thames to the remote and sylvan 
Wye, have been recorded in the familiar pages of poetry and 
romance, till they seem something more than the features of 
inanimate Jiature, and are fixed in the mind as objects of pecu- 
liar veneration and love. 

Imagination has scarcely yet given these additional charms 
to the streams of America, but as in native beauty they far 
surpass all that the old world can offer, so in future times 
there may arise new Virgils and new Miltons to endow them 
with thai which genius and fancy oidy can add to nature. 
The character of vast grandeur that has been impressed upon 
her mountains, her forests, her cataracts, and her boundless 
prairies, has also distinguished her rivers; and the endless 
torrents which flow through the beds of the Mississippi and 
the Amazon, have caused her smaller streams to pass unno- 
ticed, thougii they may well rival the most boasted of Europe. 

Of these no one exceeds the Schuylkill in various use- 
fulness and beauty. It flows for more than a hundred miles 
through the state of Pennsylvania, its sliores covered with 
luxui-iant forests, with fields rich in every product of agricul- 


ture, and with mines of valuable minerals. The scenery is 
picturesque beyond description. Here are seen spreading 
along its banks, villas and verdant lawns — there the eye can 
penetrate but a little way into woods of primeval growth ; occa- 
sionally a passage is worn through ridges of mountains rising 
precipitously on either side, the channel studded with gigantic 
rocks, scattered withtlie wildest irregularity — in other places 
the stream spreads into broad and placid sheets of water, as 
bright and as beautiful as the lakes of Italy. 

Tlic annexed engraving presents a view of the Schtjyl- 
KILL, where it passes the western limits of Pliiladelphia. 
The two bridges by which it is there crossed are both deline- 
ated, and as noble specimens of enterprise and art they are 
deserving of attention and examination. The low ei- or Perma- 
nent Bridge is thirteen hundred feet in length, and consists 
of three arches, of which the centre one has a span of one 
hundred and ninety-five feet, and an elevation from the sur- 
face of the river of thirty -one feet; the western pier is a work 
of i-egular and solid masonry, in a depth of water forty-one 
feet, in which respect it is supposed to exceed every other in 
the world. It was executed in forty-one days and niglits, and 
contains six thousand one hundred and seventy-eight perches 
of stone. The Upper Bridge, at Fairmount, consists of a 
single arch of gi'eat beauty, stretciiing over the whole surface 
of the river, and is three hundred and thirty-four feet wide, 
a span believed to be greater than any other in existence. 

Beyond these works are seen the celebrated structures that 
supply the city with water; on the right of the foreground 
the buildings originally erected for the same purpose; and 
around, the increasing edifices, which are fast depriving the 
stream of every picturesque feature, and lea\ing it rather the 
channel of abundant commerce, than an object of admiration 
to the lover of simple nature. 

1 ! 



The Bank of the United States was incorporated in tlie year 
1816, with a capital of thirty-five millions of dollars, distri- 
buted between the Parent Bank and nineteen Branches. To 
describe its nature and its operations, would lead us too far 
from our present purpose, which is simply to illustrate, by a 
short explanation, the view of the Building at Philadelpliia, 
in which the general administration of the Bank and its 
branches is concentered. 

The corner stone was laid in April, 1819, and the whole 
was finished near the close of 1824. The cost of the ground 
was Sl55,628 — of the structure itself, 8257,452 — making an 
aggregate of 8413,081; an expense which may be regarded 
as very moderate, when we consider the great mass of mate- 
rials which it contains; there being not less than 41,500 cubic 
feet of marble in the porticos and walls — about 3 millions of 
bricks, and 3000 perches of building stone, and 17| tons of 
copper on tlie roof. 

In choosing tlie situation of such a building, its centrality 
and its convenience for business, were of course more impor- 
tant considerations than picturesque effect; and the lot — a 
parallelogram of 1 52 feet by 225 — is, on that account, more 
circumscribed than would be desirable. This defect was 
to be obviated by placing the structure as far as possible from 
the street — by insulating it entirely — by interposing nothing 
between the spectator and the building — and by raising the 
foundation so as to acquire for the whole an artificial eleva- 
tion, which to the eye would produce the effect of distance. 
Accoidingly, in tlie centre of the ground is constructed a ter- 
race, 3 feet high, 119 feet in front, and 225 in depth, serving 
as the foundation from which, at the distance of 16 feet from 
its front and flank edges, the building rises. It occupies 87 
feel in front, and 187 feet in depth, including the steps, or 
161 feet excluding them. On reaching the terrace, which, in 


order to preserve its form entire, is done by steps in tlie 
rear of the gateways, the building is approached by a flight 
of steps along the whole front — 13 in number, and occupying 
13 feet in depth. These lead to the portico, which has abase- 
ment of 10 feet 6 inches in width, on which stand eight Gre- 
cian Doric columns, 4 feet 6 inches in diameter, 27 feet in 
height — fluted, and without bases, and supporting a simple 
entablature and a pediment, which, like the roof, has just that 
degree of elevation necessary to carry off" the water — tlie ver- 
tical angle being 1 53°. Behind the columns, and at the due 
distance from them — the width between the two columns at 
the end of the portico — is the wall of the building. The door 
opens upon a vestibule of SO feet by 18 in widtli, the ceil- 
ing of which is richly worked, and the pavement tesselated 
with American and Italian marble. On the right and left 
sides arc tlie Loan Oftice and Transfer Oflice. From the 
vestibule, an arched entrance leads to tlie Banking room, si- 
tuated in the centre of the building, and extending 48 feet in 
breadth, and 81 feet in length. Through the whole of this 
length, on each side, at the distance of ten feet from the walls, 
is a range of six fluted Ionic columns, twenty -two inches in 
diameter, behind which are ranged the desks of the Oflicers 
of the Bank, so as to leave tlie whole of the interior open. 
These columns support an entablature, from which spring the 
central and side arches. Tlie great central arch is of a semi- 
cylindrical form — 20 feet in diameter, and 81 in length — and 
raises the ceiling to the height of 35 feet from tlie floor to the 
crown of the arch. At the four corners of the Banking room 
are the rooms of the President, Cashier, and other principal 
officers of the Bank. Towards the south, a second arciied en- 
trance conducts to the Stockholders' room, a parallelogram of 
28 feet by 50 feet. Into this room open two smaller apart- 
ments, and also the two staircases leading to the upper part 
of the building. To the Stockholders' room succeeds the 
southern portico, wiiich is exactly similar to that on the north. 
The whole is built witii marble from the quarries of Mont- 
gomery County, near tlie city— the interior is vaidtcd through- 
out and arched, so as to be entirely fire proof, and the roof is 


Tlic Banking room is warmed, during winter, by a furnace 
below, the beat from which diffuses an equal temperature 
througbout its whole extent, while in summer the massive- 
ness of tlie structure preserves its coolness. 

From this sketch may be gathered the degree of its resem- 
blance to the ancient temples, and especially to the Parthenon, 
from w hicb some of its proportions arc taken. In its general 
dimensions it is much larger than the Temple of Theseus at 
Athens, and smaller than the Parthenon. Their respective 
proportions are these : — 

Front excluding steps. Length excluding steps. 
Temple of Theseus, 45 ft. 2 in. 104 ft. 2 in. 
Parthenon, 101 ft. 1 in. 227 ft. 7 in. 

Bank U. S., 87 ft. 161 ft. 

making the Pai-tbenon 14 feet 1 inch widei-, and 66 feet 7 inches 
longer than the Bank; but as the Temple of Theseus has only 
two steps, and the Parthenon only tiiree, while the Bank has 
13, extending 13 feet on each front, the length of the build- 
ings, respectively, including the steps, would be considerably 
varied, the length of the Bank, from the outer step, being 187 
feet, that of the Parthenon, 236 feet 9 inches. The compari- 
son may be best illustrated by the fact that the Parthenon with 
its steps, covers an extent of ground nearly, but not quite 
equal, to the area of the terrace of the Bank. 

As however the double row of columns in the portico and 
the flanking colonnade required so much space, the actual di- 
mensions of the interior of the two buildings are much 
more nearly equal tiian these proportions would indicate. 
Thus: — the enclosed part of tlie Parthenon was in width 70 
feet 6 inches; in length, 158 feet 7 inches; and the wliole 
area of the enclosure was therefore 11,181 feet: while the en- 
closure of the Bank is in width 87 feet; in length, 141 feet; 
making an area of 12,267 feet, or 1,806 feet more than that 
of the Parthenon. 

The interior of the Parthenon, after deducting the Pronaos 
and Posticum at the two ends, occupying 12 feet each, was 
divided into two rooms, the Treasury or Opisthodomos of 62 
feet by 42 feet 10 inches, and the great central hall, the scene 
of all the exhibitions, which was 98 feet 7 inches by 42 feet 


10 inches, while the Banking room is 48 feet by 81, giving an 
aiea very nearly equal. 

The principal differences between tlie two buildings are 
these. The Partlienon had a colonnade on the flanks, which 
here is wanting. This beautiful ornament was probably 
deemed too costly, and we may reconcile ourselves to the loss 
of it, by the reflection, that in a building destined to receive 
its light from the side, it might have too much overshadowed 
the scene of business. The Parthenon has been regarded as 
what is technically called hypoethral— tliat is, having its roof 
open in the centre, as would be the middle aisle of a modern 
church. Recent observations by detecting something of the 
later ages in the columns of the interior, have excited doubts 
as to this fact, which tlie present dilapidation of the building 
will forever render inexplicable — but the piobability is, that 
the light of the Parthenon came from the roof, not from the 
sides — and the flanking colonnade would, on that account, pre- 
sent no inconvenience. 

The other difference, the absence of the second row of co- 
lumns in the portico, is scarcely to be regretted. Behind the 
front row in the Parthenon stood a second row of smaller di- 
mensions. This was very rare in Greek architecture — and 
the effect of it is of doubtful advantage, for it tends to compli- 
cate the simplicity of the portico, by multiplying the objects 
embraced in it, and particularly to disguise that established 
proportion of distance between the columns and the wall of 
the building which is so beautiful. Nor need we lament more 
the want of many other ornaments with which ancient archi- 
tecture was overloaded. The Parthenon still retains the pe- 
destals (the acroteria) at the top and the ends of the pedi- 
ment. What these supported can be only conjectured — but 
they were probably either gilt vases as at the temple of Jupi- 
ter at Olympia, or gilt chariots as at the Propylrea, in Co- 
rinth. Then too the sculptures in the pediment of the Par- 
thenon were gilded, as was the frieze of the temple of The- 
seus at Athens, and the coi-nice of the Propylcea at Athens — 
incongruities these, rejected by the severer taste of our day, 
which is more satisfied with the uniformity of colour in the 
pediment, and the well defined contiimity of the edge of tlie 


roof. These beauties are here admirably displayed. The 
portico of tlie Bank is indeed its great ornament, and it is one 
of the higiiest merit. Tlic proportions arc modelled on those 
of the Parthenon in all their sc^ crity, and there is perhaps 
nothing now standing, vvhicli excels it for that pure and chaste 
simplicity, the most endearing charm alike of character and of 
architecture, which we cannot too often or too anxiously re- 
commend to the study and imitation of our countrymen. This 
ought to be emphatically tlie country for the triumph of ar- 
chitecture. In Europe, tlie demand for palaces, chui-ches, 
and even prisons, is nearly exhausted^ but in this new and 
growing region, where so many states are displaying the 
honoui-able pride of sovereignty, by embellishing the seats of 
their legislatures, where so many towns and counties requii'e 
edifices for the public service, and where i-eligion — which in 
every age has done more for the arts, than all their other 
patrons, is daily multiplying its temples — we may hope, that 
our American architecture may soon assume the ra»ik to whicli 
tiiese advantages naturally lead. For this purpose, it is of 
great importance to preserve the purity of the public taste — 
to wean it from the admiration of gaudy and showy exhibi- 
tions, and to fix its choice on those pure and simple forms, 
such as are embodied in this building, which so harmoniously 
associate tlie beautiful and the useful, and which have no rival, 
and can have no superior, in the deep and enduring impres- 
sions they stamp on the mind. Tliey who are once familiarized 
with Doi'ic architecture, become impatient of every other; the 
eye and the mind are soon satiated with the refinements of 
mere decoration, and seek repose in the calm and even stern 
simplicity of this style, which is happily adapted, not less to 
the institutions and habits, than the climate of this country. 
To the institutions — for if there be any analogy between pub- 
lic works and the public spirit which achieves them, we may 
naturally look for the simplest style of architecture in that 
nation, which above all others, has assumed as the basis o( 
its institutions, the utmost simplicity in all the forms of its 
government. The expectation may be encouraged by tlie 
fact, that in this country, as among the great people to whom 
we owe these structures, the equal mediocrity of fortunes by 


preventing private citizens from rearing large buildings, has 
made us seek to gratify the national pride by the magnifi- 
cence of our public edifices, in which every citizen has his due 
share alike of the burden and the glory, and by the ennobling 
reflection, that all our great works are the common property 
of the nation — at once the evidences and the fruits of public 
prosperity. It belongs essentially also to our habits, to re- 
quire that these structures should be erected with every re- 
gard to economy, and in that respect the style of architecture 
we are noticing has every attraction; for in this, as in all other 
pursuits, the fanciful and the superfluous are generally the 
most costly — while the simple is at once tlie best and the 
cheapest. It would not perhaps be practicable, to unite the 
materials of this building in any form less expensive : and when 
we compare its cost with that of similar structures elsewhere, 
we discover a new proof, that the adoption of the purest models 
is recommended equally by taste and economy. In regard to 
climate, as we must provide against the extremes of heat and 
cold, that mode of building seems preferable, for both health 
and pleasure, which by its thick walls and small windows, pos- 
sesses the double power of retaining in summer its own cool- 
ness, and excluding in winter the colder atmosphere without. 
It remains only to offer the honour due to the architect. Be- 
fore commencing the building, a public competition was in- 
vited and plans presented from vai-ious parts of the union. 
The choice fell on that exhibited by William Strickland, Esq. 
by whom the whole work was executed, with what success 
will best appear from the details into which we have been 
tempted — the admiration of the work being the most appro- 
priate and grateful homage to the artist. 

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This chaste and classical building was designed by the late 
B. H. Latrobe, Esq. Its principal front is situated on Se- 
cond Street, near Walnut; and the engraving represents the 
western portico and ornamented grounds, viewed from a point 
near Dock Street. 

By pi'ofessional men this edifice is deservedly ranked in the 
first class of architecture, both for its simplicity of design, 
and beauty of execution. 

The plan is a parallelogram of 51 feet by 126 feet, and is 
technically termed Amphiprostyle, having two hexastyle poi- 
ticos of marble, one on each of the principal fronts. In the 
main subdivisions of the first floor, there are four fire-proof 
rooms, for the accommodation of the president, cashier, stock- 
holders, &c. It also contains a circular banking-room, 45 feet 
in diameter, which is situated in the centre of the building, 
and surmounted by an interior dome covered with marble, 
and lighted by a lantern from the roof. 

The proportions of the columns and entablature of the por- 
ticos, are copied from a celebrated Ionic temple on the Ilyssus 
near Athens, and, with the exception of a few slight devia- 
tions in the sculpture of the capitals and architrave, which 
are more highly enriched, the architect has produced an ex- 
ample of the Grecian Ionic in all its original purity and sim- 

The mouldings throughout the building, like those of its 
prototype, differ much from all other modern examples of the 
order; their forms are extremely simple, but withal elegant, 
and the whole is so well executed, that it may doubtlessly be 
considered the best specimen of the Ionic in any country, and 
highly honourable to our taste in the art of building. 



The building occupied by Mr. Girard for his Bank, ranks 
among the choice architectural embellisiiments of Philadelpliia. 
It was begun in the year 1795, and completed in 1798, having 
been originally constructed for the accommodation of the old 
Bank of the United States. But upon the expiration of the 
charter of that institution. Congress refused to renew it, and 
the building has since been purchased by Mr. Girard, whose 
private banking-house has long enjoyed a degree of confidence 
equal to any public establishment. 

The edifice under consideration, stands on the west side of 
South Third Street, nearly facing Dock Street, from which 
the accompanying view was taken. It occupies an oblong 
square, ninety-six feet in front, by seventy-two in depth. The 
front is constructed of white marble, from a design by Mr. 
Blodgct. The side walls are of brick. The original cost of 
the structure, including the ground-plot, was about 8250,000. 

Six Corinthian coUnnns, with fluted shafts and richly sculp- 
tured capitals, support the entablature and pediment. These 
pillars have corresponding pilasters. The intercolumniations 
are equidistant, except those of the angular columns, which 
are coupled. The frieze is plain, and bears an insci-iption in 
gilt letters — 


A bass-relief, representing the American eagle, cornucopise, 
and other appropriate national insignia, ornament the tympa- 
num of the pediment. 

The portico is elevated on its three sides upon seven marble 
steps. The spaces between the portico and the angles of the 
main building, have each two fluted pilasters, which extend 
from the basement to the cornice. 

A door in the centre of the front, leads from the portico 
through a vestibule into the interior, where we find the bank- 
ing-room. Through the middle of this, a semicylindrical arch 


runs Irom the front backwards, supported by columns and 
entablatures of the Corinthian order. Between these columns 
and the side walls are the counters and officers' desks. Win- 
dows on all sides admit an abundance of liglit. 

This building appertains to that classic order of temples 
which the Greeks termed Prostyle, from the columns being 
placed only at the front or entrance. That the designs appro- 
priated by the ancients to sacred edifices, should be applied 
by moderns to those destined for commercial purposes, though 
apparently inconsistent at first view, will appear less so when 
we consider that the Greeks themselves often made their most 
magnificent temples serve as banks, where the treasures depo- 
sited by individuals and states were protected by a commission 
separate from the regular piiesthood. 

The Corinthian order does not appear to have been much 
employed in Greece, previous to the invasion of the Romans. 
These proud conquerors seem to have adopted it as a very 
great favourite, introducing it almost exclusively throughout 
their extensive empire, especially in the construction of their 
triumphal arches. To edifices intended as receptacles of rich- 
es, the characters of tlie order seem peculiarly appropriate. 
But it is, nevertheless, the type of a higher degree of luxury 
and gorgeous magnificence than has yet existed on this side 
of the Atlantic, where the more plain and substantial, but 
chaste and noble Doric and Ionic, harmonize best with the 
prevailing genius and institutions. 

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As early as 1707, but twenty-five years after the landing 
of William Penn on the shores of the Delaware, the subject 
of establishing a Hospital, claimed the attention of some of 
his benevolent followers. It was not however until 1751, 
that several distinguished individuals associated, and laid the 
foundation of the Pennsylvania Hospital, the first institution 
of the kind in the western hemisphere. In tlie last mentioned 
year, the contributors to tliis valuable charity, made their 
original election of the following named gentlemen, as mana- 
gers; viz. — Joshua Crosby, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas 
Bond, Samuel Hazard, Hugh Roberts, Richard Peters, Jo- 
seph Morris, John Smith, Evan Morgan, Charles Norris, 
Israel Pemberton, jr., Samuel Rhodes; Treasurer, John 

On the 28th of the 5th month, (May,) 1755, the east wing 
of the present edifice was commenced under their direction, 
and a block of marble was laid as a corner stone, beai'ing the 
following inscription: — 

" In the year of Christ 

George the Second happily reigning, 

[For he sotight the happiness of his People] 

Philadelphia flourishing, 

[For its inhabitants were public spirited] 

This Building 

By the bounty of the Government, 

And of majiy private persons. 

Was piously founded 

For the relief of tlie sick and miserable. — 

May the God of mercies 

Bless the undertaking." 

I'he Hospital in its present form, together with its appur- 
tenances, occupies the whole square between Eighth and 
Ninth, and Spruce and Pine streets, and fronts to the south 


on the latter. — It consists of a central square park, united 
by two long buildings to two wings, running north and south, 
and parallel with the sides of the original square. TJie centre 
is about sixty-three feet in length, by sixty-one, in depth 
— the eastern long building is eighty-one feet, by twenty- 
seven, and the east wing twenty-eight feet, east and west, 
by one hundred and eleven, in the north and south direction. 
The western long building is eighty-one feet, by thirty-three 
feet — the west wing thirty feet, by one hundred and 
eleven. The length of the whole is two hundred and eighty- 
five feet. — In the centre building are a spacious hall and stair- 
cases — a library room, containing about six thousand volumes 
—the apothecary's establishment— an elegant amphitheatre for 
surgical operations — a lying-in ward — a female sick ward — 
chambers for the resident physicians, and rooms for tlie stew- 
ard's family. The apartments on the west of the centre 
building are exclusively devoted to the insane, and will com- 
fortably accommodate upwards of one hundred patients. The 
medical and surgical wards are on the east, in which one liun- 
dred and sixty patients may be conveniently provided for. 
There are several other buildings on the square, one contain- 
ing West's celebrated Picture of Christ Healing the Sick— two 
extensive green houses — a commodious stable, work shops, 
&c. &c. Large lots, enclosed, and under cultivation, adjoin 
the Hospital square, and the space of ground belonging to the 
institution, is nearly fifteen acres. On tlie top of the centre 
building, where the visiter is protected by a balustrade, a fine 
view of tlie city and neighbouring country is afforded. There 
are several objects of much interest connected witii this noble 
establishment, among which an excellent statue of Penn, the 
founder of the state, of lead bronzed, presented by his grand- 
son — a fine collection of exotic plants— and the range of lofty 
buttonwood trees which were planted seventy -two years ago, 
and surround tlie square on which the Hospital stands, are 
worthy of notice. 

From the foundation of this institution down to the first 
day of January, 1828, there have been admitted to its benefits' 
no less than twenty-four thousand nine hundred and eightij- 
three patients. 



On the eighth of April, 1820, Horace Binney, Clement C. 
Biddle, Joseph Corea de Serra (late minister from Portugal 
to the United States), Jacob Gratz, Dr. N. Chapman, and 
William Wilkins, of Pittsburgh, assembled by invitation at 
the residence of Roberts Vaux, in this city, to consider the 
propriety of establishing an institution for the instruction of 
tlie Deaf and Dumb. It was there determined to call a meet- 
ing of a larger number of gentlemen at the Hall of the Ame- 
rican Pliilosophical Society, on the 20th of the same month. 
Tiie meeting took place on the appointed day, at which the 
Right Reverend William Wliite presided, and William Mere- 
dith officiated as secretary. 

Mr. R. Vaux offered some observations on the importance 
of the subject, and laid before tiie gentlemen assembled an 
outline of a constitution providing for the organization of the 
contemplated establishment, which being approved, subscrip- 
tions were immediately made, and an association formed. On 
a subsc(iuent day, officers and directors were chosen by the 
contributors; and soon after, temporary accommodations were 
provided for the reception of pupils. 

The contributors to the institution were incorporated by an 
act of the General Assembly, passed on the 8th of February, 
1821, and the legislature liberally endowed it by a grant of 
eight thousand dollars; and also provided for the payment 
of one hundred and sixty dollars per annum, for the support 
and education of every indigent mute child of suitable age in 
the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, whlcii should be admitted 
to the institution. 

The system of instruction adopted in this establishment is 
that of the Abb6s de I'Epee and Sicard, which has been so 
successfully practised in Europe. 


The whole number of pupils who have hitherto partaken 
of the benefits of the institution, is one hundred and thirty- 
eight; and eighty are now under its care. 

The Asylum, located on the west side of Broad, near the 
corner of Pine Street, was designed by Haviland, and is con- 
structed of granite: the foundation was laid in the month of 
May, 1824. It is composed of a centre building, fifty feet 
front by sixty-three in depth ; with wings of two stories, each 
twenty-five feet in width, and extending at rigiit angles with 
the centre ninety-two feet, and the whole front is ninety-six 
feet six inches. 

The Asylum was built with reference to the convenience 
and safety of its inmates : the basement is appropriated for 
dining-rooms, work shops, baths, apartments for culinary and 
other domestic purposes. The next floor is devoted to par- 
lours, offices, a chapel, and spacious passages to the wings, 
where the children pass the time not employed in school, or in 
the courts or shops. The upper story of the main building is 
divided into school-rooms, and chambers for the Principal, 
teachers, matron, &c. 

The pupils are lodged in the second story of the wings, the 
sexes being carefully separated ; and for security against fire, 
the stair-cases from the basement to the chambers are of 

One afternoon in every week is assigned for the admission 
of strangers sojourning in the city, who may be disposed to 
visit the Asylum, and witness the exercises of the pupils ; for 
which purpose a card must be obtained from one of the direc- 



The annexed plate represents a south-east view of this build- 
ing, situated in Ninth street, between Mai-ket and Cliesnut 
streets. It was erected in pursuance of an act of the Legisla- 
ture of Pennsylvania, passed in 1791, as a mansion for Wash- 
ington, then President of the United States, in testimony of the 
grateful sense entertained for his eminent services. But, on 
its completion, it was found that constitutional difficulties ex- 
isted as to its acceptance by the President; and the offer on 
the part of the State was politely declined by Mr. Adams, who 
had succeeded to the office of Chief Magistrate of the Union. 
By purchase, it ultimately became the property of the Trus- 
tees of the University, and in 1802 it was taken possession of, 
and has since been occupied by the several schools which be- 
long to this ancient Seminary. 

In 1807, from the vast increase of students in the Medical 
Department, the Trustees were induced to add the large wing 
on the south flank of the main building, for the accommoda- 
tion of the sc\ cral classes. The whole structure, though want- 
ing in classical taste, and established rules of architecture, is 
imposing from its magnitude; and, perhaps, as regards the 
extent and convenience of its internal arrangements, is not 
surpassed by any in this country. 

In the University, tiiere are, at present, four faculties: 
that of the Arts, the Pliysical Sciences, Law, and Medicine. 
It is tiie latter only, iiowever, which flourishes, having each 
session averaged, for a long term of years, between four and 
five hundred students, and continues to maintain a decided 
ascendancy over all the other Medical Institutions of the 
United States. 

\ye learn, with satisfaction, that the Trustees have, for some 
time, been actively engaged in an endeavour to reform the 
other departments, and are nearly prepared to carry into exe- 
cution, a plan by which the University shall again become 
woitliy of its former renown, lendered commensurate with its 
ample endowments, and suited in every respect to the charac- 
ter of an opulent, literary, and enlightened City. 

» I 

S I 



Was founded in the year 1805, by the voluntary associa- 
tion and contributions of a number of the citizens of Philadcl- 
pliia; and received a charter from the Legislature of the state 
in March, 1806. The objects of this institution are not con- 
fined to providing an elegant and rational recreation for the 
public 5 nor to that improvement of the public taste which 
must result from tlie collection and exhibition of the most ce- 
lebrated works of art in statuary, painting, architecture, and 
engraving. It is also a school for the young artists of our 
country, where their genius is fostered, and their knowledge 
and taste cultivated, by placing at their disposal the finest 
models of antiquity, particularly in statuary and architectural 
drawings. From a small beginning, the Academy has now 
become fully adequate to the great purposes of its institution. 
The building consists of a circular saloon, forty-six feet in 
diameter, the entrance into which is by a handsome vestibule. 
The saloon is lighted from a lofty dome, constructed in cor- 
rect proportions. It was originally intended for works of 
statuary, but it is now hung with fine pictures, for which it 
affords an excellent light. On tiic north of the saloon, there 
is an entrance into a gallery, also used for pictures, which is 
fifty feet in length, and thirty feet in width, lighted from the 
ceiling. On the east is the " antique gallery," in wiiich the 
statues and busts ai-e arranged on pedestals. This gallery is 
sixty-six feet long and twenty -five wide, lighted from the ceil- 
ing; at the south end of it the library is placed. A large 
vacant space remains on the west for further additions and 
improvements. An exhibition is aniuially held in the Acade- 
my for six weeks, to which American artists are invited to 
send their productions, and where pictures of distinguished 
merit, from private collections, are also displayed. 


Tlie walls of the picture galleries are now covei-cil witli 
paintings of the ancient and modern schools, some of them hy 
masters of the highest celebrity. Among these, are Diana 
and her Nymphs, by Rubens; Virgin and Child, by Vandyke; 
Magdalen, by Titian; Napoleon crossing the Alps, by David; 
Joseph Napoleon in his coronation I'obes, by Gerard ; &c. &c. 
The Antique Gallery contains casts of all the most celebrated 
Grecian statues, and busts, together with sevcr<il from the 
hand of Canova. The library is adorned with many splendid 
works of engravings, in various departments, as well as with 
some valuable volumes on the arts. 

^tj^jtLTf <m-y ^-ans 2iii.3'T2E:£iA? g^JEirn^i'isrf^^ xix'rtnr - 



The prevention of crimes and the reformation of criminals, 
in lieu of tiie vindictive infliction of pain on offenders, are now 
almost universally acknowledged to be the only legitimate 
objects of human punishments. Policy and humanity equally 
dictate the ap|)lication of severity sufficient to prevent offend- 
ers repeating their crimes, and to deter others fi-om follow- 
ing their example. The intentional addition of any fur- 
ther suffering constitutes cruelty. However obvious this 
theory may ajjpear at the present day, its justice has been 
but recently acknowledged; and in practice it is to the pre- 
sent hour almost unknown throughout the greater part of 
Christendom. The gratification of vengeance and securing 
the persons of convicts to prevent the immediate repetition of 
offences, appear to have constituted the only design of impri- 
sonment, until near the conclusion of the last century. In 
the prisons at that period, the mixture of all ages, ranks, and 
sexes, into one corrupting leavened mass of shameless ini- 
quity, and the uni-estrained intercoui-sc which was permitted 
day and nigiit, rendered the consignment of a juvenile of- 
fender to tliese abodes of depravity, a cei-tain sentence of 
moral death : he w ho entered their gates a novice in guilt, 
accomplished his education in villany, and leaving character, 
shame, independence, and every incentive to voluntary indus- 
try and virtue within their walls— departed an adept in crime, 
ignorant only of his duties ; prepared to practise at the ex- 
pense of society, those lessons of vice which its folly had 
forced on his acquaintance, and almost compelled him to ex- 
ercise as a profession when discharged. 

Such was the condition of these colleges of vice, as they 
have been too correctly denominated, w hen the first associa- 
tion for tiie purpose of ameliorating Prison Discipline was 
formed in Pliiladelphia on the rth of February, \7'&. This 


society is therefore entitled to the distinguished honour ol' 
leading the way in tliis novel and important subject. It is 
the venerable parent of the lunneroiis institutions for the pro- 
motion of similar objects w hich are now in active progress 
throughout the world. The revolution suspended the exist- 
ence of this association, which was however revived in 1"87, 
under the name of the Philadelphia Society for alleviating the 
miseries of Public Prisons, and has ever since continued to 
pursue its labours of benevolence. 

The contamination resulting from the association of prison- 
ers, and the prejudicial effects resulting from their acquaint- 
ance with each other, induced this body to petition the legis- 
lature to separate the convicts, and finally to adopt the only 
effectual system, viz. — separate or solitary confinement. The 
celebrated law which was enacted April 5th, 1790, authorized 
the construction of 30 solitary cells, which were consequently 
built and occupied. Numerous other improvements were in- 
troduced, the effects of which were soon visible in the reduced 
number of convictions, and in the reformation of the inmates 
of the prison. This institution, the first in which the system 
of solitary or separate confinement was adopted, rapidly ac- 
quired celebrity throughout the Union, and many parts of Eu- 
rope, where it has been subsequently imitated. During the 
last year, upwards of 4000 convicts have been sentenced to 
solitary confinement in the kingdoms of Great Britain and 
France alone. 

Causes, which it is unnecessary to describe, in a few years 
crowded this Penitentiary with inmates, and consequently 
rendered the operation of the new system almost impractica- 
ble. Repeated memorials of the society, and of other jjhilan- 
thropists, finally induced the Legislature of Pennsylvania, in 
1817, to authorize the construction of a prison at Pittsburg; 
and in 1821, another at Philadelphia, in which the separate 
confinement of every convict day and night could be fully ac- 
complished. The latter of which is the subject of the present 

The Eastern State Penitentiary is situated on one of the 
most elevated, airy, and healthy sites in the vicinity of Phila- 
delphia. Large sums have been expended for the purpose of 


giving an unusual degree of solidity and durability to every 
part of this immense structure, which is the most extensive 
building in the United States. The ground occupied by it. 
contains about 10 acres. The material with which the edi- 
fices are built, is a greyish granite, or gneiss, employed in 
large masses; every room is vaulted and fire proof. — 
The design and execution impart a grave, severe, and awful 
character to the external aspect of this building. The ef- 
fect which it produces on tlie imagination of every passing 
spectator, is peculiarly impressive, solemn, and instructive. 
The architecture is in keeping with the design. The broad 
masses, the small and well proportioned apertures, the conti- 
nuity of lines, and the bold and expressive simplicity which 
characterize the features of the facade, are most happily and 
judiciously combined. The originality of the plan, the excel- 
lent arrangement and execution of the details, display the 
taste and ingenuity of the architect, to whom our country is 
indebted for some of her noblest edifices — our fellow citizen, 
Mr. John Haviland. The laborious and gratuitous services 
of John Bacon Esq., the Chairman of the Building Com- 
mittee, and of some of the other Commissioners, are entitled 
to our gratitude. The total cost of this building when finished, 
will be four hundred and thirty-two thousand dollars. We 
are not advocates of inconsistent or meretricious decoration, 
but we may express our gratification that no unwise parsi- 
mony rendeied the aspect or arrangements of this institution 
an opprobrium to the liberal, humane, and enlightened cha- 
racter of our commonwealth. 

This I'eniteutiary is the only edifice in tiiis country which 
is calculated to convey to our citizens the external appearance 
of those magnificent and picturesque castles of the middle 
ages, which contribute so eminently to embellish the scenery 
of Europe. 

A reference to the accompanying view and plan will render 
only a brief description necessary. The front of tliis building 
is composed of large blocks of hewn and squared granite; the 
walls are 12 feet thick at the base, and diminish to the top, 
where they are 2| feet in thickness. A wall of thirty feet in 
Jieight above the interior platform, encloses an area 640 feet 


square : at each angle of the wall is a tower for the purpose of 
overlooking the establishment; three other towers, which will 
be presently described are situated near the gate of entrance. 
The facade or principal front which is represented in the ac- 
companying view is 670 feet in length, and reposes on a ter- 
race, which, from the inequalities of the ground, varies from 
3 to 9 feet in heigiit; the basement or belting course, which 
is 10 feet higli, is scarped, and extends uniformly the whole 
lengtli. The central building is 200 feet in length, con- 
sists of two projecting massive square towers 50 feet high, 
crowned by projecting embattled parapets, supported by 
pointed arches resting on corbels or bracketts. The puinted 
munnioned windows in these towers contribute in a high de- 
gree to their picturesque effect. The curtain between the 
towers is 41 feet higli, and is finished witli a parapet and em- 
brasures. The pointed windows in it arc very lofty and nar- 
row. The great gateway in tlie centre is a very conspicuous 
feature; it is 27 feet high, and 15 wide, and is filled by a mas- 
sive wrought iron portcullis, and double oaken gates studded 
with projecting iron rivets, the whole weighing several tons; 
nevertheless they can be opened with the greatest facility. On 
each side of this entrance, (which is the most imposing in the 
United States,) arc enormous solid buttresses diminishing in 
ofTsetts, and terminating in pinnacles. A lofty octangular tower, 
80 feet high, containing an alarm bell and clock, surmounts this 
entrance, and forms a picturesque proportional centre. On 
each side of this main building (which contains the apart- 
ments of the warden, keepers, domestics &c.,) are screen 
wing walls, which appear to constitute portions of the main 
edifice; they are pierced with small blank pointed windows, 
and are surmounted by a parapet; at their extremities are 
high octangular towers terminating in parapets pierced by 
embrasures. In the centre of the great court yard is an obser- 
vatory, whence long corridors, 8 in number, radiate: (three 
only of these corridors, ^c, are at present finished.) On 
each side of these corridors, the cells are situated, each at right 
angles to them, and communicating with them only by small 
openings for the purpose of supplying the prisoner with food, 
&c., and for the purpose of inspecting his movements without 


attracting his attention; other apertures, for the admission of 
cool or lieated air, and for the purpose of ventilation, are pro- 
vided. A novel and ingenious contrivance in each cell, which 
has been frequently described, prevents the possibility of con- 
versation, preserves the purity of the atmosphere of the cells, 
and dispenses with the otherwise unavoidable necessity of 
leaving the apartment, except when the regulations permit: 
flues conduct heated air from large cockle stoves to the cells. 
Light is admitted by a large circular glass in the crown of the 
arch, which is raking, and the highest pai-t 16 feet 6 inches 
above tlie floor, (which is of wood, overlaying a solid founda- 
tion of stone.) The walls are plastered and neatly white- 
washed; the cells are 11 feet 9 inches long, and 7 feet 6 
inches wide : at the extremity of the cell, opposite to the aper- 
tures for inspection, &c., previously mentioned, is the door- 
way, containing two doors; one of lattice work, or grating, 
to admit the air and secure the prisoner; the other composed 
of planks to exclude the air, if required; this door leads to a 
yard (18 feet by 8, the walls of which are 1 1 \ feet in height) at- 
taclied to each cell. The number of the latter in the present plan 
is only 266, but it may be increased to 818, without resorting 
to the addition of second stoi-ies. We have had an opportu- 
nity of examining many prisons, and other similar institu- 
tions in Europe and this country ; but we have never seen a 
building so admirably adapted to the pui-poses of security, se- 
clusion, health and convenience, as this Penitentiary. The 
rooms are larger, viz, containing more cubic feet of air, or 
space, than a great number of the apartments occupied by in- 
dustrious mechanics in our city ; and if we consider that two 
or more of the latter frequently work or sleep in the same 
chamber, they have much less room than will be allotted to 
the convicts; whose cells, moreover, will be more perfectly 
ventilated than many of the largest apartments of our opulent 

The convict, on his entrance, after the customary examina- 
tion, ablution, medical inspection, &c., is clothed, blindfolded 
and conducted to his cell, where he remains locked up; and after 
a patient and careful inquiry into his history, and the delivery 
of an appropriate address to him on the consequences of his 


crime, and the design to be effected by his punisliment, he is 
abandoned to tliat salutary anguish and remorse which his re- 
flections in solitude must inevitably produce. Every means 
which have been devised by philanthropy and experience for 
effecting reformation will be zealously applied. The labour 
in which the convict will be employed, is considered as an al- 
leviation, not an aggravation of liis sentence. Labour pre- 
scribed as a punishment is an error in legislation, founded 
on an ignorance of tlie feelings, the desires and antipathies, 
the habits and associations, of mankind: the tedious hours 
spent in solitude will be a punishment sufiicicntly severe, 
without rendering the infliction of hard labour, /or this canse, 
necessary. The want of occupation will produce a feeling of 
tedium or irksomeness — the state of mind in which labour or 
employment will appear to the convict — perhaps for the first 
time in his life, as a means of preventing uneasy feelings, of 
producing relief and pleasure; and as the powerful influence 
of association is acknowledged, this beneficial feeling will be- 
come habitual, and after the discharge of the convict from his 
durance, will be a most effectual safeguard from the tempta- 
tions of idleness. Accordingly persons duly qualified are em- 
ployed to teach the prisoner suitable trades, and to insti-uct 
him in religion, and in the elements of learning. The pro- 
hibition of all intercourse with society, is not, therefore, con- 
tinual ; the visits of the virtuous cannot injure, and must be- 
nefit the majority of the prisoners, between whom, alone, all 
communication is rendered impossible. The degree of seclu- 
sion to he practised, or of labour and other alleviations per- 
mitted, may be varied with the varying dispositions of the 
prisoners. Regular exercise in the yards, in the open air, is 
permitted, and required when necessary; provided that no 
two adjoining yards be occupied at the same time, for the pur- 
pose of preventing conversation. 

From this outline of the system it is obvious that the 
charge of cruelty, which ignorance and misrepresentation 
Imve attempted to attach to it, is untenable. The humane 
and intelligent, who have sanctioned its adoption in our com- 
munity almost unanimously, certainly require no defence of 
the purity of their motives. Among the advocates of this 


system in Europe, we may refer to Howard, Paul, Eden, 
Mansfield, Blackstone, Paley, Liancourt, Villerm6, kc; and 
in this country, to the venerable Bishop White, whose whole 
life has been but one prolonged illustration of that religion 
wliich he professes, Dr. Rush, Bradford, Vaux, Wood, Ser- 
geant, Livingston, and many of our most eminent citizens. 
The intrinsic and obvious excellence of the plan afforded a 
powerful argument for its adoption upwards of 40 years since. 
The partial experience of its merits has been beneficially ex- 
perienced in our State and other parts of the Union, notwith- 
standing the numerous disadvantages which have heretofore 
attended the trial. The only failures which have occurred in 
other States, are unquestionably attributable to the absurd 
and culpable manner in which the process has sometimes 
been conducted. The experience of several of the European 
states, as well as of our own commonwealth, incontestably 
proves that this system of Prison discipline is the most effi- 
cient which the wisdom of philanthropists has heretofore de- 
vised; that, when administered in a proper manner, the re- 
formation of the great majority of criminals is practicable; 
that no injury to tiie health, mental or bodily, of the convicts, 
occurs; that the severity is sufficient, not only to operate on 
the inmates of the prison, but to deter others by the example 
of their suffeiings; and finally, that as a means of preventing 
crimes, it is in fact the most economical. A superficial view 
of this subject has too frequently led to erroneous conclusions 
in some of our sister States. The operation of this system 
diminishing the number of convicts to be maintained by so- 
ciety, of course in some measure diminishes its expense: but 
the maintenance of criminals, whilst they are confined in pri- 
son, constitutes but a small portion of the actual, enormous, 
and unequal expenditure to which they subject society — their 
trial and conviction, the support of a numerous and vigilant 
police to prevent, detect, and punish offences, &c. are one- 
rous but indispensable items. Criminals, when not in prison, 
are in fact supported at an increased cost by the public. The 
ravages of the incendiary, the fraud of the counterfeiter, the 
depredation of the burglar and robber, constitute an unequal, 
a grievous, an incalculable tax on those members of society, 


who ill general are least able to endure the exaction. The 
habits of criminals tend to pauperism, always to idleness; they 
are consumers, not producers; their evil example occasions 
wide spread corruption, terror, and misery. AAMiat economist 
can therefore calculate the real cost of crime? The expendi- 
tures in the Penitentiary compose but an insignificant compa- 
rative item: that partial view is indeed limited, which is con- 
fined by its walls. As " the Pennsylvania system of Prison 
Discipline" effects, not indeed the extirpation, but the preven- 
tion or diminution of crime, to an unknown and unrivalled 
extent — the dictates of mere economy, of sordid self-interest, 
as well as of patriotism, humanity, and religion, cry aloud 
for its general adoption. The prime cost of an efficient la- 
bour saving machine is never considered by the intelligent 
and wealthy capitalist as a wasteful expenditure, but as a 
productive investment. This Penitentiary will be, strictly 
speaking, an apparatus for the expeditious, certain, and eco- 
nomical eradication of vice, and the production of reforma- 
tion. The State of Pennsylvania has exhibited, at once, her 
wisdom, philanthropy, and munificence, by the erection of 
this immense and expensive structure, which, in connexion 
with her other noble institutions, will largely contribute to 
the amelioration and protection of her population. 

G. W. S. 

« ?" 



A RESOLUTION in favour of the establisliment of a Mint, 
was adopted by tiie old Congress on the 21st February, 1782. 
The question it appears was at different periods resumed 
under the Confederation, and on the 16th October, 1786, an 
ordinance was passed on the subject, which, however, was 
not carried into effect. Tiie Mint of the United States was 
eventually instituted at Philadelphia, by an act of Congress, 
under the Federal Constitution, passed tiie 2d day of April, 
1792, and a few specimens of half dismes were issued before 
tiie close of that year. Early in 1793, the general operations 
of the establishment were commenced, in a very plain dwell- 
ing house, purchased for the object, on the east side of Seventh 
street, between High and Mulberry streets. A rude struc- 
ture, in the rear of the same lot, was also occupied by a por- 
tion of the machinery. In this simple, unpretending style, 
tlic institution began its transactions, under tiie patronage of 
General Washington, then President of the United States, 
who duly appreciated its importance, and evinced, by occa- 
sional visits, his interest in its prosperity. 

During the first few years, the supply of the precious me- 
tals, offered for coinage, being very limited, the annual ex- 
penditures of the Mint appeared disproportioned to its pro- 
ductiveness, and the general policy of such an establishment 
was more than once made a question in Congress. The stead- 
fastness of public opinion in its favour, however, sustained 
it under these discouraging aspects ; and it Ls w orthy of re- 
membrance as an example of republican constancy, that even 
Hie characteristic and highly liberal feature of the institution, 
tlic coinage of both gold and silver free of charge, was invio- 
lably maintained. National in its character and its objects, 
the institution is supported from the public treasury for the 
general good, and depositers of gold or silver bullion, of stan- 
dard fineness, receive, without expense, an equal weight in 
gold or silver coins. , 


The average annual coinage of the Mint, from its com- 
mencement to the end of the year 1800, was in round num- 
bers, S362,000. The average of the next ten years, ending 
■with 1810, was §697,000. That of the succeeding ten years, 
ending with 1820, may be stated at gl, 166,000, and that of 
the ten years ending with 1830, at 81,850,000. The whole 
coinage, from the establishment of the Mint to the end of the 
year 1830, may be stated at §37,000,000. 

With the progressive inci-ease of the supply of bullion, tlie 
accommodations of the Mint were from time to time enlarged 
by partial additions ; but an extension of power commensurate 
with the increasing demand for coinage, under the expanding 
operations of the Bank of the United States, it became appa- 
rent, could not be effected by these expedients. In 1827, the 
bullion deposited by that Bank alone, exceeded the whole 
supply from all other sources in any previous year, and the 
whole coinage of that year exceeded tliree millions of dollars. 
These impressive facts rendered it indispensably necessary to 
solicit the consideration of Congress to the expediency of a 
more extended establishment. This was done in a communi- 
cation from the Director, addressed to the Hon. John Ser- 
geant, chairman of the committee on the Mint of the House 
of Representatives, December 23d, 1828. On the 2d of 
March, 1829, the measure received the sanction of the go- 
vernment, and a liberal provision was made for its accom- 

Under this provision a lot was purchased, with the appro- 
bation of the President, fronting towards the south on Ches- 
nut street, and towards the north on Penn Square, 150 feet, 
and extending along Juniper street 204 feet. On this site, on 
the 4th of July, 1829, was laid the corner stone of the Mint 
of the United States. 

The building is of white marble, from designs furnished by 
Mr. Strickland. It fronts on Chesnut street, Penn Square, and 
Juniper street. Its dimensions are 123 feet on tlie fronts. 
The flanks, exclusive of the porticos, 1 39 feet — projection of 
the porticos each 27 feet — whole flank, 193 feet. The two 
porticos are each 60 feet in front, containing six columns on 
Chesnut sti'eet, and a like number on Penn Square. 


The order is Ionic, taken from that celebrated Grecian 
Temple on the Illyssus, near Athens. The columns are three 
feet each in diameter, fluted, and bound at the neck of the 
capital with an oli\'e wreath. The entablature of the por- 
ticos extends entirely round the fronts and flanks of the build- 
ing, supported by antje at the corners, and surmounted at the 
extremes of the flanks by four pediments. 

The building consists of a basement, principal, and attic 
stories. The ofiicers' rooms, vaults, inc., on the Chesnut 
street front, and part of the western flank, are arched in a 
complete fire-pi-oof manner. The roof is entirely of copper, 
and covers the whole ai-ea of the building, with the exception 
of a court yard in the centre of the interior pile. The court 
is 55 feet by 84 feet, and is designed to aflbrd a free commu- 
nication, by means of piazzas in each story, with all parts of 
tlic building, and to give additional light to the various apart- 
ments contained within its walls. 

The entrance from the south portico is into a circular ves- 
tibule, communicating, immediately, with the apartments of 
the Director and Treasurer, and by arched passages with 
those of the Chief Coiner, Melter, and Refiner, and with tlie 
looms for receiving bullion and delivering coins. These 
passages communicate also by a marble stair-case in each 
wing, with the attic story, where are the apartments of the 
Assayers and Engra^ ers. 

The east flank and north section of the edifice contains the 
rooms appropriated to the operations of the Chief Coiner. 
The west flank contains those appropriated to the operations 
of the Melter and Refiner. 

In the distribution of the interior of the edifice, no sacrifice 
has been made of utility to mere display. Solidity of struc- 
ture, symmetry of arrangement, and a due adaptation of the 
several apartments to their destined uses, have been chiefly 
kept in view. Apartments designed for the accommodation 
of individual ofiicers, are of dimensions merely suflicient for 
that purpose. Where extended space was essential, this has 
been finely appropriated. 

The important processes of the assay are accordingly pro- 
vided for, in two suites of rooms, each extending 50 feet by 


20. Tlie operations of tlie Melter and Refiner are accommo- 
dated in a range of apartments extending 95 feet by 32. Tlie 
principal melting room is an apartment of 37 feet by 32, and 
the process of gold and silver parting, for which a co)itracte(l 
space would be peculiarly unfit, is provided for in an apart- 
ment of 53 feet by 32. 

The preparatory operations of the Chief Coiner are accom- 
modated in two rooms for laminating ingots, of 55 feet by 40, 
opening to the north portico | the propelling steam power 
being placed in the basement story. A range of apartments 
extending 120 feet by 32, is appropriated to the more imme- 
diate operations of coinage, and the machinery connected 
tlierewith. The principal coining room extends 37 feet by 
32, being sufficiently capacious to contain ten coining presses. 

A distinct suite of three rooms in the attic story, extending 
58 feet along the south main front, claims a brief notice. 
Here are preserved the standard weights of the Mint, and tlie 
balances for adjusting those in ordinary use. The central 
room is lighted through the dome, and is intended as a cabi- 
net for the safe keeping of selected coins and medals, and also 
of mineral and metallic specimens instructive on the subject 
of metallurgy, and especially in regard to tiie precious metals. 
These apartments communicate with each other by ample 
folding doors, thus affording a spacious and appropriate ac- 
commodation to the commissioners of the annual assay ap- 
pointed for the purpose of testing the conformity of the coins 
issued yearly from the Mint, with the standard weight and 
fineness of the coins of the United States as established by 

The Mint was established "for the purpose of a national 
coinage," with provisions obviously designed to attract, by 
liberal facilities, an influx of the precious metals sufficient for 
an abundant currency. Tiie reports of the Director to the 
President of the United States, laid annually before Congress, 
and from which the preceding statements of its issues are col- 
lated, exhibit the extent to which tiie purposes of the institu- 
tion have been accomplished, hitiierto, witii imperfect means; 
and offer an auspicious promise of higher usefulness, under 
its extended powers, in future years. 

53 ^ 

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a ^ 



The Asylum for the relief of " Indigent Widows and 
Single Women," and that for the relief of "Orphans," 
claim a pre-eminent rank among our charitable institutions, 
whether we consider the motives of their promoters, or the 
beneficial ends they are calculated to effect. To protect the 
unprotected — to minister to those whom Providence has left 
desolate — to pour relief upon tlie widow's anguish, and dry 
the teai- of memory from the orphan's cheek, is at once the 
most beautiful and appropriate office which charity can as- 

It is further recommended by the simplicity of the plan, and 
by tlie certainty of its application to meritorious objects. We 
may honestly doubt the policy of many of the charitable doc- 
trines of the day, but his heart must be steeled against the 
very instincts of humanity, who could refuse his countenance 
or his means to an undertaking, whose sacred object is the 
protection of the fatherless and the widow. 

The Indigent Widows' and Single Women's Society took 
its rise in 1817 : in 1819 a lot of ground was presented to the 
Society, on which the present building was erected, and the 
family removed to it in the spring of 1820. The building 
has been constructed with a special view to the comfort of its 
venerable occupants. Forty-five aged females are at present 
supported by the bounty of this institution, and upwards of 
one hundred have been received under its protection since its 

"The Philadelphia Orphans' Asylum" was instituted 
in 1814, and the first peinianent edifice erected in 1817", upon 
a lot of ground presented to the Society by Messrs. Archer, 
Ralston, Ricliards, and Wetherill, situated on the north-east 
corner of Schuylkill Fifth and Cherry Streets. Early in the 
morning of the 24th January, 1822, tltis building was con- 
sumed by fire : the season was unusually inclement, and 
93 of the little inmates perished in its ruins. Perhaps no 


similar event ever excited a more universal sympathy than 
the fate of these unfortunate children. Subscri[)tions were im- 
mediately set on foot, and the sum of 827,978 raised in a few 
days. This, with a liberal grant from the Legislature of 
S5000, enabled the Managers immediately to commence the 
erection of another edifice. 

Warned by the recent catastrophe, the skilful architect who 
constructed tlie present building has effectually guarded against 
its recurrence : the basement being arched througliout, ren- 
ders the first and second floors completely fire-proof; the 
stair-ways are of stone from tlie foundation to the bed-room 
floor. The number of orphans at present in the institution is 
ninety -six. 

It should not be forgotten, that both these institutions were 
established by the Ladies of Philadelplua. They have their 
reward — And when youth's delighted hour has passed away 
— when the dew of the morning has dried on beauty's faded 
flower — when hope has ceased to picture scenes that will 
never be realized, and fancy can no longer veil from their view 
the sad realities of life, the remembrance that waits on deeds 
like these, will lend a radiance to the darkness of the past, and 
"please when pleasures lose the power to please." They 
must feel that they have been the instruments of Providence 
in the accomplishment of his merciful purposes; the medium 
through which tlie rays of heavenly love descend upon the de- 
solate children of adversity. Tiieir own hearts must imbibe 
some portion of its warmth, their own souls must feel the 
kindly influence they impart. As the light, which of old shed 
its halo round the prophet's head, while it attested the divine 
authority and illuminated the countenance of the lawgiver, 
cheered the people and comforted them in their wanderings. 

I 11 



The idea of improving the navigation of the Schuylkill 
was an early favourite of the people of Pennsylvania. A very 
considerable sum of money was subscribed for this object, in 
the year 1761, and commissioners were appointed by the pro- 
vincial assembly, with full powers to apply it. The project, 
however, like most of those which have succeeded it in our 
country, was found more difficult and expensive than had been 
anticipated, and the work languished in consequence. 

After much ineffectual legislation on the subject, companies 
were incorporated in 1790 and 1791, for the purpose of con- 
necting the Delaware with the Susquehanna, by the interven- 
tion of the Schuylkill : but these, after a fruitless expendi- 
ture of half a million of dollars, found their operations arrested 
by a want of funds; and in 1811, they were merged in the 
Union Canal Company. 

The Schuylkill Navigation Company was formed in the 
year 1815, — and it is by their energy and perseverance, amid 
difficulties of the most formidable character, that the great ob- 
ject lias been at last attained. By a system of basins, formed 
by damming the bed of the river, and linked together by ca- 
nals and locks, they have made an uninterrupted slackwater 
navigation from the city of Philadelphia to Mill Creek, a dis- 
tance of one hundred and ten miles. 

At Reading, sixty-two miles above Philadelphia, the Schuyl- 
kill works are met by the Union Canal, which connects them 
by a line of eighty-five miles with the Susquehanna at Mid- 
dletovvn, where the State canals from Lake Erie and Pittsburg 
have their termination. 

The thriving little village, of which our engraving repre- 
sents one of the most interesting parts, is situated on the 
banks of the river and of the canal, at the distance of about 
six miles from Philadelphia. It derives its name froni the 


aboiiginal title of the Schuylkill, and owes its origin to tlie 
improvements which have been made upon that stream. 

Within the last twelve years, the spot which it covers was 
singularly wild and secluded. High and barren rocks over- 
hung the river, crowned by thickets which were scarcely 
broken; and the broad projecting cliff, which gave for a 
time the name of Flat Rock to the early settlement, remained 
nearly as inaccessible, as when it was the chosen encamping 
ground of the Indian hunter. 

Manayunk is now the scene of active and extended busi- 
ness. It contains sixteen manufactories, five of which give 
motion to sixteen thousand spindles, and to two hundred and 
fifty power looms, — two schools, a neat and capacious place 
of worship, four taverns, and about two hundred tenements, 
which accommodate some fifteen hundred inhabitants. 

The scenery, though somewhat changed, retains much of 
its picturesque and romantic character. The canal winds its 
way round the base of the rocky hill, secured by a bold em- 
bankment from the rapid and broken waters of the river, and 
after passing tlirough the village, enters the spacious basin, 
which the Navigation Company have formed above it. Few 
places neai" Philadelphia have more to interest the man of bu- 
siness; and he, who loves to look at Nature in her forms of 
irregular beauty, may be satisfied to wander in its neighbour- 
hood at the close of day, and listen to the dashing of the water- 
falls, or the distant bugle of the boatman. 



Among the various country seats which adorn the hanks of 
the Schuylkill for some miles above Philadelphia, no one sur- 
passes in beauty of situation, that of which we here present a 
view. From the portico of the house the eye looks down 
upon the sloping shores of tlie river, upon its placid, lake-like 
bosom, and upon a prospect adorned with all that taste, high 
cultivation, and natural scenery, can conspire to make lovely. 
From the pier of the dam at Fairmount, whence the present 
sketch was taken, tlie scene is not less picturesque; the house 
itself forms the prominent object, resting as it does on the 
summit of a rising and verdant lawn ; and the proportions of 
the edifice, and the disposition of the grounds around, display 
a taste adapted to the natural advantages of the place. 

It was erected in the year 1798, from a design by Parkyns, 
and is the seat of John Joseph Borie, Esq., a distinguished 
merchant of Philadelphia. 




Sedgelet Pakk is situated on the east bank of the 
Schuylkill, at a distance of three miles from the city of Plii- 
ladelphia, and upon an elevation of eiglity feet above the tide 
waters of the river. The mansion was designed and erect- 
ed under the superintendance of the late Mr. Latrobe, and 
has been much admired for its architectural beauty. The 
style is Gpothic, with a poi-tico front and rear, supported by 
eight columns each. It presents a length of seventy-five feet, 
and is well adapted in the arrangement of the interior for a 
gentleman's residence. 

The natural advantages of Sedgeley Park are not fre- 
quently equalled even upon the banks of the romantic Schuyl- 
kill. From the height upon which the mansion is erected, it 
commands an interesting and extensive view. The scenery 
around is of unusual beauty: but its character is altogether 
peaceful and quiet. The country is covered, in every direc- 
tion, with gentle hills, and these are frequently crowned with 
neat country seats. The river, after winding in its fanciful 
and rugged path, between mountains and beneath precipices, 
here assumes the nature of every thing around, and flows 
silently beneath ; while the busy passage of tlie canal boats 
on the opposite bank gives an agreeable variety to the scene. 

In the arrangement of the grounds the proprietor has been 
peculiarly happy. The park exhibits the marks of cultivation 
and taste, and tlie mansion is beautifully shaded with the na- 
tive and luxuriant forest trees of the country. 

AfEJUiD.iesrvriDU' bta'u'iitisl&^l iSSaiEBrcsffiS 

hii.M- aaildr Enaravcr U Wnlmit Stmt Ala^ ' _ MI'l. 



The Academy originated in the year 1812, with a few gen- 
tlemen wlio met once in every week to receive and impart in- 
formation on the various branches of natural history. It was 
incorporated in 1817; and since that period, its prosperity 
has perhaps been unrivalled by that of any similar institution 
in this country. 

The property now owned and occupied by the Academy at 
tlie corner of Twelfth and George streets, was originally a 
place of worship of the Swedenborgians. Material altera- 
tions, however, have been made in the building, to adapt it 
to its present purposes. It is a quadrangular edifice, about 
forty-four feet square, surmounted by a dome. The interior 
presents a single saloon with a galleiy midway between the 
Hoor and ceiling. The lower floor is chiefly used as a libraiy 
and meeting room, wiiile the gallery is occupied by collec- 
tions in natural Iiistory. The latter are conspicuously ar- 
ranged, according to the most approved systems, and already 
embrace 10,000 plants, 3000 minerals, 5000 geological speci- 
mens, 1200 shells, 500 birds, 200 reptiles, besides small but 
increasing collections of quadrupeds, fishes, insects, &c. &c. 

The museum of the Academy is open to the gratuitous ad- 
mission of citizens and strangers on the afternoons of Tues- 
day and Saturday, tliroughout the year. 

The library contains 3000 volumes, of which upwards of 
2000 are on subjects of natural history. 

The luimber of resident members is between fifty and sixty. 
Among the corresponding members are many of the most dis- 
tinguislied naturalists of America and Europe. 



Historical Society of Pennsylvania, (proofs). 

Franklin Institote of Pennsylvania. 

Libkary Company of Philadelphia. 

Library of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, (proofs.) 

Meredith, Mrs. Gertrude G. 
Elwyn, Mrs. E. Langdon. 
Clapier, Mrs. Mary. 
Patterson, Mrs. 
Fairman, Mrs. Delia. 
Cunningham, Mra. 

Griffith, Mrs. 

Rotch, Mrs. Susan S. 

Fox, Miss Sarah Jinn. 

Dix, Miss D. L., Boston, (proofs.) 

Wistar, Miss Sarah, jun. 

Cuthbert, Miss. 

Astley, Thomas. 

Allen, Andrew, Burlington, N.J. 

Amies, Thomas. 

Adger, James, Charleston, S. C. 

Aikin, William, Charleston, S. C. 

Alexander, Charles (oct.) 

Atkinson, Samuel C. (oct.) 

Agnew, John (Oct.) 

Biddle, Nicholas. 

Biddle, Thomas. 

Biddle, Clement C. 

Baring, Thomas, London, (proofs.) 

Barron, Com. James, U. S. navy. 

Bacon, John. 

Bacon, Job. 

Browne, Aquilla A. 

Brown, David Paul. 

Brown, WiUiam. 

Brown, WilHam P. 

Brown, Frederick. 

Brown, Jeremiah. 

Burd, Edward S. 

Barclay, Andrew C. 

Beylard, John, jun. 

Barker, James N. (oct.) 

Binns, John. 

Bohlen, John. 

Borie, John J. 

Breck, Samuel. 

Blight, George. 

Bispham, Samuel. 

Burk, James. 

Besson, Henry N. 

Billington, Henry. 

Baldwin, Matthew, (oct.) 

Bell, Dr. John, (oct.) 

Bulkley, C. & J. H. (oct.) 

Bradford, Samuel F. 

Caravadossy de Thoct (Chevalier) 

Consul General of Sardinia. 
Cadwaladcr, Thomas. 

Chapman, Dr. N. 

Cope, Thomas P. 

Chauncey, Charles. 

Chauncev, Elihu. 

Collins, Zaccheus. 

Caldwell, David. 

Cresson, Elliott, (five copies.) 

Clark, Dr. John Y. 

Corbin, Francis P. • ■ 

Chester, Henry, (oct.) 

Conard, John. 

Carpenter, Samuel H. 

Carpenter, John R. 

Cuthbert, Anthony. 

Camac, Turner. 

Clark, John C. 

Coates, John R. 

Campbell, Robert, 

Carey, Mathew. 

Cramer, Charles, St. Petersburg, 

Cloud, Jos. Jr., Norristown, Pa. 
Caldwell, D., Louisville, Ky. 
Crissey, James. 
Clay, Edward W. 

Dewees, Dr. Wm. P. 

Dawson, Mordecai L. (two.) 

Duncan, Stephen. 

Du Pont, Victor, Brandywine, Del. 

Dundas, James. 

Duval, Lewis. 

Davidson, William. 

Davidson, William B. 

Dugan, Joseph. 

Durand, Elias. 

Donaldson, Andrew. 

Davenport, Samuel H. 

Dubs, William J., Maricaybo. 

Donnell, James C. 

Davis, Jacob S., Bethany, Wayne 

Co., Pa. 
Dainty, John. 


Everett, Edward, Boston. 
Ellmaker, Levi. 
Ewing, Robert. 
Elliott, Isaac. 
Evans, Charles H. 
Evans, Thomas. 
Evans, William M. 
Emerson, Dr. G 

Fisher, James C. 
Fairman, Gideon. 
Fisher, Coleman. 
Fisher, William W. 
Fisher, T. R., Germantown. 
Furness, Rev. Wm. H. 
Fox, Charles P. 
Fox, George, (<ico.) 
Fox, Benjamin K. 
Fletcher, Thomas. 

Geyer, John. 
Goodman, John. 
Goodman, Charles. 
Goodwin, Thomas F. 
Griffith, Dr. Robert E. (oct.) 
Gaskell, Thomas P. 
Gaskell, Peter P. 
GrafF, Frederick. 
GrafF, Charles. 
Gilpin, Thomas. 
Gilpin, Henry D. 
Gray, Samuel N. 
Groves, Daniel, (oct.) 
Glentworth, Jas., Jr. 
Guest, George. 

Hopkinson, Joseph. 

Harris, Levett. 

Hamilton, James. 

Hone, Henry, New York, 

Hale, Thomas. 

Hunter, Capt. Wm. H., U. S. Navy. 

Huger, John M., Charleston, S. C. 

Hutchinson, Randall. 

Henry, John S. 

Halbach, A. 

Halbach, G. 

Harris, Dr. Thomas. 

Harvey, George N. 

Harvey, Isaac, Jr. 

Hart, WilUam H. 

Hart, John S. 

Hirst, James M. 

Haviland, John. 

Huddell, Robert. 

Holxson, Richard H. 

Hodgdon, Wm., Jr. 

Harrison, Richard G. 

Hood, John M. 

Hazard, Samuel. 

Hasedorn, Edward, (three.) 

Hilger, L. 

Ivanoff, Theodore, Counsellor of 
State, and late Consul General 
of Russia. 

Ingersoll, Joseph R. 

Ingersoll, Charles J. 

Inman, Henry, New York, {proofs.) 

Israel, Michael E. 

Irvine, Callender. 

Ingraham, Alfred. 

Jackson, Andrew, President of the 
United States, Washington, D. C. 
James, Dr. Thomas C. 
Jones, Isaac C. 
Jennings, John. 

Kane, JohnK. 

Keim, George M., Reading, Pa. 

Kite, Thomas. 

Krumbhaar, Alexander. 

Longstreth, Joshua. 

Lex, Jacob. 

Lewis, William D. 

Lewis, Mordecai D. 

Levis, Hosea J. 

Lloyd, James. 

Lamb, Lemuel. 

Logan, A. S., Stenton, near Ger- 

Leiper, William J. 

Leedom, Erwin J. 

Laguerenne, P. L. 

Littell, Eliakim. 

Lehman, George. 

La Roche, Dr. R. 

Latimer, George. 

Laussatt, Ambrose, Maricaybo. 

Morris, Thomas. 
Morris, Richard Hill. 
Morris, Samuel B. 
Morris, Isaac P. 
Morris, Thomas W. (oct.) 
Miller, Col. Samuel, U. S. Marines. 
Montgomery, Joseph. 
Mllvaine, Joseph, (proofs.) 
M-Ilvaine, Henry. 
Morton, Dr. Samuel G. 
Meigs, Dr. diaries D. 
M'Clellan, Dr. George. 
Milnor, Dr. Robert. 
Mitchell, Dr. Jno. K. 
Moore, Dr. Samuel. 
Moore, Nathaniel T., Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, (^oct.) 
Moliere, Henry. 
Merrick, Samuel V. 
Merrick, George T. 
Mandeville, H. D. 
M'Alpin, James. 
Macalester, Charles, Jr. 
Miles, John. 
Mitchell, Samuel A. 
Mahon, Michael. 
Mentz, George W. 

Norris, Joseph P. 
Norris, Joseph P., Jr. 


Norris, Isaac W. 
Nancredc, Dr. Jos. G. 
Nathans, Nathan. 

Pepper, George. 

Perot, Joseph. 

Penrose, Charles. 

Pollock, George D., North Carolina. 

Price, Chandler. 

Peace, Joseph. 

Pettit, Thomas M. 

Page, James. 

Potts, Robert T. 

Potts, Nathan R. 

Paxson, Richard. 

Paxson, Samuel C, New York. 

Potter, Samuel C, Washington, D. C. 

Peters, Charles. 

Poole, Andrew R. 

Pike, Marius W. 

Peddle, William A. (oct.) 

Pennock, Dr. Casper W. 

Robertson, Gilbert, H. B. M. Consul. 

Richards, Samuel. 

Richards, George W. 

Renshaw, Capt. James, U. S. Navy. 

Renshaw, Richard. 

Ralston, Gerard. 

Ralston, Ashbel G. 

Ralston, Henry. 

Ridgway, John J. 

Riter, George W. 

Roberts, Charles F. 

Roumfort, A. L., Mount Airy. 

Rogers, Isaiah, Boston. 

Roper, Dr. Lewis, (oct.) Virginia. 

Rand, Benjamin H. 

Raser, M. 

Sergeant, John. 
Steele, Gen. John. 
Steele, Robert. 
Smith, James Browne. 
Smith, J. R. 
Smith, John R. 
Smith, Cornelius S. 
Smith, Charles S. 
Smith, John J. 
Sully, Thomas. 
Strickland, William. 
Sansom, Joseph. 
Short, William. 
Stevenson, Cornelius, (oct.) 
Swaim, William. 
Shuster, Lawrence. 
Svkes, Robert W. 
Sheppard, Samuel C. 
Starr, Isaac. 

Sill, Joseph, (oct.) 
Steel, James W. 
Sheaff, George D. 
Stewart, Samuel M. 
Souder, Jacob, (oct.) 
Seybcrt, Henry. 

Tidyman, Dr. Philip, Charleston, S.C. 

Tunis, Thomas R. 

Twells, Edward. 

Teissiere, Anthony. 

Tevis, Benjamin. 

Thackara, Samuel W. 

Thompson, John. 

Thomson, George H. 

Troth, Henry. 

Tucker, WiUiam E. 

Thibault, Fehx. 

Toppan, Charles. 

Tiller, Samuel. 

Tyler, Rufus. 

Vaux, Roberts. 

Vaux, George. 

Vaughan, Rt. Hon. Charles R., En- 
voy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary from the Court of 
St. James'. 

Vaughan, John. 

Vander Kemp, John J. 

Vanhorn, Mordecai L. 

White, Right Rev. William, D.D. 

Wetherill, Hmnuel. 

Wetherill, Samuel P. 

Wetherill, John P. 

Wetherill, Charles. 

Wetherill, Dr. William. 

Wurts, John. 

Walsh, Robert, Jr. 

Wharton, Thomas J. 

Willing, Thomas M. 

Wharton, Charles, Jr. 

Wayne, Caleb P. 

Wilson, William S. 

Wardle, Thomas. 

Worrell, Joseph, Jr. 

Wistar, Charles J., Germantown. 

Wistar, Richard, {proofs.) 

Welsh, Joseph. 

Weber, Godfrey. 

Werner, John J. 

Walraven, Joseph. 

Warr, John. 

Warder, John H. 

YarnaU, Ellis H. 

Zavala, Don Lorenzo de, late Gover- 
nor of the State of Vera Cruz. 

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