(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "View of the valley of the Mississippi, or, The emigrant's and traveller's guide to the West : containing a general description of that entire country : and also notices of the soil, productions, rivers, and other channels of intercourse and trade : and likewise of the cities and towns, progress of education, &c. of each state and territory"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



^s X3^ar,5^, ^^ 



!^arbarli College l^ibrarg 




FROM THE GIFT OF 

JAMES FREEMAN CURTIS 

(Class of 1899) 
OF BOSTON 

FOR BOOKS ON THE WESTERN 
UNITED STATES 




y Google 



VIEW 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, 

OS THE 

EMIGRANT'S AND TRAVELLER'S 
GUIDE TO THE WEST, 

CONTAINING 

A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THAT ENTIRE COUNTRY ; 

AND ALSU 

NOTICES OF THE SOIL, PRODUCTIONS, RIVERS, 

AND OTHER CHANNELS OF INTERCOURSE AND TRADE : 

AND LIKEWISE OF THE 

CITIES AND TOWNS, PROGRESS OF EDUCATION, <bc. 

OF EACH STATE AND TERRITORY. 

•* Westward the star of empire takes its way." — Berkeley. 



SECOND EDITION. 

PiaaTrrlniifn: 

PUBLISHED BY H.S. TANNER. 
1834. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 









Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1834, by H. S. 
TANNER, in the Clerk's Office of the Eastern District of Pennsyl- 
vania. 



\ ' 



2 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Valley or the Mississippi is a portion of our 
country which is now arresting the attention not only 
of our own inhabitants, but also those of forei^ lands. 
Such are its admirable facilities for trade, owmg to its 
numerous navigable rivers, — such the variety and fer- 
tility of its soil, — the number and excellence of its 
productions,— the genial nature of its climate, — the 
rapidity with which its population is increasing, — and 
the influence which it is undoubtedly about to wield 
in giving direction to the destiny of this nation, — as to 
render the West an object of the deepest interest to 
every American patriot. Nor -can tne Christian be 
inattentive to the inceptive character and forming 
manners of a part of our country whose influence wiu 
soQnbe felt to be favourable, or disastrous, to an ex- 
tent corresponding with its mighty energies, to the 
cause of religion. 

To give a brief, and yet satisfactory, account of 
this vast county, its resources, history, manners and 
customs of the people, political sub-divisions, cities, 
colleges, &c., is the great object of this work; in 
which the author has studied to embody, in as small a 
compass as possible, such information as he deems 
most desirable and useful to the community. Wheth- 
er he has succeeded in this efibrt, it is not for him to 
Eronounce an opinion. He can only say that he has 
onestly endeavoured to do what he could. 
There are three great classes of men for whose 
benefit the author has endeavoured to prepare this 
book* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



IV IirrRODUCTION. 

1. For those who desire to remove to the Valley of 
the Mississippi, and there cast their lot. Such * per- 
sons, whether natives of Europe, or citizens of our 
Atlantic states, are, of course, solicitous to know as 
much as possible about that vast region to which they 
expect. to remove. To procure such information, and 
in such a compass that it could be soon read, has hith- 
erto been almost, if not quite, impossible. Until Mr. 
Flint and Mr. Darby, and especiallly the former, pub- 
lished their valuable works entitled the " Geography 
and History of the Western States," and a " View of 
the United States," but little had been published 
which attempted a systematic and extended descrip- 
tion of that portion of our country. Some small 
works only, or such as had reference to insulated 
portions, had been written, if we except the books of 
travels in that region which had appeared, but which 
relate principally^ to the country atong the Upper Mis- 
sissippi, Missouri, Arkansas, and Red Rivers. These 
worts are valuable, and will continue to be valujA>le : 
but they are too large, and too genercd in their con- 
tents, to be read by, the majority of those who are 
about to emigrate to the West Since a large por- 
tion of this book was written, a very valuable one has 
been published by the Rev. John M. Peck, of Illinois, 
relating mainly to the Btates of Illinois and Missouri. 

To mrnish to emigrants such information as they 
desire, has been a primary object with the author 
throughout this work. And he hopes he has sue* 
ceeded, in a good degree, in the attempt, and if any 
reader finds mat much is here wanting, he will also 
find much ^ven, and perhaps as much as could be 
given withm the limits prescribed. For the object 
has not been to make a large book, but a small and 
comprehensive one. 

2. This book is designed to give information to 
those who purpose to travel, for amusement, health, 
or business, in the West. And this class is now far 
from being small. Every year, hundreds, and even 
thousandsi are making a tour through the whole or 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



INTRODUCTION. ^ 

a part of the Valley of the Mississippi. And soon 
the American, who has not made the tour of the Val- 
ley of the Mississippi, will be considered a man who 
has seen but little of his own county. To know 
somewhat of the routes which lead to the West, the 
steam-boats, lines of stages, acommodations, cities and 
towns, curiosities, literary institutions, manners and 
customs of the people, &c. is certainly desirable to 
those who are about to journey to that portion of our 
country. Such persons will find, it is believed, much 
of that kind of mformation which they need in this 
volume. The accompanying maps, views of cities, 
and sketches of their environs, will be acceptable to 
such readers. 

3. A third class, to whom the author entertains the 
hope that this work may be useful, is composed oi 
those who desire to know more about the Valley of 
the Missisippi, although they do not expect either to 
travel or emirate thither. There are thousands of 
such persons m our eastern or Atlantic states. For 
what intelligent and reading citizen can there be 
among us who does not desire to know well the geo- 
graphy, resources physical and civil, literary institu- 
tions, and the moral and religibus condition of every 
portion of our country ? Americans are the last peo- 
ple who can afford, or should desire to be ignorant of 
their own country, or any portion of it. And surely 
we all must desire to luiow much of that portion o( 
it to which so 'many of our friends and relatives have 
removed, and which may be the home of our posterity, 
— especially when is superadded the interest which 
the West is so intrinsically calculated to excite. 

As a general remark, it may be said that our east- 
ern citizens are but little informed vnth regard to the 
" Great West." The author has met with many men 
who are reputed to be well informed on other subjects, 
but who are remarkably ignorant even of the geogra- 
phy of the western country, and who make the most 
ludicrous mistakes when speaking of its rivers, the 
relative position of its states, and the distance of its 



y Google 



VI INTHODUCTIOIf. 

towns. It is but a few months since he saw a book, 
published in no distant city and within a year, in 
which the fact is gravely stated, that the Valley of the 
Mississippi contains about half a million of square 
miles ! And this is but a trifling error compared with 
many that are daily made by men who ought, by this 
time, to know more about that part of our country. 

Perhaps it will not be improper to give, in this 
place, a very brief analysis of this book, that the rea- 
der may know, at this stage, what he may expect to 
find in it. 

The first ten chapters contain a general view of the 
Valley of the Mississippi. Be^nning with a short de- 
scription of the grand three-fold division of the terri- 
tory of the United States, there follows an account of 
the great Central Valley of North America, of which 
the Valley of the Mississippi is a part. Then follows, 
in order, a general Geographical description of the 
Valley of the Mississippi; its grand sub-divisions 
according to its large rivers ; its climate in reference 
to productions, its soil, minerals, forests, animals, 
&c. A short historical account is next given of the 
West, and reasons for expecting a very rapid and long 
continued increase of its population. Then follows a 
chapter on the climate of the Valley of the Mississippi 
in reference to temperature and diseases. This arti- 
cle was written by Dr. Daniel Drake of Cincinnati, 
and gives, in a very short compass, a more philosophi- 
cal and satisfactory view of this subject than is to be 
found elsewhere. This chapter, which the Doctor 
kindly furnished at the request of the author of this 
work, will well repay any man for the half hour's 
time which he may spend in a careful perusal of it. 
No man in the country is better qualified than Dr. 
DraJke, from long and close attention to this subject, to 
do full justice to it. An account of the Indians wno still 
reside m the Valley of the Mississippi, and of the mon- 
uments of antiquity which abound there, follows next: 
and some notices of the manners and customs of the 



y Google 



INTKODUCTIOH. VII 



people of the West, and of their pursuits, close the 
general description of the Valley of the Mississippi. 

From the eleventh to the twenty-fourth chapter in- 
clusive, there is given a geographical, statistical, and 
historical description of Western Pennsylvania, West-* 
em Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, and the regions west of 
these states and territories, up to the Oregon (or 
Rocky) Mountains. In the account of each state the 
following particulars are invariably given. 1. A brief 
outline of its constitution and government. 2. Its 
surface, soil, productions, facilities for trade by rivers, 
roads and canals, &c. 3. Cities and towns. 4. Ed- 
ucation in common schools and academies. 5. The 
extent of public land. 6. Historical notices; and 
finally, general remarks, which may be useful to emi- 
grants, travellers, and others. 

The remaining chapters give a full account of all 
the Colleges, Theological Seminaries, Medical Schools, 
Asylums for the Deaf and Dumb, <&c. Religious De- 
nominations, Steam-boats ; and the various routes by 
which emigrants and travellers may visit that coun- 
try, expenses of removing, and of travelling, to it, &c. 

The above is a very brief and imperfect analysis of 
a book which has been written solely with the view of 
imparting some knowledge of a very large and inter- 
esting portion of our country. Should any one, upon 
perusal, find in it nothing which he did not know be- 
fore, let him lay it aside quietly, and remember that it 
was not written for him, but for the less informed. 

The author has had occasion, in preparing this work, 
to refer to Flint's Geography of the Western States, 
Darby's View of the United States, Peck's Guide to 
Emigrants, Breckinridge's Louisiana, Williams* Flor- 
ida, Judge Martin's History of Louisiana, Marshall's 
History of the American Colonies and life of Washing- 
ton, the American Almanac, the Quarterly Re^ster of 
the American Education Society, Western Pilot, the 
Accounts of the Expeditions of Lewis and Clarke, Col. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



via INTRODUCTIOIC. 

Long; Col. Pike, and the Travels of Mr. Schoolcraft, 
Mr. Tanner's map of the United States, &c. &c. 

From these works he has obtained much informa- 
tion, and occasionally he has used the language of 
their authors, where, from the alterations whicn he 
found it necessary to make, he could not give it as 
quoted. 

But although much has been derived from works re- 
lating to the West, much more has been derived from 
personal knowledge, and from intercourse with west- 
ern men. The author was born in the West, and has 
spent the greater part of his past life there, and has 
been familiar from his youth with many of the scenes 
which he has described. He has also repeatedly, 
within the last three years, travelled extensively m 
that portion of our country. In this book nothing is 
stated but what he believes to be correct, though he 
may have been misinformed on some points. 

The maps which are placed in this book, the reader 
will find useful. They will be particularly so to the 
emigrant and traveller on account of the roads and 
distances, from point to point, which are delineated on 
them. Nevertheless if the reader has access to a large 
and well executed map of the United States, or a sood 
atlas of the several states, he should avail himself of 
them ; for the maps accompanying this work, although 
good, are small, and cannot give a full exhibition of 
every part of any state. The reader should desire to 
be able to trace every river, county, &c. which is 
mentioned in this book. Indeed no man ought, if he 
could avoid it, to sit down to read a newspaper with- 
out having good large maps of our country, and, if pos- 
sible, of me world Ranging up within the range ot his 
eye. 

A large number of letters respecting the Valley of 
the Mississippi, written by the author of this work, 
appeared originally in several of the newspapers^* 

* Particularly in the New York Observer, and the Sunday School 
Journal ; the former published in New York, the latter in this city. 



y Google 



INTBODUCnON. Ut 

Some portions of them, greatly modified, are intro- 
duced into this work. 

This is mentioned for the purpose of explaining the 
fact of a similarity between these letters and parts oi 
this book. 

In the first part of this work, the name Rocky Moun- 
tains, is used to designate the mountains which bound 
the Valley of the Mississippi to the westward. In the 
middle and latter portions of the book, the reader 
will perceive that the title Oregon instead of Rocky is 
given to these mountains. This is the original name 
of these mountains, and should have been continued, 
instead of a nan^ which is just as appropriate when 
applied to any other range of mountains. In some of 
the late English and French works on the geography 
of North America, the appropriate name of Oregon 
Mountains has been used instead of Rocky Mountains. 

Philadelphia, September, 1832. 

R. B. 



y Google 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

TO THE SECOND EDITlOlf. 

The first edition of this work, consisting of 1000 
copies, having been sold, a second is now sent forth. 
In this edition many improvements have been intro- 
duced. Much matter, in a condensed form, has been 
added. And the entire work has been brought up, as 
far as it can be done, to the present state of the West. 
It is impossible — and it is unnecessary — to specify 
these additions. The book will be found to be every 
way improved, especially in those portionsof it which 
crr^ccrn emigrants and travellers. Vhe Public Land 
Offices are mentioned, and the roads and canals leading 
to that part of our country are described more mi- 
nutely. I will only add that, throughout this edition, 
the name, Oregon Mountains, is employed invariably, 
instead of Rocky Mountains, 

Philadelphia, October, 1833, 

R. B. 



y Google 



5 



CONTENTS. i 



CHAPTER L 

North and South America* — Brief Historical Sketch of the 
United States. — ^Their Boundaries and Extent — ^Three- 
foldDivisioiiofthe'rerritory of the United States, - Page 13 
CHAPTER II. 
The existence of a great Central Valley in North America. 
— Boundaries of that Valley. — A General Description of 
it, and its component parts or Basins. Boundaries of the 
Valley of the Mississippi. — ^Boundaries of the Valley of 
the St Ltawrence. — Contrast between these two Valleys. 
—General Rem&rks, . .... 18 

CHAPTER III. 
General Account of the Valley of the Mississippi* — Its Ex- 
tent — Subdivisions. — Geography and Physical Character, - 25 
CHAPTER IV. 
Geography and Physical Charactery— Valley of the Ohio, — 
Of the Upper Mississippi, — Of the Lower Mississippi, — 
Of the Missouri, . , . - - -30 

CHAPTER V. 
1. Climate, considered in relation to the Productions of this 
Region. — 2. Minerals. — 3. Soil. 4. Trees. — 5. Animals, - 37 
CHAPTER VI. 
History of the Valley of the Mississippi, ^ . -45 

CHAPTER VII. 
Future Increase of Population, - - . - 52 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Climate and Diseases, ..... 67 

CHAPTERIX. 
Indian Tribes, and Monuments of Antiquity, &c - -87 

CHAPTER X. 
Manners, Customs and Pursuits of the Inhabitants of the 

Valley of the Mississippi, - - - - 99 

CHAPTER XI. 
Western Pennsylvania, - - - - - 107 

CHAPTER XII. 
The Ohio River and its Scenery. — ^Western Virginia, - - 124 



y Google 



CONTENTS. XI 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Ohio, 139 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Indiana, ------- 160 

CHAPTER XV. 
Michigan, ------- 178 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Kentucky, - - - - - - - 189 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Tennessee, ------ - 201 

CHACTBR XVm. 
Illinois, ------- 215 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Missouri, ------- 235 

CHAPTER XX. 
The Missis^ppi Riyer and ito Scenery. — Captain Shrere's 
Snag-Boat — Arkansas. — ^Regicms which lie North of llli- ' 
nois and Missouri, and West^ of Missouri and. Arkansas, - 251 
CHAPTER XXI. 
Mississippi, - - - - - - - 262 

CHAPTER XXII; 
Louisiana, ------- 271 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Alabama, 2^0 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Florida, - - 301 

CHAPTER XXV. 
Colleges, Universities, &c - - - - -310 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
Religions Denominations and Sects, . . - - 325 

. CHAPTER XXVII. 

Steam-Boats 332 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 
Hints to emigrants and Travellers respecting the various 
Routes to & West, Expenses of Removal, and of Tra- 
veiling, &c. - - - - - - - 343 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



GENERAL VIEW 



MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. 



CHAPTER I. 

North and South America. — Brief Historical Sketch of the United 
States. — ^Their boundaries and extent— rTliree-fold division of the 
Territory of the United States. 

The Continent of America lies between the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans, and is westward of Europe and Africa, and 
eastward of Asia. It stretches from 56° South, to about 
80*^ North, and. is upwards of 9,000 miles long, and from 
1 ,500 to 1 ,800 in average breadth. It is divided into North 
and South America, by the Isthmus of Panama, in 7^ of 
North latitude. South America contains about 6,434,200 
square miles, 12,839,374 inhabitants, and embraces the 
following states and countries : — Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, 
La Plata, Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Banda Oriental or Monte- 
video, and Guayana. Its mighty rivers are, the Amazon, 
Orinoco, l4a Plata, and M agdalena ; whilst the lofly Andes 
and its branches are its mountains. North America 
reaches from about the 7th degree of North latitude to the 
shores of the Northern or Arctic Ocean, probably about 
the 80th. It contains 9,075,051 square miles, and has a 
population estimated at 23,006,344, and embraces the 
states and countries of Guatemala, Mexico, United States, 
and the British, Russian, and Danish possessions. The 
Mississippi, St. Lawrence, Rip del Norte, Colorado, Ore- 
gon, and Mackenzie's, are its large and noble rivers. On 
its western side stretches the Rocky or Oregon Moun- 
tains ; and on the east, the Allegheny range ; whilst in its 
interior lie the great lakes or inland seas, Superior, Huron, 
Michigan, Erie, Ontario, and many smaller ones. 

2 



y Google 



14 VALLEY OF THB UIS8ISSIPFI. 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATE& 

Although America was discovered by Columbus in 1492, 
yet with the exception of Mexico, which was conquered by 
Cortes in 1520, no permanent settlements, or colonies, were 
formed in North America until 1607, when one was planted 
on the James River in Virginia. In New York a colony was 
planted by the Dutch, on the Hudson, in 1610. Another was 
established at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620, by a part 
of Mr. Robinson's congregation, originally from England, 
whence they had fled from religious persecution, but direct- 
ly from Holland, where they had resided several years. — 
This was the second English colony. As early as 1497, 
the Cabots, John and Sebastian, had explored in some mea- 
sure the coast from Newfoundland, in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, down towards the Gulf of Mexico; and in .1512, 
Juan Ponce de Leon, a Spaniard, discovered the coast of 
Florida : these two names, Newfoundland and Florida, were 
the only names for the whole seaboard of our country, 
until the name Virginia (a name given by Queen Eliza- 
beth, or rather by Sir Walter Raleigh in h6nour of her,) 
supplant<^d them as regards a large part of it. Many 
unsuccessful attempts were made, both by the English and 
French, during a period of more than a century, to found 
colonies. The most famous of these were the calamitous 
ones which were made under the auspices of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, 1564-1587. 

After 1607, colonies were successively planted from 
Maine to Georgia, under charters from the English sove- 
reigns. After having suffered much from oppressive and un- 
just acts of the Parliament of the mother country, and anti- 
cipating a continued disregard of their rights, the thirteen 
original Colonies, after much deliberation, and a solemn invo- 
cation of the aid of the God of battles, declared themselves, 
on the 4th of July, 1776, to be a free and independent peo- 
ple. In 1788, their independence was confirmed, and the 
limits pf the country defined. To the original territory of 
the United States, the extensive region on our western 
border, called Louisiana, was added in 1803, by purchase 
from the French government, for the sum of $15,000,000 ; 



y Google 



UNITED STATES. 15 

and in 1821 another important addition was made to our 
territory in the acquisition of East and West Florida, on 
the South ; which were purchased from Spain for the sum 
of $5,000,000. The number of States has increased, 
since 1789, from thirteen to twenty-four, besides three 
territories, and a great extent of country in the West ; 
and our population has been more than trebled, so that it 
has increased from 3,929,328 to 14,000,000. 



LIMITS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Taken in its utmost extent, the territory of the United 

States, as a physical section of the earth, extends from N. 

lat. 24° 27' to N. lat; 49°, and from 10° E. to 54° W. long. 

from Washington City. It is bounded north by British 

North America ; north-west by Russian America ; west 

by the Pacific ocean ; south-west' by the Mexican states ; 

south by the Gulf of Mexico, and Cuba channel ; and 

south-east and east by the Atlantic ocean. 

MiU$. 

This immense region has a limit in common with 
British North America, from the mouth of St. 
Croix River to the Oregon Mountains, - 3,000 

By an indefinite boundary from the Oregon Moun- 
tains to the Pacific Ocean, say - - - 600 

Along the Pacific Ocean from N. lat. 49° to 42°, 486 

From 42° on the Pacific, along the Mexican border 

to the mouth of the Sabine on the Gulf of Mexico, 2,300 

Along the Gulf of Mexico, from the mouth of the 

Sabine to Cape Sable, - - - 1,100 

Along the Atlantic Ocean, - - - 1,800 



Having an entire outline of - - . 9,286 

The above differs a little from Mr. Darby's statement^ 
who makes the 51°, (in one place he seems to prefer the ** 
54° 40' as the extreme northern limit,) to be the boundary 
from the Oregon Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. But I 
doubt the propriety of taking the 51st degree of north lati- 
tude, as the line of boundary from the Oregon Mountains. 



y Google 



16 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 

r 

That line is not settled ; but it will hardly be beyond the 
49th degree. The Russians claim to 64° 40' of N. lat. ; 
and the British Government, in common with, the United 
Statesj claims the country west of the Oregon Mountains, 
as far south as the 42d deg. of N. lat. It is to be regret- 
ted that our government does not look after this matter.* 
The tide of population has rolled on, until it has almost 
reached the foot of the Oregon Mountains, and soon it will 
extend beyond those everlasting hills, upon the plains of 
Oregon, as that region is now denominated. 

The boundaries of the United States, when particularly 
given, are as follows : On the north, the line between them 
and British America runs along the highlands, which sepa- 
rate the waters which flow into the Atlantic from those 
which flow into the St. Lawrence, to the 45° N. lat. ; thence 
along that line to the St. Lawrence, and up that river to 
Lake Ontario, through the middle of that lake, and lakes 
Erie, St. Clair, Huron, and Superior, and the intervening 
-rivers or outlets, to the -Grand Portage on the north-west 
side of the last named lake ; thence across to a series of 
little lakes which lead to Rainy Lake : .down Rainy Lake 
River to Lake of the Woods, through that lake to its north- 
• west angle, and thence down a meridian line to the 49°; 
along that degree to the Oregon Mountains — beyond these 
mountains it is not settled, but will probably be continued 
along the 49° to the Pacific ; along the Pacific shore to 42° ; 
up that degree of latitude to a point due north of the Arkan- 
sas river ; down that river to the point where the 100th 
degree of longitude west from Greenwich intersects that 
river ; along that meridian to Red River ; down Red River 
to the 17° 30' W. Ion. from Washington ; down that meri- 
dian to the Sabine river, which it pursues to its mouth. — 
On the south is the Gulf of Me;xico ; on the east the Atlan- 
tic Ocean, and on the north-east the St. Croix river, and 

* It is high time that the question of boundary on the north-west 
from tiie Oregon Mountains to the Pacific Oceiin should be settled. 
Afl the territory to which it relates, is now copiparatively unimportant 
to ajiy one, the question may be much more easily settled than at & 
future day, when it will appear more valuable in consequence of the 
proximity of population, and growing interests <m each side. The 
difficulties in Maine would probably have been prevented, had suitable 
attempts been made to settle the N. E. boundvy in 1816, or '18* 



y Google 



VHITED 8TATS8. l7 

a line due north from that river to the Highlands^ which 
separate the waters running into the St. Lawrence from 
those which run into the Atlantic Ocean. 

Mr. Darby calculates the territory of the United States 
at 2,257,374 square miles ; or a fraction more than one- 
twentieth part of the whole land surfiu^ of the earth.* 
Mr. Tanner estimates it, and I think, for reasons contained 
in the foregoing paragraphs, more accurately, at 2,037,165 
square miles. 

The territory of the United States is naturally divided 
into three great sections ; 1st, that of the Atlantic slope ; 
2d, that within the great central valley of North America ; 
and, 3d, a slope or inclined plane, extending from the 
Oregon Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. 

Of these three divisions, the first and the last, or in other 
words, the eastern slope, (that is the whole section which 
lies east of the Allegheny Mountains, from Maine to Flori- 
da,) and the western slope, (which lies west of the Oregon 
Mountains,) are far from being equal to the middle section, 
commonly called the great '* Mississippi valley,*^ or basin. 
For if we take the fifteen states which lie on the Atlantic 
slope, viz. : the six New England States, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania,f Dela^re, Maryland, Virginia,f 
North and South Carolina, Greorgia, District of Columbia, 
and about half of Florida, we have an area of 384,580 
square miles. And on the Pacific slope, according to Mr. 
Tanner, we have 299,438 square miles, making a total on 
these slopes of 684,018 square miles, and leaving to the 
valley of the Mississippi, 1,353,147 square miles. From 
this view, we learn the vast extent of the section of our 
country which I am about to describe. In the next 
chapter we shall ascend the Allegheny Mountains, and 
take a view of the " Great Central Valley," as it is called, 
and give its outlines, and some general description of it. 

* View of the United States. 

f Exclusive of the parts of those states which lie in the West 



2* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



18 TALLEY OF THB MI86I8SIF1>I. 



CHAPTER II. 

The existence of a great Central Valley in North America — Bounda- 
ries of that Valley. — ^A General description of it and its component 
parts, or basins. — ^Boundaries of the vaUey of the Mississippi.^ — 
Boundaries of the yalley of the St. Lawrence. — C<»itrast between 
these two vallies. Creneral remarks. 

Any man who will take tbe trouble of examioing a well 
executed map of North America, will at once notice the 
fact, that there is what may, with propriety, be called a 
great Central Valley extending through it, from south to 
north. The outlines of this Valley are as follows : On the 
east is the Allegheny range of mountains, which separate 
the waters which run into the Atlantic Ocean from those 
which flow into the Gulf of Mexico and the St. Lawrence. 
This boundary may be considered as commencing at the 
extreme point of Florida, and pursuing what may be called 
the low dividing ridge of that peninsula, it passes into Geor- 
gia, separating the streams of the Chattahooche from those^ 
which flow eastward, and thence follows the Allegheny 
range of mountains to the north-east, more than 120Q miles, 
until that range, which is almost perfectly continuous, ter» 
minates at the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in Lower Canada. 
It may even be said to be continued in the low dividing 
ridge which, on the north side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence,, 
runs through Labrador to Hudson's Strait, separating the 
waters which flow into the Atlantic from those which flow 
into Hudson's Bay. . Qn the west, the Oregon Mountains, 
which are a continuation of the Cordilleras of Mexico, are 
its boundary, stretching north-^est more than 2,600 miles 
until they terminate on the Northern Ocean, near Beh ring's 
Straits* These two ranges of mountains are more than 1,000 
miles apart in the south ; and they diverge to a far greater 
distance as they approach the North. They are of unequal 
heights ; for whilst probably no point of the Allegheny sys- 
tem exceeds 7,000 feet, some of the highest portions of the 
Oregon Mountaii}s are believed to be much more elevateds 



y Google 



6RRAT CENTRAL VALLET OF KOHTH AXEBICA. 19 

Both rest on very extended bases of granite, which in its 
lowest position is seen at the falls of the rirers which flow 
from these ' everlasting hills^' 

On the south, this immense Valley terminates on the 
crescent-like shore of the Gulf of Mexico ; and on the north, 
on that of the Northern Ocean. Its immense extent will 
be perceived by a reference to the several subdivisions of 
which it is composed. The principal of these are, 1st, the 
valley of the Mississippi, or that vast basin which is drained 
by the Mississippi river and its confluents, (including sever- 
al smaller parallel streams which fall into the Gulf ^Mexi- 
co from the same physical section,) containing at least 
1,300,000 square miles ; 2d, the valley of the St. Law- 
rence, embracing Upper and Lower Canada, and a part of 
ihe United States, and containing 500,000 square miles ; 
3d, the great basin which is drained by the numerous 
streams which flow into Hudson's Bay ; and, 4th, the valley 
of the Mackenzie's river, a very large stream, whose course 
is more than 2000 miles in length, and which has many 
confluents. The two last named sections of this Central 
Valley contain at least 2,500,000 square miles ; so that 
the whole Central Valley, including Texas, on the south 
west of the Valley of the Mississippi, cannot embrace less 
than 4,300,000 square miles I 

It is remarkable that throughout this vast extent of 
country, from the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson's Bay and the 
Arctic Ocean, there is little that deserves the name of a 
mountain. The dividing ridges which separate Mackenzie's 
river from the streams which flow into Hudson's Bay, and 
also those which separate the latter from the confluents of 
the St. Lawrence, are of inconsiderable height, and are not 
to be compared with the mountains which constitute the 
eastern and western boundaries of the Valley. In fact, the 
whole expanse of country in the central and northern parts 
of this Valley, is remarkably level, and abounding intakes. 
Almost every river in this section of the Valley, is connect- 
ed with several lakes. Mackenzie's river has Athapescow, 
Slave, and other lakes. The Lake of the Woods, Winne- 
pec, and others, are connected with the large river Saskat- 
chewine, which flows ultimately into Hudson's Bay. And 
indeed almost every little stream which flows into that bay, 
either rises in a lake, or flows through one or more ; whUs( 



y Google 



20 VALLEY OF THX MlSSISSIPlPt. 

the St. Lawrence, for the first 1200 miles of its course, is 
little more than a series of vast lakes or inland seas. And 
the Mississippi too, although it is, in its main course, re- 
markably free from lakes, rises in the land of lakes, and 
its-sources are from almost a hundred little lakes^or ponds* 

It is a circumstance worthy of notice, that the great 
rivers which drain the four sections (which I have called 
basins) of this Central Valley, all rise in the vicinity of 
each other, and on the western side of the Valley, and 
three of them indeed in the ranges of the Oregon Moun- 
tains, and within a space of less than ten degrees of latitude* 
The region stretching from the sources of the Mississippi 
and St. Lawrence, north-west towards the sources of the 
Mackenzie's and Saskatchewine rivers, is elevated, and 
level in the eastern part, and broken or hilly, as you ad- 
vance north-westward. 

The lowest line from the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson's 
Bay pursues the Mississippi to its source : thence it crosses 
a low marshy country to the streams which flow into the 
Lake of the Woods, thence down to Winnepec, and down 
the outlet of that lake to Hudson's Bay. The day will con^e 
when there will be a continued line of water communication 
from one end of this valley to the other, and abun4«dt 
facilities of commercial intercourscf among the hundreds of 
millions who will then people this vast and fertile region. 

In a state of nature, in which almost this whole Valley 
still is, it. was a vast ocean of trees, save where its lakes 
expand their waters, or where the prairies in the south- 
west prevail. This interminable forest was, and still is, the 
home of the Bufliilo, the Elk, the Deer, the Bear, the Pan- 
ther, and a vast variety of other species of animals, which 
I cannot here undertake to describe, or even enumerate. 
But what is infinitely more interesting and afiecting, this 
vast region long was, and is still, the ahodeof many tribes 
of ignorant, degraded, benighted men, who deserve our 
sympathy, and our aid in furnishing them with the means 
of civilization, and of conversion to true Christianity. 

The vallies of the Mississippi and St. Lawrence are the 
chief, and almost only parts of this great Central Valley 
which are inhabited, in any permanent manner, by civilized 
men. - And even the greater portions of these vallies are 
the abodes of the uncivilized Indian, the wandering hunter 



y Google 



GAKAT CElffBAI. VALLEY OP NOKTH AMERICA. 21 

and trapper, and the beasts of the wilderness. As these 
two vallies are those which are most interesting to us, I 
shall devote the remaining portion of this chapter to some 
general remarks respecting them. 

I have already given the greater part of the boundary 
of the Valley of the Mississippi. It is sufficient to say here, 
that on the east the boundary is the dividing ridge from 
the extreme southern point of Florida northward to the Al- 
legheny mountains, along the dividing line of those moun- 
tains, through Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsyl- 
vania, into the State of New- York ; thence it deflects 
westward, until it almost reaches the shores of Lake Erie ; 
it then turns southward for some distance, and then pursues 
a western course througli Ohio and. Indiana, and in Illinois 
turns to the north ; and separating the waters which flow 
northward into Lakes Erie, Michigan, Superior, and the 
Red River which flows into Lake Winnepec, from those 
which flow into the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri, it ter- 
minates at the Oregon mountains a little north of the 49°. — 
On the west', the boundary of the Valley of the Mississppi 
is the Oregon Mountains, down to about 41°; and thence 
down the highest table }and between the Arkansas and the 
Red River on the east, and Rio Bravo on the south-west, to 
the Gulf of Mexico, including Texas and adjoining parts of 
Mexico ; and on the south is the Gulf of Mexico. As de- 
scribed thus, it extends, exclusive of the Florida projection, 
through' more than 20 degrees of latitude and 36 degrees 
of longitude, and contains at least 1,300,000 square miles. 
If any one will take the trouble of drawing a line with his 
pencil on the map of North America, beginning at the 
southern point of Florida, and dividing the streams which 
flow into the Gulf of Mexico from those which flow into 
the Atlantic on the east, the Lakes on the North, and the 
Pacific on the west, until he terminates his course on the 
Gulf of Mexico again, he will have the real boundary of the 
Mississippi Basin or Valley ; and he will be struck with 
two facts — 1st. That the dividing line or boundary indicated 
by his pencil mark, (which will exhibit the true separating 
ridge) is remarkably crooked. • And 2nd. That it is not a 
mountain ridge, (when it runs through the mountain sys- 
tem) but a ridge, if 1 may so speak, in the basis of the 
mountains — that is, in the tabfe land on which the mountain 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



fii VALLEY OF THX MISSISSIPPI. 

ranges or ridges stand. This dividing line -is not indicated 
at all by any one mountain ridge ; as is proved by the fact, 
that all the mountain ridges of the Allegheny system are 
cut, in different sections of them, by rivers flowing directly 
in opposite directions. In Georgia and North Carolina, 
this dividing line is under one of the most eastern ridges of 
the Allegheny mountains ; but after it enters Virginia, in 
its northward course, it changes over to the western ridges 
— and in Potter county, in Pennsylvania, it is quite on the' 
western verge of those ridges. In the State of New York, 
it leaves the mountains altogether, and does not enter them 
again until it reaches Vermont ; so that the Susquehanna, 
Delaware, and Hudson Rivers cut throHgh every ridge of 
the Allegheny system. 

The Valley of the St. Lawrence extends first south-east, 
and then turns to the north-east, having the Gulf of St. * 
Lawrence as its base, whilst it reaches to the elevated flat, 
marshy, table-land on which the Mississippi has its sources. 
Sweeping down from this plateau to the south-east, and 
then terminating in the north-east, it embraces a con- 
siderable slope on the south and east, which belongs 
to the United States, including the whole peninsula of 
Michigan, a large, part of Ohio, the north-west angle o^ 
Pennsylvania, and a great part of the state of New York 
and Vermont. From the northern part of the last named 
state, the highlands, form its south-eastern boundary, in 
that part of its course, down to their termination in the 
British Province of Lower Canada. In giving the northern 
boundary of the Valley of the Mississippi, 1. gave at the 
same time that of the south-western side of the Valley of 
the St. Lawrence. The northern boundary of this valley 
is the dividing line of land which separates the waters 
which flow into Hudson's Bay from those which flow into 
lake Superior, Huron, Erie, &;c., and their great outlet, the 
St. Lawrence River. Of course, it extends by a deflected 
course eastward from the table-land which lies north-west 
of the first named lake, to its termination in Labrador. 

The Valley of the St. Lawrence, as described above, 
contains about 500,000 square miles, of which near 
75,000 are included in the large and small lakes, or inland 
peas, which lie within its bosom. 



y Google 



GREAT CBJXTTULL VALLEY OF IXORTB. AMERICA. 2$ 

Although the Mississippi and St. Lawrence rise on the 
same elevated table-land, Ihey are exceedingly diverse ia 
their characteristics, and pass through, vallies as diverse as 
are the rivers which give origin to their names*. The 
Mississippi is remarkable for its constant changes as to the 
size of the volume of water which it rolls to the ocean : 
the St. Lawrence is uniform throughout the year. A rise 
of 30 feet in the former is less remarkable than that of 3 
feet in the latter. The former is turbid and muddy, whilst 
the latter is always limpid. The whole course of the one 
is destitute of a lake of any consequence, whilst the other 
is adorned with many large expansions of water. The 
one annually swells, and overflows its banks to a great 
extent — the other never does- The Mississippi flowing 
from* north to south, passes through a great variety of cli- 
mate, and falls into the Ocean in the region of almost 
constant warm weather ; whilst its great rival rises also 
far to the north, winds down into the south as far as 41° 
30', and then turns towards the north again, and finally ends 
in its original climate of ice and snow. The Mississippi 
divides above its entrance into the ocean, and pours its 
waters through several separate channels into the common 
reservoir ; whilst the St. Lawrence imperceptibly widens 
into a large bay, which finally opens into a gulf of the same 
name. The former, with twice the length, is supposed to 
roll a volume of water far less than that of the latter. The 
banks of the one for a thousand miles above its mouth, are 
low and monotonous ; whilst those of the other generally 
slope froni the water by an elegant acclivity, and are beau- 
tiful when cleared of the forests. Much of the surface of 
the Valley of the Mississippi is composed of prairie regions, 
and grassy plains, where but few shrubs and trees are 
found ; whilst almost the whole Valley of the St. Law- 
rence, in a state of nature, is covered with interniinable 
forests. And whilst the tide is scarcely perceived in the 
great river of the former, it of^en rises 20 and 30 feet in 
tbat of the latter, and ascends more than 400 miles. 

If it is true, that the ocean waters have greatly subsided 
since the creation, and are now gradually diminishing, as is 
the fact with regard to the Baltic ; the time probably was 
when this whole Central Valley was submerged, and the 
Appalachian or Allegheny mountains were islands in the 



y Google 



24 VALLEY OF THE HtSSISSIPPI. 

ocean ; and as the waters gradually abated, the highest 
parts of the valley appeared, and streamlets began, of 
course, to run toward their Ocean Father, an'd following 
his gradually departing waves, became themselves expand- 
ed into lakes and wide rivers. That such has been the 
history of the rivers whicli flow through this great Central 
Valley, is manifest to any one who notices the correspond- 
ing appearances .in the stratifications which are found in 
their banks, which show that these river-channels were 
formed by abrasion — that is, by the continued action of the 
water, wearing away channels in a soil or ground which 
was once continuous and uniform. There cannot be a doubt 
that Lake Ontario has sunk, by its outlet, the St. Law- 
rence, breaking through, or rather washing away, the 
barriers which once elevated it to the level of Lake Erie. 

In the peculiar forms, if 1 may so speak, orthese rivers, 
we see a fine illustration of the wisdom and goodness of God. 
It is manifest that all long rivers which flow towards the 
north are peculiarly liable to excessive floods in the spring 
season, when the snow and ice melt. For as the sun ad- 
vances to the north, the upper or southern branches will 
first pour down their floods upon the parent stream below, 
which would soon be filled with ice, accumulated upon its 
own unbroken bed, and which, when yielded, would spread 
desolation far and wide. Now what resource has the St. 
Lawrence to prevent this ? Its numerous and extensive 
lakes, where the rising waters from above may be collected, 
as in immense reservoirs ; and before they can raise the 
surface of the waters in these, the St. Lawrence is free 
from ice. Hence the reason why this river varies so little 
through the year in the volume of its waters. Now we 
cannot have a conception of the terrible results which 
would take place, if the Mississippi, which has not a lake 
from its sources to its mouth, of any note, flowed north- 
ward,*and entered into the Northern Ocean. And I believe 
that we can scarcely find an instance of a very long river 
flowing from south to north, in high latitudes, which has 
not the admirable provision of lakes to contain and regulate 
its immense volume of waters in the spring time. 

I will only add, <hat the Valley of the St. Lawrence ought 
to be an interesting country to the Christian and statesman, 
—40 the one, because it contains many immortal beinga 



y Google 



GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHABACTEB. 25 

civilized and savage, whose moral cultivation is devoutly 
to be desired ; and to the other because ii is capable of 
containing a population of fifty millions, and is now the 
cradle of what will one day be a great nation of freemen ! 
The preceding view of the great Central Valley of 
North America will not prove uninteresting, I trust, to the 
reader ; and it will have some bearing upon the succeeding 
description of the Valley of the Mississippi, which I shall 
commence in the next chapter. 



CHAPTER III. 

General Account of the Valley of the Miseissippi. — Its Extent — Sub- 
^ divisions. — Greography and Physical Character. 

Having spoken in the last chapter of the great Central 
Valley of North America, extending from the Gulf of Mex- 
ico to the Northern Ocean, I proceed to give a general 
description of the southern part of it, embracing all that 
part of the United States which lies between the Allegheny 
and Oregon Mountains^ now called in common language^ 
the " Valley of the Mississippi." This vast region may be 
described in a few words, as bounded oh the North by the 
Lakes, and the British possessions ; east by the Allegheny 
Mountains; on the South by the Gulf of Mexico; and 
west by Mexico and the Oregon Mountains. 

In the last chapter, when describing the several parts of 
the great Central Valley, I gave the boundaries of what is 
strictlj/ the valley of the Mississippi. But, in the description 
which I have just given, I have included under the name 
Valley op the Mississippi, the whole of that part of the 
country which lies between the Allegheny and Oregon 
Mountains, and the Gulf of Mexico and the Lakes.-^ 
This is now the common, though somewhat vague accepta- 
tion of the title. It will be at once perceived that it includes 
on the north, a strip of land, of variable width, which pro- 
perly belongs to the Valley of the St. Lawrence ; and on the 
south-east it includes the whole of Alabama and parts of 
Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia, which are not watered 
by any branch of the Mississippi river, but which are so 

3 



y Google 



26 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



much like this region in their physical features, as to he, 
it is believed, properly considered a part of it. 

The Valley of the Mississippi, as described above, con- 
tains more than 1,350,000 square miles, or considerably 
more than two-thirds of the United States ; and about one 
twenty-eighth part of the whole land surface of the earth, 
if we suppose with Mr. Darby, that surface to be equal to 
38,840,000 square miles ; or one thirty-eighth part, if we 
suppose, with Mr. Tanner, the land area of the earth to be 
61,520,667 square miles. Leaving out the Florida pro- 
jection, it reaches from the 29° to the 49° of north lat., or 
about 1400 miles. Its outline or boundary exceeds 6,000 
miles. From the sources of the Allegheny river to the 
sources of the Missouri, the distance is fully 5,000 miles 
by the course of the rivers, and from the sources of the 
Tennessee to those of the Arkansas, the distance, in the 
same manner, is nearly 4,000 miles. 

The States, Territories, &;c. which are included in the 
Valley of the Mississippi, are the following. The areas 
are from Mr. Tanner's estimates. 



West Florida, 

Alabama, 

Mississippi, . 

Louisiana, 

Ohio, ' . 

Indiana, 

Illinois, 

Missouri, • 

Kentucky, 

Tennessee, 

Michigan, 

Arkansas, 

West Pennsylvania, (or one- third of that state) 

West Virginia, (or two-fiflhs of thiat state) 

Mandan District 

Sioux do. 

Huron do. 

Osage do. 

Ozark do. 



Square Miles, 

27,840 

52,900 

47,680 

49,300 

39,750 

36,500 

57,900 

65,500 

40,500 

' 40,200 

38,000 

60,700 

15,833 

26,649 

295,203 

162,385 

120,975 

91,980 

83,350 

1,853,145 



y Google 



GB06BAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHABACTEH. 27 

If we were to include the parts of Georgia, North Car- 
olina, and New York, which really belong to the Valley of 
the Mississippi, we should have to add 25,000 square miles. 
The extent of the Valley would then stand thus : 
The States and Territories named above, . 1,353,145 
Parts of Georgia, North Carolina and N. York, 25,000 

Making a total of . . . 1,378,145 

Mandan, Sioux, Huron^ Osage, and Ozark, are names 
given, very appropriately, to the great regions on the 
Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Arkansas rivers, and 
which have been commonly called the " North Western," 
and " Missouri Territories." Huron District is attached 
to Michigan ; the other districts are governed, as far as 
they have any civilized government, by the military Su- 
perintendants and Indian Agents, who are in the service 
of the United States. 

GEOGRAPHY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTER. 

This vast region may be considered as two great inclin- 
ed planes, whose line of intersection follows the Mississippi 
river to the mouth of the Ohio, up that river to the Wa- 
bash, along that river to its sources, and thence direct 
to Lake Erie, by the Maumee river. This is the lowest 
continuous line from the Gulf of Mexico to the Lakes. 
On each side of this line, these planes ascend gradually to 
the Allegheny and Oregon Mountains on the East and West. 
The eastern plane is much narrower than the western ; con- 
sequently the rivers which flow down from the Allegheny 
mountains towards the west, (or south-west as their course 
generally is) are shorter than those which flow down th%» 
western plane, from the Oregon Mountains. Down the for- 
mer run the Ohio, commencing at the junction of the Al- 
legheny and Monongahela, and its branches, the Kanawha, 
Kentucky, Scioto, Cumberland, and Tennessee^ Further 
south, the Yazoo, the Big Black and the Homochitto, come 
in from the eswt ; whilst on the south-east, the Peal, Mobile^ 
Appalachicola, and many other smallef' streams, flow direct- 
ly into the Gulf of Mexico. Down the latter, (the west- 
ern plane), flow the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas 
and Red River, dtc. ^c, with their numerous tributaries^ 



y Google 



26 VALLEY OF THE MJ6SI9SIFFI« 

If we except the Valley of the Amazon^ probably no 
other valley on the globe will compare in size with that of 
the Mississippi ; and it surpasses all others in the rich- 
ness and variety of its soil, and its general adaptation to 
the- support and comfort of civilized men. In extent it is 
like a continent, being, in fact, more than one-third as 
large as Europe : In beauty and fertility it is the most 
perfect garden of nature ; and by means of its thousand 
streams, wonderful facilities are extended to every part of 
it for commercial intercourse. 

The Mississippi is the great river of this region. It rises 
on the elevated table-land lying westward from Lake Supe- 
rior. Its sources are a number of small lakes in that mar- 
shy region, in about 47° 47' north latitude. The St. Pe- 
ter's, with ten or twelve tributaries, is the principal upper 
branch of the Mississippi. Above the falls of St. Anthony 
the Mississippi is five or six hundred yards wide. In latitude 
89° comes in the Illinois, a noble stream, 400 yards wide at 
its mouth, and navigable by boats almost 400 miles. A little 
below 39° the Missouri discharges its mighty tribute. In 
about 38° the iCaskaskia from the east joins the Mississippi, 
eighty yards wide at its mouth, with a course of nearly 
two hujKlred miles, a great part of which, at some seasons 
of the year, is navigable for boats. About 37° comes in the 
Ohio, called by the early French settlers, " La Belle Ri- 
viere," the " beautiful river." At its junction with the Mis- 
sissippi, and for nearly 100 miles above, the Ohio is as wide 
as the parent stream. Below 34° the St. Francis enters ^ 
from the west, having a course of 500 or 600 miles. A 
little below 34^ enters the White River, with a course of 
1,200 miles, and with a mouth between three and four hun- 
dred yards wide. Thirty miles below, the Arkansas pours 
in its waters, five hundred yards wide at its mouth, with a 
course of 2,500 miles. In the state of Mississippi the Yazoo 
comes in from the east, between two and three hundred 
yards wide. Eighty miles below Natchez, and a httle above 
31°, the Red River enters, a stream nearly as long and deep 
as the Arkansas. Immediately below that point, the Missis- 
sippi rolls its greatest volume of water. A few miles below 
Red River it seen the first important bayou, or outlet, viz. 
the Atchafalaya,* that conveys to the Gulf by its owa 
separate channel the surplus waters of the Mississippi. 
* Commonly pronounced Cha£&l-i'-a 



y Google 



GEOGRAPHY AND PHT8ICAI. OHASACTBB. 39 

Below the falls of St. Anthony, the Mississippi is half a 
inile in width, and is a clear and tranquil stream. A few 
miles below the entrance of the Des Moines, are rapids of 
nine miles in length, which are a considerable impediment 
to navigation. Below these rapids to the mouth of the 
Missouri, the river is from three quarters, to a mile and 
a quarter in width, with calm and transparent waters. 
The Missouri wholly changes its character. It now has a 
furious current, with a turbid mass of waters, and for a 
distance of 200 miles, rough and rugged shores. From 
the fells of St. Anthony to the Missouri, the current is at 
the rate of two miles an hour ; below the Missouri it is four 
miles, and often more, per hour. Owing to accidental 
eircumstances, the impetus of the current is often shifted, 
and the river tears up islands, removes the sandbars, and 
sweeps away the alluvial soil, with all its trees and depo« 
sites, to another place. 

The sources of the Missouri rise among the Oregon 
Mountains, through ten degrees of latitude, or near seven 
hundred miles. The Yellow stone is its longest branch* 
The Missouri is remarkably free from falls or rapids. After 
leaving the Oregon Mountains, this overwhelming mass of 
waters, though every where flowing with great rapidity, no 
where swells into a lake, or rolls over a single cataract, in 
a distance of at least three thousand five hundred miles to 
the gulf of Mexico. At its junction with the .Mississippi, 
the Missouri rolls a volume of water twice as large as that 
of what is called the Parent stream, and it far exceeds it 
in length. Indeed, there can be no doubt that the Missouri, 
-with what is really its continuation, the Mississippi, is more 
than 4,000 miles in length, and is the longest river on this 
globe,* and unlike any other, it rises in the regions of 
almost perpetual snow, and pours its waters into the -ocean 
in the region of the sugar cane and the olive. 

The Ohio is, in a remarkable manner, gentle as it re- 
spects its current ; and from Olean in Cattaraugus county 
in New- York, to the' Mississippi, over a distance of more 
than 1200 miles, following its stream, at a moderately high 
flood, meets, excepting the rapids at Louisville, with not a 
single serious natural impediment. 

* See North American Review, Vol. XVI. p. 60. 
3* 



y Google 



30 VALLEY OF THE MISSIfiSIPPi. 

In the next chapter I shall resume the consideratitm oi 
the physical features of the Valley of the Mississippi. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Geography and Physical Character. — ^Valley of the Ohio. — Of the Upper 
Mi^issippi^^-Of the Lower MississippL — Of the Missouri. 

The Valley of the Mississippi has been divided by Mr. 
Darby into four great subdivisions** 1. OhioValley^ length 
750 miles, and mean width 261 ; containing 196,000 square 
miles. 2. Mississippi Valley^ above the junction of the 
Missouri, including the minor valley of the Illinois, but ex- 
clusive of the region drained by the Missouri, 650 miles 
long, and 277 mean width, and containing 180,000 square 
miles. 3. Lower Valley of the Mississippi^ that is, of the 
Mississippi below the entrance of the Ohio river, including 
White,' Arkansas, and Red River valleys, 1000 miles long, 
and 200 wide, containing 200,000 square miles. 4. Missouri 
Proper J including Osage, Kansas, Platte rivers, &c. 1200 
miles long, and 437 wide, containing 523,000 square miles. 

This division, I would remark, is a convenient one — and 
although I believe it makes these great subdivisions too 
small, particularly the first three, yet I shall follow it in 
the general remarks which I shall make in this chapter. I 
need not inform the reader, that this arrangement leaves 
out of view the extensive region in the south-east, embracing 
a part of the State of Mississippi^ almost the whole of 
Alabama, West Florida, and that portion of Georgia 
which is watered by the Appalachicola and its branches ; 
tfnd also Michigan Territory, These .sections will be de- 
scribed particularly when I come to treat of each State 
and Territory separately. 

The Valley of the Ohio is better known than any of the 
others. It has much fertile land, and also much that is unfit 
for cultivation, on account of its unevenness. It is divided 

* View of the United States, Chap. VIII. from which the greater 
part of the information contained in the present Chapter is derived; 
»nd frequently is given in the language, slightly changed, of that 
author. j 



y Google 



GEOOfiAPRT AND PHYSICAL CUABACTEB. 81 

into two unequal portione, by the Ohio river ; leaving on 
the right or northwest side, 80,000, and on the lefl or south- 
east side, 116,000 square miles. The eastern part of this 
Valley is hilly, and ascends rapidly as you approach to- 
wards the Allegheny mountains. Indeed, its high hills 
are of a strongly marked mountainous character. Of 
course the rivers which flow into the Ohio from the east, 
viz. the Monongahela, Kanawha, Guyandot, Sandy, Lick- 
ing, Kentucky, Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee, are 
rapid, and jabounding in cataracts and falls, which, towards 
their sources, greatly impede navigation. The western 
side of this Valley is also hilly for a considerable distance 
from the Ohio, but towards its western limit, it subsides 
into a remarkably level region. So that whilst the eastern 
line of this Valley lies along the high-table land on which 
the Allegheny Mountains rest, and where the rivers of the 
eastern section of this Valley rise, which is generally at 
least 2000 feet above the ocean level, the western line 
has not an elevation of much more than one half of that 
amount on the north, and greatly subsides towards the 
Kaskaskia. The rivers of the western section are, the 
Allegheny, Beaver, Muskingum, Hockocking, Scioto, Mi- 
ami, and Wabash. Along the Ohio, on each side, are high 
hills, oflen intersected with deep ravines and sometimes 
openings of considerable extent, and well known by the 
appellation of the " Ohio Hills." Towards the mouth of 
the Ohio, these hills almost wholly disappear, and exten- 
sive level bottoms, covered with heavy forests of oak, 
sycamore, elm, poplar, ash, and cotton wood, stretch along 
the banks of the river. On this lower section of the river, 
the water, at the time of the spring floods, often overflows 
these bottoms to a great extent. This fine Valley em- 
braces a population exceeding 3,000,000, which is nearly 
three-fourths of the whole population of the entire Valley 
of the Mississippi^ The western parts of Pennsylvania and 
Virginia, the entire states of Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky, 
the larger part, of Tennessee, and a small part of Illinois, 
are in the Valley of the Ohio. 

The Upper MimssippiVallei/, (lying above the entrance 
of the Missouri; has been imperfectly explored, especially 
beyond the falls of St. Anthony. It possesses a surface 
far less diversified than the Valley of the Ohio. According 



y Google 



32 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

io Mr. Schoolcrafl, the sources of the Mississippi river 
have an elevation of 1330 feet above the ocean level. This 
is about the elevation of the level, marshy, table-land, which 
extends from Lake Superior to the Missouri at the Mandaa 
Villages. Throughout the whole of the Valley of the 
Upper Mississippi, of which we are speaking, there is no- 
thing which deserves the name of a mountain. There is 
not probably on the earth an equal extent of territory, which 
is of so level and monotonous a character. The highest 
sources of the Mississippi river originate in the numerous 
small lakes which lie between the sources of the Assiniboia 
and Lake Superior. On the western side, it receives, as 
you descend from its sources, the Leech-lake river, Sac, 
Pine, Crow, Elk, Upper Jaway, St. Peters, Turkey, Little 
Maquaquetois, Galena, Gre^t Maquaquetois, Lower Jaway, 
and Des Moines. From the eastern side, the Round-lake, 
Sandy-lake, St. Francis, Rum river, St. Croix, Chippeway, 
Black, Ouisconsine, Riviere au Fievre, Rock, and Illi- 
nois, pour in their several streams. It will be readily per- 
ceived that this Valley has great advantages for internal 
navigation and commerce. . 

The Upper Mississippi Valley is very dissimilar to the 
Valley of the Ohio. The former is remarkably level and 
uniform, the latter in many parts broken, hilly, even ap- 
proaching to mountainous. The one abounds in lakes and 
marshes, the other is wholly destitute of them. The for- 
mer is covered with prairies, — that is, extensive districts 
destitute of trees, and covered with high grass and wild 
flowers, and low shrubs ; — the latter is covered, in its natu- 
ral state, with interminable forests, which are only here 
and there, even now, interrupted by the cultivated field. In 
the Upper Valley of the Mississippi, clumps of trees may be 
seen along the rivers and water courses, whilst the far great- 
er proportion of it is open prairie, either elevated and dry, 
or low and marshy, possessing generally great fertility of 
soil, (although there are many strong exceptions,) and 
greatly destitute of timber. It will be the region of pastoral 
wealth, abounding in food for innumerable herds and flocks. 

In latitude 45°, are the Falls of St. Anthony, where the 
Mississippi is precipitated over rocks of sixteen or seventeen 
feet of elevation ; and, including the rapids immediately be- 
low, has a descent of 74 feet. The Valley of the Ohio has 



y Google 



GfiOGBAPHir ANB^ PHYSICAL CHAHACTES. 83 

a similar, but not equal, impediment to its narigation, ia 
tiie rapids at Louisville, where there is a fall of twenty-two 
feet, in the distance of two or three miles. We may add 
that there are millions of acres in the Valley of the Upper 
Mississippi, of marsh and lake, which are covered with 
wild rice, (zizania aquatica) which feed innumerable flocks 
of water fowls, and which will probably be an article of 
food to a large population, as it now, occasionally, afibrda 
to the famisbsd hunter and Indian the means of satisfying 
their hunger. Upon the whole, the Valley of the Upper 
Mississippi is inferior to the valley of Ohio, but it will 
e?eDtually contain a large population. There are fine 
tracts of fertile land on the Ouisconsin (pronounced Wis- 
coDsin), Fox, and some other rivers. 

The Lower Valley of the Mtssissippi has a length of 
1,4J00 miles, from north-west to the south-east, having the 
sources of the Arkansas, and the mouth of the Mississippi 
river as extreme points ; reaching from north lat. 29^ to 
near 42^, and without estimating mountain ridges or peaks, 
di^ring in relative elevation at least 5000 f^t. And as 
an elevati<Hi of 500 feet is believed to be equal, as it regards 
temperature, to one degree of latitude on the level ocean 
shore, if we add the actual diBference of latitude, 13°, to an 
allowance of 10° for relative elevation, the climate at the 
north-west extreme must difier from that of the Delta, (or 
Islands, in the mouth of the Mississippi,) 23° in tempera- 
ture, and render the seasons at the head of the Arkansas 
nearly as severe as those in north lat. 52° on the Atlantic 
coast ofLabrador. This is Mr. Darby's estimate. But I 
think that that distinguished writer is in a dight error 
here ; for it cannot be that the mountain vallies at the sour- 
ces of the Arkansas are 5000 het above the ocean level* 

From the infhix of the Missouri to that of the Ohio, 
tjhe volume of the Mississippi rolls by a general S. S. 
E. course of 190 miles, by its windings ; but on receiv- 
ing the Ohio, it inflects to a course of S. S. W. 380 
miles, to the entrance of the White and Arkansas rivers ; 
it then turns to a very little W. of S. crosses three de- 
grees of latitude, or about 360 miles by its sinuosities, to 
the point where the 31° intersects it, or rather about a 
mile and a half below the commencement of the Atchafalaya 
outlet, a few miles below the entrance of Red River* From 



y Google 



34 VALLEY OF THE MlSSISStPPI. 

this point the Mississippi inflects its general course, and 
bends to S. E. which it pursues to its final discbarge into 
the Gulf of Mexico, a distance by the river of 335 miles* 
So that from the mouth of the Missouri, the length of the 
Mississippi, by all its windings, is 1265 miles, but by a 
direct line, only 820 miles. 

Into the Mississippi, as a recipient, are poured from the 
east, below the mouth of the Ohio, the ObiOn, Forked 
Deer, Big Hatchie, Wolf, Yazoo, Big Black, and Homo- 
chitto; and from the West, or North West, the St. 
Francis, White, Arkansas, and Red rivers, with other 
streams of less note. 

It is a most remarkable circumstance that there is such 
a prodigious inequality between the two opposing planes, 
down which are poured the confluents of the Mississippi, 
below the * mouth of the Ohio. The western inclined 
plane, falling from the Oregon Mountains, sweeps over 
800 or 1000 miles ; whilst the eastern, sloping from the 
states of Tennessee and Mississippi, does not average a 
width of 100 miles. And whilst the White River flows 
down 1200 miles, the Arkansas near 2500, and the Red 
River from 1600 to 2000, there is no river on the eastern 
plane whose whole course exceeds 200 miles. The Arkan- 
sas and Red rivers are immense streams, and as they ap* 
proach the Mississippi river, have many branches which, 
afler leaving their parent river, run parallel to it, and 
finally unite with it again. Near the mouth of the former, 
some of these bayous on the south side, in high water, 
never return to the parent stream, but run directly to the 
Red River ; and some of those which break from the Red 
River, make their way to the Atchafalaya, and find an out- 
let for their waters one hundred and fifty miles westward 
of the Mississippi. 

^The Arkansas rises near lat. 42° north, and Ion. 32° west^ 
and falls into the Mississippi at 33° 56', passing over eight 
degrees of latitude. It drains nearly as large a valley as the 
Ohio does. Red River rises in the mountains of Santa Fe, in 
north lat. 32°-35°, and west Ion. 25°-28°, from Washing- 
ton, and falls into the Mississippi in lat. 31°. They are both 
remarkable riveis for their extent, the number of their 
branches, the volume of their waters, the quantity of the al- 
luvion which they carry down to the parent stream, and the 



y Google 



GEOGRAPHY AND PHTBICAL CHABACTEB. 80 

colour of theii* waters. They doabtless cause the Missib* 
sippi to itifringe so ofleD upon the blufis which are so con- 
spicuous OD its eastern bank. Impregnated by saline parti- 
cles, and coloured by ochreous earth, the waters of these 
two rivers are at once brackish and nauseous to the taste, 
particularly near their mouths ; that of Red River is so 
much so, that at Natchitoches, at low water, it cannot be 
used even for culinary purposes. White River, which 
enters above the Arkansas, is a noble stream, and drains a 
fine country belonging to the Slate of Missouri and Arkan- 
sas territory. The St. Francis is also a considerable river, 
and falls into the Mississippi 280 miles below the Ohio. 

At a short distance below the mouth of Red River, a 
large bayou, (as it is called,) or outlet, breaks from the 
Mississippi on the west, by which, it is believed, that as 
large a volume of water as Red River brings to the parent 
river, is drained off during the high spring floods, and runs 
into the Gulf of Mexico, one hundred and fifty miles from 
the mouth of the Mississippi. The name of this bayou is 
Atchafalaya. Below this bayou, another, of large dimen- 
sions, breaks forth on the same side, and finally falls into 
the Atchafalaya. This is the Placquemine. Still lower, 
at Donaldsonville, seventy-five miles above N. Orleans, on 
the same ^ide, the Lafourche Bayou breaks out, and pur- 
sues a course parallel to the Mississippi, and enters the 
Gulf fifty miles west of the mouth of that river. On the 
east side, the Ibberville Bayou drains ofi* a portion of the 
waters of the Mississippi, into lakes Maurepas, Ponchar- 
train, Borgne, and the Gulf of Mexico, and thus forms the 
long and narrow island of Orleans. 

In the lower valley of the Mississippi there is a great 
extent of land of the very richest kind. There is also 
much that is almost always overflown with water, and is a 
perpetual swamp. There are extensive prairies in this 
Valley, and towards the Oregon Mountains, on the upper 
waters of the Arkansas and Red River, there are vast bar- 
ren steppes or plains of sandy dreary and barren, like the 
central steppes of Asia. On the east of the Mississippi, 
are extensive regions of the most dense forests, which form 
a striking contrast with the prairies which stretch abroad 
on the western side of this valley. 

The Valley of the Missouri extends 1200 miles in length 



y Google 



86 VALLEY OP THE HIS6ISSIPFI. 

and 437 in average width, and embraces 623,000 square 
miles. The Missouri River rises in the Oregon Mountains, 
through an extent of ten degrees of latitude, or near 700 
miles. The Yellow Stone is its longest branch. The 
course of the Missouri, after leaving the Oregon Mountains 
is generally S. E. until it unites with the Mississippi. The 
principal branches flow from the S. W. They are the 
Osage, Kansas, Platte, Ace. The three most striking fea- 
tures of this Valley are : 1st. The turbid character of its 
waters. 2d. The very unequal volumes of the right and 
left confluents. 3d. The immense predominance of the 
open prairies, over the forests which line the rivers. The 
western part of this Valley rises to an elevation towards 
the Oregon Mountains, equal, as it regards temperature, 
to ten degrees of latitude. 

Ascending from the lower verge of this widely extend- 
ed plain, wood becomes more and more scarce, until one 
naked surface spreads on all sides* Even the ridges and 
chains of the Oregon Mountains partake of these traits of 
desolation. The traveller, who has read the descriptions 
of central Asia, by Tooke or Pallas, would feel, if trans- 
ported to the higher branches of the Missouri, a resem- 
blance, at once striking and appalling; and he would 
acknowledge, if near to the Oregon Mountains in winter, 
that the utmost intensity of frost over Siberia and Mongo- 
lia, has its full counterpart in North America, on similar, 
rf not on lower latitudes. — ^Tbere is much fertile land in 
the Valley of the Missouri, though there is much that must 
be forever the abode of the Buffalo, the Elk, the Wolf and 
the Deer. 



y Google 



0£06RAPHY AND NATURAL RESOtJBCES. 87 



CHAPTER V. 

1. Climate, considered in relation to the productions of this region.— 
2. Minerals. — 3. Soil.— 4. Trees. — 5. Animals. 

In the last Chapter I gave an account o{ the four great 
subdivisions of the Valley of the Mississippi. In this I 
proceed to give some further notices of its physical features 
and resources. 

1 . Climate, considered in relation to the productions, ^c. 
—We may number four distinct climates between the 
sources and the outlet of the Mississippi. The first, com- 
mencing at its sources, and terminating at Prairie du Chien, 
in lat. 43°, includes the northern half of Michigan Territo- 
ry, almost the whole of Huron and Sioux districts, and all 
of Mandan, and corresponds pretty accurately with the cli- 
mate between Boston and Quebec ; with this difference, 
that the amount of snow falling in the former is much less 
than in the latter region ; and its winters are not as severe, 
and its summers are more equal in temperature. Five 
months in the year may be said to belong to the dominion 
of winter. The Irish potatoe, wheat, and the cultivated 
grains, succeed well in this climate; but the apple, peach, 
pear, and the species of corn called gourd seed, require a 
more southern climate to bring them to perfection. Abun- 
dance of wild rice grows in the numerous lakes at the 
head of the Mississippi, which constitutes an important ar- 
ticle of food for the natives. On account of the vast body of 
frozen water still further to the north. Spring opens late ; 
but the Autumn continues longer than in the same parallels 
on the Atlantic. A species of corn called the Mandan, culti- 
vated by the Mandan and other tribes, flourishes in this cli- 
mate. 

The next cliraati includes the belt of country between 
43° and 36° 30'. In this climate lie Missouri, Illinois, In- 
diana, Ohio, the southern part of Michigan territory. West- 
em Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, and Kentucky. The 
severity of winter commences with January and ends with 

4 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



88 VALLEY OP THE XlSSItSIPPf. 

the second week of February. Wheat is at home in this cli- 
mate. The Irish potatoe flourishes wellj especially in the 
northern, and the sweet potatoe in the southern part. It is 
the region of the apple, the pear, and the peach tree. The 
persimmon is found throughout, and the paw-paw with its 
luscious fruit, abounds in the southern part. Throughout 
the southern half of this climate Cotton is cultivated for 
home consumption,andsomeforexportation, but not much. 
Tobacco and Hemp find a congenial soil, and temperature, 
in the same part of this climate. 

The next climate extends from 36° 30' to 31°. Below 35,° 
in tlie rich alluvial soil, the apple tree begins to fail in bring- 
ing its fruit to perfection. Between 36° and 33° cotton is in 
general a certain crop ; but below 33° is perhaps its best 
climate, and there it becomes a first rate staple article. 
Wheat is not cultivated much in the southern part, but 
corn grows luxuriantly throughout this climate. I have 
never seen finer orchards than in the northern part. Ten- 
nessee, Arkansas, and almost the whole of Mississippi, 
Alabama, and Georgia, lie within this climate. Wheat 
is not cultivated in the southern part, and does not flourish 
in any part as well as in the one preceding. The long 
moss is here seen on the trees along the swamps. The 
palmetto abound, and the fig tree- and orange flourish in its 
southern parallels. Sugar cane will grow also in that part 
of this climate, but is not a profitable crop generally, as 
the season is too short for its full maturity. 

Below 31°, to the Gulf of Mexico, is the region of the su- 
gar cane and the sweet orange tree. It would be, if it were 
cultivated, the region of the olive. On the Florida projec- 
tion, almost every species of tropical fruits, including the ba- 
nana, cocoa, almond, &;c. find an agreeable climate, and in 
many places a suitable soil. Snow is seldom seen here, and 
the streams are not often frozen. Winter is only marked by 
nights of white frost, anddaysof north-west winds, and these 
do not last longer than three days at once, and are succeed- 
ed by south winds and warm days. Cotton and corn are 
planted from February to June. The trees are generally 
in leaf by the middle of February, and always by the 1st of 
March. Early in March the forests are in blossom. Fire- 
flies are seen by the middle of February. In these regions 
the summers are uniformly hot, although there are days 



y Google 



GEOGSAPHT AMD NATITRAL SEBOCBCBS. 99 

when the mercury rises as high in New England as in 
Louisiana. The heat, however, is here more uniform and 
sustained, commences earlier and continues later. From 
February to September, thunder storms are common, ac- 
f^ompanied sometimes with gales and tornados of tremeo* 
dous violence. 

The climate of the Valley of the Mississippi corresponds, 
it is believed, more exactly with the latitude, than that of 
the Atlantic States does ; this is owing to its uniformity, 
being a vast basin^ and remote from the influences of the 
ocean, mountains, and other natural causes a^cting cli- 
mate. The elevation of the northern end, and especially 
that of the extreme eastern and western parts of its great 
planes, gives a colder climate than the same parallels 
on the level shores of the Atlantic ocean. In some places 
Ihis elevation is sufficient to make a difference in temperature 
equal to from three to five degrees of latitude on the margin 
of the ocean. Mr. Jeflerson maintained, that the temperature 
of the Valley of the Mississippi is higher than that of the AU 
lantic coast in corresponding parallels. Dr. Drake, Mr. Dar* 
by and others, maintain a contrary opinion. As far as I can 
learn, these last nam^ gentlemen are right. Throughout 
the central line of the Valley, from the &ulf of Mexico to 
the lakes, I think that the mean cold of winter is greater by 
two or three degrees than on the Atlantic coast in corres- 
ponding parallels. Several facts show this. The Ohio at 
Cincinnati, and the Mississippi at St. Louis, the former of 
which is almost one degree, and the latter one and a half, 
south of Philadelphia, are about as much and as long fro- 
zen every winter, as the Delaware is at that city. The 
reasons for this difference in the climate of the Valley of 
the Mississippi and the Atlantic coast, are, 1st, that the 
former region has not the moderating breezes from the 
ocean— cooler in extremely hot weather, and warmer in 
extremely cold, than the winds from the land — which the 
latter region enjoys — and 2d, it is more elevated than the 
corresponding portions of the sea coast. 

In the southern and middle regions of this Valley, the 
wide, level, and heavy-timbered alluvial lands, are intrinsi- 
cally more or less unhealthy. In these situations the new 
resident is subject to bilious complaints, to remitting fevers, 
and especially to fever and ague, the general scourge of the 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



40 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Valley. The slopes of the Alleghenies; the interior of 
Ohio and Kentucky, Tennessee and Indiana, where the 
forest is cleared away, and stagnant waters drained ; the 
high grounds of Illinois and Missouri, and the open country 
towards the Oregon Mountains, are as salubrious as any 
other region.* 

2. Minerals. — Many parts of the West abound in val- 
uable minerals. The eastern slope of the Ohio Vftlley 
abounds in iron ore, coal, and salt. These valuable mine- 
rals are also found in almost all the states. Vast quantities 
of iron are manufactured in Pittsburg, and its vicinity. 
Immense veins of coal are found in the same region, and 
also in Ohio, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alaba- 
ma, and will be sources of great wealth to the inhabitants 
in this valley, as there is reason to believe that this valu- 
able species of fuel will be found in almost every state. 
Salt water is found in many places throughout this region, 
and is often discovered in springs, or " licks," as they are 
called, to which the wild deer and bufialoes resort, in the 
uninhabited country, in vast numbers. Salt is manufac- 
tured in great abundance, on the Kiskiminitas, a branch 
of the Allegheny river ; at Yellow Creek, near its junctioQ 
with, the Ohio above Steubenville ; on the Kahawha, sixty- 
five miles above its mouth ; on the Saline river thirty 
miles from Shawneetown, in Illinois ; as well as in many 
other places. 

In Washington county and the adjacent region, in Missou- 
ri, there are lead mines of great extent and value. The 
principal *' diggings," are included in an extent of fifteen 
miles in one direction by thirty in the other. This district 
is 70 miles south-west from St. Louis. About 3,000,000 
pounds of lead are smelted in a year, giving employment to 
about 1200 men. The ore is principally of that class called 
galena^ and is very rich, yielding from seventy-five to eighty 
per cent. There are also very rich mines of the same min- 
eral at Galena, in the north-west corner of the state of Illi- 
nois, and on the Ouisconsin, in Huron district. In 1829, 
it is said that about 12,000 people were employed in the 
neighbourhood of Galena, and it is probable that from nine 

* The reader will find in Chapter VIII. ample information respecting 
the climate and dbeases of the Valley of the Mississippi. 



y Google 



GEOOBAPHT AND NATt7HAL RESOURCES. 41 

to ten millions of pounds were made that year. A larger 
quantity, it is believed, is now made annually. A few 
years ago this place was in the possession of the Winneba- 
goes. 

Ores of copper, antimony and manganese, have been 
discovered, but they are not yet wrought. It is probable 
that mines of gold and silver will be found in this region, 
as they are abundant in the neighbouring country of Mex- 
ico. I may add that gold has recently been found in 
Tennessee and Alabama. And I have little doubt that it 
will be found in Missouri, and the Ozark Mountains, which 
stretch south-westward from that state. 

3. Soil, <^c, — ^The soil of the Ohio Valley, taken gener* 
ally, may be considered yerftZe, but, in many places, it pre- 
sents strong exceptions. Wherever the face of the earth in 
this valley is broken into hills, mountains, or vales, excellent 
fountain water abounds. In some of the more level parts of 
Kentucky, of limestone formation, in very dry seasons,there 
is a great scarcity of water. It would be difficult to find any 
other country of equal extent, where the natural features 
are more strongly contrasted. In regard to the Upper 
Valley of the Mississippij timber iiS comparatively scarce, 
as much of the surface is occupied by prairies and lakes. 
Extensive lines of alluvial soil of great fertility border the 
streams, particularly of the Mississippi, Illinois, dpc. The 
prairies are of various soils, some very fertile, and others 
much less so, but extremely valuable for grazing. Im« 
mense herds of cattle and horses will be here raised for an 
eastern market, and the population will be great, though 
not so much so perhaps as in the Ohio Valley. With the 
exception of the alluvial banks of its numerous streams, the 
Missouri Valley is dry and sterile, and to a great extent 
destitute of timber and fresh water. I ought to add that 
much of this region is yet to be explored, and jts soil as-r 
certained. There is, unquestionably, good soil enough to 
sustain a large population, in this extensive Valley. The 
Lower Valley of the Mississippi is the most variegated 
section o^ the United States; every form of landscape, 
every trait of natural physiognomy, and an exhaustless 
quantity, with an almost illimitable specific diversity of 
vegetable and metallic production, are found upon this ex* 
tensive region. There are the cold, sterile plains and vales 

4* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



42 VALLEY OF THE HISSISSIPFI. 

of the Oregon Mountains, the elevated and dry grounds of 
the Arkansas ; and the exuberant fertility, with the disease 
and death (to the unaccli mated,) of the Delta of the Missis- 
sippi.* 

The country lying along the Scioto and INIiami rivers, in 
Ohio ; that embraced in several counties around Lexington 
in Kentucky ; some counties of Michigan ; large portions 
of Missouri ; and those portions of Illinois, and Indiana, 
which lie along, the Sangamon and Wabash rivers, are of 
surpassing fertility. Indeed the general fertility of the 
soil, and the luxuriance of the vegetation, are such as to 
fill with admiration the mind of one whose observation has 
been previously jconfined to the Atlantic and Northern states. 

Nothing strikes the attention of a traveller upon his visi- 
ting this region, more forcibly than the immense forests 
which cover a large portion of the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi. That part of it which has been denominated the 
Valley of the Ohio, was sixty years ago, and is still to a 
great extent, a vast unbroken forest, presenting, in the 
summer season, a most magnificent appearance. No pros- 
pect can be more grand than to stand upon the summit of 
the Laurel Hill, the last of the Allegheny range, and survey 
the extensive green scene which stretches out in the 
distance to the West. These forests are of a most luxuri- 
ant growth. The Vallies of the Upper Mississippi, the 
Missouri, and the Lower Mississippi, have immense prai- 
ries, or savannas, where the eye sees nothing, in the sum- 
Dler season^ but, as it were, a vast ocean of waving wild 
grass, flowers of various hues, and of five or six feet in 
height. There are, however, large forests of trees of ex- 
traordinary size, particularly along the margins of the 
rivers in these vallies. 

4. Tree^. — The brevity which I am compelled to observe 
will not allow me to go into much detail in regard to the dif* 
ferent species of trees. The sycamore is the prince of the 
western forests. It is oAen of great size, sometimes hoi- 
^w, and of such dimensions as to have a cavity of several 
feet in diameter. Several have been found having cavities 
of from ten to fifteen feet in djameter, so as to accom- 
modate a number of persons. This tree is found in all 
parts of the Valley, along the water courses. The ash, 
* Darby's View of the United States, Vol. !. p. 313, 314. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



eEOORAPHY AND ITATCRAL RBSOUSCES. 43 

the elm, the oak of various species, are found in the 
greater part of the Valley. The sugar-maple abounds 
in the northern and middle parts. The walnut, the beech, 
and a great variety of other forest trees abound. The yel- 
low poplar (liriodendron tulipifera) is a princely tree in va- 
rious parts of this region, and next in size to the sycamore. 
The cotton wood is a large tree, and abounds along the low- 
er course of the Ohio, and on the Mississippi. The catalpa, 
on the Mississippi, is an elegant tree. The china tree is a 
beautiful shade tree, and is the ornamental'tree of the towns 
and villages in the southern part of the Valley, and through- 
out all the Southern Atlantic cities from Florida to Virginia. 
The bow-wood is found on the Ouachita, (pronounced Wash- 
itaw). It is a splendid tree, bearing a beautiful flower, and 
a fruit which, although inviting to the eye, is the apple of 
Sodom to the taste. The dog- wood with its beautiful flow- 
er, the persimmon, wild plum, crab-apple, mulberry, dec. 
abound in various parts. The paw-paw is found near Wheel- 
ing, and throughout the middle part of the Valley. Its 
splendid fruit is too well known to need description. The 
peccan with its flne fruit of the nut kind, is found in Illinois 
and Missouri. The magnolia with its beautiful flower is 
found in Florida and Louisiana, and some other districts. 
Mr. Flint thinks that it is not to be compared with the cot- 
ton wood, the sycamore, or the poplar, as it regards size* 
It is nevertheless a very large tree, not only in Florida, but 
also in the north-eastern angle of Louisiana, and in the 
southern part of the State of Mississippi, 40 or 50 miles east 
of the Mississippi river, as I well know. The cypress be- 
gins to be seen near the mouth of the Ohio, and is, with the 
swamp gum, the most common tree in the deep swamps, 
from that point to New Orleans. This tree raises a straight 
column, from a cone-like buttress, to the height of sixty op 
eighty feet, and then throws out a number of horizontal 
branches, which interlacing with those of the others around, 
form an elevated umbrageous canopy. The cypress is a 
-yery valuable species of timber. Thousands of trunks of this ' 
tree are every year boated down to New-Orleans and other 
places, to be sawed at the Steam Saw Milts, or to be used 
for other purposes. Below 31° and along the Louisiana and 
Florida coasts, the live oak, quercus sempervirens^ is found ; 
valuable for ship timber. It is not a tall, but rather a 
spreading tree, and resembles at a distance an open urn* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



44 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

brella, and is remarkable for its solidity and durability. 
No country on earth is covered with a greater variety 
of useful trees, shrubs, and vines. The orange, the fig 
tree, the olive, <kc. find a congenial climate and soil in the 
southern part of the Valley. The vine grows every where. 
The pine forests of the south can furnish millions of masts, 
spars, &c. &c. for our ships.* 

5. Animals. — The deer, the bear, the fox, the wolf, d^c. 
are too well known to need notice. The Bufl&lo now keeps 
his range on the sources of the Mississippi, the Missouri, 
the Arkansas, and their branches. There, in immense herds, 
he traverses the fields of his great domain. The Elk is 
abundant in the same region, far from the abodes of civili- 
zed man, which he shuns, and prefers the remotest plains 
which stretch along the Oregon Mountains, better known 
to the Red man who roams over the same dreary regions. 
The beaver also lives in the same country. The panther 
has a wider range. The antelope, the white bear, the 
mountain sheep, and prairie dog, have so much fellowship 
with the beaver, as to inhabit the same distant land. 

Birds. — ^As to the varieties of the feathered tribe, al- 
though exceedingly numerous, and good either for food or 
for Song, I can only give them a passing notice. All the 
birds of the Atlantic slope are found in abundance here, and 
some which are not found there. The pelican, prairie 
hen, wild turkey, parroquet, pigeons, swans, cranes, wild 
geese, ducks, 6ic. &c. abound in various parts of the 
Valley. 

Reptiles. — As to reptiles, they are the same, generally, 
as are found in the Atlantic States. The moccasin snake, 
the rattle snake, copper head snake, homed snake, hissing 
snake, bull snake, chameleon^, lizards, scorpions, dec. dec. 
are tbe most famous of the reptile species. As population 
increases, all such things become less formidable. The 
hogs and deer destroy vast numbers of them. The rattle, 
copper head, and moccasin snakes, are very venomous. 
The alligator abounds in the rivers and marshes as fiir 
north as 34^. He in an unwieldy animal, but little dread- 
ed by the inhabitants. Pigs, calves, dec. are sometimes 
destroyed by him. 

» See Ffint's Geogfraphy of the Western States, Vol. I. p. 46—75, 
ftom which much of the iniforinatioii contained in this chapter has been 
derived. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



HISTOBY. 45 

Fishes. — As to the variety of fish found in the rivers 
and streams of the Valley of the Mississippi, there is but 
little to be said that would be interesting in such a work 
as this. They are numerous, and have been described by 
Mr. Rafinesque and others, with much particularity and 
accuracy. 

In the next Chapter, I shall give a brief History of the 
Valley of the Mississippi. 



CHAPTER VI. 

History of the Valley of the Mississippi. 

Having given an account of the Geography and Natural 
Resources of the Valley of the Mississippi, I proceed to 
give a brief sketch of its civil History. 

The English and Spanish dispute the honour of the disco- 
very of this country. It appears, however, that Sebastian 
Cabot sailed along the shores of what was afterwards called 
Florida, but a few years after the discovery of America by 
Columbus.'^ It is said by Spanish authors that Juan 
Ponce de Lepn discovered this country in the thirtieth 
degree of north latitude in 1512. He gave it the name of 
Florida, and made a landing, but was glad to escape from 
the fierce attacks of the Indians. He had discovered land 
on Easter day, and from that circumstance, gave the coun- 
try the name of Florida y from the Spanish name of that 
festival, Pasqua de Flores — the Festival of Flowers. Be- 
tween 1518 and 1524, Grijalva and Vasques, both Spaniards, 
landed on Florida. Their expeditions proved unfortunate, 
through their treachery. In 1528, Narvaez obtained a 
grant of Florida. He landed with four or five hundred 
men. But his expedition proved disastrous, and he was 
lost near the mouth of the Mississippi, by shipwreck. He 

* See the very able and interesting Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, 
written by an American gentleman, (Richard Biddle, Esq. of tbe Pitts- 
burgh bar), and recently published. It is a work which does great 
credit to the auth<»: as weU as to his country. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



46 VALLEY OF THE MISSif SIPPI. 

first recorded the names of several of the Indian tribes< 
He was succeeded by Ferdinand* de Soto, a man of great 
bravery and boldness, and of a chivalrous and enterprising 
spirit. He landed in Florida with one thousand men, 
marched into the Chickasaw country, was probably the 
first white man who saw the Mississippi river, which he 
crossed not far from the mouth of the Red River. On this 
river he sickened and died ; and his followers not long 
after left the country. 

In the year 1564, the illustrious Protestant, Admiral Co- 
ligny, established a colony of Huguenots, near the site of 
St. Augustine, which was sometime afterwards massacred 
in the most cruel manner, by the Spaniards, for the crime of 
being Protestant heretics. This act of cruelty was requited 
by Dominique de Gourgues, who hung the Spaniards on 
the same trees upon which they had caused the French to 
perish so miserably. Almost fifty years elapsed before we 
hear any thing more of the French in North America. 

In 1608, Admiral Champlaine founded Quebec, and in 
the course of sixty years the French settlements spread 
over what is now called Upper and Lower Canada^ Their 
hunters often made extended tours to the south and west. 
In their intercourse with the savages, they learned that 
there was a vast region in that direction, watered by a 
noble river, whose course was towards the south. Excited 
by these representations, M. Talon, the Intendant of Cana- 
da, determined to settle the question whether that river did 
not flow into the Pacific, and so open a north-west passage. 
For this purpose he employed Father Marquette, a Jesuit 
missionary, who had travelled much, and Joliette, a trader, 
to undertake an excursion for discovery. They went up 
the lakes to Michigan, and ascended the Fox River to its 
source, and crossed over to the Wisconsin, and descended 
that river to the Mississippi, which they descended, as some 
say, to the mouth of Arkansas, others to the mouth of the 
Missouri, and returned by the Illinois. They discovered 
the Mississippi on the 15th of June, 1673. The account 
which they gave of the wonders which they saw, induced 
M. de La Salle, a man of great enterprise, to undertake to 
explore the Mississippi. He set out, in 1679, with a num* 
ber of men, and spent the winter on the Illinois. He 
directed Father Hennepin, who accompanied him, to explore 



y Google 



HIST0S7. 47 

the sources of the Mississippi, whilst he himself returned 
to Canada for supplies. But the Father, preferring to de- 
scend the noble river, tells us that he actually reached the 
mouth in sixteen days after he had left the mouth of the 
Illinois River, that is, from the 8th to the 25th of March, 
1680, and that he returned and visited the Upper Missis- 
sippi as far as the Falls of St. Anthony. He returned soon 
afterwards to France, and published an account of this 
wonderful voyage, dedicated his book to the great Colbert, 
and called the whole country Louisiana, in honour of 
Louis XIV. the reigning monarch of France. In 1683, 
La Salle founded the villages of Cahokia and Kaskaskia, 
in what is now the state of Illinois. 

La Salle then returned to France and endeavoured to 
convince the ministry of the existence of a great line of 
water communication of/ot/r thousand miles, from the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico ; and of the impor- 
tance of establishing a strong line of communication from 
cme point to the other, and thus insulating the English 
settlements by this impassable barrier. In 1684, he sailed 
from France, by order of the King, to discover the mouth 
of the Mississippi. He landed one hundred leagues to the 
westward of that point, in what is now called Texas, and 
after many misfortunes, and vain attempts to find that river, 
he set out to go by land to the French settlements in Illi- 
nois, and after undergoing incredible hardships, he fell by 
the hands of assassins among his own men, who conspired 
against him. 

In January 1699, M. Ibberville arrived in the Gulf of 
Me;cico, in the neighbourhood of the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, with two frigates. He first landed on Dauphine Isl- 
and ; and on the 2nd of March he entered the Mississippi 
with a felucca, together with his brother Bienville, who ac- 
companied him. ' Having ascended the river near one hun- 
dred leagues, they returned ; Bienville proceeded down the 
main river, and M. Ibberville by the bayou, or outlet, which 
has ever since been called by his name, which leads into 
Lake Maurepas, Ponchartrain, ^c. to the Gulf. M. Ibber- 
ville having settled his colony at Biloxi, a healthy, but sterile 
spot between the Mississippi and Mobile rivers, and erect- 
ed fortifications, sailed for France, from whence he return- 
ed in the autumn with two more frigates. During that and 



y Google 



48 TALLRT OF THE HtSSISSIPFI. 

several succeeding years, the work of exploring the country 
was carried on with vigour, and the whole Valley was tra- 
versed, and several colonies planted. It was long, however, 
before the settlers turned their attention fully to the culti- 
vation of the exuberant soil, instead of vain attempts to find 
the precious metals. And although much was done in the 
way of procuring peltry, &c. and in trading with the sava- 
ges, yet these colonies were a source of much expense to 
the mother country. In five years preceding 1717, the 
balance against the parent country was 125,000 livres. 
On the 8th of January, 1702, the colony of Mobile was 
planted by M. Ibberville. Establishments were made in 
various places. Missions were planted by the Catholic Mis- 
sionaries among various tribes of Indians, many of whom 
are now extinct. For many years these colonies had to 
contend with great difficulties. Sometimes they were on 
terms of peace with their neighbours^ the Spaniards in 
Florida and Mexico, and in league with them against the 
English and the savages who were in alliance with them. 

M. Ibberville died in 1706, and M. Bienville acted as 
governor for many years afterwards. During 1719 he 
founded the city of New Orleans, on the east bank of the 
Mississippi, one hundred and five miles from its mouth. 
In 1729 or 1730, the French utterly destroyed the Nat- 
chez, a powerful tribe of Indians, who had previously de- 
stroyed 700 French people in a quarrel which occurred in 
1723. Various wars afterwards took place between the 
colonists and the Indians, Spaniards, and English. By 
wonderful adroitness and perseverance, the French had 
an extrordihary influence over almost all the savages 
throughout the whole 'Valley. By successive arrivals of 
emigrants from France, the population increased rapidly 
in numbers and wealth. 

The " Mississippi scheme," or "bubble," as it has been 
called, which was originated by John Law, in 1717, and 
which spread ruin throughout France, was upon the whole, 
highly beneficial to Louisiana, as it increased its population. 
The amount of stock created, and on which there was almost 
an entire failure, amounted to more than 310,000,000 of dol- 
lars. . From the year 1736 the colonies in the southern 
part of the Valley of the Mississippi, or Louisiana, as the 
whole country was called, increased and flourished. Gene- 



y Google 



HISTORY. 49 

rally the best of terms were maintained with the savages. 
Agriculture was pursued. Valuable exports were made of 
cotton, indigo, peltry, furs, pitch, lumber, &c. &c. from 
New Orleans and other sea-ports in the vicinity. 

In 1754, France and England commenced hostilities, on 
account of conflicting claims to territory. At the close of 
the war of 1744-49, the French ceded Nova Scotia to 
the English. A long dispute occurred respecting its boun- 
dary : the French wishing to restrict it to what is now call- 
ed by that name, and the English maintaining that it ex- 
tended to the eastern line of what is now Maine, and north 
to the St. Lawrence. In the West, France claimed all the 
country west of the Alleghenies ; and England, on the other 
hand, had granted to Virginia and other colonies charters 
which extended to the " South Sea," that is, the Pacific 
Ocean. And a grant of 600,000 acres was made to a com- 
pany called the " Ohio Company," by Virginia and the 
Crown. The Governor of New France (as Canada and 
Louisiana were called,) protested, and stirred up the Indians, 
and commenced the erection of forts at Presque Isle, (now 
the town of Erie in West Pennsylvania,) on Le Boeuf, a 
branch of French Creek, and at the junction of the Monon- 
gahela and Allegheny. The Lieutenant Governor of Vir- 
ginia sent Major Washington in 1753 to the French^ Com- 
mandant of these posts, to request him to desist. This em- 
bassy failed to accomplish the object. The next year a 
detachment was despatched to dislodge the French from 
Fort du Quesne, (now Pittsburg,) at the junction of the 
Alleghcfny and Monongahela. This charge was committed 
to Washington, who marched, 'the same year, with the rank 
of a Major, and having under his command four hundred 
men, to secure and fortify a position on the Ohio. He was 
surrounded and compelled to surrender, but on the most 
honourable terms, at Fort Necessity, on the ground which is 
commonly called the " Little Meadows," which lie on the 
national road from Cumberland to Wheeling, and about 
ten miles east of Uniontown. In 1755, General Braddock 
was defeated in the most calamitous manner, on the eastern 
bank of the Monongahela, about nine miles above Pittsburg, 
himself mortally wounded, and the shattered remains of his 
army conducted back, by Col. Washington. In 1758, '69, 
Du Quesne, Niagara, and Ticonderoga, were taken by the 

5 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



50 VALLET OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

English. The memorable victory of Wolfe at Quebec, 
made the English completely dominant in the Canadas in 
1769, and the French humbled by repeated defeats by sea 
and by land, ceded, towards the close of that war, all the 
country west of the Mississippi, including the city and isl- 
and of New Orleans, to the Spanish, by a secret treaty, 
made in November, 1762. At the treaty of Paris, in 1763, 
France ceded to England all her possessions east of the 
Mississippi river, and Spain ceded Florida to the English. 
In 1764, the English took possession of Florida, and the 
Spanish, under O'Reilly, took possession, in 1769, of Loui- 
siana, limited in extent by the Mississippi on the east, as 
above remarked. 

The American Revolution commenced in 1775, and 
ended in ,1783. During this period the West shared but 
little in the conflict. General Clark captured the Eng- 
lish force at Vincennes ; and the Spanish, under Galvez, 
uniting with the Trench in espousing the cause of the 
United States, re-captured the English posts at Baton 
Rouge, Mobile, and Pensacola. Besides these events, no- 
thing of importance during this war occurred in the Valley 
of the Mississippi. By the peace of 1783, England re-ceded 
Florida to Spain, and acknowledged the independence of 
the United States, ceding to them all the country north of 
the 31° of N. lat. After the peace of 1783, the circum- 
Stance which most deeply interested the increasing popula- 
tion of the West, was the protracted controversy with 
Spain, with respect to the line between the United States 
and the Floridas, and the right, on the part of the United 
States, to the navigation of the Mississippi to its mouth. 
After much sharp and painful controversy on these sub- 
jects, Spain ceded, by secret treaty, in 1801, Louisiana to 
France. The latter power ceded it, April 13, 1803, to the 
United States, for the sum of 15,000,000 dollars. 

During a period of more than fifteen years, after the In- 
dependence, the inhabitants of the West were harassed by 
incessant attacks from the Indians on their borders. In 
1790, General Harmar marched from Fort Washington, 
the present site of Cincinnati, with an army of 1,453 men. 
Within a few miles of the plaice where Chillicothe stands, a 
bloody, but indecisive battle was fought, commonly called 
Harmar's defeat. In November, 1791, General St. Clair, 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



HISTOBT. 61 

with an army of 1,400 men, met with a most calamitous 
defeat near the Miami, in which more than 600 brave men 
were slain, and 265 wounded. The Indians, flushed with 
success, increased their depredations and massacres. It 
has been proved that between 1783 and 1790, no less than 
1,500 people of Kentucky were massacred by the savages, 
or draggefl into a horrid captivity : and that the frontiers 
of Pennsylvania and Virginia sufiereda loss not much less. 
In 1793 the government sent Gen. Wayne against the In- 
dians, who, with an army of 3000 men, on the 20th of 
August, 1794, at the Miami of the Lake (or Maumee, as it 
is now called), gave them a tremendous defeat. The con* 
sequence was a general peace among all the tribes of In* 
dians, in the West and South, which was secured by the 
treaty of Greenville, August 3, 1795. In the year 1794 
an insurrection (occasioned by duties laid on spirituous 
liquors manufactured in the United StateS)) in the western 
part of Pennsylvania, was quelled without the shedding 
of blood. 

In 1812, the late war with Great Britain commenced. 
The Valley of the Mississippi was the theatre of many of 
the events of that contest. In the northern parts of it 
were the battles of Tippacanoe, Mississinewa, River Rai* 
sin. Forts Meigs and Sandusky, the victory on Lake 
Erie, the capture of Detroit and Maiden, and the defeat of 
the British army under General Proctor on the Thames. 
In the south were the bloody and decisive battles, with 
the Indians, at Tallushatchie, Talladega, Emuckfaw, 
Tohopelca, the attack upon Fort Boyer, the capture of 
Pensacola, and the victory at New Orleans. The events 
of that war are too recent to need a more particular notice. 
It terminated in the early part of 1815. It was sometime, 
however, before the ruinous efiects of the war ceased. 
Every species of speculation was carried, for a while, to a 
ruinous excess, and several years elapsed before public 
confidence was completely restored. 

Some Historical notices of each state in the West will 
be given when I come to that part of the work. 



y Google 



52 VAIXET OF TBE MlSSISSIPn. 



CHAPTER VII. 

t'uture increase of Population.' 

Having in the last chapter given a brief and general 
History of the Valley of the Mississippi, I proceed now to 
make some remarks upon the rapid increase of population 
in that region, and to assign some reasons for Relieving 
that it must continue to increase at a rapid rate, for along 
period, in future. 

The first French settlements in the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi were made in the latter part of the seventeenth 
century. In 1699, Bienville and Ibberville planted a col- 
ony at Biloxi, which is in the southern extremity of what 
is now the state of Mississippi. During the twenty years 
preceding, colonies had entered the upper end of the 
Valley from Canada, then a part of the French dominions, 
and had settled at Cahokia, and Kaskaskia, in what is now 
Illinois; at Detroit, in Michigan Territory; and Vin- 
cennes, (or Post Vincent, as it was called,) in Indiana. 
These colonies were small, for a long time, and chiefly for 
trading posts, and not for agricultural purposes, at least 
not so to any important extent. 

It wasnot until the middle of the eighteenth century, or 
about 1750, that the English began to make attempts to 
colonize that country. It has sometimes been asserted, that 
Daniel Boone was the^r^/ conductor of an English colony 
to the West. This is true of Kentucky, and that part of 
the Valley. This event occurred in 1775. A Mr. Finley, 
from North Carolina, visited this state in 1707, and a^in 
he and Boone visited it, and to a considerable extent tra- 
versed it, in 1769 and 1771. In 1773 Boone advanced with 
a colony of 40 or 60 persons ; but being attacked by the 
Indians, they returned to Clinch river, and the party re- 
mained there two years — and in 1775 removed and settled 
on the site of what is Boonesboro^ at this time. But it 
is far from being the fact, that this was the first English 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



FUTURE INCSBlilfi OF POPULATION. 53 

colony that was led to the west. In the western part ot 
Pennsylvania, a colony was planted, in what was long knowa 
by the name of the " Redstone Settlement;" (the chief for- 
tified place in which was ^' Old Fort," now Brownsville, on 
the Monongahela,) several yei^rs before 1775. Immediately 
after the peace of Paris, in 1763, by which the eastern and 
northern parts of the Valley of the Mississippi were ceded 
to Great Britain, emigrants began to plant themselves ia 
West Pennsylvania and Virginia, and Pittsburgh became 
the centre of these colonies. Even before this event, coloni* 
zation had commenced in that quarter. Indeed, it was partly 
owing to efforts to plant a colcMiy in that region, prompted 
by the inducements held out by the British government, 
and particularly through the governor of Virginia, that the 
*^ French war," as it was and is still called, had its origin, 
and which was commenced in 1754, and ended in 1763. 

But EiTglish settlements were also early made in East 
Tennessee. As early as 1-755, companies from North Car« 
olina and Virginia visited that country for the purpose of 
hunting. In 1757, Fort Loudon was built on the Little 
Tennessee ; and the next year, some settlements were made 
on the Holston, which were destroyed when Fort Loudoin 
was captured by the Cherokees, in 1760. In 1768, more 
permanent settlements were made in East Tennessee, which 
continued amid various vicissitudes, and finally flourishedt 

For a long period the advance of emigration into West 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, 
was slow* Encountering the most formidable difficulties, 
and marking every step of their progress with blood, 
shed by the bands of unsubdued savage foes, not less than 
three thousand persons were either murdered or carried 
into a horrible captivity, (from which but few of them 
ever returned,) in these early settlements, before the yeap 
1790. Before the close of the next eventful period often 
years, comparative quiet, and protection fVom Indian 
attacks, were obtained, but not without several bloody 
battles, lost or won. But it was not until fifteen years 
more had passed away, that is, until 1815, only eighteen 
years ago, that entire security was afforded to the settlers, 
in every part of the Valley. 

It was owing to the dangers arising tVom the hostile 
Indians, as well as to many other obstacles, whicb I shall 

5* 



y Google 



54 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



incideotally show hereafler, that the population of the West 
increased so slowly during the first twenty-five years — that 
is, from 1765 to 1790. At the last named date, it did not 
much exceed 150,000, by actual enumeration. From that 
period, it increased more rapidly, although much more 
slowly during the firsts than the last half of the subsequent 
forty years. The population in 1830, will appear from 
the following table : 



POPVLATIOK. 


POPULATION. 




In 1820. 


In 1830. 


West Pennsylvania, 


244,862 


337,846 


West Virginia, 


147,514 


204,173 


Ohio, 


581,434 


937,903 


Indiana, 


147,178 


343,031 


Michigan Territory, 


8,919 


31,639 


Illinois, 


65,211 


157,445 


Missouri, 


66,586 


140,455 


Kentucky, 


564j317 


«87,017 


Tennessee, 


422,813 


681,904 


Arkansas Territory, 


14,274 


80,388 


Mississippi, 


75,448 


136,621 


Louisiana, 


153,407 w 


215,739 


Alabama, 


143,000 


309,527 


West Florida, (about) 




17,362 



2,624,963 



4,231,950 



No estimate is here made of the population of the west- 
ern parts of Georgia and North Carolina, and the south- 
western angle of New York. . 

From the above table it appears, that during the last 
forty years the population of the Valley of the Mississippi 
has increased from 150,000 to 4,231,950 ; and we have 
reasons for believing, that it will continue to increase at a 
very rapid rate, for a long period. The present rate of 
increase is such, that the whole population in that region 
is doubled in about eleven years. I shall proceed to give 
aome reasons why the population must increase very 
rapidly for a long period. 

1. The first reason which I shall mention is derived 
from the fact, that there is now the most perfect security 



y Google 



FUTUBE INCREASE OF FOFULATIOlf • 55 

CDJoyed by the inhabitants, both as it regards their personal 
safety and that of their property. 

The emigrants to the west, in early times, and even 
down to the close of the late, war with Great Britain, en- 
countered dangers on the frontiers which none but they 
could overcome. We have all heard of Indian wars, and of 
the crdel massacres which have almost always followed In- 
dian victories. But the half has never been told. Under 
the colonial government, strong inducements were held 
forth. to promote emigration and settlement in the west. 
Even as early as 1750, attempts were actually made to 
plant colonies in the western parts of Pennsylvania and 
Virginia, and the adjoining parts of what is now the State 
of Ohio. But, with few exception, none went who either 
remained in their new abodes, or returned again to the land 
of their birth. It has already been stated, that in the short 
period of seven years, from 1783 to 1790, more than Jifteen 
hundred of the inhabitants of Kentucky were either massa- 
cred or carried away into a captivity worse than death, 
by the Indians; and an equal number from Western 
Virginia and Pennsylvania in the same period, met with a 
similar fate. The settlers on the frontiers were almost 
constantly, for a period of- forty years, harassed either by 
the actual attacks of the savages, or the daily expectation 
of them. The tomahawk and the scalping knife were the 
objects of their fears by day and by night. But now the 
case is widely difl[erent» After the loss of many gallant 
men, who perished in the many battles which occurred, the 
Indian tribes are subdued ; and even to the sources of the 
Missouri and the Mississippi, they generally manifest a 
friendly spirit. It is indeed a matter of great thankfulness 
to a Christian mind, that they are, to so great an extent, 
desirous of education, and instruction in the arts of civiliz- 
ed life, and are willing to hear of the way of eternal life. 
And now the inhabitants on the Mississippi and the Ar- 
kansas, the Missouri and the Alabama rivers, live in as 
perfect security as do those on the Hudson and the Dela- 
ware, the Susquehanna and the Potomac. 

2. There is in the Valley of the Mississippi an immense 
extent still of the finest land in the world, which may be 
purchased at the small sum of one dollar and a quarter 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



56 . VAXXBY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

per acre ; and the prospect is that it will be attainable for 
even a smaller sum. 

Theie are probably, at a reasonable calculation, one 
million of square miles, or 640,000,000 acres of land fit 
for cultivation in the Valley of the Mississippi — equal to 
4,000,000 farms or plantations^ of 160 acres each ; or 
8,000,000 of farms, of eighty acres each, a quantity of 
land which, in New England, would be considered very 
ample for one family. It is, indeed, probable, or rather it 
is certain, that it will not all be needed for agricultural 
purposes for a century or two. I have said that there are 
1,000,000 of square miles which may be cultivated. The 
whole valley,, however, contains more than 1,350,000 
square milesT, so that I allo^ more than 350,000 square 
miles for numntainous regions^ for marshes and swamps^ 
and for sterile plains^ and prairies, towards the Oregon 
Mountains. But I would remark, that excepting the skirts 
of the Allegheny and Oregon Mountains, there is scarcely 
any thing which deserves the name of a mourUain in the 
whole valley ; and as to the awamps and marshes; the day 
will come when many of them will be drained, either by 
the State or General Government. And even the prairiea, 
excepting the very sterile, which are less extensive than 
most suppose, will be turned to good account. And it 
ought to be remembered, that forests are as necessary for 
a 4lense population, as cultivated ground is. There must 
be large tracts of uncultivated laud, to afford fuel, timber, 
and pasturage. 

Four nUUionSy or rather eight millions, of families may 
have farms in the West of no inconsiderable size. Besides, 
thousands, or rather hundreds of thousands of families will 
be engaged in the navigation of the rivers ; in the various 
arts, and trades, and manufacturing processes, which evea 
now employ and- support a large population ; in merchao* 
disc and commerce; and in the learned professions pf law, 
medicine, divinity, and the instruction of youth iathousanda 
of common schools, hundreds of academies, and colleges, 
and universities. The-fecilitiesfor supporting a family in 
the Valley of the Mississippi, not indeed equal in all places, 
are such as would astonish an eastern resident, who knows 
little or nothing about this region. It has been correctly 
said, that " nature has been almost too profuse in her gifts 



y Google 



FUTURE INCEEASE OF POPULATION. 57 

to this great valley." Such is the fertility of soil, and 
other natural advantages, that too little industry is requir- 
ed, for the proper developement and strengtheniag of the 
valuable traits of human chai^ter. It is true, indeed, 
that industry, and perseverance, and frugality are needed, 
especially by the emigrant upon his arrival ; but he will, 
by a few years of toil and energy, acquire the means of 
living, without a very constant application of his powers 
of body and mind. A little effort, comparatively, will ena- 
ble, him to support his family, and live in comfort. 

3. The increased facilities of emigration to that region, 
and of the introduction of such articles as are necessary to 
the support and comfort of the inhabitants. 

These facilities will appear the more manifest and strik- 
ing, if we compare the present with the past. Fifty or 
sixty years ago, when the first emigrants crossed the Al- 
legheny Mountains, these great natural boundaries present- 
ed almost insurmountable obstacles. There was then, and 
for a long period afterwards, no road that could be travelled 
by a wagon, with any convenience. Merchandise of every 
description — even salt and iron — had to be carried across 
on horseback : and this was almost the only mode by which 
a family could cross these mountains. It was then a matter 
of great toil and difficulty, requiring a long time, to remove 
a ^rnily to the West. There are many still living who well 
remember these toils. These subjects employ many an hour 
of the .evenings of the western sire, as he relates the hard- 
ships of his early days, and the dangers which he encoun- 
tered in removing to t.hisnew world. The frequent relation 
of these interesting events serves to gratify the good-natured 
loquacity of old age, and to while away, in a pleasant 
manner, the long and tedious hours of a winter night. 

But how difierent is the state of things at present ! It is 
almost an affiiir of nothing to cross this once formidable 
barrier. There are thousands of men in the West who 
have crossed it from fifty to one hundred times. There are 
at least Jif teen good roads, several of them turnpikes, across 
these mountains, in various parts, from Lake Erie to the 
Gulf of Mexico, besides several others which are less travel- 
led. There are not less ihsin Jifteen lines of stages, which 
now cross these mountains ; thus uniting the western with 
the eastern cities. Some of these lines run once a week. 



Digitized ty VjOOQ iC 



58 VALLEY OF THE HI88ISSIPPt< 

but the most of them three times a week ; and six, at leasts 
now start daily. Throughout the whole year, hundreds 
of wagons pass and repass on each of these routes, carry- 
ing the productions of the Atlantic slope, and the mer-' 
chandise from Atlantic cities to the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi ; and sometimes carrying the productions of the West 
to the East. And thousands of these wagons annually 
carry out the families and household property of eastern 
or foreign emigrants, who are seeking a home in the dis- 
tant West. Whole caravans of families moving onward, 
are continually met hy the traveller, as he journeys to the 
East. . 

I have often stood and viewed with wonder, whole cara- 
vans of emigrating families, having sometimes a dozen 
wagons in company, as they passed along the streets of 
Louisville, Cincinnati, Brownsville, Pittsburg, or Wheeling. 
I have a thousand times met them on the summits of the 
Alleghenies ; and, as they passed, wagon after wagon, the 
women and children sometimes riding, and often walking 
after in an irregular line, and the men driving the teams, 
or urging on the live stock, I have been reminded of thQ 
beautiful lines of Virgil, which represent the Trojan 
Prince supporting the drooping spirits of his followers 
amid the toils of a long and perilous voyage. With a 
verbal change, it might be used by many a father of a 
family, as he pursues his long and toilsome way across 
these lofty mountains, seeking a new residence, in an al« 
most unknown land : 

Per varios casus, per tot discrimina remm 
Tendlmus Hesperianiy sedes ubi &ta quietas 
Ostendunt. 

Canals and rail-roads are now constructing through the 
Allegheny range. The Pennsylvania canal, and the Chesa^ 
peake and Ohio canal are now in progress. Soon the James 
Itiver and Kanawha Canal will be undertaken. Others will 
follow. A rail-road — the Baltimore and Ohio — to increase 
the facilities of inter- communication between the East and 
West, has been commenced under &vourable omens. In 
a few years, probably, a national road, from Washington to 
New Orleans, will add another line of communication be- 
tween the Atlantic slope and the Valley of the Mississippi. 



y Google 



FUTTTRB INCREASE OF POPTTLATIOir. 69 

But this is not all. On the southern boundary of the Val« 
ley is a line of coast of 1100 miles, containing many points 
of access to this Vast region. Thousands of emigrants en- 
Xer the Valley of the Mississippi from this direction, pre- 
ferring a voyage around Cape Sable, to a journey across the 
mountains. I have seen the large steam-boats on the 
Father of rivers, carrying, besides some hundreds of tons 
of merchandise, four or five hundred emigrants, from Ger- 
many, Ireland, or other foreign lands, — who had landed at 
New Orleans, — to the central crupper parts of the Valley. 
' On the other hand, the extended chain of lakes afibrds, on 
the north, a similar and more easy manner of communication 
with the Valley of the Mississippi. Nor less than twenty' 
one steam-boatSy and one hundred and twenty sail of ves- 
sels of all sizes, on Lake Erie alone, are exchanging the 
products of the East and West, and annually transporting 
thousands of emigrants to the Valley of the Mississippi.* 

These numerous natural and artificial channels of inter- 
course between the East and West, by which emigration 
and commerce are consequently very greatly promoted, 
are objects of deep interest to every American ; for they are 
among the most powerful bonds by which our union will, 
with the blessing of God, be perpetuated. Natural boun- 
daries have hitherto, all the world over, divided the inhabi- 
tants of the earth into separate and oflen hostile nations. 
But with us, neither the Allegheny nor the Oregon range of 
mountains will constitute a " wall of separation" to sever 
our union* The natural and artificial facilities of inter- 
cpurse, which I have described above, give unity to our 
feelings and our interests. And so great is the emigration 
from the East to the West, and so wide the consequent dis- 
persion of the families which compose this nation, that innu- 
merable ties to bind us together as a people, extend over 
our vast country, in the natural relations of life, in the friend- 
ships of our youth, as well as in the duties which the laws 
of our country and our God enjoin upon us.. 

4. Another reason for the rapid increase of the population 
of the Valley of the Mississippi in future, is to be found in 
the increased facilities for trade and intercourse between 
the different sections of it. 

* There are twenty.five steam-boats on Lake Ontario and the St 
Lawrence above Montreal, and several more are bailding> 



y Google 



60 VALLEr OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Probably no country on earthy of equal extent, has so 
many advantages, in facilities for intercourse, as the Val- 
ley of the Mississippi. A thousand streams, navigable 
at least during several months every year, and the many 
canals which are now constructing, afford convenient chan- 
nels of commerce and intercourse in every part of this vast 
region. Several thousand flat-bottom boats convey annually 
the productions of the various sections of this region to the 
sea-ports in the southern parts of it, particularly to the great 
emporium of the West, the city of New Orleans. And hun- 
dreds of keel-boats, at seasons of low water, carry the pro- • 
ductions of the southern, and of foreign climes, to the 
northern part of it. But it is the introduction of steam-boats 
into this vast region, watered by large rivers, €ome of which 
are many hundreds of miles in length, which has greatly in- 
creased of late years, the facilities for trade and emigra- 
tion. No other country on earth will be benefitted to an 
equal extent by this wonderful invention. It has already 
made a revolution in the commercial af&irs of the West. 
Instead of spending many months in warping a barge, or 
" cordelling" and " poling," and " bush-whacking"* a keel- 
boat from New Orleans4o Pittsburg, against the impetuous 
current of the Mississippi and Ohio, a steam-boat now makes 
the voyage in fifteen or twenty days, stopping also at all 
the intermediate places of importance. Not only has^ime 
beep gained, but the expense of travelling, and of transport- 
ing goods, has been diminished three or four-Jlfths. 

1 will here give an interesting extract from the Cincin- 
nati Daily Gazette, relating to steam-boats in the West : 

" The first steam-boat built on the western waters, of 
which the writer of this article has any record, was the New- 
Orleans, of 350 tons, built at Pittsburg in 1811 ; and he has 
no account of more than seven or eight built previously to 
1817. From that period they have been rapidly increasing 
in number, character, tnodel, and style of workmanship, 
until 1825, when two or three boats, built about that period, 
were declared, by common consent, to be the first in the 
world. Since that time, we are informed, that some of the 
New York and Chesapeake boats rival, and probably sur- 
pass us, in richness and beauty of internal decorations. 

" As late as 1816, the practicability of navigating the 

* A mode of propelling a boat up a stream by pulling by the branches 
of the trees which overhang the water. 



y Google 



FUTUBE INCBEASB OF FOFULATIOIT. 61 

Ohio with steam-boats was esteemed doubtful. None but 
the most sanguioe augured favourably. The writer of this 
well remembers that in the year 1816, observing, in compa- 
ny with a number of gentlemen, the long struggle of a 
stern-wheel boat to ascend ' Horse-tail Ripple,' (five miles 
below Pittsburg,) it was the unanimous opinion, that such 
a contrivance might conquer the difficulties of the Missis- 
sippi as high as Natchez, but that we of the Ohio must wait 
for some more happy century of inventions. In 1817, the 
bold and enterprising Captain Shreve (whose late discovery 
of a mode of destroying snags, and improving western navi- 
gation, entitles him to the reputation of a public benefac-tor,) 
made a trip from New Orleans to Louisville in twenty-five 
days I The event was cele'brated by rejoicing, and by a 
public dinner to the daring individual who had achieved the 
miracle. Previous to that period, the ordinary passage of 
barges, propelled by oars and sails, was three months / A 
revolution in western commerce was at once effected. 
Every article of merchandise began to ascend the Missis- 
sippi, until we have seen a package delivered at the wharf 
of Cincinnati, from Philadelphia, via New Orleans, at one 
cent per pound / From the period of Captain Shreve's cele- 
brated voyage till 1827, the time necessary for the trip has 
been gradually diminishing. During that year, the Tecum- 
seh entered the port of Louisville, from New Orleans, in 
eight days and two hours ^ from port to port.* 

^' Since the introduction of steam-boats, the memoran- 
dum before me furnishes a list of 343, (since increased to 
about 450,) of which probably about 225 are now running, 
whose united tonnage may be estimated at about 56,000 
tons, employed during this period on the Mississippi, Ohio, 
and their branches. The largest size rate about 500 tons ; 
but a large majority of them are under 250 tons. 

" The average cost of a steam- boat is estimated «t $100 
per ton.f The repairs made during the existence of the 
boat, amount to one-half of the first cost. The average 
duration of a boat has hitherto been about four years. Of 
those built of locust lately, the period will probably be 
about two years longer.^' 

* Even this has been since outdone. 

f This is qnite too high. See the Chapter, in this work, which 
relates to the steam-boats of the West 

6 



y Google 



62 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 

The number of steam-boats (when this was written,) in 
actual commission, is stated by this writer at more than 
two hundred ; the average tonnage^f which may be stated 
at 175 tons, making the amount employed 35,000 tons. 
The annual expenditure for fuel alone is estimated at 
$1,181,000. The other expenditures are calculated, by 
the most intelligent owners, at one million three hundred 
thousand dollars ; making the present total annual expen- 
diture nearly two million fine hundred thousand dollars. 
The writer adds — " We cannot better illustrate the mag- 
nitude of the change in every thing connected with the 
western commerce and navigation, than by contrasting the 
foregoing statement with the situation of things at the time 
of the adoption of steam transportation, say in 1817. 
About twenty barges, averaging about one hundred tons 
each, comprised the whole of the commercial facilities for 
transporting merchandise from New Orleans to the upper 
country. Each of these performed one trip down, and up 
again to Louisville and Cincinnati within the year. The 
number of keel-boats employed on the Upper Ohio cannot 
be ascertatned, but it is presumed that 150 is a suflSciently 
large calculation to embrace the whole number. These 
averaged thirty tons each, and employed one month to 
make the voyage ffom Louisville to Pittsburg ; while the 
more noble and dignified barge of the Mississippi, made 
her trip in the space of one hundred days, if no extraordi- 
nary accident happened to check her progress. 

"The Mississippi boats now nmkejfive trips within the 
year, and are enabled, if necessary, in that period, to afford 
to that trade 85,000 tons. Eight or nine days are suffi- 
cient, on the Upper Ohio, to perform a trip from Louisville 
to Pittsburg and back. In short, if the steam-boat has 
not realized the hyperbole of the poet, in annihilating time 
and space,* it has produced results scarcely surpassed by 
the introduction of the art of printing." 

* To give the reader an idea of the effect of steam-boats in diminish- 
ing distance, in the estimation of the western people, I would state, 
that Mrs. General Clarke, of St Louis, told me, not long since, that a 
few years ago, she, together with a party of gentlemen and ladies, took 
a littie excursion of pleasure, (for the purpose of spending a fourth of 
July,) in a steam-boat, up to the falls of St Anthony, a distance of only 
ubmU eight hundred miles from St Louis ! 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



FUTURB INCREASE OP POPULATION. 68 

I will only add that there are five or six steam-boats on 
the Appalachicola and Chattahooche ; thirteen on the Mo- 
bile and its branches, the Alabama and Tombigbee ; several 
in the Opelousas trade ; three on Lakes Ponchartrain, and 
Borgne, and the Pearl river ; while, as I have mentioned 
before, there are twenty-one on Lake Erie,^KbiGKfTade with 
the ports on the south side of that lake, and of those above. 
Of the two hundred and more on the Mississippi and Ohio, 
and their branches, there is no stream of sufficient size 
which is not entered by some of them. Every little river 
has one or more steam-boats. In a few years the number 
will be doubled. Every river from- Cape Sable to the 
Sabine, and from the mouth of the Mississippi to the Yellow 
Stone and the Allegheny, will be covered with them, 
whilst they will abound not only on Lakes Ontario and 
Erie, but also on Huron, Michigan, and Superior. 

5. The fifth reason which I shall mention, for the future 
rapid increase of the population of the Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi, is, the increased confidence in the general mlubrity 
of the climate of that country. 

I can well remember, what fearful apprehensions were 
entertained, by emigrants to the west, on this subject. The 
fevers of the Muskingum, Miami, Wabash, and Kentucky, 
were objects of the greatest dread. Now they are little 
feared. A careful attention to health, an avoidance of 
exposure during the autumnal season, while the process of 
acclimation is going on, and a timely application of the 
medicines which an increased knowledge of the materia 
medica, and especially of the character of the diseases of 
this region, will soon ensure to the emigrant as good health 
as the inhabitants of the east enjoy, and much better, even 
along the rivers, than the dwellers on the Delaware and 
the Susquehanna, the Juniata and the Potomac, have of late 
years enjoyed. There are portions, unquestionably, of 
the lower part of the Valley, particularly the level, low, 
and swampy alluvial bottoms along the rivers, which will 
be unhealthy to those who are not acclimated. 

6. Another reason for expecting that the increase of tho 
population of the West will continue to be rapid, is found in 
the increased and increasing religious and literary advan* 
tages and privileges which emigrants to the West enjoy, 

I am far from asserting, that these privileges and advan- 
tages are as great as it is desirable they should be. But 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



64 VALLEY OF THE HiSSlSflPPI. 

they are rapidly increasing. In many places, particularly 
in the large towns and cities, they are as great as in the 
eastern towns and cities ; whilst great efforts are nnaking to 
supply every destitute neighbourhood with these advantages. 
Within the last five years, astonishing efforts have been 
commenced, (and they are but commenced,) by the friends of 
religion, both in the East and West, to dispense bountifully 
Bibles, to those who are destitute of them, — to establish 
Sabbath schools, — to send the livmg preacher to destitute 
neighbourhoods, — to promote the Temperance reformation, 
— to plant Colleges and Theological Seminaries, &c. No 
one can for a moment doubt, that these efforts will greatly 
promote the increase of emigration to that region. A 
noble beginning ha^ been made in these things, but muchy 
very much, remains to be done. In what has been com- 
menced, we have an earnest of what will be accomplished. 

7. A seventh reason is to be found in the fact that there 
is already a great amount of intelligence, and of interesting 
society, in all the settled parts of the Valley. 

The idea is^no longer entertained by Eastern people, that 
to go to the West, or the " Back Woods," as it formerly 
was called, is to remove into a heathen land, to a land of 
Ignorance and barbarism, where the people do nothing but 
rob, and fight, and gouge I Some parts of the West have ob- 
tained this character, but most undeservedly, from the 
Fearansy the Hallsj the TrollopeSy and other ignorant and 
insolent travellers from England, who, because they were 
not allowed to insult and outrage as they pleased, with Par- 
thian spirit have hurled back upon us their poisoned javelins 
when they lefl us. There is indeed much destitution 
of moral influence and means of instruction in many, very 
many, neighbourhoods and towns in the West. And noble 
and successful efforts are making by the Bible, Missionary, 
Tract, Sabbath School, Temperance, Education, and Sea- 
men and River Men's Societies, to remove it, and to keep 
the march of knowledge and religion equal to the gigantic 
dfiarch of emigration and population. But there is in all 
the principal towns* of the West a state of society, with 
which the most refined, I was going to say the most fasti* 
dious, of the Eastern cities, need not be ashamed to mingle. 
It has even become a fashionable way of spending a part of 
the year, to visit the most interesting cities and places of 
the West, to view their rising greatness, see the curiosi- 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



FUTURE INCSKASE OF POPULATION. 65 

ties which abound in them and their vicinities, and enjoy 
the cordial and even elegant hospitality of their inhabitants. 
Even the " exquisite," from Philadelphia, New York, Bal- 
timore, and Boston, is to be seen in the streets and the 
shops of Cincinnati, Lexington, Louisville, New Orleans, 
and a hundred other places, and finds that even his delicate 
personage can pass along not only with safety^ but even 
without molestation. The Eastern emigrant will find, 
that wholesome legislation, and much of the influence of 
religion, are enjoyed in the Valley of the Mississippi, ex- 
tending to him the enjoyment of his rights and the protec* 
tion of his property. There are twelve organized State 
and Territorial Governments. And I ought to add, that 
although common schools are not as good as they should 
be, yet there is an increasing attention to them. One state 
(Ohio) has recently commenced a good common school 
system, and other states will soon follow her example. 
And Sunday schools will soon be planted wherever there 
is a sufficient population. There are now thirty colleges 
actually in operation ; two or three medical institutions ; 
five or six theological seminaries, and several schools of a 
higher character than common ; besides a large number of 
academies. These Institutions are indeed in their infancy, 
but they aflbrd an education but little, and some of them 
not at all, inferior to what may be obtained in the East. I 
merely allude to this topic at present ; I shall have occa« 
sion hereafler to mention particularly every literary insti- 
tution of importance. I only speak of it now, as a fact 
calculated to exert a powerful influence upon the intelli- 
gent in the East, who may think of removing to the West. 
I have thus given, as briefly as possible, the reasons 
which, to my mind, are sufficient to show, that for a long 
period the population of the Valley of the Mississippi must 
continue to increase at a very rapid rate, if not indeed at 
the same rate at which it has increased during the last 
twenty or thirty years. Let us glance, for a moment, at the 
difficulties which stood in the way of emigration thither 
during the last flfly years. At the commencement of that 
period, the war of the revolution was just ceasing ; the 
country was embarrassed ; the savages in the West were 
numerous and powerful, and almost all hostile to us. A few 
settlements had been made in Western Pennsylvania and 

6* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



(^ VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Yirgioia, Kentucky and Teooessee. During the first fifteen 
years, these colonies advanced, but it was amidst tears and 
blood : roads were opened with great difficulty across the 
AUeghenies ; the diseases of the country were not well un- 
derstood, and death cut off many of the emigrants. During 
that period and until 1803, the trade on the western rivers 
was embarrassed by the " occlusion," as it was called, of 
the Mississippi, by the Spanish, who had possession of 
Louisiana, and with whom our government had a protract- 
ed and violent controversy during nearly twenty years. 
Then succeeded the Indian depredations and massacres on 
the frontier, until the close of the late war in 1815; to- 
gether with the embarrassments occasioned by that war 
and the embargoes which preceded it. Then came the 
rage of speculation, and the consequent period of gloom 
occasioned by " making haste to be rich," and aggravated 
by injudicious legislation in some cases, in the shape of 
relief laws, &c. &c. But noir, how different is the pros- 
pect I May it not be overclouded by any untoward event ! 
The following statement, extracted from the Report of 
the Commissioner of the General Land Office, exhibits the 
total sales of lands in each state and territory in the Valley 
of the Mississippi, (excepting the western parts of Virginia 
and Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Tennessee,) during nine 
years and a half— that is, from the 1st of July, 1820, to 
the 1st of December, 1829. This document must prove 
interesting to every citizen of our country, as it goes to 
show the immense purchases of its lands, the consequent 
increase and spread of its population, and its additional 
strength and improvement.* 



In Ohio, • 
In Indiana, 
In Illinois, 
In Missouri, 
in Alabama, 
In Mississippi,. 
In Louisiana, 
In Michigan, 
In Arkansas, 
In Florida, 

« In 1830, the sales ofpublic land in the West amoonted to |S,339,356» 
and in 1831, to $3,000,000. 

• Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Acre$. ] 


[WHhs. 


1,406,267 


73 


2,169,149 


70 


667,200 


44 


923,506 


32 


1,459,054 


78 


544,523 


82 


158,839 


35 


443,209 


23 


59,899 


36 


336,567 


50 



CLIMATE AUD DISEi^ES. 67 

The preceding statements show not only the rapid settle* 
ment of the West during the last ten or eleven years, but 
also the relative size, if I may so express myself, of the 
column of emigration to each of the states which are named. 

In 1790 Kentucky became an independent state, and was 
admitted into the Union ; in 1796 Tennessee was received 
into the Union ; Ohio in 1803; Louisiana in 1812 ; Indiana 
in 1816; Mississippi in 1817 ; Illinois in 1818 ; Alabama 
in 1820 ; and Missouri in 1821. The Territory of Michi- 
gan was organized in 1805 ; Arkansas in 1S19 ; and Flor- 
ida in 1822. Within ten or fifteen years from this time, 
Arkansas, Michigan, and Florida will become states ; and 
probably another will be formed in the District of Huron, 
on the upper Mississippi. Should the West increase in 
population, for the next forty years, in the same ratio in 
which it has increased during the last forty, the majority 
of the population of the Union will be in the Valley of the 
Mississippi before the end of that period. That such will 
be the fact does not admit of a question ; it is conceded by 
all who have paid any attention to the subject* 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Climate and Diseases. 

1. Climate. — The vast extent of the Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi necessarily imparts to its climate a diversified cha- 
racter. The new states and territories already organized 
within its limits, are ten in number ;* while portions of 
two of the old states extend into the same region. The new 
may be divided into the warm and temperate. The for* 
mer are Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the southern 
half of the territory of Arkansas — the latter, Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. The 
first group lie between the latitudes of 30° and 35° ; the 
second, extend from the parallel last mentioned, to that 
of42°« Hence the first division corresponds with South 
Carolina and Georgia — the second with North Carolina, 
Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Jersey, and the southern 

* ExcIusiTe of Florida and Michigan. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



68 VALLEY OF THE HISSISSIPPI. 

part of New York. In estimating the change of climate to 
which emigrants from the old states will subject themselves 
in settling in^the new, it should be recollected, that. Tennes- 
see lies in the rear of North Carolina, Kentucky of Vir- 
ginia; and that Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri, 
stretch out behind Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, 
New Jersey, and the southern part of New York. The 
New Englander, and New Yorker north of the mountains 
of West Point, should bear in mind that his migration is 
not to the West, but South West ; and as necessarily brings 
him into a warmer climate as when he seeks the shores of 
the Delaware, Potomac, or James' River. 

Besides variations of latitude, several causes conspire to 
produce diversities in climate. Between the Lower Mis- 
sissippi states, and the portions of the old states correspond- 
ing with them in latitude, these causes are neither numerous 
nor powerful ; and hence, on the same parallels, their difier- 
ences of climate are less than the di^rences between the 
upper states of the Great Valley, and corresponding portions 
of the Union near the sea board. First — the elevation of 
the land above the surface of the ocean, is nearly the same 
in Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Alabama, as ia 
Georgia and South Carolina. Second — ^Their geographical 
relation to the sea is similar. Third — Neither of them is 
contiguous to mountains, except the north-west portions of 
South Carolina. Hence, the emigrant from the banks of 
the Santee or the Savannah River, to those of the Lower 
Mississippi or Red River, if he keep in the same latitude, 
will experience but little change of climate. He will ob- 
serve, however, in his new residence, that north-east winds, 
attended with cool rains, are less frequent ; and, on the 
contrary, that the south-west wind is more prevalent, and 
perhaps more humid — as it does not, like that of the country 
he has left, undergo the modifying influence of the peniusu- 
la of Florida. The northern parts of Alabama and Missis- 
sippi, are occasionally visited with snows several inches 
deep, and frosts that congeal the surface ; but their duration 
is transient ; while in the southern parts of the same states, 
and in Arkansas and Louisiana, these phenomena are much 
rarer. In their upland parts, these warm states have, on the 
whole, winters, which are dry, frosty, and bracing : in the 
maritime portions, raw, humid, and rainy. In the former. 



y Google 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES. 69 

the summers are fair, and not intemperate ; in the latteri 
hot, infested with thunder gusts, and oAen sultry. 

The inhabitant of New England, or indeed of any of the 
old states north of the Potomac, who starts on a migration 
to the states which are bounded on the south by the Gulf 
of Mexico, should be prepared to encounter a decided 
change of climate, consisting in increased heat throughout 
the year, and especially in a prolonged summer , in more co- 
pious rains, and in a greater prevalence of south-west winds. 

The emigrant from the shores of the Mediterranean, 
will find in this portion of the Valley of the Mississippi, the 
nearest approach to his own climate, though eight or ten 
degrees further south; but he should prepare himself for 
greater extremes between summer and winter, than he 
has been accustomed to in Italy, or the south of France. 

The greater emigration to the Upper, or temperate 
Mississippi states, than to the lower, renders the study of 
their climate, compared with that of the Atlantic states 
and Europe, more interesting than the inquiry through 
which we have just passed. 

As in most cases, it is not less useful to inquire into 
causes than to look merely at efiects, I shall direct the 
attention of those who contemplate an emigration from the 
Atlantic to the Western states, to some of the circumstan- 
ces which may be presumed to modify the climates of the 
two regions. 

First — ^The Atlantic states have an ocean on one side, 
lakes on another, and mountains, between 2 and 3000 feet 
high, on a third — the first and last of which are so contigu- 
ous to the emigrating portions of these states, as to exert a 
decided influence on their climate. On the other hand, the 
Upper, or temperate'Mississippi states, are remote from the 
sea, and comparatively remote from mountains ; but have 
on one side more extensive lakes than those which skirt the 
Atlantic states. The ocean lies to the east of the latter, 
and the Allegheny Mountains to the west ; while the states 
in the interior have the Lakes to the norM, and the AUeghe- 
nies to the east — varieties in the physical geography of the 
two sections, that cannot fail to exert an influence on the 
temperature and humidity of their winds. Thus, the north- 
east, east, and south-east winds of the sea board, are always 
much more damp than those of the interior. In spring 



y Google 



70 VALLEY OF THE XISSISStFPI. 

summer, and autumn, they bring more copious rains ; and 
in winter, deeper snows. They are also more frequent 
and violent than in the Upper Mississippi states. Finally, 
in winter they are warmer; and in summer, as coming 
from the surface of the ocean, would be more fresh and 
temperate than in the Valley of the Mississippi, were it 
not for the Allegheny Mountains, which cool the currents 
that roll over them to that region. These mountains, on 
the other hand, reduce the temperature of the south-west 
and west winds, which blow from the interior of the conti- 
nent towards the ocean, and give to the people of the mid- 
dle maritime states, a succession of less sultry breezes in 
summer than envelope their brethren in the west. For 
the same reason, the north-west wind is drier and colder, 
at the same season, on the leeward than the windward side 
of the AUeghenies. 

Second — ^The courses of rivers, by changing in some 
degree the direction of the winds, exert an influence on 
climate. In the Atlantic states, from New England to 
North Carolina, the rivers run more or less to the south- 
east, and increase the winds which blow from the north- 
west, while the great bed of the Mississippi exerts an equal 
influence in augmenting the number and steadiness of the 
winds which blow over it from the south-west ; and here 
is another cause of diflerence in climate, chiefly perceptible, 
first, in the temperature, which, if no counteracting cause 
existed, they would raise in the west considerably above 
that of corresponding latitudes in the east — and, secondly, 
in the moisture of the two regions, which is generally 
greater west than east of the mountains, when the south- 
west wind prevails, as much of the water, with which it 
comes charged from the Gulf of Mexico, is deposited before 
it reaches the country east of the AUeghenies. 

Third — The great cities of Boston, New- York, Philadel- 
phia, and Baltimore, are but a few feet above the level of the 
sea, and the country connected with them has but little ele- 
vation — while the towns which are rising on the banks of 
the Upper Mississippi, the Missouri, Wabash, Ohio, Cum- 
berland, and Tennessee Rivers, are elevated about 500 feet 
above the surface of the ocean, and the intervening country 
about 250 feet more. The influence of this elevation, so 
oflen overlooked in comparing the climates of the eastern 



y Google 



CLIMATE AKD DISEASES. 71 

and western states, would give cooler summers to the lat- 
ter than the former, were it not for the greater prevalence 
of south-west winds in the region of greater elevation. To 
estimate the full efiect of this superior elevation, it is ne- 
cessary to refer to the increasing altitude of the immense 
un wooded plain down which the Missouri flows from the 
Oregon Mountains, which themselves rise to the varying 
height of 5, 6, and 7000 feet, and give to the western winds, 
which would otherwise arrive moist and temperate from 
the Pacific Ocean, a decided character of transparency 
and coldness. 

Fourth — The west abounds in lofty forests, of far greater 
extent than the east — an element of difierence in the cli- 
mate of the two, the influence of which must be admitted, 
although its exact amount cannot, perhaps, be estimated. 
Forests are said to retard the velocity of the winds, and 
increase the precipitation of their moisture. It is more 
certain that in spring, summer, and autumn, they intercept 
the rays of the sun, most of which are thus reflected before 
they reach the surface of the earth, and copious evapora- 
tion is prevented. They seem, also, to promote the con- 
densation of vapour, from the surrounding air ; and may 
be considered as one of the causes of the more copious 
dews, which are said to fall west than east of the mountains. 

Fifth — The general inclination of the surface of the At- 
lantic states is to the east and south-east — that of the Mis- 
sissippi states to the south. Were these angles of incli- 
nation great, their eflectsupon the temperature of the two 
regions would be decisive ; but being slight, the*increased 
heat of the west, from this cause, is not perhaps very 
considerable. 

Such are the leading causes of any diflerences of climate 
which may exist between the states which lie on the sea, 
and those on the Upper Mississippi, and its tributaries. 
These diflerences, especially in temperature, have been 
much dwelt upon, ever since the publication of Mr. Jefier- 
son's celebrated Notes on Virginia, in 1781. But as it re- 
spects the heat of summer, they have been greatly over- 
rated. Two causes have contributed to augment and perpet- 
uate the error : First — ^The extensive popularity of Mr. 
Jefferson's book. Secondly — The great number of emi- 
grants from New England, and New York, most of whom 



y Google 



72 VALLEY OP THE HISSISSIFPI. 

have been unconscious how much they had changed their 
latitude in a migration to the interior, and have made reports 
concerning the heat of the latter, in the same language as if 
they had travelled on the latitudes in which they were born. 
As a general fact, the settlers from Virginia, in Kentucky, 
and from Maryland and Pennsylvania, in the states north 
of the Ohio River, have not complained of hotter summers 
than they had been accustomed to experience in their native 
land. It is probable, however, that the summer tempera- 
ture of the west, is rather greater than that of the east, in 
corresponding latitudes ; an effect, as far as it exists, to be 
ascribed chiefly to the greater prevalence of south-west 
winds in the former than the latter — and to the influence 
of the Allegheny Mountains, over which those winds must 
pass to reach the Atlantic states. Both these causes, 
however,* are in a good degree compensated by the greater 
elevation of the interior, as already pointed out. So great 
is the e&ct of this elevation, that in the middle of the state 
of Ohio, where it is nearly 1000 feet above the level of 
the sea, the temperature is probably lower than in corres- 
ponding latitudes of eastern Pennsylvania. 

To solve the problem of comparative temperature, accu- 
rate contemporary observations should be made on compared 
thermometers, placed under similar circumstances in a great 
number of situations ; but this has not yet been done. The 
only points that admit of a comparison approaching to this, 
are Cincinnati and Philadelphia or its vicinity — the former, 
however, situated about 50' south of the latter. 

F.rom a series of daily observations in Cincinnati or its 
vicinity, for eight consecutive years, the mean annual tem- 
perature has been ascertained to be 54 degrees and a 
quarter. Dr. Rush states the mean heat of Philadelphia, 
at 52 degrees and a half; Dr. Coxe, from six years' ob- 
servations, at 54 and a sixth ; and Mr. Legaux, from 17 
years' observations, at Spring Mill, a few miles out of the 
city, at 53 and a third ; the mean term of which results, 
53 and a third, is but the fraction of a degree lower than 
the mean heat of Cincinnati, and actually less than should 
be aff<)rded by the dif]ference of latitude. 

A reference to the temperatures of summer and winter, 
will give nearly the same results. From nine years' obser- 
vations (three at Spring Mill by Mr. Legaux, and six ia 



y Google 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES. 73 

Philadelphia by Dr. Coxe») the mean summer heat of that 
part of Pennsylvania, appears to be 76 degrees, and six- 
tenths. The mean summer heat at Cincinnati, for an 
equal number of years, was 74 and four-tenths. The aver- 
age number of days, in which the thermometer rose to 90 
degrees or upwards, during the same period, was 14 each 
summer ; and the greatest elevation observed was 98 de- 
grees : all of which would bear an almost exact comparison 
with similar observations in Pennsylvania. Mr. Legaux 
states the most intense cold, at Spring Mill, from 1787 to 
1806, to have been 17 and five- tenths degrees below 
cipher — while within the same period it was 18 at Cincin- 
nati. The average of extreme cold for several years, as 
observed by Mr. Legaux, was one and eight-tenths of a 
degree below cipher : the same average at Cincinnati, was 
two degrees below. From all which we may conclude, 
that the banks of the Delaware and Ohio, in the same lati- 
tudes, have nearly the same temperature. 

The interior states have not only been declared much 
warmer than the eastern, in the same latitudes, but denoun- 
ced as liable to^ sudden and extreme changes, in a degree 
entirely unknown in the latter. This opinion has, perhaps, 
in part, arisen from the report of emigrants — who, upon 
settling in the new country, have had their curiosity awaken- 
ed, and become, for the first time in their lives, attentive to 
natural appearances. They have then gone on to compare 
the sudden changes in the west, with those of the climate 
lefl behind ; but which, unfortunately, they had never ob- 
served — and, of course, decide in its favor. The thermome- 
ters of the two countries indicate no material difference on 
this point, as appears from what follows. Mr. Yolney states 
the annual range of the mercury, in Pennsylvania, on an 
average, at 100°. Mr. Legai^x even makes it more. At 
Cincinnati, it is exactly 100°. The extreme range, taking 
the cold in one year, and the heat in another, in Pennsyl- 
vania, according to various authorities, is about 120 degrees ; 
the difierence in the west in the course of 25 years, has 
not exceeded 116°. The difference between the warmest 
and coldest times of each day in the year, I have found by 
comparing the manuscript journal of Mr. Legaux with my 
own, is at least as great on the Schuylkill as the Ohio. 
President Day has kindly furnished me with a statement of 

7 



y Google 



74 VALLEY OF JHB MISSISSIPPI. 

this difference at New Haven, for two years — from which 1 
find, that the daily changes from cold to heat, were ahout 
one degree greater at Cincinnati than at New Haven — 
but the opposite changes were two and a quarter degrees 
greater there than in Cincinnati. And at a short distance 
from the sea board, the difference would be still more 
striking. An inquiry into those sudden and irregular re- 
ductions of temperature, which are every where deprecated, 
would give results in no -degree unfavorable to the west. 
No fall of the mercury at Cincinnati has ever exceeded 
20° in an hour and a half, which Dr. Rush states to have 
taken place in Pennsylvania. The Doctor also asserts, 
that the thermometor has fallen 41^°; and Mr. Legaux 
saw it fall 47° in 24 hours — which is five degrees more 
than any depression ever observed in Cincinnati, in the 
same length of time. Finally, Dr. Rush declares that there 
is but one steady trait in the character of the climate of 
Pennsylvania — and that is, it is uniformly variable. From 
these evidences, to say nothing of others, I think the opin- 
ion that the climate of the west is more changeable than 
that of corresponding latitudes in the maritime districts, is 
proved to be without any sufficient foundation. 

Let us recur to the winds, the great modifiers of climate 
in every country. I have already referred to the greater 
prevalence of south-west winds in the interior — of north- 
east and north-west winds in the maritime states. Not 
having at hand the materials for an extended comparison, 
1 shall insert a tabular view of observations made at Cin- 
cinnati, for six succeeding years, with so few omissions, 
that they amount to 4200. They have been brought to the 
eight principal points of the compass ; and while they 
show the relative prevalence of different winds in the suc- 
cessive months of the year, will furnish data for compari- 
sons between the western and eastern states, by those who 
reside and observe in the latter. 



y Google 



CLIMATS AND DiSEASSS. 



75 



OBSERVATIONS. 



Months. 


S.E. 


S. 


l&w. 


^.E. 


N. 


N.W.E^ 


W. 


€^n 


Jannarj, . 


6 


2 


13 


8 


1 


21 


3 


T 


6 


February, . 


5 




13 


8 


1 


14 





5 


8 


March, . 


10 




16 


11 


1 


10 





5 


4 


April, . 


7 




24 


10 


1 


8 




3 


5 


May, . 


7 




19 


10 





10 




4 


6 


June, 


9 




23 


12 


5 


7 




2 


3 


July, 


6 




19 


U 


2 


11 




4 


4 


August, . 


6 




23 


10 


1 


12 




1 


6 


September, 


6 




23 


9 





8 


2 


3 


3 


October, . 


9 




24 


6 


1 


10 


2 


4 


3 


November, 


9 




13 


6 


1 


10 


2 


7 


5 


December, 


7 




11 


5 





15 


2 


6 


9 


1 Total, 


87 1 


14 


221 


106 


14ll36 


16 


so" 


62 



From this table it appears, 1. That the difiereot wiods 
of Cincinnati prevail in the following order : — South-west, 
— north-west, — north-east, — south-east,— west,— east,— 
south, — and north. 2. That the south-west is the preva* 
lent wind nine months out of the twelve, viz. from March 
to November inclusive. 3. That the N.W. wind prevails 
in January, December, and February. 4. That the great- 
est number of calm days are in December and February ; 
the least in June, September, and October, which are 
equal. 5. That the southern are to the northern winds, 
as 322 to 256 ; or about 40 to 32. 6. That the western 
are the prevalent winds throughout the whole year ; being 
to the eastern as 407 to 209, or nearly as 4 to 2. 7. That 
the west wind blows only half as much' in. the six warmer, 
as in the six colder months. 8. That the east, south, and 
north winds are nearly equal. 

Most of these deductions are exhibited by the following 
table ; in which the whole number of observations, stated 
above, are supposed to be represented by 1000, and the 
subsequent numbers to be its fractional parts. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



76 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



MEAN OF 6 YEARS OBSERVATIONS. 

1000, of which the South-east make 
South, 



it 



South-west, - - 

Southern^ - - 

North-west, - - 

North, - - - - 

North-east, - - 

Northern, - - 

South-east, •. - - 

East, - - - - 

North-east, - - 

Eastern, - - 

South-west, - - 
West, .... 

North-west, - - 

Western, - - 

Calm, - - - - 



122 

19 

313 



-454 



192 

19 

150 



-361 



122 

22 

150 



-294 



313 

70 

192 



-575 



87 



A brief sketch of the character of the principal winds 
embraced in these tables, may be useful to those who pro- 
pose to emigrate to the West. 

1. The South- West. — This wind, which, as we have just 
seen, prevails on the Ohio three-fourths of the year, exhibits 
two difierent characters, or is divisible into two vaiieties 
— the humid and the arid. The former of these is char- 
acterised by prevailing throughout the night ; by generally 
continuing two or three days afler its commencement ; by 
alternating with the north-east wind ; by sinking the 
barometer more than any other aerial current ; and by 
always causing clouds, and generally rain, which is often 
profuse. The arid south-west commences between sunrise 
and ten o'clock in the morning. It is at first very gentle, 
and increases in force with the progress of the day until 
four or five o'clock in the evening, when it begins to sub- 
side. About sun-set it ceases, and the succeeding night is 
clear and serene. This is the predominant wind in the 
hottest and driest weather, with which indeed it is identi- 
fied in the mind of every observer in the West. Its pre- 
valence, in comparison with the other variety, is perhaps as 
eight or ten to one. It is seldom attended with an atmos- 
phere altogether cloudless, but never produces any other 



y Google 



CLIMATE AITD DISBASBS. 77 

form of rain than a thunder shower. It sinks the barome- 
' ter less than the humid south-west, but raises the thermo* 
meter higher than any other wind. It is not known 
whether at present it prevails more or less than upon the 
first settlement of the western states. 

2. The North'West.—T\m wind, like that already de-^ 
. scribed, exhibits two varieties, one bf which occurs in warm, 

the other in cool weather. A state of calmness, or the dry 
south-west^ generally precedes and follows the former of 
these varieties. It isthe gale which attends thunder storms ; 
and of course commences to the windward. Its duration 
is transient, seldom continuing longer than a few hours, 
and its geographical extent is equally limited. The other, 
which is the principal variety of north-west wind, begins, it 
is well known, to the leeward ; it generally succeeds rain, 
and may be regarded as the harbinger oif fair weather. 
In spring and autumn, however, it is frequently attended 
with moderate showers, which seldom continue more than a 
day ; and in winter it produces snows, that are sometimes 
among the deepest which fall in the valley of the Mississippi. 
In common, it does not exhibit any nocturnal intermis* 
sion, though, for the most part, it blows with less violence 
at night, than in the day. It is generally followed by a 
calm, which is succeeded by the south-east or south-west 
wind. It frequently undergoes a change into the north* 
east, blowing from every intermediate point of the compass. 
On the barometer and thermometer it produces efibcts op* 
posite to those of the south-west wind. The greatest eleva^ 
tion of the former, and depression of the latter of these 
instruments, hitherto observed at this place, were during the 
prevalence of this wind. The longer it continues, the low- 
er is its temperature ; and when it is not too much' reduced, 
it feels as pleasant, as it is uniformly pure and invigorating, 

3. The North-East, — ^This current, by ascending the 
St. Lawrence, may reach Cincinnati without passing over 
the AUeghenies : but it generally traverses those mountains, 
and deposits on them, as already stated, a part of its humi* 
dity, as appears from 'its seldom producing much rain or 
snow along the Ohio. Except, however, when it succeeds 
to the moist south-west, and follows a storm, this wind con* 
stantly produces one of t^em, or at least cloudy weather. 
In temperature and weight, it holds a medium between the 

7* 



y Google 



78 TAIXEY OF THE KI9S18SIPFI. 

south-west and north-west. It sometimes continues to Mow 
£>r a week after a south-west storm, during which the sky ' 
will be perhaps nearly clear. It is invariably moist, and 
produces in all exposed to4t, the sensation termed ravmess ; 
though in a much less degree than in the Atlantic states. 

4. The South'East.. — This partakes much of the cha- 
racter of the humid south-west, for it raises the thermom- 
eter and sinks the barometer in a moderate degree. It is 
always damp and generally produces rain or snow. It 
frequently succeeds to the north-west, and is then for the 
most part attended with a clear sky. 

5. The West. — ^This is generally a cool and rapid wind. 
From the region it traverses in reaching this place, it must 
necessarily be dry and enlivening. In the winter, when 
it continues long enough for the air of the Oregon Moun- 
tains to arrive, it produces intense cold, sinking the ther- 
mometer sometimes below cipher. 

6. The Norths Easty and South. — ^These winds do not 
prevail, respectively, more than one week in each year. 
The first seems to possess most of the qualities of the 
north-west ; and the second of the north-east ; the third 
appears Xo be a modification of the humid south-west, and 
IS always stormy. 

In regard to the weather, on the Ohio, the following 
table setting forth the results of 4268 observations, will 
affi)rd sufficient information for the general reader. Obser- 
vations made in other parts of the upper Mississippi states, 
would) probably, give nearly the same proportions of clear 
find cloudy weather. 

Clear Days. Cloudy Days. Variable Days. 



1 . . . 


180 


107 


68 


2 . . . 


168 


112 


91 


3 . . . 


187 


78 


85 


4 . . . 


152 


106 


107 


5 . . • 


185 


111 


68 


6 . . . 


172 


112 


74 


Mean terms. 


172.33 


104.33 


82.1 



From these results, it may be expected, that of the 365 
days in the year, about 176 will b^ fair, 105 cloudy, and 
84 variable. 

The condition of the weather, in each month of a mean 



y Google 



CLIXATS M7SD DISCASSi^ 



79 



year, for the above period, is i 


nbibiled in 


the 


following 


statement : 












Clear Days. 


Qoody Days. 


YariabfeDayi. 


January, . . 


. 9.8 


13.1 




7.8 


February, . 


. . 10.3 , 


12.0 




6.5 


Marcb, * . 


. . 13.5 


9.1 




8.3 


April, 


. . . 13.1 


10.8 




7.6 


May, . , 


. 15.0 


8.5 




7.6 


June, • . 


. 15.5 


5.0 




9.6 


July, . , 


. 19.0 


5.5 




6.0 


August, 


. . 19.6 


4.6 




6.5 


September, 


. -r 19.5 


5.3 




6.1 


October, . . 


. 16.1 


6.0 




8.1 


November, 


. 9.5 


13.5 




5.5 


December, 


« 9.6 


14.1 




5.8 



From tbis table it appears, that July, August, and Sep* 
tember, have tbe greatest, and each about an equal number, 
offiiirdays; that October, June, and May, compose the 
next class ; to which succeed the months of March and 
April, followed by February, December, January, and 
November ; that in tbe four latter months there is the 
greatest proportion of cloudy weather ; that next to these 
rank April, March, and May, succeeded by the remaining 
months, which are nearly equal. Lastly, that in the number 
of days which are variable, accordiug to the sense in which 
that term is here employed, there is among the months no 
great difference. 

The quantity of water in the form of rain and snow, 
which falls annually in the West, has not been accurately 
ascertained. It is probably, about thirty-six inches, and 
nearly the same as in corresponding latitude^ east of the 
mountains. Taking the mean of a series of years, it is 
found that in April and May there falls the largest quantity ; 
next to these are November, March, December, July, and 
October, succeeded by January, August, February, Sep- 
tember, and June. The same months, in difierent years, 
a£R>rd very dilQferent quantities of rain. September has 
been observed to vary in this respect, from less thad an 
inch to more than five ; October from half an inch to eight ; 
and April from two to nine. The spring rains are some- 
times excessive, and protracted for eight or ten weeks ; 
during which there are showers perhaps, on an average, 



y Google 



80 VALLBT OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 

every third day. During the spring of 1813, there fell 
upwards of sixteen inches ; four times the quantity which 
felt in the ensuing four months. At other times, this state 
of things is reversed. In the spring of 1814, there fell 
not more than nine inches ; and in the three subsequent 
months, the quantity was equal to fourteen. 

Every irregular distribution of the spring and summer 
rains, is of course prejudicial to agriculture. The copious 
and long continued storms of the former season, now and 
then check the early growth, or even prevent the planting, 
of many important vegetables. To these rains such dry 
summers occasionally succeed, that the pastures are con- 
sumed, the leaves of the Indian com become curled, and 
those of many forest trees, in dry situations, die and fall off 
before the Usual time. But, fortunately, such extraordinary 
droughts occur too seldom, and are too limited in their 
extent, to be regarded as any great calamity. 
, From the Valley of the Tennessee River, to the summit 
level, between the lakes and the waters which flow into 
the Ohio, the snows become deeper and deeper. In Ten- 
nessee they seldom exceed a few inches — in the centre and 
northern parts of Ohio and Indiana, they sometimes, as 
was the case in the winter of 1830-31, fall to the depth of 
two feet. North of the Ohio River the snows are deeper 
in proportion to the latitude, than they are on the opposite 
side ; which is owing perhaps to two causes, first, the great- 
er elevation of the interior of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; 
secondly, the vicinity of the lakes. At Cincinnati, the 
deepest snow which falls does not exceed a foot ; but one 
third of that depth is a more common maximum for the 
winter. This being the case, and^periods of mild weather 
with rain occurring frequently, in almost every winter 
month, the ground is seldom covered for any great length 
of time. Severe winters, however, have occurred a num- 
ber of times, in which the same snow has continued on the 
ground for several weeks, during which the Ohio was 
bridged with ice from its sources to its mouth. This hap- 
pened as far back as 1796, and was repeated as late as 
1831-2, showing that no particular change of climate has 
yet taken place in the West. 

More snow probably falls east of the mountains than west 
below the latitude of 40°-^above that parallel, the diflbr- 
ence is not perceptible. This can be easily explained. 



y Google 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES. 81 

In the maritime states, every eastern wind, in winter, 
almost of necessity brings snow, as it transfers the atmos- 
phere of the seas, over the colder sur&ce of the continent* 
In the West, the great lakes supply, in this respect, the 
place of the Atlantic Ocean, and augment the depth of the 
snows, for two degrees to the south of their shores. 

The fogs of the western rivers are said to be denser^ 
than those of the eastern, but additional facts are nesessary 
to an accurate estimate. 

In tornadoes, hail-storms, winter thaws, and floods, sum- 
mer frosts, premature springs, anticipating autumns, and 
other anomalies, the climates of the East and West, in 
the same latitudes, seem not materially to difler. 

In the interior states, the pleasantest travelling and emi- 
grating months, are April, May, and June ; September after 
the equinox, the entire month of October, and the first half 
of November. The vernal travelling season, is more show- 
ery than the autumnal, but from the fulness of the rivers 
and the lively green of the forests and fields, more cheerful. 
The autumn is smoky, dusty, and oflen deficient in water, 
but serene, equable in temperature and decorated with leaves 
of every tint, which present the traveller of taste with an 
untiring succession of picturesque and beautiful views. 

DISEASES. 

1. Of the warm Mississippi States. — ^The diseases of 
this portion of the great Valley are few, and prevail chiefly 
in summer and autumn. They are the ofispring of the com- 
bined action of intense heat and marsh exhalation ; and pre* 
vail, especially in the vicinity of water courses, ponds, 
lagoons, and marshes. The population of the villages and 
country generally, are visited by remitting and intermitting 
bilious fevers. New Orleans and Natchez are infested with 
the same maladies, particularly the former, and experience, 
in addition, occasional attacks of yellow fever. To the 
whole of these diseases the natives, both Creole and Anglo- 
American, are much less liable, than emigrants, who most, 
in general, undergo a seasoning, which in sickly situations 
is apt to be repeated ; and often proves fatal, or greatly 
enfeebles the constitution, by producing chronic inflamma* 
tion of the liver, or enlargement of the spleen, terminating 
in jaundice, or dropsy ; and greatly disordering the diges- 



y Google 



82 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

tive organs. Inflammation of the liver, both acute and 
chronic, is, indeed, an exceedingly common malady in this 
region ; and in a great degree, replaces those afifections of 
the lungs, which are so fatal in the North, and so rare in 
the South. When an Individual finds himself subject to 
an annual attack of fever, or seized with inflammation of 
the liver, the chronic varieties of which are sometimes ex- 
tremely insidious, his only safe resource is a yearly migra* 
tion to the north, in the month of April or May, where he 
should remain till October. Should he resolve to defy the 
climate, he will probably fall a victim to his temerity. 
The much dreaded yellow fever, as it but seldom returns, 
and is nearly limited to the larger towns, carries ofi*but few 
persons, compared with the maladies just named; but its 
victims are chiefly selected from the emigrant population* 
When it breaks out, none who are not acclimated should 
venture to remain within its reach. 

Those who migrate from a colder climate to the south- 
ern Mississippi states, should observe the following direc- 
tions. First— To arrive there in autumn, instead of spring 
or summer. Second — If practicable, to spend the hottest 
part of the first two or three years, in a higher latitude. 
Third — To select the healthiest situations. Fourth — ^To 
live temperately. Fifth — To preserve a regular habit. 
Lastly, to avoid the heat of the sun from 10 in the morning 
till 4 in the afternoon, and above all the night air. By a 
strict attention to these rules, many would escape the dta* 
eases of the climate, who annually sink under its baleful 
influence. 

Were the other portions of the year in these southern 
climates as insalubrious as the summer and early autumni 
the destruction of human life would be frightful ; but, hap- 
pily, no region on earth is healthier for eight months of the 
year, than that which we are now considering. During 
this period, there is, it is true, some disease ; but it is 
chiefly that which was generated in the hot season. The 
latter part of the autumn, and the entire winter and spring 
seasons, originate fewer maladies than in almost any other 
part of the Union. Thus it is, that the balance between 
liabilities and exemptions is maintained, and the wisdom 
and goodness of Heaven practically manifested. 

2. As we advance northwardly, and at the same time as- 
cend on the great inclined plane, which extends from the 



y Google 



CLIMATE AND DISEASES. 8S 

Gulf of Mexico nearly to the shores of the lakes, the dis- 
eases constantly become more diversified, and more equally 
distributed throughout the year. The intense and steady 
heat of a protracted summer, is replaced by a variable 
temperature, with a greater diurnal range of the thermom- 
eter. Spring and autumn bring a rapid succession of hot, 
or at least warm and frosty days. The northern and south- 
ern winds come into perpetual conflict, and neither pre- 
dominates very long. The winters lengthen, and the cold 
becomes intense — but still, on the banks of the Ohio, and 
up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Missouri, thaws 
and warm rains, with 'south-west winds, occur more or 
less in every month, from November to March. It is not 
till we pass the latitude of 40°, that the empire of frost in 
winter is tolerably established. Beyond that degree, the 
cold of winter is about as steady as is the heat of summer 
below the latitude of 34°. Between those two parallels, 
neither summer nor winter has much constancy. 

Thus the temperate, or upper Mississippi states, are far 
more infested with the maladies which depend on variations 
of temperature, than the southern division; and from the 
autumnal to the vernal equinox, are much more unhealthy. 
If the other, or the hot portion of the year, in this northern 
division, was exempt from the diseases depending on great 
heat and marsh exhalations, the boast of its inhabitants, 
when comparing their lot with that of their southern 
friends, would be better founded than it is» But along all 
the streams, more especially those which have alluvial 
bottom lands, which are annually overflown, and where 
the forests and original vegetation have been but partially 
subdued, the inhabitants are liable to the summer diseases 
of the south — some of which, as cholera and dysentery, 
seem to be more frequent and violent than towards the 
Gulf. Others, however, as the numerous varieties of bil- 
ious fever, are incomparably less general and malignant. 

From these observations it may be collected, that the two 
great causes of disease in the upper Mississippi, or western 
states, are variations of temperature and marsh exhalation. 
A third cause is supposed to be the water. Throughout 
most of these states, which have a limestone foundation,— the 
imperishable basis of their wealth, — the spring and well wa- 
ter is hard. This, by those who have lived elsewhere, in 



y Google 



84 VALLEY OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 

sand-stone regions, or on primitive or transition rock for- 
mations, where the water is soft, is believed to be unhealthy. 
To them, it may indeed prove so at first, but their systems 
soon become reconciled to the change ; and 1 have not, as 
yet, seen any evidence that this kind of water produces a 
single permanent disease. In the fourth place, the question 
is often asked, are not fogs unhealthy ? Do they not pro- 
duce ague and fever ? The answer, I think, should be in 
the negative. I have not observed, that those who are con- 
stantly exposed to them are more unhealthy ; or, indeed, as 
unhealthy as many others in society, who are not exposed to 
them. Fogs are but water in a state of .vapour, through 
which exhalations of a poisonous nature may, it is true, be 
diffused ; but these exhalations, sent up from the surface 
of the earth through the day, appear to subside in the 
evening withthe dews, before the fogs begin to arise ; and 
hence, an exposure to the former, is far more dangerous 
than the latter. 

Passing from causes to effects, I shall proceed to enu- 
merate the principal diseases which seem to have connex- 
ion with the soil and climate of the West. 

In autumn, winter, and early springs the pleurisy, severe 
colds, croup, and those forms of disease of the lungs, which 
have received the name of " hasty consumption," are of 
frequent occurrence. True, hereditary, consumption is 
however, a rare disease in the West, compared "with New- 
York or New FJngland — and families which, remaining on 
the banks of the Hudson or Connecticut River, would be cut 
off by that malady, might often be preserved, by a migration 
to the Valley of the Ohio, the Cumberland, or Wabash. 
Acute inflammations of the brain, of the liver, and of the 
joints, in the form of rheumatism, are, likewise, of frequent 
occurrence, during the cold and variable portions of the year. 

From the accession of hot weather, commencing in Ten- 
nessee with the month of May, and on Lake Erie with its 
close, till after the autumnal equinox, summer diseases pre- 
vail over all the West — but are most rife in the valleys, and 
above all on the shores of the lake. These maladies may- 
be divided into I wo groups : First, cholera infantum,— ^or 
the summer sickness of children— cholera morbus, diar- 
rhcsa, colic, and dysentery. The first of these complaints, 
in the west, as in other parts of the United States, is more fre- 



y Google 



CLIMATE AND DI8EASS8. 85 

queot and fatal in the towns than the country ; though the 
latter is by no means so exempt as is generally supposed. 
Dysentery is not of constant annual recurrence. Many 
summers pass without originating a single case — while 
others produce it as an epidemic, spreading indiscrimi- 
nately over the hills and vallies, and afl^ting equally the 
dense and sparse population. 

The famOy of diseases, just enumerated, precede and 
follow the summer solstice ; but, with the exception of 
dysentery, rarely run into autumn. They are the legiti- 
mate ofispring of hot days and cool nights, and almost in- 
variably display the greatest violence in June and July. 

Secondly. To the summer, succeed the autumnal dis- 
eases of the west, which are, substantially, the same that 
prevail in the south. They ofleu begin in summer, and 
very commonly continue till arrested by the frosts of au- 
tumn. These maladies are intermitting and remitting bil- 
ious fevers — the former of which, in their various shades, 
have received the names of * ague,' * dumb ague,' and 
* chill and fever.' The intermitting fever is essentially a 
disease of the country, instead of the larger towns ; and 
prevails much more in the vallies, and on the slopes of the 
hills that bound them, than on the uplands. Its relative 
prevalence in difierent years is very difierent. It often 
graduates into the remitting fever. This is the most for- 
midableH>f the summer and autumnal diseases of the west ; 
and, in some seasons, appears with a degree of malignity 
approaching to that which it displays in the south. Unlike 
intermitting fever, it prevails as much or more in the towns 
than in the country. In most years, it is a mild and man- 
ageable disease ; but sometimes, as just intimated, proves 
exceedingly fatal — which may be the case in one town, 
while others are but little afiected ; and in another year 
the case will be reversed. 

When this malady becomes protracted, it commonly 
passes into ague and fever. In this form it frequently re- 
curs through the winter and succeeding spring, when 
relapses of intermitting fever are, likewise, apt to occur. 
They are generally the immediate consequence of exposure 
to a cold and damp atmosphere. 

A form of winter or relapsing intermittent fever, is ' peri- 
odical head-ache,' or ' sun pain,' so called by the people, 

8 



y Google 



86^ VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

from the well known fact, that the fit generally comes oil 
in the morning about sun-rise, and seldom continues after 
sun-set. It is a painful, but not a dangerous disease. 

Sore eyes may be mentioned as a prevailing disease of 
the western states. They are more common in the newly 
than the old settled parts of the country ; and prevail more 
in autumn than any other season. Treated even by a skil- 
ful physician, they oflen prove obstinate ; and, neglected or 
improperly managed, are frequently followed by blindness. 

In several parts of the west, a disease prevails, which 
has received the appellation of < sick stomach,' from its 
prominent symptoms, nausea and frequent vomiting, espe- 
cially on taking exercise. It is, also, called ' milk sick- 
ness,' from an opinion, that it is produced by the milk of 
cows, which have fed on some poisonous plant. It has 
likewise been ascribed to the water of certain springs, and 
to marsh exhalations. The cause, however, is perhaps 
unknown, and it seems to be evanishing. 

Goitre, or ' swelled neck,' once prevailed on the upper 
waters of the Ohio, particularly in and about Pittsburg, but 
has nearly disappeared. 

Typhus, or nervous fevers, are sometimes considerably 
prevalent in the western towns ; but, on the whole, are, I 
think, less frequent and fatal than in the east. 
. Dyspepsia, and liver complaints of a chronic kind, are 
troublesome maladies in the Mis^ssippi states, especially 
in the cities. In many cases, they have seemed to me to 
arise from the same cause with autumnal (eyer, the poison 
acting feebly on the system ; but more commonly they are 
the ofi^pring of abuses in^tbe use of tea and ardent spirits. 

As to measles, small-pox, scarlet fever, and other dis- 
eases of that natural class, they prevail occasionally in the 
west, in the same manner as in other countries. 

Let not the eastern reader be alarmed, at the catalogue of 
diseases which I have enumerated. He should recollect 
that most of them prevail in his own section of the Union, 
and o(\en with great mortality ; while some, as consump- 
tion, and 1 might add typhus fever and dysentery, are far 
more fatal in the east than the west. Nor should the Low- 
er Mississippi states be considered preferable to the Upper, 
on the score of health ; for, although they are sickly but 
four months of the year, yet such is the exteiit and energy 



y Google 



INDIAN TmiBES, X0NUXSNT8, 6dC. 87 

of the diseases which then prevail, as more thaa to coun- 
terbalance the whole year in the temperate states* 

That these states are not unfavourable to human life, 
may be inferred from the unprecedented increase in their 
population. The number of inhabitants in Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, is at least 
three millions. Had they been unhealthy, it is quite in- 
credible that in the short period of half a century, so great 
a number could have congregated within those common- 
wealths. Was the climate especially fatal to emigrants, 
the number cut off, and the number repelled, must have 
given a ratio of increase, far beneath that which has actu- 
ally existed. As to a seasoning, or acclimation, I am 
doubtful whether in the temperate Mississippi states, it has 
any existence.- At Cincinnati, I am sure it can seldom be 
perceived. When formidable and fatal diseases have pre- 
vailed, they have as often attacked those long resident in 
the city, as the 'new comers ;' and nothing id more com- 
mon, than to see persons arrive at all periods of the spring, 
summer, and early autumn, and still enjoy as good health 
as if they had entered its atmosphere at the winter solstice. 
I would, however, caution travellers and * movers,' against 
much journeying in September and early October, when 
bilious fevers prevail ; for, however secure they might be, 
if they could be transferred, without a journey, to a west- 
em town, the usual process of reaching it in autumn, over 
land, the necessary mode when the waters are low, is apt 
to generate serious diseases. 



CHAPTlBR IX. 

Indian Tribes, M«mnient8, &c. 

Having in the last Chapter remarked on the climate 
of the Valley of the Mississippi in reference to tempera- 
ture, diseases, 6cc. I now proceed to give some account 
of the Indian inhabitants, their manners, customs, present 
state, &c. together with some notices of those ancient 
remains which are still to he found in almost every part 
of the West. 



y Google 



68 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

When North America was discovered, it was in the occu- 
pancy of a great number of tribes of Indians who derived 
their means of subsistence almost solely from fishing and 
hunting. And when the first settlements were made in the 
north part of the Valley of the Mississippi, by the French' 
in 1670 at Detroit, and during the next fifly years, at Biloxi, 
Mobile, New Orleans, Natchez^ Post of Arkansas, &;c. in the 
southern part, that vast country was filled with numerous 
tribes, possessing indeed striking and similar traits of 
national character, and the same habits of living, although 
widely difiering in language. Within the next succeeding 
fifly years, say from 1720 to 1770, French colonies and 
trading posts were planted in Tennessee, Upper Alabama, 
the interior of Mississippi, on the Red River, Arkansas, 
and along the Ohio at various points from its mouth to its 
sources, and on the shores of Lake Erie ; whilst in the lat- 
ter portion of that period, the English commenced the 
establishment of colonies and trading posts within the east- 
ern verge of the "Valley, and indeed, before the close of that 
period, had gained possession of the whole country east of 
the Mississippi River. So that during the last seventy or 
eighty years almost the whole of the eastern side of the Val- 
ley and a part of the western, has passed from the possession 
of the Indian inhabitants into that of the whites. 

When we look back to the state of this valley one hun- 
dred years ago, we find that every portion of it was occu- 
pied by powerful tribes and nations, the names of many of 
which are handed down to ud in the early histories of the 
country. But widely different is the present state of 
things. Several large and powerful tribes have been 
destroyed by intestine wars, or, what is more deplorable, 
by wars with the civilized emigrants, who have gained 
possession of the best part of the Valley. 

What are called the Southern Indians are the Choctaws, 
Cherokees, Chickasaws, Creeks, and Seminoles, inhabiting 
parts of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, North Carolina, 
Georgia, and Florida. These tribes are entirely insulated 
now from those which are west of the Mississippi. They 
were all once very powerful tribes, and their wars with 
each other and with the French and English, and- of some 
of them with our own government, are well known. At 
present the Seminoles are only c^bout 4,000, and the Chicka- 



y Google 



INDIAN TSIBE8, MONTMENTS, &C. 80 

saws 3,500. While the Choctaws are about 12,000, the 
Cherokees 11,000, and the Creeks 20,000,«-^xclu8ive of 
those portions of the tribes which have removed west of 
the Mississippi, and which, if added, woukl make the num- 
ber of the Choctaws 18^000, the Cherokees 14,500, and the 
Creeks 22,500. The government, it is well known, is en- 
deavouring to remove the portions of these tribes which are 
still east of the Mississippi, to a country west of Arkansas 
Territory and the state of Missouri, and to place the Choc- 
taws immediately, north of the Red River, the Cherokees 
between the Arkansas and its great branch the Canadian 
River, and the Creeks on the north bank of the Arkansas 
River. The Chickasaws are to unite with the Choctaws, 
and the Seminoles will have a separate portion of the coun- 
try. The country which the government has purchased in 
that region from the Osages and other tribes, contains 
about 100 millions of acres. The Creeks and Seminoles 
have recently sold their lands in Alabama and Florida to 
the United States, and will probably remove within two 
years. The Choctaws and Chickasaws have already 
commenced removing, having sold their lands a year ago* 

In Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, which once contained so 
many powerful tribes, are now to be found only scattered 
remnants of tbe Shawanese, Putawatomies, Miami8,'Kicka- 
poos, Peorias, Kaskaskias, and Cahokias ; and almost all 
these are about to remove west of the Mississippi, to the 
country granted to them in exchange for their land in these 
states. 

On the Upper Mississippi and towards Lake Superior, 
are the Chippcways, Menomonies, and Winnebagos. About 
the lead mines on the Mississippi live the Sacs and Foxes* 
In the same region are the lawas. High up the same 
river live the Sioux or Dacotas, extending over to the Mis* 
souri. [n the Valley of the Missouri River live, in succes* 
sion as you ascend, the Osages, reaching to the Arkansas ; 
the Pawnees in three divisions, who were once numerous, 
and next to the Sioux in strength ; Arickarees, Mandans, 
the Minnetarees, Arripahas, Assineboins, Crows, and Black* 
ieet. On the Arkansas are found the Quapaws, Chiaman- 
ches, ^. On the Sabine, and between it and the Red 
River, are the remnants of several tribes, residing also 
partly i^ Texas, such as the Appallaohes, Chetim^cbes, 

6* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



90 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



Tunicas, d^c. once Dumerous and powerful. The Cades 
are high up on the Red River. 

I have no adequate data upon which to give a very ac- 
curate statement of the numbers i)elonging to the tribes 
within the Valley of the Mississippi. These tribes are very 
numerous, and many of them very small. The following 
statement has been made, and is probably as accurate as 
any which the reader is likely to find any where. 



Creeks, 


22,500 


Choctaws, • 


18,000 


Cherokees, . 


14,500 


Seminoles, • 


4,000 


Chickasaw^, 


3,500 


Pawnees, 


6,500 


Oraahas and Otoes, 


3,180 


Delawares, . 


1,600 


Shawanese, . « 


6,350 


Kansas, 


1,500 


Usages, 


6,500 


Senecas, 


400 


Senecas& Sha^vanese, 320 


Miamis, 


1,000 


Wyandots, . 


450 


Kickapoos, . 


1,800 


Perias, Pianka- J 




shaws, Weas, and > 


1,000 


Kaskaskias, ) 




Total, 


• 



Sioux, 

Chippeways, 

Black Feet, . 

Assinaboins, 

Putawatamies, 

Winnebagos, 

Sacs, . . 

Menomonies, 

Crows, 

Arripahas, . 

Crees, 

Ottawas, 

Algonquiqs, 

And about twenty 
other small tribes 
including Man- 
dans,Arickarees, 
6ic. 



I 



25,000 
6,000 
5,000 
8,000 
6,500 
5,300 
6,300 
4,000 
4,500 
4,000 
3,000 
4,000 
3,000 



25,000 



202,700 



It is mournful to look back to the former state of many 
of the tribes of this vallley, when the French planted their 
numerous trading posts among them, and compare it with 
their present condition. Several of the tribes which then 
existed are now wholly extinct, or lost in others ; and at 
least twenty which were then numerous, contain now not 
more than from fifly to five hundred souls each ! I do not 
attribute this destruction to the influence of the whites, to 
the degree which some do. Undoubtedly our wars, and 
still more our vices, have done much to ruin the tribes con- 
tiguous to us. But other causes and more powerful, un- 
<|uestionably have existed. For it is a fact that the tribes 



y Google 



INDIAN TRIBES, 1KON1JHENT8, 6cC. 91 

far remote from us have greatly diminished withio the last 
hundred years. The truth is, it is impossible that a savage 
people, living a wretched and wandering life, divided into 
separate tribes, abnost constantly at war with each other, 
can avoid a gradual but certain destruction. For centuries 
hefore the colonizing of the Valley of the Mississippi, these 
desolating causes had existed, and had swept away mil- 
lions from the earth. There is unquestionable evidence, I 
think, that this whole continent, and especially the Valley 
of the Mississippi, and the neighbouring country of Mexico, 
was once inhabited by a vast population, possessing, in 
some degree at least, a greater amount of knowledge of the 
arts than the present race of Indians. 

An uncivilized state of mankind is one of constant ten- 
dency to annihiliation, all the world over. Nor need we 
marvel at it. From the very nature of th^ human mind, 
and the condition in which men are placed in this world, it 
cannot be otherwise. A state of barbarism, is a very mis- 
erable one. Its uncertainty, often, of the means of suste- 
nance ; its great destitution of social or individual happi- 
ness ; its gloom and dreariness ; its want of happiness here, 
and its ignorance of life and immortality beyond the 
grave, — are unfavourable to a rapid propagation of the 
species, or indeed to propagation at all. 

There are probably sixty tribes of Indians in the West, 
inhabiting a great variety of climates, scattered over a 
great extent of country, speaking different dialects ; and 
yet they all possess, essentially, the same traits of charac- 
ter, and their manners are not merely similar, but almost 
identical. A greater physical and moral resemblance ex- 
ists among them than is to be found among the inhabitants 
of any other region on the globe. 

With regard to stature, some of the tribes exceed the 
medium height of our people ; this may be said of the Si- 
oux, Osages, and perhaps the Cherokees. Some other 
tribes, on the contrary, are rather shorter than the whites 
of our country. Their complexion is well known to be 
that of a very dark, smoked, copper colour ; and exceeding- 
ly similar in all the tribes. The hair is very black, coarse, 
of a glossy appearance, and seldom becomes grey, although 
this is sometimes the case. The forms of Indians are almost 
uaiversally straight, their limbs well proportioned, vigor- 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



92 VALLBY OF THE XIS8ISSIPPI* 

pus, agile, and their bodies seldom corpulent. The feeble 
of their children generally die through the hard usage to 
which they are subjected. In their gait they have a pe- 
culiar motion, and always place one foot inunediately 
before the other in a right line, and seldom deflect their 
toes from that line. They are almost always to be seen 
walking in single file, one following immediately after ano- 
ther, even when engaged in earnest conversation. 

Their foreheads are broad, slightly retiring, and very 
seldom projecting. The nose is prominent, and its base 
very much expanded. The cheek bones are high ; the 
lips of moderate thickness, and their eyes black. The fe- 
males have the comparative delicacy of conformation which 
in every nation belongs to the sex. 

As to moral habits, they are unquestionabfy indolent as it 
regards such labour as we are accustomed to perform.— 
This might be expected. Their mode of life from time im- 
memorial has been wholly diverse. They need the exci"» 
ting circumstances of the chase or war, and then they will 
travel further, and perform more incredible exploits of 
activity and daring, than those who are unacquainted with 
them would imagine, to be possible. But steady, unremit- 
ting industry is intolerable to them. Excepting the Cher- 
okees and some of the Choctaws, very few of the Indians 
have made much progress in the knowledge of the arts of 
civilis&ed life. But the truth is, that very few, and thefie 
inadequate, efibrts have been made in other tribes to induce 
them to live a civilized life. The great and only hope of 
their civilization is with the children, through intellectual 
and religious education. 

As to the domestic virtues and habits of the Indians, and 
the happiness or misery of their condition, there have been 
very different opinions. Rousseau, Chateaubriand, and 
others, have described them as amiable, virtuous, and emi* 
nently happy. I have known many who have professed to 
entertain the same opinion. But Volney, and Charlevoix, 
among the former writers, and many of the latter, have 
much more justly described their condition, as that of a race, 
taken as a whole, neither amiable nor happy. Indeed I 
know not how any man who has really studied the condition 
of the uncivilized Indians, can possibly represent them at 
in any other than a very wretched condition. Their coun* 



y Google 



INDIAN TRIB£S, MONUMENTS, &C. 93 

teoances are almost always stern, and melancholy, seldom 
wearing a smile. They manifestly have not the acute sen- 
sibility which civilization imparts, or rather increases.— 
That they have afiections is certain, but not generally of 
an ardent, tender kind. Born amidst forests, and perpe- 
tual gloom ; from their childhood conversant with rocks, 
wood&, deserts, and the dreariness and solitude of the wil- 
derness ; having only a precarious, and often a scanty, 
subsistence ; subject to constant and deep alternations of 
hope and fear ; enjoying but little the present life, and 
having no certain hopes of a life to come, it is no wonder 
that cheerfulness and joy should seldom be depicted in 
their countenances. It is not surprising that they should 
have little fear of death. They scarcely regard it in any 
other light than as the epd of a- life void of attractions, and 
even of existence, which few of them firmly believe to be 
prolonged beyond the present stage of being. Their for- 
titude in the endurance of suflering results from a physical 
insensibility, to which is added the e^ct of constant incul- 
cation of it as a chief or only virtue. No ordinary stimu- 
lus can move them. But when they are excited, they have 
BO moderation. Their rage, their fury in battle, their 
alternations of hope and despair exhibited in gaming, their 
brutal exhiliration in drunkenness, are truly horrible. 

It is interesting to observe how manifestly the Indians^ 
degraded and ignorant as they are, show the traces of the 
moral law written on the hearts of all men. There are 
certain virtues which they hold as being of universal obli- 
gation, such as honour, constancy, generosity, for bearance» 
and regard for truth. They generally admit, under some 
form of modification, the being of a God, and the immortal- 
ity of the soul. Many of the tribes have form:? of prayer 
which they use on extraordinary occasions, such as when 
starting on expeditions of hunting or war. They are ex- 
ceedingly superstitious, and greatly under the influence of 
their prophets or " medicine men.'* Every thing with them 
which is inexplicable is a " medicine." Their prophets 
and jugglers have almost as much influence as their chiefs 
and warriors. Their ideas of a future world are of course 
dark and confused. Their Elysium is a great and beauti- 
ful country of prairie and forest, filled with wild beasts, 
which are hunted by the happy actd good, that is, those who 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



94 VALLEY OF THE XISSISSIFPI. 

were brave on earth, and killed nmny of their enemies: 
whilst the cowardly and undistinguished sink into oblivion, 
not being able to pass with feailess heartfii,^ th6 '' narrow 
bridge." 

As to matrimony, it is well known that every man may 
marry as many wives as he can maintain. AH the evils 
which naturally flow from polygamy are of course experi* 
enced. Jealousy among the wives, their quarrels and their 
brawls, are frequent occurrences in the harem of an Indiaa 
chief. Marriage is generally managed by the parents. 

The vices of the Indians are such as might be expected 
among an uncivilized people, who are destitute of the power 
of Christianity. And it is greatly to be regretted, that 
their intercourse with the whites has been, gene rally » any 
thing else than beneficial, to their morals. The most 
shameless abominations are committed by men^ whom the 
Indians, in their ignorance, call Christians, only because 
they have a white complexion, and belong to a nation 
which professes to be Christian. 

The more civilized Indians dress after the fashion of tbe 
white people. This is the case with the Cherokees, some 
of the Choctaws, and of the small tribed in Ohio and Indi- 
ana. Their clothes are coarse, but decent. The Chero- 
kees, having made considerable progress in the arts^- 
having farms on which they raise grain and cotton, and 
possessing looms and mills, aqd blacksmith's shops, and 
horses and cattle, &c. not only dress comfortably, but many 
of them have respectable cottages and houses. But the 
uncivilized tribes wear a calico jacket, and over that n 
blanket or buffalo skin wrapped around them, and have 
moccasins and leggings. But in summer, their youth es- 
pecially, go without the last named garments. When they 
can afford it, the squaws of the partially civilized tribes, 
wear blue broad cloth petticoats. 

Their laws have the nature of universal custom, and are 
like a spell in their influence over the Indians ; so much so, 
that if any Indian knows that he has committed an oflence 
for which he must die, (according to their custom), he sel- 
dom embraces the opportunity of escape, but will return 
home to die, and dies as if there was an irresistible fatality 
which prevented him from doing otherwise. This is an in- 
explicable circumstance, excepting upon the principle that 



y Google 



INDIAN TKIBE8, MONUMENTS, &C. 95 

pobUc opinion is every thing ; and an Indian considers that 
he might as well die, as live under the conviction that he 
deserves, in the opinion of all, to die. This consciousness 
is intolerable. This fact, of itself, demonstrates how low 
their conceptions of death are ! 

I think that no man who has any correct moral senti- 
ments, or any just idea of what constitutes true human 
happiness, can avoid feeling a deep sympathy for these poor 
benighted * children of the wood.' Is not their condition a 
miserable one 1 Are they not, in some degree, intelligent, 
and of course accountable beings ? And what can be done 
to raise them from their degradation and misery ? The 
answer, to my mind, is plain — that is, instruct them in the 
principles of Christianity, and the arts of civilized life. Es- 
pecially begin with the young. Almost all the tribes are 
willing to have their children thus instructed. And our 
government, as well as the Christian community, ought to 
arise, and give to every tribe these great blessings. They 
can be nmde Christians, and civilized men. They have 
minds, and vigorous ones too. They are not more barba- 
rous than our ancestors once were. The Gospel of Jesus 
Christ can influence their hearts, and raise their thoughts, 
and their despairing eyes, towards heaven. 

I have indeed met with men, some of whom have been 
among the Indians, and know something of them, — and 
some who have not, — who have professed to believe that 
there is no need of sending the Gospel to the Indians— that 
they are happier and better off without it. With regard to 
the latter class, — those who have never been among the 
Indians, — they are deceived by the misrepresentations of 
others, or by their own dreams of the simplicity and happi- 
ness of what they consider the *' natural state of man." As 
they know nothing about the matter, it is not worth while to 
lose a moment in refuting their romantic and absurd ideas. 
But as to the former class, viz. those who have been much 
with the Indians, and who yet believe they are better off with- 
out civilization and Christianity, I have a word or two to say. 
I have uniformly found that this class, which is composed 
of men who are universally ignorant of the true nature of the 
Christian religion, may be divided into three subdivisions. 

1. Those who think that the fact, that the poor Indians 
prefer their own state to that of civilization, is conclusive 



y Google 



96 TALLET OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

proof that they are really in a better coodition than they 
w^uld be, if civilized* These gentlemen would be opposed, 
of course, to every effort to enlighten mankind in any way. 
They must believe that the world is at present, excepting 
a few political evils, doing about as well as can be 4esired. 
They have no standard at all of excellence in human con- 
dition. Knowledge, and science, and the arts, and litera- 
ture, and taste and refinement, and the innumerable blessings 
of civilized life, are nothing at all in the estimation of these 
gentlemen. And to instruct any .ignorant person, who is 
contented with his ignorance, is to do him an injury, to 
make him less happy, although it may be the means of 
elevating him in the scale of human dignity, and affording 
him increasing and refined pleasures, commensurate with 
his expanding faculties and enlarged desires ! 

2. Those who know that increased knowledge and ad- 
vantages bring with them increased accountability, and* 
having a morbid sensibility on that subject, as it affects 
their own case — being conscious that they do not live up 
to the measure of their advantages — they think that igno- 
rance is a happy state of total or comparative exemption 
from responsibility. These men do not consider that in- 
creased light brings with it not only increased responsibi- 
lity, but also increased ability, if we are not wanting to 
ourselves, of meeting, happily, that responsibility. 

3. Those who have been guilty of living in an unlawful 
manner among the Indians — who have indulged in sensual 
lusts, or who have defrauded them in dealing ; and who, 
as is commonly the case with abandoned men, try to per- 
suade themselves that all others are as bad as themselves. 
It should be no subject of marvel that svch men think the 
Indians are as virtuous and as happy, if not more so, than 
the whites ; and verily, they arc probably better than such 
white men as they are ! I have no doubt that the Indians 
are really more virtuous, or rather less vile and abomina- 
ble in their lives, than the mass of white men who trade 
with them, and who too often rejoice to find, that they are 
beyond the Sabbath, and beyond the inspection and sur- 
veillance of that hundred-eyed argus, — public opinion. 
Some of these men dread the instruction and Christianiza- 
tion of the Indians, because it would pour a flood of light 
upon their dark deeds, and break up forever their unright- 
eous traffic. 



y Google 



INDIAK TBIBB8, XOmTMENTS, d^. 97 

" But I rejoice that the subject of civilizing the Indians, is 
awakening the attention of the Christian public. Mission- 
aries are labouring with much success among the Chero« 
kees, Choctaws, and Chickasaws — and their efibrts anooog 
the Osages, Creeks, and some other tribes, are not without 
encouragement : and, as the government is now about to 
try the experiment of collecting several tribes on the west 
of Arkansas Territory and the state of Missouri, what be- 
nevolent heart does not wish, that there may be one day, a 
happy community of civilized Indians, sharing in all the 
blessings of our government ? 

Monuments. — ^The antiquities of the Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi, may be divided into three classes. 1. Those be- 
longing to the Indians. 2. To people of European origin* 
3. Those of the unknown people, who inhabited this region 
before the Indians. The antiquities of the first named 
class, are neither numerous nor interesting. They are 
rude axes and knives, pestles and mortars for preparing their 
corn for food^ arrow heads, and other similar articles. To 
the antiquities of the people of European descent, belong 
the medals found occasionally — such as, one at the mouth 
of Muskingum River, which was a thin round plate of lead, 
bearing on one side the inscription, " Petit-belle riviere,'* 
«nd on the other, '^ Louis XIV." Some coins have been 
Ibund inscribed, " George II." and " Caroline." Some Ro- 
man coins are said to have been found in Tennessee. Tra- 
ces of a furnace of fifly kettles exist in Kentucky, a few 
miles from Portsmouth. 

The antiquities of a people who inhabited the Valley of 
the Mississippi prior to the Indians, are very numerous* 
They are to be found from the lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, 
they consist of fumt/^t or moundSy Bind what are supposed to 
b^ve been forts, cemeteries, temples, altars, camps, towns, 
watch-towers, &c. 

In the vicinity of Newark, Ohio, is found a fort contain- 
ing, forty acres within its walls, which are about ten feet 
high. It has gate-ways and walls in front of them for pro- 
tection. Another fort contains 22 acres, and has an obser- 
vatory, partly of earth, and partly of wood, in the middle of 
it. There is another circular fort, containing 26 acres. 
There are also parallel walls, with watch-towers. It is said 
that there are more than 1000 wells, many of them exceed- 

9 



y Google 



98 VALLEY OF TUE MISSISSIPPT. 

ing 20 feet id depth, in the vicinity of the same town. Near 
Marietta, in the same state, are to be found traces of forti- 
fications, of a remarkable extent. On the spot where Cin* 
cinnati now stands, were four mounds, or pyramids. One of 
them was 35 feet high, in the form of an ellipsis. In one 
of these mounds, pieces of jasper, rock crystal, granite, &c. 
were found ; also, a small oval piece of sheet copper, several 
marine shells, a quantity of isinglass, several copper figures 
of animals, human bones, &c. ^. Many of these mounds, 
all over the valley, contain an immense number of skeletons. 
The largest mound is on the bottom land, along Grave Creek, 
14 miles below Wiieeling, in western Virginia. The most 
numerous collection of mounds is to be found a few miles 
east of St. Louis, on the American bottom. More than 200 
of all sizes are to be counted there. Near Cahokia there 
are many mounds. In some of the prairies they are to be 
found. They are generally on the bottom lands of rich 
alluvial soil. They are sometimes, however, to be seen on 
high hills ; for instance, on the high blufis on the north bank 
of the Missouri, above Cote-sans-dessein. It is a remark* 
able circumstance, that these mounds are most numerous 
in those portions of the valley which are best calculated to 
sustain a dense population. 

Millions of human beings have been buried in these tu- 
muli. To have erected such works, so numerous and large, 
must have required a great population. Mr. Atwater has 
even supposed that Ohio, several hundred years ago, con* 
tained more than 700,000 inhabitants, of a race now extinpt. 
The antiquities of Tennessee and Kentucky are very nu- 
merous, and exceedingly interesting ; but the limits of this 
work will not allow me to go into details on- this subject. 
Some notices of these antiquities will be given when we con- 
sider each state and territory in the west. 

Besides the human skeletons found in the nitre caves of 
Kentucky, and other relics of by-gone generations, masses 
of bones of animals of enormous sizes, to which the name of 
Mammoth and Megalonyx have been given, and which have 
excited great attention on the part of naturalists, have been 
discovered. 

In closing this chapter, I would state, that in the Muse- 
ums at Cincinnati, and Lambdin's Museum at Pittsburg, are 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CHAmACTBH, MANNERS, AND PURSUITS. 90 

to be found many very interesting specimens of the relics 
of antiquity, belonging to this valley.* 



CHAPTER X. 

Character, ManiierB, and Pursuits, of the Inhabitants of the VaHey of 
the Missi^ppi. 

It cannot be expected that, in a work so limited as this 
is, any thing like justice can be done to the subject of this 
chapter. I shall only give a general description of the 
character, manners and pursuits of the people of the West, 
avoiding details as much as possible. 

The population of the Valley of the Mississippi is exceed* 
ingly heterogeneous, if we regard the very great variety 
of nations of which it. is composed. There is not a coun* 
try in Europe which has not furnished some portion of its 
population. But by far the greater poportion of the Eu- 
I'opean population, is from Great Britain and Ireland. Of 
course, emigrants from those portions of Europe, speaking 
oar own language, and having so many of the elements of 
character and manners homogeneous with our own, pro- 
duce no influence, worthy of notice, on the lineaments of the 
national character of the West, especially after their amalga- 
mation with us, which is eflected by a short period of resi- 
dence. The emigrants from France, however, possessing 
traits of character very diverse from our own, speaking a 
very dissimilar language, and still more, grouped together 
as they almost invariably are, produce a very great diver- 
sity in the general character and manners of the West, as 
far as that sort of population prevails. But inasmuch as it 
is confined almost entirely to Louisiana, and some isolated 
portions of Illinois, Missouri, and Michigan, and has little 
or no influence upon the other parts of this vast country, but 
little notice will be taken of it, in this general description 
of the character and manners of the people of the West. 

* For a more foil account of the antiquities' of the West, the reader is 
referred to the interesting communications made to the American An- 
tiquarian Society, by Caleb Atwater, Esq. of C'ircleville, Ohio, and found 
in VoL I. of their transactions ; Brackenridge's View of Louisiana, 
Schoolcraft's Travels, Lewis and Clarke's Expedition, Major Long's 
Ezpeditiooa, ^, ^. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



100 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 

As it regards the emigrants from the other countries of 
Europe, the smallness of their numbers, compared with the 
entire population, and their dispersion throughout the coun- 
try, render their influence too inconsiderable an element to 
be taken into account in a description of the national char- 
acter and manner sof the West. We must look to those 
causes and circumstances which exist amongst themselves, 
and which have Had a chief influence in moulding the char- 
acter of the population of the Valley of the Mississippi, 
unless indeed we mean to speak of the West, not as it is, 
but as it exists in our imagination. 

The great difliculty in describing the character and man- 
ners of the West, taken in the general, arises from the fact 
that they do not essentially differ from those of the popula- 
tion of the Atlantic states. The shades of difference, — and 
they are only shades, — are such as have been created by 
causes and circumstances existing in the West alone. Eve- 
ry one who has seen much of the West, at once perceives 
these shades ; but they are too attenuate and impalpable to 
admit of being very distinctly pourtrayed. I shall, howev- 
er, endeavour to indicate some of the traits of difference, 
after having made the remarks which I am about to make, 
with regard to the mode in which the West has been peo- 
pled from the Atlantic states. 

In travelling over the various states and territories of the 
West, I have been struck with a fact which is somewhat re- 
markable. It is the manner in which that country has been 
colonized. The emigration to the Valley of the Mississip- 
pi seems to have gone on in columns, moving from the East 
almost due West, from the respective states from which they 
originated. From New England the emigrating column ad- 
vanced through New-York, peopling the middle and western 
parts of that state in its progress; but still continuing, it 
reached the nothern part of Ohio, then Indiana, and finally 
Illinois. A part of the same column from New-England 
and New-York is diverging into Michigan. It is true also, 
that straggling companies, as it were, diverge to a more 
southerly direction, and scatter over the middle and south- 
ern parts of the Valley, and are to be found in every state, 
in every county and town, in greater or less numbers. The 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey column advanced within the 
parallels of latitude of those states into West Pennsylvania, 
and still continuing, advanced into the middle and southera 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



GHAHACTER, MANNERS, AND PURSUITS. 101 

parts of Ohio, and extends even into the middle parts of In- 
diana and Illinois, llie Virginia column advanced first 
into the western part of that state and Kentucky, — which 
was long a constituent part of it, — thence into the Southern 
parts of Indiana and Illinois, until it has spread over almost 
the whole of Missouri. The North Carolina column ad- 
vanced first into East Tennessee, thence into West Ten- 
nessee, and also into Missouri. And the South Carolina 
and Georgia column has moved upon the extensive and 
fertile lands of Alabama, and has in some degree peopled 
Mississippi. Louisiana was a foreign colony. The Amer- 
ican part of it is composed of emigrants from the upper 
part of the Valley, and from the southern and eastero 
states. The same remark is true of the small population 
of the state of Mississippi. In Arkansas the emigrating 
columns of Kentucky and Tennessee predominate. As 
was remarked of the New England column, it may be said 
that straggling parties from ail the others have wandered 
from the main bodies, and have taken a more northerly or 
southerly direction. A hundred considerations of business 
or affinity, have operated to occasion this divergency. 

The above mentioned fact furnishes a better key than any 
other that 1 know of, to furnish a correct knowledge of 
the diversities of customs and manners which prevail in the 
Valley of tlie Mississippi. For if one knows what are the 
peculiarities of the several states east of the Allegheny 
Mountains, he may expect to find them, with some shades 
of di^rence, occasioned by local circumstances, in the cor* 
responding parallels in the West. Slavery keeps nearly 
within the same parallels. And so does every other pecu* 
liarity. The New England column is intelligent, industrious, 
economical, enterprising, moral, and fond of institutions for 
the promotion of knowledge and religion* The PennsyU 
¥ania column of Scotch, Irish, Germans^ dec. partakes of all 
the characteristics of those worthy nations. The southern 
columns have a great degree of similarity, and are distin* 
guished by high-mindedness, generosity, liberality, hospi* 
tality, indolence, and, too oflen, dissipation. The southern 
character, however, is a noble one, when moulded by good 
influences. 

The peculiarities, or, to speak more properly, the devel- 
opements of character, which may be said to distinguish the 

9* 



y Google 



102 XALLVY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 

population of the West, may be re^ily enumerated ; and 
they are all created by the peculiar circumstances in which 
the people have been placed in that new world. They are, 

1. A spirit of adventurous enterprise : a willingness to 

fo through any hardship or danger to accomplish an object* 
t was the spirit of enterprise which led to the settlement of 
that country. The western people think nothing of making- 
a long journey, of encountering fatigue, and of enduring 
every species of hardship. The great highways of the West 
— its long rivers — ^are familiar to very many of them, who 
have been led by trade to visit remote parts of the Valley* 

2. Independence of thought and actiom — They have felt 
the influence of this principle from their childhood. Men 
who can endure any thing : that have lived almost without 
restraint, free as the mountain air, or as the deer and the 
buffalo of their forests — and who know that they are Amer- 
icans all — will act out this principle during the whole of liie. 
I do not mean that they have such an amount of it as to 
render them really regardless alike of the opinions and the 
feelings of every one else. But I have seen many who have 
the virtue of independence greatly perverted or degenerated, 
and who were not pleasant members of a society, which is 
a state requiring a compromising spirit of mutual co-opera- 
tion in all, and a determination to bear and forbear. 

3. An apparent roughness^ which some would deem 
rudeness of manners. 

"i^hese traits characterize, especially, the agricultural 
portions of the country, and also in some degree the new 
towns and villages. They are not so much the offspring of 
Ignorance and barbarism, (as some would suppose), as the 
results of the circumstances of a people thrown together in 
a new country, often for a long time in thin settlements j 
where, of course, acquaintances for many miles around are 
soon, of necessity, made and valued from few adventitions 
causes. Where there is perfect equality in a neighbour- 
hood of people who know but little about each other's pre- 
vious history or ancestry — but where each is lord of the 
soil which he cultivates. Where a log cabin is all that the 
best of families can expect to have for years, and of course 
can possess few of the external decorations which have so 
much influence in creating a diversity of rank in society. 
These circumstances, have laid the foundation for that 



y Google 



CHARACTSR, IKANITSBS, AND PITBB17IT9* 103 

equality of intercourse^ simplicity of maimers, want of defer- 
ence, want of reserve, great readiness to make acquaint- 
ances, freedom of speech, indisposition to brook real or 
imaginary insults, which one witnesses among the people 
of the West. 

The character and manners of the traders and merchanta 
who inhabit the principal cities and towns of the West, do 
not difier greatly from those of the same class in the 
Atlantic states. 

A voyage on board of a large and crowded steam-boat 
from Pittsburg to New Orleans, or from that city to Cin- 
cinnati or St. Louis, or NashTille, would exhibit ^ an east* 
em traveller the concentrated traits of character and 
manners which distinguish the western people, save that a 
considerable abatement should be made for the exciting 
eircumstances, which occasion an unnatural prominence ot 
peculiarities. 

There are, besides the French population, — which is dis- 
tinguished for its quiet, inoffisnsive, domestic, sober, indva* 
trious, frugal, unenterprising spirit and manners,— five or 
six classes of people in the Valley of the Mississippi. 1. The 
agricultural portion. 2. The merchants and traders* 8. 
The manufacturers. 4. The river men, who follow the 
n?ers as a business, on board the common boats (flat hoU 
tomed, keel, barges, &c) or steam-boats, as common hands 
or labourers, pilots, engineers, dec. This is a numerous and 
▼ery peculiar class of men. 5. The hunters who live on 
the verge of the frontier, and in their westward movement 
are constantly treading on the heels of the savages. They 
dwell on the public lands, uid are a race of men possessing 
remarkable traits of character and manners, which are a 
compound of civilization and barbarism. They are truly 
m generis^ in every respect. Their language is a very 
peculiar dialect, employing many words and phrases in a 
sense which is utterly unknown to any body else. 6. The 
gaming adventurers, black legs, dec. who infest the steam- 
boats and chief places from Pittsburg to New Orleans, who 
live upon the ruin of the unwary, the ignorant, and the young« 

The population of the Valley of the Mississippi, taken as 
a whole is a highly interesting one« It is in a state oi 
rapid formation as to the elements of character. Good and 
had influences are active and potent. It is indeed a criticat 



y Google 



104 VALLBir OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

period. Every thing should be done that can be done to 
disseminate the seeds of knowledge and virlue and true 
religion. These are interests, however, to which Chris- 
tians and patriots, both in the East and in the West, are 
far from being indifierent. Let light prevail ; let the means 
of adequate literary and moral education be diffused through 
every portion of that vast region ; let true religion exert its 
plastic influence to mould the hearts of men into the habits 
of goodness ; let good sentiments be kept every where up- 
permost, and our country is safe, and love, and kindness, 
and happiness will prevail along every river, and throughout 
every valley of that vast country. 

I have travelled extensively in every state and territory 
in our country, excepting two, and I am free to say, that I 
have travelled in the Valley of the Mississippi with quite 
as much pleasure as in the Atlantic states. In all my ex- 
tended journeys through that country, I have never known 
an instance of a man being treated in an uncivil manner 
whose deportment was gentlemanly. Every where I have 
found sincerity, kindness, true deference, and real hospi- 
tality, although associated oftentimes with great plainness 
and roughness of manners. 

The West does not enjoy the same advantages, as it re- 
gards education, and in many places, of constant religious 
instruction, which the East generally does. There is, as 
might be expected, a far greater number of persons who 
are uneducated, and of persons who have but little taste for 
reading, than is to be found in the Atlantic states. These 
evils are felt and lamented, and I hope will be remedied. 
Measures are now pursuing which are calculated to accom- 
plish this desirable object. 

The people of the West live amidst the elements of 
greatness. The lofly mountains on each side of the valley, 
the extensive inland seas on the north, the immense forests 
and prairies, and mighty rivers, with which they are so 
familiar, are calculated to have an elevating eflfect upon the 
human mind. Nature, every where appearing upon a grand 
scale, must have some influence in prompting to noble con- 
ceptions, and in impressing its own image of greatness on 
the western character. But these external influences are 
impotent of themselves, except to excite the imagination and 
to supply striking and appropriate similies, metaphors, and 



y Google 



CHABACTEB, MANNEBS, AND PUBSUITS. 105 

create the language of wonder. The advantages of cul- 
ture, not merely ^instruction^ but also of education^ in the 
proper sense of the word, must co-operate with the gran- 
deur of nature^ to produce true greatness in man. 

I have not mentioned the fact of the existence of a multi- 
tude of singular and uncouth phrases and words, as charac- 
teristic of the West, for I have deemed them utterly 
junworthy of notice. I have heard some scores of them in 
my tours, but such of them as are not the coinage of rude 
boatmen, or of still more ignorant hunters, are of eastern 
origin, and claim no pretensions to regard in this work. 
Every country has its low, vulgar expressions, and its 
proverbial language, which it would be a useless labour to 
collect, and still more unjust to consider, as any data for 
estimating national character and manners. 

PuBsuiTs OF THE People. — On this topic I shall say 
bat little. 

In the northern half of the Valley, the vast majority of 
the people are engaged in agriculture. The productions 
are wheat, corn, rye, oats, potatoes, apples, dec. &^* 
Great quantities of salted beef and pork, and of live stock, 
as sheep, hogs, cattle and horses, are sent to distant mar- 
kets, either across the mountains to the east, or down the 
rivers to New Orleans, and intermediate cities. In the 
lower half of the valley, cotton, corn, tobacco, hemp, sugar, 
pice, &c. are staples within the respective parallels of 
their growth, and are products chiefly of slave labour. 

Western Pennsylvania and Virginia, Kentucky, the south 
part of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, send vast quan- 
tities of flour, corn, and corn-meal, pork, bacon, salted beef, 
apples, cider, dried apples and peaches, ^c. to New Orleans 
and intermediate places. From the north part of Ohio, 
and from Michigan, and the north-western angle of Penn- 
sylvania, are sent vast quantities of the same agricultural 
products to New York, by the lakes and the New York 
canal ; and from the same regions are driven great quanti- 
ties of live stock to the East. Whilst from Tennessee and 
Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and West-Flori- 
da, are exported, this year, (1833,) by way of N^w Orleans 
and Mobile, probably more than 500,000 bales of cotton, 
40,000 hogsheads of tobacco^ 100,000 hogsheads of sugar^ 



y Google 



106 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

and 5,000,000 gallons of molasses. Also from the sama 
region, corn, rice, tropical fruits &;c. &c. to an amount of 
which I am ignorant, are sent to New Orleans, Mobile, 
and other but smaller sea-ports ; whilst from the same states 
great numbers of cattle, bogs, and horses are annually dri- 
ven to eastern and southern cities. From the upper Mis- 
sissippi and Missouri, vast quantities of furs, skins, buffiild 
tongues, &;c. dec. are sent by way of St. Louis or Mackinaw 
to the East and South, by the American Fur Company. 

In West Pennsylvania are extensive manufactories of 
iron, salt, whiskey, <Sz;c. The manufacture of iron and 
machinery, and the building of steam boats, are carried on 
to a great extent at Pittsburg, Brownsville, and some other 
places in West Pennsylvania, and at Cincinnati. Steam 
boats are built at many other places on the Ohio from New 
Albany to Pittsburg. They are beginning to be built at 
St. Louis and Alton, on the Mississippi, and a few have 
been built at Nashville. Salt and iron are manufactured ia 
West Virginia ; cotton bagging, bale ropes, and cordage, 
are manufactured in Tenniessee and Kentucky. Various 
manufactures are springing up in Ohio, Indiana and Illi- 
nois, which will be more fully enumerated when I come to 
treat of those states in detail. It is found difficult to intro* 
duce those manufacturing processes which demand great 
skill into states where the labour is done almost wholly by 
slaves. For the present ignorance of the stave population 
is utterly incompatible with great skilfulness in the manu- 
fucturing arts and processes. And free labour, (that is, of 
the whites) is difficult to obtain, except at enormous 
prices, in slave holding states. These difficulties will be 
remedied at some future period. 

The number of merchants, and of traders, (who are oflen 
a distinct class from the regular merchants,) is very great 
. in the Valley of the Mississippi. As there is scarcely a 
spot in all the West which is 50 miles from some naviga- 
ble stream, (that is, navigable during some portion of the 
year,) it will be at once perceived that the number of tra- 
ders will be immense. Thousands of the producers are 
partial traders, and deport, in their own boats, the produce 
of their farmsy^'to a distant market — a circumstance which 
must have a great bearing on the character and manners 
of the population of the Valley of the Mississippi. 



y Google 



3 



an 
ra 
wl 

an 

g' 
ve 

sia 

toi 

to 

ire 

mi 

to 

pli 

bo 

Al 

Si 

be- 

W 

an 

m* 

no 

ttt 

duf 

sk} 

sla 

is 

fuc 

th| 

pri 

rei 

a c 
in 

spc 
ble 

del 

pai 
of 



A %^ 



_^. 



u<l 



■s^ 



1 



Digitized by VjOOQ It 



WfiSTESn mUNSTLVAVIA. 107 



CHAPTER XL 



Western Pennsylyania. 

Having completed the general description of the Valley 
of the Mississippi, I now proceed to give some notices of 
its several poUtical subdivisions. In doing this, 1 shall 
commence with the upper part, and advancing southward 
in the order in which that great valley is commonly visit- 
ed by travellers and emigrants from those eastern states 
which Hq north of the Potomac, 1 shall describe the states 
anid territories, successively, until I arrive at Florida. By 
pursuing this plan, I shall not only have it in my power to 
give an account of the several states and territories in 
order, but also to present the reader with a sketch, from 
point to point, of the principal tours which 1 have made in 
that vast region, and which, having been performed along 
the great rivers and most important roads, will, I trust, be 
interesting. Without further preamble, I shall begin with 
Western Pennsylvania, taking my first stand at the city of 
Pittsburg, which place I have oAen visited, crossing the Alle- 
ghenies by various roads, and by various modes of travelling. 

Western Pennsylvania is bounded on thB north by 
liake Erie and New York ; east by the dividing line or 
xidge which separates the waters which flow eastward into 
-the Susquehanna and Potomac from those which flow 
westward into the Ohio; south by Maryland and Virginia; 
and west by Virginia and Ohio. The southern boundary 
is on lat. 39° 43' ; the northern is on lat. 42°, saving a 
small^rojection which extends down to lake Erie ; and the 
western is on 3° 36' W. Ion. from Washington. Its area is 
about 15,833 square miles, or one third part of the state. 

The following is a list of the counties in Western Penn- 
sylvania, together with their respective population accord- 
ing to the census of 1830 : — 

*^* The small Italic letters annexed to the counties in- 
dicate their situation in the state : as, €, to, nyS^ne^nniy 
e m, dec. — easty west^ norths souths north-east y north of mid' 
die J east ofmiddley 6lc. The seats of government of the 
diflferent states are printed in small capitals. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



108 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



Counties. 
Washington, 8 ir, 
Greene, $ w, 
Fayette, s ir, 
Westmoreland, s t&, 
Allegheny, «>, - 
Beaver, it, 
Butler, IT, 
Armstrong, w^ 
Mercer, it, 
Venango, tr, 
Crawford, n it, 
Erie, n ir, 
Warren, w «?, 
McKean, n, 
Jefferson, ir m, 
Indiana, w m, 
Somerset, Sy 



Total of Population, 





Population 


County Towns* 


in 1830. 


Washington, 


42,784 


Waynesburg, 


18,028 


Uniontown, 


29,172 


Greensburg, 


38,400 


Pittsburg, . 


50,552 


Beaver, 


24,123 


Butler, 


14,531 


Kittanning, • 


17,701 


Mercer, 


19,729 


Franklin, 


9,470 


Meadville, • 


16,030 


Erie, . 


17,041 


Warren, 


4,697 


Smithport, . 


1,439 


Port Barnet, 


2,025 


Indiana, 


14,252 


Somerset, 


17,762 



337,846 



About one half of Cambria county is in the Valley of the 
Mississippi, being drained by some ot the confluents of the 
Conemough, which flows into the Allegheny river. 

Government of Pennsylvania. — Governor — term of oflice 
three years, salary #4,000 ; Secretary of State ; Treasurer ; 
Auditor General ; Surveyor General ; and Alorney Gene- 
ral. 

Senate y consists of thirty-three members, elected for 
four years. House of Representatives^ one hundred mem* 
bers, elected annually. 

Judiciary. — There is a Supreme court, consisting of a 
Chief Justice and four Associate Judges. This court holds 
its courts in five places in the state, which is divided into 
five districts for that purpose. 

The state is also divided into 16 districts, for the ses- 
sions of the Courts of Common Pleas, Each of these Cir- 
cuits has a presiding Judge, and two Associates from each 
county. The Judges of the Supreme Court receive a 
salary of $2,000 per annum ; the Judges of the Common 
Pleas, $1600 ; and the Associates, $200. 



y Google 



WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. 109 

Harrisburg is the capital of the state. 

Pittsburgh is the seat of the sessions of the Supreme 
Court, and also of the United States District Court, for 
Western Pennsylvania, and may be considered the capital 
of this part of the state. 

Surface of the Country. — As a general remark it may 
be said, that West Pennsylvania is broken and hilly. 
Somerset, parts of Fayette, Westmoreland, Cambria, 
Indiana, Jefferson, and McKean, are mountainous ; whose 
vallies are from 1,000 to 1,500 feet above the ocean level, 
and their ridges from 500 to 1,000 feet higher. Washing- 
ton, part of Fayette, Westmoreland, and Allegheny coun- 
ties are remarkable for their lofly, insulated, and fer- 
tile hills, with narrow and exuberant bottom lands inter- 
vening. The appearance of this country, variegated by 
elevated hills which are seldom in the shape of ridges, but 
rather disconnected and conical, with innumerable vales, 
is exceedingly picturesque when viewed from some elevated 
part of the most western range of the Allegh6nies. The 
counties which lie northward of Pittsburg, although bro- 
ken, are not generally covered with such high hills as 
those which I have just mentioned. They have also much 
more level bottom lands along the water courses. On 
French Creek, and many other of the confluents of the 
Allegheny River, there are extensive bottoms, covered 
with beech, birch, sugar-maple, intermixed with the Wey- 
mouth pine and the hemlock spruce. It is from these 
extensive forests, and those on the sources of that river, 
that the vast quantities of lumber sent to the country below, 
as far as New Orleans, are annually drawn. 

Soil and Productions. — The soil of the southern counties 
is generally good, excepting Somerset county, and some 
portions of Greene, which are called glade lands. Corn, 
wheat, rye, barley, oats, flax, the potatoe, &c. grow well 
in every county. Few portions of the West have a soil 
better adapted to these productions than Washington, Fay- 
ette, Westmoreland, Allegheny, and parts of the other 
counties. The counties which lie towards Lake Erie and 
New York have a thinner and colder soil than those towards 
Virginia. They^re well adapted to the purpose of graz- 
ing. They abound in herds of cattle and other live stock ; 
and, as has already been remarked, they furnish vast sup- 

10 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



110 TALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

plies of lumber, — of which it is supposed that oo less than 
30,000,000 feet of pletrik annually descend the Allegheny 
river, and find a ready market in the towns .and cities 
which border on the river from Pittsburg to New Orleans. 
In a state of nature, this country was covered with con- 
tinuous forests of oak, walnut, hickory, sugar-maple, pop- 
lar, beech, elm, sycamore, and buck-eye along the streams^ 
chesnut, &c. &c. This region is watered by the Monon- 
gahela, Allegheny, Youghioghany, Loyalhanna, Cone- 
inaugh, French Creek, and Beaver, and their common 
recipient the Ohio. By inspection of the map it will be 
seen, that all these confluents converge towards one dis- 
trict, the centre of which is Pittsburg. To this emporium 
the productions of this whole region are chiefly brought to 
market by the natural channels of these confluents, which 
are navigable for boats much of the year, excepting the 
north-western section, which trades with New York, by 
Lake Erie and the Erie and Hudson canal. 

This is emphatically an agricultural country ; but large 
quantities of live stock are driven annually to an eastern 
market, by way of the three excellent turnpike roads which 
connect, in this State, the West with the East, viz : the 
national road which passes from Wheeling to Cumberland, 
through the southern part of this region ; the southern 
Pennsylvania road; and the northern road from Pittsburg, 
through Ebensburg, Huntingdon, &c. to Philadelphia, 
uniting with the Southern Pennsylvania road at Harrisburg. 
One of the productions of this part of the state is, to the 
joy of all good men, greatly and rapidly on the decline. I 
mean whiskey, A section of this country has obtained an 
inglorious celebrity for the quantity and quality of this li- 
quid fire which it produces. There is scarcely a whiskey, 
bibber in the land, from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico, 
who has not vociferously praised the Old Monongahelcu 
But I rejoice to believe that this infamy will soon be done 
away. A large proportion of the distilleries in this part of 
our country, have ceased within two years, and the tem- 
perance cause is advancing rapidly. It is believed that 
there is not one half the quantity of whiskey now manu- 
factured here that was made two years ago. In Washing- 
ton county, more than two-thirds of the distilleries have 
been abandoned. In 1791-4 an insurrection occurred in 
Western Pennsylvania, because of the excise or tax on the 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. Ill 

manufacture of whiskey. Happily the difficulty was set- 
tled, and the liberty poles thrown down, without blood- 
shed. It is gratifying to believe that no such uproar 
would now be made by the enlightened citizens of Western 
Pennsylvania, who seem to feel a noble determination not 
to be behind any of the friends of temperance in other 
parts of our country, in their efibrts to expel the evils of 
drunkenness from the land. 

During the months of October, November, December, 
March, April, May, and June, the Ohio is navigable for 
steam-boats up to Pittsburg, and its confluents, for flat and 
keel boats, which convey the productions of this region to 
a market in the southern part of the Valley. During Jan- 
uary and February the navigation is usually interrupted 
by the ice, and in July, August, and September, by the 
want of suflicient depth of water in those streams. Steam- 
boats, during the fall and spring high waters, run up to 
Brownsville, on the Monongahela. The other rivers in 
Western Pennsylvania, are not yet navigated by steam- 
boats to any considerable extent. 

Inexhaustible quantities of bituminous coal, exist through- 
out this section of our country, in the vallies and in the 
hills, in strata varying, in difierent places, from ^ few inches 
to several feet in depth, and aflbrd abundance of fuel, 
cheaper even than the wood which its forests supply, and 
admirably suitable for manufacturing purposes. There is 
a great abundance of iron ore, particularly in the tier of 
counties which border the Allegheny range, from which 
vast quantities of iron are manufactured. In the counties 
of Westmoreland and Fayette, are many furnaces and 
forges. Much of the iron of those counties is taken in the 
form of blooms and pigs to Pittsburg, Brownsville, &;c. 
and there manufactured into various forms of iron. On 
the Conemaugh and Kiskiminitas, salt is manufactured to 
a great extent. It is also made in some other places, but 
in comparatively small quantities. 

The natural advantages of this region, the general pro- 
ductiveness of its soil — for there is scarcely any part which 
cannot be cultivated with advantage, even the knobs of its 
hills — its facilities for intercourse, natural and artificial ; 
and the salubrity of its climate, will render it a very pop- 
ulous country. When the Pennsylvania canal shall be 
completed, and it is now finished from Pittsburg up to the 

Digitized by^^JOVJVlt: 



112 TALLET OF THB MISSISSIFFI. 

Allegheny mountaiDs at Johnstown, and almost completed 
in its eastern section to the same mountain ; when the 
canal uj^iting the Allegheny river with Lake Erie ; and 
when the Ohio and Chesapeake canal, now in progress, 
and also the Baltimore and Ohio rail road expected to ex- 
tend into this region, and already commenced, shall all be 
completed, no country will enjoy greater facilities for inter- 
communication and trade. The farmer and manufacturer 
of Western Pennsylvania will then have New Orleans, 
New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, with the places 
intermediate, as the markets to which he con send the 
products of his labour. 

There was no part of the west settled byAnglo-Ameri- 
can colonists before Western Pennsylvania. Several years 
before the American Revolution, settlements were made ia 
the neighbourhood of Pittsburg, and on the Monongahela, 
in what was then called " Redstone Settlement." The 
horrors and dangers of Indian wars were long known to 
its earlier inhabitants. 

Chief Towns. — Washington^ the scat of Justice for 
Washington county, is 25 miles south-west of Pittsburg ; 
it is neaFly midway between Brownsville and Wheelingy 
on the national road from Cumberland to Columbus in Ohio. 
It is in the centre of a beautiful and fertile country. 
Cdnonshurg^ is a small town, 18 miles south-west of Pitts- 
burg, on the turnpike road from that city to Washington 
and Wheeling. It is chiefly distinguished for its bein^ 
the seat of Jefl^rson College. Brownsville, is on the east- 
em bank of the Monongahela River, 45 miles, by the river, 
south of Pittsburg. It is a place of much business. Union- , 
town is on the national road, and is beautifully situated 
near the western base of the Laurel Hill or Ridge. Erie 
is an important post on Lake Erie, about 120 miles north 
of Pittsburg. It has considerable trade with Buffalo, dec. 
Also Greensburg, Beaver, Meadville,are growing and im- 
portant towns. Several of them are the seats of justice 
for the counties in which they stand. Along the Monon- 
gahela there arc several places, such as Elizabethtown, 
Williamsport, Bridgeport, (which is separated from 
Brownsville by Dunlap's creek) where steam-boats, are 
built every year. Steam-boats are also built at Beaver 
and in its vicinity and at Shause's town, a small village 
oa the left bank of the Ohio, 12 miles below Pittsburg. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 







1^ 






y Google 



t zed by Google 



WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. 118 

The steam-boats which are built at these places after being 
launched, are commonly taken to Pittsburg to be finished, 
and receive their engines. 

There is a vast number of villages and towns in West- 
ern Pennsylvania, and many of them beautiful, and con« 
taining an intelligent and pleasant society, but which the 
limits of this work will not allow me even to name* 

The most important town, or rather city, for it is incor- 
porated as such, is Pittsburg, — which has been rightly 
called the " Birmingham of the West." 

Pittsburg is situated in 40 deg. 27 min. of north latitude, 
and 3° &2' west Ion. from Washington ; 300 miles west of 
Philadelphia, 120 south of Lake Erie, 1,100 by land, and 
2,029 by water, above New Orleans. It stands at the 
junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers. The 
Monongahela here runs nearly a due north-west course ; 
the Allegheny flows into it from the north-east ; and, both 
combining their streams, form the beautiful Ohio, which 
flows away in a north-western direction. The city stands 
upon a level alluvial bottom of quite a limited extent ; for 
immediately back of it, and at a distance of less than a mile 
from the Point, rises Grant's Hill, with Ay res' Hill on the 
west, and Quarry Hill on the east, which may be called the 
great secondary bank, and which spread out so as to leave 
along the Allegheny River a strip of land of about one-thiitl 
of a mile in width, of great fertility : and along the Monon* 
gahela, a still narrower margin of alluvial bottom* 

This city was founded in the year 1765 : a fort had been 
built five years before, by Gen. Stanwix. This fort stood 
near the point of junction of the rivers.^ It cost 60,000 
pounds sterling. The stone magazine still remains entire* 
The fort was called Fort Pitt, in honour of the celebrated 
Earl of Chatham, under whose auspices as Premier-^ almost 
the whole of the Valley of the Mississippi was wrested 
from the French in the war of 1754 — 1763. Whilst this 
place was in the possession of the French, it was a most 
important post of trade. Here, surrounded by savage 
tribes, the trader found a ready market for his articles of 
trafiic. A small fort, erected here by the French, was 
called Fort Du Quesne. It was in attempting the capture 
of this fortress that Braddock was defeated, on the eastern 
bank of the Monongahela, at the distance of about nine 
10* 



y Google 



114 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

miles above Pittsburg. And afterwards, Grant, with his 
800 Caledonians, met with a similar disaster upon the hill 
which has ever since served as a monument, commemora- 
tive of his name and his defeat. 

The city of Pittsburg stands on the Delta above describ- 
ed, having a triangular form. It is rapidly extending 
along the alluvial margins of the Monongahela'and Alleghe- 
ny rivers, by the sides of the hills above mentioned — and is 
even encroaching upon them. Houses are building on their 
sides and summits. On the western side of the Mononga- 
hela, and about a mile above Pittsburg, lies the flourishing 
town o£ Birmingham^ and immediately opposite to the city, 
along the west bank of the same river, and under the high 
and jutting hill called Coal Hill, is a street of manufacturing 
establishments, which may be considered as an extension 
of Birmingham, and is connected with Pittsburg by a 
bridge, built in 1818, at an expense of $110,000. In the 
opposite direction, and north of the Allegheny river, stands 
Allegheny Town, on a beautiful alluviid plain of great ex- 
tent, connected with Pittsburg by a bridge, erected in 
1819, at an expense of $100,000. 

Pittsburg is admirably situated for trade and manufac- 
tures. It may be said to stand at the head of steam-boat 
navigation ; for the Allegheny and Monongahela can only 
be ascended in times of hig}\ water. It is the mart of portions 
of Western Virginia and New- York, as well as Western 
Pennsylvania ; while the Ohio opens to the enterprise of 
its citizens the whole of the Mississippi Valley. The ex- 
haustless banks of coal which exist in the neighbouring hills, 
and the excellent mines of^ iron ore which are found in 
great abundance in the counties along the mountains, and 
in the banks of the Ohio below, give to this city its pre- 
eminence over all other western cities, for manufacturing 
purposes. 

In 1810, the population of Pittsburg was about 5,000; 
in 1820 it was 7,248 ; and at present, including its suburbs, 
it is near 30,000. During a part of the peri^ from 1817 
to 1824, this city suffered much from the general stagnation 
of business, and the extensive bankruptcy which prevailed. 
During the last 8 or 9 years its prosperity has been won- 
derful, and .bids fair to continue. 

There are in Pittsburg, one Baptist church ; five Pres* 



y Google 



WJESTERK PENK8YLVAWIA. 115 

byterian ; four Methodist ; one Episcopal ; one Roman 
Catholic, (besides which there is a Cathedral of great 
dimensions building on Grant's Hill) ; one Covenanter's ; 
one Seceders' ; one German Reformed ; one Unitarian ; one 
Associate Reformed ; one Lutheran, and one African : total 
19. This statement includes the suburbs of the city. 

Besides the Banks, Hotels, Churches, Bridges, Manure - 
turing Establishments, &c. the principal objects worthy of 
theattentionof a stranger are, 1. The Western University 
of Pennsylvaniaj whose buildings are neariy completed. 
They stand near Grant's Hill, on the Monongahela side of 
the city. 2. The State Prison in Allegheny Town, which 
has cost the state a vast amount of money, and is estab* 
lished somewhat upon the plan of the new Prison in Phil* 
adelphia. 3. T%e Theological Seminary, located also in 
Allegheny Town. The edifice of this important and rising- 
institution has been recently completed. It stands on a 
beautiful, insulated hill, or knoll — rather of the form of a 
ridge than of a sugar-loaf — ^about 100 feet higher than the 
waters of the Allegheny river. It is literally quite a task 
to ascend this hill of science and religion. The centre 
building is four stories high, and the wings are three sto> 
ries. The whole is 150 feet long, and contains 70 or SO 
rooms for students. There are also rooms for the library^ 
(which, by donations from Scotland, and from individuals 
in this country, is already quite respectable,) a chapel, 
halls for recitation, rooms for a steward, iS^. The pros- 
pect from this eminence is truly delightful. One gets 
above the smoke of this smoky city, and breathes the pure 
atmosphere, and looks abroad over the city with its im- 
mense manufacturing establishments, and the noble rivers 
below, over whose waves boats of every description are 
constantly moving, propelled by oars, sails, or steam. 
4. The Museum, established by Mr. Lambdin, whose efforts 
are worthy of the highest praise. 1 know not, in all this 
wonderful city, an object more worthy of a stranger's at- 
tention, than this Museum. It contains many fine speci- 
mens of the relics of aboriginal times and arts. 5. The 
United States Arsenal, about two miles above the city, on 
the south side of the Allegheny River, at a village called 
Lawrence ville. This is a large depot of arms, ordnance, 
&c. It encloses about four acres. 6. The City Water 
Works^ erected in 1828, — a noble and valuable monument 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



116 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

of liberality and enterprise. The water is elevated 116 feet, 
from the Allegheny River, by a pipe of 15 inches in diani« 
eter, and 2,439 feet in length, to a basin or reservoir, on 
Grant's Hill, 11 feet deep, and calculated to contain 
1,000,000 of gallons. The water is raised by a steam 
engine of 84 horse power, which will elevate 1,600,000 
gallons in 24 hours. I might mention also the beautiful 
aqueduct of the Pennsylvania canal, across the Allegheny 
River, a short distance above the bridge. 

The great quantities of coal in all the hills around, and 
of iron manufactured in this entire region — particularly 
along the mountains,— combined with the fine situation of 
this city for commercial enterprise, have made it a vast 
assemblage of manufacturing establishments, which are day 
and night rolling up immense volumes of smoke, darken- 
ing the very heavens, and discoloring every object— even 
the houses and the inhabitants. There are here ten Foun* 
dries, for various castings, including steam engines and 
ploughs. M 'Chirg and Company's was erected in the year 
1803, for the sum of 877,000, and has cast many cannon, 
balls, 6lc. for the government. There are six Glass Works. 
The excellence of the manufactures of this city in glass are 
well known. There are eight Rolling Mills, consuming 
8,190 bushels of coal daily, and driven by ten steam engines, 
of from 60 to 100 horse power each. There wtefive Cot- 
ton Factories, propelled by steam, and having many thou- 
sands of spindles. There are seven shops for making and 
repairing steam engines and machinery. There are two 
Steam Flour Mills. I cannot specify the copper, tin, nail, 
and earthenware -Factories — ^nor those for the manufactur- 
ing of knives, files, and other articles of cutlery. Nor the 
Saw Mills, Dye Wood Cutting Mills, Brass and Bell 
Foundries, &c. which employ 24 steam engines. The num- 
ber of yards for the building of flat, keel, and steam-boats 
I do not know exactly. This is one of the greatest places in 
the West, and in the world, for the building of steam-boats. 

The preceding paragraph gives a brief statement of the 
Manufactories of Pittsburg alone. The following state- 
ment, obtained from a perfectly authentic source, embraces 
the manufactories of Pittsburg and its vicinity — and, in 
some cases, of Allegheny and Westmoreland counties. 1 
give it in detail, as it was furnished to me, that the reader 



y Google 



WE8TE8N PXNNSYLVANIA. 117 

may have some idea of the extent of the manu&ctures of 
this growing city, and of the region in the vicinity. 

1. There are the following Nail Factosibs and Roll* 
INO Mills, in Pittsburg and its vicinity. The weight of 
metal manufactured in 1831 by each, together with the 
value of the manufactures is given : 

Weight in lbs. Value. 



Union 720,000 - 

Sligo, 400,000 - - 

Pittsburg, - - ' . - 782,887 - - 

Grant's Hill, - - - 500,000 - - 

Juniata, - - - . 500,000 - - 

Pine Creek, - - - 467,000 - - 

Miscellaneous Factories, 360,000 - - 



$43,200 
32,000 
86,544 
30,000 
40,000 
34,100 
28,800 



2. Foundries. — ^There are 12 Foundries in and near 
Pittsburg. During the year 1831, 2,063 tons of metal were 
converted into castings, 132 hands employed, 87,000 bush* 
els of coal consumed, and the value of the manufoctures was 
$189,614. Exclusive of Pittsburg and its vicinity, there 
are 5 Foundries in Allegheny and Westmoreland counties. 

3. In and near Pittsburg, there are 37 Steam Engines, 
valued at $180,400, which employ 123 hands. 

4. There are 8 Cotton Factories, with 369 looms, 698 
hands, and worth $300,134. In the counties of Westmore- 
land and Allegheny, there are 6 Cotton Factories. 

6. In Pittsburg, and the two counties above named, there 
are 8 Paper Mills, valued at $166,000. 

6. There are in Pittsburg and its vicinity, 6 Steam Mills, 
which employ 50 hands. Value of their products, annually, 
$80,000. 

7. There are 6 Brass Foundries and 8 Coppersmiths' 
Shops. Value of manufactures, $26,000. 

8. Within the limits of the city, there are 30 Black- 
smith's shops, which employ 136 hands. There are also 4 
Gunsmiths, and 9 Silversmiths and Watch repairers. 

9. In Pittsburg, and the counties of Westmoreland and 
Allegheny, there are 26 Saddleries and 41 Tanneries. 
There are also 64 Brick Yards, and 11 Potteries* 

10. There are 4 White Lead Factories in the city, and 
7,400 kegs made annually — ^value, $27,900. There are 
also 4 Breweries. 



y Google 



118 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

11. There are 6 Printing Offices in Pittsburg, and 6 
more in the two counties. 

The estimated value of the manufactures of every kind in 
Pittsburg, and the counties of Allegheny and Westmore- 
land, in 1831, was $3,978,469! 

In Allegheny and Westmoreland Counties, the number of 
Distilleries was, in March 1832, sixty-two; in 1830, it was 
one hundred and sixty -eight / 

There are, it is believed, not less than eight thousand 
wagons arriving at this city every year from Philadelphia, 
loaded with merchandise for the west. Whilst the quantity 
of flour, whiskey, lumber, salt, &;c. which is brought to this 
place by the roads, the canal, and the rivers, for exportation 
to the lower parts of the valley, is immense. I have no 
data for estimating accurately the worth of the merchandise 
which is at present brought annually from the East. In 
1818, it was estimated at 89,425 tons, and valued at 
$17,885,000 ! At present it cannot be less than 20 million 
dollars. Much of the heavier kinds of merchandize, is now 
brought up from New-Orleans by steam-boats. 

The coal which abounds here is found in strata of from 6 
inches to 10, or more, feet in depth. And what is remark- 
able, it is found in the hills which overlook Pittsburg at 
the height of about 300 feet above the bottom of the rivers. 
Below this one stratum, which is of about equal elevation, 
no other is found until you descend into the base of the hills 
below the bottom of the rivers. It is not the fact that the 
great mass of these hills is coal. But a small portion of 
them is of this species of substance. Coal Hill, immediately 
opposite the city on the west side of the Monongahela, 
is a great source of this kind of fuel. The miners have pe- 
netrated a great distance, and the coal slides down the 
hill into boats, or is deposited for the wagons, by a kind of 
rail-road, or inclined plane, to the alarm of many a passer- 
by. The perforations made in digging the coal, reach, in 
some places, very far into the hill. It is worthy of a stran- 
ger's attention to explore the interior of these gloomy re- 
gions, survey the dark caverns and the pillars which sustain 
the superimposed mass of mountain, and contemplate the 
leaden colored faces of the miners, as they meet his eye 
when the torch's gleam falls upon them. But let him not 
expect to escape without c^toning for his temerity in enter- 



y Google 



WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA. 119 

ing these abodes of Pluto, or rather Plutus, by paying a 
suitable reward either ia money, or, as is too commonly the 
case, in whiskey. 

To a stranger nothing is more imposing than to stand on 
the bank of the Monongahela above the Point, and survey 
the steam-boats as they depart on their long voyages down 
the Ohio, or when they arrive upon their return. There is 
something griand in seeing the large boats, of a beautiful 
form, and great power, marching up heavily loaded, over- 
coming the resistance of the current, and discharging at 
intervals their steam, which occasions a very loud and start- 
ling roar, re-echoed in quick succession from the hills which 
environ the city. Nothing is more striking to one who 
witnesses the scene for the first time. When the rivers 
are navigable, say during 7 or 8 months in the autumn and 
spring, nothing is more common than for several boats to 
arrive and depart daily, occasioning much activity in the 
trade of the city. Thousands of travellers here embark 
for the farther « West." 

There is much moral power in this city — much wealth 
and intelligence — many men of talents in the learned pro- 
fessions of law, medicine, and divinity, some of whom are 
extensively known in our country. 

In Pennsylvania there is no system of common schools 
established by the authorities of the state. Education has 
therefore depended upon the voluntary efllprts of the people. 
Schools have generally been maintained by the inhabitants 
of each neighborhood during some portion of the year. 
There are, however, many neighbourhoods where, owing 
to the sparseness of the population, or their poverty, or 
their want of interest in the subject, schools have been very 
inadequately supported. And, in many places, the teachers 
are incompetent for want of knowledge, or grossly deficient 
in moral character. A change for the better is, however, 
going forward. In this city, and in most of the large 
towns and larger villages, and in many of the most popu- 
lous neighborhoods, very respectable schools are maintain- 
ed. Academies are also established in all the larger towns, 
and the higher branches of learning taught in many of 
them. I would remark in this place, that there is a great 
demand in West Pennsylvania, for good school teachers: 
they would find certain and profitable employment. 



y Google 



120 VAJLLEY OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 

As I intend to give a full account of the Colleges, and 
other literary institutions of the Valley of the Mississippi, 
in a separate chapter, I shall not here speak of the Colleges, 
&c. of Western Pennsylvania, but only refer the reader to 
that chapter. For the same reason, I shall say nothing here 
respecting the Religious Denominations, but reserve what 
I have to ^ay on that subject for a distinct chapter. 

I shall now close this description of Western Pennsyl- 
vania, with a few general remarks. 

1. This portion of our country has occupied a considera- 
ble place in the annals of our nation. Seventy -five years ago, 
it was the abode of numerous tribes of Indians. The 
French claimed much of this region, and had several forti- 
fied posts in it, and, with their Indian allies, carried terror 
and death into the adjoining English settlements in the 
east. The principal of these fortifications was Fort Du 
Quesne, which was subsequently called Pittsburg. Many 
indeed were the brave and enterprising settlers who 
fell amid a long continued, and vindictive, but successful 
war, during which savage cruelty, and civilized inhumani- 
ty and stratagem, bedewed these hills and vallies with blood, 
and caused the voice of lamentation, uttered by sorrowing 
widows and fatherless children, to be heard in many a dis- 
tant neighborhood. It was here that our beloved Wash- 
ington learned the arts of war in successful and unsuccess- 
ful campaigns ai^ainst the Indians and their Canadian 
allies. In 1763, he was sent by the lieutenant Governor of 
Virginia, to warn the French to leave this region of coun- 
try, which, as well as what is now Ohio, Indiana, &c. they 
had commenced occupying. In 1764, he was again sent 
with the title and command of a Major, to dislodge the 
French and Indians from the post which they had com- 
menced fortifying at the junction of the Monongahela and 
Allegheny. At a place called the "Little Meadows," (ten 
miles east of Uniontown,) in the immediate vicinity of 
which, the National road from Cumberland to Wheeling 
now passes, he was attacked by a numerous body of French 
and Indians. Having but one regiment, and protected only 
by a small stockade, he was compelled to surrender; 
which he did on honourable terms. 

In 1766, Col. Washington again marched out to this re- 
gion, as an aid-de-camp to Gen. Braddock. The disastrous 



y Google 



WESTERN FENNSYLVANIA. I2l 

issue of this expedition is too well known to be repeated 
here. On the east bank of the Monongahela, where an 
excellent female seminary now stands, the British and 
American forces met with a terrible defeat. Braddock, 
mortally wounded in the battle, soon afterwards died ; and 
in the retreat, the remnant of the army was commanded by 
Washington until its arrival at Dunbar's camp in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Little Meadows. About half a mile west- 
ward of the latter place, by the road -side, Braddock was 
buried. His bones, many years afterwards, were taken to 
England. 

In 1758, the British General Forbes, marched against 
Fort Du Quesne. Col. Grant, who commanded the ad- 
vance, witii 800 Scotchmen, was defeated on the hill which 
bears his name. But in November of that year, this fortifi- 
cation surrendered. This event gave security to the emi- 
grants, who now began to settle in this region. In 1759, 
Quebec was captured. And in 1763, this war was ended 
by the treaty of Paris.* 

2. In 1790, Congress passed a law imposing excise duties 
upon spirits distilled in the United States. This law was 
violently opposed in many parts of the country, especially in 
the western part of Pennsylvania. During the period of 
1790-94, many meetings were held by the malecontents at 
Pittsburg, Brownsville, Parkinson's Ferry (now Williams- 
port,) on the Monongahela, Braddock's Field, and other 
places, where violent measures were adopted to defeat the 
law, and prevent the government officers from doing their 
duty. Many outrages were committed. The whole coun- 
try became a scene of disorder. The Marshal of the Uni- 
ted States for this District, was openly resisted, and escaped 
for his life, down the Ohio, after the burning of General 
Neville's house, which was done by the insurgents, because 
the Marshal was harboured there. It is impossible for any 
one, who did not live on the spot, rightly to conceive of the 
deplorable state of things. Matters waxed worse and 
worse. Neighbourhoods were torn to pieces by dissen- 
sions; houses and other property began to be burned by the 
rebels ; and there was at length but little security for life, 
especially to thbse who stood forward prominently in be- 
half of the government. 

* Marshall's History of the American Colonies, Chapters X-XU. 
11 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



192 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Meanwhile, the government did all that it could, consist-* 
ently with dignity and justice, to conciliate the disafiected* 
Ijie laws were modified, proclamations were issued, and 
an amnesty profiered. But all in vain. At length. Presi- 
dent Washington, having the proper sanction of the Supreme 
Court, called on the governments of the neighbouring states 
in 1794, for their aid in quelling this insurrection. And in 
the autumn of that year, 12,000 men from Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia, advanced upon the 
insurgents by way of Bedford and Cumberland. Governor 
Lee, of Virginia, commanded ; and, under him, were the 
Governors of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The advance 
of this formidable force soon settled the difficulty. The 
proffered terms of pardon were accepted. A few of the 
chief leaders of the rebellion, who were found, were taken 
to Philadelphia for trial. No life was lost ; the liberty 
poles disappeared ; the " whiskey boys " quietly submitted^ 
and thus happily ended the " Whiskey Insurrection."* 

3. Western Pennsylvanid presents many and strong in- 
ducements to eastern emigrants, especially to such as desire 
to remove — ^not exactly to a new and uncultivated country — 
but to one where the wilderness has given place, in a good 
degree, to cultivated fields. And there are many such emi- 
grants, who, possessing a considerable amount of property, 
wish to purchase in a country where land, although fertile 
and cultivated, is much cheaper than it is in favourable sit- 
uations in the older states. Such emigrants will find much 
cniltivated land in West Pennsylvania, of a good quality, con-» 
venient to market, or to the natural and artificial channels 
of trade, whiph abound in this section of our country. 
Rivers and roads are found in almost every part, leading to 
the great marts of business, either in the East or the West. 
Canals are adding to these facilities, and soon Rail Roads 
will still more increase them. 

Farms can be purchased for various prices, in this entire 
region, according to their relative advantages for trade, 
and proximity to market towns. It is impossible to state 
these prices with much accuracy. Some good farms will 
cost 8 or 10 dollars per acre, in a good state of cultivation, 

* For a ibll recount of this insurrection, the reader is referred to the 
history of it, written by the late Hon. Mr. Findlay, of Westmoreland 
ooonty. 



y Google 



WESTEBN FEKMSSLVANIA. 123 

and having houses, barns, &;c. In more favourable situa- 
tions they will cost from 15 to 25 dollars per acre ; and ia 
the neighbourhood of considerable towns, they will com* 
mand even a greater price per acre. 

The advantages of this country for trade, agriculture, the 
raising of live stock, &c. have already been mentioned. 
Many thousands of sheep are raised in Washington county, 
and in other counties, for the production of wool. And this 
business is found to be profitable. Whilst manufactures of 
iron, cotton, wool, &c. &c. now employ profitably a vast 
amount of capital. 

The climate of West Pennsylvania is eminently salubri- 
ous. Of this I speak from long and intimate knowledge. 
It is essentially the climate of New Jersey and Eastern 
Pennsylvania, as it regards temperature, excepting so far 
as it is modified by elevation, which is very considerable in 
every portion, and especially along the mountain ranges 
and valiies. The Ohio at Pittsburg, is 678 feet above the 
Atlantic ocean off Philadelphia, and the hills around are 
from 400 to 500 feet higher. 

The morals of the people are generally good. Intemper^^ 
ance is rapidly diminishing. Religion was early planted ia 
this region, and has a great influence upon the public mind. 
The preaching of the gospel is enjoyed in almost every 
part. Schools are improving, and Sunday schools, with 
libraries, are becoming to a good degree general. Whilst 
Colleges are numerous, and some of them very good, and 
all of them affording an education to young men at a mod- 
erate rate of expense. Manual labour schools are also es- 
tablishing, which are opening the doors of science to the 
gifted sons of the humblest and the poorest. 

Upon a survey of all these circumstances, I think it may 
foe truly said that this portion of the West holds out many 
inducements to eastern emigrants. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



124 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



CHAPTER XII. 

The Ohio River and its Scenery. — Western Virginia. 

Having in the last Chapter given a description of West- 
em Pennsylvania, or what may be properly called the coun- 
try which lies at the head of the Valley of the Ohio, I pro- 
ceed to speak of another and more southern portion of this 
Valley. The present chapter will contain some account of 
the Ohio River, and a brief description of Western Virgi- 
nia. 

The Ohio River may be considered as commencing at . 
Pittsburg, at the junction of the Monongabela and Allegha- 
ny* From that point its general course is towards the N. 
W. to Beaver, 28 miles. From Beaver it pursues a course 
a little S. of W. to Wellsville, about 50 miles below Pitts- 
burg. From this place its general course is almost due S. 
to Marietta, only verging a little to the West, as it ap- 
proaches that place. From Marietta it pursues a S. W. 
course to the mouth of the Sandy. From that point it pur- 
sues a westward, or rather a little N. of West course, un- 
til, passing Cincinnati, it receives the great Miami. From 
its junction with that river to its union with the Mississip- 
pi, its main direction is south-west. 

The length of the Ohio from Pittsburg to the Mississip- 
pi, is 952 miles. In the language of the boatmen it is call- 
ed 1000, and even 1100 miles long. Cincinnati is nearly 
midway from Pittsburg to its junction with the Mississippi* 
The captains of the steam boats reckon Louisville to be 
near 650 miles below Pittsburg, and 450 above the mouth 
of the Ohio. 

The course of this river, like that of all the streams of 
the Valley of the Mississippi, is singularly crooked. Its 
bends, as they are called, or meanderings are perpetual and 
uniform, and almost monotonous. In no place, from its 
source to its mouth, can the eye take in a section of mora 
than five or ten miles in length; and excepting a few 



y Google 



THE OHIO HIVES JL17D ITS 8CBNEHT. 125 

*^ long reaches," — which is the boatmen's name for the 
straight portions of the river, — not more than from five to 
seven miles can often be seen in any one place. 

About seventy-five rivers and creeks empty into the Ohio 
between Pittsburg and its mouth. The most important of 
these are, on the lefl hand as you descend, Chartiers, in 
West Pennsylvania; Wheeling creek, Little Kanawha, 
Oreat Kanawha, Guyandot and Sandy, from West Virgi- 
nia : Little Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Green, Cum* 
berland and Tennessee, from the state of Kentucky. On 
the right, or west side, Beaver, from Pennsylvania ; Mus- 
kingum, Hocking, Scioto, Little Miami, Great Miami,^ 
from Ohio ; Wabash, from Indiana. 

Between Pittsburg and the mouth of the Ohio there are 
one hundred considerable islands. There is also a number 
of sand-bars, tow-heads, &c. Some of the islands are seve- 
ral miles long, but of a narrow width. Not a few possess 
great beauty, fertility of soil, and afford delightful sites for 
a retired residence. They are generally too low to be 
very safe situations in times of high floods. They are all 
covered with dense forests, save where cultivation has con- 
verted the wilderness into a fruitful field. 

The current of the Ohio is remarkably uniform, smooth 
and placid. In this respest it is surpassed by no other 
river on earth. The banks are generally high and abrupt, 
forming in many places blufi^ and clifis of the height of 
three or four hundred feet. Between these high blufi^ and 
hills there are oAen strips of alluvial land, commonly called 
bottoms. These interval or botttom lands possess astonish* 
ing fertility. They are oflen of considerable width, so as 
to form farms of large extent, and of great beauty and value* 
The high hills which border the river, sometimes in im- 
mediate contiguity, at others standing ofifand leaving a con- 
siderable extent of bottom land, varying from a quarter of a 
mile to a mile in width, exhibit a wild and picturesque gran- 
deur which cannot be conceived by those who have not wit- 
nessed such scenery. They are commonly covered, even to 
their very summits, with dense forests of oak, beech, wal- 
nut, ^. dsc. ; whilst along their base and far beneath 
their summits, a continuous grove of the white armed syca- 
more ; the beautiful sugar-maple, ash, elm ; and along the 
lower half of the river's course, cotton-wood, hackberry, 
11* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



126 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

cypress, &;c. rear their heads, and add inexpressible beauty 
to the prospect. These trees are frequently of a gigantic 
size, and cast their broad shadows, in the mornings and 
evenings, quite across the placid bosom of the gentle Ohio. 
And when seen, during the full moonlight, from the boat 
which floats peacefully down the calmly moving stream, 
whilst nothing is heard save the bells of the cattle on the 
banks, the distant barking of the watchful dog, or the dis^- 
sonant notes of the " moping owl," the efiect on the mind 
of the traveller is indescribable. The constant shifting of 
the scene, the alternation of bright and dark sides of the 
hills, together with the variation in the appearance of 
the river — one place reflecting the beautiful beams of th^ 
moon, and another enveloped in the deep shadows cast from 
the lofly and overhanging blufl^, — altogether form a scene 
surpassing in beauty and effect any thing which I have 
elsewhere seen. 

I have passed many times up and down this^ river from 
its source to its mouth. At one time I descended in a steam 
boat, when the river was full of floating ice, and the banks 
were covered with snow, and all nature wore a most forbid* 
ding aspect. Nothing was pleasant but the Are in the beau« 
tiful and elegantly furnished cabin. At another time, I 
descended when the heat of a mid-summer's sun, would 
have rendered the steam-boat an intolerable place, had it not 
been for the perpetual breezes which float up or down the 
river. I have passed up and down this river when its stream 
was swollen by the vernal and autumnal floods, and when 
the largest steam boats proudly pursued their way up and 
down between Pittsburg and New Orleans, without obstruc* 
tion. And I have been on this river, in the latter part of 
summer and the beginning of autumn, when it was with the 
utmost difficulty that a steam boat of 80 or 100 tons could 
pass from Pittsburg to Louisville : when it would sometimes 
require hours to get her over a sand-bar or a shoal, with all 
the aid that could be given by " sparring," and hauling, by 
means of a cable fastened at one end to a tree on shore and 
the other to the capstan, or to the shaft of the wheels, whilst 
a heavy pressure of steam was employed to force the boat 
ahead. 

Before the introduction of steam-boats, every species of 
water crafl was employed in navigating this river — some of 
which were of the most whimsiccd and amusing structure. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



THE OBIO SIVBB AND ITS SCBIVXRr. 127 

The barge, the keel boat, the flat bottom or family boat, 
the pirogue or canoe, ferry boats, gondolas, skifl^, dug-outs, 
and others, whose designation f cannot this moment recal 
to mind, formerly floated in great numbers down the Ohio 
and Mississippi, to points of destination sometimes more 
than two thousand miles distant from the place from which 
they started. And even since the introduction of steam- 
boats, which in great numbers now traverse this river, and 
its branches, many hundreds — I might almost say thousands 
of these boats — still continue to float on these waters. The 
keel boats find much to do, during that portion of the 
summer and autumn when the river is too low for the steam- 
boats to run. Hundreds of flat bottom boats (called, in the 
western boatman's dialect, " broad homs,^^) annually float 
down from a thousand places on the Ohio and other western 
streams, to Cincinnati, or Louisville, or New-Orleans. I 
have often passed fifty of them in a day, rowing with their 
long sweeps, or else floating leisurely with the current — •pi- 
ten two or three lashed or fastened close together, and thus 
allowing the hands and passengers to while away the hours 
in holding converse together on the extended roof, or in 
each other's cabins. 

This mode of navigation is slow, compared with the steam- 
boat^ but it is cheap— and to people who have but little to 
do, or who are not inclined to do much, time is reckoned of 
but little consequence. It is a great mistake to suppose that 
the introduction of steam-boats has been succeeded by the 
disappearance of all this sort of craft*. The rapidly increa- 
sing trade of this region, together with" the cheapness and 
convenience of the flat boat navigation, seems to increase, 
rather than diminish their number. Convenient and 
pleasant as is a steam-boat for families of emigrants remo- 
ving to the West, yet there are hundreds and thousands of 
such families, who prefer the flat boat, slow as Us motion is. 
Some prefer it, because they think that it is safer than the 
steam-boats, to which so many accidents have happened. 
Others cannot afford to bear the expense of a passage in a 
steam-boat. Besides, hundreds of farmers, who live on the 
small but navigable streams which flow into the Ohio and 
other large rivers of the West, build their own boats at lit- 
tle expense, load them with their own and their neighbours' 
produce,— 'and, when they have descended the small streams 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



128 TALLSY OF THE MI881S8IPFI. 

in the vicinity of which they live, find that it is often cheap- 
er to float on down to a distant market in their own 
boats, than to ship their cargoes on board of a passing 
8team-boat. 

These boats, however, are not only subject to great de- 
lays, but also exposed to some dangers from the rapids, 
sandbars, rocks, and sudden and violent storms and torna- 
does, which sink them before they can be gotten to the 
shore. Considering the form of these boats, and their un- 
wieldy nature, it is truly wonderful that more accidents of 
this kind do not happen. As it is, they are so seldom, that 
they are scarcely estimated at all, by those whose business 
or choice it suits to descend to Cincinnati or New-Orleans, 
by this mode of navigation. There is not on earth a clasis 
of men of a more peculiar and marked character, than the 
western boatmen. They are as much a sui generis sort of 
men, as our sailors are. They have, it is true, lost much 
of the lawless and outrageous spirit which they had in the 
olden time, and before the introduction of steam-boats upon 
the western waters. They have become less intemperate, 
more civil in their intercourse with other men, but yet their 
distinguishing traits of character remain, — boldness, readi^ 
ness to encounter almost any danger, recklessness of conse- 
quences, and indifference to the wants of the future, amid 
the enjoyments, the noise, whiskey and fun, of the present. 
It is a mounful fact, that their own inclination, as well as 
their mode of life, almost constantly exclude them from the 
means of moral and religious instruction. Their condition 
is beginning, however, to excite Christian sympathy, and to 
elicit suitable efforts for the promotion of their reformation. 

There are many beautiful and rapidly growing towns and 
cities, between Pittsburg and the mouth of the Ohio. The 
chief of them are Beaver, Steubenville, Wellsburg, Wheel- 
ing, Marietta, Galliopolis, Burlington, Portsmouth, Mays- 
ville, Ripley, Augusta, Cincinnati, Newport, Covington, 
liawrenceburg, Madison, Jefiersonville, Louisville, New 
Albany, Henderson, Shawneetown, and Smithland. Al- 
most a hundred more, flourishing, but yet small villages, 
springing up on the banks of this beautiful river, might be 
mentioned. But I shall reserve whatever degree of parti- 
cular description of these places I may give in this book, 
until I come to speak of the states in which they stand. 



y Google 



w. 



T 
h 

»n 
m 
tu 

♦ *» •. «e 

i' ' le 

- • m 

ia 
iit 

Ml 

Hi 
.1 

» to 

pa- 
ll* 

rk 

he ' 



lie- 



».r 

ho 

mi 

of 

u\i 

US, 



y Google 



It 
e 
b. 

St 

1b 

SE 

dt 
si 

tb 
th 

at 

b) 
of 



0, 



mi 

of 

ol( 

th. 

mi 

dis , 

im 

qu 

tbi 

It 

the 

me ^ 

eli- 
cit 

Clc[ 

vilt 
La' 

Alt 
mo 
S[>r 
mei 
cult 
unt; 







1. 



1 



Gaogle 



WESTERir VIBGINIA. 129 

I am acquainted with no river scenery in our country 
through which it is more delightful to pass, than that which 
borders the Ohio River, in the spring or early part of sum- 
mer, when all nature seems to be teeming with life-— whea 
the noble forests which crown both the hills and the vales on 
each side of this gracefully meandering river, have put on 
their dark coloured foliage — and when the balmy breezes, 
scented by the flowers of the shrubbery which forms the 
undergrowth along the banks, are wafted gently over the 
noble steam-boat, as she careers along — Or, when autumn 
is beginning to shed its mellow influence upon the vegetable 
world, and the forests, as the sofl and serene day opens in 
the morning, or wears away towards the evening, exhibit 
from the vales and the lofly banks on either side, the varied 
tints,— the yellow, the red, and the purple, intermixed with 
the yet unchanging green, — which give signs of the gradual 
decline of nature towards the lifclessness and coldness of 
approaching winter. Nothing can be more pleasant than to 
make a voyage at such a period, in an elegant boat, pos- 
sessing suitable accommodations, (as many western steam- 
boats do,) in company with pleasant and intelligent passen- 
gers. " Many an hour will glide swiflly away, while the deck 
IS promenaded in the morning and the evening — and the 9 
ever-varying scene contemplated with renewed admiration. 

But I must now close these general remarks respecting 
the Ohio and its scenery, and occupy the remainder of the- 
chapter with a brief description of Western Virginia. 

Westerw Virginia, is bounded on the north by Penn- 
sylvania, and Maryland ; on the east by the line which sep- 
arates the waters which flow into the Atlantic by the Po- 
tomac, James' River, Roanoke, &c. from those which flow 
west ; on the south by North Carolina and Tennessee ; west 
by Kentucky ; and north-west by the Ohio river, which sep- 
arates it from the state of Ohio. A narrow strip of land 
projects northward between a part of the western line of 
Pennsylvania and the Ohio river. The area of Western 
Virginia is about 26,649 square miles, or two-fiflhs of the 
state. The line of division which separates Western from 
Eastern Virginia, can easily be traced on a good map of 
the state. On the south-west, the Sandy, up to a certain 
point, thence a direct line to the Cumberland Mountains, 
and thence along those mountains to the Tennessee line. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



130 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



form the boundary which separates Virginia from Ken- 
tucky. 

The following is a list of the counties in Western Vir- 
ginia with the census of 1830. In 1820, the population was 
147,514. The population of the entire state in 1830 was 
1,211,272. 

Counties. 
Brooke, n tD, 
Ohio, n Wy 
Monongalia, n ir, 
Harrison, n w, 
Randolph, n m, 
Russell, 5 Wj 
Preston, n, 
Tyler, n ir, 
Wood, M?, 
Greenbrier, w m, 
Kanawha, ir, 
Mason, ir, 
Lewis, w m, 
Nicholas, w m, 
I Logan, Wy 
Cabell, Wy 
Monroe, w m, 
Pocahontas, w m, 
Giles, IT, 

Montgomery, a to, 
Wythe, 9 tc, 
Grayson, «, 
Tazewell, a tr, 
Washington, * tr, 
Scott, s w, 
Lee, 8 Wy 





Population 


County Towna. 


in 1830. 


Wellsburg, 


7,046 


Wheeling, 


16,684 


Morgantown, . 


14,066 


Clarkesburg, 


14,723 


Beverly, 


6,000 


Lebanon, 


6,714 


Kingwood, 


6,244 


Middlebourne, • 


4,104 


Parkersburg, . 


6,429 


Greenbrier, C. H. 


9,006 


Charleston, 


9,326 


Point Pleasant, • 


6,634 


Weston, 


6,241 


Nicholas, C. H. 


3,346 


Logan, C. H. . 


3,640 


Cabell, C.H. . 


6,834 


Union, 


7,798 


Huntersville, . 


2,642 


Parisburg, 


6,274 


Christiansburg, . 


12,306 


Wythe, C.H. . 


12,163 


Grayson, C. H. 


7,676 


Jefiersonville, . 


6,749 


Abingdon, 


15,614 


Estillville, 


6,724 


Lee, C.H. 


6,461 



Total of Population, 



204,173 



From the above table it appears that there are 26 coun- 
ties in Western Virginia. The increase of population has 
been somewhat more than 66,000 during the period of ten 
years, from 1820 to 1830, 

The whole number of counties in the state, in 1830, was 
105, 



y Google 



WESTERN VIBGINIA. 131 

Executive Government of Virginia, — Goveroor elected 
by the General Assembly — term of office, three years, sa- 
lary $3,333^. Lieutenant Governor, $1 ,000. Two Coun- 
sellors, each $1,000. Treasurer and Auditor^ each $2,000. 

Leoislature, styled the General Assembly of Virginia^ 
consists of a Senate and House of Delegates. The Senate 
consists of 32 members ; and the House of Delegates of 
134, of whom 31 are elected by the counties in Western 
Virginia. The Legislature me^s annually on the 1st Mon- 
day in December, at Richmond, the capital of the State. 

Judiciary. — ^The Court of Appeals consists of a Presi- 
dent, with a salary of $2,720, and four other judges, whose 
salary is $2,500 each. This Court holds two .sessions an- 
nually, one at Richmond^ for East Virginia ; the other at 
Lewisburgj in Greenbrier County, for West Virginia, in- 
cluding all the counties West of the Blue Ridge, commenc- 
ing on the first Monday in July, and continuing ninety days, 
if business requires it. 

General Court. — ^The state is divided into ten districts 
and twenty circuits. There are twenty Judges, — one for 
each circuit. A Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chan- 
cery is held twice every year in each county and corpora- 
tion. 

Face of the Country, Sfc. — ^The eastern part of Western 
Virginia, as any one will perceive who examines a well- 
executed map of Virginia, is composed of a section of the 
Allegheny system of mountains. This mountainous section 
is much wider on the south than on the north, for the divi- 
ding line which separates the eastern from the western 
streams crosses over from the Blue Ridge to one of the 
western ranges of this system of mountains, at a short dis- 
tance north of the New River, which is the main branch 
of the Kanawha River. So that whilst many ridges and 
spurs of the Alleghenies are in the southern part, there are 
but two or three mountain ridges, exclusive of the detached 
portions, in the middle and northern parts of Western Vir- 
ginia. 

The vajlies which lie between these mountains are by no 
means always narrow strips of comparatively level land ; 
they ollen expand until they seem, to one surveying them 
from an elevated spot, like vast basins, surrounded by ele- 
vated mountains. Such is the valley in which Abingdon is 



y Google 



132 VALLET OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

situated, and that which embosoms a large portion of East 
Tennessee, having the Clinch, and further south the Cum- 
berland mountains, on the west, and the Blue Ridge on the 
east. Much, however, of this vast basin in East Tennes- 
see is interrupted by minor mountains and ridges, which, 
when compared with the great natural boundaries, in the 
distance, are' insignificant. In Virginia, the ridges are 
more compact, so to speak, than in East Tennessee. Still 
the valley in which Wyth^and Washington counties are 
situated, having Walker's mountain on the west, resembles 
more a basin than a valley. Smaller basins, such as Burke' 8 
Garden^ are to be found throi|ghout the whole mountainous 
region in Virginia. 

Nothing can be more beautiful to the eye of the travel- 
ler, as he pursues his way over these successive ridges, than 
to survey, from their summits, the vallies and basins which 
lie before him, and on his right and left. They appear oflea 
like vast oceans of trees, lying at an immense distance be- 
low him, waving their green surfaces to the various blasts 
of wind which agitate them. They are not now continous 
forests. Here and there, the green surface is interrupted 
by cultivated farm^, fields of grass, of corn, or of wheat, ad- 
, ding variety to the scene, as well as giving assurance to the 
traveller that he is in a land inhabited by civilized men. 

The mountainous belt^ in Virginia, is about 120 miles in 
width, being composed of successive parallel ridges or 
mountains, interrupted by the rivers and smaller streams, 
which intersect them in various places. Beyond these 
mountains lies the hilly portion of Western Virginia, slo- 
ping down to the Ohio river. 

An examination of this mountainous zone, stretching from 
south-west to north-east, presents this remarkable phenom- 
enoD, viz. these mountain ridges have little or noefiect upon 
the course of the rivers which rise and flow from this eleva- 
ted region. They run east or west, without having their 
course afiected by opposing mountains ; for when necessa- 
ry, they seem to cut through them, as if these everlasting 
Imrriefs afiR)rded no impediment at all to their course. And 
their sources interlock with, and pass by each other, pur- 
suing their opposite ways, without any reference to the 
mountain ridges, so that you can select no one of these 
ridges as the great dividing line, separating the western 



y Google 



WSSTEBN VIRGINIA. 133 

from the eastern waters. In fact they rise on the great 
elevated table-land upon which the mountains seem to have 
been superimposed, and have their courses shaped entirely 
by the declinations of its surface, without reference to the 
mountains at all ; so that if one could imagine these moun- 
tains to be removed away, the rivers would still pursue 
their channels, formed in the eternal base, unaffected by 
the removal of the mountain mass. 

Beginning at the southern end of this mountain system, 
as it regards Virginia, on the Tennessee and North Carolina 
line, and advancing northward, you first find the Holston, 
Clinch, <kc., flowing south-westward into the Tennessee, 
and so into the Mississippi. Next you come to the New 
River, or main branch of the Great Kanawha, which rises 
in the north-west angle of North Carolina, and runs north- 
west through every ridge of the Allegheny system, (inclu- 
ding what is called the Allegheny Ridge) excepting the 
Blue Ridge, on the west side of which it rises. As you 
proceed further northward, you come to the Roanoke, which 
rises west of the Blue Ridge, and in its course south-east- 
ward, cuts through that mountain. Next you come to the 
James River, which also cuts the Blue Ridge ; and some of 
its main branches rising far to the West, cut through every 
ridge of the system, save the most western one or two. 
Still further north you find the Potomac, and its branches 
rising almost in the western sides of the mountainous region, 
and cutting in its way eastward almost all the ridges ; and 
on the opposite side, you find the Monongahela, and its 
branches the Cheat and Youghiogany, in their course west- 
ward, cutting through the remaining ridges. Indeed these 
remarks might be extended to those parts of the Allegheny 
system which lie south and north of Virginia. I shall 
leave to others to account for this phenomenon. 

The vallies which lie between these mountain ridges pos- 
sess, generally, great fertility of soil. And no climate* is. 
more salubrious. The traveller who would spend the sum- 
mer months in visiting this region, whether in quest of 
health or pleasure, will not find himself disappointed. There 
is a good line of stages running from Richmond, by way of 
Staunton, Lexington, Lewisburg, Charleston on the Kanaw- 
ha, to Guyaudot on the Ohio, crossing the Alleghenies. 
Another runs up the great valley, intersecting the one from 

12 



y Google 



134 TALLET OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Washington via Lynchburg, and continues on through the 
south-eastern angle of Western'Virginia, into East Tennes- 
see. Tours along these and other roads in this mountain 
region, although over rough roads, will be found to be very 
pleasant in the summer and autumn. I have never wit- 
nessed finer scenery than these mountains and vallies, in- 
terspersed with well cultivated farms, afford. 

The Legislature of Virginia, at its Session in the winter 
of 1830-^31, incorporated a company to make a rail-road 
from Lynchburg to the New River, or principal branch of 
the Kanawha. It is now proposed to contine this rail-road 
through Abingdon, into the centre of East Tennessee, to 
Kingsport or Knoxville on the Holston, — and, perhaps, 
ultimately, into the northern part of Alabama. Several 
meetings have been held in various towns in this region, to 
consider the subject, and devise measures to promote it. 
That such an improvement would be of immense advantage 
to this region, fertile not only in soil, but also in the most 
valuable minerals, and yet shut out from many of those facil- 
ities of trade enjoyed by most other sections of our country, 
is manifest — And nothing but a rail-road can well be made. 
It would be from 250 to 300 miles in length, over a very 
favourable surface, and open an easy mode of conveying an 
immense amount of valuable productions to an eastern mar- 
ket, and thus increase the population and the wealth of this 
interesting region. In the counties through, or near which 
such a road will pass, if ever made, are to be found in abun- 
dant quantities, coal and copper, in Montgomery ; — leady 
in Wythe, so abundant that vast quantities would be sent 
to the East, if it could be transported at a sufficiently low 
price; salt, in Washington, (a few miles from Abingdon) 
where one hundred thousand bushels will be made this year, 
and where enough could be made to supply East Tennessee 
and East Virginia, — gypsum, in Washington, superior to 
ihat of Nova Scotia, and very abundant : iron, in unlimited 
quantities, can be manufactured in Wythe and Washington, 
in Virginia, and in Carter, Sullivan, and Washington coun- 
ties, in Tennessee. 

This rail-road I trust will be undertaken soon. Northern 
capitalists will find it profitable stock. Engineers are now 
surveying the ground, and find it to afibrd the best of facili- 
ties. The route of this proposed raii-road is the natural 



y Google 



WESTEKN VIBGINIA. 135 

outlet of the producttons of South- Westera Virginia, and 
Eastern Tennessee. Expensive as the carriage is, flour and 
wheat are carried by wagons from this region to Baltimore ; 
and even 4,000 bales of cotton were last year carried from 
East Tennessee, in this way, to the same city. And all the 
merchandise which is sold in South- West Virginia and East 
Tennessee, is brought, at great cost, in wagons from Balti- 
more or Lynchburg. 

The country which reaches down from the mountain 
range to the Ohio, in Western Virginia, is generally hilly. 
These hills are of\en of great height, of a round and co- 
nonical shape, insulated by ravines, or by narrow bottom 
lands, which separate their bases. The surface of this 
portion of the state is, therefore, exceedingly diversified ; 
and much of the hilly parts is not susceptible of cultiva- 
tion, on account of its unevenness. 

Soil and Productions. — The soil of the bottom lands is 
generally of great fertility. Along the water-courses, there 
is much land of a fine quality. The sides and summits of 
the hills, in many cases, have a productive soil. In some 
places, however, the hills are rocky and barren. The 
whole country, in a state of nature, was covered with dense 
forests of oak, ash, elm, sugar- maple, sycamore, poplar, 
&c. The sycamore grows along the water-courses ; the 
maple, elm, buck-eye, and paw-paw, grow on the alluvial 
bottoms chiefly. 

The productions are wheat, rye, maize, (universally call- 
ed corn in the West, and indeed generally throughout the 
United States,) oats, buckwheat, Irish potatoes, <&«. &c. 
Tobacco is raised in some counties to a considerable extent. 
Cattle, horses and hogs, are here raised for an eastern mar- 
ket. Flour, corn, <kc. are in great quantities sent by the 
various rivers of this section of our country, to New-Or- 
leans and other places in the lower part of the Valley. 

Salt is manufactured, in great quantities, on the Kanaw- 
ha River, in the vicinity of Charleston, about 65 miles above 
its mouth. At the point where the salt factories are es- 
tablished, the Kanawha River is about 150 yards wide. The 
" salt region" extends 15 miles along the river, and the quan* 
tity of salt now manufactured annually, is about 1,200,000 
bushels ; and may be extended to an indefinite amount. 
The salt water is obtained by boring through a great rock, 



y Google 



136 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

to the depth of from 300 to 500 feet. Copper or tin tubes 
are introduced to keep out the fresh water, which lies above 
the salt water, and the latter rises as high as the surface 
of the river; along the margin of which, and in the water's 
edge, though all communication with it is cut off, the wells 
are sunk. It is then raised to the top of the bank of the 
river, about 40 feet, by forcing pumps, propelled by steam- 
engines, and conveyed to the furnaces as required. Bitu- 
minous coal abounds on the spot, and is used for the pur- 
poses of evaporating the water. 

These works at present employ about 1,000 men, as salt- 
makers, coopers, boat-builders, &c. The average price 
of salt has hardly exceeded 30 or 35 cents per bushel at 
them. By means of the increasing channels of cheap 
transportation, which are now opening by canals, rail-roads, 
4&C. supplies of salt may be obtained from the West ia 
future emergencies, — such as happened in the last war. 

During the year 1827, 787,000 bushels of salt were made 
at these works, giving employment to 471 regular labour- 
ers, and using 1,695,000 bushels of coal in evaporating 64 
millions of gallons of water. The capital employed was 
estimated at $548,000, and the agricultural productions 
consumed, valued at $47,600, besides the cost of 133 tons 
of iron, and $7,950 paid to mechanics. And all this is ex- 
clusive of the cost of transportations, making of barrels, 
building of wagons, boats, dec. 

About 100,000 bushels of salt are now annually made ia 
the neighborhood of Abingdon, in Washington county, as 
I have already remarked.* 

No state in the Union is richer in valuable minerals than 
Virginia, and particularly the western part of it. Iron is 
every where abundant in the mountainous regions. Coal, 
gypsum, lead, copper, &c. are also found in the south-west- 
ern counties, and will probably be abundant. Mineral 
springs of the most vatuable character are found in several 

* It is estimated that about $7,000,000 are invested in the manufac 
tore of salt in the United States. In 1829, 4,444,929 bushels of salt 
were manufactured in the United States, one half of which were made 
in the Valley of the Mississippi, and 5,901,157 bushels were imported. 
Before good roads were made across the Alleghenies, salt sold in the 
West as high as $12 per bushel, equal to 24 bushels of wheat ! And 
even after good roads were made, but before it was manufactured in 
the West, it sold from $3 to $5 per bushel ! Now it costs from from 
37 J to 50 cents per bushel 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



WKSTEBN ynieiiTiA. 187 

places. The most celebrated of these are the Warmt Hoi^ 
Sweetj White Sulphury and Red Sulphur Springs, in the 
midst of the mountains ; and partly in West, and partly in 
Central Virginia — and are found in Greenbrier, Bath, and 
Monroe counties. There are fine orchards in Western 
Virginia ; and apples and cider constitute important arti- 
cles of exportation. Lumber of every description is also, 
in large quantities, sent down the rivers to the Ohio, and 
thence to the towns in the lower part of the Valley* 

Western Virginia is drained by a considerable number 
of streams, which are navigable for flat boats, and some 
for steam-boats, during the spring and fall months* On the 
North is the Monongahela and its branches ; on the West« 
Wheeling Creek, Little Kanawha, Great Kanawha, Guy- 
andot, Sandy, and many smaller streams ; and on the South, 
is the Holston and its branches. These streams, flowing 
down from the mountains, are rapid in their currents, and 
have numerous cataracts towards their sources, which fur- 
nish fine water-power for mills, &c. 

Towns, — ^There are many very pleasant towns ill 
Western Virginia. The largest is Wheeling, which is 
situated on the Ohio, 92 miles below Pittsburg. It is a 
place of great business. At this point, thousands of tra* 
vellers and emigrants embark^ on board the steam-boats for 
the more distant West. The national road from Cumber* 
land to Columbus and St. Louis, crosses the Ohio at this 
place. This road is completed beyond Zanesville, in Ohio ; 
and will be finished to Columbus soon. It has cost a vast 
sum of money, and is a great public benefit. The popula* 
tion of Wheeling is about 6,000, and is rapidly increasing. 
The situation of this town is quite romantic lying below 
very lofly hills. It is a place of extensive manufkctures 
in iron, cotton, flour, dec. Steam-boats are built here. 

Morgantown, Clarksburg j Lewisburg^ Abingdon^ 
Charleston, Wellsburg, Point Pleasanty Parherdmrg^ 
and many others, might be mentioned as pleasant places. 

Education. — ^The state of Virginia has established no 
general system of common schools. In this respect West- 
em Virginia is in the same condition as Western Pennsyl* 
vania. Virginia appropriates, however, $45,000 annually 
Co educate poor children. This is a very defective mea- 
sure, but accomplishes some good. Academies exist in 
13* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



138 1^ ALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

some of the larger towns. But there is no College in 
Western Virginia. There is but little need, perhaps, that 
there should be, as there are many Colleges in the neigh- 
bouring states. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

1. The character of the people of Western Virginia, is 
very difl^rent from that of the inhabitants of the Eastern 
part of the state. There are but few slaves in the West, 
less wealth, and more industry and equality among the peo- 
ple. Their manners resemble much more those of Western 
Pennsylvania than those of Eastern Virginia. 

2. The climate is one of pre-eminent salubrity. No part 
of the West enjoys greater, if as great, advantages in this 
respect. 

3. Although there is no public land for sale in Western 
Vif ginia, yet emigrants will find much land of good quality 
offered for sale, by those who have cultivated it for several 
years, and are now desirous of removing still farther west. 

4. Very spirited efforts are now making by the inhabi- 
tants of Eastern and Western Virginia, to secure the con- 
struction of a canal, or, if that cannot be done, a rail-road, 
from the James River to the Kanawha. And there can 
be but little doubt, that there will soon be such a channel 
of communication between the East and the West, through 
this state. Its importance must be obvious to every one* 

6. The early history of Western Virginia, if well writ- 
ten, would constitute a chapter frlled with the details of the 
hardships, sufierings, and massacres of the first emigrants. 
But few events, however, of general interest at this time, 
occurred in this section of our country. Logan, the 
famous Mingo chief, lived near the mouth of the Kanawha 
River. The story of his calamities, as well as a specimen 
of his simple but afiecting eloquence, is well known. 

6. A mile and a half below Parkersburg, at the mouth 
of the Little Kanawha, is the celebrated island which was 
formerly the residence of Mr. Blennerhasset. The beauty 
and charms of this delightful spot, like the once cheering 
prospects of its former proprietor, have long since disap- 
peared. 



y Google 



139 



' Lake 
iia and 
Ll frotn 

I. from 
39^750 

on ihe 



NS. 

itance 

torn 

mbus. 

01 
91 
73 
10 
01 



m 




43 

09 
52 
84 
38 
69 
67 
03 
33 
28 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



138 

some 
Wes 
there 
bour: 



1. 

very 
part, 
less t 
pie. 
Pern 

2. 
ofth 
resp* 

3. 
Vifg 
ofierj 
yeail^ 

tants 
struc 
from 
be bf 

of CO 

this i 
6. 
ten, ' 
hard 
But 
occu 
famo 
Rive 
ofhi- 

ofth' 
form' 
and < 
prosj 
peare 




Digitized by CjOOQIC 



OHIO* 



139 



CHAPTER XIII. 



OHIO. 



The State of Ohio is bounded oa the north by Lake 
Erie and Michigan Territory ; east by Pennsylvania and 
Virginia ; south by the Ohio river, which separates it from 
Western Virginia and Kentucky ; and west by Indiana. 

Extending from N. lat. 38° 30' to 42°, and in Ion. from 
3° 34' to 7° 44' W. from Washington. Its area is 39,750 
square miles, or 25,440,000 acres. 

The Ohio river forms the boundary of this state on the 
south-east and south, for near 500 miles. 

TABLE OF THE COUNTIES AND COUNTY TOWNS. 







POPULA- 


. 


Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


TION 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


IN 1830. • 


Columbus. 


Adams, 


Sy 


12,231 


West Union, 


101 


Ashtabula, 


n e. 


14,584 


Jefferson, 


191 


Athens, 


«e. 


9,787 


Athens, [ta, 


73 


Allen, 


w m. 


578 


Wapaghkonet- 


110 


Butler, 


sw, 


27,142 


Hamilton, 


101 


Belmont, 


e. 


28,627 


St. Clairsville, 


124 


Brown, 


s, 


17,867 


Georgetown^ 


104 


Champaign, 


w m. 


12,131 


Urbana, 


50 


Clarke, 


swm, 


13,114 


Springfield, 


43 


Clermont, 


s w, 


20,466 


Batavia, 


109 


Columbiana, 


e, 


35,592 


New Lisbon, 


162 


Coshocton, 


e w. 


11,161 


Coshocton, 


84 


Cuyahoga, 


ne, 


10,373 


Cleveland, 


138 


Crawford, 


n m, 


4,791 


Bucyrus, 


69 


Clinton, 


8 m. 


11,436 


Wilmington, 


67 


Dark, 


w. 


6,204 


Greenville, 


103 


Delaware, 


m, 


11,504 


Delaware, 


23 


Fairfield, 


m, 


24,786 


Lancaster, 


28 



y Google 



140 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI 



(Table Continued.) 







Popula- 




Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


tion 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Columbus. 


Fayette, 


m, 


8,i82 


Washington, 


45 


Franklin, 


w, 


14,741 


Columbus, 




Gallia, 


«» 


9,733 


Gallipolis, 


108 


Geauga, 


ne, 


16,813 


Chardon, 


167 


Green, 


swnij 


14,801 


Xenia, 


67 


Guernsey, 


e m, 


18,036 


Cambridge, 


83 


Hamilton, 


8 Wy 


52,317 


Cincinnati, 


112 


Hocking, 


s m. 


4,008 


Logan, 


47 


Highland, 


s m, 


16,345 


Hillsboro', 


74 


Harrison, 


«, 


20,916 


Cadiz, 


124 


Hancock, 


nirwi, 


813 


Finlay, 


114 


Hardin, 


II? m, 


210 


Hardin, 


66 


Henry, 


n tr, 


262 


Napoleon, 


161 


Holmes, 


m, 


9,135 


Millersburg, 


80 


Huron, 


n. 


13,346 


Norwalk, 


113 


Jefferson, 


e, 


22,489 


Steubenville, 


149 


Jackson, 


«, 


6,941 


Jackson, 


74 


Knox, 


m, 


17,086 


Mount Vernon, 


45 


Lawrence, 


St 


6,367 


Burlington, 


136 


Licking, 


«t, 


20,869 


Newark, 


34 


Lorraine, 


n. 


6,696 


Elyria, 


130 


Logan, 


W ffl. 


6,440 


Bellefontaine, 


62 


Madison, 


m. 


6,190 


London, 


27 


Marion, 


m, 


6,561 


Marion, 


47 


Medina, 


n em, 


7,660 


Medina, 


111 


Meigs, 


se. 


6,168 


Chester, 


94 


Mercer, 


Wy 


1,110 


St. Mary's, 


111 


Miami, 


10 ffl. 


12,807 


Troy, 


78 


Monroe, 


«€, 


8,768 


Woodfield, 


140 


Montgomery, 


10 m, 


24,362 


Dayton, [ville. 


66 


Morgan, 


«e. 


11,800 


McConnells- 


70 


Muskingum, 


m. 


29,334 


Zanesviile, 


69 


Perry, 


«m, 


13,970 


Somerset, 


46 


Pickaway, 


m. 


16,001 


Circleville, 


26 


Pike, 


«, 


6,024 


Piketon, 


66 


Portage, 


ne, 


18,826 


Ravenna, 


127 


Preble, 


«>» 


16,291 


Eaton, 


92 


Putnam, 


nto, 


230 


Sugar Grove, 


148 



y Google 



OHIO 



141 



(Table continued,) 







Popula- 






Counties. 


Situa- 


tion 


County Towns. 


Distance from 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Columbus. 


JPaulding, 


n M?, 


i6i 






Richland, 


n m, 


24,008 


Mansfield, 


71 


Ross, 


s m. 


24,068 


Chillicothe, 


45 


Sandusky, 


n, 


2,851 


L'r Sandusky, 


103 


Shelby, 


w m, 


3,671 


Sydney, 


86 


Scioto, 


s, 


8,740 


Portsmouth, 


91 


Seneca, 


n m, 


6,159 


Tiffin, 


85 


Stark, 


em, 


26,588 


Canton, 


116 


Tuscarawas, 


e m, 


14,298 


New Philad'a. 


107 


Trumbull, 


n c, 


26,123 


Warren, 


157 


Union, 


m. 


3,192 


Marysville, 


37 


Van Wert, 


n Wy 


49 


Willshire, 


146 


Washington, 


s e. 


ii,7ai 


Marietta, 


106 


Wayne, 


n m. 


23,333 


Wooster, 


86 


William%, 


n IT, 


387 


Defiance, 


175 


Warren, 


swm, 


21,468 


Lebanon, 


83 


Wood, 


n w, 


1,102 


Perrysburg, 


135 


Total, 73 Count 


ies. 


937,903 





Population of Ohio at different periods* 





Population. 


Increase* 


1790, 


about 3,000 


From 1790 to 1800, 42,365 


1800, 


' 45,365 


« 1800 « 1810, 185,395 


1810, 


« 230,760 


' 1810 « 1820, 350,674 


1820, 


* 581,434 


« 1820 < 1830, 356,469 


1830, 


« 937,903 





In 



Government. — Governor, term of office two years, sa- 
lary $1,200 ; Secretary of State; Treasurer; and Auditor. 

Senate consists of 36 members, elected biennially; 
House of Representatives consists of 72 members, elected 
annually. 

Judiciary. — Supreme Court consists of a Chief Judge 
and three Associate Judges — ^salaries, $1,200 each. 

Courts of Common Plea>s, — The state is divided into 
nine districts, in each of which there is a presiding JudgQ, 



y Google 



142 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

salary $1000, and two Associates in each county who re- 
ceive each, $2 50 per day, during their attendance at Court. 

All the judges of the Supreme Court and the Courts of 
Common Pleas are elected by the House of Representa- 
tives for the term of 7 years. The Supreme Court sits 
once a year in each county, and the Court of Commoa 
Pleas three times a year. 

The only capital crime in Ohio is murder in the first 
degree. There is no imprisonment for debt, except in 
case of fraudulent withholding of property. 

Columbus is the seat of Government. 

Face of the Country, The eastern part of the state 
which borders on Pennsylvania is hilly, but gradually be- 
comes more level as you approach westward. Along the 
whole course of the Ohio River, there is, in this state, a 
strip of land, of from 10 to 15 miles, and in some places 
more, in width, which is broken and hilly. These hills, 
especially in the immediate vicinity of the river, are very 
high and oflen of quite a mountainous aspect. 

The western half of the state is in general remarkably 
level. On the immediate borders of Indiana, it is so much so 
as to assume a very monotonous appearance. The central 
parts of the state, from the neighbourhood of the Ohio 
River up to lake Erie may be compared, as it regards level 
character, not with entire accuracy, to the country around 
Philadelphia, or rather that portion of Pennsylvania which 
is seen by the traveller as he passes from that city to Lan- 
caster by the main turnpike road. 

Soil, — At least three-fourth parts of this state possess a 
soil that may be said to be fertile, and a large portion may 
safely be pronounced to he first rate land. Even the highest 
hills commonly possess a good soil, and are covered in a 
state of nature, with forests of trees of prodigious size. In 
some cases, especially in the portion of the state bordering 
immediately on the Ohio river, they are too rocky to be 
susceptible of any mode of cultivation. Sometimes the 
blufis on and near the mouths of the rivers which fall into 
that stream, exhibit on their sides masses of exposed grey 
limestone ox sandstone. 

That part of Ohio which may be considered as the poorest ^ 
as to soil and vegetable productions, is a district of country 
lying along the Ohio River, commencing in Belmont county, 



y Google 



OHIO. 143 

stretching down to the Scioto river, and extending from 
the Ohio into the state to the average distance of about 40 
or 50 miles. Many of the hills in this district are stony^ 
and have a sterile soil. They abound in metallic ore, mar- 
ble, and other valuable species of stone, such as are suitable 
for mill-stones, oil-stones, <Sz;c. <Sz;c. On the water courses 
there is a considerable quantity of fertile land even in this 
district. 

The vallies of the Miamis the Scioto, and a portion of . 
those of the Hocking and Muskingum, have much land of 
the very finest quality. The same may be said, although 
in a sense somewhat more qualified, of the vallies of the 
Maumee, Sandusky, Cuyahoga and other streams which 
flow into Lake Erie. 

Forty years ago this state was covered with one im- 
mense, uninterrupted, forest of oak, walnut, hickory, ash, 
poplar, beech, locust, elm, sugar tree, <Scc. <Scc. And even 
now, to one who stands on an eminence in any part of the 
state, and surveys this country, the cleared land bears no 
comparison with that which is yet covered by the lofly 
forest. The sycamore, elm, honey-locust, sugar-maple, 
4juck-eye, grow chiefly in the level and fertile alluvial bot- 
toms. The under wood of this country is such as the dog 
wood, spice wood, red bud, sassafras, sumach, paw-paw, 
irott wood, <Scc. The dog wood grows on all lands. The 
paw-paw, and spice wood grow on fertile soils, the former 
chiefly on alluvial bottoms. 

The hackberry is found in the western part of the state 
on bottom lands : a species of the buck-eye is the horse 
chesnut of the east. The linden tree is the bass of New Eng- 
land. There are several species of the oak, viz. black, 
white, red, jack, post, <Sz;c. and of the walnut, hickory, 6ic» 
in the west. 

Beech grows on two kinds of lands— on low wet bottoms, 
and on elevated undulating and even hilly land. Its preva- 
lence is indicative of a cold soil, not always very fertile, but 
generally productive and very lasting. A large portion of the 
land in the vicinity of the Ohio is covered with beech inter- 
spersed with other timber, and on the very level lands in the 
north-western part of the state, on the streams of the Mau- 
mee and Sandusky, this species of timber greatly abounds. 

Rivers. — This state is composed of two unequal inclined 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



144 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

planes. The longer of which slopes down sonthward to 
the Ohio river^ and the shorter slopes northward to Lake 
Erie. Down these planes flow all the rivers of the state. 
The streams which flow into the Ohio, are the Mahoning, a 
branch of the Beaver, Little Beaver, Muskingum, Hocking, 
Scioto, Little Miami and Great Miami. Those which flow 
into Lake Erie are the Maumee, Portage, Sandusky, Cuya- 
hoga, Grand, and Ashtabula. These streams aflbrd nu- 
merous and highly important facilities for boat navigation, 
to the various sections of the state through which they flow. 
The Muskingum, Scioto, Great Miami, Maumee and Cuya- 
hoga are particularly important streams, as they flow from 
the table-land of the state, and their upper branches so inter- 
lock with each other as to render the construction of canals 
not ojily a practicable, but also a comparatively easy under- 
taking. Vast quantities of the cultivated productions of this 
state, as well as of timber, and lumber of every sort, are 
every year sent down these rivers to the Ohio and Lake 
Erie, and And a distant market in New-Orleans and New- 
York. 

Canals and Roads. — Two important canals have been 
undertaken by this enterprising state. l.The Ohio and Erie 
Canal. This canal commences on Lake Erie at Cleveland, 
at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. It follows the banks of that 
river 37 miles, thence it crosses Portage summit to the Tus- 
carawas river, descends along the course of that river to the 
Tomoka creek, a little stream which falls into that river from 
the west, a few miles below the town of Coshocton ; it 
ascends along the Tomoka a short distance and thence cross- 
es over to the Licking river, a branch of the Muskingum ; it 
ascends along the Licking to a point on the South Fork a {ew 
miles south of Newark; thence it crosses over to Walnut 
creek, a small stream which falls into the Scioto ; afler 
reaching that river, it descends along the eastern bank to 
Circleville, and there crosses over to the west or right bank 
of the river; descending along that bank it passes Chillicothe, 
and continues to the mouth of the Scioto at Portsmouth. 

The length of this canal is 307 miles, its width is 40 feet, 
and the depth of water 4 feet. There is a feeder extend- 
ing 10 miles from Columbus, to the main canal, and also one 
from Racoon creek near the Licking summit. This canal 
crosses several streams on aqueducts, such as those over 



y Google 



OHIO. 145 

the Cuyahoga, Tuscarawas, White Woman, and Scioto, 
besides many smaller ones. 

This canal is now completed. This great work was 
commeoced in 1825. It has gone forward at a steady rate. 
Many difficulties have been encountered in its prosecution. 
There are 1,185 feet of lockage on this canal. The sur- 
face of Lake Erie is 568 feet, and that of the Ohio River 
at Portsmouth 474, above the ocean level. This canal has 
opened a large amount of trade between the central parts 
of Ohio and New-York. 

2. The Miami Canal / which extends from Cincinnati 
to Dayton on the Miami River. It is 65 miles in length, 
exclusive of feeders. The dimensions are the same as those 
of the Ohio and Erie canal. It was finished in 1S30, 
and has opened a channel of trade between Cincinnati and 
one of the finest portions of the state. It cost the sum of 
$746,852. It is probable that this canal will be continued, 
at some future time, to the Maumee, an entire distance 
from Cincinnati, of 265 miles. 

In 1828, the general government appropriated to the 
state of Ohio the half of the public lands along the canal, 
within the distance "f 5 miles on each side of it> provided 
the work should be undertaken within five years from the 
approval of that act, and finished within twenty years ; and 
also provided that the said canal be a public highway fox 
the business of the government of the United States, free 
from tolls. The state has ageed to continue this canal as 
far as the sales of the public land will sustain the expense. 

Erie and Mad River Rail-Road. — It is proposed to 
make a rail-road from Sandusky to Dayton on the Miami 
River. By this route another channel for commercial in- 
tercourse will be opened between Lake Erie and the Ohio. 
The length of this rail-road will be 153 miles, and will cost 
810,775 per mile. It is ascertained that it is perfectly 
practicable to make this road, and a company have under- 
taken the work. In a few years it. will be completed. This 
road will pass through Tiffin, Bellefontaine, Urbana, and 
Springfield. 

Congress further assigned to this state 500,000 acres of 
the public lands which lie within it, for the construction of 
any other canals, or extention of those which were then 
commenced, upon the conditions that the same be complete 

13 



y Google' 



146 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

within seven years from the time of the approval of this 
act ; and that the said canals shall be public highways for 
the use of the government of the United States, free from 
toll, for ever. The total quantity of land granted by Con- 
gress to this State for internal improvements, is 922,937 
acres. 

To construct the cailals above described, which are 372 
miles in length, and benefit a large portion of the people, 
the state has borrowed the following sums, which, with 
their respective amount of interest, are given from the 
Ohio State Journal : 





Sum borrowed. 




Per Cent 


Interest 


Loan of 1825 


$400,000 


at 


5 


$20,000 


« « 1826 


1,000,000 


C( 


6 


60,000 


« « 1827 


1,200,000 


(( 


6 


72,000 


" " 1828 


1,200,000 


(( 


6 


72,000 


" " 1830 


600,000 


ti 


6 


36,000 



Foreign Debt, $4,400,000 $260,000 

School Fund, (bor'd.) 169,460 10,167 

Total, $4,669,460 $270,167 

To meet the interest due last year, on the canal loans, 
the following sources were relied on : 

Direct Tax of 2 mills on a dollar, - • $121,516 

Canal Tolls 80,000 

Sales of land granted by Congress, • - 50,000 
Donations, interest on deposits, Sec. - • 20,000 

Amounting to .... $271,516 

The taxes in 1831, for canal, state, county, township, 
and school purposes, d^. amounted to $585,076 21, or 
about 62 cents, upon the average, to every inhabitant of 
the state. 

The national road from Cumberland into the West, is 
completed to the vicinity of Columbus. It is laid out from 
Columbus, through Indianapolis and Terre Haute in Indi- 
ana, to Vandalia in Illinois, and will terminate probably at 
St. Louis. There is no where in our country a finer road 



y Google 



ouio. 147 

than the part of it which is finished from Wheeling to the 
viciaity of Columbus. This road, is now of great advan- 
tage to Ohio, and will be far more so when the whole line 
is completed. 

There is now a road making, to be McAdamized, if prac* 
ticable, from Cincinnati to Columbus, — which is to be, even- 
tually, continued to Lake Erie. The principal roads, with 
the distances marked, are indicated oa the map which re- 
lates to this and the succeeding chapter. 

There is a large number of lines of stages in this state, 
some of which start daily, but the most of them three times 
a week. I can only mention a few of them. 1. There are 
two lines daily, called the Mail and Accommodation Lines, 
from Cincinnati through Columbus, to Washington and Bal- 
timore. 2. A line from Cincinnati, by way of Hillsboro', 
Chiliicothe, and Lancaster, intersecting the above mention- 
ed lines at Zanesville. 3. A line from Columbus up to 
Cleveland, by way of Wooster. 4. One from Wooster to 
Pittsburg, by way of Canton and New Lisbon. 5. From 
Buffiilo in New York, to Detroit, along the Lake shore in 
this state. There are also lines from various points on the 
Ohio, such as Ripley, Portsmouth, Gallipolis, 6^. up into 
the central points of the state, and continued to Lake Erie. 
Indeed, there is scarcely any important place in the state, 
'which cannot be approached by stage, especially from 
March to December. 

Productions. — ^This state produces abundantly every 
thing which grows in the middle states. Com grows luxu- 
riantly, yielding, on rich alluvial bottom lands, from 50 to 
75 bushels per acre. Fifty bushels per acre, are a com- 
mon and almost average crop. Wheat grows finely in this 
state, and flour is exported in vast quantities by the Ohio 
and Lake Erie, to Southern and Eastern markets. Many 
Steam Mills have been erected in this state, especially in 
the vicinity of the Ohio River, for the manufacturing of 
flour. Mills for the same purpose, propelled by water, are 
to be found in every part of the state. Rye, oats, buck- 
wheat, &;c. &c. grow abundantly in every part of the state. 
Melons, squashes, pumpkins, beans, peas, potatoes, onions, 
beets, carrots, parsnips, tomatos — and, in a word, all sorts 
of vegetables which grow in the middle and northern states, 
are raised in great perfection. 

Hemp is cultivated to some extent. Tobacco is begin- 



y Google 



148 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

ningto be raised in considerable quantities, for exportation 
Flax is grown by almost every farmer for domestic manu- 
facture. 

The orchards of this state would be excellent, if suffi- 
cient attention were paid to them. Apples, peaches, pears, 
quinces, apricots, plums, cherries, currants, gooseberries, 
strawberries, and all kinds of fruits which are the growth 
of this climate, are abundant in this state, wherever atten- 
tion is bestowed upon their cultivation. 

Horses, cattle and hogs, are here raised in great num- 
bers, and driven to an eastern market. And thousands of 
barrels of beef and pork, are boated from all the towns on 
the navigable streams, for the southern part of the Valley, 
or to New-York. In the year 1831, 410 flat bottom boats 
arrived at New-Orleans, loaded with salted beef and pork, 
flour, corn, in ears or in meal, apples, cider, dried fruits, 
whiskey, <Scc. from this state. How great a quantity of 
these articles was shipped on steam-boats for the same des- 
tination, or transported by Lake Erie to the East, I haVe 
not the means of stating accurately. Vast quantities of 
lumber are annually sent down the Ohio River from this 
state.* 

Manvfactures. — ^There are a number of cotton and wool- 
len factories established in the towns along the Ohio. Cin- 
cinnati is a rival of Pittsburg, in manufactures of iron,<Sz;c. 
I shall have occasion to speak particularly of the manufac- 
tures of that city, in another place. There are a number 
of furnaces for smelting iron ore in the counties along the 
Ohio, particularly in the region of Hocking River. Glass 
is manufactured in several towns in the same part of the 
state. Iron is also made in some of the counties border- 

* Some idea, although a very imperfect one, of the vast quantity 
and value of the exports of this state, may be obtained from the fi>Uow- 
ing statement 



From the let of April to the Ist 
of July 1829, there were trans- 
ported on the Miami Canal to 
Cincinnati — 



Of Flour, 


21,485 bbls. 


Whiskey, 


9,822 do. 


Pork, 


3,834 do. 


Lard, 


2,593 kegs. 
11,095 buSi's. 


Com, 



And from the 4th of March to the 
4th of April 1831, there passed 
along this Canal — 



Flour, 


37,642 bbls. 


Whiskey, 


4,582 do. 


Pork, 


10,384 do. 


Lard, 


15,549 kgs. 


and 


273 bbs. 


Bacon, 


38^ hds. 


and in bulk. 


1,072,910 lbs. 



y Google 



n 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 






1 



r^^Si 




1 


h^ 






% 




1 


'ki 


1 




^' 


•S' 


1 


p^ 


^ 




u 


£ 




! fe 




^ 


M 




n 


' w 






V^ 







^==«^=^ 










^ 










^ M 



y Google 



4 



OHIO. 149 

iDg on Lake Erie. On the MiMkiDgam, below Zanesville, 
salt is roanu&ctured at various places, for about thirty 
miles. About 250,000 bushels are made annually. Con* 
siderable quantities are also made on Yellow Creek, about 
14 or 15 miles above Steubenville. In 1830, there were, 
in this state, $334,762 invested in the manufacture of salt, 
and 446,350 bushels were made. 

In every town and village in the state, all the ordinary 
manufactures, sitch as hats, cabinet ware, 4^. &c. are 
made to an extent proportioned to the demand. And al- 
most every farmer in the state is the manufacturer of a 
large part of the articles of wearing apparel, &c. which 
his family need. It is impossible to make any estimate of 
these things. But if it could be done, it would exhibit a 
very great amount of manufactures of this sort, and of ioN 
mense value. 

Cities cmd Taums, — Cincinnati, is the great commer- 
cial emporium of this state — and, next to New-Orleans, 
the largest city in the Valley of the Mississippi. It is situ- 
ated on the right or western bank of the Ohio, at North 
latitude 39"^ 06', and west k>ngitude 7"^ 25'. It stands on 
the first and second banks of the river — the former of which 
is above ordinary high water, and the latter gently rises 
about 60 fbet more, and then spreads out in an extended, 
level plain. . 

No city has a more beautiful site than that which Cin- 
cinnati occupies. The Ohio here pursues its meandering 
way towards the west. Immediately opposite the city it 
runs nearly due west; consequently, the city faces th^ 
south. But the river bends, both above and below the city, 
and pursues a straight course but a short distance. 

The reader will have a good idea of Cincinnati, by ima- 
gining an extensive circular plain, bounded by high wooded 
hills, forming a circumference of about 12 miles ; and that 
this plain is divided by a gently meandering and beautiful 
river, flowing through it on its westward way. The city 
spreads out on the northern bank, whilst opposite stand 
the beautiful and rapidly growing villages of Newport and 
Covington, divided by the Licking River, which here flows 
into the Ohio. When viewed from the the top of the hills 
which bound the horizon, this extensive plain is covered 
ia the central part with a growing city, extending up and 
13* 



y Google 



150 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

down the river, with its hustle, and its heautiful houses ; 
whilst around are spread fertile fields, and the river is 
adorned with boats of various descriptions, from the hum- . 
ble fiat boat to the noble steam-boats, which are almost 
constantly heaving in sight, rounding to the wharf, or set- 
ting out for a distant port. 

Cincinnati was founded in 1789. But it was not until 
1808, that it began to grow rapidly. At that period the 
Government sold the land on which it stands. Fort Wash- 
ington, erected many years before, stood on this site. In 
1826, the population was 16,230; in 1830,26,515; and 
in 1831, 28,014. At present, it exceeds 30,000, exclusive 
of a floating population of 1,500 or 2,000. 

Some of the streets run parallel with the river ; others, 
commencing at the river, cross the former at right angles. 
Several of these streets are 66 feet wide, and 396 apart. 
The houses are generally of brick, and many of them paint- 
ed white, yellow, or lead colour. The public buildings, 
many of which are very beautiful, are a Court-house, four 
Markets, one of which is 500 feet in length ; Bazaar, two 
Banks, Cincinnati College, Catholic Athenaeum, Medical 
College, Mechanic's Institute, two Museums, Hospital and 
Lunatic's Asylum, High School, many Hotels, 24 Church- 
es, of which the 2d Presbyterian is very elegant — and the 
Unitarian, and some of the others, display much taste. 

The plain on which Cincinnati stands extends a mile 
back, to the hills which bound it on the North, and along 
the river a mile and a half,* or two miles. The upper part 
of the city extends up to the point where the hills meet ^ 
the river, and along the narrow strip of land which inter- 
venes between those hills and the Ohio. It is in this quar- 
ter that many boat yards are situated, and where many 
fiat, keel, and other kinds of boats, are built every year. 
There have been built at this city, no less tlian one hufi' 
dred and fifty steam-boats / 

The value of the manufactures of this city is very great, 
exceeding $2,500,000 annually ! Vast quantities of cabi- 
net work, hats, &c. dec. are here made for exportation. 

1 . There are ten Foundries, including a Brass and BeM 
Foundry, and one for casting type. 

2. Th^e lire three or four Cotton Factories, and about 
fifteen Rolling Mills^ and Steam Engine Factories and 
Shops. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



OHIO. 151 

3. Therfi B,re five Breioeries. 

4. There is a Button Factory ; aod a Steam Coopering 
Establishment^ where several thousand barrels are made 
annually by machinery, propelled by steam. 

5. Two Steam Flour Mills, and five or six Steam Saw 
Mills. 

6. There is one Chemical Laboratory, 

There are probably not less than 40 different manufac- 
turing establishments driven by steam power. 

The imports, of which dry goods are the principal item, 
exceed $5,000,000. The exports, consisting of various 
articles of produce, of which pork is the chief; and of manu- 
factures, of which iron articles and cabinet furniture are 
the chief, probably exceed the imports in value. 

I shall give, in a few words, a summary statement of 
those matters which are most important to the stranger. 

1. In 1831, the taxable property of this city, consisting 
of houses and lands, and merchandise and manufactures, 
was valued at $4,206,204, a sum much too low. The 
revenue of the city that year was $35,230; and the ex- 
penditures $33,858. 

2. There are two Banks, and a Savings* Fund Associa- 
tion ; two Museums, very interesting to strangers ; and two 
Hospitals. 

3. There are three Insurance Companies belonging to 
the city, and two branches of Insurance Companies at 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

4. There is a company which supplies the city with 
water, which is elevated by steam power from the Ohio. 

• 5. There are several Literary and Scientific Institutions, 
of which the Lyceum, Atheneum established by the Catho- 
lics, and which is really a college, and cost about $20,000 ; 
Medical College, having 7 or 8 Professors ; Academy of 
Medicine, and Lane Theological Seminary, are the chief. 

6. In 1831 there were 18 public schools, embracing 
2,700 scholars, at an expense of $6,610 for Teachers' wa- 
ges. This city is imitating the noble example of fioston, 
in establishing free schools for the whole population. The 
pumber of private schools and academies is great. 

7. There are three Library Companies, which have in 
all near 10,000 volumes of books. 

8. There are 3 daily, 2 semi-weekly, 6 weekly, (four of 



y Google 



152 VALLEY OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 

which are religious,) two semi-monthly, two monthly, and 
one quarterly (medical) publications — sixteen in all — tissued 
in this city. 

9. There are 34 charitable associations, and 25 religious 
societies. 

10. There are several Fire Companies, and a large num- 
ber of fire engines. 

11. There are six Presbyterian Churches, dye Metho- 
dist, four Baptist, two Episcopal, one Lutheran, one Asso- 
ciate, one Catholic, one Unitarian, one Friends' Meeting, 
one Swedenborgian, one Jewish Synagogue, one African, 
one Christian. 

12. In 4 months during 1831, there were issued from 
the Cincinnati press 86,000 volumes, of which 20,300 
were of original works. In the same time, the periodical 
press issued 243,200 printed sheets. 

The number of lawyers, physicians, merchants, dec. is 
great. 

Along the Ohio above Cincinnati, there are many plea- 
sant and flourishing places. The most important are Rip- 
ley, Portsmouth, Burlington, Gallipolis, Marietta, and 
Steubenville. 

Ripley is a flourishing place. Several steam-boats have 
been built there during the last two years. It is 46 miles 
above Cincinnati, and has about 700 inhabitants. 

Portsmouth stands on the Ohio at the mouth of the 
Scioto, and 103 miles above Cincinnati. The Ohio and 
Erie canal commences here. This place is finely situated 
for trade. As this canal opens up a channel of intercourse 
with New-York, and all the West, a great commission bu- 
siness must eventually be done at this town. It has about 
1,000 inhabitants. Five or six steam-boats have been built 
here. This town is .45 miles from Chillicothe, and 90 
from Columbus. Burlington and Gallipolis are plea- 
sant and growing places, the former 144, and the latter 185 
miles above Cincinnati. Gallipolis was originally settled 
by a small colony of French, who suflfered greatly through 
the imposition of speculators, sickness, and other calami- 
ties. Many of them lefl the place through discouragement. 
Marietta stands on the Ohio bank just above the entrance 
of the Muskingum. It is a beautiful place, but exposed to 
inundations at very high stages of the river* It has fine 



y Google 



OHIO. 158 . 

schools and seminaries of learning. The population is 
about 1,300. There is much fine bottom land in the vicini- 
ty of this place, both on the Virginia and Ohio banks of 
the river. A number of steam-boats have been built here. 
This place is 277 miles, by the river, above Cincihnati. 
Steubenvillb is a very pleasant and flourishing town 379 
miles above Cincinnati by the river, and 60 below Pitts- 
burg by the river, but 38 across the peninsula. It is situ- 
ated on an extensive alluvial bottom, of sufficient elevation 
to be safe from inundations. The country around this 
place is fertile, and exports great quantities of flour, whis- 
key, &c. It contains 3,000 inhabitants. For many years 
there has been here a large woollen factory of much cele- 
brity, which has consumed 60,000 pounds of wool annually. 
There are three flour mills, one cotton factory, a steam 
paper mill, and three or four churches. 

There are many beautiful and flourishing towns through 
the interior of the state, some of which I shall mention, 
beginning with the eastern part. 

New Lisbon in Columbiana county, Canton in Stark, 
and Wooster in Wayne, have each about 1200 inhabitants, 
are places of much business, and centres of large fertile 
districts, which will soon have a dense population. Woos- 
ter is 124 miles, and New Lisbon 56 miles westward of 
Pittsburg. 

Masillon, New Philadelphia, Coshocton, and New- 
ark, situated on the two principal branches of the Mus- 
kingum, and through which the Ohio and Erie canal passes, 
are flourishing and beautiful places, and will become very 
large and important centres of trade for the fertile regions 
which surround them. 

Zanesville, on the eastern bank of the Muskingum, at 
the point where the Licking joins that river from the west, 
is a large increasing town of 4,000 inhabitants. It is the 
county-town of Muskingum county, and being situated on 
a stream which is navigable during several months in the 
spring and fall, it possesses great advantages. The falls 
in the Muskingum river give fine water power to this 
flourishing place, which is employed by several flour-mills, 
saw-mills, an oil-mill, a rolling mill, nail factory, and Wool- 
len factory. A bridge over the Muskingum connects 
Zanesville with West Zanesville, which stands at the junc- 



y Google 



154 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

lion of the Muskingum and Licking, and one over the lat- 
ter river unites the town of Putnam with West and East 
Zanesville. 

. Lancaster, the county town of Fairfield county, 34 
miles from Chillicothe, and 28 from Columbus, is situated 
in a delightful and very fertile valley, on the head stream 
of the Hocking, and has a population of 1,500 inhabitants* 
A bluff of great height, and singular appearance, half a 
n:iile north of the town, afllbrds a most admirable prospect 
over the town and surrounding country. 

Chillicothe, on the west bank of the Scioto, Cibclb- 
viLLE and Columbus on the east, are very important towns 
in the Scioto valley. Chillicothe is the seat of justice for 
Ross county^ and was once the capital of the state. It has 
between 3000 and 4000 inhabitants, and is the centre of a 
very fertile region which is watered by the Scioto and the 
Paint Creek, which here runs parallel with the river and 
falls into it a few miles below the town. There are several 
cotton factories, mills, 6cc» in the neighbourhood. In the 
vicinity, on Paint creek, and even on what is now occupied 
by this town, formerly stood several ancient tumuli, or 
mounds. In levelling one of them for the purpose of erect- 
ing a building, many human bones, it is said, were found 
in this monument of former, and now unknown generations. 
Chillicothe is 45 miles abov6 Portsmouth, and 96 from Cin- 
cinnati. 

CiRCLEviLLE IS 19 milcs above Chillicothe, and is a 
growing place, which will be much benefitted by the canal. 
It is the county town of Pickaway county. Within the 
limits of the town are two mounds or tumuli, one is square 
and the other circular and gives name to the town. 
These monuments are highly interesting. This place has 
a population of about 1500 inhabitants^ 

Columbus, the political capital of the state, is in the cen- 
tre of Franklin county, and very nearly of the state. It is 
112 miles north-east of Cincinnati, 135 miles west of 
Wheeling, and 396 from Washington city. It is a beauti- 
ful town, occupying a site which in 1812 was covered with 
a dense forest. The public buildings are the state-house, 
a court-house for the supreme court, a building for the 
public ofiices, a market house, &c. all of brick. The popu- 
lation is near 3000, and constantly increasing. The State 



y Google 



OHIO; 155 

Prison, or Peoiteotiary, is located here. It is poorly con« 
ducted for want of a suitable building. A new and excel- 
lent building upon an improved plan, is about to be erected. 
There is a good asylum for the deaf and dumb at this 
place, sustained by legislative aid. The country around 
Columbus is very fertile and almost perfectly level. On 
the west side of the Scioto, at the distance of a mile, is the 
village of Franklinton. 

Oafton, on the Miami, 65 miles from Cincinnati, is a 
very flourishing place. Springfield in Clark county, 
Hillsboro* in Highland, Mansfield in Richland, Ravenna 
in Portage, St. Clairsville in Belmont, Urbana in Cham« 
paign, Athens in Athens county, and many others might 
be mentioned as interesting places in the interior of the 
state, and most of them, situated in districts of excellent 
land. 

Cleveland, on Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Cuya- 
hoga, and at the termination of the Ohio and Erie canal, 
is a place of great business and rapidly increasing in popu- 
lation. Lower Sandusky on the Sandusky bay, and 
Perrysville and Maumee, at the foot of the rapids in the 
Maumee river, and at the head of sloop and steam-boat 
navigation on that river, Huron at the mouth of Huron 
river, Chrand River^ at the mouth of Grand River, may be 
mentioned as places on Lake Erie which are destined to- be 
important. 

Education. This state is setting a noble example, on the 
subject of education, to the other states of the Valley of 
the Mississippi. Within a few yearis, each township has 
been divided into school districts, according to the provi« 
sioDs of a school act which was adopted by the state. The 
following summary of what has been done by public au« 
thority to promote education, I have obtained from official 
sources, and is of a very recent date. 

The number of acres of land set apart by congress, for 
schools within Ohio, (including salt reserves, which have 
been mostly sold, and the avails appropriated for common 
schools)* is 678,576, estimated to be worth #1,200,000 

Probable number of acres sold is 339,288, payable by 
instalments ; unsold 339,268, or about one half. 

The amoimt received on account of sales of said land is 
#391,420, which has been loaned chiefly to the commis- 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



156 T ALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

sioners of the cianal fund, on an interest of 6 per cent. 
The proceeds of all school lands, are to be thus invested. 

The amount raised by taxation for the support of com- 
mon schools, being three-fourths of a mill upon the dollar, 
of the taxable property in the state, was, in 1632, about 
50,000 dollars. 

The total amount at present raised by law, for the sup- 
port of schools will not educate the whole number of 
children more than two months in a year. Not less than 
five school examiners are to be appointed in each county, 
by the court of common pleas, every two years, who are 
to examine the teachers. The 'manner of distributing the 
school money to the teachers is various, as there are 
various funds from which it accumulates. 

Congress has granted 92,800 acres of public land to this 
state for Colleges, Academies, and Universities. Of which, 
one township, containing 23,040 acres, very valuable, has 
been given to the Miami University at Oxford. 

Also, two townships of land have been given to the Ohio 
University at Athens, — a quantity of 46,080 acres, but 
much inferior in quahty to that appropriated to the Miami 
University. 

There are academies in all the principal towns ; in many 
of which the Latin and Greek languages and the mathe- 
matics are taught. In Cincinnati, Marietta, Chillicothe, 
Steubenville, and some other places, are female seminaries 
of much and deserved celebrity. Throughout the state 
there is an increasing interest felt on the whole subject of 
education. And in a few years the common school system 
of Ohio will equal that of New York. 

There are five or six colleges in this state in actual 
operation, besides other important institutions, which will 
be described in the chapter devoted to the Literary Insti- 
tutions of the Valley of the Mississippi. 

General remarks. — ^To those who desire to emigrate 
to tlie West, this state profiers many inducements. 

1. Its climate is healthy, in an eminent degree. All 
emigrants, in this and every other part of the Valley, should 
be careful not to expose themselves too much at first, and 
to keep out of the damp airs of night, especially during the 
autumnal season : to wear a sufficient amount of warm 



y Google 



OHIO* 



157 



apparel, and occupy as speedily as possible eomfariahk 
houses. 

3. There are 6;242,221 acres of public land to which 
the Indian title has been extinguished ; besides 344,618 
acres, to which that title has not been extinguished, but 
which will soon be, in all probalulity.* In umost every 
part of the state, land which is new or uncultivated, may 
be purchased, either from the government, or frotn those 
who purchased large quantities of public land, which they 
are now willing to sell to others. For the convenience of 
those who wish to purchase public land, the state has been 
divided into eight districts, in each of which is a Land 
Office maintained by the General Government, where 
lands may be entered and paid for. These offices are at 
Steubenville, Marietta, Wooster, Zauesville, Chillicothe, 
Cincinnati, Wappahonnetta and Bucyrus. The qualities of 
the lands in each district are various. Much good land is to 
be found in all — perhaps most in the last four. 

The following is a table of the place of these Land offi- 
ces, with names of the Registers, and the Receivers of 
moneys arising from the sales. 



At what place 






opened. 


Reguters. 


Receiverg. 


Marietta 


Joseph Wood 


David C. Skinner 


Zanesville 


Thomas Flood 


Bernard Van Home 


Steubenville 


David Hoge 


John H. Viers 


Chillicothe 


Thomas Scott 


Isaiah Ingham 


Cincinnati 


P. S. Symmes 


Morgan Neville 


Wooster 


Joseph S. Lake 


Samuel Quinby 


Wappakonnetta 


T.B. Van Home 


Robert I. Skinner 


Bucyrus 


Thos. Gillespie 


Joseph H. Larwell 



3. There is no difficulty in purchasing most valuable 
&rms here, which have u-om 50 to 100, and some 150 
acres, in a good state of cultivation, and having on them 
houses, bams, orchards, 6cc. 6lc. These houses are not 
genersdly any thing more than plain cabins, as they are 

* See the late Hepcurt (made to the U. S. Senate, April 16, 183S,) by 
the Committee on Manu&ctares. 

14 



y Google 



168 VALIiEir OF TAB MISSISSIPPI. 

called ; but yet they will answer the purpose until better 
ones can be built. There are thousands of farmers in this 
state, as well as in western Pennsylvania and Virginia — a 
fact which has already been mentioned — ^who settled here 
when their families were young, often when they themselves 
were just married, and having paid for their quarter of a 
section of land (160 acres,) or an eighth (60 ucres,) and 
raised a family of children, they are now desirous of selling 
their improved land for a sum with which they will go 
again into the wilderness, either in this state, or farther 
west, and buy land enough to give each of their sons, and 
perhaps their daughters too, a plantation of 80 or 160 
acres. And this they can easily do by selling their pre- 
sent farms at the rate of from five to ten dollars, and (if 
near to some town or on the bank of a navigable river, or 
along an important public road,) for even a much larger 
sum, per acre. With this amount they can purchase much 
public or Congress land. It is true they have to begia in 
the woods again. But this is nothing to men who are 
inured to such labour, and who expect to do nothing but 
labour all their days, and to find their happiness in doing so. 
Emigrants who can afford to do so, will often, and I 
should say, generally, find it to be most pleasant to purchase 
farms which are already somewhat cleared and cultivated, 
and which have at least 30 or 40 acres under good fences, 
and withal a house which may be made comfortable until a 
better one can be built. It is a great trial to eastern fami- 
lies to go at once into the woods, and have to build a house 
hastily, and then be much exposed to sickness, in an unfin- 
ished and uncomfortable building, in the midst of a deep and 
gloomy forest. There is no difficulty in obtaining farms 
which are partly cultivated, and which may be had at prices 
difiering according to location, fertility of soil, extent of 
ground cleared, and value of buildings erected. Young and 
single men from the East may go at once into the forest, 
if they are enterprising and fond of hard labour. 

4. Mechanics of all descriptions have work enough to do 
in this state ; and, if industrious, are certain to do well. — 
This is true of every sort of mechanics, .and especially so 
of those who are engaged in such trades as are most es- 
sential to comfort or business. 

5. Travellers will find this state a wide field for pleasant 



y Google 



OHIO. 159 

and profitable journeying in the seasons of spring, summer 
and autumn. This state abounds in pleasant towns, deligiit- 
ful and ever-varying scenery, along its rivers and main 
roads. 

6. The history of this state is an interesting one. It 
suffered exceedingly from the hostility of the Indians until 
the close of the last war. Fort Washington occupied for 
many years the spot where Cincinnati now stands. From 
4hat point the armies of Harmar and St. Clair marched to 
defeat in 1790 and '91. And from that point Wayne set 
out in his campaign which ended so triumphantly in 1794. 
During the late war with Great Britain, this state suffered 
much. Many of her citizens were in the armies of their 
country, and many fell in the attacks upon Fort Meigs, and 
i n the battle on the Thames. The north-western part of 
this state was then a frontier. For a period of 25 years, 
the inhabitants of thii^ state suffered deeply from the attacks 
of the savages ; and many a father, mother, and child, suf- 
fered a cruel death. 

The first permanent settlement in this state was made at 
Marietta, by the Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, and General 
Rufus Putnam, in 1788. The population at present consi- 
derably exceeds 1,000,000, and is rapidly augmenting. In 
1790, it was about 3,000 ; in 1810, it was 230,760. This 
statement shows the astonishing increase of the population 
of this state during 40 years. But great as her population 
now is, nothing so much arrests the attention of a traveller 
as the great disporportion which there is between the uncul- 
tivated and the cultivated portions of the laird. There ap- 
pears, as it were, but a spot here and there of cultivated 
ground amid an almost uninterrupted forest. I was much 
struck with this circumstance, when I passed from Cincin- 
nati through the central parts of the state, last summer, 
taking Lebanon j Springfield, Columbus, Wooster, Canton, 
and New Lisbon on my tour. This state might have a po- 
pulation o^five millions^ and yet not have a very dense po- 
pulation ; and it might have ten millions and yet not be as 
densely populated as some parts of Europe. 

A large part of the state is settled by emigrants from New 
England ; this is particularly true of the northern part. — 
The north-eastern part once belonged to Connecticut, and 
is sometimes called New Connecticut, but more commonly, 
the Western Reserve, which embraces eight counties and 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



leo 



VALLEl OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 



3,000,000 acres of land, and belonged, originally, by char« 
ter from the British government, to the state of Connecti- 
cut* After the revolution, that state sold to the general 
government the land which she claimed in this state. The 
sum which she received as an equivalent constitutes the 
foundation (rf'her school fund. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
INDIANA 

Indiana is bounded on the north by Michigan Lake and 
Michigan Territory ; east by Ohio ; south by the Ohio river, 
which separates it from Kentucky ; and west by Illinois, 
from which it is separated, in part, by the Wabash River. 

This state extends from N. lat. 37° 48', to 41° 36' ; and 
from W. Ion. 7° 44' to 11° ; its area is about 36,500 square 
miles, or 23,360,000 acres. 

The Ohio flows along the southern end of this state, in 
its course, more than 350 miles. 

TABLE OF COUNTIES AND COUNTY TOWNS. 



Counties. 



Situa- 
tion. 



Popula- 
tion 
IN 1830. 



CouNTT Towns. 



Distance 

from Indi- 

anafous. 



AUen, 


ne 


996 


F<»t Wayne, 


141 


Bartholgmew, ^ 


m 


5,476 


Cdiiinbus, 


41 


Boone, 


8 torn 


621 


Tlionitown, 


62 


CarrolU 


n 


1,611 


Delphi, 


88 


Cass, 


n 


1,161 


Logansport, 


113 


Clark, 


B 


10,686 


Charlestown, 


103 


Clay, 


to 


1,616 


Boiling Green^t 


69 


Clinton^ 


nwm 


1,423 


Frankfort, 




Crawford, 


8 


3,238 


Fredonia, 


122 


Daviess, 


s torn' 


4,543 


Washin^rton, 


106 


Dearboni, 


se 


13,974 




98 


Decatur, 


sem 


5,887 


Greensburg, 


5S 


Delaware, 


e m 


2,374 


Muncj^wn, 


59 


Dubws, 


Bwm 


1,778 


Portersville, 


124 


Elkhart, 


n 


935 


l»ulaski. 




Fayette, 


em 


9,112 


ConnersyiBe, 


68 


Floyd, 


8 e 


6,361 


New Albany, 


121 


Fountain, 


v> 


7,619 


Covington, 


81 



y Google 



INDIANA* 



lUl 



(Table Continued.) 



Distance 
FROM Indi- 

ANAFOUS. 



COUIITIES* 



Situa- 
tion. 



Popula- 
tion 
IN 1830. 



County Towns. 



Franklin, 


8 6 


10,190|BiookviUe, 


70 


Gibson, 


8W 


5,416 


Princeton, 


141 


Greene, 


8wm 


4,242 


Bloomfield, 


76 


Hamilton, 


m 


1,757 


Noblesville, 


22 


Harriton, 


8e 


10,373 Corydon, 


124 


Hancock, 


m 


1,436 Greenfield, 


21 


Hendricks, 


m 


3,975 


Danville, 


20 


Henrj, 


em 


6,497 


Newcastle, 


49 


Jackscm, 


8m 


4,870 


Brownstown, 


69 


Jefferson, 


8e 


11,465 




85 


Jennines, 


8em 


3,974 


Vernon, 


64 


Johnscm, 


m 


4,019 


Franklin, 


20 


Knox, 


w 


6^ Vincennes, 


196 


Lawrence, 


8m 


9,234 Bedford, 


73 


Madison, 


m 


2,238 


Andersontown, 


41 


Marion, 


m 


7,192 


Indianapolis, 




Martin, 


8m 


2,010 


Mount Pleasant, 


121 


Monroe, 


8m 


6,577 


Bloomington, 
CrawfijrdsriUe, 


51 


Montgomery, 


torn 


7,317 


44 


Morgan, 


m 


5,593 


Martinsville, 


30 


Orange, 


8m 


7,901 


Paoli, 


96 


Owen, 


torn 


4,017 


Spencer, 


52 


Perry, 


8 


3,369 


Rome, 


143 


Pike, 


8W 


2,475 


Petersburg, 


119 


Powjy, 


8W 


6,549 


Mount Vernon, 


187 


Putnam, 


UD m 


8,262 


Greencastle, 


42 


Parke, 


w 


7,535 


RockviUe, 


68 


Randolph, 


e 


3,912 


Winchester, 


97 


Ripley, 


8 em 


3,989 


VersaUles, 


79 


Rush, 


e m 


9,707 


RushvUle, 


40 


St Joseph, 


n 


287 






Scott, 


8 e 


3,092 


New Lexington, 


89 


Shelby, 


m 


6,295 


ShelbyviUe, 


30 


Spencer, 


8 


3,196 


Rockport, 


167 


SolUvaa, 


W 


4,630 


Merom, 


115 


Switzerland, 


8 


7,028 


Vevay, 


105 


Tippecanoe, 


nwm 


7,187 


La&yette, 


70 


Union, 


e 


7,944 


Liberty, 


77 


Vanderburg, 


8%D 


2,611 


Evansville, 


170 


Vermillion, 


W 


5,692 


Newport, 


86 


Vigo, 


W 


5,766 


Terre Haute, 


83 


Warren, 


W 


2,861 


WilHamsporl^ 




Warwick, 


8W 


2,877 


Boonsville, 


187 


Washington, 


8m 


13,064 


Salem, 


91 


Wayne, 


e 


18,571 


CentreviUe, 


63 


Total, 63 Ck>ai] 


den. 


343,031 


fOfwhomSaresb 


ives. 



14* 



y Google 



162 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



Several new counties have been added since the Census 
of 1830. The following is a list of them : 







Situation. 


County Towns. | 




La Porte, 


It w 


Michigan. 






La Grange, 
Hunting(ibn, 


n e 








nem 








Wabash, 


n m 








Miami, 


n m 


Miamisport. 






Grant, 


m 


Marion. 





POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



Population, 




Increase. 


6,641 


From 1800 to 1810 


18,879 


24,524 


' 1810 to 1820 


122,658 


147,178 


' 1820 to 1830 


194,404 


343,031 







In 1800 
' 1810 
« 1820 
' 1830 



Government. — ^The Governor is elected for three 
years; salary $1000 per annum. Lieutenant Governor is 
President of the Senate, and receives $2 per day during 
the session of the Legislature. 

The Legislature is called the General Assembly of 
Indiana^ and is composed of a Senate, the members of 
which are elected for three years ; and a House of Re- 
presentatives, whose members are elected annually. The 
number of the former is at present 30 ; and of the latter 
75. Pay of members of both houses $2 a day each. 

The Legislature meets annually at Indianapolis, the 
capital of the state, on the 1st Monday in December. 

Judiciary. — ^The Judiciary power is vested in a 
Supreme Court, Circuit Courts, and such other inferior 
Courts as the General Assembly may establish. The Su- 
preme Court consists of three Judges. And each of the 
Circuit Courts consists of a President and two Associates. 
All the judges hold their office for 7 years, if not removed 
for improper conduct. 

The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the 
Governor, with the consent of the Senate. The presiding 
Judges of the Circuit Courts are appointed by the Legis- 
lature; and the Associates are elected by the people. 



y Google 



INDIANA. 168 

There are seven presiding Judges of Circuit; Courts. The 
Judges of the Supreme and Circuit Courts receive $700 
per annum. The Associate Judges receive $2 a day du- 
ring the Courts. 

Face of the country. — ^The country immediately border- 
ing on the Ohio River, — say a strip of land, of from 16 to 
25 miles wide, — extending from the Wabash River to the 
Miami, is broken and hilly. The hills along the Ohio may, 
with propriety, be called bluffs in many places. When one 
has ascended from the river to the summits of these hiUs, 
he finds that the country which lies beyond them is com- 
paratively level, interrupted by deep ravines, and precipi- 
tous banks on the water courses. But, afler having passed 
over some 10 or 15 miles, he finds that the land is gene- 
rally more level, and continues to become more so, until it 
is almost perfectly level. This is the character of four- 
, fifths of the entire surface of the state. 

There is what may be called a low mountainous ridge, 
extending from the Ohio at Louisville, a little north of west 
to the east branch of White River at Hindostan ; thence it 
pursues a due west course to the Wabash below Vincennes. 
This ridge is very perceptible. It begins in Kentucky, 
and is really the cause of the rapids or " falls" in the Ohio 
at Louisville. It causes rapids in both branches of White 
River, and also in the Wabash, a short distance above the 
mouth of White River. This low ridge, although scarcely 
perceptible, probably continues across the state of Illinois, 
. and is seen distinctly in the ledge of rocks at the Grand 
Tower, below the entrance of the Kaskaskia. 

The northern part of this state is generally level, or 
gently undulating. This is also the character of the mid- 
dle portions of the state. 

Although there are no very extensive " prairies" in this 
state, yet the Wabash is skirted by many of a limited ex- 
tent ; and which, in general, possess a fertile soil. 

It would be difficult to conceive of a country possessing 
a more delightful appearance than this state presents, both 
in those parts which are cultivated, and those which are 
not. The level, exuberant fields, covered in the summer 
with crops of the most luxuriant growth — and the noble 
forests, where the hand of cultivation has not yet made an 
opening, are both objects which must ever be viewed with 
interest by travellers and emigrants. 



y Google 



164 VALLBY OF TBS XI88I88IPP1. 

This State is quite as level, as a whole, as it is desirable 
that land for cultivation should be. 

SoiL^^This state may be divided into three divisions, 
for convenience, in treating of its soil. 

1. The first section embraces the southern end of the 
State, from Illinois to Ohio. In width it may be described 
as embracing the two tiers or lines of counties which lie 
between the Ohio River and the East Fork of White 
River, which rises, in some of its eastern streams, towards 
the Ohio line. Besides, it includes a line of counties next 
to them on the north, and through which the East Fork of 
White River flows in the lower part of its course, after 
leaving Bartholomew county. So that this portion of the 
state may be said to comprehend the three tiers of coun- 
ties which lie parallel with the Ohio River. The first of 
these tiers, beginning at the Wabash at its junction with 
the Ohio, consists of Posey, Vanderburg, Warrick, Spen* 
Cer, Perry, Crawford, Harrison, Floyd, Clark, Jefierson, 
Switzerland, and Dearborn — in all twelve counties. 

They all border on the Ohio River. The second tier 
consists of Gibson, Pike, Dubois, Orange, Washington, 
and Scott — and does not extend to the Ohio line ; but ends 
at the west side of Jeflferson, one of the counties of the first 
tier. This second tier embraces six counties. The third 
tier consists of Knox, ^f which Vincennes is the chief 
town,) Daviess, Martin, Lawrence, Jackson, Jennings, and 
Ripley — in all seven counties. 

The general character of this portion of the state, em- 
braces 25 counties, as it regards soil, is upon the whole 
good. There are some excellent counties, and parts of 
counties — and some of a very difierent description. There 
are but few counties out of the whole number, which have 
not a considerable extent of good land. I suppose that in 
majority, the good greatly predominates over the indiffer- 
ent There is but little, comparatively, which is unfit for 
cultivation. The second rate, and even the third rate 
land would be considered fine land in many of the Atlantic 
states. I^ these counties, beech may be said to predomi- 
nate, interspersed with oak, ash, poplar, sugar tree, walntit, 
and sycamore on the bottoms, ^c. dec. This is, as I re- 
marked before, the most broken and hilly portion of the 



y Google 



nroiAKA. 165 

state. The soil is, in general, durable ; and improves in 
productiveness by proper cultivation. 

2. The second grand section of this state is a zone of 
about sixty or seventy miles in width, stretching across 
the state, from Illinois to Ohio, and lying immediately 
north of the first named division. It occupies the entire 
central portion of the State, and extends about 20 miles 
South, and 40 miles north of Indianapolis. It embraces 
about forty counties in six successive tiers. Their names 
are as follows — SuUivan, Greene, Monroe, Bartholomew, 
Decatur, Franklin ; Vigo, Clay, Owen, Morgan, Johnson, 
Shelby, Rush, Fayette, Union ; Vermillion, Parke, Put. 
nam, Hendricks, Marion, (of which Indianapolis is the 
chief town, and capital of the state,) Hancock, Henry, 
Wayne ; Warren, Fountain, Montgomery, Boone, Hamil- 
ton, Madison, Delawaie, Randolph ; Tippecanoe, Clinton, 
Carroll, Cass, Wabash, Allen. 

There is not a finer district of country of the same ex* 
tent in the United States, than that which has been describ- 
ed above. Almost every part of it posseses a fine soil, 
covered in its natural state with heavy forests of oak, pop- 
lar, walnut, hickory, ash, sugar-maple, beech, wild cherry, 
honey locust, coffee tree, hackberry, cucumber tree, linden, 
dec. d^. with dog wood, iron wood, spice bush, and other 
small under wood. The Wabash River is skirted on each 
side by small prairies, in this and the former division. 

3. The third division embraces all that portion of the 
state which lies north of the last named division — ^in other 
words, between the tier of counties through which the 
Wabash runs, and the northern boundary of the state. 
With the exception of a strip of 10 miles in width, which 
lies along the northern line of the state, and which em- 
braces the following counties — La Porte, St. Joseph, Elk- 
hart, and La Grange, — the whole of this region, embracing 
near 3,000,000 of acres, belongs to the Putawatomies, a 
tribe of Indians, who will soon sell their lands, it is ex- 
pected,, and remove to the west of the Mississippi. The 
Miamis, another tribe of Indians, own a portion of this 
^ state south of the Wabash, but of small extent. The whole 
extent of land in this state, to which the Indicm title is not 
extinguished-^iu 1832, was 3,681,040 acres. 

A large portion of the third great division of this state 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



166 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

is excellent land. There is, however, a much greater 
amount of flat and wet land, than in the other portions of 
the state. There is a considerable number of ponds and 
marshes, many of which, perhaps, may be drained. But 
the wet and marshy part is inconsiderable, when compared 
with what is entirely fit for cultivation. The Kankakee 
river, which is a branch of the Illinois, rising in this state, 
runs through a country abounding in ponds and marshes. 

The new counties on the northern boundary, possess in 
general an excellent soil, especially those through which 
the St. Joseph's runs, in the sweep which it makes down 
into this state. 

Rivera. — The Ohio flows along the whole of the South - 
em end of the state, — a distance, by its winding course, of 
353 miles. It receives only a few inconsiderable streams 
from this state, save the noble Wabash on the western 
boundary. 1 shall only mention the chief of these little 
streams, beginning on the eastern line. They are White 
Water, Laughery, Silver Creek, Black Creek, Indian 
Creek, Blue River, Anderson's Creek, and Pigeon Creek. 

The Wabash is the great river of this state. It rises in 
the western part of Ohio, and runs first a north-west course ; 
it then turns to the south-west, and pursues this course 
until it reaches the western side of Indiana, receiving in 
that part of its course Little River, Eel, and Tippecanoe 
from the north ; and the Salamanic, Mississinewa, Wild 
Cat, and Wea rivers, from the south-east. Afler reaching 
the vicinity of the western boundary of the state, the 
Wabash, a few miles above Covington, begins to pursue a 
course almost due south, until it reaches a point a few 
miles below Terre Haute ; whence, pursuing the same 
direction, it becomes the boundary between Illinois and 
Indiana, to its junction with the Ohio. In this part of its 
course, it receives from the West the Vermillion, Embar- 
ras, Bon Pas, and Little Wabash; and from the east. 
Sugar Creek, Racoon Creek, White River, Patoka River, 
and Stigo Creek, with many other and smaller streams. 

The White River drains all the central part of this state, 
and with its branches is invaluable, as a channel for trade. 
ft has two great branches, viz. : East Fork, and West 
Fork. Each of these has several large confluents. The 
former has Graham's Fork, Sand, ClUly, and Flat Rock 



y Google 



INDIANA. 167 

Creeks, Blue River, &c. The latter has White Lick, Eel 
River, and many others. 

In the north-western part of the state, Pickamink and 
Kankakee rivers rise, and flow into the Illinois. Whilst 
on the north-east, the Maumee may be said to begin at 
Fort Wayne, at the junction of- two branches, — the St. 
Joseph's from Michigan, and the St Mary's which rises in 
Ohio. The branches unite at Fort Wayne, in Allen 
county ; and the united stream, the Maumee, (or Miami 
of the Lake, as it is still called by many,) flows away 
north-eastwardly through a part of Ohio, and fells into 
Lake Erie, within the limits of Michigan Territory. 

The St. Joseph's River,* (not the one just named) a 
considerable stream, enters this state on the north from 
Michigan Territory ; and turning again towards the north- 
west, it falls into Lake Michigan, within the limits of the 
Territory in which it rises. 

The Wabash is navigable for steam-boats up to Lafay- 
ette, a distance of more than 370 miles from the Ohio. 
They have even ascended 25 miles further to Delphi. The 
White River has not yet been much navigated by steam- 
boats. One or two have been up as high as Indianapolis. 
But hundreds of flat boats annually descend the Wabash 
and White Rivers. Probably no other river, of an equal 
size, in our country, drains so large and important a valley 
as the Wabash and its branches do. And certainly, no 
river of the same size, is navigable as great a distance by 
steam and flat boats, as this river is. The trade of this 
river is becoming immense. In 1831, during the period 
which elapsed from the 5th of March to the 16th of April, 
64 steam-boats arrived and departed at and from Vin- 
cennes alone. It is also estimated, that at least one thoU' 
sand flat boats entered the Ohio from the Wabash, in the 
same time. One-tenth of these flat boats, it is calculated, 
were loaded with pork, at the rate of 300 barrels to a boat. 
Another tenth are said to have been loaded with lard, 
cattle, horses, oats, corn meal, <Sz;c. ; and the remainder 



* It is to be regretted that two rivers should be called by the name of 
St. Joseph's, which rise in the same part of Michigan Territory. The 
one flowing south enters the Maumee-— and the omer west, and enters 
Lake Michigan. 



y Google 



168 VALLEY OF THX MISSISSIPPI. 

with corn in the ear. The value of produce and stock 
sent annually to market from the Valley of the Wabash, 
by flat boats, all of which pass down thid river, must be 
now near $1,000,000. 

In February, March, and April of 1832, there were CO 
arrivals of steam-boats at Lafayette ! 

Canals and Roads. — ^This state has undertaken to con« 
struct a canal, from the Wabash to the Maumee, called 
the Wabash and Erie Canal. This canal is now com- 
mepced. 

In 1824 Congress made a donation of public lands to the 
state of Indiana, for the purpose of enabling that state to 
construct this canal. That donation being considered in- 
sufficient. Congress granted, on the 2d of March, 1827, 
each alternate section of the public lands within five miles 
of the proposed line, upon the condition that the work 
should be commenced within five, and completed within 
twenty years. This grant was accepted. The route was 
surveyed, and the canal located. The lands granted were 
surveyed and selected. A Board of Canal Commissioners 
has been appointed — ^and the work is now actually com- 
menced. 

The route of this canal is as follows : It commences on 
the Wabash at or near Lafayette, and continues along the 
banks of that river up to the entrance of the Little River ; 
thence up that river to the Aboite River, across that stream, 
and up another branch of tlte Little River to its sources — 
thence across the summit, seven miles to the junction of 
the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, at Fort Wayne. The 
water needed on the summit level, will be supplied by a 
feeder 14 miles long from the St. Joseph's* From Fort 
Wayne, the canal will descend along the iftaumee to the 
town of Maumee, at the lower end of the rapids of that 
river. Should the Miami Canal in Ohio, be continued to 
the Maumee^ as it is probable that it will be, it will inter- 
sect the Wabash and Erie Canal near Fort Defiance <m 
the Maumee, about 50 miles above the rapids. 

It will at once be perceived, that a part of the Wabash 
and Erie Canal will be within the state of Ohio. That 
state has not yet undertaken to make her part of this canal, 
but will no doubt do so, as soon she has weU advanced in 
her other and greater improvements. 



y Google 



INDIANA. 160 

This entire canal will be about 202 milea long, of which 
1^ are in Indiana, and 75 in Ohio. The expense of 
making the part within the limits of Indiana, including 
locks aad feeders, was estimated by the United States' En- 
gineer, at $1,081,970, or about $9,000 per mile. 

That portion of the grant of public land for this canal, 
made by Congress, which lies in this state, being each 
alternate section of public land for five miles on each side, 
through which the canal passes, amounts to 355,200 acres. 
Of these 264,000 have been selected and set apart by the 
state, and 41,000 acres sold for $71,000. The remainder, 
91,200 acres, are within the lands of the Miami Indians, 
and which will belong to the state as soon as their title to 
them shall have been extinguished by the government of 
the United States. 

This canal must be completed within fifteen years, by 
the requirements of the act of Congress. 

The importance of this canal is obvious to all ; and its 
construction will be remarkably easy, there being but few 
physical difficulties to be overcome. 

The public lands granted to the state for this purpose, 
are valued at $756,750. The balance of the sum required, 
will be raised by loans ; the first of which has recently 
been taken by eastern capitalists. 

Roads. — A state road is now making from Indianapolis 
to Michigan Territory, called the Michigan road. It will 
terminate on the St. Joseph's. 

An act has been passed to allow a company to make a 
rail-road from Indianapolis to Louisville. 

The national road will pass through Indianapolis from 
Columbus to St. Louis. When completed it will be of 
great advantage to this state. 

Lines of stages are established during the summer, from 
Madison and Cincinnati to Indiana|>olis, and on several 
other roads. The roads in this state are good in summer, 
but bad in winter, on account of their being entirely of clay, 
except the corderoy roads, as they are called, that is, roads 
made over swampy ground by laying small round logs or 
saplings close to each other across the road, so as to fi>rm 
really a bridge. Such roads are always rough. 

Productions. — ^The productions of this state are similar 
to those of Ohio. Corn, wheat, rye, buck-wheat, oats, ikx, 

15 



y Google 



170 VALLEY OF THE KI8SI88IFFI. 

dec. 6cc, are staples. The garden vegetables are the same 
as those of that state. Potatoes, common and sweet, tur- 
nips, beets, parsnips, cabbages, pumpkins, all sorts of 
melons, d^c. grow abundantly here. Vast quantities of 
corn are raised in this state, and sent down the Ohio and 
Mississippi. Hogs are raised in great numbers, for a fo- 
reign market. Many thousands of cattle, hogs and horses, 
are driven to the East from this state ; and thousands of 
barrels of pork and beef are annually sent to New-Orleans. 
Bees-wax and feathers are sent in great quantities from 
this state to the East. Apples, pears, peaches, &;c. are 
becoming abundant. The plum and other wild fruits are 
abundant here. Hemp and tobacco are cultivated to a 
considerable extent in this state. Large quantities of gin- 
seng are dug and refined in this state, and sent to China 
by way of the eastern cities. 

Towns. Indianapolis is the capital of the state. It 
is situated on the lefl or east bank of White River, about a 
mile from the river. Twelve years ago the place where 
this beautiful town now stands was a forest, and the land 
belonged to the Indians. Even now the lofty forest, like 
a wall, surrounds the town at the distance of about a mile. 
The streets of this town are wide, and named af\er the dif- 
ferent states of the Union. The site is almost perfectly 
level. Congress granted this state 2,560 acres for the 
seat of Government. The sale of a part of that land will 
enable the state to erect a splendid state house, together 
with the other requisite public buildings. There is a fine 
court house, for the courts of the county and of the state. 
There are several churches here. The population is now 
quite 1,400 and constantly increasing. Improvements are 
steadily going forward. The people are intelligent, moral 
and agreeable. Considering how recently this place has 
been settled, it is remarkable that it has so very pleasant 
a society. The same remark may be made respecting all 
the large towns of this state. 

Along (he Ohio are many beautiful villages and towns 
springing up, which are destined to become important 
places of business. The chief of them, are Lawrenceburg, 
Aurora, Vevay, Madison, Jefiersonville, Albany, Fredonia, 
J^Toy^ Evansville and Mount Vernon. 

Lawrsmceburg is a place of a good deal of business* 



y Google 



nfDIAKA. 171 

It stands a short distance below t6e mouth of the Af iami. 
Its situation is so low as to expose it to inundation when 
the spring floods are uncommonly high. Vevay is a plea- 
sant town, and was founded by a colony of Swiss in 1804, 
who have successfully cultivated the grape. It has aboat 
200 houses. Madison has a beautiful situation 90 miles 
by the river below Cincinnati, and 60 above Louisville. 
It has a population of about 1,500. The society here is 
pleasant, intelligent and moral. It is a place of much 
business, and is destined to be an important place. The 
public buildings are a court house, bank, three or four 
churches, dec. Jfffersonmlle stands opposite to Louis- 
ville. It is a pleasant little place of about 500 inhabitants. 
The State Prison is located here. Albany stands below 
the ^Is, and about five miles below Louisville. It is the 
largest town in the state, and bids fair to be the most im- 
portant as a commercial and manufacturing place. It is 
here that many of the steam-boats on the Mississippi come 
to undergo repairs. Seveial steam-boats have been built 
here. Several of those manufactures which are connected 
with the building and repairing of steam-boats, are carried 
<m at this place. The population of this town is near 
6000. 

On the Wabash are many flourishing towns growing 
up. I shall notice the most important, in their order, 
be^nning at the mouth of that river. 

New-Harmont, on the lefl or eastern bank of the river 
60 miles above its mouth, is surrounded by a fine rich and 
heavily timbered country, interspersed with small fertile 
prairies. It was settled in 1814 by a religious sect of 
Geriiians called Harmonites, under the guidance and con- 
trol of George Rapp, in whose name all the property was 
held. They erected 100 large and substantial buildings, 
and converted the wilderness into a garden. In 1824 
Robert Owen of New-Lanark, in Scotland, bought the 
entire place and lands connected with it for 9190,000, and 
established a community upon his " social system," and 
" new views of society :" about 700 individuals joined him. 
But soon discord arose among the members, and the 
'' social principle" was abandoned. The place is now 
flourishing upon the " individual principle." VincetmtM 
IS situated on the east bank of the Wabash, 142 miles 



digitized by VjOOQ iC 



172 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

above the mouth. It was founded by the French in 1690. 
It is, next to Cahokia, Kaskaskia and Detroit, the oldest 
town in the Valley of the Mississippi. It is contiguous to 
prairies of considerable extent. The country around is 
level and of a light soil generally. It possesses much 
trade, and is probably increasing in population at present. 
It has been considered rather unhealthy for several years 
past^ In this respect it is improving. The situation is 
one of great beauty. The houses are about 300 or 400 in 
number, and the population is near 2000. Terre Haute^ 
120 miles by the river, above Vincennes, on the east bank 
of the river, is a flourishing place, and bids fair to be one 
of the most important on the river. Lafayette is 110 
miles above Terre Haute, and on the same side of the 
river. It is a new and very flourishing town of 300 or 
400 houses. Five years ago this region was a wilderness. 
It is now a place of great business. Delphi is 25 miles 
above Lafayette, on the same side of the river, a new and 
flourishing town. Logansport is 18 miles above Delphi, 
at the junction of the Wabash and Eel rivers. It is a 
growing place. I might mention several more towns which 
are springing up, as if by magic, along this beautiful river, 
if the narrow limits of this work allowed it. 

Throughout the whole state, beautiful and flourishing 
villages are growing up in every organized county. 

Manufactures. The manufactures of this stale are not 
numerous. The pursuits of the people are chiefly agri- 
cultural and mercantile. A ^ew cotton factories have been 
erected along the principal rivers. A considerable num- 
ber of steam saw-mills and grist-mills have been erected, 
and are now erecting, in various parts of the state, and 
especially along the Ohio. But little iron and salt are yet 
manufactured in this state. A furnace which was once in 
operation on Driftwood fork of the East branch of White 
river, has ceased for some time. 

Education. This state does not yet enjoy a system of 
common schools supported by public authority. The con- 
stitution of the state contains the following important pro- 
vision respecting general education. ''It shall be the 
duty of the general assembly, as soon as circumstances 
will permit, to provide by law, for a general system of 
education, ascending in regular gradation^ fron]i towashiji 



y Google 



IKDIAKA. ITS 

schools to a state University, wherein tuition shall be 
graiisy and equally open to all.^ In |he absence of a 
public school system, the people of almost every neigh« 
bourhood of sufficient population have made effi)rts to have 
a school, have erected school houses, and sustain a school 
during a part of a year. It is to be regretted, however, 
that the schools are often taught by incompetent teachers. 
But the public mind is awaking to the importance of this 
subject, and it will not be long, I trust, until this state will 
follow the noble example of Ohio. 

One thirty-sixth patt of the public lands in this state 
has been appropriated by Congress for common schools, 
amounting, (including the lands appropriated to schools in 
Clark's grant,) to 556,184 acres. Besides this, two town* 
ships, or 46,080 acres have been given for a college. 

There are several good academies, male and female, «••■ 
tablished at Madison, Indianapolis, and other of the largest 
towns. 

There is a College under the patronage of the state at 
Bloomington. 

General Remarks. — 1. No state in the west presents 
greater inducements to those who desire to emigrate to 
that part of our country than Indiana does. There are 
12,699,096 acres of public land to which the Indian claim 
has been extinguished ; and 3,681,040 acres to which the 
Indian title will soon be extinguished. This land may be 
purchased for the small sum of $1 25 per acre, and a vast 
proportion of it is of the richest quali^. And many par* 
tially cultivated forms may be bought in the older settle- 
ments, at the rate of from' 3 or 4 to 10 or 15 dollars, per 
acre, according to situation, extent cleared and fimeedt 
and the value of the buildings on them. 

This state is divided into six districts for the convenienoe 
of those who desire to purchase public land, viz. Jefibrson* 
ville, Yincennes, Indianapolis, Crawibrdsville, Le Bsrtt 
and Fort Wayne. The following is a statement of the 
names of the land offices, registers, and of the receiveis 
of the public money. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1T4 



VALLEY or THK MISSISSIPPI- 



Idtnd Offices, 



Indianapolis, 
Fort Wayne, 
Vincennes, 
Jefiferson- 

ville, 
Ciawfords- 

▼ille* 
LePort, 



Registers. 



Arthur St. Clair, 
Thos. Breckenridge, 
John Badollet, 

William Lewis, 

Samuel Milroy, 
David Robb, 



Receivers. 



James P. Drake, 
John Spencer, 
JohoD. Wolverton, 

Jas. G. Read, 

James T. Pollock, 
John M. Lemon. 



2. Almost every part of this state is easy of access to 
emigrants who remove to it early in the spring or late in 
autumn, for then the Wabash is navigable by steam-boats 
up to Lafayette and Delphi, so that the emigrant may be 
remdily carried into that part of the state which is contigu- 
MS to the Wabash or Ohio without difficulty. Should the 
Qinigrant removing to this state, prefer going to it by land 
rather than by water conveyance, he will find the roads 
good in the latter part of spring, and generally during the 
whole of summer and autumn. 

3. The climate of this state is salubrious. Along the 
wide and level alluvial bottoms, there is usually more or 
less of bijious fever, in some one or other of its varieties, 
during the autumnal months. But if emigrants would 
be careful of their health, they would not in general sufier 
much. There are several causes of sickness among new 
settlers in this and all other western states. 1. They 
generally have open and inconvenient houses during the 
first few years. They are often negligent on this point, 
fireierring to clear off their ground, and put up a barn, be- 
fore they erect a comfortable house. Often they are 
bonq^lled, through the necessity of labouring hard to pro- 
vide food for their families, to turn their attention away 
from providing a house, until a year qr two passes away. 
In the meanwhile, living in a house which is open to the 
damp and unhealthy atmosphere of autumnal nights, and 
noxious exhalations by day, it would be miraculous if they 
escaped sickness. I have a thousand times wondered that 
they have as good health aa they usually have. 2. They 
often live on food which is not of a wholesome kind, 
through difiiculty of obtaining better. 3. They frequently 



y Google 



INDIANA. 175 

labour much harder, and expose themselves more, than 
they ought. I know they will plead the necessity of their 
circumstances. But it is very unwise, for the purpose of 
gaining a little at the present, to run the risk, by over- 
exertion, of losing health and perhaps life. 4. Emigrants 
when becoming unwell, and perhaps admonished for days 
of approaching sickness, often neglect to send for a physi- 
cian, or perhaps find great difficulty in obtaining one in a 
new and sparse settlement, until the disease becomes 
seated in the system. 

It is very far from being true that the majority of emi- 
grants to this state from the East must pass through a 
period of sickness as a seasoning. The greater part of 
those who take proper care of their health, undergo no 
disease peculiar to this climate, more certainly than those 
who have long resided in the state. 

4. It is most convenient and economical for the emigrant 
to arrive in this, and all the other states in the upper part 
of the Valley of the Mississippi, in the early part of the 
spring season. For by doing so, he may be able even if 
he settles down in the woods, to prepare and plant a few 
acres with corn, which will yield him in the fall, food for 
the winter and next summer, and by the fall he may have 
more land cleared and ready to be sown with wheat or rye. 
Besides, the ground which produced corn in the summer 
may be sown with winter grain, so that he is then very 
jsure of being able to go on well. For he may spend the 
first summer in taking care of his fewacresof corn, which 
-will give him but little trouble ; in putting a fence around 
it ; in building or rather finishing the house which he, 
with the help of his neighbours, put up during the first 
week afler his arrival ; and in clearing a few more acres 
of land. When his winter grain has been sown and the 
corn gathered in the autumn, he has but little to do in the 
winter, save taking his corn to mill, providing firewood 
and taking care of the two or three horses, five or six gowS| 
and 10 or 15 hogs which he brought with him, or bought 
in the neighbourhood. Or he may deaden some of the 
forest trees around, and so prepare the way for further 
clearings. In this way he may plant the next year a large 
field of corn, which is the great and sure and most valuable 
production in this state, for bread stufis, and he will have 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



176 VALLEY OP THE MISSISSIPPI. 

a harvest of small grain, and an abundance of com in the 
second autumn, together with a great increase of cattle, 
hogs and poultry, if he chooses to have it so. 

But if he arrives in the autumn he must come in the 
early portion of it, if he intends during that season to erect 
a house, clear a few acres, and sow a field of wheat. And 
then he must wait for his own bread-stufis, until the suc- 
ceeding mid-summer or rather autumn; living meanwhile 
on bought wheat or corn and other provisions. This is 
expensive, and what is more, the eastern emigrant who 
settles down on a piece of land in -the woods, as I have just 
described, much more endangers his health by coming in 
the fall, than by arriving in very early spring* I have 
seldom seen families remove from Western Pennsylvania 
to Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, &c. &c. in the fall ; but almost 
always in the spring. Most certainly, however, families 
which remove from the north of James river to the south- 
ern states of the Valley, should not think of going thither 
until late in autumn, whether convenient or not. For 
otherwise they will run a great risk of being sick during 
the first summer, and perhaps of losing life. 

6. The greater part of the inhabitants of Indiana are 
emigrants from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and states north of 
^ Pennsylvania. A considerable portion ofthem came from 
Kentucky and Western Virginia. A large number of 
them came hither single young men, and first opened a 
little farm and built a house, and returned to their fathers, 
and married, and removed to the " new settlements," and 
took up their permanent abode : or they found wives among 
the settlers around them. This was perhaps the most 
common course. And although such women have not the 
refinement and education of eastern women, they are far 
better qualified to endure the very laborious and hard life 
of the wife of an emigrant who sets out in the world with 
about money enough to buy 80 acres of land, two horses, 
two or three cows, a few hogs and sheep, and a wagon, a 
plough, and a harrow, &c. &c. which will cost, in all, 
about 350 or 400 dollars, and which, excepting the land 
(if it be public or Congress land,) he may have to buy on 
a partial credit. 

N. B. The reader must constantly remember that pub- 
lic lands can only be purchased for cash payments* it it 



y Google 



INDIANA. 177 

now $1,25 an acre, unless sold at auction; but there are 
no credits. 

6. Good mechanics of almost all descriptions will find 
profitable employment in this state. 

7. School Masters from the East, or young men who 
are qualified to teach schools, would do well to come to 
this state, as well as to Ohio and other western states. 
They would do good, lay up, in two or three years, money 
enough to buy a quarter, or half of a quarter of section of 
land, and commence farming. Or they will find it to be 
for their interest to teach school all their lives, which is, 
or ought to be, a most honourable business, and will not 
prevent them from carrying on farming to such an extent 
as to support a fiimily. 

8. The history of this state, down until the close of the 
last war in 1815, is a mournful chapter in the chronicles of 
our country. Many of its brave and enterprising people 
moistened its soil with their blood. The defeat of St. 
Clair in 1791, and the blood-bought but decisive victory 
of Wayne, in 1794, occurred on its eastern border ; and 
the battles of Tippecanoe and Missisinewa, within its 
limits, took place at a more recent period. Their details 
are too fresh in the recollection of every reader of his 
country's history, to need repetition here. In 1816, this 
State was formally received into the Union of the statea^ 
Its prosperity, ever since, has been rapidt 



y Google 



178 



VALLEY OF THE KISSISSIFFI. 



CHAPTER XV. 



MICHIGAN. 



Michigan. The peninsula which is called by this name 
lies immediately north of Ohio and Indiana. It is bounded 
on the west, north, and east by lakes. A more minute 
description of its boundary would give Lake Michigan as 
constituting the western boundary for 260 miles ; Huron 
on the north-east and east 250 miles ; St. Clair river, 
Lake St. Clair, Detroit river, and Lake Erie on the east 
for 136 miles ; the state of Ohio 80 and Indiana 110 miles, 
QD the south. 

This peninsula extends from N. lat. 41° 35', to N. lat. 
45° 20' ; and from 5° *^0' to 9° 53' W. Ion. from Wash- 
ington. Its area is 38,000 square miles, or 24,320,000 
acres. 

TABLE OF THE COUNTIES AND COUNTY TOWNS. 







POPULA. 




Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


TION 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Detroit 


Wayne, 


ae 


6,7oI 


Detroit City, 




Monroe, 


8 e 


3,187 


Monroe, 


36 


Oakland, 


sent 


4,9.1 


Pontiac, 


26 


Lenawee, 


am 


1,491 


Tecumseh, 


63 


McComb, 


e 


2,413 


Mount Clemens, 


26 


St Clair, 


em 


1,114 


St Clair, 


59 


Washtenaw, 


B em 


4,042 


Ann Arbor, 


42 


St Joseph, 


BtD 


1,313 


White Pigeon , 
Prairie, ' ] 




Cass, 


» w 


919 


Edwardsburg, 


169 


Berrien, 


9 to 


325 


NUes 


174 


Van Buren, 


• to 


5 








n 


877 


Mackinac, 


321 


Total, 




27,378 







y Google 



} 



m 





y Google 



diAA 



^iS\ ^r- 



^Z 





MICHIGAN. 



17d 



The following counties lie west of Lake Michigan^ and 
in the District of Huron, which is attached, at present, to 
the Territory of Michigan : 











Dist*^ 


COUNTIKS. 


Situa- 


Population 


County Towns. 


firom 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Detroit 


Brown, 


n w 


1,356 


Menomonie, 




Crawford, 


to m 


692 


Prairie du Chien, 


598 


Chippewa, 


to m 


636 


Sault de Ste. Mario, 


356 


Iowa, 


to m 


1,587 


Helena. 





4,261 

Total population of Michigan 31,639, of whom 32 are 
daves. 

The following new counties have been made since 1830 : 



Counties. 


Situation. 


County Towns. 


Lapeer, 


e m 




Sanilac, 


n e 




Shiwassee, 


m 


Byron. 


Saginaw, 


n m 


Saginaw. 


Hillsdale, 


8 m 




Jackson, 


sm 


Montcalm. 


^ Ingham, 


8 m 




Branch, 


8 




Calhoun, 


8 u> m 




Eaton, 


8w m 




Kalamazoo, 


ID 




Barry, 


8V> 




Allegan, 


8W 




Ottawa, 


810 




Oceana, 


w 




Montcalm, 


v> m 




Isabella, 


n to 




Gratiot, 


m 




Midland, 


n m 




Gladwin, 


n m 




Aranac, 


n e 




Kent, 


8V> 




Ionia, 


m 




Clinton, 


m 





y Google 



180 VALLEV OF TRE MISSISSIPPI. 

Government. — Governor, appointed by the President — 
salary, $2,000 ; Secretary, do. salary $1,000. The Legis- 
lative Council is elected by the people ; they continue in 
office two years. Their present number is VS. 

Judiciary. — There are four Judges, who hold courts in 
the several counties — salary of each, $1,200. They are 
appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate. 

Detroit is the present Capital of this Territory. 

In 1820, the population of Michigan, including the Huron 
District, was 8856 ; in 1830, including the same District, it 
was 31,639. But exclusive of Huron, the peninsula of Mi- 
chigan, to which the name of Michigan is commonly confi- 
ned, contained in 1830, 27,378 inhabitants. The number 
is now not short of 45,000 ; and it is rapidly increasing, by 
reason of the great tide of emigration which has been set- 
ting into that territory during the last two years. 

Face of the Country. — The southern part of this terri- 
tory is very level, or gently undulating. The northern 
part is more uneven. Along the shore of Huron there are, 
in places, very high bluffs ; and along the east shore of Lake 
Michigan are, in many places, immense hills of pure sand 
of from fifty to several hundred feet in height, which have 
been blown up by the almost constant western winds, sweep- 
ing over the lake and the sandy margin on its eastern side. 

There are some tracts of land in the south part of Michi- 
gan, which are covered with small lakes and marshes. But 
the extent of such land is wholly inconsiderable, when com- 
pared with that -which is admirably fit for cultivation. 
Much of the land which now appears marshy will become 
dry and good land, when cleared of the heavy forests which 
now exclude the rays of the sun. And in many places the 
wet lands can be drained with but little trouble or expense. 
Parallel with Detroit River, and at a distance of a mile in 
some parts, there is swampy ground of considerable width, 
which it is believed may be drained. 

It is far from being true, that there is much land in this 
territory which is of a dead level. It is almost invariably 
moderately uneven or undulating. The dividing table land, 
which extends from the ^outh to the north, throughout its 
entire length, is more elevated and uneven than it has, by 
some, been represented to be. It is a most beautifblly 
variegated part of the country. As to surface, this whole 



y Google 



mcmoANk 181 

table landy and I may say the entire interior, is nnich such 
a country as one sees in passing from Philadelphia to Bris- 
tol or Trenton. 

5^oiZ.— 'The soil of a very large portion of this territory 
is uncommonly fertile. In the southern half especially, 
the land is of a rich soil, and of astonishing depth in many 
parts. 

To one who has seen only the comparatively shallow soil 
of New-England, it is matter of great surprise to see, in 
some of the southern counties of this peninsula, rich allu- 
vial l€uids of great extent, whose exuberant, vegetable 
mould of a black appearance, is from three to six feet in 
depth, and which seems to be almost inexhaustible. And 
although there is far from being an equal extent of such 
rich soil in the northern half, — inasmuch as it is more bro- 
ken, and in some places rugged from large hills and blufli, 
with deep intervening ravines, particularly on the margin 
of Lake Huron, and in others low and swampy — yet there 
is a good proportion of fine land. 

It is the testimony of gentlemen who have travelled much 
in this territory, that it is not surpassed, in point of fertility 
of soil, by any other portion of the West. One of the sur- 
veyors who have been employed by the general Govern- 
ment in surveying the public lands of Michigan, told me 
that afler having seen by far the greater part of it, he was 
decidedly of opinion that it possesses a greater proportion 
of the very best land, than any other part of the West 
which he had seen. Mr. Cass also speaks of it as a corn- 
try, taken as a whole, of surpassing fertility and beauty. 

The prairies of this territory are of very limited extent, 
compared with those of Illinois. They are, however, very 
valuable ; and in the summer are covered with grass of 
uncommon height. Almost the entire surface of this ter- 
ritory is covered with heavy forests of oak, walnut, sugar- 
maple, ash, poplar, hickory, beech, 6lc. similar to those of 
Ohio and Indiana, excepting that in the northern part 
there is a great abundance of pine, of a most valuable i^- 
cies for ship timber. 

Rivers. — This peninsula abounds in rivers and small 
streams. From the limited extent of the country, it is im- 
possible that any of these rivers can be very long. They 
rise from the considerably elevated, but comparatively level 

16 



y Google 



182 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSirFI. 

middle land, and flow, in every direction, into the lakes 
which border this peninsula on three sides. Beginning on 
the south-east, and proceeding along the lakes, I shall men- 
tion the most important. The first is the Maumee, which 
rises, by some of its upper branches, in this territory, and 
by others, in Ohio— and, after having flowed the greater 
part of its course in the latter state, it falls into Lake Erie 
within this territory, by an expanded mouth, or rather 
gulf. This is a very important stream, on account of the 
fecilities which it, in connexion with the Wabash, will 
afl^rd for inland navigation, by means of an intervening 
canal. This river is navigable for steam-boats up to the 
rapids, at Maumee and Perrysburg, in Ohio. 

The next rivers which occur in order, are Raisin and 
Huron, both falling into the western end of Lake Erie. 
They are both navigable for boats, in the lower part of 
their courses. Their sources interlock with those of Grand 
River, which, flowing in an opposite course, falls into Lake 
Michigan. A few miles below Detroit, is the pleasant 
little stream Rouge. Clinton River is the only important 
one which falls into the Lake St. Clair. Into St. Clair 
River fall the Belle, Pine, and Black rivers. The Sagi- 
naw, a very considerable and important river running 
northward, falls into the large Saginaw Bay, which is a 
part of Lake Huron. Many other, but smaller streams, 
fall into the same lake, such as the Thunder, two Sandys, 
Sheboigon, &c. Those which fall into Lake Michigan, 
are Traverse, Ottawa, Betsey's, Manistic, Pentwater, 
White, Maskegon, Grand, Kallemazoo, and St. Joseph's. 
Of these, the last named three are by far the most impor- 
tant streams. 

The Grand River is the largest on the peninsula. Its 
whole course is about 150 miles. For 50 miles from the 
lake, it is navigable for sloops and steam-boats. At that 
point, there arc rapids which interrupt the navigation. 
These rapids aflbrd flne water power for manufacturing 
purposes. In their vicinity are salt springs, and gypsum 
in vast quantities, and of an excellent quality. At the 
foot of these falls is a town, which bids fair to become a 
place of much commerce. Above these rapids there is 
boat navigation for 50 miles more. There are not less than 
six or eight large branches to this river. The country 
through which it flows possesses great fertility. It is be- 



y Google 



uicmoAN. 183 

Keired that it will be an easy matter to make a canal from 
the sources of the Grand River to the Huron River, and 
so unite Michigan and Erie Lakes. 

The Kallemazoo is a considerable stream, which falls 
into Lake Michigan, to the south of Grand River. 

The St. Joseph's River is a large stream, and empties 
into Lake Michigan in the south-western angle of the ter- 
ritory, with a wide mouth. It is navigable for sloops to 
the rapids. Above these it has a still further extent of 
boat navigation. It flows through a very fertile region, 
variegated by prairies and high forests. The country on 
this river is not surpassed, in point of beauty and fertility, 
by any in the Union. The sources of this river interlock 
with those of the St. Joseph's of the Maumee. Newbury- 
port is a flourishing town at the mouth . of this river. 
Niles is a flourishing town also on this river. A steam- 
boat trades regularly between it and Chicago, in Illinois. 

Productions. — They are the same as those of Ohio and 
the state of New York generally. Corn grows most luxu- 
riantly here. Wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat, pota- 
toes, pumpkins, melons, and all sorts of garden vegetables, 
which grow in the middle states, find a congenial soil here. 
The luxuriant growth of all kinds of the cultivated vege- 
tables, and also of the grasses, is such as to astonish those 
who have seen only the productions of the eastern states. 

Towns. — There are but few towns which have yet at- 
tained any considerable size. 

Detroit is the capital of the territory. It stands on 
Detroit River, 18 miles above its entrance into Lake Erie, 
and about 9 below Lake St. Clair. The site of this city 
is beautiful, being a level plain stretching out from the 
river to a great extent. Detroit was founded by the French 
in 1670. Its growth for a long period was slow, being 
chiefly a trading post. Since it came into the possession 
of the Americans in 1796, it has increased more rapidly, 
and especially within the last four or five years. Its pop- 
ulation is now above 3000, of whom about one-third are of 
French origin. 

There are five fine streets running parallel with the 
river, and six or eight others crossing them at right angles, 
running out from the river. As the Detroit River here 
runs towards the west, the city of course faces the south, 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



184 VAI.LET OF THE MKSlSSIFFI. 

or rather the south-east. The public buildings are a 
State House, Market, Court House, Churches, &c. This 
place is one of great and increasing trade, and will become 
a large city. 

The American population of this place, embraces a large 
number of very interesting families. I have seen few 
places which have a finer society. 

The Detroit River, or Strait, (which the word Detroit 
means) is a beautiful sheet of water, of from one to three miles 
wide, deep, and running at the rate of two and a half miles an 
hour. The country along its banks is extremely beautiful. 
The French settlers on both sides occupy farms of narrow 
fronts and extending far back. Their houses stand near 
the road which runs along the river ; so that, being con- 
tiguous to each other, they have the appearance of one 
half of a continued street. 

Mackinac. — ^This village, of 100 houses, stands on the 
south side of the island of Mackinac, or Michilimackinac, 
as it is commonly written, in the straits which lead from 
Lake Huron into Lake Michigan. The town stands in a 
beautiful cove, and possesses a good harbour. Above it, 
on an elevation of 150 feet, stands Fort Mackinac ; and on 
an eminence, still higher and further back, is a battery. 
These fortifications are of great strength. And this 
island, which is 9 miles in circumference, is a place of 
great importance, as commanding the entrance into Lake 
Michigan. 

Mackinac, like Detroit, is a place of great trade with 
the Indians. It is here that hundreds and thousands of 
them come annually to dispose of their peltry, and receive 
their annual payment from the United States, through the 
government agents. It is the centre of the operations of 
the north-west branch of the American Fur Company. 
There is here a flourishing Mission School, for the instruc- 
tion of Indian children, supported by the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Old Mackinac 
stood immediately south of the island on the extreme point 
of the peninsula. 

Monroe and Frencktown on the Raisin ; Brownstown^ 
near the mouth of Detroit River ; Pontiac, Ann Arbor^ 
Byron, Montcalm in the interior ; and Nilesy Newbury' 
port, on the St. Joseph's of the lake^ and many others 



y Google 



MICHIGAN. 185 

might be mentioned as growing and important towns and 
villages. 

The settlements in this Territory are chiefly confined to 
the south-eastern part of it. Of late, settlements have 
been made in the south-western angle, on the St. Joseph's, 
Kallemazoo and Grand Rivers. Several new counties have 
been recently laid out, in that and the south part of the 
Territory. 

Of the 24,320,000 acres of land in this peninsula, the 
Indian title to 16,393,420 had been extinguished, and their 
claim to 7,926,580 was not extinguished, June 30, 1828. 
It is expected that it will not be long until they will sell 
their remaining claims to the U. States, and remove to 
lands which will be assigned to them beyond the Missis- 
sippi. The Indians who live here are Ottawas, Miamis, 
Putawatomies, Wyandotts and Chippeways. 

Education. — Congress has granted to this territory one- 
thirty-sixth part of the public lands, amounting to 543,893 
acres, for common schools, and 46,080 for a University. 
Schools are established and maintained by private efforts, 
a part of the year, in almost all the neighbourhoods which 
have a sufficient population. Many Sunday Schools, with 
Libraries, have been established lately. It is expected that 
eventually there will be a good system of common schools 
established by public authority. There are a few Acade- 
mies. 

Congress has granted 10,000 acres of land for the erec- 
tion of the government buildings of this territory. 

General Remarks. 1. No other country on earth has 
such admirable natural advantages for trade and commerce, 
as this peninsula possesses. In all directions, streams flow 
from it into the lakes, which almost surround it. Many 
of these streams, as we have seen, are navigable for boats. 
And canals can easily be made between their interlocking 
sources. 

2. This territory, on account of the fertility of its soil, 
and the number and variety of its productions, as well as 
the facility with which they may be sent to market, is well 
worthy the attention of those who are about to emigrate 
to the West. It is a country of abundant fruits ; orchards 
grow admirably. It is also the land for flocks and herds. 
16* 



y Google 



186 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, &c. are easily reared, and find 
a ready market. 

3. The wild game of this territory is similar to that of 
Indiana, and the adjoining, unsettled parts of Ohio. Deer, 
bears, beavers, otters, wolves, foxes, 6iq. are numer6us. 
Geese, ducks, and other aquatic fowls, are exceedingly 
abundant. Wild turkies, pheasants, prairie-hens, &c. &c. 
are to be found in great numbers, and afford delicious food 
to the settlers in the autumn and winter. 

4. There is a vast extent of public land for sale in this 
territory, which may be purchased at $1 25 an acre. 
There are two public Land Offices in this territory, viz : 



Land Offices. 



Registers. 



Receivers. 



Detroit 

White Pigeon Prairie 



John Biddle 
Abraham Edwards 



Jon'n. Kearsley 
Thos. C. Sheldon 



5. The climate of this peninsula is very fine. It is that 
of the greater part of New- York and New-England as far 
north as the middle of Maine. Detroit is nearly on the 
same parallel with Boston, that is about 42° 20', and 
Mackinac the most extreme northern point, is in about 
45° 48'. The climate of the southern part is like that of 
the southern and middle parts of New- York ; while the 
northern part resembles, in its cold and protracted winters, 
the middle parts of Maine, and the northern parts of Ver- 
mont and New- York. The lakes which bound this penin- 
sula on three sides exert much influence jn moderating the 
extremes of heat and cold. The summers and autumns 
of this territory are delightful. The latter especially, are 
very mild and of long continuance. The springs are con- 
siderably later than those of Ohio and Indiana. 

On some of the extended alluvial bottoms, which border 
the rivers in the southern part of this territory, in the lat- 
ter part of summer, and in the autumn, bilious fevers 
sometimes prevail, as in the other western states. The 
emigrant must take care not to expose himself at those 
seasons, if he can avoid it, and live temperately and 
comfortably. 

6. The extent of the lakes which are contiguous to this 



y Google 



MICHIGAir. 187 

peninsula is as follows. Lake Erie is 230 miles long, and 
50 miles in its greatest width, but averaging more than 
35 miles, and extending from S. W. to N. £• It is not 
so deep a lake as Ontario. Lake St. Clair* is nearly cir- 
cular, and is about 20 miles in diameter. It is connected 
with Lake Erie by Detroit River, which is 27 miles long, 
and from one to three wide, and from 25 to 30 feet deep. 
Lake Huron is about 220 miles long, with an average 
width of 90. It is connected with Lake St. Clair by St. 
Clair River, which is 35 miles long, and from 25 to 30 feet 
deep, and has a rapid current. Lake Michigan is 270 
miles long, by about 50 in mean width. It is connected 
with Huron by a strait of about eight miles in width, 
through which a gentle current constantly sets into the 
latter lake. In the eastern entrance of that strait lies 
Michilimackinac Island. 

It will be at once perceived, what great advantages this 
territory has in point of navigable facilities. There is 
now a considerable number of schooners and sloops on 
Lake Erie and the upper lakes. This number is probably 
about 120 ; whilst there are 21 steam-boats on Erie alone, 
some of which occasionally visit Lakes Huron and Michi- 
gan. Seven of these boats constitute a daily line from 
Bufliilo in New- York to Detroit. A boat has been built 
recently for Lake Michigan, and a second is now building 
to constitute a line of packets from Bufialo in New- York, 
to Chicago in Illinois. In a few years there will be a 
dozen on that lake and Huron, and the merchandize from 
New- York, for the whole region on and beyond Michigan 
lake, will be brought in steam-boats from Bufliilo and other 
places on Lake Erie. The Hudson and Erie canal, will 
greatly increase the trade of Michigan Territory. Even 
now vast quantities of pork, beef, flour, com, feathers, 
beeswax, honey, skins, d^. &c. are shipped from this 
peninsula for New- York, and other eastern markets. 

7. Emigrants from the East who desire to settle in 
Michigan will find it easy to remove to it, by taking a 
canal boat at Albany for Bufliilo. This is a very econo- 
mical mode of removing. From Bufliilo they can go in a 

* St Clair Lake is shallow, and does not admit vessels drawmg more 
than nine feet water. 



y Google 



188 VALLEY OP THE HISSISSIPPI. ^ 

steam-boat to Detroit, a voyage of 330 miles, and made 
usually in from 36 to 48 hours, for a small sum, if they 
take a deck passage. I have seen a family of four or five 
persons, and having two wagon loads of stuff, make this 
voyage for twenty dollars. The price in the cabin, at 
present, is eight dollars, for each grown person. Those 
emigrants who wish to remove to the southern and south- 
western parts of Michigan, instead of going to Detroit, 
ought to land at Sandusky, or the mouth of the Maumee 
River, and go then by land. 

8. The history of this territory may be given in a few 
words. It was visited by French traders as early as 1640. 
Detroit was settled about 1670. In 1763 this country was 
ceded by France to Great Britain. In 1783 it was ceded 
by the latter power to the United States, but was not given 
up until 1796. The surrender of Detroit, and the defeat 
and massacre of our troops at the river Raisin, constitute 
a melancholy portion of the history of the war of 1812-'15. 
In 1805, a territorial government was organized, which 
still continues. In a year or two it will no doubt become 
a state. 



y Google 







.Google 



s 

t 
F 

V 

p 

e 

o 
1 

V 

1 

c 
b 

a 
I 

8 

a 




■IV 






/ 



X-^-^ 



'is^l 



^^*<>r 



'f 



'^d^'^^ 

& 



y 



XSNTUCKT. 



189 



CHAPTER XVI. 
KENTUCKY. 

Kentucky is bounded on the north by the Ohio river, 
which separates it from the states of Illinois, Indiana, and 
Ohio ; east by Western Virginia ; south by Tennessee ; 
and west by the Mississippi, which separates 4t from the 
state of Missouri- The greatest length is about 400 miles, 
and its area 40,600 square miles, or 25,920,000 acres. 

It lies between N. lat. 86^ 30', and 39° 08' ; and W. 
long. 5°, and 12° 25'. 



TABLE OF THE COUN'l'lES AKD COUNTY TOWNS. 






Popula- 




Distance 


COUNTIXS. 


Situa- 


tion 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Frankfbrt- 


Adair, 


s m 


8,217 


Columbia, 


91 


Allen, 


s 


6,485 


Scottsville, 


151 


Anderson, 


m 


4,520 


Lawrenceburg, 


12 


Barren, 


8wm 


15,079 


Glasgow, 


126 


Bath, 


e m 


8,799 


Owingsville, 


73 


Boone, 


n 


9,075 • 


Burlington, 


72 


Bourbon, 


nem 


18,436 


Paris, 


43 


Bracken, 


n 


6,518 


Augusta, 


73 


Breckenridge, 


w m 


7,345 


Hardinsburg, 


118 


Butler, 


8 torn 


3,058 


Morgantown, 


141 


Bulhtt, 


nwm 


5,642 


Shepherdsville, 


74 


Caldwell, 


w 


8,324 


Princeton, 


229 


Callaway, 


8 w 


5,164 


Wadesboro', 


262 


Campbell, 


n 


9,883 


Newport, 


79 


Casey, 


m 


4,342 


Liberty, 


66 


Christian, 


s w 


12,684 


Hopkinsville, 


206 


Clarke, 


m 


13,051 


Winchester, 


45 


Clay, 


se 


3,548 


Manchester, 


115 


Cumberland, 


s 


8,624 


Burkesville, 


119 


Daviess, 


wm 


5,209 


Owensboro', 


150 


Edmondson, 


swm 


2,642 


Brownsville, 


138 


Estill, 


em 


4,618 


Irvine, 


71 



y Google 



190 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



{Table continued.) 







Popula- 




Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


tion 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Frankfort 


Fayette, 


m 


25,098 


Lexington, 


25 


Fleming, 


n e 


13,499 


Flemingsburg, 


79 


Floyd, 


e 


4,347 


Prestonburg, 


142 


Franklin, 


w 


9,254 


Frankfort, 




Gallatin, 


n 


6,674 


Port William, 


57 


Garrard, 


m 


11,871 


Lancaster, 


52 


Grant, 


nm 


2,986 


WilUamstown, 


44 


Graves, 


8W 


2,504 


Mayfield, 


284 


Grayson, 


w m 


3,880 


Litchfield, 


110 


Greene, 


m 


13,138 


Greensburg, 


90 


Greenup, 


n e 


5,852 


Greenupsburg, 


132 


Hancock, 


n m 


1,515 


Hawsville, 


130 


Hardin, 


w m 


12,849 


Elizabethtown, 


80 


Harlan, 


8 e 


2,929 


Mon't Pleasant, 


168 


Harrison, 


nm 


13,234 


Cynthiana, 


38 


Hart, 


8 w m 


5,191 


Mumfordsville, 


105 


Henderson, 


w 


6,659 


Henderson, 


180 


Henry, 


nm 


11,387 


New Castle, 


37 


Hickman, 


8 w 


5,198 


Columbus, 


308 


Hopkins, 


w 


6,763 


Madisonville, 


200 


Jefferson, 


nw m 


23,979 


Louisville, 


52 


Jessamine, 


m 


9,960 


Nicholasville, 


37 


Knox, 


8 e 


4,313 


Barboursville, 


122 


Laurel, 


8e m 


2,206 


London, 


102 


Lawrence, 


e 


3,900 


Louisa, 


127 


Lewis, 


n e 


5,229 


Clarksburg, 


96 


Lincoln, 


m 


11,002 


Stanford, 


51 


Livingston, 


w 


5,971 


Salem, 


245 


Logan, 


8 


13,012 


Russelville, 


171 


Madison, 


m 


18,751 


Richmond, 


50 




n 


16,919 


Washington, 


63 


McCracken, 


w 


1,297 


Wilmington, 


282 


Meade, 


w m 


4,131 


Brandenburg, 


90 


Mercer, 


m 


17,694 


Harrodsburg, 


30 


Monroe, 


8 


5,340 


Tompkinsville, 


144 


Montgomery, 


m 


10,240 


Mount Sterling, 


60 


Morgan, 


e m 


2,857 


West Liberty, 


107 



y Google 



KtiiatVCKIt* 



191 



(Table Continued.) 





SiTUA- POPUIA- I 


Distance 


CouNTns. 


TION. 


TION 

IN 1830. 


County Towns. 


from 
Frankfort 


Muhlenburg, 


9wm. 5,340 1 


Grreenville, 


177 


Nelson, 


w m 


14,932 


Bardstown, 


55 


Nicholas, 


n e m 


8,834 


Carlisle, 


58 


Ohio, 


w m 


4,715 


Hartford, 


154 


Oldham, 


nm 


9,588 


Westport, 


44 


Owen, 


nm 


5,786 


Owentown, 


28 


Pendleton, 


n 


3,863 


Falmouth, 


60 


Perry, 


se 


3,330 


Perry C. H. 


148 


Pike, 


e 


2,677 


Pikeville, 


165 


Pulaski, 


8 m 


9,500 


Somerset, 


85 


Rockcastle, 


8 e m 


2,865 


Mount Vernon, 


73 


Russel, 


s m 


3,879 


Jamestown, 


109 


Scott, 


n m 


14,677 


Georgetown, 


17 


Shelby, 


n m 


19,030 


Shelbyviile, 


21 


Simpson, 


8 


5,813 


Franklin, 


165 


Spencer, 


m 


6,812 


Taylorsville, 


35 


Todd, 


8 


8,680 


Elkton, 


186 


Trigg, 


8 w 


5,916 


Cadiz, 


226 


Union, 


w 


4,764 


Morganfield, 


205 


Warren, 


8 w m 


10,949 


Bowling Green 


145 


Washington, 


m 


19,017 


Springfield, 


50 


Wayne, 


8 


8,685 


Monticello, 


110 


Whiteley, 


8 e 


3,806 


Whiteley C. H, 


130 


Woodford, 


m 


12,273 


Versailles, 


13 


Total, 83 Coun 


ties, 1687,917, of whom 165,213 are 


slaves, 4,917 fr( 


3e coloured persons, and 517,787 whites. 


POPUL 


ATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 




Population. 


Increase. 


In 1790, abo 


ut 73,677 


From 1790 to 1800, 147,282 


1800, « 


220,959 


* 1800 « 1810, 185,552 


1810, * 


406,511 


* 1810 ' 1820, 157,806 


1820, « 


564,317 


* 1820 « 1830, 123,600 


1830, * 


68'" 


r,917 









Executive Government. Governor, term of office four 
years — salary $2,000 per annum ; Lieutenant Governor 



y Google 



192 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

$4 per day as president of the senate : Secretary of state 
$760 ; Auditor, Register, and Treasurer, each $1,500. 

The Legislature consists of a Seriate and Home of Rep- 
resentatives^ styled the General Assembly of the Common- 
v)ealth of Kentucky. The members of the former are 
chosen for 4 years ; those of the latter annually. The 
senate consists of 38 members ; and the house of repre- 
sentatives of 100. The members of both houses receive 
$2,00 per day during the session of the legislature. 

Judiciary. The court of Appeals consists of a Chief 
Justice and two other Judges : salary of each is $1,500. 
Circuit Courts. The state is divided into 16 judicial dis- 
tricts for holding circuit courts. There is a Judge for each 
circuit, who has jurisdiction of law cases over $50, and of 
chancery cases over 5£, and holds three terms a year in 
.^ each county of his circuit. The salary of the Judges of 
the circuit courts is $1000 per annum. County Courts 
are also held by three or more justices of the peace. 
Their jurisdiction is over inferior suits. They hear 
appeals from the decision of single justices. 

Face of the country. The south-eastern portion of this 
state borders upon the Allegheny range of mountains, some 
of the spurs and detached ridges of which descend for a 
considerable distance into it. That part of the state is 
consequently of a mountainous character, with lofty emi- 
nences and deep ravines, and valleys between them, affi>rding 
landscape views of uncommon boldness and picturesque- 
ness. Along the Ohio River, and extending from 10 to 
20 miles in different places from it, are the " Ohio Hills," 
parallel with that beautiful stream. These hills are often 
high, generally gracefully rounded and conical, with nar* 
row vales and bottoms around their bases. They give to 
that portion of the state, through which they extend, a 
very rough appearance. They are covered with lofty 
forests, and have often a good soil on their sides and sum- 
mits. The alluvial bottoms between them and the Ohio, 
and along the streams which fall into that river, are of the 
richest kind. 

But the great expanse of land in this state which 
stretches from north-east to the south-west, between the 
mountainous and hilly portions on the south-eastern, and 
north-western sides above described, is in general beauti- 



y Google 



KENTUCKY. 193 

fully undulating or rolling. In the southern part, on the 
waters of the Green and its branches, and towards the 
Tennessee boundary, this extended vale, if I may so term 
it, is designated by the title of barren*, — ^amost deceptive 
word. For the country is far from being poor ; it is gene- 
rally second or third rate land ; much of it has a pro- 
ductive soil. It is very thinly wooded, and covered in the 
summer season with high grass growing amid the sparse 
and short oak timber. But the country lying north-east 
of those barrens, and constituting the northern half of the 
wide and beautiful vale of Kentucky, and which is watered 
by the Licking, Kentucky, and Salt Rivers, and their 
numerous branches, is really the garden of this state. 
This tract of land is about 100 miles in one direction, by 
50 in another, and exceeds in beauty, fertility of soil, and 
amenity of landscape, perhaps any other portion of the 
West of equal extent. The substratum of this section, and 
indeed of a great part of Kentucky, is limestone. 

Black walnut, cherry, honey locust, buck eye, paw-paw, 
sugar tree, mulberry, elm, ash, hawthorn, coffee tree, 
yellow poplar, together with grape vines of an uncommon 
size, generally indicate that the soil is of a most prolific 
kind. Numerous streams flow through this region, and 
springs of water of great beauty are frequent. The cane 
brakes which existed throughout it as an underwood, when 
it was first settled, have disappeared, and are succeeded 
by grass and the may-apple, and other vegetables which 
grow on the richest soils. In this section of the state are 
hundreds of the finest farms, with stately and elegant man- 
sions, the abodes of wealth, and intelligence. 

Soil and Productions. There is a great extent of excel- 
lent land in this state, as I have already intimated. There 
is also a considerable portion of land on the Ohio hills on 
the west ; the mountains on the east ; and the " knobs" of 
the " barrens" which can never be cultivated, on account 
of its roughness of surface, and sterility of soil. The 
general fertility of this state is well known. 

The productions are maize or indian corn, wheat, rye, 
buckwheat, oats, hemp, tobacco, and all the vegetables of 
the middle states, in great abundance. Cotton is raised 
for domestic use in many of the southern counties ; but 
little for exportation. 

17 



y Google 



194 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Corn, wheat, hemp and tobacco, are grand staples ia 
this state. Vast quantities of corn in the ear, and com 
meal, flour, fruits, fresh and dried, whiskey, cider, cotton 
bagging and bale ropes, bacon, pickled pork, butter, cheese, 
honey, feathers, bees-wax, salted beef, &c. are annually 
sent to New Orleans and other towns in the southern part 
of the Valley, or in the steam-boats to the upper part 
of it. 

Great numbers of cattle, hogs and horses are every 
year driven to the eastern and southern markets. I pos- 
sess no recent data, by which to calculate the value of 
these expurtations. In 1828, there passed the turnpike 
gate at the Cumberland Gap, an amount of live stock val- 
ued at $1,167,302. In 1829, incomplete reports of the 
exports, gave the sum of $2,780,000. 

Mawjuctvres* — The manufactures of this state are 
rapidly increasing. Salt in considerable quantities is made. 
In 1830, there were $160,000 invested in this manufac- 
ture, and 187,350 bushels were made. Iron is manufac- 
tured in several counties. Hemp is manufactured into 
cotton bagging, bale ropes, cordage, &c. Many other 
articles are extensively manufactured. The domestic or 
family manufactures of this state are very valuable. Every 
farmer manufactures many of the articles of clothing worn 
by his family. 

Rivers. — The Big Sandy, Little Sandy, Licking, Ken- 
tucky, Salt, Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee, are 
rivers which flow into the Ohio within the limits of this 
state. Of these the Licking is navigable for boats 70 or 
80 miles. 

The Kentucky is navigable for flat boats 160 miles, and 
for small steam-boats to Frankfort. It falls into the Ohio 
at Port William, 77 miles above Louisville. Salt River 
is navigable 100 miles, and is 100 yards wide at its mouth. 
Green River is boatable 200 miles, and is navigable by 
one of its branches — the Barren River — ^for steam-boats 
to Bowling Green. It has many branches. The Cumber- 
land rises in the eastern part of the state, flows south into 
Tennessee, and returns again into this state, and empties 
into the Ohio, 69 miles above the junction of the latter 
with the Mississippi. It is 600 miles long, and navigable 
for boats 400 or 500. Steam-boats of the largest class run 



y Google 



KENTUCKY. 195 

up to Nashville during several months of the year. The 
Tennessee is a river of Tennessee state. It runs but a 
short distance in this state, and falls into the Ohio, eleven 
miles below the mouth of the Cumberland. 

The rivers which flow from this stale are generally 
rapid streams, running in deep channels, with perpendicu- 
lar, and in many places, very high banks of rock. They 
are liable to great and sudden floods. The scenery on 
their banks is exceedingly picturesque. 

The Ohio flows along the north and north-western line 
of this state for nearly 700 miles — and the Mississippi 
between 40 and 50. 

Roads, — There are good roads leading to every impor- 
tant place in the state. And numerous lines of stages run 
in the summer from Lexington, as a centre, in every 
direction, — to Nashville, Cumberland Gap, and to the 
southern states ; to Louisville, Cincinnati, Maysville, &;c. 
<Scc. The facilities for travelling are abundant. A rail 
road is projected from Lexington to Louisville, and a fine 
turnpike from the same place to Maysville, is com- 
pleted. 

The only canal in the state is the important one around 
the falls in the Ohio at Louisville, which is about two 
miles long, sufliciently deep to admit the largest steam- 
boats when the river is high enough for them to run ; it 
has 4 locks, overcomes a fall of 22 feet, and cost about 
^730,000. 

Towns. — Frankfort, the capital of the state, is situ- 
ated in north latitude 38° 48', and west longitude 7° 48'. 
It stands on the right or northern bank of the Kentucky 
River, 60 miles above its entrance into the Ohio. It is 
situated on a beautiful bottom, surrounded by very elevated 
hills, which give the place a very picturesque appearance. 
The banks of the river are two or three hundred feet high, 
and almost perpendicular. A bridge connects South Frank? 
fort with Frankfort. There are several factories for the man- 
ufacture of hemp and cotton here. Steam-boats run from 
this place to Louisville, Cincinnati, and other places on the 
Ohio, during the vernal and autumnal portions of the year, 
when the waters are high. The State House is one of the 
finest buildings of the kind in the United States. It is 
built of the most beautiful materials* The other public 



y Google 



196 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

buildings are the Penitentiary, which contains more than 
a hundred convicts, and is conducted on the most approved 
plan, — a Court House, and three or four Churches. The 
population is about 2,000 ; and the society of the place is 
polished, intelligent, and hospitable. 

Lexington is situated 25 miles south-east of Frankfort, 
in one of the most beautiful regions on the globe. In 
every direction extends a very fertile country, covered with 
elegant villas, cultivated fields, and lofty forests. A branch 
of the Elkhorn runs through the suburbs. This town was 
named by some hunters, who were encamped on the spot 
when the report of the battle of Lexington, in its progress 
through the western wilds, reached their ears. 

The streets of this town are wide and handsome, and, ma- 
ny of the houses are very beautiful. The public buildings 
are the Court House, Market, Univerity, Masonic Hall, 
United States* Bank, eleven Churches, and the State Luna- 
tic Asykrm, which contains many patients, under excellent 
treatment. There are three or four factories for spinning 
and weaving wool ; five or six for cotton ; and several for 
making machines. In 1830, 1,000,000 yards of cotton 
bagging, and 2^000,000 pounds of bale rope, and other 
coroage, were manufactured here. 

The environs of this place are represented in an accom- 
panying map of the town. The inhabitants of this place 
are distinguished for their elegant and cordial hospitality, 
their intelligence, and public spirit. The several learned 
professions here embrace much talent. Very many stran- 
gers from the lower part of the Valley of the Mississippi, 
here spend their summers ; whilst many travellers from the 
East every year, spend much time at the excellent hotels 
of this place. The population is between six and seven 
thousand. 

Louisville, at the head of the Falls or Rapids of the 
Ohio, is the great commercial emporium of this state. It 
is 132 (commonly said to be 150) miles, by the river, be- 
low Cincinnati ; 62 miles from Frankfort, 74 from Lexing- 
ton, 180 from Nashville; 1,448, by the river, above New- 
Orleans, and 590 miles from Washington City. It faces 
the north ; the Ohio running at this point nearly due west. 
It stands on a vast alluvial bottom, which, ascending from 
the lower bank, stretches out in every direction from the 



y Google 



1 



DigitizecTby VjOOQ IK. 



KBNTUCKT. 197 

river. The Bear Grass, a considerable stream, falls into 
the Ohio in the upper part of the city. There are several 
streets running parallel with the river, and others crossing 
them at right angles. A vast and increasing amount of 
business is done here every year. Excepting when the 
river is frozen up, steam-boats arrive and depart daily on 
the upper Ohio. Shippingsport and Portland, two villages 
separated by the canal, and about two miles below Louis- 
ville, are really the port of this city below the falls. Hun- 
dreds of steam-boat arrivals and departures occur £very 
year. Before the canal was built, goods and passengers 
from the Mississippi and the lower Ohio, were landed at 
these villages, and brought up to the city by land. This 
caused an immense factory business to be done here. But 
DOW, all steam-boats which can run on the Ohio, may pass 
through the canal ; so that boats will hereafler come up to 
the Louisville wharf and receive their freights, and on their 
return land their cargoes at the same place. 

The public places here are the Court House, Market, 6 
or 8 Churches, High School, United States' Bank, and a 
Marine Hospital. There is a Cotton Factory, Iron Foun- 
dry, and 6 or 6 Steam Mills. In 1800 there were 600 in- 
habitants ; 1820, 4,012 ; and 1830, 10,336. At present it 
is more than 13,000. 1 know no place in the West which 
is increasing more rapidly than Louisville. It is a great 
thoroughfare for the Valley of the Ohio. Thousands of 
flat boats arrive here every year from the rivers which 
flow into the upper Ohio. And hundreds of steam-boats 
arrive from every part of the Valley of the Mississippi. 
The vast amount of business done along the wharves of this 
city astonishes every traveller from the East. 

The position of Louisville is about lat. 28° 18' north, and 
long. 8° 42' west from Washington, The surrounding 
region possesses great fertility. The climate is generally 
salubrious. In August and September, bilious fevers some- 
times prevail to a considerable degree. The accompany- 
ing map of Louisville and its environs, will give the reader 
a good idea of it. 

Maysville, on the Ohio, 60 miles above Cincinnati, is a 
place of great business. It is a thoroughfare for the upper 
part of the state. Great quantities of merchandize arrive 
here by steam and other boats from the East ; and exports 

17* 



y Google 



198 VALLET OP THE MISSISSIPPI. 

of flour, tobacco, corn, &c. &c. of great value, are made 
from this place for the upper and lower towns in the Valley. 
The population is near 3000. A turnpike road has just 
been made from this place to Lexington, 75 miles distant. 

Besides Louisville and Maysville, the other important 
towns on the Ohio, as one decends, are Greenupsburg^ Au- 
gusta, Newport, and Covington, (opposite to Cincinnati,) 
Port William, (at the mouth of the Kentucky,) Owenboro\ 
Henderson, Smithland, (immediately below the entrance 
of the Cumberland,) and Paducah^ at the entrance of the 
Tennessee river. 

In the interior of the state, there are the following flour- 
ishing and important towns, most of which are county 
towns. Their distance from Frankfort is given in the list 
of counties in the beginning of this chapter. Commen- 
cing in the eastern part, and proceedings west, we find 
Flemingshurg, Washington, Paris, Georgetown, Harrods^ 
burg, Versailles, Bardstown, Shelbyville, Russelville, 
Bowling Green, Princeton, Glasgow, Elizabethtown, <Sjcc. 
4"^. Besides these, there are not less than 50 or 60 grow- 
ing villages in diflerent parts of the state, which are the 
centres of populous neighbourhoods. 

Education. — ^There is no public system of common 
schools. Every neighbourhood has supported a school or 
not, at the option of the people. There are few neighbour- 
hoods where schools have not been maintained some portion 
of time. But this important interest has been greatly neg- 
lected; At present, a much greater feeling is awaking. It 
was ascertained in 1830, that a very large number of chil- 
dren are not receiving an education. It is hoped that the 
Legislature of the state will soon devise a system of com- 
mon school instruction, whose benefits will be felt in every 
part of the commonwealth. There are Academies in many 
of the important towns, in some of which the classics and 
mathematics are taught. Female schools, of a high cha- 
racter, are established in several places. There are also 
six Colleges in operation in this state. 

Mineral Springs. — The Olympian Springs, 47 miles east 
of Lexington ; Harrodsburg Spring; and Big Bone Lick 
Springs, 20 miles below Cincinnati, are much frequented 
by invalids every summer. They possess different medici- 
nal qualities. And visiters at them enjoy fine accommoda- 
tions for health and pleasure. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



KENTUCKY. 100 

Curiosities. — There ar'e numerous Caves in this state ; 
some of which, as, for instance, what is called Mammoth 
Cave, in Edmondson county, are of great extent. Some of 
them have earth impregnated with nitre, from which, du- 
ring the last war, it is said 400,000 pounds of saltpetre 
were manufactured. At the Big Bone Lick, bones of pro- 
digious size have been found, which belonged to races of 
animals which are believed to be now extinct* 

Many skeletons have been found in caves in this state. 
Many mounds, erected by the aboriginal inhabitants, are 
also found. 

In some cases, streams of considerable size ruii wholly 
under ground, for some distance. Near to Bowling Green, 
there is a mill under an immense rock, just where a branch 
of the Barren River flows forth from its subterranean course. 
This state abounds in astonishing natural curiosities, and in 
the finest landscapes. 

General remarxs. — 1. As a general remark, it may be 
said that this state has a delightful climate, — less warm in 
summer, and more cold in winter, than any one would sup- 
pose, who does not consider the great altitude of its middle 
and eastern parts. 

2. There is much good land in this state which is not 
cultivated. A population of 5,000,000 might find abundant 
room within the limits of this state. Emigrants from the 
East may find much land for sale here, either in an uncul- 
tivated state, or already partially cultivated ; and for very 
reasonable prices, varying according to circumstances from 
3 or 4 dollars to 20 per acre. 

3. This state is a delightful region for the traveller, who 
journeys for pleasure, to visit in the spring, summer, and 
fall seasons, especially in the two last. The roads, although 
not generally turnpikes, are then good ; the scenery is fine ; 
and the entertainment at the public houses is liberal, cor- 
dial, and oflen sumptuous. 

4. The Kentucky character is a very peculiar one. It 
is a compound of high-mindedness, self-confidence border- 
ing on boQstfulness, enthusiastic ardour, courage, frankness, 
sincerity, and unbounded hospitality. Honour is every 
thing. Their admiration of their noble country, and all its 
productions, is excessive. No man is more fascinating than 
a well-bred, and noble-minded, virtuous Kentuckian. 



y Google 



200 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

5. Emigrants from New-Enghmd and states north of the 
Potomac who design to settle in Kentucky, will remove 
thither by way of the New- York canal, Lake Erie, Erie 
and Ohio canal, and then descend the Ohio River to such 
point as will be most convenient ; or they will remove by 
the Pennsylvania canals and roads to Pittsburg or Wheel- 
ing, and thence descend the Ohio in boats. Those who re- 
move from Virginia and North Carolina will enter Ken- 
tucky by the roads which lead into it from the East, of 
which there are several. Foreigners will come in the 
cheapest manner, by way of New Orleans, and thence up to 
Ibouisville, or such other point as they choose, by the steam- 
boats. 

6. The early history of this state is the most wonderful 
chapter in the annals of our nation. The adventures of 
Daniel Boone, Harrod, Logan, Ray, Butler, Johnson, and 
others, are unparalleled in the history of any other times. 
From 1770 to 1795, when the treaty at Greenville was 
made by General Wayne, the inhabitants of this state 
literally lived in the constant anticipation of Indian at- 
tacks. Many, very many of them, fell either in the field 
of battle, or in their corn-fields and houses, by the hands 
of savage foes. 

7. The country now called Kentucky, once belonged by 
charter to Virginia. It was visited by a Mr. Finley,irom 
North Carolina, in 1767 ; and again, by Daniel Boone, in 
1769.. The first permanent settlement was made in 1774, 
at Harrodsburg. In 1787, not a single Post-office had been 
established. The first newspaper printed in Kentucky, 
was issued August 28th, 1787, on a demi sheet, in Lexing- 
ton, by Mr. John Bradford, and entitled the " Kentucky 
Gazette." No other paper was then printed nearer than 
500 miles. Kentucky became a state in 1793, and is the 
oldest state in the West. 

8. Boone was a man of temperate habits, erect, and 
vigorous in his movements, even in his latest years. — 
About the year 1800, he removed to Missouri; and ended 
his long and eventful life, in September 1820, at the house 
of his son, Mr. Nathan Boone ; and was buried beside the 
remains of his wife, on a blufi* of Tuque Creek, Montgomery 
county, about two miles from the Missouri River. 



y Google 



TEKITESSEE. 



201 



CHAPTER XVII. 



TENNESSER 



Tenessee is bounded on the north by Kentucky and 
Virginia; east by North Carolina; south by Georgia, 
Alabama and Mississippi ; and west by the Mississippi 
river, which separates it from Arkansas and Missouri*; 
extending from N. lat. 35° to 36° 40'; and from W. Ion. 
4° 12' to 13° 14'. The mean length from east to west is 
about 400 miles, and its mean width is near 108 ; having 
an area of 40,200 miles, or 25,728,000 acres. 

TABLE OF COUNTIES AND (X)UNTY TOWNS. 



EASTERN TENNESSEE. 





SiTUA- Popula- 
tion. « TION 
IN 1830. 




Distance 




CouNTT Towns. 


ftom 




B . « 


NashvUle. 


Anderson, 


nem 


5,310 


Clinton, 


f 195 


Bledsoe, 


e 


4,648 


Pikeville, 


109 


Blount, 


ae 


11,028 


Maryville, 


196 


Claiborne, 


n 


8,470 


Tazewell, 


243 


Campbell, 


n 


5,110 


Jacksonville, 


215 


Carter, 


ne 


6,414 


Elizabetbtown, 


316 


Cocke, 


e 


6,017 


Newport, 


247 


Grainger, 


em 


10,066 


Rutledge, 


232 


Greene, 


e 


14,410 


Greenville, 


273 


Hamilt<Mi, 


8 em 


2,276 


Hamilton, C. H. 


148 


Hawkins, 


ne 


13,683 


Rogersville, 


264 


Jeffcrscm, 


e 


11,801 


Dandridge, 


229 


Knox, 


en 


14,498 


Knoxville, 


199 


Marion, 


8 


5,508 


Jaspar, 


114 


Monroe, 


8 6 


13,708 


Madisonville, 


168 


Morgan, 


n 


2,582 


Montgomery, 


46 


McMinn, 


8em 


14.460 


Athens, 


153 


Rliea, 


em 


8,186 


Washington, 


129 


Roane, 


em 


11,341 


Kingston, 


159 


Sevier, 


e 


5,717 


Sevier, C. H. 


225 


Sullivan, 


ne 


10,073 


Blountville, 


306 


Washington, 


e 


10,994 


Jonesborough, 


298 



Total, 22 Counties, | 196,300, of whom 17,887 are_slavefl. 



y Google 



202 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



(Table continued.) 
WESTERN TENNESSEE. 







Popula- 




Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


tion IN 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


1830. 




Nashville. 


Bedford, 


m 


30,386 


Sboilby^lle,^ 


52 


Carroll, 


w 


9,397 


Huntingdon, 


109 


Davidson, 


tn 


28,122 


Nashville, 




Dickson, 


wm 


7,265 


Charlotte, 


40 


Dyer, 


w 


1,904 


Dyersburg, 


168 


Fayette, 


8 m 


8,652 


Somerville, 


184 


l^sntress, 


n 


2,748 


Jamestown, 


131 


i Franklin, 


8 


15,620 


Winchester, 


82 


Giles, 


F 


18,703 


Pulaski, 


77 


Gibson, 


W 


5,801 


Trenton, 


139 


Hickman, 


m 


8,199 


Vernon, 


66 


Hardeman, 


8 W 


11,655 


Bolivar, 


158 


Hardin, 


8 to 


4,868 


Savannah, 


112 


Haywood, 


w 


5,334 


Brownsville, 


275 


Henry, 


nw 


12,249 


Paris, 


108 


Henderson, 


wm 


8,748 


Lexington, 


130 


Hmnphreys, 


to m 


6,187 


Reynoldsburg, 


77 


Jackson, 


n 


9,698 


Gainesborough, 


79 


Lincoln, 


•y 


22,075 


FayeHeViUe,.: 


73 


Lawrence, 


4 . 


5,4*fi: 


Lisiwrenceburg, 


75 


Maury, 


m 


27,665 


Columbia, 


43 


Montgomery, 


n 


14,349 


Clarksville, 


46 


Madison, 


w 


11.594 


Jackson, 


147 


McNairy, 


8 


5,697 


Purdy, 


1^28 


Obion, 


n w 


2,099 


Iroy, 


161 


Overton, 


n 


8,242 


Monroe, 


109 


Perry, 


wm 


7,094 


Shannonsville, 


114 


Rutherford, 


m 


26,134 


Murfireesborougb, 


33 


Robertson, 


n 


13,272 


Springfield, 


25 


Shelby, 


8 W 


5,648 


Memphis, 


224 


Smith, 


n 


19,906 


Carthage, 


52 


Sumner, 


n 


20,569 


GaUatin, 


25 


Stuart, 


nw 


6,968 


Dover, 


81 


Tipton, 


w 


5,317 


Covington, 


197 


Warren, 


m 


15,210 


McMinnviUe, 


74 


White, 


m 


9,967 


Soarta, 
Franklm, 


92 


Williamson, 


nm 


26,638 


18 


Wason, 


nm 


25,472 


Lebanon, 


31 


Wayne, 


8 


6,013 


Waynesborough, 


92 


Weekly, 


nw 


4,797 
485,603, c 


Dresden, 

)f whom 123,716 ar 


132 


TotAl,40counti( 


» 


e slaves. 



y Google 



TSKNBBSSB. 203 

Popuiation, SSsftet 

West Tennessee, - - 485,603 - 123,716 

East Tennessee, - - 196,300 . 17,889 



Total ofTennessee, 681,903 141,603 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

Filiation, Increase, 

In 1800 105,602 I From 1800 to 1810 156,125 

' 1810 261,727 ' 1810 ' 1820 159,086 

• 1820 420,813 1 « 1820 * 1830 261,090 
' 1830 681,903 | 

Government. — Governor, — term of office two years,— 
salary $'^,000 per anDum. 

The Legislature consists of a Senate and House of Re* 
presentatives, styled the Creneral Assembly of Tennessee. 
The former shall consist of a number never less than one- 
third, nor greater than one-half as many as there are mem- 
bers of the House of Representatives. The number of 
both depends upon that of the taxable inhabitants. At 
present there are 20 Senators and 60 Representatives : 
They are elected biennially. Their compensation is $4 a 
day during the session of the Legislature, which meets 
biennially on the third Monday in September, next follow- 
ing the election ; and it may be called, if necessary, at 
other times, by the Governor. 

The general election is once in two years, on the first 
Thursday and Friday in August. 

JuDiciARv. — The Supreme Court of Errors and Ap* 
jpea2« consists of three judges, — salary of etfch, 8I98OO per 
annum. Two Chancellors — salary of each, $1,500. 

There are eleven Circuits and as many judges : the 
salary of each, 81,300 per annum. 

Surface of the Country, — ^The eastern part of this state 
is mountainous ; the middle and western parts are mode- 
rately even in general, and in many places quite leveL 
Some of the mountains, particularly the Cumberland range, 
have table lands of considerable extent and tolerably level, 
-^uch land is of a light soil, but productive and good for 
the growing of the smaller kinds of grain. Between the 
mountain vallies of East Tennessee and the level lands of 
the western part of the state, there is a difierence of ele- 
vation of probably 1,000 feet; a fact which must have a 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



204 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

great efiect upon the temperature and productions of the 
two regions. 

Soil. — As a whole, this state probably has less first rate 
soil than Kentucky. But it has, nevertheless, a large ex- 
tent of most excellent and productive land. Many of the 
Tallies of East Tennessee, and large ^portions of the middle 
counties, and of the Western District, as it is called, — that 
is, the portion of the state which lies west of the Tennessee 
river, and between that river and the Mississippi — have an 
uncommonly fertile soil. 

Productions, — Corn is a great staple of this state. It 
grows luxuriantly in all parts of it. Cotton grows well 
also in this state, and large quantities are raised, especially 
in the middle and western counties. Tobacco and hemp 
are also raised. Wheat, rye, oats, barley, and buck- 
wheat) grow well, especially in East Tennessee. All sorts 
of vegetables, including sweet-potatoes, &c. &c., grow 
finely in this state. Melons of all sorts find a congenial 
soil here. 

It is good cotton land which will yield a bale, or bag, of 
400 pounds per acre. Some lands will yield twice this 
quantity ; but much in this state yields less than one bale 
an acre. Cotton, corn, hogs, horses, cattle, iron, tobac- 
co, &c. ^. are the chief exports from this state. 

Rivers, — The great rivers of this state are the Tennes- 
see and Cumberland. The former rises in Virginia, and 
flowing down to the south, it cuts the Cumberland moun- 
tains, and sweeping into the northern part of Alabama, it 
turns to a north-western course across Tennessee into Ken- 
tucky, and falls into the Ohio, 48 miles above the junction 
of that river with the Mississippi. Its whole course is 
about 1200 miles ; and is interrupted by the Muscle Shoals 
and other rapids. The latter rising in Kentucky sweeps 
down into this state, and finally enters the Ohio 11 miles 
above the mouth of the Tennessee. It is navigable to 
Nashville, and sometimes above, for the largest steam- 
boats, when its waters are up— which occurs at intervals 
all the year through, and especially in the early spring 
and autumn. These rivers are very seldom frozen. Duck 
river, an important branch of the Tennessee, is navigable 
for boats during the fall and spring floods. And the Obion, 
Forked Deer, Big Hatchie, and Wolf, which flow into the 



y Google 



TENNESSEE. 205 

Mississippi from the Western District, aflTord considerable 
advantages to that part of the state, inasmuch as they 
are navigable for boats during the winter, spring and part 
of the autumn. Steam-boats run on the Hatchie and 
Wolf. 

Manufactures. Iron is made in large quantities in East 
Tennessee, and along the Cumberland in the vicmity of 
Clarksville, below Nashville. Salt is manufactured to a 
very limited extent in this state. In 1830, there were 
$3,000 invested in this business, and 3,640 bushels made. 
There are several factories in this state for spinning cot- 
ton, and soon the manufacture of that article will become 
established in this state. Several steam-boats have been 
recently built at Nashville and other places on the Cum- 
berland. 

East Tennessee. Whoever will take the trouble to in- 
spect a map of this state, will at once discover, that it is 
divided into two great, unequal, and in many respects very 
dissimilar sections. I shall notice these divisions separately. 

East Tennessee possesses a rkomhoidal shape. Its 
northern line separates it from Western Virginia, and its 
southern divides it from Georgia and Alabama : while on 
the east is the everlasting barrier of the Unika or Smoky 
Mountain, which is a continuation of the Allegheny Ridge 
of the Allegheny system, running from north east to south- 
west ; and corresponding to it, runs, in a similar course, 
the Cumberland Mountain, on the west. This mountain 
separates East from West Tennessee. This whole region, 
which e^n braces 22 counties, and constitutes one-third 
part of the entire state, is very elevated. Even the vallies 
which lie between its mountains are from 800 to 1,000 
feet above the alluvial lands in the western part of the 
state. 

If any one supposes that East Tennessee is a vast plain 
having mountains only on the east, and west, and south, he 
is utterly mistaken ; for it is greatly intersected, especially 
in the northern part of it, with mountainous ridges, of 
greater or less elevation, and having intervening vallies of 
varying widths, all pursuing, like the Unika and Cum- 
berland, in the general, a course from N. E. to S. W. 

The Tennessee, with its numerous confluents, — the 
Holston, French Broad, Clinch, Hiwassee, and their numer* 

18 



y Google 



VALLET OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 

ous braDchesy-^rains every yalley in this entire regioo* 
Several of these streams, such as the Nolechucy, French 
Broad, Little Tennessee— or Tennessee as it is commonly 
delineated on the maps, and which is far inferior to the 
Holston, although it gives name to the great recipient,— 
rise eastward of the Unika mountains, in North Carolina, 
and in their course westward cut through it. 

Many of these rivers are navigable for flvt boats, during 
a considerable portion of the year. But owing to the 
numerous rapids and falls which exist in all of them, it is 
almost, if not quite impossible to introduce steam-boats into 
these waters, with much hope of success. It is true indeed 
that the experiment is now making of running a steam* 
boat, the '* Knoxville," from Knoxville to the Muscle 
Shoals ; but unless some very considerable obstructions 
are removed, which may undoubtedly be done, the effi>rt, 
I fear, will not be very successful. 

The valleys in East Tennessee are fertile. The pro- 
ductions are corn, wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, dec, in great 
abundance, especially corn, which grows remarkably well. 
Cotton is also much cultivated in the Hiwassee district. 
Fruits, such as apples, peaches, &;c., are very abundant. 
I have never seen orchards more heavily loaded with fruit 
than those of East Tennessee. This region also abounds 
in honey. Almost every family along the roads on which 
I have passed, possess several, and some a large number 
of hives of bees, which yield a plentiful supply of one of 
the most wholesome articles of diet. GoW mines exist in 
the Unika Mountains, and also in the Hiwassee district. 

The greatest obstacle to the more rapid increase of this 
country in wealth and population, is the great difficulty of 
exporting its productions to a market, and of importing 
such foreign articles as are needed. To boat them down 
the waters of the Tennessee, with all its difficulties, 
to New Orleans, is a tedious business, and subjects 
the trader to inconveniencies to which the trader from 
Ohio, and indeed from any other portion of the Valley of 
the Mississippi, is a stranger. ' And to wagon them across 
to Baltimore or Lynchburg, as is most frequently done, 
and to bring merchandise by the same mode of conveyance 
from those places, which is the only way now pursued, of 
obtaining it, is attended with enormous expense. At pre* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



TBNNE88BB. 307 

sent the iDhabitants are greatly stirred up on the suited 
of having a rail road niade from Knoxviile to Lynchburg 
in Virginia. This it is proposed to do by continuing the 
rail road which the legislature of Virginia at a late session, 
authorized a company to make from Lynchburg to New 
River, which is the main branch of the Kanawha. Should 
that road ever be made, its continuation to Knoxviile, or 
at least to the Boat Yard, or Kingsport, which is the 
highest point on the Holston to which boat navigatioa 
extends, will not be impracticable. On the other hand, 
the people of Charleston urge the importance of extending 
their Columbia and Augusta rail road, so as to enter East 
Tennessee by the valley of the Nolechucky, or the French 
Broad, or the Little Tennessee ; or else cross the high* 
lands of North Alabama, and reach the Tennessee River 
near the Muscle Shoals, and perhaps eventually reach to 
the Mississippi River. These are great projects, and 
should they ever be accomplished, they will confer great 
blessings upon this secluded, though valuable portion of 
our country. 

There are many interesting towns and villages in East 
Tennessee, such as Blountville, Rogersville, Joiiesboro' 
Greenville, Knoxviile, Maryville, Athens, 6lc. Of all 
these, Knoxviile is by far the most important. It is on tbs 
western bank of the Holston, on a hilly site, and near the 
centre of this section of the state. It has a population at 
about 3,000 inhabitants. There are three or four churcbes 
here. . The college stands on an elevated biU» south of the 
town, and has a most commanding view of the whole 
country around, the town on the north, and the Holston, 
which meanders along amid lofty hills on the east. 

East Tennessee, with its mountains and vallies, its rivers 
and loAy and grand scenery, is the Switzerland of the 
United States, and contains an active, industrious, frugal^ 
an^d moral population. 

The first settlements were inade in this part of the state 
in 1757, when fort Loudon was built* From this period 
until 1796, there was an almost continued series of Indian 
wars, and the colonists suffered dreadlnlly*' From 1784 to 
1790 there were constant intestine difficulties, owing to the 
attempted formation of a new and separate government 
here, which was called the 9tate of Frankland. In 1790 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



208 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

N. Carolina ceded the whole country to the United States, 
and in 1796 the state ,was organized as such, and received 
into the Union. A full history of these events would be 
interesting, but I cannot enter upon it. 

West Tennessee. This portion of the state embraces 
about two-thirds of the- territory, contains 40 counties, and 
is separated from East Tennessse by the Cumberland 
Mountain. Its surface is scarcely any where very level, 
but is generally undulating, and in many places, especially 
in the eastern part of it, hilly. In a state of nature it was 
covered (it is so still to a great extent) with a heavy forest 
of oak, walnut, poplar, ash, elm, cedar, <Scc. Corn grows 
abundantly, together with other small grains. Fruits, such 
as apples and peaches, are very abundant. Garden vege- 
tables also grow finely. But cotton is the grand staple of 
West Tennessee. The rich alluvial lands of this portion 
of the state yield fine cotton. Tobacco and hemp are cul- 
tivated, to some extent. 

Shelbyville, Gallatin, Clarksville, Sparta, M*Minville, 
Winchester, Columbia, Franklin, and Murfreesboro', are 
flourishing towns, and centres of fertile regions. Memphis, 
Randolph, and Bolivar, are important towns in the Western 
District, that is, the section of West Tennessee which lies 
west of the Tennessee river. There are 14 counties in this 
portion of the state, and several flourishing towns. Indeed 
Tennessee has a remarkably large numbf^r of flourishing 
towns and villages, which bid fair, in the course of time, to 
become important places. 

But the chief town in West Tennessee, and indeed the 
capital of the state, is Nashville. This important town, 
or rather city, for it is incorporated as such, stands oh the 
south-western bank of the Cumberland River, which here 
flows a little to the west of north. It is 180 miles south of 
t^uisville, Kentucky; 714 fromWashington city; 199 west 
of Knoxville, 110 north of Florence ; and 224 from Mem- 
phis on the Mississippi. Nashville was named in honour 
of the brave Gen. Nash, who was killed in the battle of 
Germantown. As early as 1767, the place where Nash- 
ville now stands was occupied as a station by French tra- 
ders, and it was in its neighbourhood that many of the tra- 
gical events of the early Indian wars, which so long har- 
rassed the first colonists of this state, occurred. But it 



y Google 



TENNESSSB. 209 

was not until 1784, that the town was founded. The site 
is far from being level. The town covers one entire hill 
together with its gently sloping sides, and extends west- 
ward upon another, and on the south it is reaching another 
in that direction, which is the gradually rising eminence 
upon which the College stands. The site is a very elevated 
one compared with the surface of the river, which flows by 
in a narrow and deep channel. 

Nashville literally stands upon a rock ; for a hard lime- 
stone rock lies but a few inches below the surface. Indeed, 
in many places, it is exposed to open view. The conse- 
quence is, that no cellar is here made but what is excava- 
ted, by blasting, from the solid rock. The houses are al- 
most all of brick, and that of a fine colour. I have never 
seen a town of the same size which contains as few mean 
houses, and as little in the general appearance that oflfends 
the eye. It is indeed a remarkably beautiful place. It 
contains more elegant mansions and pleasant seats, in and 
around it, than any other town, of equal size, in the United 
States, which I have seen. There is much wealth and ac- 
tive business here. It is the commercial emporium of the 
state. Eleven or twelve (perhaps more at times) steam-^ 
boats, find business enough in the trade between this place 
and Louisville and New-Orleans, during that portion of the 
year when the Cumberland is navigable. And there is not 
only wealth here, but there is intelligence, refinement, be- 
nevolence and hospitality, to an almost unrivalled extent. 
The square around the court house and market is the great 
business part of the city. The population is at least 8,000. 

The Market House, Court House, Baptist, Presbyterian, 
and Episcopal Churches, the Academy, and College, are 
public buildings which arrest the attention of the stranger. 
The market-house is a very fine one ; and not only is the 
architecture of it, but also the care with which it is kept 
free from every thing ofiensive, very creditable to the in- 
habitants. The Episcopal Church is a beautiful building 
of the Gothic style of architecture. There is a new Peni- 
tentiary building within half a mile of the city. It encloses 
4 acres, and is constructed upon the most approved plan. It 
is designed to hold about 300 convicts. It is on the plan of 
the Prison at Weathersfield. The Water Works, by which 
the city is supplied with water from the Cumberland, are 

18* 



y Google 



210 VALLEY OFTHB 1U88I88IFPI, 

a Dol^e montiinent of the liberality and enterprise of the 
citizens. 

There are several Classical schools in Nashville, where 
youth prepare for the college. There are also several 
most excellent female seminaries, the principal of which is, 
the public one under the superintendence of the Rev. Mr. 
Hume, which has upwards qf a hundred pupils. No town 
in our country is better supplied with schools of a higher 
grade, than Nashville. 

Edvcation. — ^This state has recently made some efforts 
to secure a more general establishment of common 
schools. A large fund, derived from the sales of the lands 
in the Hiwassee district in East Tennessee, which were 
granted to the state by the general government, has been 
accumulated, and its interest distributed. But the sum 
wh/ch is granted to each school district, is too inconsidera- 
ble to do much good. As the school fund amounts now to 
more than $1,000,000, if that sum were increased by the 
addition of its interest, until it becomes upwards of 
$2,000,000, and then the proceeds so given to the people 
In each county, as to require their active co-operation in 
raising a further amount by taxation, so as to secure the 
establistiment and maintenance of schools, as the New- 
York system does, it would be a great blessing. 

There are four colleges in this state, of which I shall 
speak in another part of this work. There are several 
academies and schools of an elevated character, both male 
and female, in the state. But there is need of many more. 

Curiositieg, — This state abounds in natural curiosities 
and relics of antiquity. Caves, rocks bearing unknown 
characters and signs, tumuli, mounds and forts ; graves 
<*.ontaining bones of men of an uncommonly small size, in 
White county; Ssalt-petre caverns, &c. &c., are very 
numerous, and objects worthy of the attention of the curi- 
ous traveller. Mr. Raiinesque has given much interesting 
information respecting such matters, not only those relating 
to this state, but to those of the whole Valley. 

General Remarks. — 1. There is a great quantity of 
excellent land in this state for sale at a low price, either 
'" partially cultivated, or wholly uncultivated. 

2. The climate of this state is very fine, being midway 
•b^ween the extreme cold of the north, and the oppressive 



y Google 



TB19NKSSEE. 311 

heat of the further south. It is in genenil a healthy climate* 
Indeed this may be affirmed without hesitation, excepting 
the low aUuvial lands bordering on the Mississippi. The 
inhabitants of no other parts of our country have finer 
health than those of East Tennessee. 

3. The whole state of Tennessee, and particularly the 
western part of it, has increased very rapidly in population 
during the last twenty or thirty years. In 1790, there 
were 35,691 inhabitants; in 1800, 105,602; in 1810, 
261,727; in 1820, 420,813; and in 1830, there were 
681,903 ; of whom 535,745 are whites, 4,555 free blacks, 
and 141,603 slaves. This rapid increase will continue for 
a long time. It is somewhat remarkable, that the increase 
of the population of this state should have been 261,090, 
during the last ten years, for she has sent forth thousands 
of emigrants to other and more western states. 

4. On the 5lh of November 1791, was brought into 
Tennessee the lirst printing press. Soon after was issued 
the first Tennessee newspaper, called the *^ Knoxville 
Gazette." In 1809, a solitary barge of sixty tons and 
thirty-five men, wound its laborious way up the Cumber- 
land, and arrived at Nashville, to the joy and astonishment 
of the inhabitants. The people from all the adjacent parts 
of the country flocked together to see the " barge." The 
important event was formally announced in the newspapers, 
and the whole country rang with the inteHigence. There 
are now ten or eleven steam- boats, and some of them of 
the largest class, employed in the Nashville trade. There 
are also several on the Tennessee river, and one or two 
small ones on the Hatchie. 

5. Iron and salt are products of Tennessee, as are 
gypsum, nitrous earth, beautiful marbles, and some other 
fossils. Iron and gypsum are the most plentiful and val- 
uable of the mineral bodies in the state. In its natural 
state, Tennessee was covered with a most dense and di- 
versified forest, which, added to its cultivated vegetables, 
and metallic and fossil wealth, give great variety and value 
to the staple commodities, which are again indefinitely 
'augmented by domestic animals. Provisions of all kinds, 
and horses, cattle, and hogs, are exported to a great 
Amount annually. 

6. From its structure it results, that whitsf the western 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



2l2 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

part admits the profitable culture of cotton, the eastern is 
suitable for the small grains ; whilst its most fertile river 
valleys, it is supposed by many, are the most favourable 
to the developement of Indian corn, of any places found 
in the United States. Much flour is imported into the 
cotton-growing parts of this state, from Ohio and other 
states. The cotton of the western part of this state, par- 
ticularly of the Western District, is both abundant, and of 
a fine quality. 

7. This is an interesting part of the country for the 
traveller to visit. Whether he pursues his way amid the 
mountains and vallies of East Tennessee, with all their 
grand and picturesque scenery and pleasant villages, and 
fertile fields ; or visits the fertile regions of middle and 
western Tennessee, covered with noble forests, variegated 
by numerous and deep channelled rivers, and partakes of 
the generous and polite hospitality of the people, he will 
find rich and constant enjoyment. 

There is a regular line of stages, which, coming from 
Washington City and Richmond, and passing through a 
part of Western Virginia, traverses East Tennessee, pass- 
ing through Blountville, Kingsport, Knoxville, Kings- 
ton, 6lc. It thence crosses the Cumberland Mountain by a 
safe turnpike; and, passing through Sparta, continues. to 
M^Minnville. From that place the line branches into two, 
one goes south through Winchester to Huntsville, Tusca-» 
loosa, 6cc., the other passes through Murfreesboro' to 
Nashville. 

There is a daily line of stages between Nashville and 
Louisville, and tri-weekly lines from Nashville to Memphis, 
and to Florence, at the foot of the rapids, or '* Muscle 
Shoals" of Tennessee. Besides, there are many other 
lines which run to the various towns throughout the state. 
The distances of these places from Nashville, are given^ 
with sufficient accuracy in the table of counties and county- 
towns, in the beginning of the chapter. 

8. Emigrants to this state wjll pursue the course men- 
tioned in the chapter relating to Kentucky. The route 
and modes of removing to this state are similar, or rather 
the same as those mentioned in that chapter. Most of the 
fbreiga emigrants to this state, will go to it by way of 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



TENNESSEE. 213 

New-Orleans, and the steam-boats which run up the Mis- 
sissippi, Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. 

9. The following information, contained in a letter, 
written by Mr. M. Rhea, of Columbia, Maury county, and 
dated June 29th, 1832, was received just as this chapter 
(in the first edition) was going to press. It contains some 
interesting facts. It answers several queries, in order, 
which I had propounded to Mr. Rhea. I ought to add, 
that Mr. R. is the author of the excellent map of Tennes- 
see, recently published ; and is, perhaps, better acquainted 
with that state, than any other man in it. 

1. ^^ Manufactories of Salt — ^This article has been manu- 
factured at two places, in Hawkins and White counties — 
but in very small quantities. They are at present scarcely 
worthy of attention, owing to the weakness of the water. 

"2. Coal is found in almost all parts of the state, except 
west of Tennessee River. The principal deposits are, 
however, found on both sides of Cumberland Mounta in, 
between the foot and top. The deposits seem generally 
to have nearly the same elevation. Bituminous entirely. 

" 3. Metals. — Iron is found and manufactured every 
where east of Tennessee River. Gold is found in Monroe, 
M*Minn, Blount, and Sevier. Lead has been found in 
several places. No works for smelting that metal have 
yet been constructed. These are the only metals which 
have attracted any attention heretofore. 

"4. Relics of Antiquity abound every where through 
the state, particularly in West Tennessee. They are pre- 
sented either in the form of clay- walled towns, with houses 
and graves in the interior, or as high and large mounds of 
earth and shapeless stones. The towns are always situated 
near a good spring or stream of water; the walls extend- 
ing to, or enclosing part of the water. The graves are 
seldom deeper than one and a half or 2 feet, lined with 
flat stones at the bottom, sides, ends and top. The body 
seems generally to have been placed in a sitting posture. 
No gigantic skeletons have been found in this country. 
The remains, and sometimes the whole, of earthern vessels, 
are found in the graves ; these seem to have been water 
vessels. Small stone hatchets, and other edge tools of the 
same material, are frequently found in these cemeteries 
and towns. No implements, nor ornaments of metal, are 



y Google 



214 VALLEY OP THE MISSISSIPPI. ! 

seen. No conjecture can be formed of the purpose de- 
signed in (he construction of the mounds or pyramids. - ) 
They are, generally, round and conical. I have seen some | 
flat and regular on the top, and bounded by straight sides, 
and right-angled corners. These piles have been frequently 
penetrated, but no remains have been discovered in the j 
interior. There are many of these relics of antiquity in I 
this (Maury) and the adjoining counties. 

*' 5. Fort Loudon is the only ancient fortification of 1 
European construction known in this state. The remains ! 
are only discernible, it having been a hastily constructed 
fort. It stands immediately above and between the junc- { 
tion of Tennessee and Tellico Rivers. 

*' 6. Rail Roads and Canals. — It is difficult, in the pre- 
sent state of things, to determine which of these modes of 
internal improvement will be best adapted to the country. 
On account of the very reduced stage of water in West 
Tennessee in the summer season, it is probable that the 
canalling system cannot be made useful here. No impor- J 
tant objection exists against the other mode. AU the | 
materials for rail roads abound, and are cheap, in every 
part of the state." 



y Google 



215 



i^i^ ^i- 



, at- 
. by 

.vest 
rorn 
lal- 

the 
Id. is 



ilia. 



y Google 



SI 



01l 

T! 
fla 
an 
pe 
ini 
th 

El 
an 

foi 
tic 

se 
in* 

o» 

ca 
ta, 

ni 
pa 




V i 









"?J^'- 



tazl 



! f<> rit ,ff^t j^.- 



ILLINOIS. 



215 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
ILLINOIS. , 

Illinois is bounded on the north by Huron District, at- 
tached to Michigan Territory at present; north-east by 
Lake Michigan ; east by Indiana ; south-east by the Ohio, 
which separates it from Kentucky ; west aiid south-west 
by the Upper Mississippi River, which separates it from 
Missouri and the Sioux District. It extends from N. lat. 
37°, to 42° 30'; and from W. long. 10° 35' to 14° 25'. 

From the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi to the 
northern boundary, Illinois is 382 miles long ; its area is 
67,900 square miles, or 37,056,000 acres. 



TABLE OF THE COUNTIES AND COUNTY TOWtNS. 






POPULA- 




Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


TION 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




VandaUa. 


Adams, 


w 


2,186 


Quincy, 


193 


Alexander, 


9 


1,390 


America, 


181 


Bond, 


w m 


3,124 


Greenville, 


20 


Calhoun, 


w 


1,092 


Gilead, 


126 


Clarke, 


e 


3,940 


Clarke C. H. 


86 


Clay, 


em. 


765 


Maysville, 


46 


Clinton, 


sm 


2,330 


Carlyle, 


80 


'Crawford, 


e 


3,117 


Palestine, 


118 


Edwards, 


e 


1,649 


Albion, 


92 


Edjgar, 


e 


4,071 


Paris, 


106 


F^ette, 


m 


2,704 


Vanpalia, 




Franklin, 


8 


4,083 


Frankfort, 


102 


Fulton, 


n m 


1,841 


Fulton C. H. 


133 


Gallatin, 


se 


7,405 


Equality, 


137 


Greene, 


w 


7,674 


CarroUon, 


106 


Hamilton, 


se 


2,616 


Mclieanboro^ 


93 


Hancock, 


w 


483 


Venus, 


133 


Henry, 


n 


41 


Middletown, 





y Google 



216 



VALLEY OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 



(Table Continued.) 







Popula- 




Distance 


COUNTIKS. 


Situa- 


tion 


County Towns. 


firom 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Vandalia. 


Jackson, 


8W 


1,828 


Brownsville, 


127 


Jefierson, 


8 m 


2,555 


Mount Vernon, 


65 


Johnson, 


8 


1,596 


Vienna, 


167 


Joe-Daviess, 


nw 


2,111 


Galena, 


326 


Knox, 


n m 


274 


Knox C. H. 


188 


Lawrence, 


e 


3,66h 


Lawrenceville, 


84 


Macon, 


n m 


1,122 


Decatur, 


70 


Macaupin, 


m 


1,990 


Carlinville, 


95 


Madison, 


w 


6,221 


Edwardsville, 


55 


Marion, 


sm 


2,125 


Salem, 


26 


Mercer, 


n w 


26 






Montgomery, 


m 


2,958 


Hillsborough, 


28 


Monroe, 


w 


2,000 


Waterloo, 


99 


Morgan, 


w m 


12,714 


Jacksonville, 


90 


Perry, 


8 m 


1,215 


Pinckneyville, 


129 


Pike, 


w 


2,396 


Atlas, 


148 


Pope, 


8 e 


3,316 


Golconda, 


160 


Peoria, ) 
Putnam, J 


n m 


1,310 


Peoria, 


43 


n 


Hennepin, 




Randolph, 


8 w 


4,429 


Kaskaskia, 


d5 


Sangamon, 


m 


12,960 


Springfield, 


79 


Shelby, 


m 


2,972 


Shelbyville, 


40 


St. Clair, 


w 


7,078 


Belleville, 


71 


Schuyler, > 
M'Donough, ) 


w m 


2,959 


Rushville, 


142 


w m 


Macomb, 




Tazewell, 


m 


4,716 


Mackinaw, 


149 


Union, 


8 w 


3,239 


Jonesborough, 


154 


Vermillion, 


e 


5,836 


Danville, 


150 


Warren, 


n w 


308 


Warren, 




Wabash, 


e 


2,710 


Mount Carmel, 


109 


Washington, 


8 m 


1,675 


N^ashville, 




Wayne, 


86 m 


2,.553 


Fairfield, 


69 


White, 


8 e 


6,091 Carmi, 1 


94 



\ slaves. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



ILLINOIS. 



217 



The following new counties have been made since the 
census of 1830 was taken. 



Counties. 


SlTDATION. 


County Town«. 


Coles, 


c 


Charleston. 


Cook, 


n e 


Chicago. 


La Saile, 


n 


Ottawa. 


McLean, 


n m ' 


Bloomington. 


Rock Island, 


n w 




Jasper, 


s e 




Effingham, 


m 





POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



Population. 
In 1810, . 12,282 
1820,^ . 65,211 
1830, . 157,445 



Increase. 

From 1^10 to 1820, 42,929 

' 1820 ' 1830, 102,234 



Illinois was admitted into the Union in 1818, and con- 
tained that year, by enumeration, 35,220 inhabitants. 

Outlines op the Constitution. The Legislative au- 
thority is vested in a General Assembly, consisting of a 
Senate, the members of which are elected for four years ; 
and of a House of Representatives, elected biennially. 
Their number depends on circumstances designated in the 
constitution. At present there are 18 Senators, and 36 
Representatives. The pay of each is $3 a day. The 
General Assembly meets every other year (at Vandalia, 
the capital of the state,) on the 1st Monday in December 
next following the election ; and the Governor is authorized 
to convene it, on extraordinary occasions, at other times. 

Government. The Governor is elected for four years ; 
his salary is $1000 per annum* There is a Lieutenant 
Governor who is president of the senate. 

Judiciary. The Supreme Court consists of a Chief 
Justice and three Associate Judges ; Their salaries are 
$1000 each. They hold circuit courts also. There is 
. another Judge for the circuit north of the Illinois river. 

The "County Commissioners' Court" levies taxes, and is 
composed of three commissioners elected every two years. 
Justices of the peace,are elected every four years by the 
people. Their jurisdiction is over inferior cases. 

19 



y Google 



216 TALLET 09 THE MttSISSIPPI. 

There is a Judge of Probate in each ooooty who grants 
letters of admiDistration, receives probate of wills, and 
before whom all business relating to estates of those who 
deceased without having made wills, is transacted. . 

Imprisonment for debt is disallowed except in case of 
fraud, or the refusal of the debtor to deliver up his pro- 
perty for the benefit of his creditors. Slavery is not 
allowed to be introduced otherwise than as a punishment 
of crime, since the adoption of the constitution. There are 
no laws against usury. ^ 

Svrface of the Country. The northern and southern parts 
of this state are broken, and slightly hilly, but as a whole 
this state is more, level than perhaps any other in the 
Valley of the Mississippi. When examined minutely, it 
is found that there are several varieties in the surface of 
this state, which will be very briefly specified. 

1. The alluvial bottoms which stretch along the Missis- 
sippi, Wabash, Illinois, Kaskaskia, Rock, and all the other 
streams. These bottoms are of various widths, in some 
places a mile, and in others six or eight. The American 
bottom, as it is called, reaches along the Mississippi from 
the mouth of the Kaskaskia to Alton, or a little above the 
entrance of the Missouri ; a distance of near 90 miles. 
The soil of these bottoms is alluvial, of astonishing fertility, 
often embedding trees and other vegetable remains. 

These bottoms along the margin of the rivers are covered 
with a heavy forest. But more remote from the rivers, 
they are covered with prairies of various sizes, commonly 
narrow and interrupted by forests. As the surface declines 
from the river bank, it often happens that a portion of the 
bottoms is covered with stagnant waters, a part of the 
year, which were left by the overflowing of the rivers. 
They might be easily drained. Owing to the stagnant 
WQter and the decay of immense quantities of vegetable 
productions, they are often unhealthy. 

2. Prairies. A large part, probably more than one 
half of the surface of this state, is covered with prairies. 
In the southern part,— that is south of the national road 
from Terre Haute to St. Louis, — the prairies are compa- 
ratively small, varying in size from those which are several 

* See the Constitution of the State. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



ILLINOIS. 219 

miles ia circumference, to those which contain only a few 
acres. But in the middle and northern parts of the state, 
they become very extensive, and stretch out in some direc- 
tions so that the eye perceives with difficulty the bounding 
forests. In general however they are narrow and of an 
irregular shape ; at one place projecting into the forests; 
at others, the forests make inroads into them, and points 
of woods reach nearly into their centres. Often, insulated 
clumps of trees stand like an island in the midst of the 
prairie. The prospect, to one passing through these prai- 
ries in the spring season, is delightful. The scene is for- 
ever changing, always picturesque, and beautiful. 

The prairies are generally undulating, seldom exactly ' 
level, oflen slightly concave, so that, in some cases, they 
have stagnant waters over their central surface in the 
spring. Their soil is various but fertile. From May to 
October, they are covered with tall grass and flower-pro- 
ducing weeds. In June and July, these prairies seem like 
an ocean of flowers, of various hues, and waving to the 
breezes which sweep over them. The heliotrope or sun- 
flower, and other splendid vegetables which grow luxuri- 
antly over these plains, present a striking and delightful 
appearance. A considerable portion of the prairies along 
the streams, and some of those which are more elevated, 
are incapable of being cultivated, on account of the inun- 
dation to which they are subjected during a large part of 
the spring and summer. 

As to the origin of these prairies it would be useless to 
speculate much. They were probably* formed, as they 
certainly are perpetuated, by annual fires, which sweep 
over them every autumn. Along the streams, and in other 
places where vegetation does not suflfer from the drought 
of the latter part of summer and early autumn, and of 
course becomes sear and combustible less soon than it does 
in the plains which are drier, the fire does not encroach 
much : consequently the forests prevail there, and probably 
gradually encroach in some places upon the prairies. 



* Doabtless many of the prairies were formed by inundations. This 
opinion is streng^thened by &cts as well as by their general position as 
it regards relative elevation, Bat thi9 is a point which I cannot here 
discuss. 



y Google 



220 VALLEY OP THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Wherever the fire is kept out of the prairies, they soon 
become covered with a dense and rapidly growing forest. 

3. Barrens. — These are a species of country of a mixed 
character, uniting forest and prairie. They are covered 
with sparse, stinted oaks, &c. and grass. The fire sweeps 
over them in the fall, but is not powerful enough, from 
want of abundant fuel, to destroy the timber. They soon 
become covered with thick forests, when the fire is ex- 
cluded. They are not poor land, as their title, given 
ignorantly by the early settlers, would seem to indicate. 
They are generally second-rate land, productive, healthy, 
more rolling than the prairies, and abounding in good 
springs. Parts of this state, a targe portion of Kentucky 
south of Green River, and some parts of the other western 
stares, are of this description. 

4. Along the rivers, and beyond the bottoms where there 
are any, are often elevated blvffsy conical, and insulated, 
rather than of the form of connected ridges, and of from 
one to three hundred feet high. The knobs are stony, and 
often rocky at or near their summits. They are found 
along the rivers in some parts of this state. The ravines 
which separate them, are often deep. 

The prairies are often intersected by ravines, which lead 
down to the streams. Sink-holes are found in some parts 
of the state, which are sometimes wide and deep. Fre- 
quently they no longer drain off the waters, but are filling 
up gradually. Their existence shows, that the substra- 
tum is secondary limestone, abounding in subterraneous 
cavities. 

There is, in this state, but little stony ground, in the 
sense in which that expression is used in the east,-— denot- 
ing loose stones scattered through the surface. Quarries 
of stone are found in the blufi^, and in the banks of the 
streams and ravines. 

The soil of this state is generally very fine, and exceed- 
ingly productive. Tho prairies are difficult to plough, on 
account of the firm grassy sward which covers them. But 
when subdued, they become fine arable lands. 

The kinds of timber most abundant are cotton-wood, 
sycamore, hickory,ash, sugar-maple, beech ; black, white 
red, post, and jack oak ; black and white walnut ; blue and 
white ash ; sweet and sour or black gum ; red and water 



y Google 



■•'■''■ ILLINOIS. 221 

elm ; black and honey locust ; linden, buck-eye, peccan, 
hack berry, catalpa, mulberry, box elder, wild cherry, wiU 
low, dogwood, sassafras, persimmon, with smaller under- 
wood of sumach, plum, crab apple, grape vines, paw-paw, 
hazle, 6cc* <&c. Tlie sycamore and cotton wood grow 
along the streams. In the southern end, on the streams 
which flow into the Ohio and Mississippi towards their 
junction,*the cypress grows. The trees in this state ex- 
hibit a very luxuriant growth, and are often of enormous 
size. 

Productions. — The staple productions of Illinois are 
Indian corn, wheat, Irish and sweet potatoes, beef, pork, 
horses, tobacco, and lead. The castor bean, or Palma 
Christi, is raised in considerable and increasing quantities. 
It grows well here. Wine is made, but not to a great 
extent. Cotton is raised in considerable quantities for 
domestic use, and is manufactured extensively, inthefami* 
lies of farmers, into coarse fabrics. Hemp, flax, and silk- 
worms, succeed well. Apples, peaches, pears, pliims, 
cherries, grapes, gooseberries and currants, arrive at great 
perfection. The wild fruits are grapes, plums, cherried, 
gooseberries, mulberries, crab apples, persimmons, blsu^k» 
berries, raspberries, and strawberries. 

All the cultivated grasses, such as timothy, clover, &ci 
grow well here. The prairies are covered with a specie^ 
of rough grass, which afl^rds a fine pasturage, and good 
hay. 

The wild animals of this state are deer, brown bears, 
grey, black and prairie wolves ; foxes, racoons, squirrels, 
opossums, gophers, panthers, rabbits, turkies, ^c. The 
deer are abundant in many parts of the state. Their skins 
are often dressed and worn by hunters and farmers. The 
prairie wolf is a small species of wolf, and exceedingly 
mischievous. He is the jackall of the West. The gopher 
is about as large as a squirrel, and injures the prairie 
lands by his burrowing, and throwing up numerous little 
hills. Wild horses of a small size exist in this state. 
They are of the same species as the Indian ponies, and are 
the oflspring of the horses which were brought here by 
the early French settlers, and suffered to run at large. 

Horses, cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry of every kind, 
are raised with the greatest ease in this state. The prait 
19* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



222 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

ries afibrd abundant pasturage and hay for cattle, horses, 
and sheep. No country in the world has greater advan- 
tages for raising live stock. Hogs are raised with little 
trouble and expense. The fruits of the forest, the raast' 
of the oak, beech, walnut, &c. are fine food for them. And 
in the fall they become well prepared for slaughtering, 
after being fed for a short time on corn ; or are fit for it 
without having been thus fed. A few dollars will purchase 
a few breeding swine ; and, in a short time, every farmeir 
has a large stock of hogs around him. The same thing 
may be said of cattle and horses. Many farmers, in 
ordinary circumstances, raise annually several hundreds 
of hogs, a hundred head, or twice that number of cattje, 
and ten or twenty horses. Tens of thousands of cattle and 
hogs are annually driven to an eastern market from this 
state. And more, perhaps, are slaughtered, salted, and 
sent to New Orleans by boats. Th^ value of the salted 
t)eef, pork, tallow, lard, butter, hides, and cheese, which 
are thus exported, cannot be accurately estimated. 

The fowls of the state, both wild and tame, are nuraer- 
, pys.. Wild geese and diicks frequent, in, great numbers, 
Ihe rivers, lakes and ponds. The " prairie hen," is very 
abundant. Partridges (the tfuails of New England,) are 
very immerous. Domestic geese, ducks, &c. are easily 
and abundantly raised. Geese feathers are exported to 
the East, and find a good market. 

Honey is a valuable product of this state, as well as of 
all the neighbouring states. Both wild and domesticated 
bees are found throughout the state. Almost avery family 
has a number of hives in the vicinity of the house, — whilst 
the frontier men spend much of their leisure time in the 
fall, in taking the wild bees. Honey sells for fifty cents a 
gallon, by the barrel ; whilst beeswax always finds a ready 
sale. 

The mineral products of this state are lead, copper, 
iron, salt, dz^c. Lead is found in the greatest abundance 
in the north-western angle of this state, and the region 
around on both sides of the Mississippi, from the Rock 
River to the Ouisconsin. The entire extent of this lead 
region, is probably near 200 miles in length, by 103 in 
breadth. Galena is the centre of the lead business in this 
state. It is eleven years since these mines began to be 



y Google 



ILLINOIS* 223 

wrought. There are now many " diggings." The ore is 
inexhaustible, and very rich, yielding from 50 to 85 per 
centum. The total amount of lead made here until Sep- 
tember 30, 1830, was 40,088,860 lbs. It was only in 1827, 
that these mines began to be wrought very extensively. 
In that year 5,182,180 pounds were made ; in 1828, 
11,105,810 pounds were made; in 1829, 13,343,150; in 
1830, 8,323,998. In 1831, a large amount was made. 
But in 1832, desolation pervaded this entire region, on 
account of. the Indian war. 

Bituminous coal is found abundantly in all parts of this 
state, in the blufifs, and the banks of the water courses. 
On the Illinois, and opposite to St. Louis, in St. Clair 
county, it is very abundant. And many thousands of 
bushels are sent ' to St. Louis annually, and sold at the 
rate of from ten to twelve and a half cents per bushel. 

Iron ore is found in the southern end of the state ; and 
it is said to exist near the fapids of the Illinois. 

Native copper, in small quantities, has been found in 
Jackson and Monroe counties, in the southern part of the 
state. But in the lead region, between the Rock and 
Ouisconsin rivers, there is a district of twenty miles by 5 
or 6, which contains much copper ore. It will soon be a 
valuable product. 

Silver mines are supposed to exist in the southern part 
of this state. Cornelian stones, topaz, jasper, agate, opal, 
and quartz, are found in this state. 

Salt is manufactured on Saline river, in Gallatin county, 
12 miles from Shawneetown. About 130,000 bushels are 
made here annually. Salt is also made in the neighbour- 
hood of Brownsville, on Muddy Creek, in Jackson county, 
about 12 miles from the Mississippi ; on some of the 
streams of the Sangamon; in the neighbourhood of Car- 
lyle, on the Kaskaskia ; in Madison county ; and, probably 
in other parts of the state. 

In 1829, there were $53,000 invested in the manufac- 
ture of salt in this state, and 138,000 bushels were made 
that year. The business has greatly increased since that 
period. 

Manufactures. — Salt, as I have already remarked, is 
made in several places in this state. The manufacture of 
this important article will annually increase. Salt water 



y Google 



224 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 

is abundant in this state, and there is no want of coal or 
wood as fuel, by which it may be evaporated. Salt-works 
open a fine market to the farmers around them for their 
corn, beef, pork, potatoes, fruits, vegetables, and manufac- 
tures. Salt sells at these works at the rate of one bushel for 
two of corn ; four bushels of salt for one hundred pounds 
of beef, or a hundred of flour, &;c. ; or from thirty-seven 
and a half to fifty cents per bushel of fifty pounds. 

There are between ten and twenty steam grist and saw 
mills in the state. Large quantities of flour are now man- 
ufactured here, and exported. Mills propelled by ^team, 
water, and horse power, or by oxen or horses on an inclin- 
ed plane, are constantly increasing. Steam mills will be- 
come numerous, on account of the comparative want of 
good sites for water mills, and of the abundance and 
cheapness of fuel. A good steam saw mill, with two 
saws, can be built for $1500. And a steam flour mill, 
having three pair of stones, elevators, &c. may be built 
for from $3,500 to $5,000. Such a mill will make 
from 30 to 50 barrels of flour in 24 hours. The nun»- 
ber of horse mills, tread mills, and water mills, in this 
state, is already great.* 

Considerable quanties of castor oil are manufactured, in 
this state from the pal ma christi, or castor bean. This 
vegetable growns finely in this soil. And the process of 
expressing the oil^ is as simple as that of making cider. 
It is a much more diflicult task to clarify the oil, when it 
is expressed. One bushel of castor beans will make near 
two gallons of oil. The price of the beans and the oil has 
diminished greatly, on account of the increased competi- 
tion within two or three years. There are six or eight 
castor oil presses in the state. Mr. Adams of Edwards- 
viUe made in 1825, 500 gallons, which he sold at the rate 
of $2 50, per gallon. In 1826 he made 800 gals : in 1827 
1,000 gals: in 1828, 1,R00 gals: in 1829, 521 gals: 
1830, 10,000 gals : in 1831, 12,500 gals: at present cas- 
tor oil sells for about seventy five cents per gallon. 

There area few factories for the making of cotton yarn. 
The prospect is that they will increase. There is also a 
number of cotton gins. 

But little iron is yet manufiictured in this state. There 



y Google 



ILLINOIS. 225 

is a furnace in Wabash county. This species of manu- 
facture will speedily increase. 

I have already spoken of the manufacture of lead. It 
has been very extensive during the last few years. It is 
sold at Galena at prices varying from two or three cents 
per pound. 

There is in this state, as in all the other western states, 
a vast amount of domestic manufactures made by families. 
AH the trades which are needed in this new state are 
springing into being. Every town and county has car- 
penters, shoe makers, blacksmiths,' wagon makers, weav- 
ers, &c. 

Steam boats will soon be added to the list of articles 
manufactured in this state. Indeed I believe that already 
one has been commenced at Alton, 22 miles above St. 
Louis. 

Rivers. This state has great navigable facilities. It 
has the Mississippi flowing along its south-western border 
540 miles: Michigan washes a shore of 57 miles on the 
north-east. The Wabash is a boundary on the east 120 
miles ; and the Ohio adds 130 miles on the south-east : 
whilst in the interior, to say nothing of smaller streams, 
the Kaskaskia gives 150, the Illinois 300, and the Rock 
River 150 miles of boat navigation. 

The Illinois is a beautiful stream ; and during a large 
portion of the year it is navigable for steam-boats to Peoria, 
160 miles above the mouth, and even to the rapids, which 
are 230 miles. It has many large and beatable confluents, 
such as the Macaupin, ^pple Creek, Crooked Creek, San- 
gamon, Spoon, Mackinac, Vermillion, Fox, Pickamink and 
Plane. These streams are boa table during the high waters 
for many miles, and flow through very fertile regions. 
No part of this state exceeds the country along the Sanga- 
mon in excellent soil. 

Rock River rises in Huron district. It has many 
branches, and flows with a rapid current over a sandy 
bottom, and enters the Mississippi at Rock Island; a 
beautiful and romantic spot, 298 miles above St. Louis. 
The Kaskaskia has also many branches, and irrigates the 
middle of the southern half of the state. It is a beautiful 
stream, and flows through a fertile region. 

The little Wabash, Embarrass and Vermillion, are im- 



y Google 



226 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

portant and boatable streams, which flow into the Wabash 
on the eastern side of the state ; whilst Muddy Creek, 
Cahokia, Henderson's Creek, Edward's Creek, Plum 
Creek, Apple and Fever Rivers, &c. are streams which 
flow into the Mississippi, and most of them boatable at 
periods of high water : the last three named, flow from 
the lead region above Rock River. 

The great advantages of this state for navigation and 
commerce, will be perceived by an inspection of a map of 
the state. It enjoys between 3000 and 4000 miles of boat 
navigation, and its citizens may send the products of their 
industry to New-Orleans or New-York. 

A route for a canal from the Illinois to Chicago on Lake 
Michigan, has been surveyed. Its length will be about 70 
miles. The general government has made a donation of 
each alternate section for the space of five miles on each 
side of the proposed canal, throughout its entire length, 
upon conditions similar to those upon which grants were 
made to the canals in Ohio and Indiana. The quantity of 
land granted to this state, for these internal improvements^ 
is 480,000 acres. This canal has not yet been undertaken. 
Much greater difliculties than were at first anticipated 
have been ascertained to exist in the nature of the ground, 
from the Plane river to Chicago, a distance of about 20 
miles ; there being a sub-stratum of solid limestone a few 
feet below the surface. 

On this account the idea of obtaining water for the sum- 
mit level from the lake will probably be relinquished ; and 
if a feeder cannot be made from the Calumick river, — a 
stream which flows into the southern extremity of the lake 
— ^a rail-road for this intervening distance of 20 miles 
roust be resorted to. There can be no doubt but that soon 
a canal or rail-road will open up admirable facilities for 
the transportation of merchandize from Lake Michigan to 
St. Louis and this entire region. 

All the larger rivers of this state are similar to the Mis- 
sissippi in having blufls on one side or the other, with for- 
ests and prairies intervening in many places t)etween them 
and the river ; whilst on the opposite side stretches out a 
level or moderately undulating country. 

Towns* Vandalia is the capital of the state. It is 
situated on the right or western baak of the E^kaskia, at 



y Google 



ILLINOIS. 227 

N. lat. 38° 67' and W. long. 11° 58'. It is in the centre 
of a beautiful and fertile country. The public buildings 
are only temporary. The population is about 1000. The 
national road from Cumberland through Columbus io Ohio, 
Indianapolis and Terre Haute in Indiana, to St. Louis, is 
to pass through this new and growing town. Vandal ia is 
about 70 miles from St. Louis and 781 miles from Wash- 
ington city. Congress has appropriated 2560 acres to this 
state, for the seat of government ; the sales of which will 
erect the public buildings of the state. 

EbwARDSViLLE OH Cahokia Creek, 20 miles north-east 
from St. Louis, is a pleasant and growing village. Until 
within a few years, it was the seat of government, which 
bad been transferred from Kaskaskia to that place. 

Belleville in St. Clair county, 14 miles south-east of 
St. Louis ; Carrolton in Green county : Carlyle on the 
right bank of the Kaskaskia, in Clinton county ; Albion in 
Edwards county, on the eastern side of the state, and near 
Bon.Pas creek ; Jacksonville in M orgar^ county ; Spring' 
field in Sangamon county ; BrownsvilU on Muddy creek, 
in Jackson county ; and many more might be mentioned 
as delightful towns in the interior of the state, and centres 
of fertile regions. 

Along the Ohio stand Amcrtca, Golconda^ Shawneetown^ 
and other and smaller places. Shawneetown is the chief 
of them. It is 9 miles below the mouth of the Wabash, 
and 110 miles south east of Vandalia. It is the largest 
town in the state, and has considerable trade. Its situation 
is low and liable to partial inundations at extremely high 
floods. There is an office here for the entry of purchases 
of public land. Trinity is a village of a few houses on the 
Ohio, six miles above the junction of that river with the 
Mississippi. It is a noted landing place for steam-boats. 
Oxford, Carmiy Palmyra and Palestine, are new towns on 
di^rent streams of the Wabash. 

KASKiLSKiA is the county town of Randolph county. It 
18 situated on the right bank of the Kaskaskia river, 6 
miles from its mouth. It is in the midst of a beautiful 
country. It was founded the year after Philadelphia was. 
It had, when in the possession of the French, 7000 inhab- 
itants ; at present, it has about 1000. There is a Land 
Office here. 



y Google 



228 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Alton stands oa the Mississippi, one mile above the 
mouth of the Missouri, sixteen miles below the entrance of 
the Illinois, twenty-two above St. Louis, and sixty west of 
Vandalia. There are two n^ighbou^ng villages, called 
Upper and Lower Alton. The prospect is, that Alton will 
become a place of great business. The population is be- 
tween 500 and 1000. This will be an important station 
for building steam and other boats. Vast numbers of hogs 
and cattle, are here slaughtered for the New Orleans 
market. 

Galewa is on Fever River, a short distance above its 
entrance into the Mississippi, in the north-western corner 
of the state. It is the seat of justice for Joe-Daviess county, 
and the centre of the lead region in this portion of the state. 
It has a population of 1200 inhabitants. There have been 
as many as 99 arrivals of steam-boats at this place in a 
year! The population of the lead region is about 10,000. 

Chicago is the principal port on Lake Michigan, within 
the limits of this state. It stands at the entrance of the 
Chicago River, into the lake. It is a growing place. It 
will, from its favourable situation, become a place of a great 
commission business. A line of packets is established be- 
tween this place and Detroit and Buffalo. There is also a 
Steam-boat trading- between it and Newburyport, on the 
St. Joseph's, in Michig^an Territory. 

Along the Illinois River are several towns rapidly groiv- 
ing up, at which many stream-boats arrive annually from 
St. Louis : such as Beardstown, Peoria, <Sz;c. 

Education. — In most of the denser settlements, common 
schools are maintained during a part of each year. It is to 
be regretted, that many of the teachers are but poorly qula- 
ified for the office of teaching a school. A greater interest 
is, however, awaking on this subject. Congress has grant- 
ed to this state one- thirty -sixth part of all the public land, 
or one section in every township, — in all 977,457 acres, — 
for common schools: besides three per cent, on all the sales 
of public lands in this state, excepting a sixth part of this 
sum which is to go to the establishment of a College. The 
fund growing out of this reservation from the sales of pub- 
lic land, now amounts to more than $40,000. Besides, two 
townships, or 46,080 acres, are granted for a Seminary of 
learning, or College. The value of all these lands consid- 



y Google 



ILLINOIS. 229 

erably exceeds, even at the rate at which the public land is 
sold, $1,200,000. At some future, and no very distant 
day, it is hoped, a liberal and efficient common school sys- 
tem will be established in this state. A number of Acad- 
emies, — at Belleville, Kaskaskia, Rock Spring, 6lc. have 
been established. Female schools, of an elevated charac- 
ter, are commencing under good auspices. 

The saline reservations in this state, which have been 
given to the state by the general government, are 206,128 
acres. 

General Remarks. — ^This state probers many induce- 
ments to those who are emigrating to the West. 

1. It is easy of access, by the most convenient and cheap 
modes of removal. On the north is Lake Michigan, by 
which emigrants from New-England and New-York, as 
well as foreigners, are constantly entering the fertile plains 
of the northern end of the state. On the south, the steam- 
boats from New-Orleans, are constantly carrying hundreds 
and thousands of emigrants up the Mississippi, Illinois, 
Rock River, Ohio, and Wabash. Whilst by the same 
mode, emigrants from Western Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
Ohio and Kentucky, are constantly arriving. Indeed, a 
majority of the people of this state have emigrated from 
Kentucky and Tennessee, who removed either by water, or 
more commonly by land in their wagons, carrying with 
them much of their furniture, their farming utensils, and 
their live stock — which it was easy to do, on account of the 
shortness of the distance. The expence of removing a 
family from Buffiilo, Pittsburg, or New-Orleans, and all 
places in their general vicinity, by steam-boat, to any parts 
of Illinois, which are within 100 miles of the Mississippi, 
Illinois, Ohio, and Wabash rivers, or of Lake Michigan, 
(and this will include every part) is far from being expen- 
sive, as I shall show in another place. 

2. There are 28,237,859 acres of public land in this 
state to which the Indian title has been extinguished, yet 
to be sold; and 3,158,1 iO still belonging to the Indians, 
which will soon be in the market. For a treaty has very 
recently been proposed to the tribes in this state, by which 
they will probably sell their lands. The price of public 
land is $1 25 per acre. No credit is allowed. 

20 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



eso 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIFFI. 



The names of places where Land Offices are opened. 
Registers, and Receivers of moneys arising from the sales 
of public lands, are as follows : 



Land Offices, 



Shawneetown, 

Springfield, 

Vandalia, 

Edwardsville, 

Kaskaskia, 

Palestine, 

Danville, 

Quincy, 



Registers. 



James C. Stoo, 
William L. May, 
Charles Prentiss, 
Wm. P. McKee, 
Miles Hotchkiss, 
Joseph Ketchell, 
Francis Prince, 
Sam'l Alexander, 



Receivers. 



John Caldwell, 
John Taylor, 
William Linn, 
Benj. F. Edwards, 
Edward Humphreys, 
Guy W. Smith, 
Samuel M'Roberts, 
Thomas Carlin. 



3. Farms, considerably cultivated, may be purchased 
from the early settlers who desire to purchase govern- 
ment lands again, at prices varying from $2 50 to $8 per 
acre. 

4. In no part of our country is it possible to convert an 
uncultivated piece of land into a good farm, sooner than in 
this state. Let an emigrant purchase, as he may do in 
thousands of places, a quarter of a section (160 acres) of 
land, or the half of it, or a section, if he is able, on the bor- 
ders of a fertile prairie, so that one half of his purchase 
may be wood-land and the other half prairie, or whatever 
other proportion he chooses. And let him fence the lar- 
ger part of his prairie land, and retain the wood-land to 
furnish timber, and in a short time he may have an excel- 
lent farm under cultivation. He may soon raise as many 
cattle, hogs, horses, &C. as he may desire, or has com and 
hay to feed them with in the winter. And there need be 
no want of these things, if he has two or three hands to 
help him to cultivate his fields and mow liis prairie. The 
prairie and woodland will afford range enough for his cat- 
tle, hogs, and horses in the spring, summer, fall, and early 
winter. 

The larger prairies, which are sometimes several miles 
across, are like the lakes in New York and other parts of 
our country, public property ; and all who live around 
their borders, have a common right to send as many cattle 
into them as they choose. The prairie, when turned into 
fields, is difficult, for two or three years, to subdue com- 



y Google 



ILLINOIS. 231 

pletely. This is owiDg to the unyielding grassy sward 
with which they are covered ; and to plough which re- 
quires a strong team of horses or oxen. 

5. An emigrant, after having selected and purchased 
the tract of ground which pleases him, — and in doing this 
he ought always to prefer a healthy region of moderate 
fertility to exuberant lands where sickness prevails, — has 
to select a site for a house. This ought, if possible, to be 
elevated, accessible to the breezes, near to a good spring, 
and remote from swamps and marshes. The immediate 
bank of the river is better than the low partially inundated 
land more remote from the river, and near the blufl^ : 
ravines, coves, and all confined places are to be avoided. 

6. In settling upon uncultivated lands, and having but 
little money beyond what they need to purchase that land, 
emigrants cannot expect to have costly houses for a few 
years. They must erect cabins, made of unhewn logs, 
with roofs made of clap- boards, that is, of large undressed 
shingles, not nailed on, but kept in their places by large 
saplings or pieces of timber laid on them. The floor, where 
boards cannot be obtained, is made of puncheons^ that is, 
logs split into thick plank and hewn. Such a house ought 
to have a good chimney, the crevices between the logs 
well closed and daubed, and sufficient ventilation by doors 
and windows. It costs but a few dollars to erect such a 
cabin, or a double one, and have a sort of porch around it 
of eight or ten feet in width. A kitchen, a meat or smoke 
house, spring or milk-house, a corn-crib, and log-barn, 
with a wagon-shed, will be all the building needed for a 
while ; and they may be made, where there is industry 
and ingenuity, for a small amount. At a future day, a 
good framed or brick house, a framed barn, &;c. may be 
erected. But howevter plain a cabin may be, it ought 
to be comfortable, dry, and warm in winter ; not always 
leaking, smoky, and damp from a floor resting on the 
ground. 

Mr. Peck supposes that if an emigrant should purchase 
820 acres of land, and pay for all the improvements, the 
amount would be as follows ; 



y Google 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 

160 acres of prairie at $1 25 per acre, . $200 

Fencing it, in four fields of 40 acres-each, with . 
a Virginia fence eight rails high, • . 160 

Breaking up, with the plough, these 160 acres 

at $2 per acre, .... 320 

To this add the cost of cabins, stables, corn- 
cribs, &;c., say, .... 200 

Eighty acres of timbered land, and eighty of 

prairie, adjoining it, for timber, pasture, ^. 200 

Making the cost of a farm of 320 acres, and ^^ qqq 
improvements to be • ' 

Of course, smaller farms would cost less. But few 
emigrants, however, purchase every thing in this way. 
By their own labour they do much that would cost a great 
deal, if purchased or hired. An emigrant needs two or 
three horses, a few cows, hogs, and sheep : two or three 
ploughs, harrows, wagons, &c. If he cannot take all 
these with him, smd it is not convenient for emigrants 
from the East to do so, he can purchase them here. His 
ployghs, harrows, and many other things, he will perhaps 
be able to make himself after the first year or two.* 

* The following is a sketch (not perfect of course) of the present 
prices of articles and of labour in this state : — Brick, from $3]50 to $4 00 
per thousand ; pine boards, seasoned, from $30 to $30 per tiiousand ^t ; 
unseasoned, and from the rafts in the rivers, from $12 50 to $15 ; floor- 
ing boards, at the saw-mills, 1^ inch thick, $1 25 per hundred feet; 
weather boards, from 80 to 100 cents ; walnut, for ceiling, &c. $1 00 to 
$1 50 ; linden, $1 25 ; roofing, 75 cts. Nails, by the keg, 10 cents per 
pound ; glass, 5 or 6 dollars per hundred square feet (Sirpenters' and 
joiners' work is estimated by the day, the job, or the square, — that is, 
(me hundred square feet Common workmen receive usually $1 00 fl 
day and board. Framing, when the timber is hewn, $1 00 per square; 
roofing, $1 50, when the materials are prepared ; laying floors, $4 00 
per sqare, including dressing the plank ; making doors, 50 cents per 
pannel ; window sash, 6 cents a light ; laying brick, $2 00 per thousand ; 
putting on three coats of plaster when materials are found, including 
hands to carry the mortar, and board, 12^ cents per square yard ; oil 
costs by the barrel, 75 cents a gallon ; white lead, ground in oil, in kegs 
of 28 pounds, from $3 50 to $4 00 per keg; the usual wages of mechan- 
ics is $1 00 per day and board ; master-workmen, mill-wrights, and 
some' others, charge higher ; scientific mill-wrights and machmists wiU 
command from $2 00 to $3 00 per day ; common labourers receive $10 
per month, or fifly cents a day ; men who can handle the brodd iize, saw 



y Google 



ILLINOIS. 233 

7. The climate of Illinois is delightful, and unques- 
tionably healthy. If emigrants will choose favourable 
situations, and be careful to have comfortable houses as 
soon as possible, and dress warmly when sudden changes 
from hot to cold weather are occurring, and not expose 
themselves to inclement weather, they will have good 
health. The summers and autumns are generally dry and 
warm, — more so than in the Atlantic states. The diseases 
which prevail are those which are common in the western 
states in the same parallels of latitude. Bilious fever, in 
its various types, is the most noted. By timely attention, 
it is generally a manageable disease. It is far from being 
the case that even emigrants from the East, generally have 
a seasoning of sickness before they become accustomed to 
the climate. 

8. Taken as a whole, this state is one of great fertility 
of soil, and capable of sustaining a vast population. It has 
the finest situation of all the western states. It is suffi* 
ciently remote from the mountains which bound each side 
of the Valley, to have a climate little affected by them. 
It has milder winters than those states which border the 
mountainous ranges. This is a country of vast and beau- 
tiful plains, with noble streams. 

9. There is a great demand in this state for good teach- 
ers of every gradation, from the infant school instructor, 
to the teacher of an academy or high school. And al- 
though their wages may not be as high as in the East, 
yet it is to be considered that their expenses are far less. 

10. The eastern emigrant will find warm-hearted friends 
in every neighbourhood in this state. . The people of the 
West have much plain and blunt, but sincere hospitality. 
And any emigrant who comes among them with a dispo- 
sition to be pleased with the country and its inhabitants, — 

or i^ane, though they are not carpenters, receive 75 cents per day* 
There is great encouragement to good mechanics in the denser settle- 
ments of the state. Many mechanics arc farmers also. 

The preceding statement is taken from Mr. Peck's Guide to Emi- 
grants. I would add that these prices are substantially the same as 
thoseof Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri. 
They are the prices which prevail in the inferior, and smaller towns. 
Those of the large towns and cities, are, of course, considerably higher, 
as it respeots many items above named. 
20* 



y Google 



284 VALLEY OF THIS MISSISSIPPI. 

to partake of their hospitality cheerfully, — to make no 
inridious coinparisons,^-to assume no airs of distinction, 
—and in a word, to feel at home in this region, where, of 
course, every thing is very different from what he has been 
accustomed to, will be truly welcome. Fastidious and 
reserved manners, a disposition to be forever unfavourably 
contrasting the West with the East, — and to find fault 
with every thing around him, — will speedily render any 
emigrant an object of dislike and neglect. 

11. At the late census the population of this state was 
157,445. As that enumeration took place two years ago, 
and there has been two years' emigration added since, it 
would be safe to estimate the present population at near 
200,000. 

12. The history of this state may be very briefly given. 
In the year 1673, the country along the Mississippi and 
Illinois was discovered by Marquette and Joliette, who 

ad been sent to explore it by M. Talon, the Governor of 
Canada. In 1683, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and other villages 
were built. The French retained this country until 1763, 
when it was ceded to Great Britain. In 1783, it became 
a part of the United States, and formed a portion of the 
territory of Virginia. In 1787, it was included with 
Indiana and Ohio, under the title of the Territory N. W. 
of the Ohio. In 1801, it was included with Indiana as a 
part of that territory. In 1809, it was organized as a 
separate territory. And in 1818, Illinois became one of 
the United States.* 

* In some porti(ms of the preceding account of Illinois, the author 
has derived much aid from Mr. Peck's very valuable work, entitled, — 
"A Guide to Emigrants." &c. This work relates chiefly to Illinois 
and Missouri. 



y Google 



mssouHi. 



235 



CHAPTER XIX. 

MISSOURI. 

Missouri is bounded north by the Sioux District ; east 
by the Mississippi river, which separates it from Illinois, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee ; south by Arkansas Territory ; 
and west by the Osage and Sioux Districts, which are 
unorganized portions of the territory of the United States. 

It extends from N. lat. 36° to 40° 36' ; and from W. 
long. 11° 47' to 17° 32'. Its area is 65,500 square niiles, 
or 41,920,000 acres. 

The Mississippi River runs 550 miles along the eastern 
border of this state ; whilst the Missouri River flows 384 
miles through it, and enters the Mississippi. 

The western line of this state is the meridian which 
passes through the point of junction of the Kansas and the 
Missouri. 

Jeflerson City, on the Missouri river, is the capital of 
the state. 

TABLE OF THE COUNTIES AND COUNTY TOWNS. 







Popula- 


1 


Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


tion 


County Towns. 


from Jaffer. 




tion. 


IN 1830. 


1 


son City. 


Boone, 


m 


8,859 


Columbia, 


56 


Callaway, 


m 


6,159 


Fulton, 


32 


Chariton, 


n m 


1,780 


Chariton, 


79 


Clay, 


n w 


5,338 


Liberty, 


190 


Cde, 


m 


3,023 






Cooper, 


m 


5,904 


Booneville, 


51 


Cape Girardeau, 


86 


7,445 


Jackson, 


208 


Crawford, 




1,721 


Little Piney, 


98 


FrankUn, 


e m 


3,484 


Union, 


79 


Ghisconade, 


m 


1,545 


Gasconade, 


47 


Howard, 


m 


10,854 


Fayette, 


65 


Jackson, 


w 


2,823 


Independence, 


177 


Jefferson, 


e 


2,592 


Herculaneum, 


164 


La Fayette, 


w 


2,912 


Lexington, 


138 


Lincoln, 


e 


4,059 


Troy, 


97 


Madison, 




2,371 


Fredericktown, 


170 



y Google 



236 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



(Table Continued.) 



Counties. 



SiTUA. 
TION. 



Popula- 
tion 
IN 1830. 



County Towns. 



Distance 
from Jeffer- 
son City. 



Marion, 

Montgomery, 

NewMadiid, 

Perry, 

Pike, 

Ralls, 

Randolph, 

Ray, 

St. Charles, 

St Louis, 

St Genevieve, 

St Francois, 

Saline, 

Scott, 

Washington, 

Wayne, 



ne 


4,837 


em 


3,902 


8 e 


2,350 


e 


3,349 


n e 


6,129 


ne 


4,375 


nm 


2.942 


n 


2,657 


e 


4,320 


e 


14,125 


e 


2,186 


8 em 


2,366 


n m 


2,873 


8 e 


2,136 


em 


6,784 


8 


3,264 



Palmyra, 
Lewistown 
New Madrid, 
Perryville, 
Bowling Green, 
New London, 
Randolph, 
Richmond, 
St. Charles, 
St Louis, 
St Genevieve, 
Farmington, 
Walnut Farm, 
Benton, 
Potosi, 
Greenville, 



190 
67 
278 
187 
132 
167 
96 
149 
123 
134 
168 
152 
85 
236 
127 
200 



Total, 32 Counties, | 140,455 inhabitants. 
Of whom 25,091 are slaves, 569 free coloured people, and 114,795 
whites. 

The following new counties have been made since the 
census of 1830 : 



Counties. 


Situation. 


County Towns. 


Audrain, 


em 




Clarke, 


n e 




Lewis, 


ne 


La Grange. 


Monroe, 


n em 


Paris. 


Ripley, 
Stoddard, 


8 to 

8 e 





POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

Population. J Inerea8e, 

In 1810, - 19,833 f Frra 1810 to 1820, - 46,753 

* 1820, - 66,586 • 1820 ♦ 1830, . 73,869 

* 1830, - 140.455 



GovEBNXENT. Govemor — term of office four years — 
salary 91,500 per annum. Lieutenant Governor is Pre- 
sident of the Senate. 

Legislature. The legislative power is vested in a 
General Assembly^ consisting of a Senate and a House of 
~ The members of the former body are 



y Google 



xfssovsi. 287 

elected for four years ;* the members of the latter, for two 
years. Every county is entitled to one representative ;— 
but the whole number can never exceed 100 members. — 
The senators are chosen by districts. The constitutional 
number is not less than 14 nor more than 33. The pre- 
sent number of senators is 18 and of representatives 49. 

The elections for senators and representatives are held 
biennially, and for governor and lieutenant governor once 
in four years, on the first Monday in August. 

The Legislature meets every second year (at the City 
of Jefferson,) on the first Monday in November. 

Judiciary. The judicial power is vested in a Supreme 
Court, Circuit Courts, and such other inferior tribunals as 
the General Assembly may, from time to time, establish. 

The Judges are appointed by the governor, by and with 
the consent of the senate ; and they hold their offices du- 
ring good behaviour, but not beyond the age of 65 years. 

The Supreme Court consists of a presiding judge and 
two associate judges; the salary of each $1,100 per an- 
num. 

There are five Circuit Courts and as many Judges. — 
The salary of each is $1,000 per annum. 

The Constitution of this state was formed at St. Louis 
in 1820. 

Surface of the Country. — The surface of this state is 
greatly diversified. The alluvial bottoms are level. In 
the middle part rises a hilly region, extending from St. 
Genevive south-westward into Arkansas, and is the com- 
mencement of the Ozark or Masserne Mountains of that 
territory. The northern part is undulating, but no where 
approaching what may, with propriety, be called moun- 
tainous. Extensive prairies stretch out in the western 
and northern parts of this state. Even the St. Genevive 
hills are marked with this character, and have the appear- 
ance, in places, of extensive uncultivated fields. The mine 
region, which lies about 70 miles south-west of St. Louis 
is hilly, and a considerable portion of the state lying south 
of the Missouri and Osage rivers, is of the same character, 
and is in many places, marked with flint knobs of conside- 

^One half of the Senators are elected at each general election, which 
occurs biennially. 



y Google 



388 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

rable elevation. The country between the Mississippi and 
Missouri rivers is delightfully undulating and variegated. 
The prairies, which are of variable widths, are generally 
fertile. The Mississippi is skirled with many rich alluvial 
prairies, as well as extensive tracts of heavily timbered 
land. 

Soil, — There is a great extent of very fertile land in 
this state. The alluvial bottoms, and much of the upland, 
whether timbered or prairie, is of the very finest quality. 
Whilst much that is second rate is admirably fit for cul- 
tivation, and produces abundantly. There is also much 
surface in this state, on the highest hills, and the flinty- 
knobs in the south-western part, and a considerable extent 
of swampy land which commences on the Mississippi a few 
miles below Cape Girardeau and stretches down into Ar- 
kansas, along some of the head branches of the St. Fran- 
cis, which is not susceptible of cultivation. But as a whole, 
this state has a vast quantity of very fertile and productive 
land. The soil is loamy, friable, and easily cultivated, par- 
taking much of a sandy nature moderated with the richest 
vegetable mould. 

Productions, — ^The forests of this state embrace the 
oak of several species, black and white walnut, yellow pop- 
lar, which here attains its largest size, ash, elm, hackber- 
ry, hickory, peccan, sycamore and cotton wood along the 
streams, sugar tree, cypress in the south-eapiern angle, 
yellow pine, and cedar on the flint-hills, with an under- 
growth of dogwood, paw-paw, grape vines^ &;c. &c. These 
forests, as well as those of Illinois, and of the extended ter- 
ritory beyond, abound with game of various kinds — deer, 
bears, panthers, wolves, wild turkies, &c. &;c., which give 
employment and sustenance to a semi-barbarian population, 
which is constantly pressing on the heels of the retreating 
savages. These hunters settle either. on the United States' 
or Indian lands, and cultivating a little spot of ground, con- 
tinue there, until the game has disappeared, or the proper 
claimant of the land comes and " warns them off." I have 
seen some of these men who could spend hour afler hour in 
detailing their achievements with the "rifle." One of 
them who lives amid the Genevieve hills, told me that he 
came from " Old Kentuck," many years since, and that 
he had killed his sixteen hundred deer, three hundred bears, 



y Google 



MI880UBI. 239 

a hundred buffiiloes, and tarkies and other less important 
game in great numbers. When these men settle down up- 
on the public lands, they are called, in the language of this 
country, " Squatters." As it regards religion and moral 
culture, they are most deplorably ignorant, and have little 
concern about a future existence. 

The cultiyated productions of this state are corn, wheat, 
rye, barley, buckwheat, tobacco, hemp, cotton in the south- 
ern counties, potatoes common and sweet, and garden ve- 
getable of all sorts, which grow in the middle and southern 
states. No soil is more faYourable for gardens ; com and 
wheat grow finely in this state. Tobacco is a staple here. 
Cotton grows well in the southern part, but is exported only 
in very small quaatities. * 

Peaches, pears, cherries, apricots, apples, gooseberries 
&c. grow well in this state. Grapes may be cultivated to 
great advantage in this state; for the vine here finds a con- 
genial climate. Pal ma christi, poppy, rhubarb, and other 
medicinal plants grow well here. 

The fruits of the forest are here abundant, such as hick- 
ory-nuts, walnuts, peccans, plums, crab apples, hazlenuts, 
pawpaws, mulberries, persimons, &c. 

Minerals. — ^This state is rich in valuable minerals. 
Lead is found in great abundance in Washington county, 
and the region drained by the Maramec and Gasconade ri- 
vers, and by the upper streams of the White river. But 
the principal " diggings" are included in an extent of thirty 
miles in one direction, by fifteen in another. The centre of 
this district is about 70 miles south west from St. Louis. 
This lead region is hilly, and watered by numerous streams 
which fiow into the rivers just named. Some of these hills 
have a fertile soil ; but many of them are covered with flint 
rocks, and are barren knobs. The valleys intervening pos- 
sess much fertility. 

The lead ore is found in detached masses, and not in 
veins, or in situ^ as mineralogists term it. The business of 
digging is therefore very much of a lottery. The ore is of 
that species which is called galena^ and yields from 75 to 
80 per cent. About 3,000,000 pounds are annually made, 
giving employment to 1200 hands. The lead is hauled 
chiefly to Herculaneum, and St. Genevieve on the Missis- 



y Google 



240 VALLEY OF THE 1II88IS8IPF1. 

sippi river, and thence shipped on board steam boats to va- 
rious distant places. 

Many shot towers have been erected on the high bluflEs 
along the Mississippi, in the neighbourhood of the towns 
above named, where large quantities of shot are manufac- 
tured. Recently, sheet lead has been manufactured. The 
manufacture of white lead will probably be soon attempted. 

In this lead region are found copper, zinc, manganese, 
antimony, iron, calamine, cobalt, dz;c. These lead mines 
were wrought by the French 100 years ago. This region 
could furnish lead enough for the whole of the United 
States. 

Salt is made at Boone's Lick, and several other places 
in the state. 

Coal of a bituminous kind is found abundantly in this 
state, especially along the Missouri, and will be invaluable 
as a fuel, in this region of prairies. Gypsum, marble, chalk, 
ochres of various colours, nitre, pumice stone, and barytes, 
are found in this state. 

Iron is manufactured in several places. Iron ore is very 
abundant throughout the state. The exports of this state 
are lead, flour, corn, hides, buffalo skins and tongues, furs, 
lumber, salted beef, pork, venison, dz;c. dz;c. 

Deer, bears, wolves, and panthers are common. The 
bufliilo and elk have retired to the region lying beyond this 
state. Water fowls are abundant, such as geese, ducks, 
swans, &c. Prairie hens, partridges, pigeons, turkies, 6z;c. 
are numerous. 

This is the country for raising cattle, horses, hogs, and 
sheep. Vast' herds of cattle are raised on the western bor- 
ders of the state ; and thousands are there slaughtered and 
the meat salted, and exported by way of New-Orleans to 
the eastern states, or to the West Indies. Whilst the tal- 
low, and the hides preserved in a dried state, are sent to 
the tanneries in the upper part of the Valley, or to the east- 
ern cities. The extensive prairies of this entire region, will 
make it always the land of .great pastoral wealth. From 
this part of our country, the markets of Philadelphia and 
Baltimore, and other Atlantic cities, will derive many of 
their supplies; whilst our shipping will here receive its 
salted and jerked beef. 

Rivers. — No other state in our country has as many no- 



y Google 



MISSOUBI. 241 

ble rivers as Missouri. The Mississippi rolls along its bor- 
der more than 500 miles. The great Missouri intersects 
it. The Osage and Maramec increase its navigable facili- 
ties ; whilst the St. Francis and White rivers rise in its 
southern part. 

The Missouri rises within the ridges of the Oregon 
mountains, through a distance of several degrees of latitude. 
The highest branches are Jeflferson, Madison, and Galla- 
tin rivers, which flow almost due north within these moun- 
tains. After their junction^ the Missouri still flows north, 
receiving Dearborn and other small rivers. It then turns 
towards the east, and receives Maria's river from the north. 
Above the entrance of that stream, are stupendous falls in 
the Missouri. For the distance of 17 miles the river de- 
scends most rapidly. There are several perpendicular cat- 
aracts ; the first of 98 feet ; the second 19 feet ; the third 
47 ; and the fourth 26. Afler receiving Maria's river, its 
course is a little north of east until it receives the Little 
Missouri. In the upper part of its course, it receives more 
than 20 considerable streams, the largest of which is the 
Yellow Stone, which is nearly as large as the Missouri, 
and rises in the same region. Its length is several hund- 
red miles. It flows through a fertile and heavily timbered 
country. 

Afler the junction of the Missouri and the White Earth 
River, the general course of the Missouri is south-east, 
until it reaches the western boundary of this state at the 
junction of the Kansas. The number of the confluents 
which it receives in this distance is great. Some of these 
tributaries are very large. The Platte is reckoned to be 
2000 miles long, and the Kansas 1200. The greater 
Humber of these branches come in from the west. Those 
which flow from the east, are generally short and small 
streams. 

The immense length of the Missouri may be readily be- 
lieved, when we learn that the mouth of the Yellow Stone 
is 1800 miles above the junction of the Missouri with the 
Mississippi. At the junction of the Yellow Stone and the 
Missouri is a fort, which is one of the centres of the ope- 
rations of the Western Branch of the American Fur Com<* 
pany's business. 

Within this state, the Missouri River pursues a course 
21 



y Google 



242 VALLEY OF THB MISSI8SIFPI. 

somewhat south of east, and enters the Mississippi, almost 
at right angles, about 200 miles above the junction of the 
latter with the Ohio. The Osage, Gasconade, and Mine 
rivers, are the principal streams which enter the Missouri 
from the south, within the limits of this state ; whilst rom 
the north its main confluents are Grand, Chariton, Tyber, 
and Rock rivers. 

Besides the Missouri, the Mississippi receives in this 
state a large number of tributaries, which are generally 
small. The most considerable are the Maramec, which is 
200 miles long, Cuivre, Salt River, Fabius, Wyaconda, 
and Des Moines. 

It is remarkable that the Missouri, although it receives 
so many and large tributaries, is, during a large part of 
the year, a comparatively shallow stream, scarcely afl^rd- 
ing water enough, in some places, for safe steam-boat nav- 
igation. The causes of this fact are, first, its running 
through a great extent of country destitute of timber, which 
occasions during summer a constant and great evaporation 
— and, second, a large portion of its waters are absorbed 
by its extensive alluvial and porous banks. 

The Missouri is a remarkable river in every respect. It 
has a powerful current. Its waters are always muddy. It 
is constantly changing its channel. Its whole course is a 
regular succession of great bends, or meanderings. Its 
waters are wholesome ; and, it is said, are more easily 
preserved cool and fit to drink, than other waters are. 

Towns. — The capital of the state is the City op Jef- 
ferson, which stands on the right or south bank of the 
Missouri, a few miles above the entrance of the Osage, 
134 miles west of St. Louis, and 990 west of Washington 
City. It is a small town, and no way remarkable, excep- 
ting as the seat of government for the state — to which 
honour it prefers no other claim than that it is central. 
Congress has granted to this state 2449 acres for the seat 
of government. The sale of this land will erect the public 
buildings of the state. 

Numerous villages and towns are springing up along the 
banks of the Mississippi, in its whole course in this state, 
and on the Missouri, and their principal tributaries. Some 
of these I shall mention. Along the Mississippi, and in its 
vicinity, stand New Madrid, Cape Girardeau, Jackson, 



y Google 



MISSOURI. 248 

Perryville, St. Genevieve, Herculaneum, Vide Poche, St. 
Louis, Alexandria, New London, Palmyra, Hannibal, 
Wyaconda, &c. ; and on the Missouri and near it, are St. 
Charles, Florissant, Jefierson City, Franklin, Booueville, 
Chariton, Lexington, Blufilon, Liberty, d^. 

In ascending the Mississippi River from the mouth of 
the Ohio, several towns are seen in succession, on each 
side of the river, after having passed 50 miles. 

Cape Gibabdeau is the first town on the Missouri 
side. It is a small place, but will eventually be one of 
much importance. It is situated on a bluff of considerable 
elevation, and a rich country spreads out from it. It is 
50 miles from the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi. 
The next place of consequence, is St. Genevieve, one hun- 
cked and twenty miles above the mouth of the Ohio. This 
town stands a mile from the river, on one of the most 
beautiful alluvial bottoms in the West. This bottom land 
is cultivated, and contains several thousand acres. The 
river is at present encroaching upon it every year. It has 
already washed away about five hundred acres. St. Gene- 
vieve is an old French town, and is settled almost entirely 
by French, who came originally from Canada. The town 
presents a very singular appearance, from the unusual 
structure of the houses, they being chiefly of wood, low, 
and almost surrounded with porches. The population is 
about twelve hundred. The next important town is Her^ 
culaneum, which is on a small alluvial bottom, environed 
by high bluffii, the tops of which are surmounted with shot 
towers, where vast quantities of shot are manufactured. 
It is from this place and St. Genevieve, that the lead which 
is made at the lead mines in Washington county, about 
thirty-five miles west or south-west from tlys point, is ex- 
ported by the steam and other boats. Herculaneum is a 
very small place. It is thirty miles below St. Louis« 

The next place which arrests the attention of the trav- 
eller, is . Jefferson Barracks^ ten miles below St. Louis. 
The Arsenal is still nearer to that city. This is the most 
Important military post in the West It is immediately on 
the bank of the river. The buildings are all of stone, and 
0uflicient to accommodate from five hundred to seven hun- 
dred men. 

The oext place which one would notice on the right or 



y Google 



244 VALLEY OF THS MISSISSIPPI. 

western bank, is a French town called Carondelet on the 
maps, but here called universally, Vide Poche (Empty 
Pocket.) It contains many small houses, and is inhabited 
by French, or rather a mixture of French and Indian, 
called by boatmen of this region, Gvmbo French. They 
have their gardens, and live by selling vegetables, wood, 
&c. to the people of St. Louis. Nearly opposite, on the 
Illinois side, stands Cahokiay next to Detroit the oldest 
French settlement in this region. 

But St. Louis is by far the most important place in all 
this part of the Valley of the Mississippi. This city is 
1,200 miles by the course of the river above New Orleans^ 
and is next to that city, the largest and most commercial 
town on the Mississippi. It is 630 miles by water, and 
267 by land, from Louisville, 350 by land from Cincinnati, 
856 from Washington City, and 134 from the seat of gov- 
ernment of the state. It stands on the western side of 
the Mississippi, near two hundred miles from its junction 
with the Ohio, eighteen miles below the Missouri, and 
thirty -eight below the mouth of the Illinois. This city is 
growing rapidly in importance. Situated on an elevated 
bank, it is above the overflow of the river, and must prove 
a healthy place, especially as the small ponds in its vicinity 
are becoming drained. Two streets parallel with the 
river are on the first bank ; the rest of the city stands upon 
the second bank, which spreads out into a vast plain to the 
west. The streets in the old part of the city are rather 
too narrow for convenience. But it is altogether a place 
of great business. It is the centre of trade for the states 
of Missouri and Illinois, and indeed for the Valleys of the 
upper Mississippi and Missouri, and it is nearly in the cen- 
tre of the entire Valley of the Mississippi. The houses 
which have been built by the American part of the popu- 
lation, which greatly predominates over the French, and 
is now more than two-thirds of the whole, are principally 
of brick. The present population is about seven thousand. 
The French population is Catholic. They have a large 
brick Cathedral. The Methodist and Presbyterian 
churches are flourishing. Those of the Episcopalians and 
Baptists are smaller, but very respectable. The latter 
have a church of coloured people also« 



y Google 




245 

'dies, 

n For 

oiinht 
t pre- 
coni- 

ost on 

, tlicir 

ip the 

Ifl not 

unt of 

oer of 

led of 

a sac- 

i only, 

neb of 

oteau* 

crs at 

n and 

A' the 

is for 



i- boats 

; and 

.J from 

above 

vaters, 

i noble 

iclade, 
only a 

floansj 
Louis 
pi and 
Kan 50 
ne day 
lakes, 
vant ot 
ry bot- 



y Google 



244 

western 1 
na&ps^ bi 

Pocket.) 
by Frenc 
called by 
have ihei 
<kc, to th 
Illinois s 
French s 
Bot St 
this part 
1,200 mil 
and 13 ne: 
town on 
267 by la 
856 from 
ernment * 
the Missi 
with the 
thirty-eig^ 
growing 
bank, it i 
a healthy 
are beco, 
river are 
the secon 
west* T 
too narrc 
of great 
of MissoL. 
upper Mi 
tre of tht 
which ha 
lation, wi 
is now in 
of brick. 
The Frci 
brick C 
churches 
Baptist 9 
have a cl 




Google 



MISSOtTRI. 245 

The Court House, Market, College, Academy, Churches, 
&c., are the chief public buildings of this city. 

One of the greatest curiosities here is the American Fur 
Company's Establishment, where thousands of skins may 
be seen at once, such as buffalo, deer, &;c. &c. brought 
down the Mississippi and Missouri. They employ at pre- 
sent about one thousand men in this branch of the com- 
pany, as hunters, trappers, &;c. Their principal post on 
the Missouri is at the mouth of the Yellow Stone, 1,800 
miles above this place. In the summer of 1831, their 
steam-boat, the Yellow Stone, returned from a trip up the 
Missouri, up which she went 1,400 miles, (but could not 
reach the Yellow Stone, as contemplated, on account of 
the low state of the river,) bringing a great number* of 
skins, and about nine thousand buffalo tongues, dried of 
course, and in a fine state of preservation. What a sac- 
rifice of that noble animal there must have been, and only, 
or chiefly, for their hides and tongues ! This branch of 
the American Fur Company is managed by Mr. Choteau. 
The American Fur Company has its head quarters at 
New- York, and was founded by John Jacob Astor and 
others many years ago. Mackinaw is the centre of the 
operations for the northern branch ; as St. Louis is for 
those of the western. 

Last summer the American Fur Company's steam-boats 
ascended to the mouth of the Yellow-Stone River ; and 
this year (1833,) they have ascended 2100 miles from 
the mouth of Missouri, being three hundred miles above 
the entrance of the Yellow-Stone. In very high waters, 
it is ascertained, they may go even higher up this noble 
river. 

This city was founded in 1764, by Pierre Laclade, 
Maxan, and Company. For a long period it was only a 
trading post ; it is now flourishing greatly. 

I have seen no place in the West, save New-Orleans, 
that bids fairer to become an immense city than St. Louis 
does. When the vallies of the Upper Mississippi and 
Missouri become populous, — and they will in less than 50 
years, — ^and when the canals are made which will one day 
connect, at various points, the Mississippi with the lakes, 
this city must be a very large one. There is no want ot 
room on the elevated and level alluvial and secondary bot- 

21* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



246 VALLEY OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 

toms upon which it so beautifully stands. And it is always 
accessible to steam-boats, with the exception of from four 
to six weeks in the winter, when the Mississippi is com- 
monly frozen over. 

A traveller will find a greater variety of character in 
this city than in any other in the Valley of the Mississippi, 
excepting the city of New Orleans. Americans, from all 
the states, French, Germans, Spaniards, and Indians of 
various tribes, are to be seen here. A great moral change 
is going forward here. The influence of pure religion is 
gaining ground ; there is a large number of good men here. 
The savage custom of duelling is disappearing, although 
there have been one or two tragical scenes of this sort 
within two or three years. I know not a more pleasant 
city in the West than St. Louis, and it will soon be a very 
large one. 

The amount of business done here is very great. As 
this is the emporium of trade for an immense region, and 
the depot of the merchandize and productions received at 
it, and exported from it, there must be a great number of 
boats employed here. Besides the flat and keel boats, 
which are very numerous, I have seen twenty steam-boats 
lying along the wharves of this city at once. Steam-boats 
from every part of the Valley of the Mississippi visit this 
place, besides those boats which may be called regular 
traders or packets, between this place and various others, 
— of which the following is a brief enumeration. 

Last summer, there were 6 steam-boats regularly em- 
ployed between St. Louis and New-Orleans, besides many 
others which occasionally ran between these places. A 
trip from one place to the other and back again, usually 
occupies 24 days. The shortest time in which one was 
ever made, was 18 days. The usual fare for cabin passen- 
gers descending, is $20 ; ascending, $25 ; for deck pas- 
sengers, $5, either way. Freight, per 100 lbs. descending, 
d7i cents ; ascending, 62^ cents. 

From St. Louis to Louisville, 6S0 miles, at least 10 
steam-boats run regularly, besides a far greater number 
Which run occasionally. Usual time of a trip, 10 or 11 
days— -the passage each way being somewhat more than 
three days---depending, of course, on circnmstances, speed 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



MISSOURI* 247 

of the boat, state of the water, dec. The fare of the cabia 
passengers is now $12, either way ; deck passengers 84. 
Freight about 25 cents per 100 lbs. Some of these boats 
run up regularly to Cincinnati, commonly reckoned 150 
miles above Louisville. 

From St. Louis to Fever River^ about 480 miles, (ac- 
cording to the boatmen,) there run as many as 8 or 4 
steam- boats regularly, and many occasionally. Time 
occupied by a trip, about 10 days. Fare for cabin passen- 
gers, ascending, $12— -descending $9. The route of some 
of the boats extends occasionally up to St. Peter's River 
and St. Anthony's Falls, 400 miles further. 

Several boats run up the Missouri to Franklin^ 200 
miles; and to Fort Leavenworth, 200 miles further. 
Freight to Franklin, from 50 to 75 cents per 100 lbs. ; and 
to Fort Leavenworth from $1 00 to $1 50 ; from Franklin 
down, 25 cents per 100 lbs. A steam-boat belonging to 
the American Fur Company has been built, for the purpose 
of running up to the mouth of the Yellow Stone. 

There are several steam-boats which run regularly, 
and many occasionally, from St. Louis to various places, 
— Beardstown, Pekiuj Peoria^ &;c. — on the Illinois River» 

It is not an uncommon thing now to see more than 20 
steam-boats advertised at St. Louis at one time, to start 
for various places throughout the Valley of the Mississippi. 

The exports from this city to the various places with 
which it trades, are merchandize of all kinds, lead, furs, 
skins, bread stufl^ of all sorts, d^c. dec. The value of these 
exports is immense ; ' but I have no means of ascertaining 
it accurately. 

New Madbid, on the Mississippi, 65 miles below the 
mouth of the Ohio, is a small place, but well known as a 
place where boats stop on their way down the river. It 
was injured by earthquakes in 1811-12. 

St. Charles, on the Missouri, twenty miles from its 
mouth, and the same distance north-west from St. Louis, is 
a considerable town. 

Education. — ^There is no public system of common 
schools established in this state. Congress has appropri- 
ated 1,086,639 acrea for this purpose ; besides 46,080 
acres for Colleges, Universities, d^. to be disposed of by 



y Google 



24d VALLEY OF THB MldSISSIFPI. 

the Legislature of the state. The saliae reservations 
which Congress has given to this state, amount to 46,080 
acres, which will probably be devoted to education. 

Common schools are maintained to a greater or less ex- 
tent, in every neighborhood of sufficient population. There 
are several Catholic Seminaries for youth of both sexes in 
this state, and two or three Academies, which are well 
conducted — and the number is increasing. There are twa 
Colleges in this state, which I shall notice hereafter. 

Genebal Remabks. — Many of the remarks which were 
made in reference to the state of Illinois, are applicable to 
Missouri. The climate, soil, and productions of both states 
are so similar, that they may be rightly considered identi- 
cal. 

1. The population of Missouri is rapidly increasing. — 
The emigrants are chiefly from Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Virginia and North Carolina ; but one may also find here 
the natives of almost every state. The settlements extend 
along the principal rivers, and back into the country to a 
considerable distance. 

2. The exuberance of the soil, — the pleasantness of the 
climate, — and the great facilities for trade by means of its 
numerous navigable streams, will render this state a most 
desirable residence for those who wish to emigrate to the 
West. Those who resolve to remove from the southern 
states, will probably prefer this state to any other of the 
western states ; inasmuch as the climate is similar in many 
respects to that to which they have been accustomed. 
And as slavery is at present tolerated here, many will be 
induced to remove from the South to this state, because 
they can carry their slaves Avith them. 

d. There are in this state 34,547,152 acres of public 
land, to which the Indian claim has been extinguished; 
and 3,744,000 acres to which that title is not yet extin- 
guished, but which will probably be so, at no distant day.* 
From this statement the reader will perceive what a vast 
amount of land in this state is for sale at the low price of 
one dollar and a quarter per acre, — the rate at which 
public land may*now be obtained. 

* Since the above was written, Congpress has passed an act to make 
ilirther purchases of the Indian claims in Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, 
Michigan and Ohio. 



y Google 



MISSOITRI* 



349 



The ibllowing is a list of the public land offices, with 
the names of the Registers and Receivers of the public 
moneys — 



PUices where 
opened. 


Registers. 


Receivers. 


St. Louis 

Fayette 

Jackson 

Palmyra 

Lexington 


William Christy 
Hampton L. Boon 
George Bullett 
Wm. Wright 
Finis Ed wing 


Samuel Morry 
Uriel Sebre e 
John Hays 
Wm. Blakey 
Edw. M . Ryland 



Partially cultivated lands may be purchased in this state, 
as in all other western states, for very reasonable prices. 

4. Manufactories of various kinds are springing up in 
this state, and will afford encouragement to mechanics to 
remove to this portion of our country. There is an iron 
foundry at St. Louis, and a marine railway for the repair- 
ing of steam boats. The building of steam boats, and the 
making of machinery, will soon give employment to many 
artizans who are acquainted with that business. 

6. There is a decided moral change going on^through- 
out this state, which will render it a desirable residence 
for virtuous and intelligent emigrants from the East. It 
was to be expected, that at first many persons of a reckless 
character would resort to this new and remote country, -to 
escape from the restraints of civilization tind religion. 
But owing to the increase of the number of good men, 
and the efforts which are successfully making by the 
friends of religion and knowledge, of every name, bad in- 
fluence is counteracted by that of another sort. An inte- 
rest is awaking on the subject of education. The legisla- 
ture of the state will probably soon lay the foundation of 
a school fund, by the sales of public land. 

6. The French settlements along the Mississippi and 
Missouri, in this state, have a population of a very peculiar 
character. The French here are an amiable, quiet, unen- 
terprising people. They are generally poor, simple in 
their manners, contented and frugal. They retain their 
own language, save that it is somewhat corrupted from 
their intercourse with Americans. They are all Roman 
Catholics* Many of the men are employed by tl^e Ame- 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



250 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

rican Fur Company, as hunters and trappers. This is a 
mode of life which their fathers pursued in this wide and 
then wild region ; and it is one in which they themselves 
find equal delight. It is not uncommon for those who go 
on hunting excursions to the Oregon mountains, to be ab« 
sent from their friends several years, living in the mean- 
while among the bufliilos, the elks, the bears and the In« 
dians. 

7. Emigrants from the East, as well as from Europe, 
will generally go to this state by steam boats from Pitts- 
burg and other places on the Ohio, or from New Orleans. 
When the Mississippi becomes connected with Lake Michi- 
gan by the Illinois and Michigan canal and rail-road, thou- 
sands of emigrants will remove to this state by the Lakes. 

8. Missouri formerly made a part of the country of 
Louisiana, which was purchased from France in 1808. In 
1804 Louisiana was divided by an act of Congress: the 
portion lying south of the 33d degree of N. lat. was styled 
the " Territory of Orleans," and the residue, the " District 
of Louisiana." In 1805, the District of Louisiana was erect- 
ed into a territorial government, under the name of the 
" Territory of Louisiana ;" and in -1812, its name was 
changed to the "Territory of Missouri." In 1821, a part 
of this territory was admitted into the Union as an inde- 
pendent state, under the name of Missouri. 

^During the year 1811, this country suffered much through 
sickness, as it has occasionally done, to a far more limited 
extent, since. The late war with Great Britain, and the 
gloomy years of depression in business from 1817 to 1824, 
retarded the increase of this state for a while. But now 
prosperity has beamed upon this state for several years, 
and health and plenty exist throughout its borders. 

Next to Virginia, it is the largest state in the Union. 
And it is destined to become exceedingly populous, rich, 
and powerful. 

0. I cannot forbear to add, that strong hopes are enter- 
tained, that at no very distant day, and in a way perfectly 
consistent with the rights which are secured to individuals 
by the Constitution under which we live, slavery will come 
to an end in this state, and also in Kentucky and Tennessee* 



y Google 



MISSISSIPPI BITER. 251 



CHAPTER XX. 



The Mississippi River and its Scenery — Captain Shrere's Snag Boat— 
Arkansas^ — ^The Regions which ue North of Illinois andMissoori 
and West of Missouri and Arkansas. 



From the mouth of the Missouri, to its entrance into the 
Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi runs about 1250 miles. The 
width varies from a mile and a half to three quarters of a 
mile, which may be said to be its average width. Its cur- 
rent is rapid for nearly 900 miles of that distance, and only 
becomes less so as it approaches the vicinity of Natchez. 
No person, who has not seen it, can have a correct idea of 
the whirling, boiling motion of its waters, occasioned by 
their immense volume meeting with some obstruction in 
the bottom or sides of the channel. Its .bends are uniform, 
and on a large scale. And whilst they add to its length, 
they increase its beauty, and diminish the force of its cur- 
rent, which is a great obstacle to ascending boats. 

From the entrance of the Missouri to that of the Ohio, is 
a distance of about 200 miles^ The scenery along this por- 
tion of the Mississippi is highly interesting. The immediate 
vale through which the river flows, is, on an average, nearly 
8 miles in width, and is bounded on each side by high bluf&, 
generally of secondary limestone. The river runs general- 
ly near to one line of blufli or the other, and leaves on the 
opposite side an extensive alluvial bottom of the richest soil, 
covered with lofty forests on the margin of the river, and 
near the blu6i skirted with prairies. The channel of the 
river is chiefly along the western hluSs during this entire 
distance. The appearance of these blufli is often singular 
and sublime. They often seem to shoot up towardsthe hea- 
vens like the lofty battlements and pinnacles of an ancient 
city, exhibiting along the river a perpendicular mass of 
hoary rocks of two or three hundred feet in height. These 
blu&, especially in the vicinity of St. Genevieve and 
Herculaneuro, are objects of deep interest to the traveller, 



y Google 



252 VALLEY OF THE MlSaiSSIPPI. 

as he passes in a steam boat. In one place, one of these 
blufl^ raises his lofly head in the midst of the waves of the 
Father of Waters, in the shape and under the appropriate 
designation of the Grand Tower. * 

About thirty miles above the mouth of the Ohio, these 
blufl^ disappear from the view of the voyager, on account 
of their remoteness from the Mississippi. 

From the entrance of the Ohio to the gulf of Mexico, 
the vale through which the Mississippi runs becomes wider 
and wider, from fifty to a hundred and My miles. As far 
as the eye can see, in the greater part of this distance, not 
a hill or bluff can be seen rising above the level, nninter-^ 
rupted alluvial bottom, covered with cotton wood, sycamore, 
cypress, gum, &c. &c. which spreads out on each side, 
save where the river occasionally seems to wander over to 
the base of the " Chickasaw Blufis," in West Tennessee, 
and the << Walnut Hills," in the state of Mississippi, on the 
eastern side. 

From the mouth of the Missouri to the entrance of the 
Yazoo, there are, at long intervals, small towns and villages 
on the banks of this river which interrupt the otherwise 
continued forests which border this great stream. From 
the Yazoo to St. Francisville, towns and villages, with cul- 
tivated fields and beautiful villas, begin to appear frequent- 
ly along the banks. But from St. Francisville, to a con- 
siderable distance below New Orleans, the banks are cov- 
ered with a succession of cotton and sugar plantations, with 
their villas and '' quarters" of negroes, dec. like a con- 
tinued street divided by the magnificent volume of this im« 
mense river. 

The general government has employed Captain Shreve, 
with a large number of men, for several years, in removing 
the snags, and other similar obstructions to navigation, in 
the rivers of the West. For the purpose of removing the 
snags, (which are trees, many of them very large, sunk in 
the river with their tops down stream, and their roots im- 
bedded in the mud at the bottom) he has constructed a ma- 
chine which answers the purpose admirably in msmy res- 
pects. He has put two steamboats, constructed for this 
purpose, together, by means of large and strong timbers 
between them, from 10 to 15 feet long. The front beam 
between them is about three or four feet above the water, 



y Google 



MISSISSIPPI BIVBH, ETC. 253 

and is very strong. The boats are low, small, strong, and 
have engines of great power. The boatmen, who have 
some strange name for almost every object, call this " Un- 
cle Sam's Toothpuller." When they attack a snag, they 
do it in this way. This double boat marches up the stream 
with a tremendous pressure of steam, and takes the visible 
part of the snag (which is the top of the tree) between her 
bows, and by the strong cross beam, lifls it up, and as the 
boat urges her way onward, the snag is raised up, until the 
whole tree almost stands on its end. Then the boat stops, 
holds it there, while the hands cut it in pieces of twenty or 
thirty feet, and let them float away. It sometimes happens 
that some of these snags, when really trees of four or five 
feet in diameter at the lower end, and with immense roots 
anchored fast in the bottom, are immoveable by Uncle Sam's 
steam boat. In that case as much is cut away as can be. 
As the stumps, or the lower parts, cannot always be remo- 
ved, (for it would require the strength often steam boats 
to move some of the largest, that have been for years im- 
bedded in mud) the cutting off of the upper part, which is 
visible when the water is low, creates some danger. For 
when the water becomes low, and yet these stumps arc in- 
visible, they prove dangerous to steam boats. , I am infor- 
med that one or two boats have been injured by this cause. 
The captain has removed a vast number of snags from 
the lower Mississippi and the Ohio ; and is now at work in 
the upper Mississippi, between the mouth of the Ohi6 and 
St. Louis. His machine can do nothing, however, save 
when the rivers are very low. During a large portion of 
the year, the Heliopolis is laid by, to rest from her tre- 
mendous exertions. When not employed with the boat, 
these men are engaged in cutthig down the trees which 
stand on the banks, upon which the Mississippi is encroach- 
ing, in order that they may not be carried away by the wa- 
ter in an entire state, and so go to form new snags, and also 
to keep the bank from being washed away rapidly ; for 
when the river encroaches upon a bank, and partly under- 
mines large trees, their falling in carries away a large ex- 
tent of the bank. Besides doing this, they have, in some 
instances, cut small channels across the isthmuses of some 
of the great bends in the lower Missisippi. The conse- 
quence is, that in high water, part of the stream runs down 

22 



y Google 



254 VALLEY OF THE M IS8I8SIFFI. 

these channels, and soon wears a deep and wide bed, and 
80 the length of the river is shortened several miles. la 
the winter of 1880 — 31 eighteen miles were saved by a cut- 
off, in the great bend opposite the mouth of Red River. I 
have sometimes, however, doubted the expediency of doing 
this work. The Mississippi is rapid enough now, in all 
reason, and these improvements as they are called, are add- 
ing greatly to its rapidity, by throwing the fall that is in 
many miles into half a mile, in some cases. Any one can 
see what must be the consequence. The Steamboats cer- 
tainly do not gain much ; as they lose by the increased diffi- 
culty in ascending, what they gain by the diminution of the 
distance and the rapidity of descent. And as to making 
the Mississippi much straighter, and consequently shorter, 
it is all a vain attempt. It will run in a serpentine course 
(I believe that it can be demonstrated that every river 
without tides invariably does so) and although the eflbrts of 
man, and indeed its own, may occasionally make a cut-off, 
yet it is daily forming new bends, or increasing old ones. 
Much has been said about the bends in the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi, and other western rivers; but they exist in every 
river on earth, above the influence of strong tides, or where 
the banks are not so rocky that they cannot be washed 
away. Look at the Savannah, and all southern rivers. And 
even several of those in New-England, with their grardte 
banks, have numerous and regular bends. 

From the mouth of the Ohio to New Orleans, there are 
125 islands in the Mississippi river, some of which are of 
considerable size ; but they are generally too low and sub- 
ject to inundation, to be very valuable for cultivation. They 
are the abodes of the passing boatmen, and of the land an- 
imals and water fowls of this region. 

From the entrance of the Missouri to the mouth of the 
Mississippi, sixty rivers and creeks fall into this great reci- 
pient. The most important are the Maramec, Kaskaskia, 
Muddy Creek, Ohio, Obion, Forked Deer, Big Hatcbie, 
Wolf, St. Francis, White, Arkansas, Yazoo, Big Black, 
Homochitto, and Red River. 

And within the same distance, the principal cities and 
towns are St. Louis, Vide Poche, Herculaneum, St. Gene- 
viefve, Columbus, New Madrid, Randolph, Memphis, Vicks- 



y Google 



MISSISSIPPI BIVESy ETC. 255 

burg, Rodney, Natchez, St. Francisville, Baton Rouge, Ib- 
berville, Donaldsonville, and New Orleans. 

H&ying given ^he preceding description of the Mississip- 
pi River and its scenery, I now proceed to take a brief 
notice of Arkansas Territory. 



y Google 



256 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



ARKANSAS. 

This Territory is bounded on the north by Missouri ; — 
east by the Mississippi river, separating it from Tennessee^ 
and Mississippi state ; south by Louisiana ; and west by a 
line drawn from the south-western comer of Missouri to 
Fort Smith on the Arkansas river, — and thence by a meri- 
dian line to the Red River, — down Red River to the point 
where the western limit of the U. States from the Sabine 
to Red River intersects that stream, — and thence down that 
line to the 33d degree of N. lat. Its southern line is the 
33d degree of N. lat. ; and northern 36° 30'. The num- 
ber of square miles is 60,700, or 38,848,000 acres. It^as 
erected into a Territorial Government in 1819. The pop- 
ulation, according to the recent census, is 30,388. 



TABLE QF THE COUNTIES AND CX)UNTY TOWNS. 






POPULA- 




Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


TION 


County Towns. 


fixun 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Little Rock. 


Arkansas, 


e 


1,426 


Arkansas, 


114 


Clarke, 


em 


1,369 


Clarke C. H- 


87 


Conway, 


e m 


982 


Lewisburg, 


40 


Chicot, 


s e 


1,165 


Villemont, 


184 


Crawford, 


m 


2,440 


Crawford C. H. 


136 


Crittenden, 


n e 


1,272 


Greenock, [H. 


168 


Hempstead, 


8 


2,612 


Hempstead C. 


130 


Hotspring, 


m 


458 


Warm Spring, 


60 


Independence, 
Izard, 


n 


2,031 


Batesville, 


102 


n 


1,266 


Izard C. H. 


175^ 


Jackson, 


n e 


333 


Litchfield, 




Jefierson, 


s em 


772 


Pine Blufl&, 




La Fayette, 


8 


748 


Lafayette C.H. 


isa 


Lawrence, 


n e 


2,806 


Jackson, 


152 


Miller, 


8 e 


356 


Miller C. H. 


22a 


Monroe, 


e 


461 


Monroe C. H* 


84 


Phillips, 


e 


1,152 


Helena, 


124 


Pope, 


n m 


1,483 


Scotia^ 


81 



y Google 



ABKAKSAS. 

(Table continued.) 



257 





Situa- 


Popula- 




Distance 


Counties. 


tion. 


tion 
IN 1830. 


County Towns. 


from 
Little Rock. 


Pulaski, 


m 


2,395 


Little Rock, 




Sevier, 


s w 


634 


Paraclifla, 


168 


St. Francis, 


n e 


1,505 


Franklin, 




Union, 


s 


640 


Corea Fabre, 




Washington, 


n w 


2,182 


Fayetteville, 


217 



Total, 23 counties, | 30,388 inhabitants. 

Of whom 4,576 are slaves, 141 free blacks, and 25,671 
whites. 

GovEENMENT. — ^The Governor is appointed by the Pre- 
sident, by and with the consent of the Senate, — salary, 
$2,000 per annum ; Secretary, do. — salary $1,000 per an- 
num. 

There is a Legislative Council consisting of five mem- 
bers ; and a House of Representatives comprising twenty- 
three members, who are elected biennially, on the first 
Monday in August ; and they meet in the following Octo- 
ber. 

Judiciary. — ^There are four Judges, appointed by the 
President, with the consent of the Senate. They hold Cir- 
cuit Courts throughout the Territory. The salary of each 
is $1,500. There is an Attorney and a Marshal for the 
United States. 

Surface of the Country. — ^This Territory possesses ma- 
ny remarkable features in its physical geography. In the 
eastern part, along the Mississippi river, it is level, oflen 
overflown by that noble river and its large confluents which 
have their course through this territory ; in the middle part 
it is undulating and broken, and in the western part almost 
mountainous — the Masserne and Ozark mountains, lying 
partly within this territory. There is, however, a large 
extent of level and moderately uneven land in the middle 
and western portions of the Territory. 

Rivers. — The great river of this territory is the Arkan- 
sas which flows down from the Oregon mountains. Its length 
has been estimated (probably without suflicient evidence,) 
to be 2,500 miles. It receives no large tributary within 
22* 



y Google 



256 VALLEY OF THE KISSI8SIPFI. 

this territory. It flows nearly through the central part of 
it. St. Fraocis and White rivers, which rise in Missouri, 
flow through the northern part of the territory ; whilst the 
Ouachitta rises in the southern part and flows to the south. 
The Red river flows through the south-western angle of 
this territory. This territory possesses fine navigable 
streams, and extraordinary advantages for commerce. — 
Every portion of it has a most direct and easy communi- 
cation with New-Orleans, the great emporium of trade for 
the whole Valley. 

Soil. — The general features of this region are not well 
explored. There is much land of astonishing fertility in 
this territory, and the column of emigration has begun to 
move in this direction. It will one day, unquestionably, 
be a populous region. The Masserne mountains are pro- 
lific in minerals. Salt in abundance will be made in the 
western part. In 1829-30, more than 10,000 bushels 
were manufactured in this territory. 

Production8,^^CoUon is the staple of this territory. — 
Com and sweet-potatoes grow well. Wheat and other 
small grain have not been cultivated to a great extent. 
The apple does not flourish as well as the peach, which is 
remarkably fine here. The wild fruits, grapes, plums, &c. 
are abundant. 

Towns. — The settlements are principally upon the 
White River ; along the Arkansas ; and on the head 
streams of Ouachitta, or, as it is pronounced, Washita. 
There are several little villages along the Mississippi, the 
chief of which are Helena and point Chicot, or Villemont, 
as it is called on the maps. 

The Post of Arkansas, or Arkansas, as it is called, 
stands on the northern bank of the Arkansas river, 50 
miles from its mouth. It was built a long time ago, and 
is inhabited by about 600 people, mostly of French origin. 

Lii^LE Rock is the capital of the territory. It stands 
on ablufl*on the south or right bank of the Arkansas river, 
about 350 miles above its mouth, and 1068 miles from 
Washington City. It is a small but pleasant town, and 
has some fine society. It was a few years ago, as all this 
country was, often a scene of shocking violence and fatal 
rencontres between hostile individuals and parties. But at 



y Google 



ARKANSAS. 2d9 

present, the morals of this place and of the whde territory 
are improving. 

There are several small villages in different parts of the 
territory, but which are no way specially deserving a no- 
tice in this work^ Around the court-house of each county 
a little village is rising up, and at favourable points along 
the rivers little towns are forming, which will at some 
future day become important places. 

Curiosities. — These are, 1. Sea shells in great quanti- 
ties dispersed in the soil of extensive tracts of this terri- 
tory. 2. The hot springs near the Ouachitta River. 3. The 
quarry of oil stones near these springs. There are also 
relics of antiquity found here similar to those which exist 
in other parts of the Valley of the Mississippi. 

General Remarks. — 1. This country contains much 
fertile land; and also much, which, on account of its 
swampy or its rocky and hilly surface, cannot be cultivated. 
The tide of emigration is setting into this territory, from 
Kentucky and Tennessee, and other western states. It 
is a new country, and by no means well known. The 
quantity of public land, to which the Indian title has been 
extinguished, is 31,912,381 acres ; and there are 288,000 
acres, to which the Indian title has not been extinguished. 



Land Offices, 

Batesville, 
Little Rock, 
Fayetteville, 
Washington, 



Registers. 



Townsend Dickinson, 
Bernard Smith, 
Wm. M'Kenna, 
Sam. P. Rutherford, 



Receivers* 



Caleb S. Manly, 
B. S. Chambers, 
Matthew Leiper, 
Dan. T. Wilter. 



2. There is a decided moral improvement going on in 
this territory. There is a considerable numl^r of con- 
gregations formed by the labours of Methodists, Baptists, 
Cumberland Presbyterians, Catholics, d^c, and a healthful 
influence is beginning to be created in many neighbour- 
hoods. Congress has appropriated 950,258 acres of the 
public lands in this territory for the promotion of common 
schools, and 46,080 acres for colleges. 

3. Those who emigrate to this Territory will generally 
prefer to go to it by steam-boats, ascending the Arkansas 
to Little Rock, if they prefer to settle in the interior ; or 



y Google 



260 TALLET OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

landing on the banks of the Mississippi river, if they prefer 
the eastern part. 



The Regions which lie North of Illinois and Missouri, 
and West of Missouri and Arkansas. 

This immense part of the territory of the United States, 
within the Valley of the Mississippi, has been divided by 
geographers into five great districts, viz : — 

Huron District j which lies north of the state of Illinois 
and the Mississippi River, and reaches to Lake Superior 
and the northern limit of the U. S. It embraces 120,975 
square miles. It is, at present, attached to Michigan. 

Sioux District, which lies between the Missouri and 
Mississippi Rivers, and north of the state of Missouri, and 
embraces 162,385 square miles. 

Mandan District lies along the Missouri River, extend- 
ing from the Sioux District north-westward to the sources 
of that river, and embraces an area of 295,203 square 
miles. 

Ozark District lies immediately west of Arkansas ter- 
ritory, and contains 83,350 square miles. 

Osage District lies west of the state of Missouri, and 
embraces an area of 91,980 square miles. Making a total 
of 753,893 square miles, which is much more than one 
half of the entire area of the Valley of the Mississippi. 

Respecting the character of these districts, as it regards 
soil, ^c, it is impossible to speak with much accuracy. 
The country which lies west of Arkansas territory, to the 
distance of about 200 miles, has much fine land. This is 
the country to which the government is removing the In- 
dians, placing the Choctaws between the Red River and 
the Canadian Fort of Arkansas River ; the Cherokces, 
between the Canadian and Arkansas Rivers; and the 
Creeks, north of the Arkansas, and in immediate conti- 
guity with the Osages. A large portion of the country 
which lies west of the zone of 200 miles in width which I 
have just named, is sterile prairies, with very narrow tim- 
bered alluvial bottom lands along the water courses. 

A large portion of Huron District, especially the region 



y Google 



REGIONS NORTH AND WEST OF MISSOURI, ETC. 261 

on the Ouisconsin, is fertile, and possesses great beauty 
and many advantages as to navigable facilities, climate, 
6dc* The same may be said of a considerable portion of 
the country which lies between the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri Rivers. There is room enough in the region lying 
along the Upper Mississippi, above Illinois and Missouri, 
to form three or four states as large as Virginia. 

It is said that there are some tracts of line country on 
the Yellow Stone and other of the upper branches of the 
Missouri. But it is believed that a great extent of the 
country along the Missouri, beginning 100 miles west of 
the state of Missouri, is incapable of a dense population, 
on account of the vast extent of the prairies. This will 
probably be the case, at least for a long time to come. 
Still, if these prairies should be found to be fertile (for this 
country has been Very imperfectly explored, excepting 
along the banks of the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers,) at 
a future day they will have a great population. Let the 
fires be kept out of any portions of them, and these portions 
will soon be covered with forests ; or it will be found there, 
as in some other countries, that a vast amount of timber 
is not absolutely necessary where abundance of coal for 
fuel exists, and where modes of agriculture or grazing may 
be pursued, which will not require much fencing, especially 
when something else may be substituted. This will be 
the region of flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle and hor- 
ses ; and here will be the abodes of shepherds and herds- 
men, like those of the oriental countries, from time immo^ 
rooricil. 



y Google 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



MISSISSIPPI. 

The state of Mississippi is bounded on the north by 
Tennessee ; east by Alabama ; south by the Gulf of Mex- 
ico and Louisiana ; and west by Louisiana and Arkansas, 
from which it is separated by the Mississippi River. The 
Pearl River forms a portion of its western line, dividing 
it from Louisiana, from the Rigolets to the 3 1st degree of 
north latitude, — a distance of 60 miles. This state has a 
line of coast of eighty miles along the Gulf of Mexico. 

Mississippi extends from N. lat. 30° 08' to 35° ; and 
from W. long. 11° 05' to 14° 26'. Its area is 47,680 
square miles, or 30,515,200 acres. 



tablS of the counties and county, towns. 







Popula- 




Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


tion 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Jack8(m. 


Adams, 


s w 


14,937 


Natchez, 


112 


Amite, 


sw 


7,934 


Liberty, 


122 


Claiborne, 


w 


9,787 


Port Gibson, 


67 


Copiah, 


swm 


7,001 


Gallatin, 


53 


Covington, 


8 m 


2,551 


Williamsburg, 


83 


Franklin,^ 


8 to 


4,622 


Meadville, 


106 


Greene, 


8 e 


1,854 


Leaksville, 


171 


Hancock, 


8 


1,962 


Pearlington, 


200 


Hinds, 


m 


8,645 


Jackson, 




Jackson, 


8 e 


1,792 


Jackson C. H, 


213 


JeSeraoUy 


8W 


9,755 


Fayette, 


93 


Jones, 


sm 


1,471 


Ellisville, 


134 


Lawrence, 


8m 


5,293 


Monticello, 


88 


Lowndes, 


n em 


3,173 


Columbus, 


134 


Madison, 


e 


4,973 


Livingston, 


31 


Marion, 


8 


3,691 


Columbia, 


120 


Monroe, 


e 


3,861 


Hamilton, 


160 



y Google 



1 



L3 







'es 
ch 

ise 

all 
lan 
ire 
tea 
'he 
/rst 

)r's 

bur 
ale 
the 
irta 
ute 



y Google 



y Google 



MISSISSIPPI. 

{Table Continued.) 



263 





POPULA- , , 


Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


TioN IN ( County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


1830. 


Jackson. 


Perry, 


se 


2,300 


Augusta, 


137 


Pike, 


e- 


6,402 Holmesville, 


151 


Rankin, 


w 


2,083 


Brandon, 


16 


Simpson, 


sm 


2,680 


Westville, 


56 


Warren, 


w 


7,861 


Vicksburg, 


54 


Washington, 


w 


1,976 


Princeton, 


119 


Wayne, 


e 


2,781 


Winchester, 


165 


Wilkinson, 


sw 11,686 


Woodville, 


148 


Yazoo, . 


1 w I 6,550 


Benton, 


64 



Total, 26 
Of whom 
whites. 



counties. | 136,621 inhabitants, 

65,659 are slaves, 519 free blacks, and 70,443 



GovEKNHENT. The governor is elected for two years 
— salary $2,500 per annum. Lieutenant Governor receives 
$6 a day during the session of the legislature. The Sec- 
retary of State, Treasurer, and Auditor receive each 
$1,200 per annum ; and the Attorney General $1,000. 

The Legislative power is vested in a Senate and House 
of Representatives, styled the General Assembly of the 
State of Mississippi. The members of the senate are 
elected for three years, and the representatives annually. 
The number of the representatives cannot be less than 37, 
nor more than 100, as soon as the free population shall 
amount to 80,000. The senate cannot consist of less than 
one fourth, nor more than one third, as many as there are 
representatives. The general election for the state takes 
place on the first Monday and Tuesday of August. The 
general assembly meets (at Jackson) annually on the first 
Monday in November. 

Judiciary. The Court of Chancery. Chancellor's 
salary $2,000. 

The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and four 
associate Judges — the salary of each $2,000. The state 
is divided into five districts, in which the Judges of the 
Supreme Court severally hold circuit courts. These courts 
have original jurisdiction in cases where the sum in dispute 



y Google 



264 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 

exceeds $50 ; and appellate jurisdiction from the courts of 
justices of the peace, where the sum exceeds $20. They 
have also criminal jurisdiction. The county of Adams has 
a separate criminal court, whose jurisdiction, however, 
does not supersede that of the circuit court* 

Every county has a probate court, and a county court 
held by three Judges, of which the Probate Judge is the 
presiding justice. This court takes cognizance of oflfences 
committed by slaves, d^. The Judges hold their offices 
during good behaviour, but not beyond the age of 65 
years. 

Imprisonment for debt is not allowed in this state, ex- 
cept in cases of a debtor who fraudulently withholds his 
property from his creditors. 

Surface of the Country. — ^Along the Mississippi River, 
at various distances, there is a line of bluffii, in this state, of 
from 50 to 150 feet in height, in some cases, still higher. 
In some places these bluiS are washed by the river ; in 
other places they stand several miles from it. The por- 
tions which are contiguous to the river, are called by 
difl^rent names, such as Walnut Hills, Grand Gulf Blufi^, 
Natchez Blu£i, White Cli£i, and Loflus' Heights, &;c. 

The country beyond these bluffs spreads out into a 
high, beautiful, and fertile table land, gently undulating 
and productive. There is a zone of such land commencing 
in Louisiana and extending through this state, parallel with 
the Mississippi, into the state of Tennessee, interrupted 
only by the streams which run through it. Its width is 
from 10 to 30 or 40 miles. 

Beyond this fertile belt of land, there stretches from 
south to north, and reaches eastward to the Alabama line, 
an extensive district of country, of various soil, but pos- 
sessing much that is alluvial and ' fertile, contrasted with 
much that is light and covered with pine. As a whole, 
however, it possesses a great quantity of excellent land. 

The southern, middle, and northern parts of this state 
may be said to be beautifully undulating, with numerous 
ravines and streams. 

In its natural state, in which almost the entire state still 
is, it was covered with a vast forest of oak, hickory, mag- 
nolia, sweet gum, ash, maple, yellow poplar, cypress in 
the swampy alluvial Mississippi bottoms, pine, holley, d^. 



y Google 



MISSISSIPPI. 265 

&;c. with a great variety of underwood, grape vines, paw- 
paw, spice wood, &;c. 

The magnolia is frequently a tree of three feet in diam- 
eter in the south-western part of this state. The cypress 
and swamp gum, are large in the swampy lands. Vast 
quantities of cypress are floated down to New-Orleans 
from this state. They are cut when the waters are high, 
by the negroes in canoes, who cut them above their cone- 
like like buttresses. 

Productions. — In the early settlements near Natchez, 
tobacco, indigo and cotton were successively staples. 
The last named production has however prevailed for the 
last 30 years. Corn is also produced, and would be abun- 
dant, if it were as valuable a crop as cotton. Peaches are 
abundant. Sugar cane is cultivated in the southern part 
of the state, but with only moderate success. The peach 
is abundant. The orange grows here, but is often injured 
by the climate. The fig also grows in the southern part. 

This is an admirable country for the growth of garden 
vegetables of almost all sorts. 

The chief article for exportation from this state is cotton^ 
which is raised in great abundance. Corn is also exported, 
for it here grows abundantly. Wheat is but little culti- 
vated. This country is favourable for the raising of cattle, 
horses and hogs. But in as much as cotton is found to be 
more profitable as an article of cultivation than the raising 
of any thing else, it absorbs almost the whole attention of 
those who live on farms or plantations which possess a soil 
suitable for its production. 

Rivers. The great Mississippi River flows along the 
western boundary of this state, a distance of 530 miles. 
A large portion of its bank in this state is for a very con- 
siderable width an inundated swamp, covered with cypress, 
and inhabited only at intervals, by those who cut wood 
for the passing steam-boats. To a traveller who only sees 
this state whilst passing along the Mississippi River, it 
presents the most dreary and forbidding aspect, excepting 
along the elevated and settled points of the^ blufls which 
immediately border the river. 

Into the Missisippi River there flow, from this stat«, the 
following named considerable streams. I shall mention 
them in order, beginning at the northern end of the state. 

23 



y Google 



260 VALLEY OF TH£ MISSISSIPPI. 

The Yazoo rises in the aortbern part of the state, and 
some of its eastern head streams interlock with the 
sources of the 1 ombigbee. In its course towards the 
south-west, it receives a number of considerable streams, 
Yaio Busha, Buffalo Creek, Cold Water, &c. It falls 
into the Mississippi twelve miles above Vicksburg, by a 
mouth of 100 yards wide. Its whole length is more than 2^ 
miles ; about 50 of which it is navigable for large boats. 
It flqws through an elevated and pleasant and healthy 
country. This river is distinguished for giving name to 
the famous Yazoo speculation, which in its end was so 
disastrous to the fortunes of many who were deceived 
by it. 

The next river is the Big Black, which rises in the 
eastern part of the state, and falls into the Mississippi by 
a mouth 40 yards wide, just above the Grand Gulf. It is 
near 200 miles long by its course, and is navigable fifty 
miles. Bayou Pierre is a small river which falls into the 
Mississippi above Bruinsburg. There is a fertile country 
bordering on this stream. The Homockitto is a small, but 
pleasant stream, which falls into the Mississippi 43 miles 
below Natchez. Below it, enters Buffalo Creek, nine 
miles above Fort Adams, in the south western angle of the 
state. 

The Amite flows down from this state, through a broken 
country, into Ibbervilie outlet, or Boyou Manshac, as it is 
often called, 40 miles above Lake Maurepas. The Pearl 
River rises in the southern part of the state, and flows by 
a course of 150 or 200 miles, into the Rigolets or outlet 
from Lake Ponchartrain into Borgne. There is a fine 
healthy country, covered with pine and abounding with 
springs, along this river. It forms a part of the western 
boundary of this state. Still, further east, flows the PoB" 
eagoula, parallel with the Pearl River on the west, and 
the Tombigbee on the east. It is a stream of 200 miles 
in length, having many branches, and navigable for boats 
50 or 60 miles. It falls into the Gulf of Mexico by several 
mouths. 

The Tombigbee rises in the north-eastern part of this 
state, and having drained a large, fertile, and beautiful re- 
gion, it flows into the state of Alabama, and finally unites 
with the Alabama River, in forming the Mobile River. 



y Google 



MISSISSIPPI. 267 

By these various streams a boat navigation is opened 
into the whole interior of the state, by which, in the win* 
ter and spring, many thousands of bales of cotton, besides 
other products, are sent to the great emporium of the 
Valley of the Mississippi. 

Towns. — Jackson is the capital of the state. It stands 
on the right or western bank of the Pearl River, 112 miles 
north east from Natchez, and 1,036 from Washii^ton city. 
It is on the road from Natchez to Washington city. It is 
a small but pleasant place, and improving in size and 
wealth. Congress has granted 1,280 acres for the seat 
of government. 

Natchez is the most important town in this state. It 
is situated on an elevated series of hills, about half a mile 
from the Mississippi river, in north lat. 31 deg. 33 min. 
The site of the town is undulating, and 200 or 300 feet 
above the river. The population is somewhat more than 
3,000. It is a place of great wealth and business. The 
society is good. Here are churches of Episcopalians, 
Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, and Catholics. Along 
the margin of the river and below the bluff upon which 
the principal town stands, is what is called Natchez-helow- 
the-hilly — a collection of warehouses, boat stores, grog- 
shops, &c. This town was the first place in the state 
which was settled by white men. It was founded by the 
French in 1716, but was destroyed by the Indians in 1729. 

The city of Natchez is one of the most beautiful places 
in the Valley of the Mississippi. The principal part of 
the city is more than two hundred feet above the Missis- 
sippi, and an extensive region spreads out on the east, 
north and south. The streets are wide, and adorned with 
the China tree. The houses of the wealthier inhabitants 
are widely separated, each seeming to occupy a square, 
surrounded with orange trees, palmetto, and other beauti* 
ful shrubbery. The public buildings are, the court-house, 
churches, academy, &;c. The inhabitants are distinguished 
for their intelligence, refinement and hospitality. Many 
of the wealthy planters of this region live a large portion 
of their time in this city. It is in general healthy, but 
has been occasionally visited by the yellow fever, when 
that disease has visited New Orleans. 

The prospect from the elevated site of this city over 



y Google 



268 VALLEY OF THE lOSSISSIPFI. 

the noble river, with its long line of flat boats, and its 
steam boats constantly arriving or departing, the village 
of Concordia opposite, and the vast country beyond, is en- 
chanting beyond almost any other which I have ever 
witnessed. 

Natchez is 1,146 miles from the seat of government of 
the United States ; and 297 miles by the river above New 
Orleans. 

Monticello, Port Gibson on Bayou Pierre, Shieldsboro\ 
on the west side of the bay of St. Louis, Crreenville, Wood- 
mll€y Winchester, and Washington, are pleasant and 
growing towns. Yickshurg, on the Mississippi, at the foot 
of the Walnut Hills, and 100 miles above Natchez, is a 
town' of great business, which has sprung up within seven 
years. Vast quantities of cotton are here shipped on 
board steam- boats for New Orleans. The town rises from 
the river up the sides of the Walnut Hills, in the most 
romantic manner. Warrenton is nine or ten miles below 
Vicksburg, on the bank of the Mississippi. 

Besides these, there is a large number of pleasant vil- 
lages springing up in this state. 

Education. — This state has no common school system 
established by law. But much interest is felt on the sub- 
ject of education. A fund is now accumulating from 
"escheats, confiscations, fines," dec, the interest of which 
is to be devoted to the education of poor children. Con- 
gress has appropriated 685,884 acres of the public land in 
this state to the promotion of common schools ; besides 
46,080 acres for a college. There are several academies, 
and two colleges in this state. 

Genebal Remabks. — 1. The climate of this state may 
be said, in the general, to be salubrious. Along the 
swampy, alluvial, bottoms of the Mississippi River, it is of 
course unhealthy, except to those who have become accli- 
mated, by having lived there from their childhood. But 
the interior of the state, especially in the elevated and 
broken parts of it, and the piney region in the south-east- 
ern part, whose pure clear streams flow through a sandy 
soil, are decidedly healthy. The heat of summer is long 
sustained, and sometimes intense. The autumns, winters, 
and springs, are fine seasons here. The bilious fever, in 
its various forms, is the most prevalent disease of this 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



MISSISSIPPI. 269 

country. It requires much care on tlie part of emigrants, 
who are not accustomed to a southern climate, to live in 
this state with entire impunity, except in the most healthy 
portions of it, during the summer. 

2. The pursuits of the people are chiefly agricultural. 
And although in this state, corn, tobacco, figs, sweet pota- 
toes, rice, indigo, squashes, melons, plums, peaches, grapes 
of many sorts, and various other vegetables and fruits, come 
to full perfection, yet they attract but little attention com- 
pared with cotton. The orange is cultivated in the south- 
ern part. But cotton is almost the only article cultivated 
for exportation. And although the price of this article 
has diminished from 25 and 30 cents per pound to ten or 
fifteen cents, yet it is a profitable crop, and the cultivators 
of it are doing well. 

3. There are 21,211,465 acres of public land now for 
sale in this state < There are also 6,529,280 acres, to 
which the Indian title had not been unconditionally extin- 
guished on the 2d of April, 1832, but which will be, in the 
course of a year or two, it is expected. Making a total of 

7,740,745 acres of public land now for sale, or about to 
soon. It will be perceived from this statement that a 
small portion of the land in this state is owned by 
iduals ; and, a^ all the Choctaws and Chickasaws are 
expelled to remove during this summer and next, we may 
expect that this.sltate will soon become settled by emigrants 
from the Atlantic and other portions of our country, espe* 
cially {torn the southern part of it. 




Land Offices. 



Registers^ 



Thos. L. Sumerall, 
Gideon Fitz, 
B. L. C. Wailes, 



Receivers* 



Hanson Alsburg, 
George Crutcher, 
Thomas Lewis. 



Mount Salus, 

Choctaw, 

Washington, 

4. The cultivation of cotton is ^by no means a difficult 
operation. It is planted very much as corn is planted, in 
March, and the early part of April, (depending of course 
upon the relative northern or southern situation of the land) 
and kept free from weeds through the summer, by constant 
ploughing and hoeing. In its early stages it resembles, 
when seen at a little distance, what are called bunch beans 
growing in hills or rows. In the fall it is picked out of 
23* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



27Q VALLEY OF THE lOSSISSIFPI. 

the opening pods, by slayes, who go along with a basket, 
ftnd gather all that they can pick out. This is a tedious 
mode of getting the cotton from the husk or pod that con- 
tains it. When it is gathered into the cotton house, then 
comes the work of cleaning it of the seeds, by means of the 
gin. This is a simple operation. The cotton passes be- 
tween a revolving cylinder, (with teeth in circular rims of 
iron,) and a grate, by which the seeds are separated from 
^e fine fibres of the cotton. It is next pressed into bales 
by a machine somewhat like a cider-press, and is then 
ready for market. A few good hands will cultivate several 
acres* From one to two bales, sometimes three, is the 
produce of an acre of good land in this state. The price 
of cottcm lands is various, — fi*om $10 or $20 to $40 per 
acre, according to quality, situation, buildings and ma- 
chinery on the premises. 

5« The subject of internal improvement awakens con- 
fliderable attention in this state. A fiind for this purpose 
is accumulating from the reservation of five per cent, on 
the sales of the public lands within this state. Three-fifths 
of which may be laid out in constructing canals, roads, 
improving rivers, dz«., within the state. 

6. The eariy history of this state is interesting, but 
cannot be given in detail in a work like this. 

The first Frmich colony was planted here in 1716 or 
1718. In 1729 it was massacred by the Indians. In 176§ 
die land was ceded to the British ; in 1783 it was ceded 
to the United States, but was held by the Spaniards untii 
1708* In 1800, what is now Mississippi and Alabama 
was constituted the territory of Mississippi — and in 1817» 
the state of Mississippi was organised^ , 



y Google 



LOtriSIAlTA. 



271 



CHAPTER XXII. 

LOUISIANA. 

This State is bounded on the north by Arkansas territory, 
and Mississippi State ; on the east by the same State ; on 
the south by the Gulf of Mexico ; and on the west by the 
Mexican dominions. The 33d deg. of N. latitude is the 
northern boundary west of the Mississippi River, and 81st 
deg. on the east of that river ; the Pearl River is its ex- 
treme eastern boundary, and the Sabine its western. It 
extends from N. lat. 28° 56' to 33^- and from W. long. 
11° 36' to 17° 16'. It contains 49,300 square miles, or 
31,552,000 acres. 

TABLE OF PARISHES AND SEATS OF JUSTICE. 
EASTERN DISTRICT. 







POPULA- 




Distance 


Parishes. 


Situa- 


TION 


Seats of Justice. 


from New 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




Orleans. 


Ascension, 


sem 


5,426 


Donaldson, 


75 


Assumption, 


8 em 


5,669 


Assumption c.u. 


90 


East Baton } 
Rouge, K 


m 


6,698 


Concordia, 




West Baton > 
Rouge, ^ 


m 


5,084 


Baton Rouge, 


117 


Concordia, 


ne 


4,662 






E. Feliciana, 


em 


8,247 


Jackson, 


158 


W.Feliciana, 


e m 


3,629 


St. FrancisTille, 


140 


Ibberville, 


8em 


7,049 


IbberviUe, 


98 


Jeflferson, 


se 


6,846 


Coquille, 


202 


Lafourche } 
Interior, J 


8 


5,503 


TbibadeauxTtlle 


108 


Orleaiis, 


86 


49,826 


New OsLBAirst 




Plaquimines, 


8e 


4,489 


Fort Jacksen, 


T5 


Pt. Coupee, 


m 


5,936 


Point Coupee, 


154 


St. Bernard, 


8tm 


3,356 







y Google 



272 



VALLEY OF THE MI88I8SIFFI. 



(Table Continued,) 



Parishes. 



Situa- 
tion. 



Popula- 
tion 
IN 1830. 



Seats of Justice.! 



Distance 
from New- 
Orleans. 



St. Charles, 
St. Helena, 
St. James, 
St. John, I 
Baptiste, 
St. Tarn- 

many, 
Terre Bonne, 
Washington, 
Total ~- 



s e m 
e m 
s em 

8 e m 



5,147 

4,028 
7,846 

5,677 

2,864 



St. Helena, 
Bringier's, 

Bonnet Carre, 
Covington, 



Williamsburg, 
Franklin, 



2,121 

2,286 

[155,3991 
WESTERN DISTRICT. 



98 
60 

36 
44 





Situa- 


Popula- 




Distance 


Parishes. 


tion 


Seats op Justice. 


from New- 






IN 1830. ' 


Orleans. 


Avoyelles, 


m 


3,484 Marksville, 


240 


Catahoula, 


n m 


2,581 'Harrisonburg, 


. 251 


Claiborne, 




l,764JRussellville, 


441 


Lafayette, 


s 


5,653 


Vermillionville 


192 


Natchitoches, 


n w 


7,903 


Natchitoches, 


354 


Rapides, 


m 


7,575 


Alexandria, 


272 


St. Landry, 


s w 


12,591 


Opelousas, 


192 


St. Martin's, 


s 


7,205 


St. Martinsville 


176 


St. Mary's, 


« 


6,442 


Franklin, 


141 


Washita, 


n 


5,140 


Monroe, 


323 



Total - - I 60,340 | 

Eastern District - - - 155,399 
Western District - - - 60,840 

. Total of LonisiAna - - 215^739 Inhabitants. 
Of whom 109,588 are slaves, 16,710 free blacks, and 
89,441 whites. * 

POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 
Populaticm. 
In 1810, . 76,556|Frora 1810 to 1820, 



1820, 
1830, 



153,407 
215,739 



1820 ' 1830, 



Increase. 
76,851 
62,332 



y Google 



LOUISIANA. 273 

The population of the French Colony of Louisiana, in 
1763 was 11,496. 

The Population of New Orleans, in 1802, was about 10, 
000 ; in 1810, 17,242 ; in 1820, 27,165 ; in 1830, 46,310. 

The seat of government is, at present. New Orleans. 

The Constitution was formed in 1812. 

Government. — Governor — term of office four years — 
salary $7,500 per annum. Secretary, Treasurer, Attor- 
ney General, and Surveyor General. 

Legislature.— The Legislative authority is vested in a 
Senate and a House of Representatives, styled the General 
Assembly of the State of Louisiana, The senators are 
elected for four years ; their number is 17. The repre- 
sentatives are elected for two years. Their number is at 
present 50. The elections are held on the first Monday, 
Tuesday and Wednesday of July. The General Assembly 
elect by joint ballot, for governor, one of the two who have 
received the highest number of the votes of the people. 

Judiciary. The Supreme Court consists of three judges, 
who are appointed by the governor, with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. This court has only appellate jurist 
diction. It sits in New-Orleans for the Eastern District, 
during the months of November, December, January, Feb- 
ruary, March, April, May, June and July. And for the 
Western District, at Opelousas and Attakapas, during the 
months of August, September, and October. 

The Criminal Court of New Orleans has one Judge. 

There are eight District Courts, and nine Judges. The 
District Courts, with the exception of the first, hold in each 
parish, two sessions a year. 

The Parish Courts hold a regular session in each parish 
on the first Monday in every month. 

The courts in the first district, viz. the Parish, District, 
Criminal and Probate Courts, are in session the whole year, 
excepting the months of July, August, September and Oc- 
tober, in which months they hold special courts if necessary. 

Surface of the Country. — There are three very distinct 
districts in this state, as it regards soil and surface. 1. The 
north-eastern part, or the country lying east of the Missis- 
sippi and north of Ponchartrain, Maurepas, and Ibberville 
outlet, embracing the Parishes of East and West Felici- 
ana, East Baton Rouge, Washington, St. Helena, and 



y Google 



274 VALLEY OF THE XISdISSIFPI. 

St. Tammany, is hilly, of a sandy soil, covered with pine, 
possessing fine springs and a salubrious climate. The 
north-western portion of the state is also generally elevated, 
some of it very much so. 2. The south-western part, in 
the Opelousas country, is covered with extensive prairies, 
of great fertility and generally level, or gently undulating. 
3. The whole delta, or country lying between the Atcha- 
folaya (Chaffalio) outlet on the west, and the Ibberville 
outlet with its continuation in lakes Maurepas, Ponchar- 
train and Borgne, on the east, is a dead level, and excepting 
the margins of the numerous rivers and streams, and which 
are from a mile to a mile and a quarter in width, id chiefly 
continuous swamps, covered with cypress, swamp oak, gum, 
&c. This is the character of much of the country border- 
ing the lower parts of the Red river, and the Ouachitta, 
the Courtableau, and other streams. 

The whole southern line is a low marshy couiUry, 
scarcely rising above the level of the ocean, and oAen 
overflown by the tides. Rising in the most gradual man- 
ner, the north-western part even reaches' the aspect of a 
mountainous character. The coast is lined with low and 
sandy islands separated from the niatn land by shallow 
bayous, or stagnant inlets, and covered with stinted live- 
oaks. ' , , 

Soil. — ^This State has an astonishing divei'sitj of soil. 
Within its limits are all the varieties, from the recent, and 
still periodically submerged alluvial lands, to hills almost 
approaching to the magnitude of mountains. Here is to be 
found soil of astonishing fertility, and some of great sterili- 
ty ; unwooded plains, and the most dense forests which 
can be found in our country. But as a general remark 
it may be truly said that the soil of this state is astonish- 
ingly fertile. In the northern part, bordering on Arkan- 
sas, there is a considerable extent of hilly, flinty, barren 
land. The parishes north of Ponchartrain are generally 
not fertile. 

Productions. — Sugar and rice are staples of this state, 
generally below lat. 31, and cotton above that line. The 
latter is, however, cultivated in every section of the state, 
and sugar, partially to the northern boundary. Corn grows 
finely, but is little cultivated, because less profitable than 
sugar and cotton. It is obtained, as well as flour and 



y Google 



LOUISIANA. 275 

bread stufl^ generally, from Kentucky, Ohio, and other 
states in the upper part of the Valley. The apple grows 
in the northern parishes, whilst the peach is every where 
excellent ; and the fig, of several species, grows over all 
the state. The orange and pomegranate grow pretty well 
wherever attempted ; and oliyes and bananas, but the latter 
not so well as the former. Most garden vegetables would 
grow admirably well, if cultivated. The great staples 
are, however, sugar and cotton. In 1829, there were 726 
sugar plantations in this state. There are probably now 
about 800 ; many of them, however, are new and not yet 
very productive, as it requires four or five years to bring 
a sugar plantation into a perfect and profitable condition, 
'ithe settlements in this state are totally dissimilar to 
those of any other state in our country, and are such as 
can hardly be conceived of by those who have not seen 
theoi. They also may be considered as having peculiari- 
ties occasioned by the different and distinctive features of 
the country, described above. ' The inhabitants in the ele- 
vated and hilly portions in the north-east and north-west 
portions of the state live in* more detached and scattered 

" settleni^ents, and spk-ead over the country as in all other 
states in the Valley of the Mississippi, if you except Arkan- 
sas and som^ parts of Mississippi state. The* settlements 
along the. rfvers are confined to the margins, which are 
higher than the woody swamps which lie back of them. 
Nothing can exceed the beauty of these settlements. Each 
plantation (for cotton or sugar) extends along the river 
from a quarter to half of a mile, and back often a mile or 
more. The plantation house stands near the river, with 
the " quarter" of houses for the slaves, and the cotton or 
sugar mills, ^. extending on each side, forming a con- 
siderable village. These villages nearly reach to each 
other, and so form an almost continuous series of towns or 
villages as far as the eye can reach. If the reader will 
conceive of this, he will form some idea of the settlements 
along the banks of the Mississippi from above St. Francis- 
ville to below New-Orleans ; also along the Red River, 
and many other streams. 

The settlements in the prairie regions are also remark- 

* able. They resemble those which 1 have just described, 
for they are on the woodland margin of the prairie, and 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



276 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

seem when viewed by one standing in the midst of a pra- 
rie, like the beautiful settlements which border some of the 
lakes in the state of New-York. The inhabitants of the 
settlements around the prairies pursue agriculture to but a 
limited extent compared with the raising of cattle, horses, 
and mules. Some of these graziers have an immense 
number of live stock. A few years since three of these 
numbered 15,000 head of horned cattle, and 2,000 horses 
and mules ! 

The Attakapas prairie contains, it is stated, 6,000 square 
miles; the Opelousas 8,000 square miles. The inhabi- 
tants around the prairies, as well as along the rivers, and 
indeed throughout the state are mostly French. Along 
the prairies, and in the country generally, they live in great 
rural simplicity. 

Rivers. — The principal river is the Mississippi, which 
runs nearly 600 miles along and within the limits of this 
state, and empties its waters into the Gulf by several 
mouths, or passes, as they are called. The large river, called 
Red River, with its large confluent, the Ouachitta, comes 
flowing down from the north, and falls into the Mississippi, 
in N. latitude 31°. Both these rivers have innumerable 
lakes and bayous, parallel with their main streams, and are 
lined by extensive cypress swamps in some parts of their 
courses. A few miles below the mouth of Red River, is 
seen the first outlet, by which a portion of the waters of the 
Mississippi leave the main channel, and flow to the Gulf by 
their own separate course. This is the Atchafalaya, com- 
monly called Chaffalio, which after receiving the Courta- 
bleau, Teche, and a few other small streams, flows into the 
Gulf, 150 miles west of the Mississippi. At the village of 
Ibberville, the Placquemine outlet occurs, and flows into 
the Chaffalio. At Donaldsonville, the outlet or bayou, 
La Fourche, occurs, and flows into the Gulf, 50 miles 
westward of the Mississippi. And on the eastern side of 
the Mississippi river, the small outlet called Ibberville 
outlet, or bayou Manshac, flows to the eastward, and after 
receiving the Amite, and several other streams, expands 
into the small lake of Maurepas. An outlet connects this 
lake with Lake Ponchartrain, which is again connected 
with Lake Borgne, by the outlet called the Rigolets, into 
which Pearl River flows. Lake Borgne is nothing more 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




y Google 







Mile» 




v> /^ /\ I 







Digitized by V^jOO' 




LOUISIANA. 277 

than a large bay belonging to the Gulf of Mexico. The 
Ibberville outlet and the lakes just mentioned, together 
with the Mississippi River, form the important island of 
Orleans. 

The R#d River is navigable for steam-boats 90 miles 
above Nachitoches. At that point are what are called the 
*' rafts," which prevent the passage of boats, although 
there are more than 600 miles of fine steam-boat naviga- 
tion above the. rafts, in a good stage of the waters. At 
the rafts there is a vast expansion of the river into bayous 
and shallow lakes to the width of many miles, and for a 
distance of 50 or 60 miles. This expansion is covered 
greatly with floating timber, overspread in many places 
with weeds and small trees. 

The Red River rises in the region of Santa Fe, in Mex- 
ico. It is almost as long as the Arkansas. It receives as 
its branches, above this state, the Kimichie, Vasseux, and 
Little River ; and within this state it receives the Bodcau, 
Datache, Black Lake, Saline, Little River, and Ouachitta. 
There is much fertile land on the Red River. Its waters 
are of a dark reddish appearance, strongly impregnated 
with salt. Lake Bistineau is connected with it at the 
" rafts." 

The small streams which flow from this state into the 
Gulf of Mexico, west of the Mississippi and its mouths, are, 
the Vermillion, Mermentou, Calcasiu, and Sabine. They 
all have lakes connected with them. 

Cities and Towns* — New-Orleans is the great empo- 
rium of trade, not only for this state, but for the whole 
Valley of the Mississippi. It stands on the left bank of the 
Mississippi, in N. lat. .30°, and W. long. 13° 6', and is 
105 miles above the mouth of the river. It was founded 
in 1719, by Bienville, who succeeded his brother M. D'lb- 
berville in the government of the French colony in Louisi- 
ana. The course of the Mississippi below Natchez is 
south-east. It makes, at this place, one of those bends 
which are so charateristic of all the rivers south of the 
Susquehanna. Running towards the east just above the 
city, it turns to the north, then east, and then south. The 
old part of the city stands at the centre of this bend, and 
consequently faces the south ; the upper part, of course, 
faces the east, and the lower the west. The extent of the 

24 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



278 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

city along Ihe river is three or four miles, and its width 
varies from a quarter of a mile on the extremities, to 
nearly a mile in the centre. The levee which commences 
on each side of the river 160 miles above New-Orleans, 
and is continued below it, forms what may be called the 
wharf of the city. It is near 30 feet wide generally. It 
serves not only for a wharf where vast quantities of mer- 
chandise and '^ up country" productions are landed from 
ships and boats, but also for a market, and a sort of ex- 
change, or place where extensive sales, transfers, 6^. of 
commodities are constantly taking place. Those streets 
which may be said to run along the river, or parallel to it, 
are somewhat in the shape of an Indian's bow, except that 
the extremes form large angles, instead of curves, at the 
junction with the central parts. Those streets which run 
out fropn the river toward the woods or swamps in the rear 
of the city, maybe said to be at right angles with the sec- 
tion of the river from which they commence. Of course 
there are some strange squares — not indeed, like that 
which a worthy Hibernian found in the lower part of Phil- 
adelphia, that is, round — but somewhat in the shape of a 
wedge. 

The portions of the city which have been built by the 
Americans resemble other American cities. The houses 
are of brick, and mostly two or three stories high. But 
that portion which was built by the French and Spaniards 
is very diflferent. The houses are low, surrounded by a 
narrow porch, and are covered with stucco of a white or 
yellow colour. In the central part of the city the houses 
are contiguous ; but in the suburbs, or Fauxbourgs, they 
are separated generally by intervening gardens, of orange, 
olive, fig, and lemon trees, &c. The wooden buildings 
are giving place gradually to those of brick ; and great 
efforts are making to improve the streets with good pave- 
ments, stone sewers, &c. 

The principal public buildings are, the Cathedral, Col- 
lege, Ursuline Convent, Presbyterian, Episcopal, French 
Protestant, and Mariners' churches, Charity Hospital, 
Town House, Banks, Theatres, &c. The Charity Hos- 
pital is one of the most useful charities of the city. New 
Orleans is peculiarly exposed to disease and want. In this 
hospital every thing is done for the sick and destitute 



y Google 



LOUISIANA. 279 

stranger that could be done. In it more miserable beings 
have been sheltered, from it more have been dismissed 
cured, and more have been carried to their long homes, 
than from any other hospital in our country ! 

In the back part of the city, and at a distance of less 
than half of a mile from the Mississippi, is a basin for 
shipping, connected by a canal with the Bayou St. John's, 
which empties itself into Lake Ponchartrain, six miles 
north of the city. Through this canal, the trade of the 
country bordering on Lakes Ponchartrain and Borgne, and 
of all the coast along the northern part of the Gulf of 
Mexico as far as Florida, comes to the city. Quite a con- 
siderable fleet of sloops, &c. may be seen at all times in 
this basin. A rail-road, of about four miles and a half in 
length, now connects the city with Lake Ponchartrain. 
This will probably supersede the use of the canal and its 
basin. A harbour will be formed in Lake Ponchartrain, 
at the termination of the rail-road, where a considerable 
village is now growing up- 

Nothing can be more interesting to a stranger than to 
walk along Levee-street and survey the flat boats which 
line the bank along, the upper part of the city, filled with 
all kinds of productions from the " up-country." As many 
as 1,500 such boats are here sometimes to be counted at 
once. 

Opposite to the centre of the city, he may sometimes 
see 40 steam-boats, while every hour, almost, some arrive 
and others depart on their long voyages ; whilst below lies 
the shipping, which is increased or diminished daily by 
the arrival or departure of the powerful steam tow-boats 
which escort the ships down to the mouth of the river, and 
see them over the bar, and then bring others up, frequently 
one boat marching up with two or three ships, two or three 
brigs, and two or three sloops, &c. ! And if he passes 
through the market he will see such a scene as he never 
before witnessed. Babel itself could not have exceeded it. 
He will hear the French, Spanish, English, and sometimes 
German, languages, spoken by negroes, mulattoes, ^tiar^re 
unes, and whites. The words *« piccayune," (6 1-4 cents) 
and " bit"— (12 1-2 cts.) fall upon the ear at every step as 
one passes through the trafficking crowd. 

The population has increased rapidly. In 1810, it was 



y Google 



280 VALLEY OP THE MISSISSIPPI. 

17,242 ; in 1820, it was 27,156 ,- and in 1830, it was 
46,310. This is the stationary or fixed population. In 
the season of business, that is, the winter, 20 or 25,000 
more may be added. As to the trade, a person may haTe 
some idea of it from the fact that this year about 100,000 
hogsheads of sugar, probably 5,000,000 gallons of molas- 
ses, 40,000 hogsheads of tobacco, and 400,000 bales of 
cotton will be exported ; besides immense quantities of 
flour, whisky, lead, salted beef and pork, lard, hides, peltry, 
furs, &c. 

This is one of the most wonderful places in the world. 
Let the reader take a little turn with me on the levee ; 
and first survey the river. As far as he can see almost, 
up and down, the margin is lined with flat-boats, come 
from above, from every part of the Valley of the Mississippi. 
Some are laden with flour, others with corn, others with 
meat of various kinds, others with live stock, cattle, hogs, 
horses, or mules. Some have travelling stores : occasion- 
ally, some are to be found which are full of negroes ; and 
some full of what is infinitely worse, " Old Monongahela" 
whiskey. Along the lower part, he will see a forest of 
masts ; higher up, he may see 20 or 30 steam-boats, with 
their bows up against the levee, or else projecting over an 
"up country" flat-boat. Every day some come from above 
and others depart, on excursions of one or two thousand 
miles, to St. Louis, or Louisville, or Nashville, or Pitts- 
burg, or hundreds of other places. For distance is no 
longer thought of in this region — it is almost annihilated 
by steam. And if he casts his eye down the river, he may 
see a whole fleet, sometimes, coming up without a sail 
stretched, or an oar manned — all carried along, and that 
not at a slow rate, by a steam tow-boat, of tremendous 
power. I was perfectly amazed the first time I saw this 
spectacle. It was the Grampus tow-boat, marching up, 
having two large ships grappled to her sides, two or three 
brigs at a cable's length behind, and still further in the 
rear, one or two schooners and two or three sloops ! all 
moving along very reluctantly, and not unlike a number of 
rogues escorted by High Constable Blaney, or Hays, to a 
court of Justice, who march along, because they cannot 
help it. 

And if he turns his back to the river, he will see won- 



y Google 



LOUISIANA. 281 

derful " sights." In one place he will see the busy and 
anxious-looking merchant, receiving from the steam-boat 
or putting on board the ship, his cotton, his sugar, his 
molasses, tobacco, coffee, boxes of goods, dec, which cover 
the levee far and wide. Along the whole line are the 
owners of the flat-boats trading with the citizen, merchant, 
and shop-keeper. Whole rows of Englishmen and Amer- 
icans are to be seen peddling those valuable little stores 
which one can move about in a hand-barrow, or carry in a 
basket. And then such crowds (especially along that part 
of the levee which is opposite the market-house,) of 
Negresses and Quatre-unes, (written Quadroons by those 
who do not understand French) carrying on their hau' 
daned heads, and with solemn pace, a whole table— ox 
platform as large as a table— covered with goodies, such 
as cakes, and apples, and oranges, and figs, and bananas, 
and pine-apples, and cocoa-nuts, &c*, which it would be too 
tedious for me fully to enumerate. 

And then if the reader will go through the city he may 
look at the steam saw-mills, steam cotton-compressing ma- 
chines, the market-house, the state-house of ancient 
appearance, the hotels, the theatres if he likes, the Cathe- 
dral, the Calaboos (called Calabozo by the Spanish) or 
jail, the Charitable Hospital, and lastly, as the terminating 
point to us all, the place where repose, in the stillness of 
the tomb, those who once inhabited this city now so full 
of life, activity and mirth. There is nothing in New 
Orleans, more interesting to a reflecting man, than the 
Catholic and Protestant Cemeteries, which are areas 
covered with beautiful white mausoleums, some of several 
feet in height, some standing solitary, and others crowded 
together. It was with mingled emotions that I stood by 
that of the eloquent and youthful Lamed^ bearing, as the 
most fit epitaph, the simple name of him whose ashes are 
resting there. And there too rests De Fernex, cut down 
at a time when, so far as human eye can see^ his usefulness 
was commencing. 

The population of this place is exceedingly various. A 
large portion speaks the French language ; some, but the 
number is not great, the Spanish ; some, the German ; 
and the remainder, the English. Those that speak the 
French are generally Catholics, and are, through all their 
24* 



y Google 



282 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

conditions and complexions, a polite, agreeable and inter- 
esting people ; honest, frugal and inoffensive. Too many 
of the Americans who reside here, and more especially 
those who make but a transient stay, are devoted to the 
exclusive object of acquiring wealth, and are So immersed 
in business as to neglect, it is to be feared, generally, the 
interests of the immortal spirit. 

Much has been said concerning the wickedness of this 
city, and it is not to be denied that there is much wicked- 
ness here ; — much gambling, great disregard and desecra- 
tion of the Sabbath, and a general indifference to religion. 

Still there is progress made in the diffusion of evangelical 
religion, and an increase of its practice. There are several 
Protestant churches ; 2 Presbyterian ; 1 Episcopal ; 1 
Baptist ; 1 Methodist, and 1 French Protestant, and about 
ten Sunday schools. There are also several Catholic 
churches. 

Upon the whole, whilst there is much to be done in this 
city, there are some things encouraging. It has its wick- 
edness, as has evei^y city. Of the permanent population 
much that is favorable might be said. There is much in- 
telligence among them. Here are five daily papers, three 
of which are partly in French and partly in English, and 
all are conducted with ability. The French are an amia- 
ble people, very sober in their habits, and inoffensive, good 
citizens. There is but little drunkenness among them, be 
it said to their honour. And the most of the intemperance 
to be found here (for it is not a drunken city, far from it — 
it is better in this respect than Philadelphia or New York) 
is to be found among the half-horse, half-alligator charac- 
ters that come down the river; and even they are greatly 
reformed — ^yes, reformed by steam. For since the intro- 
duction of steam-boats with their crowds of respectable 
passengers, the noisy, drinking, swearing boatmen, have 
been made to see and feel a little of the influence of civi- 
lization, and they are becoming ashamed of their own 
vileness. Besides, it is now not so easy as it once was, for 
such men to find employment. 

This is the most remarkable city, in some respects, of 
our country. It is the great commercial mart of the VaL 
ley of the Mississippi, and situated on the first favourable 
site for a city. Receiving from above the productions that 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



LOUISIANA. 383 

grow along a hundred noble streams, which pour their wa- 
ters into the grand recipient upon whose banks it stands — 
and from below, the productions of every clime, wafted to 
it by every wind that blows, — it increases rapidly in wealth 
and population, and is destined to be the second, if not the 
Jlrst, city of our Union. Where on earth can another city 
be found whose situation is so favorable, in regard to the 
extent of country, whose productions, as it were, naturally 
tend to this great centre of trade ; almost like material 
substances on the earth's surface to the centre of gravita- 
tion? Above it are more than 1,300,000 square miles of 
the most fertile country, taken as a whole, that the earth 
affords in equal extent ; a country which will one day, and 
that not very distant, contain a population of 100,000,000 
of immortal beings, blest with intelligence and virtue, and 
happy under a delightful and just government, established 
and maintained by a virtuous people ; or else rent into fac- 
tions, distracted into opposing communities, suflfering all 
the evils that anarchy and irreligion can bring upon a peo- 
ple. 

Five miles below the centre of New Orleans, and alinost 
in its lowest suburb, is the battle ground, on which the 
British were signally defeated on the 8th of January, 1815. 
It has long been a noble sugar plantation. Lately, I un- 
derstand, it has been divided into lots and sold. 

There are several beautiful villages and towns along the 
Mississippi above New Orleans, such as Baton Rouge and 
Sl Francisville on the east side, and Donaldsonville and 
Ibberville on the west. On the Red River stand Alexan- 
dria, 102 miles above the mouth, and Natchitoches, 84 
miles above Alexandria, both on the south side, and con- 
siderable places. Jackson, Covington and Madisonmlle, 
are north of Lake Ponchartrain. 

Climate. — Mr. Darby contends that the seasons of Loui- 
siana are colder by at least two degrees of latitude than 
are those of a similar latitude on the Atlantic coast. And 
he has the same opinion respecting the whole Valley of 
the Mississippi. Mr. Jefierson held a directly opposite 
opinion, judging from the fact that the reed cane, and the 
species of birds called Paroquets, are found farther to the 
north in the Valley of the Mississippi than on the Atlantic 
coast. I suppose that Mr. Darby is nearer the truth than 



y Google 



284 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Mr. Je£ferson, if we may depend upon thermometrical ob- 
servations. Besides, it is a well known fact that the sweet 
orange and sugar cane do not succeed well here, much to 
the north of the dlst degree of latitude. The live oak 
also does not grow in the Valley as far north as it does in 
the Atlantic states. It grows, for instance, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Camden, S. C. in lat. 34 deg. 15 min. There 
is but little of it north of the 31st deg. in the Valley of 
the Mississippi. Still it would seem that there can be but 
little difierence in temperature, save what is occasioned 
by elevation, between Louisiana and the corresponding 
parts of Georgia and Florida. The real elevation of 
Louisiana is unquestionably from 50 to 80 feet greater on 
the coast than that of South Carolina, if the Gulf of Mexico 
off the mouths of the Mississippi is really higher, as we 
have reason to believe, than the Atlantic Ocean off the 
Carolina coast. 

A large portion of this state is unhealthy to those who 
arc not acclimated. Those who were born here have good 
health all the year. The parishes north of lake Ponchar- 
train, and those on the upper part of Red River, are de- 
cidedly healthy. 

Education. — ^The legislature of this state appropriates 
the sum of nearly $40,000 annually to educate the children 
of the poor. Owing to the sparseness of the population, 
there is much difficulty in supporting schools in many 
parts. 

Congress has appropriated 873,973 acres of the public 
land, or one thirty-sixth part of it, to common schools ; 
besides 46,080 acres for colleges, &c. There is no state 
in the West where there is a greater disposition |on the 

rirt of the public authorities, to promote education, and 
doubt not that an elective and liberal public school sys- 
tem will be established in this state. 

General Remarks. — 1. There are in this state 
25,198,234 acres of public land: consequently only 
6,353,766 acres are the property of individuals. From 
this it appears, that, making a due allowance for uninhab- 
itable swamps and prairies, there is a vast extent of land 
fit to be cultivated, which will one day be sold to indi- 
viduals. 



y Google 



LOUISIANA. 285 



Land Offices. 



New Orleans 
Opelousas 
Washita 
Saiot Helena 



Registers. 



Hilary B. Cenas 
Valentine King 
J. M . A. Hamblin 
Thos. G.Davidson 



Receivers. 



William L. Robeson 
Benjamin B. Rogers 
Joseph Friend 
Alex. G. Penn 

2. Much has been done to levee or embank the Missis- 
sippi River. And I have no doubt that at a future day, 
and that not distant, the public authorities of this state 
will carry on this improvement much further, and levee 
the banks of all the rivers and bayous in this state which 
need it, and so reclaim some thousands, or rather millions, 
of acres from the overflow which renders them now unfit 
for cultivation. These swamps are covered with imper- 
vious forests of cypress, swamp gum, &c. and are the fa- 
vorite abode of the alligator and moccasin snake. 

Would it not be well for the general government to give 
up to this state all the public land in it, upon the condition 
that the proceeds of its sales, should be devoted to this, 
and similar works of improvement 1 It would be difficult, 
I think, to conceive how the country could be more bene- 
fitted by the amount which may accrue from the sales of 
this part of the public domain. 

3. The manufacture of sugar has gradually increased 
in this state from 1783 to the present. A duty of 2 1-2 
cents per pound on foreign sugar from 1803 up to 1816, 
and of 3 cents until recently, and now 2 1-2 ; and of 10 
cents a gallon on molasses until last year, and at present 
5 cents, has been the occasion of this advance in the cul- 
ture of the sugar cane. It is estimated that 150,000,000 
lbs. of sugar are annually consumed in this country. And 
that 100,000,000 lbs. are now made in Louisiana, Florida 
and Georgia ; but by far the greatest part in Louisiana. 

There are now about $50,000,000 invested in the sugar 
business, in lands, slaves, steam engines, and other pro- 
perty, in this state. The number of slaves employed is 
about 33,000. 

The following statement is extracted from a report of 
a committee of " The Agricultural Society of Baton 
Rouge" in 1829. 

" The gross product of one hand, on a well regulated 
sugar estate, is put down at the cultivation of five acres, 



y Google 



286 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

producing 5,000 lbs. of sugar, and 125 gallons of molasses, 
the former valued, on the spot, at 5 1-2 cents per pound, 
and the latter at 18 cents per gallon, — together $297 50. 

" The annual expenses of each hand, including wages 
paid, horses, mules, and oxen, physician's bills, &c. is $105. 
An estate with 80 negroes, annually costs #8,330. The 
items are as follows : salt meat, spirits, $830 ; clothing of 
all sortSj $1,200; medical attendance and medicines, 
$400 ; Indian corn, $1 ,000 ; overseer's and sugar maker's 
salary, $1,000 ; taxes, $300; annual loss on a capital of 
$50,000 in negroes, at 2 1-2 per cent. $1,250 ; horses and 
oxen, $1,500 ; repairs of boilers, $550; do. of ploughs, 
carts, <&c. $300. Total $8,330. 

" Fifteen acres are required for each hand, five for cul- 
tivation in cane, five in fallow, or rest, and five in wood-land. 
The annual consumption of wood, on an estate worked by 
80 negroes, is 800 cords. Two crops of cane are generally 
made in succession on the same land, one of plant cane, 
the other of ratoon ; it then lies fallow two years, or is 
planted in corn or pesis. One hand will tend 5 acres, be- 
sides cutting his proportion of wood and ploughing 2 1-2 
acres of fallow ground. 

"The capital vested in 1,200 acres of land, with its 
stock of slaves, horses, mules, and working oxen, is esti- 
mated at $147,200. One-third, or 400 acres, being culti- 
vated in cane, yields 400,000 pounds, at 5 1-2 cents, and 
10,000 gallons of molasses at 18 cents, — together $23,800 ; 
deduct annual expenses as before, $8,330, leaving an ap- 
parent profit of $15,470, or 10 3-7 per ct. as interest on the 
investment." 

In tjie report of the same Society, dated in September 
1830, they state that they estimated the profit in their pre- 
ceding report, at too high a rate, and that it does not ex- 
ceed, on an average, 6 per cent. 

The following statement on the same subject, is derived 
from the Appendix to a letter addressed by the lamented 
Honourable Mr. Johnston, to the late Secretary of the 
Treasury. 

" The capital invested in a plantation capable of produ- 
cing, by the best management, 400,000 lbs. of sugar, and 
10,000 gallons of molasses, worth on the plantation 23,000 
dollars, must consist as follows ; 



y Google 



LOUISIANA. 287 

1,500 acres of land, at $bO per acre $75,000 

90 hands, at 600 dollars each 54,000 

40 pair of working oxen, at 50 dollars 2,000 

40 horses, at 100 dollars 4,000 

Horizontal sugar mill 4,000 

2 sets of boilers, at 1500 dollars each 3,000 

Buildings of all descriptions 25,000 

12 carts 1,200 

30 ploughs 300 

All other utensils, such as timber wheels, hoes, 

spades, axes, scythes, dec. 1,500 



$170,000 
'^ The annual expenses on the above plantation cost 10, 
700 dollars, in the following items : 

Provisionsof all kinds 3,500 

Clothing of all sorts 1 ,500 

Medical attendance and Medicine 500 

Annual losses in negroes 1,500 

Taxes 500 

Horses and oxen 1 ,200 

Repairs of buildings 700 

Ploughs, carts, &;c. 300 

Overseer 1,000 



fl0,700 

" Two crops of cane are generally made in succession on 

, the same land, one of plant cane, the other of the second 

year's growth ; it then lies fallow two years or is planted in 

corn and beans. 

Gross proceeds $23,000 

Expenses 10,700 

Net proceeds 12,300 

Being about 7 per cent, on the capital invested." 
The preceding facts, subject to the rule adopted above, 
might be used to bring out many important results. We 
shall only take one — the amount of provisions annually pur- 
chased by the sugar planters. 

" As 400 hhds. of sugar are to 3,500 dollars paid for pro- 
visions, so are 100,000 hhds. to 875,000 dollars, annually 
paid for pork, com and other supplies, chiefly furnished by 
Kentucky, Ohio, &c. And it should be observed that the 



y Google 



888 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

supplies of clothing, mills, boilers, carts, ploughs, and other 
utensils, and of horses and oxeuy as well as of slaves, are all 
derived from other states of the union. We say all — for 
the foreign products or manufactures which enter into the 
consumption of the Louisiana sugar planters, are of small 
importance or value. 

" The statement just given has reference to one of the 
best managed estates in Louisiana. With sugar at 5 cents 
per lb. on the plantation, its late price, it is stated that the 
capital employed does not yield six per cent, per annum." 

The present consumption of sugar in the United States 
may be put down at 150 millions of pounds — one third of 
which is imported. In 1840 it is estimated that ^00,000 
hogsheads of home made sugar will be required, employing 
or subsisting about 75,000 slaves, and that it will go on to 
increase, if the production be protected. Mr. Johnston says 
that Louisiania, alone, can supply the whole demand for su- 
gar in the United States for 25 years to come. But there 
are large tracts of land fitted for its cultivation in Missis- 
sippi, Alabama, Georgia and Florida — especially the lat- 
ter. 

4. In 1829, the following articles were sent by boats to 
New Orleans, from the Valley of the Mississippi ; 2,868 

^hhds. of bacon : 13,472 pieces of bagging : 3,995 kegs of 
butter: 5,405 barrels of beef: 795 barrels of beeswax : 15, 
210 lbs. of Bufl&lo skins or robes: 2fi9,571 bales of cotton : 
5,557 bales of cotton stock: 6,849 barrels of corn meal : 
91,882 barrels of corn in ears : 157,323 barrels of flour : 
110,206 kegs of lard : 146,203 pigs of lead : 2,940 barrels 
of linseed oil : 6,215 packs of deer skins: 159 packs of 
bearskins : 29,732 hhds. of tobacco : 4,239 bales of tobac- 
co stock. 

5. In the year ending 30th of September, 1831, the value 
of imports at New Orleans from foreign countries, was 
$9,761,588. Of exports there were ship|>ed from that city, 
during that year, abroad $15,752,029, and coastwise, $11, 
418,622— total $27,170,651. 

There were exported that year, of tobacco 36,132 hhds: 
cotton, 170,541,259 lbs : and sugar, 55,351,420 lbs., exclu- 
sive of what was sent up the Valley. The amount of sugar 
sent up the Valley, equalled almost what was shipped to 
the Atlantic states, and abroadt 



y Google 



LOUISIANA. 289 

6. Those who remove to this state will go to it either by 
ship, and arriving at New Orleans, choose such a part of 
it for future residence as they prefer; or by steam boat de- 
scend the Mississipi river from the upper country. 

7. The history of this country which I shall here give is 
very brief. The French commenced the settlement of this 
country in 1699. In 1762, it was ceded to Spain. In 1802 
Spain receded it to France, and in 1803 it was ceded to the 
United States. In 1804, what is now Louisiana was erect- 
ed into a Territory, called Orleans. In 1812 it became an 
independent state. 

Note. — ^The best short topographical description of this 
state which I have seen, is to be found in the Preliminary 
chapter of Judge Martin's History of Louisiana. 



26 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



290 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



ALABAMA. 



Alabama is bounded on the north by Tennessee ; east by 
Georgia ; south by West Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico ; 
and west by Mississippi. It has a line of coast, from the 
Perdidoto the east boundary of Mississippi of 60 miles. It 
extends from N. lat. 30° 10' to 35*^ ; and from W. long. 
8° 05' to 11° 30'. Its mean length is 336 miles, and its 
width near 200. Its area is 62,900 square miles, or 33, 
856,000 acres. 

TABLE OF THE CX)UNTIES AND COUNTY TOWNS. 

NORTHERN ALABAMA 







Popula- 




Distance 


CJOUNTIES. 


Situa- 


tion IN 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


1830. 1' 


ruscalooea. 


Blount, 


n m 


4,233 Blountsville, 


110 


Franklin, 


n w 


ll,078lRussellville, 


127 


Jackson, 


n e 


12,700 


Bellefonte, 


172 


Jefferson, 


m 


6,855 


Elyton, 


59 


Lauderdale, 


n w 


14,984 


Florence, 


146 


Lawrence, 


n 


14,984 


Moulton, 


102 


Limestone, 


n 


14,807 


Athens, 


130 


Marion, 


n w 


4,058 


Pikeville, 


118 


Madison, 


n 


27,990 


Huntsville, 


155 


Morgan, 


n 


9,062 


Somerville, 


135 


St. Clair, 


nem 


5,975'Ashville, 


129 


Walker, 


n m 


2,202 Walker C. H. 


47 



Total 



. |125,725| 



y Google 



Si > 



I^^, ^ 



)1 



% 



Jl\ 



\. 



\'-\ 






^1 



^^^1 



**%rf^ 




^ I 



jand 
B2B 



y Google 



2S 




,y Google 



ALABAMA. 
SOUTHERN ALABAMA. 



291 



Counties. 



^TUA- 

HON. 



POBULA' 

TION 
IN 1830. 



County Towns. 



Distance 

fixmiTuB. 

caloosa. 



Antigua, 

Baldwin, 

Bibb, 

Butler, 

Clarke, 

CoQQCub, 

CoviDgton, 

Dale, 

Dallas, 

Fayette, 

Greene, 

Henry, 

Lowndes, 

Marengo, 

Mobile, 

Monroe, 

Montgomery, 

Perry, 

Pickens, 

Pike, 

Shelby, 

Tuscaloosa, 

Washington, 

Wilcox, 



m 

8 

m 
n m 
s in 

8 
8 
8 

m 
nm 
w m 
8 e 

8 m 
8 w 
8 w 
8 m 

m 

w 

86 

m 
m 

8 w 

8 m 



11,874 
2,324 
6,306 
6,650 
7,693 
7,444 
1,522 
2,031 

14,017 
3,547 

15,026 
4,024 
9,410 
7,700 
6,267 
8,782 

12,695 

11,490 
6,622 
7,108 
5,704 

13,646 




Washington, 

Blakely, 

Centreville, 

Greenville. 

Ciarkesville, 

Sparta, 

Mentezuma, 

Dale C. H. 

Cahawba, 

Fayette C. H. 

Erie, 

Columbia, 

Lowndes C.H, 

Linden, 

Mobile City, 

Claiborne, 

Montgomery, 

Perry C. H. 

Pickens, 

Pike C. H. 

Shelbyville, 

Tuscaloosa. 

Washington 

C. H. 
Canton, 



129 

228 

39 

143 

146 

205 

187 

242 

96 

50 

47 

260 

13d 

78 

226 

157 

119 

61 

48 

179 

73 

}46 

113 



Total . - . 183,802 , 

Northern Alabama - 1 125,725 
Southern Alabama - - 183,802 
Total, . - 36 counties, | 309,527 Inhabitants. 
Of whom 117,549 are slaves, 1,572 free blacks, and 
190,406 whites. 



POPULATION AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 



Population. 



Increase. 



In 1810, less than 10,000 \ 

127,901 > From 1820 to 1830, 181,626 



1820, 
1830, 



309,527 ) 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



292 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Government. — ^The Governor is elected for two years ; 
salary 82,000. Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Comp- 
troller of Public Accounts ; — salary of each 81,000. 

Legislature. — ^The legislative power is vested in two 
branches, a Senate and House of Representatives, which 
together are styled, the General Assembly of the State of 
Alabama. 

The representatives are elected annually, and are appor- 
tioned among the different counties in proportion to the 
white population ; the whole number cannot exceed 100, 
nor fall short of 60. The senators are elected for three 
years, and one-third of them are chosen every year. Their 
number cannot be more than one-third, nor less than one- 
fourth of the number of the representatives. 

The general elections are held every year on the first 
Monday and Tuesday in August. And the General As- 
sembly meets annually (at Tuscaloosa) on the fourth Mon- 
day in October. 

JuDiciARV. — ^The judicial power is vested in a Supreme 
Courts in Circuit Courts^ and such inferior courts as the 
General Assembly may, from time to time, direct or 
establish. The Judges, after November in 1833, are to be 
elected by a joint vote of both Houses of the General 
Assembly, every six years. 

The Supreme Court consists of seven Judges ; and 
the state is divided into ^eoen Circuits^ in each of which a 
judge of the Supreme Court presides as a circuit judge. 
The salary of each of these judges is 81)750. 

Surface of the Country^ Soil^ ^c. — Alabama is divided 
into two very unequal portions. On the north the Tennes- 
see River, making a large bend towards the south, dips 
down into the state. The section drained by that river 
and by the numerous little streams that flow into it, is 
called North Alabama, and embraces at present twelve 
organized counties. This is also oflen called the Valley 
of the Tennessee. An elevated ridge of hills, which may 
almost be termed mountains, stretching from west to east, 
and constituting in reality the south-western extremity of 
the Allegheny System, separates this portion of the state 
from what is called Middle and Southern Alabama, or 
commonly South Alabama. The two portions of the state 
di&bT exceedingly in soil, climate, and natural productions* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



ALABAMA. 293 

The north part is uneven and hilly ; while the sonth is 
either monotonously level, or moderately rolling. In the 
north, the forests are composed of oak, hickory, ash, poplar, 
elm, cedar, &c. while in the middle part of the state, these 
species of trees are much interspersed with pine ; and in 
the south the long leaved pine, together with cypress, gum, 
swamp oak, holly and live oak along the water-courses, 
constitute the immense forests which still exist there. I 
have never seen in any other part of our country such dense 
and high cane " brakes," as they are called, as I have seen 
on the Mobile River, and its two great confluents, the 
Alabama and Tombigbee. The long-leaved pine may be 
said to be the prevailing species of timber in the southern 
half of this state. The soil, wherever pine prevails, is not 
even second rate, excepting along the streams. It will 
produce a few crops very well ; after which, it must be 
constantly renewed by manuring. The alluvial bottoms 
are fine cotton, and corn-lands. The grape would grow 
well in this state. The alluvial lands in this state are 
extensive. 

Productions. — Cotton and corn, particularly the former, 
are the staples of this state. Other grains, as well as all 
kinds of fruits, would grow well if cultivated. Wheat is 
raised in very small quantities, and is confined to the north- 
em end. Gold mines exist in the N. E. angle of the state. 
The increase of cotton in this state, within the last 15 
years, is truly astonishing. It is believed that the exports 
from this state, by the Mobile and Chattahooche, the grand 
outlets of the southern portion of the state, will exceed 
100,000 bales this year. Whilst, by the Tennessee, many 
thousands more will find their way to New Orleans. The 
cultivation of sugar-cane is increasing along the southern 
zone of this state. The alluvial bottoms of the Escatappa, 
Mobile, Perdido, Conecuh, Pea, Choctawhatchee, and 
Chattahooche, produce the sugar-cane, and especially the 
first-named three, on the lower parts of their courses, 
which are within this state. Rice also grows well along 
the alluvial bottoms near to the Gulf. Indigo was formerly 
cultivated in considerable quantities. 

Rivers — Alabama has fine navigable facilities. On the 
north is the Tennessee, as has been already remarked. 
Whilst the great southern slope is drained by the Alabama 
25* 



y Google 



294 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

and its two noble branches, — the eastern one of which is 
composed of the Tallapoosa, Coosa, and Cahawba ; and 
the western is formed by the Tombigbee and Black War- 
rior. These streams are navigable by boats during a large 
portion of the year. There are now 15 steam-boats which 
trade on these rivers, carrying the productions of the 
country to Mobile, the great commercial depot of the south- 
ern part of the state, whilst not less than ten or twelve 
very large ones carry the productions of north Alabama to 
New Orleans, or other points on the Mississippi. 

Besides these rivers, the Chattahooche, which rises in 
Georgia and is the boundary between that state and Ala- 
bama a distance of 160 miles by the river, affords great 
commercial facilities to the eastern part of the state, which 
will speedily become populous, inasmuch as the Creek 
Indians have sold their lands, — which lay in that part of the 
state. Where this river unites with the Flint River from 
Georgia, it assumes the name of Appalachicola, which it 
retains, from that point to its entrance into the Gulf of 
Mexico. There are several steam-boats now running on 
this river between Columbus in Georgia and its mouth ; 
whence the products of this region are shipped to Mobile 
and New- Orleans. The Choctawhatchee, Yellow Water, 
Escambia or Conecuh, and Perdido, are valuable streams 
which rise in this state, and flow into the Gulf of Mexico, 
between the Appalachicola and Mobile Rivers. 

Internal Improvements, — The spirit of internal improve- 
ment has recently been greatly excited in this state also. 
It is obvious to any one who will examine the map of the 
state, that it must be of vast importance to connect the 
waters of the Tennessee with those of the Alabama, if it 
be practicable. The necessary examination of the inter- 
vening region has been made by a very competent topo- 
graphical engineer, who has explored the valley of the 
Coosa and the dividing ridge between it and the Tennessee. 
I have learned from him that the project of making a 
canal across this region will probably be abandoned, on 
account of the difficulty of obtaining sufficient water to 
supply feeders. He has no doubt of the practicability of 
constructing a rail-road across, which will probably be 
done. Indeed any one who will examine that portion of 
^the Valley of the Mississippi which lies east of the Ohio 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



ALABAMA. 295 

and Mississippi Rivers, from North Alabama to Pittsburg, 
must be convinced of the difficulty of constructing canals 
in it. The channels of the rivers are very deep, and cut 
through solid rocks in many places, so that it will be almost 
impossible to supply water, in the low stages of the streams, 
for the summits. All these streams become very low in 
the summer, and the small ones on the elevated districts 
would fail of answering the purpose of feeders in the dry 
season. Rail-roads must therefore be almost the only 
mode of artificial communication in this region. 

By an act of Congress of March 2, 1819, it was provided 
that 5 per cent, of the nett proceeds of all the sales of pCiblic 
lands in this state should be reserved for making public 
roads and canals, and improving the navigation of rivers. 
Three-fifths of this amount were directed to be applied to 
these objects within the state, and two-fifths to the making 
of a road or roads leading to the state, under the direction 
of Congress. This act gave rise to what is commonly 
called the " Three per Cent. Fund," vested in^the bank of 
the state of Alabama, and which amounted three years ago 
to nearly $100,000. In January 1830, a Board of Inter- 
nal Improvement, to consist of six Commissioners, was es- 
tablished by the legislature of the state, under whose su- 
perintendance the income of this fund is to be appropriated 
to objects of public utility, as roads, canals, &c. 

On the 23d of May, 1828, Congress made a grant to this 
state of 400,000 acres of unappropriated lands, for improv- 
ing the navigation of the Muscle Shoals and Colbert's 
Shoals, in the Tennessee River ; and likewise for improv- 
ing the navigation of the Coosa, Cahawba, and Black War- 
rior Rivers. 

Cities and Towns. — The great commercial emporium of 
Alabama is Mokile, situated on the west side of the Mo- 
bile river, 32 miles from the Gulf. It is 1033 miles from 
Washington city, 160 from New Orleans, and 226 from 
Tuscaloosa. The river is here 12 miles wide, embosoming 
several low and sterile islands. Blakely stands opposite. 
Mobile is built on a beautiful and slightly elevated spot, 
and presents a very fine appearance. It early suffered by 
being overflown, and has often been nearly destroyed by 
firCf The wooden buildings are fast giving way to large 
brick buildings, protected from the ravages of fire. The 



- Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



296 TALLEir OF THE MISSISSIFPI. 

streets are wide and beautiful. The inhabitants are now 
becoming well supplied with water, brought by pipes from 
a spring several miles west from the city. The Presbyte- 
rians, Methodists, Episcopalians, and Catholics have places 
of worship here. A splendid Cathedral is about to be built 
here. Mobile is the seat of a Catholic Bishoprick. 

The China tree, or " Pride of China," as it is sometimes 
called — the beautiful ornamental tree of the southern cities 
and towns from New Orleans and Natchez, to Norfolk and 
Richmond — line the sides of the streets, and greatly in- 
crease the pleasantness of this city. The health of the 
place since the streets have become better paved, has greatly 
improved. It has often been visited with yellow fever. Mo- 
bile is an older town than New Orleans, having been found- 
ed in 1702. Alternately under French, Spanish and Eng- 
lish dominion, and long oppressed with the evils of colonial 
vassalage, it bids fair now, enjoying the benefits of our free 
institutions, and especially as the whole state will soon be 
densely populated, to become a large city. The amount of 
trade which is carried on here is very great. It is believed 
that more than 100,000 bales of cotton will be shipped from 
Mobile this year, so that more than half a million of bkles, 
will be the product of what I have described, in the third 
chapter, as the Valley of the Mississippi ; which is more 
than the production of Georgia and the Carolinas. The po- 
pulation of Mobile is probably not quite 4,000. 

There is a daily communication between this city and 
New Orleans, by a line of stages to the Pascagoula, 40 
miles, and steam boats thence by way of Lakes Borgne and 
Pouchartrain to the termination of the New Orleans rail- 
road on the last named lake, 5 miles from that city. 

The country around Mobile possesses generally a light 
soil — excepting the alluvial bottoms-and covered with long- 
leaved pine. The marshes or swamps lying back of the city 
have occasioned the sickness which has afflicted this place. 
They will soon, it is hoped, be entirely removed by drain- 
ing. Spring Hill, immediately west of the city, is a healthy 
and pleasant spot, and the retreat of the inhabitants during 
the extreme hot weather of the summer. 

Blakely — Stands opposite to Mobile, distant 12 miles. 
A steam boat runs several times a day betwen them. This 
town has fine advantages as it regards a harbour, springs 



y Google 



ALABAMA. 297 

of water, site, &;c. But it has not increased as rapidly as 
wai9 expected. It has not the capital which its rival pos- 
sesses, and consequently has not its trade. 

Along the Alabama, Tombigbee, and their branches, 
many beautitul and prosperous towns are springing up. On 
the former are Claiborne, Canton,Cahawba, Selma, Vernon, 
Washington, Montgomery, and Coosauda ; on the latter 
and Black Warrior, are St. Stephen's, Coffeeville, Tusca- 
loosa, and many others. 

Montgomery — is a flourishing town which ha5 sprung 
up within a few years, on the left or south-eastern bank of 
the Alabama river, 190 miles by land, and nearly 400 by 
the river, from Mobile. It is a place of much business. 
Steamboats run up to this place during moderate stages of 
the river. Vast quantities of cotton, &c. are sent from this 
place by steam and other boats to Mobile. It is 300 miles 
from this place to Augusta in Georgia, and 119 miles to 
Tuscaloosa. The population of this place is about 1,500, 
and rapidly increasing. The country around is fertile and 
many wealthy planters from Georgia and the Carolinas 
have settled here. This town stands opposite a great bend 
in the river. 

Tuscaloosa — is the Capital of the State, and stands on 
a beautiful site, on the south or left bank of the Black War- 
rior. It is a flourishing place, and healthy. The public 
buildings are a fine State House, University, Market, 
Churches belonging to the Presbyterians, Methodists, Epis- 
copalians and Baptists. The country around this place is 
fertile and becoming settled rapidly. Congress granted 
to this state 1,620 acres of land for the seat of Govern- 
ment. 

Tuscaloosa is 858 miles from Washington City, 155 
from Huntsville, 146 from Florence, and 226 from Mobile. 

In the northern part of the state are several towns, the 
chief of which are Florence, Tuscumbia and Huntsville. 

PZorence— stands on the north side of the Tennessee, at 
the lower end of the Muscle Shoals, and about a mile from 
the river. Directly opposite on the southern side of the 
river, and at the distance of near two miles from it, is the 
town of Tuscumbia. Both these places will, one day, be 
large and important, for they stand at the head of steam- 
boat navigation on the lower Tennessee. A rail road is 



y Google 



298 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

now making from Tuscumbia, to the Tennessee, and it is 
contemplated to make another from Tuscumbia to some 
point on the Tennessee, about 10 miles above the Shoals. 
This rail road will be about 40 miles in length. This work 
is now in progress. At the same time it is contemplated to 
make a canal ^n the northern side of the Muscle Shoals. 

The Muscle Shoals are a remarkable expansion in the 
Tennessee river. Their length is thirty miles, and their 
width varies from half a mile to three miles. In some 
places the water is very deep, in others very shallow. 
There are several rapids or falls in it, so great as to render 
navigation very difficult and dangerous. 

Besides Florence and Tuscumbia, there is Huntsmlle 
in this section of the state, situated ten miles north of the 
Tennessee river, and in a very fertile region. I have 
never seen more beautiful cotton plantations than I have 
'seen in the neighbourhood of Huntsville. The country 
south of the Tennessee, and through which one passes in 
going from Huntsville to Tuscumbia, is a most beautiful 
and fertile one. There are several other towns, but of less 
consequence, in this part of the state. 

Minerals. — Coal is found in abundance near Tuscaloosa, 
and in other parts of the state. Salt is beginning to be 
made in this state. In 1829, there were $3,000 invested 
in this manufacture, and 4000 bushels were made that 
year. It has greatly increased since. Iron is found, I 
believe, abundantly, in the northern part of this state ; but 
I know not to what extent it is yet manufactured. 

Education. — There is no public system of common 
schools supported by law. Congress has granted to this 
state one thirty-sixth part of the public land for common 
schools — in all 722,090 acres ; besides 46,080 acres for a 
University. The saline reservations granted also to this 
state are 23,040 acres, which will probably be devoted to 
education. 

In some townships the <^ommon school lands have been 
sold, and the money invested in the State Bank, and the 
interest applied to the object. But in most, the lands are 
unoccupied and useless. There are three colleges in this 
state, and several academies at Tuscaloosa, Huntsville, &c. 

GEifEBAL Rehabss. 1. There are in this state 



y Google 



ALABAMA. 



299 



20,167,725 acres of public land to which the Indian claims 
have been extinguished, and 7,760,890 acres which belong 
still to the Indians, (chiefly to the Cherokees) who it is 
expected will sell their claims before long, and reniove 
west of the Mississippi. The reader will at once perceive 
how extensive the country is here which is yet to be 
occupied. 



Land Offices. 



Registers. 



Receivers. 



Nimrod E. Benson, 
Samuel Cruse, 
Uriah G. Mitchell, 
William G. Parish, 
John S. Hunter, 
John H. Owen, 
Joab Lawler, 



Montgomery, 

Huntsville, 

Cahawba, 

Tuscaloosa, 

Sparta, 

St. Stephens, 

Montevallo, 



John H. Somerville, 
Benjamin S. Pope, 
Alanson Saltmarsh, 
J. H. Vincent, 
Wade H. Greening, 
John B. Hazard, 
Jacob T. Bradford, 



2. The climate of this state, excepting on the low and 
swampy lands, is a salubrious one. The summers are 
long and the heat sustained, but not so intense as many 
would suppose. The northern part, being at least 1,000 
feet above the southern, has a climate, as it has a soil and 
productions, widely diflerent. 

The spring commences early in the southern part of the 
state. Corn is planted early in March, and even in Feb- 
ruary ; cotton somewhat later. Strawberries are ripe by 
the first of May. 

The chief disease of this state, in the summer and fall, 
is bilious fever, in its several varieties. 

3. This state, on account of its extent of unoccupied 
land, its productive soil, and its generally pleasant and 
salubrious climate, presents many inducements to emi- 
grants, especially to those from the southern states of the 
same parallels. And thousands have availed themselves 
of these advantages, and have left the cbmparatively poor 
lands of Georgia and the Carolinas, for the fertile regions 
of this state. Its population has increased most rapidly 
within a few years. 

4. Emigrants who remove to this state have the choice 
of three ways of reaching it. 1. To enter it from the 
north, through Tennessee. There are two main roads lead- 



y Google 



300 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

ing through Huntsville, and Tuscumbia. 2. To enter it 
from Georgia, on the east, by the road from Augusta, 
through Macon, Columbus, to Montgomery. 3. To enter 
it by the south, through Mobile. Many foreign emigrants 
remove by ship to that port, and thence go up in steam- 
boats into the interior of the state. 

5. This state was attached to the Territory of Missis- 
sippi until 1817. In 1820, it was received into the Union 
as an independent state. It contained but few civilized 
inhabitants before 1810. In this state some of the most 
important battles with the Indians were fought during the 
last war. 



y Google 



FLOBIDA. 



301 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



FLORIDA. 



What was formerly called West Florida, and a large 
portion of East Florida, border on the Gulf of Mexico. I 
shall, therefore, in the brief description which follows, take 
a general survey of the whole Territory of Florida. 

Florida is bounded on the north, by Alabama and Geor- 
gia ; east, by the Atlantic ocean ; south, by the Cuba 
Channel, and the Gulf of Mexico ; and west by the same 
Gulf, and the state of Alabama, from which it is separated, 
in that portion of its boundary, by the Perdido River. It is of 
a very irregular shape. Its entire length from north to south 
is near 500 miles, and greatest width, across the northern 
part, is not less than 600 ; whilst its mean width is not 
more than 90 miles. 

It extends from N. lat. 24° 40' to 31°; and from W. 
long. 3° to 10° 30'. Its area is 55,680 square miles, or 
35,635,200 acres* 

Florida has an outline on the Atlantic Ocean of 550, 
and on the Gulf of Mexico of 600 miles. From the south- 
ern extremity extends a line of numerous small islands to 
the south-west, called the Tortugas. 

TABLE OF THE COUNTIES AND COUNTY TOWNS. 
WEST FLORIDA. 



Counties. 


Situa- 
tion. 


Popula- 
tion 
IN 1830. 


County Towns. 


Distance 

from 

Tallahassee. 


FiRcambia, 
Jackson, 
Walton, 
Washington, 


n w 
n w 
n w 
nw 




Pensacola, 
Marianna, 
Allaqua, [ley> 
Holmes' Val- 


242 

77 

161 

121 


f\ APfQ 



total, 9,478 
26 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



302 



VALLEY OF THE HIS8ISSIPPI. 



{Table continued.) 





M 


IDDLE FLORIDA. 








Popula- 




Distance 


Counties. 


Situa- 


tion 


County Towns. 


from 




tion. 


IN 1830. 




fTaUahassee. 


Gadsden, 


n w 


4,855 


Quincy, 


23 


Hamilton, 


n m 


553 


Miccotown, 




Jefferson, 


n w 


3,312 


Monticello, 


29 


Leon, 


n w 


6,494 


Tallahassee, 




Madison, 


n w 


525 


Hickstown, 





Total, 


15,779 


, 




- 


EAST FLORIDA. 




Alachua, 


m 


2,204 


Deal's, 


178 


Duval, 


n e 


1,970 


Jacksonville, 




Mosquito, 


e 


733 


Tomoka, 




Nassau, 


n e 


1,511 


Fernandina, 


313 


St. Johns, 


e 


2,538 


St. Augustine, 


292 


f 


Fotal, 


8,956 








SOUTH H.ORIDA. 




Monroe, 


8 1 517 1 Key West, | 





Total, 15 Counties, 34,730 inhabitants. 
Of whom 15,501 are slaves, 844 free blacks, and 18,385 
whites. 

Government. — The Governor is appointed by the Pre- 
sident by and with the advice and consent of the Senate ; — 
salary, $2,500 per annum. Secretary — salary, $1,500. 

The Legislative Council consists of 16 members, and 
meets annually (at Tallahassee) on the first Monday in 
January. 

Judiciary. — There are four Judges, appointed by the 
President and Senate — one for each of the four districts 
which have been named. The salary of each, $1,500. 

Surface of the Country. — It may be said in general, that 
the zone of country which lies across the northern end of 
Florida, extending from the Perdido in the west to the At- 
lantic ocean off St. Augustine, is rolling or undulating, not 
exactly hilly, much less mountainous, but moderately 



y Google 



FLORIDA. 303 

broken, excepting on the immediate Gulf shore, where it 
is level. The peninsular part is remarkably level, low, 
and much of it swampy. Portions of it, in places, are 
similar to land supported by an unsubstantial foundation, 
spongy, sometimes resting on alluvia) matter, and some- 
times on sand, and dangeroaa for cattle and horses. Nu- 
ranrous small streams and iakes collect the watersj and 
drain Ibeai off gradually into the Atlantic or the Gulf- 

A largo portion of the country, in the northern part, is 
covered with forests, the trees standing a consifJerablt^ dis- 
tance apart, without underbrush ; whilst the surface of the 
ground presents a carpet of verdant grass and flowers, most 
of the year. The alluvial botionis, and the interval, and 
the hammock lands, are covered with dense forests of pine, 
oak, magnolia, loblolly, Florida mahogany j cedar, cypress, 
cabbage palm, live oak, pawpaw, grope- vines of a most 
luxuriant growth, the hybiscus, titi, ^c>. There are also 
numerous, and some of them extensive, savannas or prai- 
ries , co ve red with tall g rass. 

The principal rocks of this country are Ume-stone, (which 
may be said to be the vast basis of this whole region,) 
soap-stone and sand-sione- In the region of the Appala- 
chtcoki, fine burr mili-stone is found. The entire coast is 
marked by numerous bays, bayous, lagoons, 6tc* j whilst 
the interior abounds in lakes. 

Prodiwiions^ Soilt iSpc* — In that part of Florida, which 
lies west of the Suwanoco River, and which Gen, Jackson 
designated as West Florida, when he was governor of the 
country in 1821, there are about 10,560,000 acres- If 
wc deduct one-fourth part for bays, lakesj rivers, &c. there 
will remain 7,020,000* Of this quantity, two- thirds, or 
5,230,000 acres, may be considered as covered with pine 
barrens; 600,000 with tillable upland; 600,000 with 
hammock or interval land i 500,000 with swamp ; and 
400,000 with marsh. 

Of the peninsular part, it might perhaps be said, that 
the proportion of good and tillable land is not greater than 
in West Florida, But although the proportion of unti lia- 
ble land, consisting of pine barrens, sterile savannas, 
swamps, and marshes, is very great, yet there is a very 
considerable extent, in all, of very productive land. It is, 
however, so much dispersed along the riyers and lakes, 
that the ]>opulation will never be very denscp There is an 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



S04 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

^almost boundless extent of range for cattle, horses, hogs, 
^., in this country, and it will always foe, as it is now in 
many places, a land of graziers, and of pastoral wealth. 
Many graziers and farmers can count, not only hundreds, 
but also thousands of heads of cattle. 

The agricultural productions of Florida are not nunier- 
ous. Cotton is the chief staple. Three kinds are culti- 
vated, — sea island, Mexican, and green seed. The first 
grows only in the vicinity of the sea, and under the in- 
fluences of the sea breezes. It is a fine species of cotton, 
grows sometimes to the height of fifteen feet, throws off 
extensive branches, and bears a yellow flower. It is 
planted in wide rows, and in the months of February and 
March. The seed is extricated by passing the cotton be- 
tween two small wooden cylinders. This is the best spe- 
cies of cotton. It is uncertain whether it is indigenous to 
America or not. Its cultivation is limited, for want of 
suitable soil, but it is a very profitable crop. 

The green seed is more cultivated. It has a short 
staple. The Mexican has a longer staple, and is an inter- 
mediate kind between the green seed and the sea island. 

Rice is a profitable crop here. It grows well on marsh, 
hammock, and upland, and even pine barrens, when they 
are well trodden, or cowpenned, as it is termed. It is a 
mistake to suppose that rice will only grow where it can 
be overflown with water. If the weeds are subdued by 
the hoe, it will grow well on the uplands of Florida, as is 
well known by those who have made the experiment. Up- 
lands produce here seventy bushels per acre ; whilst the 
more rich bottoms yield eighty bushels ; and even the 
piney land will produce sixty bushels. Rice sells here 
for 75 cents a bushel in market, or from three to four 
dollars per hundred when cleaned. 

Sugar-cane grows finely on the good lands in Florida. 
The Otaheite cane is principally cultivated. The Philip- 
pine or ribband cane is rapidly supplanting this species of 
cane in Louisiana, and will probably do so here. The 
growing of sugar cane has greatly increased within a few 
years, and much is now made in West Florida ; where as 
many as 3,000 pounds have been made on an acre. 

The sweet potatoe grows admirably in this Territory, 
even in the pine barrens. It is greatly cultivated, and 
excellent. The Irish potatoe is raised, but does not last 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



FLORIDA. 8<^5 

SO well as those raised in the north. Tobacoo is a native 
of this country, and was introduced into Europe from this 
country, in 1560. One species still grows wild on the 
hammock lands. 

Indigo was formerly raised for exportation. When i\ie 
English possessed Florida, 40,000 pounds sterling were 
paid in one year, in London, for Florida indigo. At pre- 
sent, none is raised for exportation, but farmers cultivate 
it for family use. It is easily raised. It is indeed a native 
of this region, and grows wild in the barrens. It is as- 
tonishing that it is not cultivated for exportation* from the * 
Territory. 

The small grains are but little attended to, excepting 
com, which grows well, in many places. Rye grows well 
on uplands, wheat does not near the coast. It is thought 
that barley would grow well if cultivated. The Palma 
Christi, and the benne plant produce profitable crops. Peas 
and beans grow well here. Pumpkins, water-melons, musk 
melons and cucumbers are raised with great ease and in 
great perfection. Squashes, beets, onions and parsnips are 
raised with some diflSculty. Lettuce, radishes, cabbage, 
and carrots do well, particularly the two former. But the 
egg-plant and the tomato grow admirably, and are more 
generally used than most other garden vegetables, during 
the summer season. 

Various grasses grow spontaneously and abundantly 
here. 

The fig, both the large black and the small yellow or 
cceleste, grows finely, and any quantity might be raised. 
Two, and sometimes three, crops are produced in a year. 
The sweet, sour, and bitter sweet, are three species of 
oranges which grow well in this Territory. The first 
named needs much care. Some orange trees here are be- 
lieved to be 150 years old. Florida could furnish oranges 
enough for the consumption of the whole country, if navi- 
gable facilities were opened into every part of it. About 
1,200,000 oranges are gathered at St. Augustine annually ; 
and in its vicinity 300,000 more. The pomegranate grows 
finely here. The pear tolerably, and the apple poorly. 
Peaches do well. Strawberries grow finely here, as also 
do dewberries, blackberries, <&c. 

The exports are cotton, cedar logs, live oak timber, 
26* 



y Google 



306 VALLEY OP THE MISSISSIPPI. 

boards, staves, deer skins and horns, beeswax, tallow, 
hides, peltry and bricks. ^ Salt will be a manufacture of 
immense importance in this Territory. It is believed that 
soon from 500,000 to 800,000 bushels will be made at the 
ponds which have been formed at Key West. 

There is a great abundance of game, such as deer, tur- 
kies, geese, ducks, and other water fowls of great variety, 
in this Territory. The vegetable kingdom is as rich as 
the animal ; but the mineral is far more limited. 

Rivers.-^The St. John's is a remarkable river, rising in 
the middle of Florida, and flowing northward it falls into 
the Atlantic Ocean, north of St. Augustine. It is naviga- 
ble to Lake Monroe in the centre of the peninsula. For 
the last 100 miles of its course it is from 2 to 5 miles 
wide, and is also from 8 to 10 feet deep. Several small 
rivers flow from the peninsula, such as Indian, St. Lucie, 
Charlotte, Hillsboro', and a vast number of smaller 
streams. The Suwannee, Ocklockonne, Appalachicola, 
Choctawhatchee, Yellow-water, Black-water, Escambia 
and Perdido, flow down from Georgia and Alabama* into 
the Gulf of Mexico. The Appalachicola is navigable for 
steam-boats several hundred miles. This Territory has 
a great number of beatable streams. Most of the rivers 
have, however, shallow bars at their mouths. There is a 
great number of bays and sounds along the coast. By a 
little eflbrt and expense, a fine steam-boat navigation could 
be opened along the main land, and between it and the 
islands from Mobile Bay to the Ocklockonne Bay ; and 
also from St. Mary's to the mouth of St. John's, and up 
that river to its sources ; thence to Indian River ; and 
from the mouth of that River along the sounds on the 
eastern side to the southern extremity, and even to Key 
West, which is on one of the Tortuga Islands. 

Towns. Pensacola stands on the north-west bank of 
the bay of Pensacola, in N. lat. 30"^ 23' and long. 10° 05'. 
It is an ancient, pleasant, and very healthy place. During 
the first century afler it was founded it flourished but 
slowly. When it fell into the hands of the English in 
1763, it began to grow rapidly. The public places are 
the Court House, Catholic Church, Market House, Custom 
House and Public Store. The shape of the city is oblong. 
The bay aflbrds the best harbour on the Gulf shore. The 
Government has established a naval station and depot here* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



FLORIDA. 307 

The health of this place is excellent. The climate is 
pleasant, though warm* The extent of white sand banks 
in its vicinity gives the bay shore a singular, and to the 
eye, in clear days, a distressing appearance. The popu- 
lation is nearly 3000. It is 242 miles from Tallahassee, 
62 from Mobile, and 1050 from Washington. 

Tallahassee is the seat of Government forfthis Terri- 
tory. It stands 22 miles north by west from St. Marks, 
on an elevated situation, in a picturesque region, and is 
about midway between the eastern and western boundaries. 
It is 896 miles from Washington city. It is now a beau- 
tiful and^ growing place, and has about 1,000 inhabitants. 
The public buildings are the Court House, State House, 
several Churches, Market, Masonic Hall or lodge> &;c. 
The region around is beautiful and fertile. A fine stream 
flows on the eastern side of the city. Several large 
springs, and particularly the one which is at the sources of 
the Wakulla, in the vicinity of this place, are objects of 
curiosity. 

St. Augustine is the largest town or city in Florida. 
It stands on a beautiful bay, which is connected with the 
sound that separates Anastatia Island from the main land. 
The city stands opposite to the inlet, and two miles from 
the Atlantic ocean. It is protected by a strong fort, called 
Fort St. John. The city is oblong, and has a very beau- 
tiful appearance. The houses are generally built of a 
peculiar kind of stone of this region — a concrete of sea- 
shells. 

The population is near 4,000. The climate is delight- 
ful. This is probably the most salubrious place for invalids 
from the north, in all the southern part of our country. 
Oranges, limes, lemons, &c. grow finely here. It is 841 
miles from Washington city. 

Key- West stands on Thompson's Island, one of the 
Tortugas, off* the south-western point of the Florida Penin- 
sula. It is a naval station of much importance. Several 
other small places might be mentioned, if there was space 
for it. 

It is expected that a ship canal will be made across the 
northern part of the peninsula of Florida. There can be 
no doubt about the practicability of the work, and still less 
about its vast national importance. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



308 VALLEY OF TBE HISSISSIPPI. 

Climate. — ^The climate of Florida is in general healthy 
in all situations which are remote from the marshes and 
swamps* It enjoys daily the most delightful sea-hreezes. 
From October to June is the most pleasant portion of the 
year in this region. 

Education.-^CongTess has appropriated 877,484 acres 
of public land for common schools in this territory, besides 
46,080 acres for a college, and 1,120 for a seat of govern- 
ment. Education is much neglected here. And it will be 
so, it is to be feared, for some years. 

General Remarks. — 1. The purchase of this territory 
was of vast importance to our country. The land is found 
to be much nK>re valuable than was anticipated. It yields 
abundantly most of the tropical fruits. It is believed that 
cofl^ and the cocoa-nut tree will flourish here. Besides, 
the possession of this territory gives increased protection 
to the whole country. 

2. This country abounds in curiosities, such as remark- 
able springs, caves, &c. and also in relicsof the first Span- 
ish settlements here. In some places are to be seen the 
ruins of ancient towns and villages. Groves of oranges, 
limes, lemons, peach-trees, &c. are to be seen, which were 
originally planted by European settlers. 

3. This country was early settled by the Spanish, after 
many contests with the Indians, and their neighbours the 
English on the one side, and the French on the other. In 
1763, they ceded it to England. In 1781, they regained 
it, and retained it by the treaty of 1783. In 1821, it was 
ceded to this country for the consideration of $5,000,000, 
allowed by the Spanish government to ours, for claims for 
spoliations. 

4. There are remnants of several tribes of Indians in 
this territory, the chief of which are the Semiuoles, who, it 
is expected, will remove with the Creeks west of the Af is- 
sissippi. 

6. Emigrants who remove to this terrritory from Geor- 
gia, the Carolinas or Virginia, will generally enter it by 
the roads which lead to it from Georgia and Alabama. 
Those who remove to thi? territory from the middle and 
northern states, or from foreign countries, will go to it by 
ship. 

6. There are 30,194,070 acres of public land in Florida, 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



FXOBIDA^ 



d09 



belonging to the general government ; and 5,166,500, to 
which the Indian title was not extinguished on the Ist of 
January 1832. 



Land Offices. 

Tallahassee, 
St. Augustine, 



Registers. 



Geo. W. Ward, 
Charles 8. Downing, 



Receivers. 

Rich. K. Call, 
Wm. H Allen. 



Note. — Including Florida, the amount of unsold pub- 
lic land in the States and Territories in the Valley of 
the JVIississippi, the geographical description of which I 
have now completed, was, on the first Of January, 1832, 
— ^227,293,884 acres, exclusive of 113,577,869 acres, to 
which the Indian title was not then extinguished. In the 
same States and Territories, 2,187,665 acres have been 
appropriated for Iptemal Improvements ; 508,000 for col- 
leges, universities, &c. ; 7,952,538 for common schools ; 
89,605 for charitable and religious institutions, including 
23,040 acres in Florida, for the Deaf and Dumb Asylum 
at Danville, Kentucky, and 23,040 in Alabama, for the 
Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Hartford, Connecticut ; 21,589 
for seats of government ; and 298,288 of saline reserva- 
tious, given up to the states in which they are situated, for 
their use. 



y Google 



810 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

CHAPTER XXV. 
THE (X)LLEGES, UNIVERSITIESi &c OF THE WEST. 

Having given a geographical description of each State 
and Territory in the Valley of the Mississippi, I now pro- 
ceed to give an account of the Colleges, Universities, Medi- 
cal Schools, Theological Seminaries, and Deaf and Dumb 
Asylums of that portion of our country. In doing this I 
shall survey the states in the same order in which I have 
already mentioned them. 

WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA.— There are the fol- 
lowing Literary Institutions in Western Pennsylvania. 

1. Jefferson College, at Canonsburg, This insti- 
tution is located on the road from Pittsburg to Wheel- 
ing, and is eighteen miles from the former place. It has 
been, in a remarkable degree, successful. It has grown 
up gradually out of the first Grammar School established 
west of the Allegheny Mountains. It was incorporated as 
a college, in 1802. The number of its alumni is about 
600. The present number of under graduates is 200, 
besides nearly thirty in the preparatory school con- 
nected with the college. There is a Medical School in 
Philadelphia connected with this college, containing about 
one hundred and fifty students. There are 2,500 volumes 
in the libraries of the college. There are three Professors 
in the institution. The Rev. Matthew Brown, D. D. is 
the President. A farm has been purchased, for the pur- 
pose of connecting manual labour with the institution. 
The general fund given by the State and by individuals to 
this institution, amounts to #9,000 ; and a fund by legacy, 
for the support of pious young men who have the ministry 
in view, amounts to six thousand dollars. The first presi- 
dent of this institution was the Rev. John Watson, M. A., 
one of the most distinguished young men, as it regards 
talents and piety, that this country has ever produced. 

2. Washington College, at Washington. This in- 
stitution was founded in 1806. After flourishing nearly 
twenty years, it declined, and finally suspended operations 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



COLLEGES, ETC. 3ll 

for two years. It has, however, re-commenced, under 
favourahle. auspices. The number of students this session 
is about 140. A professorship of English literature has 
been established, with the view, more especially, of edu- 
cating and preparing young men for taking charge of com- 
mon schools. John L. Gow, Esq. has been appointed 
Professor of that department. The legislature of the State 
have appropriated #500 per annum, for five years, to aid 
the institution in carrying this design into e^ct. The 
Rev. Mr. M*Connaughy is the President. The town of 
Washington is beautifully situated on the National ^Road 
from Cumberland to the West, and is about midway be- 
tween Brownsville and Wheeling, and also between Pitts- 
burg and Wheeling ; and is not far from being 25 miles 
distant from each of the three places. 

3. Allegheny College, at Meadville. This institu- 
tion was established by the Rev. Timothy Alden. The 
college edifice is spacious, and is named Bentley Hall, in 
honour of the Rev. Dr. Bentley, of Salem, Mass., a distin- 
guished benefactor of the institution. I believe that this 
edifice is not completed. The institution has a valuable 
library of 8000 volumes, principally the donation of Dr. 
Bentley. The Pittsburg Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal church has obtained this college, and have ap- 
pointed the Rev. Martin Ruter, D. D. President. Its pros- 
pects are flattering. The college which the Conference 
had at Uniontown, called Madison College, has been given 
up. 

. 4. Western University op Pennsylvania, at PitiS' 
burg. This institution was founded in 1820. The Rev. 
Dr. R. Bruce is the president. The number of instructors 
is four ; of graduates fifty ; of undergraduates in all the 
departments, 70. A very beautiftiU edifice has recently 
been erected in the western part of Pittsburg for this 
institution. 

5. Western Theological Seminary, at AUegheny- 
town* . Alleghenytown is immediately opposite to Pitts- 
burg, on the north side of the Allegheny river, and is con- 
nected with Pittsburg by a bridge. A building was 
commenced in 1829, and will be completed during this 
Summer. It stands on a beautiful insulated hill, in the 
form of a ridge, which rises one hundred feet higher than 



y Google 



312 VALLEY OF THS KlgfllSSITFI. 

the waters of the Allegheny River* The eentral edifice 
is sixty feet in length, fifty in breadth, and four stories 
high, having at each of its ends a portico projecting eight 
feet from the building itself^ adorned with Corinthian col- 
umns, and to be finished in a corresponding manner, and 
with a cupola in the centre. On the sides of the main 
building are two wings, each extending in length fifty 
feet from the centre edifice, forty-five in breadth, and 
three stories high. The exterior walls are constructed of 
brick, and all the interior ones of stone, taken from the 
excavated site of the institution. This entire building has 
besides an oratory, or chapel, 45 by 26 feet, and contain- 
ing a gallery, with shelves, sufficient to hold an extensive 
library ; a dining hall ; suites of rooms for the Professors, 
and others for the accommodation of a steward ; and from 
70 to 80 rooms, chiefly sin^e, or for one occupant, for the 
use of the students of the seminary. The prospect from 
the building, over the city of Pittsburg, with its bridges, 
manufactories, rivers, canals, steam-boats, &;e. is delightful. 
This institution is at one of the great central places of 
influence in our country. In October 1829, the Rev. 
Luther Halsey, D. D. was inaugurated as Professor of 
Theology, and the Rev. John W. Nevin appointed Teacher 
of Oriental and Biblical Literature. In May 1833, the 
Rev. Ezra Fisk, D. D. was appointed prdessor of Ecclesi- 
astical History, &c. An excellent library, of about 3000 
volumes, belongs to the institution, a large part of which 
was collected by the Rev. A. D. Campbell, on his late visit 
to Great Britain, on its behalf. During the last session there 
were thirty students. Board can be obtained here for 
$1,00 per week. 

6. There is a Thedogical School at Canonsburg, 
belonging to the Associate Church. The Rev. Dr. Ramsay 
is the Professor of Theology. There are several students 
attending it. 

7. There is a Theological School, lately established at 
Pittsburg, belonging to the Associate Reformed Church. 
The Rev. Mr. P^ssley of South Carolina has been ap* 
pointed Professor of Theology, and has entered upon the 
duties of his office. 

A successfol effert is now making to estaMish a manual 
labor academy at ZtUnefle^ about twenty-five miles fron 



y Google 



COLLEOBS, ETC. 318 

Pittsburg. A suitable farm has been purchased for the 
purpose. 

WESTERN VIRGINIA.— There is no college estab- 
lished in this part of Virginia. 

OHIO, — 1. Miami University. — ^This flourishing in- 
stitution is established at Oxford, Butler county, 27 miles 
from Cincinnati, and 12 west of the Miami canal. It is en* 
dowed by the state, and possesses the township of land in 
which it is established, yielding an annual income of between 
$4,000 and $5,000. It has two spacious buildings of brick, 
containing a chapel, libraries, philosophical apparatus, and 
48 rooms for students. The libraries amount to 2,000 
volumes. The whole number of students, in all the de- 
"partments is about 160. There is an English Scientific 
department, containing about 20 students. The Hebrew 
Scriptures form a part of the regular course of studies. 
The Rev. Robert H. Bishop, D. D. is President. 

2. University of Ohio, at Athens. Athens is forty-one 
miles west of Marietta, 52 east of Chillicothe, and 37 from 
the Ohio river. It is situated on an elevated peninsula, 
formed by a bend of the Hockhocking, which meanders 
around the town. The location is elevated, and the pros- 
pect extensive. The University was founded in 1802. The 
Rev. Robert G. Wilson, D. D. is the President. The num- 
ber of students is about ninety. It is endowed with 46, 
080 acres of land, which yield about $2,300 dollars annu- 
ally. A college edifice of brick, large and elegant^ was 
erected in 1817. 

3. Western Reserve College, at Hudson. This in- 
stitution is situated in Portage county, in the north-eastern 
division of the state. It was founded by the Western 
Reserve Synod, in 1826. It has now about 80 stu- 
dents. Between 20,000 and 30,000 dollars have been 
subscribed to its funds, principally in New York and Phila« 
delphia. More than 19,000 dollars have been subscribed 
in Ohio. The Western Reserve has now more than 100, 
000 inhabitants. It is capable of sustaining 1,500,000 in- 
habitants. It is supposed that it will eventually furnish 200 
students to this college. There is a considerable number 
of students in the preparatory department. 

The manual labour plan has been adopted to some ex- 
27 



y Google 



814 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

tent. About one half of the students are members of the 
Mechanical Society. 

4. Kenyon Collkoe, at Gambier. This institution is 
Episcopal, and was lately under the Presidency of the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Chase. The Rev. Charles P. M'llvaine, D. D. 
is now the Rector of this College, as well as Bishop of the 
state of Ohio. Gambier is in Knox county, five miles from 
Mount Vernon, and in the centre of the State. The loca- 
tion is elevated and beautiful. The college was establish- 
ed in 1828. A part of the college buildings are completed 
sufficient to accommodate one hundred students, which is 
not more than a fourth of what the entire plan contemplates. 
The building for the grammar school, just completed, will 
accommodate seventy students. There are 150 students at 
present in the college and grammer school. There are five 
professors in the college, and three teachers in the grammar 
school. The institution derived very valuable aid from the 
agency which Bishop Chase performed in England. It has 
six or eight thousand acres oSf land. A Diocesan Theolo- 
gical Seminary is connected with this institution. 

5. New Athens College, is in the village of New 
Athens, in Harrison county, (in the eastern part of the state) 
30 miles south-west of Steubenville, and ten miles north- 
west of St. Clairsville. It was incorporated five or six 
years since. It has one brick building of three stories, 
which will accommodate fifty students, which is the num- 
ber of students in all the departments of this institution. 

6. Lanb Seminary, at Cincinnati. The object of this 
institution is to promote Theological education. It was com- 
menced at the instance of Messrs. £. 6& W. A. Lane,' mer- 
chants, of New Orleans, who made a very liberal offer of 
aid. The location of this institution is peculiarly auspi- 
cious in its bearing upon the whole western region. It is 
accessible from almost every part of the Valley by steam- 
boat and canal navigation. Buildings, towards which the 
people of Cincinnati have subscribed nearly $20,000, are 
erected upon the Walnut Hills, about two miles from the 
city. The site is one of great beauty, overlooking the city 
of Cincinnati, and the delightful valley, in the form of a 
vast amphitheatre, in which it stands. There is a manual 
labour academy connected with this institution, which has 
gone into operation. Instruction in the Theological de* 
partment commenced in 1832. Successful e^rts have 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



COLLEGES, ETC. 315 

been made to endow three professorships, and secure Pro- 
fessors of distinguished talents. About fifly thousand dol- 
lars have been subscribed in Philadelphia, New York and 
New England to endow these professorships. The Rev. 
Dr. Beecher of Boston, the Rev. Mr. Biggs of the vicinity 
of Philadelphia, and the Rev. Calvin £. Stowe, of Dart* 
mouth college, have been appointed Professors, and have 
entered upon the duties of their offices. 

7. Medical College op Cincinnati, has eight Pro- 
fessors, and upwards of one hundred students. Lectures 
commence on the first Monday of November, annually, 
and continue until the last of February. 

8. There was a Cincinnati College incorporated in 
1819, but it has suspended its operations. But a Catholic 
College under the name of the Athenaeum, has lately been 
established in that city. 

9. A College has been recently incorporated at Ripley. 

10. A Theological School, has been commenced at 
Columhusj by a Minister of the Gospel belonging to the 
Lutheran Church. 

11. There is a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, established 
at Columbusj which has about 30 pupils, and promises to 
do well. It has been aided by the Legislature of the 
State. 

At Marietta, there is what is termed The iNSTrxuTE 
OF Education. It contains four Departments: infant 
school, primary school, high school, and young ladies' 
school. A most important object of this institution is to 
prepare teachers. A college is about to be established 
here. 

An establishment of a somewhat similar character exists 
at Chillicothe. 

INDIANA. — 1. Indiana College at Bloomington. — 
This College was chartered in 1825, but did not com- 
mence its operations until 1828. The Rev. Andrew Wy- 
lie, D. D. is President. It has several Professors. A 
year ago this rising institution had 51 students. It bids 
&ir to become one of the most distinguished seminaries 
of learning in the West. The situation of the place is 
highly salubrious. Board, washing, fuel, 6&c. cost but 
81 37 1-2 cents per week. 

2. Hanoveb Academy, or Theological Institution.-— 
This institution was established in 1827, at Hanover ^ Jef- 



y Google 



316 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

ferson county, 6 miles below the town of Madison, and 
near the Ohio River. It is principally intended for theo- 
logical instruction, and is under the care of the Synod of 
Indiana. The Re?. John Matthews, D. D. late of Shep- 
herdstown, Va^ is professor of theology. A professor of 
the oriental languages and biblical literature has been 
appointed. There are one hundred students at present in 
this flourishing institution, one half of whom have the 
ministry in view. Manual labour is connected with study 
in this institution. For this purpose, a valuable farm has 
been given to this academy. The price of boarding, in- 
cluding washing and light, &c. is about 75 cents per 
week. And it is expected that, in a short time, the whole 
expense of a student, for board, will not exceed $30 per 
annum, exclusive of two or three hours' labour daily. The 
Rev. James BIythe, D. D. of Lexington, Ky. has become 
President of this institution, and Professors of Mathemat- 
ics, Languages, &c. have been appointed, and have entered 
upon their duties. 

MICHIGAN.— There is no College established in 
Michigan. Congress has appropriated 46,080 acres of 
land to establish one at a proper time. 

KENTUCKY — 1. Transylvania University, at 
Lexington. — This institution was chartered in 1798. It 
has a good library, and a respectable philosophical and 
chemical apparatus. It is delightfully situated in a region 
of great resources and fertility. Last year the number of 
its students, in the academical department, was eighty-one, 
and its instructors, six : The number of its medical stu- 
dents each winter is usually about two hundred, and its 
law students twenty. There are six professors in the medi- 
cal department. In May, 1829, the principal building of 
this University was destroyed by fire, which loss, together 
with the books consumed, was estimated at $38,000. There 
was an insurance on the property to the amount of #10,000. 
The Rev. Alva Woods, D. D. the late President of this 
institution, has become the President of the University of 
Alabama ; and the Rev. B. O. Peers has been appointed 
his successor. 

New and valuable buildings are now in progress, and 
will soon be completed. 

2. Centre Colleqe, at Danville. — This College was 



y Google 



COLLEGES, ETC. 317 

founded by the Synod of Kentucky, in 1822. The Rev. 
J. C. Young, M. A. is the President. It is represented as 
in a highly prosperous condition. Connected with the 
college are a hundred and twelve acres of land, furnish- 
ing excellent conveniencies for manual labour. The prin- 
cipal building is of brick, and will accommodate about 
sixty students. This rising institution is under the in- 
struction of an able and enterprising faculty. It has about 
one hundred students, and their number is constantly in- 
creasing. A theological department was connected with 
the college by the Synod, a few years since, but it has 
not gone into operation. 

3. Georgetown College, at Georgetown, twelve miles 
from Lexington, on the Cincinnati road. The Rev. 
Luther Rice is the President, assisted by three professors 
and one tutor, besides the teacher of the grammar school. 
This institution has just commenced its operations. It 
has now about ninety students. It has a well selected 
library and a considerable chemical and philosophical ap- 
paratus. 

4. Augusta College. — ^This institution is in the town 
of Augusta on the Ohio river, in Bracken County, about 
40 miles above Cincinnati. It was established as an acade- 
my in 1822. Its first commencement was held in August 
1829. Connected with the college is an academical de- 
partment under three instructors. The college edifice is 
three stories high, eighty feet by forty, and well finished. 
The Rev. Mr. Tomlinson is the President. There are 
several professors, men of talents and well qualified for 
their offices. There are more than one hundred students, 
I understand, in the collegiate department, and the number 
is constantly increasing. The library contains 2,000 
volumes. This flourishing institution is under the care of 
the Methodists. 

5. Cumberland College at Princeton. — This institution 
is under the care of the Cumberland Presbyterians. It was 
founded in 1825. The Rev. F. R* Cossitt is the President. 
It had, in 1831, one hundred and twenty students in all 
the departments, sixty of whom were professors of religion. 
Its library has one thousand volumes. A college building, 
one hundred feel long, forty-five wide, and three stones 

27* 



y Google 



318 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

high, has been erected. This institution is in a flourishing 
condition. 

6. Catholic Seminary, at Bardstown, in Nelson Coun- 
ty. As I have not visited this institution, I can only state 
what!' have learned from others. The college at this 
place has two hundred students, and there is an ecclesias- 
tical seminary with twenty or thirty. Another institution 
of the kind also exists. Seven priests are engaged in in- 
stniction. The second wing of the college cost more than 
$7,000. The Bishop of Bardstown is constituted per- 
petual rector. The legislature has incorporated it, with 
all desired privileges. Three female religious orders have 
been formed : the " Lovers of Mary," the " Sisters of 
Charity," and the " Dominican Nuns." More than two 
hundred young women in these institutions, are devoted to 
the education of persons of their own sex. " In our two 
seminaries," says Bishop Flaget, two or three years since, 
" wo have one tonsured, eleven minorities, four sub-dea- 
cons, and three deacons, with seventeen or eighteeri young 
persons more, who have been studying two or three years 
for the priesthood." 

7. There is a Deaf and Dumb Asylum established at 
Danville, which is doing well. Congress has made a dona- 
tion of a township of public land (23,040 acres) in Florida, 
to this important institution. ^ 

There are several schools at Lexington of great excel-' 
lence — one for boys, embracing much of the Pestalozzian 
system. 

There is an Indian school under the superintendence of 
Colonel R. M. Johnson, in Scott County, which has one 
hundred scholars, from the Choctaws, Creeks, Putawato- 
mies, and Miamies, and supported chiefly by their own 
funds. This interesting school was established at the 
house of Col. Johnson by the Choctaws some years ago. 
It is very flourishing and will do good. 

TENNESSEE.— 1. The University of Nashville, 
which is an institution of vast importance to the state of 
Tennessee, stands on the brow of a hill on the south of the 
city, and has a commanding view of the place and of the 
surrounding region. This institution, though chartered in 
1606, did not assume a regular college organization until 
1825. In 1827, the name was changed, by an act of the 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



COLLEGES, ETC. 319 

legislature, from " Cumberland College," to the " Univer- 
sity of Nashville," and corresponding rights were conferred. 
The main building and one of the wings, together with the 
laboratory, have been built since 1825, when the institu- 
tion was resuscitated. The laboratory is one of the finest 
in our country. The chemical and philosophical apparatus 
was imported' from London at great expense, and is every 
thing that can be desired. The mineralogical Cabinet is 
certainly next to that of Yale College, and not inferior to 
it as it respects the purposes which it subserves. It is a 
very valuable and extensive collection. This department, 
as well as every other in the college, i^ superintended with 
much talent. There is no college in our country that can 
afford advantages superior to those of this institution. The 
Rev. Philip Lindsley, D. D. is the President. He is as- 
sisted by Professors every way qualified for the work. 
The number of students is about 100, which is the larg- 
est number it has ever had. The number has been 
steadily increasing every year, and it will be far' great- 
er when the institution becomes better known ; for it is yet 
in its infancy. 

2. Greenville College. — This institution is at 
Greenville, in East Tennessee. It has no lands, but funds 
to the amount of about $5,600. It is entirely indebted to 
private bounty for its existence. It was incorporated in 
1794. It has about 30 students. Henry Hoss, Esq. is 
the President. 

3. Knoxville College. — This institution is also in 
East Tennessee, and is under the care of the Rev. Dr. Coffin. 
The number of students is about 35. 

4. Washington College, nine miles from Jonesbord* y 
in East Tennessee. This institution has about 30 students. 
The Rev. Mr. Maclin is the President. This college was 
established by the Rev. Samuel Doak, D. D. who was the 

&ther of literature in East Tennessee. 

5. Southern AND Western Theological Institution 
at Maryville. — This institution is in East Tennessee, and 
is both literary and theological. The whole number of 
students a few months since, was 55 ; 22 of whom were in 
the theological, and 33 in the literary department. Man- 
ual labour on a farm constitutes part of their exercise. 
This seminary was established in 1819, by tbe Synod of 



y Google 



320 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI* 

Tennessee. The Rev. Isaac Anderson, D. D. is the prin- 
cipal instructor. The library contains 5,550 volumes. 

A Manual Labour Academy has been established in the 
vicinity of Columbia, in West Tennessee, under the care 
of the Rev. R. Hardin, D. D. 

ILLINOIS. — 1. Illinois College, at Ja^iksonville — 
This institution was founded in 18*^^9. Funds were obtained, 
two years ago, for it to the amount of $13,000. More than 
thirty students have joined the institution, and its prospects 
are very encouraging. Manual labour, in agriculture, &c. 
is connected with this college. Efibrts are now making 
to raise funds in the eastern cities and towns, to secure 
permanence to this rising institution ,* and the prospect is, 
that $36,000 will be raised in Philadelphia, New- York, 
and New-England. The Rev. Edward Beecher, late pas- 
tor of the Park-street church, Boston, is the President. 
He has the assistance of able professors. 

2, Rock Spring Theological School. — Rock Spring 
is a small village, eighteen miles east of St. Louis, on tho 
principal stage-road to Vincennes. The general plan of 
the studies is accommodated to the circumstances of the 
preachers of the Gospel, and to the wants of the country. 
Ministers who have families, and those who are somewhat 
advanced in life, may attend the institution as long as may 
suit their convenience. It is established on liberal princi- 
ples, though under the particular control of the Baptist 
denomination. There are two departments. 1st. A high 
school, conducted on the plan of a New-England academy. 
2d. A theological department, designed for preachers of 
the Gospel of any age. As soon as circumstances will 
allow, a regular Classical and Theological education will 
be pursued. *The whole expenses for an individual, for a 
year, allowing the tuition to be gratuitous, including cloth- 
ing, is about $50. The Rev. John M. Peck is Professor 
of Christian Theology. There are 1,200 volumes in the 
library of the institution. The number of students is about 
fifty. There are three sessions in the year, one fifteen 
weeks, and two of fourteen each. 

MISSOURI. — There are two colleges in this state. 1 . 
The Catholic College at St. Louis, which has several 
Professors, and 120 students, and is very flourishing. It 
is under the management of the Jesuits. 2. A new college 



y Google 



COLLEGES, ETC. 321 

uader the control of Presb3rterians, is commencing opera- 
tions at or near Palmyra, in Marion county. 

The Catholics have several schools and academies in 
this state. 

1. A female seminary, at Florissant, about twenty miles 
above St. Louis, where there is a large number of young 
ladies receiving their education. 

2. A charity school, of about forty scholars, in St. Louis, 
taught by two or three Sisters. 

3. There is a seminary in Perry county, at Perryville, 
about eighty-five miles south of St. Louis, which has three 
departments, — one for boys, in which are nearly 100 youth, 
many of them from the West Indies and Louisiana, re- 
ceiving an education ; another for girls, where there is a 
large number ; and a third for young men, who are pre- 
paring for the priesthood. In January last, there were 
twenty-four such young men. There are seven priests 
here engaged in giving instruction, besides other teachers. 
The whole is under the superintendence of the Bishop of 
St. Louis. 

4. In the lower part of the same county^ (Perry) on 
Apple Creek, a new female seminary is about to be esta<» 
blished. 

ARKANSAS. — ^There is no college established in Ar- 
kansas. Congress has appropriated 46,080 acres for this 
purpose. 

MISSISSIPPI.— Mississippi has two colleges. 1. Jef- 
ferson College, at Washington^ six miles from Natchez. 
This institution has done but little hitherto. It is now re-^ 
organized, and under the care of Captain Partridge and a 
gentlemen from West Point, who have a flourishing 
school. They have a large number of scholars. 2. A 
new college in the neighbourhood of Port Gibson. 
This institution is under the control of the Presbytery of 
Mississippi. It has received an ample charter. It bids fair 
to become a valuable institution. The Rev. Jeremiah 
Chamberlin, D. D. is the President. 

LOUISIANA.-r— 1. College at Jackson^ in the eastern 
part of the state. This is the only Protestant college in the 
state. It is at present under the management of a gentle- 
man who received his education at West Point. What its 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



322 VALLEY OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 

present condition is, I know not. It is amply supported by 
the state. 

2. There is a flourishing Catholic college at New Or- 
leans. 

ALABAMA. — There are three colleges in^Alabama. 
1. One at La Grange^ a small town on the road from 
Tuscumbia to Tuscaloosa, and about ten miles from the 
former. It is flourishing. Eflorts are making to enlarge 
the departments of study, and introduce an extended 
course. There are about 100 scholars in classes of all 
gradations. The Rev. Mr. Payne is the President, assisted 
by several other teachers. This college is under the di- 
rection of the Methodists. 

2. Bishop Portier, who is the Catholic Bishop of the 
Diocese of Mobile, has established a college near Mobile^ 
which has about 120 youth in it, taught by several teach- 
ers. 

3. But the most important institution in this state, if we 
may judge from the advantages which it possesses in point 
of funds, is the UNivERsrrY of Alabama, located at TuS' 
caloosa. Some description of this institution may not be 
unacceptable to the reader. By an act of Congress of 
March 2d, l6l9, one section of land (640 acres) was 
granted to the inhabitants of each township for the use of 
schools, and 72 sections or two townships, for the support 
of a seminary of learning. On the 22d of March, 1828, 
the trustees of the University of Alabama, having been 
previously appointed by the legislature, selected as the 
site of the institution the place known as Mair's Spring, 
on the road towards Huntsville, and about a mile and a 
half from the town of Tuscaloosa. The town of Tusca- 
loosa stands on the south bank of the Black Warrior, and 
the road just mentioned pursues an eastern direction from 
the town, and the University stands on the north side of 
the road, facing the south. An area of 680 by 600 feet 
borders on the road. On the east and west sides of this 
area, it is contemplated to erect on each side, three build- 
ings for dormitories ; the central one on each side will 
be 150 feet long ; and three stories high, having six' rooms 
for study and twelve for sleeping, in each story ; the other 
two buildings on each side of the area are to be 100 feet 
long each, of three stories^ and containing four rooms for 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



C0LLE0B8, ETC« 323 

Study, and eight for sleeping, in each story. Only two of 
these buildings have been completed, one on each side at 
the northern extremity. What is to constitute the centre 
building on the east side of the area is now in progress, 
and the others will be built in the course of a year or two, 
and before they will be needed. On the northern side 
stand three buildings, the central one of which is the La- 
baratory, containing the Chemical and Philosophical 
Apparatus, Museum, Cabinet of Minerals, and Lecture 
Rooms, &;c. The other two, one on each side of the La- 
baralory, are double houses, each sufficient to contain two 
familes of the professors j and having a lecture room be- 
tween each conjoined edifice. On the right and lefl, at 
the extremities of the line upon which these houses stand, 
are two buildings for Refectories or dining halls. And in 
the centre of the area above mentioned stands the Rotunda, 
circular as its name imports, surmounted with an elegant 
dome, and surrounded by lofly columns. ' This building is 
seventy feet in diameter in the inside. The lower story is 
high and has a gallery supported by columns. This spa- 
cious and elegant hall is for prayers, and the commence- 
ments, and other public exercises. The second story is 
appropriated to the library. 

About half of the two townships, (or 46,080 acres) given 
by Congress, have been sold, and the avails, (such as have 
not been used in erecting buildings) have been invested in 
the stock of the state Bank of Alabama. The amount so 
invested is more than $100,000, and it is constantly increa- 
sing from debts due for the land sold, and from the sale of 
other lands. 

This Institution went into operation two years ago, and 
has moie than 100 students at this time. The Rev. Alva 
Woods, D. D. is the President. There are several other 
Professors. 

I have now completed the survey of the literary institu- 
tions in the Valley of the Mississippi. A summary of the 
whole is, that there are in actual operation (of all grada- 
tions) thirty Colleges ; ten Theological Seminaries, exclu- 
sive of the provision made for Theological instruction in 
two or three colleges, but inclusive of several academies, 
(such as that at Hanover, Indiana,) of a mixed character; 
three Medical Schools ; one Law School ; and two Asylums 



y Google 



324 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

for the instruction of the deaf and dumb. The number of 
academies and high schools I do not know with sufficient 
accuracy to attempt to state it. As to academies and com- 
mon schools, I have already said much. I will not here re- 
peat what I have said in previous chapters. 

To the preceding account of the colleges, &c. in the Yal- 
ley of the Mississippi, I would subjoin the following very 
brief statement respecting the periodical literature of that 
interesting portion of our country. 

There are from 280 to 300 newspapers published every 
week in the Valley of the Ajlississippi. Of these, 10 or 12 
are religious papers, and several more are partly so. Many 
of the newspapers of the West have but a limited circula- 
tion, being confined chiefly to the counties in which they 
are published. 

In Cincinnati there are four daily, and two semi-weekly 
papers, besides several which are weekly. There are 
also three monthly, two semi-monthly, one quarterly (Med- 
ical,) Review. In Louisville there are two, in New Or- 
leans five, in Nashville one, in Mobile two, St. Louis one, 
and Pittsburg one, daily papers. In most of these places, 
semi-weekly papers are also published. 

A valuable medical work called " The Transylvania 
Medical Journal,^' conducted by members of the Medical 
Faculty of Transylvania University, is published at Lex- 
ington, Kentucky. 

The periodical press in many places in the West enlists 
much talent. I could mention several newspapers which 
rival the best of those which are published in the East. 

I suppose that upon an average the western newspapers 
circulate 800 copies each : which, estimating the number 
at 280, would give 224,000 copies. This I believe to be a 
reasonable calculation. The number of families in the West 
is about 675,000. From this it would appear that about 
one-third of the families receive a newspaper ; which is 
probably the case. The whole number of newspapers in the 
United States is about 1,000, of which 720 are published 
in the Atlantic states. 

The limited nature of this work will not allow me to say 
more on this important subject. Truly important it must 
appear to every thinking man. For if our liberties are to 
be maintained, they must be maintained, under God, greatly 



y Google 



COLLEGES, ETC. S25 

through the influence of an honest, independent, and mtel- 
ligent press. No man has it in his power to do more for 
his country than a capable and virtuous editor of a news- 
paper. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AND SECTS. 

Having completed the survey of the Colleges, &c. of 
the West, I shall now give a sketch of the Religious De- 
nominations in that great section of our country, and the 
number of ministers, churches, members, &c. of each, as 
far as the means which I possess will enable me to do it. 
I am aware that no statements of this kind are likely to be 
entirely accurate, for it is impossible to obtain the requisite 
materials. Any defect which may be perceived by any 
one, in what I am about to state, will be attributed, I trust, , 
to a want of full information on my part. And if what I 
am about to write, should only lead to a more perfect 
statement derived from those who are more competent to 
give it, I shall not labour in vain. 

1. Baptists. The following statement is made from the 
Baptist Annual Register for 1833. It is probable that it 
is not exactly correct, and yet I trust there is no material 
error. 





Churches. 


Ministers 


1. Communicants. 


Western Penn. 


51 


23 


2,883 


Western Va. 


50 


26 


1,776 


Ohio 


280 


142 


10,493 


Michigan 


16 


10 


703 


Kentucky 


484 


236 


33,724 


Indiana 


299 


152 


11,334 


Illinois 


154 


107 


4,492 


Missouri 


146 


86 


4,972 


Tennessee 


413 


219 


20,472 


Arkansas 


17 


7 


181 


Mississippi 


84 


34 


3,L99 


Louisiana 


16 


12 


278 


Alabama 


250 


109 


11,408 


Total 


2,260 
28 


1,163 


132,915 



y Google 



Members. ' 


fravelling Ministers. 


26,061 


107 


44,879 


136 


5,205 


44 


27,553 


95 


26,107 


93 


26,911 


122 


21,576 


62 


19,432 


80 



326 TALLET OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

It would no doubt be safe to estimate the number of 
Baptist churches in the West at 2,300 ; ministers at 1,200 ; 
and members at 140,000, including the Campbeilites and 
all others that are called by the name of Baptists. 

2. Methodists. According to the Minutes of the several 
Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
for the year 1832, there were in the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi, 

Conferences. 
Pittsburg 
Ohio 
Missouri 
Illinois 
Kentucky 
Tennessee 
Holston 
Mississippi 

Total 197,724 728 

Probably there are now nearly 220,000 members be- 
longing to that denomination, and 750 travelling ministers. 
The number of stationed ministers I have no means at 
hand of ascertaining. 

Reformed Methodists. This is becoming a numerous 
body of Christians in some portions of the West. They 
have large churches in Pittsburg and Cincinnati, and 
publish a respectable religious journal at the former place. 
I do not know their num^rs. It is but a few years since 
they were organized into a distinct denomination. 

3. Presbyterians. There are 11 Synods, 43 Presbyte- 
ries, about 950 ministers, 1000 congregations, and 75,000 
communicants, or members. 

4. Cumberland Presbyterians. This denomination be- 
gan to exist in 1810. They are found principally in Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky. They originated from the seces- 
sions of several ministers in Tennessee and Kentucky 
from the regular Presbyterian church, on account of some 
difference of views on the subject of the necessity of literary- 
attainments in the ministry, and also on account of some 
doctrinal differences. They have now a General Assembly, 
4 Synods, about 20 Presbyteries, 200 ministers, and are 
rapidly increasing. They have a flourishing college at 



y Google 



RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AND SECTS. 827 

Princetoo, Ky, I do not know the precise number of the 
members of this denomination, but believe it to be about 
^0,000. Jt is said to be increasing, and is spreading in 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, and 
other states. 

5. Protestant Episcopal Church* This church has four 
dioceses in the Valley of the Mississippi, exclusive of West- 
ern Pennsylvania and Virginia, which belong to the dio- 
ceses of those states. 1st, Diocese of Ohio, Rev. Chas. P. 
Mcllvaine, D. D. bishop, about 20 inferior clergy, and 
nearly twice, as many churches. 2d, Diocese of Kentucky^ 
Rev. B. B. Smith, D. D. bishop, 10 or 12 ministers, and 
about 20 churches. 3d, Diocese of Tennessee, four or 
five ministers, and twice as many churches. 4th, Diocese 
of Mississippi, four or five ministers. There are two 
Episcopal ministers in Louisiana, two in Michigan territory, 
one in Arkansas, two in Missouri, two in Florida, and five 
or six in West Pennsylvania, and as many in West Vir- 
ginia ; in all between sixty and seventy ministers, and 
many vacant churches in the West. The prospects of 
this church in the Valley of the Mississippi are evidently 
encouraging. The Literary and Theological Institution 
at Gambler, Ohio, is destined to exert a most happy influ- 
ence upon the interests of that church, and will, I trust, 
supply her altars with a learned and devoted ministry. 

6. Lutheran Church. — There are probably from thirty 
to forty ministers of the Gospel of this denomination in the 
West, a part of whom belong to the synod of West Penn- 
sylvania, and a part to the synod of Ohio. 

7. German Reformed Church. — There are probably 
about as many ministers of this church as of the Lutheran 
in the Valley of the Mississippi'. They have each near 
one hundred churches. Most of their ministers in the West 
preach to five or six congregations. 

8. Emancipators. — This is a sect of the Baptists which 
originated in 1805. They are opposed to negro slavery, 
both in principle and practice. They and all other sects 
of Baptists are included in the enumeration of the Baptists 
which has been given. 

9. Tunkers. — ^This sect has existed in this country 
since 1719. They have probably forty or fifty churches, 
principally in Penns)^lvania and the western states. 



y Google 



S2d y VALLEY OF THE 1IISSI88IPFI. 

10. Shakers. — This sect has churches in several places 
in Kentucky and Ohio. Union village and Watervleit in 
the latter, and Pleasant Hill and South Union in the for- 
mer, are the principal. I do not know their number. 

11. Christians or New Lights* — ^This sect arose about 
twenty-five years ago, in Kentucky. Stone, Dunlavy, and 
others, were the founders. Kincaid is now one of their 
leading ministers and authors. They are generally, but 
not universally. Unitarians in their theology. Their num- 
ber is considerable, and increasing in Kentucky and Ohio. 
They are to be found also in Indiana and other states. 

12. Covenanters. — There are several churches of this 
denomination in the West, and perhaps twenty or thirty 
ministers. 

13. Associate Church, or Seceders, as they are com- 
monly called. Their number is greater than that of the 
Covenanters. They have a theological school at Canons- 
burg, under the instruction of the Rev. Dr. Ramsay, Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew in Jefferson college. 

14. Associate Reformed Church. — A few years since, 
the General Synod of this denomination voted to unite 
with the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church. 
The whole of the western sjmod as well as other parts of 
that church, in New- York, Pennsylvania, and other sections 
of the country, did not accede to the union. The western 
synod embraces a considerable number of churches, and 
had, a short time since, a theological school, under the 
instruction of the late Rev. Dr. Riddle, of West Pennsyl- 
vania, which ~has been transferred to Pittsburg, and the 
Rev. Mr. Pressley has been appointed professor of The- 
ology. I do not know the precise number of their minis- 
ters in the Valley, but believe that it is larger than that of 
the Associate Church. 

15. Roman Catholics. The number of Papal diocese^ 
in this region is^^r. 1. Mobile, comprehending Alabama 
and West Florida. 2. New Orleans, including Mississippi 
and Louisiana. 3. St. Louis, comprehending Missouri 
and Arkansas. 4. Bardstown, including Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and Illinois. 5. Cincinnati, including Ohio. 6. De- 
troit, embracing the territory of Michigan. 

1. Mobile. — A splendid cathedral is about to be erected 
in this place. Bishop Portier has recently established a 



y Google 



RBLIGI01TS DfeXOMIN^'^'IONS AND SECTS. 329 

college hero-, whicli has how ftbbat fSO students. Seve- 
ral pries;ts from Europe bntive lately joined him. 2#\ZVctt? 
Orleans.-^The ihas^' of the populatipa to Louisiana is Cath- 
olic. There ^re abo^ut twenty ecclesiastical parishes, most 
of which are pirovided- with priests. There U a Catholic 
college at New Orleans, «aid to be floilrishii%. Numerous 
convents andseminaries are^ established in various parts pf 
the state'. 3. <^/. Louis* — About one-third of the inhabit- 
jants of , this city.nre Catholics. - TlTere is a Catfiblic col" 
l^ge, uhder this control of the Jesuits ^ercj^ith 160 stu- 
dent^. Th^superiiitendentof a,U the Jesuits in theTalley 
of the Mississippi, resided at St. Louis. The Catholics have 
a school, either male or female, and in some cases both, at 
St." Charles, St;i Ofemevieve, Florissant, St. Louis, Peryyille, 
f&c' In the dioceses of New Orleans, and St. LouiB, they 
have 100 priesls, two coUeges^ two theological seminaries, 
t^n Convents, and 600 pupils in their semiilsriegr. 4. Bardf' 
town»~-rThere are said to be 20 priesls and 30 congrega* 
tion^ in Kentucky. Jn the other stated in this diocese there 
are few organized Cdtholip Congtegations. 5. Cincinncrti. 
—A lai'ge Cathedral lias been built in this city, and at least 
12 cbqrches have been boilt ^ilhis diocese, a^ many more 
are in prospect. A literary institution has been commenced 
in Cincinnati, und^r the auspices and control of the Bisht>p, 
C£^lled the Athen^m. The late Bishop Fenwick commenced 
his jaboers a few year^ since at Cincinnati, with five mem- 
bersj^nd four years ago, h6 had 3Q0 members in his church. 
The Catholics sfate,.that their number, is rapidly increas- 
ing, not only in th^t city, but throughout the state of Ohio, 
bothr by the arrivaLof foreigft^ers aqd by actual conversions. 
6. DetTjoit^-^ln this ^iocesethisre are six Catholic churches. 
The Catholics reckon that they. have 7,000 members in 
Michigan territory, including fur traders. They have a 
Ohapel at Mackinaw^ and 300 membeis in the Ottawa tril)e 
of Indians, 45 miles from Mackinaw. ' - ;\ . 

16. Inthe'VaUey of the- Mississippi there are about 34, 
OOO'members of the Society of jPricncT^, ch^efiy settled in 
the statics of Ohio and ^ ludiana. They hold two yearly 
meetings, one-^ at Mount Pheasant, Ohio, and one^ at Rich- 
mond ih Indiana, comprising a large number of Quarterly, 
Monthly and oth^r meeting. Some of this denomination 
iiave recently settled in Michigan territory. ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



830 VAtLBY OT-TJtE XISSISSIPPI. 

In this general survey of the teligiqus denominations in 
the West, I da not recl^n. several small bodiesy^suck as the 
Seventh Day Baptist) &c, nor several^minor sctots of error- 
ists, such as the Pilgrims, (now nearly extinct,) the famous 
Mormonites, dzTc. The . Valley <^ the Mississippi, like all 
new countries; is a wide and fertile field for the propaga- 
tion of error of every sort^ Ignorance and credulity are 
every where fit materials for the plastic hands of impostors 
and heresiarchs of every descriptidn. • . 

'The whole population vof the Valley of the JVfississippi, 
may be. estimated, at 4;20Q',00b. A general distribution 
may be made, with tolerable^ accuracy, of the people, ac- 
coining to profession or preference, in the "following man^ 
ner: - ■/'.■•. 



DenominatioTU 


Population 


Methodist, - • - ^ 


800,€toa 


Baptist, - •_. ^ 


. 700i00(^; 


Presbyterian, - - - 


- 560,000 


Papal . . , 


$00,^00 


Protestant Episcopal, 


50,000 


Cumbejland Presbyterians, 


.' . 100,000 


Friends, - - - . . - 


34,000 


Several smaller sects; - . > 


100,000 



Total, . 2,834,000 

Leaving about 1,366,000 who are not attached to any sect. 
The various Religious Benevolent Societies of our coun- 
try, are doing much in the Valley of the Mississippi. The 
American Home Missionary Society, and the Board of Mis- 
sions of the General Aissembly of the*Presbyterian church 
* haVe sent near ,500 Ministers of the Gospel, within a few 
years, to destitute Congregations of that denomination in 
the Valley of the Mississippi! A Baptist Home Missiona- 
ly has been formed recently, with special referende to thi» 
portion of our cpimtry. . Qther denominations »are doing 
much ta establish and sustain churches, wherever the peo-^ 
pie prefer their docC^rines and mordes of worship. The 
American Tract Society, and the American Bible Soct^y^ 
have circulated vast numbera^of Tracts and Bibles in. the 
West. Whilst the American. Siinday School Union' is la- 
l^urin^to establish a Sunday Scbool and library in every 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



BELiaipUS DENOMINATIONS AND SECTS. 8^ 

nei^bourhood, leaving It to ^e people to conduct them as 
they choose. They haveestahli^^hed more than 4000 schools 
within the last three* years. And the Colonization Society 
is extending its influence also into the West, and has form- 
ed many^uxiliaries. . ' 
■ These facts ar© mentioned hfere to show that inuch is 
doing to protQ^te religion^ and religious institutions, in the 
-West.' " i. . '. • -:,■"' 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



332 vALusir of the mb^ssifpi. 



CHAPTEfe XKYlh : 

tHE STEAM-BOATS OF TffiEW^T/^ \ ^ 

This chapter will be occupied with an Account of the 
Steafti-toats, atiLd Steamrboat scenes, of the Vailey of the 
Mississippi-: — ./ .. 

The first steaip-boat built: itv the Valley of the^T^fissippi^ 
was the New Orleans, wliich was launched at Pittsburg in 
the year 1811. Consequentiy,^ twenty-two^ years have 
elapsed since the greyest i,mproyen»nt in fiver^navigatton 
which the -world has eveY seen, was introduced mto^this 
western region. Few^team-boats however were built be- 
fore the year 1817. Since that period the number has 
annually and rapidly increased, until it has become uston- 
ishingly great. From documents in my possession^ and 
which r believe are very accurate,. I Jeara that,.at the 
commencement of- the year 1831, the number of three 
hundred and for^y-eigM had been running on these waters, 
and alf, excepting a very few which were brought round 
from the East, were JbuUt in the.West. -^ DuHpg 1832, 
about eighty steam^ boats were built, and nearly an- equal 
number have been btiilt, or We building, this year. So 
that thero have been' not less, probably, than 500 steam- 
boats built in the West, about one half of which are now 
in existence. ' _ • 

It is a fact, that the steam-boats in the West are far 
less durable than thope in the East. Qn^ rea^n of this 
may be, that /the wood- of which they ^re inade seems to 
te of a more rapid gi-owtli, jmd consequently of a less 
solid and firm fibre.' Anoth^ reason is, that they are 
hastily put together, and of materials little s^a^oned. And 
perhaps a greater is, that (hey suffer much harder usage, 
from the powerful application of steam, and more Ihfin all, 
from belng-so often run against rocks, sand-bars and logs. 
Whatever may be the. causes, they seldom are worth 



y Google 



STEAM-BOATS. 833 

much after running dwe or six years. Some have run 
seven or eight ; but this number is small. A few which 
were built of live oak have lasted nearly ten years. 

It has been asserted that the cost of a steam-boat in the 
West is about #100 per ton- This estimate as a general 
ode, is, I am persuaded, too high. The relative cost of 
steam-boats in the West, as every where else, is inversely 
proportional to their size. A steam-boat of fifty tons 
costs more, proportionally, than one of a hundred tons, 
or five hundred tons. At present a boat of from seventy- 
five to one hundred tons may be completely finished and 
prepared, in every respect, for running, for about eighty 
dollars per ton ; or at the highest, when most expensively 
finished, for one hundred dollars per ton ; whilst a plain 
boat of five hundred tons can be built for perhaps sixty 
dollars per ton. For instance, the Uncle Sam, of five 
hundred tons, cost about $29,600 ; and the Henry Clay, 
a splendid boat of five hundred tons, cost near $43,000. 
Some idea of the large amount of capital invested in 
steam-boats in the West, may be obtained, from the above 
statement. The eighty steam-boats which were built last 
year, some of them being of the largest class, cost oii^hh 
average from $12,000 to $15,000 each, in all from $960, 
000, to $1,200,000. 

It has been said, that steam-boats in the West usually 
clear their prime cost during the first year's running, and 
after that, the proceeds— deducting of course the repairs 
and other expenses — are a nett profit to the owners. I 
am confident that this is not true as a general fact. Whilst 
some Boats which run very well, and are managed by ca- 
pable and careful officers and hands, and supported by the 
indefatigable efibrts of enterprising owners, and numerous 
agents in the various ports from Pittsburg to New Orleans, 
do quite, aud sometimes more than, pay their original cost 
during the first year, and afterwards for three or four 
years are a source of great profit to their owners, many 
do not clear their first cost in two or three years, and 
some never. It is considered well if they do so in two or 
three years. Even then, they prove in the end, very val- 
uable stock. 

Steam-boats of the largest class in the West are esti- 
mated at five hundred tons, or rather at four hundred and 



y Google 



834 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

fifty and upwards. To this class belong the Uncle Sam, 
Mohawk, Baltic, Henry Clay, Mediterranean, Philadelphia, 
Belfast, ike. The medium size embraces those of three 
hundred tons. To this class belongs the Hibernia. Those 
which are calculated for low water and have a draught of 
fix)m twenty inches to four^eet of water, according to the 
amount of freight which they carry, are boats of one hun- 
dred tons or rather less. To this class belong such boats 
as the Peruvian, Versailles, Banner, Waverly, Friend, 
Don Juan, Magnolia, Sylph, Lady Byron, Citizen, Cleo- 
patra. There is a large number of this size. And there 
are some smaller, and calculated to run in very shallow 
water and in small rivers, — ^such, for instance, are the Odd 
Fellow, Scout, Traveller, and Hatchie. There are some 
boats of one hundred and fifty, and two hundred tons ,* such 
are the Argus, Abeona, Napoleon, &c. 

During the months of July, August, September, and 
sometimes October, a large number of the boats, especially 
those of the larger classes, do not run, on account of the 
low water. But from October to July, all are in motion. 
If in any portion of that period they are excluded from the 
rivers in the northern part of the Valley, by reason of the 
ice, they go down into the " lower trade," on the lower 
Mississippi, and the Cumberland, Tennessee, Arkansas 
and Red Rivers, where the navigation is never impeded 
by ice. The summer of 1832, was a remarkable one for 
the keeping up of the rivers in the West, especially the 
Ohio. On this account an unusually large number of 
steam-boats were running. Yet more than a hundred were 
laid up, and received such repairs as were necessary for 
the coming business of the fall and winter. I saw four or 
five lying at Nashville, 15 or 20 at St. Louis, three or 
four at Trinity, 30 or 40 at New- Albany and Shippingport, 
a number at Cincinnati, and seyeral at various other places 
on the Ohio above that city. 

Much has been said respecting the comparative elegance 
of the eastern and western steam-boats. 

^Non nostrum tantas componere lites. 

The most careless observer, however, cannot but notice 
a great difl^rence between them in a variety of respects* 



y Google 



STEAM-BOATS. 836 

The eastern boats have riot generally any cabins above 
deck, but always in the holdy if I may so speak. But in 
the western boats this arrangement is scarcely ever seen. 
Their holds, or that part which in an eastern boat is occu- 
pied by thejfore and aft cabins, and the machinery, is the 
place for stowing away the heavy freight, &c. The boilers 
are placed not in the centre, but on the bow of the boat, 
and from them to the stern runs a deck or story, including, 
or rather enclosing the machinery, which reaches some- 
what beyond the middle of the boat, and having in some 
cases a gentlemen's cabin, (and sometimes a ladies' also) 
in the stern. Above this deck is another, which extends 
from the stern to the fore part of the boat, and runs wholly 
over the boilers. In many boats that part of this deck 
which is in the stern of the boat, is occupied as a ladies' 
cabin, whilst all the rest is for what are called deck pas- 
sengers ; in others, the whole of it is occupied by deck 
passengers; and in others, both the gentlemen's and la- 
dies' cabin are in this part of the boat, and what are 
usually called deck-passengers occupy the deck below, 
astern of the machinery. Such boats are always adver- 
tised as having " upper cabins." The part of this deck 
immediately over the boilers, and through which the pipes 
that conduct the smoke from the fires below pass, is called 
the boiler deck. There are a few boats which have even 
a third deck or story. From this description, the reader 
will readily conceive that the western boats having deck 
upon deck, on their midships and stem, must have a very 
difierent appearance from those on the eastern waters. 
And although in their bows or forward part they have an 
unfinished appearance, and have a less ship-like aspect 
than the eastern boats, yet they move very gracefully 
through the water, and seem to one viewing them, like 
Jloating castles* As they stand so much out of the water, 
they resemble at a distance the dismantled seventy-fours 
at the Navy-Yard at Brooklyn, only they are much small- 
er. Scarcely any sight can be more beautiful than that 
of the approach, or departure from port, of such a boat as 
the Abeona, or Caledonia, when viewed from a distant and 
elevated point. 

In regard to the elegance of interior, I think many of 
the western boats can well compare with the eastern. Al- 



y Google 



VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

though they have not mahogany, yet they have the curled 
maple and other beautiful woods of this region, which are 
scarcely inferior. I doubt much whether there is a boat 
on the eastern waters which has a cabin surpassing in 
beauty that of the Henry Clay, or George Washington. 
And the style of living on board the western boats gene- 
rally far surpasses that of the eastern. I have travelled 
extensively in the United States, and l have never seen 
such tables set forth in any other steam-boats. Every 
necessary article, and every luxury too of diet, which the 
West affords, is to be found on the tables of the best steam- 
boats in the Valley of the Mississippi. 

The common opinion among mechanics, engineers and 
captains in the West is, that engines constructed on the 
high pressure principle, are preferable for boats in 
this region, to those upon the low pressure principle. 
There are some boats indeed upon the low pressure 
principle, such as the Ben Franklin, Amulet, Robert 
Fulton, Philadelphia, Waverly, Magnolia^ Farmer, &c. 
The owners and all interested in the low pressure boats, 
are probably advocates for low pressure engines. But, as 
I have already remarked, the general opinion is, that the 
low pressure boats are not adapted to these westerh rivers, 
with their long courses and rapid and powerful currents. 
Several reasons may be assigned for this preference: 
1. High pressure engines are much less heavy* 2- They 
are much more simple in their construction, as every one 
knows who knows any thing about steam-engines. A con- 
sequence of their simplicity is, that they are much more 
easily understood, kept in order, and repaired when out 
of order. Both of these considerations are important in 
boats that make long voyages. And 3. They can work 
off all the steam which they generate, if the valves con- 
nected with their cylinders are large enough ; so that 
there is no limit to their power, except the strength of the 
boilers and cylinders. But in the low pressure boats no 
more steam can be used than can be worked off by a con- 
denser, so that there is a limit, (and usually the limit is 
far below what the machinery will bear,) to the application 
of the steam which they can generate. The consequence 
is, that where great power is sometimes needed, in diffi- 



y Google 



\ STEAM-BOATS. 337 

cult rapids, the engine cannot give it, because the steam 
must not be generated faster than the condenser can work 
it off, otherwise an explosion would speedily occur. On the 
other hand, the high pressure engines have no limits as to 
the power which they can afibrd, save the strength of the 
boilers and cylinders. And if a sufficient amount of water 
is kept in the boilers, and the boat is fully under way, 
there is but little danger resulting from raising steam very 
high. For in that case, however rapidly the steam is 
generated, (if it be not converted into gas, which is not 
likely to be done if a sufficient amount of water is in the 
boilers,) it is carried off instantaneously by the action of 
the piston in the cylinder. 

Much has been said respecting the many and fatal ac- 
cidents which have occurred on steam-boats in the West. 
It must indeed be admitted that many, too many, such ac- 
cidents have occurred. Many boats have been destroyed 
by snags, others by fire ; some have been run down by 
other boats, and some have been injured, and many lives 
lost, by the bursting of boilers.* I believe that many, if 
not most, of these accidents have occurred through very 
culpable carelessness, especially those of the last mentioned 
class, the bursting of the boilers. That accidents should 
happen to boats running on these rivers, possessing cur- 
rents of great rapidity, constantly changing more or less 
their channels, and rendered dangerous in low water, by 
innumerable ^ sand-bars, rocks imd snags, is surely not a 
subject of marvel. And when we remember the great 
number of boats running (now upwards of two hundred 
and forty,) and the length of their voyages, ofltimes— our 
wonder will be still less. It is comparatively nothing for 
a steam-boat to run from New York to Albany, New Ha- 

* From a memorandum in my possession, and which was obtained 
from a good source, I find that out of the one hundred and eighty4vJ0 
steaHi-bmits, which were not in existence in July, 1831, sixty-six were 
toom out; thirty-seven were snagged; sixteen were humt; three were 
run down by other boats ; four or fiw were stone by ice or sandiars^ 
rocks^ ^e, ; and thirty destroyed by causes not exactly known. Some of 
the most calamitous acci<tent8 have been occasion^ by snags^ rochs^ 
and fires. 

During the last year, an unusual! j hurge number of boats have been 
destroyed, and many of them by fire. 

29 



y Google 



938 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

ven, Providence, or New Brunswick ; or from Philadel- 
to Trenton ; or from Baltimore to Norfolk ; where there 
are no natural obstructions to navigation, and where the 
voyage can be accomplished in a few hours. But the 
case is far different, when a boat sets out from New Or-, 
leans for St. Louis, or Cincinnati, or Pittsburg ; distances 
of many hundreds of miles ; where snags, rocks, and sand- 
bars, are to be guarded against every hour, especially 
when the water is low ; and where the boilers are scarcely 
allowed to become cold during the whole voyage i 

Most of the accidents, which have resulted from the 
bursting of boilers, have taken place, when the boat was 
leaving port. Two general reasons may be assigned for 
this fact ; 1. The very improper practice of accumulating 
steam, while the boat is stopping to land, or receive freight, 
or passengers, so as to start with an immense pressure of 
steam. This practice arises from a desire to make the 
voyage in a very short period, or to excel some other boat 
which is just before or behind. 2. The other cause is the 
keeling over, as it is called in the West, of the boat, that is, 
its inclining to one side, occasioned by the turning of the 
boat as it leaves port. By this turning up of one side of 
the boat, the water in the uppermost boiler is greatly di- 
minished, and the steam that is in it, is very likely then to 
be converted into the two gases of which water is compos- 
ed, and one of which is very expansive. To understand 
my meaning, the reader must keep in mind the fact, that 
almost all the steam-boats in the West have from two to 
nine boilers, all lying side by side, in the same bed or fur- 
nace, and connected with each other by intervening pipes. 
Now if we suppose that a boat has five, or seven, or more 
boilers, we shall readily see that it will require no great 
inclination of the boat, to diminish very greatly the water 
in the boiler which may be on the elevated side. An ex- 
plosion of that boiler is to be considered a very probable 
event, especially if the water in all the boilers was low at 
the time of starting. 

It has also been noticed that boilers have most frequently 
burst just afler there have been a few strokes of the piston 
in starting. This probably results from the fact, that as 
soon as the steam is diminished in the boilers, by the ac- 
tion of the piston in the cylinder, the water rises in the 



y Google 



STEAM-BOATS. 339 

boilers, and — supposing that, at this moment, the boat has 
keeled considerably, and the fires are burning intensely, 
and the water is very low, — as the water rises (upon the 
diminution of the pressure of the steam) it comes in con- 
tract with the sides of the boiler, which may possibly be 
nearly red hot ; instantaneously a greater quantity of steam 
is generated than can be worked off by the action of the 
piston, which is yet too slow to carry off much steam. 
Or the water is decomposed, and the hydrogen gas imme- 
diately causes an explosion. 

The captains of the western steam boats, are in general 
well qualified for their stations. There are indeed excep- 
tions ; there are those who are uncivil, profane in their 
language, and disagreeable. And such there are among 
the captains of the eastern steam-boats. But I have tra- 
velled in many of the steam-boats in the Valley of the 
Mississippi, and I have almost uniformly found their com- 
manders urbane, attentive, patient, vigilant, and disposed 
to do every thing that could be done to render the voyage, 
— H>flen long and tedious, and demanding uncommon pa- 
tience in the master of the vessel, — pleasant to the pas- 
sengers. 

The pilots on these boats, are generally men who are 
well acquainted with the rivers. Many of them have 
spent years on board flat and keel boats, and during per- 
haps some forty or fifty voyages up and down, have acquir- 
ed a very minute acquaintance with the difficult places in 
the rivers. But such are the unceasing changes which 
are made in the channels, particularly in the Mississippi 
river, that no human foresight or experience can guard 
ag.iinst all accidents, resulting from sand-bars, rocks, and 
snags. The post of a pilot is by far the most difficult on 
board a \restern steam-boat. And the skill of many of 
those whom I have seen is truly astonishing. 

The engineers are generally attentive to their duties. 
But few of them know much about the science of steam 
engines. They usually go a few voyages with an old en- 
gineer before they set up for themselves. Their know- 
ledge is very limited, and wholly practical. There are, 
however, some noble exceptfons. If a competent man 
were an engineer on board the Uncle Sam, Henry Clay, 
or some other boat, and would undertake to teach a 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



840 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

school, for the purpose of preparing engineers, I mean by 
instructing several at a time during a few voyages, he 
would render a great service to the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi. It is however an encouraging fact, that many men 
who were trained up in the shops for making steam en- 
gines and their machinery, at Pittsburg and Cincinnati, 
are becoming engineers on board the steam-boats. Better 
engineers could not be found, inasmuch as they are famil- 
iar with the entire structure and principles of steam-en- 
gines. So that the prospect is that there will be fewer 
accidents from bursting of boilers, although I am persuad- 
ed that the danger of such accidents is now greatly exag- 
gerated in the imagination of the community. 

The introduction of steam boats into the Valley of the 
Mississippi, has effected a complete revolution in the inter- 
nal navigation of that region. Merchandize of all kinds is 
now carried between the extremest points for a very small 
amount. It is said that goods can be shipped from New 
York to New Orleans, and then carried by steam boat to 
Cincinnati, for 1 cent per pound ! A single fact will con- 
vince any one of the advantage of steam-boats in a com- 
mercial point of view. In the summer of 1830, when the 
Ohio was too low, for months, for steam-boats to run, it was 
necessary to carry the merchandize descending that river 
from Pittsburg, to Cincinnati and Louisville, in flat and 
keel boats. A captain of a steam-boat, engaged in that 
trade, has told me that he at that time purchased three keel 
boats at six hundred dollars, loaded them with 50 or 60 
tons, and when he arrived at Louisville sold the boats for 
three hundred dollars, and yet after defraying aU the other 
expenses of the trip, including high wages for five or six 
hands on each boat, made a handsome sum of money. Then 
freight was a dollar or two per hundred. But when the 
steam boats commenced running, it was carried for 20 or 
80 cents per hundred for precisely the same distance. 

By a recent law of the General Government, all steam- 
boats in the West, as well as elsewhere, are required to be 
fsnro^led and licensed by the Collectors of the Customs ; they 
must have their names painted on them, and the names of 
the places ^vhere they are owned, and pay twenty cents a 
month out of the wages of every hand, excepting appren- 
tices and slaves, for the Hospital Fund. Steam boats are 



y Google 



STEA^M BOATS. 841 

registered at Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis and 
New Orleans. 

The facilities for travelling which steam boats furnish in 
the West, are inconceivable to our Atlantic people, or any- 
one who did not travel here in the " olden time." Then it 
Wjas a journey, on horseback, of several months, to go up 
from New Orleans to Pittsburg; now it can be done with 
ease in three weeks, in almost any steam boat, and allow 
much time for stopping at the intermediate places. When 
steam boats first began to run, $125 and even $150 were 
cheerfully paid for a passage from New Orleans to Louis- 
ville ! And when the charges were so diminished as to be 
only $100, from New Orleans to Pittsburg, which is 650 
miles further, and in all more than 2000 miles, it was 
thought truly astonishing. But now one can go from New 
Orleans to Pittsburg as a cabin passenger, for from $35 to 
$45, and fare sumptuously every day! And if he chooses 
to go as a deck passenger he can do it for perhaps $10 or 
$12 ! Consequently astonishing facilities are afforded to fa- 
milies removing to distant parts of the entire Valley. The 
passengers are denominated either " cabin" or " deck" pas- 
sengers from the different parts of (he boat which they oc- 
cupy. Those in the cabin pay a much higher price, and 
have every thing furnished. The deck passengers occupy 
either the upper deck, or the one immediately astern of the 
machinery, as I have already mentioned, and find their 
own provisions. Their part of the boat is not generally 
finished with much particularity, and is indeed rather an un- 
comfortable place in cold weather. 

Although the steam boats of the West are generally de- 
signed for carryihg freight as well as passengers, yet it is 
astonishing what a number of persons one of them can carry. 
Even a boat of 100 tons offen carries 50 cabin passengers; 
as many more, or perhaps twice as many, on deck ; and 
withal 75 or 80 tons of freight ! And a boat of 500 tons, 
such as the Uncle Sam, or the Red Rover, or Belfast, has 
oflen carried 100 passengers in the cabin, 500 on deck, and 
400 tons of freight, and withal marched up the mighty 
Mississippi at the rate of six or eight miles an hour ! Im- 
mense numbers of passengers are carried from one part of 
the Valley to another by these boats. Those boats which 
00036 up from New Orleans bring, besides merchants and 

29* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



342 VALLEY OF THE 1US8I8SIPPI. 

Other inhabitants or strangers, who occupy the cabin, hun- 
dreds of Germans, Irish, and other foreign emigrants who 
land at that port, and are seeking a home in the interior of 
the Valley of the Mississippi. On the other hand those 
which descend from Pittsburg carry hundreds of travellers 
and emigrants from the East, as well as from foreign 
lands. 

One of these large boats, filled with passengers, is almost 
a world m miniature. In the cabin you will find ladies 
and gentlemen of various claims to merit ; on the forward 
part of the boat are the sailors, deck hands, and those sons 
of Vulcan — the firemen — possessing striking traits of 
character, and full of noise, and song, and too oflen of 
whiskey ; whilst above, in the deck cabin, there is every- 
thing that may be called human, — ^all sorts of men and 
women, of all trades, from all parts of the world, of all 
possible manners and habits. There is the half-horse and 
naif-alligator Kentucky boatman, swaggering, and boast- 
ing of his prowess, his rifie, his horse, and his wife. One 
is sawing away on his wretched old fiddle all day long ; 
another is grinding a knife or razor; here is a party 
playing cards ; and in yonder corner is a dance to the sound 
of the Jew's harp ; whilst a few are trying to demean 
themselves soberly, by sitting in silence or reading a book. 
But it is almost impossible — the wondrous tale and horri- 
ble Indian story are telling ; the bottle and the jug are 
freely circulating ; and the boisterous and deafening laugh 
is incessantly raised, sufficient to banish every vestige of 
seriousness, and thought, and sense. A friend of mine, 
some time ago, went down from Cincinnati to New Orleans 

on board the steam-boat , which carried fifty cabin 

passengers, one or two hundred deck passengers; one 
negro-driver with his gang of negroes ; a part of a com- 
pany of soldiers ; a menagerie of wild beasts ; a whole 
circus ; and a company of play actors ! 

When a traveller from the East enters a crowded steam- 
boat at Pittsburg or Cincinnati, and takes his passage for 
New Orleans, he very soon perceives a manifest contrast 
between western and eastern manners, and western and east- 
erti steam-boats. He soon discovers that the western peo- 
ple have much more equality in their intercourse ; are 
remarkably sociable, unceremonious, and independent* 



y Google 



8TSAM-BOATS. 843 

He will be very likely to consider them too forward and 
indifierent to the opinions of others. But he will find upon 
better acquaintance with them, that their apparent rude- 
ness and incivility of manners soon disappear, and that they 
are truly courteous, respectful, and kind to those who dis- 
play similar traits of character. They are candid and 
independent, and but little disposed to yield arrogated de- 
ference to any persons, no matter how high a standing in 
society, birth or wealth may have given them. 

I am truly sorry to say that the serious traveller will 
very often be grieved with the profaneness which is so 
common on board western steam-boats. And the practice 
is hot confined to the officers and hands, but exists, to a 
most disagreeable extent, among otherwise respectable 
passengers. It is a lamentable fact that this vice is ex- 
tremely common throughout the Valley of the Mississippi, 
and more especially in the southern part of it. So much 
so, that many gentlemen, and clever men in other respects, 
are in the habit of using profane language, when they are 
scarcely aware of it, and consequently restrain themselves 
but little in any sort of company. 

Another practice too prevalent on board the western 
steam-boats is that o^ playing at cards. It is true that it 
is generally for amusement ; for the well regulated boats 
profess not to tolerate gatnhling. But to say the least, it 
is greatly to be regretted that a better mode of spending 
time is not pursued. I know indeed that it is difficult for 
persons who are not in the habit of reading much at any 
time, to do so on board a crowded steam-boat. But I am 
far from saying this with a view of palliating an amusement 
of the most dangerous and seductive character. Its great 
prevalence shows not only a want of taste for more useful 
modes of spending time, but also a want of a correct 
knowledge of moral principles, on the part of those who 
are addicted to it. And although gambling is not pro* 
fessedly tolerated, yet it is a fact that it exists on many 
steam-boats in the West, and that too not only among ordi- 
nary passengers, merchants and other men of business, and 
travellers, but also among gangs o£ prof essional gamblers^ 
who infest the principal towns and cities froin Pittsburg to 
New-Orleans, and who are constantly traversing these 
rivers to make a prey of the young and the unwary. It is 



y Google 



344 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

dvie to truth, to say, and 1 do it with real pleasure, that no 
captains of well regulated steam-boats in the Valley of the 
Mississippi will for a moment allow such men to play with 
their passengers, or indeed to play at all. And yet I much 
fear that there are few captains in the West who would, 
as one of the eastern captains recently did, put a company 
of gamblers on shore, who refused to desist from playing ! 
Yet there are some who would do it ; indeed it has been 
done already, if I have been correctly informed. 

The hardening and chilling effects of gambling upon the 
hearty may be learned from one or two anecdotes which I 
select from hundreds, and which I received from unques- 
tionable sources. 

During one of the cold and cloudy days of 1 831 , Decem- 
ber, the steam-boat M stopped for freight at a port in 

Kentucky, on her way down the river. Whilst there, a Mr. 
— came on board, bringing with him his young, interesting, 
and beautiful, but dying wife, seeking a southern climate 
for her declining health. It was with some difficulty that 
she was brought on board, she was so feeble. The ladies, 
in the cabin, though strangers, received her with deep 
sympathy, and with her maid servant, ministered unre- 
mittingly to her wants. Her husband came but seldom to 
her cabin ; would sit a few minutes by her couch, and 
then hurry away from her longing and tearful eyes. And 
where was he spending his time ? Where was he who had 
sworn before God and man to " honour, love and protect 
her, until death should them part ?" He was in the gen- 
tlemen's cabin gambling, day and night ! The boat con- 
tinued her voyage, and in two or three days arrived at 

, the place of her destination, where the poor lady 

soon afterwards died at a boarding house. The husband, 
if husband he could be called, stayed a day or two to see ' 
her buried, and then embarked for New-Orleans, gambling 
day and night, all the way I 

Take another instance, which was told to me by the cap- 
tain of the boat on which the case occurred. A few years. 

since, the large steam-boat M set out from New-Orleans 

on an upward voyage, having on board much freight and 
many passengers. Among them were several merchants 
who had large amounts in sugar, molasses, cofiee,^c. Soon 
after the boat started they commenced gambling, and con- 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



STEAM-BOATS. 346 

tinued without intermissioa until afler 10 o'clock at night. 
The captain then informed them, that it was contrary to the 
rules of the boat that they should play in the cabin after that 
hour. They demurred protested, and entreated. But he 
was inflexible. At length he consented to their going to a 
small private room ; but enjoined it upon them that there 
must be no fighting » Four of them renewed the game with 
excited interest. The captain having occasion to be up all 
i^ight, went, about three o'clock, into their room. To his 
surprise he found themjust on the point of fighting. Pistols 
and dirks were drawn ! At his interposition and command, 
these weapons were put up. The cause of the quarrel was 
this : One merchant had lost all the money which he had 
with him, and all his large and valuable cargo on board. 
The loser desired his merchandize , to be estimated at the 

retail price at , where he resided, and to which place 

the boat was bound. But the marble- hearted winner in- 
sisted upon the New Orleans price as the basis of the cal- 
culation, and which would have left the loser in his debt to 
a large amount, for which he demanded a due-bill ! At the 
remonstrance of the captain, he ceased to insist upon this, 
and the bill of lading having been transferred in due form 
to the winner, the miserable loser went home without a 
dollar to pay even his passage, to tell (if he could do it) to 
his wife and children the story of his folly, and to become 
a bankrupt ! Alas ! how many men in this western coun- 
try, and on these rivers, have not only lost their fortunes, 
but, it is to be feared, their souls also, by gambling.^ 

Another species of wickedness has existed on board some 
western steam boats — not countenanced nor willingly tole* 
rated by any respectable captains ; but which results from 
allowing persons of improper character to be on board* 

* I deem it right to say that many ejistem and northern men, when 
travelling in the Valley of the Mississippi, or on visits to New Orleans 
and other cities in the Valley, who are of good character at home, do en- 
gage in gambling, to the grief of good men in this region. Even some 
firom whom such things would least have been expected, have done so ! 
A gentleman in New Orleans mentioned to me more than one such in- 
stance of men who reside in a city not a hundred miles from New York, 
who when on a visit to New Orleans not very lon^ since, became much 
addicted to card-playing. Our southern Christians have difficulties 
enough to encounter without 9uch miU-stcme disoouragements. 



y Google 



346 VALLET OP THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Scenes of shocking depravity have occurred on some boats 
from this cause. But I cannot believe that many such boats 
are now running ; and I am sure that the good sense and 
virtue of the western people will frown the masters of such 
boats out of the pale of respectable society. Propriety for- 
bids any thing more than a mere allusion to a subject so 
disgusting to every virtuous mind, and I turn at once from 
the odious topic, to a more pleasing theme. 

To a good man, there is no want of an opportunity of 
doing good on board a western steam-boat, whilst he is 
pursuing a journey, which duty calls him to make in that 
region, if he possesses a good portion of that humility, 
patience, love to God, and sympathy for dying men, which 
his Master possessed. He will, if he is properly acquaint- 
ed with human nature, endeavour to conciliate the esteem 
and confidence- of his fellow-passengers, by exhibiting a 
polite and Christian deportment. And if he wisely avails 
himself of every opportunity, and seeks such opportunities, 
he may converse with almost every individual on. board, 
CHI the momentous concerns of a better world. He will 
probably have to bear many things, especially at first, of 
an unpleasant nature. In some circumstances, he will 
find it prudent to endure in silence the profaneness and 
other evil practices of the company, rather than reprove 
openly. But if he perseveres with a heart bent upon do- 
ing good, (and every Christian ought to make this _a pri- 
mary object in all his journies, whether on business, or 
ple&sure in other respects), his hallowed influence will 
pervade the boat, and produce a lasting impression. If he 
is a minister of the Gospel, he will not find it wise to force 
religious services upon the passengers ; but he can, by a 
polite request, generally secure for such services, at a pro- 
per season, attention and approbation. 1 have known 
ministers who, by abruptly attempting the performance of 
religious services, without consulting the rest of the pas- 
sengers, lost all their influence during the remainder of 
the voyage. But if a minister, instead of this, is kind, 
courteous, communicative, and anxious to avail himself of 
every opportunity of doing good by conversation, he will 
soon be much respected, and perhaps invited to preach the 
Gospel to the passengers. He will need great patience 
and meekness, and a disposition to w^eep over the follies 



y Google 



STEAM-BOATS. 347 

and wickedness of men, and pray for them, and to consider 
every profane expression, and other instances of wicked- 
ness, as an ofl^nce against his Heavenly Father, and not 
an insult towards himself. Truth alone, urged with per- 
suasion and love, can avail for western steam-boats. They 
afford a fine field for doing good, to men of hearts warm 
and tender with the love of the Saviour, and who are well 
acquainted with the springs which influence human nature. 
The western people are the last people on earth to be 
forced into religion, and many of them have but little 
reverence for the mere office of the ministry. One of them 
told me, not long since, that he had " a great respect for 
religion, but none at all for its professors"— ^that is, the 
fact that they were professors of religion, did not of itself, 
constitute, in his opinion, any valid claim to his regard. 

There is so much both to interest and amuse an intelli- 
gent traveller, that I know not how a voyage frow New* 
Orleans to Pittsburg, or between any other extreme points 
in the Valley of the Mississippi, can appear long or very 
unpleasant. If he has a taste for reading, and is furnished 
as he ought to be, with valuable books, he can spend many 
of his hours in increasing his knowledge in that way. Or 
he may converse with his fellow passengers from morning 
until night, and thus acquire much important information 
respecting every portion of the country ; or communicate 
what may benefit them. 

If the weather is pleasant, he may spend much time in 
viewing the banks of the river, covered with lofty forests, 
or cultivated fields, with numerous villages and towns 
springing up and adding new beauty to the scene. A pass^ 
ing steam-boat gives, ever and anon, variety to the events 
of the day, and is a pleasing incident in the chronicle of 
the voyage. A thousand objects, on the winding shores, 
seen from the decks, arrest attention, and prevent him 
from feeling the evils of ennui. Or he may even take a 
seat, as I have done a hundred tinxes> on the boiler deck, 
and look down upon the movements of the firemen, who 
are generally coloured men, and listen to their rude, but 
frequently real wit, and their songs, when rousing up their 
fires, or bringing on board a fresh supply of wood, and 
especially when they are approaching or leaving ports* 
In these musical fetes, some one acts as the leader, him* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



848 VALLBY OP THfi MISSISSIPPI. 

self oftentimes no mean maker of verses, and the rest join 
with all their might in the chorus, which generally con- 
stitutes every second line of the song. These chorusses 
are usually an unmeaning string of words, such as " Ohio, 
Ohio, Oh'i-o ;" or " O hang, boys, hang ;" or " O stormy, 
stormy," &c. When tired with the insipid gabble of the 
card-table in the cabin, or disinclined to converse with 
any one, I have spent hours in listening to the boat songs 
of these men. 

In conclusion, I would remark that it is the testimony, 
of the captains with whom I have conversed, that the 
temperance reform is making gradual progress on board 
the steam-boats of the West. On board the boat on 
which this chapter was written^ no ardent spirits are 
drunk by either officers or m£n. Still, much remains to 
be done. 

But I must close this long, but still imperfect, account 
of the steam-boats in the Valley of the Mississippi. 



y Google 



45 



nd 



16 

ir 

3f 
1- 
e 

h 

Q 

h 
d 
f 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 






St 



-rii' 



Digitized by VjOO^ 



HIITTS TO EHIORAIVTS, STC. v 319 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Hints to Emimiits on the modes of removing to the West — Stage and 
Steam^boat Routes. — ^Elzpenses of removing, and of travelling, £c. 6lc, 

I PROPOSE to give, in this chapter, such information as I 
am able, which may be useful to emigrants and travellers, 
respecting the various modes of going to the Valley of the 
Mississippi, and the expenses which must be encountered 
by those who travel, or remove, to that part of our 
country. 

There are three general and grand routes, some one of 
which must be pursued by every one who visits the Val- 
ley of the Mississippi, from the states which lie east of the 
Allegheny Mountains : — 

I. By the Lakes on the north. — ^This is the route which 
emigrants and travellers from New England and the state 
of New York will pursue. There are two points which 
all of the first named class will aim at, viz. : Albany and 
Bufliilo. The major part of the New York column of 
emigration will have only the latter named place to pass. 

As it regards Albany, it is approached from New Eng- 
land by five or six grand routes by land, which lead to it 
from Vermont, Boston, Hartford, New Haven, &c., as 
well as by the great natural highway, the Hudson River, 
on which from 10 to 15 elegant steam-boats are running 
daily.. The approach to Bufllilo is by stage or wagon on 
the great western road from Albany to that place, or by 
the grand canal, called the Erie and Hudson Canal, which 
extends from the Hudson at Albany to Lake Erie at Buf- 
falo. The following tables give the places and distances 
on these routes. 

1. BY THE ROAD. 



From Albany to Buffalo. 
Schenectady MiUs 15 

Amsterdam 15 30 

Caughnawaga 10 40 

Palatine Bridge 12 52 
80 



Little Falls 21 73 

Herkimer 7 80 

Utica 16 96 

Manchester 9 105 

Vernon 8 113 



■ Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



850 



TAU.BT OF THB XlSf IS6im» 



Oneida 


6 118 


Mendon 


16 224 


Lenox 


7 125 


Pittsford 


6 230 


Sullivan 


6 130 


Rochester 


8 238 


Manlius 


6 136 


Clarkson 


18 256 


Janiesville 


5 141 


Oak Orchard 


22 278 


Onondaga ffiil 


7 148 


Lewiston 


, 40 818 


Marcellus 


8 156 


Niagara Fails 


7 325 


Skaneateles 


6 162 


From Albany to Rochester 


Auburn 


7 169 


via Cherry Valley. 


Cayuga Bridge 


9 178 


Guilderknd 


14 


Seneca Falls 


8 181 


State Bridge 
Cherry Vdley 


12 26 


Waterloo 


4 185 


26 52 


Geneva 


7 192 


Little Lakes 


10 62 


Canandaigua 


16 208 


Bridge water 


20 82 


East Bloomfield 


9 217 


Madison 


14 96 


West Bloomfield 


5 222 


Cazenovia 


12 108 


Lima 


4 226 


Manlius 


12 120 


Avon (East Village) 5 231 ] 


Syracuse 


7 127 


Avon Post-Office 


2 283 


Elbridge 


15 142 


Caledonia 


8 241 


Weeds Port 


6 148 


LfeRoy 


6 247 


Montezuma 


9 157 


Batavia 


11 258 


Lyons 


17 174 


Pembroke 


14 272 


Palmyra 


14 188 


Clarence 


8 280 


Pittsford 


' 15 208 


W^illiamsville 


8 288 


Rochester 


8 211 


Buffalo 


10 298 


Rochester to 


Buffalo. 


Albany to Niagara Falls. 


Batavia 


36 




208 


Bufl&lo 


40 76 



There is also a route commencing on the Hudson river 
at Catskill, and passing through the south-western coun- 
ties, and through the villages of Ithaca, Bath, Canisteo, 
Angelica, Ellicoltville and Mayville, terminates at Port- 
land Harbor on Lake Erie. 

2. BY THE ERIE CANAL. 



Albany 

Troy 

Junction 

Schenectady 

Amsterdam 





7 

9 

80 

46 



Schoharie Creek 
C^ughnawaga 
Spraker's Basin 
Conajoharie 
Bowman's Creek 



53 
57 
66 
69 
78 



y Google 



Hlirra TO BMIORANTS^ Kit. 



851 



Little Falls 


88 


Montezuma 


206 


Herkimer 


95 


Clyde 


217 


Frankfort 


100 


Lyons 


226 


Utica 


110 


Newark 


233 


Whitesborough 


114 


Palmyra 


241 


Orislcany 


117 


Fullom's Basin 


254 


Rome 


126 


Pittsford 


260 


Smith's 


132 


Rochester 


270 


Loomis' 


138 


Ogden 
Adams' Basin 


282 


Oneida Creek 


141 


285 


Canastota 


146 


Brockport 


290 


New Boston 


150 


Holley 


295 


Chittenango 


154 


Newport 


305 


Manlius 


162 


Portville 


309 


Orville 


165 


Oak Orchard 


314 


Syracuse 


171 


Medina 


315 


Liyerpool 


173 


Middleport 


321 


Nine-mile Creek 


179 


Lockport 


333 


Canton 


185 


Pendleton 


340 


Jordan 


191 


Tonawanta 


352 


Weed's Port 


197 


Black Rock 


360 


Port Byron 


300 


Bufliilo 


363 



There are now in operation on the Erie Canal, between 
Albany and Bufialo, six transportation lines, numbering 
120 boats ; and two lines, that ply between Troy and Buf- 
falo with 53 boats. There is also a line of boats plying 
between Albany, Syracuse, and Oswego. Besides these, 
there is a vast number of boats, belonging to individuals. 

There are, also, several lines of Packet Boats on the 
Erie Canal. 

The number of boats that are daily, and almost hourly, 
leaving Albany for Bu6iilo, affords abundant fecilities to 
emigrants, who can thus be conveyed, with their families 
and property, to any point they may choose to designate, 
at a very trifling expense.* 

Having arrived at the beautiful and flourishing city of 

* The price of passage in a packet boat is about 4 cents per mile, 
that is, $14 50 from Albany to Buffalo. In the common boats, or lint 
boats, it is from 2 to 2 1^ cents per mile. Families generally pay 
much loss in proportiim. 



y Google 



352 VALLEY OF THB JOSSISSIPFI. 

Bu£&lo, the emigraDt or ti^veller may go up Lake Erie in 
a stream-boat, (of which there is a regular line, which 
leaves that place every morniug at 9 o'clock, besides those 
which sail at other times) and stop at the following places, 
viz. : Dunkirk, 45 miles from Bufi^tlo — ^Portland, 60 — ^Erie, 
90— Salem, 120— Ashtabula, 135— Grand River, IBS- 
Cleveland, 195— Huron, 245 — Sandusky, 260 — ^Detroit, 
330— Mackinaw, 600— Green Bay, 750— Chicago, 900. 

The price of a cabin passage from Bu6iilo to Detroit is 
at present 88. A deck passage is 84. A considerable 
lamlly — say five or six persons — and having a wagon load 
of fiirniture, &c., may go on deck, and in a comfortable 
manner in the summer season, for 820. To the interme- 
diate, and also to the more remote places mentioned, the 
price is proportionate, excepting, perhaps, a little higher 
relatively, to Mackinaw, Chicago, &;c., in as much as there 
is less trade in that quarter, and but few boats visit there 
at present. 

It is 90 miles from Bufiiilo to Erie by land, and 188 to 
Cleveland. It is 220 from Bufialo to Pittsburg by way 
of Erie. From Cleveland to Columbus it is 140 miles, 
and to Cincinnati, via Columbus, it is 250 miles. From 
Sandusky city to Cincinnati, by way of Springfield, Day- 
ton, dz;c., it is 215 miles. Stages run regularly, in the sum- 
mer, from Bufi&lo to Erie, Cleveland, dz;c. on to Detroit ; 
and from Detroit to Chicago; and from .Chicago to St. 
Louis. The entire distance from Buffiilo to St. Louis by 
this route, is about 900 miles. Stages run also regularly 
from Erie to Pittsburg ; from Cleveland to Pittsburg ; 
from Cleveland to Columbus and Cincinnati ; and from 
Sandusky city to Cincinnati. 

II. By the various roads which lead to that country 
from the East, beginning in the state of New York, and 
extending in parallel lines down to the Gulf of Mexico. 
The number of the most important of these roads, some 
of which are turnpikes, is about 15. There are several 
leading from New York into West Pennsylvania— one 
along Lake Erie, already mentioned, reaching to Mead- 
ville — another further south. There are four or five 
through Pennsylvania and Maryland — one leading from 
Harrisburg through Bellefonte out to Erie ,* another from 
the same starting point, through Lewistown^ Huntingdon, ^ 



Digitized by VjjOOQiC 



HINTS TO EHiaRANTS, ETC. 353 

to Pittsburg; a third leads from Piiiladelphia through 
Harrisburg, Carlisle, Chambersburg, and Bedford, to 
Pittsburg ; and a fourth is from Baltimore, through Cum- 
berland in Maryland, to Wheeling. There are two roads 
in Virginia — one leading from Washington city through 
the Valley of Virginia into East Tennessee ; the other 
from Richmond through Staunton, (intersecting that which 
I have just named,) to Charleston on the Kanawha, and 
ends at Guyandot on the Ohio. From North Carolina, 
three roads lead into Teatiessee — one from Wilkesboro,' 
westward to Greenville ; another from Rutherford through 
Asheville to the stoie point ; and a third further south 
from PendletoQ in South Carolina, across the south- 
western angle of North Carolina, into Tennessee, along 
the course of the Hiwassee, — ^called the Unika turnpike. 
From Georgia, a road leads up into East Tennessee ; and 
several into Alabama, — the chief of which is that from Au-* 
gusta through Milledgeville, Macon, and Columbus on the 
Chattahooche, to Montgomery, and thence to Tuscaloosa, 
and also to. Mobile. There is also a road fom Darien 
through St. Mary's, and St. Augustine, to Tallahassee, 
PensaCoIa, Mobile and New Orleans. On all these roads, 
I believe that there are lines of stages,, many of which run 
three times a week, and several every day. There, are 
besides these, several roads which cross the mountains, 
and are a good deal travelled, but less important to emi- 
grants and travellers, at present, than those named. One of 
these roads runs from Montrose, in Pennsylvania, across the 
northern tier of counties in that state, to Erie and Mead- 
vAle. There are two or three such roads in Virginia, and 
as many in North Carolina. 

One of the most important of the lines of communication 
between the eastern and western parts of our country is the 
Pennsylvania Canal and Rail Road, extending from Phila- 
delphia to Pittsburg. This communication is by the canal 
from Philadelphia up the Schuylkill to Reading, thence 
across to the Swatara, down the banks of that stream to the 
Susquehanna, up that river to the Juniata, along the Junia- 
ta to Holidaysburg, on the eastern side of the Allegheny 
mountain ; thence by a Rail Road of 36i to Johnstown, on 
the western side ; thence down the Conemaugh and Kis- 
kiminitas to the Allegheny river, and along that river to 

30* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



354 VALLEY OF THB MISSISSIPPI. 

Pittsburg. A. vast amount of business is now doing (1833) 
on this canal, although the Rail Road is not completed 
across the mountain. It is calculated that the tollVwill 
this year be $200,000 on this canal. In the course of a 
few months that road will be finished, and also the Rail 
Road from Philadelphia to Columbia, on the Susquehanna, 
17 i miles below the mouth of the Swatara, between which 
points there is a canal, which thus connects the Rail Road 
with the Penni^lvania Canal. There will then be two lines 
of communication (the canal and rail. road) between Phila- ^ 
delphia and the Susquehanna. 

The amount of business on this great channal of trade 
and intercourse will be immense. The price of freight 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg is no^ $1 50 per hundred 
lbs. Next year it will be at the rate of one dollar per 
hundred lbs. I will add that it is contemt>lated to extend 
this line of communication from Pittsburg by a Rail Road, 
through Ohio, to a pointon the Erife and Ohio Canal. Com- 
missioners have been appointed to survey the route ; and 
there is no doubt that this work will soon be accomplished. 
When this is done a line of communication from Philadel- 
phia into the great state of Ohio will be opened. . Emigrants 
removing from the East to Pittsburg and that region, an^ 
even to the great country* to the west of that city, will pre- 
fer this route. - 

I subjoin a table of the distances by the Columbia Rail 
Road. 

Fbom Philadelphia to PiTTs^trRo, commencing at 
Vine and Broad streets. 

From Philadelphia to Columbia^ 81 J miles. 
Coatesville, 
Buck Run, 
Gap Tavern, 
Mine Ridge, 
Mill Creek, 
Soudersburg 
Conestoga Creek, 
Lancaster, 
Mount Pleasant, 
Columbia, 



y Google 



Fair Mount Water. 


» 


Works, 




1 


Lemon Hill, 


i 


li 


Viaduct over the 






SchuylkUl River, li 


3 


Buck Tavern 


8 


11 


Spread Eagle, 


5 


16 


Paoli, 


4i 20i 


Warren, 


1* 


22 


Valley Creek, 


7 


29 


Downingstown, 


3 


32 



8 


40 


4^ 44^ 


7 


5U 


1 


52i 


5 


57i 


3 


60^ 


7 


a7i 


2 


69} 


7 


764 


44 8U 



HINTS TO RMIGRANTS, ETC. 



855 



From Columbia to Hollidaysburgy via Canal^ 171 1 miles. 



Columbia as 




above, 


81i 


Marietta, 


3 84i 


Bainbridge, 


6i 91i 


Falmouth, 


Si 94} 


Middletown, 


4i 99 


Highspire, 


3 102 


Harrisburg, 


6 108 


Blue Mountain 




Gap, 
Port Dauphin, 


5 113 


2i 115i 


Duncan's Island, 


9 124i 


Beelen's, 


5i 130 


Newport, 


6 135 


Lower Aqueduct, 


6 141 



Thompsontown, 

Mexico, . 

MifHintown, 

Lewistown, • 

Waynesburg, 

Aughwick Falls, 

Jack's Mountain, 

Mill Creek, 

Huntingdon, 

Petersburg, 

Alexandria, 

Williamsburg, 

Frankstown', 

Hollidaysburg, 



5 

7 
4 



146 

153 

157 

14 171 

14 185 

12 197 

6 203 

6 209 

214 

221 

228 

12 240 

lOi 250J 

3i 253i 



5 

7 
7 



From Hollidaysburg to Johnstown by the Allegheny Port- 
age Rail Road, 36f miles. 



Hollidaysburg 




W. 6, 6i 2631 


as abore, 


253^ 


Mountain Branch, 9 272| 


Walker's Point, 


li 255 


Ebensburg 


Inclined Plane, 




Branch, 3 275J 


W. 10, 


Si 257i 


Staple Bend, 10 285| 


Inclined Plane, 




Johnstown, , 4J 2Q0i 



From Johnstown to Pittsburg by the Western Division of 
Pennsyvania Catidly 104 wiles. 



Johnstown as 






'Warrentown, 


5 348 


above, 




290i 


Leechburg, 


10 358 


Laurel Hill, 


61 


297 


Aqueduct over 




Lockport^ 


10 


807 


the Allegheny, 


3 361 


Chesnut Hill, 


5 


312 


Freeport, 


2 363 


Blairsville, 


8 


320 


Logan's Ferry, 


13 876 


Saltzburg, 


16 


336 


Pine Creek? 


12 388 


Saltworks, 


7 


343 


Pittsburg, 


6i 394i 



y Google 



356 VALLEY OF THE MISaiSSIPPI. 

III. By ship, round to Mobile and New-Orleans. To 
those who are removing from the sea-ports on the Atlantic 
to a southern point in the Valley, this route is the most 
economical, and very convenient, inasmuch as it allows 
them to take much household property with them at liule 
expense. 

After reaching the West, it will be found most econo- 
mical, pleasant, expeditious and safe, to take a steam-boat 
to such a point as will be most convenient for a journey by 
land to the new place of residence, unless the emigrant 
chooses a situation on a navigable river, upon which steam- 
boats are running. The emigrants who enter the Valley 
of the Mississippi by way of the Lakes, will find it cheap- 
est to embark at the nearest point, on board of a boat on 
the Ohio, Wabash, or Illinois, if they are proceeding to 
the middle or southern parts of the Valley. But if they 
are going to settle in a part of the country contiguous, or 
within one or two hundred miles of the Lakes, they will 
go by wagons or stages from the Lakes to the places 
which they have selected. 

Farmers, who remove to the West from the middle and 
southern states, and I might say, from the states of New- 
York and Connecticut, and who have ^ood horses and 
wagons, will find it still most economical to remove in 
their own wagons, and carry with them as many of their 
tools and implements, which are not too bulky or heavy, 
as possible. Very good furniture, which can be sent by 
water, or eyen carried in their own wagons, they had bet- 
ter take with them. For, although they can obtain such 
articles in the West," yet they are dearer than in the East ; 
andy to the increase of cost must be added, (^en, the sac- 
rifice of articles sold by emigrants, who possess them, but 
do not carry them with them. The coarser and heavier, 
or more bulky articles, can. be purchased to greater ad- 
vantage in the West, than carried there by emigrants. 
Beds, common tables, chairs, &c. might be mentioned as 
being articles of this description. But very fine articles of 
cabinet ware, as well as clothing, kitchen and table furni- 
ture, tools of various descriptions, should be taken along 
by every farmer, where it is not too inconvenient and ex- 
pensive to do so. 

But professional men, and, in a word, all those who 
remove to towns and villages, and possess little more than 



y Google 



HINTS TO EMI6BANTS, ETC- 357 

the furniture of their houses, need not take any thing more 
than the most valuable and easily transported articles, 
except in extraordinary cases, with them to the West. 
For they will find it most convenient, and perhaps econo- 
mical, to purchase these articles in the large towns of the 
West. 

As to the expense of transporting household property, 
goods, &c. by the three routes which I have already indi- 
cated, 1 can only speak generally, although I am confident 
that I shall not err much. 

By the first route, viz., through the Canal in New- York, 
and the Lakes, I suppose, judging from what I can learn, 
that the price of freight from New-York, or any where 
on the North River, by this route would not exceed from 
one and a half to two dollars a hundred, to any point with- 
in a hundred miles from the Lakes, nor even to Cincinnati, 
and the country in that region. The same may be said 
soon of St. Louis. Emigrants may calculate what it is 
likely to cdst them to remove from New-York or New- 
England, by this route to the West, and have what house- 
hold and other property they may choose to take with 
them, transported by canal-boats, steam-boats or sloops on 
the Lakes, and wagons from the Lakes to the point to 
which they design going. 

As to the second general route, viz., by the several 
roads which, between the Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico, 
lead from the East to the West, the price of transportation 
from the Atlantic cities to the corresponding points on the 
rivers in the West, from which steam-boats and flat-boats 
run, is various, — being less in the northern part than in 
the southern. For instaace, freight ie now carried at the 
rate'of from $1 to $1 ,50 per hundred, from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburg, and from Baltimore to Wheeling. From Balti- 
more and Richmond to Guyandot on the Ohio, or Charles- 
ton on the Kanawha, or to Knoxville in East Tennessee, 
the price of freight is from $4 to $5, sometimes a little 
less, per hundred. From Savannah and Augusta, to Mont- 
gomery in Alabama, freight is probably about $3,50 or 1^4 
per hundred at present. ^ 

As to the third route mentioned, viz., by ship from Bos- . 
ton. New- York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Richmond, 
Charleston, &c., to New-Orleans or Mobile, the price of 



y Google 



858 VALlET OF THE KISSISSIPFI. 

freight varies very much, According to the state of trade 
and other circumstances. But it is from 50 to 65 cents 
usuaUy, per hundred, for articles which are estimated in 
that way, or more commonly at from 10 to 12cts« for a 
cubic foot of almost any sort of thing which can be sent in 
boxes. The voyage is usually about 10 or 15 days from 
New- York or Philadelphia, and from 15 to 20 from Boston 
to New-Orleans. 

The price of freight from New-Orleans to St. Louis, is 
about 62^ cents per hundred. From New-Orieans to 
Nashville and Louisville, it is about the same as to St. 
Louis : to Cincinnati, it is from 50 to 70 cents more per 
hundred, when the boats cannot pass through the canal at 
Louisville. And to Pittsburg, from New-Orleans, it is 
from seventy-five cents to one dollar per hundred. But 
these prices vary so much, — according to the stage of the 
water, and the number of steam-boats running, that it is 
impossible to be exactly and minutely accurate. Mer- 
chandize has been brought to Ciocinnati, from Philadel- 
phia via New-Orleans, for a cent a pound, or a dollar per 
hundred, and to Pittsburg, for a dollar and a half per hun- 
dred, exclusive of insurance. I believe that the merchants 
of Pittsburg would receive their goods from Philadelphia 
and New- York, via New-Orleans, if it were not for the 
risks at sea, and more especially for the delay which they 
must undergo, which would seldom be less than six weeks. 
Indeed they do now get their crates of crockery ware, and 
some other articles, almost entirely by this mode o£ con- 
veyance. 

The prices of freight from Pittsburg to Cincinnati and 
Louisville, is 30 cents per hundred on dry goods, and 
$SfiO per ton on iron &c., when the steam-boats are run- 
ning : but a dollar or two when the waters are too low 
for any thing but keel and fiat boats to run. And from 
the same place to New-Qrleans, it is usually from 40 to 50 
cents per hundred on dry goods, and from $5,00 to 87,00 
per ton on Pittsburg manufactures of iron dz;c., when the 
waters are in a proper stage for the steam-boats to -run. 
From Cincinnati, Louisville, Nashville, and St. Louis 
to New-Orleans, the pricb of freight is, of course, some- 
what less, but not proportionably to the diminished distance. 

As in shipping household goods, from eastern cities to 



y Google 



HINTS TO EMIGRANTS, ETC. 869 

New-Orleans, so it is in shipping thjem from Pittsburg, 
and any other place to another, in the Valley of the Mis- 
sissippi — the whole is often taken in the lump, at a stipu- 
lated price. This is much cheaper than to pay at the rate 
of the ordinary prices per hundred. 

The following extract from Judge Hall's Illinois 
Monthly Magazine, gives much yaluable information for 
emigrants, who are about to remove to Illinois, Indiana, 
and Missouri. Indeed many of the remarks here made, 
are applicable to the whole Valley of the Mississippi. 

" In pursuance of our desfgn of making our work useful 
to persons who are about to emigrate to our state, we pro- 
pose to answer a few of the questions which are sometimes 
put to us by such individuals. 

"What season is most ^vourable for those who come 
from the Atlantic States, mast depend upon the mode of con- 
veyance which they intend to adopt. In the spring, from 
the time of the breaking up of the frost until warm weather, 
all the natural roads, west of the mountains, are bad, and the 
artificial, or turnpike roads, are so few, as to aflRml but little 
assistance in a long journey. The emigrant, therefore, 
should throw the latter out of his calculations, and !ay his 
plan in reference to the former. In the spring the bottom- 
latids on the margins of our rivers are overflowed, the chan- 
nels of all streams are full, and. the travelling in any direc- 
tion is impeded, and sometimes wholly stopped, by high 
waters. The roads, generally speaking, are new ; because 
the great channels of trade and intercourse are not yet set- 
tled. Population is rapidly increasing, and trade fluctuat- 
ing from point to point ; the courses of roads are consequent- 
ly often changed, before a permanent route is adopted. 
Few roads, therefore, have become so fixed, as to their 
location, as to have been beaten by travel, and improved 
by art ; and the traveller who ventures out in the spring, 
may expect to be obliged to wade through mire and water, 
ancle deep, knee deep, and peradventure deeper than that. 
But the spring is, for the same reason, the most eligible 
season for travelling by water. The streams are then 
swolleH. The largest rivers rise from thirty to fifty feet 
above low water mark ; rocks, snags, sawyers, and sand- 
bars, those formidable obstacles to navigation, are now all 
1t>uried far below the surface ; the steam- boat glides with- 



y Google 



360 V1JCJ.BT OF THE XIS8ISSIFPI. 

out inteiTuption from port to port, ascends even the small- 
est rivers, and finds her way to places far distant from ^he 
ordinary channels of navigation. Business is now active ; 
the number of boats are increased, to meet the demand for 
transportation ; and the traveller by water meets with no 
delay ; while the hapless wight, who bestrides an unlucky 
nag, is wading through ponds and quagmires, enjoying 
the delights of log bridges and wooden causeways, and 
vainly invoking the name of M* Adam, as he plunges deep- 
er and deeper into mire and misfortune. Early in May 
the waters begin to subside, the roads begin to get good, 
and a short interval occurs when the traveller may pro- 
ceed comfortably by land or water. But it is a season in 
which no confidence can be placed, and not to be relied on, 
except by such as are on the ground, ready to take advan- 
tage of its propitious moments. It is like a cessation of 
arms in war, or a calm in the political world, when the 
demons of discord are on the fences ready to pounce down 
upon the unsuspecting public, upon either side. If the 
spring has been wet, the roads are still miry, and the 
traveller who has been allured by the bright sun, and the 
brilliant flowers, to forsake the steam-boat, will find, to 
his great discomfiture, the efifects of winter " lingering in 
the lap of May.'' Should the spring, on the other hand, 
have been unusually dry, the waters subside earlier than 
common, and the travelling by steam-boat becomes preca- 
rious. 

'* In the autumn there is ordinarily but little rain, west 
of the mountains. The weather is mild, and subject to few 
changes. The roads become dry and good. Many of the 
smaller, streams are entirely exhausted* and their beds 
dry, while others are so much diminished as to be easily 
crossed at their fording places. But few of the rivers can 
be now navigated by steam-boat-boats, while all of the 
roads are passable, and many of them excellent. This, 
too, is the season of plenty ; the crops are ripe, the cattle 
fat, and travelling rendered cheap by the abundance of 
food. 

"Those, therefore, who expect to travel by water, 
should come to our country in the spring, while those who 
prefer the stages, or who use their own horses, should defer 
the journey until September. Midsummer is objectionable 
for a reason which will apply equally to the dead of winter, 



y Google 



nnrrs to sxiesANTs, src. 361 

— namely^ the inclemency of the wetither. And here an 
idea occurs which is worthy of consideration. In the ex- 
treme western states, taverns are not numerous. Good 
houses of entertainment are only found in the large villages, 
and along a few of the most public roads. The traveller 
is often obliged to make long stages, and to stop at un- 
comfortable houses; sometimes at log cabins, where a 
single apartment must accommodate the family of the 
owner and his guests, and sometimes at houses which are 
unfinished, and open to the air. This is not so much the 
case as ignorant or ill-tempered travellers represent. It 
is an evil which may be in a great measure avoided, by 
care in selecting the proper roads, and in finding out the 
best houses of entertainment. Still it is an evil to be 
guarded against, by persons who have been accustomed to 
the comforts and luxuries of life. They will be unavoidaby 
subjected on such a journey, to a greater degree of expo- 
sure to fatigue and weather than they have been accus* 
tomed to; and hence the propriety of adapting the season 
and mode of conveyance to each other. In the summer, 
or in the winter, long continued exposure to the extremes 
of heat and cold, white actually travelling, would be severe- 
ly felt, and the hours of rest would not bring their proper 
refreshment a| uncomfortable stopping places. In the 
spring this exposure would be small, l^cause most of the 
journey would be prosecuted in the cabin of a steam-boat; 
in the fall it would be little felt, because the ^ir would be 
mild and* salubrious. 

<< As to the best season to emigrate to Illinois, in refer- - 
ence to health, we have but little to add to what we luive 
already said. We consider the climate of Illinois decidedly 
healthy. We think it even more salubrious thaa that <^ 
most other parts of the United States, and decidedly supe- 
rior to that of any part of the sea-board. Emigrants^ 
however, are liable to disease on their arrival, from two or 
three causes: — 

1. From exposure to hardships, and extremity of climate 
on their journey* 

2. From the want of comfortable habitations, at theit 
first settlement. * 

8. From change of food. 

Fatigue^ when long continued and excessive, most gene- 
31 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



363 VALLE7 OF THE MISSISSIPPI*. 

rally enfeebles the body, and predisposes it to disease. 
Heat, cold, or sudden and frequent transitions from the one 
to the other, when endured for a length of time, have a 
similar tendency. Bad food, and loss of sleep, are also 
sometimes added to the discomfort of the traveller ; and 
he thus arrives in the country debilitated, and prepared to 
fell an easy victim to the first assault of disease. 

" The number of houses in a new country is barely suf- 
ficient to accotnmodate the inhabitants; and in the infancy 
of society, but few dwellings contain superfluous apart- 
ments. The new comers must, therefore, either be crowd- 
ed into the houses of the settlers, which afe already filled 
with inmates, or they must erect buildings, which, in the 
first instance, are merely temporary. In either case they 
are subjected to inconveniences to which they are not ac- 
customed, to much exposure to the atmosphere, and to the 
entire abandonment, fo^ a time, of their regular domestic 
economy. These circumstances, with the change of food 
and air, throw the emigrant into a new state of being, 
which afl^cts his c^onstitution for good or for evil ; some- 
times restoring the invalid to complete health, and as oflen 
prostrating the energies of the sound in body. 

'< From these remarks, a judicious man, with a knowledge 
of his own means, will be able to draw the proper conclu- 
sions* Should he be> disposed to travel by land, he should 
come in the autumn, but should, by alt means, so make his 
arrangements, as to arrive in this country long enough 
before the setting in of the winter, to provide for that sea- 
son. Houses can seldom be had for rent. Markets are 
not yet established in our villages. Some time, therefore, 
is requisite to build, or procure winter quarters, and to lay 
in a stock of provisions and fuel. 

'< Taking every thing into consideration, we should pre- 
fer a conveyance by water* The rapidity with which the 
trip is performed, is one great advantage in fiivour of this 
mode of travelling* The avoidimce of fiitigue and expo- 
sure is another, and not an unimportant one ; and the op- 
portunity which it affi>rds of transporting a number of 
tirticles of furniture and clothing, and a variety of farnung 
titeislls, or mechanic's tools, all of which are a vast deal 
dearer here than at the eastward, renders it much the 
itost eligible. The advantage of arriving in the springs 



y Google 



HINTS TO EMiaBANTS, ETC. 

rather than the autumn, is very great, so far as health and 
comfort aTe concerned. In the spring, the new settler 
can, at once, commence building said making preparations 
for living, without being exposed at the same time to 
extremity of weather, 

" As to the choice of routes, a person in any of the east- 
ern cities can obtain sufficient information to enable him 
to make his own election. The most rapid conveyance is 
from Boston to Providence, oir New Haven, by stage ; 
thehce to New- York, by steam»boat ; thence to Philadel- 
phia, by stage or steam-boat ; thence to Baltimore, by 
steam-boat ; thence to Wheeling, by stage ; thence to. 
Louisville, by steam-boat ; and from the latter place either 
to Vandalia, by stage ; or to Shawneetown or St. Louis, 
by steam-boat. The route by the New-York canal and 
Lake Erie will be more circuitous, but may now be tra- 
velled nearly all the way by water, and is preferable for 
those who bring heavy articles. If water carriage all the 
way be desirable, a voyage to New Orleans, and thence 
up the Mississippi, will anord that convenience. 

" The expenses on the route by the New-York canal, 
will be nearly as follows : 

From New- York to Albany, including every 

thing . . . ... $250 

From Albany to Buffalo, by packet boats, . 14 50 

or in the line boatSy about $10 00 
From Buffalo to Erie, by steam-boat, . 2 00 

Or from Bullilo to Ashtabula, by steam-boat, 4 50 
Or from Buffalo to Cleveland, by steam-boat, 6 00 
From Erie to Beaver, by stage, including every 
thing, • . . . . . 5 60 

From Beaver to Cincinnati, by steam-boat, 10 00 ' 
FKom Cincinnati to Louisville, by «team-boat, 3 00 
Froth Louisville to Shawneetown, by steam-boat, 6 00 
From Louisville to St. Louis, by steam-boat, 12 00 
" The routes from Cleveland, or Ashtabula, to Cincin- 
nati, or any other point on th^ Ohio, as well as the distan- 
ces, may be ascertained from the traveller's maps [in this 
work,] which are accurate enough for practicable purposes. 
The expenses will be from 4 1-2 to 6 cents per mile. 
*^The expense of travelling,. for one person, by stage and 



y Google 



^64 VALLEY OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 

Steam boat, from Philadelphia to St. Louis^ is about 955, 
including every thing. 

From Neiv Orleans to St. Louis, by steam boat, $25 00 
From St. Louis to Beardstown, Illinois, 6 00 

From St. Louis to Quincy, Illinois, 6 00 

From St. Louis to Galena, Illinois, 12 00 

" AH the above prices refer to the b^st and most expen- 
sive modes of travelling, namely, in the public stages, and 
the cabins of steam boats, and the price of a passage in a 
western boat always includes food and lodging. Those who 
cannot afibrd to take what is called a cabin passage in a 
steam boat, may be accommodated with whaf is called a 
deck passage. The deck, Sot the use of such passengers, 
is protected from the weather, but has no other convenience. 
Passengers on deck furnish th^ir own beds and provisions. 
Many respectable emigrants find it to their advantage to 
travel in this way. 
" A deck passage from Beaver to Louisville 
would cost, $4 00 

From Wheeling to Louisville, 4 00 

From Louisville to St. Louis, 3 00 

From New Orleans to St. Louis,' 8 00 

From St. Louis to Beardstown, 2 00 

From St. Louis to Quincy, . 2 00 

From St. Louis to Galena, 3 00 

*' On reaching Louisville, several routes to Illinois are 
presented. A stage runs from that place, by Vincennes, 
directly to Vani^alia, thence to Springfield, in Sangamon 
county, and from Springfield north to Galena, or west to 
Jacksonville. Should the traveller wish to visit any of the 
eastern parts of the state, lying along the Wabashj he may 
take the stage as fiir as Vincennes, from which place, in 
the spring, jbe can ascend or descend the Wabash; or he 
may embSurk at Louisville, in ^ steam boat for a place on 
that river. For the southern part of the state, he may land 
at Shawneetown, or Kaskaskia, where he may hire horses; 
but in neither place will he find stages,, to carry him into the 
interior. For the western or north-western parts of Illinois, 
the proper point to make is St. Louis. From that place 
steam-boats depart almost every day, for all the towns in 
Illinois which lie on the shores of the Mississippi and Illi* 
nois rivers. Stages run from this place three times a week 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



HINTS TO EMIGRANTS, ETC. 365 

to Vincennes, through Belleville, Lebanon, Carlyle, Mays- 
ville aiKl Lawrenceville ; once a week to Vandaiia through 
Edwardsville and Greenville ; and once a week to Galena, 
through Edwardsville, Springfield and Peoria." 

A letter from an emigrant, who removed to Illinois la$t 
fall, states his expenses to have been as follows ; from Bos- 
ton to Pittsburg, by way of Albany, Buffalo, and Erie, $48, 
35. From Pittsburg to Jacksonville, $53 84. Total $101, 
19. This was for himself and his wife, and includes the 
expenses of one day at Erie, and two at Wheeling. From 
Wheeling to Louisville he took a deck passage, which is 
economicsd, but ought i3ot to be calculated upon by those 
who regard health or <?omfort. He thinks that, the route 
which ne took is the best. From Albany to Bi^lo he 
went by the canal, and from Wheeling to St. Louis by 
steam boat. The necessary expenses must of course vary 
somewhat, as prices change and delays are uncertain. 

To the above statements, J subjoin a few other items of 
information which may be of use to travellers. 



From Philadelphia to Pittsburg by stage, 

Baltimore to Wheeling 

Philadelphia via Baltimore to Wheeling 

Pittsburg to Wheeling 

Wheeling to Columbus 

Columbus to Cleveland 

Columbus to Chillicothe 

ChillicQthe to Cincinnati 

Columbus to Cincinnati (direct) 

Cincinnati to Indianapolis 

Indianapolis to Madison 

Cincinnati to Lexington 

Lexington to Louisville 

Louisville to St. Louis, via Vincexmes 

Louisville to Nashville *" 

Richmond to Cincinnati, via Staunton, Lew- 
isburg, Charleston on the Kanawha, and 
Guyandot, (by steam boat from the last 
named place 155 miles) 515 28 00 

Richmond to Knoxville, via Lynchburg, Ab- 
ingdon, Kingsport, <&c. 444 28 50 

31* 



MUes. 


Expense. 


300 


$15 00 


271 


12 00 


402 


14 00 


59 


4 50 


140 


8 00 


177 


10 50 


45 


2 00 


94 


5 50 


110 


6 50 


112 


5 75 


86 


4 00 


76 


4 50* 


75 


4 50 


267 


15 50 


180 


12 00 



y Google 



378 


$10 00 


199 


12 50 


224 


15 00 


110 


8 25 


155 


10 00 


146 


9 00 


119 


8 00 



366 VALLEY OP TOB MISSISSIPPI. 

Baltimore to Richmond, via Norfolk, by- 
steam boat 
Knoxville to Nashville, via McMinville 
Nashville to Memphis 
Nashville to Florence 
Huntsville to Tuscaloosa 
Florence to Tuscaloosa 
Tuscaloosa to Montgomery 
Tuscaloosa to Mobile by steam boat (about 

450 miles by the river and 226 by land.) 12 00 

Augusta to Montgomery, via Milledgeville, 

Macon, Columbus, &c. 300 18 50 

Montgomery to Mobile by steam boat 

(about) 
Do. by stage 
Mobile to New Orleans 
St. Augustine to MolUle about 
From Boston, New York, Philadelphia, 

Baltimore and Richmond to New Or* 

leans, by a packet ship from 

The abdv^^^tements are not in every instance, pre- 
cisely accurate/-i>ut are nearly so. The prices vary some- 
what every, year. They are probably below rather than 
above the estimates which I have given. 



400 
180 
160 
600 


12 00 
12 00 
12 00 
35 00 


$60 to $65 



y Google 



INDEZi 



A. 

Albany (New), Ind. 


171 


Allegheny Town, 


114 


Alexandria, La. 


283 


Alton, . . 


- 228 


America, discovery of, . 


14 



extent and population, 13 
North extent and divi- 
sions, 13 
South do. do. 13 
town of, . 227 
American Fur Company, 245 
Athens, O. . 156 
Tenn. . 208 
Arkansas, River, 33-35; 257,258 
Territory, description of, 

256-260 
government, judiciary, 

&c. . 257 

surface, soil, productions, 

rivers, &c. 257,258 

towns, . 258, 259 

curioisities, . 259 

land offices, . . 259 
general remarks concern- 
ing its climate, &c. 
&c. 259,260 

Arkansas, town or post, 258 

Alabama, River, . 293, 294 
State, description of 290-300 
government, judiciary, 

&c. . 292 

surface of the country, 
soil, productions, rivers, 
&c. . 292-295 

cities and towns, 295-298 
education, . . 298 

coHeges, . 322-324 

land offices, . 299 

general remarks respect- 
ing its climate, ^c. 

298-300 



B. 

Baton Rouge, . 283 

Beardstown, . 228 

Belleville, lU. . 227 

Benevolent Societies, . 330 

Birmingham, . ^ 114 

Blakely, . 296,297 

Blountville, . 207 

Bolivar, Tenn. . 208 

Boone, Daniel . 52-200 

Brownsville, Pa. . 112 

Burlington, O. . 152 

Canals, Erie and Hudson, 350, 351 

Pennsylvania, 355 

Ohio and Erie, 144, 145 

Miami CanaJ, 145 

Wabash and Erie, 168, 169 

Louisville, 195 

Illinois and Michigan 226 

N. Orleans and Lake Pon- 

chartrain, 279 

Canonsburg, ll2 

Canton, O. 153 

Cape Girardeau, 243 

Chicago, 228 

CircleviUe, O. 154 

Cincinnati, situation, history, 

manufactures, &g. 149-152 

Clarksville, Tenn. 208 

Cleveland, O. 155 

Columbia, Tenn. 208 

Columbus, O. 154,155 

Coshocton, O. . 153 
Cotton, manner of cultivating 

it, 269,270 

Covington, Ky. 198 

Covington, La. 283 

CoULpTSES, LiTERART. 

Allegheny College, 311 

Augusta College, 317 



y Google 



368 



INDEX. 



Catholic Collegre at Bards^ 

town, 318 

Catholic College at St. 
. Louis, 320,321 

• Ca&dic College in Perry 

Co. Missouri, 321 

Catholic College at New 

Orleans, 322 

Catholic College at Mo- 

bUe, 322 

Catholic College at Cin- 
cinnati, 315 
Centre College, 316, 317 
Cumberland College, 317, 318 
Georgetown College, 317 
Greenville College, 319 
BUnois CoUege, 320 
Indiana College, 315 
Jefferson College, (Pa.) 310 
Jefferson College, (Miss.) 321 
Kenyon College, 314 
Knoxville College, 319 
La Grange College, 322 
Louisana College, at Jack- 
son, 321,322 
New Athens, O. 314 
Port Gibson College, 321 
Ripley, O. CoUege 315 
Washington College, 

(Tenn.) 319 

Washington College, (Pa.) 

310, 311 
Western Reserve College, 

313, 314 
Colleges, Medical, 

Medical College of Cin- 
cinnati, 315 
Jefferson Medical College, 

310 
Transylvania Medical Cd- 
lege, 316 



Dayt<m,0. 155 
0EAF AND Dumb Asylums, 

at Columbus, O. 315 

at Danville, Ky. 318 

Delphi, Ind. 172 

Detroit, city, 183,184 

river, 187 

Donaldsonville, 283 



E. 

Education in the West, general 
remarks respecting it, 63, 64 

F. 

Florence, 297, 298 

Florida, purchase of, 14, 15 ; at- 
tempts to settle it made by 
Ponce de Le<«i,45; Grijalva 
and Vasques, 45 ; Narvaez, 45 ; 
Ferdinand de Soto, 46 ; Col- 
ligny, 46 

description of; 301-309 

government, j udiciary,&c.302 
sur&ce of the country, soil, 
productions, rivers, &.c. 
302^06 
cities and towns, 306,307 
education, 308 

land offices, 309 

its climate, &c. 308,309 
Frankfort, Ky. 195, 196 . 

G. 



Galena, 


228 


Gallipolis, 0. 


152 


Greensburg, Pa. 


112 



H. 
Harmony, (New) Ind. 171, 172 
Herculaneum, Mo. ' 243 

Hints to emigrants and travel- 
lers, respecting the various 
routes to the West, expense 
of removing and travelling 
thitiier, 349-366 

I. 
Ibberville, plants the first French 
colonies in the southern part 
oftiieVaUey, -47,48 

niinois. River, 225 

State, description of, 215-234 
government, judiciary, &c. 

217, 218 
surface of the country, soil, 
productions, mann&c 
tures, rivers, &c 219-226 
canals and roads, 226 

towns, 226-228 

education, 228, 229 



y Google 



IKDEX. 



869 



colleges^ 320 

land offices, 230 

gneneral remarks, ccmcem- 
ing its climate, emigrants 
removing thither, &c. 229-234 
Indiana State, descriptioA of, 

160-177 
government, judiciary, &c. 

162, 163 
surface of the country, soil, 
productions, rivers, &c. 
163-168 
canals and roads, 168, 169 
towns, 170-172 

manufitctures, 172 

education, 172 

colleges, &c. 315, 316 

landc^ces, 174 

general remarks concern- 
ing its climate, &.c. &c. 

173-177 
In<fianapolis, 170 

X 

Jackson, Bfi. 267 

Jacksonville, 227 

Jefferson Barracks, 243 

Jefferson City, Mo. 242 

Jeflfersonville, Ind. 171 

K. 

Kaskaskia, 227 

Kentucky State, description of 
189-200 
Ifovemment, judiciary, &c. 

191,192 
surface of the country, soil, 
productions, rivers, &c. 
192-194 
cities and towns, 195-198 
roads and canals, 195 

education, 198 

colleges, &c. 316-318 

its early settlement, 200 

curiosities, 199 

general remarks, concern- 
ing its climate, &c. 199,200 
Key West, 307 

Knoxville, 207 



Lancaster, O. 



L. 



154 



La Salle, explores the Valley, 46 
his death, 47 

Lawrenceburg, Ind. ' 170, 171 
Lafayette, Ind. 172 

Lexington, Ky. 196 

Literature, (Periodical) of the 

West, 324 

Little Rock, Ark. Ter. 258 

Logansport, Ind. 172 

Louisiana, piu*cFiase of, 14 

Louisiana State, description of, 
271-289 
government, judiciary, ^c. 

273 
sur&cg of the country, soil, 
productions, rivers, &.c. 

273-277 



cities and towns. 


277-283 


climate. 


283,284 


education. 


284 


colleges. 


321, 322 


land offices. 


285 


general remarks 


respect- 


ing» 


284-289 


Louisville, Ky. 


196, 197 


M. 




Mackinac, 


184 


Madison, Ind. 


171 


Marietta, 0. 


152, 153 


Maysville, Ky. . 


197, 198 


MasiUon, 0. 


153 


Memphis, 


908 


M*Minville, 


208 




187 



Territory, description of 

178-188 
government, judiciary, 

&c, 180 

surface of the country, soil, 
productions, rivers, &c. 

180-183 

citiiBs and towns, 183-185 

education, 185 

land offices, 186 

general remarks coticem. 

ing, 185-188 

Mississippi River, 23, 24, 31-34 

scenery, 251-255 

State, description o^ 262-270 

government, judiciary, &c. 

263,264 



y Google 



3T0 



INDEX. 



surface of the countrj, 
soil, productions, riveis, 
&c. 264-267 

cities and towns, 267,268 
education, 268 

colleges, 321 

land offices, 269 

general remarks concern- 
ing its climate, &.c&c. 

268-270 
Missouri, River, 29,36,241,242 
State, description of; 235-250 
government, judiciary, &c. 

236,237 
surface of the XK)untry , soil, 
productions, manufac- 
tures, rivers, &c. 237-242 
cities and towns, 242-247 
education, 247, 248 

coUeges, 320,321 

land office, 249 

general remarks, concern- 
ing its climate, &c 
&,c. 248-250 

Mobile, 295,296 

Montgomery, 297 

Murfreesboro', 208 

N. 
NashviUe, 208-210 

Natchez, 267, 268 

Natchitoches, 283 

Newark, O. 153 

New Lisbon, O. 153 

New Madrid, 247 

New PhUadelphia, O. 153 

New Orleans, 277-283 

O. 
Ohio, River, its scenery, &c. 

124-129 
State, description of, 139-160 
government, judiciary, 

sur&ce of the country, 
soil, productions, rivers, 
&c. 142-144,147,148 
canals and roads, 144-147 
manufactures, 148, 149' 

cities and towns, 149-155 
education, 155, 156 

colleges, 313-315 

land offices, 157 



history, 159 

general remarks concern- 
ing, 156-160 

Pensacola, ' 306, 307 

Pittsburg, situation, history, 
manu&ctures, trade, &c. 

113-119 
Portsmouth, O. 152 

Public Lands, sales of, 66 

R. 
Rail Roads, Allegheiwsummit,355 
Lexington and Louisville, 195 
Erie and Mad River, 145 
Pittsburg and Ohio, 354 

Virginia and R Tennes- 
see 134 
Baltimore and Ohio, 58 
N. Orleans and Pouchar- 
train, 279 
Randolph, Tenn. 208 
Red River, 277 
Regions which Ue North and 
West of Missouri and Illinois, 

260, 261 

R&LIOIOUS DENOMINATIONS 6l SECTS. 

Associate Church, 328 

Associate Reformed, 328 
Baptists, 325 

Catholics, 328, 329 

Cumberland Presbyteri- 
ans, 326 
Covenanters, 328 
Christians, or New Lights, 328 
Emancipators, 327 
Episcopalians, 327 
Friends, 329 
German Reformed, 327 
Lutherans, 327 
Methodiste, 326 
Presbyterians, 326 
Shakers, 328 
Tunkers, 327 
Ripley, O. 152 

S. 
Shreve, Captain, 61 

Snag-boat, or Uncle Sam's 

Toothpuller, 252, 253 

St Augustine, 307 

St Charles, 243 

St Genevieve, 243 



y Google 



INDES. 



371 



St Louis, 244-247 

Steubenville, O. 153 

Sparta, 'fenn. 208 

Steam-boats, of the West, their 
number, size, cost, appear- 
ance, scenes on them, &c. 
&c. 332-348 

Sugar, its growth and manu- 
fecture, 285-288 

T. 
Tallahassee, 307 

Tennessee State, description «^f 201 
government, &c. • ,203 
soil, productions, rivers, 

&c. 203-205 

manufactures, 205 

cities and towns, 208-210 
education, 210 

colleges 318, 319 

curiosities, 210 

general remarks concern- 
ing, 210-214 
Terre Haute, 172 
Theological Seminaries, 

Theological Seminary of 

the Associate church, 312 
Theological Seminary of 
the Associate Reform- 
ed, 312 
Lane Seminary at Cincin- 
nati, 314, 315 
Theological School at Co- 
lumbus, O. 315 
Rock Spring Theological 

Seminary, - 320 

Western Theological Se- 
minary at Allegheny 
town. Pa. 311, 312 

Hanover Academy or The- 
ological Listitution,Ind. 

315, 316 
Southern and Western 
Tlieological Seminary 
at Maryville, Tenn. 319,320 
Tuscaloosa, 297 

U. 
United States, History, 14 

limits, 15,16 

subdivisions, 17 

UNivKRsrnEs, 

Alabama ITniversity, 322, 323 



Miami University, Ohio, 313 
Nashville University, 318, 319 
Transylvania University, 316 
University of Ohio, at 

Athens, 313 

Western University of Pa. 311 
V. 
Valley of the Mississippi, botm- 

daries, 21-25 

Geography and physical 

character, 23,25-36 

History, 45 

climate, productions, min- 
erals, soil, trees, ani- 
mals, &c. 37-45 
manners, customs, and pur- 
suits of the people, 99-106 
climate and diseases, 67-87 
Indian tribes, monuments 

of antiquity, &c. 87-99 
subdivisions, 26-30 

reasons for expecting a ra- 
pid increase inlfuture, 52-67 
Valley of the Upper Mississip- 
pi, 31-33 
Valley of the Lower Mississip- 
pi, 33-35 
Valley of the St Lawrence, 22 
Character, 23 
Valley, or Basin of Hudson's Bay,19 
Valley, or Basin of Mackensie's 

River, 19 

Valley of the Missouri, 35, 36 
Valley of the Ohio, 30, 31 

Valley, Great Central Valley of 
North America, boundaries, 
and character,'&4!. 18-25 

Vandalia, 226, 227 

Vevay, 171 

Vicksburg, 268 

Vincennes, 171 

VidePoche, 244 

W. 
Washington, Gen. campaigns 

in the West, 49 

Washington, (town of) Pa. 112 
Ml 268 

Western Pennsylvania, descrip- 
tion of, 107-123 
sur&ce of the country, soil, 
productions, rivers, &c 

108-11!^ 



y Google 



372 



INDEX* 



fforemment, jadiciary,&c. 

108,109 
dties and towns, 112-119 
history, 120-122 

education, 119 

coUeges, 310-313 

roads and canals, 111, 112 
general remarks omcern- 
ing it, 120-123 

Western Virginia, description 

of, 129-138 

surface of the country, soil, 
productions, rivers, &c. 

131-137 



goTemment, judiciary, 6u^ 

131 
cities and towns, * 137 
education, 137 

general remarks, eoncem- 



Wheeling, Va. 
Winchester, Tenn. 
Winchester, Mi. 

Y. 
Yazoo Rivw, 
specidation, 
Z. 
ZanesvilIe,0. 



138 
137 

208 



266 
266 



153,154 



y Google 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



^^gitized by Google 



y Google 



S }m V,. 



-4> i\ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




The borrower must return this item on or before 
the last date stamped below. If another user 
places a recall for this item, the borrower will 
be notified of flie need for an earfier return. 

Non-receipt of overdue notices does not exempt 
the borrower from overdue fines. 



Harvard Collie Widener Library 
Cambridge, MA 02138 617-495-2413 



E 




Please handle W^fd care. 

Thank you for helpijN ^Qpiesetve 
library collection^ B^^^xvard. 



vA 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC