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Full text of "The Villanovan"

CONTENTS: 

Salutatory . . . . . ♦ • i • . • . . . i 

A New ^ar's Thought, R. A. G. . . . . . ... . i 

Fia Moses and the Flowers, Eleanor C. Donnelly . . 2 

Immigration, M. A. Tierney, '93 . . . • 2 

The Genoese Ivory Crucifix, T. C. M 3 

Ideals, T. P. Callahan, '94 5 

Organ Recital » 7 

Editorials 8 

Mathematical Class 9 

"Splinters" 10 

Personals 11 

Athletics 12 

The Societies 12 

Retreat .... 12 





^ VO L. I. N91. J '-fQ JANUARY, 1893 !<3|^^^?^ 

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AUGUSTINIAN 

COLLEGE OF VILLANOVA 




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Although comprehensive and fairly true, the above picture conveys but a 
* very imperfect idea of the symmetry and completeness of the yillanova College 
buildings. Founded in 1843, ^^^ chartered in 1848, this College enjoys all the 
privileges of a university. As its name implies, it is conducted by the Fathers 
of the Order of St. Augustine. It is situated twelve miles from Philadelphia, in 
one of the most beautiful parts of Delaware County, between the Lancaster turn- 
pike and the Pennsylvania Railroad, both of which run through its extensive 
grounds. Trains from Broad Street Station are most convenient for parties wish- 
ing to visit the Institution. The buildings are supplied with all modern im- 
provements, and a complete gymnasium affords ample facilities for physical 
exercise. Its library is well supplied with standard works of reference, histories, 
travels, charts, and numerous periodicals. 



"* For further particular, apply for Catalogue to 

V>v'---:"^^;^^^^^^^^^^ -' V. Rev, C. A. McEvoy, o.s.a.; - 

Villanova College, Delaware County, Pa. 




AUGUSTINIAN 

COLLEGE OF VILLANOVA 




mm 



e\ 









w 



Although comprehensive and fairly true, the above picture conveys but a 
' very imperfect idea of the symmetry and completeness of the yillanova College 
buildings. Founded in 1843, and chartered in 1848, this College enjoys all the 
privileges of a university. As its name implies, it is conducted by the Fathers 
of the Order of St. Augustine. It is situated twelve miles from Philadelphia, in 
one of the most beautiful parts of Delaware County, between the Lancaster turn- 
pike and the Pennsylvania Railroad, both of which run through its extensive 
grounds. Trains from Broad Street Station are most convenient for parties wish- 
ing to visit the Institution. The buildings are supplied with all modern im- 
provements, and a complete gymnasium affords ample facilities for physical 
exercise. Its library is well supplied with standard works of reference, histories, 
travels, charts, and numerous periodicals. 



For further particulars, apply for Catalogue to ; ;:; , 

, V. RKV, C. a. MCBVOY, O.S.A.; 

Villanova College, Delaware County, Pa. 

1 



THE VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 

"Contents to Vol. I, 1893. 



: ;; JANUARV-No. i. pac^k 

Salutatory ....... i 

A iNew Vear'sThoiij^ht, R. A. G i 

I'>a Moses and tlie Flowers, Kleanor C. Donnelly 2 

Immigration, M. A.Tierney, '93 ; . . . . 2 

TJie Genoese Ivory C rucilix, T. C. M. . . ,,,..... 3 

Ideals, T. P. Callahan, '94 '. 5 

( Vrj-an Recital . , * 7 

lulitorials. Mathematical Class • 8, 9 

Splinters, Personals ." 10, 11 

Athletics, The Societies J2, 

FEBRUARY— No. 2. 

Mater Boni Consilii, M. J. I .• . . . 13 

Self; C. J McF. . .n 14 

St. Ai^nes, C . . . . • 15 

Ou r Lady Amo n g Au^u stinians, T. C M 1$ 

Gens HibernaTKatliarine O'Keefe 17 

Napoleon at St. Helena, J. F". Keleher, '93 18 

Milton, K. A. G. , 19 

lulitorials, Mathematical Class 20, 21 

Splinters, Personals 22, 23 

. The Societies, Exchanges' 24 

MARCH— No. 3. 

Ode to St. Thomas A(iuinas , 25 

'l"o Be is Better Far Thnn Not To be " 26 

Ojirr£dyof^l2[lcl.-lj'''ill , 27 

" TIie"SociarVirtues ' , 28 

The True Gentleman 29 

Match Birtiulays 30 

The Reopening of Our Lecture Hall 31 

Well Known Phrases 31 

Atlfletics 3t 

ICditonals, Mathematical Class . . . .' .^2, 33 

Splinters, Personals 34. 35 

The Societies, E.xchanges 36 

■■^ :; ■■■'■;■" A' 'v-'-'-'- APRIL— No. 4. 

He is Risen, R. A. G . . ,- 37 

()ucJ.^adYJ3f^GoodjCQilUi>el-__:_^^ 38 

SweetTTays Goiie^ By, J. EroT5T)nnell, '95 39 

The Good and the Good for Nothing, Fed 40 

Law and Liberty, T.J. Fit/gerald, '93 42 

A Vision of Easter Eve, Mary K. Lynch 43 

Athletics 43 

Kiditorials, Mathematical Class 44, 4.'> 

S])linters, Personals 46, 47 

The Societies, E.xchanges 4S 

'"■■•■ ■^■-■'''•''■■^;::.-;;y MAY— No. 5. 

Saint Monica 49 

Courage . . j. . 5" 

SaiL iLM(;>tii r-,i- -? 51 

A Noted Clergyman 52 

To Commemorate the Antiiversary of Thomas Moore . . 52 

The Coliseum 53 

The Drama 54 

'First Aimual Bancjuet 55 

Athletics . • ' 55 

Editorials, Mathematical Class 56, 57 

Splinters, Personals 5^^. 59 

The Societies, Exchanges 60 

,.:;,. jt^NE-No.6. 
' Ode lb Saint Aloysius 6[ 

Pleasures of Memory rn- ■ • n ^* 

;^/Vui>4ialiiii:.i)iHippo^His_Yjautb , " • C- •^: . . . . 63 

Work rV 64 

An Excellent Work 65 

Athletics . . . , . . .,65 

Ordinations . . 66 

Religion an Element of True Education 67 

The Jubilee Announcement 67 

Editorials, Mathematical Class 6S, 69 

Splinters, Personals 70, 71 

The .Societies, Exchanges 72 



GOLDEN JUBILEE Nl^MBER^ JULY— No. 7. 

I PAGE 

0(.le for the Golden Jubilee of Villanova College .... 73 

The Celebration ol theCiolden Jululee of \MIaiiova College 71 

Letters and Telegrams of Regret 77 

Salu;atoryi 7s 

luu'ly Reminiscetices 79 

Le pii\ du temps !Si 

Columbia, Uiisere Heimath . . Si 

Oration Si 

Valedictory .S6 

Address to the Graduates 8.S 

Archbishop Ryan's Address 91 

The Alumni Association 91 

Jubilee (iold Dust 92 

AUGUST— No. S. 

T hrenody o f- Sr. Aii^'^ustine 93 

Clc-e of the Jubilee , 94 

.Sermon 95 

Notes 100 

Life of St. Augustin e (continued) 100 

Centlentss . . . T 104 

Da>sGone By .... 104 

A Reminder 104 



SEPTEMBER-No. 9. 

Noche Serena - 105 

Nqtei^ Rt;latiiig to the Li fe_ol luav LoLUs^JJ^ojjce de Leon . 106 
A Glimpse ol the Catholic Columbian Cuiigress" ..... 107 

Moral and Iiuellectual Education 117 

International Disarmriment iiS 

Personals, Sphnters 120 

OCTOBER- No. 10. 

Cu.'mdo Ser.1 121 

Oratory • 122 

St._A-ij4UUiUue.4>i_UipiiQ_^^. . , 123 

Tlie Destiuction of I'ompeii • . 125 

The Clover ■. 126 

The Head and the 1 le irt 126 

Athletics 127 

Editorials, Mathematical Class 128, 129 

Splinters, Person, ils 130, 131 

The Societies, Exchanges 13J 

NOVEMBER— No. 11. 

s 

The Ladder of St. Augustine 133 

The Civilization of Ancient Greece 134 

.Silver Jubilee 135 

The North American Indian 136 

British Rule in India 137 

The Brook 13S 

Labor and Genius 139 

'l\)-morrow 139 

(jieat Men 139 

Editori.Us, Mathematic.il Class 140, i^[ 

Splinters, Personals . . . • . 142, 143 

The Societies, I^xchanges 144 



DECEMBER— No. 12. 






Long Ago 145 

Christmas Rellections 146 

The Story of ;i Shipwreck - . . 147 

Book Review r^ , . 14S 

Reminiscetices of the Wot Id's Fair 149 

Greeting 150 

L,dM)r in the United States 151 

lulitorials, Mathematical Class '. .152,153 

.Splinters, Personals 154, 155 

The Societies, ICxchanges 156 



THE VILLANOVA MONT 



Contents to Vol. I, 1893. 




JANUARY— No. i. page 

Salutatory i 

A New Year's Thought, R. A. G i 

Fra Moses and the Flowers, Eleanor C. Donnelly .... 2 

Immigration, M. A. Tierney, '93 2 

The Genoese Ivory Crucifix. T. C. M. . . ..:..•. ... 3 

Ideals, T. P. Callahan, '94 . . 5 

Organ Recital ; 7 

Editorials, Mathematical Class 8, 9 

Splinters, Personals. . ... . ... . ..... . . 10, 11 

Athletics, The Societies , ^ , » .: ., ^ . y > >.;..,:. ^ . 12 

FEBRUARY— No. 2. 

Mater Boni Consilii, M. J. L 13 

Self, C. J McF 14 

St. Agnes, C ..... . 15 

Our T.ady Among jAugu stinians. T. C ^ . . . ... ... 15 

Gens Hiberna, Katharine O'Keefe . ." . . . . ; v . . . 17 

Napoleon at St. Helena, J. F. Keleher, '93 . . . ..... 18 

Milton, R. A. G .19 

Editorials, Mathematical Class. . . . . . . . . . . . 20, a i 

Splinters, Personals 22, 23 

The Societies, Exchanges . ........ 24 

MARCH— No. 3, 

Ode to St. Thomas Aquinas . . . . . ... 25 

To Be is Better Far Than Not To be ... 26 

— mi-^.^b^^^-^'^"*^''^^^ ' ' ^^ 

ie^Social Virtues . ....... .28 

The True Gentleman . . . ... 29 

March Birthdays . 30 

The Re- opening of Our Lecture Hall .... . . . . , . 31 

Well Known Phrases , . . . ;....-. 31 

Athletics . ^ . . . ^ . . . 31 

Editorials, Mathematical Class. ........... 32, 33 

Splinters. Personals ....••••. 34, 35 

The Societies, Exchanges . . ..... . . . . . . ... 36 

APRIL— No. 4. 

He is Risen, R. A. G .....-'. . 37 

.Ouii Lady of Gq oc| Co""'^^* j_^^ 38 

Sweet Days (jone By, J. E.OTTonnell, '95 . . . . ... . 39 

The Good and the Good for Nothing, Fed . ... . , ' . . 40 

Law and Liberty, T. J. Fitzgerald, '93 42 

43 
43 
45 
47 
48 



Lynch 



44, 
46, 



A Vision of Easter Eve, Mary K. 

Athletics 

Editorials, Mathematical Class 

Splinters, Personals 

The Societies, Exchanges . . , 

MAY— No. 5. ■ ■ :: -^-VVy/r 

Saint Monica . ......... 49 

Courage ..!,;.. . . . , . ... 50 

. . Sain t Mnni^a ■ — ..... . . ..*.,.. 51 

A"Noted Clergyman , . . . . . . . . . . ... . ... 52 

To Commemorate the Anniversary of Thomas Moore . . 52 

The Coliseum 53 

The Drama i , . , . . . . . . . 54 

First Annual Banquet 55 

Athletics • " . 55 

Editorials, Mathematical Class .,...>>... . .56,57 

Splinters, Personals . ... ... . . . 58, 59 

The Societies, Exchanges 60 

JUNE-N0.6. 

Ode to Saint Aloysius 6t 

Pleasures of Memory «<* /^ " li ^^ 

Work 64 

An Excellent Work 65 

Athletics , ..»,..,.,.. 65 

Ordinations 66 

Religion an Element ot True Education 67 

The Jubilee Announcement 67 

Editorials, Mathematical Class. 68, 69 

Splinters, Personals 70, 71 

The Societies, Exchanges 72 



GOLDEN JUBILEE NUMBER, JULY^No. f. — ^ 

PAGE 

Ode for the Golden Jubilee of Villanova College . V . , . 73 
The Celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Villanova College 74 

Letters and Telegrams of Regret 77 

Salutatory. , ; ;; v , i . 78 

Early Reminiscences ........... 79 

Le prix du temps 81 

Columbia, Unsere Heimath 81 

Oration. 82 

Valedictory. . .,>....•>. 86 

Address to the Graduates . . ....... . 88 

Archbishop Ryan's Address y ; . . . . 91 

The Alumni Association 91 

Jubilee Gold Dust 92 

• AUGUST— No. 8. 

Threnody of ^^ ^n pustine . ..,.....,..,.. 93 

Close of the Jubilee . 94 

Sermon -95 

INOI.6S • > • « ••k ■ • •••'• i ..:■: t- '• ■ f- ». » . • 100 

Life of St. Aueustin e (continued) . . ..■..•■••... 100 

Gentleness . . . .; ^, . vV. . . .. . 104 

Days Gone By . . V . ; ■; V . . .104 

A Reminder . ... . . 104 



SEPTEMBER-No. 9. 

Noche Serena 105 

Notes Relating- to the Life of Etav Lo uis Pon cejde^Leon . 106 

"TPG^limpse of the Catholic Columbian Congress 107 

Moral and Intellectual Education .117 

International Disarmament . •. . 118 

Personals, Splinters 120 

OCTOBER— No. 10. 

Cudndo SerA . .^: :■;],'•.■:■ .i-V-:/:.'-^^^ . 121 

Oratory . . . , . ; . . . ; . . > . . .122 

St^iiggstipc-uLHipRg,..^. ........... . ; . . 123 

The Destruction of Pompeii • . 125 

The Clover 126 

The Head and the He J rt 126 

Athletics ... . ... . . . . - 127 

Editorials, Mathematical Class ; V ^ ■.•.'.•• • 128, 129 
Splinters, Personals . . . .../,; vv /.:,:. 130, 131 

The Societies, Exchanges . .,.;..;;;.;.;:. t. . . .132 



NOVEMBER— No. it. 

■ ■■ r ■ . 

The Ladder of St. Augustine .... ,• * 
The Civilization of Ancient Greece . . . 
Silver Jubilee • ■ • 

The North American Indian ....... 

British Rule in India . . ...><,... 

The Brook .... . .y ...*:.. . . 

Labor and Genius . . ..;:;.,. . 

To-morrow ..'.... , 

Great Men 

Editorials, Mathematical Class 



• .■ .^:.'':'^;vv'';v'.v-; . 134 

", , • , • .- •.■ •■ '•■-';>■■■■■■•. ■'■ *: ' ^35 

•. ■"•.■."# .•■■..•;■.■•,■■■■••:■■•,■,■•, • 1 3 

> " • • •■•.'••■■■•,•• 137 
* ■ •. • •. . 13^ 

....... . . . 139 

. .... . • • • -139 

.: ■.. ■, ^*^•■^.:, •■ • ■ • 139 
. . . . . . . 140, 141 

Splinters, Personals 142, 143 

The Societies, Exchanges . ..... . . . . 144 

>■■■ 

DECEMBER— No. 12. 

Long Ago 145 

Christmas Reflections 146 

The Story of a Shipwreck .147 

Book Review ..•••••><. .148 

Reminiscences of the World's Fair . . . . . . . . . . . 149 

Greeting 150 

Labor in the United States 151 

Editorials, Mathematical Class 152, 153 

Splinters, Personals • • • .... i54, i55 

The Societies, Exchanges 156 



i 



A-- 



''k 




Vol. I. 



V^illaiiova College, January, 1893. 



No. 1 



SALUTATORY. 



We are pleased to announce to the many patrons, 
friends and former students of our institution the 
appearance of a college journal. Faculty and stu- 
dents had often considered this project, but did not 
see a clear way to its accomplishment. The pres- 
ent scholastic year, however, with its increased 
attendance, together with all the good spirits, 
energy and vim which augmented numbers will 
bring to any educational institution, has made the 
publication of a college journal a necessity. The 
circumstances require it, the prospects insure suc- 
cess. The different papers and magazines of the day 
are, every one in its own way, fulfilling their mis- 
sion. And just as the political sheet reflects the 
views of him whose interest is in politics, or the 
partisan one the sentiments of him whose 
sympathies are warped by prejudice ; just as 
the independent paper appeals to the man to whom 
experience has taught the two sides of life, or the 
religious one to him whose soul hungers after 
things religious, so too does the college journal ap- 
peal to a particular class. It appeals to those of 
literary taste, to those interested in training the 
young, to seekers after knowledge ; in fine, to 
all who look upon education as the means to a 
great end, namely, the improvement of a people, 
physical, moral and mental. We make no boast 
as to what we will accomplish by our journal. We 
are satisfied to be judged by our work. Nothing 
unfair will enter its columns. No political party 
will gain or lose by our misrepresentations of its 
merits or demerits. No public question will suffer 
from our unjustly aggressive treatment. But, on 
the other hand, we promise our readers a due re- 
gard for the fitness of things. We purpose, first, 
to keep them informed of all items of interest con- 
nected with our college ; secondly, to place before 
them literature which will interest, please and in- 
struct them ; thirdly, to discuss all questions fairly, 
intelligently and from a Christian standpoint ; 
lastly, we will spare no effort to make our journal 
in every way worthy of a Catholic college. Such is 



our purpose, its accomplishment depending much 
on our friends. Recognizing the great influence 
of college bred men in moulding the thought of a 
people, it seems hardly necessary to apologize for 
the statement, that the contributors to our columns 
will be mainly those whose knowledge of the world 
is only theoretical. 'Tis the knowledge of theory 
which makes the practice easy. 

We are encouraged, therefore, to look to our 
friends for support in this undertaking. With their 
help success is assured. The scope of the work 
contemplated will be easily understood from the 
preceding lines. The spirit of the undertaking is 
embodied in the words of Addison : — 

'Tis not in mortals to command success ; 

But we'll do more, Sempronius, we'll deserve it. 



A New Year's Thought. 

Mournfully we say good-bye to the Old Year. In 
its passing away we feel that we have lost a friend, 
the companion of our joys and sorrows for a period, 
short indeed, considered as a part of the ages of 
the earth's existence, but long, very long in the 
life of individual man. . But Time is the master of 
the world and his inexorable decree has gone 
forth, bringing death to the Old Year, and life to 
the New. Then good-bye. Old Year! speak kindly 
of us when thou wilt be called back from Oblivion's 
depths, as a witness of the good and evil we have 
done in thy presence. 

For the New Year we have words of welcome, 
and fondly hope that it will prove as true a friend 
as the one that we have lost. May it inspire our 
minds and hearts with renewed energy, that we 
may strive more ardently than ever in the pursuit 
of what is true and beautiful and good. May it 
bring unto us peace and happiness, and preserve us 
irom the dangers that lie in our pathway as we 
journey onward to Eternity! Hopefully' and 
earnestly then. New Year, we bid thee welcome. 






cr^cL 



40x5"^-. 



ViLLANOVA MONTHtY. 



Fra Moses and the Flowers. 

Written expressly for the^.Villanova Monthly, by Miss 
Eleanor C. Donnelly. 

Thro' the convent garden, 

Paced the gray-hair'd Friar, 
Brow and eye a-sparkle 

With divinest fire ; 

Right and left the flowers 
' Raised their charming faces, 
. Drench'd with dewy showers, 
Rich with fragrant graces. 

• Right and left, Fra Moses 

Waved his staff and muttered 
(Just as tho' the roses 
Sweet reproaches uttered) : 

" Cease your soft complainings, 

True and tender teachers. 
Hush your meek upbraidings 

Pure and pious preachers ! 

" Yes, I know ye tell me 
^^^^^ ; ; M 

Great (since ye compel me) 
Are our sins, and hateful ! 

" Well I know God made you 
Out of pure affection 
^; For our souls— arrayed you 

Thus, for our delection ! 

" Cease your soft complainings, 

True and tender teachers ! 
Hush your meek upbraidings ; 

Pure and pious preachers ! 

*' Ravish'd by the beauty, 

Godlike, in you glowing, — 
We shall do our duty 

With a zeal o'erfiowing ! 

>- •• We shall let the glory 

Of your shining faces 
Wreath our homely story 
With sublimest graces ! 

■ 'V ■ ^ " Crown this life of ours 

With Love's brave endeavor ; 
Yea, like yours, sweet flowers 
^ Make it God's forever !" 



Cheerfulness is, in the first place, the best promoter of 
health, repining and secret murmurs of heart give impercept- 
ible strokes to those delicate fibres of which the vital parts are 
composed. Addison. 



Renounce not the purpose of embarking in active life ; make 
haste to employ with alacrity the years that are granted to 
you. .-^ ;'^^--':/ 7 ■-:/;;;■:., .::j,' ■.■:%/'■;;:■ Goethe. 



My notions about life are much the same as they aie about 
traveling ; there is a good deal of amusement on the road, but, 
after all, one wants to be at rest. , : ,, Southev. 



Experience is the name men give to their follies or other 
sprrows. A. De Musset. 



Immigration. 

A subject which at present claims, in a great 
measure, the attention of our people, and one upon 
which the legislators of our country will soon take 
definite action, is immigration. 

The causes which urge the American citizen to a 
consideration of this matter are every day becoming 
more apparent, and it is evident that some action 
should and must be taken to shield our country 
from the great mass of paupers and criminals who 
are yearly brought to our shores, bearing with 
them the germs of vice and disease and lowering 
by competition the wages of the American work- . 
man. ■■■^.-•^ ^^.s^iv^-'y- ■::.:yr:^: '''^■.■■■■/■■'f ^- "•':'■:■■■ 

As to the measures which Congress should adopt 
for the restriction of immigration, various opinions 
have been advanced, and all our public men seem 
to recognize the fact thaj: the time has come when 
immigration should be intelligently and effectively 
• restricted. 

It is true that there are several great States of 
the West anxious to have their lands occupied and 
their population increased, but there is something 
of far more importance to us than the occupation 
of land or increase of population, and that is the 
upholding of the standard of American citizenship. 
If we permit immigration to remain unrestricted 
and make no distinction in regard to the various 
classes of people who, at the present time, are 
admitted to share in the freedom and prosperity of 
our country, the time will inevitably come when 
our government will be obliged to adopt measures 
not in conformity with the philanthropic spirit of 
its constitution. There is no doubt but that it is 
of great pecuniary interest to the many steamship 
companies whether or not immigration shall be 
restricted, but the safety and welfare of the entire 
people should not be placed in peril for the advan- 
tage of a few ; and, furthermore, these companies 
could increase the passage rates in proportion to 
the decrease in traffic and thereby their profits 
would not be materially affected. 

An educational test which is strongly recom- 
mended, although in a measure worthy, is not 
desirable, for it is a well-known fact that some of 
the most dangerous people \5ch0 come to this country 
are fairly, and in many instances, highly educated. 
This has been amply proven in the cases of the 
anarchists and socialists, while among the illiterate 
may be found those whose morals and character are 
above reproach, who labor for the welfare and 
advancement of the country, and who, in fine, 
make good and respectable citizens. 

It is true that a property test has often met with 
approval, but under no consideration should this 
means be resorted to, for by it the rich of every 



.. !* 



fvu 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 




class and character would be received with open 
arms ; the foreign criminal would seek here a new 
field in which to practice his wicked arts ; while 
by the same law the poor and honest would be 
turned away. 

While we have the power to prohibit all immi- 
gration, or to limit the number of persons to be 
admitted to the country annually ; and while many 
of our leadihg citizens have declared that no other 
measure will check the forward march of this 
threatening evil, yet it does not seem that such 
radical and exacting measures are either necessary 
or desirable. All must admit that the unparalleled 
progress which this country has made during the 
last half century is due, in a great measure, to 
immigration, and during this period the immigrant 
has not, as is generally believed, lowered the 
standard of American citizenship ; but, on the 
contrary, has elevated.it. By his invaluable assist- 
ance our citizens have been enabled to devote more 
time to the different professions and to give closer 
study and attention to the arts and sciences. In 
legislating for the restriction or prohibition of 
immigration, it should be borne in mind that the 
people of the United States have taken great pride 
in declaring that this country is open to the poor 
and oppressed of all nations. How utterly will 
they forfeit their claim to any such distinction if 
they adopt the policy of prohibiting all immigra- 
tion. 

The measure which seems most suitable, and 
which would unquestionably meet the demands of 
the people, is a character test, which should re- 
quire that immigrants shall be subject to consular 
inspection in their own country and that they shall 
furnish from the American Consul a certificate that 
they are not obnoxioiis to the laws of the United 
States. It should also be required that immigrants 
shall furnish a certificate from a reputable physi- 
cian to the effect that they are suffering from no 
chronic or contagious disease. They should be 
subject moreover, to rigid sanitary inspection, both 
at the port of embarkation and the port of entry. A 
test of this kind would protect us from all those who, 
as outcasts from their native lands, would be most 
unwelcome here; it would protect us from the 
horde of paupers who are yearly sent here by the 
numerous aid societies of foreign nations; it would 
protect us from that dread disease, cholera, which 
still lurks in those districts that suffered so much 
from its ravages during the past summer. This 
protection is especially necessary during the present 
year, for if this pestilence should obtain a foot-hold 
in the country, financial disaster to the World's 
Fair would inevitably follow. But this considera- 
tion is only secondary when we realize the great 



loss of life that will follow the advent of cholera, 
if it reaches us in an unfavorable season and 
extends its ravages to the great metropolis of the 
West. 

Immigration properly regulated and restricted 
would, by no means, be dangerous or undesirable, 
for our country has broad fields and ample means 
of employment for all those who, with honest heart 
and willing hands, seek her shores. But she has 
no room for criminals, nor for that class of people 
who bring here their contemptible secret organi- 
zations, which breed race antagonism, and lead to 
a defiance of law, and even to murder. The mem- 
bers of these organizations, unwilling to obey fair 
and beneficial laws, seek the disruption of what- 
ever country is unfortunate enough to receive them 

within its borders. 

M. A. TiERNEY, '93. 



The Genoese Ivory Crucifix. 

The Cathedral of SS. Peter and Paul, in Phila- 
delphia, is held deservedly to be rich in treasures 
of many kinds, both ecclesiastical and material. 

No visitor to the Cathedral can well help but 
admire the many works of art that fill the sacred 
building — the plain yet elegant altar tables, the 
rich and almost glowing tints in the altar pieces, 
and the intricate yet tasteful chiseling of the many 
brasses, lamps, candelabra and the memorial tab- 
lets — all of which serve admirably to adorn the 
temple and add to the magnificence of religious 
ceremonial. Truly are these monuments beautiful 
and well worthy of the mother church of Phila- 
delphia. Yet no one who closely studies these 
many and varied monuments of Christian genius, 
which he will encounter during his saunterings in 
the holy place, but will feel himself drawn uncon- 
sciously, even imperceptibly and, as it were, irre- 
sistibly, to consider one in especial of these master- 
pieces of art. This is a large and exquisitely 
carved crucifix in ivory, that hangs in one of the 
side chapels in the north aisle of the Cathedral. 

If nothing else about this crucifix were to draw 
his attention, it would at least be its somewhat 
unusual size, some fourteen inches in length, and 
the admirable proportions of the figure in chief 

Yet these are perfections of art that one may not 
unnaturally expect to find in a work that has been 
given so prominent a place in the chief church of 
the diocese. 

But very easily will the artistic and devout soul 
be drawn beyond the consideration of these merely 
material excellences of the figure, to note some 
other points in the carving that, perhaps, are not 
quite so readily apparent, and are noticeable in all 
their perfection only after some study and reflection. 




VII^L.^NOVA MONTHLY. 



In the figure of the Crucified One, every muscle, 
every nerve even, seems to tell of the distinctive 
part it had to play in the great drama of tlie, world's 
redemption. 

"The delicate veins [these are the words of 
Mr. Col ton in the American Revieiv\ are seen 
coursing under the skin as in the living model,^ 
while every muscle is sloped to its termination 
with an exactness to nature that seems almost 
miraculous. Not the slightest particular eflfect, 
moreover, that would result in a body hanging in 
so unnatural a position, as the great protrusion of 
the chest, the unusual distension of the cords of 
the arms, eveii to the gathering of the flesh above 
the nails in the hands and feet by the weight rest- 
ing upon them, fails to appear in distinct execu- 
tion," 

But the triumph of the work, if any one part 
may be said to excel another, is the divine 
countenance. Herein has the artist, witli the 
same careful and life-like reproduction, sought to 
portray the many and infinitely varied emotions 
that characterized the dying Redeemer. 

In pretty much every feature of the agonized 
face of the Redeemer of the world, he has lined and 
developed the deep traces of mingled sorrow and 
love that filled His divine heart during the three 
long hours that He hung on the fatal wood on 
Calvary's heights. These evidences of the artist's 
skill clearly witness that he was led by no common 
perception of this, the great mystery of religion. 

Verily is this crucifix a masterpiece of religion 
as well as of art, and the more one sees of its many 
perfections and ponders over them, the more is he 
led to marvel at the inspiration in the carver that 
gave them being. And if in his desire to learn 
more about this wonder inf art, he should seek to 
know whose was the skillful and pious hand that 
has so deftly and feelingly represented one of the 
chief mysteries of our faith, the very one, it is 
acknowledged, that has always been held to be the 
severest test of the Christian artist, he will very 
probably be referred to a description of the crucifix 
and its carver, as it is given in a small pamphlet 
that was published in Philadelphia in i860, on 
occasion of the last rites of religion over the 
recently deceased John Nepomucen Neumann, 
C.SS.R., fourth Bishop of Philadelphia. 

This venerable prelate had died on the 5th of 
January, i860. This was a Thursday. On the 
. following Friday, Saturday anigunday his remains 
lay in state in the chapel, now known as the 
Cathedral Chapel, on Logan Square, and on Mon- 
day, the 9th inst., the solemn exequies over his 
body were held at St. John's Church, the pro- 
Cathedral, on Thirteenth street. 



During the public exposition of his venerable 
remains in the chapel, the large ivory crucifix that 
is mentioned in this sketch was placed at the head 
of the catafalque. The deceased Bishop had 
always admired it, had treasured it greatly, and 
had proposed to put it in a place of honor in his 
Cathedral when completed. In the pamphlet re- 
ferred to above, the publishers, Messrs. Downing 
and Daly, have given a brief sketch of this ivory 
crucifix. The pamphlet states that it was carved 
by a certain Fra Carlo, a lay brother in the convent 
of St. Nicholas of Tolentine, near Genoa, in Italy. 
This was a monastery of the Barefooted Hermits 
of St. Augustine, that had been foimded in 1596. 

After telling a good deal about Fra Carlo's early 
life and boyhood, the pamphlet goes on to describe 
how, after many drawbacks of various kinds, the 
good and pious youth was led to enter the religious 
state, and how, after many trials in religion, he 
once upon a time came across, in an old lumber 
room in the monaster}', a hugh piece of ivory that 
for many a day had been lying there, abandoned 
and hidden away from the community. 

This ivory ^a tusk, the pamphlet says, of some 
extinct species of mammal, had ages before been 
brought to Genoa by merchants from some eastern 
land,, and had found a resting place in the monas- 
tery of St. Nicholas. It was from this piece of 
ivory that Fra Carlo carved the crucifix that was 
so much valued by the late venerable Bishop of 
Philadelphia. The description given in the pam- 
phlet of Fra Carlo's task in carving it, of the 
vigils and prayers and ecstacies of the pious artist, 
reads almost like a fairy tale or mediaeval legend. 

As space in the Vii^lanova Monthly is precious, 
its readers who may wish to learn more about the 
genesis of this ivory crucifix and how and when 
it came into the possession of the Bishop are referred 
to the pamphlet in question. 

Yet the writer of this paper may be allowed to 
to say that some years ago, precisely seven, a kind 
of inborn curiosity, harmless enough in its way, 
prompted him to search for further information 
relating to Fra Carlo, the friar — artist of his Order, 
and accordingly he applied for it to the head- 
quarters of the Order in Rome. 

Shortly after he was favored with a letter from 
the father superior of the Barefooted Augustinians 
at Genoa. In his letter which is dated "Genoa, 
Convent of the Madonnetta, June 8, 1885," the 
prior states that he knew Fra Carlo well, and — he 
then proceeds to impart the much desired informa- 
tion. This, summarized, is given here partly be- 
cause it is interesting and partly because it corrects 
some errors of fact that have crept into the pamph- 
let of i860. The prior says that Antonjo^Pazenti, 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



> 



the name of Fra Carlo in the world, not Pesenti, 
as his American biographers have spelled it, first 
saw the light of day on February 22, 1802, in 
Zogno, a petty town, or hamlet in the diocese of 
Bergamo in Lombardy. In 1825, he was admitted 
as lay brother to the habit of the Barefooted 
Augustinians at Genoa, of the convent of St. 
Nicholas of Tolentine. This convent had been foun- 
ded in 1596, and here Antonio received the name 
in religion of Carlo Antonio da Sajita M aria of 
Bergamo. This is the Fra Carlo of our sketch. 
The Barefooted Augustinians had always the 
custom, which they still keep, of discarding their 
secular name on their entrance into religion, and 
of taking a new name by which they are thereafter 
known. ■ -^v ■;..\;':- ■...;^:-^V,,^.- : ■; ■ 

In 1827, o" ^^^ 4^^i o^ February, Fra Carlo, by 
dispensation of the Supreme Pontiff", of six months 
of his novitiate term, was admitted to the profes- 
sion of the three religious vows, namely, of poverty, 
chastity and obedience. For several years he was 
employed in the various house duties of the 
monastery befitting his station as lay, or serving 
brother, and in time, because of his simple, inno- 
cent and trusty character, he was appointed alms- 
quester of the community. This newofiice led him 
as a matter of course, frequently to visit the near 
by city of Genoa in quest of aid for the brethren. 
The convent of St. Nicholas stood on one of the 
many hills that surround Genoa, in acharmingsite 
from which one could have full view of the snow- 
clad Alps and the populous city and the broad ex- 
panse of the tideless Mediterranean Sea. 

Fra Carlo, who early in life had displayed a taste 
or rather an inborn and marvelous passion for 
carving and sculpture, frequently now on his visits 
to the city for alms, would drop in to see his artist 
friends and benefactors at work in their studios. 
Then when at home he would spend his leisure 
time in carving, chiefly in wood, little statues of 
the Blessed Virgin, and of the saints.. This was 
his pastime and the school of his genius. Fra 
Carlo, the prior writes, was a good copyist, 
in fact a very good one, though he knew 
but little of the technicalities of his art. He 
had never, it may be said, received any lessons 
in carving other than the chance instructions he 
had picked up in his visits to his artist friends. 
After a few years of practice in carving with, 
perhaps, a hint now and then from connoisseurs, 
he developed such skill in the mechanical details 
of his art that his Superior allowed him from this 
time on to spend all Ins time at his favorite pursuit, 
the more readily since the proceeds of his labors 
were devoted to the support of the community. 

As regards the ivory crucifix now in the Cathe- 



dral, the prior states that in the convent there 
chanced to be a bronze crucifix of considerable 
merit, a replica^ it was said, of one by La Croix, a 
French carver of repute. Fra Carlo was set to 
work — this was some time in the early '40's — to 
make a copy of La Croix's crucifix in ivory, and 
so well did he succeed in his task that the crucifix 
was put on exhibition til the Academy of Fine 
Arts at Genoa, and, finally, was purchased and 
brought to the United States by Mr. Charles 
Edwards Lester, Consul at the time at Genoa. 

This crucifix, the pamphlet of i860 says, is the 
ivory crucifix now in the Cathedral.^ • 

To conclude with Fra Carlo, the prior relates 
that during the political troubles in Italy, in 1866, 
the Convent of St. Nicholas of Tolentine, in com- 
mon with so many religious corporations in that 
kingdom, met with the general fate and was sup- 
pressed along with other houses of the Order. 
Thereupon Fra Carlo retired to the general hospice 
of his Order in Genoa, the house known as the 
Madonnetta, or Little Madonna, which had in 
some way or other escaped the general fate, and 
here he continued in his art labors until his death 
on December 20th, 1874. 

Such is the prior's story of Fra Carlo and the 
Genoese Ivory Crucifix. 

A manuscript in the possession of the writer 
states that Fra Carlo was induced by Mr. Lester to 
sit for his portrait, and that a very excellent one of 
him in oil was made by Professor Cerro, of Milan, 
and brought by Mr. Lester to New York city. 

c^,X«5. <£, UuLcJLc^Un^^ !^ci. ^T. C. M. 

IDEALS. ' 

The human soul, spiritual and immortal, cannot 
be satisfied with those things which are only ma- 
terial and sensible. For, however it considers 
them, it finds some flaw, some imperfection, 
whether apparent or hidden, which is repugnant 
to its nature. It must soar above the material and 
sensible world in order to find objects upon which 
it may rest with complacency. But whither? 
Grand and majestic as are its faculties, it cannot 
comprehend the infinite, eternal God ; neither can it 
burst the bonds that unite it to earth, for as long as 
it is the active, vivifying principle of a human be- 
ing, it must receive its impressions through the 
senses.' One thing only remains, to idealize these 
material and sensible impressions by the power of 
the imagination, that is, to abstract them from the 
world of reality, strip them of their imperfections, 
and clothe them with a perfection that is a part of 
the Divinity itself 



VlIvtANOVA MONl'HtV. 



All men, even those who are mentally dull and 
apathetic are more or less conscious of being 
endowed by their Creator with an imaginative 
faculty, which enables them to summon ideal images 
in such a vivid manner as to behold them in all the 
distinctness of objective reality. If they use this 
power for the purpose intended by the Creator, 
they will be rewarded by more elevated sentiments, 
nobler impulses and higher aspirations, if not, the 
spiritual and immortal part of them will be lost 
sight of in the pursuit of sensible and material 
things. 

Now, all men being more or less conscious of the 
existence of this power, and yet at the same time 
possessed of different dispositions or temperaments 
there must be a great variety in the jesults obtained 
by using it ; and consequently there must be a 
great variety of ideals. The philosopher, the poet, 
the musician, the painter, the sculptor, each has his 
own ideal of truth, goodness,harmony, beauty or pro- 
portion. The philosopher, seeing so much around 
him that is false and artificial, soars higher and high- 
er into the realms of abstract truth ; the poet, with 
mind and heart enkindled by the inspirations of gen- 
ius, dissatisfied with the imperfections of his sur- 
roundings, conjures in his imagination ideal scei^es 
fairer than human eye has ever beheld, and ideal 
life, sweeter and truer than human heart has 
ever throbbed to ; the musician weary of the 
discord of life, rises into a world of ideal har- 
mony and thence pours forth his thoughts, 
desires and feelings in music that startles 
and subdues mankind ; the best works of painter 
or sculptor afe those founded, not upon real models 
only, but rather idealized models of beauty and 
justness of proportion. The imagination of the 
artist is in full play and presents to his mind's eye 
a succession of forms, each of which, consciously 
or unconsciously, he tries by the aesthetic faculty 
of his mind and at length selects, as an ideal, the 
one most in conformity with his designs. 

But we all have ideals — ideals which are the 
sources of our best impul-es and highest aspira- 
tions, and these impulses will be better, these 
aspirations higher, according as they are set toward 
lofty ideals. There are ideals of heroism and self- 
sacrifice ; of happiness, love, friendship ; of beauty, 
strength, sublimity ; of intellectual and moral 
excellence. It is not without reason that a great 
writer has said : "Ideals are the world's masters," 
for their influence is life-long, and they determine 
the thoughts, desires and actions of all men. 

But do men ever attain their ideals ? The answer 
must be in the negative. In reference to this 
Carlyle says: "Alas, we know that ideals can 
never be embodied in practice. Ideals must ever 



lie a great way off, and we will thankfully content 
ourselves with any not intolerable approximation 
thereto. . . . And yet, on the other hand, it is 
never, to be forgotten that ideals do exist ; that if 
they be not approximated to at all, the whole 
matter goes to wreck." Thus, although we may 
never realize our ideals ; though we may never 
accomplish the things which we attempt and 
earnestly desire to accomplish ; though our ideals, 
for that reason, often seem like dreams and air- 
castles, yet the constant remembrance of them 
discloses to us our failings and urges us on to 
higher and better things. Just as 

" Nature in her productions slow aspires 
By just degrees to reach perfection's height," 

so should we aim at perfection in all things, and 
the nearer we approach this ideal, the better will 
we be able to solve the problem of human life and 
human happiness. ■ "^ ' ' - 

Christianity offers to us the best and holiest ideal 
that the world could ever follow in the person of 
Jesus Christ the Redeemer. By His coming He has 
elevated the standard of humanity, and has created 
a standard of perfection which was hitherto alto- 
gether unknown to mankind. He has proven by 
His example that it is not an impossibility for us 
to lead lives of holiness ; that it is not an impossibil- 
ity for the virtues which He so pre-eminently prac- 
ticed to be realized in ourselves. The gods of the 
ancients, it is true, were idealized human beings, 
but they were only ideals, without any foundation 
in objective reality. But our Ideal was once a real- 
ity, living, and speaking, and acting like oursel- 
ves. Although that Ideal, like the horizon, recedes 
further and further away as we journey towards it, 
yet there is a satisfaction in knowing that we are 
always actually tending toward it. If this Ideal 
be not ever in sight of Christians, they are un- 
worthy of the name, for Christianity is nothing else 
than a following of Christ, both in precept and 
example. 

Ideals then, actually exist for all classes of men, 
and they must be followed, else life itself is a fail- 
ure. But for man as a rational being, the per- 
formance of duty, the resistance to temptations, 
the doing of good to others, the preparation of the 
soul for the vision of the Infinite should be the 
ever present and ever ruling ideals of life. 

T. P. CAIvLAHAN, '94. 



We have but faith : we cannot know ; 

For knowledge is of things we see ; 

And yet we trust it comes from thee, 
A beam in darkness : let it grow. 

— Tennyson. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



An Event at Villa Nova. 



Opening of a Magnificent New Organ in'St. Thomas' 

Church. 



At St. Thomas' Church, Villa Nova, on Sunday 
last, a magnificent new organ was opened in the 
presence of a large gathering of the members of 
the congregation. The worth of this acquisition to 
the already beautiful church was conclusively 
proven by Professor Harry Gordon Thunder, under 
whose direction the affair took place. 

The programme for the occasion was as follows : 

PROGRAMME.— Part i. 



1 ORGAN SOLO— March "Aida" . .Verdi 

Mr. Thuiider. 

2 TENOR SOLO— "Salve Regina" .Dana 

Mr. Kirschner. 

3 DUET— Soprano and Alto, "Quis est Homo" . . Rossini 

Mrs. Nassau and Miss Plantholz. 

4 BASS SOLO— "OSalutaris" Rev. H. Ganss 

Mr. Crossin. 

5 ORGAN SOLO-^Intermezzo Mascagni 

Mr. Thunder. 

6 TRIO— Alto, Tenor and Bass, " Gratias Agimus " Rossini 

Miss Plantholz, Messrs. Kirschner and Crossin. 

PROGRAMME— Part II. 



I ORGAN SOLO— Pilgrims' Chorus, "Tannhaeuser" Wagner 

Mr. Thunder. 



2 SOPRANO SOLO— "Gratias" . . . . 

Mrs. Nassau. 

3 ALTO SOLO—" O Rest in the Lord " 

Miss Plantholz. 

4 ORGAN SOLO- {» ^7™,^"°" 

Mr. Thunder. 



• •'•.,• • 



. Guglielmo 



Mendelssohn 



. Thunder 
. . Tours 



5 QUARTETTE-"Sancta Mater" .. ...... .Rossini 

Mrs. Nassau, Miss PUntholz, Messrs. Kirschner and Crossin. 

6 ORGAN SOLO— Overture, "Wm. Tell" . . . . .Rossini 

Mr. Thunder. > 

At the conclusion of the first part. Rev. R. A. 
Gleeson, O.S. A., delivered a learned and eloquent 
discourse on "Music in its Relation to Divine Wor- 
ship." In the course of his remarks the reverend 
speaker dwelt upon the fact that many works of 
the most illustrious composers are of a devotional 
character. He spoke also of the peculiar appro- 
priateness to t-h^ divine worship of the organ above 
all other musical instruments. 

The organ cost $3, 750. It contains 3 manuals, 
38 stops and 1743 pipes. It is 28 feet wide and 12 
feet deep. 



The Bising and Setting San. 



Hob, 



" Alme sol curru nitido diem qui 
Promis et celaSj-aliusque et idem 
Nasceris." 

When the morning sunbeams dart on high, 
; And the twilight is lost in day ; 
'^ When the bright sun smiles in the eastern sky ; 
And the damp and the dews are away. 



! then do we hail the return of the light, 

And the lark's sweet early voice ; 
When the heaven is blue, and the earth looks bright. 

And all nature exclaims, R(gjoice ! 

But when hours are flown, and the breath of eve 

Comes soft in the gentle breeze, 
And the sun, as loth the rich sky to leave, 

Sinks in glory by slow degrees. 

When the red and gold, with a deepening glow. 
Light the earth with refulgent blaze, • 

And changing to crimson and purple, slow 
Fade, at length, with the sun's last rays, 

Oh! how sweet to stray in that evening hour, 

And to gaze on the gorgeous scene. 
When the placid mind hath not envied power. 

Pain and pleasure to sport between ! 

And tell me now which thou lovest best. 
And whicb most does thy heart rejoice ; 

Dost thou love the sun when he gilds the west? 
Is the setting sun thy choice ? 

Or dost thou love better his morning ray, 

His first smile on hill and stream ; 
Dost thy breast expand at returning day ? 

Dost thou hailTiis rising beam ? 

If thy heart is youthful, thou well may'st choose 

The young orb ere his course be run ; 
But for me be his sober and mellowed hues, 

for me a setting sun ! 

For the sunset pictures the splendid close. 

When the just man's life is done , 
When rich in virtue he sinks to repose, 

Like the glorious setting sun. 

'r'-.(--':^]:K---^':\:A'-^,:^ • ' F. C.H. 



No man is born into the world whose work is not born with 
him. There is always work, and tools to work withal, for 
those who will ; and blessed are the horny hands of toil. — 
Lowell. 

The mind should be allowed to dwell only on thoughts that 
are happy, satisfying, or perfect. Happy thoughts ! we have 
them when we expect them, and are in a state to receive thtm. 

— JOUBERT. 

Good thoughts are blessed guests, and should be heartily 
welcomed, well fed, and much sought after. Like rose-leaves 
they give out a sweet smell if laid up in the jar of memory. — 
Spurgeon. 



8 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Monthly; 

PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF 
UILLANOUA, P/\, 



xJANUARY, 1893. 



THE STKF=F=. 

Editor-in-Chief. 
WM. J. PARKER, '93. 

Associate Editors. 

ThOS. J. FITZGERAI.D, '93. MiCH. A. TiERNEY, '93. 



Jno. F. Kelleher, '93, 
JNO J. Ryle, '94. 
Wm. J. Mahon, '95. 



JAS. F. O'Leary. 
Tim. p. Callahan, '94. 
Jer. J. Crowley, '94. 



Jno. E. O'Donnell, '95. 

Business Manager. 
JOHN J. FARRELL, O-S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 

Remittances and business communications should be ad- 
dressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, one year 
Single copies . . . .... 



$1 00 
.10 



Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second- Class Matter. 



EDITORIALS. 



Influknckd by the tlioughts which usually 
force themselves upon us at the beginning of a nev^^ 
year, we have especially considered this the most 
auspicious time to introduce our college journal. 

The present year has more than a passing signifi- 
cance to the alumni, students and the many friends 
interested in Alma Mater, Reminded of our semi- 
centennial celebration by the earnest zeal of the 
faculty toward making the event what it should 
be, we, the students, have volunteered our aid, and, 
with the Very Rev. President's kind permission, 
have decided, though not without due deliberation, 
to publish a college journal. 

We enter the field of journalism wanting in ex- 
perience, but influenced by worthy motives and 
encouraged by the promised aid of each and every 
student. We will spare no effort until the Villa- 
nova Monthly holds the place destined for it in 
the college world — a place of honor and merit. 

Let not our pq^trons be deceived \{\ the belief 
that our publication will be short-lived and in- 
tended only for display on this, our fiftieth anni- 



versary. We are in earnest, and heartily trust 
that when another fifty years, freighted with pleas- 
ures and cares, has decked Alma Mater's brow 
with the centennial crown of glory, won in the 
holy cause of Christian education, they will find our 
college journal still existing — not in its present 
embryotic state, but steadily advancing, with an 
established and well-merited reputation. 

To the reverend faculty, professors and all those 
who have enabled our undertaking to rise from a 
possibility to a reality, we tender our sincere and 
heartfelt thanks. 

It is a matter of regret that the excellent mate- 
rial for a football eleven did not manifest itself 
earlier in the season. Judging from the practice 
games, remarkable, prowess was exhibited, and had 
proper enthusiasm been displayed sooner, some 
interesting games would have been the result. 
Apart from this, Villanova' s reputation in the base- 
ball field is to be maintained. The gymnasium, at 
present closed for extensive repairs, will be opened 
after the Christmas holidays. A commodious base- 
ball cage will grace the interior, and already nego- 
tiations are pending for a first-class trainer, so that 
the season of '93 bids fair to be a red-letter one in 
the sporting annals of our college. 

An explanatory word is necessary regarding the 
chronicling of events pertaining to the college and 
its environs. Each number of our journal will 
contain those of the month immediately preceding. 
Hence in this, our first issue, subscribers will find 
a summary of the events of December only. Infor- 
mation concerning all other matters previous to 
that time will be cheerfully furnished on applica- 
tion to the editor. 

To enjoy the good-will of the faculty, let those 
of you who are at present enjoying all the comforts 
of home and kindred, return on the date specified 
in the catalogue, otherwise something outside the 
daily curriculum will await your tardy arrival. 

Those devotees of Thespis who now reside 
in our midst have not been idle, and at the 
present are preparing an entertainment for their 
'inany friends and patrons in the college and its 
vicinity. The date of this presentation has not 
been settled, but there is no reason to doubt that 
an excellent programme will be arranged, and we 
assure our friends that the exercises will be of 
such a character as to please even the most fastid- 
ious taste. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



MATHEMATICAL CLASS. 
To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work ajie respectfully invited to send p:obleni«, 
queries, etc., or any difficult es they may encounter in their 
mathematical studies. 
All such communications bhould be addressed to 

D. O'SuLLiVAN, Villanova College. 

Proposed by M. T. , Villanova College. 

2. — A circle rolls inside another of double it.s 
diameter; find the loclis of a fixed point in its 
circumference. 

Solution by G" S. 

Let a circle whose centre is O', roll inside another 
circle whose centre is O, and whose diameter is 
twice that of O' . Take a fixed point P in the cir- 
cumference of O' . It is required to find its locus. 

Let R be the point of contact. Join O P^ O P, 
O'Py and produce OP to meet the circumference in 
Q and bisect the angle A' O' Phy O' S. 



f^ ■ 




Now, the angle P O' P=2 POP (the angle at 
the centre is double the angle at the circumfer- 
ence). . •. the angle A' O' S=P O Q, and the arc 
PS: P Q :: O' R : O A, but O P=2 O' R, . '. R 
Q=2 PS, .: P P=P Q. Now, since the arc A P 
=P Q, the point P must have coincided with Q. 
Hence the line O ^ is the locus of P. 

Proposed by X. K, Villanova College. -.^ 

3. — To inscribe a regular octagon in a given 
square. 

Solution by O^S. 

Let ABCD be a given square. It is required to 
describe a regular octagon in it. 

Draw the diagonals AC, BD, intersecting in O. 
Cut off AE, ^F=AO ; Bl, BJ=BO ; CG, CH= 
CO ; DL, pK=DO. Join ^G, JL, HF, KI. 

D H L 




Join OE, OG, 01. Now, because AE=AO, 
and the angle EAO is ^ a right angle, . '. each of 
the angles AEO, AGE is }^ of a right angle, and 
the angle A OB is right ; . *. EOB is ^4 of a right 
angle. Similarly, each of the angles GOB, AOl 
is % of a right angle, hence EOI is }^ of a right 
angle, and we have seen that AEO is }^ of a rig) it 
angle ; . '. ElO is y^ of a right angle, . *. 01= OE. 
And because the angle E B=^GOB and angle 
EBO=GBO, and the side BO connnon OG=OE 
= 01. Now, OG=Ol a.\\d OZi" common, and the 
angle GOE^=/OE ; . '. the bases /E, EG are equal. 
In like manner all the sides are equal. Again, 
because BE=BG, the angle BEG=^iGE ; .'. 
each is j4 o( a right angle; each of the angles 
GE/, EG/ is :] of a right angle. Similarly all the 
angles are equal. Hence the octagon is regular. 

Proposed by Alpha, l^illanova College. 

4. — A Dutch wind-mill in the shape of a frustum 
of right cone, is 12 meters high. The outer diam- 
eters at the bottom and at the top are 16 meters 
and 12 meters, the inner diameters are 12 and 10 
meters each. How many cubic meters of stone 
were required to build it? 

Let F=volume of wind-mill, and F'^volume 
of inner frustum. Both frustums are similar. 
And let r and r' be the radii of the outer and inner 
circles of the bottom and top. Then V=\ h r^+ 
r>'-^rr')=\ 12// (64+36-f48)=4//X 148^=592// and 

V'=\ h 12 (36 l-25+3o)=4//X9i-=364//. -.582// — 
364//=228//. 

3. 1416X228=716.2848 cubic meters. 

Fh'oposed by J. Z. , Villanova College. 

5. — A debt of $8000 at 6% compound interest is 
discharged by eight equal annual payments, re- 
quired the annual payment. 

Solution by O^S. 

Tlie amount of $a at compound interest for n 
years, r being the rate per cent, is a (i + r)'\ The 
amount of annuity of $b for the same period at the 
same rate is 

b{i-hr)"—i =a {i + rf 



.'.b{irr)"—ra {i-^rf^b 

b{i-\-r)"—b=ra{i\r)" 

b=ya {i \ r)" = 8000 a- 06 (1.06)" 



To prove EGJLHFKI is the octagon required. 



(I rr)"— I 



(i.o6)«- 
48ox(i.o6)'* 



(i.o6)-'-i 
which by simple arithmetic, or logarithmic com- 
putation, the result may be found to be |i 288. 286, 



ro 



VILLANOVA iMONTHLY. 



New Problems. 

6. — Construct a triangle given the three medians. 

7. — Find the path of a billiard ball started from 
a given point, which after being reflected from the 
four sides of the table, will pass through another 
given point. 

8. — From a ship sailing down the English Chan- 
nel the Eddystone Lighthouse was observed to 
bear N. 33° 45' W., and after the ship had sailed 
18 miles S. 67° 30' W. it bore N. 11° 15' E. Find 
its distance from each position of the ship. 

9. — The middle points of the sides of a triangle 
are concyclic with the feet of the perpendiculars 
from the opposite vertices, and the middle points 
of the lines joining the orthocentre with the 
vertices, (nine-points circle.) 

10. — The radius of sphere is 7 feet, what is the 
volume of a wedge whose angle is 36°. 



ii.-T^Find the value of X. x-^x+^ -\-^x =-\. 

I. — If squares be described on the sides of any 
triangle, , the sum of the squares on the lines joining 
the adjacent corners is equal to three times the 
sum of the squares on the sides of the triangle. 

Let a^b^c^ be the sides of the triangle. On «,3,f, 
describe squares. Join the adjacent corners, and 
let the joining lines be denoted by x^y^z^ it is re- 
quired to prove that;r^4-y+2''^=3 {a^+b'^+(F). 

Produce the side b' and make the produced part 
=b\ and draw the line a'. The angle b'pb=c'pc^ 
each being a right angle. From these equals take 
the angle cpb' . \ angle cpb= angle c'pb\ Then 
we have the two As ^bc and a'b'c\ having the 
sides b and ^, and the contained angle cpb respec- 




tively=to the sides // and c' and the contained 
angle b'pc' . •. a'=a b=b' , c' is the median, . '. a'"^ 
+^2=2 {d'^-rb''). (The sum of the squares of 
two sides of a .j is— to twice the square of 
half the third side increased by twice the square 
of the median upon that side.) . *. z^^-d^=^2 (_c^+b^) ; 
similiarly x''\-b-'=2{a'Xr) y-^r=2{a^+b''). Add 
these equals together, and we get ;l^-+y+^■H(a■^+(5■" 
+^) -4 {a-^b'+c") and . '. x^+f+z'=2, («H/^Hr). 

Q- H. D. 



SPLTNTEHS. 

Jug?.. 
Prunes. 

Tackle low ! 

How many lines ? 

Who pulled Fitz's mustache ? 

Combination for the side-pocket. 

" Hittim wid a bu-uk Martin." 

He's out ! three men on a line ! 

Allow me to — who chewed the chalk ? 

Who are the big four of the corner table ? 

How is biz ? What are you doing ? 

Never take the pillow from the " Dore." 

Hurry Kelly, catch me ; I'm unconscious. — Ford. 

His story runneth thus: "When I was at St. 
Michael's, etc." 

How sweet the strains of the "Smoking-room 
Quartette !" 

If you really wish to be "in the fry," 
Buy a button and join the V. L. I. 
Wait a minute till I dash you off a Corr-net part. 
I wonder who is the nocturnal visitor to Philoso- 
pher's Hall. 

Ask the Hartford violinist for the definitions of 
drain and gutter. 

Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make our lives sublime ; 

And departing leave behind us 
Foot-prints meas' ring one plus nine. — T— y. 

Question for geography class — Where is Kidney 
Creek? 

Oh, rapture ! Such lovely lavender side-boards ! 
Such "downy" pillows? Et hie tamen vivit ! 

Did not the Duke of Clarence cut a nice figure 
(behind the door) in his foot-ball suit ? 

Have you ever heard the story 

Of Crowley and the bat? 
There's another we could tell you 
Of Jerry and his cat. 
You can't whistle and chew meal, neither can 
you hustle buns and sell papers. — Mud. 

Exact science teaches that a stitch in time is 
worth two in the bush. 



: : How strange ! Every Friday afternoon 

" ' He ' thrusts his fists against the posts 
And still insists he sees the ghosts. " 
We didn't know that the place was haunted. 

The old proverb "Say nothing but saw wood" 
is contradicted every day by " Dear Felix" (as the 
girls call him), who says more when sawing wood 
than at any other time. 

We sincerely hope that a certain one of our 
promising Brooklyn youths will cast off knicker- 
bockers during the holidays. 



V 



VlLLANOVA MONTHLV. 



If 



Our fresco artist (Billy) is engaged in while- 
washing the Senior Dept. a delicate green tint. 

Those poor; deluded Yankees are followers of the 
* ' Nil admirari ' ' theory whenever Philadelphia is 
concerned. 

Our worthy friend from Chicago, having returned 
from his first visit to Philadelphia, and being asked 
his opinion of the city, exclaimed, "Great Scott ! 
We walked three a-breast on the principal business 
street. ' ' 

From the time consumed in the meetings of the 
V. ly. I ., one would imagine that its members were 
discussing the " Blair Educational Bill," or were 
engaged in an International Monetary Conference, 
or were appointed as a "Committee of the Whole " 
to sit on the "State of the Nation." 

As regards the elements of intensity, the solilo- 
quies of Macbeth, Hamlet and Lear are "not in 
it" compared with those of Felix. 

O, what's that wail of plaintive woe 

Which greets us unawares. 
As room- ward we make haste to go 

Up, up the old back-stairs ? 

As half-way up we plod along, 
The meaning is quite "pat ; " 

'Tis only Jerry's ceaseless song — 
"My cat! Where is it at? " 

The residents of "Philosopher's Flat" are 
treated every night to a delightful musicale. 
Frank and Joe are adepts in their respective means 
of torture. They can duet. 

Lost ! Somewhere between the refectory and 
kitchen, one waiter known as "Mud." When 
last seen he was adorned with silk handkerchiefs, 
and had one hand in his pocket. No reward is 
offered for his return as he w s useless. 

Ye Gods ! Our gold-rimmed, 6-feet 3-inch 
Hercules before whose mighty "rushes" the can- 
vassed eleven like saplings bent ; whose thunder- 
ing tones scared the " Crows," even as Dore scared 
the rabbit, is now sub-Bun-bearer of this Villa ! ! 
" Farewell, a long farewell, to all my greatne s." 



E. Ellery Anderson, 

Pious and meek. 

Neglected inviting 
The Speaker to speak. 

Then Crisp began seeking v 
His coat and his hat, 
Remarking inquiringly : 

"Where am I at?" 

—New Ywk TW&une. 



PERSONAL. 

The Very Rev. Provincial, J. D. Waldron, O.S. 
A., paid us a visit last Sunday. 

Our Rev. Vice-President L. A.Delurey, O.S. A., 
spent Xmas at the home of his parents in Schagh 
ticoke, N. Y. 

Rev. M. J. Locke, S.T.L., O.S.A., Professor 
of Dogmatic Theology and Philosophy, is the 
guest of Fr. Ryan, Andover, Mass. 

Rev. J. B. Leonard, O.S. A., until recently 
stationed at Schaghticoke, N. Y., but now a Pro- 
fessor at the College, is spending the Xmas holi- 
days at home in Lawrence, Mass. 

D. P. O' Sullivan, Professor of Higher Mathe- 
matics, put in a smiling appearance in the class- 
room after a week's illness. 

Rev. T. F. Herlihy, O.S. A., for many years 
Professor of Latin and Rhetoric at the College, has 
been appointed to St. Nicholas' Church, Atlantic 
City, N. J. We regret his departure, but, at the 
same time, wish him success in his new field of 
labor. •■■■■■ .■;■■ ^■^\., ;..'■■■ ^•■■•■- ..:\-''A .;■;;■■ ;-.:.;'-v^- ■;■.'■.'■ 

Messrs. Ryle and Callahan moved into their new 
quarters on the 17th ult. In the evening their 
friends from " Philosopher's Flat " stepped in to 
congratulate them. ■ 

D. J. Dore was called home Friday, December 
i6th, on account of his mother's illness. 

Rev. J. Ryan, O.S. A., of Andover, Mass., 
favored us with a visit on the 15th inst. 

Mr. P. ,S. Flood, a student of St. Charles' Col- 
lege, Baltimore, Md. , visited his brother, James 
B., on the i8th ult. 

We gladly seize this our first opportunity to 
thank most heartily Rev. J. J. Brennan of Ivy 
Mills for recent substantial favors to the Literary 
Institute, Athletic Association and Glee Club. 

Messrs. Callahan, Flood, Kerr and Ryle visited 
former classmates at Overbrook Seminary last 
week, where they were kindly received. 

Buckley, for many weeks confined to the in- 
firmary, is now filling his old familiar place in the 
study-hall. 

We congratulate Mr. John T. Shea (residence 
'88 and '89) upon his re-election to the Council 
Chamber of Cambridge, Mass. 

Work on Fr. O'Brien's new parochial residence 
at Bryn Mawr is progressing rapidly. We expect 
it to be finished bv March i. 

Messrs. John and James O'Donnell left for their 
home on December 18. Urgent business necessi- 
tated their early departure. 



u 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



ATHLETICS. 

V.A.A.^Owr annual fall day sports took place, 
as usual, on the college campus, in the presence of 
a large assemblage. All the different events of the 
day's programme were well contested, and many 
were exceedingly interesting, showing wonderful 
improvement among the majority of the con- 
testants. The features of the day were O'Don- 
nell's throwing the heavy hammer, and Dugan's 
standing high jump. ■^ ' 

It was a source of great i egret for the managers 
of the field sports that they were compelled to omit 
the junior entries, as this year they were expecting 
some extraordiuary work from them. 



THE SOCIETIES. 

V.D.S. — The first December meeting of the Vil- 
lanova Debating Society was held in its hall on the 
third of that month. 

The subject chosen for discussion — Resolved, 
"That the Southern States were justified in seced- 
ing from the Union" — afforded ample room for 
argument pro and con. Messrs. Buckley and 
O'Leary for the affirmative, and Messrs. Crowley 
and Corr for the negative, conducted the debate in 
a most creditable manner. 

When it was thrown open to the house many 
members took advantage of the opportunity to ex- 
press their respective views. After a few hours 
the matter assumed such proportions that an all- 
night session seemed inevitable. Knowing, how- 
ever, that this could not well be, the chairman was 
asked to give his decision, but, owing to the late- 
ness of the hour and the time required for a reca- 
';^ pitulation of the arguments, he was obliged to 
postpone it until some future meeting. ; 

The members assembled on the 14th for the sec- 
ond December meeting, to debate upon the sub- 
ject : Resolved, "That the battle of Waterloo had 
more influence on the history of the world than the 
battle of Gettysburg." Messrs. Harkins and M. J. 
Murphy were colleagues on the affirmative side, 
and Messrs. Ryle and McDonnell on the negative. 
For some time proofs and refutations were in order, 
and then, the chairman having made a logical and 
impartial summary, decided in favor of the affirma- 
tive. The society, having transacted some miscel- 
laneous business, adjourned till after the holidays. 

F.L./.—ln taking a retrospect of the various 
societies, we would fain make mention of one in 
which every member who can justly lay claim to 
that name, has taken an active part — that is, the 
Literary Institute. Great praise is due to the rev- 
erend faculty for the many wise improvements 



that have been recently made about the library, 
but we must likewise offer our congratulations to 
the members for keeping up the good work that 
the society has ever had in view. The room has 
undergone an entire renovation, and now presents 
a very attractive appearance. The leading papers 
and magazines may be found therein, as well as 
the leading college periodicals. Every facility for 
quickening perceptions, cultivating tastes and form- 
ing close and accurate habits is afforded the stu- 
dent, that he may thoroughly equip himself for his 
future career. At a special meeting held Thurs- 
day, December i, the members, always willing to 
evince their gratitude to those who extend a gen- ':■[ 
erous hand to them, unanimously elected Rev. J. v 
J. Brennan an honorary member of the society. ■ 
Although the society has made great progress since ' 
last year, it still seems unable to secure the names 
of several students which should be found on the 
roll of membership. V ^ ^ ., 

The Rosary Sodality, so long established and of 
such great benefit to our students, has this year 
been reorganized with increased membership. Mr. 
J. F. Kennedy, O.S. A., its president, is indeed 
worthy of praise for the great interest he manifests 
in its welfare. The sodality meets every Sunday 
morning at 8.45 for the recitation of the rosary. 
In addition to this it is pleasing to see so many of 
our young men assemble in the Church every 
evening to recite this beautiful prayer; and we 
hope that their example . may incite others to 

assist in this devotion. 

■ ««> ■ — ^' 

The Students' Retreat. ^ 

The students' annual retreat commenced on the 
evening of December 4, and ended on the Feast of 
the Immaculate Conception of B. V. M. 

The exercises were conducted by Rev. M. J. 
Geraghty, O.S. A., of Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia. ; 
The students this year manifested more than their 
usual fervor on such occasions. The Reverend 
Director used to the very best advantage the power 
and influence which he possesses over the human 
heart. He commanded their attention from the be- " 
ginning and held it to the end. His conferences 
were extremely practical, confining his remarks to 
such faults as the young in college are most 
liable to commit At the close of the exercises the 
Reverend Director gave a short and very concise 
history of the miraculous picture of Our Mother 
of Good Counsel, after which he enrolled all the 
new students as members of the "Pious Union." 
. He expressed himself in a very satisfactory 
manner on the good results of his labor, and left 
for his home bearing with him the heart-felt wishes 
of all the students. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



13 



SEE 



B. F. Owen & Co., 

1416 Chestnut Street, 
BEFORE YOU BUY 



Pbysicians' Prescriptions Accurately Compounded at all hours at 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY, 

^Hf^fiK U/. pi^IC;KITT. Oraduate irj pi?ar/naGy, 

PROPRIETOR. 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 



A PIANO OR ORGAN. BOOKS BOUGHT. 



You u/ill ^zve f[\0T)<(y aijd Jiaue a 

CHOICE OF THE BEST. 

200 NEiAZ PIKNOS. 

9 WORLD RENOWNED MAKES. 

WEBER, HALLET & DAVIS, BRIGGS and 

STARR PIANOS, ETC. 
Write for Catalogues, Prices, Terms, etc. 

1416 Chestnut Street. 

JAMES MCCANNEY, 

Saddle, Harness Collar Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 

PH ILAPELPHIA. 

THE BeMORAT studio, 

V^v 914 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILM. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALIi BRANOHKS. 

Special Bates in Oroups, also to Colleges aud Societies. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H. B . HKNSBUHV, 

ARTHUR'S 

Famous Ice Cream, 

ALL FLAVORS. 

Plain and Fancy Cakes, Bread, Rolls and 
Buns, Pies, Desserts. 

Pure Ice served during the entire year, by the 
BRYN MAWR ICE COMPANY. Your orders 
are respectfully solicited. 

I. "WARNER ARTHUR, 

Bryn Bfawr, Pa. 

E. K. WILSON &SON, ~" 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

li^iitst-glass ]^00te and ghees 

Repairing Neatly and Promptly attended to, Custom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^aiicaster Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



I will bbU YDIT 

$10.00 worth of Clothing, Dress Goods, Ladies' 
Coats and Cloaks, Pimiiture, Carpets Watches, 
Jawelry, Ohinaw^are, etc., for 

$1.00 CASH AND $1.00 PER WEEK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 

ON SATURD:AY 

UNTIL 

TEN O'CLOCK. 



PHILAD'A 



If the Goods are not sat- 
isfactory, come to me and 
I will allow all reasonable 
claims, 



fF you want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
. coUectioji of Old Books in Anicrica, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to spare is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. . 

L-ePCRY'S OLD BOOK STORO, 
9 Soutli Xintli Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

A. M. BUCH & CO.. 
156 North Ninth Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

LADIES' AND GENTS', 

iAiIG 7VYMKERS, 

HAlR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
il^Wigs and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Theatricals. "®a 



D. J. GALLAOHEB. 



GEO. W. GIBBONS. 



D. J. GALLAGHER & CO., 

Printers, Publishers 

['■:f-^: AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURERS. 

Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationery. 
420 Library Street, Philadelphia. ^ 



Publishers of " AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW," 

$3.50 Per Annum. 

miflDOCU ••• GliflSS, 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS, OILS, VARNISHES, BRUSHES, ETC 

:c;^;';^i. v; : No. 1702 Market Street,,;- 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

7v\:ooRe's 

Windsor Hotel, 

PHILRDELPHm. 

Half Block from New P. & R. Terminal, and One and a Half 
Blocks from Broad Street Station. 

1219-29 l^^ilbert Street. " 

PRESTON J. MOORE, Proprietor, 



14 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 





Thomas Bradley, 

N. W. gor. Twenty-first 

and Market Streets. 

E extend an invitation to you to call at our GREAT 
WESTERN MEAT MARKET and see whatachoice 
selection of 

Beef, Mutton, Lamb, Dried Beef, 
Lard, Hams and Provisions 

We have constantly on liaiid and note tlie Low Prices at,'\vhicli we are 

selling. We handle only tlie Best Goods and Quality considered, 

Our Prices are the Lowest in the City. Come, see for 

yourself. 

ljb(?ral Dieqoupt to public apd ^Iparitable Ipstitutiops. 
ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, 

Undertaker I Embalmer, 

241 North Fourth Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

THOMAS d. FOG ARTY, 

DEALER IN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Clothing, Hats and Caps, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 



Lancaster Aueisue. 



Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



JOHN J. BYRNES, 

DBAI^ER IN 

Carpets, Oil Cloth, Linoleums, 

RUGS, WINDOW SHADES, ETC., 
No. 37 SOUTH SHCOND STREET, 

Below Market, East Side. PHILADELPHIA. 



WILLIAM J. REED, 

DEALER IN 

■?Fine Hats, Caps and Umbrellas, •»• 

ALL THE NEWEST STYLES, 

CLOSING OUT TRUNKS AT COST. 

261 North Eighth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEXT TO FOREPAUGH S THEATRE. 



prouidept [\fe 9 Jrust ^o. 

Of !Pliilndelpliia, 
N. W. Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts., (40T-409) 

fSSUES Life, Endowment and Term Policies, 
which can be made jfayable at death in 10, 15, 
20, 25 or 30 yearly instalments, thus saving 
the widow, who is the usual beneficiary, the trouble 
and risk of investment. 

Safe investments ; low rate of mortality ; low^ rate of 
expenses ; liberality to policy-holders 

In Everything Excelled by no othef Company 



BRYN MAWR PHARMACY. 

ELEGANT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS, 

Prescriptions a Specialty. 
•f CHfRISTIAfl MOORB.-f 

LINCOLN PARK, 

Popular Famiiy Resort on the Delaware. 

Ooncerts by AVannemacber's Military Band. Elegant, Commodious 
Speedy and Reliable Steamers; OHAUNCEY VIBBARD.GEORQEANNA, 
JOHN" A. WARNER, and ELIZA HANCOCK. 



PETER F. CUNNINGHAM k SON 

PUBLISHERS 



J 



AND 



Catholic Booksellers, 

IMPORTBRS OF 

CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

Nd. bib Arch Street^ 

PHII.ADEI.PHIA. 

Everything at lowest prices. 



DR. STEINBOCK, 



^ 




■I^ 



1630' f/ortl? Ju/elftl? 5tr^<?t, pi?iladelpl7ia, pa. 

Specialist in Gold and Silver Fillings, and Artificial Teeth. 

GAS AND ETHER ADMIIVHSTERED. 

"Hallahan'9 Shoes are the Best." 

Our stock of Fine Footwear is always attractive^ 
in quality., variety and price. 

HALLAHAN, 

Eighth and Filbert Sts-, Philadelphia. 

P. 1. COLAHAN. '838 MARKET ^ 

Dealer ip piipe (iroeeries. 

BEST BRANDS OF FLOUR, $5.50 PER BBL. 

OMSH OR CREDIT. 
BUY YOUR GOODS 

FROM 

GEO. KELLY S^ CO., 

808 and 810 Market St., 

PHILADELPHIA.. 



On Bill of $10— $1 Down— $1 per Week. 

SPECIAL TERMS ON LARGE PURCHASES. 




DANIEL GALLAGHER, 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 

FupqiiiafBlBedding 

Of Every Description, 

43 South Second Street, 

Above Chestnut. Phiifidelpbia. 

Special Discount to Institutions. 



V1U.AK0VA MONtHLrY. 



15 



BOOKS. BOOKB. 

CATHOLIC SCHOOL | COLLEGE 

•^TEXT BOOKS, 4^ 

TScw and Second Hand. 

Have constantly on hand a full line of Catholic 
Theological and Miscellaneous Books. 



Libraries and small parcels of Books 
purchased for cash. 

SEND YOUR ADDRESS OR CALL 

JOHN JOSEPH McVEY, 

39 fi, Thit»teenth Street, 

PHlLADBIiPHIA, PA. 

CHARLES G. HOOKEY, 

^UNDERTMKER.<^ 

526 NORTH FOURTH STEBET, : - v 
PHILADELPHIA. 

MART. D. BYRNES, 

Livery, Sale § Exchange Stables, 

Lancaster Auenue. Rosemont, Pa. 

hauling done. 



DEALER IN 

Diamonds, Watches, Clocks 
Jewelry and Silverware. 

Also a complete stock of Spec- 
tacles and Bye Glasses. 
Fine Watch and Clock Repairing. 



AGBNT FOB 

Spalding's, Reach's and 
Tryon's Sporting Goods. 

Estimates furnished to Clubs at 
the lowest club, rates. 




BROGAN & SMITH, 

Practical Steam Fitters^ 

STEAM and HOT WATER HEATING. 
Ho. 810 HflCH ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 

MODEL POOL AND BILLIARD ROOM, 

Tobacco and Cigars, 

225 North 8th street, Philadelphia. 
WALTER HUTCHINSON, Proprietor. 

REDUCED PRICES. 

WATCHES, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY, 

S. B Cor Market and 16th Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
18K. Wedding Rings. Fine Watch Repairing a Specialty. 



LOGUE 



HATTER 



MONEY 
REFUNDED. 



STRICTLY ONE PRICE. 

1236 MARKET ST. 



TiM. QUINLAN & BRO., 

BLICRSMITIil t lOISI SimiS, 

BRYN MAWR, PA. 

Horse-Shoeing a Specialty. Old Lancaster Eond. 

Try boston laundry, 

235 and 238 NEW ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

THOS. E. HOUSTIN PROPRIETOR. 

M. A. callanan; 

DEAI-ER IN 

DRY GOODS, NOTIONS, 

Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Lancaster Avenue. Brya Mawr, Pa 



THIS SPACE RESERVED 
FOR 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS., 

Sporting Goods, 

S. E, Cor. 11th & Chestnut Sts. , 
Philadelphia. 



M. CALLACHERmm 

Practical Harness Maker, 

No. 15 North Ninth Street, 



MANUFACTURER OF FINE HORSE BOOTS. 

The Fair 

1025 Market Street. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



I^ 



VIUvANOVA MOMTIiLY. 




MOL^ATT ST. JOSEPH'S ACADEMY, 

CHESTNUT HILL, PHILADELPHIA. 

This Academy, conducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph, ha? long since become famous as au institution in which young ladies 
may receive an excellent intellectual and moral education. The buildings are furnished with all modern conveniences conducive to 
the health, comfort and pleasure of the pupils. For further information apply to the 

■■■^^Vv:■:;^:^>■:^^'^^■::v:^ . mother superior. 



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Vol. I. 




Villanova College, February, 1893. 



t 




No. ^. 



Mater Boni Consilii. 

I have seen pictoric treasuies that are priz'd the world over, 
Buonarotti's Sistine frescoes and the Urbinite's cartoons ; 
I have seen the gorgeous paintings in the palaces that hover, 

Near the Arno's placid waters and Venezia's lagoons. 
Priceless gems on cloth and plaster, limned by master-hands 
artistic, 
Deck the walls of Roman churches, of each sanctu'ry and 
> hall ; 
They are dazzling types of beauty, they've a semblance real- 
istic ; 
But our Lady of Good Counsel is most beautiful of all. 

Yet, it is not that the picture is so masterfully painted ; 

There are others far more brilliant, as to color, tint and 

shade : 

But there's none so love-inspiring, so madonna-like and 

sainted, 

As our Lady of Good Counsel, virgin, mother, wife and 

niaid. 

Low above an altar pendent, 'mid a chapel's gilt recesses, 

I have seen this peerless image with its more than human 

grace, 
And the blue eyes softly beaming, while her hand the child 

caresses, 

Show a mother's love out-gleaming from the heaven of her 

face. r /■-■■■■.v-..;..-;--^':'4 ,. : 

I have knelt before that altar when the votive Mass was ended, 
Ere the fragrance of the incense had departed from the 
shrine, ''■: ,,^;x"v. ■'■.•/':■■ 
When the early morning sun-beams with the lamplight softly 
blended, 
Gave the place a look celestial, made the sanctu'ry divine. 
And my soul became expanded in its scope of understanding, 
I no longer felt the doubtings that oppressed me heretofore ; 
And my heart became enkindled with a love so all-demanding, 
That I vow'd my life an off 'ring to my God forevermore. 

^M. J. L. 



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I ii.ivc '> I'll jin I'l R ireasif' . iImI are pri W Mh 'voiul "V.- i, 
lUionarntti's hi->tiiU' fri -^i m > ,iii(i llu' 1 i' i .-U 's i ,ui^n n 

1 h.i\ I ^t en lilt' ^op^f (Ills p,iintiiit;s in ilie p<ilact'>- tli< t li()\<;r . 
N(.<u the \ rno's p!>i( id w atei ^ and \ ciKvi.i':-, l,ii;()Oii'- 

l'iit.clc>s j;<ins (ill ii4(itli Jiul pl.istei , hnuit-d 1>\ ni-.i-.tci-li.tij(K 
ariisli<\ ^^' 

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hall. 

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Vt-t It i,s ii(.l that the pictirii js so ina^tt ihil!\ p.iiiiUi,' 
'1 here ate otiieis tar tliote hfiiliatit as to (i,ilui, tint and 
sha(.le 
*Hiit tiietf's tiono s<< U vt -iiispuin.L;, so luatlcini.'-iikt^ ai.d 
.-auui-d, 
As uiir I,ad\ ot tiood ( oimscl. \iit;iii iiii«titt i uiit- and 
maid 
low ahov an rill \! ]UTid(-nt, mid ,i i (lapcI s i^ilt nv t-^scs 

i iia\(' ^t.'fii lliis pcfil. s, liiiajic \\ itli Its niori,' th.ni liuin ri 

And tii(' hliu r\t,'< s,,tily ' " aniin^ wbiU' Iut li-nid llie i luld 
< iirss^s. 
bliou a inoth'-i siou- '>iit-;^li iinin"^ {mm the h',i\<ii*>t liei 
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1 lia\ t kni It licliio ihat .dt ii wIhmi iIk \oti\< M i- w.isi udt d 
\ Ic die !ra;4!sll!i t" i" ill! intctis.' 1 id dipntrd Itol! tl'*' 
sill iiic, 
W Ik u llu cailj ii.oimn;; iiii-iit; anis ■\itliliif L.'njyl,^. ht ott!\ 

l.l.'IHl-i, 

(ia\.» till' plarv i iimk l ( Irstia'. made tlie ^.iHi iir'i\ dr.iiie 
And m\ soul hi f atni e.\|)aiided hi ils *;ei-pc ol umh rsiaiuitn.u. 

1 n<i longer Icll tin- (loulitini;^ tiiat ojipris^ed hk lu'it-tr totf , 
And nu lioail l>eiante '-nKindN d with a lo\e s(.,dl deniaudif.j; 

TImI I vow M n\\ Hie .m oti iin^ to niN liod (on \eiJiu)ie 

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VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Self. 



There is one fact which even the indifferent 
student of any language cannot fail to note, namely, 
that some words express so very little, others so very 
much. Excepting the word God in the sense of 
Creator, bearing as such a most intimate relation to 
all persons and to all things, there is none more 
comprehensive, none more expressive than the one 
we have chosen for the subject of our essay — the 
word self How much of joy and sorrow, of right 
and wrong, of success and failure is implied in it ! 
Whether we wa:ndcr through the whole category 
of life's phases to show how extensive is our sub- 
ject, or confine ourselves to something more par- 
ticular, this all important truth ever confronts us, 
that our success or failure depends, in a great 
measure, on ourselves. So imiversal as to time 
and place has been the knowledge of this impor- 
tant truth, that it may be stated with the certainty 
of experience, that we succeed or fail, just as we 
are true or false in the relations and duties of self 
to self and of self to others. 

Nosce te ipsiim^ was the rule of the ancients, the 
observance of which gave so many holy men to 
earth, so many saints to God. Yes, know thyself 
ere it be too late, ere thou becomest a burden too 
heavy for thine own strength and an object of pity 
to thy fellow-man. Know thyself ere that which 
was good in thy nature has changed to bad, ere 
life's opportunities be spent, life's energies wasted. 
Yet 'tis a difficult task. The good and the bad in 
our nature are in perpetual conflict. Virtue often 
succumbs to vice, and passion as often sways reason. 
Appearances mislead us. External things engross 
our attention and give us no time to think of our- 
selves. This must result in a culpable ignorance 
of our own capabilities. Thus it happens many 
a bright intellect, many a lovely heart fails to know 
its own worth. The priceless gifts with which its 
Creator enriched it are abused, nay, cast away, 
instead of being cherished and preserved for the 
needful day when to possess them would be a joy 
. and a comfort. 

Nosce ie ipsiiin^ but how difficult ! All of us 
have our own peculiar traits and inclinations which 
can be understood and mastered only by constant 
and thorough study. To understand the character 
of others is a minor consideration ; to know our 
own is the all important one. This is the princi- 
ple of our actions whether good or bad for " the 
mould which forms our character is our own con- 
ception of ourselves." Ignorance of self but too 
often causes the one false step resulting in a life 
regret else they might now be happy, who are 



eking out a miserable existence, the well meaning, 
but mistaken victims of a false calling. As the 
Almighty in His own wise ways has distributed His 
gifts to some men greater, to others less, it is neces- 
sary for all to learn the extent of divine favor in 
their behalf, to utilize the talents given them, and 
to be ever mindful of the fact that they must one 
day render a strict account of all the gifts with 
which their Creator enriched them. 

Self-knowledge acquired, self-government should 
follow. Fortunate is that man who has an accurate 
knowledge of self, but immeasurably more so is he 
who, conscious of his own strength or weakness, 
is capable of self-government, — 

" Man who man would be, 
Must rule the empire of himself, in it 
Must be supreme, establishing his throne 
On vanquish'd will, quelling the anarchy 
Of hopes and fears — beirg himself alone." 

Reason here is master, passion the slave, and 
justly so. Reverse this order, man will fall below 
the dignity of man, anarchy and disorder will pre- 
vail. It is men in whom reason is master that rule 
the world. Their influence for good or evil is 
most powerful, just as their reason is based on the 
solid foundations of religion or on the weak sophis- 
tries of worldlings. As long as religion holds 
sway, as long as men are not blinded to the Gospel's 
truths and worship God according to the dictates 
of their conscience, so long will they go on in the 
even tenor of their way fulfilling their true mission 
in working out their salvation. 

Self in its duties and relations to others bears a 
different aspect. Herein is implied charity or 
selfishness, zeal for the public welfare or indiffer- 
ence to it . " The proper study of mankind is man, ' ' 
said Pope, which words suggest to us many a 
stern truth, to some "pleasing, to others the reverse. 
We may safely assume that in most cases we may 
judge men by their deeds. From this assumption we 
are forced to realize the unpleasant truth, that 
there are many murderers of peace and happiness 
in this great world of ours. They are the men 
whose greed of wealth, of power, of reputation is 
but too often satisfied at the expense of their fellow- 
man. They safely defy the human law and con- 
tinue in their iniquity with the vain hope that they 
may escape the divine. The natural gifts with 
which their Creator endowed them are perverted 
in their use, and instead of becoming a means of 
salvation, become a means of destruction. The 
usurer, the heartless landlord, the greedy monopo- 
list forgets his obligations to God in his dealings 
with his fellow-man. Self is his predominant 
thought, God and man are minor considerations. 



VILI/ANOVA MONTHLY. 



15 



If a time should come when reverses will embitter 
the lives of these ; when misfortunes, many and 
great, will come to them they will suffer the same, 
nay. greater torments, than those inflicted on their 
victims, — ,.-•,,'.. 

" The selfish heart deserves the pain it feels ; 
More generous sorrow, while it sinks, exalts, 
And conscious virtue mitigates the pang." 

Mankind would be better if the opulent would, 
in a greater degree, help the deserving poor; if avar- 
ice did not prompt so many in their dealings with 
their fellow-man; if wealth were not such a pro- 
nounced mark of respectability and power. This 
betterment of men's condition might not only be 
hoped for, but would be realized, if all were 
brought to understand the diversity of motives and 
variety of situations in the life of each other. 
They would then surround themselves with their 
neighbor's circumstances, understand better his 
condition, and their hearts would go out to him in 
all the sincerity of christian love. 

These few principles having been carefully con- 
sidered, we believe that man will best fulfill his 
mission by thoroughly understanding his capabili- 
ties ; by placing the restraint of reason on his pas- 
sions; and by generating and fostering a love of 
God and man. These are matters requiring the 
serious attention of each and every one. They are 
obligations incumbent upon all, for the Almighty 
has not enriched us with His • choicest gifts 
that they should be abused ; He has not given 
commands that they should be disobeyed. '' Thou 
shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart 
and with thy whole soul, and thy neighbor as thy- 
self for the lov6 of God." Herein is the whole 
duty of man to his Maker, to his fellow-men and 
to himself. 'Tis the one duty whose fulfillment 
makes life worth living, softens the asperities of 
our nature, and renders peaceful, happy and holy 
the relations of men to each other and to Got 

^■-■-■'■^■''■■''■■'"' '■• ■■'■■^ -Vy ■' St. 'Agnes. 

"Cujus pulchrltudinem sol et luna mirantur, ipsi soli servo 
.: fidem." 
Shall, then, that soul another lover seek, '•' 

Whose Lover's beauty can the sun's outshine, 

Whom angels serve, and near Whose throne divine 
The heav'nly voices loudest praises speak ? 
Blest Agnes, thou hast chosen well thy lot ! 

An J when the tortures wrench thy youthful frame 

And thou dost oft invoke thy Lover's name. 
His sweet voice whispers, " Lov'd one, fear thou not ! " 

Jan. 21, 1893. C. 






Our Lady Among Augustinians. 

Evidences or marks of the special honor that 
Augustinians pay to the Blessed Virgin can be 
traced through the annals of their Order as far 
back as the early part of the XHI century. 

Here are a few — the chief — of many instances, 
related by their chroniclers and historians, in which 
may be perceived the spirit of devotion that their 
Order has ever borne towards the Mother of 
God. 

/vW/f. — The oldest form of profession used among 
Augustinians, of which there is any authentic 
record, is given by Pope Innocent IV, in his bullT- 
Adtnonet Nos cura^ which was issued from Perugia 
on the XVII kalends of May, in the X year of 
his pontificate, that is, in 1253. The bull is ad- 
dressed to all the priors and brethren of the Order 
of Hermits ; thus runs the title. 

Up to this date, it should be premised, Augus- 
tinians, in making their act of profes'Jiion, pledged 
their obedience to their chief house pri<|)r only, and 
not, as at present, to the prior general of the Order. 
All their head communities, besides being inde- 
pendent of one another, were ruled by local su- 
periors-in-chief Thus in Lombardy, there was 
one head house, or community ; in Tuscany an- 
other, and in the Marches of Ancona a third. There 
was not yet in the Order the practice of choosing 
general superiors. - i 

From the papal bull, that has just been named, 
we learn that the following was the form of profes- 
sion used by Augustinians in Lombardy and 
Emilia up to 1253, to wit: ''''l[fiaine] make my 
profession and promise obedience to God, the 
Blessed Mary and to thee, the prior of the Hermit 
Brethren of St. Mary's of Cesena, and to thy suc- 
cessors until death, according to the rule of Blessed 
Augustine and the Constitutions of the Brethren of 
that place." 

The Hermitage of St. Mary's was the chief com- 
munity of Augustinians in that part of Italy. 

For reasons given in the bull, not necessary to 
be stated here, the Pontiff now changes the consti- 
tutions of the Order, and requires that all their 
houses, which had hitherto been grouped into 
independent communities are now to be under one 
superior-in-chicf The Order displays a monarch- " 
ical tendency. It was to. have a superior general. 
Hence, besides requiring the Hermits to elect a 
general, the Pontiff orders that the old form of pro- 
fession given above be discontinued and that for 
the future the brethren drop their profession of 
obedience to the prior of Cesena alone and instead 
of his title insert the terms " Prior General of the 
Order," a fashion that since that date has remained 



i6 



VIIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



unchanged. This ancient religious usage has been 
adduced in order to show that Angustinians, as 
early at least as 1253, were wont atthesolejnn con- 
secration of their lives to God, at the close of their 
novitiate term, to dedicjite themselves in special 
manner to the Blessed Virgin also.* ,. 

Secondly^ come the feast days in the Augustinian 
Order, which are celebrated in honor of God's 
Mother. These are as follows, namely, 

the Espousals (Jan. 23); 

the Purification (Feb. 2); 
Our Lady of Purity (Mar. 11); 

the Seven Dolors (Ma^. 24); 

the Annunciation (Mar. 25); 
Our Lady of Good Counsel (Apr. 26) ; 

of Succor (May 13); 

the Help of Christians (May 24); 
; • - the Most Pure Heart of Mary (June 11); 
Our Lady of Grace (June 15); 

the Visitation (July 2); 
Our Lady of Prodigies (July 9); 

ofMt. Carmel (July 16); ^ ^^^^^^'^-^ v :^ 

of Snow (Aug. 5); 

of the Assumption (Aug. 15); 

of Consolation (Sept. 3); 
Our Lady's Nativity (Sept. 8); 

the Holy Name of Mary (Sept. 13); 
Our Lady of Mercy (Sept. t^); '^^^x-^^:^^^^A^^-^ : 

of the Rosary (Oct. i); 
Our Lady's Maternity (Oct. 8); 

the Seven Dolors (Oct. 15); 

the Presentation (Nov. 21); 
Our Lady's Patronage (Dec. 5); 

her Immaculate Conception (Dec. 8); 

theTransferof the Holy House (Dec. 12); 
and the Feast of her Expectation (Dec. 18); 

On these twenty-seven different feast days 
through the year, do Angustinians pay special 
honor to the Mother of God, both in their Mass 
and their O^ot. : u <:.'^^-.^ -i.y. '?:.'>'';;-^ 

Regularly, too, every year do these feasts occur. 
But not unfrequently, though at irregular intervals 
during certain years, Angustinians keep other days 
holy in honor of the Mother of God. 

The Constitutions of their Order prescribe that 
whenever the Little Office, as it is styled, of the 
Blessed Virgin is said in choir, the religious must 
read after Compline of the same, a second Office 
known technically as the Office of Our Lady of 
Grace. This is a pretty devotion, consisting merely 
of an Antiphon, three Psalms, three Lections, or 
Lessons and of two Responsories. 

This same Office of Grace must be said also 



*The bull of P. Innocent IV, may be found in the Bullarium 
Magnum, under date April 25, 1253. 



whenever the usual Friday's Office is of semi- 
double rite. 

Thirdly. — In the early part of the XIII cen- 
tury, (tlieir records on this point go back no further,) 
Angustinians wore for their ordinary dress a black 
as well as a white habit, black because it was the 
color, so it is held, that the holy Augustine, their 
founder, wore, and white in honor of the Holy 
Virgin. 

Pope Gregory IX in his bull — Dudum apparuit^ 
dated from the Lateran Palace on the IX kalends 
of April in the XIV year of his pontificate, that is, 
in 1 241, expressly mentions the white habit of the 
Angustinians, and in 1255, Pope Alexander IV, in 
his bull — Pia desideria^ addressed to the Prior 
General and all the Priors and Hermits of the 
Order, requires the brethren to wear, if professed 
clerics, a black tunic and a white scapular and if 
novices, all white, both tunic and scapular, while 
lay brothers are to wear a black tunic, scapular and 
capuche. 

The white color for t'he dress of the cleric mem- 
bers only of the Order was symbolical of the sin- 
gular innocence and purity of life that should 
accompany those who had entered or were to enter 
the sacred priesthood. 

Fourthly. — Some time in the XIV century, (it 
was about the year 1324,) a papal decree was on the 
point of issuing forbidding Angustinians to go in 
white. There had been for many years a dispute 
between them and the Dominicans, both Orders 
claiming exclusive right to dress in white habits, as 
had been the custom of- their fore-fathers. 

The chief Fathers of the Augustinian Order, 
being assembled in chapter at Perugia, made a vow 
to the Blessed Virgin that if they were allowed to 
continue the wearing of their beloved white habit, 
the whole Order would henceforth read every week 
in her honor an Office in thanksgiving. The 
papal inhibition never appeared. Such was the 
origin of the Office de Gratia^ as it is called, that 
has been alluded to above. 

Three centuries after, the dispute was re-opened 
between the two rival Orders, the Dominicans this 
time insisting that the Angustinians, if allowed to 
wear white, should be required also to wear on 
their breast a star, or some similar emblem, by 
which they could be recognized by the people and 
not confounded with the former. But on October 
2, 1603, Pope Clement VIII, put a definite end to 
the controversy by deciding that the Angustinians 
might continue to dress as had always been their 
fashion. 

Fifthly. — Among the most ancient hermitages in 
the Augustinian Order, chroniclers name several 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



^7 



that were dedicated to the Mother of God. Such 
was the community known as Our Lady of the 
Hermitage near Budrioli, in Emilia ; Blessed John 
Bonus dwelt here, it is said, in the year 1204 ; then 
comes Our Lady of Cesena, also in Emilia, about 
the year 1241, and then Our Lady of Monte Ganfri, 
in Piceno, in the Marches of Ancona, at a place 
named in their annals Colta Montissani. This 
third hermitage dates back as early as 1251. 

Sixthly. — The wearing of a cincture or girdle is 
another sign of the loving attachment that Augus- 
tinidns haVe fostered 2Jealously toward the Holy 
Virgin. On his entrance into religion, each can- 
didate for the Order is handed a leathern girdle to 
wear ; it is part of his regular habit and he is not 
considered fully dressed should he be without it- 
At death this girdle \i buried with him. 

The origin of the girdle is as follows : accord- 
ing to an ancient tradition in the Augustinian Order, 
once upon a time when St. Monica, Augustine's 
saintly mother was bowed down with grief at her 
son's waywardness, (he was _ yet a stranger to the 
Faith,) the Mother of God appeared to her in a 
vision and offering her a girdle, such as Augustin- 
ians have ever worn, bid her put it on and wear it 
in confidence, that Heaven's aid would always be 
ready to console her. It was in pursuance of this 
tradition — an ancient and steady belief among 
Augustinians — that they instituted the feast of Our 
Lady of Consolation, their especial and chief 
patroness. It is always celebrated on the Sunday 
within the Octave of St. Augustine, their Founder. 

Seventhly. — At Bologna in Emilia, in 1439, with 
the sanction of Pope Eugene IV, was established 
in the Augustinian church of St. James Apostle, 
the confraternity of Our Lady of the Girdle, and 
at Rome, some sixty years after, in 1495, another 
confraternity of similar import, under the title of 
Our Lady of Consolation. These two societies 
were united on June 15, 1575, by Pope Gregory 
XIII, under the title of the Cinctured order of 
Saints Augustine and Monica. 

Eighthly. — The, large number of shrines or 
sanctuaries of Our Lady, that have been in the 
keeping of Augustinians, besides attesting the 
piety of the faithful towards the Mother of God, 
go far to show the spirit of zeal among Augustini- 
ans in nourishing her honor. In 1707, F. John 
Bonus Haydt, a Bavarian Augustinian, published 
at Munich a description of sixty celebrated shrines 
or sanctuaries of Our Lady, which were attended 
by members of his Order. They are to be found 
in nearly all the different European states, besides 
several that were in Asia and in Sotfth America. 
With the exception of a few in Italy, chief of 



which is Our Lady of Good Counsel at Genazzano, 
tlie others seem to have perished or to have been 
abandoned. , , _— /- I'- C. M. 

Gens Hiberna. 

In St. Peter's Church at Rome, there are, on two 

confes>iona]s, inscriptions which cannot be read 

without emotion : — Gens Hiberna. Gens Polona. 

(Irish Nation. Polish Nation.) What does that 

mean if not that in the eyes of faith, in the eyes 

of the Church, these two sister martyr nations still 

live. — 

Irish Faith in America. 

The golden hour of setting sun had come to holy Rome, 
When I, a homeless exile, first beheld St. Peter's dome ; 
That dome majestic, towering o'er the fimous hilltops seven, 
That dome that forces eye and heart to soar to highest heaven. 

Ad limma Aposloloruin, I passed with reverent tread, 

And knelt within that temple of the living and the dead ; 

Its 'musical immensities,' I sought not to define, 

I only felt that here, indeed, is God's most worthy shrine ; 

That here, indeed. His majesty is nobly manifest, 

And here His grandest prophecy He has fulfilled and blest; 

The 7ues Petrus which within the dome is writ in gold. 

The cedificabo ecclesiam which Christ himself foretold. 

Meanwhile, sunshine and evening shades had met im mellow 

gloom 
On lofty shafts and arches grand, above the Apostles' tomb ; 
Soon the mystic dim, with vesper hymn, and sacred psalm was 

filled. 
With rhythmic music, cadence sweet, my throbbing heart was 

stilled. 
But midst the soothing hush, ere long, I caught an undertone, 
The murmured prayer of hundreds, where I thought myself 

alone ; — 
I nearer pressed, for still it seemed the faintest breath ot 

sound, 
A strange discordant harmony from every clime and ground; 
For there were prince and peasant, there were every rank and 

race. 
Hoar crime beside young innocence was kneeling in that 

place. 
Ah ! there was God's own mercy seat, where sin's strong 

chains are riven, 
Where Penance weeping hears the words, " Go, thou, in 

peace, forgiven." 
Confessionals for people who are there from every land. 
All pilgrims led to one blest shrineby Faith's unswerving hand. 
From Arctic snows, from vine clad bowers, from sun-kissed 

east and west. 
They solace seek and nourishment from Rome, their mothe 

blest. ;/-^-. ■■;-, ;.y:.;.:,.;r-.,:\:^.; ■:-:/:i. 

Descendants of the old-time Frank meet those of eastern 
lands, 

Germania's faithful few unite with Spain's unfailing bands; 

Columbia's children stalwart grown, from breathing freedom's 
air. 

Look pitying on while Poland and poor Erin join in prayer. 

In prayerfor justice,— Saviour blest! they clasp Thy sacred feet, 

Let fall on them thy loving eyes with benediction sweet. 

'Mid all their woe and anguish, they have to Thee faithful 
stood, 

With freedom hiess them, and restore their long lest nation- 
hood!, 



i8 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



They lie before Thee pros'ate now, poor Poland's heart-strings 

torn 
By Tartan hate, the while her sons in hopeless exile mourn ; 
Too worn and feeble e'en to say," Thy will be done, O God !'' 
With lips all tremulous with woe, she tries to kiss Thy rod. 

Beside her, sainted Ireland bends, her brow with thorns 

encrowned, 
Her mangled, bleeding feet and hands with gyves and fetters 

bound ; 
Her snowy vesture bloodstained from the spear-wound in her 

side ; — 
Most blessed in her semblance to the sacred Crucified. 

O Erin, more than martyr ! Thou alone art worthy found 
To bear the likeness of our Saviour's every woe and wound ; 
Thou hast thine Olive Garden, thine own drear Gethsemane, 
Beyond which, heedless of thy grief, lie many a sleeping three. 
Ah ! many a Judas-kiss has stained thy pallid virgin cheek, 
And many abase denial hast thou heard poor weak ones 

speak ; 
Thou, many a time, hast suffered from the scourge, the thoim, 

the sneer, 
And often have thy loved ones fled from thee in grief and fear. 
How oft have English Pilates known thee free from sin and 

wrong,. 
Yet given thee, in thine innocence, o'er to the heartless throngl 

How many a heavy cross has been thy bleeding shoulders on! 
How many a mother hast thou seen gaze sorrowing on her son ! 
How often hast thou fallen under loads of pain and woe, 
Yet risen patient 'neath the goad that made thee onward go ! 
Yea, many a cross-crowned Calvary have thy poor feet had to 

tread; ■.■■■. ■ 
Death's throes have all been thine, but ne'er the quiet of the 

dead. 

Ay, truly, more than martyr ! Of thy very soul bereft, 
They've torn from thee thy nationhood, then thou hast nothing 

■'• left; ■ 
That nationhood God gave thee with His life-bestowing breath, 
O hapless Erin! what canst thou pray for but endless death ? 

Then Erin, like an injured queen, rose with majestic grace, 
Prophetic fire upon her lips, its halo round her face ; 
In tones of holy triumph spoke, distinct, jet sweet and low, 
"O hopeless child of hopeful sires, why mock me in my woe? 
'Tis true, I've borne a heavy cross, and worn a thorny crown, 
That 'neath my burden and my woe, I've oft been stricken 

down ; 
But erst, as now, I've sought relief at Jesus' sacred feet, 
And ever strength and solace found at this blessed mercy-seat. 
My children have been scattered north, and south, and east, 

and west, 
But love for Faith and Motherland burns ever in their breast ; 
And wander whereso'er they may, they ever find a home 
In that great Church whose centre blest is here in holy Rome. 

" Yes, Poland brave, and Ireland wronged, 'tis true are yet in 

chains. 
But in the heart of Mother Church our nationhood remains ; 
Within this grand basilica, we're yet a nation styled. 
Before a tribune sacred where was Justice ne'er defiled." 
And then, with swelling bosom. Gens Hiberna there she 

showed ; — 
To Gens Polona, Poland pointed while her bright eye glowed. 

Again spake Ireland, " True, I have my lone Gethsemane, 
But,i'mid its gloom, the heavenly gleam of angel's wings I see- 
Go, tell my faithful sons that here, in highest Heaven's sight, 
I claim the boon of nationhood, my heritage and right. 



I here keep vigil for the dawn — oh ! bid them leave me never, 
My dreary night gives way to light — then hope ar.d work 

forever." 

************* 

While evening shades enwrapped me round, I piaytd for 

morning's gleaming, 
And asked of God that when it comes, it shall not find us 

dreaming, 
But up and ready for the day foretold in song and story, 
Which shall reward our country's faith with nationhood's 

bright glory. Katharine A- O'Keefe. 



Napoleon at St. Helena. 

How sad a picture of misfortune the words "Na- 
poleon at St. Helena" present to our imagination! 
There on that lonely island, on an isolated and 
barren rock, removed hundreds of miles from any 
civilized habitation, surrounded by the vast waters 
of the Atlantic — Napoleon, the marshal-hero of 
modern times, is doomed to spend his last days on 
earth; a dark picture indeed, contrasted with Napo- 
leon clad in the ermine and purple garb of an 
Emperor, surrounded with pomp and glory— nW, 
even with all Europe as a foot-stool! 

The story of the rising and setting of Nappleon's 
star of destiny is only too well known; eagerly do 
we watch its rising until it reaches that zenith of 
glory and grandeur whence are generated those 
rays which light up the whole world with letters 
of fire, forming that one magic name — Napoleon; 
and sorrowfully do we follow it, declining in mag- 
nitude, growing fainter and fainter, until at length 
it sinks from our vision into the boundless abyss of 
space, never to rise again, but never to be forgotten 
—-nay, on the contrary to live in the memory of 
the world till time shall be no more. 

The story of his life, prior to that portion of it 
spent in exile, is like that of all great men; he was 
one, indeed, upon whom Fortune seems to have 
lavished all her gifts and smiles. Born in the 
island of Corsica, in 1769, he, at a very early age, 
evinced strong inclinations for a military life, and 
accordingly was sent to a military school. He had 
just completed his education when the French 
Revolution broke out, and he immediately proceed- 
ed to make practical that which he had received as 
theoretical. Rapidly but steadily he rose in the 
ranks. The soldiers of France were not slow in 
recognizing his wonderful powers as a leader, and 
looked up to him as to a man of destiny sent by 
Providence to bring order out of the chaos which 
Anarchy had established in their beloved country. 
So popular did he become that the French author- 
ities determined to appoint him to a distant com- 
mand, thus ridding themselves of one who might 



c 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



19 



endanger tbeir own personal interests. But all in 
vain; his undertakings were in every case crowned 
with success; and he was recalled with enthusiasm 
to become a Director, then First Consul, and finally 
Emperor of France. 

Never before had France attained such a height 
of military glory; nay, even Charlemagne, wiih all 
his grandeur and greatness, had never laid such an 
empire at his country's feet. But it was an em- 
pire of short duration; hardly had eleven years 
passed over it when weighed down by its own im- 
mensity, it tottered and fell. With the downfall of 
his empire all his plans and hopes of the future 
were destroyed; nay, even it seems that his own 
life was crushed, his hitherto undaunted spirit for- 
ever broken. Surely it was not the Napoleon of 
former days that surrendered himself to the English 
without making one effort to drive back the vast 
armies of United Europe which compelled him to 
leave his beloved France! 

Napoleon an exile at St. Helena ! The aston- 
ished world could scarcely believe it, could not 
realize it at all. Who would have thought that the 
genial English nation would treat Napoleon so 
treacherously and shamefully ; that it would treat 
an Emperor, even though he were deposed, more 
like a felon than a royal prisoner? But they to 
whom he had entrusted his life betrayed their trust 
and tp St. Helena's distant shores he was doomed 
to go. 

Now indeed is it that his real sorrows begin. 
There on those lonely reefs,like Prometheus of old. 
Napoleon, sad and weary, thousands of miles from 
his friends, surrounded by enemies, an exile and 
prisoner — stands, with folded arms, watching the 
huge billows of the Atlantic as they dash against 
the unshaken rocks. Suddenly a tableau of his 
former glory arises before him, and once more in 
spirit he is crossing the Alps — he views the 
battles as if from Tabor's Holy Mount; now he is 
the proud victor of Austerlitz — he* sees all Austria 
at his feet; now he is driving the Germans head- 
long from their possessions; he passes under the 
triumphal arch at Paris greeted with the shouts of 
Vive r Empereur ! Vive I'Empereur ! Now he 
is marshalling his forces for a final charge on 
Waterloo's disastrous field; he sees the perfidy of 
one of his generals, his men^defeated, diminished, 
weary and scattered, flying in all directions, then 
the fearful storm that had burst upon himself— a 
storm of rage and hate that had left him stranded 
high and dry in the midst of the broad Atlantic. 
Can we wonder that, as he gazes at these pictures 
of his former valor and pride, his brow becomes 
darkened, his eyes flash forth revenge and hatred ; 
that bitter, black despair consu^mes his mighty soul 



that knows too well how ineffectual are its struggles 
against the cruel, iron hand of Fate? 

Six long and dreary years Napoleon lived at St. 
Helena, and there in i82i,in the fifty-third year of 
his age, he died. A strange coincidence indeed, 
that he who had taken his beginning, as it were, 
from the depths of the sea, and had gone forth to 
astonish the whole world by his exploits of glory 
and renown, seems to have been called back from 
this vast amphitheatre to seek a last resting place 
in its dark and deep blue waters. 

J. F. Keleher, '93. 



:\:'^ ;:;;■;:'/;:.■: Milton. ^^■"^'■■■^-■' 

With reverend steps, knowing my need of worth, 
I come to one of England's graves where rests 
Majestic Song's most noble bard who sang 
" Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme." 
Milton! before whose shrine I humbly stand, 
At thought of thee resound in memory's cells 
The sweet, sad echoes of the misty past. 
When love and pity filled my youthful heart 
With grief and indignation for the wrongs 
Which thou, grown old in years and service long 
Wast made to suffer from ungrateful man. 

Ah ! little recked they in their madd'ning rage 
The worth of him upon whose noble brow, 
Where wisdom sat enthroned, they poured 
The vials of their wanton wrath in vain ; 
Yes, all in vain ; for persecution's weight 
Could never break that strong and constant heart 
That ever pulsed with love of liberty. 

Imprisoned in a lonely dungeon cell 

His body captive, but his spirit free 

To roam where'er it willed on earthly shores 

Or down in hell's abysmal awful depths 

Or e'en 'mid scenes celestial where He dwells, 

The Uncreated One who made all things. 

That soul was far too great for power of man 

To-humble ; grandly might he from on high 

Look down upon his little foes and smile. 

But yet he deeply felt— as who could not — 
Their base ingratitude. Within his soul 
There burned for them a love unquenchable. 
'How yearningly he wished that they might see 
Their own sad errors and be free indeed 
From vice, corruption, base, unmanly strife 
And tyrant kings — of evils worst of all. 
But 'twas not so to be, at least not then ; 
Long afterwards they learned that he was right. 
That he was always man's most faithful friend. 

But all too late for him — nor peace of heart 

Nor consolation to his mind it brought 

For he had passed away. Yet England's love 

That cherishes the best and noblest of her sons 

In memory undying, soon atoned 

To an indignant world this fearful wrong 

And Milton sleeps within an honored tomb 




20 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY 



The Villanova Monthly, 

PUBLISHED BV THE STUDENTS OF 

iiCH-LKNOiZK C01-I-EGF=. 

UILLANOUA, PA. 



JANUARY, 1893. 



■'P-- 



THE STKF^F^. 



Editor-in-Chief. 
WM. J. PARKER, '93. 

Associate Editors. 

Thos. J. Fitzgerald, '93. Mich. A. Tierney, '93. 
Jno. F. Kelleher, '93. Jas. F. O'Leary, '94. 

Jno J. Ryle, '94. Tim. P. Callahan, '94. 

Wm. J. Mahon, '95. Jer, }. Crowley, '94. 

Jno. E. O'DoNNELL, '95. 

Business Manager. :,•';.: 

JOHN J. FARRELL, O.S.A.^^^ V; 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 

Remittances and business communications should be ad- 
dressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, one year |i 00 

Single copies 10 



Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second- Class Matter. 



EBITOBIAIS. 



Encouraged by the many commendatory letters 
which we have received and by the cordial recep- 
tion extended to our College Journal, we despatch 
the second number of our monthly with renewed 
and increased energy, and devoid of the fear and 
doubt necessarily accompanying our maiden effort. 

We are well aware that it is far from the purpose 
in editing a paper to sing one's own praises. 
It is sufficient to say that in the many letters re- 
ceived from our friends and patrons, a bright future 
has been predicted for us. These tokens of esteem, 
especially from graduates and former students of 
our college, have proven no inconsiderable factor 
in urging us to further efforts. Yet, we expect 
that each student will contribute his aid toward 
realizing our fond hopes of making every succes- 
sive copy of the Monthly surpass its predecessor in 
literary merit. Of course we are well aware that 
the sought-for prominence in college journalism 
cannot be attained on our first or even our twenty- 
first appearance; but remembering that labor omnia 
vincit^ and that a diligent application to the task 



before us will insure success, the approval of our 
efforts may be considered as well deserved. 

Let all our under-graduates who cherish a 
particular attachment for the study of our mother 
tongue, bear in mind that a golden opportunity is 
offered them in the way of a well stocked library, 
which contains all that is necessary for acquiring 
correctness and fluency of expression. Classical, 
mathematical or scientific studies may possess 
manifold advantages ; but far surpassing these, and 
first in order, is a proper and perfect acquaintance 
"with one's vernacular. lyiberally, then, patronize 
the library so kindly placed at your disposal, and 
by the earnest perusal of the standard authors, 
become familiar with all that is beautiful and good 
in our language. In years to come, when your 
connection with Alma Mater will have been 
-^severed, you will esteem this as one of the most 
precious mental ornaments moulded in her work- 
shop of learning. 



Ere this, our second number, will be presented 
to the public another half year of college life will 
have passed away. It will exist only in memory, 
bringing to some pleasure at the thought of a well 
spent term, to others regret for time unappreciated 
aud mis-spent. Those who have made use of the 
opportunities afforded for intellectual training have 
not gone unrewarded, as the results of the recent 
examinations will attest. On the other hand, 
' those who have been negligent in their application 
'to study will be forced to accept the inevitable. 
However, this consolation remains for them, that 
it is in their power to make good, in some measure, 
the time that they have lost, by a more assiduous 
attention to the books which they were wont to 
use with considerable reluctance. 



Just as it is customary at the beginning of a new 
year to make some good resolutions and earnestly 
strive to meet their obligations, so at the opening 
of a school term it is eminently proper to deter- 
mine a course of action for one's own advancement 
in the pursuit of knowledge, so that when our 
college career is ended, a retrospective view will 
be a source rather of pleasure than regret. 



Owing to the extensive preparations under way 
for celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the open- 
ing of our college, the concert of Feb. 14th will be the 
only entertainment given at the college this year. 
We earnestly exhort the students to use their best 
endeavors to please our patrons and thereby make 
the event a grand success. 



VlIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



21 



MATHEMATICAL CLAS6. 
To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
m itical work are respectfully invited to send pobltme, 
queries, etc., and their solutions, or any difficultes they may- 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 
All such com-nunications should be addressed to 

D. O'SuLLivAN, Villanova College. 

6. — Construct a triangle, being given the three 
medians. 

Solution by C S. 

Let «, b^ c be the medians of a A- It is required 
to construct it. 

Construct a A ABC, having AB=l «, BC=i b, 
and CA=l c. Bisect BC into £>. Join AD and 
produce it to E, so that DE=AD. Produce CB 
to F, and make BF=BC]: oin AF, EF. AFE 
is the A required. 



£b - 

c 




Join EB, and produce it to meet AFin H. Pro- 
duce AB to meet EF\n G. Join CE. Now, since 
AD=DE, and BD=CD, ABEC is a parallelo- 
gram ; . •. BH\s II to AC. Hence AF is bisected 
in H. Similarly, FE is bisected in G, and AE is 
bisected \nD. .'. AG, DF, EH are medians. 
.-. AB^2 BG\ but AB=l^\ .: AG=a. Simi- 
larly it may be shown that FI)=by and EH:=c. 

7. — Find the path of a billiard ball started from 
a given point, which, after being reflected from 
the four sides of the table, will pass through 
another given point. 

Solution by M. A. Tierney, Class '93. 

Let ABCD be the billiard table. E the point 
from which the ball starts, and /^ the point through 
which it will pass. 







u 


J 




"'-"■'"''■ ^ K 




A 




\» 


B 


^^^^^^ 




& 


/^\ 


^■""^'^ :"-';';;■;-■.• 












' NV 


i 


J 


T ^^^^''''''^ 




■■l^;-^;:V&::>,:-:'i 




r^ 


k^ 




IT 




^x 




c 





From ^ let fall a perpendicular £"G on AB ; 
produce EG to 7/, making G//=EG. From Z^ 
let fall a perpendicular Z;^ on 09 produced, and 
produce /(/to A; making JK=HJ. From i^ let 
fall a perpendicular /X on AD, and produce to J/, 



SQW\dX EM=LF ; and from J/ let fall a perpen- 
dicular il/iV on CB produced, and produce to P, 
making NP=MN. Join KP, intersecting BC in 
Q and CN in i^. Join //j2, MR, ES, FT. To 
prove that ESQRTFvfWl be the path of the ball : 
Proof. — Because EG=HS, GS=GS, and the 
angle EGS ; HGS .: the angle ESG=HSG ; 
but HSG--=BSQ ; . •. ESG\=BSQ ; hence the ball 
will be reflected in the direction SQ. Similarly 
it can be shown that the angle I{QJ^=RQC, and, 
therefore, the ball will be reflected from Q in the 
direction QR. In like manner it will be reflected 
from Rio RT, and from Tio TF. Q. E. D. 

8. — From a ship sailing down the English Chan- 
nel the Eddystone Lighthouse was observed to 
bear N. 2,2,° 45' W., and after the ship had sailed 
18 miles S. 67° 30' W. it bore N. 11° 15' E. Find 
its distance from each position of the ship. 

Solution by John Francis Kelleher. Class '93. 




«=:i8 miles 

^Cir=33°45' 
DCB=6f 30' 

ABF=ii° 15' 

ACB=i^o''—{ACE DCB)=y8° 45'. 
CBD=go''—DCB=^22° 30'. 
ABC^go°—{CBD -j ABF)=s^° ^S'- 
.-. BAC=45°. 



b sin 7i 



b= 



a sin B 



a sin A sin A 

log /;=log a + log sin B -^ colog sin A 
"^oga =1.25527 

log sin i9 =9.91985 
colog sin ^=0.15051 

log<^ =1.32563 
b = 21.166 
c sin C . a sin C 

a sin A ' ' sin A. 

log ^=log a - log sin C 
log« =1.25527 

log sin C =9-99157 
colog sin y4=o. 15051 

log c 
c 



colog sin A. 



-=i-39735- 
= 24.966 

Distance b=AC^=2i.i66 miles, and c- 

24.966 miles. 



--BA= 



22 



VILLANOVA MONl^HtV. 



lo.' — The radius of a sphere is 7 feet; what is the 
volume of a wedge whose angle is 36° ? 

Solution by Jer. J. Crowley. Class '94. 

Let L = area of line 

S = surface of sphere 

Then^=.^^^-I. 
S 360° 10 

S = 4 ?r R^=4 X ^— X 49=616 square feet. 

^■■- ■■■■■[-::■',:--.■ 7 

-:—== - . *. L=6i5 square feet='^ — square feet. 
616 10 5 

/:=^ RL= ^X 7 X l^=':}^L^iA,'>^^<,i^. 
^solidity of wedge. 

2 2 

Note, —We put - =oue of the values of", 

-■:-■■■ . 7 . 

II. — Find the value of ;f in the equation 

4 2 4 2 

x'^ — 4;t:^-f .r~'M-4-^""^= — 4- 

Solution by J. F. O' Leary. Class '94. 



A- .5 A- i 



since x'-^ — 2+ 4=(x 
both sides we get 






2) . By adding — 2 to 



I I 

{xl — o) — 4{x'-^ — 2)= — V. Complete the square 

(-^'-io)-2 y y, 

{x^—\)=\y2 or 2 y2 
4 22 

2;^:j — 2=3.a:-' or 5.r ^ 
4 2 



Clear of fractions. 



2X-'- 


-3.r- 


= 2. 


Complete 


the 


square 


i6:r 

2 


^-( 


) + 


9-25 






4^'- 


-^— ^ 


5- 








4:r- 


=8 or 


— 2. 


' 






2 


=2 or - 


- y2. 








X — 

x= 

t 
Alcr 


:8 or- 

4 

\ 1- ■' 


-y. 

or 1: 

1 r 


% V~2. 







2x''^ — ^x''^^=2. Complete the square 

4 
16^:^— ( )H- 25=41. 

4:1:^—5= -1 ^r 

■^=[^4(5-1 4ii)]. 

New Problems. 

12. — The sum of three numbers in geometrical 
progression is 39, and the sum of their squares 
819 ; find the numbers. 

13. — Prove the expression of the area of a plain 
triangle. 

Area=%! {a -\- b X- cf tan yi A tan >^ B tan 

yc, --y- ■- 

and write the corresponding formula in logarithms. 
14. — To draw a direct and transverse common 
tangent to two circles. 



SPLINTERS. 

Exams. 

Roxey. 

Ciiawlie. 

By Gum. 

"Pink Teas." 

Change please, Eddie. 

John got a hair cut. 

Under the elm tree. 

Last but not least — W. M. 

Is he warm,, Skinner? Is he warm? 

I should think it would be this way. P — 

What makes me think anything? id. 

What about that illustrated lecture ? 

John, fire those little (?) shoes away. M. T. 

Just like Philosophy and Theology. 

"Can you do it ?" Tom's apt reply—' 'Why, of 

course.",;.:. \^;;.;.-. ■''■ \f:' '-■:■:.■■- ;^^: "':■::/■. - 

Buckley is quite an authority on X4«^/^«/ His- 
tory. 

Get out of my way — I want the Crows. 

Skates found on the Library walls will be confi- 
scated. 

Did you notice the cage for the ball-tossers in 
the gym ? 

"" The editor sat in his sanctum 
Smoking a cigarette. 
Thinking of all the trouble 
He had given Our (?.) 

"Mr. Chairman, I rise to a point of order." 
"You had better observe it." 

Oh ! excuse me — I beg your pardon — I was not 
conscious that you were here. — B. 

What progress are the more sensible and some- 
what interested making ? 

Students will please report ai^y inattention on 
the part of the waiters. 

Cheese made its re-appearance on January 20th. 
Probably recalled by the new administration. 

Oh! to see him swing those keys 
One would think he's at his ease; 
But for home and friends — ah me! :;■ 
Pines our little Jimmie V. ^ : ^' -Xixt^^^^^^ 

Question for class in synonyms: — What is the 
difference between "like "and "love?" — Crowley 
can furnish example. 

It was not the Johnstown flood that scared Felix 
— it was Flood from Philadelphia. 

The latest bulletin from the infirmary — Wade is 
convalescing. 

Quite an attachment exists between Stanley and 
his glasses. 

In stentorian tones with fire in his eye he em- 
phatically remarks — " I never said it." 



VJLLANOVA MONTHLY. 



23 



Jerry's "Tabby" has become the proud and 
happy parent of two bright and interesting kittens. 
All are doing well. 

The big six were addressed rather sternly by one 
high in authority. 

George, did you get up with the rest? Yes, but 
I was not rested. 



When coming to our sanctum 
"Points" and news providing. 

Drop a Nick-el in the slot 
And see some fancy gliding. 

Was it not an optical illusion when he saw Oliver 
Optics house on the left ? 

On entering the smoker, advance cautiously and 
give the countersign — There's a Pickett on guard. 

"Don't leave your seats until recreation begins, 
and recreation does not begin until you are in the 
corridor." ■ ■■'"■■''''■.".;;,, 

The strain of his story is changeS^ Now 'tis 
"When I was home Christmas," with "When I 
was at Toronto" served as a side dish. 

A reason I ne'er could discover 

Why sorrow unbidden should stay ; 

Nor (though I thought oyer and over) 
Why Barney unbidden shouM play. ' 

Exercise your lung powers Trix. You'll be an 
auctioneer some day, if not a vender of hot- 
tomollies. 

The Columbian class in U. S. History informed 
us that Philadelphia was quietly settled by Wm. 
Peun in 1682. The peaceful stillness (so say aliens) 
has never since been broken. 

The rehearsal over he reached for his coat, 
He's going to be escort — his joy you might note; 
But (alas for his plans) the coat was not there, 
And another took P — home while John tore his 
hair. 

A Threnody. S^■':i^^-^;v■■":^:-■::vv::,;>;^ 

V Weather cold 

'::■ ■-■■■; :'■;.; Ice thin; 

Boy bold 
Falls in. 

Loud shout 

Water chill 
Boy out 

Very ill. 

Doctor called 

Boy in bed 
Called again 

Boy fled. 



-**. ' 



PERSONALS. 



After two weeks' vacation, the students invigor- 
ated in mind and body, fill once more their respec- 
tive places. 

Mr. Edward J. Bruen, of Philadelphia, recently 
spent a few very pleasant hours with his friend, 
T. P. Callahan. 

Mr. J. Carroll, of Philadelphia, and his brother, 
E. M. Carroll, of Epiphany College, Baltimore, 
were entertained by their friends, Messrs. Kerr and 
Flood. 

On Monday, the 23d ult. , Rev. J. Curran, of 
Schaghticoke, N. Y. , paid a short visit to the 
College. 

Messrs. B. J. O'Donnell and J. Murphy, recently 
enjoyed a sleigh ride to Downingtown, the home 
of the latter. 

Mr. McGee, of Camden, N. J., the first student 
of our College and one of its first graduates, paid 
the Faculty a visit on the 22d ult. 

Mr. B. J. Corr, Sr. and the Misses K. and M. 
Corr, were lately the guests of B. J. Corr, Jr. 

A grand hop under the guspices of the Villanova 
T. A. B. Society, will be given at Ardmore on 
February loth. 

It affords us much pleasure to see Rev. Father 
McFadden once more able to participate in the 
games of the younger students. 

Mr. George Buckley, on account of failing sight, 
has deemed it necessary to consult an optician. 

Miss Ida M. Erickson recently spent an after- 
noon with her brothers, Joe and Will. 

We are pleased to learn of Prof. Motley's suc- 
cess at the Patent Ofiice. 

Mr. D. Monaghan, of Shenandoah, visited his 
son Richard on January 24th. 

With pleasure we notice that Mr. T. J. Lee is 
again convalescent, after a few days spent in the 
infirmary. 

Prof. G. J. Corrie is training several of the stu- 
dents for their appearance at the musicale on 
February 14th. 

We are indebted to Revs. Fr. Field, of Green- 
wich, N. Y. ; Fr. O'Reilly, of Lawrence, Mass.; 
Fr. Murphy, of St. Augustine's, Philadelphia, and 
Fr. Emmett, ofWaterford, N. Y., for the interest 
they have taken in introducing the Monthly. 

Mr. J. Kelly, spent Sunday, January 22, with 
his sons, Chas. and Jos., of the junior department. 

On February 14th, a lecture by vS. Edwin 
Megargee, Esq., of Philadelphia, and a concert by 
the students of our College, will be given in the 
College hall. 



24 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 

V.L.L On Thursday, January 12th, the Insti- 
tute resumed business for the new year. All had 
returned from their short vacation and were present 
in full numbers. Three new members were admit- 
ted and the following officers were elected for the 
ensuing term : Mr. J. J. Farrell, O. S.A., President; 
Messrs. M. A. Tierney and T. P. Callahan, Vice- 
Presidents ; Mr. W. J. Parker, Rec. Sec; Mr. T. 
J. Fitzgerald, Fin. Sec; Mr. J. J. Ryle, Serg't-at- 
Arms; Messrs. B. J. O'Donnell, M.J. Murphy, J. 
F. O'Leary and E. J. Murtagh, Directors. 

The thanks of the Institute are due to the 
officers of the past term for the efficient manner in 
which they performed their several functions. We 
would exhort the new board to be as earnest as the 
old in the discharge of its duty, by which means 
the Institute will continue to hold the place of 
honor which has so far been its laudable and con- 
stant aim. 

V.D.S. — On- Wednesday evening, Jan. 25th, the 
society assembled in the debating hall to determine 
whether the Press has been a greater benefactor to 
mankind than Steam. Although an old question 
and one many a time debated it was discussed in such 
a way as to make it most interesting. Messrs. R. G. 
Kerr and J. E. O'Donnell presented some very 
forcible arguments in favor of the affirmative 
which were effectually refuted by Messrs. J. P. 
Flood and T. J. lyce, the champions of the nega- 
tive. The debate was enjoyed by all present and 
especial credit is due to Messrs Flood and I/ce for 
the masterly way in which they handled the sub- 
ject. The chairman rendered his decision in favor 
of the negative. ■;;'■:■.' v-v^;" 

The participants in the next debate will be 
Messrs. J. F. Kelleher andT. J. Fitzgerald for the 
affirmative ; Messrs. W. J. Parker and M. A. Tier- 
ney for the negative. Subject— Should Canada be 
annexed to the United States? 

At a special meeting held Jan. 27th, the semi- 
annual election of officers took place. The follow- 
ing are the new officers : Pres., Rev. L. A. Delurey, 
O.S.A.; Vice-Pres., Mr. W. J. Parker; Sec, Mr. 
J. E. O'Donnell ; Serg't. at Arms, Mr. A. J. Plun- 
kett ; Literary Committee, Messrs. M. A. Tierney, 
T. J. Fitzgerald and J. F. Kelleher. . 

Glee Club — The Glee Club is in a very prosper- 
ous condition. The treasury is adequate for all 
demands made on it and the members are ever 
ready to give their services when called upon. 
They will give a grand concert on the 14th inst., 
under the direction of Prof. G. J. Corrie. 



EXCHANGES. 

j It is indeed a source of great pleasure to us who 
{ so recently have taken a stand in the journalistic 
field to welcome as an exchange the Fordham 
Monthly. Judging from the care with which the 
matter of the Monthly is arranged, and from the 
high merit of its literature, it is. evident that the 
staff of ninety-three means not only to maintain, but 
to increase the excellent reputation which that 
journal has hitherto borne. 

The January number of the Georgetown College 
Journal is a magazine of great literary merit. Its 
editorials are well chosen and written in an instruc- 
tive and interesting manner. Its exchanges bear 
the mark of careful consideration and impartial 
criticism, and in fine, the neatness of style with 
which the Journal is placed before its readers can- 
not fail to meet with approval. 

The student who loves a neat and spicy college 
journal cannot do better than spend a portion of 
his valuable time in a careful perusal of the 
Niagara Index for January. The article on "Silk " 
is especially instructive, and the poems, "The 
Passing of the Year," and the "Dying Year" are 
filled with a pathos well suited for mourning the 
departure of the dear old year. 

The Manitoba College Journal holds no unim- 
portant place among our exchanges, and we do not 
hesitate to pronounce it a tasty and well edited 
journal. Semper Floreat. 

We gladly take this opportunity to acknowledge 
our receipt of the January number of The Athe- 
naeum among our exchanges. In reviewing this 
excellent journal nothing pleased us so much as 
the editorial entitled Examinations, which is a 
well written article, and deserves the attention of 
all the readers of the periodical. 

We give our sincere thanks to the exchange 
editor of the Doane Owl for his promptness in an- 
swering our invitation, and each month shall see 
us anxiously awaiting the appearance of the Owl 
in our sanctum. 

To the editors of St. Mary's Sentinel, one of 
our earliest visitors, we extend our congratulations 
for the neat and careful manner in which the paper 
is arranged, and more especially for the praise that 
belongs to it on accpunt of its exquisite literature 
which easily enables it to take a position in the 
foremost ranks of college journalism. The two 
articles headed respectively "Some Observatiofts 
on American Morals," and " Some of the Causes of 
American Progress " are well worthy the attention 
of the reader. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



SEE 

B. F. Owen & Co., 

1 41 6 Chestnut Street, 
BEFORE YOU BUY 

A PIANO OR ORGAN. 

You will 5a^6 [T\OT)<iy apd )^auc a 

CHOICE OF THE BEST. 

200 NEiAi PIKNOS. 

9 WORLD RENOWNED MAKES. 

WEBER, HALLET & DAVIS, BRIGGS and 

STARR PIANOS, ETC. 
■ Write for Catalogues, Prices, Terms, etc. 

1416 Chestnut Street. 

JAMES MCCANNEY, 

PH75CTICKI-1 

Saddle, Harness l Collar Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 

PHILADBLPHIA. " 

THE DeMORAT studio, 

914 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILA. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL BRABTCHSS. 

Special Rates in Groups, also to Colleges and Societies. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H, 3 . HKNSBURV, 

ARTHUR~ "^ 

Famous Ice Cream, 

ALL FLAVORS. 

Plain and Fancy Cakes. Bread, Rolls and 
Buns, Pies, Desserts. 

Pure Ice served during the entire year, by the 
BRYN MAWR ICE COMPANY. Your o.ders 
are respectfully solicited'. 

I. WARNER ARTHUR, ; 

Bryn Slavrr, P». 

E. K. WILSON & SON, 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Ji^ii|st-^las§ 1^00te and §hees^ 

Repairing Neatly and Promptly attended to. Custom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^ancastcT Avc, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



I will seU YDU 

$10.00 worth of Olothingr, Dress Goods, Ladies' 
Coats and Cloaks, Furniture, Carpets Watches, 
Jewehy, Chinaware, etc., for 

$1.00 CASH AND $1.00 PER WEEK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 

ON SATURDAY 

UNTIL 

TEN O'CLOCK. 



PHILAD'A 



if the Goods are not sat- 
isfactory, come to me and 
I will allow all reasonable 
claims. 



Pbysioians' Prescriptions Accurately Coiupounded at all hours at 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY, 

FR/^NK U/. PRIC;KITT. Craduate iq pipar/nacy, 

PROPRIETOR. 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 

BOOKS BOUGHT. 

fF you want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old Books in America, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to spare is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. 

L-eKRV'S OI-D BOOK STORO, 
9 South Ninth Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

A. M. BUCH & CO., 
156 North Ninth Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

LADIES' AND GENTS', 

iA£IG 7VTAKERS, 

1^ HAIR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

Wigs and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Theatricals. '^tl 



"wm:. E. HINOH, 

caiNDoai ••• GLiflss, 

WHITE LEAQ, COLORS, OILS, VARNISHES, BRUSHES, ETC 
No. 1702 Market Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



D. J. GALLAGHER. 



GEO. W. GIBBONS. 



D. J. GALLAGHER & CO., 

Pr i n t e r s , P u b 1 i s h e r s 

And Blank Book Manufacturers. 

Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationary. 
^ 420 Library Street, Philadelphia. 



Publishers of "AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW," 

;.;v-'v>:v3;?;:'i^;--;.,"v^ $3.50 Per Annum. ' 

TVYOORE'S 

WINDSOR HOTELf 

'■:,::0:j: . : philhdelphih. 

Half Block from New P. & R. Terminal, and One and a Half 
,-H^-^-^rr Blocks from Broad Street Station. -' / "' , ' 



1219-29 Filbert Street. . 

PRESTON J. MOORE, Proprietor. 



It 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 





Thomas Bradley, 

N. W. gor. Twenty-first 

and Market streets. 

K exleiKi an invitation to you to call at our GREAT 
WESTERN MEAT MARKET and see what a choice 
. selection of 

Beef, Mutton, Lamb, Dried Beef, 
Lard, Hams and Provisions 

We have constantly on hand and note the Low Prices at which we are 

selling. We handle only the Best Goods and Quality considered, 

Our Prices are the Lowest in the City. Come, see for 

yourself. 

tjb^ral Di8(;oupt to public ai^d <?l?aritable Ipstitutior^s. 
ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION. 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, 

Undertaker I Embalmer, 

241 North Fourth Street, 

■.' -';\'/ PHILADELPHIA. 

THOMAS J. FOGARTY, 

DEALER IN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Clottimg, Hats and Caps, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 



Laisgaster Auenue. 



Bryn Mawr, Pa, 



DEALER IN 

Carpets, Oil Cloth, Linoleums, 

: RUGS, WINDOW SHADES, ETC., 

No. 37 SOUTH SECOIVO STREET, 

Below Market, East Side. PHILADELPHI.^. 

" WILLIAM J. REED, ^ 

DEALER IN 

»Fine Hats, Caps and Umbrellas,?- 

ALL THE NEWEST STYLES, 

CLOSING OUT TRUNKS AT COST. 

261 North Eighth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEXT TO FOREPAUGH'S THEATRE. 

prouidept IJfe 9 Jrtist <^o. 

A:, ^ ., ; Of Philadelphia, 

N. W. Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts., (40 T-409) 

fSSUES Life, Endowment and Term Policies, 
which can he made payable at death in 10, 15, 
20, 25 or 30 yearly instalments, thus saving 
the widow, who is the usual beneficiary, the trouble 
and risk of investment. v . : v 

Safe investments ; low rate of mortality ; low rate of 
expenses ; liberality to policy-holders. 

In Eyerything E^eelled by no othef Company 



BRYN MAWR PHARMACY. 

ELEGANT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS, 

Prescriptions a Specialty. 



OBLINQER PR05. & C?., 

FACTORY, LANCASTER, PA. 

SALESROOM, 164 N. THIRD ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
M'liolesale only. 



PETER F. CUNNINGHAM k SON 

PUBLISHERS 



J 



AND 



Catholic Booksellers, 

CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

Nd. bib Arch. Street^ 

PHII.ADEI.PHIA. 

JSverytbing at lowest pric es. 

DR. STE INBOC K, 

^DENTIST^^ 

1630 liorti) Tu;elftl? 3tr(?(?t, pi?ilade,lpl?ia, pa. 

Specialist in Gold and Silver Fillings, and Artificial Teeth. 
GAS AND ETHER ADMINISTERED. 



"Hallahan's Shoes are the Best." 

Oiir stock of Fine Footwear is always attractive., 
in quality., variety and price. 

HALLAHAN, 

Eighth and Filbert Sts., Philadelphia. 



P. J. COLAHAN, 1838 MARKET ST. 

Dealer ip pipe (iroeeries. 

BEST BRANDS OF FIvOUR, #5.50 PER BBL. 

"~ CMSH OR OReDIT. 
BUY YOUR GOODS 

FROM 

GEO. KELLY & CO., 

808 and 810 Market St., 

PHILADELPHIA.. , ,..^,- 
On Bill of $10— $1 Down— $1 per Week. 

SPECIAL TERMS ON LARGE PURCHASES. 

""dANIEL GALLAGHER, 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 




Fupqilifli'eiBEdding 

Of Every Description, 

43 South Second Street, 

hove Chestnut. Philadelphia. 

Special Discount to Institutions. 



tl 



VII.LANOVA xMONTHLY. 





Thomas Bradley, 

N. W. gor. Twenty-first 

and Market Streets. 

E extend an invitation to you to call at our GREAT 
WESTERN MEAT MARKET and see what a choice 
selection of 

Beef, Mutton. Lamb, Dried Beef, 
Lard, Hams and Provisions 

We have conatantly on hand and note the Low Prices at whieli we are 
selling. We handle only the Best Goods and Quality considered, 
Our Prices are the" Lowest in the City. Coine, see for 
' yourself. 

^jb^ral Di8(;oupt to public aipd <?l7aritable Ipstitutioijs. 
ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION. 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, 

Undertaker I Embalmer, 

241 North Fourth Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

THOMAS J. FOGARTY, 

DEALER IN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Clottimg, Hats and Caps; 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 



Lancaster Avenue. 



Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



JOHlsr J. BYRISrES, 

DIEAI.,ER IN 

Carpets, Oil Cloth, Linoleums, 

^ RUGS, WINDOW SHADES, ETC., 

No. 37 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 

Below Market, East Side. PHILADELPHIA 



WILLIAM J. REED, 



DEALER IN 



^•Fine Hats, Gaps and Umbrellas,?- 

ALL THE NEWEST STYLES, 

CLOSING OUT TRUNKS AT COST. 

261 North Eighth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEXT TO FOREPAUGH'S THEATRE. 

prouidept Ijfe 9 Jrust <^o. 

■ ' - : Of Fliiln delpliia, 

N. W. Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts., (40T-409) 

ISSUES Life, Endowment and Term Policies, 

1 which can be made payable at death in 10, 15, 

20, 25 or 30 yearly instalments, thus saving 

the widow, who is the usual beneficiary, the trouble 

and risk of investment. \ ■ 

Safe investments ; low rate of mortality ; low rate of 
expenses ; liberality to policy-holders. 

In Everything H^decllcd by no other Company 



BRYN MAWR PHARMACY. 

ELEGANT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS, 

Prescriptions a Specialty. 

•f cHRiSTiAfi Moot^e.-f 



OBLINQER PK05. & Qo., 

FACTORY, LANCASTER, PA. 

SALESROOM, 164 N. THIRD ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
Wholesale only. 



PETER F. CUNNINGHAM $ SON, 

PUBLISHERS 



AND 



Catholic Booksellers, 

IMPOUTKUS OF ' 

CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

ITd. bib Arch Street, 

PHII<ADHI.PHIA, 

Hverytbing at lowest pric es. 

DR. STE INBOC K, 

^DENTIST* 

1630 jv/ortl? Tu/elftl? 5tr(?^t, pi?iladejpl?ia, pa. 

Specialist in Gold and Silver Fillings, and Artificial Teeth. 
GAS AND ETHER ADMINISTERED. 



"Hallahan's Shoes are the Best." 

024r stock of Fine Footwear is always attractive ^ 
in quality., variety and price. "^"^ 

HALL AH AN, 

Eighth and Filbert Sts., Philadelphia. 

P, L COLAHAM, 1838 market st! 

Dealer ip pipe (lroeerie$. 

BEST BRANDS OF FI,OUR, ^5.50 PER BBL. 

""^ CKSH OR OREDIT. 

BUY YOUR GOODS 

FROM 

GEO. KELLY & CO., 

808 and 810 Market St., 

PHILADELPHIA.. 
On Bill of $10— $1 Down— $1 per Week. 

SPECIAL TERM S ON LARGE PURCHASES. 

"dANIEL GALLAGHER, 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 

Fupqiliui'elBeddiDg 

Of Every Description, 
43 South Second Street, 

hove Chestnut. Philadelphia. 

Special Discount to Institutions. 




VIIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



ttt 



WATCHES, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY, 

S. B. Oor. Market and 16th Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 

i8K. Wedding Rings. Fine Watch Repairing a Specialty, 

LOGUE * HATTER 



STRICTLY ONE PRICE. 

123B MARKET ST. 



MONEY 
REFUNDED. 



BOOKS. BOOKS. 

CATHOLIC SCHOOL | COLLEGE 

•Oi-TEXT BOOKS, -t^ 

:Ne'w and Second Hand. t, 

Have constantly on band a full line of Catholic 
Theological and Miscellaneous Books, 

Libraries and small parcels of Books 
- purchased for cash. 

SEND YOUR ADDRESS OR CALL 

JOHN JOSEPH McVEY, 

39 fi* Thii»teeoth Street, 

PHlIiADKIiPHIA, PA. 

' CHARLES G. HOOKEY, 

626 NORTH FOURTH STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



MHRT. D. BYRNES, 

Livery, Sale § Exchange Stables, 



Lancaster Av/enue. 



ROSEMONT, Pa. 



HAUI.ING DONE. 



•*-vr. "W". FI^^3s^oIS^«' 



DEALBB IN 

Diamonds, Watches, Clocks 
Jewelry and Silverware. 

Also a complete stock of Spec- 
tacles and Eye Glasses. 
Fine Watch and Clock Repairing. 



AGENT FOB 

Spalding's, Reach's anu 
Tryon's Sporting Goods. 

Estimates furnished to Clubs at 
the lowest club rates. 



LKNC75STER KiZB.. KRDTU^ORE. F=>K. 




BROGAN & SMITH, 

Practical Steam Fitters 

STEAM and HOT WATER HEATING, 
rio. 810 l^RCE ST., 



PHILADELPHIA. 



fflODEL POOL A«D BILLIARD ROOM, 

Tobacco and Cigat^s, 

225 North 8th Street, Philadelphia. 
WALTER HUTCHINSON, Proprietor. 

REDUCED PRICES. 



TIM. QUINLAN & BRO., 

BLICISMITRS I lOISE SIOEH, 

BRYN MAWR, PA. 

Horse-Shoeing a Specialty. Old JLancaster Road. 



Try boston laundry, 

235 and 238 NEW ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

THOS. E. HOUSTIN PROPRIETOR. 

M. A. CALLANAN, 

DEALER IN 

DRY GOODS, NOTIONS, 

Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 



Lancaster Avenue. 



Bryn Mawr, Pa, 




':a^j^ 



1025 Market St., 

Sells everything needed 
for the Table) Kitchen and 
Household at half other's 
prices, 

10 ct. goods are 5 cts. 



Surprisingr? Wonderful ? Yet True I ! 



Standard Text Books. 

Wentworth's Mathematics. 
Allen and Greenoiigli's Latin Series. 
Goodwin's New Greek Grammar. 
Montgomery's U. S. History. 
. Whitney's New English Grammar. 
Tarbell's L/anguage Lessons. 

PUBlilSHH^S, 

70 Fifth Avenue N. T. - - - T. B. Lawler, Agent. 

"""""""""""""""^ M. GALLAGHER, 

PRACTICAI, 

15 U. 9th St., 

Philadelphia. 
MANUFACTURER OF FINE HORSE BOOTS. 

~^ H. MUHR'S SONS, 

41- J e iA£ e Le R s-k^ 

Dliamonds, Precious Stones, and Watch Manufacturers. 
Salesroom, 729 Chestnut St., Factory, Broad and Race Sts. 

Branches; 139 State Street, Chicago. 

20 John St., New York. 

Avenue du Sud, Amherst. 

4FUNERAL DIRECTOR 

S. W. Cor. Twelfth and Jefferson Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 




«ff- Personal attention day oj night. 



tv 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 




MOUNT ST. JOSEPH'S ACADEMY, 



Chestnut hill, 
Philadelphia. 

This Acadcni}', conducted by the Sisters of St. Joseph, has long since become famous as an institution in which young ladies 
may receive an excellent intellectual and moral education. The buildings are furnished with all modern conveniences conducive to 
the health, comfort and pleasure of the pupils. For further information apply to the 



MOTHER SUPERIOR. 




horr^ai) p. (irinall 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 




Butter, Eggs, 
Poultry^ ^^^^^^^^^^ § 
And Game 



Stalls, 1 1 12, 1 114 and 1 1 16 Eleventh Avenue, 
■ ; Reading Terminal Market. " >■ 

169,171 and 173 union market, 2d and callowhill sts. 
Philadklphia. 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS., 

Manufacturers of Everything ia 

Athletic, Gymnasium Goods, 



AND 



r^ UNIFORMS FOR ALL SPORTS, 

> / '' Outing and Yachting. 

SEND FOR NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOQUE. 
CHICAGO, NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, 

108 Madlaon St. »43 Broadway. 103% CKeatnnt St. 



A FACT TO BE REMEMBERED 

THAT THE HBADQUARTEBS FOB 

Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments 

IS AT 

J. E. DITSON St CO.'S, 

1228 Chestnu t Street. Philadelphia. 

~ BELLAK'S, ^. 

PIANOStfORGANS 

1129 CHESTNUT STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



# 



MAKERS AND DESIGNERS 

THEATRICAL AND HISTORICAL 



,^ 



Catalogues Furnished. Costumer For the Mask and Wig Club. 

AL.L. KINDS OF STAGK IffAKK UP, TIGHTS &.C. 

121 N. NINTH STREET, Philadelphia. 

MOTLEY'S ADJUSTABLE SASH HOLDER 

FOR WINDOWS 




o. .An ,, ,Rr,^ - NEW OR OLD. 

Patented Dec. 13, 189?. 

In Buildings, Cars, Steamboats, Carriages, Etc. Also for Window Screens and 
Sliding Blinds. Send for Circular 

PETER MOTLEY, ^^*> ""'' ^^'^ "°"a.&efpgU p,. 
McCONAGHY BROTHERS, 

NEAR ST. DENIS' CHURCH. 



Carpenters 



Builders. 



All work Promptly and Neatly done. 

p. O. Address, Af^DJWOI^B, PA. 




n 



i^e^ 







Vol. I. 



Villanova College, M^arcli, 1893. 



No. 3. 



Ode to St. Thomas Aquinas. 



I.' . 
Reflection of diviner light, 
Far shining from the ages dim, 
Thou beacon fixed on Error's height, 
To guide the soul through breakers grim, 
Thy gentle eye of truthful mien, 
Beams forth like dews on meadows seen— 
The offspring of a ne\y day's birth 
lyight settling on the gladdened earth. 

Cast in ascetic mould, thy soul 
Peered through Life's deep, sad river winding, 
Where captive human hearts, the goal 
Of Heaven had lost, and Hell was finding. 
Resolved that God should have His own. 
It cast off Earth's quick, fading crown. 
And by meek sacrifice and prayer 
Did choose and wear till Death, that golden crown 
more rare. 

III.^ ; 

When smiling Nature gave to him, 

Full honors, riches, titles fair. 

Spurned he these shadowy treasures dim 

That bring temptation, endless care ; 

For, other wealth that never flees, 

Delight of hearts sore ill at ease, v : 

Claimed for its own, the immortal mind, 

Which clearly saw the good that hid these gifts 

behind. 

IV. -^''---v^.: 

Calm peace of hermit cell it sought. 

And there the soul's own heavenly power 

A mansion rich, ethereal wrought. 

That-proved for it the happiest dower. 

Close friendship with its being held. 

Pride's baser promptings were expelled, 

And from the depths of Heaven, the mind 

Drew forth the strength, on Earth it vainly searched to 

find. 

V, 

Great angel of the schools, thy name 
Lives on while nations have their death. 
Thy heritage of good, thy fame, 



Is part and parceLof our Faith. 

For shuddering at thy piercing light 

The hosts of Error soon take flig^ht, 

Aa well in this advancing age. 

As when the misty night obscured fair Wisdom's page. 

.^ . VI. 
We hail thee from this humbler sphere. 
And though in faith and holy truth , 
We ne'er can gain that reason clear 
That gave to thee perennial youth. 
Bright when Life's evening closed amain, 
Inspiring as its earlier reign. 
Still lead us through the cloudy day. 
Shine forth thy reason now, on this our blinding 
way. 

VII. 

LIGHT of our Church, calm love we bear 
On this glad Festal of thy birth. 
Thou to whom Heaven did once appear. 
As meekly bowed thy head to Earth, 
Defender of that sacred form, 
How sweetly through the World's wild storm, 
Spake with kind speech, our Blessed Lord, 
As beaming on thy face He praised thy wisdom's 
word. 

VIII. 

As long drawn years are gathered to their fold. 
Like flocks home-wandering in the silent eve. 
Thy widespread fame, not ©fa conqueror bold. 
But holy as the soul can e'er conceive. 
More lustrous still shall grow. And they 
Who laughed to scorn the morning ray. 
Shall gather with the night, to view 
The brilliant light that streams o'er all the Heavens 
blue. 

IX. ■■ 

The hastening day has come at last, and thee 

Long in sweet memory we shall treasure dear, 

As pointing out, like beacon lamp at sea. 

With steady gleam, the threatening rocks that rear 

Where Scylla waits for mariners lost by wave, 

To hurl them to a sad and early grave. 

And beckoning on, still farther down, where sunny 

pathways rove. 
Abodes of peace and joy from God's immeasurable 

love. J. H. Flannery. 



26 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



"To Be Is Better Far Than Not To Be." 

Existence ! What order, what beauty and what 
sublimity are contained in that single word! 
Whether we consider the rippling brook as it 
courses through the fertile valley or the surging 
cataract as it plunges over jagged rocks ; the 
slender flowers that grow upon the river's banks, 
or the gigantic forests that crown the mountain 
tops ; the tiny ant that builds its fragile pile of dust- 
atoms, or the mighty lion that roams with majestic 
tread through the defiles of his native jungles ; in 
all we behold the order, the beauty, the sublimity 
of life. But in man who occupies the highest 
place in the order of earthly creation, man, en- 
dowed with reason and free-will, the pride of 
nature and the noblest work of the Creator, are 
these qualities seen in the greatest perfection, and 
no better example can be produced to show that 
existence is a priceless gift and one of the greatest 
blessings that God could bestow. 

Existence is because God is. All forces and act- 
ive powers emanate from God the immutable and 
absolute E^is^ and these forces and powers, extend - 
ing throughout space under a million various 
degrees and forms, virtually declare His being. 
It is therefore in the unity and unchangeableness 
of God that man is enabled to find the link which 
binds him to the past. 

' ' Not to be " is nothing and ' ' nothing ' ' is inde- 
finable ; nevertheless we know that one non-exist- 
ence implies an eternal unconsciousness of the 
beauty of nature and of God ; of the earth repos- 
ing amid the snows of winter or clad in the ver- 
dure of spring, smiling in the brightness of sum- 
mer or laden with the fruits of autumn ; of the 
glories of sunrise or sunset — of the immensity of 
the sea and of the skies filled with worlds innu- 
merable, wafting the imagination beyond earthly 
things into the vast creation of God.^ ^^ ■ 

But for man to exist, on the contrary, is not only 
to see but to form a part of nature's beauty, to 
view with pride the dignity of his own works, the 
marts of commerce and the splendid halls of science 
and religion ; the ocean studded with masts, the 
valleys smiling with harvests ; and his own proud 
form as he moves about to direct and govern all. 
Moreover, there is the consciousness of possessing 
powers and faculties of soul and body which pecu- 
liarly fit him for his high station here on earth, and 
which also sanction his aspirations for immor- 
tality. No wonder that Shakespeare cried out as 
if in ecstasy, "What a piece of work is man ! How 
noble in reason ! how infinite in faculties ! in form 
and moving, how express and admirable ! in 
action, how like an angel ! in apprehension, how 
like a God!" v „.,..,,:. . 



Think, oh ungrateful man, of the wondrous 
gift bestowed upon you by God in creating you 
like unto Himself, and in ordering that all other 
created things should be subservient to your will ! 
Think of the great habitation He has given to 
you, and the gorgeous manner in which He has 
furnished it. And, above all, think of the inesti- 
mable blessing with which He has enriched you 
in placing within your reach an immortal inheri- 
tance and a share in His own eternity. 

No one has ever yet seriously doubted whether 
it is better to have lived than not to have lived 
at all, until he has begun to be dissatisfied with 
life. But even of these, only a few, comparatively 
speaking, have deliberately concluded that for them, 
at least, it would have been better if they had not 
lived at all. The premises, however, of this con- 
clusion are supplied by themselves. They have 
abused the gift of life ; vicious habits have hard- 
ened their hearts forever against the sweet and 
tender emotions that should constitute ito joy and 
happiness ; reason is no longer the influencing 
principle of their actions, but rather madness, and 
health and strength have at last succumbed to 
hopeless disease and irremediable pain. Then 
they say with the evil one : 

" Better end here unborn. Why is Life given 
To be thus wrested from us ? rather why 
Obtruded on us thus ? who, if we knew 
What we receive, would either not accept 
V Life offer'd, or soon beg to lay it down, 

Glad to be so dismiss'd in Peace." 

For the rest, miserable though their existence 
may be, yet there is a something which inspires 
them to live on, a something which deters them 
from destroying that life which was given into 
their charge, a something which keeps them from 
abject despair, which, is either 

" the dread of something after death — 
The undiscovered country, from whose bourne 
No traveler returns — puzzles the will, 
And makes us rather bear those ills we have 
Than fly to others that we know not of," 

or far better, the hope in God's infinite mercy. 

If, then, there is some comfort and consolation 
even in the most wretched life, what joy and hap- 
piness must there not be in a just and moral life ; 
a life that is spent in obedience to the law of God, 
in seeking our own good and the good of our 
fellow-men. Such a life is worthy of man's noblest 
ambition, and although he may not be able to 
realize it in all its perfection, nevertheless he may 
constantly strive toward it by treading the path 
of highest duty, and, having placed his confidence 
in "the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eter- 
nity," hear at last from His own lips the welcome 
words "Well done." 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



27 



? 



We may conclude, therefore, that no matter in 
what condition or circumstances a man may be 
placed, his life is worth living, that it was better 
for him to have lived and suffered than not to 
have lived at all. 

M. A. TiKRNKY, '93. 



Our Lady of Childbirth.* 

In the Church of St. Augustine, at Rome, is a 
statue of the Blessed Virgin, commonly known as 
the Madonna di S. Agostino, or from the Divine 
Infant which she supports on her knee, del Parto, 
that is Our Lady of St. Augustine or of Childbirth. 

The origin of this latter title is due to the aid 
which the pious suppliants of Mary derive at the 
time of their approaching motherhood. 

Earlier titles of this statue were the Madonna 
del Sasso — it was the only statue 0/ stone in the 
Church — and the Madonna grande, so styled on 
account of its size. - 

On one's entering the Church of St. Augustine, 
he sees this statue at the right hand side of the 
main door, a position it has held since the time of 
its erection, about the year 1516.^ 

The statue is the work of Giacomo Tatti — a 
sculptor of repute of Florence, who was also 
known as Sansovino from his life-long attachment 
to Andrea Contucci, his beloved master in the 
art, who was a native of Sansovino in Tuscany, 
whence his appellative. It was carved and erected 
in the Church of St. Augustine at the expense of 
the Martelli family, formerly of Florence, but now 
residents at Rome in the Via dell' Orso in the 
parish limits of St. Augustine. Their special pur- 
pose in so adorning this Church was to have the 
Mother of God as guardian of their family tomb, 
which was erected in the same Church on the 
left hand side of the main door, just opposite the 
statute. The Madonna is of white Carrara marble ; 
it represents the Divine Mother of somewhat larger 
size than life, and seated with a wide spreading veil 
reaching from her head to the ground ; this falls 
in graceful folds over her left arm and thence to 
her feet which it partly conceals. The Holy 
Mother is represented with a dignified yet most 
winsome air ; in every feature beams the graceful 
majesty of her divine motherhood, as conferred on 
her by her Divine Child, whom she is tenderly 
holding on her knee and encircling with her left 

* The main points in this sketch have been drawn from the 
Cenni Storici della Madonna di S. Agostino., by Fr. Vincent 
Cretoni O.S.A., Rome, 1870. This is a small book of 155 
pages, in which the erudite Augustinian has described the 
chief art treasures of the famous Church of St. Augustine, at 
Rome. 



arm. The Mother seems to smile on the gazer, as 
if to invite him to bear honest witness to her lov- 
ing solicitude for her Blessed Son and to share 
with her her care for His work. With His face 
turned towards the onlooker, the Holy Child is 
represented standing on His Mother's left knee ; 
in His left hand He grasps a little bird — type, or 
symbol of humanity, or of the soul, which partly 
sheltering with His right hand. He holds in child- 
ish anxiety towards His Mother, as if in dread lest 
some one would snatch it from Him, and as if He 
were instinctively seeking His Mother's care in 
keeping it from harm. In her right hand the 
Holy Mother holds a half-closed book on her knee, 
with one finger marking the page, where she left 
off reading, when warned by her Son that danger 
was threatening His cherished charge. 

In olden times an altar used to be in front of 
this statue, where Mass was said daily. Popular 
devotion to our Lady of Childbirth began no one 
can tell just when ; it was long ago ; so natural is 
it for Christians to recur to the Holy Mother in all 
their necessities, be these spiritual or merely of a 
temporal kind. 

Towards the middle of the last century, while the 
Church of St. Augustine was closed for repairs, 
devotion to our Lady of Childbirth ceased in a 
measure and remained dormant until the year 
1820. In this year the old-time spirit of devotion 
was re-quickened chiefly through the pious exam- 
ple of a good young young man of the neighboring 
parish of St. Bustachius, a hatter by trade, named 
Leonardo Bracci. Again the wonders of divine 
grace begin to be wrought in favor of the faithful 
clients of His Mother, on the needy, the ailing, 
the cripple and the heartsore. With no exception 
have the high-born of the world as well as the 
lowly sought consolation at this shrine of Mary 
and — found it ; and from that year onward no 
shrine in Christendom excepting, may be, Loretto 
and Genazzano, has vied with our Lady of Child- 
birth in the frequency wherewith God has vouch- 
safed to lavish His mercies on His Mother's loving 
favorites. 

In the year 1851, on July 2, feast of the Visita- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin to her saintly cousin 
Elizabeth, the statues of the Holy Mother and of 
her Blessed Child were crowned solemnly by the 
chapter of the Vatican basilica. 

From early morn until the Ave Maria at night- 
fall, the shrine of our Lady of Childbirth is sur- 
rounded by her trusting and loving children. The 
faith that good souls put in the Mother of the 
Divine One does not go unrequited ; He honors 
them that honor His Mother. 

T. C. M. 



28 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



r' 



The Social Virtues. 

Man is by nature fitted for society. By this we 
mean that God has endowed him with certain 
faculties, desires and instincts which naturally dis- 
pose him to associate with his fellow-men, and by 
the development of which, he may acquire social 
virtues. This is essentially necessary to human hap- 
piness, for if the power of repulsion were greater 
among men than the power of attraction, life for 
them would be more intolerable than for beasts. 
When a correct analysis of human nature is made, 
there is reason to be surprised at the blindness of 
some philosophers who, by dark and confused 
notions are led to deny all motives of action but 
those which arise from self-love. Man, for any- 
thing that we know, might possibly have been so 
framed as to possess no virtues but those which 
have self for their object ; but man thus framed 
would be ill-fitted for society ; his constitution 
partly selfish, partly social, fits him much better 
for his present situation. 

It is also somewhat excessive to declare with 
other writers that.universal benevolence is man's 
duty. Here, as elsewhere, the golden mean gives 
the greatest satisfaction. Man has both selfish and 
social instincts which enable him to acquire both 
selfish and social virtues, and thus procure his own 
good and that of his fellow-creatures. It is very 
easy to determine with accuracy the virtues which 
are properly called selfish and those which are 
properly called social, especially if we consider the 
end which their practice has in view. If this end 
be one's own good only, they are selfish ; if this 
end be the good of another they are social. 

The principal social virtues are justice, love, 
friendship, sympathy and patriotism. Justice is 
the most important of these and it is so necessary 
to the others that without it they could not exist. 
It consists in giving to every one that which be- 
longs to him. It is the rampart which protects the 
lives and property and the character of all men. 
As Webster says, " It is the great interest of man 
on earth. It is the ligament which holds civilized 
beings and civilized nations together, and only 
while it is duly honored, can there be a foundation 
for social security, general happiness and the im- 
provement and progress of our race.'' This virtue 
compels men to to deal with each other honestly 
and uprightly under all circumstances and thereby 
to live in peace and harmony with each other. 
Looking at the matter in a purely temporal light, 
it would seem that honesty is not always the best 
policy ; that they who commit acts of the greatest 
injustice are often the most prosperous in the 
acquisition of this world's goods. But men who 
refuse to believe in justice, practically refuse to 



believe in the existence of a God who is infinitely 
just. If such ideas were universally held, the 
inevitable consequences would be absolutely des- 
tructive to the peace and happiness of mankind ; 
both God and justice would soon be forgotten ; 
Anarchy and Despotism would rise from their 
gloomy abodes and hold indisputable sway over the 
entire world. 

Love, in a strict sense, is an attachment of the 
mind and heart whereby one object is preferred to 
all others. But in a wider sense, inasmuch as 
it is a disposition of mind which inclines men to 
think favorably of their fellow-men, and a dispo- 
sition of heart which prompts them to do good as 
far as they are able, it may embrace the whole 
human race. In some cases love is instinctive, as 
in that manifested between relatives; in other cases 
it is inspired by pleasing qualities, either physical 
or intellectual. When, however, we consider that 
one of God's chief commandments is to love our 
neighbor as ourselves, we must conclude that this 
sentiment is not confined to agreeable qualities of 
mind or body ; it must also extend to the poor and 
unfortunate whose lives are in sore need of sun- 
shine and comfort. 

Friendship is another of the social virtues and 
is productive of much good to mankind. Truly 
may it be considered a ring of gold, uniting rich 
and poor, young and old. It is an attachment 
which we have for a person or persons proceeding 
from intimate acquaintance and a reciprocation of 
kind actions. Although less intense than love, it 
is harder to find. La Rochefoucauld says : "Rare 
as is true love, true friendship is still rarer." 

Sympathy is the natural result of love and friend- 
ship. It is a disposition of the mind which enables 
one to feel for the sorrows of others as he would 
for his own. It is, as Shakespeare says : " the one 
touch of nature which makes the whole world 
kin ;" and expresses itself in pitying the unfor- 
tunate, consoling the sorrowful, and helping the 
needy. 

Patriotism is a social virtue which has one's 
country for its object. It is a grand and noble 
sentiment, which makes one's country dearer than 
all — than life itself. The true patriot will strive 
to obey the laws of his country, to protect its 
rights, and defend it from invasion. That this is 
a sentiment common to human nature in all parts 
of the earth, is proven from the fact that the most 
barbarous and uncivilized people possess it, even to 
a greater degree than those that are civilized. 
The Finn and Laplander, from the barren North- 
land, the Bushman from the Australian wilds, or 
the Bornese or Malay from burning equatorial 
sands, love their native land with a passion that is 



VILLANOVA MONTHIvY. 



29 



almost unreasonable, and would think no death 
more desirable than the glorious death of the 
patriot. 

Such, in brief, are the social virtues. We should 
endeavor to develop them, for therein lies the 
secret of promoting the happiness of others and of 
procuring happiness for ourselves. As Plato said, 
"We were not born for ourselves alone," but 
rather for ourselves and others. We must, there- 
fore, always bear in mind that there are others in 
this world who have a claim on our love, gene- 
rosity, sympathy and assistance. 

D. F. Harkin, '93. 



-*•»- 



The True Gentleman. ^ 

Every man has a place to fill in this world, and 
it oftentimes becomes a question of interest to the 
individual himself, and to his fellow-man, whether 
that place be worthily filled or not. While the 
answer to such seems easy, yet so many circum- 
stances and conditions are involved that in reality 
it becomes most difficult. The requirements of 
polite society have ever drawn a dividing line 
between the refined and the vulgar ; between him 
whose pretensions to the dignity of a gentleman 
seemed worthless and the one whom a happy 
blending of naturc'^and art has really made one ; 
and while we think that the exactions of refined 
society are productive of good, yet we believe still 
greater good might be accomplished, were not the 
lines so strictly drawn between him whom nature 
and fortune have made the gentleman, and him 
whom nature has made one, but "circumstances 
over which he has no control " have deprived of 
the recjognition. 

There is no title more frequently claimed than 
that of the gentleman. While all would gladly 
possess it, yet very frequently the term is misap- 
plied ; for there are many who think that they 
possess all gentlemanly qualifications, but who, in 
reality, do not. They class themselves among 
men who tower as high above them in everything 
that makes the true gentleman, as the lofty oak 
over the shrubbery at its base. There is prevalent 
among men quite an erroneous conception of the 
qualities that are requisite for a gentlemanly 
character. We often ask ourselves: Who is the true 
gentleman ? / 

Is it he who wears fine clothes an^ upon whom 
nature has lavished more than her share of gifts, in 
a handsome face, a graceful carriage and a perfect 
figure ? No : for these are only external. If we 
would have an answer to our question, we must 
study him whose character we would know. If 
his words be indicative of a corrupt mind ; if in 



the honey of sweet words there lies concealed a 
a deadly venom ; if his actions go to prove his 
vulgarity, his rudeness, and ignorance of the 
proprieties of life ; may we pronounce such a man 
worthy of the title which his face, form, and car- 
riage would seem to bestow on him ? 

Assuredly not. We cannot, therefore, trust to 
appearance in our estimate of the gentleman. 
There is more to be considered. A man's moral 
constitution and moral responsibilities, together 
with a proper sense of his obligations to God, his 
fellow-men, and to himself, and a proper fulfill- 
ment of all these duties and obligations constitute 
the data on which we may form our opinion of the 
gentleman. A man may stand as a pillar in 
society ; he may even hold supreme authority over 
his fellow-men ; but it does not necessarily follow 
that he is a perfect gentleman. True it is, that he 
may have many, nay most of the qualities requisite 
for the gentleman, as that term is generally under- 
stood, but some, indeed may be lacking, and the 
deficiency renders void all claim to perfection. 
The habits of a gentlenxan are formed by thorough 
training, by force of association, and by worthy 
maxims laid before the youthful mind. His first 
habit is that of truthfulness. He is true to himself 
and to his fellow-man. Ne never asserts what he 
cannot prove. He abhors falsehood and never lies 
to escape punishment. His purposes are ever those 
of honesty and truth. On these are based the per- 
fection of his Ijfe, and he knows full well that 
digression therefrom must endanger his own peace 
of mind, and also himself in the estimation of his 
fellow-man. Being true, other good traits are 
necessarily found in his character. 

He loves everything that partakes of the noble, 
lofty and sublime. His aspect is ever the same, 
pleasing, and his conversation interesting. He is 
always agreeable and ever ready in a kindness to a 
fellow-man. With him there is no question of 
age, race or condition. His kindly smile; his 
quiet cordial bow; his earnestness in addressing a 
friend, nay, even a stranger; his forbearance under 
annoyance, are charms which go to prove the 
nobility of his mind. Were these insufficient the 
following would be the supplement. The true 
gentleman is never envious. He is no man's rival 
for it brings joy to his own heart to see others as 
happy as himself. 

Should fortune favor him with an abundance of 
worldly means, he makes proper use of it and gen- 
erously helps the poor and friendless. Should he 
be favored with a discerning mind, he will find no 
fault with the pretensions of others because he 
knows not how to interpret them. His tact mani- 
fests itself on every occasion. You hear him in 



30 



VILI/ANOVA MONTHLY. 



the conversation of the wise, and he appears wisdom 
personified, you hear him on another occasion in 
trivial commonplace subjects, and another side of 
his nature presents itself. In this way he wins the 
good graces of his fellow-men. 

He appears to them sensible, good-natured, and 
kind. In their doubt they consult him; and in 
their needs look to him for help. Thus it happens 
that the true gentleman leaves an impress on the 
community in which he lives, an impress far reach- 
ing in its effects, for it shows, and clearly, that 
there are some in this great world of ours who can 
rise above mean, sordid self-interests, and live, not 
alone for themselves, but also for their fellow- 
man — 

"Though few of such may gem the earth, 
Yet such rare gems there are, 
Each shining in his hallowed sphere 
As virtue's polar star. 
They hold the rank no king can give 
: No station can disgrace, 

Nature puts forth her Gentleman and 
^ Monarchs must give place." 

John J. Ryle, '94. 



March Birthdays. 

Among the noted persons born in this month, 
seven of them are writers, three of them are paint- 
ers, and one each is an explorer, astronomer, phil- 
osopher, musician, and patriot. 

: March 6. — Michael Angelo, born near Florence, 
Italy, 1475. He is famous as a painter, sculptor, 
architect and even poet. Every one who visits 
Rome goes to see his wonderful painting on the 
ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The " Last Judg- 
ment" is one of his most famous paintings, 

March 11. — Torquato Tasso, poet, 1544, Italy. 
He was awarded the laurel crown of Rome, but 
died before the ceremony. His chief work is 
"Jerusalem Delivered." 

March 14. — Friederich Klopstock, German poet, 
born in 1724. 

March 15. — Andrew Jackson, seventh president 
of the United States, born in 1767. He held this 
office for two terms. As an army officer he 
achieved great success. 

March 16. — Caroline Herschel, 1750, famous as 



an astronomer and for her devotion to her brother 
in his studies. 

March 17. — Madame Roland, 1754. Longfel- 
low says of her : "When the noblest woman in 
all France stood on the scaffold, just before the 
execution, she is said to have turned toward the 
statue of Liberty — which, strangely enough had 
been placed near the guillotine, as its patron saint, 
— with the exclamation, ' O Liberty, what crimes 
have been committed in thy name ! ' " 

March 19. — David Livingstone, born in Scot- 
land. He explored parts of Africa that had never 
seen a white man and wrote accounts of what he 



saw. 



March 20. — Ovid, born 43 B. 
finest of Latin poets. 



C. , one of the 



March 21.— Robert Bruce, king of Scotland, 
born in 1274. Read about him in Walter Scott's 
"Tales of a Grandfather."— Jean Paul Richter, 
born in Bavaria, 1763. He was a teacher and 
writer, " difficult to understand, intricate, strange, 
a comet among the bright stars of German 
literature." 

March 22. — Ross Bonheur, painter of animals, 
born at Bordeaux, 1822. Her most noted work is 
" The Horse Fair, " which is reproduced in en- 
gravings and photographs here. 

March 27.— Raphael, painter, born in 1413, in 
Urbino, Italy. Whittier says of him : 

^ " Around the mighty master came 

The marvels with his pencil wrought, 
Those miracles of power whose fame 
Is wide as human thought." 

Longfellow writes of him : . y 

,^ : . " Forth from Urbino's gate there came 
A youth with the Angelic name 
Of Raphael, in form and face 
Himself angelic, and divine 
In arts of color and design." 

March 31.— F. J. Haydn, musical composer, 
born near Vienna in 1732. His greatest work is° 
his oratorio of "The Creation. "— Wni. M. 
Hunt, artist, born in Vermont, 1824. He painted 
portraits, figures and landscapes. The last pictures 
that he painted are on the walls of the capitol at 
Albany, New^York. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



31 



The Se-Opening of Our Lecture Hall. 

The many friends and neighbors who have, on 
former occasions, patronized the entertainments 
given by our students, were agreeably surprised 
upon entering our newly furnished and decorated 
dramatic hall on Tuesday evening, Feb. 14. 

The program offered consisted of a lecture by 
S. Bdwin Megargee, Esq., of the Philadelphia 
Bar, assisted by our College Orchestra and Glee 
Club, who rendered many pleasing musical num- 
bers. The subject of the lecture was " Leaves from 
the Lives of Catholic Heroes," and in it the 
characters were ably delineated by the eloquent 
orator. 

The musical part of the program was pro- 
nounced a success. The attendance was excellent, 
and all seemed to go away satisfied. We hope to 
again welcome our friends during the Easter recess, 
when we shall have the honor of presenting a 
drama, "The Rose of Wicklow," from the pen of 
John Fitzgerald Murphy. Following is the 

PROGRAM. 
Part I. 

1. Overture — " Poet and Peasant," . . VonSuppe 

College Orchestra. 

2. Violin Duo— "Sonatine en Sol," . , . . . . W. F. Taylor 

Messrs. J. Stanley Smith and Wm. J. Mahon. 

3. Chorus — "Merry Heart," , . . L. Denza 

College Glee Club. 

4. Waltzes — "SobrelasOlas," ..Rosas 

College Orchestra. 

5. Violin S jIo — ""Last Rose of Summer," . . arr. by Farmer 

Mr. M. H. McDonnell. 

6. Bass Solo—" Song of the Armourer," from "Robin Hood," 

De Koven 
Mr. A. J. Plunkett. 

7. Piano Duo — " Charge of the Uhlans," •. Carl B ohm — op. 213 

■ Prof. G. J. Corrie and Mr. B. J. Corr. 
Lecture — Subject: "Leaves from the Lives of Catholic 
Heroes," 

S. Edwin Megargee, Esq. 

Part IL 

1. Overture— "An Evening Out," De Witt 

College Orchestra. 

2. Violin Duo — (a.) "Romance," Mazas 

\bS "RondsallaTurca," 
Messrs. J. Stanley .Smith and M. H. McDonnell. - -: 

3. Ballad— "Sweet Days Gone By," J. S.Cox 

Messrs. M. A. Tierney, A. J. Plunkett, 
Geo. Buckley, Jno. E. O'Donnell. ^ ■" 

4. Violin Solo— " The Harp that once thro' Tara's Halls," 

arr. by Farmer 
Mr. Wm. J. Mahon. 

5. Piano Duo— "Loin du Bal," Ernest Gillet 

riol. G. J. Corrie and Mr. B. J. Corr. 

6. Chorus— " Forsaken," Koschat 

College Glee Club. 

7. March — "College Alumnus," arr. by Bowman 

Prof. Geo. J. Corrie Director. 



ATHLETICS. 



F. A. A. — On Feb. 3d the Athletic Association 
held its semi-annual election of officers. The fol- 
lowing is the result : President, Mr. C. J. Mc- 
Kenna, O.S.A. ; Vice-President, Mr. J. E. O'- 
Donnell ; Recording Secretary, Mr. J. J. Crowley ; 
Financial Secretary, Mr. B. J. O'Donnell ; Treas- 
urer, Mr. D. J. Harkin ; Field Manager, Mr. C. J. 
McKenna ; Assistants, Messrs. J. F. O'Leary, A. 
J. Plunkett, J. E. O'Donnell, M. J. Murphy and 
G. A. Buckley, 

The Treasurer was instructed to purchase all 
things necessary for base-ball practice. Several 
batteries are getting into cqndition, and we expect 
them to give a good account of themselves when 
the season opens. 

A committee was appointed and privileged to 
make arrangements for the association's annual 
play. The base-ball team will have new uniforms 
this year, and it is greatly to be hoped that they 
will be worn by good players. 



Well Known Phrases. 



The term blackguard has a very commonplace 
origin. In all great houses, particularly in royal 
residences, there were a number of mean and dirty 
dependents, whose office it was to attend the wood- 
yard, sculleries, etc. Of these — for in the lowest 
depths there were lower still— the mo.st forlorn 
wretches seem to have been selected to carry coal 
to the kitchen, halls and other apartments. To 
this smutty regiment who attended the progresses 
and rode in the carts with the pots and kettles, 
which, with every other article of furniture, were 
then moved from palace to palace, the people, in 
derision, gave the name of " blackguards," a term 
since become sufficiently familiar. ' * To the bitter 
end " is clearly an old nautical expression. A 
dictionary published in the first part of the eight- 
eenth century has " bite," a turn or part of a cable; 
"bitts," to main pieces of timber to which a cable 
is fastened when a ship rides at anchor; "bitter," 
a turn of the cable about the timber called "bitts," 
that it may be veered out by little and little ; and 
"bitter end," (of a cable) is that part which is 
wound about the bitts when a ship rides at anchor. 
The modern cant expression, "to the bitter end," 
may have taken its rise either from the old nautical 
words, or meaning the last coil of the cable, or 
from the last end, the very " bitter" dregs. It is 
a slang expression, another form of " I will fight 
you to the death. " In it bitter only means pitiless, 
severe, like a bitter east wind or a bitter foe. 



32 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Monthly, 

PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF 
UILLANOWA, PA. 



MARCH, 1893. 



THB ST75I=I=. 



Editor-in-Chief. 
WM. J. PARKER, '93. 



Associate Editors. 

Thos. J. Fitzgerald, '93. Mich. A. Tierney, '93. 
John F. Kelleher, '93. Jas. F. O'Leary, '94. 

John J. Ryle, '94. Tim. P. Callahan, '94. 

Wm. J. Mahon, '95. ; V Jer. J. Crowley, '94. 

; John E. O'Donnell, '95. 

Business Manager. 
^V; JOHNJ. FARRELL, O.S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 

Remittances and business communications .should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, one year $1.00 

Single gopies .10 



Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second- Class Matter. 



EDITORIALS, 



Rome, during the past month, has been the Mecca 
of Catholics from every part of the world. They 
have assembled there, influenced by no other 
motive than to pay homage and respect to a man 
whose excellent qualities of mind and heart have 
endeared him to all Catholics, and have gained for 
him the admiration of all right thinking men. 
They have assembled to celebrate the golden jubilee 
of the episcopate of Leo XIII, the present illus- 
trious occupant of the chair of St. Peter. To him 
as the faithful priest, the worthy bishop, and the 
matchless pontiff, we proudly point as a noble 
example of humility amidst earthly greatness, of 
''patience amidst trials innumerable, and of pru- 
dence amidst the responsibilities and cares of the 
highest office on earth. Assuming his present im- 
portant position some fifteen years ago, when the 



prospects of the Church seemed aught but bright, 
he, the veritable lumen de coelo^ has accomplished 
marvelous results, in dissipating the darkness of 
error and in compelling his haughty and obstinate 
enemies to repeat, like Henry of old, the memor- 
able journey to Canossa. 

Again when the evils of socialism threatened 
society, and a remedy for these-was sought for by 
philosophers and statesmen, all nations turned to 
Leo as the one whose office, as well as his wisdom 
and experience, befitted him for dealing effectively 
with this difficult problem. He, therefore, issued 
his famous encyclical on Capital and Labor which 
will stand as a lasting monument of zeal, justice, 
love of order and hatred of wrong. But, much as ■ 
we admire his genius, wisdom, and statesmanship, 
yet we cannot lose sight of the fact that these are 
only secondary, when we consider him as the 
instrument of the Almighty in teaching, defend- 
ing, and propagating truth. 



In this, the third issue of our Journal, we are loathe 
to assume the aggressive toward some of our ex- 
changes that have seen fit to take us to task rela- 
tive to the insertion of a mathematical column in 
our Monthly. It is needless to say we had a pur- 
pose in view when introducing this somewhat 
novel feature. Realizing the fact that mathemat- 
ics is regarded as a study of secondary importance 
in many of our Catholic Colleges, we, the students 
of an institution that glories in its catholicity of 
name and teachings, thought it well to inform its 
many friends and patrons that the study of mathe- 
matics is not neglected here. Nor was this the 
only consideration, as the head of our mathemati- 
cal column will attest. It was, and is our purpose 
to receive cheerfully any knotty problems that 
those interested might choose to send us, and also 
to develop an interest in this matter among our stu- 
dents themselves. We are forced to admit that the 
censure received concerning this seemingly dry ac- 
quisition to our Monthly appeared in only two of 
our exchanges. The others, instead of objecting to 
this novel feature of a college journal, encourage 
it. Under the circumstances, therefore, we feel 
justified in making the statement that the mathe- 
matical column will be continued in our Journal, 
and we hope that it will develop the same interest 
among other students, that it has developed among 
us. It is a matter of some regret, however, that 
so many typographical errors have occured in the 
problems and their solutions, but we are pleased to 
inform all interested, that such will not frequently 
occur, as we have received the assurance of more 
careful work on the part of the publishers. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



33 



MATHEMATICAL CLASb. 

To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send problems, 
queries, etc., and their solutions, or any difficulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 

All such communications should be addressed to 

D. O'SuLLivAN, Villanova College. 

9. — The middle points of the sides of a triangle 
are concyclic with the feet of the perpendiculars 
from the opposite vertices, and the middle points of 
the lines joining the orthocenter with the vertices 
(nine points circle). 




Solution by O^S. 

If O be the point of intersection of the three 
perpendiculars AD, BE, CF, of a A ABC, and if 
G, H, /, be the middle points of the sides of the 
A and K, L, M, the middle points of the lines OA, 
OB, OC, then the nine points, D, E, F; G, H, I \ 
K, L, M ; are in the circumference of a circle. 

Join HK, HG, IK, IG ; then, because ^O is 
bisected in K, and AC\r).H, HK\s \\ to CO. In 
like manner HG is || to AB. Hence the angle GHK 
is = to the angle between CO and AB ; .' . it is a 
right angle ; consequently the circle described on 
GK as diameter passes through H. In like manner 
it passes through // and since the angle ICjDG is 
right, it passes through £> ; .' . the circle through 
the three points G, H, I, passes through the two 
points D, K. Similarly it may be proved that it 
passes through the pairs of points E, L;F, M. Hence 
it passes through the nine points. 

Note. — The orthocenter in modern geometry 
is the point where the perpendiculars from the 
vertices meet. Points which lie on the circum- 
ference of a circle are said to be concyclic. : 

12. — The sum of three numbers in geometrical 
progression is 39, and the sum of their squares 
819 ; find the numbers. 

Solution by Thomas J. Ronayne, '95. 

Let X be the first, and y the third number. Then 
the mean = \/xy. 

And by question, x -f V'xy -j- y = 39 (i) 

x^ -j- xy -\- y^ = 819 (2) 



Dividing (2) by (i) x — \/xy -{- y = 21 (3) 
Adding and subtracting (i), (3) :r + ^ = 30 (4) 

and 2 i/jTK = 18 (5) 
By squaring (4) x'^ + 2xy -{■ y^ = 900 

" (5 ) 4^y = 324 

Subtracting x^ — 2xy + y^ = 576 
.' . X — y = + 2/\. 

X + y = 30 . • . ;i; = 3 or 27, 
y = zy 01 3, and the numbers are 3, 9, 27. 

13 — Prove the expression of the area of a plane 
triangle, area = % {a -\- b -{- cj- tan \A tan \B tan 
\C, and write the corresponding formula in logs. 

Solution by O^ S. ^ ^ ■ 

The expression ^(« -\- b -\- cj" tan \A tan \B tan 



\C is reduced to V s{s — d){s — b){s — c) thus : 
tan lA='i^^ ; tan IB='^--^^ . 



cos hA 



cosoB 



, \ /~> sin oC ,1 . 

tan gC = j—, . •, the given expression 

cos 2C. 

^^.sin^ ^siiu|^sin|c ^^^ %:M:r-^ 

COS 2^ cos 2^ COS2C 

tan \A= -y^~(s^:Z~ifY{s — c) (see Wentworth's Trig 

s{s — a) pages 64 and 65) : 

tan \B= -t/^{s— a) {s — "7) 

^s{s — by ;;& 

tan \C—-^/"(s a)(s b) 

V Y^— — r — - By substituting values 

. •. %{a -^ b + cf tan \A tan \B tan \C 

_^2 V {s-b){s-c) ^V {s-a) {s-c) ^V {s-a) {s-b) 

Vs {s — a) V s {s — b) V s {s — c) 

=VlV {s—b) js—c) y{ s—a) {s-^) V{s-a){s-b) 



= vs{s — a) {s — b) {s — c), which gives the area of 
a plane triangle. 

The corresponding formula is ; 

Log area=2 log s + log tan \A + log tan IB 
4- log tan IC — 2 log 2. 

14. — To draw a direct and transverse common 
tangent to two circles. 

' Solution by Thomas J. Lee. 

First. To draw a direct common tangent. / <i 

■t S 




M 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Let P be the center of the greater circle, Q the 
center of the less. With Pas center and a radius = 
to the difference of the radii of the two circles, de- 
scribe the circle IGH ; from Q draw a tangent to 
this circle, touching it at H. JoinP//", and produce 
it to meet the circumference of the larger circle in 
E. Draw QF || to PE. Join EF^ which will be 
the common tangent required. 

The lines HE and QF are, from the construc- 
tion =, and since they are ||, the figure HEFQ 
is^a parallelogram, . * . the angle PEF =:^ PHQ = 
right angle ; . • . EF is a tangent at E ; and since 
angle EFQ = EHQ = right angle, EF is a tan- 
gent at F. The tangent EF is called a direct 
common tangent. 

Second. To draw a transverse common tangent. 




If with /^ as center and a radius = to the sum of 
the radii of the two circles, describe the circle XVZ, 
and from Q draw a tangent to this circle, touching 
it at X. Join PX. Draw QM\\ to PX. Join NM. 
NM'is in the transverse common tangent required. 
Proof same as last. 

Errata. 

In Problem lo, No. 2, "Let Z == area of line " 
should read, " Let Z = area of /?/«<?. " 

In Problem II, several incorrect signs and ex- 
ponents. The answer to problem is, ^=[4 (5I 

V4i)]3, and ;i:=l 2 1/2^ OT 1: J vC-^. 

New Problems. 

15. — The planes of the faces of a triangular pyra- 
mid make with each other angles of 40°, 60° and 
100°, and the area of the base of the pyramid is 
4- square feet. Find the radius of the sphere. 

16. — Being given an obtuse-angled triangle, 
draw from the obtuse angle to the opposite side a 
line whose square shall be equal to the rectangle 
contained by the segments into which it divides the 
opposite side. 

17. — If ^, ^, C be the angles of a plane triangle, 
prove the relation. 

Sin^ A -\- sin^ /?— sin- C = 2 sin ^ sin B cos C. 

18. — What length of canvas, ^ of a yard wide, is 
required to make a conical tent 12 feet in diameter 
and 8 feet high ? 

19. -Solve ^^^- + 3- ^yx — 2> = ^z^T. 



SPLINTERS. 

Babes 

Helen. 

Sargie. 

Sausages. 

Sticky, Eddie. 

Oh ! 'tis false. 

In 

Get heads together. 

Boys, keep your drag. 

Who harnessed the horse ? 

The busts were wet. 

Don't be Too sure. 

All right for you, Chicago. 

The 

Where are we going to-night, Jim? 

Dick still treats us to his alarming stories. 

The jug still hangs on the Dore. 

"I have the idea now, now let me finish my 
idea." 

"Touch me knotP'' And he touched it. 

Wood. 

We will have to change tlie walks Sunday after- 
noons. 

The jug has no respect for persons, not even for 
Rylety. 

Who is that sober chap with the shoe brush on 
his lip? 

Who were the four with cabbage leaves in their 
mouths? 

There was a sweeping charge in the dormitory 
on Monday evening. 

"There will be silence in the dormitory for the 
rest of the week. " 

I beg your pardon, /have the floor. The chair- 
man asked me for information By George. 

J. O. M. is rapidly decreasing in weight. Fewer 
prunes, John. 

What kind of a time did you have Dick ? " Oh ! 
'twas out of sight ; took two loads down." 

George was obliged to stand on his «/pers to 
keep up with the pianist. • 

'Tis to be hoped that students will not borrow 
time, seeing 'tis Lent for forty days. 

To see Du K. with no Htr-ron you would think 
some one had tried to Pickett off. 

If you don't get what you want, demand it. 

Frank and Joe have dissolved partnership. They 
duet no more. 

John was Ryled when he found he was the only 
Connecticut man that had been jugged. 

Tim sits now at the table. 
His eyes cast kitchenward ; 

Is it for toast he's waiting? 
Ah, no! the thought's absurd. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



35 



To what church do you belong, Eddie? "The 
church triumphant." We did not know that we 
were entertaining angels unawares. 

Any person or persons having any difficulties to 
settle with the "Splinter" editors may go to 
the printer' s-boy-of- all-work. 

Our champion sportsman, the terror of all the 
owls and blackbirds in the vicinity (do you know 
him boys ?) has gone gunning after the six chatter- 
ing magpies of the First Grammar class. We 
hope that he will succeed in bagging them soon. 

Judging from the amount of time he consumed 
admiring his boutonniere on Thursday evening, 
'tis easy to account for his silence in the recitation 
room Friday. 

It would be advantageous to persons having wood- 
lands for sale to communicate with T. L. , the genial 
representative of people starving for timber. What 
teeth his friends must have ! 

We may expect clearer tones from the smoking 
room quartette in the near future, as approaching 
Spring will recall the frogs to the neighboring 
ponds. 

Gentle Willie D. says that since he was born on 
the seventeenth of February, he is five days older 
than Washington. 'Tis a pity he was not born a 
month later as we would know with certainty from 
what country came Ireland's patron saint. 

THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER. 

Stormed they with shout and yell ; 
Loudly they roared and well ; 
Vainly they strove to swell 
y?-ward ; but naught got there 
Only — 'tis sad to tell — 
All that was left to them 
George^ s /alsello. 

TO A CIGAR. 

Thou smoked out, half-inch stump, 

I'm loth to part with thee ; 
When others rail'd, thou ne'er hast failed 

To cheer and comfort me. 

And when the paper's censure came, 

With maledictions free. 
It is enough — I got a puff 

When'er I called on thee. 

When often life seemed hard to bear, 
And care and sorrow reigned supreme, 

The smoke from thee would bid them flee, 
And bring some brighter, fairer dream. 

So, old cigar, to you theSe lines 

My friendship prove indeed. 

And as you're out I'll turn about 

And light another weed. 

— Prom the Detroit Free Press. 



PERSONALS. 



Rev. , D. J. Murphy, O.S.A., is temporarily 
stationed at St. Augustine's Church, Philadelphia. 

Messrs. Jos. F, Farmer, A.M., and John J. 
Power, were entertained on the ■23d ult., by Mr. 
W. A. Coar, O.S.A. 

Rev. J. F. McShane, O.S.A., of Chestnut Hill, 
Pa. , was the guest of the Rev. Faculty last week. 

Francis J. Hilleary, B.S., '92, is pursuing a 
special course in Civil Engineering at Steven's 
Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 

Our Rev. Vice-President, L. A. Delurey, O. S.A., 
will deliver a lecture on the evening of March 17, 
at Schaghticoke, N. Y. 

Roger, brother of Bernard O'Donnell, of Drifton, 
Pa., commenced the study of the classics at the 
beginning of the second term. 

Cornelius Smith, an eminent lawyer of Scranton, 
Pa., visited his son on Feb. 19. 

Wm. Reygan,_^of Andover, Mass. , a former 
student of the 'College, and for the last two weeks 
engaged in aixhi)ectural work in Philadelphia, 
paid us a visit on the 20th ult. 

Jos. J. Finnegan, John A. Murphy and Mark C. 
Mullen, '92, attended the concert given by the 
students Feb. 14. 

A photographer was engaged two days last week 
taking groups of professors and students, also 
interior and exterior views of the College. These 
will be sent to the educational exhibits at the 
World's Fair. 

Rev. Jas. T. O'Reilly, O.S.A, of Lawrence, Mass. 
while on his way to Atlantic City, K. J., on the 
15th ult., stopped for a short time at the College. 
Before his departure he called for the students 
from his parish, and having kindly addressed to 
them some words of encouragement, he resumed 
his journey. 

We were pleased to learn that Fr. Valiquette, of 
Lawrence, Mass. , for the last year confined to his 
room by illness, has so far recovered as to make a 
journey to Atlantic City, N. J. During his stay 
there he will be the guest of Rev. Fr. F'edigan. 
We sincerely hope that he will soon be fully 
restored to health. 

The older students of the College were much 
pleased to see Fr. Green during his visit on the 
23d ult. His presence naturally recalled many 
happy events on account of his former connection 
with the College as Prefect. 



36 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 

V. D. S. — On Friday, Feb. loth, was held one 
of the most interesting debates that the society 
ever heard. The subject presented such a wide 
field for discussion, that many strong arguments 
were made/'r^' and con. Mr. J. F. Kelleher of the 
affirmative began the debate and made many tell- 
ing points in favor of annexation. He was fol- 
lowed by Mr. W. J. Parker, whose argument 
against such a course contained as many and as 
strong points as that of his opponent. Messrs. T. 
J. Fitzgerald and M. A. Tierney then argued well 
for the affirmative and negative respectively. An 
interesting feature of the debate was the careful 
summing up of the proofs advanced by both sides 
and the able criticism of the weak points, as they 
came under his notice, by Mr. T. J. "Lee. The 
chairman, after one of the longest sessions the 
Society ever held, rendered his decision in favor 
of the negative. 

On Friday, Feb. 14th, the following subject was 
debated : " Resolved that Immigration should be 
restricted." If we may judge from the eloquence 
of the debaters on this occasion, they were full of 
their subject. When Mr. J. Walsh coolly asserted, 
without at first advancing proofs, that immigration 
should be restricted, the society was somewhat 
amused at the unusual procedure. But Mr. J. — 
is not the one to make a statement without 
advancing proofs. He then argued forcibly and 
well for the restriction of immigration. He was 
followed by Mr. B. J. O'Donnell who took excep- 
tions to many of the statements made by his oppo- 
nent and scored many strong points in favor of 
his own side. Mr. E. J. Wade for the affirmative 
was a bureau of statistics which he used freely to 
clinch his arguments. Mr. J. E. O'Donnell, last, 
but not least, of the debaters, then made a strong 
plea for immigration. The chairman, after a 
careful summing up of the points made by 
both sides, rendered his decision in favor of the 
negative. '-.V-^''^'^'^'^-''- '■■■'■■ '^^^^^^^^^^ 

J/. D. C. — The Dramatic Club assembled on 
Feb. 23d for the purpose of electing officers. Rev. 
L. A. Delurey, O.S.A., having been chosen Presi- 
dent the following were duly elected : Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mr. M. A. Tierney ; Secretary, Mr. W. J. 
Mahon; Treasurer, Mr. D. F. Harkin ; Business 
Manager, Mr. T. J. Fitzgerald ; Sergeant-at- 
Arms, Mr. J. J. Crowley ; Directors, Messrs. M. A. 
Tierney, W. J. Parker, A.J. Plunkett and J. E. 
O'Donnell. The club decided to give an enter- 
tainment during Easter week, the selection of the 
play to be made by a committee appointed for 
that purpose. -{y V 



EXCHANGES. 

"Tennyson's Lyrics" is the title of an excellent 
article in the February number of the Niagara 
Index. It is evident from the manner in which 
the writer treated his subject that he was moved 
by a thorough study and great love of the works 
of the lamented Laureate. We fail to see the 
force of the suggestion that we should place our 
mathematical column at the end of our Monthly, 
as we consider this one of its most worthy 
features. 

Mount St. Joseph's Collegian is among our 
recent exchanges. In the January number we 
notice some excellent articles. Especially praise- 
worthy is "Great Men of the Revolution" by Mr. 
Wollard. The exchange editor will please note 
that the "nuts" presented to our readers are so 
nicely cracked in each succeeding issue of our 
Monthly that no picks are required to reach their 
kernels. We respectfully invite the editors of 
the Collegian to favor us with problems for solu- 
tion and also with solutions for ours. 

It is needless to say that we feel pleased and 
complimented in receiving as an exchange the 
Ave Maria^ ot Notre Dame, Indiana. This 
worthy magazine, which has for years been held in 
the highest esteem by literary people, and which is 
read with interest in so many Catholic homes, will 
always be to us a welcome visitor. 

We extend a greeting to the Carmelite Review., 
published by the Carmelite Fathers, of Falls View, 
Ontario. This journal, like our own, is in its 
infancy, but it presents a pleasing appearance, and 
its pages contain much of interest. Recognizing 
the wofthy object it has in view, we cannot but 
predict for it a bright future. 

In reviewing the columns of St. John's Uni- 
versity Record we were pleased to perceive that its 
exchange editor had made a careful study of our 
journal and had given the editors some advice 
relative to the mathematical column. To avoid 
repetition we refer him to the editorial on that 
subject wherein he will find that we consider the 
mathematical department one of the most worthy 
features of our journal. 

The Owl^ from Ottawa University, is a new 
visitor to our exchange sanctum. It presents a 
neat and artistic appearance. The current (Feb- 
ruary) number, replete with excellent literature, 
has among its various articles two especially 
worthy of notice, "The Golden Jubilee of Pope 
Leo XIII," and ''The Poet Priest of the South." 

We are much pleased to note among our ex- 
changes The Messenger^ of Richmond College, 
Richmond, Va., and iho. Earlhamifey of Richmond, 
Ind. 



VILLANOVA MONirHLY. 



SEE 

B. F. Owen & Co., 

1 41 6 Chestnut Street, 
BEFORE YOU BUY 

A PIANO OR ORGAN. 

You vuill $aue (Hoo^y apd j^aue a 

CHOICE OF THE BEST. 

2.00 NEiAi: PIKNOS. 

9 WORLD RENOWNED MAKES. 

WEBER, HALLET & DAVIS, BRIGGS and 

STARR PIANOS, ETC. 
Write for Catalogues, Prices, Terms, etc. 

1416 Chestnut Street. 

JAMES MCOA.NNEY, 

F^HKCTICWLi 

Saddle, Harness i Collar Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 

^ PHII.APE1.PHIA. 

THE DeMORAT studio, 

914 GHE8TNUT STREET, PHILA, 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL. BRANCHES. 

Special Bates in Groups, also to Colleges and Societies. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H. B . HMNSBURV. 

ARTHUR'S 

Famous Ice Cream, 

ALL FLAVORS. 

Plain and Fancy Cakes, Bread, Rolls and 
Buns, Pies, Desserts. 

Pure Ice served during the entire year, by the 
BRYN MAWR ICE COMPANY. Your ciders 
are respectfully solicited. 

I. WARNER ARTHUR, 

Bryn Blavrr, Pa. 

E. K. WILSON & SON, ~" 

Manufacturers of and Dealers In 

J?ii[st-(glas§ ]^00te andghoes^ 

Repairing Neatly and Promptly attended to, OuBtom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^avcasteT Avc, Bryu MawT, Pa. 



I will sell YDU 

$10.00 worth of Clothing-, Dress Goods, Ladies' 
Coats and Cloaks, Furniture, Carpets Watches, 
Jewelry, Chinaw^ate, etc., for 

$1.00 CASH AND $1.00 PER WEEK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 

ON SATURDAY 

UNTIL 

TEN O'CLOCK. 



PHILAD'A 



If the Goods are not sat- 
isfactory, come to me and 
I will allow all reasonable 
claims. 



Physicians' Prescriptions Accurately Compounded at all hours at 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY, 

^Hf\HK U/. PRIC^K'TT. Craduate ii> pi?ar/r\aey, 

PROPRIETOR- 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 

BOOKS BOUGHT. 

fF you want a book, no matter when or where published; call 
at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old Books in America, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to spare is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. ____________ 

L-eMRV'S OLD BOOK STORe, 
9 South Ninth Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

A. M. BUCH & CO.. 
156 North Ninth Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

LADIES' AND GENTS', 

iA£IG 7VYAKERS, 

HAIR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 
4^Wig8 and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Theatricals.'^SCL 

miNDoca ••• Giiflss, 

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No. 1702 Market Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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GEO. W. GIBBONS. 



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Vol. I. 



Villanova College, ^pril, 1893. 



No. 4. 



He Is Risen ! 






MORS ET VITA. 



Written especially for the lillatiova 3fonifily. 

Rejoice ! ye people blest ! 
For Christ has burst ihe tVtters of the tomb; 
Has risen freed from death's domain of gloom. 

No more may d^ath inolest 
The m ijesty of God's eternal Son; 
Its etui has come, iis rrign fore'er undone. ^\ 

Rfj )ice ! ye people blest ! 

Enwmpped in folds of night, 
All silently proud Israel's city lay; 
No sign wa? there of ruin or decay. 

Yet death's destructive blight, ;• : 

E'en deadlier far than vapors pestilent, 
Is brooding there, in wrath and hatred sent 

By God's avenging might. 

Above the hill-tops bleak* 
The Paschal moon uprising clear and cold 
Discloses to the eye in tracing bold 

Three crosses, tliMt bespeak 
With their outstretched arms the, curse that lies 
Upon that city doomed to groans and sighs, 

That pardon ne'er may seek.. . 

If was but yesterday 
That through its streets a strange procession went; 
A shouting throng that sought its wrath to vent 

Upon its tortured prey 
In gibes and insulis, cruel stripes and blows; 
While ever mingle blood that darkly flows 

And tears that will not stay. 

At last they crucified ^ 
Their King, the Christ, who came on earth to save 
Ungrateful man from sin's eternal grave. 

E'en Nature testified 
His God-he id under human form concealed; 
The gaping tombs their hidden dust revealed; 

The earth was opened wide. 

The sun refused his light; 
And hearts were struck wiih terror and dismay; 
And lias erst dumb bethought them then to pray; 

For dav was darkest night. 
His lifeless form hung ghastly from the Cross, 
While at its foot a Mother mourned her loss. 

Oppressed by sorrow's weight.. 

The wearied faithful ievi 
Took down that soulless form with many a tear, 
And laid him in a fresh-hewn sepulchre. 

Then silently withdrew 
In fear and trembling for ihe future dim; 
Yet all the while their trust was still in Him, 

His godly power they knew. 



While shone the Easter sun 
Just rising o'er Judea's plains so fair 
And vine-clad hills in golden splendor rare, 

Two women all alone 
With heavy hearts proceeded on their way 
To see the tomb wherein their Master lay, 

Guardtd by seal and stone. 

But stood an angel there 
In robes of j-hining white and gold instead; 
Siurcxit, lion est hie ; the angel said. 

A fragrance filled the air 
As if from climes cehsfial. and they knew 
That though the ri.'-en Christ met not their view, 

Yet God indeed was near. - 

Just as primevallight 
Burst forth from Chaos' empire vast, and lo ! 
Creation was (in ages long ago) 

So Christ in radiance bright 
Burst forth from death's dire bondage free. 
And won for men their long-sought liberty 

From sin's linending night. 

The earth could not contain 
The great Creator in that darksome grave. 
Whose power vast all things their being gave. 

And Pilate's guard in vain 
Kept strictest watch; nor kingly seal nor stone 
Availed aught, for all were stricken down, 

The rocks weie rent in twain. 

Rejoice ! ye people blest ! 
For Chri-t has burst the fetters cf the tomb; 
Has risen freed from death's domain of gloom. 

No more mav death molest 
The majesty rf God's eternal Son; 
Its end has come, its reign is now undone. 

Rejoice ! ye people blest ! 

And Alleluias sing, 
The song of triumph, endless joy and praite. 
To heaven above our voices let us raise. 

Where dwells our Lord and King. _ 
Rejoicing more and more, in accents free 
We crv: Oh, death ! where is thy victory? 

Oh, death ! where is thy sting ? 

Oh, happy Easter day ! 
In April showers and sunshine thou hast ccme 
To teach us that as Spring from Winter's gloom 

Comes forth in bright array, 
So we from sin's more sunless gloom should rise 
With Christ our Lord in grace that sanctifies. 

And heavenward wend our way. 

R. A. G, 



38 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Our Lady of Good Counsel,* 

It was precisely in 1467, that the Turk, who 
since his entrance intoConstantinople,some fourteen 
years before, in the year 1453 of our era, had 
broken down the eastern portals of Christendom, 
and — master of Asia and Africa — was on his way 
to the shores of the Adriatic Sea, to begin his con- 
quest of Europe. 

Slowly, though surely, in his march westward, 
was he sweeping away in his path every vestige of 
Christianity and spreading desolation far and 
wide. 

Wherever the Turk has thrived, civilization has 
slowly decayed. 

As at the approach of some summer storm, one 
may descry from afar, from the deathly unquiet of 
the elements and the restlessness of the winged 
and four-footed denizens of the forest and field, 
the coming of destruction, so tales of the doom 
that was destined by Moslem for Christian, had 
flown far and wide among the peoples of Eastern 
Europe long before the serried ranks of the dreaded 
crescent-bearers appeared above the mountain crests 
that formed Slavonia's eastern defence. 

Albania, Hungary, Slavonia, Transylvania — ^lay 
between Constantinople and Central Europe. In 
the XVth century, Albania was the eastern bulwark 
of Christendom. Could Albania fight?, could the 
Albanians, who well-nigh unaided by their nearer 
and more powerful neighbors in Europe, had kept 
their beautiful land — the land of chivalry and 
song — free from the yoke of the tyrant Mahomet 
until the year 1478, when Scutari, their chief 
coast town, fell finally under the power of the 
Moslem, could Albanians fight, whose heroes' 
names had for ages been as "household words," 
among the hamlets and the castles of the Franks? 
whose king Stephen Dushan's name had been 
hailed as the Washington of his day, and whose 
latest hero, known at home as George Castriot and 
to the Turks as Scanderbeg, had, aided by Cor- 
vinus, more than once displayed his wonderful 
powers in the field against almost desperate odds? 
Could Scutari resist? could the Hungarian, the 
Servian, the Albanian, whose almost sole pursuit 
in life was the chase, could this mountaineering 
people, so keen of eye and sure of foot, distinguish- 
ed alike for tlieir rude valor, their love of liberty, 
the extreme simplicity of tlieir lives, could this 
patriarchal people, so noted for their chastity — 
their national virtue— men who had whipped the 
Bulgarians, a more numerous and powerful people, 

*The main facts in this sketch of our Lady of Genazzano have 
been drawn from the history of the shrine— Za Madre del Buon 
fonsigUo, Rome, 1880, by Most Rev. Peter BeJgrano, O.S.A. 



and for twenty-five years baffled the designs of 
Mahomet II — could not Scutari fight? 

But little by little had the Albanian, worn out by 
years of struggle, ill-supported by the rich and 
powerful princes of Europe, slowly been yielding 
to the resistless legions of the victor of Constanti- 
nople. As had many a Christian people before 
them so now had the conquered Albanian been 
grimly offered the alternative, namely, their lives 
for their faith, or pitiless tribute, or death. 

And the Turk was nearing Scutari, the peaceful, 
contented, happy town of Albania, that snuggled 
away in a nook at the foot of the coast hills that 
line the eastern shore of the Adriatic, lay so open 
by land and sea to the invader. And what would 
Scutari do ? What could one petty hamlet do to 
stem the tide of Moslem hordes, the flower of 
Turkish chivalry, that for years, aye centuries — 
proud of their victories over the allied forces of 
Europe, in Syria, Arabia, Asia Minor, Egypt, 
Africa and even Spain ; gloating at their near ap- 
proach to the treasure-stores of central Christen- 
dom with its fabled riches and beauty ; drunk with 
their late successes on the Bosphorus — were hur- 
rying westward, hungry and greedy for Italia's 
wealth. 

For fourteen years Scutari had listened to these 
tales of coming woe, and what tales they had heard 1 
that had made youth quake in fear and old men 
pray that God would take them hence ere they, 
as their Eastern neighbors and kinsmen, should 
witness the downfall of their beloved land, and 
the slaughtered innocents, and their desecrated 
shrines, and the men and women doomed to death, 
to serfdom, or worse than death, to apostacy from 
Faith. Should they flee ? Might they not stay? 
In their distress of soul, as in olden days, the fiery 
pillar of God had guided His people through the 
desert of Sin, as the star in the East had led the 
Wise Men to the cradle at Bethlehem of the newly 
born Sovereign of the world, so to Scutari came a 
sign from on high. : * : 

For many a year had the townfolk of Scutari 
treasured, in a little church near by — a rough 
structure of no particular degree of merit, a picture 
of Our Lady, so fair to look on, with colors so- 
vivid and lines so perfect as to seem to have been 
limned by other than human hand. No one could 
view this picture — we have seen it often — but 
would say that no human artist had ever dreamed 
of a face so lovely as the Holy Mother's, or embrace 
of child so trusting, consoling and tender as her 
Divine Infant's, whose little arm is clasped around 
His Mother's neck as if to shelter Her from harm. 
What this' picture of Our Lady of Scutari was 
we know from what it is. Briefly, it is a painting 



VILtANOVA MONTHLY. 



39 



in oil of tlie Holy Mother and her Divine Son, 
done on fresco — as it is called — on a thin crust or 
delicate film of wall plaster, something like white- 
wash so commonly given to walls to whiten their 
surface, a flimsy coating at best, no thicker than a 
visiting card or the paper on which these lines are 
printed. So much for the material, so thin and 
fragile that a finger-nail would shatter it or a 
breath of air dissolve it ; and on such a surface, 
with all its delicacy of texture and extreme tenuity 
of material, has the celebrated picture of Our Lady 
of Good Counsel at Genazzano been painted. In 
the XVth century this picture was the pride of 
Scutari. But let the picture that has been 
at Genazzano for four hundred years and up- 
wards have come from where one will, yet is it a 
miracle. 

The legend tells, that one day in 1467 — the 
Turks were near to Scutari and in their desolation 
the townsfolk went, as usual, to pay a visit to the 
little church near by the sea-shore, when to their 
amazement and grief, found, as it were, an augury 
of their abandonment by God — namely, that their 
much prized picture of Mary had vanished, gone 
without a sign to tell whither She had fled — but stay , 
the same history tells us too, and the account has 
never been disputed, that two pious men of Scu- 
tari, whose real names are not known, but whom 
the annals of Genazzano speak of as de Sclavis and 
Georgio, in a vision of the Mother of God whom 
they always had revered with singular love, 
were told by Her that on the morrow She would 
leave the town— Her home for so many years — and 
bade them bear Her company in Her exile. On 
the morrow, just as She had said, they beheld the 
picture detach itself from off" the wall, and, floating 
easily in the air as if borne by angels' hands before 
them, take up its way toward Italy. Fearing 
naught, trusting fully, the pious companions tread 
the waters of the Adriatic the same as solid ground 
and safely across the sea and the intervening 
stretch of land and valleys and mountains, across 
the entire breadth of the Papal States, they followed 
their heavenly guide, till She reached the resting 
place of Her choice — Genazzano, a petty town in 
the old Latin province of Latium, some thirty 
miles southeast of Rome, and there Mary and the 
Child, having fled as it were, from the Herod-like 
Mahomet at Scutari, found ashelter — a shrine that, 
for more than four hundred years, has been one of 
the favorite sanctuaries of Christendom. 

The precise date of the appearance at Genazzano 
of the picture of Our Lady of Good Counsel was 
the vesper-hour of the 25th of April, 1467, and 
this is the story of Our Lady of Genazzano. 

T. C. M. 



Sweet Days Gone By. 

How musical to the ear, how pleasant to the 
memory, and how stirring to the emotions of the 
heart is that expression " Sweet Days Gone By !" 
Looking down from the ladder of time, viewing by 
the light of experience the picture of life, how 
often is our gaze arrested, our thoughts softened 
and our eyes dimmed by the vision presented to 
our view. From our lofty pinnacle we see shining 
on the innocent and virtuous the bright light of 
happiness and hope, while over the others hang 
the dark clouds of sorrow and despair. The pic- 
ture is ever changing, the clouds driven along by 
the winds of adversity are ever in motion. Now 
we see the heavy clouds displacing the lighter ones, 
and from the lips of the fated mortals we hear the 
expression " Sweet Days Gone By." The life of 
man is divided into different and important stages. 
Far away in the distance we see the springtime of 
our lives, and how bright and beautiful seems that 
epoch of our existence ! How carefully do we 
guard the remembrance of our early years, taking 
the scenes, one by one, from the store-house of 
memory, feasting on the sacred pictures of guile- 
less innocence and sunbright hopes, and carefully 
replacing them lest they should be tarnished by 
the ravages of time. Who would not live again, 
when our nature, free from all vices, made every 
companion a friend, every trifle a delight, and 
every act of ours a pleasure — while traversing the 
green paths of innocence — blessed by a parent's 
benediction 

How many scenes exist in the remembrance of 
each one of us, soft and dim and sacred beyond 
the painter's art to copy, but hung up as in an 
ancient gallery for contemplation of our maturer 
minds. Mellowed they are and graced like other 
pictures, by the slow and tasteful hands of time. 

" Who will not linger in the earth's green fields 
Till the first feebleness of youth is o'er; 

Clasp the fresh joy that young existence yields 
In the bright present, and desire no more." 

Rousing ourselves from our meditation and 
looking into the valley of time we see the dark 
clouds mingling with the bright. Why this 
change ? Ah ! ' tis the setting sun of childhood and 
we are entering upon the most serious epoch of our 
lives. We are passing from parental control to 
free manhood, and it remains with ourselves 
whether this portion of our lives will, in after 
years, be a pleasure or a pain. Sad to say, but 
true it is, many, at this time, neglecting or forget- 
ting the admonition of their parents, are guided, 
not by the dictates of reason, but by their un- 
bridled passions. Their actions close the channel 



40 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



to the treasury of pleasant memories and silently 
over them settle the dark clouds of sorrow and 
despair : — 

" This is truth the poet sings 

That a sorrow's crowa of sorrow 
Is remembering happier things." 

ttow different are our thoughts concerning this 
portion of our lives, if we have obeyed the laws of 
righteousness and followed the advice of our 
parents. What pleasant reminiscences of tempta- 
tions overcome, injustice denounced and rights 
defended. 

This is, properly speaking, our entrance to the 
world, and what a field of labor is before us ! What 
golden opportunities are presented to us to store'up 
treasures for pleasurable meditatious in after years! 
At this time of life we are hurried along bv our 
ambitious thoughts and actions, stiiving to obtain 
the goal or position in life that God intended us to 
fill. Our path to fame may have been strewn with 
thorns, but 'twas not devoid of roses, for were we 
not animated by the smiles and praises of those 
whose recognition of our work mora than repaid us 
for the labor? This portion of our lives abounds 
in pleasant memories. 'Tis then for the first time 
we taste the sweetness of love, and neither the 
pen of the writer nor the imagination of .the poet 
can adequately describe the pleasure of the first 
dawn of love. As the expanding rose just bursting 
into beauty, permeates the air with its delicious 
fragrance, so is the memory of man permeated with 
pleasant thoughts when that innate spark of the 
human heart is fanned into a flame by the gentle 
zephyrs of love. 

Our dreams of childhood become a reality at this 
stage of life, and in maturer years, when we fasten 
our thoughts on this period and recall to mind that 
loved image, we look longingly and lovingly at the 
sacred picture and gently murmur: " The Sweet 
Days Gone by." To the next period of our lives 
we now turn otir attention, and look with pride on 
the deeds that are to live after us. ' Tis then our intel- 
lect is strongest, our judgment soundest, and our 
body capable of greatest exertion. True, this por- 
tion of our lives is not devoid of care, but heaven 
has kindly intervened and prej^ared a companion 
to smooth our troubles o'er. She maintains our 
love, as she gained it, by her many nameless and 
modest virtues, which radiate from her whole life 
and actions. She steals upon our affections like a 
summer wind breathing softly over sleeping 
valleys. She is ever kind and attentive in our 
aflSictions, and as the sun, by his warmth, dispels 
the early mists, she, by her cheerfulness, banishes 
the clouds that oftentimes darken our lives. 



But time rolls on incessantly, and we are now 
approaching the last stage of our existence. 

We are now beset with infirmities, but the recol- 
lection of our joys teaches us how kind our Creator 
was in furni.shing each age with its appropriate 
pleasures, and filling our days with a variety, as 
well as a multitude of blessings. We now find, if 
our moral tastes have not been entirely perverted, 
that the memories most joyous to us are those con- 
nected with the innocence of youth and the 
virtuous actions of our subsequent years. What 
solace is there to an aged man like the memory of 
his virtuous actio:is ; an I wliat balm is there 
so soothing to his lonely heart ? This, then, is the 
period when we can fully appreciate the memories 
of our early lives. We are now devoid of care and 
free from the bustle of the world ; we make prepa- 
ration for our etern:il sleep. Reviewing once more 
the actions of our lives, offering them to our 
Creator, we sink into the deep slumber of death. 

Oh, how sweet is the story that's told 
Of the bright, happy days long gone by ! 

'Tis a theme with the heart never old, 
'Tis the story of sweet days gone by. 

Jno. E. O'Donnkll, '95. 



The Good and the Good for Nothing. 

It is a consoling thought that every creature in 
some way represents his great Creator. Variety 
in nature gives beauty and harmony to the whole ; 
the least as well as the most perfect truly and 
unmistakeably points to the admirable wisdom of 
the Master Mind. The mineral, vegetable and 
animal kingdoms, with their rich and rare treas- 
ures, sing without ceasing the power, the mercy, 
the majesty of their great King. All that they 
possess minister to man, who, in turn, should do 
likewise to God, and then would appear the har- 
mony of God's creation. We notice that nature, 
ever ready to respond to genuine effort, is never 
prodigal of her ample stores. How carefully she 
has hidden the precious diamonds, and cautiously 
covered up gold and silver and other useful metals, 
that men might have the trouble and pleasure of 
hunting for such treasures! Then see how that 
which ministers to man's lawful wants lies close at 
hand, affording comfort, health, wealth and every 
temporal blessing to the honest, earnest seeker. 
There is the soil, rich and deep, awaiting the 
sower to sow the seed, to yield a harvest propor- 
tionate to the labor spent upon it. " The heaven 
of heavens He hath reserved for Himself, but the 



\-^^'^ 



ViLtANOVA MONTHLY. 



4t 



earth He hath given to the children of men." 
A big gift when we look at it properly, and one for 
which we are not sufiEiciently thankful. What we 
most need He has given most of, as witness the 
life-giving springs of never-failing waters so 
numerous on the face of the earth ; man, beast, 
vegetable, seed, flower, shrub and forest tree ; all 
depend Upon them for their very life. The giant 
forest trees with their tops in the clouds are first 
satisfied ; then the lower shrubbery drinks its fill ; 
next the flowers, fruits and various roots are sup- 
plied, while there is plenty still to form streamlet 
and rill, river and ocean.- Thus the wheel of industry 
goes around with the sun, and millions are busy 
till the day's work is done. Thus the nations 
exchange what each wants from the other, while 
square dealing in time will make man look upon 
man as his brother. 

It must here be noted that these are living waters 
in motion, for " the rivers shall flow and the waters 
shall run," and only the still water pools are foul 
and unhealthy. Yes, these waters sometimes run 
and ruin all before them, says the Infidel and God 
looks innocently on. That's the exception, my 
Infidel friend, and the exception proves the law of 
nature to be founded on principles of utility, mercy, 
and justice to all concerned. Why not rather admit 
the lesson nature teaches and say-^Oh, how often 
we offend against the law of nature and nature's 
God, with ten thousand times more direful conse- 
quences ! We must be the healthy living waters 
which shall make society clean and pure and holy 
here, and worthy of eternal life hereafter. How 
really few are the shortcomings of nature com- 
pared to ours against the law that says— " Th oil 
shalt love the Lord thy God and Him only shalt 
thou serve." In the animal kingdom we have the 
same beautiful variety of species forming one 
grand, harmonious whole according to the All- wise 
Ruler of the universe. In this department we also 
find among so much that is useful that which is 
seemingly useless and even noxious. We stamp 
the life out of the snake that crosses our path, we 
kick at the rat and cast a stone at the polecat. We 
watch with malice intent, the lively gyrations of 
the little, musical mosquito as he seeks to draw 
first blood with or without the consent of his 
victim. And when the shades of night come on, 
the curtains are drawn, and the lights are out, how 
this little pest finds out your nest and keeps you 
not sleeping but — slapping till morning, I'll kill 
them every one ! you say. Yes, my dear, but they 
will be as numerous as ever next year. They 
belong to the great creation and act their part in it 
too. I wish I could say as much of you. 

Look along the line of beautiful species ascend- 



ing from these up to the big elephant, rejoicing in 
his strength, happy and content in his wild forest 
home, where all that he wants he finds in his trunk. 
Nature is beautiful and perfect of its kind, reflect- 
ing the wisdom of the great Creator ; furnishing 
rare subjects for the thoughtful men, for the pen 
and pencil. Critics judge of all productions 
according to the standard of nature, from which 
tlie greater the deviation, the greater the sin. If 
the milch cow feed on the grass all day, and in the 
evening give not a drop of milk from her udder, 
what do you suppose the owner would say ? If the 
di aught horse should tire of the heavy cart and 
want to try a spin with his fleet-footed brother on 
the race course, what would he get from his driver? 
A crack on the back. I remember a recent occur- 
rence in which a party of very select ladies and 
gentlemen, returning from an entertainment, hired 
the first conveyance they met to take them to their 
respective homes. It was a one-horse, side-seated 
regulation " Bus " whose driver was a genuine 
darkie. They entered, drew their warm robes 
around them and bid the darkie drive on. " Git ep!" 
said Jehu to the noble steed as he tickled him on 
the flanks with his whip ; the horse did not even 
straighten the traces. "Git ep dar ole hoss ! what 
fur you actin dis way in public ?" Not a step in 
advance would the old horse take. " Git a move on 
yer now, didn't I done gone git yer yer dinner ob 
oats, an don't I 'pend on yer fur my livin? Git a 
move on yer dar ! I has six passengers here 'pend- 
in' on yer ter go, git ep !" Thus far it was the best 
of fun for the party inside , who made all sorts of 
comments on the contest between the rational and 
irrational animal, but the fun was all over when 
they had to get out and make their way on foot 
through a pelting snow-storm, for that old balky 
horse was proof against all reason, rhyme and gen- 
uine poetry, all of which failed to mg.ke him pull 
on St. Patrick's Day. I have only this to say : Are 
we more true to nature than he ? Do we not often, 
with reason to guide us, surpass the animal in 
being thoroughly useless to our fellow- mortals? 
Do we not at the end of the day, and at the end of 
our life find that we have followed our own sweet 
way, and that our hands are empty going before 
the God of Nature who will then turn the argu- 
ment against us and say: "You were quick to 
find fault with the short-comin;s of creatures 
below you, who followed not the law of their 
nature ; but I must also find fault with you in the 
higher order of creation, for you are guilty of the 
same offense in refusing to serve, to love and adore 
me, your Maker, Redeemer and best Friend, your 
first beginning and your last end." ( 

Fed. 



42 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Law and Liberty. 

Men are necessarily social beings, obliged by 
their very nature to be in constant communication. 
In order that such communication be held, two 
things are necessary, first, that they be free to 
carry it on, and secondly, that they be governed by 
laws. There are various ways in which both 
liberty and law may be considered. With regard 
to liberty there is first that of the will, a gift of 
God implanted in us at creation. Man has free 
will in the sense that he can do whatsoever is 
possible to him, whether right or wrong. But 
being at the same time a moral being with moral 
duties and responsibilities, he is not justified in 
using his liberty for the accomplishment of evil. 
There is something above this free will of man, 
and that something is the will of God to which 
man's will, though free, must always be subser- 
vient. To do evil, is therefore, not a use but an 
abuse of the divine gift of liberty. 

Those of narrow mind ask: Where is man's liberty 
if he is controlled by law? We answer in a famous 
manner by asking where would be the liberty of 
others if he were not controlled by law? Law is 
necessary in so much that without it we would 
become dismembered members of the human 
family, and nothing that is would be right. To 
substantiate this we have but to contemplate 
nature herself. In the beginning order was called 
out of chaos and laws were given for the preserva- 
tion of that order. These laws have been obeyed 
to the letter. Were there no laws in nature, or 
were the existing laws not obeyed, confusion would 
reign .supreme throughout the universe, and life 
would be intolerable. And yet what is apparently 
more free than nature. 

Can we do better than to imitate nature in this 
obedience to law — nature, whose every movement 
is in accordance with the infinite wisdom of the 
Author of laws ? For indeed, such obedience to 
law is essential to us in order that we may fulfil 
the intentions of our Creator. Hooker beautifully 
says of law that "her seat is the bosom of God, 
and her voice the harmony of the world. Angels 
and men and all creatures, though each in a differ- 
ent manner, yet all with a common consent, admire 
her as the mother of peace and joy." 

Just as liberty and law go hand in hand in the 
moral life of man, so likewise do they go hand in 
hand in the moral life of a nation. A nation must 
be free in order that its people may be happy. It 
must be free from tyranny, from oppression, from 
intolerance of every kind. This liberty is the 
people's strength; if kept within the proper bounds 
of law, it is as the peaceful river flowing in its 
natural bed ; if, however, it breaks these bounds, 



like a mad torrent it rushes headlong, spreading 
ruin and desolation in its path. Just as licen- 
tiousness is the inevitable consequence of unbridled 
liberty in the individual, so anarchy is the inevi- 
table consequence of unrestrained liberty in a 
nation. 

Law is, therefore, most necessary to a nation 
which must needs be composed of peoples gathered 
from every clime, since different parts of the world 
influence their inhabitants as to sentiments and 
opinions as well as to manners and customs. In 
order, therefore, to avoid confusion, such varieties 
of character must have a rule and guide for action, 
as also an assurance that they will be treated as 
become fellow-members of the human race. The 
most satisfactory way of obtaining these worthy 
ends is the use of their liberty to the best advan- 
tage in choosing, of their own accord, men of integ- 
rity to draw up a set of laws which will insure 
them a continuance of their liberty. 

Anarchy is the greatest curse that can befall any 
nation, and for those nations in which it abounds, 
we have feelings of the greatest pity. On the con- 
trary we have nothing but words of highest praise 
for the efficient manner in which it was stamped 
out of our own free, but law-respecting Republic. 
And although in order to do this, it was necessary 
to deprive five or six individuals of their lives, still 
it was one case, at least, in which the end justified 
the means. We have no desire to promulgate a 
false doctrine, directly contrary to the law of God, 
but justice demands that any number of individ- 
uals should be sacrificed for the common good. 

With regard to liberty of nations, Thomas Jef- 
ferson, in his inaugural address of 1801, says, 
" A wise and frugal government, which shall 
restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave 
them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits 
of industry and improvement, and shall not take 
from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned." 

Washington, the foremost leader in the Revolu- 
tion of the Colonies against England, had always 
the greatest reverence for the law, although, in 
accomplishing the independence of the Colonies, 
it was necessary for him to violate publicly and 
perseveringly the laws of his sovereign country. 

Daniel O'Connell, the " Libera'or," had for the 
sole object of his life the obtaining of liberty for 
his native land, and labored, till death took him 
to his reward, for the freedom of Ireland. He said 
on his death-bed that he died content if he but 
advanced it one step nearer the destined goal. 
Nevertheless, history tells us that he loved and 
observed the law most religiously, and hated 
nothing so much as a law-breaker. 

Thus it is that God rules the destinies of nations 
as well as of men. Their liberty, as well as that of 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



43 



men, is a divine gift, and bears with it great 
responsibilities. But, just as men by a good use of 
their liberty obtain rewards both temporal and 
spiritual, so nations by good use of their liberty 
are rewarded by peace and prosperity. 

Law and liberty are, therefore, most intimately 
connected, and hand in hand they unite in accom- 
plishing the designs of the Creator among nations 
and among men. 

T. J. Fitzgerald, '93. 



A Vision of Easter Eve. 



The sick child tossed on his little bed. 

For the fever was raging high ; 
And attendants watched with alarming dread 

That the beautiful child would die. 
The lights burned dim in the mansion old 

That had always known mirth and cheer. 
And the great hall, studded with marble and gold, 

Seemed ghastly, and cold, and drear. 

For the finger of death had touched the heir. 

And the pride of this royal home, 
And angels were winging to earth to be^r >• 

His soul 'neath the heavenly dome. 
'Twas the eve of Easter, and near his bed 

Was the little altar raised, 
Where for forty days his heart had bled 

As his Saviour's love he praised. 
The waxen tapers were burning seven 

By the picture he loved so well, 
The picture of Christ's ascent into heaven, , 

On which his eyes oft would dwell. 
And from his last sleep on earth he woke 

And smiled with a calm delight, 
As through the parched lips he softly spoke 

Of his heavenly vision bright. 
Like an angel he seemed in his robes of white. 

As his blue eyes, opening wide, 
Followed the flicker of waxen light 

Till the picture of Christ he espied. 
" My dreams," said the child, " have been strange 
to-night, ,.■.;.:■,/ 

I have wandered through many a land ; 
I dreamed that my robes were of peerless white; 

And a lily was placed in my hand. 
" An Easter lily, of fragrance rare, , 

That would ' never fade,' said he — 
The angel from heaven — as sweet and fair 

As the flower he gave to me. 
" Then he took my hand and he led me on,. . 

Over hill, and valley, and stream, 
Till the sinking sun in the west had gone 

To rest, and the last faint beam 



"Was dying away when we reached the street 

Of a city, grand and old. 
That had known the tread of Pilgrim's feet ; 

And the angelus sweetly tolled. 

" We wandered through many a city and town : 

Saw life in its every form ; 
The love and the hate, the smile and the frown ; 

Till the shades of night were drawn. 

" And I said, ' Angel, dear, is this the earth 

I have lived in a few short years? 
Where I lived a life of love and mirth 

And never knew sorrow or tears?' 

" ' Ah, yes !' said the Angel, " Too soon, my child, 

Would thy gentle heart be wrung, 
Thy tender nature, so meek and mild, ; j 

With the taint of the world be stung. 

" ' Thy Saviour has willed that, on Easter morn. 

The candle of life shall burn out, 
And thy bright young ^irit by angels be borne 

From the world of sin and doubt. ' " 

The dawn was breaking o'er land and sea 
When he smiled at the visions grand. 

Then the loved ones knew that his soul was free ; 
That the Angel had taken his hand. 

Mary K. Lynch. 



-««i 



ATHLETICS. 



The active interest in Athletics, at present 
noticeable in both Senior and Junior divisions, is 
indeed very gratifying, as the winter meetings of 
the Association have been dull and uninteresting. 
The President, Mr. C. G. McKenna, O.S.A., to 
whose energy the present interest is attributed, 
certainly is worthy of much praise on account ot 
his promptness in organizing the base-ball team. 
Fourteen candidates have been chosen by him, and 
these may be seen practising daily. From these, 
the team of '93 will be selected in April. The 
men are: catchers, Pickett, Herron, J. E. O'Donnell; 
pitchers, O'Leary, McDonnell, O'Donnell ; first 
base-men, Murphy, McDonnell ; second base-men, 
j. V. O'Donnell, Buffington ; third base-men, 
Dugan, A. J. Hart; short-stop, M. Murphy, B. J. 
O'Donnell; left field, Walsh; right field, Donlan; 
centre fi^ld, Gallagher, Ryle. 

The cue and ivory enthusiasts are at present 
attracting attention in the preparation for another 
pool tournament, and such experts as D . J. Hark- 
ins, D. J. Gallagher, W. J. Pickett, J. E. O'Don- 
nell, and E. T. Wade are most assiduous in their 
practice, and a close contest is expected. 

J. J. C, 



44 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Monthly, 

PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF 

^ ICILLRNO^K OOL.L.EOB. 

UILLANOUA, PA. 



APRIL, 1893. 



THE STKPF^. 



Editor-in-Chief. 
WM. J. PARKER, '93. 

;,;::•• Associate Editors. 

Thos. J. Fitzgerald, '93. Mich. A. Tierney, '93. 
John F. Kelleher, '93. Jas. F. O'Leary, '94. 

John J. Ryle, '94. Tim. P. Callahan, '94. 

Wm. J. Mahon, '95. Jer. J. Crowley, '94. 

John E. O'Donnell, '95. 

Business Manager. 
JOHNJ. FARRELL, O.S.A. : • 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. v-: 

Remittances and business communications should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, one year . .... .... . . . . . $1,00 

Single copies .10 



Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second- Class Matter. 



EDITORIALS. 



To THK young man enj'oying the inestimable 
benefits derived from college life, nothing con- 
tributes more to the successful issue of his studies 
or to his prosperity in after years than the sys- 
tematic disposal of his time. A somewhat trite 
expression, "Order is heaven's finst law," may be 
profitably applied to every individual, no matter 
what course in life he may pursue. In the world 
at large examples of success in business are mani- 
fold ; all primarily due to the proper regulation of 
one's various duties. 

True, while a young man is at college he is 
greatly helped by the rules and the general order 
that prevail therein. All these, by regulating his 
conduct and hours of study, serve to impress deeply 
upon his mind the importance of method in all his 
actions, and render easier the acquirement of 



those habits of regularity upon which mainly de- 
pend the advantages of a college education. 

When we become our own masters and find only 
a repulsive, selfish, mammon-worshiping world to 
greet us upon our entrance into the bread-winning 
strife, this rule of order will be one of ''Our most 
formidable weapons. It remains for us to contract 
this habit now in our halcyon days so that our 
after lives may be orderly as well. Our time 
should be j'udiciously distributed in the discharge 
of our various duties, and this plan, having once 
been made, should be strictly adhered to. In this 
way our tasks and occupations properly arranged 
form a background for the picture of life, while 
order supplies the necessary frame, and by impart- 
ing unity and symmetry to all gives it a suitable 

relief^ .:':■■.;■■.■:;:';• ,;■,;■ ^: ,:;.-■■'v^V;; ■;,:■:;:■'<,■'■■■; 

This regular mode of living will be found most 
agreeable. We will be relieved from ennui by 
employing assiduously the swiftly gliding moments 
of time, and, although it may require sacrifice 
and self-control, yet the enjoyment of its rewards 
will amply compensate for any inconveniences that 
we may have suffered in obtaining them. 



Judging from the method of transacting busi- 
ness at the meetings of the Literary Institute, a 
rigid reform is necessary. It is not for us to men- 
tion in detail the doings of those meetings as all are 
more or less conversant with them. Having been 
present on those occasions, we noticed with regret 
that the weight of responsibility devolves upon the 
shoulders of a few whose manifest interest in all 
things pertaining to the good of the college has 
made this burden all the more difficult to bear. 

Some of the students, including a few non- 
members of the dififerent societies, are willing to 
support and to earnestly further anything that will 
prove beneficial to the best interests of the college. 
There are others, however, who if they belong to 
any of the societies follow the business of the 
meetings in a listless way only, and are indifferent 
and neglectful even with regard to matters of the 
utmost importance. Such should not be, especially 
in a society instituted for improving literary taste. 

The approaching out-door season will tend to 
diminish the number of reading-room habitues, 
but at the same time, let them remember that they 
have not severed their connection with the society, 
and that their presence at future meetings is 
earnestly requested in order that their views and 
dues may be duly recorded. 

In issuing our Easter number of the Monthly, 
we wish to extend to all our patrons the compli- 
ments of the season. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



45 



MATHEMATICAL CLASS. 
To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send p;oblems, 
queries, etc., and their solutions, or any difficulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 
All such communications ^hould be addreseed to 

D. O'SuLLiVAN, Villanova College. 

15. — The planes of the faces of a triangular 
spherical pyramid make with each other angles of 
40°, 60°, and 100°, and the area of the base of the 
pyramid is 4 r square feet. Find the radius of the 
sphere. 




Solution by Frederick F. Commins^ '92. 

Let O — ABC be the spherical pyramid, its 
angles, A^ B and C are dihedral angles, formed by 
the planes of its sides, and are respectively = to 
40°, 60°, and 100°. To find the radius A0= R. 

Spherical excess — (40° + 60° + 100°) — 180° 
= 20°. But the area of a spherical triangle is to 
the area of the surface of the sphere as the number 
which expresses its spherical excess is to 720. 

. •. spherical A : entire surface : : 20 : 720 . *. 

A 20 I But area of spherical A = 4 '^j 

S' 720 ~~ 36 

and area of surface = 4:: i?^ . *. 

47r I 



4^ ^'~ 36 



^' = 36 

R =. 6 feet. 



16. — Being given an obtuse-angled triangle, 
draw from the obtuse angle to the opposite side a 
line whose square shall be equal to the rectangle 
contained by the segments into which it divides 
the opposite side. • : ; : 




SohUion by Thomas J. Lce^ '94. 

Let ACB be an obtuse-angled triangle. It is 
required to draw from C a line CE^ so that CE"^ = 
AE X EB. 



Describe a circle about ACB. Let D be its cen- 
ter. Join CD. On CD as diameter describe a 
circle, cutting AB in E. Join CE. CE is the 
required line. 

Proof. — Produce CE to meet the circumference 
in F^ and join DE. The angle CED is a right 
angle . '. FED is right, and hence CF is bisected 
in E (20 prop. Bk. L) .-. FEY. EC=EC'\ but 
FE X EC=AE X EB (20 prop. Bk. IIL) . '. AE 
X EB= CE\ 

17. — \i A^ B^ C be the angles of a plane triangle 
prove the relation, 
siii^ A + sin'^ B — sin^ C = 2 sin A sin B cos C 



a!' + b"' 



: Solution by Ostrogoth. 

c^ = cos C. (See page 52 Wentworth" s 



2 ab 

Trig., on the Law of Cosines.) .'. 

a"- , b' (? ^ n 

—r +— > — — > = 2 cos C. 
ab' ab ab 

a . b ^ ^ 

-f- ,^_ _ = 2 cos C. 

b a ab 



sin A I sin B 
sin B sin yjf 



sur C 



= 2 cos C. 



sin A sin B 
Clear of fractions and we get 
sin^ A -{- sin^ B — siir C = 2 cos C sin A sin B. 

18. — What length of canvas ^ of a yard wide, 
is required to make a conical tent 12 feet in diameter 
and 8 feet high ? 




Solution by T. J. Fitagerald^ '93. . 

Let A C B he a conical tent. 

A i9==dianieterof civcular base = 12 feet., 
CD = height = 8 feet. 

slant height A C= l/6^+ b^ 1/36 + 64 = 
l/ioo" = 10 feet. 

Lateral area = one-half circumference multi- 
plied by slant height. 
12- X 3.1416 = 37.6992 feet = circumference. 

^A — 9_ X 10 = 188.496 square feet = lateral area 

of tent. '".;';■■■: '■'^■■'^'■■:i -'''^'^-^--'''^ "' '■'■ ■ 

188.496 -:- 9 = 20.944 square yards = area of tent. 
20.944 -:- ^ =27.915 = number of yards in length 
of canvas. 



46 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



19.— Solve l^l/;i: -f 3 — ^V^ — 3 = V^ Vx. 

Solution by J. F. O'Leary^ '94. 
Squaring both sides, and observing that \/-y/~\^ 

multiplied by VV x — 3 produces V x — 9, we have 
/;i--f3 — 2V X — c^-^Vx — 3=2 ^x. 

2 ^x — 2 ^ X — ,9 = 2 ^x. Omitting 2 ^ on each 
side we get 

— 2 Vx — 9 = 0. By squaring. 

4(^ — 9) = o- 

/^x = i^. . 

x=g. 
20. — Solve x^ -\- y = y (t) 

/ + ^ = ii (2) 
: ] Solutwn by Oswego. 

Form (i). x^ = J — y^ x = 1/7 — ^, substi- 
tute the value of x in (2) 
, / -\- y^~^jZZry — II, and i/y — y = 11 — y 

Square both sides we get 7 — j)/= 121 -{- y* — 

22 >/^ 

y — 22 j^ + y -\- 114 = o. We arrange this 
equation according to the descending powers of y 
writing only the coefficients with the proper sign 
thus : 

I -4- o — 22 +1 +114. I 3 

^:< X 3H- 9 — 39 —114 



■ +3 — '^Z— 2>^ o J = 3 

We find by trial, or by Sturm's Theorem, the 

integral part of the required root, and proceed as 

above jj/ = 3 and x = 2. 

Note. — This elegant method of Horner's can 
be applied to equations of any degree, and is the 
simplest method of appoxiniation yet discovered ; 
and so we thus dispose of this ancient pocket pistol 
of the pedagogues. Siirsitm corda ! 

ITew Problems. 

21. — Given the obliquity of the ecliptic e= 23° 
27', the latitude of a star 51°, its longitude 315°; 
find its declination and its right ascension. 

22. — Three persons having bought a conical 
sugar loaf wish to divide it into three equal parts by 
sections parallel to the base ; it is required to find 
the altitude of each person's share, the altitude of 
the loaf being 20 inches. -? -^ 

23. — Prove that the perpendiculars from the 
centres of the escribed circles of a triangle on the 
corresponding sides are concurrent. 



24. — Solve : 2 {x ■' — i) 



2(^*-4) =.3 



SPLINTERS. 

Pig. 

*'Dadda." 
Easter. 
Base Ball. 
Spring shades. 
Birthday parties. 
" She wouldn't have you." 
The wearing of the green. 
"Tuck in my little bed.'V , ; ■ v^^ 
John got another hair cut. 
"What will he be when he grows up?" 
" Rub my leg — I've got a cramp." 
Joe Loretto is in dec-inels. 
Was it worth five hundred, Tom ? 
If you want a lamp for a dime, call on T. Q 
"Where do you live, friend?" "In the same 
place." 

Gentle Will D., what does rubber do? 
"Which key have you the door for ?" 

Being teased about the old gray mare, 
To another place he removed his chair ; 

And although we miss his statistics long. 
We're content with the mem'ry of his song. 

" Say, friend, here's a ticket for you." 

J. S. will prompt no more — Reason, ejection. 

Who is the Shakesperian dude ? 

" Have you a letter for Pericles O'Reardon ?" 

"Did that dropping of water create. time ?" 

If you want a ton of coal for a dime call on 

T. C. 

"She's a rock of sense— Don't fool yourself." 

K r. 

" Where do they cultivate those roses?" " Why 

in Rose-\xio\\V 
Jimmie V. is jubilant ; he is going home Easter. 

We sat, he sat, they sat and sat, 

The time was nearly over ; . 
But when we got ouryb/^///rj/-cake J : ^^v ' 

Ah ! — then we were in Clover. 

Is it George teaching Barnie or Barnie teaching 
George ? ■:-^:-- \;':'' .■■:■ -:-^*: '■■^'y^-^yy: :lr:Z:::^xk:■^, :■:■■' --yy ■':":::"■:■ 

We fear the "villain" will have a relapse — 
Shake "Larry," Ed. ^y^'^iA- r^'^wz^^^ 

J. W. says, — Don't you think I look like Bob 
Fitzsimnions? ;; ; 

If you want a barrel of flour for a dime, call on 
T. C. 

What did Donlin do with the potatoes that grew 
in his tobacco ? 

Baggage delivered at reduced rates by the 
"news boy." 

A. J. P. will give a house warming at his (?) 
room. "'--:■.■■'- '-•^-■/■:\:':, 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Puffed up with pride at throwing J., 

He tackled our gentle Will ; 
Yet strange, yes very strange to say, 
He was worsted in the mill. 
According to Denny's statistics trade unions are 
not beneficial. 

They /<?//-ed John only two cents, though he did 
have a team. 

For the past week Jim's face has been beaming 
with pleasure. He received a smile on Sunday. 

That knot was a regular Gordian one, the only 
difference being that no Alexander was found to 
cut it. 

The Knight of the corridor is missing from his 
favorite haunts. He has taken up French ; proba- 
bly this accounts for it. 

Where are you going my pretty maid? 
I'm going to rehearsal, kind sir, she said. 
Will you give me a flower my pretty maid ? 
Naw ; you have no mustache, kind sir, she said. 

r We are very much pleased to see the " Conserva- 
tory " again stocked with young and tender plants. 

Query. — What is the meaning of that word 
crinoline, seen so often in the papers lately ? Sub- 
mit answers to T. C. 

'Tis with pleasure we note that J. O. M. ac- 
cepted the advice of the Splinter editor and is 
again increasing in weight. 

They tell about a dandy 

Who at a corner stood ; 

Perhaps it was our Andy 

But no — he never would. 
Our waiter who went around all winter with his 
hands in his pockets has removed them. The 
base-ball season is at hand. 

Noticing the effect produced by the mute on the 
lodgers of the flat 'tis strange B does not com- 
plete the good work by getting a mute for the 
mouth-piece., -■'.'- ;■■■-:"'/;■./■ '■■;v-'V;;''"-V;r'''v-^v'-:v^ 

Why this silence on the part of Dick ? He en- 
tertains us no more with accounts of his trips. 
Probably two loads were too much for him. 

A few days ago while one of the boys was ex- 
ploring the clothes room he came upon a box con- 
taining some faded flowers and withered leaves. 
No further explanation is necessary than to say A. 
P. was engraved on the box. "What fools these 
mortals be 1" 

A DOG-GEREL. 

With every eye upon him bent 
Up through the aisle John softly went, 
To catch the dog was his intent. 
Now down the aisle his form all bent ■■■:''^'r:'- 
■ ' The dog was his and out 'twas sent ; 
He took his seat, his heart content. 



47 



PERSONALS. 



Professor Motley has accepted a position as 
organist in St. Thomas' Church, Philadelphia. 

Rev. Bro. Achatius, Director of St. Michael's 
School, Piiiladelphia, visited Bro. Dominic, on 
Sunday, March 12. 

Our Rev. Vice-President, L. A. Delurey, has 
returned, after delivering a course of lectures in 
New York State. 

Rev. James A. Vaughn, O.S.A., recently visited 
Lawrence, Mass., and officiated in the services at 
St. Mary's during Holy Week. 

We extend our sympathy to Bro. Jerome. An 
ulcerated foot has long occasioned him great 
trouble, and recently it developed such serious 
symptoms that the physicians found amputation 
necessary. 

Dr. J. J. Morrissey, '81, of Hartford, Conn., was 
the guest of the Rev. Faculty, on March 6. On 
the evening of the above day he entertained 
the students by relating many of the happy events 
of his college career. We return him many thanks 
for the holiday we enjoyed on March 21. 

Mr. James O'Donnell will spend the Easter 
holidays with friends in Hecksherville. 

Mr. Gibbons Marsh, of Philadelphia, spent Sun- 
day, March 12, with his brother William. 

Mr. William Parker, our genial editor, will spend 
his vacation at Old Point Comfort, Va. 

The daily rehearsals of the " Rose of Wicklow," 
which will be presented in April, promise a grand 
success. 

Mr. D. Ford, of Media, Pa. , visited his nephew, 
Walter, on March 12th. 

Owing to the resignation of Prof. Motley, Mr. 
Thos. Fitzgerald is now organist of the Church of 
St. Thomas of Villanova. We are pleased to note 
the great interest the latter is taking in the choir, 
and hope that his efforts to have improved singing 
for Easter will meet with success. 

The Augustinian Fathers : D. J. Sullivan, E. A. 
Daily, M. Geraghty, and J. E. Whelan, recently 
closed a very successful mission at Holy Cross 
Church, New York City.^v :v; : : ; . : v 

We extend our sympathy to Dr. Morrissey, '81, 
of Hartford, Conn,, in the great loss he has suffered 
in the death of his eldest son. 

Our Very Rev. President recently attended a 
reading by Miss Eleanor C. Donnelly of some of 
her own poems. 

We are pleased to learn that Prof Sullivan has 
recovered from an attack of " la grippe." 

The Very Rev. Provincial visiied the Rev. 
Faculty on March 21st. 



48 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 



V. L. I. — The ret^ular monthly nieeting of the 
Literary Institute was licld on Wednesday evening 
March ist, and was carried on in a very spirited 
manner. Bills were presented for the decoration 
of the Library and after considerable discussion 
were approved. 

The busts of Shakespeare, Byron and Scott now 
occupy prominent positions, and there are several 
new and beautiful pictures on the walls. Great 
praise is due to those who had the decorations in 
charge. A literary celebration might be held some 
time before comnicncenient day. This would show 
the progress made by the Institute since its organi- 
zation, and would be a pleasant recollection for old 
members. 



y. D. S. — On Saturday evening, March 4th, 
the Debating Society assembled in goodly numbers, 
to listen to a debate by the junior members. Some 
there were, who came out of respect to the debaters, 
and remained through admiration of the excellent 
manner in which they debated. For the first time, 
they stood before an audience and expressed their 
opinions fearlessly and in a hearty manner, and 
their efforts were in every way commendable. The 
subject was : — Resolved, That Trades Unions are 
Beneficial to the Working Class, and Messrs. Mur- 
taugli and Gibney determined to prove it beyond 
all cavil or doubt. They would have done so, had 
it not been for the fict that Messrs. Dugan and 
Gallagher were two formidable opponents. We 
congratulate the young debaters and speak words 
of encouragement for their future. The decision 
was rendered in favor of the negative. 

The next debate was held on Wednesday even- 
ing, March 22nd. Resolved: " That the World's 
Fair be opened on Sunday." For the afiirmative, 
Messrs. D. Herron and W. J. Mahon argued well. 
They advanced many telling arguments, and 
withal upheld their side admirably. Messrs. A. J. 
Plunkett and E. P. McKeough followed for the 
negative, and brought out point after point in a 
masterly manner. The debaters were very evenly 
matched, in fact, so much so that the chairman 
was obliged to reserve his decision. , . :; 



The Glee Club and Dramatic Association are 
hard at work preparing the Easter entertainment. 
At present everything points to a grand success. 
The play, " The Rose of Wicklow," is from the 
pen of John Fitzgerald Murphy, and this is suffi- 
cient evicence of its high quality. 



EXCHANGES. 



We are pleased to welcome as an exchange The 
IVake Forest Sttidcnt. This excellent magazine 
presents a pleasing appearance and its editorials 
show careful preparation. But what interested 
and pleased us was the essay "The Theft of 
Thought." We think that Mr. R. F. B. has done 
well to bring this fact before the eyes of the 
American student, for no sharp scrutiny is required 
to see that such theft is being perpetrated in some 
of our leading colleges. 

The Agnctian Monthly^ 2l]o\\xw.2X published by 
the young ladies of St. Agnes' Collegiate Institute, 
, has made an appearance on our exchange table 
and we do not hesitate to say that it is a most wel- 
come visitor. On scanning its excellent articles 
nothing pleased us more than the admirable essay 
on " Music" by Miss J., and a study in French by 
Miss G., entitled " Priez Pour Moi." 

We failed to see the Duaiie Owl put in its regu- 
lar appearance this month among our other visitors, 
but we are glad to note that in its stead the Col- 
legiiiin Forense was not afraid to brave the cold 
March winds of Iowa, and make its way intrepiely 
to our sanctum. We extend our hearty congratu- 
lations to the author of Nota Be7ie for the admir- 
able way in which he defended the true worth of 
his college. 

Two numbers of the Notre Dame ScholastichsiVt. 
graced our department since the last publication of 
our Monthly. We are very much pleased to 
acknowledge this magazine among our other 
exchanges, both for its high standard as a college 
journal, and its for excellent literature. The Scholas- 
tic^ like its sister journal, the Ave Maria^ contains 
some very interesting articles, the perusal of which 
drives away all the turmoil and confusion arising 
from our mental exertions. 

In looking over the columns of The Messenger^ 
of Richmond College we notice that the Exchange 
editor has seen fit to criticise the spirit of animosity 
with which some of our contemporaries treat their 
exchanges. We heartily approve of the courtesy 
suggested hy '\1\^ Messenger as this would create 
better feelings between students, and we trust that 
its criticism will have the desired effect and that 
its suggestion will be kindly received. Let our 
criticisms be just, but not harsh nor imcourteous. 

The March number of the Fordham Monthly 
contains an interesting account of the Alumni 
Banquet at the Hotel Savoy in New York City. 
W^e read with pleasure the several outbursts of 
oratory showing the love which the speakers felt 
and the piide which they justly have for their 
Alma Mater. 



VILLANOVA MONTHtY. 



t 



SEE 



B. F. Owen & Co, 

1 41 6 Cliestnut Street, 
BEFORE YOU BUY 



Physioians' PrefcriptloiiB Accurately Compounded at all hours at 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY, 

PR/^I^K U/. PRKKITT. Craduate ir? p}?ar/T\acy, 

PROPRIETOR. 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 



^-EcuaJUK. 



A PIANO OR ORGAN. BOOKS BOUGHT. 



You vuill 53^6 fT^or)(?y aod \\z\je a 

CHOICE OF THE BEST. 

200 NEIaZ PIHNOS. 

9 world renowned makes. 

WEBER, HALLUX & DAVIS, BR1G(^,S and 

STARR PIANOS, ETC. 
Write for Catnlogues, Prices, Terms, etc. 

1416 Chestnut Street. 

JAMtCS MCOANNKY, 

Saddle, Harness I Collar Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 

PllirADEl-PHIA. 



THE DeMORAT STUDIO: 

914 GHESTNUr STREET, PHILA. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IX ALT. BRANCHES. 

Special Rates in Groups, alst) to Colleges and SJoci< ties. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H , O. HT^NSBVJRY, 



ARTHUR'S 

Famous Ice Cream, 

ALL FLAVORS. 

Plain and Fancy Cakes, Bread, Rolls and 
Buns, Pies, Desserts. 

Pure Ice .served durinc:^ the entire year, by the 
BRYN MAWR ICE COMPANY. Your o.ders 
are respectfully solicited. 

I. WARNER ARTHUR, 

Bryii Mawr, Pa. 

E. K. WILSON & SON, 

Manufacturers of and Dealers In 

Jpirts1;-(§las§ l^oote and ghoes 

Repairing Ncitly and Promptly attended to. Custom Work a Specialty. 
T£RMS CASH. I^aucaster Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



I will sell YDIT 

$10.00 worth of Clothing-, Drf es Goods, ladies' 
Coats ani Cloaks, Furniture, Carpeta "Watches, 
Jewelry, Chinaware, ecc, for 

$1.00 CASH AND $100 PER WELK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 


PHILAO'A 


If the Goods are not sat- H 


ON SATU RDAY 




isfactory, come to me and 1 


UNTIL 




1 wlil allow all reasonable I 


TEN O'CLOCK. 




claims, y 







TF you want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
^ at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old Books in .A.tncrica, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any pcrsi:n having the time to sj are is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three luin<lrcd 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. 

L-eHRY'S OL-D BOOK STORO, 
^ 9 South Ninth Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

A. M. BUCH & CO.. 
156 North Ninth Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

LADIES' AND GENTS', 

1a£IG 7v\:mkers, 

HAIR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 
4Sy"WiK» and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Tlientricals.^Eft 



AVlSd:. B. I-IIlSrCH, 

CUmDOai .f GliflSS, 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS, OILS, VARNISHES, BRUSHES, ETC 
No. 1702 Market Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



D. J. GALLAGHER. 



GEO. Vr. GIBBOKS. 



:t D. J. GALLAGHER & CO., , 

Printers, Publishers 

And Blank Book Manufacturers. 

Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationary. 
420 Library Street, Philadf Iphia. 



Publishers of "AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW," 

■A.';': " V •:{ 5^3.50 Per Annum. 



Windsor HOTEL, 

PHILHDELPHIfl. 

Half Block from New P. &; R. Terminal, and One and a Half 
Blocks from Broad Street Station. .. ^,:^..y, -..'., ^^.^ 

1219-29 Filbert Street. 

PRESTON J. MOORE, Proprietor. 



n 



ViLtANOVA MONTHLY. 





Thomas Bradley, 

N, W. ISor. Tw6nt)-first 

and Market Streets. 

(bf K extcixi mi mvitalion to yoti to call at our GREAT 
WESTERN MEAT MARKET and see what a choice 
selection of 

Beef, Mutton, Lamb, Dried Beef, 
Lard, Hams and Provisions 

We hHve constantly on hand endnote tlie Low PHcfs at whicli we are 

selling. We handle only the Best Goods and Quality considered, 

Our Prices are the Lowest in the City. Come, see for 

yourself. 

tjb(?ral DIsQoupt to public apd <5l?aritable Ipstitutioijs. 
ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION. 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, 

Undertaker I Embalmer, 

241 North Fourth Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. ' : 



THOMAS J. FOG ARTY, 



DEALER IN 



Gents' Furnishing 

Clothing, Hats and Caps, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 

Lancaster Av/enue. Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

JOHN J. BYRNES, 

DKALEB IN 

Carpets, Oil Cloth, Linoleums, 

^ RUGS, WINDOW SHADES, ETC., 

No. 37 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 

Below Market. East Side. PHIIiADELPHIA., 

WILLIAM J. REED, 

DEALER IN 

♦ Fine Hats, Caps and Umbrellas, •»• 

ALL THE NEWEST STYLES, 

CLOSING OUT TRUNKS AT COST. 

261 North Eighth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEXT TO FOREP AUGH'S THEATRE. 

prouidept IJfe 9 Jrust <^o. 

Of !Pliiladelpliia, 
N. W. Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts., (40T-409) 

fSSUES Life, Endowment and Term Policies, 
which can be made payable at death in 10, 15, 
20, 25 or 30 yearly instalments, thus saving 
the widow, who is the usual beneficiary, the trouble 
and risk of investment. 

gafe investments ; low rate of mortality ; low rate of 
expenses ; liberality to policy-holders 

In Everything Hanselled by no othef Company 



BRYN MAWR PHARMACY. 

ELEGANT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS, 

Prescriptions a Specialty. 
•f CHRISTIAN MOOt^E.-f 

OBLINQER PR05. Sr C2., 



4- 

FACTORY, I^ANCASTER, PA. 

SALESROOM, 154 N. THIRD ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
Wholesale only. 

PETER F. CUNNINGHAM ^ SO]^, 

PUBLISHERS 

AND 

Catholic Booksellers, 

IMPOKTKKS OF 

CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

Nd. B17 Arch. Street^ 

PHII^ADHI^PHIA. 

Hverything at lowest prices. 



OR. STEINBOCK, 



^1- 




^ 



1630 jv/ortl? T^elftl? 5tr^^t, pi?iladelpl?ia, pa. 

Specialist in Gold and Silver Fillings, and Artificial Teeth. 
GAS AND ETHER ADMINISTERED. 

"Hallahan's Shoes are the Best." 

Our stock of Fine Footwear is alwa vs attractive^ 
in quality^ variety and price. 

HALLAHAN, 

Eighth and Filbert Sts., Philadelphia. 

P. L m LA HAN 1838 MARKET st: 
Dealer ii^ piije (jroeeries. 

BEST BRANDS OF FLOUR, $5.50 PER BBL. 

"^" CKSH OR OReDIT. 

BUY YOUR GOODS 

GEO. KELLY & CO., 

808 and 810 Market St., 

PHILADELPHIA.. 



On Bill of $10— $1 Down— $1 per Week. 

SPECIAL TERMS ON LARGE PURCHASES. 




DANIEL GALLAGHER, 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 

FnFi)itiii<e|B8d(IiQg 

Of Every Description, 

43 South Second Street, 

hove Chestnut. Philadelphia.. 
Special Discount to Institntions. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



ttt 



WATCHES, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY, 

S. E. Oor. Market and 16th Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 

i8K. Wadding Rings. Fine Watch Repairing a Specialty, 

LOGUE * HATTER 



STRICTLY ONE PRICE. 

1236 MARKET ST. 



MONEY 
REFUNDED. 



BOOKS. BOOKS. 

CATHOLIC SCHOOL I COLLEGE 

•OfTEXT BOOKS, 4^ 

]Ne^w and Second Hand. 

Have constantly on band a fall line of Catholic 
Theological and Miscellaneous Books. 

Libraries and small parcels of Books 
purchased for cash. 

SEND YOUR ADDRESS OR CALL 

JOHN JOSEPH McVEY, 

39 H. Thirteenth Street, 

PHII4ADBI.PHIA, FA. 

CHARLES a. nOOKEY, " 

526 NORTH FOURTH STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



MART. D. BYRNES, 

Livery, Sale § Exchange Stables, 



Lancaster Auenue. 



ROSEMONT, Pa. 



HAUI^ING DONE. 



DBALKEIH ^ AGKKT FOB 

Spalding's, Reach's anu 
Tryon's Sporting Goods. 

EstimateR fumifhed to Clubs at 
the lowest club rates. 



I 



Diamonds, Watches, Clocks 

Jewelry and Silverware. 

Also a complete slock of Spec- 
tacles and Eye Glasses. 
Fine Waub and Clock Repairing. 

LKNCKSTER KiZE., KRD7UVORE. RM 






BROGAN & SMITH, 

Practical Steam Fitters 

STEAM and HOT WATER HEATING. 
1<io. 810 HACH ST., 



PHILADELPHIA. 



HODEL POOL AND BILLIARD ROOH. 

TobaGeo and Cigafs, 

225 North 8th Street, Philadelphia. 
WALTER HUTCHINSON, Proprietor. 

REDUCED PRICES. 



TIM. QUINLAN & BRO., 

lueiisHimsioisEsiioiM, 

BRYN MAWR, PA. 

Horse-Shoeing a Specialty. Old L,anca8ter Road. 

Try boston LAUNDRY, 

235 and 238 NEW ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

THOS. E. HOUSTIN PROPRIETOR. 

M. A. CALLANAN, ~ 

DEALER IN 

DRY GOODS, NOTIONS, 

Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Lancaster Avenue. Bryn Mawr, Pa . 

1025 Market St., 

Sells everything needed 
for the Table) Kitchen and 
Household at half otber'a 
prlcea, 

10 ot. goods are 5 cts. 
Surprising? Wonderful? Yet True 11 

Stahdard Text Books. 

Wentworth's Matliematics. 
Allen and Greenough's Latin Series. 
Goodwin's New Greek Grammar. 
Montgomery's U. S. History. 
Whitney's New English Grammar. 
Tarbell's Language Lessons. 

GINN St OOTWIRMNV. 

POBliISHEf^S, 




\a^^^ 



70 Fifth Avenne N. T. 



T. B. Lawler, Agent- 




M.GALLAGHER, 

PKACTICAL 

Harness IQaksr 

15 N. 9tli St., 

Philadelphia. 
MANUFACTURER OF FINE HORSE BOOTS. 

H. MUHR'S SONS, 

Diamonds, Precious Stones, and Watch Manufacturers. 
Salesroom, 629 Chestnut St , Factory, Broad and Race sts. 

Branches : 139 State Street, Chicago. 

20 John St., New York. 

131 Avenue du Sud, Antwerp, 

THOaiAS R. CUHARY, 

4FUNERAL DIRECTORS- 

S. W. COR. TWELFTH AND JEFFERSON STS., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



tGf Personal attention day or night. 



w 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 




RIGHT at the trade centre. Only a step from the Penna. R. R. Station or from the 
new Reading Terminal Station. 

With the very best selections of patterns obtainable, the most superior work- 
manship, and a low range of prices, our establishment continues to be Headquarters for 
stylish and natty clothing for young men. ; : - 

We show an excellent line of Full Dress and Prince Albert Suits, fully equal to 
custom made at less than half the cost. 

Always up to date in Furnishing Goods. Latest Novelties in Neckwear, Gloves 
and Hosiery. 

A. C. YATES & CO., 
; 13th and Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia. 



Ihon^ai) p. |)mall 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer In 



h 



(5\\\\m 



Of 



|2? 



w 



'( 



Butter, Eggs, 
Poultry I 
And Gafrie 



Stalls, 1 1 12, 1 1 14 and 1 1 16 Eleventh Avenue, 
;;;,;; ...^^.:;: Reading Terminal Alarket. 

tc9, 171 and 173 union market, 2d and callowhill sts. 
Philadklphia. 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS., 

Manufacturers of Everything in 

Athletic, Gymnasium Goods, 

AND 

UNIFORMS rOU ALL SPORTS, 

Outing and Yachting. '■ "•^^■' C v 
BEND FOE NEW ILLUSTRATED CATiLOGUE. ' 
CHICAGO, NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, 

108 BladUouSt. 843 Broadway. 1033 Cheatuut St. 



A FACT TO BE REMEMBERED 

THAT TIIK IIKADQUARTKBS FOU 

Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments 

IS AT 

J. E. DITSON ^ CO/S, 

1228 Chestnu t Street. Philadelphia. 

' -■:■ BELLAK'S, 

PI ANOSi ORGANS 

l!29 CHESTNUT STREET, 

PHILADELPHIA.. 

v^jsr iiOR^isr &g sojst, 

MAKRKS AND DESIGNURS 

THEATRICAL AND HISTORICAL 

•^ COSTUTVYES.-i^ 

Catalogues Furnished. Ccstumer For the Mask and Wig Club. 

AL.L. KI.MUS OK STAfcJE MAICK UP, TIGH IV* &,«. 

121 N. Nlf<TH STREET, Philadelphia. 

MOTt.EY'S ADJUSTABLE SASH HOLDER 

11^5^^^ FOR WINDOWS. 

^^}\-^ v^-^^sr^ ■ ==^ NEW OR OLD. 

Patented DcC. 13. lOo . . ' 

In Buildings, Cars, Steamboats, Carriages, Etc. Also for Window Screens and 
Sliding Blinds. Send for Circular 

PETER MOTlEY, ^^" ""'' '"'-^ "^''-'AilXlVhla. p,. 
McCONAGHY BROTHERS. 

NEAR ST. DENIS' CIHIRCH. 

Carpenters ^m Builders. 

All work Promptly and Neatly done. 

p. O. HddPess, AHD|WOI?H, PR. 



\ . 



.-ti' ■ ■•' 




.n, 



^^e^ 



\\ai^ova 



\ 



Vol. I. 



=« 




"N^illanova College, Miay, 1893. 



No. 5. 



Saint Monica. 

F Y ERS was the task a husband's rage 
^^^^1 to soothe 

i^^^ I With gentle word and mien from 
'"''^^ day to day ; 

To guide an erring child in vir- 
tue's way ; 
To share the griefs of others, and 
to smooth 

Life's path for all who came within the reach 
Of helping hand. None ever asked in vain ; 
Her joy was but to soften every pain, 
All ills to heal, to counsel and to teach. 





Of self she little thought while here below ; 
Her hopes were fix' d eternally above, 
Where death is life, and life is living love, 
' Neath suns of ever bright and lasting glow. 
The fountain of her eyes was never dry ; 
For Austin's sake she wept through many years ; 
But when his soul was safe, she dried her tears 
And fled to her reward beyond the sky. 



O Christian wife and mother ! as of old, 
Lend now thine aid to all who thee implore 
For light and grace to reach that blessed shore, 
Where thou dost dwell in happiness untold. 
Be ever near to make the chast'ning rod 
Less bitter in its sting, less hard to bear ; 
Be ever near to use a mother's care, 
In leading and enticing us to God. 
.,::;,^,,^ ,._.., ;■_..■-.;■.. M. J. L. 



50 



VILLANOVA MONTHIvY. 



Courage. 
Of all the virtues in the possession of which 
man rejoices, courage is one that we particularly 
admire. His other good qualities may charm us 
and be a source of pleasure to us ; but when we see 
him armed with courage to battle for what he thinks 
right, then it is that our admiration is excited. 

We may not agree with him ; we may be 
directly opposed to him ; yet, when we behold him, 
ready with the courage of his convictions to defend 
his position, we must respect and admire him. 

Courage may be called the fountain by which 
the other virtues are refreshed. A man may seem 
to possess Justice, Temperance or Prudence, but if 
he be without courage, these virtues can exist only 
in name. Can any one practise justice, if he is 
lacking in courage to do what is right ? Can any 
one not possessed of the courage and heroism 
necessary for self-abnegation exercise moderation ? 
Athough a man be ever so prudent in word 
and deed, nevertheless at different periods of his 
existence, circumstances will produce such a state 
of affairs, that for combating these, a proportional 
degree of courage will be required, and if that 
courage be wanting, the other good qualities de- 
pending on it will be of little avail. Instead of 
increasing in the admiration and esteem of men, 
he will lose their respect and become despicable in 
their sight. 

Courage is the embodiment of all that is noble 
and honorable. A courageous nature is a noble 
nature. We are aware of the fact that cruelty and 
cowardice are almost invariably found in the same 
person ; so too, we find courage and gentleness 
united in the one person. They are, as it were, 
the twin properties of the matter essential to the 
composition of man ; and no person, combining 
courage with gentleness, can be guilty of an igno- 
ble or dishonorable act. : ,, 

There are two kinds of courage^moral and 
physical. Moral courage is the power of saying 
yes or no, as one's sense of righteousness dictates. 
This morality is instilled into the mind in infancy 
by parents and superiors ; and if they are negligent 
in the performance of this duty, the effect will be 
seen in the after life of the children entrusted 
to their care. For how will these children, when 
exposed to the many trials and temptations which 
inevitably come to them, be able to protect them- 
selves ? As they were neglected in the matter of 
proper education, they will not have the courage 
necessary to help them through. As a result of 
that negligence, and of early associations, any 
method, even that of telling a falsehood, will be 
employed, provided it be an easy way to escape 
from difficulty. 



Every one, at some time of life comes to where 
the two roads meet, the one leading to afflu- 
ence, present enjoyment of worldly pleasures, 
by any kind of methods, some not to be ap- 
proved of ; the other leading to greater joys, 'tis 
true, but by self-abnegation, by honest methods, 
serving truth ; a time of trial for the present cer- 
tainly, but bringing its own great reward. 

What choice will the one not taught in early life 
the value of courage make ? Will he, coward-like, 
choose the easier path ? Or will he be brave 
enough to stand up for truth and righteousness? 
Will he be strong enough to stand the test of a noble 
man? For 

" Then to side with Truth is noble, when we share her 

wretched crust 
'Ere her cause bring fame and profit, and 'tis prosperous 

to be just. 
Then it is the brave man chooses, while the coward 

stands aside, 
Doubting in his abject spirit, while his Lord is crucified 
And the multitude make virtue of the faith they have 

denied." 

By physical courage we mean that valor neces- 
sary to sustain us in the performance of many of 
our deeds — that valor by which we will be able to 
brave danger when duty demands it, and to en- 
counter certain dangers ; we also stand in need of 
it in the fulfilment of some of our ordinary deeds. 
We can very easily call to mind the different 
meanings which this word courage will bring to 
many. We hear of some who are called brave, 
who have taken their own lives, not from aiiy good 
motive, but through fear of enduring some great 
trouble in this world. Others fleeing dangers are 
called cowards, although we are told that "discre- 
tion is the better part of valor." 

Now the cowardice or courage displayed by per- 
sons of mature age we can easily trace to their 
youth. We are all familiar with the history of the 
Spartan people, and we know how well they in- 
structed their children, that in after years courage 
might be their characteristic. Very often the 
cowardice may be traced to early life, when to 
quiet a crying child some hob-goblin tale of terror 
is told, enough to inspire fear into it, and this feel- 
ing, implanted in early youth, grows strong as the 
person advances in years ; and although in man- 
hood, reason should overcome this fault, it does 
not always succeed. 

Frederick the Great, of Prussia, serves as an ex- 
ample of courage engrafted on a pusillanimous 
nature. At the battle of Mowlitz overcome with 
fright, he fled, leaving his generals to fight the 
battle alone ; but this instance of wavering on his 
part was the only one : throughout the rest of his 



VIIvIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



51 



campaigns he fought with a bravery becoming one 
wearing the title of " Great." 

Courage, then, is a virtue greatly to be desired 
and sought after. We should strive to be physi- 
cally courageous so that in moments of danger our 
bravery will sustain us. We should above all 
strive to be morally courageous, not allowing our- 
selves to be swayed by human respect in the per- 
formance of our duties, but in all things and at all 
times " daring to do what is right." 

J AS. F. O'Leary, '94. 



St. Monica. 

In the year 331* of our era, appeared in the 
bosom of a noble family at Tagaste, in Africa, that 
had long been known for its honorable name and 
ancient virtue, a child who at birth received the 
name of Monica, a name that at that time was so 
touching a symbol of consolation and hope for the 
Church. It was just twenty years since Constan- 
tine the Great had professed Christianity. 

Her parents were both Christians and pious, and 
by them the little maiden was brought up with 
the utmost care.f 

The child was placed in charge of an old family 
servant, a zealous and prudent woman, who was 
devoted to her young mistress and carefully 
guarded her every step and word. Writing of his 
mother,! St. Augustine says, that the young Mon- 
ica was wont frequently to leave her playmates to 
their sports, so as to engage in prayer ; that one 
time she was found kneeling in prayer under a 
tree ; that she rose at night to say her prayers ; 
that she loved the poor and often took them bread 
from the table ; that she was given to austerities 
of various kinds, to sobriety and mortification 
especially, without which no one may hope to 
become a Christian spouse, mother or saint. At 
the instance of her old guardian, she never drank 
even water outside of meals. 

Every here and there through his works does 
the great Augustine refer to his loving and saintly 
mother. He seems never to weary of telling of 
her goodness, of her gifts of soul and mind, of her 
piety and love of God, of her love for prayer and 
of her keen, discerning intelligence, that led her 

*The dates followed in this sketch of St. Monica are taken 
from the De Rebus Gestis S. Aiigustini &c., (Venice, 1756,) by 
Fr. John Laurence Berti, O.S.A. 

tin a biographical sketch of the Saint, published by the 
late Rev. Dr. Lanteri, O.S.A , he states that her parents were 
named Aurelius and Facundia, and that her mother was 
descended from the Tabellici princes of Getulia. See Revista 
Agustitiiana, Valladolid, 1882, vol. Ill, p. 629. 

JThe best account of the life of St. Monica is given by her 
gifted son — the great St. Augustine. See especially the Ninth 
Book of his "Confessions." 



to master the most sublime and difficult problems 
of philosophy. In his "Confessions" chiefly does 
he dwell on the supernatural gifts that adorned 
his mother, while in his treatise on the Blessed 
Ivife — de Beata Vita^ composed at Milan, he 
speaks of her wonderful knowledge of the highest 
truths. At the villa of Verecundus, some few 
miles outside of Milan, whither Augustine, with 
his mother, his son and some friends, had retired 
for his preparation for baptism, it was their daily 
custom to spend part of the afternoon in disputa- 
tion on ethical subjects. At one of these friendly 
entertainments, described by Augustine in full in 
his de Beata Vita^ the question debated by the 
assembly was, — in what consisted true happiness, 
and how could one attain it ? The little Adeo- 
datus, Augustine's son, with a keenness of percep- 
tion far beyond his years, observed that for one to 
please God, he must be pure of heart, and that 
thus only could he be happy, — a view of the case 
in which St. Monica fully concurred. 

Only one fault, if such it may be styled, does 
Augustine note in the memoirs of his mother ;* 
it was as follows : In accompanying the servant, 
whose place it was to fill the flasks with wine for 
the table, the little Monica, more through childish 
thoughtlessness than any depravity of taste, grad- 
ually got into the habit of touching her lips to the 
over-filled flasks, and even sipping from their con- 
tents. One day her nurse, being, perhaps, some- 
what out of temper, or maybe to teach the child a 
lesson, reproved her by calling her a wine-bibber — 
meribibula^ as Augustine writes it ; at this Monica 
was abashed, and abandoned the habit from that 
day forth. 

Together with her supernatural gifts, Monica 
united an inextinguishable thirst for learning, and 
a gentleness of temper that appears to have en- 
deared her to all her acquaintances. 

At the age of seventeen she was married to 
Patritius, a wealthy and noble pagan, a curialis of 
Tagaste, who by a prior marriage had two 
daughters, Basilica and Felicitas. Thus their 
names are given by Augustinian writers. Monica's 
consort was a singular contrast to his holy and 
gifted spouse ; he was a man of disagreeable ways, 
choleric of temper, ever ready to fly into a passion, 
of little or no moral principles, and well known to 
be unfaithful to his marriage vows. Her mother- 
in-law, also pagan, was an imperious, hard-tem- 
pered and jealous woman, and used to incite the 
servants to bear calumnies and tales to their 
master against their young mistress. 

Monica's married life was for her a training 
school of virtue. Each day revealed to her the 

* See '• Confessions," Book IX. 



wmm 



mmmmmmmmmm 



52 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



abyss that separated her from Patritius. Yet she 
set her mind to win his soul to God, not by argu- 
ment and discussion, but by prayer and a virtuous 
example. Little by little the sweetness of her 
temper and her humble and patient life won her 
husband's respect. Her son relates that she for- 
gave his insults and infidelities ; never spoke back 
to him, yet at the same time, it must be said, she 
was never struck by him. Patritius begins to 
yield ; he no longer treated her harshly, and 
shortly before his death was baptized a Christian. 
According to Father Berti, Monica was in the 
fortieth year of her age, and Augustine, her eldest 
child, in his seventeenth. She had borne two 
other children, Navigius and Perpetua, both hon- 
ored a:s saints. 

As a widow, Monica gave new proofs of her 
goodness ; daily she attended Mass ; twice a day 
she went to church for prayers and to hear the ser- 
mon. Daily preaching was customary in Africa. 
But while winning her husband to the Faith, 
Monica lost her son. At home Augustine shocks 
his loving mother by his impiety, and his blas- 
phemies against religion ; and finally is bid by his 
mother either to amend his life or rid her Christian 
home of his presence. He leaves Africa for Rome, 
and thence goes to Milan, whither his mother 
follows him. There, aided by St. Ambrose, the 
prayers of St. Monica succeed in recalling her son 
to God. Shortly after his baptism, the saintly 
mother, having now obtained the most cherished 
desire of her heart, wishes to return to Africa. 
She, with Augustine and Adeodatus, leaves Milan 
for home ; at Ostia, she is taken ill of a fever, and 
after a nine days' illness, the blessed Monica, 
model of maidens, wives and widows, yields up 
her soul in thankfulness to God that she had won 
over her husband to the Faith and had witnessed 
the conversion of her son. The year of her death 
is commonly put in 387 ; she died at the age of 56, 
and her remains were interred at Ostia. In the 
XV century her body was translated to Rome and 
placed in the church of Saut' Agostino. St. 
Monica is honored as the patroness of the Associa- 
tion of Christian Mothers. ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ■ i /^ y^ 



Fro»i the Albany Times Union. 
A Noted Clergyman. 
"Enquirer" is informed the clergyman who 
preached the panegyric at the Cathedral last Fri- 
day, the feast of St. Patrick, was the Rev. F. X. 
McGowan, O. S.A., pastor of St. Augustine's 
Church, Lansingburg. " O.S.A. " means " Order of 
St. Augustine." Father McGowan has been for 



many years, and still is, the most eloquent, and one 
of the most learned of this body of distinguished 
men. He is recognized as such, inasmuch as, for 
many years he has been the leader of the Augus- 
tinian missionary band, a position of great respon- 
sibility, entrusted always to the most brilliant. 
The panegyric at the Cathedral has been pro- 
nounced by competent judges, one of the best an4 
most thoughtful ever delivered by a visiting clergy- 
man on such an occasion. He has for many years 
been known as " The Silver-tongued Augustinian." 



To Commeinorate the Anniversary of Thomas Moore. 

Dedicatedjo Rev. F. X. McGowan, O.S.A. 

Thy birth and fame, the splendor of thy theme, 

To-night we sing, in songs, that all thine own. 
Come down the years, like sunshine on the stream, 

And gem by gem enwreathe thy deathless crown: 
Not cooling shade more welcome to the wight 

Who treads the desert's hot and arid sand. 
Than those sweet notes, that sway our souls to-night, 

And bear us back to Erin's lovely land. 

No, not more weclome to the storm-tossed ship 
The blessed calm which stills the angry sea : 
Than thy sweet songs from tuneful heart and lip. 

That breathe with love, or glow with liberty: 
And, as the years recede before the sun, 
• And Erin's Flag unfolds its burst of light, 
The deathless fame thy sparkling lyrics won, 
Shall quenchless gleam athwart her starless night. 

To-night, across the wide blue pathless sea, 

Our yearning hearts are in that land once more, 
As true to Freedom's thrill of Liberty, 

As that which fired the genius of Tom Moore. 
As fell the Norseman in that day of strife. 

Before the valor of the fiery Gael, 
As true the creed of Erin's hopeful life. 

That England's star will yet as darkly pale. 

With thee we tread Kinkora's princely halls. 

On Ossory's plains we see the Norseman reel — 
Go down to death, ere night's dark curtain falls. 

While yet unsheathed Brian's vengeful steel. 
With Red Branch Knight, and Banba's royal maid. 

We seek the haunts of revelry and song; 
While to the lute's responsive serenade, 

The joyous hours their Thespian scenes prolong. 

The grave and gay, the simple and the bold, 

To laughter move, or unrequited wrong : 
Are struck from chords that sparkle as the gold. 

And gleam like sunbeams on thy tide of song : 
While " Nora Creina's " tinkling, silvery bells — 

Like marriage chime, pour out their merry peals 
The " Minstrel Boy " the prideful bosom swells, 

And thro' its depths like Love's own message steals. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



53 



" Where glory waits thee " — there, alas, are found 

The scattered remnants of the Cl^n-na-Gael : 
The first to answer to the bugle sound, 

The last before the deadly charge to quail. 
The fire of Freedom coursing through their veins — 

They face the foe with firm, unfaltering tread : 
While, yet, like him, who fell on Landen's plains, 

They, too, would wish their blood for Erin shed. 

True, as the needle to the shining pole ; 

True, as bereavement to the mother's breast ; 
True, as God's pity for the erring soul ; 

True, as the sun empurpling the east ; 
As true the faith unconquered Erin holds, 

That, yet her shores with freedom shall be blest ; 
That, like the dewdrop, which her green enfolds, 

Love, Honor, Fame, shall yet adorn her breast. 

Blame thee, sweet bard ? What crown or gift had we 

Or wealth to offer for thy matchless song? 
Whose night of death was like the angry sea^ 

When to its breast the storm's mad furies throng ? 
Hunted and homeless on the mountain's side— - 

Despair and havoc, Erin, death, and strife; 
With kindred ills, and devastation wide ; 

Like demons feasting on our country's life. 

Proscribed her priesthood — banished, outlaw'd, banned, 

Their home and chapel, — Erin's gloomy caves, — 
No arms to shield God's servants in the land, 

Or bear the stricken to their lowly graves. 
On scenes like these thy star of genius rose — 

The darkest chapter in the Book of time. 
To scenes like these, too great for human woes. 

Went up the pleadings of thy burning rhyme. 

While, yet, the pathos of thy trembling lyre 

For Emmet's fate, poured out its strains of woe ; 
Thy song new-kindled Erin's smouldering fire. 

And stirred its embers to a ruddier glow. 
Blame thee ? No, never, be't our shame to ca&t, 

One blot or blemish on thy matchless name ; 
Who from the glorious Vistas of the past. 

Brought sunny wreaths to strew our path to fame. 

To night, that harp that struck the tenderest chord 

When slept the music of our sainted Isle, 
Shall flash its rays, like Freedom's leaping sword, 

And fill our bosoms with its radiant smile ; 
While " Tara's Halls" shall bear us back once more 

Where shamrocks breathe their promise to the sod 
O'er heath-clad hill, and flow'r enamelled shore, 

To that sweet land whose faith is dear to God ? 

And yet that land, beneath whose generous sward, 

The mighty heroes of the ages lie. 
Hath not a spot for her immortal bard. 

To claim the tribute of the passer by. 
Unwept, unhonored, in an English grave 

He sleeps afar from her he loved so much ; 
Whose numbers poised the lances of her brave. 

And woke her glories with the master's touch. 

Lansingburgh, N. Y. Patrick Carey. 



The Coliseum. 

It was Augustus, the first wearer of the Imperial 
purple, under whose reign Rome became the mis- 
tress of the world, that first conceived the idea of 
building an immense amphitheatre in which the 
various games and gladiatorial combats might be 
witnessed by as many Roman citizens as possible. 
He had already embellished the city by construct- 
ing the famous baths and palaces and temples 
whose remains at the present day justify his own 
assertion: "I found Rome of brick, I leave it of 
marble." But even these public monuments were 
not sufficient to satisfy the ambition of the Em- 
peror; he desired to perpetuate his memory by the 
erection of a monument so large and so solid as to 
defy even the destructive hand of Time. But 
such extensive plans required many years for com- 
pletion, and while they were still in progress 
Augustus died. The Emperors who succeeded 
him were extravagant, but selfish at the same time. 
All the vast revenues of Rome were expended in 
promoting their own private pleasures and luxu- 
ries, and it was not until A. D. 72, that Vespasian, 
who was raised to the purple by the armies of the 
East began the foundations of the immense struc- 
ture planned by Augustus. It was erected near 
the palace of Nero. In style it was most complex, 
including all the principal forms of Roman, Gre- 
cian and Eastern architecture. This was in 
accordance with the whims of the proud and vain 
Vespasian, who desired in this manner to com- 
memorate his victories in all the provinces of the 
Roman Empire. In form the amphitheatre was 
elliptical ; rows of marble seats were built on the 
vast slopes of its inner walls ; its seating capacity 
was eighty-seven thousand, with standing room 
for twenty thousand more ; in the centre was a 
spacious pit or arena in which the various games 
and combats took place. 

Such was the Coliseum. There for centuries 
the Romans thronged to feast their eyes upon the 
blood>^, inhuman tragedies ; to shout with exulta- 
tion at the deft stroke of the gladiator ; to laugh 
in derision at the weakness of his adversary ; to 
give coolly and deliberately the signal which meant 
life or death to the unfortunate victims. • 

But the Coliseum is worthy of our veneration 
not so much for the remembrance it brings of 
gladiatorial fights and pagan games as for the 
mementoes and pictures of the sufferings and 
triumphs of the primitive Christians. When we 
contemplate this noble ruin of antiquity, our 
minds are immediately carried back to the begin- 
ning of Christian Rome; the present fades away 
and the past returns ; we enter in spirit this vast 
amphitheatre aud see once more the throngs of 



54 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



gay, laughing Romans gazing upon scenes of 
slaughter in which not slaves are opposed to slaves 
nor captives to captives nor gladiators to gladia- 
tors nor beasts to beasts, but Christians, citizens 
of Rome, are opposed to one another, or are 
brought thither to be devoured by wild beasts. 
Yet by a strange vicissitude of fortune the Coli- 
seum now owes its preservation to the Christian 
blood so profusely shed within its walls. After 
having been used for ages as an immense quarry 
by all those whose wealth and station enabled 
them to share the public plunder, it was finally 
secured from further destruction by the efforts of 
Pope Benedict XIV, who consecrated the building 
about the middle of the last century, and placed it 
under the protection of the countless numbers of 
martyrs who had therein borne testimony with 
their blood to the sincerity of their belief. 

But, notwithstanding these efforts, the Coliseum 
is fast crumbling to dust. Decay and ruin now 
occupy the marble thrones where once sat the 
Emperors of mighty pagan Rome, and with their 
long, lean hands touch the noble columns one by 
one. They mock and deride this work of man's 
power, even as they have always done, and seem 
to exult in the desolation which they have accom- 
plished. But, in all its desolation, it is the grandest 
ruin of the modern world. While a stone is left 
upon a stone it will always be a spot worthy of the 
interest of mankind, worthy too, of their venera- 
tion, as the last great vestige of the luxury 
and magnificence of pagan Rome. Lord Byron's 
thoughts on visiting the Coliseum are beautiful and 
touching. He says : — 

I do remember me that in my youth, 
When I was wandering, upon such a night 
I stood within the Coliseum's walls, 
'Midst the chief relics of almighty Rome ; 
The trees which grew along the broken arches 
; 0^ dark in the blue midnight, and the stars 

Shone through the rents of ruin ; from afar 
The watch -dog bayed beyond the Tiber ; and 
More near, from out the Caesars' palace came 
The owl's long cry, and, interruptedly, 
Of distant sentinels the fitful song 
Begun and died upon the gentle wind. 

Where the Ccesars dwelt. 
And dwelt the tuneless birds of night, amidst 
A grove which springs through levelled battlements 
And twines its roots with the imperial hearths. 
Ivy usurps the laurel's place of growth ; JK- V 

^ut the gladiators' bloody circus stands, :: . ': V: ; ■ ^ 
A noble wreck in ruinous perfection ! 
While Caesar's chambers, and the Augustan halls, 
Grovel on earth in indistinct decay. 



And thou didst shine, thou rolling moon, upon 

All this, and cast a wide and tender light, 

Which softened down the hoar austerity 

Of rugged desolation, and filled up, 

As 'twere, anew the gap of centuries. 

Leaving that beautiful which still was so, 

And making that which was not, till the place 

Became religion, and the heart ran o'er 

With silent worship of the great of old, — 

The dead but sceptred sovereigns, — who still rule 

Our spirits from their ruins ! 

Such is the story of the Coliseum, filled as all 
such stories are, with manifestations of the Provi- 
dence of God, guiding and directing the affairs of 
men. How strange indeed that the greatest monu- 
ment which paganism built, and one which wit- 
nessed its triumphs over Christianity, should now 
be an object of love and reverence for triumphant 
Christianity, while paganism itself lies buried in 
its own ruins, never to rise again. 

J. F. KelEher, '93. 



The Drama. 



On Wednesday evening, April 5, the students 
produced in the College Hall the drama entitled 
"The Rose of Wicklow." The presentation was 
well worthy of all the careful preparation which 
had been made by all concerned. W. J. Parker, 
the Squire, pleased the audience as much as on 
former occasions. E. T. Wade looked every inch 
a hero and his acting did certainly give evidence 
of much of a great deal of stage talent. E. 
J. Wade acted the part of the Spy in a way 
difficult to be surpassed by amateurs. J. T. 
O'Leary was a Captain in appearance and other- 
wise and evinced a great deal of judgment in the 
rendition of his part. But words are inadequate 
when we attempt to describe J. E. O'Donnell as 
the impersonator of a roving Irish lad. His simple 
appearance, after the first one, was sufficient to 
arouse the house and bring forth a volley of applause. 
B. J. O'Donnell, although an extremely modest 
youth, spoke his words with a vim that merited a 
great deal of praise. A. J. Plunkett acted the part 
of Douglass in most creditable manner, since he 
was called upon to take that part only a few days 
beforehand. J. J. Crowley and W. J. Kavanagh 
were excellent examples of dashing femininity. 
R. G. Kerr, as Eileen, made an excellent com- 
panion for her Barney and received encore after 
encore for his singing and dancing. Much credit 
is due our stage manager, T. J. Fitzgerald, for the 
masterly arrangement of the scenery to suit the 
demands of the drama. The hall was filled to its 
utmost capacity and the audience was so well pleased 



VILLANOVA MONTHIvV. 



55 



with the entertainment that it asked for a repe- 
tition which was given on the 19th to ahnost as 
many as on the first evening. The music for the 
occasion was furnished by the College Orchestra 
which received a good share of the applause so 
willingly given by a very appreciative audience. 



FIRST ANNUAL BANQUET. 

MENU. 

Blue Points. 

Cr6me de Chicken. 

Broiled Shad. 

Olives. 
Filet de Boeuf. 



Fresh String Beans. 



Bermuda Potatoes. 



Entrees. 



Sweetbreads and Green Peas. 

Lettuce and Tomatoes. 

Cheese. 



Fromage de Brie. 



Neufchfitel. 



Ice Cream. 

Assorted Cakes. 

Fruit. 

Coffee. 

Cigars. 



On Wednesday, April 12th, the members of the 
staff of our M0NTHI.Y, left the College in a Tally-ho 
for Philadelphia to enjoy their first annual banquet 
at the Aldine Hotel. After a very pleasant drive 
over the historic Lancaster pike and through the 
magnificent Fairmount Park, they proceeded to 
the DeMorat Studio where they had their photo- 
graph taken. 

About 6 P. M. the members began to assemble 
in the reception room, and after some time spent 
in pleasant conversation, music and songs, they 
were ushered into a beautifully decorated banquet- 
hall. Mr. W. J. Parker, editor-in-chief, presided. 

The event, although the first of its kind, was a 
grand success. It was in every way a most enjoy- 
able occasion, and one that will long be remem- 
bered by all that participated in it. 

The banquet lasted about two hours and a half, 
but by reason of the many pleasant topics intro- 
duced it seemed not half so long. 

After all had feasted, the Editor responded to the 
toast, "Our Monthly." Rev.M. J.Geraghty,O.S.A. 
was present by special request, on account of the 
esteem he won from the students while conducting 



their annual retreat. He responded to the toast 
" Our Invited Guests." After many words of thanks 
and encouragement, he amused those present with 
some of his comic effusions. There were also pres- 
ent Revs. R. A. Gleeson, J. J. Farrell, L. A. De 
Lury, and Messrs. D. F. Harkin, M. J. Murphy 
and A.J. Plunkett. After many good wishes for 
the Monthly's prosperity and longevity, we en- 
tered our Tally-ho and returned to the College, l. 



ATHLETICS. 



On April 32 we entered upon what promises to 
be one of the most successful base-ball seasons in 
the history of the College. A large crowd was 
present at the game in which the Gladwynnes fell 
easy victims to the College nine. The visitors 
were cheered for every good play, but they were 
not able to hold their own against their strong 
adversaries. The College nine, after the third 
inning, put up a very stiff game and were urged 
on by one college cheer after another. The 
features of the game, for the College nine, were 
McKenna's pitching, Gallagher's batting and 
Carey's phenomenal playing at short, and for the 
visitors. Hall's pitching and Humphrey's playing 
at first. The score : 



Villanova B. 


B. 


C. 






Gladwynne. 








R. 


H. 


0. 


A. 


E. 


R. H. 


0. 


A. 


E. 


Hart, 2b . . . .1 


2 


6 


2 





Dunn, 3b ... 2 


I 





2 


McKenna, p . . 2 


I 


I 


8 





Feiring, c . . . 2 i 


8 


I 





Murphy, 3b . . i 





I 


3 


I 


H. Davis, If . . I 3 


I 








Gallagher, If. .1 


3 


I 








Humphreys, ib i 


8 


I 





O'Donnell, rf. . i 


I 











C. Davis, ss . . 





4 


2 


Herron, cf . . .1 


I 











Heston, 2b ... 


2 


4 


3 


Carey, ss ... 2 


I 


I 


6 





Hall, p I 


I 


9 





McDonnell, c . 2 


2 


II 


3 


I 


Baity, rf . . . . I i 


I 








O'Leary, ib . . i 


I 


8 





I 


Barker, cf . . . 


2 








Total .... 12 


12 


27 


22 


3 


Total .... 6 6 


24 


19 


7 



Earned runs — Villanova, 2; Gladwynne, i. Three-base 
hits — Hart, Herron. Two-base hits — Gallagher, McDonnell. 
Double plays, O'Leary, Hart, Dunn, Feiring. Left on bases, 
Villanova 6; Gladwynnes- Struck out by McKenna, 7; by 
Hall, 6. First base on called balls by McKenna, 3; by Hall, i. 
Passed balls McDonnell, 2. Time — 2 hours. Umpires— Wm. 
Mahon, Wm. Butler. 

During the early part of the month the Blues 
and Reds organized their respective nines and 
after much deliberation D. J. Gallagher was chosen 
captain of the Blues and D. A. Herron captain of 
the Reds. Both men thoroughly understand their 
duties and have their men well under control. 
They are to play a series of five games to decide 
which club shall have possession of the Athletic 
Association's cup. Very exciting games are looked 
forward to, as both nines are stronger than was 
anticipated early in the season. The first of this 
series was played on the I3tli ult., and resulted in 
a victory for the Blues. 



56 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Monthly, 

PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF 

3ZILI.RNOV7C COLI^EOIB. 

UILLANOUA, PA. 



MAY, W93. 



THE STKF=SF=. 

Editorin-Cliief. 
WM. J. PARKER, '93. 

Associate Editors. 
Thos. J. Fitzgerald, '93. Mich. A. Tierney, '93. 
John F. Kelleher, '93. Jas. F. O'Leary, '94. 

John J. Ryle, '94. Tim. P. Callahan, '94. 

Wm. J. Mahon, '95. Jer. }. Crowley, '94. 

John E. O'Donnell, '95. 
Business Manager. 
JOHNJ. FARRELL, O.S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 
Remittances and business communications should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, 
Single copies . , 


one year . 


• • • • 


. |i 00 

. . . . . . . . . .10 


Entered at the Villanova Post 


Office as 


Second- Class Matter. 




EDITORIALS. 





To the close observer of affairs pertaining to 
college life it is plainly noticeable that many 
students, no matter what interest they may take in 
other branches, are too indifferent with regard to 
the study of the classics. While nearly all at the 
begining of their college career take it upon them- 
selves to acquire a thorough classical knowledge, 
and this too with every indication of perseverance, 
not a few, after repeated failures, become dis- 
couraged and finally give up as hopeless that which 
once seemed so easy of acquisition and was so much 
desired. Of those who persevere with this study 
some are inclined to treat it as obligatory or as a 
means to an end, and consequently are unable to 
appreciate its great and manifold benefits. 

Again there are those who, although numbered 
among the alumni of some of the foremost univer- 
sities of our land, openly declare that the study of 
I/atin and Greek is unnecessary and ought to be dis- 
pensed with in our schools and colleges. These 
quasi- educators have assumed the difficult task of 
setting at naught the opinions of far superior minds 
upon this subject. Blair, the eminent rhetorician, 
recommends this study " to all who wish to form 
their taste and nourish their genius :" furthermore 
we have the celebrated literateur, Hazlitt's approval 
of this study : and in our day no less personages 
than Lowell and Agassiz have been most zealous 
in their efforts to inspire a greater love for the 
classics. We admit that they have little or no 



attraction for him " quem tenet argenti sitis im- 
portuna famesque." A college education is not 
chiefly adapted to this end ; for, if one wishes to suc- 
ceed in business, or to apply himself to a particular 
branch, schools of business and technology await 
his pleasure. Indispensable then is this study to 
those who intend to pursue any of the various profes- 
sions ; while if their fancy leans toward literature, 
the study of the ancients must be considered an all 
important factor. Horace's injunction — " Nos ex- 
etnplaria graeca nocturiia versate manu, versate 
diurna " holds good in our day with Rome's mas- 
terpieces as a necessary accompaniment. An educa- 
ted man is such only in name if he has neglected 
to acquaint himself with those works which, during 
the lapse of centuries, have always been held in the 
highest esteem by literary men. 

Viewing these productions from a moral stand- 
point strenuous objections may be raised, for, as 
has been frequently observed, "very few poets have 
sailed to Delphi without touching at Cythera." A 
uriversal rule, and one deserving to be followed by 
those who delight to wander in the mazy garden of 
literature, is to cull and press in memory's folds 
only the beautiful flowers that grow therein, leav- 
ing unnoticed the noxious weeds around them. 

We agree not then with those who, great as 
may be their authority in literary matters, en- 
deavor to impugn and cry down a classical educa- 
tion, but rather with those who seek to preserve 
and encourage it. In so doing we have in view 
the many advantages derived from it ; such as im- 
provement in style, mental discipline, enlarge- 
ment of one's vocabulary and the interest which 
accompanies a knowledge of the manners and cus- 
toms of the ancients. 



Thk base-ball season having been successfully 
opened on the 2 2d ult. ,it remains with the students 
to encourage the players in every way. An ele- 
ment deirimental to all first-class base-ball games, 
and one which the nine of this year does not en- 
tirely lack is that of individual playing at the 
expense of team work. At the beginning of the 
year this may be overlooked, but its continuance 
will inevitably tend to lessen the number of victo- 
ries. From the unbounded enthusiasm displayed 
by the spectators at the first game the fact that we 
are in need of a good college cry became apparent. 
However, what was wanting in form was amply 
made up in volume by a liberal supply of lung power. 
With the latter as a good basis an efficient com- 
mittee should be appointed whose duty it should be 
to form a cry worthy of the approaching celebra- 
tion and one whose excellence would warrant its 
permanence. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



57 



MATHEMATICAL CLASS. 
To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send problems, 
queries, etc., and their solutions, or any difficulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 
All such communications should be addressed to 

D. O'SuLLiVAN, Villanova Colltge. 

21. — Given the obliquity of the ecliptic e = 23°, 
27', the latitude of a star 51°, its longitude 315° : 
find its declination and its right ascension. 
Solution by Francis J. Kelleher^ 93'. 
I/ongitude of star VT = 315° or — 45°. 
Latitude of star TM=^j.°. 




The angle made by the plane of the ecliptic, 
EF^ with that of the equinoctial AB, = angle 
RVI=2.f zf. i ■ 

V is the vernal equinox, or First of Aries. 

To find VR = Right Ascension, and 
RM= Declination. 
In right triangle VTM 
7; cos VM= cos VTqos TM, and 
: - tan J/Fr= tanvl/rcsc VT. 
log cos 315° = 9.84949 
log cos 51° = 9.79887 

log cos Fil/= 9.64836 
VM = 63° 34' 36'' 

^ ■ log tan 51° = 10.09163 
log CSC 315° = 0.1505 1 («) 

log tan MVT= 10. 24214 {n) 
MVT=— (60° 12' 14") 

In right triangle RVM 
RVM= RVT+ TVM 

= 23° 27' — (60° I2'I4'0 

:^;:t-t:^:.^ =-(36° 45' 14" 

v; - sin RM= sin VM s\x). RVM 
- vi \o%s\ViVM =9.95208 
log sin RVM = 9. 77698 

; ' V log sin RM = ^ 



9.72906 

RM = 32° 24' 12" 



22. — Three persons having bought a conical 
sugar loaf, wish to divide it into three equal parts, 
by sections parallel to the base : it is required to 
find the altitude of each person's share, the alti- 
tude of the loaf being 20 inches. 

Solution by Fred. F. Commins^ '92. 

Solids are to each other as the cubes of their 
homologous dimensions. . * . 



3:1 : : 20' : x^ 



and 



;i:= 13.867 inches = altitude of upper part 



20' 



X' 



:r== 17.471 = alt from apex to ist section. 
17.471 — 13867 = alt of middle part = 3.604 
inches, and ■■:/-':.. :,:■^ /:>.■.:■■ ;i;^.^>^■^ 

20 — 17.471 = 2.529 inches = alt of lower part. 

23. — Prove that the perpendiculars from the cen- 
ters of the escribed circles of a triangle on the 
corresponding sides, are concurrent. 

Solution by William/. Pai'ker^ '93. 

Let ABC be the A, and let X, F, Z be the centers 
of the escribed circles. \ 



sin VR = tan RM cot RVM 
log tan RM = 9.80257 
log cot RVM ■= o. 12677 (w) 

log sin VR = 9. 92934 (n) 

W? = — (58° ii'43") 
.-. VR = 360° — (58° 11' 42") 
= 301° 48' 17" 




Describe a circle about the A XVZ. Let O be 
its centre. Join VO, and produce it to meet the 
circumference in Z>, and cutting AC in E. We 
shall prove that YO is perpendicular to AC. 

Join F^, and produce it to meet the circumfer- 
ence in i^ Join Z>/^ 

Now the angle YFD is a right angle (the angle in 
a semi-circle), and XBZ is right, since YB is per- 
pendicular \.oXZ .'. XZz.vAFD are parallel .". the 
arc ZD = XF, hence the angle ZYD = XYF and 
the angle YAE = YXB. 

.'. the angle YEA = YBX\ but F^^ is right, 
. •. YEA is right ; hence YO is perpendicular to 
M^C. Similarly if we join XO^ ZO^ they will be 
perpendicular to BC^ AB. Hence the three per- 
pendiculars are concurrent. > .r ,: i ;; ■ S: 

Want of space prevents us from inserting another 
beautiful proof of problem 24, by Thos. J. Lee, 
'94. It will appear in the June number. 



58 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



24. 



Solve: 
I 



2 (x^—i) —2 (^'—4)' 



{x^—2) 

Solution by Frederick F. Comfmns^ '92. 

2 {x^—l) ~~^—2 (^^—4) ~^ = 3 (-^^ —2) ~ . 

Which equation written with positive exponents 
2 2 _ 3 

4 



IS 



x^ — I 



X 



X 



clear of fractions. 



2X- 



1 11 

12 ^^+ 16 — 2;r + 6;r^ — 4 = 3^ — I5;r^-f-i2 



1 
-7 



o 



—3^ + 9-^' 
x'^^= — 3 or o 
:r = 9 or o 
25. — An army on the march is 25 miles in length. 
An orderly in the extreme rear is sent with a mes- 
sage to the commanding officer at the front, 25 
miles away. He delivers his message, returns 
at once to his position in the rear and finds the 
army has jidvanced 15 miles. How far has he 

traveled ? 

Solution by John J. Ryle^ '94. 



• :r ' 16— ;tr 

Let AB = 25 miles. 

X = the distance the army has moved while he 
is riding to x, and 15 — x = the distance the army 
has marched while he rides back. 

25 + x= distance up. 

25 '— (15 — ;ir) = 10 + ^ — distance down. 

.•. 25 -f- ;»r : ;i; : : 10 + ^ : 15 — x 

375 — lox — x^ = io:r + x^ 

2^ + 20^ = 375. Complete square 

i6;«;^ -f ( ) + 20^ = 3,000 + 400= 3,400 

4x +'20 = i 5^.3.:/ ■^■■■v - 

4^=38.3 

^ = 9-57 

••• 2S + X = 34.57 
10 + X = 19.57 

54.14 miles traveled. 

New Problems. 
26. — Given the latitude of a place and the sun's 
declination : find his altitude and azimuth at 6 
o'clock A. M. (neglecting refraction). 

27. — If perpendiculars be drawn from the angu- 
lar points of a square to any line, the sum of the 
squares of the perpendiculars from one pair of oppo- 
site angles exceeds twice the rectangle of the per- 
pendiculars from the other pair of opposite angles 
by the area of the square. 

28. — A party of 20 persons go on a pic-nic and 
between them they contribute $20.00 for the enter- 
tainment. The men pay $1, the, women 50c. and 
the children 25c. How many men, women and 
children are there? 

29.— Solve by Horner's method 

X* — Sx^ — i^x^ -\- ^x — 8 = 0. 



Splinters. 

Brass. 

Shaun. 

G-lant. 

Treacle. 

Mikie. 

Reviews. 

Holy Scissors ! 

The ghost walks. 

Where did they Al-dine ? 

Not last, but least— W. M. 

Who pumped the organ? 

How about the other donkey ? 

Billy ^ isn't that a nice moon ? 

Last night was a fine day, wasn't it ? 

A half dozen oranges please. 

I'm right if you hear me warbling. 

He gave me a live violet. 

Order what you please, dat's de biz. 

Boys, keep ahead of your work. 

Billy, isn't that a nice moon ? 

Make hay while the sun shines. 

Who is all over the field ? The short-sior^. 

Who is the white-haired chappie? 

The villain still pursues the boy with the cig- 
arettes. 

I'm living the life of a prince. 

"Trust no one but yourself, Shaun." 

Billy, isn't that a nice Moon f 

T will C that we get fair play. 

How Dick enjoys his own jokes ! 

How does ice water strike you Stanley ? 

Really, gentlemen, this is unexpected. 

No wonder he looked so lonesome. 

Hide yourselves, the yeoman are coming. 

It takes a strong wind to blow George South. 

Phil catches the ball well when he has a Mit-on. 

Kavanagh looked quite Rosey as a female im- 
personator. 

Hearken to the voice of the captain. 

Do you say your name is Noname? — but T. con- 
vulsed with laughter Gant answer. 

Bill came Nye collapsing at a visit of some of his 
friends. 

Sullivan still frequents his familiar haunts. 

And patiently endures his fellow-students' 
taunts. 

Frank surprised us in preventing Willie from 
making a noise board-ering on tumult : Moral, 
don't be Too-sure in going to Pickett up. 

Say, friend, if that was mine I'd open it. 

Always and ever endeavor to preserve the 
beautiful. 

The boys are all Expressed with those luminous 
dark eyes. 

Wait until I get my room next year. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



59 



Look there, John, the boys have been playing 
marbles. 

Why can't you shoot it with a blank cartridge ? 

Gentle Will, take our advice and don't stretch 
any more. It's gone far enough. 

It appears that roses cease to grow in Rosemont 
as there is a noticeable scarcity of the dear little 
flowers at present. 

Judging from the manner in which they per- 
formed the love scenes, it strikes us forcibly 
"they've all been there before many a time." 

T. F., one of the seniors, for the past month has 
been busily engaged collecting stamps for the 
African mission. — Keep up the good work, 
Tommy. 

The teacher went around the class, 
Jimmie thought by him he'd pass ; 
He was the last the Prof, espied, 
Jimmie bravely said, I'm satisfoied. 

J. V. has finally conceded the fact that he is sur- 
passed by Felix in the production of sounds. 

J. R. knows from actual measurement the exact 
number of feet and inches between Villanova and 
Bryn Mawr. He has footed it many times. 

Since the Blues Red of the Greens they have no 
fear of the Whites. 

Charles thinks he will have his photograph en- 
larged, embodying the strides he takes after 
making a catch. 

OUR HERO. 

From the halls of the Convent "Our Hero" 
rushed forth. 
And wild was the glare of his dark, rolling eye. 
As he gazed on the building that points to the 
north. 
And saw, as he thought, a flame leap to the sky. 
Then he cried: "There's a fire ! get the hose 
Brother Ned." 
But the Brother responded quite coolly, by Jove, 
*' O Father Avick ! what's got into your head, 
Sure 'tis only a spark from the shoemaker's 
stove." 

Our " Splinter Ed." is ill, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ; ^ 

; The task now rests on Bill, 

To grind out wit, and make a hit; 
To move us with a quill. 

A melancholy joke 

Our chippy Ed. did choke. 

With nod of head, the doctor said : 

"He did the gods provoke ! " 

Now Billy do your best, 

" A Mahon's a man " — no jest ! 

If you get there, you'll get the chair 

When " Woody 's " laid at rest. 



PERSONALS. 



Mr. P. F. Monaghan, of Shenandoah, Pa., a 
former student of our College, was the guest of his 
brother Edward on the 14th. 

M. A. Tierney, '93, was called home during the 
Easter holidays to attend his mother's funeral. It 
is with the deepest sorrow that we announce 
this sad news, and beg to express our sincere con- 
dolence in the family's bereavement. 

Rev. Frs. Monaghan, '78, and Dolan, of St. 
Elizabeth's Church, Philadelphia, called at the 
College during the past month. They were enter- 
tained by Rev. R. F. Harris, O.S.A. 

Mr. J. F. Hilleary, B.S., '92, whp is pursuing a 
course of civil engineering at the\Steven's Insti- 
tute, Hoboken, N. J., recently made a visit to his 
Alma Mater. 

Mr. Gerald Gallagher, formerly '92 and at present 
a medical student of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, spent Easter Sunday at the College with his 
friend, W. J. Parker, our genial editor. 

Thomas H. Fitzgerald and T. P. Callahan, mem- 
bers of the staff", enjoyei a ride on the locomotive, 
John Bull, while on its way to Chicago. 

Mr. Frank Crowe, of St. Charles' Seminary, 
Overbrook, called to see his cousins, Martin and 
Charles, of the junior division. 

Mr. P.J. O'Donnell, of Camden, N. J., spent 
last Sunday with his brothers, Roger and Bernard. 

E.J. McKeough, who for some time has been 
under the care of an oculist, has so far recovered 
as to be able to resume his studies. 

On the 27th inst,, the following Augustinian 
scholastics — W. A. Coar, J. F. Medina and J. A. 
McErlain — will be ordained priests by the Most 
Rev. P. J. Ryan. 

During the past month seven new students have 
been registered on the roll. The number of 
students this year far exceeds that of former years, 
a result of the interest taken in the students by 
those in immediate charge. 

Misses Ernestina and Eloisa Duque, of the 
Young Ladies' Academy, of Notre Dame, Phila- 
delphia, visited their brother Luciano. 

On April 21, Professor S. F, Neff", principal of 
the Neff" College of Oratory, was the guest of our 
Vice-President. During his stay he addressed the 
students of the elocution class. He spoke particu 
larly on the requisites for oratory and effective 
public speech in general, and concluded by reciting 
a poem entitled "Alaska." The recitation was 
loudly applauded, and the class much pleased with 
the speaker's remarks. 



6o 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 



V. L. I. Institute Hall, Wednesday April 2otli. 
To-day was held the regular monthly meeting of 
the V. L. I. A full attendance was requested, but 
nearly one-half of the members were absent. Those, 
however, who were fortunate enough to be pres- 
ent enjoyed a spicy meeting. For some time past 
the daily papers have been missing from the files 
and it has been impossible to locate the guilty par- 
ties. At to-day's meeting, however, the discov- 
ery was made and henceforth, the papers will in 
all probability be on file at the regular time and 

place. .^, ,,...; ;--;.^.:-:: 

When this matter was settled to the evident sat- 
isfaction of all present, the President made a few 
suggestions relative to what the society of '93 
should leave as a memorial. The matter was laid 
over until the next regular meeting, when some 
definite action will be taken. 



V. D. S. On Saturday evening April 22nd, a 
general debate took place on the subject — Resolved : 
*'tliat Classics are of more benefit in education 
than Mathematics." The debate proved very 
interesting and nearly all took advantage of the 
allotted time to express their views. The house 
was divided between the champions of Classics and 
Mathematics and according as the arguments 
advanced by the opposing side convinced a mem- 
ber on either side, he changed to that side. 
Much amusement was caused by frequent changes 
of the same parties and when the debate closed, 
the classical side was ahead with a score of eigh- 
teen to twelve. We hope to hear another good 
debate of the same kind in the near future. 

The debating season is fast drawing to a close 
and some seem to have lost the enthusiasm that 
fired them earlier in the year. This should not be. 
As much depends on the constancy with which 
one adheres to his work as upon the work itself. 
Let us continue, then, as we have begun, and 
let not our ardor flag even though spring fever is 
prevalent. 



Our Glee Club will soon be called upon to take 
an active and important part in the Rosary 
Society's annual commencement. In view of this 
fact, the members are having frequent rehearsals. 
As there is some good vocal talent in the club 
we may expect a very pleasing entertainment 
from it. 



EXCHANGES. 



In looking over the pages of the Georgetown 
College Journal we were very much pleased with 
the article, "The Training Afforded by College 
Journalism." It is an easy matter to note the care- 
ful thought which the writer has given to his 
subject, and his varied and extensive knowledge, 
which he uses to such advantage in the excellent 
journal of which he has the honor to be editor-in- 
chief. 

We regret very much the non-appearance on our 
table of the Owl^ from Ottawa University. We 
hold this worthy magazine in high esteem, and 
hope that it will soon reappear among our other 
exchanges. 

The Mt. St. Joseph' s Collegian reached us this 
month at a very early date. Clad in a purely white 
cove-, on which its title was inscribed in letters of 
gold, it presented a most attractive appearance, and 
gave evidence of the enterprise of its managers. 

The Facts^ one of our most esteemed exchanges, 
is a paper devoted to the interests of Southern 
Catholics. Its columns are always well filled with 
current news and items of public interest, while its 
editorials, generally on some of the questions of the 
day, are so ably written that even the most critical 
can hardly find fault. Besides Facts there are 
many other weekly journals which we are pleased 
to mention as visitors to our sanctum, such as the 
Scranton Index^ Catholic Advocate^ New York 
Tablet and Boston Pilot. 

Among the weeklies which come to us after 
braving all the dangers of a long journey from the 
West, none affords us more pleasure than the 
Monitor.^ from San Francisco. Its editorials are 
strong and interesting, and all its literary matter is 
well worthy of perusal. 

The March and April numbers of the Sentinel^ 
from St. Mary's College, Kentucky, have failed to 
reach us. We hope for a continued exchange of 
the Sentinel^ as we miss very much from our table 
this excellent little journal. 

We are pleased to note among our exchanges 
the Highla^ider., from the College of the Sacred 
Heart, Denver, Col. Its appearance is artistic and 
its matter select. An essay, which pleases us much 
is " The Value of Formal Logic." The writer ably 
treats of the perfect syllogism and of sophistry, and 
aptly refers to the great injury of the latter in 
spreading error, corrupting innocent minds, etc. 
Not the least injury, according to the writer, is the 
humiliation of the reader or the hearer when he 
realizes the deception practised on him, either by 
the malice of the logician, hidden in his sophisms, 
or by the untrained mind of the sophist. 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



SEE 

B. F. Owen & Co., 

1 41 6 Chestnut Street, 
BEFORE YOU BUY 

A PIANO OR ORGAN. 

You vuill $aue /I\0P^y ap^^ [iave a 

CHOICE OF THE BEST. 

200 NEiA£ PIKNOS. 

9 WORLD RENOWNED MAKES. 

WEBER, HALLET & DAVIS, BRIGGS and 

STARR PIANOS, ETC. 
Write for Catalogues, Prices, Terms, etc. 

1416 Chestnut Street. 

JAMES MCCANNEY, 

PRKCTICT^L 

Saddle, [iarness i Collor Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

THE DeMORAT STUDIO; 

914 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILA. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL BRANCHES. 

Special Rates in Groups, also to Colleges and Societies. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H. B . HHNSB\/RV. 

ARTHUR'S ~~ 

Famous Ice Cream, 

ALL FLAVORS. 

Plain and Fancy Cakes, Bread, Rolls and 
Buns, Pies, Desserts. 

Pure Ice served during the entire year, by the 
BRYN MAWR ICE COxMPANY. Your o.ders 
are respectfully solicited. 

I. WARNER ARTHUR, 
Bryn niavrr, Pa. 

E. K. WILSON & SON, 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

IPiifsfe-^lass 1^00te and §h0es^ 

^ Repairing Neatly and Promptly attended to. Custom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^ancastcT Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



I wiU sell YDU 

$10.00 worth of Clothing, Dress Goods, Ladies' 
Coats and Cloaks, Furniture, Carpets Watches, 
Jewelry, Ohinaware, etc., for 

$1.00 CASH AND $1.00 PER WEEK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 


PHILAD'A 


If the Goods are not sat- 


ON SATURDAY 




isfactory, come to me and 


UNTIL 




1 will allow all reasonable 


TEN O'CLOCK. 


^„^^,,^^ 


claims. 







Physicians' Prescriptions Accurately Compounded at all hours »t 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY, 

FR/i^K ^- PRIWTT. Craduatc ip p\)zrp\zQy, 

PROPRIETOR. 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 

BOOKS BOUGHT. 

TP j-ou want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
^ at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old Books in America, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to spare is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. 

I-OMRV'S OL-D BOOK STORe, 
9 South Xinth Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

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Vol. I. 



Villanova College, June, 1893. 



No. G, 



Ode to St. Aloysius. 

Sweet soul of piety, enshrined above, 

With heavenly glory 'round thy angel torrri, 

Now singing in the choir of love ; 

Thy spirit to the great white throne doth move, 

Far distant from the world's dark, threatening storm. 

Long since exalted worth hath called thee blessed, 

And Sin and Lethe's stream have vanquished been. 

But still, in moments of the soul's unrest, 

I've heard thy voice above the din 

In accents soft, that breathe a calm, 

And banish far all feehngs of alarm. 

Thy life on earth was like the flower that dwells 

In modest sweetness, by the woodland dells, 

Exhaling thence the troubled world around 

A fragrance that, like music's sound, 

Rapts the full soul and lifts it up to thee, 

Thou model of true sanctity. 

Oh ! blessed Saint, from thy dear home 

In Heaven's far-circling dome. 

Look down, and list the ascending praise awhile 

That flows from mortal lips. The day's bright gleam 

Obscures our sight, but when thy gentle smile 

Illumines all, Pomp's gorgeous pile 

Is vanished like a dream. 

On thy great feast-day we recall 

How in Earth's sinful pleasure-hall. 

Through which in this low life men's feet must tread, 

Thy way unscathed along its paths once led 

Far onward in their narrow length to Heaven, 

One journey thine, for this thy life was given. 

In form I know that thou art fled, 

And yet my vision seems to trace 

A youth before a mighty army led, 

A gentle prince of heaven-born grace. 

Thy noble sire did gaze expectant on thy face. 

To catch the first impression on the soul 

Of proud array, of titles, pomp and base 

Ambition ; then, the book and learned scroll 

Were frowned upon ; the one and long-sought goal 

Of fame and Hfe was where the thunders of Bellona roll. 

On Casal's plain, the assembled troops 
Crossed and re-crossed in trappings gay ; 
Their arms flashed back the light of day — 



Brave men, misled, of kings the willing dupes. 
For royal smiles to death would ride ; 
Theirs was a base, a servile pride. 

But sadly viewed the pious youth 
These hireling foes of sacred Right and Truth ; 
He mused on human pride and empty fame, 
That give our lives to misery and shame, 
That break the harmony of this fair world 
And send aloft Sin's banner bright unfurled. ■ ;■ : 

To fairer fields of innocent delight. 
With fixed resolve, the Prince Angelic strayed. 
Where sun-kissed flowers were never born to fade, 
Or, trembling, feel the chilly hand of Night. 
The cloister and its holy rest, 
Its sweet communings with the blest. 
Gave promise of enduring peace above. 
When happy souls are bound for aye in golden chains ol 
love. ■•■/\/ ■■■' 

What grace in saintly heart doth dwell 
Is not for sinful man to tell. 
The Eye of Heaven alone can mark 
Of virtue's flame the glowing spark. 
Oh ! meekness of a loving saint, 
How hard in truthful tints to paint 
Thy hallowed worth. 

Ah ! now that I with reverent lips might greet 

The path of penance of thy pilgrim feet, 

Where, pitying, thou didst wail the sins of men, 

And pray with fervent mind that back again 

The erring flock might homeward wend its way, 

And never more from Virtue's pathway stray ! 

How glad I'd kneel thy hardened couch beside, 

From which so oft, in Nigh lj|lE. dark, ebbing tide. 

Thou steppedst to bless the sleeping world ; but now, 

When I recall the laurels on thy brow 

In early youth, and how at Life's brief span 

They turned to halos 'round thy head, I tell as best I 

can ; 
And oft, as rosy June brings 'round thy day, 
The record of thy life will cheer our way. 
And cast on weary hearts a Heaven-sent ray. 



James H. Flannery. 



62 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Pleasures of Memory. 

Memory is that power or capacity of the mind by 
which it reproduces what was once present to the 
senses. Without this faculty man would, in some 
respects, sink below his present dignity, and lack, 
moreover, the great pleasures that fond memories 
must ever bring to him. Just a& faith, hope and 
charity are necessary for eternal happiness here- 
after, so free will, understanding and memory are 
essential for the pursuit of pleasure in this world. 
God in His wisdom has bestowed upon us the gift 
of memory, that by its aid we may make our so- 
journ here a happy one. We, on the other hand, 
if we desire to find consolation in the pleasures of 
memory, must lead truly Christian lives, so that, 
when the curtain descends on the stage of our life, 
we can turn to our Creator with confidence, the 
memory of our righteousness being our assurance 
of His divine favor in our behalf. As we advance in 
life, the pleasures of memory become sweeter and 
dearer; but not until we have arrived at man- 
hood's estate, do they possess that charm which 
" monarchs are too poor to buy." In childhood's 
day we see every path strewn with flowers, and in 
our youth our fertile imagination is intoxicated 
with the future cf the unreal. We pass heedlessly 
over these days, never thinking what a conspic- 
uous part they are to play in after years. Man- 
hood then dawns upon us, childhood and youth 
have passed away. With the courage of the glad- 
iator we enter the vast arena, to swell the multi- 
tude of struggling humanity. What a change this 
new condition effects in us ! Are oiir early expec- 
tations realized ? Does the world look less fair 
than in our youth ? Does not the fleeting phan- 
tom of pleasure lure us on ? This is the waking 
time of conscience. As we stand upon the bridge 
of life, we see before us distinctly " a wasted yonth 
on one side, and the darkness of approaching age 
upon the other," In this perplexity, the sweet 
voice of memory consoles us like the soothing balm 
of Gilead. Now it is, and only now, that the pleas- 
ures of the past can be recalled with a surely happy 
effect. Now it is that the days that are gone seem 
the brightest, and with the poet we exclaim : 

:>:;/■:; " Soul-like were those days of yore ; ? ; ! : ; 

['' ^'■^'■^^::^y '■_■:: heit us walk in soul once more." ' ^ ^ 

With what pleasure do we contemplate our happy 
childhood's home, our innocent sports and pas- 
times ; the childish cares and troubles which agi- 
tated our young minds ! What happy recollections 
hover around the old school house in which we 
learned those principles which were to guide the 
future man ! Where are those smiling faces that 



greeted us on the playground ? Some yet remain, 
others " The grave has lost in its unconscious 
womb." .Once more we stand beside a mother's 
knee, and hear her gentle admonitions. 'Twas 
here we first clasped our hands in prayer and were 
told of the God who loves little children. Who 
can forget a mother's tender care or her anxiety 
lest her offspring might depart from the path of 
rectitude and truth ? With what undying love does 
she not observe its every action ! Then, too, the 
memory of a father's kind and fostering care fills 
our hearts to overflowing. Who can revert without 
pleasure to the joy of his parents, and his own 
great peace of soul, on the occasion of his First 
Communion — happy day! Then it was that ve 
possessed the unsullied lily of purity, and within 
our breast "there was a heart at rest." How 
much pleasure it affords us when we call up in 
long review our associates in early life ! There is 
not a heart open to impression that can look upon 
these days without emotion ; our rambles together 
in the cool shade of evening by the sparkling 
brook, our plans for the future, the rollicking fun, 
the anecdotes told to while away the dreary hours, 
the memories of a devoted brother, the affections 
of a loving sister : who can dwell upon these and 
say, memory hath no charms ? Again, when we 
endure some pang of bitterness, where do we find 
solace? 

Truly has it been written " Memory is the only 
friend that grief can call its own. " We need no 
better evidence of the truth of this statement than 
the above. The pleasures of the past are set at 
naught, if our lives have not been guided by vir- 
tue's shining star. Though misfortune may have 
obscured our path betimes, and though we have been 
forced to drink our potion of the cup of bitterness 
and have seen our most sanguine hopes grow cold, 
yet in the memories of the past do we not find 
some heroic example of courage that will cause us 
to take heart again ? In the history of our own 
land, for instance, the names of Washington, 
Lafayette, Webster and Lincoln cause a glow of 
pride in the heart of every true American, and these 
names will give pleasure as long as patriotism is 
admired and love of liberty, after the love of God, 
is regarded as the highest of human aspirations. 
And as it is with us, so it is with those of other 
lands. To whatever nation we belong there will 
be found in its history, and in its institutions, much 
to glory in, much to lessen the burden of care and 
cheer the drooping heart. When our spirit is 
oppressed and " words come up too thick for utter- 
ance," some bygone event, to which distance lends 
enchantment, will serve to unburden our troubled 
soul. And when the supreme moment arrives, 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



63 



when the sun of our lives is setting, what a charm the 
memories of happier days cast around us ! Tlieu it 
is we reflect most, and strive with all our power to 
draw consolation from the past. All the joys and 
comforts of life pass quickly before us, kind Provi- 
dence thus permitting- us to revert in memory to 
those scenes which will afford us solace at this 
trying time. Herein is the crowning pleasure of 
our existence, when we turn to our Creator with 
the consciousness of a life well spent, and with the 
hope of soon receiving in another world that great 
reward which He has promised to those who faith- 
fully serve Him in this — the never ending happi- 
ness of Heaven. 

Jas. H. Flood, '95. 



St. Augustine of Hippo— His Youth.* 

Augustine one of the four great Fathers of the 
Latin Church and admittedly the greatest of the 
four, was more profound than Ambrose, his spiritual 
father, more original and systematic than Jerome, 
and intellectually far more distinguished than 
Gregory the Great the last of the series. 

The theological position and influence of Augus- 
tine may be said to be unrivalled. No single name 
has ever exercised such power over the Church and 
no one mind ever made such an impression upon 
Christian thought. 

The pre-eminence of St. Augustine among the 
scholars, saints and defenders of the Church, is 
abundantly attested by the titles given to him by 
the Supreme Pontiffs in different ages. He has 
been styled by them " Founder of Religious " ; 
"Reformer of the Church"; "Light of the 
Church ; " " Patriarch of Africa ; " " Warrior of 
the Faith ; " " Scourge of heresy " ; " Buckler of 
religion ;" " Defender of Truth ; " "Chief of the 
Doctors". 

Augustine was born at Tagaste now known as 
Souk-Arras, a town of Numidia in Africa, on the 
13th day of November, A. D. 354. t 

His father Patricius was a burgher — ciirialis — of 

* Augustine's full name was Aurelius Augu-tinus, as we 
learn from the works of Paul Orosius, Claudianus Mamertus, 
the Venerable Bede, and the Carmen — De Ingratis—oi St. 
Prosper of Aquitaine. See the Sandi Aiirelii Augustini . . . 
Vita, . . . by the celebrated Tillemont, (chap. (, no. 3.,) pub- 
lished among St. Augustine's Marks— m vol. XI., p. 2, of the 
Antwerp edition, of 1702 ; and St. Prospet's Carmin, (cap.V- ) 
in vol. XII, p. 8, of tie same. 

fThe chronology heie followed is taken from the Augus- 
tinian Beiti's work De Gesiibus. In his de Beata Vita, (cap. 1, 
no. 6,) Augustine siys that his birthday was the Ides of 
November. As to the year of his birth, which some have 
placed in A. D. 355, but others— and perhaps more accurately — 
in 354, (see Berti, as above, pp. 2-3,) the latter date is the one 
that is generally received. 



Tagaste, of rather slender means. * His mother 
Monica t was not only a Christian but a woman of 
the most elevated, tender and devoted piety, whose 
fasts and prayers for both her husband and her son 
was at length crowned with success in both cases ; 
and whose affectionate and beautiful enthusiasm 
has been recognized as a touching type of womanly 
excellence for all ages. Besides Augustine Monica 
had two children both his juniors, a son Navigius 
to whom Augustine refers in his books — On the 
Blessed Life^ (cap. VL,) and On Divine Order ^ 
(lib. I., cap. n. ;) and a daughter, whom St. Possi- 
dius, the contemporary and friend of Augustine, 
says, in his Life of this saint, was a widow and for 
many years superioress of a nunnery at Hippo.:!; 

Monica early instructed her son Augustine in 
the principles and practices of piety. Love for his 
mother was in Augustine unceasing. In his Confes- 
sions he never ceases to extol the praises of the 
one to whom under God he chiefly owed his con- 
version. ^•.'":^:v■ 

Falling ill — as a child he was attacked with 
colic — ,he wished to be baptized, but on recovering 
his father had the baptism deferred. 

Inheriting from his father strong passions and 
deep attachments, while still a youth, in about the 
seventeenth year of his age, he formed at 
Carthage, whither he had gone to pursue his 
studies, a connexion — common enough at the time 
and recognized by the civil laws, but at variance 
with Christian morality. As the result of this 
connection he became the father of a son whom, in 
a fit of pious emotion, he named Adeodatus — God- 
given, but whom, in later years, he refers to only 
as " the child of my sin." 

Both Monica and Augustine nourished for one 
another the deepest and tenderest love and solici- 
tude ; whence they have been looked upon as 
among the most cherished examples of motherly 
and filial affection. 

x\ugustine was not given to gross vices. In his 
Confessions^ (see Book II.) it is true, he names his 
faults, and styles them crimes. Such were his 
habit of idling away his time when he should have 
been at study ; his petty thefts at home ; cheating 
his companions at play ; outbursts of anger ; and 
untruthfulness to his schoolmaster, teachers and 



* In his S.rtno 356 no. 6, Augustine calls \nmst\( paupercm, 
atque ex pauperibus natum. 

t A short sketch of this blessed .Saint appeared in the last 
number of The Villanova Monthly. 

X For this saintly sister of the blessed Augustine, whom 
Augustinian writers, on what authority I know not, commonly 
name Perpetua, see the Vita by Possidius, i 1 the Antwerp 
edition of the Works of St. Augustine, (is ab^ve,) vol. X., 
Appendix , p. 174. 



64 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



parents. Yet he was of singular self-control, and 
no sparer of self; he was temperate in food and 
drink, though he deplored a natural tendency to 
wine. 

In the midst of all his pleasures, (he dearly 
loved games,) Augustine was an earnest and un- 
wearying stu lent, though, as he himself says, he 
hated the rudiments of science. His father, observ- 
ing the studious an.l judicial temperament of his 
son, designed him for the bar, for which Augustine 
confessed a liking. The youth studied not only at 
his native town of Tagaste, but at the age of sev- 
enteen had already gone through the course of 
humanities at Madaura. Here he studied literature, 
oratory, music and astrology. At Carthage, 
whither he had been sent by the kindness and 
liberality of a townsman by name Romanianus, 
who assisted Monica in paying for her son's tuition, 
he passed through the several stages of rhetoric, 
and there, j^s at Madaura and Tagaste, surpassed 
his fellow students. He was devoted to the Latin 
poets, especially Virgil ; his acquaintance with 
Greek — this was an after study ; he never liked 
it — , was extensive enough to read the Greek 
Fathers Basil and Epiphanius in the original, and 
sufficiently profound to correct the Psalms according 
to the Septuagint version. He loved Plato, was 
himself an Academician from the age of twenty- 
nine, and was not unfamiliar with the Punic or 
Carthaginian dialect. In after years he preached , 
it is said, on his visits as bishop of Hippo, to the 
out-of-the-way villages of his diocese, in the Punic 
tongue. Nor was he ignorant of Hebrew ; but this 
he acquired long after his conversion. 

While at Carthage he was carried away for a 
time by the evil examples of the students to fre- 
quent the theatres and public shows. He often 
refers to the corrupt and sceptical class of young 
men that frequented the schools of this — the 
second city of the Roman Empire. No one was 
more emphatic than he in condemning the spirit of 
impiety and of unbridled lust, and a well-nigh 
utter disbelief in a Supreme Being, that marked 
the schools at Carthage. Attachment to theatrical 
displays was looked on as a sign of disbelief in 
Christianity. '■■'"J'-/:'' -''■:-':^'---'---:^'-/'-^Z'r':---'-\' ■■"■■■;v^- 

J,^.r^^. Q^M^A^^^f-' ^«,-T. C. M. 
\A'^:-''-:-J^^--'''r^C:\'. {To he Couthnied.) 



Subscribers will please notify us by postal or 
otherwise if they do not receive the Villanova 
MoN ruLY by the T5th of the month. 



Work. 

Every man possesses a certain amount of innate 
energy which is active itself, and which constantly 
impels him to activity. But like all the gifts which 
the Creator has so abundantly lavished upon man, 
this energy must be developed in order that it may 
accomplish its destined end. For its development 
he has powers both mental and physical, and the 
exercise of these powers is called work. Work is, 
therefore, natural to man — is, in fact, a law of his 
nature. 

Even if this were not so, the present condition 
of man makes work a necessity, as it is the only 
means whereby he may put himself in communi- 
cation with nature, and acquaint himself with the 
secrets which she hides within her breast. The 
mines of coal and salt, of gold and silver and pre- 
cious stones have come to light only by the work 
of the industrious miner. The mighty forests have 
been cleared away, and ploughed, and planted with 
various seeds, whence are reaped harvests in abund- 
ance with which to feed the thousand millions of 
the human family — all by the persevering energy of 
work. The elements themselves — light, heat, elec- 
tricity, and all the forces of nature have been 
brought under comparative subjection, and have 
been compelled to minister unto the wants and 
luxuries of man. Work may be compared to a 
mighty magician who, entering a vast and dreary 
desert waste, lifts his wand, and behold! that which 
was once a dreary waste has become a luxuriant 
garden, smiling with fruits and flowers, and busy 
with the life and bustle of the inhabitants. 

Truly it was a wise disposition of God's Pro- 
vidence that man should be at the mercy of work. 
Existence without it is inconceivable. Even in 
the primitive state of innocence, before God pro- 
nounced the curse upon man, "Thou shalt eat thy 
bread in the sweat of thy brow," work would 
have been absolutely necessary to man. The only 
diiference would be that what is now oftentimes a 
source of pain, dissatisfaction and regret, would 
then have been a source of endless joy and 
pleasure. 

Man is so constituted by nature that life itself 
depends upon the exercise of the various powers or 
energies with which he is endowed. Constant in- 
activity would destroy the muscles, congeal the 
blood, and gradually dry up the well-springs of 
existence. But work on the contrary strengthens 
the muscles, puts the blood in circulation, feeds 
the brain, and thus confers upon man that greatest 
of all natural blessings, a sound mind in a sound 
body. 

The results of work are many. Independence 
and self-respect are essential to happiness; and 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



65 



these are never to be attained without earnest work. 
No idle man, no matter how rich he may be, can 
feel the genuine independence of the laborer who 
earns honestly and manfully his daily bread. No 
idle man can enjoy self-respect, neither can he en- 
joy or hope for the respect of his fellow-men or of 
God. For God did not create man to spend his life 
in idleness, and thus te of no service to the rest of 
creation. Each individual is a part of one great 
whole, of one great machine, which is kept in good 
working order only by each part performing its 
allotted functions. A man who neglects to do this 
is an anomaly in creation, and the sooner he bids 
adieu forever to his uncongenial surroundings, the 
better it will be for himself and for the world at 
large. 

Who is the happy man? He who performs his 
part in life ; who makes constant use of the gifts 
bestowed upon him by his generous Creator, and 
who thereby fulfils the end of his creation. He 
who is grateful because he has found his work; 
who is not discouraged by the trials and difficulties 
which he must endure in its performance, but who 
by earnestness and perseverance finds the pathway 
to success. Such a man is not only happy himself, 
but makes others happy as well ; he lightens the 
burdens of others, alleviates their miseries, and 
helps them in their necessity. His very presence 
is a stimulant to exertion and an inspiration to 
nobility of soul. 

Some claim that there is no dignity attached to 
work, but such persons do not understand what 
they are talking about. They certainly do not un- 
derstand the nature of work, nor its absolute neces- 
sity to man's interests. They shut their eyes to all 
that has been accomplished by work, and refuse to 
see all that may yet be accomplished by the same 
mighty power. They disregard altogether the 
manifestation of the will of God in the discipline 
of the worker by which he is made to realize his 
position as a creature and his dependence upon the 
Creator. 

Work leads man to the temple of fame by various 
paths. We form an estimate of a man from what 
he does. As the poet has said : 

" How long we live not years but actions tell. " 

We should strife, therefore, to perform our part in 
life well by laboring earnestly and perseveringly 
for our own good and for the good of our fellow- 
men. For this resolution and courage are necessary. 
"Resolve ! Resolve! and to be men aspire. 
Exert that noblest privilege, — alone 
Here to mankind indulged; — control desire; 
Let God-like Reason from her sovereign throne 
Speak the commanding word, 'I will ! ' — and it is 

done." D. F. Harkin, '93. 



An Excellent Work. 
From the Catholic Reviezv. 



Lkonard's Mass in Honor of St. Augustine.— 
By the Rev. J. Leonard, O.S. A., and dedicated 
to Very Rev. F. X. McGowan, O.S. A., Lan- 
singburgh, N. Y. (D. J. Gallagher & Co., 
Publishers, 420 Library street.) 

The reverend author of this excellent work has 
evidently great musical talent. Furthermore he 
has, as is seen from his production, combined much 
study and excellent judgment with his natural 
ability. In these days of fol-de-rol music, unfortu- 
nately so common, it is a genuine pleasure to listen 
to such music as that which Father Leonard has 
given us. It is to be hoped that Father Leonard 
will not be satisfied to rest now upon his laurels, 
but will continue on and from time to time give to 
the world the results of his labors. We are confi- 
dent that if he does, each new work of his will be 
hailed with delight by all judges of good music. 
His present production we heartily recommend to 

all. V-:''.- ^^-':^^^-^^:-^''^^^ 



ATHLETICS. 
Villanova College 6, State Normal 5. 
May 6.— The West Chester State Normal School 
team came to Villanova and was convinced that 
the College boys were better ball-players. Although 
the score was close, there was not much doubt, after 
the second innings, as to which club would win 
O'Leary played a beautiful game at first, accepting 
a number of hard chances without an error. Gal- 
lagher, for the home team, led at the bat, and 
Lonaker, for the vistors. The latter also caught 
his usual good game. The score 

Villanova. 



Herron, 1 
McDonnell c 
McKenna, p . 
Carey, ss . . 
Gallagher, 2b 
Jennings, 3b . 
Murphy, cf . 
Dugan, rf . . 
O'Leary, ib , 



R H o 

000 

2 

I 

o 

2 
I 
I 
o 



o 
o 
I 

2 

r 
I 
o 
I 



6 
I 
o 

5 
o 
o 
o 



2 15 



A E 

I O 

O I 

8 o 

3 I 

4 I 
o o 
o o 

O 2 

O O 



Totals . . 6 9 27 16 5 



Lukens, 3b . 
Monahan, ss 
Farrell, If . . 
Longaker, c . 
Hartman, ib 
Ford, p . . . 
Buckman, rf . 
Pluck, 2b . . 
Wilson, cf. . 



IPest Chester. 

R H O 

.002 



I 

2 

o 

I 
I 
o 
o 
o 



1 o 

I 

2 8 

I 10 

1 o 

o 

1 5 
I I 



A 

o 

3 
o 

4 
o 

7 
o 
o 
o 



E 
O 
I 
O 
O 

I 
I 

2 
2 
I 



Totals . . 5 7 27 14 8 



Earned runs — Villanova, 3 ; West Chester, i. Two base 
hits — Gallagher, Longaker, Jennings. Left on bases — Villa- 
nova, 5 ; West Chester, 4. Struck out — by McKenna, 6 ; Ford, 
7. Base on balls— McKenna, 3 ; Ford, 2. Passed balls — Mc- 
Donnell, 2. Time— 1.45. Umpire— Wm. Mahon. 



State Normal 4, Villanova College 9. 

West Chester, May 18. — A large and enthusi- 
astic crowd witnessed the Normal School of West 
Chester and the Villanova College teams cross 
bats at West Chester. 



66 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The beautiful weather lured a large contingent 
of young ladies of the State Normal School to 
see the game, and many students from Villanova, 
with the College colors flying, helped to make 
the scene at the West Chester field more than 
usually attractive. Doubtless, also, the fact that 
the Normal's opponents were the sturdy ball 
tossers of Delaware county had*also its eflfect. 

The Normal's friends tiied to give them en- 
couragement by their faint college cries ; but were 
forced to yield to the volume, tone and quality of 
the cry of Villanova's adherents. 

Gallagher's veterans won the game from the 
Normal's after a most interesting contest, doubly 
so, owing to the fact that the Normal's were cer- 
tain of victory. After the fourth innings the 
Normals awoke to the fact that they could not play 
ball with Captain Gallagher's men. The score 



Viilanova. 








West Chester 








R 


H 





A 


»-, 


R 


11 





A 


E 


Hart, 3b ... 


I 


2 


I 


1 


Monahan, ss . i 


I 


I 


2 


I 


Smith, p 2b . .1 


2 


4 


4 





Farrell, If . . .0 





2 








Herron, cf . . i 





I 








Ford, p .... 


I 


I 


8 





McKenna, p 2b 2 


I 


I 


6 


I 


Longaker, c . . 





8 


I 





O'Leary, ib . . r 


2 


7 





2 


Hartman, 2b . 


I 


3' 


I 


2 


Gallagher, If . 2 


2 


I 








Kane, ib . . . i 


2 


7 








Carey, ss . . . i 





3 


3 


I 


Buckman.rf . . 


I 











Jennings, rf . . 


I 











Pluck, cf . . . 2 





3 





I 


McDonnell, c . i 


I 


8 


4 


I 


Herron, 3b . . 





2 


2 


4 


Totals . . 9 


10 


27 


18 


6 


Totals . . 4 


6 


27 


14 


8 



Earned runs— Villanova, 4 ; Normal, i. Two base hits — 
McDonnell, Jennings, Smith, Kane. Left on bases — Vil'anova, 
6 ; West Chester, 7. Struck out— by McKenna, 5 ; Ford, 8 ; 
Smith, 3. Passed balls— McDonnell, 2. Time — 2 hours. Um- 
pires — Wm. Mahon, Wm. Philips. 



Villanova, May 20. Ten to eight was the score 
between the Montgomery A. A. and Villanova Col- 
lege in favor of the former. The game was of the 
average kind, although Herron was obliged to 
pitch in place of McKenna, who was unable to do 
so, owing to sickness. The umpiring too, was 
against Villanovians, two bad decisions in the 
ninth inning gave runs to their opponents. The 
fielding of the Villanovians, and their base-running 
were the features. The score: 

.; ; V 123456789 RHK 
Montgomery 100023004 10 56 
Villanova 212001200 874 

Earned runs — Montgomery A. A.,3 ; Villanova, 
4 ; Two base hits — Pickett, Gallagher, Hoffman. 
Left on bases — Villanova, 3 ; Montgomery A. A. , 5; 



Struck out — by Hoffman, 5 ; Herron, 9. Passed 
balls — McDonnell, i ; Zook, 3. Time — 1.45. Um- 
pire — Mahon. 

The second game of the series between the Reds 
and Blues resulted in a victory for the former. 
The score : 

I 23456789 10 RHE 
Reds 0000220101 676 
Blues 1010000300 547 

Two base hits — Murphy, O'Leary, Herron. Left 
on bases — Reds, 7 ; Blues, 5. Struck out — by 
Herron, 14 ; Gallagher, 6. Base on balls — by Her- 
ron, 4 ; Gallagher, 3. Time — 1.45. Umpire — 
Mahon. 



Ordinations 

The closing week of Mary's month was an event- 
ful one for three Augustinian scholastics : — Revs. 
John F. Medina,, O.S. A.; Walter A. Coar, O.S.A., 
and John A. McErlain, O.S. A., who were raised to 
the sublime dignity of the holy priesthood. The 
ordaining prelate was His Grace Archbishop 
Ryan, of Philadelphia. On Wednesday morning. 
May 24th, in the Seminary Chapel at Overbrook 
the above-named gentlemen, together with six Vin- 
centian scholastics from Germantown, Pa. , received 
ecclesiastical tonsure and minor orders. On Thurs- 
day morning in the same place eight diocesan 
seminarians and three Vincentians, together with 
our own scholastics, were ordained Sub-Deacons. 
Friday morning witnessed the conferring of the 
Sacred Order of Deaconship upon four Diocesan 
Sub-Deacons, two Vincentians and the three Au- 
gustinians. The crowning event, however, took 
place in the Cathedral of Philadelphia on Saturday 
when in the presence of a vast congregation, with 
all the pomp and splendor and solemnity, with 
which our holy Church clothes her ceremonies, 
seven Levites were made "priests forever accord- 
ing to the order of Melchisedech." The secular 
clergymen who were ordained were Revs. Frs. 
F'arley, McMahon, Dever and Sweeney. To these, 
as well as to those who have been so closely asso- 
ciated with us, our wish is — ''''Ad multos annos.'''' 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



67 



Religion an Element of True Education. 

Education is a word frequently used, yet varying 
in its signification according to the purpose of the 
person using it. To its etymology is attached a 
certain definite meaning, — the bringing forth from 
a negative state to a positive one, from ignorance 
and rudeness to knowledge and culture. To a 
Christian, education of this character would not suf- 
fice ; with it must be combined that elementwhich 
acknowledges that the object of man's existence is 
to know, love and serve God, and to save his im- 
mortal soul from eternal perdition. 

Education, therefore, comprises two principal 
elements : the redemption from ignorance and 
barbarism and the accomplishment of the end for 
which man was created. To an intelligent mind, 
education of this kind will be as sunshine dispelling 
the clouds of presumption and error. Many per- 
sons there are who imagine that they possess more 
knowledge than they really have, and who, there- 
fore, do not recognize the want of knowledge. 
"There is nothing so hurtful," says an able writer, 
"as the spirit of pride, for this blinds the mind, 
makes one overweeningly confident of his powers, 
attached to his own opinion and loath to receive 
instruction." 

On the contrary, a truly learned man gives proof 
of great humility of mind, and shows his apprecia- 
tion of what he does know by comparing that with 
all that it is possible for him to know. He is fully 
aware that in the vast field of knowledge he can 
cultivate a part only. Men of this stamp are faith- 
ful followers of Plato who has said, "I know only 
this that I know nothing." Pope has very wisely 
said: 

"A little learning is a dangerous thing ; 

Drink deep, or laste not the Pierian spring: 
' There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain. 
And drinking largely sobers us again." ^ 

Thus we have seen that to the beginner two re. 
quisites are necessary, viz. : humility of mind and 
a disposition to receive lessons with docility. 

Being all in the same condition, we stand in 
need of learning and of an instructor to show us 
that path of truth which leads unto the goal that 
God has marked out for his creatures. ' ' What- 
ever," says one of our modern writers, "conflicts 
with this end is to be rejected ; whatever aids us in 
attaining it is to be embraced, and as all truth is in 
harmony with this end, it follows that education 
can embrace all sciences that are truly such, while 
it must eliminate all error." Education that would 
exclude that element which regulates the relation 
of man with God, which teaches the intellect and 
trains the heart, elevates man no higher than 
the objects which surround him. Such education 



is called secular and places its reliance altogether 
upon reason and scientific investigation. As an 
example of this we need only consult pagan phi- 
losophy to discover that reason alone and unaided 
has been found wanting, and that the principles of 
such philosophy are subversive of society and 
morality. Religion has preserved education and 
has made it what it is to-day, and thereby has built 
up society and perfected civilization. 

Religion as a guide leads education and with her 
torch makes bright the darkness of the understand- 
ing. She shows " How vain, how fleeting, how 
uncertain are all these gaudy bubbles after which 
we are panting and toiling in this world of fair delu- 
sion." Religion is the great gift of Him who is 
the great Author of good and Father of mercies. She 
beholds in God the original, essential beauty and 
soverign good, and tells us that the possession of 
that Beauty and sovereign Good is within our 
reach. 

Education without religion is like a flash of 
lightning that breaks through the gloom of clouds, 
and glitters but for a moment ; with it there is 
kept up a kind of daylight in the mind, a daylight 
of perpetual serenity. Thus education and religion, 
like the body and the soul, may for a time be separ- 
ated, but will at some future period be re-united, and 
will shine with greater splendor and brightness 
throughout the ages. 

John J. Ryi.e,'94. 



Jubilee Announcement. 
The closing days of the present month will be 
looked forward to with more than usual interest, 
not only by the many students now pursuing their 
studies at Villanova College, but also by the large 
numbers who in past years have completed their 
course at this time-honored institution. The oc- 
casion will be the celebration of the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the founding of the college. Judging 
from the interest manifested by the faculty, we have 
every reason to hope that the Jubilee celebration 
will be carried out on a magnificent scale, and that 
it will be a memorable event in the history of 
Villanova. His Grace, Most Rev. P. G. Ryan, 
Archbishop of Philadelphia, will preside on the 
occasion, and the dignitaries of many other dio- 
ceses have promised to honor us with their pres- 
ence. The event undoubtedly will be a joyous 
one, as it will be instrumental in bringing together 
many who have not met each other for years, but 
who will then meet, and rehearse the pleasant 
memories of their college days. 



68 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Monthly, 

PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF 

UILLANOV/A, PA. 
JUNE, 1893. 



THE STKF5F5. 



Editor- in-ChieC 
WM. J. PARKER, '93. 

Associate Editors. 
Thos. J. Fitzgerald, '93. Mich. A. Tierney, '93. 
John F. Kelleher, '93. Jas. F. O'Leary, '94. 

John J. Ryle, '94. Tim. P. Callahan, '94. 

Wm. J. Mahon, '95. Jer. J. Crowley, '94. 

John E. O'Donnell, '95. 

Business Manager. 
JOHN J. FARRELL, O.S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 

Remittances and business communications should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, 
Single copies . . 


one year ... . . . 


....... . .10 


Entered at the Villanova Post Office as 


Second- Class Matter. 




EDITORIALS. 





Too much cannot be said in condemnation of 
the prevalent and pernicious habit of those students 
who devote their attention to a particular study 
and neglect, to a great extent, the many others 
which are comprised in a college curriculum. 
During our scholastic career, which of us has not 
noted the way in which certain individuals puruse 
their favorite hobby, by giving their undivided 
attention to one branch of study? Although pro- 
ficiency be the result in this, yet when college life 
is over, they will be found woefully lacking in the 
varied knowledge which every graduate must needs 
bear to the bar of public opinion. 

The successful graduate, the one destined to 
command attention in the world, is he whose time 
has been judiciously divided in the pursuance of 
his various studies. As a consequence he will en- 
gage in the sterner duties of after life with his 
mind, not only informed as to one branch of learn- 
ing, but expanded and strengthened by a liberal 
application to many. 

There are some who have an inclination for 
mathematics, while others pay particular attention 
to the study of the classics, but in doing this they 
fail to acquire a proper knowledge of the mother 
tongue. 

In literary inheritance our language is without 
a peer, and it is to this particular branch that we 



would invite every student to give proper time and 
attention. 

Albeit our familiarity with the classics of Greece 
and Rome or our knowledge of the sciences be 
extensive, one's education lacks completeness, if 
the study of English classics does not receive proper 
attention. 

Ere our college days come to an end all of us 
ought to acquaint ourselves with the masters of Eng: 
lish diction from Chaucer, its parent, to Tennyson 
his latest worthy successor. The benefits of such 
application require no mention, for experience has 
taught that, that which is beautiful in our language 
is readily perceived and remembered. 



The close of the college year naturally brings to 
one's mind the consideration of plans for the future, 
a period of life awaited by all students with ming- 
led hope and fear. 

To some of us the future, long desired with 
emotions akin to joy, though now tempered with 
feelings of regret, will soon be a stern reality. As 
the eventful day approaches when each must take 
his part in the battle of life, it behooves us to enter 
the arena well armed and confident of victory ; and 
if in the past through neglect, or abuse of time, we 
have allowed our armor to lose its brightness, or 
our sword its edge, we have still the advantage 
that youth and hope and perseverance will yet 
gain for us the desired success. 

Perhaps many during their college career by their 
indifference to study have, to some extent, avoided 
the irksome and monotonous routine of student 
life. As this is but natural it devolves upon every 
graduate to pursue earnestly his chosen profession, 
for which his days at college were intended to 
prepare him. Knowing then, that industry is 
always praiseworthy and honorable, it remains 
with graduates, as well as undergraduates, to 
acquire this beneficial habit, if they intend to reap 
an abundant harvest from the seeds sown and nur- 
tured within the walls of their Alma Matqr. 



We take great pleasure in calling the attention 
of our readers and subscribers to our comparati\^ely 
numerous advertisers. We can safely say that you 
will find their goods second to none and their 
prices moderate. 

Our students, in particular, should bear this in 
mind, and thus make some return for the gener- 
ous patronage they have given us. There is no 
doubt but that you all will some time or other need 
something in their various lines of business. Hence, 
in all justice, you should call on them before making 
your purchases. You should also endeavor to pro- 
cure patronage for them by introducing them to 
your friends. You will have many opportunities 
to do all this during the long vacation which is 
almost at hand. 



.~'rK 



VIIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



69 



MATHEMATICAL CLASS. 

To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send problems, 
queries, etc., and their solutions, or any difficulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 

All such communications should be addressed to 

D. O'SuLLiVAN, Villanova College. 



23. Prove that the perpendiculars from the 
centres of the escribed circles of a triangle on the 
corresponding sides are concurrent. 

Second method of proof by Thos. J, Lee^ '95. 

L c 




Let LE^ MD and NF^ be perpendiculars from 
the centres of the escribed circles of the A ABC^ 
on the sides ^C, BA^ and AC^ respectively. 

To prove that these perpendiculars are con- 
current : 

From D draw to DE parallel to ^C, then NE'is 
perpendicular to DE. 

Connect E and F, EF is parallel to BA. Then 
MD is perpendicular to EF. 

LE^ MD^ NF drawn from the vertices of the A 
FDE are respectively perpendicular to the sides 
FD, FE and ED. 

And since the perpendiculars from the vertices 
of a A to the opposite sides are concurrent, LE., 
MD^ NFaxQ concurrent. 

26. — Given the latitude of a place and the sun's 
declination, find his altitude and azimuth, at 6 
o'clock A. M. (neglecting refraction). Compute 
the results for the longest day of the year at Mun- 
ich (lat. 48° 9'). , ■ 

Solution by O'S, 




° 9' the latitude of Munich. 



o «„r |.j^g declination. 



/ = 48 

d= 23" 27 

a = PZM^ the azimuth. 

/ = ZPM^ the hour angle. 

h = DM, the altitude. 



By Napier's Rules, 
sin h = sin / sin d. 
log sin h = sin 48° 9' + 

log sin 23° 27'. 
log sin 48° 9' — 9.87209 
log sin 23°27'= 9-599^3 
log sin // = 9.47192 
Altitude = h=\f Id,' 

35''. 



cot a = cos / tan d. 

By Napier's Rules, 
log cot «, log cos /, + 

log tan d. 
log cos 48° 9' = 9. 82424 
log tan 23° i7'=9.63726 
log cot «=^ 9.46150 



Azimuth 



a 



7Z' 



51-34 



// 



27. — If perpendiculars be drawn from the angu- 
lar points of a square to any line, the sum of the 
squares of the perpendiculars from one pair of 
opposite angles, exceeds twice the rectangle of the 
perpendiculars from the other pair of opposite 
angles by the area of the square. 

Solution by M. A. Tierney, '93. 



B 


<^ 


-i 








V^ 


\ 


/ 


\/" 


\ 


E 


AZ^ 


^0 


r 






CO 







N M ? Q 

Let A B CD be the square, Z 6" the line ; let fall 
the perpendiculars B N, A M, C P, D Q, on Z : 
through A draw E F parallel to L S. Now, since 
the angle B A D is right, the sum of the angles 
BAE,DAF= one right angle, and..'. = to the 
sum of the angles BAE.ABE] .: angle ABE 
= DAF, and angle E= F, and A B = A D; .'. 
AE=DF 

Again, put AM=a, B E^b,DF=c. The 
four perpendiculars can be expressed in terms of «, 
/5, c. For B N= a-\~b, DQ^=a-\-c and since O 
is the middle point both of A Cand B v9, we have 
BN+DQ=AM+ CPy each being = twice the 
perpendicular from O. Hence {a + b) -\- {a + c) = 
a+ CP\ .: CP={a~y b + c). 



Now, B N^ DQ — 2 A MX CP^ {a + bj + 



— 2a{a\-b-Vc) = lr^Yr^BE-\-DF'' 



:=B E -\- E A = B A =^ area of square. 



70 



/ 



VILIyANOVA MONTHLY. 



28. — A party of 20 persons go on a picnic, and 
between themselves they contribute $20 for the 
entertainment. The men pay ^2, the women 50 
cents, and the children 25 cents. How many men, 
women and children were there? 

Method by Medial Proportion, or Alligation. 
Sohition by Bernard J. G^ Donitel^ '95. 



I 

4 \ 2 

I 



The average is evidently $1. We reduce to 4th s 

and compare, and we have columns (3) and (4) ; 

uniting these we have column (5), the sum of which 

is 10. Now, 20 persons being a multiple of 10 by 

2, we multiply the numbers in column (5) by 2, 

which gives us column (6) : 8, 4, 8 ; therefore there 

are 

•;;:;^^^: : :8 X $2 = $16. 

4 women X ^ = 2. 

8 children X }( = 2. 



I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


H 


X 


I 


3 


4 


8 


% 




2 




2 


4 




K 




4 


4 


8 






3 


7 


10 


20 



$20. 



29.^Solve by Horner's method x^ — ^x^ -(- 14:1;^ 
-\-^x — 8 = 0. 



Sohition by Jer.J. Crowley^ '94. 



5.236068 



V; 



— 8 


+ 14 • 


+ 4 


— 8 


5 


— 15 


— 5 


— 5 


— 3 


— I 


— T 


*-i3 


5 


10 


45 


IC.6576 


2 


9 


* 44 


* 2.3424 


5 


35 
*44 


9.288 


I 93880241 


7 


5328S 


*— .40359759 


5 


2.44 


9.784 


.39905490 


* 12 


46.44 


*63.o72 


*— .00454269 


.2 


2.48 
48.92 


1.554747 


.00400954 


12.2 


64.626747 


*— .00053315 


-.r\ .a 


2.52 


1. 566321 




12.4 


*5i-44 


*66. 193068 




. -;,. ■ ,2 


.3849 
51.8249 


.31608 




J2.6 


66.50915 




.2 


•385s 


.31656 




*I2 8 


52.2107 


*66.8257i 




•03 


.3867 






1283 


*52 5974 






•°3 ^::;>, 


:^^ .08 


X = 


5236068 


1286 . 


P^ 52 68 




•03 


■■-■T-;-;.:::^ 


' 


- ■"/^■■:: 


1289 


52.76 






•03 









'^12.92 



Splinters. 

Ted. 

Cadet. 

Coming. 

Exams. 

Jubilee. 

1000 lines. 

Coon Tenor. 

Oh ! Bitter Faith ! " 

" So I wrote home." 

Weekly Review — Soup. 

" Albert's my name." 

" lyook at the cannon." 

He took her at her word. 

" Now you are talking dense. " 

Are those your new clothes ? 

'Twas no joke ; 'twas a real jug. , ':]. 

Comical, eh? Sully. 

Your " Grief's " becoming. 

The Reds Wade'd into the umpire. 

Who is the little Irishman ? 

I have his good eye covered. 

Who brought around those hair-cuts ? 

Make a run, you get an orange. 

Jim answered him in his own words. 

My hat ! my hat ! Where is it at ? See " Lex-" 
icon. 

I've been queering myself right along. 

If you have any difficulty call on me. 

I have cancelled all my engagements. 

He's in the wash ; won't be done till Tuesday. 

Come ' ' Early ' ' and avoid the rush. 

I would like to have three pairs, please. 

Hey, Billy, what day are you going to the White 
Mountains ? 

I went into a room the other night and slept un- 
til ten o'clock. Oh^ gee ! 

To ride a bicycle without paying toll is not a 
Safety. 

Captain P. has ordered a new floor and cuspidors 
for the smoking-room. 

John says he is the only Connecticut man with- 
out gall. We think 'tis the other way, friend. 

Dick tells us of a Jewish house of worship in 
Baltimore called the demagogue. Isn't this " Cur "- 
ions. 

Jerry's down-east stories strike us with a force 
equivalent to a north-western blizzard. 

Not satisfied with dashing off " G?rr "-net parts 
he is now fiddling with violin obligatos. 

During the past month ague has wrought sad 
havoc among the boys. 

Boy wanted — One who understands the care of 
horses. John has left, or was left. . 
A game of ball, however small. 
Is better than no game at all. — Scorer. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



71 



Herewith we furnish an effusion of a person 
aspiring to the Splinter Editorship for the coming 
year. He may be successful since he is so \i-Analy 
with the pen — 

Present mood, subjunctive tense, 
Hoppy the little dog over the fence. 

Next came in the finger bowl 
With glass of delicate shade ; 

S. exclaimed why " Bless my soul ! 
'Tis very weak lemonade." 

His bicycle was on the roll, 
When they asked Tommy for the toll. 
He heeded not, but passed them by, 
And slowly winked the other eye. 

The Reds and Blues no more will meet 
Although their games are not complete : 
The Umpire his decision gave 
Which made the Blues look very giave ; 

And straightway to a man they rose, 
And swore they'd smite him on the nose: 
Then mighty Dolan wav'd his hand. 
And silence reign' d throughout the stand. 



(( 



THE CHOIR. 



j> 



A feature of the Villa is its charming little choir. 
Which the students and the members very much 

admire. 
Its time of practice is twelve hours of the day. 
Except the little extras which occiir in the month 

of May. 

The leader of the choir also plays the organ well, 
Upon the results of his efforts I do not need to 

dwell. 
As a litttle observation I am very sure will show 
That the attendance of the people seems continually 

to grow. 

The soprano is a warbler in the true sense of the 

word. 
Who takes the little high notes as easily as a bird. 
One of the tenors who spells his name with 

an"M," 
Is considered by the people a perfect little gem. 

The assistant soprano with the initials J. E. O., 

Is one of our " choicest " I want you all to know. 

Every note upon the key-board he sings with per- 
fect ease. 

Nay more, he can arrange them in all the different 
keys. 

The falsetto-contralto is a genius we admit, 

The Star Spangled Banner is acknowledged his 

greatest hit ; 
On the occasion of our concert it was he that saved 

the day. 



When he reached that minor key-note which the 
organ failed to play. 

The basso makes the old church rattle and shake. 

As if our pretty " Villa " had a mighty big earth- 
quake ; 

The alto needs no mention, as he is known far and 
near, 

The judgment passed upon him is — he stands with- 
out a peer. 

In conclusion, let me tell you, the choir is up to 

date, 
As it possesses a critic who always comes in late ; 
When services are over he will generally exclaim. 
Why, fellows ! the choir will yet make itself a 

name. 

J. Stanley Smith. 



PERSONALS. 



During the past month three new students have 
been welcomed to our ranks. 

During the past month our Very Rev. President, 
C. A. McEvoy, O.S.A., has been busily engaged in 
inviting, in person, a number of dignitaries of the 
Church and distinguished laymen to be present at 
the Golden Jubilee celebration. 

Mr. Bernard Kerr, of Annondale, N. J., paid his 
brother Richard a visit lately. 

Rev. J. A. Nugent, O.S.A., of Atlantic City, 
paid a short visit to the Faculty on the i8th. 

Rev. D. P. O'Connor, of West Conshohocken, 
Pa., called at the College on the 12th. 

Very Rev. F. Anderson, O.S. A., on his way from 
Australia to Ireland, spent May i6tli with the 
Faculty. 

Mr. Arthur Karder, of Wetherly, Pa., on the 
19th was the guest of his friends, R. J. and B. J. 
O'Donnell. 

The students, one and all, are making very 
earnest preparations for the final examinations. 
Close competition is expected. 

Rev. D. J. Murphy, O.S. A., of Philadelphia, 
spent a few hours at the College only to witness 
the defeat of his Literary Society team. 

The large number of mechanics daily engaged in 
the improvement of the College buildings and 
grounds indicates that everything will be in first- 
class order for Golden Jubilee . 

Under the auspices of the Augustinians, Revs. D. 
J. O'Sullivan and J. A. Whelan, a very successful 
mission is being given at the Church of Our Lady 
of Good Counsel, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



72 



VIIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 

V. L. /.—Thursday May iStli, '93. The Literary 
Institute assembled to-day for the regular monthly 
meeting. The members were present in goodly 
numbers, and manifested their usual interest in the 
affairs of the Library. A noticeable feature was 
the absence of any report reflecting on the conduct 
of the members. 

A committee was appointed to make arrange- 
ments for a celebration in connection with the 
Jubilee. The committee is a strong one, and when 
their report is received at a special meeting, we 
will, no doubt, find a literary treat of the highest 
order. 

The institute is about to close the most success- 
ful year of its existence. There is a total member- 
ship of 60, which is a very creditable showing. 
The surplus in the Treasury is large, considering 
the expenses, and a committee was appointed to 
dispose of said surplus in a way creditable to the 

V. L. L of '93^-;v;:;/:->-^/ ^■■■■■vyc-;. 



V. D. 6*.— Saturday, May 20, '93. The Debating 
Society, while it is always a beneficial one, is 
sometimes a very amusing gathering. The earn- 
estness with which some of the members to-night 
entered into the spirit of orators, was indeed a rare 
event and" very mirth-provoking. The subject, 
" Resolved, that the reading of poetical works is 
more beneficial to a student than the reading of 
prose," was very ably contested by both sides. 
The subject was one that required careful prepara- 
tion, but we are pleased to state that nothing was 
wanting on either side, in the general make-up of 
the arguments. :v / •■ V t^^ 

In the end the affirmatives succeeded in effectually 
refuting a great many of the negative's strongest 
arguments, to the satisfaction of the chairman, 
who decided the debate in their favor.. 

We must congratulate the Prefect of the Rosary 
Sodality on the excellent programme he has ar- 
ranged for the Sodality Commencement. We are 
very certain that it will be a grand success as all 
are taking an active interest in it. The music is 
of a high order and embraces the classical and 
popular. The speakers chosen are well capable for 
their tasks and we shall expect much from them. 
That ever-obliging body, the Glee Club has volun- 
teered its services and will sing several selections. 
This fact in itself assures the success of the vocal 
parts. The orchestra is devoting a great deal of 
time to the instrumental selections, and will en- 
deavor on this, its last appearance this year, to 
crown, in a fitting manner, the success it has 
attained. 



EXCHANGES. 

The May number of the Owl is indeed a most 
interesting one. "A Popular Fallacy" and "A 
Cultured Laity " by the editor pleased us very 
much. In the first article he has laid the axe at 
the very root and has presented his readers with 
the names of many scientists and writers to whom 
Catholfcs can refer with pride. In the last he has 
quoted from England's learned prelate these strong 
words which are the very essence of truth, 
" Unless a Catholic has gone through a thorough 
course of logic and of mental and moral Christian 
philosophy he is a man without weapons and 
armor in the intellectual conflict which rages 
around him." 

The University Star^ published by the students 
of the University of Omaha, is a new visitor to our 
sanctum. May the Star ever shine " Pro Bono 
Publico " is our earnest wish. 

The April number of the Agnetian Monthly was 
an excellent one. The poem "entitled "Rest" 
was indeed beautiful and we heartily extend our 
compliments to I. T. M. 

The Niagara Index is in constant demand among 
our editors. But it is not its literary matter 
which, by the way, is always interesting and of a 
high class, nor yet the "Index Rerum" which 
first claims their attention, but rather the criti- 
cisms of the exhange editor who always seems to 
have a chip on his shoulder, and to be looking for 
some one to knock it off. 

The St. John'' s University Record for May 
reached our Sanctum at a rather late day ;. but 
this seeming tardiness, however, was immediately 
forgotten in the perusal of its pages, which indeed 
afford a treat to the lovers of good literature ; the 
two articles entitled "Literature " and " The Father 
of Epic Poetry," are most excellent and scholarly 
essays. 

The Sunbeam^ from the Ontario Ladies' Col- 
lege, is our latest visitor ; it presents to the eye of 
the reader a very pretty appearance, and prompts 
the reader to open it and scan its spicy pages. 
We are well pleased to receive it as an exchange, 
and hope it may long continue to visit us. 

Among the many other constant visitors to our 
tables we are glad to mention the following excel- 
lent specimens of college journalism, namely : — 
The St. Mary^s Sentinel, which, each mouthy 
seems to improve in literary merit ; The Athenaeum, 
which, by the way, we notice will not be issued 
again before the Fall Term, and the Queen^s Uni- 
versity Journal, which, no doubt, we will hardly 
recognize next term, as it will be enlarged and 
improved. 



VIlvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



■ -Tt . n i fj t mn t ^min. . 



SEE 



B. F. Owen & Co., 

1 41 6 Chestnut Street, 
BEFORE YOU BUY 

A PIANO OR ORGAN. 

You u/ill 5av/e fT\or7(^y apd J^aue a 

CHOICE OF THE BEST. 

200 NEiAi PIKNOS. 

9 WORLD RENOWNED MAKES. 

WEBER, HALLET & DAVIS, BRIGGS and 

STARR PIANOS, ETC. 
Write for Catalogues, Prices, Terms, etc. 

1416 Chestnut Street. 

JAMES IVrcCANNEY, 

Saddle, fidrness l Collar Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 

PHILADKLPHIA. 

THE DeMORAT studio, 

914 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILA. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL BRANCHES. 

Special Rates in Groups, also to Colleges and Societies. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H. B. HHNSBWRV. 

ARTHUR'S 

Famous Ice Cream, 

ALL FLAVORS. 

Plain and Fancy Cakes, Bread, Rolls and 
Buns, Pies, Desserts. 

Pure Ice served during the entire year, by the 
BRYN MAWR ICE COMPANY. Your cders 
are respectfully solicited. 

I. "WARNER ARTHUR, 

Brjrn Mavrr, Pa. 

^ E. K. WILSON & SON, """""^ 

Manufacturers of and Dealers In 

JDiitsfe-^lass 1^00te and ghees 

Repairing Neatly and Promptly attended to. Custom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^ancastcr Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



I will bbU YDU 

$10.00 worth of Clothing, Dress Goods, Ladies' 
Coats and Cloaks, Fumittire, Carpets Watches, 
Jewelry, Chinaware, etc., for 

$1.00 CASH AND $100 PER WEEK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 

ON SATURDAY 

UNTIL 

TEN O'CLOCK. 



PHILAD'A 



If the Goods are not sat- 
isfactory, come to me and 
! will allow all reasonable 
claims. 






Physicians' Prescriptioiis Accurately Compoiinded at all hours at 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY, 

^Hf\\iK U/. PRIWTT Craduate 1q pi?ar/naey, 

PROPRIETOR. 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 

BOOKS BOUGHT. 

fF you want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old Books in America, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to sj are is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. 

L-eMRV'S OL-D BOOK STORe, 
9 South Ninth Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

A. M. BUCH & CO., 
166 North Ninth Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

LADIES' AND GENTS', 

iA£IG TVVAKERS, 

HAIR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 
i^^Wigs and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Theatricals.-'^Cl 



^WIA. E. HINCH, 

caiNDOOl ••. GhflSS, 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS, OILS, VARNISHES, BRUSHES, ETC 
No. 1702 Market Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



D. J. GALT^AGHEB 



, GKO. W. OIBBON8. 



D. J. GALLAGHER & CO.. 

Printers, Publishers 

And Blank Book Manufacturers. 



Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationery. 



420 Library Street, Philadt Iphia. 



Publishers of "AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW," 

i?3. 50 Per Annum. 



:-^-r 7VYOO RE'S vV'V v^:--- -■::^. 

WINDSOR HOTEL, 

PHILRDELPHIH. :- ; 

Half Block from New P. & R. Terminal, and One and a Half 
Blocks from Broad Street Station. ^ \ 

1219-29 Filbert Street. 

PRESTON J. MOORE, Proprietor. 



V 



It 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 




Thomas Bradley, 

N. W. gor. Twent)-first 

and Market Streets. 

Wh extend an invitation to you to call at our GREAT 
WKvSTKRN MEAT MARKET and sec what a choice 
selection of 

Iteef, Mutton, Lamb, Dried Beef, 
Lard, Hams and Provisions 

We liHve coMStiintly on liand nnrt nofi- llie Low Prices at wliich we are 

selling. We liandle only the Best Goo<1h and Quality considered, 

Our Prices are the Lowest in the City. Come, see for 

yourself. 

IJb(jraI Di8(;ouQt to public ar>d ^Ijaritable Ipstitutiorps. 
ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION. 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, 

Undertaker I Embalmer, 

241 North Fourth Street, 



PHILADELPHIA. 



THOMAS J. FOG ARTY, 



DEALER IN 



Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Clottiing, Hats and Caps, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 



Lancaster Auenue. 



Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



JOHN J. l^>YliNES, 

DEALER IN 

Carpets, Oil Cloth, Linoleums, 

^ RUG<, W NDOW SHADES, ETC., 

No. 37 SOUTH SECOND SXREEX, 

Below Market. Enst Side. PHILADELPHIA 

WILLIAM J. REED, 

'■■•":■■;, ^■\ DEALER IN ^; ':-'■■, ~ :.VS: '^ '.;'. ' 

•f Fine Hats, Caps and Umbrellas, f 

ALL THE NEWEST STYLES, 

CLOSING OUT TRUNKS AT COST. 

261 North Eighth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEXT TO FOREPAUGH'S THEATRE. 

prquidept l^ife 9 Jrust ^p. 

Of iPliiljidelpliia, 
N. W. Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts., (40 T-409) 

ISSUES Life, Endowment and Term Policies, 

I which can be made payable at death in 10, 15, 

20, 25 or 30 yearly instalments, thus saving 

the widow, who is the usual beneficiary, the trouble 

and risk of investment. 

Safe investments ; low rate of mortality ; low rate of 
expenses ; liberal ty to policy-holders 

In Everything E^^-elled by no othcp Company 



BRYN MAWR PHARMACY. 

ELEGANT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS, 

Prescriptions a Specialty. 
•f CHRISTIflrl MOOt^E.-f 

OBLINQER PR05. &■ C2., 



FACTORY, I.A.NCASTER, PA. 

SALESROOM, 154 N. THIRD ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
WlioIcHale only. 

PETER F. CUNNINGHAM ^ SON, 

PUBLISHERS 

AND 

Catholic Booksellers, 

IMPOUTIOUS av 

CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

Nd. biz Arch. Sireet, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

J^verytbing at lo west prices. 

DR. STEINBOCK, 

^DENTIST^*- 

1630 l^fortl? Tu;elftl? 5tr^^t, pi?iladelpl?ia, pa. 

Specialist in Gold and Silver Fillings, and Artificial Teeth 
GAS AND ETHER ADMINISTERED. 



"Hallahan's Shoes are the Best." 

Our stock of Fine Footwear is alzvavs attractive^ 
in quality.^ variety and price. 

: HALLAHAS^, 

Eighth and Filbert Sts., Philadelphia. 

P. I. CO LA HAN, 1838 market"st: 

Dealer Iq pir^e (iroeerie^. 

BEST BRANDS OF FI,OUR, $5.50 PER BBI.. 

OMSH OR OREDIT. 
BUY YOUR GOODS 

FROM 

CEO. KELLY & CO., 

80S and 810 Market St., 

PHILADELPHIA.. 
On Bill of $10— $1 Down— $1 per Week, 

SPECIAL TERM S ON LARG E PURCHASES. 

"dANIEL GALLAGHER, 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 

Furqiture I Bedding 

Of Every Description, 

43 South Second Street, 

have Chestnut. Philadelphia, 

Special Discount to lastitutlons. 




VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



tti 



CHARUES B. IiYf^CH. 

WATCHES, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY, 

S. E. Cor. Market and 16th Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 

i8K. Wedding Rings. Fine Watch Repairing a Specialty, 

LOGUE * HATTER 



STRICTLY ONE PRICE. 

1236 MARKET ST. 



MONEY 
REFUNDED. 



BOOKS. BOOKS. 

CATHOLIC SCHOOL | COLLEGE 

>TEXT BOOKS,-f^ 

Xe-w and Second Hand. 

Save eonatantly on band a fall line of Catholic 
Theological and Miscellaneous Books. 



Libraries and small parcels of Books 
purchased for cash. 

SEND YOUR ADDRESS OR CALL 

JOHN JOSEPH McVEYv 

39 Ji. Thirteenth Stireet, 

PHlIiADBLPHlA, PA. 

CHARLES G. HOOKEY, 

626 NORTH FOURTH STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



MART. D. BYRNES. 

Livery, Sale I Exchange Stables, 



Lancaster Avenue. 



ROSEMONT, Pa. 



HAULING DONE. 



•»"\Ar. "W". FK.j^i^ois-K- 



DEALER IS 

Diamonds. Watches, Clocks 
Jewelry and Silverware 

Also a complete stock of Spec- 
tacles and Eye Glasses. 
Fine Watch and Clock Kepairing. 



AGSKT FOB 



Spalding's, Reach's anu 
Tryon's Spotting Goods. 

Estimates furnished to Clubs at 
the lowest club rates. 



L-7?NCWSTER KiZe., 7=CRD7U^01=?e. F>K. 




BROGAN & SMITH, 

Practical Steam Fitters 

STEAM and HOT WATER HEATING, 
flo. 810 HflCH ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



LITHOGRAPHERS. PRINTERS. 

T. McMANUS, Jr. & CO , 
21 North Sixth Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

STATIONERS. BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURERS. 



TIM. QUINLAN & BRO., 

BLieiSMITNI I lOISE SHIEIS, 

BRYN MAWR, PA. 

Horse-Shoeing a Specialty. Old L,ancaster Road. 



TRY BOSTON LAUNDRY, 

235 and 238 NEW ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

THOS. E. HOUSTON PROPRIETOR. 



M. A. CALLANAN, 



DEALER IN 



DRY GOODS, NOTIONS, 

Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Lancaster A verm e. Bryn Mawr, Pa. 




^i^/V 



102 5 Market St.. 

Sells everything needed 
for the Tahle, Kitchen and 
Household a* half otliei-'a 
prices, 

10 ct. goods are 5 cts. 



Surprisingr? Wo nderful ? Yet True ! I 

Standard Text Books. 

Wentwortli's Mathematics. 
Allen and Greenongli's Latin Series. 
Goodwin's New Greek Grammar. 
Montg-omery's U. S. History. 
Whitney's New English Grammar. 
Tarbell's Language Lessons. 

PUBliISHERS, 



70 Fifth Avenue N. T. 



T- B. Lawler, Agent. 




M.GALLAGHER, 

PllAOTlCAL 

Harness IQaker 

15 N. 9tli St., 

Philadelphia. 
MANUFACTURER OF FINE HORSE BOOTS. 

H. MUHR'S SONS. 

^^JeiA£eLeRSl^ 

Diiamonds, Precious Stones, and Watch Manufacturers. 

Salesroom, 629 Chestnut St , Factory, Broad and Race Sts. 

Branches: 139 State Street, Chicago. 

20 John St., New York. 

131 Avenue du Sud, Antwerp, 

THOOiHS H. CUHHRY, 

4FUNERAL DIRECTORS 

S. W. Cor. Twelfth and Jefferson Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



49* Personal atteation day ov night. 



m 



tv 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 




RIGHT at the trade centre. Only a step from the Penna. R. R. Station or from the 
new Reading Terminal Station. 

With the very best selections of patterns obtainable, the most superior work- 
manship, and a low range of prices, our establishment continues to be Headquarters for 
stylish and natty clothing for young men. 

We show an excellent line of Full Dress and Prince Albert Suits, fully equal to 
custom made at less than half the cost. 

Always up to date in Furnishing Goods. Latest Novelties in Neckwear, Gloves 
and Hosiery. 

A. C. YATES & CO., 
^^^ • 13th and Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia. 



feorrpai) p. i)riRaII 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 




Butter, Eggs, 
Poultry 
And Game s 



Stalls, 1 1 12, 1 1 14 and 1 1 16 Eleventh Avenue, 
Reading Terminal Market. 

109,171 and 173 union market, 2d and callowhill sts. 
Philaoklphia. 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS., 

Manufacturers of Eve'-ything in 

Athletic, Gymnasium Goods, 

AND 

UNIFORMS FOR ALL SPORTS, 

•: /t > ■ Outing and Yachting. 

V SEND FOR NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 

CHICAGO, NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, 

108 Madison St. 943 Broadwajr. 1033 Chestnut St. 



A FACT TO BE R£M£MB£R£D 

THAT THE HEADQUARTBE8 FOE 

Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments 

IS AT 

J. E. DITSON S^ CO.'S. 

1228 Chestnut Street, ' - Philadelphia. 

BELLAK'S, 

PIANOS* ORGANS 

M29 CHESTNUT STREET, 

PHILADELPHIA 

AT^^iT i£o:E?.nsr &c soisr, 

MAKERS AND DESIGNERS 

THEATRICAL AND HISTORICAL 

•^•COSTUTVYES,!^ 

Catalogues Furnished. Costumer For the Mask and Wig Club. 

XUJa kinds of STAGB niAKE UP, TI6HTS &c. 

121 N. NINTH STREET, Philadelphia. 

MOTLEY'S ADJUSTABLE SASH HOLDER 

* -^ FOR WINDOWS 

Patented Dec. ,3, .89^. " ^EW OR OLD. 

In Buildings, Cars, Steamboats, Carriages, Etc, Also for Window Screens and 
Sliding Blinds. Send for Circular. 

PETER MOTLEY, ''^» ""'' ^'^^ ^°"*A??;sM«. p,. 
McCONAGHY BROTHERS. 

NEAR ST. DENIS' CHURCH. 

Carpenters ^ Builders. 

All work Promptly and Neatly done. 
p. O. Address, Rl^t)]«Ot^B, PA. 




PW ii«ii>i » i m ii|i I, | i-»w»B|yyppi 



I II Y r iiH|WI!PI»lWI<M«il» lliilHiiii 



i>>/>/; 



y.-j 




EDITORIAL vSTAFF. 




n, 



"^l^ 








^^2-^Js 



Vol. I. 



Villanova College, Jiil^^, 1893. 



ISTo. 7, 




Ode for the Qolden Jubilee of Villanova College. 

H blest be the day, when the sun's golden ray, 
First shone on these shades, Villanova revealing ! 
I/ike the sunrise that shone on King Memnon's famed stone, 
Awaking a strain full of fervor and feeling ! 

Grave doctor and sage 

In that long-vanished age, 
Their record inscribed on our history's page, - 
While the sons of St. Austin, with tears and with toil. 
Their altars uprear'd on this prayer-hallow'd soil ! 

Their altars, their school, where the Monk's kindly rule 
With Virtue and Wisdom form'd loyal alliance,— 
Guiding youths, (now grown gray, or at rest 'neatli the clay,) 
To the fountains of Faith, and the well-springs of Science ! 

Ah ! should we not claim 

For its guardians, the fame, 

That linger'd, of yore, 'roimd each love-lighted name ; 
The perfume of sages and saints passed away, 
Still hovers around Alma Mater to-day ! 

With immortal renown, 'tis St. Thomas we crown, 
When we chant, with delight, Villanova' s glad praises ! 
For Augustine's great son for his brethren hath won 
A glory, that earth and its minions amazes ! 

Not the glory of Time, 

(A mere vapor sublime !) 
But the glory that lives when Time's death-knell shall chime ! 
The halo, all fadeless, that Faith loves to paint 
'Round the altar that shrines Villanova's dear saint ! 

Fifty years have gone by, since we throned him on high, 
As patron and guide of a past generation ; 
And the rapture, to-day, of our JUBILEE gay. 
Proclaims him our patron and guide to salvation ! 
While his sons have increas'd, 
And while prelate and priest 
Assemble to honor and brighten our feast, — 
Let us toast with a tear, the blest shades we revere, 
Our FOUNDERS and friends— the departed and dear! 

All homage be paid the illustrious Dead ! 

May their mantle descend on our guardians and masters ! 

And success to the Boys, full of knowledge and noise, 

Who have pass'd from these halls to Life's dreams or disasters ! 

Time, trembling and old. 

Like a hermit hath told 
On his glittering chaplet, five decades of gold, — 
Villanova still lives ! — Like the star of the morn. 
May she live, may she shine, thro' the ages unborn I 

Eleanor C. Donnelly. 




KiHTOKIAl, STAi^F. 




re 



^^ 







Vol. I. 



\"ill;in(>\;i ( \.ll<'o-,., J ul\-, 1S<):1. 



X . .. 




Ode for the Golden Jubilee of Villanova C()lleji:e. 

H blest l)t' LIk' (lay, when llie sun's <^ol(lui ra\', 
iMr.st slioiK' oil lhes„' sIukU's, X'illanowi rexealiiiji^ I 
Like the sunrise that shone on Kin<4 !\[eiiiuo;i's laincd stone, 
Awakino a strain full of fervor and tceliuf,^ I 
(rra\-e doetor and saj^e 
In thai lon^-N-anished a^-e, 
Their reconl insciibed on our liistorx \s pa^^'e, 
While the sons of St. Austin, with tears and with t jil, 
Their altars ajM-earM on tliis prayer-hallow \1 soil I 

Their altars, their sehool, where the Monk's kindly iiile 
With \'irLu(.' and AN'isdoui foruTd 1()\m1 alli.iiu^e,-— 
(luidino youths, (now ^rown !:;ra\', or at rest 'iiealli the cla\', ) 
To the fountains of l<'aitli, and the well-s])rin,i;'s of Seieiiee I 

Ah ! should we not elaim 

For its jj^iiardians, the fame, 

That linj^crM, of yore, 'round eaeh love-Iij^htcd name ; 
The jierfuuK- ofsai^^c-s and saints ]\i^.sLd awa\, 
vSlill lu)\-ers around Alma Matei to-dax ! 

With iininortal renown, 'lis vSt. Thomas we crown, 
When we chant, ^^•ith delight, \'illano\a's <^hid pi.iiscs I 
l''or Au,i;u^tine\s yreat son for liis brethren hath won 
.\ "lorv, that earth and its minions ama/es ! 

Not the,<;lory of Time, 

(A mere vapor sublime !) 
l)Ut the <;lorv that lives when Time's death-knell shall chime I 
The halo, all fadeless, that I'aith h)\i.-s to ])aint 
'Round the altar that slniuo \'illaii()\ a's dear saint I 

F'^ifty years have ,t;oue by, since we thrt)ned him on hij^h. 
As ]xUron and !:;ui(le of a past ^icneration ; 
And the ra])tiire, to-day, of our Jl'IULlCIC ,na\', 
Proclaims him our patron and ,t;nide to salvation I 

While his sous ha\e increas'd, 

Andwdiile prelate ami ]~)riest 

Assemble to houoi and bii^liU-n oir feist, — 
I^et us toast with a tear, the l)le^t shades \\c rex'eie. 
Our I'OrX DICKS and fi iends— the departs d an 1 dear! 

All homage be paid the illustrious Dead I 

Ma)' their mantle descend on our t^uardi lus and masters I 

And success to the Uox s, full of knowledii^fe and noise. 

Who have ])as-,'d from these halN to Life's dreams or disi-,ter.s I 

Time, tieinblin^ and old. 

Like a hermit hath told 
On his nlitteiin<^ duplet, five decades of i^old, — 
X'ilkiuova still li\es! — Like th.e star of the mom. 
May she live, may she shine, thro' the as;es unburn I 



74 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Villanova 

College. 

June 2ist dawned brig-ht and beautiful, and the 
rays of the morning sun shone gloriously on Vil- 
lanova and her surroundings. The wide sweeping 
lawns interspersed with flowers and shrubbery 
never looked so fresh and green, while the lofty 
trees of various kinds cast abundant and delightful 
shade. Everything wore a gala appearance. High 
above the campus waved the stars and stripes to 
the morning breeze. All the piazzas and entrances 
to the college were adorned profusely with the 
national and papal colors intermingled with those 
of the college, white and blue, while from the win- 
dows hung hundreds of American and Papal flags. 
The large tent that was erected near the main 
building and in which the commencement exercises 
were to be held was likewise decorated with the 
prevailing colors. All around the tent, especially 
near the stage, tropical plants and choicest flowers 
were plentifully arranged, and the stage itself 
looked like a bower of roses. 

It was indeed a memorable day for the college, 
for on that day she was to celebrate the fiftieth an- 
niversary of her existence. Elaborate preparations 
were made for the event, and invitations were ex- 
tended to the surviving alumni, to the clergy of 
the diocese, and many outside, as well as to the 
relations of the pupils and the steadfast friends of 
the time-honored institution. The early morning 
trains brought large numbers, and later on the rail- 
road company ran a special train to accommodate 
the visitors from Philadelphia. At 10.30 the exer- 
cises began. 

His Grace, Archbishop Ryan presided, being 
seated on the rear centre of the stage. At his right 
sat Rt. Rev. John J. Keane, D.D., Rector of the 
Catholic University of America, and at his left Rt. 
Rev. Michael J. O'Farrell, D.D., Bishop of Tren- 
ton, N. J. Rt. Rev. Lawrence McMahon, Bishop 
of Hartford, Conn., was detained by illness in 
Philadelphia, while on his way to attend the 
exercises. Along both sides were distinguished 
members of the clergy, while the great majority of 
the priests occupied front rows in the auditorium. 
There were present Very Rev. James D. Waldron, 
O.S.A., Provincial of the Augustinian Order, Very 
Rev. C. A. McEvoy, O.S.A., President, Very Rev. 
T. C. Middleton, D.D., O.S.A., Regent, Revs. N. 
J. Murphy, O.S.A. and D. J. Murphy, O.S.A., St. 
Augustine's, Philadelphia ; Very Rev. J. A. Ander- 
son, O.S.A., Prior of the Augustinian Convent, 
Limerick, Ireland ; Revs. F. J. McShane, O.S.A., 
and M. J. Geraghty, O.S.A. , Chestnut Hill, Phila- 
delphia ; J. J. Fedigan, O.S.A., T. F. Herlihy, 



O.S.A., and J. A. Nugent, O.S.A., Atlantic City, 
N. J.; J. T. O'Reilly, O.S.A., Peter Crane, O.S.A., 
and John P. Fahey, O.S.A., Lawrence, Mass. ; J. J. 
Ryan,O.S.A., Andover, Mass. ; D.D. Regan, O.S.A., 
Mechanicsville, N. Y. ; F. X. McGowau, O.S.A., 
Lansingburgh, N. Y. ; T. J. Field, O.S.A., Green- 
wich, N. Y.; J. T. Emmett, O.S.A., Waterford, 
N. Y.; F. M. Sheeran, S.T.B., O.S.A., M. J. 
Locke, S.T.L., O.S.A., E. A. Dailey, O.S.A., J.J. 
Ryan, O.S.A., C. J. McFadden, O.S A., R. A. 
Gleeson, O.S.A., L. A. Delurey, O.S.A., P. H. 
O'Donnell, O.S.A., J. B. Leonard, O.S.A., R. F. 
Harris, O.S.A., J. E. Vaughan, O.S.A., W. A. 
Coar, O.S.A., and J. F. Medina, O.S.A., all of 
Villanova; Very Rev. J. B. Hogan, D.D., S.S., 
Catholic University, Washington, D. C. ; Rev. John 
Scully, S. J., St. Joseph's, Philadelphia; Very 
Rev. James McGill, V.C.M., and Revs. A. Krabler, 
S.T.D., CM., J. W. Moore, CM., and Edward 
Carey, CM , Germantown, Philadelphia ; Revs. 
John Kreis, CSS.R., and J. Jung, CSS.R., St. 
Peter's, Philadelphia; Very Rev. James A. McFaul, 
V.G., Trenton, N. J.; Charles F. Kelly, D.D., 
Towanda, Pa., one of the first students of the col- 
lege ; John Donahue, Salem, N. Y. ; J. H. O'Neill, 
Middleboro, Mass.; A. J. Teeling, Lynn, Mass.; 
E. J. Broderick, Hartford, Conn. ; J. H. Duggan, 
Waterbury, Conn. ; George S. Bradford, Wilming- 
ton, Del. ; F. J. G. Martin, D.D., Waterbury, Conn. ; 
J. M. O'Brien, Augusta, Ga.; E. F. Prendergast, 
St. Malachy's, Philadelphia ; P. F. Sullivan, St. 
Edward's ; Thomas J. Barry, Visitation ; P. J. 
Garvey, D.D., St. James'; J. A. Brehony, St. John 
the Baptist's, Manayunk ; M. C. McEnroe, Holy 
Family, Manayunk; William Kieran, D.D., St. 
Patrick's ; Henry Stommel, St. Alphonsus ; Fran- 
cis J. Quinn, Nativity B. V. M. ; John J. Ward, 
Sacred Heart ; A. Isoleri, St. Mary Magdalen de 
Pazzi's ; Michael J. Gleeson, St. Francis Xavier's ; 
Francis P. Fitzmaurice, St. Joachim's, Frankford ; 
Joseph H. O'Neill, St. Francis de Sales'; James 
P. Sinnott, St. Charles Borromeo's ; M. J. Lawlor, 
St. Thomas Aquinas'; Bernard Dornhege, St. Eliz- 
abeth's ; John J. Donnelly, St. Veronica's ; Michael 
C Donavan, St. Leo's, Tacony ; James Timmins, 
St. Michael's, Chester ; James C McLoughlin, 
Ambler; Daniel P. O'Connor, WestConshohocken; 
Michael H. Gormley, Newtown ; Matthew A. 
Hand, Wayne ; Charles Riegel, Cheltenham ; Luke 
V. McCabe, Thomas F. Kennedy, D.D., John J. 
McCort and Hugh T. Henry, St. Charles' Semi- 
nary ; James F. Trainor, acting Rector of St. Phil- 
lip's ; John T. Crowley and John J. Hickey, assist- 
ants at the Assumption ; B. F. Gallagher and M.J. 
Crane, St. Malachy's ; P. F. McNulty, St. John 




mmmm 



^ 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



75 



the Evangelist's ; Bernard A. Conway and John J. 
Walsh, Our Mother of Sorrows'; O. P. McManu^, 
St. Teresa's ; David P. Egan, St. Ann's ; Joseph 
F. Nagle and James T. Higgins, St. Charles ; 
Francis J. McArdle, St. Anthony of Padua's ; 
Michael G. Scully, St. Edward's ; Michael M. 
Doyle, St. James'; Francis P. Coyle, St. Thomas 
Aquinas'; James J. Mac Aran, St. Stephen's; F'rancis 
A. Kelly, St. Francis Xavier's ; James H. O'Neill, 
St. John the Baptist's, Manayunk ; Joseph F. Tim- 
mins, St. Michael's, Chester ; Hugh J. Dugan, Con- 
shohocken ; William A. Motley, St. Peter's, Read- 
ing ; John C. Carey, St. Patrick's, Norristown ; 
H. P. McPhilomy, Visitation ; D. I. McGlinchey, 
St. Anthony of Padua's ; M. Bradley, St. Philip's ; 
A. Zeller, Sacred Heart; P. Dougherty, St. Mich- 
ael's ; J. A. Dalton, Immaculate Conception ; Eu- 
gene Murphy, Manayunk. 

Pierre M. Arnu, A.M., D. O' Sullivan, C. S. 
Gauntt, M.D., and G. J. Corrie, lay professors of 
the college, were also in attendance. 

Many distinguished lay persons from various and 
distant parts of the country honored the occasion 
by their presence. Among them we noticed with 
great pleasure, some students who entered the college 
fifty years ago, during the first years of its founda- 
tion, viz : John J. Ban, John R. Downing, Col. E. 
H. Flood, Thomas Egan, all of Philadelphia, and 
J. Henry Magee, Camden, N. J. Many of the old 
students greeted one another for the first time after 
years of separation and interchanged pleasant 
reminiscences of college life. 

Bastart's orchestra of twenty-four pieces was in 
attendance and the music from the " Grand March" 
to the "Finale" was listened to with great 
pleasure. 

Rev. ly. A. Delurey, O.S.A., Vice-President of 
the College introduced the speakers to the audience. 
W. J. Parker, '93, Quincy, Mass., stepped forward 
and in the salutatory welcomed all present in the 
name of the President and college Faculty. J. 
Henry Magee, A.M., one of the first students^ and 
one of the four survivors of the original six of 
fifty years ago, was the next speaker. He gave 
very interesting reminiscences of the college and 
the Augustinian Fathers, who were its founders. 
A French essay entitled, " L,e Prix du Temps," 
was then delivered by J. J. Crowley, Whitman, 
Mass. Another essay in German, entitled "Col- 
umbia Unsere Heimath," was delivered by B. J. 
Corr, Philadelphia, Pa. Then followed the Mas- 
ter's Oration by Rev. J. C. Monahan, '78, of St. 
Elizabeth's Church, Philadelphia. At its conclu- 
sion a chorus of collegians sang, to the air of the 
" Star Spangled Banner," the Jubilee Ode, written 



for the occasion by Philadelphia's gifted poetess, 
Miss Eleanor C. Donnelly. 

The conferring of degrees and other awards then 
took place as follows : — 

The degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon 
Rev. James C. Monahan, Philadelphia, Pa.; Thos. 
L. White, McKeesport, Pa.; John J. Morrissey, 
Hartford, Conn.; Gerald J. O'Connor, Waterford, 
N.Y. ; Dennis O'SuUi van, Philadelphia, Pa.; John 
T. Eenehan,Wilkesbarre, Pa.; Rev. Charles Joseph 
McFadden, O.S.A., Villanova, Pa.; Rev. Richard 
Anthony Gleeson, O.S.A., Villanova, Pa. ; Rev. 
Laurence Augustine Delurey, O.S.A., Villanova, 
Pa.; Rev. John Bernard Leonard, O.S.A., Villa- 
nova, Pa.; Rev. Walter Augustine Coar, O.S.A., 
Villanova, Pa.; Rev. Joseph H. Mangan, Albany, 
N. Y.; Rev. Francis A. Greagan, Albany, N. Y. 

The degree of Bachelor of Arts was conferred 
upon John Francis Keleher, Lawrence, Mass. ; 
William Jeremiah Parker, Quincy, Mass. ; Thomas 
John Fitzgerald, New Haven, Conn. ; Michael 
Ambrose Tierney, Salem, N. Y. vy 

The degree of Bachelor of Science was awarded 
to Jeremiah Joseph Crowley, Whitman, Mass. ; Jas. 
Francis O'Leary, Hartford, Conn. ; John Mark 
Walsh, Schaghticoke, N. Y ; Timothy Patrick 
Callahan, North Andover, Mass.; John Joseph 
Kyle, Stamford, Conn.; Daniel Francis Harkin, 
Allentawn, Pa.; Thomas Joseph Ronayne, New- 
port, R. I.; John Edward O'Donnell, Heckscher- 
ville. Pa. ; Michael John Murphy, Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; Bernard Joseph O'Donnell, Drifton, Pa.; J. 
Stanley Smith, Scranton, Pa. 

Commercial diplomas were awarded to Joseph 
Peter Wade, Lawrence, Mass. ; Edward Jas. Wade, 
Lawrence, Mass.; Jos. Henry Gallagher, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. ; Wm. Lawrence Pickett, Bridgeport, Conn. 

The gold medal for gentlemanly conduct was 
awarded to Edward J. Murtagh ; presented by the 
President of the Faculty. 

The gold medal for Christian doctrine was 
awarded to John E. O'Donnell ; presented by Very 
Rev. J. D.Waldron, O.S.A., Philadelphia, Pa. 

The gold medal for logic was awarded to John 
F. Keleher ; presented by James Henry Magee, 
A.M., Philadelphia, Pa. ' '"'^ 

The gold medal for classics was awarded to 
James O'Leary ; presented by the alumni. 

The gold medal for English literature was 
awarded to William J. Parker; presented by Gerald 
J. 0;Connor, A.M., Waterford, N. Y. 

The gold medal for mathematics was awarded to 
Jeremiah J. Crowley ; presented by Rev. J. J. 
Fedigan, O.S.A., Atlantic City, N. J. 

The gold medal for general history was awarded 



76 



ViLLANOVA MONTHLY. 



to Michael J. Murphy .; presented by Rev. James 
J. H. O'Neil, Middleboro, Mass. 

The Coluinbiau <>;okl medal for American history 
was awarded to Henry T. Nelson ; presented by 
Rev. Hugh Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The gold medal for elocution was awarded to 



The gold medal for music was awarded to Ber- 
nard J. Corr ; presented by Rev. A. A. Leonard, 
O. S. A., Cambridge, N. Y. 

A fine menu having been disposed of to every- 
body's satisfaction, the Archbishop, as the presid- 
ing genius, announced that a "flow of soul" 




EXTERIOR OF COLLEGE CHAPEL. 



Michael A. Tierney ; presented by Rev. W. J. 
Geraghty, O.S.A., Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

The gold medal for French was awarded to Jere- 
miah J. Crowley; presented by Rev.W. H. Griffin, 
Oswego, N. Y. 

The gold medal for German was awarded to 
Michael J. Murphy ; presented by Rev. Joseph A. 
Strahaii, Philadelphia, Pa. 



would now begin. He humorously handled the 
transition scene from the "feast of reason." 
Having briefly welcomed all present, he referred to 
the heads of the Catholic University and the 
Trenton diocese as Bishops from outside the 
United States, one being from the District of Col- 
umbia and the other from New Jersey, which 
remark was received with a burst of laughter. He 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



n 



said that although he was neither a great orator nor 
a learned man, he was between both (one of the 
Bishops referred to sitting at his right and the 
other at his left). A letter of regret for inability 
to attend was announced from Bishop McNeirney, 
of Albany, N. Y. 

His Grace called upon Bishop Keane to respond 
to the toast, "Education." Eloquently did the 
learned and able Rector of the Catholic University 
picture the great strides which education has made 
in America during the last fifty years. " Medical 
Science," was the subject of the next toast, which 
in the unavoidable absence of Dr. Thomas L. 
White, of McKeesport, Pa., was ably responded to 
by Dr. Morrissey. The next toast, "The Bar," 
was referred to by the Archbishop as being rather 
obscure; he called upon J. T. Lenahan, Esq., to 
elucidate it, which he did in a happy mixture of 
humor and eloquence. The last toast on the 
programme being " A Word from the East," His 
Grace surmised that maybe we were about to hear 
from one of the wise men ; and wisely and ably did 
the Hon. John T. Breene, of Lawrence, Mass., 
respond. In addition to what was on the pro- 
gramme, the Archbishop proposed as a supplemen- 
tary toast the last verse of Miss Donnelly's Jubilee 
Ode, and called upon Rev. Charles F. Kelly, D.D., 
of Towanda, Pa., to respond to it, which he did in 
a happy reminiscent tone. 

The stenographer engaged for the occasion 
having disappointed us, we regret our inability to 
publish in full the speeches delivered after the 
banquet. 

Very Rev. Father McEvoy then returned 
thanks to all who had taken part in the exercises 
and had attended, and the Archbishop brought 
the exercises to a close by imparting his blessing. 

Towards the close of the speech-making copies of 
a handsome illustrated volume, containing a history 
of the college, were distributed among the guests. 

The list of premiums having been read, M. A. 

Tierney, '93, Salem, N. Y., delivered the vale- 
dictory. Dr. J.J. Morrissey, '8r, Hartford, Conn., 
addressed the graduating class. Then Archbishop 
Ryan arose, and having expressed his congratula- 
tions on the flourishing condition of the college, 
he turned to the graduates, and in his masterful 
and eloquent manner he proved the intimate rela- 
tion between religion and education. He also said 
words of encouragement and advice, which were 
appreciated highly, both by the graduating class 
and by all who heard them. 

At the close of the exercises the invited guests 
were ushered into the beautifully decorated ban- 
quet hall in the college. 



Letters and Telegrams of Regret, 

Wilmington, Del., 

June 2, 1893. 
To the Very Rev. C. A. McEvoy, President Vil- 
lanova College. 

Very Rev. and Dear Father : — Be pleased to ac- 
cept my thanks for the invitation with which you 
have honored me. And be pleased also to accept 
my best wishes instead of my presence in the flesh 
at the forth-coming solemnity. Finally be pleased, 
too, to pray for me and believe me 

Yours faithfully in Christ, 

A. A. CURTIS. 
Bishop of Wilmington. 

SCRANTON, 

/v.;:. :> .:;::^;:>;:y^;,,■;.;V;;■^:.^ June 6, 1893. 
Very Rev. C. A. McEvoy, O.S.A. 

Very Rev. Dear Father : — Please accept my 
thanks for your invitation asking me to be present 
at your celebration on the 21st, but I regret very 
much that it is not in my power to leave home. Our 
schools are closing ; the Sisters' retreat begins and 
there are many other matters that require me to be 
at my post. You must not think I am slighting 
you. If it were at any other time, I would most 
certainly be with you. 

Yours sincerely in Christ, 

},y ■X'X: :■-':-■ ::^' O'HARA, 

Bishop, Scranton. 

Bishop's House. 
Ogdensburg, June 7, 1893. 
Very Rev. Dear Father :— It causes me a deep- 
felt regret not to be able to be present at your 
Jubilee exercises on June 21st. I would like to 
• testify publicly the gratitude we owe to the good 
Augustinians for what they have done in the diocese 
of Ogdensburg, and to wish them God-speed in 
their great work of Christian education. Previous 
engagements prevent me from being with you ; 
some other time I hope to have a better chance. 
With kindest wishes I am respectfully 

Yours in J. C. 
I :■ t H. GABRIELS, Bishop of Ogdensburg^ | 

: : Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. -:■:■:]■■: :^:: 

■;;-L;5:V.--:/:i-:.-v:;: EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, ..">:' 

,1 Harrisburg, June 15, 1893. 
Rev. C. A. M6Evoy, O. S. A., 

Villanova College, Villanova, Delaware Co., Pa. 
My Dear Sir: — The Governor directs me to 
acknowledge the receipt of your invitation to at- 
tend the Fiftieth Annual Commencement and 
Goldee Jubilee Celebration of Villanova College, 
on the 2 1 St instant, and to thank you for kind re- 



78 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



membrance, which was warmly appreciated. He 
very much regrets that other engagements for the 
same date will make it impossible for him to be 
with yon on that pleasant occasion. 
Very respectfully, 
H. D. TATE, Private Secretary. 

1428 GiRARD Avenue, Phila.. 
Mr. William F. Harrity very much regrets that 
because of absence from Philadelphia he will not 
be able to accept the invitation of the President 
and Faculty to be present at the Fiftieth Annual 
Commencement and Golden Jubilee Celebration at 
Villanova College, Delaware County, Pa,, on Wed- 
nesday, June 21, 1893. 

June 17, 1893. 

Albany, N. Y., June 19, 1893. 

Very Rev. C. A. McEvoy, O.S.A., 

Very Rev. Dear Father :— Rt. Rev. Bishop 
McNeirney directs me to write to you and say he 
regrets exceedingly that he cannot be present to 
participate in the Golden Jubilee Celebration of 
your College and join in honoring your community 
and showing his due respect and high appreciation 
of its services in his diocese. On that day, the 
2istinst. , there is to be a meeting of the State 
Board of Regents, of which the Bishop has lately 
been elected a member, and as it is the first meet- 
ing since his election he cannot, with all due con- 
sideration, absent himself. He wishes your College 
and Community every blessing and success and 
many happy returns of the day. 

Yours respectfully, 

JOSEPH H. MANGAN, Chan, and Sec'y- 

Harrisburg, Pa., June 26, 1893. 
To Very Rev. C. A. McEvoy, Villanova, Pa. / : 

The unexpected prevents me sharing in your 
festivities to-morrow. -^ 

THOMAS McGOVERN, Bp. of Harrisburg. 

Georgetown, D. C, June 21, 1893. 
To Rev. C. A. McEvoy, Villanova. 

Deeply disappointed that unexpected business 
absolutely prevents my attendance. Heartiest 
congratulatio s from Georgetown to Villanova on 
this glorious occasion. ^ : ' " i : 

J. HAVENS RICHARDS, S.J. 

Georgetown College, 
West Washington, D. C, July i, 1893. 

Very Rev. C. A. McEvoy, O.S.A., Villanova Col- 
lege, Villanova, Pa. 

Very Rev. and Dear Father. — It was a great 
disappointment to me not to be able to attend your 



glorious celebration. I fully expected up to the 
last moment to be able to go, but important busi- 
ness which arose suddenly, and could not be post- 
po led, prevented the execution of my design. I 
promise myself the pleasure of calling upon you at 
the monastery at some future time. 
Very cordially your servant in Christ, 

J. HAVENS RICHARDS, S.J., President. 



SALUTATORY. 

VV. T. PARKER, '93, QUINCY, MASS. 

Vour Grace, Right Rev. Bishops, Very Rev- and Rev. Fathers, 
Respected Faculty, Members of the Alumni, Ladies and 
Gentlemen : 

The distinguished honor conferred upon me, to 
voice the sentiments of the Faculty and my fellow- 
students in welcoming you to our fiftieth annual 
commencement, is highly appreciated. 

This June day, coming as it does, to crown the 
labors of a scholastic year and to despatch into the 
world graduates with only the college's parting 
benison, bears more than a passing import upon 
the present occasion. To-day, Alma Mater cele- 
brates the fiftieth anniversary of a life-work, dedi- 
cated to the cultivation of religion and of the fine 
arts. To-day, her sons, after years of wandering 
from her hallowed shades, return, and from the 
abundance of grateful hearts pour forth their tokens 
of respect and esteem. To-day, those of us who 
are about to part forever from her motherly care, 
experience a just and holy pride in being able to 
add one cubit to her stature in the estimation of 
the outside world, and to entwine but a branch 
in the laurel wreath which fittingly bedecks her 
brow. 

In offering my tribute on this august occasion, 
my meagre ability prompts me to depart from the 
well-trodden path. I am not inclined to indulge in 
oratorical display and shall make no effort to cap- 
ture the imagination by mere word painting. In 
almost every college in the land, on the advent of 
such events, ornate, elaborate and beautiful effu- 
sions have been delivered ; each speaker seeming 
to vie with the other in the splendor of rhetoric, 
in the elegance of diction, and in the eloquence of 
oratory. ■'' 

In such a competition I am handicapped at the 
start. My only resource is to turn to the work 
performed by our college. Its achievements nailed 
on Golgotha during the days of their infancy shine 
to-day on a new Tabor, and the light which radiates 
from them illuminates the present, and throws 
itself far into the future. 

Opening its portals at a time when religious 
rancor and prejudices were rampant, it has man- 



VIIyLANOVA MONTHLY. 



79 



fully survived its days of travail, until this occa- 
sion finds it holding equal place with kindred in- 
stitutions — a lasting credit to past and present 
faculties. 

Struggling through hardships which at first 
seemed insurmountable, buffeting manifold diffi- 
culties and ever lavishing a maternal solicitude 
upon the priceless gem of religion entrusted to her 
care, to-day, Alma Mater, after the lapse of fifty 
years, can point to her children with feelings be- 
tokening pride and say with the mother of the 
Gracchi " these are my jewels." 

Toward you, members of her Alumni, who have 
gained renown in religious and secular pursuits, 



for one brief moment in her fond embrace and here 
amid familiar scenes to renew old friendships, to re- 
call pleasing reminiscences, and with her to breathe 
a prayer in memory of the companions of youth 
whom the Lover of Life has claimed as His own. 
And now she bids me turn and welcome to this 
happy gathering those of you who were attracted 
here through friendship, and whose sympathies are 
in harmony with a cause having for its end the 
Christian education of youth. Under this aegis 
she has taken her stand ; few institutions surpass 
her in priority of years, few of equal age, while 
none have exceeded her in the masterly accom- 
plishment of her work. 




INTERIOR OF CHAPEL HALL. 



she bears a special devotion. Rich in the manifold 
gifts with which she endowed you, to-day she 
looks for a renewal of your regard, confidence and 
esteem ; to-day, though the bonds of affection have 
become loosened through the course of years, she, 
by your mere presence, will strengthen and make 
them more lasting than hoops of steel. My words 
of salutation to you fall short of meaning. Your 
Alma Mater, her brow furrowed by the vicissi- 
tudes of half a century, extending her arms across 
the chasm of time, sends forth a welcome, voiced 
only by the pulsations of a heart, full of a mother's 

love. ,.;■'..-.;■ 

On this, her natal day, she only asks to hold you 



To reiterate, in the name of Alma Mater, the 
Faculty and my fellow-students, I extend to each 
and all a most cordial welcome to our annual com- 
mencement, commemorating, as it does, the half 
century mark of a college whose undertaking tends 
toward moulding Christian men and patriotic citi- 
zens. 

Early Reminiscences. 

Sardou has said that ' ' n6thing. can adequately 
explain the present but the past." In this light I 
stand before you to-day to represent the infancy of 
Villanova college. Fifty years ago — a period ex- 
ceeding the average life of man — a half dozen boys. 



-,s 



\'IM,AX()\A MONTH I. V. 



nu niKraiu'c, wliii'li \\:i> \\annl\- aj)])rc'cial(.'(l. 1 k- 
\xi\ niiuli ua^ivl^ llial ollui en^^a^fun-iils Un ihc 
saiiir (laic M'ill iiiakc- it iiiipossibk- lor liiiii to In.' 
with \()ii (111 iliai ])lt.'as;iiil otn-asioii. 

II, I). 'IWri-;, I'livaK- vScciataiw 

■ i,|2^ ( rrK.\J<li A\i:xt-K, i'liii. \. 

Mr. William I". I la.iTiU' varx iiuK-h, rc\^ia-ts llial 
lin-ausL- of abscaica- IVciii I'liiladvlnbia ]\v will iu>l 
be abli; U) acoeiil llu: iiiNMlalioir <>r llir Prc-sak-iil 
and l''aculL)- Ui be piasi. Ill al lliv b'iUiL'lh Annual 
C\)niiiieiTC(.'tnent and CiMldm JnbiKc Ckdc-'hralion al 
X'ill in<)\ a Cdk <;(.', Ittlawau Ciamtv, I'a , on Wkd- 
ni'Mlay, June 21, i^';^. 

Ai.i; \\v, X, v., juiit.' K;, 1S93. 
AViy kcv. C. \. Mci:v..>, O.S.A., 

\*r.kv Ricx. I)i'\R I'A'i'iirk : — Rt, Rev. I'lslioj) 
MfXc-irnc) diucN nn- U> wrilc- to \«iu an<l sax" he 
K!^icL^ fxcc-ulin^ly llial Ik* rannot be i)iv^enl lo 
pa: hcipaU' in llie (^)idui Jubike Cek-bvalion of 
your Col k '^i.' and join in honoring; \ onr connnunily 
and sliuwin;^ bis dur rL'^pecl and liii^b a])pucialic>n 
ot" it> .service^ in bis diocese. On that (\a\\ tlie 
.'I si in-l., llu-u- i-> to be a meeting ot" the ^slale 
iJoai'd of R(.\!^enl>, of which the I'i^hop has l,itcl\ 
b^cn elected a number, and as it is ibe firsl mcLt- 
iiiL; since his elei'tion lu- cannot, wilh all due con- 
^idcialion, ib^riit liiniseH" I k- w i^hc^ \ oui C<tHeL;e 
and ConnnunilN ^\ci} blcs>in_<; and --uiei.s-, and 
.man)' bapj)\ vetniais of the da\. 

\'ouis rc^j)cctfnlly, 
JOSIU'II II. MAXCkXX, Chan, and SlcA-. 

11 \KKis:;ru(;, l'\., jnne2^, 18(^3. 
Tn \\\\ Kt\. C. .\. McI-AoN, X'illanova, Pa. 

'rile unc\|)ccled |iic\Lnts im.- .sjiai iii,!^ in \our 
k ->li\ itiL-- to nioi row . 

'riloMXS M((;( )\']':RX, r.i)..of llanisburo. 

( ii< .k(,i h iw .\, I). C, June 21, iN(;.V 
To Re\. C. .\. Mcl'Aox, \'ilhmo\a. 

I)ei-])I\ <lisa])poinh-d that nncNpct'led bu^ine->s 
ab->olnttd\ pu\uit^ m\ alUnduici. Ikailusi 

con^Mlnlalio -^ fiom ( koi.i^t low n to \'illano\ a on 
this ^loi lous occasion. 

j. ikWicxs RICH \ki)S, s.j. 

( 'ri;ou(,i TOW \ Coi.i.i'idi',, 
\Vi-,sr \\'.\sin.\(. io\, I). C, July i, iSc;^. 

Ven ke\. C. A. ^k'^:\oy, ().S..\.. X'lllauova Col- 
k_!:;e, \'illaiio\a. l\i. 

\'i:ii\ Ri.\. .\\n 1)1, \k iM'rrii'.u — It was a i^ieat 
(lisaj)poinlnient to iiie not to be al)k' to alleiul Ncuir 



s^lorious celebration. 1 I'ullx' cNpectcd ii]) to the 
last UK mil lit to be able to po, but important ])usi- 
iiess wbi(.-h arose snddeiil\', and could not be ])ost- 
]>(» :ed, inewaited the execution of 111 \- dcsi_nii. I 
promise myself the pleasure of calliuL; upon yon at 
the nionasterx' at some future time. 
\'ei\' cordially yoiir scr\anl in Christ, 

j. irA\i:XS RiCIkVRDS, S.J., Ihesident. 

SALUTATORY. 



/■'a/Z/t/K. 

/ iliflt's Uhif 



' \\'. 1. I'AKKKK, '(^3, (.aiXCN . M.\SS. 

/\*esf>< I '1 1/ IdiU'lx \/'iJifi,i\ (>f III, \liiim. 
(ien/lt)Ht u : 

The disti 11,1; iii.shtd honor conferred upon iiie, to 
x'oice tile sentiments of the I^acult)' and m\ fellow- 
students in wek'ominjL; yon to our fiftietli annual 
eomiiiencement, is hiohly appreciated. 

Thi.s June da\', coiniii<; as it does, to ciown the 
labor.s of a schola.stic year and to desjnatch into tlie 
world graduates with onl\ the colle,!;;e's ])artin.i;' 
beiiison, bears more than a passini^- imjiort ujion 
the present occasion. To-da\', Aim i .Mak-r cele- 
brates the fiftieth aiiniver.saiN of a life-woik, dedi- 
cated to the tMiltixation of religion and of llu fine 
arts. Tu-da\", her sons, after years of wandeiing 
from her hallowed shades, return, and from the 
abundance of iL^ratefnl hearts pour forth their tokens 
of lespcct and esteem. To-day, those of us who 
are about to part fore\Lr from her uiotherK care, 
e.\])eiience a just and holypiide in bein<; able to 
add one cubit tcj her stature in the estimation of 
the outside world, and to entwine but a branch 
in the laurel wreath which fillingl\ bedecks her 
blow. 

In ofkriiiL; ni\ liibute on thi.s auonst occasion, 
m\ meagre ability prompt.s nie to depart from the 
well-lioddeii path. I am not inclimd to indnl_i;e in 
oialoiical (lis]-)hi\ .ind shall make iioeffoit to cajj- 
tnre the imaj^ination b\ mere word paintint;. In 
almost c\er\- colk\L;e in the land, on the adx'cut of 
such i.\enl^, ornate, elaboiate and beautiful eilu- 
siou>ha\i. be^-'ii (klixeied; each speaker seeininj^ 
to \ le with the other in the splendoi of rhetoiic, 
in the elci^anee okdiclion, and in the elocjueiice of 
oialoiy.' ■■'■■:■■.■"■:■■■■.■ " V^.;'';-^\'''- '\-^--: -'■:■;.■■:'.■■ ■-'■>■■' .'.■ 

In sticli a coni])etitioii I am handicapi)ed at the 
start. ]\Iy onl\' resource is to turn to the woik 
perfoniied by our colle<^;e. Its achiexemeiits naikd 
on Crol«;otha during tlu> (la\s ol their infancy shine 
to-d.i\ on a new Tabor, and the li.L;ht which radiates 
bom tlieiii illuminates the i)resent, and thiows 
ilsdl far into the future. 

()ii.nin!L; its portals at a time when religions 
rancoi and prejudices were rampant, it has man- 



\'IIJ..\X()\A MoXTIlI.V. 



iiuuil'i, Hire, whirl) wa- wariiih a])]iirciat(.(l. 1 Ir 
\cr\ imuli iiL;ut-^ lliat oilur eii,!LiaL:<. iiKiity tor ihc 
same <laU- will iiiaki.- il iiiipo^vihK- i',,i jiini to l»c- 
with \(in 1.11 ilial pK-a^anl <K-i'a>i()ii. 
\\\ \ r<.^]>iftlnll\\ 
II. I». TATI'., I'livak- SLCTctaiv. 

I |i^ ( ". I KA ki> .\\ 1- mi:, run. \. 
.Mr. William 1'". Ilaniu \ i r\ iiimli r(.:jici> thai 
liri'an>r <i| al).-^ciu\- iVoiii IMiiladt-ijihia lit.' will iml 
1h' alilc to afc\]ii ihr imitalioii of ihr l'i\>-(U-nt 
.lU'l l''ai-ull\- 1(. hv ]ii\s<,iil al tlu- I'iftii'th .\ininal 
C'lMimnnci nn 111 ami d. iMcu juhiKe C\-Khraiion al 
\'ill,m()\a Ct'lU-.i^c, I)tlau:n-c- C"iiiit\, Pa , on W'ccl- 
Ufxlay, June 2 i , iS() ^. 

Jrxi-; 17, is'ij_^. 

Ai.r. A.w , N. \'. . ]uuv lo. i^<),^. 
\\i\ kc\-. C. .\. Mcl'.v.v, ( ».S..\., 

\'i.KV Rj;\. I)i: Au I-.\tiii;k : Rt. Rcw liishop 
.Mc-Wiriuydiircis iiic- 1(1 wriu- to \ .111 ami .■<a\- he 
iTi^ixN r\iH'i.(lin,L;l\- ihal hr rannol In.- pix-.-eiit lo 
I'aiiiciiKilr in tlu- (nihlvii juliiUr Cokhralioii of 
\<niT CiilK-r and Jdiii in honoring xour c<inunnnil\- 
and showini4 his dm.- ix-s]iecl and hii^li apiirccialidn 
"t it> .-(, udcc'-- in ])\> <li()l\•<^•. ( )n ihat daw llic 
.?!.Nt in-l., ihrii- i-. to hi- a nirc-lin^ of tlu- Stale 
iJoafd ol Ri-m-nW, of wdiich the r>i>ho]) ha> lali'ix- 
hii'ii cK-rtod a nii-ni!)t'i-, and as it is llie fifst nuLl- 
iii- ^incr his tdeclion hr cannot, with all dne fuii- 
^iiK-ralion, ah-i-nt hiinscdi". IK- wislus \oiii- College 
rt'id Ci>nininnit\- cax-iv bk-ssinL; and sinws-, and 
. niar.\- hapjn ri'lufns of tlif (la\'. 

N'onis lo^pictfnlu', 
jOShJ'll II. .AI.\.\T,.\X. Chan. aiKl S.c'v. 

II A KK is:;rk( ;, 1' \. , j nm- j'l, iS«^:;. 
T" \ (IN Kr\.. C. .\. Mrl'.xow \iilanova, I'a. 

riiv iincxprrtrd prexcnt- nic sliaiini^ in \onr 
'< -^lix itit.-^ lo-nioirow . 

Till )M.\.S M, (;()\].;k\\ ]',,,. ,,r IIani>l)tir'>. 

<■.!•' iivi; I- T'lW .\, I). Cjnniji, iS<k. 
To Rv\ . C. A. Mv l'',\ o\-. \'illam>\ a. 

I '(.tli'.x- di->apjH.inh;d that nni\])c-clfd l)n-iiu->> 
al)-olnttd\ ])i\\i nls ni\- allcnd.iiux-. IKaitii-st 
con-'alnlalio -. fiMm < ".lo; -(.ti.wn to \'iilano\a on 
I hi^ 1^1' Mif lU-- <H(,\i- i( in. 

J. II.W I'.XS RIC'II.XRD.S, S.J. 

< ". IJ lUi .III )\\ \ C"< 'LMM,!-;, 

\\"i sr Wamiixo, r. i\, D. C..jn!\- i, iS(,:;. 

V>T\ Rov. e". A. M( I'x.iv. S. .\.. X'illanova Col- 
Kl;*.', \'i!lano\,i, I'a. 

\'i;K'. Ri.\. Wji l)|.Ak I'AI'IN.k' -It wa> ,i -rr.it 
d;-ap]M.intiiii.a!t to nn- n^t o> hi ahu- to atti-nd \oiii- 



j^lovioiis (.-(.dchration. I fnlK- i\j)ect(.<I up to iIk- 
last nioiLivnt to be able to ;m), but iniiH)rtant busi- 
ness whieh arose suddenly, and eould uctt be post- 
]H» :cd, piewuted tile ext-cntion of ui\ design. I 
promise mysell the pleasure oicallin;^ upon \()U at 
tile niouasUrv at some liiture time. 
\'ei\ eoidiallv your sir\ant in CMuist, 

j. ir.WI'.XS RICH.XRDS, S.j.. I'resideul. 

SALUTATORY. 

W . I. I'.VKKl'.K, 'o;^, (.iflMA . .MASS. 
)''-/ir <,i,i,-,\ h'iiiht l\\v. Jlis/iops, I ,iv A',:. ,/;/,/ A'<w. /■'a//uis. 
A'f'j/><v'. ,/ l\uu'ly. Mciiil>,is of Ihr .I'liiinti, IauUcs at.J 
( it >it/<')iii II : 

The distin,!:^iiislit.d liom)r eonfeiied u])on me, to 
\-oiee the sentiments of the I"aeidt\- and m\- lellow- 
studeuts in weleomiri.^ >-oU to our fiftietli annual 
eommeucement, is hi,L;hl\ ap])reeiated. 

This June da\-, eominj; as it does, to erowii the 
labors ot a seholastie year and to despateh into the 
world _L;raduates with only tlie eolle.L;e's partin.i.;- 
benison, bears more- than a passim^ iuii>oit u]K)n 
the present occasion. To-day, .\lnia Mater cele- 
biates the fiftieth auni\er.sary of a life-work, dedi- 
cated to the cultivation of relii^iun and of the fine 
arts. To-da\-, her sons, after years of wandering 
Irom her hallowed shades, return, and from the 
ahuudance of grateful hearts pt)ur forth tlieir tokens 
of respect and esteem. To-da\', those of us who 
are -about to part fore\cr from her uiotherlv care, 
e.xperience a just and holy p-ride in bein,^- able to 
add one cubit to her stature in the estimation of 
the outside world, and to entwine but a branch 
in the laurel wreath which lilliuj^b bedecks her 
b:ow. 

In ol'feriuL; m\- tribute on this august occasion, 
ni\ mea,^i-e ;il)ility ])iom])ls me to depart from the 
well-lroddeu path. I am not inclined to in(]u]_!^e in 
oratorical disp]a>- and shall make no effort to ca])- 
ture the imagination b\ mere word i)aintin,i;. In 
almost e\er\- collei^e in tlie land, on the advent of 
such exenls, ornate, ela1)orate and l)cautifui effu- 
sions have been delivered ; each speaker ,seemin<>^ 
to \ ie with the other in the s])len(lor of rhetoric, 
in the ek:^ance of dii'liou, and in the elo(pience of 
oratoi \'. 

In such a competition I am handica])ped at tlie 
start. M\ only re.sourc-e is to turn to the work 
]ierformed b\ our colk'-e. Its achievements nailed 
on ("rol^otha during the da\s o| iheir iufani\ shine 
to-d.i\ on a new Tabor, and the b.^ht which radiates 
iHun them illuminates the i)re.sent, and throws 
ilself fir into the future. 

< >i enin.L; it.s j^oilals at a time when ivlii^ious 
rancor and ])rejndict> were rampant, it has man- 



ii 



VII.LAXOVA MONTI I LV. 



fnlh' sui\ ix'ed its days of lra\ail, nnlfl tliis < ica- 
sioii finds it holdinji c(|nal place- willi kiiidrctl in- 
slitutions — a lasliiio credit to ]);i>t and i)rcscnt 
faculties. 

vSlruj4^;liiij4 throui^li liardsliips which al fnst 
seemed insurnionntablc, buffeting manifold dilTi- 
cnlties and c\er lavishin.i;' a maternal soliciludi.- 
upon the ])ric(.dcss .i^cni of rcli^^ion c•ntru^tcd to her 
care, t()-da\ , Alma Mater, after the lai)>e of fifl\' 
\ears, can point to her children with leelinL^s he- 
tokeninj^- pride and sa\ with the mother cf thr 
(iracchi " these are my jewels." 

Toward \()n, m(.nd)er.s of her Alnmni, who ha\e 
<>'ained renown in reli^L^ious and secular ])ursnits. 



for one 1.1 ief nionuiit in her fond tnihrace and lure 
amid familiar scenes to renew old ftic ndshi]>-<, to re- 
call ])leasinj4 reminisct iiees, and with her to hrealhe 
a ])ra\ei' in iiK-niore of the com[ianioiis of \iiuth 
whom till I,o\(,i ol" Lite ha> I'laiuKil a> ilis own. 
And now ^lie hills me tiiiii ar.d wtleoine to this 
liapp\- L^allui in>4 those of \ on who wi-ie attiactcd 
liei\- ihrout^h frieiidshi]). and whose s\ni]'alliie> are 
in harmony with a can-e hasiiii; for it> einl the 
Cdirislian education of xdiith. I'lider lhi> ae,ni> 
she lia> laktu her >laiiil; few instil ulioii^ snrpa>> 
her in priorit\ of \ear>, few of eipial ai^t.-, whik- 
noiu- ha\(,- c-\cee<I(--(l lui in the ma->ler]\ acci'Ui- 
plislniKut of hi. r work. 




iN"ri:K loK oi . H M'i'.i. II \ri. 



she hears a special devotion. Rich in the manifold 
<;ifts with which slie endowed ndu, to-day nIic 
looks for a renewal of your regard, confidence and 
es'eem ; to-da\, thou_<;h tlu' bonds of afiection have 
become loo.'-eued thronmh the course- of years, she-, 
by Nourmere presence, will streu^llKu and make- 
them more lastin;.; than hoops ol" steel. My words 
of salutaticMi to \ou fill short of iiKaninL^. \'our 
Alma Mater, her brow furrowed 1)\ the \ icis>i- 
tudes of half a centur\', extendiuiL^ her arms across 
the chasm of lime, >ends forth a welcome, x'oiced 
otd\ b\ the ])ul>ation^ ot" a heart, lull of a mother's 
\o\v. 

( )n this, her natal da\ , she onl\ asks to hold \ou 



To reiterate, in llu' name of Alma Mater, the 
I'aculty and my fe-llow-studeiits, I extend to each 
and all a most cordial welcome to our annual e-om- 
niene-enunt, commeiuoratinL', a> il doe>. the- half 
e-eutur\ mark of a e-olleLje- whoe- undertakiu!^ tends 
towanl monldiu!^ L'hrislian uk-u and patrioijf riii- 

/eiis. 

« ■ » 

Early Reminiscences. 

Sanlou has '-aiil that " nothiui^ can a<hi|uatel\' 
explain the' pre-eiit but the- ]>a--l." In \\\\< lii^hl I 
stand be-foie' \«>U lo-(la\ to lepU-^eUt thr illlauv o! 
X'illanova colli'Lie'. b'iltv \eat-> a^o ,i period e\- 
ceediu'" the- a\era<'e lileot inan--a half (U)/eii bo\->. 



8o 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



ranging in age from II to 14 years, accompanied 
by Rev. J. P. O'Dwyer, O.S.A., and William P. 
Dalton, formed the first band of pupils to enter 
Villanova. Of that small number, after the lapse of 
half a century, four are here to-day to greet their 
Alma Mater on this auspicious occasion of her 
Golden Jubilee. It would be impossible, in the 
short time allotted me, to describe even briefly 
the great difference between the conditions exist- 
ing at the foundation of the college and those 
which now prevail. This will be readily under- 
stood when we contemplate that the great improve- 
ments in the sciences and arts, the vast discoveries 
in the field of electricity, the mechanical inventions 
and appliances that have in a sense revolutionized 
tlie world, have been the outgrowth of the fifty 
years we are to-day celebrating — Discoveries and 
inventions before which those of all former cen- 
turies have paled. During and preceding this era 
it had been the object of the Augustinian Fathers, 
at St. Augustine's Church, to aid and advance the 
cause of education in every possible manner. Pa- 
rochial schools had been established at the church 
and continued under the most adverse circumstances 
and conditions — for the church was poor — and the 
people were, as they should ever be, like the church. 
When, therefore, the opportunity of securing these 
grounds offered itself, the zealous Fathers, few in 
numbers, but strong in faith and purpose, saw 
the possibility of realizing their brightest hopes, and 
at once bent all their energies to the work, and 
whilst zealously fulfilling the duties of professor at 
the infant college, discharged at the same time the 
duties of pastors and missionaries, at St. Augus- 
tine's and other churches throughout the Diocese. 
Their ministrations were in continual demand, and 
it was very seldom that Father O'Dwyer celebrated 
Mass on Sunday at Villanova after the first two or 
three months following its foundation. But his 
earnest and genial face was sure to welcome us to 
the duties of the study room on Monday morning. 
After a time the saintly Father Ashe assisted 
Father O'Dwyer, and in his absence generally cele- 
brated Mass at the college on Sundays, assisting 
also in pastoral duties throughout the neighbor- 
hood and acting as a professor during the week. 

In this manner under great difficulties and with 
double duties imposed upon the instructors the 
number of pupils increased to the neighborhood 
of forty before the close of the second year and 
prosperity and success seemed about to crown the 
efforts of the founders, but in 1844 a wave of 
religious intolerance and bigotry swept over the 
city of Philadelphia and laid St. Augustines in ruins. 
The Fathers in this dilemma hoped to continue the 



college and rebuild the church ; the task was, how- 
ever, too great, and after a brief, but unavailing 
struggle, in the latter part of February 1845, the 
college was closed and the pupils disbanded. It is 
not my purpose to pursue these remarks beyond 
this period, not only on account of the limited time 
assigned but also because another and abler 
gentleman will follow in describing the inci- 
dents of later years. I desire, however, to 
pay in a few words a slight tribute to the 
memory of Father O'Dwyer, the first Presi- 
dent of Villanova. His was, indeed, a rare 
character, earnest and energetic in all his under- 
takings, profound in his faith and convictions, and 
most sympathetic towards the sufferings and mis- 
fortunes of others. During the period of the riots 
he displayed the highest courage and immediately 
and resolutely set about rebuilding the burned 
church or, at least, a small chapel in which the 
congregation might worship until the church could 
be rebuilt. During this period I recall an incident 
that well displays his sympathetic and sensitive 
nature and which he related to me, as I accom- 
panied him one evening in August, 1844, to act as 
secretary at a meeting of the congregation held in 
the basement of St. Joseph's Church. He said that 
he had that day called upon a Catholic family of 
note and wealth, to whose house he had always 
previously been welcomed as an honored guest, but 
on this occasion when the mistress of the house 
opened the door and recognized him, with pallid 
face and upraised hands she said " Father O'Dwyer, 
do not come in ; for God's sake go away or we 
will be mobbed." 

Dazed and hurt beyond the power of expression, 
he left the steJDS and stood upon the sidewalk, 
scarcely knowing where he was. While in this 
condition a Protestant, who had known him for 
some time, approached and inquired if he was ill. 
After some little delay and in explanation of his 
appearance, he told the cause of his disturbed man- 
ner and wounded feeling to his Protestant friend, 
who endeavored to dispel the effects of the insult 
by assuring him that such cowardice was but too 
common amongst people of weak and vain natures. 
Insisting upon Father O'Dwyer accompanying him 
to his home on one of the fashionable thoroughfares, 
he invited him to dinner, and before dismissinghim 
insisted upon putting his name down for fifty dol- 
lars toward the rebuilding of the church, and at 
the same time assuring him of his intention to in- 
fluence his personal friends in the good work. So 
deeply was Father O'Dwyer affected during the re- 
cital of this incident that his voice trembled with 
his efforts to restrain his feelings. As he finished 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



81 



the recital he raised his eyes filled with tears to 
Heaven, and said : " The dearest wish of my heart 
and its most earnest prayer is that Almighty God 
will permit me to lay my bones in Philadelphia." 
His prayer was granted, for, although appointed to 
the Bishopric of Savannah, he sickened and died 
before the time appointed for his consecration, and 
now rests in the city he loved. One more word 
and I am done. Allow me, one of the very first 
students, to express my very great pleasure at 
being here to-day to say these few words on this 
august occasion. 



Le prix du temps. 
J. J. Crowley, '94, whitman, mass. 

Cette vie, on la croit longue, jeunes Clevis ; elle 
est tr^s courte : car la jeunesse n' en est que la lente 
preparation, et la vieillesse que la plus lente de- 
struction. Dans sept d huit aus, vous aurez entre- 
vu toutes les id^es f^condes dont vous etes capables, 
et, il ne vous restera qu'une vingtaine d'ann^es de 
veritable force pour les r^aliser. Vingt ann^es ! 
C'est-a dire ime ^ternit^ pour vous, et en r^alit^ un 
moment ! Croyez-en ceux pour que ces vingt 
ann^es ne sont plus ! elles passent comme une 
ombre, et il n 'en reste que les oeuves dont on les a 
rem plies. 

Apprenez done le prix du temps, employez-le 
avec une infatigable et avec une jalouse activity- 
Vous aurez beau faire, ces ann^es qui se deroulent 
devant vous comme une perspective sans fin 
n'accompliront jamais qu 'une faible partiedes pen- 
sees de votre jeunesse ; les autres demeureront des 
;jermes inutiles, sur lesquels le rapide ^t^ de la vie 
aura pass^ sans les faire ^clore, et qui s'eteindront 
sans fruit dans les glaces de la vieillesse. 

Votre age se trompe encore d 'une autre fa^on 
sur la vie; il y reve le bonhenr, et ce qu'il r^ve 
n'y est pas. Ce qui rend la jeunesse si belle et qui 
fait qu'on la regrette quand elle est pass^e, c 'est 
cette double illusion qui recule 1' horizon de la vie 
et qui la dore. 

Vous allez entrer dans le monde ; des mille 
routes qu'il ouvre a I'activitd humaine, chacun de 
vous en prendra une. La carriere des uns sera 
brillante, celle des autres obscure et cachde. La 
condition et la fortune de vos parents en decideront 
en grande partie. Que ceux qui auront la plus mo- 
deste part n'en murmurent point. D'lm c6t6 la 
Providence est juste, et ce qui ne depend point de 
nous ne saurait etre un veritable bien; de I'autre, 
la patrie vit du concours et du travail de tons ses 



enfants, et dans la mecarique de la socictc, il n 'y a 
point de ressort inutile. Que chacun de vous se 
contente done de la part qui lui sera echue. Quel- 
leque soit sa carriere elle lui donnera une mission, 
des devoirs, une certaine sommedebien a produire. 
Ce sera 1^ sa tache; qu' il la remplisse avec courage 
et energie, honnetement et fidelenient, et il aura 
fait dans sa position tout ce qu' il est donne a 
I'homme de faire. Qu' il la remplisse aussi sans 
envie contre ses einules. Vous ne serez pas seuls 
dans votre chemin ; vous y marcherez avec d'autres, 
appel^s par la Providence a poursuivre le meme 
but. 

Dans ce concours de la vie, ils pourront vous 
surpasser par le talent on devoir a la fortune un 
succ^s qui vous ^chappera. Ne leur en veuillez 
pas, et, si vous avez fait de votre mieux, ne vous en 
veuillez pas A vous-memes. 

Le succ^s n'est pas ce qui importe ; ce qui im- 
porte c' est 1' effort ; c' est la ce qui depend de 
I'homme, ce qui I'^leve, ce qui le rend content de 
lui-meme. L'accomplisement du devoir, voil^, 
jeunes dl^ves, et le veritable but de la vie et le ver- 
itable bien. 

Vous le reconnaissez a ce signe q{i 'il depend 
uniquement de votre volont^ de I'atteindre, et b. cet 
autre q(i 'il est ^galement a la ported de tons, du 
pauvee comme du riche, de I'ignorant comme du 
savant, et qu 'il permet a Dieu de nous jeter tons 
taut que nous sommes dans la meme balance et de 
nous peser avec les memes poids. 

Ainsi tout est juste, tout est consequent, tout est 
bien ordonn^ dans la vie quand on la comprend 
telle que Dieu I'a faite, quand on la restitue a sa 
vraie destination. 



Columbia, TTnsere Heimath 

B. J. CORR, '94, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Friede und Liebe alien unsern Mitbiirgern, das 
ist unsere Losung. 

Und so folgen wir der Columbia, wie Ruth der 
Naomi und wir sagen : Wo du hingehst, gelie ich 
audi hin, wo die bleibst, bleibe auc hich, dein Volk 
ist mein Volk und — hier pausiren wir und reflek- 
tiren. 

Naomi verehrte den wahren Gott und Ruth durfte 
sagen : Dein Gott soil mein Gott sein. Ist der 
amerikanische Gott der allmachtige Dollar, so 
wollen wir ihn nicht anbeten, ist er der aguostische 
Gott, von dem man nicht weiss und nichts wissen 
Kann, so wollen wir ihn nicht lieben. Ist es aber 
jener Gott, der sich durch seinem Sohn geoffenbart 



82 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



hat, daiiiit wir iudem wir Gott siclitbar erkeniien 
durch ihn zur Liebe unsichtbarer Dinge hingeris- 
sen werden ; ist es jener Gott, der als eniger Hirte 
seine Herde iiiclit verlasst, sondern durch seine 
Apostel mit fort wahrendem Schutze sie bewacht, 
dann allerdings sagen wir : Dein Gott is mein Gott. 

Unter alien Unstanden aber lieben wir audi diejen- 
igen unserer Mitbiirger, welche anderen Glaubens 
sind. Weil wir aber alle unsere Mitbiirger lieben, 
so lieben wir ganz besonders jenes Land, welches 
die gleichen Segnungen iiber uns alle auschiittet, 
jenes Land, dessen Berge und Walder das herrlichste 
Wildpret, dessen Seen und Fliisse die schniackhaf- 
testen Fische dessen Felder und Thaler die reichhal- 
tigsten Friiclite, dessen unerschopfliche Minen die 
werth-vollsten Metalle und Brennmaterialien uns 
darbieten ; jenes Land, dessen unzalilige gestahlte 
Riesenarme alle diese Scliiitze mit einer Schnelli^- 
keit vertheilen, wie nur das ausgedehnteste Eisen- 
bahnnetz der ganzen Welt es ermoglicht ; jenes 
Land so reich in seinen produkten so niannig- 
faltig in seinen Naturschonheiten, so fruchtbar in 
seiner Entwieklung. Kann mann eine lessere 
Hermath finden ? Hier tragt jenes Kind das Reclit 
zur hochsten weltlichen Wiirde dieses Laudes in 
seineni Schoosse. Hier hat auch der Aerniste 
Aussichten auf Verbesserung seines Standes, ja auf 
gleiche Ehren und Resitzungen seiner Mitbiirger. 

Hier herrscht Keine Militarsklaverei. Hier 
gehoor dem Knaben das gauge Leben und er brancht 
nicht seine besten Jahre im Dienste eines Potenta- 
ten zuzubringen. Die schonste Arbeitskraft wird 
nicht dem Lande entrissen und Greise und Matronen 
sind nicht gezwungen, eines Monarchen wegen die 
schwersten Arberten zu verrichten. Hier mae der 
Bauer mit dem Prasidenten im selben Eisenbahn- 
wagen fahren und der genohnliche Arbeiter mit 
dem Millioniir zu Tisclie sitzen. 

Heir herscht Freiheit des Denkens, Freiheit das 
Gedachte durch Wort und Schrift auszudriicken, 
also Rede-Press und Unterrichtsfreiheit. Hier 
herrche Freiheit, nach seiner Ueberzengung zu 
handeln, so lange das Recht eines andern nicht 
verletzt wird, also Freiheit der Religion, Freiheit 
der Pqlitik, Freiheit des geselligen Verkehrs und 
freier und weiter Raum fiir alle edlen Unterneh- 
mr.ngen. 

Soil ich euch nun sagen, dass ihr dieses Land 
lieben miisst! Nein damit will ich euch nicht belei- 
digen. Aber wenner das Vaterland ruft, wenn es 
Keinen Zungen-soudern Muskelpatrioismus ver- 
langt, dann werden wir uns versammeln um die 
Flagge, wir werden eilen von den Hiigeln, wir 
werden Kommen von der Eben her und ertonen 
lassen den Schlachtruf der Freiheit. 



ORATION. 

REV. J. C. MONAHAN, '78, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

It is indeed a great occasion, a glad, joyous event, 
that calls us here to-day ; that has gathered within 
these hallowed precincts, from far and from near, an 
assembly of which any people and any institution 
might well be proud. 

The semi-centennial of Villanova's founding! 
The golden jubilee of her consecration to the noble 
work of educating the youth of our land. The 
rounding out, the crowning of a half century's 
career, honorable, beneficent and glorious in the 
highest and truest measure. 

This is the event we celebrate to-day. This is 
the glad, inspiring occasion that has brought us 
together. And surely it is a great occasion. 
Great for the honor, the esteem, the reverence and 
glory it brings to Villanova. Great, splendidly, 
pre-eminently great, for the blessed, noble work 
well done ; for the magnificent, far-reaching accom- 
plishments in the realm of intellect and learning, 
for the incalculable benefits conferred upon mankind 
which it commemorates. 

Fifty years devotion to the higher education of 
our youth ! Fifty years consecrated, consecrated 
from the purest and loftiest motives — fro^ philan- 
thropy and patriotism, for the ennobling of men and 
the uplifting of the world — to the moulding of 
young hearts, the developing of young minds and 
the fashioning of young lives ! This is Villanova's 
glory. This, to-day, her splendid triumph. This 
is her title to the respect, the gratitude, the admir- 
ation and love of men. That she has been true 
to her noble mission, pursuing it with enlightened 
zeal, conscientious care and ardent love, advancing 
as time moved on, with its broadening sphere and 
growing demands, is matter of history ; is evi- 
denced in the flourishing condition of her schools, 
in her large and honored alumni, and in the splen- 
did gathering of loyal hearts who are here to-day 
to pay her greeting. Honorably and conspicuously 
Villanova stands out among the leading Catholic 
educational institutions of the country. Her name 
is held in honor throughout the land, and every- 
where her graduates are respected. And all this 
from within. All this from the broad, generous 
foundations upon which she was laid and the en- 
lightened, high-minded policy with which she has 
been directed and governed. Founded half a cen- 
tury ago, she had in the beginning, as young in- 
stilutions for the most part have, her trials and 
hardships. Fifty years ago men and times and cir- 
cumstances were different from the men and times 
and circumstances of our day. Catholics in those 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



83 



early days were few, and for the most part possessed 
of but little of the gifts of fortune. As a result, 
our colleges were poorly supported, in most cases 
for years barely eking out a slender existence. 
That Villanova should be spared the trial which 
fell to the lot of so many others was. not expected. 
But she lived through it, and guided by the broad 
minds and big souls of the men who founded her — 
the Moriatys, the O'Dwyers and O'Donnells — she 
grew and strengthened and flourished and com- 
manded the attention and respect of men. Never, 
I trust, will she forget the friends of those early 
days ; the stout hearts and generous souls and 
skilful hands that laid her foundations so broad 



grand old pioneers of Catholic education to whom 
the present generation of our people, the present 
flourishing condition of our Holy Church is so 
deeply indebted. They were great and valiant 
men. They were heroes in the strife. Guided by 
those noble spirits, strengthened by those brave, 
strong hands, Villanova lived and grew in stature 
and won her way into the esteem and hearts of 
men. For well on to twenty years the noble work 
went on. Attracted by her fame, her broad and 
elevated curriculum, her splendid discipline and 
the marked ability of her teachers, students came 
to her from every part of the land, from the North 
and the South, from the East and the West, and 




DRAMATIC HALL 



and deep, and with judgment so enlightened and 
love so sterling, led her through the dangers that 
beset her. 

All hail to the memories of those grand old men 
who in the early days of our country's history, 
fired with the zeal and enlightened with the wis- 
dom that had inspired their forefathers to carry 
the torch of learning through the length and 
the breadth of Europe, and in the face of difficul- 
ties and dangers almost as great, laid the founda- 
tions of the institutions which are now the strength 
and the hope of our land. 

All hail, again do I say — and let it be embalmed 
in song and told in story — to the memories of those 



placed themselves at her feet. For well on to 
twenty years the sons of those early Catholics filled 
her halls and gathered from her lips the precious 
knowledge that ennobled and strengthened them 
for the great battle of life. Twenty years almost 
of that blessed work — blessed for her who gave and 
blessed for them who received. 

And then came an interruption ; an interruption 
that shook the young college to its very centre, that 
desolated her schools, closed her doors and shrouded 
Villanova in silence and sorrow. It was indeed a 
dark and dismal hour ; dark and dismal not only 
for the young college and the noble spirits who 
founded her, but for our beloved country itself. 



\1LLAX()\A MOXTHLV. 



1i;il. il.miil wiv iiuUni wiv (iolt siclilhar (.ikcuiK'n 
• liiirli iliii /uv Lirlx.- iiiisic-lilltaur I )ii!_L;e liin^ciis- 
>cn wculen : i^i i.'> jeiKT < lull, cki a!^ (.nijjrr IliiU- 
sc'iiK- IUi<k- iiiclit xcrliisst, soiick-ni (lurch seine 
Ajxisul mil roll \v:i!ii\ii<kMn Schnt/c ^ic l)i.-\\aohi, 
danii allcidiiii^s »a^cii wir : ntinCiotl is niiin ( lOtt. 

I'lik 1 allrii I nsUiinkii akci lichen wiranch diijeu- 
i_!^cn unsficr Mitlwiii^cr. \w1c1r- amk-icn (ilaubens 
sind. Weil wir al)cr alk' nnscrc M ill);i;;;L '• lichen, 
so liehcn \\ ir .u^an/ kcsi'iulcrs ji. ncs Lan<l, welches 
(lie ok'iclien Sej^nnn.m-n iilier nns alio aiiseliiiltet, 
jcnc> Land, <!<>^cn ller^e nud WTildcr das hftrlichstc 
\\'ild]irel, 'l(S-.cn Seen und i'"Iii^se die schniackhaf- 
U'sten I"'iscli(.- (lessen l''cldcr nnd Thaler die rcichhal- 
li^sten iMiichle, des.-en nncrsch(")i)niche .Mincn die 
\vcrtli-\'i!l>lui Mclallc nnd 15re!ninuiteriali'v n nns 
(hirhicun ; ji-ncs I/uul, dcssen nn/.:ilili,L;c <;es!;i]iltr 
Ric'senarnie cdle dic.->(j vSchiii/.e mil einei vSclnicllij;- 
keit \' ;ihcilcii, wie hnr das ansgcdchnlcstc h'jscn- 
halinnel/. der j^'anxcn \\\-ll cs cnn«"'jlic:it ; jeues 
]y.\n<] .-() reich in seinen, produklcn mi nianni^;- 
lalli.L; in '^t.incn. Xalnrschdnlu'itcn, so r'neliili.ir in 
Seiner j-jitwicklnni^. Kann mann cine Icsserc 
Hernialh linden ^ Ilicr Ir.'i^i jciies Kin<l das Rceht 
/nr h(")chsten \wUliclicn Wiirde dieses Landcs in 
Ncineni Schoossc. llu-r hal ancli del" Ac-rniste 
Ans^itdilen anf \"cri)csscnni,^- seines vStandcs, ja anf 
i^leichc I*'.]ii(.-n nr.d Iksii/.nnnen seiner Milhfirv.er. 

Ilicr licrr>clu Kvinc- ?\Iililarskhi\'erei. Ilier 
!:^elu)("ir deni Knahen das j^aui^c Lcben nnd er l)rancht 
nichl seine hc^lenj.jlircihi Dienste cines Polcnta- 
len /nzubrin(;en. Die sclu'niste Arljcilskrafl Avird 
nichldcni I,aiide enlrissen nnd ( )n.isc nnd .Malronen 
-^ind nieiil L;e/wnn;4en eines Menau-hen \\eL;eii die 
sch\\cr>k-n Arhcrtcn zn \errichlen. Ilier nia'^der 
r>ancr niit dein Priisiden.len ini sclh^n lusenbahn- 
wa^on lahren nnd (k-r ^en(')hnliclK Arhcilcr niit . 
(Icni AIilli()nar zii Tische sil/cn. ;: ; v v'. ■■ . r-:'/ 
;:v Hdf hcfselit Preiheil des DenketiS, Frei licit diis^: 
'Hc^ciachtv durch Wort luid Schrilt anszndriiekcn, 
al'^o Kcde-Press nnd T'nterrichtsfrcihcil. Ilicr 
herrclie iM'uihtil, nacli seiner Ucber/.en;^nn_i; /u 
iiandclii, so lan«;e. das Kechi cincs andern nicht 
vefletztwird, also Frci licit dcr Rclio;i()n, Frcihcil 
(Icr Polilik, iM-ciheit de> i;csel]i_<;cn \'crkcln-s nnd 
fixner und wciter Kauni fiir allc cdlcn Intcrncli-^ 
';tiii nj>;eu. ■ :.:yi':.., ■^^'■:'\''c':-'':' ■'/{-:■■.:-■.:'■:■'■■.:'■ ^^ '.;i'<.-y-^c 

S(j11 ieli eneli nun ^a.u;cn. dass ih,;- dieses I/md 
lichen nni'--^l ' Xei'a daniil will icii cnc'ii niehl helei- 
(li.L;cn. Alici wenrier da> WUerland rnU, wenn es 
Keincn /nn^cn-sondcin Mnsktlj)alri()isnins ver- 
lan^t. <!ann wc-rdcn wir utis ycrsannncln nni die 
l'la.!L;;^e, wir werdcn cilonAon den Iliii^eln, wir 
werden K;)niincn Vi^n dcr '".h-.n her Tind erloncn 
I.r^-en tk 1) Scdilachtrnl' dcr iMcihcii. 



•j/_- 



ORATION. 

I<i;\. I. C. MOXAHAN, '7N, I'HIl.ADia.I'MIA, I'A. 

It is indeed a, unreal occasion, a .^lad, joxous event, 
that calls ns here to-day ; that has fathered within 
these hallowed jirecincts, from Tar and from near, an 
asscnd)l\ of which an\- people and an\- institution 
niij^ht well be j)rond. 

The semi-centennial of \'iIlanova's fonndinj;! 
The J4t)lden jul)i!ee of her consecration to the noble 
work of edncatino- the youth of our land. The 
ronndin,i;- out, the crowninj^- of a half centnr\'s 
career, honora.ble, beneficent and .glorious in the 
hi^^hest and trut.-st nieasm-e. 

This is the e\ent we celebrate t(.)-day. This is 
tlie j^lad, inspiring;- occasion that has brouj^ht us 
toi>ether. And surel\- it is a >'reat occasion. 
Cireat for the honor, the esteem, the reverence and 
o;lor\- it brin.i^s to X'illanova. (ireat, splendidly, 
pre-cniinentl\- <;rcat, for the blessed, noble work 
well done ; for the niaj^nificenl, fir-reachini^ accom- 
l^lishmcnls in the realm of intellect and learning-, 
lor the incalculable benefits conferred upon mankind 
which it commemorates. 

b'iftv vears devotion to the hii^her education of 
our vouth I I'ifly years con.secrated, consecrated 
from tlic i)nrest and loftiest motives — from philan- 
thropvand patriotism, for theenuobliu.i; of men and 
the upliftin.i^ of the world — to the inouldini^ of 
vouni; hearts, the developiuj;- of young minds and 
the fashionino;of y;>un}> lives ! This is N'illanova's 
olorv. This, to-day, her splendid triumph. This 
is her title to the resiject, the .q^ratitnde, the admir- 
ation and love of men. That she has been true 
to her n()l)lc mission, pnrsuin;^- it with enlightened 
zeal, conscientious care and ardent love, advancing 
as time moved on, with its broadening sphere and 
orowing demands, is matter of historv ; is evi- 
denced in the flourishing condition of her schools, 
in her large and honored alumni, and in the splen- 
did gathering of loyal hearts who are here to-day 
to ])ay her greeting. Honorabh' and conspicuon.sly 
Villanova stands out among the leading Catholic 
educational institutions of the country. Her name 
is luld in honor throughout the land, and every- 
Avhere her graduates are respected. And all this 
from within. All this from the broad, generous 
foundations upon which she was laid and the en- 
lightened, high-minded ])olicv with which she has 
been directed and governed. I'oundcd half a cen- 
tury ago, she had in the beginning, as young in- 
stilutions for the most i>art have, her trials and 
hardships. lMft>- vears ago men and times and cir- 
cumstances were dilferent from the men and times 
and circumstances of our dav. Catholics in those 



VILLAXOVA MONTHLY. 



s 



carl\' (la\'S were few, and lor the most part i)osscsst(l 
of l)iit little of the shifts of fortune. As a result, 
our eollej^es were poorl)' sui)[)orte(l, in most cases 
for years harely ekini>^ out a slender existence. 
That \'illanova should be spared the trial which 
fell to the lot of so man\- others was not expected. 
I>nt she lived through it, and j;uided by the broail 
minds and bi^- souls of the men who founded her — 
the Moriatys, the O'Dwyers and O'Donnells — she 
*^rew and stren<^thened and flourished and com- 
manded the attention and respect of men. Never, 
I trust, will she fori^et the friends of those earlx- 
days ; the stout hearts and <;encrous souls and 
skilful hands that laid her foundations so broad 



urand did piDUecis of Catholic education In whom 
the pre.-^cnt generation ol' our people, the pre.-ent 
flourisliiuji condition of our 1I()]\ Churcli is so 
deeply indebted. They were i^reat and valiant 
UKU. They were lievoes in the >liife. (iuided by 
those noble spirits, strenj^thened by tlio>e braw, 
stron<;- hands, N'illanova H\-e(l and j^rc \v in stature 
and won her wa\- into the Lsteem and hearts of 
nieii. for well on to twenL\ years the utible work 
wenf on. .\ttraeted b\- lur fame, her broad and 
ele\ated curriculum, her Nplendid discipline and 
the marked abilit\- of her teachers, students came 
to her from e\ery part of the land, fmm the XiMth 
and the South, from the f'.asl and the West, and 




1)K Wl \ 1 K II M 1 



and deeji, and with judgment so enlightened and 
love .so sterlintr, led her throuuh the dansi;ers that 
beset her. , ...-. .^y-.:.- ■,.... .^^...■-■■^- ^■:^--.-,^-: ■y.^^.r.,-. ._- 

All hail to the memories of those .^rand old men 
Mho in the early daj's of our country's history, 
filed with the /eal and enlii^htened with the wi.s- 
dom that had ins]>ired their forefathers to carrx 
the torch of learnino throuj^h the leni^^th and 
the breadth of ICurope, and in the face of difficul- 
ties and dan<^ers ahnost as i;reat, laid the founda- 
tions of the institutions which are now the strenolh 
and the hope of our land. . ; 

All hail, a^ain do I sa\- and let it be eml)a1nicd 
in song and told in story t») the memories of those 



placed thenisel\c-> at hei feet, i'or well on to 
tweut\ years the sous of those early Catholics fdled 
her halls and .gathered from her lips the precious 
knowledge that ennobled and stren,t;theucd them 
for the i^-reat battle of life. Twenty years almost 
of that blessed work— blessed for her who .i;ave and 
blessed for them who receive<l. 

And then came an interruption : an iuterrujitiou 
that shook the > ouu^; colle_^e to its vcr\ t'eutre, thai 
des()]atevl her schools, closed her doors and .'-hrouded 
X'illauova in silence and sorrow. It was iudee<l a 
d;n"k and dismal hour ; dark and dismal not ouh 
for the \()uu^ collej^e an 1 the uol)i(. s|)iriis who 
founded her, but for our beloved counlrv itself 



84 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Civil war had grasped the fair young Republic in 
its horrid embrace and with mighty power and ap- 
palling fury was battling for its destruction. Those 
were indeed dark days ; days of confusion and 
terror, when the stoutest hearts stood still and the 
bravest souls trembled for the fate of the country. 
But the worst, thank God, was averted. The Re- 
public was saved. Though terribly shaken and 
demoralized by that bloody tempest which cost her 
the lives of so many noble children, the Republic 
lived. Lived to grow, in a little while, stronger 
and nobler than before ; lived to become, as she is 
to-day. the wonder and marvel of the world, honored 
and respected where honesty and manhood dwell, 
and loved, revered, and cherished by millions and 
millions of devoted children. 

Closed with the first sounds of civil strife, which 
alike to the hearts of young and old brought dis- 
traction and alarm, it was not until 1865, when 
peace had once more settled upon the land and men 
had turned themselves to tranquil, happy ways and 
peaceful pursuits, that the college again opened her 
doors and resumed her mission. As might well be 
expected, years, which for the country and its in- 
stitutions had been prolific of mighty and drastic 
revolutions, would bring their changes to the col- 
lege also. And so it was : for in the days that 
followed her closing, the friends and directors of 
her early years were called from the scenes of their 
noble struggles to enter upon new fields of labor. 
But though new hands were now at the helm, she 
was to be the same old Villanova that in the days 
gone by had done such noble work, and so won 
upon the esteem and hearts of men. The en- 
lightened, high-minded policy which in the past 
had brought her so much success and honor would 
again be the spirit of her direction. And upon the 
broad and generous foundations upon which she 
had lived her early life and built her early reputa- 
tion, she would rise to new heights and new 
successes. 

Thus anew, with fresh young blood, coursing 
through her veins and inspired with the noble mo- 
tives and lofty ambitions she had caught from her 
great-souled founders, the college threw wide open 
her doors to the youth of the land. And again, as 
in olden times, they filled her halls. From the 
North and South, from the East and the West 
again they came and placed themselves at her feet, 
and under her wise and liberal tuition grew and 
strengthened in heart and mind, and grown and 
strengthened in heart and mind equipped for life's 
great battle as only a Catholic college can equip 
her youth, they have gone out year by year into 
the busy, thronging world, into its commercial and 



professional life, and by their high and honored 
careers and splendid successes brought honor and 
fame to old Alma Mater. It is now many years-r 
three decades we may sav — since that glad reopen- ^ 
ing. And what wonderful years they have been. 
Wonderful in the advance of art and science; won- 
derful in discovery and invention ; wonderful in 
the broadening and elevating of men's minds, in 
the cheerful acceptance by them and practical ap- 
plication to life of the higher principles of Chris- 
tian civilization. They have indeed been years of 
wondrous change and marvellous growth. And 
through it all, the old college, faithful to her high 
mission, true to. her noble principles, has kept 
steadfastly on her way. Everywhere over the face 
of the land new educational institutions, many of 
them backed by wealth and social influence, have 
risen up and sought for patronage and power ; but 
the old college, ever progressive, ever abreast of 
the times and the needs of humanity, has main- 
tained her high and honorable place in the esteem 
and love of men, and grown and strengthened. 
Though crowned with the golden crown of fifty 
years, she is still young ; young in the purity and 
nobility of her motives ; young in the enlightened 
zeal and conscientious care with which she fulfills 
her mission ; young in the breadth and elevation 
of her curriculum ; in her capacity for good, .arid 
the vast and ennobling influence she possesses 
with men. Is it not with reason, then, that we re- 
joice to-day, we who love the old college, who have 
sat at her feet and grown up under her fostering 
care and beneficent guidance? In the face of that 
splendid career, that high and honored record, that 
noble, blessed, far-reaching work, so well done, is 
it not with reason that we, her sons, gather round 
about her and celebrate this golden jubilee, with 
feast of reason and flow of soul, with merriment and 
song ? That there are others with us to-day — that 
they who sit in high places who have made their 
impress on the age, and by their noble deeds and 
golden words stood out for all that is truest and 
best in education, are here to-day to dignify and 
honor this glad occasion, is evidence that we are 
right. Education — education in its highest and 
truest sense — of head and of heart, has been Villa- 
nova's mission. And therefore is it that the re- 
joicing of this day is not alone the rejoicing of her 
children, but of the community in general, of all 
who seek the uplifting, the ennobling of mankifid 
and the purity and strength of hearthstones and 
country. Down through those five decades of her 
existence, the old college, true to the spirit of her 
saintly patrons and the will of her noble founder^ 
has stood in the very forefront for Christian educa- 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



8S 



tion— the education, not only of the intellect, but 
^of the heart and will of man ; the education which 
alone realizes the needs and demands of man's 
nature and ennables him to fulfil his mission and 
attain his destiny. Develop the intellect of man at 
the expense of his heart and will, and you shut him 
out from the bright sunlight and pure atmosphere 
of the higher and nobler life for which he was 
created, and make him a menace and danger to soci- 
ety. Neglecting the spiritual side of his nature, 
he will learn to ignore and despise it. And as his 
intellect is the pliant tool of his will, governed and 
directed by it in all its actions, it will become a power- 
ful factor for evil in the hands of that untrained, un- 
educated faculty. Far, then, from being a safe- 
guard to, a promoter of, morality and an antidote 
for vice and crime, mere intellectual development, 
by creating new wants, enlarging man's capacity 
for enjoyment and accomplishment, and so feeding 
his concupiscence, becomes the enemy of morality, 
the abettor of vice and crime. 

Go over the story of the world ! Talce up the 
history of the peoples and nations — of Greece and 
Rome in the old days, of Prussia and France in 
our own day — who have built upon that foundation, 
and you will have the clearest evidence of that 
truth. What has become of the Greek and Roman 
civilization founded upon and developed on that 
theory ? It has passed away by the law of its own 
corruption ; disintegrated by the seeds of decay and 
death that gnawed at its vitals. It was a house 
built upon sarid, and when the strong winds came 
and the rain beat upon it, it went down. The 
strength, the permanency of a nation lies in the 
virtue of its people. And the virtue of a people 
springs from and is controlled by religion. Religion 
is the only true basis of morality, Men have sought 
elsewhere for virtue, tried other foundations upon 
which to build a system of morality, but only to 
meet with disappointment and disaster. They 
have tried, as we have seen, intellectural culture, 
and failed. They sought it in the aesthetic sense 
of man — in his love for the elevated, the refined, 
the beautiful, only again to be disappointed. 

In their way such things are good and largely 
beneficial to mankind ; but that they should be set 
up as the ideals of life, as the foundations upon 
which pure and. noble existences are to be built, 
were, an absurdity. Far from strengthening man, 
the tendency of such culture is rather to effeminate 
and weaken him in the face of temptation. And 
again they have sought it, and to-day and in our 
midst men are seeking morality and virtue in a 
purely ethical culture — in a sense of the proper, the 
graceful, the becoming. But no, it will never suc- 
ceed. It hiay bring about an outward respectability, 



a polished exterior ; it may give you the gilded, var- 
nished man of the world, but it will never make 
you a moral man. Virtue is made of sterner stuff. 
It comes from the heart and soul of man. It is 
based on the dictates of conscience — of a conscience 
recognizing a Law-giver to whom every rational 
being is responsible for his acts. Religion is the 
only true basis of morality. The only source of true 
greatness and permanent prosperity. Religion it 
was that gave us our own glorious civilization, 
with its wonderful vitality and marvellous fruitful- 
ness ; with its lofty ideals, its noble aspirations, its 
enlightened public conscience and pure and holy 
firesides. And as it was religion that gave us that 
civilization and up to the present has been the life 
and soul of it, so is it religion that must safeguard 
and conserve it. As is the individual, so will be 
the family. As is the family, so will be the com- 
monwealth. The root of the state, the foundation 
of the nation is in the home ; at the fireside of the 
people. The civil and social life of mankind 
springs from and is controlled by its domestic life. 
Therefore, is it to perpetuate our glorious civili- 
zation, its noble ideals, its pure inspirations, its 
individual honesty and responsibility, its public 
conscience and pure and sacred homes, that we must 
educate the heart and will and mind of our youth ; 
instruct them not only in the arts and sciences, but in 
their duties to God, their relations their to Creator, 
their conscientious obligations to themselves and 
their fellow-men. In that lies the strength of our 
institutions, the hope of our race and country. On 
those lines alone shall we be able to calm the spirit 
of unrest that has seized upon the minds of men, 
and stem the torrent of socialism that is making 
sad havoc amongst them and boding calamity to 
the world. On those lines alone shall we be able 
to create and foster respect for authority. Onward, 
then, in this glorious work, be Villanova's career. 
Onward for the ennobling, the supernatural izing of 
men. Onward for the strengthening, the perpetuat- 
ing of the institutions and principles that have 
brought peace and light and gladness to the world. 
Onward for country. Onward for Christian civili- 
zation. Onward, still onward in fidelity and loyalty 
to the memories, the labors, the sacrifices, the 
talents and principles of the great and good men — 
the Moriartys, the Galberrys, the Blakes, and the 
Lockes, who watched over her career and guided 
and directed her to the noble place she occupies in 
the esteem of men. 

Onward speed thee, Alma Mater, 

In thy mission, heaven-born. 
Past's bright glories round thee clinging, 
Present's plaudits loudly ringing, 
Heartfelt love thy children bringing, 

Thy honored name adorn. 



86 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Onward ever, star of knowledge, 
Light of nations! Guide of youth! 

May thy rays illumine ages, 

Lustr^shed o'er history's pages. 

Guide the steps of future sages. 
Supernal star of truth. 

On then, dear old Alma Mater, 

On where waits thee fame's bright crown ; 
On to glories, on to triumphs. 

On to win a world's renown. 



VALEDICTORY. 

M. A. TiERNEY, '93. 

The old convent bell is tolling the knell of our 
college life, and with mingled feelings of pleasure 
and regret the class of ninety-three bids you a last 
adieu. With feelings of pleasure, because to-day 
we receive the reward of our labor and go out from 
these walls honored with the ensign of our chosen 
Alma Mater. With feelings of regret, because to- 
day we part with those who have been our constant 
companions, and with those who have earnestly 
labored to discipline our minds and to guide us in 
the path of righteousness and truth. What plan 
or profession in life we will follow, what use we 
will make of knowledge acquired and principles 
formed remains entirely with us. Thus far we 
have climbed but a few rounds of the ladder of 
life, and as we unassumingly gaze around us a 
problem forcibly presents itself which our con- 
science bids us to solve, viz.: The Problem of Life. 
The task is interesting, but it is difficult, and, in 
order to clearly understand its meaning, let us 
ask ourselves the question : Of what is man's 
nature composed ? Theories respecting this ques- 
tion oscillate between two extremes — one which 
exalts human nature to the summit of divinity, 
another which sinks it to the lowest level of vile- 
ness. The earth's great mass of humanity includes 
many in whom physical, intellectual and moral 
beauty approaches approximately to our ideal of 
perfection, while in the same mass are also found 
many in whom physical deformity, intellectual 
degradation and moral vileness appear to us as if 
embodied in monsters. And yet the best and the 
worst are of one species, of one descent, and in all 
is the same human essence. Man, considered as 
animal and rational, is individually one, although 
his unity is binary ; in him are combined two in- 
finitely oj^posite extremes — soul and body, spirit 
and matter — the one highest, the other lowest in the 
realm of beings ; the corruptible and the immortal ; 
the instincts of the brute with the aspirations of 
the angel. The soul is the immediate creation of 



God, not fallen from a higher celestial sphere of 
being, and embodied as a punishment, as Pagan 
philosophy teaches ; not propagated through gener- 
ation or creation by parents, as modern philosoph- 
ers have endeavored to prove ; but infused by God 
into the human body and constituting in conjunc- 
tion with the body the very essence of man. 
However, between the soul and the body, the 
spirit and the senses, there is a want of harmony. 
The senses spontaneously and blindly desire sen- 
sible good, the gratification of the passions. The 
soul has its appetites, seeking after higher good, 
knowledge, power and glory. These various and 
opposing impulses cannot control themselves, nor 
are they kept in order by any law, so that it re- 
mains the duty of free will, enlightened by reason, 
whose practical judgments are the dictates of con- 
science, to reduce them to order, to exercise dis- 
cipline over them, and to direct them rightly 
toward the purpose of life. God created man with 
free will, and the relation subsisting between God 
and man lies in the fact that He has created man out 
of love^ and requires mail' s love in return. But 
although God has created man free. He is ever 
lending him a helping and directing hand, like the 
fond mother teaching her little babe to walk, first, 
she places it firmly on its feet, for a little while 
she holds and supports it, and then, going back a 
little way, she waits for its love to set its little 
limbs in motion and to follow her ; but how watch- 
ful is her eye, how outstretched her arms to catch 
her child the instant it begins to totter ! Equally 
simple and intimate is the relation of God to man. 
But God in His love for man not only gifted him 
with an intellect and free will, but He has also 
promised him eternal happiness. And man, as he 
wanders over the earth, teeming, indeed, with life, 
and even itself a living thing, is ever meeting here 
and there with something that tells him it is not 
his proper home, and that there is a brighter and 
happier life awaiting him. But how unworthy 
of the Creator would all this be if He had not given 
man an immortal soul, capable of enjoying this 
happiness 1 And, again, since the justice of God 
requires the observance of moral laws, and since 
man in this life does not always receive a reward 
for virtue or a punishment for vice, is it not 
reasonable to suppose that there is another life, in 
which God's justice is satisfied ? 

What a wonderful being then is man! As an 
illustrious writer once beautifully said: "Placed in 
the confines of the kingdoms of spirit and matter, 
first in the corporeal heirarchy, and last in the in- 
tellectual, gathered up in himself as it were all 
nature which is below him, and entering through 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



87 



his reasonable faculties into the intellectual order, 
which is above him, and which ascends even to 
God, the infinite centre of all things, the summit 
to which each after its measure tends, man, the 
link which unites these two orders of creation on 
one side, touches earth and stretches toward heaven 
on the other, on one side is drawn downward 
toward the abyss on the other aspires heavenward 
even to the possession of God himself." The 
solution of the Problem of Life then consists in 
bringing each faculty of our wonderfully organized 
nature under proper control, in keeping the pas- 
sions subservient to the will and in making the 
will obedient to the ever warning voice of con- 



of parting has come, we must to-day go forth from 
this dear old institution and say farewell to its 
Faculty, its Professors, and our fellow-students. 
Rev. Faculty and Professors, under whose guidance 
we have spent our college days, it would ill become 
us upon leaving your institution not to say a last 
goodbye nor extend to you our heartfelt thanks for 
your many kindnesses to us. We left our homes, 
made dear to us by the smiles and kind words of 
loved ones, to experience the cares and trials of 
college life, how earnestly you have striven to 
smooth the trials, to dispel the cares and to make 
happy those entrusted to your charge our love for 
and your college but too plainly exemplifies. This 




STUDY HALL. 



science, in despising falsehood and vice, the very 
germs of sin, and in loving truth and innocence, 
the emblems of all that is good, of all that is holy. 
This, indeed, is the solution of the Problem of Life, 
this the duty which falls to the lot of every human 
being, and this the path which man must follow if 
he would wear the crown of life, if he would see 
and enjoy the pleasures of an eternal home per- 
fumed and radiant with the presence of God. Such, 
my dear friends, are the principles taught in 
Catholic institutions, such are the principles which 
we have been taught and with which we earnestly 
hope life's battle may be won. And now the time 



is why we to-day reluctantly extend the hand of 
friendship to say farewell. In times past we looked 
forward and longed for this day, but now that it is 
here, and that the setting sun of our college life 
casts its mellowed beams upon our foreheads we 
would fain stay the hand of time, in order that we 
might a little longer enjoy your presence and be 
guided by your instruction. Too ungrateful have 
we been to you who have tilled and sown that we 
might reap, and whether the product of your labor 
be scrupulously gathered or heedlessly thrown to 
waste, your work has been honestly and conscien- 
tiously performed, and as we clasp your hand to-day 



s^ 



\ILL.\X<)\'A MOXTIILY. 



< )n\vai(l cvL'W star ol kn()wle(1,^t\ 

Li^^ht of natioiisl Cinidc of Noutlil 
-Mav lli\' ra\ .s illnmiiu- a.i^L-s, 
Lustre .Nlu(i o\ ;■ hisi()i_\'s ])a>ies, 
(iiii(k' the steps of fntiUf saj^es, 
StipcMiial >tar of triitli. 



< )n llui:, >■■ [• uM Alma Mater, 

< )u wlu i\- waits tlue fame's hrij^lit crown ; 

< >n to t^lovie'-, (111 to triuiii|>hs, 

( )ii to will a woild'^ renown. 



VALKDICTORY. 

M. .\. Tii;k.\i.v, '<)7,. 

The old convent bell is tollii'.;j; the knell of our 
colKi^e life, and with niiiiL;ud feelings of ])lcasnre 
and rej^ret the class of ninetx -three bids yen a last 
alien. With tecliii^- dC pleasure, .because to-day 
we recei\'e the ix\varJ of our labor and ^^o out troni 
these walls liouoic-d with the ensij^n of our chosen 
.\lina Mater. Witli feelin;j;> of rejL^^ret, because to- 
da\ we i»art wilii tho.-e who have been our constant 
eo;i-, paiiioiis. and with those who ha\'e earnestly 
labored to disei]>liiie our minds and to i^uide us in 
the jiatVi of riL;hteonsness and truth. What plan 
or jtrofcssion in lii\- we v.ill lollow, what use we 
will make of knowledge ac(piired and principles 
foiiiied remains tuti'\i\ V\'itli us. Thus far we 
ha\-e climbi'd but a few rounds of the ladder of 
life, and as wi- u.nas.suniin.i;ly !.;aze around us a 
]>ro]ilem toreil)!)- |)resents itself wdiich our con- 
s«.ience biil> us to >ol\-e, xdz.: The Prol)lem of Life. 
The task is iuierestiiiL;, bat it is difficult, and, in 
okUt io cKiily unc'erstand its meaning;, let us 
a-k oui^eiM-; the (piestion : Of what is man's 
nature composed ? 'i'k.eories rcspectiuj^ this ijues- 

•- tioii oscillate Ivelween two extremes — one wdiich 
txalts l:.!:u>iii nature to the summit of dixdnity, 
anolhci wdiich sinks it to the lowest level of vile- 
tiess. The earth's -j-reat mass of humanitv includes 

- many in wdioui plnsical, intellectual and moral 
l)eaut\ ai)proaches a])])roximately to our ideal of 
perfection, while in the same mass are akso found 



many in wdiom physical deformity, intellectual 
dci;radation and moral \ ileness aj)])ear to us as if 
embodied in liion.sters. .\nd ) et the l)est and the 
worst are of oiic species, of oi;e descent, and in all 
is the same hiiiuan essence. Man, considered as 
auim.d .uid rational, is individiuill>" one, althou.i^h 
]li•^ unil\ isbin.ux ; in him .ire combined two in- 
finitely (.]^].(»iie ixtreiiies— .sotil and body, spirit 
111(1 uiatlir — the one lii.^he.' I, the other lowest in the 
realm of beini;.'^: the c'.)rnijUil)le and the immortal ; 
the instincts i^l the brute with the as])irations of 
the auijel. 'i'he soul is the immediate creation of 



(lod, not fallen from a higher cele.stial sjdiere of 
beiiifi-, and embodied as a punishment, as Pa^an 
j)hilo.sophy teaches; not propa<;ated tlirouijh L^ener- 
ation or creation by ])arents, as modern pliilosoph- 
er.s liave endeavoretl to prove ; but infused by (iod 
into the human body and constitntin*^ in conjunc- 
tion with the bodv the verv essence of man. 
However, between the soul and the body, the 
spirit and the .senses, there is a want of harmony. 
Tiie .senses spontaneously and blindly desire sen- 
sible j^ood, the ^ratification of tiie passions. The 
.soul has its appetites, seeking; after lii»;her j^ood, 
knowdedge, power and glor)'. These various and 
opposing impulses cannot control themselves, nor 
are the)' kept in order by any law, so that it re- 
mains the duty of free will, enlightened by rea.son, 
whose ])ractical judgments are the dictates of con- 
science, to reduce them to order, to exercise di.s- 
cipline over them, and to direct them rightly 
toward the purpose of life, (iod created man with 
free will, and the relation subsisting between God 
and man lies in the fact that He has created man out 
of /o:i\ and reipiires ///^cz/'v l(.)\-e in return. Hut 
although (iod has created man free, lie is ever 
lending him a liel])iiig and directing hand, like the 
fond mother teaching her little babe to walk, first, 
she ])laces it firmly on its feet, for a little while 
she holds and supports it, and then, going back a 
little way, she waits for its love to set its little 
limbs in motion and to follow her: but how watch- 
ful is her eye, how outstretched her arms to catch 
her child the instant it begins to totter I luiually 
simple and intimate is the relation of (iod to man. 
I)Ut (iod in His lo\e for man not only gifted him 
with an intellect and free wdll, but He has also 
])roinised him eternal happiness. And man, as he 
wanders over the earth, teeming, indeed, with life, 
and even itself a living thing, is ever meeting here 
and there with .something that tells him it is not 
his pro])er home, and that there is a brighter and 
happier life awaiting him. Ihit how unworthy 
of the Creator would all this be if He had not given 
man an immortal soul, capable of enjo)ing this 
happiness 1 And, again, since the justice of (iod 
re(iuires the observance of moral laws, and since 
man in this life does not always receive a reward 
for virtue or a punishment for vice, is it not 
reasonable to suppose that there is another life, in 
which (iod's justice is satisfied ? 

What a wonderful being then is maul As an 
illustrious writer once beautifully said : " Placed in 
the ccmfines of the kingdoms of spirit and matter, 
first in the corporeal heirarchy, and last in the in- 
tellectual, gathered up in himself as it were all 
nature which is below him, and entering through 



\ ILLANOVA MONTHLY 



s- 



his reasoiuiblc faculties into tlic intellectual order, 
which is above him, and which ascends even to 
(iod, the infinite centre of all things, the summit 
to which each after its measure tends, man, the 
link which unites these two orders of creation on 
one side, touches earth and stretches toward hea\en 
on the other, on one side is drawn downward 
toward the abyss on the other aspires heavenward 
even to the possession of (lod himself." The 
solution of the Problem of Life then consists in 
bringin*;- each facult\' of our wonderfulh- or<ranixed 
nature under proper control, in keepinj^ the pas- 
sions subservient to the will and in niakinj; the 
will ol^edient to the ever warning voice of con- 



of j)artiu*^ has come, we must t(>-da\ 140 forth from 
this dear old institution and >;i\ farewell [<> ils 
l''acuU\', its Professors, and our fellow-student^. 
Rev. Faculty and Professors, under whose <^iiidance 
we have spent our colle<;e da\s, it would ill bec(»me 
us U])on leaxinj;- your institution not to sa\ a last 
(goodbye nor extend to yon our heartfelt thanks for 
your man\- kindnesses to us. We felt (.aw lioine-s 
made dear to us by the smiles and kind word> of 
loved ones, to experience the care> a'ul trials of 
colle<je life, how earncstK' \ ou ha\e striven to 
smooth the trials, to disj)el the care> and to make 
happy tho.se entrusted to xour chars^e our love for 
and \'our colle.^e 1)Ut too plainh' exemi'lilk-. This 




STUDY HALL, 



.science, in despisin<^ falsehood and vice, the very 
j^crnis of sin, and in lovini;- truth and innocence, 
the emblems of all that is <?ood, of all that is holy. 
This, indeed, is the solution of the Problem of Life, 
this the duty which falls to the lot of every human 
bein^j. and this the path which man must follow if 
he would wear the crown of life, if he would see 
and enjo\ the, pleasures of an eternal home per- 
fumed and radiant with the presence of (iod. vSuch, 
mv dear friends, are the principles tau<^ht in 
Catholic institutions, such are the principles which 
we have been taught and with which we earnestly 
hope life's battle nuiy be won. Aiul now the time 



is whv we to-day reluctantly extend the hand of 
friendship to say farewell. In times past we looked 
forward and longed for this (la\-, but iu)w that it is 
here, and that the settino- sun of our colle;^e life 
casts its mellowed beams uj^on our forehead^ we 
would fain stav the hand of lime, in order thai we 
mi<;ht a little Ioniser enjo\' \our presetue and be 
t^-uided b\- \our instruction. 'J'oo unj^ratehil li,i\e 
we been to von who have tilled and sown that we 
mi<;ht reap, and whether the product of \our labor 
be scrupulouslv o;athered or heedlessly thrown to 
waste, vonr work has l)een honesti\ and conscien- 
tiously jierformed, and as we cla>p \onv hand to-da\ 



88 



VIIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



to bid you a last good-bye and receive, perchance, a 
pledge of your esteem or your blessing, it will be 
with the earnest wish that when another fifty years 
shall have let fall their snows and sunshines upon 
your beloved institution her spires, more lofty and 
gilded anew, will be honored monuments of your 
labor and zeal. 

But there is still another and more difficult task 
to perform. To those who have for so long a time 
walked with us hand in hand, who would share 
with us while there was aught to share, who ex- 
ulted at our joy and mourned at our sorrow, we 
must now say a last farewell. Fellow-students, 
the class of ninety-three leaves you to-day, perhaps 
never to be among you again, but although we 
cannot actively co-operate with you, yet we will not 
forget you and in after years although continents 
or the ocean's broad expanse may divide us, when 
your combined efforts will have snatched the laurels 
from your contemporaries and you bear them away 
in glorious triumph we will be with you in spirit 
waving to the breeze the white and blue and mak- 
ing the hills resound with the good old cry of 
"NIKH, NIKH." Yes, fellow-students, the 
memory of our associations can never depart from 
us, the pleasant face, the kindly jest, the merry 
laugh of our companions are stored up within the 
inmost chambers of our hearts and in future years 
how pleasant it will be to close one's eyes, and in 
the calm holy reflection of the heart contemplate 
the pleasures of our college days. But, dear 
friends, let us hope for happier things, let us hope 
that if Providence deigns that we shall never again 
meet within the dear old walls of our Alma Mater, 
nor yet in the great world outside, it will be in a 
holier and a purer land than this — in a land where 
the severed ties of friendship will be reunited and 
where farewell is a forbidden word. 



Address to the Graduates. 
John J. Morrissey, Hartford, Conn. 

On this happy occasion, surrounded by the joy- 
ful festivities which naturally form a component 
part of a celebration of this character, I would, with 
your kind permission, deviate for a moment from 
the path outlined by this program, to pay homage 
to the memory of a saintly man, whose highest 
earthly hopes were at one time centered in the 
welfare and advancement of this institution, ere he 
was called to a larger scene of more honorable 
activity-. Reluctantly at first, but afterwards with 
that promptitude which characterizes the true spirit 
of obedience, he went forth from these college halls. 



from these peaceful groves, so well suited to his 
quiet and unostentatious character, to assume the 
duties and responsibilities inseparable from the 
discharge of the affairs of a large diocese. Need I 
name Bishop Galberry, whose memory will ever be 
held in kindly and reverential remembrance, not 
only in this quiet retreat, removed from the tur- 
moil and bustle of a great world, but also in the 
diocese of Hartford, where his unassuming manner, 
his gentle disposition, his executive ability, and 
above all, his great piety, endeared him alike to 
priest and people. We, who knew him, loved him 
well, day after day, year after year, during his 
limited time among us, we saw the glory and self- 
sacrifice of his noble labor ; we saw its living power 
on men, but how much there is must be known 
only to God and the individual souls. With an 
industry and concentration of purpose worthy of so 
holy a cause, he labored in time and out of time 
for the best interests of the people and of the 
diocese. And, after all, we cannot reckon life 
merely by the passing of the years. He lives long- 
est who best works out the purpose which makes 
life worth the living, even though his years on 
earth are few. I am glad to avail myself of the 
privilege afforded by the present occasion to pay 
this slight tribute to his memory, not only as a dis- 
tinguished Augustinian, but also as a man whose 
advice, and I may add with all due humility, whose 
friendship were of service to myself, as well as to 
all young men who came within the sphere of his 
influence. And were it not that sickness detains 
him in Philadelphia to-day, we would be honored 
in the presence of his successor, the Rt. Rev. 
Lawrence McMahon, who would testify by his 
presence, not only his interest in this semi-centen- 
nial anniversary, but also the esteem and apprecia- 
tion in which he holds the memory of his prede- 
cessor. 

GENTLEMEN OF THE GRADUATING CLASS: 

One of the most ordinary, and yet one of the 
most typical occurrences of child life, is the boy's 
first graduation from his mother's apron strings to 
the street. Hitherto the little fellow has been 
toddling along at his mother's side, he has appealed 
to her in every difliculty, he has looked to her for 
ready assistance at every obstruction, and her praise 
or blame was his alpha and omega. The kitchen, 
the sitting-room, and perhaps the yard, were the 
little world around which his hopes and ambitions 
revolved. But after a time he tires of these circum- 
scribed limit?, and longs for a wider sphere of mis- 
chievous activity, and so he comes out upon the 
street. He sees the other boys, he regards them 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



89 



with strangeness and suspicion. They treat him 
in an off-hand manner, far removed from the moth- 
erly method. He is jeered at and jostled, and, 
finally, in a storm of indignation and tears, he flies 
back to the house. But not for very long. The 
leaven of the street is in him ; that indefinable long- 
ing of the man for the outside world prompts him. 
He ventures out upon the street again. This time 
he does not yield, he resists ; and after a few trials, 
as soon as he has gained his standing, he becomes 
aggressive. He enters into the different boyish 
struggles with vim and obstinacy. When he espies 
a marble that another boy possesses, he tries to 
seize it ; and very soon he gets to know from what 
boy he can take anything with impunity, whom 
he must beguile with art, and where he must keep 
his hands off. In short, the battle of the world in 
miniature has begun with the boy's first visit to the 
street alone. And when he returns to the house, 
he bears with him a seed of that haughty mas- 
culinity which makes him regard his mother as 
mighty for everything in the house, but not of very 
great consequence upon the street. 

The transformation has taken place. He was a 
baby, he is now a boy. And now, gentlemen of 
the graduating class, in the encircling progress of 
your lives, this evolution repeats itself. The stu- 
dent who passes from the gentle arms of his Alma 
Mater, and walks forth into the world, is like the 
boy who makes his first visit to the street alone ; 
many times would he run back if he could ; but 
surely would he venture out again. That is his 
fate, and he feels it. Among the battling forces 
he must encounter, his own nature is roused ; his 
resources are brought into play ; his powers are 
evolved. He searches the workshop of his mental 
and physical forces for instruments to carve his 
way. And in the trial of his strength he learns 
his own value, and the temper of the weapons 
with which a liberal education has endowed him. 
Ah, what a change ! Hitherto he had studied for 
the sake of knowledge. His art was for art's sake. 
In the sacred halls of his college the acquisition of 
science was for the purpose of rounding off, com- 
pleting and elevating the mind God had given 
him. The highest purposes crowned the purest 
efforts. The reward of virtue was in virtue itself, 
and not in any extraneous advantage. But now ! 
There stands the world, armed from head to foot, 
each striving by all means nature and education 
had conferred to gain gold, honor, position, in- 
fluence, the heights of life. 

For the first time he is forced to use his pure arms 
in selfish struggle. And there is no escape. It is 
his fate, it is his destiny ! And only after years of 



battling, when he has seen the reverse as well as 
the facing of the woof, does he recognize that in 
struggling honestly and fairly for himself, he is 
battling for the highest good of the world, for the 
best possessions of mankind. For, after all, gentle- 
men, we are shuttles thrown by an Almighty Hand 
to weave the tissue of life, and though none can 
tell how much he helps, or how little he ornaments, 
we do know the pattern becomes complete under 
the divine direction, and that we must do our part 
the best we know how. 

Do your part then, gentlemen, in what sphere of 
life you may be ordained to fulfill. And whether 
it be in the sacred ministry, in the legal profession, 
or in medicine, remember that measureless oppor- 
tunities will be presented to you of doing good not 
to your fellow-man, alone but to yourself and your 
Maker. But as the three professions are the 
chosen field for the majority of Catholic students, 
they may well, as agieat writer has said, be classed 
together : the priest, the lawyer and the physician. 
The first staunches the wounds of the soul ; the 
second those of the purse ; the third those of the 
body. In themselves they represent society in its 
three chief aspects of existence — conscience, prop- 
erty and health. The loss of the first would shake 
society to its very foundations, by upsetting that 
equilibrium and natural sense of justice inherent in 
every human being. The lack of the second, 
though at times a calamitous deprivation, can 
easily be borne by him who has cultivated the 
heights of philosophy; while the loss of the third is 
one of the greatest natural evils man is called upon 
to bear. We can conjure a condition of society, in 
which we might live without the lawyer, but never 
without the priest or physician. From the first 
feeble cry of existence to the last expiring groan 
upon the death-bed the priest and physician are 
most intimately associated — the one to cure the ills 
of the body, the other to" heal the infirmities of the 
soul. But taken together, the progress of society 
and of civilization, and the well-being of the masses 
depend upon the three professions. They are the 
powers which directly lead the people to feel the 
result of actions, of interests, and of principles. So 
whichever one of these professions you choose, re- 
member that there are mysterious triumphs in 
every-day life that would elevate you to the highest 
pinnacles of heroism. Within these sacred halls 
you have studied many books, you have cultivated 
an acquaintance with the learned expounders of 
thought in the past; but there is one lesson that 
you will have to learn in the bitter strife and 
struggle of life, and that is to know yourself, to 
properly gauge the limitation of your own capabili- 



90 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



ties — that is the most important lesson of all. The 
foundation of that knowledge has been laid success- 
fully, let us hope, within these holy walls — its cul- 
tivation can only come with the passing of the 
years. 

Twelve years ago to-day, I stood where you now 
stand, upon the very threshold of active life. To 
my youthful and glowing mind then, as perhaps to 
yours now, the world offered many attractions, 
some superior to the ideals formed, other akin to 
Dead Sea fruit. But be true to the lessons taught 
you within this holy institution. Go forth like the 
crusader of old, from our beloved Alma Mater, 
ready and willing to battle for what is just, and 



may not be the adventitious success which gives 
you a temporary advantage over your fellow-man, 
but it will be the intrinsic success which makes 
you true to yourself and true to your Ood. Either 
as a business man or as a member of the legal or 
medical profession, never be ashamed to uphold 
your religion, never be backward in acknowledging 
the beauty and truth of the Church, of that Church 
which found its seed in martyrs' blood, of that 
Church which to-day stands in the very forefront 
of civilization, the greatest civilizing force and 
power which the world to-day possesses. The gar- 
lands of youth and of beauty, fadeless and un- 
changeable, still encircle her brow, as they did 




READING ROOM. 



right, and honorable. Remember "to battle" is 
still the expression of what is manly, generous, and 
self-sacrificing. It is recognized that to die is often 
better than to live, a hero's death is preferable to a 
coward's existence. So the old Greek heroes in 
Homer's immortal tale "slept in the meads of 
Asphodel." Perennial glory and beauty blossomed 
forth from their ashes, types of a spiritual reality 
for which all words are inadequate, but which is 
always felt by men who are brave and true. If you 
are true to those lessons, you cannot but be suc- 
cessful. It may not be the selfish success of the 
world, it may not be the success conferred by 
robbing your neighbor, for your own enrichment, it 



nearly nineteen hundred years ago. At times she 
appears to be conquered, swallowed up as it were, 
in the very dust created by her enemies, but like 
the charioteer guiding his frantic horses, though at 
times he cannot be seen, yet the guiding power, 
the restraining hand is there, and he emerges fresh 
and serene from the conquest. This advice, and 
these words, are better suited to lips more eloquent 
than mine, but as a man in the world who knows 
whereof he speaks, let me tell you that the practice 
of your religion will never make yon less a man. 
On the contrary, it will give a crown and completion 
to your manhood, without which there can be no 
real and true development of character. Catholic 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



91 



college bred young men to-day, are looked upon as 
the exponents of their religion, and they form an 
important factor in the diffusion of its principles. 
Remember too, that you will never lose the respect 
of your fellow-men-by being consistent Catholics. 

But of this be sure, the world will pay you 
according to your value to itself, it will not reward 
you according to an intrinsic value— that may be 
great in the sight of God, but not in the commer- 
cial eye of the world. According to the goods you 
deliver, practical, spiritual, in any shape or form 
that can be put to use by mankind, will the world 
pay you. Not by what talent, or virtue, or inten- 
tion you possess, but by the actual advance you 
can give the world in one way or another, by your 
thoughts, your investigations, your eloquence — will 
you be awarded by that taskmaster. Only for 
goods delivered, does life yield its treasures. 
Dreamland is nothing to it, barren knowledge 
nothing. Only accomplished facts count, and 
count at the rate in which they help the world. 

Gentlemen of the graduating class, I wish you 
all the highest measure of success, and may the 
weapons furnished by your Alma Mater and mine, 
never be used in ignoble strife. 



Archbishop Ryan's Address. 

Before the close of the exercises Archbishop 
Ryan spoke words of congratulation and encour- 
agement. " The time allotted for these exercises 
having expired," said His Grace, "and the time 
for the less literary, but not less necessary, event — 
dinner — having arrived, I shall not detain you. 
All that has passed here, the memories of the past 
that have been recalled, the tributes that have been 
paid to the noble men of the early days, and the 
evidences of affection for their Alma Mater given 
by old graduates and new graduates have greatly 
pleased me. As your Archbishop I feel grateful to 
this great Order for the things they have done in 
the past and in anticipation of further advantages 
which they will be the providential means of afford- 
ing in the future. The evidences of learning 
brought forward to-day are answers to the objection 
often made that the Church is afraid of learning. 
The fact that such Orders as that whose work we 
have seen results of to-day exist within the Church, 
and are devoted to the work of education, is a most 
perfect answer to the charge. The last man to fear 
the advance of science ought to be the Catholic 
man. If my religious opinions be mere opinions, 
I may fear intellectual research, because something 
may be discovered to interfere with them. But if 
I am absolutely certain in my beliefs, then in pro- 



portion to my certitude am I without fear that God 
can speak one thing to the revelation of science 
and another thing to the revelation of religion. 
Having given her favorite children to promote edu- 
cation, where is the man to bring the charge that 
she fears it ? Where is the man to say that she 
does not love it ? The Church loves religion and 
makes great sacrifices for it. 

" I have been asked to speak a few words to the 
graduates, but after the able address we have just 
heard from an old graduate nothing more is neces- 
sary. I simply desire to say to these young men 
that looking back over fifty years they must do all 
in their power to sustain the splendid reputation of 
Villanovaand the Catholic-American young gentle- 
man. Your Catholicity shall never stand in your 
way. The American people honor a man who is 
in earnest. It is calumny to say that a man's re- 
ligion will stand in his way with the fair-minded, 
discriminating people of America. Therefore, be 
Catholic. Be American ; you should drink in a 
love of this country. Its history is short but 
glorious. Be young ; let the fire and ardor of 
youth show itself. Religion does not forbid the 
enjoyment of life. Let your youth act out its 
nature. Rejoice in life. God will bless your 
young joy. 

" Be gentlemen ; be not only gentle, but be men. 
Religion does not destroy manhood. Courage, 
strength, and independence come from God as well 
as supernatural humility. Go out into the world, 
leave your impress upon it, and may God bless 
you, 



)> 



The Alumni Association. 

In the evening the Alumni held their regular 
annual meeting. The first matter of importance 
was the election of officers for the ensuing year. 
J. J. Morrissey, M.D., president ; J. T. Lenehau, 
Esq., vice-president ; Rev. C.J. McFadden, O.S. A., 
secretary; Rev. L. A. Delurey, O.S. A., treasurer. 
When the election was finished certain matters per- 
taining to the association were discussed ; but as 
many were obliged to leave early to fill other en- 
gagements, a committee was appointed, consisting 
of Revs. F. X. McGowan, O.S.A. ; C. J. McFadden 
and L. A. Delurey, O.S. A., to look after the 'un- 
finished business. 



Allow us, dear boys of '93, to wish you a most 
enjoyable vacation. Enjoy yourselves now, so that 
when you return and bring many more with you, 
you will be ready for another year's close applica- 
tion to your various studies. 

Do not fail to go to Chicago. Good-bye. 



K 



OO 



\ILLA.\o\A MoXTIILV. 



tifs — that i-> the most ini]>()rtant Iomhi of all. The 
fnmi<lalion oi that kimwUd^c has hirii laiil >ucccs>- 
fulh', Itt Us hope, within tliese hol\ walls— its eul- 
tivatiou can oiiU conie with the ]ia>sin«; of the- 
\ears. 

'i\vel\-e \ ears a<^-o t<i-(la\', I stood where \ on now 
stand, upon the ver\ tlii"esh<»l<l (jf atti\(. lile. To 
ni\ \onthfnl and i^lowin^; mind llun, as jiLihaps ti) 
\ours now, the world offered main attiaetions, 
some snpirior to the ideals tornied, other akin to 
Head Sea fruit. ]U\[ Ik.- trui- to the lessons tan,i;ht 
Non within this hol\ institution, (ii) forth like the 
crusader ol old. from our l)cdo\ed Alma Mater, 
rea(l\- and willin^i to hattle for what is jusi, and 



m i\ not he the adwntitious success which .i^ixcs 
\ou a temporary ail\anta<;e o\er your fedlow-man, 
hut it will he the intrinsic success which makes 
\()U trui- to yourscdt and true to yourllod. lulher 
as a husiuess man or as a mem])er of the leiL^al or 
medical })ro.fession, ni'\er he asliamed to uphold 
\>)ur lelii^ion, ne\er he hickward in acknowledging 
the he.iutN and tiulli of the Church, of that Church 
which found its see<l in marlxrs' hlood, of that 
Church wiiitdi to-(la\ stands in the \ t.r\- forefront 
ol ci\ili/atiou, the greatest i-i\ili/in<; force and 
powei whitdi tlu- world to-da\ possesses. The t.;ar- 
lands oi Nouth and o! heaulx', fadeless and un- 
c!van<>e.d)le, still enciicle her hrow, as the\- did 




RitADlxG Ro(t\r. 



riiLjht, aiid lioMorable. Rt uiendier ** to battle '' is:: • 
.slill the expression of what is manly, .^eueious, and 
.sell-sacriricin!^. It h reco,i^ni/ced that to die is often 
better tlian to live, a hero's death ivS preferable to ia 
coward's existence. So the old Greek heroes hi v 
Ilonur's immortal tale ''sle])t in the meads o( ' 
Asphodel." Perennial ^loryand heautx' blossomed 
forth from their ashes. t\ pes of a spiritual nality 
tor which all wonls are in.ideipiatc-. hut whitdi is 
alwa>.s felt by men who are hra\c and true. If \-ou 
are true to those lesions, you cannot but be suc- 
ci-sstnl. It may not be the s^lfrsh success of the 
wt)rld, it ma\ not bt the suci-ess conferred b\' 
robbing \oiir neii^hbor, for )onr own euiichment, it 



- iiejlHy rtiiie^ MaKa^o \t times she 

appear>i to be coiupiered -wallowed nj) as it weie, 

in thc.Tery dust created by her enemies, but like 

, the charioteer ui'idinu' his frantic horses, though at 

'tithes he cannot he seen, yet the sj;:nidin!:; power, 

.'■ the tiestl-ainiuii- hand is there, and he emerges fresh 

and serene from the i-oU(|Uest. This adx'ice, and 

: these words, are belter -uited to Ii])- uiort.- elo«pu nt 

than mine, but as ,i man in the world who knows 

whereof he speaks, Ut uie tell \ on that the practice- 

of \-onr relii^iou will ne\-er make \«>u less a man. 

On thecontrarw it will iL;ive a crown and completion 

to \onr nianluHxl, without which there can be no 

rent and true development of character. Catholic 



\ I!J.A.\()\ A MoNTllJ.V. 



<>i 



colltj^c 1ji\(1 voini!^ lUtii t()-{la\, ;ti\' locked upuii as 
the c.\|)»)ncMil.s of llitir ic'lii^ioii, and llie\' tonii an 
inij)ortaut lacloi in the diirnsiim of its principles. 
Reinc'inlxr Iko, ihal you will ncwr l«i>e the respect 
ofxour lellow-nien 1>\ bcinj^ consistent Catholic-^. 

Ihit of this he sure, the world will pay xon 
accordin<4 t(t xour \alne to itsell, it will not reward 
yon accordinii; to an intrinsic \alne— that nia\ he 
5>reat in the si<>ht ol" (jod, hut not in the connner- 
cial e\'e of the world. Accordinii; to the i^oods yon 
deliver, practical, spiritual, in any shai)e or lorni 
that can he jxit to use b\- mankind, will the world 
l)a\ you. Xot b\- what talent, or \irtne, or inten- 
tion \on ])ossess, hut h\' the actual ad\ance yon 
can ii^ive the world in one way or another, 1)\' \our 
lhon.t;hts, your in\estij;ations, )our elcKiuence- will 
\on he awarded by that taskmaster. Only for 
snoods deli\ered, does life \ ield its treasures. 
l)reandan<l is nolliinj.;- to it, barren knowledge 
nothing;. ()nl\' accomi)lished facts count, and 
count at the rate in which the\- help the world. 

( ieutleuien of the !L;radu;tlin!4 class, 1 wish you 
all the highest measure of success, and nia\- the 
weapons furnished 1)\' \ our Alma Mater and mine, 
never he used in i<> noble strile. 



Archbishop Ryan's Address. 

lleforc the close of the exercises Archbishop 
l\\an s|)oke words of coni;ratulation and encour- 



agement. 



(i 'I* 



riic time allotted for these exercises 



having;- expired," said Ilis (irace, "and the time 
for the less literarx', but not less necessary, e\ en" — 
dinner — luiviui;' arrived, I shall not detain \ou. 
All that has passed here, the memories of the past 
that have been recalled, the tributes that have been 
])aid to the nobk- men of the earl\- days, and the 
evidences of affection for their .\lma Mater ^iveu 
by old , graduates and new graduates have greatly 
])leased me. .\s \our Archldshop I feel grateful to 
this i^reat ( )r(ler for the thinj^s the\ have done in 
the past and in anticipation of further advanta.i^^es 
which thev will l)e the ])roviilential means of afford- 
iu).; in the future. The evidences of learning; 
brouiL^ht ft)rward to-da\ are answers to the objection 
often made that the Clim-ch is afraid of learningi 
The fact that such ( )rders as that wdiose work we 
have seen results of to-da\ exist within the Church, 
and art.- devoted to the work of education, is a mo>t 
jierfecl answer to the charge. The la>t man to fear 
the advance of science ou.l;1u to 1 c tin- Catholic 
man. It" mv ieli,:^ious o])inion> be mere opinions, 
1 m.iv fear intellectual research, hL'caii>e soniethint; 
mav be discoviied to intirtere with lluin. Hut if 
I am ab->olntelv certain in mv luliefs, then in ]iro- 



portion to mv ixrlitude am 1 without fear that ( iod 
can >p(.ak one thinu; to the levelation ol >cience 
and another ihin;^ to the revelation of reli}4ion. 
Ilavinj; !L;iven her favorite children to promote edu- 
cation, wln.re is the man to brin.^ the idiar^e that 
sill- fears it? Where is the man to sav that she 
does not love it ? The Clnnxdi loves reliiiion and 
makes j^reat sacrifices for it. 

" I have been asked to >peak a few vvord> to the 
.graduates, but after the able addrcs> we have just 
heard iVom an old <^radnale nothin^i; more is neces- 
sary. I simply desire to sav to theSL- vouul; men 
that lookinji' back (iver fiflv vears thev must do all 
in their jiowcr to sustain the splendid lepntation of 
N'illanovaand the Catholic-. \inerican >onn<.j oeiulc- 
man. \'oin" Catholicitv shall never stand in vonr 
way. The American peijple honor a num who i^ 
in earnest. It is calumnv to sav- that a man's re- 
lijj^icni will stand in hi> wav with the fair-minded, 
discriminating- people of .America. Therefore, be 
Catholic. I>e American ; vou should drink in a 
love of this countr)-. Its history is short but 
glorious. r.e voung; let the lire and ardor of 
youth show itself. Religion does not forbid the 
enjoyment of life. Let vour yonth act out its 
nature. Rejoice in life. (iod will ble>s your 
young- joy. 

" Re gentlenren ; be not only gentle, but be men. 
Religion does not destroy manhood. Courage, 
strength, and in(le])endence come from (iod as well 
as supernatural humility, (io out into the world, 
leave your imin-ess upon it, and nia\- (iod bless 
von. " 



V The Alumni Association. ;; 

In the evening the Alumni held their regular 
annual meeting. The first matter ol" importance 
was the election of oflicers for the eirsuin<r vear. 
j. J . Morri.s.sev , .M.I ),, president ; 1. T. Leuehan, 
I\si|., vicc-iu'csident ; Rev-. C. j. Mcb'adden, < ).vS. .V., 
secretary; Rev. R. A. Delurev, (>. S. A., treasurer. 
When tlie election was fmish<.(l certain matters per- 
taining to the association were discussed ; but as 
nianv- were obliged to leave earlv to fdl other en- 
gagements, a committee was ai>pointcd, consisting 
of Revs. !••. X. Mc(iow-an, ().S..\. ; C. J. Mcl'addeu 
au<l R. .\. Delurev, Q.S. A., to look after the nu- 
ll nished business. 

— - . ■<■»■ ■ ■ 

Allow us, dear boys of '(^j^, to wish vou a most 
enjoyable vacation, b'.njov vonr^elves now. so that 
when vou return and brin^ nianv nioie with \\>u, 
you will be readv for .inother v tar's close applic.j- 
ticn to yonr various studies. 

Do not fail to sjo to Chi('.i''o. ( ',oiui-h\i\ 



^i 



VttLANOVA MONTHLY. 



JUBILEE OOLD DUST. 
'Jubilee. 

Gay old time. 

Partings. 

Auld lang syne. 

Vacation. 

Borax. 

Shoelets. 

Squeezed lemons. 

Who can and won''l explain ? 

Who wrote for an explanation ? 

Huckle-berry-an. 

Souvenir spoons. 

No flies on '93. 

Darkies and ice-cream. 

A bunch of sweets. 

It was truly a sorrowful meal. 

" A press." " One way or both ? " 

" Parting hours seem divine." 

Who drove the buggy into the fence ? 

How we enjoyed that menu! 

La comedia e finita. 

I was laughing in my sleeve. 

Who ever heard of a cracker jag ? 

It takes some people a long time to say adieu. 

Isn't it time for you to be in bed ? 

Wasn't that a nice rain, John ? Yes, Mike. 

Our 93's have proven themselves excellent im- 
provisatori. 

What's the matter with your lip? I have a 
Jubilee cold. 

Who tore down that foreign flag on the glorious 
Fourth ? 

That lonesome boy has at last gone home. 

Which kind of chips do you prefer, " shoulder " 
chips or "boulder" chips? 



We didn't half enjoy that game, even though the 
Phillies did win. 

We didn't think that you would take to the 
pike. 

Quietness prevails since the boys and the noise 
have both gone. 

The Phillies are still in first place, Yankee pro- 
phecies to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Commander Davis has been relieved of the care 
of the Infanta. He's gone, and she's growing. 

The Connecticut boys got quite a send-off next 
next morning on the 8.04. 

Luminous dark eyes should have remained for 
the picnic at Ardmore, July 4. 

The extra didn't make any mistake, but the 
regular was somewhat rattled. 

The Jubilee celebration on Sunday was well 
worth a stay over. But {sub rosa) that wasn't half 
the attraction. 

Find the dimensions of a huckleberry pie, whose 
crust is as thick as that Connecticut man's gall. 
Solve by Horner's method, Jerry. 

There were tears enough shed at Broad Street 
Station to extinguish the fire that occurred there 
on that evening. 

Oh, tell us, prithee, tell us, boys. 
Where are the mustaches three 

That adorned the lips of Seniors bold 
''Ere the Golden Jubilee? 



i( 



Are you going to Vespers to-night?" "No, 
I'm going elsewhere." "Take me with you, will 
you?" "I can't, Johnnie, there's only one." 
"Oh, shah!! !" 

Chicago Wade got a magnificent send-off". Four- 
teen of his dear friends waited at the Station imtil 
the Columbian Express passed by. They were de- 
lighted to see him, once more, as, standing on ilie 
lowest step of the Pullman, he waved a last good- 
bye. His handkerchief, which he had accident- 
ally dropped, was immediately cut into fourteen 
strips as mementos, which were worn by his four- 
teen friends for the rest of the day. 

Then, here's a health to all the boys 

The boys of ninety-three 
We'll ne'er forget the fun we had 

At the Golden Jubilee. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



SEE 



B. F. Owen & Co., 

1416 Chestnut Street, 
BEFORE YOU BUY 

A PIANO OR ORGAN. 

You vuill $aue /I\op^y ap** lisve a 

CHOICE OF THE BEST. 

200 NEiAZ PIHNOS. 

9 WORLD RENOWNED MAKES. 

WEBER, HALLET & DAVIS, BRIGGS and 

STARR PIANOS, ETC. 
Write for Catalogues, Prices, Terms, etc. 

1416 Chestnut Street. 

JAMES MCCANNEY, 

Saddle, Horness i Collar Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 



PHILADELPHIA. 



THE DeMORAT studio. 

914 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILA. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL BRANCHES. 

Special Rates in Groups, also to Colleges and Societies. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H. B. HHNSBURV. 

THE ONLY HOUSE 

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In fact, IN THE COUNTRY, that makes a 
specialty of sacred heart pictures. 
Framed and Un framed. Have you seen 
his Hand- Painted S. H. on Placques ? 
Drop in and see Progress at 

Conway's Catholic Supply House 

i8th and Stiles, first Store above Gesu Church. 

Agent for the American Line and White Star Line Steamers to and from 
the Old Country. Drafts at the Lowest Rates. 

E. K. WILSON & SON, 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

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Repairing Neatly and Promptly attended to. Custom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^ancastcr Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



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ON SATURDAY 




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PR/^I^K ^- PRI^K'TT. Craduate ip pi?ar/naey, 

PROPRIETOR. 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 



BOOKSBOUGHT. 

fF you want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old Books in America, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to sjare is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
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to purchase. 

UeMRVS OLD BOOK STORO. 
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166 North Ninth Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

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HAIR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 
JE^WigB and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Theatricals.'Vtl 

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No. 1 702 Market Street, 

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Printers, Publishers 

And Blank Book Manufacturers. 

Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationery. 
420 Library Street, Ph ladt Iphia. 



Publishers of "American Ecclesiastical Review," 

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PHILRDELPHIfi. 

Half Block from New P. & R. Terminal, and One and a Half 
Blocks from Broad Street Station. 

1210-29 Filbert Street. 

PRESTON J. MOORE, Proprietor. 



n 



VILLANOVA xMONTHtV. 




Thomas Bradley, 

N. W. gor. Twenty-first 

and Market Streets. 

WK extend an invitation to you to call at our GRKAT 
WESTERN MEAT MARKET and see what a choice 
selection of 

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ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION. 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, 

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241 North Fourth Street, 

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THOMAS d. FOG ARTY, 

DEALER IN 

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Clothing, Hats and Caps, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 



Lancaster Auenue. 



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JOHIST J. KYl^NES. 



DEALER IN 



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DEALER IN 

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PHILADELPHIA. 
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PUBLISHERS 

AND 

Catholic Booksellers, 

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CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

Nd. B17 Arch Street^ 

PHII^ADELPHIA. 

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41- 




■I^ 



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GAS AND ETHER ADMINISTERED. 

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Our stock of Fine Footwear is alwa vs attractive^ 
in quality., variety and price. 

HALLAHAN, 

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Dealer ip pipe Qroeeries. 

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Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 

Farqitsui'elBBdding 

Of Every Description, 

43 South Second Street, 

Above Chestnut. Philadelphia. 

Special Pi.scount to Institutions. 




VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



tn 



WATCHES, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY, 

S. E. Oor. Market and 16th Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 

i8K. Wedding Rings. Fino Watcb Repairing a Specialty, 

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1236 MARKET ST. 



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REFUNDED. 



BOOKS. 



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CATHOLIC SCHOOL | COLLEGE 

•^TEXT BOOKS, -f^ 

Ne^v and Second Hand. 

Have constantly on band a full line of Catholic 
Theological and Miscellaneous Books. 



Libraries and small parcels of Books 
purchased for cash. 

SEND YOUR ADDRESS OR CALL 

JOHN JOSEPH McVEY, 

39 fi, Thii^teenth Street, 

PHlIiADKIiPHTA, PA. 

CHARLES G. HOOKEY, 

526 NORTH FOURTH STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



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Livery, Sale I Exchange Stables, 



Lancaster Auenue. 



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HAULING DONE. 



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DEALER IN 

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Jewelry and Silverware. 

Also a complete stock of Spec- 
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Fine Watch and Clock Repairing. 



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Spalding's, Reach's anu 
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Estimates furnished to Clubs at 
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21^ .s. 



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f|1cI1ANUSj>'-&C''- 

stationers .... Blank Book Makers 



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M. A. CALLANAN, 



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DRY GOODS, NOTIONS, 

Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Lancaster Avenue. Bryn Mawr, Pa, 




'a^J^ 



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for the Table) Kitchen and 
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prices, 

10 ct. goods are 5 cts. 



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Montgomery's U. S. History. 
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70 Fifth Avenue N. Y. 



T. B. Lawler, Agent. 




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15 N. 9tli St., 

Philadelphia. 
MANUFACTURER OF FINE HO RSE BOOTS. 

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Salesroom, 629 Chestnut St , Factory, Broad and Race Sts. 

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4FUNERAL DIRECTORS- 

S. W. Cor. Twelfth and Jefferson Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 

tS" Personal attention day ov night. 



tv 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Mass in Honor of St. Augustine. 

FOR SOPRANO, ALTO, TENOR AND BASS, WITH ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT. 

This Mass in honor of St. Angnstine, has recently been pnblished and issned from this office, and 
to it we respectfully invite your attention. 

It is the composition of Rev. D. J. Leouard, O.S. A., who had in mind the production of a Mass 
that would be short, melodious and devotional, and we think he has not failed of his purpose. 

Though a simple Mass, easy to the ordinary choir, we venture the opinion that, if well rehearsed 
and faithfully rendered, it will become a favorite to both priest and choir. 

Specimen copies sent to any address on receipt of seventy-five cents. On all orders the usual dis- 
count to the reverend clergy and choir directors. 

SEND ORDERS TO 

D. J. Gallagher & Co., 

420 Library Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



A Fitting Mass for St. Augustine's Feast Day, August 28. 




bon^ai> p. (Small 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

Butter, Eggs, 
Poultry 
And G ame 

Stalls, 1 1 12, 1 1 14 and 1 1 16 Eleventh Avenue, 
Reading Terminal Market. 

109,171 and 173 union market, 2d and callowhill sts, 
Philadelphia. 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS., 

Manufacturers of Everything in 

Athletic, Gymnasium Goods, 



AND 



UNIFORMS FOR ALL SPORTI^, 

Outing and Yachting. 

— ♦ — -^ — « — 

SEND FOR NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



CHICAGO, 

108 M«<Il8onSt. 



NEW YORK, 

»43 BroKdwa^. 



PHILADELPHIA, 

103a Chestniit St. 



A FACT TO BE REMEMBERED 

THAT THE HEADQUABTKBS FOB 

Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments 



IS AT 



J. E. DITSON S^ CO/S. 

1228 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

BELLAK'S, 

PIANOS^ORGANS 

l!29 CHESTNUT STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA 

VAN HORN & SON, 

MAKERS AND DESIGNERS 

THEATRICAL AND HISTORICAL 

Catalogues Furnished. Costumer For the Mask and Wig Club. 

AL.L KINDS OF STAGE MAKK UP, TIGHTS &.c. 

121 IM. WIWTH STREET. Philadelphia. 

MOTLEY'S ADJUSTABLE SASH HOLDER 

FOR WINDOWS 

NEW OR OLD. 




Patented Dec. 13, 189 



In Buildings, Cars, Steamboats, Carriages, Etc, Also for Window Screens and 
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PETER MOTLEY, ^"^^ ■"" '"'' ^°"^^}LTeU». i»». 

dold ^ 5''^?^/^^^^'^ for all OGeasioQS 

Plus and Badges, etc Mnde to Order. 

Kngravings In General and Si>eclal AVork. 

D. A. REESE, Engraver and Manufacturer, 

700 Afch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(,M'f r of the Villanova College Prize Medals.) 




/J 



"M^ 



\\ai^o^^ 



\ 



— ^^ 



-m 




Vol. I. A^illanova College, August, 1893. 



No. 8, 




Threnody of St. Augustine. 

Thou, O Lord, hast created us for Thee, and our heart is restless, until it 
rests in Thee.—St. Aut^ustine's Confessions. 

Y heart ran wide o'er sea and earth, 
I longed for rest and quiet peace, 
I gave the reins to boundless thought ; 
I searched for it in noisy mirth, 
I looked for rest in sensual ease, 
I sought for it and found it not. 

Soon as the airy phantom rose. 

It melted from my gaze away ; 

It left me sad and troubled more : 

Unseemly joy gave place to woes. 

My sunshine grew a misty ray, 

My brightest hopes were clouded o'er. 

The deeper that I clung to earth, 
The more I felt disquiet reign, 
More gloom girt round my choicest glee : 
For I the while was nursing dearth. 
And hugging fast my iron chain, 
Away, my God, from peace and Thee. 

The more I fled from Thee, my all. 
More sunk the iron in my breast ; 
Thou wert my peace and still I fled, 
Deaf to the music of Thy call. 
Senseless to Thine appeals of rest, 
In seeming life as I were dead. 

Still Thou didst press me, and didst give 
A penance to upbraid and chafe. 
Till I should melt before thy grace. 
Till I should turn to Thee and live. 
And find in Thee a harbor safe, 
A refuge sure, and resting- plkce. 

These didst Thou give, my heart increase 
Of will and power, of love and light ; 
That like a mighty river flows, 
Then did my heart recover peace ; 
And turning from a world's despite, 
In Thee, my God, found calm repose. 



I 



The Threnody of St. Augustine was written by the late Very Rev. 
P. E. Moriarty, D D., ex-assistant general of the Augustinian Order, 
while resident at his mission of Our Lady of Consolation, at Chestnut 
Hill. Pa.; and was published for the first time in his Life of that Saint 
in 1872. 



tv 



VIIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Mass in Honor of St. Augustine. 

FOR SOPRANO, ALTO. TENOR AND BASS, WITH ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT. 

This ]\Lass in honor of St. Augustine, has recently been published and issued from this office, and 
to it we respectfully invite your attention. 

It is the composition of Rev. D. J. Leonard, O.S. A., who had in mind the production of a Mass 
that would be short, melodious and devotional, and we think he has not failed of his purpose. 

Though a simple Mass, easy to the ordinary choir, we venture the opinion that, if well rehearsed 
and faithfully rendered, it will become a favorite to both priest and choir. 

Specimen copies sent to any address on receipt of seventy-five cents. On all orders the usual dis- 
count to the reverend clergy and choir directors. 

SEND ORDERS TO 

D. J. Gallaghkr & Co., 

420 Library Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



A Fitting Mass for St. Augustine's Feast Day, August 28. 



foori^ai p. Small 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 



mU(Q 






^. 



'W 



Butter, Eggs, 
Poultry 
And Game 



Stalls, 1 1 12, 1 1 14 and 1 1 16 Eleventh Avenue, 
' '^ Reading Terminal Market. 

tC9, 171 AND 173 UNION MARKET, 2d AND CALLOWHILL STS, 
PHILADELPHIA. 

A. G. SPALDING & BROS., 

Manufacturers of Everything in 

Athletic, Gymnasium Goods, 

AND 

UNIFORMS FOR ALL SPORTS, 

Outing and Yachting. 
SEND FOR NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



CHICAGO, 

108 MadUonSt. 



NEW YORK, 

'443 Broadway 



PHILADELPHIA, 

103% Chestnut St. 



A FACT TO B£ REMEMBERED 

THAT THE HEADQUARTEBS FOR 

Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments 



IS AT 



J. E. DITSON St CO/S, 

1228 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

BELLAK'S, 

PIANOS^ORGANS 

M29 CHESTNUT STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA 



^ 



VAN HORN & SON, 

MAKERS AND DKSIONERS 

THEATRICAL AND HISTORICAL 



# 



Catalogues Furnished. Costumer For the Mask and Wig Club. 

At.L. KINDS OF STAOK MAKE UP, TIOH TS &,c, 

121 W. IMIJMTH STREET, Philadelphia. 



MOTLEY'S ADJUSTABLE SASH HOLDER 

FOR WINDOWS 




Patented Dec. 13. '89 




NEW OR OLD. 



In Buildings, Cars, Steamboats, Carriages, Etc. Also for Window Screens and 
Sliding Blinds. Send for Circular. 

PETER MOTLEY, """ """ -" """'A}L7.Xmh. p- 

Cold ^ 5lli/^r/T)edal5 for all GGGasiops 

Pins and Badgm, etc Illnde to Order. 

EnKravtn^s in General and Si>rcial AV'ork. 

D. A. REESE, Engraver and Manufacturer, 

700 Apch St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(MTr of the Villauova College Prize Medals.) 



[ ' -n— — rr"^" 



iS iii n il j iwif^twrw'^ w ' i 'ii p.''." ' " ■ ' ' '* 







\ 



— ^^ 



-m 




Vol. I. Villaiiova College, August, 1898. No. 8, 




Threnody of St. Augustine. 

T/iou, O Lord, hast created us for Thee, and our heart is restless, until it 
rests in Thee. — St. Auffustine's Confessions. 

Y heart ran wide o'er sea and earth, 
I longed for rest and quiet peace, 
I gave the reins to boundless thought ; 
I searched for it in noisy mirth, 
I looked for rest in sensual ease, 
I sought for it and found it not. 

Soon as the airy phantom rose. 

It melted from my gaze away ; 

It left me sad and troubled more : 

Unseemly joy gave place to woes. 

My sunshine grew a misty ray, 

My brightest hopes were clouded o'er. 

The deeper that I clung to earth. 
The more I felt disquiet reign. 
More gloom girt round my choicest glee : 
For I the while was nursing dearth. 
And hugging fast my iron chain, 
Away, my God, from peace and Thee. 

The more I fled from Thee, my all. 
More sunk the iron in my breast ; 
Thou wert my peace and still I fled. 
Deaf to the music of Thy call. 
Senseless to Thine appeals of rest, 
In seeming life as I were dead. 

Still Thou didst press me, and didst give 
A penance to upbraid and chafe. 
Till I should melt before thy grace. 
Till I should turn to Thee and live. 
And find in Thee a harbor safe, 
A refuge sure, and resting- pl^ce. 

These didst Thou give, my heart increase 
Of will and power, of love and light ; 
That like a mighty river flows, 
Then did my heart recover peace ; 
And turning from a world's despite, 
In Thee, my God, found calm repose. 



The Threnody of St. Augustine was written by the late Very Rev. 
P. E. Moriarty, D D., ex-assistant general of the AuRUstinian Order, 
while resident at his mission of Our Lady of Consolation, at Chestnut 
Hill, Pa.; and was published for the first time in his Life of that Saint 
in 1872. 



94 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



CLOSE OF THE JUBILEE 



IMPRESSIVE SERVICES IN VILLANOVA'S CHURCH ON 

SUNDAY. 



FIRST PONTIFICAL MASS 



BISHOP MCGOVERN OF HARRISBURG, THE CELE- 
BRANT OF THE DAY — ARCHBISHOP RYAN 
ATTENDS IN THE EVENING — SERMON 
BY REV. F. X. MCGOWAN, O.S.A. 



On last Sunday at Villanova College the academic 
and religious celebrations held there during the last 
two weeks in commemoration of the golden jubilee 
of that institution were brought to a fitting close 
by Solemn Pontifical Mass and Vespers. Right 
Rev. Thomas McGovern, Bishop of Harrisburg, 
and an old friend of the fathers, was celebrant of 
the day. He had reached the monastery the even- 
ing before. 

The day itself, which had opened dull and 
gloomy, with every foreboding of a storm, shortly 
before Mass hour cleared upas bright and beautiful 
as heart could wish. 

The handsome college church, which was to be 
the chief scene of Villanova's jubilee, rich in its 
marble altars and many tasty and charming works 
of art, was adorned with flowers and plants in 
sanctuary and aisles. The large and m ijestic double 
high altar was covered with lights and flowers, 
while outside the church, between its three main 
doors, were banked masses of palms, ferns and 
potted plants. 

THE PONTIFICAL MASS. 

As the hour for Mass approached the procession 
of religious and reverend fathers of the Order pro- 
ceeded from the sacristy to the sanctuary, with the 
right reverend celebrant and his ministers bringing 
up the rear. 

The celebrant of the Mass, which was the first 
Solemn Pontifical Mass ever celebrated at the col- 
lege, was assisted by Very Rev. James D. Waldron, 
O.S.A., provincial of the Augustinians. The 
ministers were Rev. Francis J. McShane, O.S.A., 
rector of Our Lady of Consolation,at Chestnut Hill, 
deacon ; Rev. Francis M. Sheeran, O.S.A., S.T.B., 
sub-prior of the monastery, sub-deacon ; Brothers 
Charles G. McKenna, O.S.A., and John F. Ken- 
nedy, O.S. A., acolytes; Brother Frederick S. 
Riordan, O.S. A., candlestick bearer; Brother 
Michael A. Ryan, O.S. A., mitre bearer ; Brother 
William W. Donovan, O.S. A., crozier bearer; 
Brother John J. Farrell, O.S. A., Book bearer; 
Brother Frederick F. Commings, O.S. A., thurifier. 
Rev. John F. Medina, O.S. A., was master of 
ceremonies. 

Present at the festival were Rev. James F. 
Loughlin, D.D., Chancellor of the Diocese, and the 
following Augustinians: Rev.Francis X.McGowan, 
of Lansingburg, N. Y.; Rev. Martin J. Geraghty, 
of Chestnut Hill ; Rev. Nicholas J. Murphy, of 
Philadelphia, and of the Villanova community ; 
Very Rev. Christopher A. McEvoy, Rev. Thomas 



C. Middleton, D.D., Rev. Edward A. Dailey, Rev. 
Charles J. McFadden, Rev. John J. Ryan, Rev. 
Richard A. Gleeson, Rev. Laurence A. Delurey, 
Rev. Richard F. Harris, Rev. James E. Vaughan, 
Rev. John B. Leonard, Rev. Walter A. Coar. 

The music of the day, both at Mass and Vespers, 
was under the direction of Prof. Henry G. Thunder, 
assisted by four soloists — Miss Mary F. Thunder, 
soprano ; Miss Edith Waylen, alto ; William T. 
Kirschner tenor, and James Crossin, bass — and a 
picked choir of thirty voices from St. Patrick's 
Church. 

The Mass music was : Prelude, Baptiste's Of- 
fertory in E flat, Giorza's Mass in F, Barnaby's 
" Veni Creator," offertory, Rossini's " Sancta 
Mater" and postlude, his '''William Tell." 

JUBILEE SERMON. 

The jubilee sermon at the Mass was preached by 
Rev. Francis X. McGowan, O.S. A., of Lansing- 
burg. Basing his argument on the parable of the 
mustard seed, the reverend preacher proved from 
her origin, her history and the testimony of her 
apologists the divinity of the Catholic Church, and 
then proceeding to show how in pursuance of her 
divine mission — to teach all nations — she, the 
mistress and guardian of all truths, was the civilizer 
and savior of society, he argued that only in her 
schools and institutions was science in its truest 
sense imparted ; that from her alone has mankinp 
obtained the right knowledge of God, the Supreme 
Being, and of all things pertaining to the highest 
principles of divine and human wisdom. 

EVENING SERVICES. 

In the evening, at half-past seven o'clock, were 
chanted Solemn Pontifical Vespers. The Most 
Rev. Patrick J. Ryan, Archbishop of Philadelphia, 
having in the meantime gone out from town, 
assisted at the Vespers. The celebrant was the 
Right Rev. Bishop of Harrisburg, and the min- 
isters the same with one exception, as at the 
Mass; Rev. Edward A. Dailey, O.S. A., being 
deacon. After the "Magnificat," Rev. Charles F. 
Kelly, D.D., of Towanda, Pa., one of Villanova's 
alumni in 1843, delivered an address on Christian 
education. 

Before imparting his episcopal blessing, the 
Most Rev. Archbishop addressed the congregation 
in words of encouragement and congratulation. 
He referred to the happy growth of the Church in 
general, and at Villanova in particular, during the 
last fifty years, and remarked that it could not be 
otherwise with those he addressed, as they were 
under the protection of the Church's patron saint', 
and had all their spiritual wants ministered to by 
the zealous followers of St. Augustine. He hoped 
that as they had increased in numbers and im- 
proved their worldly condition in the past, so too, 
that they would grow in the grace and favor of 
God in the future. 

The Vespers music embraced the following : 
Prelude, from Wagner; Psalms, according to Mer- 
cadante's score; Rossini's " Inflammatus ; " Mil- 
lard's "Salve Regina;" "Tantum Ergo," by 
Wilcox ; and after the Benediction of the Bles.sed 
Sacrament, the Postlude from Verdi's " Aida 
March." 



t^tA^'ai MiW'iiiiiM 'AiLMftAv-MUiUA^v 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



95 



Sermon delivered by Rev. F. X. ¥oOowan, 0.8 A , 

July and, 1893 in the Church of St. Thomas of Villanova, on 
the occasion of the Golden Jubilee. 

Gospel. Matthew xiii. 31-35.— At that time Jesus spoke to the multitude 
this parable : The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard- 
seed, which a man took and sowed in his field. '>^'hich iudeed is the 
least of all seeds ; but when it is grown up it is greater than all herbs, 
and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and dwell in the 
branches thereof. 

Some of the most instructive lessons, given by 
our Blessed Lord, to the Israelites and to ourselves 
have been given under the form of similitudes and 
parables. The poor people who listened to Him 
and who drank into their souls His touching elo- 
quence, were void of much intelligence, and 
knowing their Eastern love of imagery and their 
susceptibility to garner from figurative language 
the truths He proposed to them, the Saviour uses 
the parable as a medium to instruct and encourage 
them. 

So, in the significant parable of to-day. He draws 
a picture of what our holy religion is, and presages 
the great" stupendous progress she is destined to 
make in her glorified course before the nations. 
A wondrous panorama He unfolds to all ages ! 

The kingdom of heaven, that is, our Catholic 
faith, is likened to a grain of mustard-seed which 
small in itself grows quickly to such an extent 
that beneath its branches come the fowls of the 
air to sit and rest. So it is with our Apostolic 
faith. Its beginning was from a small birth, but 
it has so grown and broadened that its branches 
extend from pole to pole and from ocean to ocean. 

And the birds of the air come and rest in its 
branches. So in the lapsing spin of the ages, the 
kings and great men of the different cycles, men 
gifted with sanctity and power and learning, have 
sought peace and quietude amid the cheerful 
growth and development of the priceless faith 
that God has embosomed within the souls of men. 
Good and bad, weak and strong — all have sought 
her shelter whether the sunshine of heaven beamed 
and blazed upon them or the night-clouds of dis- 
order harassed and overpowered them . 

There is scarcely a thinking man who has read 
and weighed the history of time that will not 
acknowledge in all seriousness that heresy has 
been the product of erroneous intellect, in that 
it falsifies all truth and disorganizes all knowledge 
— it is a monster — evil calculated to spread pesti- 
lence among the nations. Call it what you will — 
Lulheranism, Calvinism, Agnosticism, it ever 
remains the same in the broad day-light of Catholic 
truth. Its falsity is seen in its origin which is not 
from God, but from man, and not possessed of 
divine life it is filled with error, trickery and fraud 
and offers men only the stability of doctrine that 



the mad, tempestuous ocean offers to the dis- 
mantled ship, that is thrown in despair on its wide 
surging bosom. In its falsity heresy gives men 
freedom, but its freedom is the damnable license 
of believing just what each one wishes. Worse 
even than this, heresy is iniquitous and it affords 
to men in its doctrines an easy opening to free and 
unbridled conduct of life ; it subverts in their 
bases all good works and, seeking to broaden its 
influence, it revivifies all ancient and unworthy 
beliefs. No matter how wicked men may lead 
their existences, heiesy judges them worthy of 
eternal life, provided they submit to what is pro- 
posed to their belief, whether false, true, or in- 
different. 

The malignant phase of heresy is seen in its 
every institution. Search the history of the Church 
and you will find that heresiarchs have been the 
very worst of men in character who, inflated with 
pride or glutted with sensuality, have established 
and propagated their errors by arms and rebellion ; 
whose success has depended on the authority of 
debased rulers ; on the robbery of ecclesiastical 
property, and their cringing sycophancy to the 
lusts and ambitions of those that favored them. 
The history of heresy has been a vile conspiracy 
against truth, holiness and common decency. 

Now as flashes the meteor across the sky, so 
flashes forth the brilliancy of Catholic truth 
athwart the firmament of Time. She has no 
falsity of life or of doctrine. She has no foulness 
of life or of practice. She has no fleetness of 
worldly existence. Her history is emblazoned on 
every page of human history, since the Paraclete 
came to breathe into her new life and new power. 

I. 

The Catholic religion is the true religion. The 
true religion must be a unity, not a multiplicity of 
belief; for truth is one and not divided. Hence, 
St. Paul, speaking to the Ephesians, says : " One 
Lord, one faith, one baptism." It follows from 
this that all so-called religions must be deemed as 
false, save one alone, and that these religions have 
been introduced into the world by Beelzebub — the 
father of lies. 

Now, that this religion which can be the only 
true religion is the Catholic religion, we draw 
from her name, from her origin, from her history 
and from the common consent of the best intellects 
the world has ever seen. 

(a) Our holy religion is not only Catholic in 
name but also in reality. She is this little grain of 
mustard-seed which in the beginning was so small ; 
yet in the lapse of the ages she has spread abroad 
her motherly arms until there is now no nation, 



96 



ViLtANOVA MONTHLY. 



now no people unto whom she has not aflforded the 
truths necessary for salvation. Up in the bleak 
blasts of the Northern Pole ; down in the dry 
heats of the Equator, her voice is heard and obeyed. 
She pauses not like Alexander to weep for other 
kingdoms — her clarion voice of faith echoes from 
the Pillars of Hercules to the Chinese S( as, and the 
calm exercise of her authority is recogniztd under 
the blaze of the Southern Cross. Her missionary 
work has been stupendous. When in the sixteenth 
century St. Francis Xavier carried her banner to 
Japan and China and India, the world marvelled at 
such unwonted zeal ; but look at her to-day pene- 
trating the depths and jungles of Africa, seques- 
tering herself amid the lonely isles of the Pacific, 
coasting along the shores of Eastern Africa, and 
bearding the Mahometan in the very centre of his 
power in Soudan, and you have but another glimpse 
of the outer development of that divine life which 
the Paraclete of old breathed into her when on 
Pentecostal morn, he sent her forth to evangelize 
the nations. Has any religion the counter-part of 
this ? The mad enthusiasm of the Musselmans led 
them to subjugate Spain and to enter France. So 
elated were they with their victories they prepared 
to make a direful onslaught on all Christendom, 
but God did not so will it. Defeated after their 
ages of victorious slaughter, they went back to 
their lairs like beaten lions. 

When the wild tide of open revolt swept men 
and nations from the safe-guards of Catholic faith, 
the spirit of the devil who goes about everywhere 
seeking whom he may devour, led Protestantism 
into the missionary field. Aided by human power 
Protestantism drove Catholicism to the barriers of 
the German Ocean, but rallying Catholicism drove 
her back to the Alps and the Pyrenees. Protest- 
antism never regained what she had lost — a most 
evident proof of her lack of vitality. Nor has her 
more modern escapades in this attempt to evan- 
gelize the nations been attended with better success. 
Even from the testimony of her own missionaries 
in foreign lands, her efforts have been abortive. 
The paucity of numbers in her conversions ought 
to be discouraging, but yet, led on by her ambition 
her missionary boards spend millions in support of 
so-called evangelization that might be well spent 
in lands where infidelity and poverty exist, well 
spent in converting the heathen at home, rather 
than wasted in the ludicrous task of converting the 
heathen abroad. Protestantism has neither the 
power, nor the grace of God to preach the Gospel 
to men. 

{b) The truth again of the Catholic religion is 
to be seen in her origin. She conies down nearly 



2,000 years uninterruptedly from Chiist, her 
Founder. No century, no period of time has inter- 
vened when she did not exist. In all the ages of 
time, since the coming of the Saviour, the holy 
Mass has been offered for the living and the dead ; 
festivals have been celebrated ; fasts have been 
observed ; saints and their relics have been hon- 
ored and all rites proper to our holy religion have 
been in use. Greater than all these there has 
existed since the days of the Apostles an unbroken 
line of bishops and priests, who, descending from 
the days of the first great Pontiff, St. Peter, enjoy 
the power given by Christ to the Apostles and in 
turn transmitted by them to the ministers of the 
Church. Just as all descend from Adam as regards 
their life and natural power, so the ministers of our 
religion descend in series as to their supernatural 
power by ordination and sanctification from Christ 
who is the second Adam. It is a wonderful picture 
in history this Apostolic succession of our fold: 
Christ, the great Shepherd and Bishop of our souls, 
conferring His power on the Apostles ; the 
Apostles, in turn, bestowing this same power on 
the bishops of the Church, and they, again, trans- 
mitting, according to rank and condition, this same 
divine authority to the lesser clergy of the Church. 
Her ministry dates not from the days when a proud 
monk and a licentious monarch led half the world 
astray. No ; she looks back over the varied ages 
of her persecution and her prosperity, and she looks 
on the pretentious claims of her unduteous children 
of yesterday, as we look at a mirage that in its 
cloudy, unsubstantial phantasm is seen one moment 
to disappear the next. 

{c) — When men lay down their lives and shed 
willingly their blood in advocacy of the causes they 
uphold, we admire their sincerity and we respect 
their objects. Life is too dear to us to sacrifice it 
for paltry motives. It is only the man of crazed 
mind or of perverted sentiment that finds in death 
relief from sensitive misery. 

And what numbers have shed their blood in 
attestation of their belief in the truth of the 
Catholic fold? For 300 years the Pagan world 
hounded the poor follower of Jesus Christ. They 
followed him out into the desert ; they sought him 
in the bowels of the earth, and they massacred 
him while he lifted his eyes toiieaven in anticipa- 
tion of the glory that awaited him. Christians 
were butchered to make a Roman holiday, and Nero 
played his lute while Rome burned and Rome ran 
red with the blood of Christians. There was no 
cessation to this martyrdom. St. Jerome asserts in 
one of his Epistles, that there was no day in the 
whole year, except the ist of January, on which 



/tiKjii -ne^i. Mit.inn.'-^ 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



97 



Pagans led by th^ir nefarious religion did not shed 
the blood of Christians. 

Five thousand and over fell victims to Pagan 
hatred — young men and old men, matrons and vir- 
gins, aye, even children in their tenderest years — 
all gave up life and liberty and fortune for the faith 
in which their souls were enwrapped. No wonder 
was it, as TertuUian declared, " the seed of Christ- 
tians is the blood of martyrs, ' ' There was none of 
the wild, barbaric craze of war in this blood-letting 
of Paganism against Christianity ; but the placid, 
willing acceptance of death by zealous souls to 
emulate and follow the example of Him that shed 
His blood on the Cross for all men, that all men 
might live. 

{d)—The truth of the Catholic religion is attested 
in like manner by the testimony of the greatest 
intellects God ever gave to this world. 

When men distinguished for their intellectual 
attainments proclaim authoritatively a truth, we 
accept readily the authority. This is but natural 
when we consider the varied and vacillating minds 
of men. Man must have some standard to go by, or 
some model after which to pattern. And yet as in 
natural matters, even more so is it in supernatural 
matters. Hence it is that Mother Church herself 
is wont to rely on the authority and learning of her 
sons who, gifted by God, have spoken and written 
wonderful things of God and His kingdom on this 
earth. There has been no faltering in this testi- 
mony. While the Evangelists wrote out the holy 
words and the wonderful deeds of Christ, a whole 
host of Christian apologists followed them. The 
fire of Isaias seemed to have touched them, and the 
stern philosophy of Paul, and the sweet charity of 
John urged them to great and noble battle against 
Jew and Pagan and Heretic. Judaism had its 
learned priests, versed well in all the tenets of the 
Mosaic law. Paganism had its philosophers, acute 
with the dialectics of a hundred authors. Gnosti- 
cism, which appeared even in the apostolic days, had 
its strong and haughty supporters. But men greater 
than all these arose— champions of faith — who 
dealt out deathful blows to these erroneous systems 
with the bludgeon of Christ's simple faith. And 
they rose up thick as atoms in the air, ready to do 
fight for the preservation and increase of the infant 
Church. 

In the first century arose, as apologists of Christ's 
faith, Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp and Denis the 
Areopagite who, after the Apostles consigned to 
writing the principles of Catholic faith they had 
learned from the Apostles. 

In the second century we have Justin Martyr 
whose writings have come down to our days ; 
Athenagoras who wrote an admirable defence of 



Christianity against the Pagans ; Egesippus who 
wrote an ecclesiastical history to his own times ; 
and St. Irenaeus who wrote many works against 
Vale nti nils. 

In the third century are Gregory Tliautnaturgus, 
Clement of Alexandria, Cyprian the Martyr, and 
Lanctantius. 

In the fourth century we meet St. Athanasius, 
St. Hilary, St. Cyril of Jerusalem and St. Basil ; 
while side by side with these we recognize the 
well-known names of Sts. Jerome, Ambrose, 
Epiphanius and Gregory Nazianzen. 

In the fifth century come Augustine, " Light of 
Doctors," the golden-tongued Chrysostom, Cyril 
of Alexandria, and Paulinus of Nola. 

In the succeeding ages came the sweet, honey- 
mouthed Bernard, stern St. Leo, St. Thomas 
Aquinas — the Angel of the Schools — the seraphic 
Bonaventure and innumerable others of whom we 
cannot even make passing notice. 

Now all these great minds, for they were all 
of pre-eminent sanctity and knowledge, promul- 
gated far and wide, and defended against all 
opposers their belief in the truth of our Catholic 
faith and were willing to defend it against all 
heresy and innovation even to the cost of their 
lives. It is a wonderful spectacle before God and 
men. What testimony has heresy against this? 
Would she place Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" 
say, by the side of Thomas a'Kempis' " Following 
of Christ " ? Does she think, for instance, she is 
so spiritual, to contrast Jeremy Taylor's works with 
the theological or ascetic works of the Christian 
Fathers? Has she ever raised even an author 
who had spirituality enough in him to approxi- 
mate the practical and simple force of Scupoli in 
his '' Christian Combat " ? 

And her apologists — her beatiful specimens of 
sanctity ! Luther who wrote the most indecent 
matter the world ever read, who with eight of the 
so-called principal reformers gave permission to 
the Landgrave of Hesse to have two wives at one 
and the same time. 

Henry VIII who married eight wives after mur- 
dering most of them, while that Protestant saint 
Cranmer subserviently truckled to his brutal 
passions. 

These be your bright lights of Protestantism ! 

The world has grown no better since this emas- 
culated sanctity came on it, and when the peaceful 
simplicity of the olden days is placed in juxta- 
position with the rabid, libidinous upheaval of all 
order and regard for God in our days, we cannot 
help but realize we should be hajipy in our own 
religion ; for we must be convinced as Augustine 
was in his day. 



98 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



" The consensus of peoples and nations holds 
me in the Church ; her authority, begun in 
miracles, nourished in hope, increased in charity, 
strengthened by age — all hold me in the bosom of 
the Church." — (De util. credend. 4.) 

II. 

The progress of the Catholic religion has been 
prodigious. She bears out to the extremest mea- 
sure the parable of the mustard seed. For all the 
peoples of the world have come to rest beneath 
her branches and her power rules from sea unto 
sea. Her victories over the effete religions of 
antiquity have been the greatest miracles ever 
heralded in the history of the world. The total 
revolutionizing of the life and habits and traditions 
of men, the subversion of idolatry, the introduc- 
tion of a God, unknown to men, and the merging 
of type and symbol into plain realities — all these 
form the most epochal narrative of events that 
was ever written in the book of Time. It was 
veritably a birth from darkness into light. 

In the beginning the establishment and progress 
of the Church, under God's Providence, were due 
to many efficient causes. 

(a) — There were, first, the admirable holiness of 
the early Christians and their marvellous good 
works. As the Pagans gazed on their personal 
goodness of life ; as they looked on the love the 
Christians bore one another and the charity they 
showed toward their separated brethren, they 
were much astonished. And it was no wonder 
they should be so. For no such good-will had 
ever been manifested among men, till the gentle 
Jesus came to throw out the fire-brand of brotherly 
love amid the varying classes of mankind. Juda- 
ism had engendered a spirit of bitterness among 
the divided sects of the House of Israel, and 
Pharisee contemned Samaritan, and Samaritan 
hated Sadducee, and Herodian abominated Phari- 
see and Samaritan and Sadducee. Paganism 
operated on revenge as a motive-power, and Rome 
was never happier than when the captive monarch 
was drawn in chains through her streets, or the 
vile Nazarenc was thrown to the rabid lions of the 
Coliseum. Christianity taught the world some- 
thing nobler than this. The very personal purity 
of life was such an evidence of the divinity of 
faith that the primitive Christians became the 
reality of St. Paul's words : " For we are the good 
odor of Christ unto God, in them that are saved " 
(ii. Cor. 2-15). The great love of the neighbor 
and the total absence of all injury among the 
Christians had a very telling effect on the thoughts 
of the Pagan. " See how they love one another," 
said Paganism. " I am a Christian," spoke out 
Blandina to her persecutors, '* no evil is committed 



amongst us." As the Pagans looked on this 
heroic sanctity, on the alacrity with which the 
Christians would march to cruel death, on the open- 
ness with which they proclaimed their faith and 
the mutual benevolence they manifested toward 
each other — they were moved, and in their serious 
reflection they saw that the finger of some power, 
more than natural, was there, and so in the whirl 
of successive ages, the great ones of this earth — 
kings, nobles, and even tyrants bent their necks 
lowly and accepted the yoke of the Lord that was 
sweet and took to themselves the burden that was 
light. So began the progress of our Catholic 
faith. 

(d) — Again, as one of the causes of the fruitful 
progress of Catholicism, comes the wonderful 
preaching of God's word. St. Paul intimates to 
us that faith comes by the preaching of the word. 
Yet what makes this preaching all the more 
admirable is this. The Lord did not send out into 
the world the wise ones or the philosopher or the 
learned of the earth to confound the so-called wis- 
dom of the world. No, he sent poor, simple- 
minded men — mere fishermen, mere illiterate men, 
who, filled with the Holy Ghost, spake unto men 
as men before them had never spoken. Their 
words were as a sacred fire that inflamed men's 
souls to the love of God and as a hammer that 
broke the hard hearts of men and bent them to the 
acceptance of Christianity. "Are not my words, 
saith the Lord God, as a fire ; and as a hammer 
that breaketh the rock in pieces?" (Jer. xxv. 29.) 
At the preaching of this word 3,000 men are con- 
verted, Pentecostal morn, to the faith of Christ. 
Thousands desert the lapsed olden religions to 
follow the Saviour. The ages bring their incre- 
ment, until within a few hundred years the whole 
known world unites in a hymn of praise and 
thanksgiving to God for the priceless boon of 
Christian belief and Christian confidence, the like 
of which men never had seen. The old law — 
the only true religion of ancient days — was confined 
to Israel ; the rest of the world groped in the black 
vagaries of Paganism. What a change ! The 
entire world, as St. Paul declares, becoming be- 
lievers, according to God's pleasure by what the 
Saint calls "the foolishness of preaching." 

(c) — Another perceptible cause of the spread of 
our holy faith was the startling influence of the 
innumerable miracles performed in the name and 
by the power of the Lord Jesus Christ. After the 
ascension of our Lord to the right hand of the 
Almighty Father, St. Mark testifies in the very 
last verse of the last chapter of his Gospel, " They 
(the Apostles) going forth, preached everywhere ; 
the Lord working withal and confirming the word 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



99 



with signs that followed." (Mark xvi. 20.) The 
signs or miracles simply affirmed to a hard- 
hearted or unspiritual people the truth of the 
Christian religion. The Apostles taught the prin- 
ciples of Christ, which were entirely novel to the 
Jews and Gentiles, and God, to confirm the author- 
ity of the Apostles, was pleased to delegate to His 
followers a glimmer of omnipotence in order to 
convert the souls of men. Gifted with this sublime 
power, the Apostles went forth, curing the blind, 
the lame and the halt, driving out devils from the 
possessed, healing the sick, and doing marvellous 
deeds for the benefit of the needy, the sore and 
the afflicted. As St. Gregory asserts, as we pour 
water about trees to increase their growth and 
their fruit, so God gave miracles to the tree of 
faith that it might grow and broaden unto the 
salvation of souls. 

These, then, the saintly life of the primitive 
Christians, the preaching of God's word and the 
continuance of signs and miracles placed the faith 
of Christ on its firm foundation, which will 
endure, according to the Lord's promise, to the 
consummation of all time. 

{d) — Has not our faith increased marvelously 
in our days? Catholicism has risen to her glory 
by the cross, for persecution was the inheritance 
bequeathed her by the Saviour — "/^r crucem ad 

The Eastern heresies, one of which struck at the 
vital principle of all Christian dogma — the divinity 
of Christ — were quickly despatched by the insuper- 
able efforts of the eastern Christian Fathers. The 
western African heresies were powdered into dust 
by the heroic warfare of Augustine — Light of 
Doctors and Hammer of Heretics. 

The great revolt against Church authority 
which assumed such wide proportions in the i6th 
century is to-day fast dismembering, beneath the 
unbelief and infidelity it brought into the world. 
The total independence of man from God and His 
law, that Protestantism engendered in the intellects 
of the world, culminated, at the end of the last cen- 
tury, in the terrible French Revolution — that 
revolution of fire and blood, from whose effects the 
world has suffered and never will recover. All 
our modern social heresies — Anarchism, Socialism 
and Nihilism — are the legitimate offspring of the 
French Revolution, 

But yet our faith, that is destined to live mili- 
tant on this earth till the gates of eternity open on 
us, winds her peaceful course along, laboring for 
the salvation of men's souls. Has she not given 
the proof of her divinity in our modern days? In 
the reaction against heresy, hers has been the 
advance ; hers the profit. 



In the middle of our own century, England, 
which had drifted away from the fold of Christ alto- 
gether, and which had been tempest-tossed for 
ages, suddenly began to feel a new life stirring 
within her. The Tractarian movement, conceived 
in all sincerity and truth, bore good fruit, and the 
numbers that listened to the voice of God and 
sought peace for their souls in the Catholic Church 
were almost incalculable. From a mere handful 
of Catholics who lived in England at the beginning 
of the century, the faith has increased to such a 
wide extent as this. (Read No. i.) 

In Canada, or a certain portion of it, the descend- 
ants of the French preserved intact Catholicity. 
Yet even they were made to feel the iron of British 
intolerance, and the poor Acadians were brutally 
transported from their primitive simplicity of life 
to the semi-bondage of more southern climes, and 
their country |^3arceled out to Englishmen, and 
their homes confiscated and their families sepa- 
rated. Yet the growth of the Catholic Church has 
been wonderful, despite these preventing circum- 
stances. Here is the summary of Canadian 
Catholicity. And what will we say of our own 
young virgin land ? 

From the days of the Revolution, Catholicity in 
these States made but little material progress, 
though there were good Catholic souls who strove 
to keep alive the low embers of faith. It was but 
natural, also, that the Church suffered great losses, 
for priests were few, the people scattered, and the 
young subjected to all the allurements of proselyt- 
ism. But when the exodus of the 40' s came and 
the Irish immigrants brought over to their adopted 
country the bright faith and holy practices of the 
Isle of St. Patrick, and when this was supple- 
mented in later days by the inpouring of Catholic 
emigrants from Germany, Poland, Italy and Aus- 
tria, then arose a new epoch in the history of 
America and a glorious era in the history of her 
Catholicity. From the meagre few of revolution- 
ary days, when a few Irishmen and a few F'rench- 
men lived in Boston, while not fifty Catholics lived 
in all New England outside ; when there were not 
a hundred Catholics in the city of New York, we 
have to-day this all- wonderful record of the increase 
of our faith here. (Read Ex. No. 3.) 

These are the tales of Catholic progress in 
three different nations which were within the 
compass of a hundred years distinctly heretical 
and Protestant. 

We have here to-day, while we pay honor to 
Villanova's fifty years of admirable service, another 
evidence of the divine progress of our faith. 

Fifty years ago, but two or three Catholic fami- 
lies lived in this vicinity. The lapse of these years 



lOO 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



i 



calls our attention to three large congregations that 
worship in the mother-church, in Bryn Mawr and 
in Berwyn. 

Villanova portrays to our minds the growth of 
the mustard seed in its fullest measure. 

And while we honor and glory in these years of 
progress we cannot but pay honor and glory to the 
great, holy, learned men who laid the foundations 
of Villanova's success. 

Back in the cloud-land of fifty years there looms 
up her first spiritual ruler — the saintly Dwyer — and 
side by side appears the form of the venerable 
Moriarty, whose eloquent voice was heard 
from Maine to Florida, and whose fame went 
beyond the seas ; and come up before us, also, the 
forms of the devout and learned Dr. Stanton and 
the cultured, refined Mullen — a poet in reality as 
well as in name. Bishop Galberry for years 
ruled here, and was all too soon removed by the 
divine economy from the successful labors of the 
episcopate. 

Among the younger clergy we naturally think 
of Father Blake, whose labor here and at Bryn 
Mawr and St. Denis was so well attested, and 
we cannot forget the erudite Doctor Locke, who 
taught and labored here ; whose learning was 
recognized in the halls of the Propaganda in 
Rome. 

These, all, we're not only giants in intellect, but 
masters in the House of Israel. 

It would be an injustice on this festive day not 
to refer to the zealous and successful industry of 
that little band of brothers who, under the direction 
of Dr. Dwyer, left their native land to help lay 
deep the foundation of Villanova's prosperity. Who 
can forget the industrious Philip, the ever-busy 
Owen, the loquacious Patrick, the saintly Thomas, 
who loved to live more among the dead than with 
the living, and poor Stanislaus and saintly James? 
These were men of God who brought with them the 
bright faith of St. Patrick and practically attested 
that faith in their labors here. 

Rightfully, then, this morning do we honor and 
reverently keep in our hearts the sacred memories 
of fifty years of faithful service. God has indeed 
given us the increase, and in His own good time He 
will give us the merit. 

And, thou, O blessed Mother Church, in whose 
gentle bosom we nestle, protected from the wind 
storms that howl about the world, be it ours to be 
loyal to thy inspirations that, gifted with the 
blessed freedom of the "sons of God," we may 
strike from ourselves the chains of wickedness and 
bad passion to rise to the glory and happiness of 
heaven's elect. Amen. 



NOTES. 

Through the kindness of Miss M. G. Cummis- 
key, of Malvern, Pa., a daughter of the late Eugene 
Cummiskey, one of Philadelphia's oldest Catholic 
publishers, we lately received a beautiful oil paint- 
ing representing Mary Magdalen. The work does 
credit to the artist. The facial expression denotes- 
softened grief and seems to portray the feelings of 
the penitent at the turning point of her career, 
when grieving over the sinfulness of her past life, 
she found consolation and peace in the comforting 
words of her Saviour, " Many sins are forgiven thee 
because thou hast loved much." 

Owing to the absence of nearly all our students 
and the two-fold nature of our Golden Jubilee exer- 
cises, collegiate and ecclesiastical, a description of 
which we could not well omit, our readers must 
have noticed a change of order relative to the read- 
ing matter in the vacation numbers of the 
Monthly. The next issue, however, will contain 
all the usual features, including " Splinters," 
which we regret very much we are unable to pub- 
lish in this number. 



ST. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO. 

SECOND PAPER. 

The student life of Augustine at Carthage, — 
he was there altogether about thirteen years, — 
found him easily pre-eminent in all branches of 
university knowledge among the very large class 
of able and brilliant youths, whom the fame of 
Carthaginian teachers had drawn to the great 
African capital. 

During his school-life there Augustine went 
through the entire course of sciences of the day. 
At the age of twenty, we find him already mas- 
tering by himself the Categories of Aristotle ; 
while in the liberal arts of music, arithmetic and 
geometry as they were styled he was fully at home. 

After a short time spent at Carthage in com- 
pleting his studies he was engaged as teacher 
of rhetoric to a large class who had been attracted 
to his chair through his well-earned reputation as 
a scholar. 

But great as were Augustine's natural gifts of 
intellect, — his keen power of grasping and analyz- 
ing the most abstruse problems of philosophy, the 
discriminating and profound habits of his mind, and 
his wonderful dialectical skill, — deplorable on the 
other hand was the uneasy and troubled state of 
his soul. Consumed as he continually was by an 
increasing and torturing unrest of spirit as to his 
future state, he found as he often confesses no 
happiness or peace in life. Eveiy here and there 



VIIvIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



lOI 



in his Works he looks back with grief and anguish 
to the dark and miserable condition of his soul 
during his student days, — spiritually the most 
barren, dreary and comfortless epoch of his career. 
He laments that he had little or no true faith in 
God, not that he ever positively disbelieved in 
the Deity, for he always believed in one Supreme 
Being, but that he could not understand Him. 
Having been led away partly by his own demoral- 
izing habits of life and partly by the sophistries 
of the Manicheans, from the pious teachings of 
the saintly Monica, he held that in God was a 
corporeal nature, and that over man ruled two 
powers, destinies or influences, the one leading 
him irresistibly to good, the other to evil. 

Manicheism is the doctrine of fatality. Fo^" 
a while Augustine in his shiftless and aimless 
pursuit of truth attached himself to the Mani_ 
chees at Carthage ; he believed that by their prin_ 
ciples might be solved the problem of life ; he 
attended their meetings ; made himself master of 
their doctrines, and was looked upon as one, if 
not the most prominent, of their adepts. Faustus 
bishop of Milevis the chief promoter at Carthage 
of the sect congratulated himself on having won 
over to their side the brilliant and able professor 
of rhetoric. 

Augustine too in his enthusiasm for his new 
belief persuaded his friends Romanianus, Honor- 
atus, Alypius, — one of his pupils at Tagaste and 
now at Carthage, — and lyicentius the son of Roman- 
ianus, to join the Manicheans, with whom they 
found a justification of their wayward life and 
excuses for their sins. 

For nine years, — from the nineteenth to the 
twenty-eighth year of his age, — Augustine clung 
to Manicheism. But his life-long habit of admit- 
ting as final no principle, no doctrine, that was 
not in accord with true reason, and above all his 
loyalty to truth, no matter how distasteful it might 
be, led him to unmask the unsoundness of Mani- 
chean teachings, and showed him clearly the 
duplicity of its adherents, who while in speech 
they maintained purity of life, in deportment were 
anything but moral. Greatly too was Augustine 
aided in giving up his old attachment for Mani- 
cheism by his study of Hortensius^ a work now lost 
of Cicero's, which fired him with an irresistible 
yearning for true wisdom by a noble enthusiasm for 
the good and beautiful, and by its contempt for 
the baseness of the contemporary world. 

Besides this he was disgusted with his pupils' 
licentiousness. So unsettled in mind, doubting 
pretty much everything, — he was neither Mani- 
chean, nor Christian, — and desirous of his own 
happiness, he shakes the dust of Carthage from his 



feet, and assisted again by Romanianus his almost 
life-long friend, leaves Africa for Italy, taking with 
him as companions of his journey his son Adeo- 
datus and — as is probable — also the mother of the 
boy, and his friend and pupil Alypius. 

At Rome he falls ill of a fever and recovering 
through the careful nursing of Alypius engages for 
a time as teacher of rhetoric in the Greek school of 
S. Maria.* 

But before long he finds to his disappointment 
that his Roman pupils, though better behaved than 
the Carthaginian, were considerably below the 
ethical standard that he had established for his 
followers. They were so ungrateful and stingy as 
not to pay him his fees. 

Hence in his yearning for congenial and upright 
society, as well as because through the influence of 
Symmachus prefect of Rome a better opening was 
ready for him at Milan, then the imperial city of 
the West, he traveled thither at the public expense 
with Adeodatus and Alypius, and is appointed to 
the chair of eloquence and oratory. The renown 
of the able professor of Carthage and of Rome had 
preceded him to Milan, and he is not long in 
gathering about him a numerous and respectable 
auditory at his instructions. 

Here too he is joined. by his loving and saintly 
mother, who in her solicitude for her wayward yet 
beloved son, who had left Carthage without her 
knowledge, had tracked him first to Rome, then to 
Milan, and now was to be re-united with him, to 
never again be parted from him in life. 

The Christian church at Milan was ruled over 
by the saintly and learned Ambrose an ex-soldier 
and courtier of the late emperor, who through his 
merits and at the request of the Faithful had been 
made bishop of that See. 

Ambrose had heard of this brilliant, nervous, 
slender youth, — Augustine was of middle stature 
and slight in frame, — and the fame of his scholar- 
ship and of the numerous auditories he gathered 
around him, had reached his ears. Both Monica 
and Augustine went frequently to hear the sermons 
and instructions of the famous Doctor of the 
Church ; the first because of her piety and the 
consolation she derived from his kindly and 
fatherly counsels, the latter because he was 
charmed by the eloquence and deep reasoning of 
the speaker. 

But in inverse proportion to the successes and 
triumphs which attended Augustine in the schools, 
was his ever increasing dismal darkness of soul and 
his bitter weariness of heart. For him there was 



* For the name of this school I am indebted to Lesi petifs 
BoUandistes by Guerin, (Paris, 1878,) vol. X, p. 284. 



■HMonta 



I02 



VIIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



no sweetness in life, no moments of repose. He 
was utterly dissatisfied with himself, with his life 
and with everything around him. Deep thinker 
as he was, he easily recognized as clear and evident 
truth as mid-day's sun that morally he was utterly 
astray ; that he a master of all earthly science had 
been born for something higher and nobler than 
mere earthly applause and grandeur ; that neither 
learning, nor friends could cap his happiness; that 
for him to seek nothing beyoud the gratifications of 
earth, — he himself says that he yearned for honors, 
money and marriage, — was to turn a deaf ear to 
the demands of reason, which bid man so live here 
so as to enjoy life hereafter. Thus had reasoned 
Plato, Augustine's favorite author, and thus rea- 
soned Augustine. From his 29th year when he 
abandoned Manicheism Augustine had been an 
Academician. 

The story of Augustine's conversion — of his 
many and bitter trials of mind and of his brave and 
manly, though at one time almost hopeless, deter- 
mination to break away wholly from his present 
mode of living — is told in detail in his Con- 
fessions. * 

Around Milan, it may briefly be said, lived in 
pious and helpful society, many saintly men who 
in imitation of St. Anthony of Egypt, their model 
and patron, were fugitives from the world, despisers 
of courtly pomp and aspirants after perfection of 

life.t 

By the counsel of one of these Simplician by 
name, a venerable man who seems to have been at 
the head of one of these Milanese brotherhoods, 
and had somehow or other formed Augustine's 
acquaintance, he renounces his idea of marriage, 
and giving up his companionship with the mother 
of his son, sends her home to her relatives in 
Africa. 1 

Following out his purpose to break wholly from 
his attachments for the world, Augustine also sur- 
renders his chair, and by the advice of St. Ambrose 
betakes himself to the study of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, especially of the Prophet Isaias. Before long 
the step is taken which was to win for him that 
peace and comfort of soul which he had for so many 
years and so earnestly been seeking. One day, — 



* See especially book viii, chap. 6-12. 

t At Milan Auj^ustine read the Life of this j^reat hero of the 
Thebaid written Ijy St. Athaiiasius. See Confessions, book 
viii, chap. 6. 

% Here it may be noted that apart from the alliance of this 
woman with Augustine little else has been recorded of her. 
We know neither her name nor birthplace, yet as appears from 
the few references made to her in Augustine's own Works, she 
was a woman of sterling good (jualitics of mind and heart, and 
is said to have <lied a not unsaiiitl}- death. See Confessions, 
book vi, chap. 15. 



he has himself recorded it ; * — about twenty days 
before the vintage season, while in the garden, 
whither he had gone in the afternoon for recollec- 
tion and quiet, he was reclining on the ground 
looking over the Letters of St. Paul — the Apostle, 
when his eye chanced to fall on this passage of the 
inspired writer: '* — not in rioting and drunken- 
ness, not in chambering and impurities, not in con- 
tention and envy, but put on the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and make not provision for the flesh in its concu- 
piscences, "f 

And the scales of error fell from his eyes — his 
mind was opened — and his heart felt as never 
before the quickenings ot divine grace — grief for a 
mis-spent life and the most ardent yearning for 
union with his Creator ; and the grace of God 
triumphed over the pride of intellect and the rebel- 
liousness of Augustine's soul, and the brilliant, 
eloquent and gifted African, who by his teachings 
in the three greatest schools of the Western World, 
had for so many years held sway over the learned 
of every class now retired from the arena, and 
sought baptism at the hands of the saintly bishop 
of Milan. t 

By the kindness of one of his friends — the gram- 
marian Verecundus — a villa, or country-seat known 
as Cassiciacum, § now Cassago di Brianza, some 7 
or 8 leagues from Milan was put at his disposal. 
Here accompanied by his mother, his son and some 
relatives and friends, Augustine spent several 
months in study, writing and friendly disputations. 
It was here that he composed his famous book on 
the Blessed Life^ that gives us so clear an insight 
into the occupations of this congenial and devoted 
company. 

From his works we learn the names of his com- 
panions in this country retreat ; T[ they were St. 



* See Confessions, book viii, chap 6-12, and the graphic and 
very beautiful description of St. Augustine's conversion by the 
gifted Montalembert in his Monks of the West, vol. i, book iii. 

t See St. Paul's Letter to the Romans, xiii, 13-14. 

X It is the more probable opinion that the date of St. Augus- 
tine's baptism by St- Ambrose was the Saturday before Easter 
Sunday, the 24th of April, in the year 387. The six months or 
so intervening hetween his conversion in the fjdl of the pre- 
ceding year and his baptism were spent in preparation for that 
sacrament. For the whole question relating to the date of St. 
Augustine's baptism see Berti Dc Rebus Gestis pp. 34-40. 

So keen was Augustine's reasoning and so dreaded was his 
influence over his hearers that — it is a very ancient tradition — 
the faithful at Milan when gathered in church for prayers were 
wont by Ambrose's mandate to add this invocation to the Lit- 
anies of the vSaints, a logica Angustini libera nos Dotnine, i. e. 
From Augustine's logic, O Lord deliver us. See Guerin — Les 
I'etits Bollandi.stes (Paris. 1878,) x, p. 295. 

? See Confessions book ix, chap. 5, 

Tf See Confessions, vi, 10 and xii, 22 ; de Beata Vita and his 
works Contra Academicos. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



103 



Monica, his son Adeodatus, his brother Navigius, 
Evodius, formerly a soldier and now the business 
man of the Society, Alypins his pupil, Lastidianus 
and Rusticus his cousins, Licentius son of Roman- 
ianus, Trigetius, Nebridius, and his venerable 
master of the spiritual life Simplician. 

Henceforth Augustine devoted himself wholly to 
the practices of religion, and in pursuance of his 
desire to give himself up more fully to the service 
of God, he now leaves Milan the scene of his later 
worldly triumphs, and with his mother, his son, 
his brother Navigius, and some of his Milanese 
companions, sets out by easy stages for home, 
^erti and Guerin name Licentius, Evodius Alypius, 
Anastatius and Vitalis * as the companions of his 
travel. 

At Ostia — the seaport of Rome and the best place 
to take ship for Carthage, the holy Monica falls ill 
of a fever and (as has been told) dies there and is 
interred, f 

After the last honors to his mother, he again 
visits Rome, spending his time in correcting some 
of his writings and in examining into the manner 
of life followed by religious men there. Monasti- 
cism (it is said) was introduced into Italy by St. 
Athanasius, during the first half of the fourth 
century ; he established a colony of monks in 
Rome. The new convert eager to put into prac- 
tice the principles of holy life, shortly after his 
return to his native place Tagaste, planted a 
colony of hermits a little ways out of town, where 
banded under his direction and leadership they 
sought in the exercises of religion — in prayer, man- 
ual labor, study, writing and mortification — to lead 
the ideal Christian life. | 

On his arrival at Carthage, it should be added, 
Augustine had paid a visit to his old friend Inno- 
centius, whom to his grief he found suffering from 
a fistula, of which he cured him through his prayers. 
This seems to be the first miracle wrought by the 
intercession of the holy penitent.§ 

In Augustine's IVorks there are very few precise 
references to the brotherhood at Tagaste. If we 
may argue from the Rule of Holy Life which he 
afterwards drew up for his nuns at Hippo, and from 
the frequent directions he gives in his Works to 
religious, it would seem that the brotherhood at 



* See Berti De Rebus Gestis pp. 271, 293 ; and Guerin BoU- 
andisles, x, p. 295. 

t See the May number of the MoNTHr,Y, at page 52. 

X The few references made by Augustine to this coninuinity 
at Tagaste may be read in his Confessions and some of his 
Sermons ; St. Possidiusin his L(/'eo{ihc same saint also refers 
to it. See his yi/a chap. iii. 

'i Kor an account of it, see T/ie City of God, xx, 8. 



Tagaste lived in community and while hermits in 
namQ—^^Jin-m/laey^^ he calls them — were ccnobites 
in practice. 

Among these pious, learned and earnest hearted 
Christian athletes were Augustine's holy and in- 
nocent little son Adeodatus, who died shortly after 
entrance, his brother Navigius, and his friends 
Alypius, Evodius, Severus, afterwards bishop of 
Milevis, and Profuturus. 

But after three years of religious and happy re- 
tirement at the hermitage of Tagaste, the brother- 
hood without however being disbanded lost their 
fomider. Augustine who had gone on a visit to 
Hippo, the episcopal city, to see a friend — a youth, 
whom (as he says*) he had hopes of inducing to 
return with him to Tagaste and join the brother- 
hood there, was unexpectedly summoned by the 
people to be their preacher ; and thus begins 
Augustine's public life as a priest of God. 

T. C. M. 

{To be contimied.) 



GENTLENESS. 

There are few who do not, at least some time or 
other, make use of kind and gentle words, yet there 
is no reason why these should not be more gener- 
ally used, as they constitute such an effective means 
of acquiring and strengthening friendship, besides 
being otherwise productive of much good. The 
man who is kind to every one, who never indulges 
in harsh or unjust criticism, must derive great hap- 
piness from the thought that by his kindly consid- 
eration for others he has won their affection and 
esteem. While the Almighty in His own mysterious 
ways has made some men cold and unsympathetic, 
others warm and affectionate. He has endowed all 
with reason and intelligence by means of which 
they may know when, and to whom, a kind word 
should be spoken or an act of kindness rendered. 
Though man be thus formed by his Creator, yet it 
would seem that circumstances intensify or increase 
his natural qualities of coldness or affection. Per- 
haps in his tender years he suffered the loss of a 
devoted father or a loving mother and, thrown upon 
a merciless world, all the fine qualities of his nature 
have deteriorated and he has become as selfish and 
as cynical as any of earth's minions. Or, perhaps, 
over confidence in a supposed friend has been 
abused, and the deceit or treachery of the trusted 
one has left a wound in the heart which the art of 
man cannot heal. It is thus that natures once gentle 
and confiding have been changed and have made 
the unhappy possessors hated and detested. Hap- 



* See Sermon No. 355. 



I04 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



A Beminder. 



" Studies will be resumed on Monday, September 

The above is a quotation from the catalogue of 
1892-3. Let us trust that its appearance in the 
August number of The Monthly needs no 
apology, since young men are apt to be greatly 
distracted during the brief vacation period ; and 
fond parents are sometimes loath to remind their 
sons of the near approach of school opcniug, lest 



pily for mankind such cases are only accidental as 
the gentle youth usually becomes the gentleman, 
and the gentleman carefully guards his claim to 
the title till the end of his days. 

If there be auy classes of people that, from their 
position and their power of accomplishing good, 
should acquire, if they have it not naturally, 
gentleness of manner, those people are parents in 
their homes and teachers in the school-room. 
On these devolve the all-important tasks of form- 
ing the tender minds of the young and upon the 
ability of parent and teacher, together with a 
conscientious performance of their duties in train- 
ing those under them, will depend, in a great 
measure, the future happiness or misery, success 
or failure, of those in their care. While the best 
and most lasting effects in training are accom- 
plished by the teacher of gentle manner, yet it 
is not to be supposed that such a teacher must be 
lacking in firmness. The refining influence of a 
gentle firmness is far more potent and impressive 
than all the noise of a demonstrative but yielding 
teacher. Reproval given in a kind way will event- 
ually revert to the good of reprover and reproved. 
It will open the eyes of the latter to the serious- 
ness of his faults, and the kindness of the one who 
has disclosed them to him. Thus it happens that 
gentle words and manners loosen the tension of 
strained relations, calm troubled minds, promote 
sympathy, unite severed hearts, and, generally, 
do more for the happiness of man than almost any- 
thing we can name. It is impossible to say how 
many quarrels they avert, how much bitter feeling 
they subdue, how many happy surprises they 
occasion, how many sad hearts they comfort, and 
how much pleasure they insure. The realization 
of even a small part of all these bestows a bless- 
ing on one's fellow-man, and surely no one among 
us ought to refuse a blessing so highly valued and 
so easy of bestowal. A little thought, a little | 
self-control, a little effort on our part will bear ' 
fruit a hundred-fold. 

; A, J. Plunkett, '96. 



it should smack of indifference at the early depart- 
ure of their dear ones. Let us hope, however, that 
in this year of grace — Columbian year— -better 
counsels will prevail, and that boys and parents 
alike will catch something of the heroic spirit of 
the times, the one to hearken to duty's call, the 
other to rejoice in duties nobly done. Who does 
not know that " procrastination is the thief of 
time," and that the tardy return to school is 
accompanied by many and serious difficulties for 
the student who has the laudable ambition of 
standing well in his class ? Not only does he lose 
his credit marks, but also misses important pre- 
liminary instruction which is indispensable in 
solving problems often but a sequence of what has 
gone before. Boys, let us not forget the 4th of 
September, 1893. 



Days Gone By. 



Oh, the days gone by ! oh, the days gone by ! 

The apple in the orchard, and the pathway through 
the rye ; 

The chirrup of the robin and the whistle of the 
quail. 

As he piped across the meadows sweet as any night- 
ingale ; y;:'/y'^".:. '''''^^■■■:-:{^^'v"\'; . 

When the bloom was on the clover and the blue 
was in the sky, 

And my happy heart brimmed over, in the days 
gone by. 

In the days gone by, when my naked feet were 

tripped 
By the honeysuckle's tangles, where the water 

lilies dipped. 
And the ripple of the river lipped the moss along 

the brink, :'■:■''■■ ■■''y%: J'- ■'■'-"''■■ 'y.-^^--'^-: '■'':■.>■/■■'::: v:';-;-':'; 
Where the placid eyed and lazy footed cattle came 

to drink, . •. 

And the tilting snipe stood fearless of the truant's 

wayward cry. 
And the splashing of the swimmer, in the da)s 

gone by. , 

Oh, the days gone by ! oh, the days gone by ! 
The music of the laughing lip, the lustre of the eye j 
The childish faith in fairies, and Aladdin's magic 

■■■ ring, "^' ';■■■■-•-■--''■■■ '^-'- "■-"■'■■-■ ^^ 

The simple, soul reposing, glad belief in every- 
thing. 

When life was like a story, holding neither sob 
nor sigh, ■ s^ K ; -^ 

In the olden, golden glory of the days gone by. ; 

—James Whitcomb Riley. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



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tp 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Mass in Honor of St Augustine. 

FOR SOPRANO, ALTO. TENOR AND BASS, WITH ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT. 

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^•^Wanova 




Vol. I. 



Villanova College, September, 1893. 



No. 9. 



W 



NOCHE SIKEITA. 

From the Spanish of Fray Luis PoriCe_de Leon. O.S.A. By 
Mr. Henry PhimpsrTfTorPhJTaderphfi. --^ 

"HEN to the heavenly dome my thoughts 
take flight, 
With shimmering stars bedecked, ablaze 
with light, 
.Then sink my eyes down to the ground, 
In slumber wrapped, oblivion bound, 
Enveloped in the gloom of darkest night ; 

With love and pain assailed, with anxious care, 
A thousand troubles in my breast appear, 

My eyes turn to a flowing rill, 

Sore sorrow's tearful floods distill, 
While saddened, mournful words my woes declare. 

Oh, dwelling fit for angels ! sacred fane ! 

The hallowed shrine where youth and beauty 
reign I 
Why in this dungeon, plunged in night, 
The soul that's born for Heaven's delight 

Should cruel Fate withhold from its domain ? 

What madness ever swayed the human brain 
From Truth and Purity to speed amain. 
With mind forgetful of the hand ■ ^ v 

Divine, to roam in error grand, • ■: ' 

Along a path beset by phantoms vain? 

Bound in fell chains, a captive in his bloom J ' 
To futile dreams, forgetful of his doom, ; - / 

The heavens with rapid, noiseless tread ::>;> 

Speed in their courses overhead. 
As life runs racing fleet to Death's dread gloom. 

Arouse, I say ! ye mortals ope' your eyes, 
Behold with steadfast gaze your fearful loss ! 

Can the immortal soul, create 

For deeds of Honor's high Estate, 
On shadows banquet and deceptions prize ? 

Awake ! and raise on high your fixed regard 
To where eternal fires the welkin guard ! 

Tear down the bars that dim your view, ' 

Despise Earth's joys of flattering hue. 
In hope and fear strive for just Heaven's reward. 

What is it but a small, quick-rolling dot 
This base, ignoble earth, when once wc see 



The spheres celestial wherein Fate 

Hath mirrored forth a future state 

Of all that was, or is, or e'er shall be ? 

Behold the skies, the harmonies that sway 
Those flaming orbs with clear, eternal rky. 

Whose movements true are led by law, 

Whose pace unerring hath no flaw. 
Whose steps ordained in due proportion stray. 

The cresset of the eve, the moon's mild gleams, 
Whirls like a silvery shield, while from her streams 
The glory whence deep learning flows. 
Beside her track bright Venus glows, 
In sparkling radiance, soft, pellucid beams. 

Another path is traversed by red Mars, 
The god of anger, deadly strife and wars ; 

And far-off Jupiter benign, 

From whom ten thousand blessings shine. 
With torch of love sheds peace among the stars. 

Most distant of them all, and in their maze, 
Rolls Saturn, father of the golden days ; 

Around him blaze a happy band, 

A dazzling chorus on each hand. 
Who share his treasure and divide his rays. 

lyives there a man, who, when he views this sighf, 
Doth not despise this petty, earthly plight ? , 

Who doth not sigh in grievous pain,, , 

And strive to rend the fleshly chain 
That fetters him, an exile from pure light? 

In those far realms of Hope content is found. 
In gentle peace, tranquillities profound ; 
Enshrined on rich and lofty throne 
Reigns kindly Love's own sacred zone, 
Where purities and holiness abound. 

And all that wondrous beauty without end, 
Unblemished shines with incandescent light, 
With ray unsullied, softly bright. 
Upon whose day there falls no night. 
Where Spring's eternal myriad odors blend. \ ^ 

Ye fields of Truth ! ye tender sweetest bliss ! 

Ye meadows fresh, with guileless love well-stored ! 

Ye mines of richest ore ! 

Ye hearts of joy's full store ! 
Ye vales replete with Pleasure's purest hoard I 






io6 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Some Notes relating to the Life of Fray Luis Ponce de 

Leon. 

Fray Luis Ponce de Leon is famed as being " one 
of the two greatest lyrical poets, the other Fer- 
nando de Herrera, that Spain ever produced." 
Thus speaks Ticknor of the author of Noche 
Serena. ( 

Fray Luils was born at Belmonte in 1528. At the 
age of fourteen he was sent to Salamanca to study 
and there joined the Order of St. Augustine. In 
1560 he gained the degree of licentiate, and imme- 
diately after the doctorship. In the following year 
he won by competition the chair of St. Thomas in 
the university, which he held until 1565, when he 
got the chair of Durandus. 

While at Salamanca he created and supported by 
his immense learning the August! nian School — a 
system of introducing into theological studies a 
spirit of criticism, philology and literary taste, 
wherein shone so greatly his disciples and fellow 
religious Diego de Tapia, Alfonso de Mendoza, and 
his nephew Basilio Ponce de Leon. 

After teaching eleven years, on March 27, 1572, 
he was arrested by order of the Spanish Inquisition 
on the complaint of a rival schoolman, Leon de 
Castro, on the charge of holding unsound views 
relating to the Holy Scriptures, of having mis- 
interpreted them, of having written a too worldly 
translation of the Book of Canticles, of having 
taught with Grajal and Martinez that in the Old 
Law life eternal was not promised to the just, and 
of having doubted of the coming of the Messiah. 

He was imprisoned at Valladolid, where he was 
confined imtil December, 1576, when the charges 
having been disproved he was released and restored 
in honor to his chair in the university, whence four 
years before he had been violently abducted. 

Fray Luis edited the writings of St. Teresa, 

■which after her death were collected with pious 

, care, and published by him in 1588. 

He wrote many works on philosophy and the- 
ology which disclose his profound knowledge of 
the Biblical languages, especially the Hebrew. 

He was fond of painting; he painted his own 
portrait, and was famous as a preacher and a poet. 
Ticknor styles him as *' one of the greatest masters 
of eloquence." Of his ode De la Vida del Cielo 

;.: Hallam has justly remarked that it is "an exquis- 

;: ite piece of lyric poetry, which in its peculiar line 
of devout aspiration has perhaps never been ex- 

V celled." 

Of another work of Leon's, the Encyclopcrdia 
Britannica says : " nothing is more sensible, noth- 
ing less ecstatic, than the manual of domestic 



economy by Fray Luis de Leon — La Perfecta Cas- 
ada, or The Perfect Wife. 

Fray Luis died at Madrigal on August 23, 1591, 
at the age of 64. The city of Salamanca erected 
a statue in his honor. The Augustinian Fathers 
of the Escorial have been for some years engaged 
in collecting and republishing the Works of Fray 
Luis de Leon. 

For further references to the life and works of 
Fray Luis the student may consult (i) the Revista 
Agustinianay a semi-monthly published by the 
Fathers of the Spanish Augustinian Province. 
Many details of his life are in volume I, pages 

'^lli 257) 337> ^^^ 4^*^ 5 ^^ volume XXII, page 28, 
it gives the titles of his printed and published 
works, for which we may also consult volume I, 
pages 59, T37, and 176; in volume IV, page 35, 
it presents a portrait of Fray Luis taken from some 
old copy, (may be his own ; ) the same is given also 
in the Viri Illustres Ord. S. Augustiniy (Antwerp, 
1636, see page 229,) by the Augustinian historian, 
Father Cornelius Curtius. (2) History of Spanish 
Literature y (Boston, 1879,) by George Ticknor ; 
especially volume II, pages 75, 76, 89-106, and 
332 ; and volume III, pages 7, 157-160, 182, 245, 
374-75, 432, and 447. (3) Literature of Europe^ 
by Henry Hallam. (As the editions of this monu- 
mental work are so many and in their paging vary 
greatly, the reader must be referred to the General 
Index of the History at the end of the last volume.) 
(4) Encyclopcedia Britannica (Ninth Edition) under 
the caption of " Spain," in volume XXII, pages 
37i«, 373^, and 374^/ and the article on Leon in 
volume XIV, pages 455-56. 

Some of the poems of Fray Luis were published 
under the pseudonym of " Bachiller Francisco de 
la Torre." 

In 1883, Mr. Henry Phillips, Jr., had printed in 
Philadelphia, Pa., for private distribution only, 
his translation of six sonnets of Fray Luis de 
Leon. These are : . The Ascension ^ Noche Serena^ 
Cudndo serdy Vida Descansada^ The Prophecy of the 
TaguSy and Ode to Avarice. 

Through the courtesy of the translator we are 
enabled to lay before our readers the sonnet on 
Noche Serena^ and hope in the not very distant 
future to publish the other five. ; '- ; ;^^^- ;v 

We regret very much that our many patrons 
have been kept waiting so long for this issue of the 
Monthly ; but we feel that the contents of this 
number are of such a kind that they will please all 
and repay their patient waiting. 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



107 



A Glimpse of the Catholio Columbian Congress. 

Prepared especially for the Villanova Monthly by 
Miss Catharine T. Wade of Chicago. 

It would be impossible within the limits of a 
comparatively brief paper to give a true idea of the 
magnificence and high order of the Catholic 
Columbian Congress, which has just been held in 
Chicago. Many grand meetings have taken place 
within the walls of the classic Art Institute and 
many men, famous and foremost in all the various 
spheres of human action, have there appeared and 
proclaimed their views on the great and absorbing 
questions of the day ; but on no occasion has there 
been collected a coterie of minds that could ap- 
proach the profound learning, the masterly elo- 
quence, and the sturdy wisdom that have charac- 
terized this notable assemblage. 

Here were gathered men of pronounced intellect 
from all parts of the globe — come as to a school 
with the simplicity of children, to learn and study 
the advanced theories of social and religious 
problems as presented by the leaders of Catholic 
thought. And ^hat a happy and a holy spectacle 
it was, to behold that beautiful unity, sympathy, 
and co-operation which exists between the clergy 
and laity of the great Catholic Church. 

A lofty moral tone combined with a strong 
religous zeal, and fortified with the highest forms 
of Christian truth, marked the sentiment of this 
congress. A broadnesss of conception born in this 
age of progress, and founded on the practical plat- 
form of sound logic and good sense, was a distinc- 
tive feature of the proceedings. The intense inter- 
est developing often times into a state of feverish 
excitement, particularly when the aims and prin- 
ciples of the convention were being expounded, 
served to prove beyond doubt that the work of 
Catholicism in this country, is not confined to the 
clergy alone, but that there is a powerful vanguard 
in the ranks of the laity. 

The deep love and veneration which the people 
have for their Sovereign Pontiflf was ever manifest, 
and whenever the illustrious name of L<eo XIII 
passed the lips of a speaker, it evoked a most 
touching and affectionate greeting ; nor were the 
honored members of the Catholic hierarchy of 
America neglected in this respect. Our most 
beloved and Eminent Cardinal Gibbons, the Arch- 
bishops Feehan of Chicago, Ireland 4)f St. Paul, 
Ryan of Philadelphia, Corrigan of New York and 
the many others were each tendered a most cordial 
welcome; but it was most delicately reserved for the 
Apostolic Delegate, Monsignor Satolli to becomeas 
it were, the lion of the hour. 

Imagine a spacious hall artistically draped with 
the papal colors, mingled with the national em- 
blem of red, white and blue, while here and there 



were banked ferns, plants and roses to lend addi- 
tional beauty and form a bower in which to place 
the honored guests. Imagine thousands of people 
mounted on chairs, tables and every available con- 
trivance ; imagine these people shouting, cheering, 
waving hats and handkerchiefs, clapping hands and 
stamping feet, while a dignified, stately man clad 
in the garb of his holy office walked through their 
midst, turning first to one side, then to the other, 
smiling and bowing to an admiring throng, and 
you will picture a scene which can never be for- 
gotten by those fortunate enough to be present. 

The Monsignor was deeply affected by the 
splendid ovation accorded him, and after overcom- 
ing his emotion, addressed the audience in a 
masterly oration which was most enthusiastically 
received. Although he spoke in the musical 
Italian tongue which was not understood by many, 
there was an energy, force and truth expressed in 
his countenance, so much vigor and grandeur in 
his delivery, and so much majesty in his very pres- 
ence, that he inspired a reverence and a confidence 
in the hearts of his hearers which can never be 
obliterated. His discourse was translated by that 
Apostle of Catholic Americanism, the Most Rev- 
erend Archbisop Ireland of St. Paul — and thus was 
given additional charm to the sublime utterances 
of the Delegate. After congratulating the 
promoters of the congress on their success, and giv- 
ing them the salutation of our Holy Father, his 
words were substantially as follows : 

" All congresses," he said, " were the concentra- 
tions of great forces. Your object is to consider 
the social forces that God has provided, and apply 
as far as you can, to the special circumstances of 
your own time and country these great principles. 
The great social forces are thought, will and 
action. Thonght finds its food in truth, so that all 
your conclusions must rest on that eternal prin- 
ciple ; will is the rectitude of the human heart, 
and until the human heart is voluntarily subjected 
to truth and virtue, all social reforms are impossible. 
Then comes action, which aims at the acquisition 
of the good needed for the satisfaction of mankind ; 
and this again must be regulated by truth in 
thought, and virtue in the human will. The well 
being of society consists in the perfect order of the 
different elements, and these relations to which 
men are subject, are summarized in three words : 
God, man, and nature. 

Man has first of all, his duties to God, then his 
duties to himself and his fellow-men, and finally 
has relation to the great world of nature ; and from 
these spring up the great problems which have 
ever vexed man's mind. Your social congress has 



io8 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



convened to-day. Bear in mind that there was a 
first great social congress which is to be the model 
of yours, which gave out principles that must 
underlie your deliberations. The great social con- 
gress, the ideal and model of all others, was held 
when Christ, surrounded by thousands of the 
children of Israel, delivered his discourse on the 
mountain. There the solution was given to human 
problems : there were laid down the vital prin- 
ciples," seek first the kingdom of God and itsjustice, 
and all things will be added unto you." Know 
God's truth, and live by God's justice, and the 
peace and felicity of the earth shall be yours. 
' Blessed be the poor in spirit. Blessed be the 
merciful.' 

"History has proven that human reason alone 
does not solve the great social problems. These 
problems were discussed by Plato and Aristotle, 
but pre-christian times gave us a world of slavery, 
when the multitude lived for the few. It was 
when Christ brought down upon earth the great 
truths of His Father, that humanity was lifted up, 
and entered upon a new road to happiness and 
felicity. Hence, since the coming of Christ, 
science, art, philosophy, social economy, all 
studies partake of ihe natural as well as the super- 
natural. To-day it is the duty of Catholics to 
bring into the world the fullness of supernatural 
truth and supernatural life." 

He then exhorted the congress to bring back the 
nations that have left the Church by the force of 
teaching and action. "Bring them back," said 
he, "to the source of truth and light, the blessed 
influence of Christ, and of Christ's Church, and in 
this manner shall it come to pass that the words of 
the Psalmist shall be fulfilled, ' Mercy and justice 
have you one with another ; justice and peace 
prevail.' Let us restore among men justice and 
charity, and study the great principles marked out 
in most luminous lines in the encyclicals of the 
great PontiiF Leo XIII, and hold fast to them as the 
safest anchorage. America holds the keys to the 
future, since it is the country specially blessed by 
Providence in the fertility of its fields, and the lib- 
erty of its institutions." In concluding his dis- 
course, the learned Ablegate used these golden 
words: "Go forward, in one hand bearing the 
book of Christian truth, and in the other, the 
Constitution of the United States." 

Monsignor Satolli's address was not, strictly 
speaking, a part of the original programme, 
although in its completeness it embodied the mo- 
tives, principles and aspirations of the assembly. 
We must now return and " begin at the begin- 
ning," although we will touch upon only the prin- 
cipal papers of each session. 



The Catholic Columbian Congress of America 
was convened in Chicago on Monday, September 
4, 1893, and lasted throughout the week. The 
devotional exercises attending its opening were 
held at St. Mary's Church, after which a procession 
of the distinguished Catholic clergymen and lay- 
men was formed and moved on to Columbus Hall 
in the Palace of Art, on the lake front,whereitwa8 
awaited by thousands of people. The Hon. W. J. 
Onahan, of Chicago, called the meeting to order, 
and introduced Archbishop Feehan, who delivered 
the formal address of welcome, in which he pointed 
out the objects and aims of the congress, and im- 
pressed upon all the nature and deep responsibility 
of the work before them. 

The President of the World' s Congress Auxiliary, 
Mr. C. C. Bonney, welcomed the delegates in an 
address, which was most felicitous and compli- 
mentary. (The World's Auxiliary Congress was 
organized to conduct the intellectual part of the 
World's Columbian Exposition of 1893.) He eulo- 
gized the wisdom of the Pope,who, he said, was the 
greatest Pontiflf that had sat in St. Peter's chair for 
a thousand years. He referred to the work of the 
Catholic leaders in this country, and thus concluded 
his remarks ; " Blind indeed must be the eyes that 
cannot see in these events the quickened march of 
the ages of human progress for the fulfilment of the 
divine prophecy of ' one fold and one shepherd,' 
when all the forms of government shall be one in 
liberty and in justice, and all the forms of faith and 
worship one in charity and human service." Thos. 
B. Bryan, the vice-president of the Auxiliary Con- 
gress was then introduced, and in some well chosen 
words addi-essed the delegates. 

Archbishop Feehan then presented Cardinal Gib- 
bons, who was accorded a magnificent reception, 
the audience standing in a body and giving cheer 
upon cheer. His Eminence said in part : " During 
the past few months millions of visitors have come 
from all parts of the United States, nay from every 
quarter of the globe, to contemplate upon the 
Exposition grounds the wonderful works of man. 
They know not which to admire the most — the 
colossal dimensions of the buildings, or their archi_ 
tectural beauty, or the treasures of art which they 
contain. The casket and gems were well worthy 
of the nineteenth century, worthy of the indomit- 
able spirit of Chicago. Let us no longer call Chi- 
cago the Windy City, but, instead, the City of Lofty 
Aspirations. Let us no longer call Chicago, Pork- 
opolis ; let me christen her with another name. 
Let me call her Thaumatopolis.the City of Wonders, 
the City of Miracles. 

" But, while other visitors have come to contem- 
plate with admiration the wonderful works of man 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



109 



with the image of man stamped upon them, you 
have come here to contemplate man himself — the 
most wonderful work of God with the image of God 
stamped upon him. Others are studying what man 
has accomplished in the material world. You are 
to consider what man can accomplish in the almost 
boundless possibilities of his spiritual and intellec- 
tual nature. You will take counsel together to 
consider the best means for promoting the religious 
and moral, the social and economic well-being of 
your fellow citizens." 

His Eminence counseled the delegates to bear 
in mind the saying of St. Vincent Lerins : " In all 
things essential, unity ; in all things doubtful, 
liberty; in all things, charity." " In this manner," 
said he, "let all the deliberations be conducted. 
Happily for you, children of the Church, that you 
are not to discuss in matters of faith, for your faith 
is fixed and determined by the divine Legislator, 
and we cannot improve upon the creed of Him,who 
is * the Way, the Truth and the Life.' " He then 
produced a letter from our Holy Father addressed 
to him, in which the Pontiflf gave his blessing to 
the congress, which blessing he imparted with great 
solemnity. The Pontiflf s letter was then read by 
the Secretary Mr. Onahan, and the temporary 
organization of the convention was announced, 
which made the Hon. M. J. O'Brien, of New York, 
temporary chairman of the congress. In a graceful 
address he outlined the work of the congress. The 
Secretary then read the various communications of 
regret and goodwill which he had received from 
many distinguished prelates who were unable to be 
present. Several prominent speakers were called 
upon to address the meeting, and among those who 
responded were Archbishop Redwood, of New 
Zealand, who traveled nine thousand miles to 
attend the congress, and Monsignor Nugent, of 
Liverpool, England, who read a very warm letter 
from Cardinal Vaughan, Archbishop of West- 
minster, the successor of Cardinal Manning. 

The congress being now formally opened, the 
regular routine of business was at once taken up. 
Since this congress was convened during the year 
of the Columbian Exposition and under the 
auspices of the World's Fair Auxiliary Congress, 
it was befitting that the opening papers should 
relate to the discovery of America by Columbus 
the Catholic, aided and encouraged by Isabella the 
Catholic. Richard J. Clarke, LL.D., of New 
York, presented the first paper on this subject — it 
was entitled " Christopher Columbus ; his mission 
and character." His address contained the follow- 
ing : ' * Because of his exalted mission and char- 
acter, America and the world honor Columbus. 
That he had a high and mighty mission is proved 



by four grand and salient facts in his wonderful 
career. First, he foresaw and foretold his mission; 
secondly, he trained himselfespecially for it through- 
out his life ; thirdly, he undertook it — the most 
startling of human enterprises ; fourthly, he 
accomplished it. The mission and character of 
Columbus are so thoroughly blended and inter- 
woven, that it is impossible to view them separately. 
They are one in origin, nature, kind and caste, and 
mutually dependent in their harmonious action and 
great results. They are like a vast and graceful 
celestial rainbow spanning the heavens, resting 
upon hemispheres, analyzing yet blending the 
beautiful rays of the sun, and sustained by the 
moisture from land and ocean. Such a phenomena 
is not so beautiful in its parts, as grand and 
majestic in its whole. Such is the mission and 
character of Columbus containing like the seven 
prismatic colors, seven transcendental features. 
First, the inspiration ; second, the preparation ; 
third, the faith ; fourth, the apostolate or mission ; 
fifth, the religious zeal ; sixth, the undertaking : 
seventh, the accomplishment. 

" Christopher Columbus possessed the character of 
a leader and a hero. He was a true Christian gen- 
tleman ; a link between the Middle Ages and the 
new epoch which he himself inaugurated ; the 
blended representative of ages mediaeval and mod- 
ern ; science and faith united in him, harmonized ; 
child of the Church ; antagonist of every popular 
superstition ; crusader, ambitious to redeem the 
Holy Sepulchre ; a sailor who voyaged to every 
corner of the known earth, and with true genius 
declared that there was more to know and more to 
discover. He was a man almost without scholastic 
or scientific learning, grasping the profoundest 
knowledge, and revealing the most hidden truths 
to the incredulous learned ; a man who united in 
himself the prophet and the explorer; a man who 
lived down reproach and calumny ; a man who 
believed in his destiny, who announced his mission, 
and rested not until he fulfilled them both. 

" That Columbus had a mission of grandeur and 
beneficence has been most conclusively proven. If 
we contemplate how he struggled through his boy- 
hood and the poverty of his maturer years, always 
bearing in mind that he must set forth on a voyage 
of discovery, we must recognize in him the inspired 
one. When we think how he, poor and unknown, 
obtained the friendship of pious laymen, of digni- 
fied prelates, of secluded monks and Sovereign 
Pontiffs, we must stand convinced that his mission 
was from above. ' ' 

The reader went on to describe in the most 
elegant language the Christian life, the almost 
insurmountable obstacles that beset the discoverer. 



no 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



drawing a most striking parallel between Colum- 
bus and Moses, and concluded with a summary of 
the results of his discovery. His paper was pre- 
eminently one of deep historical research, and will 
stand as a grand tribute to the memory of Colum- 
bus, coming from the Catholic Congress. 

To Miss Mary Onahan of Chicago, was given 
the privilege of eulogizing " Isabella the Catholic," 
and most skillfully did she portray the character of 
that gifted woman. She made her known to us 
from a true Catholic standpoint. She said, " Many 
biographers have shown that the ideal of woman- 
hood in the fifteenth century, as realized in Isabella 
was a great and a high one, but it remains for the 
Catholic biographer to prove that this ideal, inas- 
much as it was great and good, and glorious was 
the logical outcome of the Catholic faith which 
was her heritage. If she was pure in an age of 
impurity, if she was brave in an age of cowardice 
and depression, if she was womanly when the type 
of womanhood was Queen Elizabeth of England, 
she was all of these because of the faith that was 
in her, for by it she patterned her life, by it she 
must be judged now. The nineteenth century 
hugs to itself many delusions, none greater that 
the claim that it has discovered woman. The 
present age seems to be the most glorious age, its 
progress the most wonderful progress, and its 
importance far greater than any that has preceded 
it. So in the glamour of this delusion, we almost 
forget that woman was a power morally, socially 
and intellectually in the fifteenth century as in the 
nineteenth ; that the doors of universities ,were 
open to her, that she not only studied, but actually 
taught within their sacred precincts. 

" When Isabella on ascending the throne set about 
the acquisition of the Latin tongue, it was to a 
woman she turned to be her tutor. The greatness 
of Isabella need not therefore be looked upon as 
something extraordinary and unaccountable. She 
was merely the logical outcome of the country in 
which she was born, and the religion in which she 
was bred — Catholic Spain of the fifteenth century." 
Miss Onahan carefully dwelt on the whole career 
of Isabella ; the condition of the times, and of the 
people over which she reigned, and stated that it 
was her faith and religion alone that made ''the 
great ruler, the wise queen and beautiful ideal of 
the Catholic Church." : : r ■ :.' ^. ,;e; v 

A particular prominence was given to the late 
encyclical of our Holy Father, and it formed the 
basis of the most interesting and comprehensive of 
all the considerations of the congress. The rest- 
less uncertainty of the times demands this, and the 
position which Christ's noble representative takes 
on the condition of labor well merits more thali a 



passing notice. The opening address on the social 
question was made by the Rt. Rev. John A. Wat- 
terson. Bishop of Columbus, Ohio. He prefaced 
his remarks by paying a glowing tribute to the 
sagacity, learning and sound principles of our 
Holy Father. "The Pope," he said "must teach 
the truth to the world for the world has need of 
truth to live and prosper. In these times when 
men are calling into question the very principles 
on which, not only the church, but society itself, 
individuals, families and states depend, the special 
mission of Leo XIII seems to be to strengthen the 
foundations of the whole social fabric. By his 
personal dignity and goodness, the practical wisdom 
of his teachings, and the firmness of his acts he is 
giving the world to understand that the Papacy is 
a great thing in the world, and for the world. And 
intellects heretofore rebellious are accustoming 
themselves to think that if society is to be saved 
from a condttion worse in some respects than that 
of pagan times, it is from the Vatican that the 
Saviour is to come. 

Truth is the generous blood which coursing 
through the social body gives it light and energy, 
health and beauty, unto all the ends for which it 
was established by the providence of God. Wher- 
ever truth is abandoned or disregarded, society 
must sufier. Leo XIII like many of his illustrious 
predecessors in similar conditions of society, is 
fulfilling his special mission by defending the 
cause of the people against the encroachments of 
avarice and injustice, espousing the interests of the 
masses against the Moloch of misused wealth and 
power, and showing the shallowness of the social 
theories, and mere philosophisms of the day, while 
upholding, at the same time, the rights of legiti- 
mate authority." He urged Catholic laymen and 
women to spread the encyclicals of our Holy 
Father, to scatter them broadcast throughout the 
land. He bade them organize Catholic workmen 
into associations under Catholic direction, or "to 
try to desecularize already existing associations, 
and infuse into them the spirit of Christianity. " 

Continuing, he said: "Modern philanthropists 
have been trying to work out a social combination 
by which men are to league together everywhere, 
and thus contribute to the general good of all 
humanity ; but well meaning though they be, they 
must be blind not to recognize in the Catholic 
church, a society, ever ancient, and ever new, 
independent and always devoted to the general 
good, true to God, and true to man, filling her 
children with a spirit of patriotism by which we 
love and serve our country and show ourselves 
ready to devote our fortunes, and our very lives to 
its defence, and answering in every point the needs 



VILLANOVA MONTHI.Y. 



Ill 



■x>--> 



of universal peace and harmonious prosperity. 

" In our own beloved country, one of the richest 
on the globe, evils are growing to an alarming 
extent. Class is arrayed against class, labor against 
capital, capital against labor. There is a great and 
crying injustice somewhere. The social machine 
has lost its equilibrium. How can it be restored ? 
Civil legislation has done something to effect a 
settlement, and it may do something yet, but only 
in harmony with the gospel of Christian love. 
Bring then from the religion of Christ those sav- 
ing lessons of divine wisdom and goodness with 
which they abound. Teach the rich to love money 
less, and men more. Teach them to regard their 
employees not as soulless machines, but to take a 
reverent cognizance of their intellectual, moral 
and religious natures ; unite men into great trusts 
of mutual Christian love. Teach the poor that 
social inequality must exist, that they must love 
their fellow-men and be sensible of their respon- 
sibilities, as well as of their rights, and bear 
patiently the ills of life. And if all will learn 
the lesson in practice as well as in theory, Chris- 
tianity shall again triumph in her principles and 
the world will exclaim as in ancient days, ' behold 
how they love one another.' " 

Bishop Watterson's eloquent appeal was followed 
by papers further outlining the wisdom of the Pope 
on the "Condition of Labor" "The Rights of 
Labor," " The Duties of Capital," "Poverty, the 
Cause and the Remedy," "Public and Private 
Charities," and many other kindred topics. 

The subject of "Temperance," and its work 
was eloquently dealt with by the Rev. Jas. M. 
Cleary, of Minneapolis, who made some very 
startling, but nevertheless true statements in ex- 
posing the dire evils of drink. The following is 
quoted from his address : " No congress of earnest 
men in our time and country can justly consult the 
best interests of their fellow-workmen and ignore 
a thoughtful consideration of the drink evil. Many 
honest and conservative men hesitate to enter upon 
a discussion of the evils of intemperance, and to 
openly ally themselves with temperance workers 
lest they be accused of fanaticism, or misunderstood 
by those whose good opinion they highly esteem. 
The cause of temperance has suffered more from 
the apathy of timid friends than it has from either 
hypocrisy or fanaticism. Intemperance destroys 
the sense of decency and honor, silences conscience, 
and deadens the best instincts of the human heart. 
There is no bright side to the picture of strong 
drink in the home. This hideous and brutalizing 
vice cannot be condemned too severely, and those 
who have experienced much suffering from its influ- 
ence may be pardoned if they are unsparing against 



every effort that tends to widen the way for the 
spread of habitual drinking among us. 

" The Catholic Church does not rely for the success 
of its efforts in the cause of virtue on the strength 
or support of legal enactments, but hopes to win 
its way by conquering the hearts of men by appeals 
to their intelligence, and, by arousing their con- 
sciences, lead them to realize their own best 
interests. Yet our Catholic people expect too much 
from the Church if they entertain the delusive 
notion that the Church can save weak men from 
ruin, while her own children, by their voices and 
their ballots, do not aid in diminishing or removing 
the occasions of sin. Too much importance cannot 
be attached to the practice of inculcating habits of 
total abstinence among children, and our boys and 
girls during the dangerous and trying period of 
youth. 

" In those sanctuaries of affection and virtue, the 
Christian homes of our people, let the sophistries 
of the advocates of alcohol be exposed by sound 
reasoning, the temptations and dangers of the 
saloon be carefully explained, and let fathers and 
mothers merit for themselves the reward and con- 
solation of sober sons and daughters by showing a 
noble example of self-control and sobriety. When 
we consider that the drink bill of the United States 
for the past year was $900,000,000, most of which 
was consumed by the laboring classes, we will 
realize that the Church has an important mission 
in this respect, since it is the most powerful and 
eflfective institution in the world for the elevation 
of the people." 

Woman's day in the Catholic Congress calls forth 
many tributes of justice and praise to the work of 
women in the Church. Woman's work in religious 
orders, in secular life, in art, literature and in the 
sciences, was most comprehensively and ably set 
forth. Miss Eliza Allen Starr, of Chicago, than 
whom no nobler example of the true woman exists, 
read a most beautiful essay on " Woman's Work in 
Art." This very article was in itself a work of 
art, showing the wondrous classic tenor of the 
mind of this brilliant authoress, and makes us 
recognize in her an indisputable authority on 
Christian and Pagan art of all times. She reviewed 
the position of woman in art from Mother Eve 
until the present day, and in holding up the model 
of Christian womanhood, said: "There was not 
one great artist in all those ages, whether monk, 
nun or courtier, who did not invoke the patronage 
of Mary, nor is there a school or academy that can 
furnish ideals like those which she has given to 
the hearts of her faithful sons. Can she do less for 
her faithful daughters ? Therefore I say to the 
women of my nation : Put not your trust in 



112 



VJLLANOVA MONTHLY. 



academies or schools of technique, but whether in 
the cloister or in the world, make Mary your art 
mistress, your guide, your inspiration, and she will 
bring to your imagination what you will seek for 
in vain elsewhere." 

"Woman's Work in Literature " was the title of 
Miss Eleanoi C. Donnelly's paper. Philadelphia's 
gifted poetess was unable to be present on account 
of illness, but her noble sentiments, so forcibly 
expressed, constituted some of the brightest utter- 
ances of the Congress. The sound practicability 
of her ideas, the sweet charm of her diction, and, 
above all, her hearty condemnation of the impure in 
literature, won the admiration and held the atten- 
tion of the vast audience from beginning to end. 

She pointed out the vicissitudes which accom- 
panied woman's rise in literature, and said that 
*'up to the middle of the eighteenth century the 
number of English women writers of any account 
could be reckoned on the fingers of one hand. 
Prior to the Augustan age of English literature 
there were few inducements for secular women to 
enter the arena of letters. Men barely tolerated 
their literary sisters, or cauterized them, if success- 
ful, with sneers and satires, unless they followed in 
their foot-steps and ceased to be original. But the 
day of class prejudice and narrow jealousies anent 
woman's work in literature has forever passed 
away. 

"Woman's work in letters can never be an 
uncertain or negative one. If she does not elevate 
and strengthen, she degrades and enervates." Miss 
Donnelly deplored the tendency of many women of 
the nineteenth century to work backward toward 
the study of pagan models. " They forget, " said 
she, "that the passionate song of Sappho must 
give place to the Magnificat of Mary. Their gross 
indelicacy is due either to greed for gain, or itch 
for notoriety. '" -' ' ■" '■':■'- '■'"-■■'■■-^ -'■':; 

"Accursed is the age, accursed is the common- 
wealth, that ceases to respect, to reverence, 
the innocence of the young. What Christian 
father would dare read aloud to his young sons 
the immoral tragedies of Mrs. Behm, or the dis- 
gracing fictions of George Sand ? What Christian 
mother lays open before the innocent eyes of her 
young daughters shameless pages of the ' Quick or 
the Dead,' or ' The Doomswoman,' or deliberately 
put into their hands the lubrications of that hydro- 
headed and sensuous gorgon of romance, yclept 
'The Duchess?'" In concluding she draws a 
most beautiful picture of the motives that adorn 
the Catholic woman in literature, "who does not 
seek for fame or immortality in this life, for she 
shall be crowned by the Lord God in His everlast- 
ing kingdom as one of those blessed toilers, 



Whose works shall last, 
Whose name shall shine as the stars on high. 

When deep in the dust of a ruined past. 
The labors of selfish souls shall lie ! " 

Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, daughter of Nathaniel 
Hawthorne contributed a most excellent paper on 
"Woman and Mammon," which was loudly ap- 
plauded. 

One of the most important, among the many 
considerations which our Holy Father recom- 
mended to the people in his encyclical, is the 
subject of education. Ambitious to carry out suc- 
cessfully his sacred intentions, the promoters of 
the Catholic Congress gathered together the most 
learned and the most zealous leaders of the educa- 
tional movement in this country. Hence, we find 
this subject discussed by Rt. Rev. Jno. J. Keane, 
Rector of the Catholic University of America ; 
Dr. Maurice Francis Egan of the University of 
Notre Dame ; Brother Azarias (who has died since 
his Paper was prepared) ; Rev. Jno. J. M"urphy of 
Holy Ghost College; Elizabeth A. Cronyn of 
Buffalo ; Brother Ambrose, who has charge of the 
World's Fair educational exhibit, and Miss 
Katharine E. Conway, of Boston, whose Paper 
embraced ' ' The Catholic Summer School and the 
Reading Circles." 

Bishop Keane's magnificent address bore the 
stamp of a man of unquestioned educational 
ability and superior judgment. Invested with a 
true appreciation of the importance of his subject, 
animated by all the holy motives which constitute 
the cause of higher Christian education and 
imbued with the spirit to gain more sympathy 
and interest in his life work, this talented orator 
surpassing all efforts made towards these ends, 
gave a most brilliant and complete exposition of 
the needs of the nineteenth century. His address 
contained the following : ^ ^s •" ■ : -. "v. ; : ^^z 

" Higher education is the education of the man 
of one who has passed through the elementary 
and secondary stages and who presses on to the 
paths of learning, usually from the ages of seven- 
teen to eighteen up to twenty-four or twenty-five, 
and here let me remark once for all that in speak- 
ing of the education of the man, I have no 
intention of excluding women. The truest pride 
of a civilized nation is in the universal spread of 
its schools, in the multiplication of its colleges ; 
but its chief glory is in the number and excellence 
of its universities. The Church knows well that 
her divine mission can never be furthered by 
darkness, by ignorance or stupidity, for ' God is 
Light, and there is no darkness in Him.' She 
has with special affection and care spurred on 
those minds of noblest caliber that longed for the 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



"3 



deepest draughts of the waters of truth, and in 
nothing does she more fondly glory, than in being 
the mother of nearly all the great universities of 
the world. In our age more than in any other 
that has preceded it, and in our country more 
than any other country of the world, reasons of 
special importance urge both on the Church and 
on civilization the necessity of encouraging and 
diffusing the advantages of higher education, and 
making it as complete and sound as possible." 

" Human society is passing through the agonies 
of the very deep and wide reconstruction. Social 
conditions are being leveled upward. Privileged 
classes are passing away, and lingering vestiges of 
caste, of feudal arrogance, of autocratic Caesarism 
evoke only protest and indignation. Natural ine- 
qualities have' to be accepted, but artifical inequal- 
ities are dams and dykes which will not withstand . 
the flood tide. 

" Now how are these tendencies to be wisely direct- 
ed? How is the future to be wisely moulded, and how 
is that leveling up to be safely accomplished? 
Through education, by making elementary educa- 
tion more and more universal, and steadily elevat- 
ing its level by lifting larger and larger numbers 
from the elementary into the secondary education, 
till the multitudes in the school be rivaled by the 
multitudes in the colleges ; and in a special man- 
ner by bringing the advantages of the very highest 
education within the reach of every child of the 
masses to whom God has given the highest quali- 
ties of brain. But here we are fated by a thought of 
tremendous importance. Intellectual power, like 
any other power, may be used for purposes of evil 
as well as for purposes of good, may be a curse or 
a blessing to its possessor and to those who come 
within its influence. It may be the work of the 
Father of Lights, leading to light and peace and 
welfare, temporal and eternal, or it may do the 
work of Lucifer, who ever as in Eden, offers what 
he claimed to be the higher knowledge, ending in 

; darkness and disaster. Hence the natural relation 

c of the Church of God to education." 

He reviewed the history of the movement of the 
Catholic University of America, and the difficulties 
that had to be overcome in founding it. Efforts 

• were being made to increase its usefulnesss by en- 
dowing the faculty of philosophy and science. All 
depended on the Catholics of America and their 
appreciation of its national character and its needs. 
It had been charged that it was opposed to Catho- 
lic schools, but it was founded on Catholicism and 
it was a strange thing to see the superstructure 
plotting the destruction of its foundations. It had 
the support of the Pope, and that was answer enough 
to all objectors. The duty now was to make it 



worthy of Leo, worthy of the Church, and worthy 
of all mankind. 

At the conclusion of the address resolutions were 
offered to further stimulate the interest in higher 
education. 

A paper written by Maurice Francis Egan, LL. D., 
of the University of Notre Dame, on "The Needs 
of Catholic Colleges," was read by the Rev. Father 
Mooney, of the Cathedral of the Holy Name. Dr. 
Egan said that heretofore Catholic colleges suffered 
from ignorant opposition, but it was now in their 
power to decide whether or not Catholic young 
men should congregate at such secular institutions 
as Yale, Harvard, Cornell and Amherst. Our col- 
leges need to be strengthened and broadened, and 
a different system of government should be insti- 
tuted. More should be left to th^ honor of the 
student. 

Among other things which Dr. Egan criticized 
was the dormitory system as employed in Catholic 
colleges. He said that it was of foreign origin and 
was employed because it was the simplest solution of 
a difficulty, but it was too much like the life of a bar- 
acks to be beneficial, and too lawless, and lacking 
in discipline. The dependence on fees rather than 
on endowments was also deprecated, and how many 
advantages in Christian education could be afforded 
poor students, could this charity be encouraged by 
the generosity of Catholic people. 

The deliberations of the last day of the congress 
were a grand culmination of the work of this 
notable assembly, and the report from the commit- 
tee on resolutions which is here given in full will 
forever stand a lasting monument to the character, 
the intelligence and the integrity of the men who 
participated therein. Judge T. A. Moran, of Chicago, 
publicly proclaimed the platform of the congress 
in the resolutions which read as follows : 

The Catholic Columbian Congress of the United 
States assembled in Chicago, in the year of grace 
one thousand eight hundred and ninety-three, with 
feelings of profound gratitude to Almighty God for 
the manifold blessings which have been vouchsafed 
to the Church in the United States and to the 
whole American people, and which blessings in 
the material order have found their compendious 
expression in the marvellous exposition of the 
World's Fair, held to celebrate the four hundredth 
anniversary of the discovery of this continent by 
the great Catholic navigator, Christopher Columbus, 
conforming to the custom of such occasions, adopt 
the following resolutions: -r; ■ ; v ij--'' ;:, ; 

1. We reaffirm the resolutions of the Catholic 
Congress held in Baltimore, Nov. ii and 12, A. D. 
1889. 

2. We declare our devoted loyalty and unaltered 



114 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



attachment to our Holy Father, Pope Leo XHI, 
and we thank him for sending us a special repre- 
sentative, and we enthusiastically hail his apostolic 
delegate as the hostage of his love for America and 
a pledge of his paternal solicitude for our country 
and its institutions. It is the sense of this congress 
that the Vicar of Christ must enjoy absolute inde- 
pendence and autonomy in the exercise of that 
sublime mission to which, in the providence of 
God, he has been called as the head of the Church 
for the welfare of religion and humanity. 

3. We congratulate our hierarchy on the won- 
drous growth and development of the Church 
throughout the United States, the results, under 
God, of the united wisdom and unselfish devotion 
of those true shepherds of the Christian flock, and 
we pledge to our bishops and priests our unfaltering 
devotion and fidelity. 

4. While the signs of the times are hopeful and 
encouraging and material prosperity is more widely 
diffused than in any previous age, we should be 
wilfully blind did we fail to recognize the existence 
of dangers to the Church and to society requiring a 
most earnest consideration. Among the most 
obvious of these dangers is the growing discontent 
among those who earn their living by manual labor. 
A spirit of antagonism has been steadily growing 
between the employer and the employed that has 
led in many instances to deplorable results. The 
remedies suggested vary from the extreme anarchi- 
cal revolution to different types of state socialism. 
These remedies, by whatever name they may be 
called, with whatever zeal and sincerity they are 
urged, must fail wherever they clash with the prin- 
ciples of truth and justice. We accept as the sense 
of this congress, and urge upon the consideration 
of all men, whatever may be their religious views 
or worldly occupations, the encyclical of our Holy 
Father, Leo XIII, on the condition of labor, dated 
May 15, A. D. 1891. In the spirit of his luminous 
exposition of this subject, we declare that no reme- 
dies can meet with our approval save those which 
recognize the right of private ownership of property 
and human liberty. Capital cannot do without 
labor, nor labor without capital. Through the 
recognition of this interdependence and under the 
Christian law of love, and by mutual forbearance 
and agreement must come the relief, for which all 
good men should earnestly strive. 

5. We strongly endorse the principles of concili- 
ation and arbitration as an appropriate remedy for 
the settlement of disagreements between emplover 
and employed, to the end that strikes and lockouts 
may be avoided ; and we recommend the appoint- 
ment by this congress of a committee to consider 



and devise some suitable method of carrying into 
operation a system of arbitration. 

6. We suggest to our clergy and laity as a means 
of applying the true principles of Christian morality 
to the social problems that have now attained such 
importance, the formation of societies, or the use 
of already existing societies of Catholic men for the 
diffusion of sound literature and the education of 
their minds on economic subjects, thus counteract- 
ing the pernicious effects of erroneous teachings ; 
and we especially recommend the letters of our 
Holy Father, particularly those on " Political 
Power," "Human Liberty," and "The Christian 
Constitution of the State. " The condition of great 
numbers of our Catholic working girls and women 
in large towns and cities is such as to expose them 
to serious temptations and dangers, and we urge as 
a meritorious work of charity as well as of justice, 
the formation of Catholic societies for their assist- 
ance, encouragement and protection. We advocate 
also the continued extension of Catholic life insur- 
ance, beneficial and fraternal societies. The work 
that such associations have already accomplished 
warrants the belief that they are founded upon true 
principles. 

7. One of the great causes of immorality is the 
indiscriminate massing of people in cities and 
large towns and their consequent crowding into 
tenement houses, where the children are, from their 
infancy, exposed to every bad example and corrupt- 
ing influence. This evil has drawn the attention 
of legislators in foreign countries- We believe it 
wise charity to help the poor to help themselves, 
and therefore advise the adoption of appropriate 
measures to encourage and assist families to settle 
in agricultural districts. As indicated by the Holy 
Father, the true policy is to induce as many as pos- 
sible to become owners of the land. 

8. In discharging the great duty of Christian 
charity the Catholic laity can and should do much 
by personal service to supplement the admirable 
work of the religious orders devoted to charity 
and we urge them to join or otherwise encourage 
the conferences of St. Vincent de Paul and kindred 
organizations for rendering systematic aid to the 
needy. And we would recall to the minds of all 
people the time-honored Catholic practice of setting 
apart from their incomes a proportionate sum for 
charity. 

9. An obvious evil, to which may be traced a 
very large proportion of the sorrows that afflict the 
people, is the vice of intemperance. While we 
believe that the individual should be guided in this 
manner by the dictates of right conscience, we 
cannot too strongly commend every legitimate 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



"5 



effort to impress upon our fellow-men the dangers 
arising not only from the abuse, but too often from 
the use of intoxicating drink. To this end we 
approve and most heartily commend the temper- 
ance and total abstinence societies already formed 
in many parishes and we advise their multipli- 
cation and extension. We favor the enactment of 
appropriate legislation to restrict and regulate the 
sale of intoxicating liquors, and emphasizing the 
admonition of the last Plenary Council of Balti- 
more, we urge Catholics everywhere to get out and 
keep out of the saloon business. 

10. To the members of our secular clergy, relig- 
ious orders and laity, who are devoting their lives 
to the noble work of educating the Indian and 
Negro races, we extend our hearty sympathy and 
offer our co-operation. We congratulate them on 
the consoling success thus far attending their labors 
and wish them Godspeed. 

11. As the preservation of our national exist- 
ence, the Constitution under which we live, and all 
our rights and liberties as citizens depend upon 
the intelligence, virtue and morality of our people, 
we must continue to use our best efforts to increase 
and strengthen our parochial schools and Catholic 
colleges, and to bring all our educational institu- 
tions to the highest standard of excellence. It is 
the sense of this congress, therefore, that Catholic 
education should be steadfastly upheld, according 
to the decrees of the Council of Baltimore and the 
decisions of the Holy See thereon. In the elevat- 
ing and directing influence of Christian higher 
education, in particular we recognize the most 
potent agency for the wise solution of the great 
social problems now facing mankind. We recog- 
nize the signal wisdom of our Holy Father, Leo 

:^ XIII, and of the American hierarchy in founding 
r an institution of highest Christian learning in our 
■';; national capital. And with confidence in their 
- V wisdom so to direct it that it shall be fully adequate 
* to the needs of our age and of our country, we cor- 
dially pledge to them our active co-operation in 
making it one of the chief glories of the Catholic 
Church and of the American Republic. We appeal 
to our fellow-citizens of all religious denominations 
j to teach the rising generation to love, honor and 
iear our common Creator, and to instill into their 
hearts sound principles of morality, without which 
our glorious political liberty cannot continue. 
Profoundly appreciating the love for education 
shown by the Sovereign Pontiff and our Bishops, 
we repeat what has been said in Congress, that " it 
is only the school bell and the church bell which 
can prolong the echo of the Liberty Bell." 

12. We desire to encourage the Catholic Sum- 



mer School of America, recently established on 
Lake Champlain, as a means of promoting educa- 
tion on university extension' lines, and we also 
commend the forming of Catholic Reading Circles 
as an aid to the Summer School and an adjunct to 
higher education in general. 

13. We recognize in the Catholic Truth Society 
of America, one of the results of the first American 
Catholic Congress of Baltimore, and believing it to 
be admirably adapted to the needs of the times, 
we earnestly recommend it to the Catholic laity as 
offering them an excellent means tor co-operating 
with holy Church in her glorious work of dissem- 
inating Catholic truth. 

14. As immoral literature is one of the chief 
agencies in this country and in Europe for the ruin 
of faith and morality, we recommend a union of 
Catholics and non-Catholics for the suppression of 
this evil, whether in the form of bad books, sensa- 
tional newspapers or obscene pictorial represen- 
tations. 

15. And we have no sympathy with any effort 
made to secularize the Sunday. We urge upon our 
fellow-citizens to join in every effort to preserve 
that day as sacred, in accordance with the precepts 
and traditions of the Church. 

16. We heartily approve of the principle of 
arbitration in the settlement of international dis- 
putes. We rejoice in the happy results that have 
already attended the application of this ancient 
principle of our Holy Mother, the Church, and we 
earnestly hope that it may be extended and that 
thereby the evils of war between nations may be 
gradually lessened and finally prevented. 

.Finally. — As true and loyal citizens, we declare 
our love and veneration for our glorious Republic, 
and we emphatically deny that any antagonism 
can exist between our duty to our Church and our 
duty to the State. In the language of the Apostolic 
Delegate, let our watchword be, " Forward ! in one 
hand the Gospel of Christ and in the other the Con- 
stitution of the United States. " Let us keep on in 
the path of virtue and religion, that the blessings of 
our national liberties, born of the stern energy and 
morality of our forefathers, may be preserved for all 
time as a sacred heritage. x: ; ,• 

Other resolutions, votes of thanks, etc. , suitable 
to the occasion were offered, and the chairman 
called upon his Eminence, Cardinal Gibbons, to 
make the closing address of the congress. The 
Cardinal responded in the following terms : 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — Owing to the con- 
dition of my health, which is not very good 
to-day, and the brief notice that I received to 
address you this morning, my remarks will be 



ii6 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



necessarily very short, but I assure you they will 
come from the depths of my heart. When I had 
the honor to address you on last Monday morning, 
at the opening of this Catholic Congress, I ex- 
pressed the fond anticipation that the prayer of 
hope that was offered up then would be crowned 
to-day by a thanksgiving full of gratitude to God 
and of joy and jubilation. My fondest anticipations 
have been more than realized. This congress has 
been a great success. The eyes of the civilized 
world, as you all know, have been directed during 
those days toward what is called the White City of 
Chicago, and I may also add, that the ears of the 
Catholic world have been attentive to the voice 
that has proceeded from this hall of congress ; and 
the voice that came forth from this hall has uttered 
no uncertain sound. There has been no confusion, 
no conflict, no dissension ; but there has been peace 
and concord and unanimity from beginning to end. 

" The voice of the congress has succeeded in 
dissipating prejudices and in removing many mis- 
understandings in regard to the teachings and 
practices of the Church of God. First of all, as 
was right to do, the voice issuing from this hall 
has proclaimed the necessity of honoring and 
glorifying God. It has been a voice in behalf 
of God and of religion. Next to religion our love 
for our country should be predominant, and, there- 
fore, we have recently heard a resolution offered 
and adopted attesting the love and affection which 
we have for our country and for our political 
institutions. This congress has also proclaimed 
the necessity of good government, and it has told 
us that there can be no good government without 
law and order, that there can be no law without 
authority, there can be no authority without jus- 
tice, there can be no justice without religion, 
there can be no religion without God. 

"I need not say that the voice of this congress 
has also gone forth in vindication of the rights of 
labor and also of its obligations. We have spoken 
in the cause of humanity and the cause of the 
toiling masses, and we have been told that every 
honest labor in this country is honorable. Ever 
since Jesus Christ, our Saviour, worked in a car- 
penter shop at Nazareth he has shed a halo around 
the workshop, and He has made labor honorable. 

*' This congress has also spoken both during its 
sessions and by its resolutions in the cause of 
Christian education. It has spoken of the import- 
ance and the great necessity of Catholic education. 
At the same time let it not be understood that 
whilst we are advocating Catholic education we 
are opposed to secular education. The whole 
history of the Church speaks the contrary. There 
can be no conflict between secular and religious 



knowledge. Religious and secular knowledge, like 
Mary and Martha, are sisters, because they are the 
children of the same God. Secular knowledge, 
like Martha, is busy about the things of this world, 
while religious knowledge, like Mary, is found 
kneeling at the feet of her Lord. 

" But above all, ladies and gentlemen, the voice 
of this congress has spoken out clearly and fully in 
vindication of the Holy Catholic Church ; it has 
removed many prejudices and misunderstandings. 
This congress helped to tear off the mask that the 
enemies of the Church would put upon her fair 
visage. This congress has torn those repulsive 
garments with which her enemies would clothe 
her, and has presented her to us in all her heavenly 
beauty, bright as the sun, fair as the moon, with 
the beauty of heaven shining upon her counten- 
ance. This congress has well shown that the 
Catholic Church, properly understood, is the light 
of the world and the refuge of suffering humanity. 
You have a White City here. The White City of 
Chicago has seen passing through it men from 
various countries, many of whom are assembled 
here now. But may I not say the Catholic Church 
is pre-eminently the White City ? She has within 
her streets men of all nations and tribes and 
peoples and tongues, and so we who are assembled 
here together to-day may exclaim in the language 
of holy writ, " Thou hast redeemed us, O Lord, to 
go out to every tribe and nation and people and 
tongue." Yes, ladies and gentlemen, this congress 
will result in bringing more love and admiration 
to the Church. Men will look at her now and 
admire her, and admiring her, they will love her,- 
and loving her they will embrace her. With the 
blessing of God, many who were before strangers 
to our faith will come forward and embrace her in 
the view of the light that has been shed upon her 
here. In the language of Augustine, they will say : 
' Too late have I known thee, O guide of the ancient 
and for the new, too late have I loved thee.' " 

The Cardinal concluded by expressing his thanks 
to those who contributed to the success of the 
congress, and referred in an especial manner to 
Archbishop Feelian, of Chicago; the chairman,. 
Judge Morgan J. O'Brien, and the secretary, Hon. 
William J. Onahan. i ; ::• -v^ 

Extra evening sessions were held in connection 
with the congress for the purpose of giving the 
people an opportunity to greet in a particular 
manner such eloquent and popular leaders as 
Archbishops Rjan, Ireland and Corrigan, and 
many distinguished laymen. 

Can anything be said in conclusion to supple- 
ment the glory of the Catholic Columbian Con- 
gress ? Do the acts of that illustrious body leave 



VIIylvANOVA MONTHLY. 



117 



any room for suggestion or embellishment and are 
not those sublime resolutions the embodiment of 
all the precepts of our holy faith, and of Him Who 
commanded us to "Love one another?" Most 
proudly, most gratefully do we point with honor 
to that representative gathering, and pledge our 
loyalty to the principles it so earnestly advocates. 

Taken in their entirety the proceedings of the 
Catholic Columbian Congress portray the highest 
motives, and the most sublime conceptions of 
Christian truth, charity and virtue, and will well 
merit a close study by those interested in the wel- 
fare of the Catholic Church in America. 



Koral and Intellectual Education. 

So highly ought we to appreciate those priceless 
gifts, the intellectual and moral faculties, that their 
cultivation and development should be uppermost 
in our minds. As in ancient times the importance 
or value which a divinity necessarily demanded 
was manifest by the embellishment of the shrine 
at which it was worshipped, so it should be with 
the divinity of our mind. True it is that the 
variety of human pursuits is so unlimited, and the 
extent of human knowledge so immense, that it 
would be utterly impossible for us to universalize 
the education of the mind. It is incumbent on us, 
therefore, to train and exercise, as far as we able, 
the intellectual faculties that their capabilities may 
be developed. 

The world is like a vast sea, man like a vessel 
sailing on its tempestuous bosom, intellectual edu- 
cation serves us for oars, good or bad fortune is 
the propitious or unpropitious wind, and moral 
education is the rudder. Without this last the 
vessel is tossed by every billow and soon becomes 
shipwrecked. The principal object of schools is to 
train the student for schooling himself. Discipline 
is the Archimedian lever which the mind of the 
present is to furnish to the mind of the coming 
generation. Man too often considers himself an 
intellectual machine to be fitted up for future use. 
He becomes entirely oblivious of his moral consti- 
tution and moral responsibilities. He seeks only 
to develop the intellectual capabilities and thus it 
is that, the moral nature neglected and the intel- 
lectual cultivated, we not unfrequently read of 
man's deplorable descent into the unfathomable 
abyss of vice and degradation. The newspapers of 
our largest cities present us daily with accounts of 
crimes so heinous and so hideous, that the perusal 
of them is sufficient to contaminate the mind of the 
reader ; they clearly demonstrate what Cardinal 
Gibbons has said in his " Christian Heritage," 
namely, " The experience of other nations, as well 



as that of our own, shows it to be a very great illu- 
sion to suppose that intellectual development is 
sufficient of itself to make us virtuous men, or that 
the moral status of a people is to be estimated by 
the wide-spread diflfusion of purely secular know- 
ledge. When the Roman Empire had reached the 
highest dej^ree of mental culture, it was sunk in 
the lowest depths of vice and corruption. The 
Persian Empire, according to the testimony of 
Plato, perished on account of the vicious education 
of its princes. While their minds were filled with 
knowledge, they were guided by no religious influ- 
ences." These crimes that we daily read of, 
burglaries, murders, bank-breaking, etc., are often 
the work not of the illiterate man, but of individ- 
uals well versed in letters and the sciences, but 
yet lacking the most essential basis of education — 
Moral Training. Is it not then evident that the 
first and most important function of education is 
the preparation and formation of a manly 
character ? The student should be taught to foster 
and imbibe the spirit of heroes that he daily reads 
of in the classics. It is needless to state that 
the prose authors and especially the poet authors 
are teeming with the highest and noblest senti- 
ments. Everything that is ignoble, selfish and 
degrading is satirized and rebuked by the moralist. 
Whatever is noble, magnanimous and heroic, is 
presented to lis as an object worthy of imitation. 

The education of the intellect is infinite, and the 
one great mistake that pervades the mind of the 
average student, is that on the completion of his 
college course he too frequently considers his edu- 
cation finished. He does not realize that it is at 
this period his education is begun and he at once 
imagines that he has entered upon an endless vaca- 
tion. Thus it is that the weapons furnished him 
at school for the battle of life become tarnished ; 
rust accumulates thereon, and consequently they 
become ill-adapted for their original purpose. 

Moral character on the contrary is generally, 
and ever should be, completed in the school. Char- 
acter is the same at all times ; it is governed by 
the same laws and they are ever constant. Moral 
education is the handmaid of intellectual educa- 
tion, and once we separate them, we tear asunder 
the bond that unite man to his Creator, children 
to parents, individuals to society, and states to 
nations. For as man should not be satisfied with 
having a diamond unless it is polished and cut 
proportionally, and a foil be set underneath 
whereby it may the better transmit and vibrate its 
lustre and rays, so he should not be satisfied to 
have acquired a great understanding in all matters, a 
great intellectual education, unless that understand- 
ing, that great education be not only polished and 



ii8 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



made clear but underset and strengthened with 
moral education, with moral character and with 
moral example. 

Unlike the electric element working in nature, 
unseen and unfelt, till it bursts forth in the light- 
ning flash, moral education pervades the human 
mind and the human heart, and is incessantly 
bursting forth in all the plenitude of its beauty by 
the performance of good and noble actions. It 
dispels the clouds of vice and corruption by spread- 
ing over them an effulgence of ideal light. " The 
true educator," says Archbishop Spalding, 
strives to draw forth and strengthen the sense for 
truth and justice, and to develop a taste for the 
pure and noble pleasures of life. His aim is to 
make men good and reasonable, not to make them 
smart and eager for possession or indulgence." 
Common sense teaches us that the development of 
the moral faculties is far more essential than that 
of the mental faculties. All learned men recog- 
nize that ideal education is the development of 
the moral as well as the intellectual faculties ; that 
man possesses eternal as well as temporal interests. 

A pure and noble soul ; a soul that is stimulated 
and ennobled and actuated by the spirit of purity 
and heroism, shows that moral education forms 
the Christian, the gentleman and the scholar. 
But this soul must receive a true education. It is 
destined not for a temporal kingdom but for an 
eternal one. Hence the importance of a thorough 
equipment and drilling not only in all that per- 
tains to the temporal wants, but most especially to 
the spiritual welfare of the soul. All men have 
been equally endowed with the same moral facul- 
ties, and have the same opportunity for acquiring 
the highest standard of moral perfection, while on 
the contrary the highest intellectual standard does 
not fall within the reach of every individual. As 
it is necessary for the ship that is destined to sail 
the rough sea and endure violent winds to be well 
ballasted so should man's education be fortified 
and strengthened by the principles of morality 
and religion, that when he launches out on the 
ocean of life he may safely navigate its currents, 
sound its depths, win its treasures and battle with 
its storms. When the sea of life has become 
darkened by the menacing clouds of ignorance and 
misunderstanding and lashed into fury by contro- 
versies and dissensions, the principles of all that is 
upright, heroic and sublime may quickly dispel 
the overhanging clouds, subdue the enraged 
waters and serve as so many "Beacon Lights," 
guiding others safely onward into the tranquil 
haven of Truth and Integrity, and finally into the 
peaceful abode of eternal bliss and happiness. 
Boston Seminary^ Sept.^ I S^j. T. P. Callahan. 



International Disarmament 
The Peace Congress, lately convened at Chicago, 
again brings to the public mind the advisability of 
universal peace existing between the nations of the 
world. This cause, championed by many philos- 
ophers and statesmen, and favorably approved of by 
our present reigning Pontiff, Leo XIII, demands 
more than casual notice at the present time. 

In this age of reform the abolition of war — and 
under the term war is included armed peace an 
institution as detrimental as it is peculiar to our 
times — stands pre-eminent among the greatest 
measures of reform which man is now called upon 
to rmdertake. To the thoughtful the effects of such 
a transformation are apparent, for they must per- 
ceive the immense benefits which would naturally 
accrue from such a change. Its successful accom- 
plishment would be felt in the most remote parts of 
the earth. 

Inasmuch as the modern method of warfare sur- 
passed that of the ancients, so much the more does 
it warrant peace. Review history's pages and note 
the marvellous strides toward perfection in the 
manufacture and use of firearms. Each century, 
from the time man first opposed man on the field of 
conflict, wondrous advances have been made in 
bettering war's devices, until the present finds them 
attaining the very acme of perfection. If ou^^revo- 
lutionary fathers conld revisit earth and view the 
weapons of warfare in actual use, they would evince 
as much surprise as did the Aborigines when the 
solitude of their forest homes was first broken by 
the report of the European's rifle. Imagine Miles 
Stand ish viewing a modern battle, seeing whole 
regiments fall like grain before the reaper's scythe, 
his vision not even hampered by smoke, at one time 
war's necessary accompaniment. Just as a sight 
of modern warfare would be most surprising to our 
ancestors, in the same degree are its effects appal- 
ling to humanity. But while there has been con- 
tinual progress toward perfection in the imple- 
ments of war, some may argue that the means of 
defence in modern warfare have advanced in almost 
the same ratio as those of destruction. Be this 
as it may, late experience seems to prove that in a 
contest between the forces of destruction and those 
of defence, the ultimate victory belongs to the 
former. Where is the armor plate that can with- 
stand the torpedo ; or the fort, the explosion of 
dynamite ? No means can possibly prevail against 
the submarine torpedo boat, capable of carrying a 
crew to direct its movements, nor, as late discov- 
eries have made possible, against air-ships dropping 
explosives into the sea. When these and like 
improvements have received a fair test, anned hos- 
tilities, owing to the dreadful carnage resulting, 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



119 



will inevitably cease. Then, war, following in the 
wake of science and invention, shall have sounded 
the tocsin of its own death knell. From this, other 
arguments equally as stable follow, chief among 
which is the enormous expense incurred by modern 
war and the extensive preparations for same. 
Recent estimates show that in the six great nations 
of Europe, namely, Great Britain, France, Germany, 
Italy, Russia and Austria 3,ooo,(X)0 men are 
enrolled for actual service in their land and sea 
forces. The reserves in this great military organi- 
zation equal about twice the number of regulars, 
making 6,000,000 in all, while those who are more 
or less allied with the military service and who hold 
themselves liable to be called out in time of war, 
make an aggregate of at least 10,000,000 men. 
Naturally, the financial burdens of these powers 
are enormous, and recent investigations have 
proven that $600,000,000 are annually required to 
maintain the forces in their armies and navies. 
Add to this the $22,000,000 debt that late wars 
have caused, and under the weight of which all are 
now groaning, and we will find that the nations, 
sooner or later will be forced to one of two alterna- 
tives — bankruptcy or disarmament. We need not 
look to Europe for an example in the matter of 
finance. Almost thirty years ago our country sur- 
vived^ the costliest and most fatal rebellion of 
modern times. Since that period of strife the 
United States has been obliged to bear in the pay- 
ing of pensions unforeseen and great expense. Our 
pension roll to-day amounts to more than the 
annual cost of maintaining the largest army in 
Europe. The number of pensioners, instead of 
decreasing, as one would naturally suppose, is daily 
on the increase, much to the depletion of the coun- 
try's treasury. But the foregoing cost is trivial 
and scarcely worthy of notice when we consider 
the number of lives that are sacrificed, when war is 
in progress. In the late rebellion our country lost 
one million able-bodied men, while thousands, 
crippled for life, are now drawing to a close a 
■ miserable and pitiable existence. 

With the enormous costs, consequent to support- 
ing these martial equipments, which necessitate a 
ponderous burden of taxes to be borne by the 
people, we will consider its effect upon the indus- 
tries in these countries. In almost every nation of 
Europe, England alone excepted, the maintenance 
of a standing army rests, not upon free will, but 
force, and the ranks are now filled, not by the vol- 
unteer, but the conscript. In order to uphold the 
forces by compulsory enlistment, the industries of 
a country are sure to suflfer. In this manner young 
men, some already acquainted with a trade, and 
about to enter upon some peaceful and money-mak- 



ing pursuit, are forcibly pressed into service in 
which from three to five years are spent in learn- 
ing the craft of war. If left to themselves, they 
would engage in the pursuits of civil life, hence 
the necessity of compulsory service to keep up 
militarism. Under such a regime, Germany espec- 
ially, has lost through emigration the cream of her 
population and the United States has become the 
gainer thereby. In Great Britain and our own 
country, where comparatively small forces are held 
in readiness by the volunteer system, a particular 
aversion to military service is exhibited among the 
masses. Recruits in these countries are drawn 
from the dregs of the populace ; and, at the expir- 
ation of their time, nine out of every ten absolutely 
refuse to re-enlist. It is a fact that necessity alone 
compels these men to enter the ranks, and when 
once bound to service for a number of years, they 
leave no stone unturned to escape the drudgery of 
camp life, which mainly accounts for some 40,000 
desertions within the past ten years. 

Thus far facts and figures have been but feebly 
presented to offset this system of war and its 
reminders. True, would time and space permit, 
other arguments, such as the advances made in 
education and civilization, the advantages of a 
federal system of government, the growth of democ- 
racy, and the present close relation of nations, 
could be fully developed so as to strengthen 
this infant reform. 

We must now look for a substitute for war. Ar- 
bitration at this juncture comes to the rescue. The 
long list of such amicable settlements of nations' 
grievances — and during the last century there have 
been at least sixty — goes far to prove the pos- 
sibility of dispensing with the arbitrament of the 
sword. In our own time we have witnessed some 
striking examples of arbitration's success, namely, 
the just settlement of the Alabama claims in 
Grant's administration while, not later than last 
month, the Behring Sea troubles, existing between 
England and the United States, were equitably 
settled before a Board of Arbitrators. 

Even if the two mentioned instances stood 
alone, could we not reasonably hope for a continu- 
ance of arbitration, thereby dispensing with the 
necessity of war ? We do not look for a speedy 
and entire disarmament among the nations of the 
earth. It may not come to pass in the glorious 
close of the nineteenth, nor in the brilliant future 
of the twentieth century. Before the sword can 
be forever sheathed, it may happen that the soil of 
Europe will again drink in the blood of thousands 
of its offspring. The darkest clouds of war may 
yet threaten nations, but after their passage, will 
surely come the sun-burst of a perpetual peace. "It is 



I20 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



really a thought," says Emerson, " that built up 

this portentous war establishment and a thought 

shall also melt it away." 

War has ever proven to be the rotten limb upon 

the tree of civilization, and the sooner it is done 

away with the better for the accomplishment of 

Christ's mission of "peace on earth, to men of 

good will." 

W. J. Parker, '93. 
«i» ■ 

PERSONALS. 



Messrs. F. Callahan and J. Kelleher, '93, have 
successfully passed their examination for admis- 
sion to Brighton Seminary, and will pursue their 
studies for the secular priesthood at that institution. 

Our Very Rev. President, C. A. McEvoy, O.S.A., 
was present at the Catholic Congress at Chicago, 
and was very much interested and highly impressed 
with the proceedings there. 

Rev. J. J. Ryan, O.S.A., of Villanova, on his 
recent trip to Canada, visited the Shrine of St. 
Anne de Beaupre. 

Rev. F.J. McShane, O.S.A., of Chestnut Hill, 
and his Temperance Cadets recently spent a very 
enjoyable day on the college grounds. 

Our Rev. Vice-President extends his thanks to 
the many friends whose kindness he experienced 
on his canvassing tour. 

Professor P. M. Arnu spent two very enjoyable 
weeks at the sea-shore. 

T. J. Muldoon, B.S., '86, recently graduated in 
law. 

T. J. Jordan, '86, of Scranton, recently visited 
the College. 

Rev. J. J. Fedigan, O.S.A., of Atlantic City, 
was an interested spectator of the proceedings at 
the Catholic Congress. 

Among recent visitors to the College were : 
Revs. F. Greagan of Albany, N.Y., J. McGowan, 
O.S.A., of Waterford, N.Y., J. Green, O.S.A., of 
Lawrence, Mass., J. F. O'Connor, of Consho- 
hocken, Pa., T. Tierney, of Norristown, Pa., 
P. Anderson and J. Nolan, of Ireland. ; ; ; 

We extend our hearty congratulations to G. J. 
O'Connor, A.M., on his promotion to the position 
of leading weather observer and reporter of the 
bureau in Louisville, Ky. One of the daily papers 
of that place has devoted considerable space in its 
columns to a glowing account of Mr. O'Connor's 
work and progress. 

We take this opportunity of extending our sym- 
pathy to the family of Mr. Charles W. McKeone, 
whose death occurred Sept. 11. He was a life- 
long friend and benefactor of our college, and his 
death is therefore greatly deplored by the members 
of the Faculty. -s-Vy ;,]:■ ■:-Zrir :::' :■.;. :■- 



Splinters. 
Picnic. 

Gopher. 

Winona. 

Chi-ca-go. 

The Ozark. 

The " Last Rose of Summer." 

Fading still fading? 

I^n't it a peach ? 

The Midway Plaisance. 

Oh, Mary, what a dream ! 

Oh, what is that? Why the moon. 

Haven't you any family pride? 

Oh ! Oh ! What a terrible thing ! 

Our new chamber-maid is quite a hustler. 

Elroy — Five o'clock in the morning. 

The huckleberries are all gone. 

The boys and the noise are back again. 

Mr. Fentori, from Trenton. Ah, there Katie ! 

I suppose that the South East corner is still 
there with its four attractions. 

Oh, Sallie, avic ! ; • 

'Twas only a trick ; 
So, Sallie, asthore. 
Don't scold any more. 

Why they haven't even a gopher from M — . 

One of the South Sea Islanders was trapped out- 
side his tent the other night. 

We have established a quarantine against Jersey 

City. , „ •.-;/.:.>:vv:,^ or;.',,, .;;,,:.. ..,v^;,;,,..,.,.,,..,,;^ 

"Golly ! what's the matter with the electric 
bulb? I cannot light my cigar." 

What's the matter with Billy ? 

He's all right. But who is Billy ? ' ' ' ' . 

"I may be poor but I'm honest." (To be 
repeated forty-nine times for the sake of emphasis.) 

Elakasari-Hot-Hot-Hot-Hot? (With rising in- 
flection.) ■/.,::-•:;,:-' ■:'^■^;\^"v':v=-.-^:/>■,■•■':■' 

That shed business seems to be a regular Govern- 
ment snap. When will it be finished ? 

The back-stop is down. It could bear up against 
the cannonading of the pitchers of the Blues, the 
Reds, the Whites and the Greens, but it ** wasn't 
in it " during a West Indian cyclone. 

All hail to the new house-keeper. Long may 
she reign ! 

The end of the Golden Jubilee and the com- 
mencement of another. 



VIIvIvANOVA MONTHI.Y, 



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VlIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 





Thomas Bradley, 

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and Market Stceets. 

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selling. We handle only the Best Goods, and Quality considered, 

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Below Market. East Side. PHIIjADEIiPHIA 

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-^ 




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• » 




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tv 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Mass in Honor of St Augustine. 

FOR SOPRANO, ALTO, TENOR AND BASS, WITH ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT. 

This Mass in honor of St. Augustine, has recently been published and issued from this office, and 
to it we respectfully invite your attention. 

It is the composition of Rev. D. J. Leonard, O.S. A., who had in mind the production of a Mass 
that would be short, melodious and devotional, and we think he has not failed of his purpose. 

Though a simple Mass, easy to the ordinary choir, we venture the opinion that, if well rehearsed 
and faithfully rendered, it will become a favorite to both priest and choir. 

Specimen copies sent to any address on receipt of seventy-five cents. On all orders the usual dis- 
count to the reverend clergy and choir directors. 

SEND ORDERS TO 

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(Gallagher Building.) 



A Fitting Mass for St. Augustine's Feast Day, August 28. 



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:M: VANHORN&SON, 

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THEATRICAL AND HISTORICAL 

#^ ^ ^ ^I'^ IDT HaC 3IB) S^# 

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CHICAGO, NEW YORK. PHILADELPHIA, 

108 Madison St. 243 Broadway^. 103!i Cheatnnt St. 



l^ool^iQ^ <iia88^5 aijd pi(;tijr^ pra/T\^8. 

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232 RtTch Street, Philadelphia. 

(iold ^ 5iiu^r/T^^dal8 for ail OGea8io95 

Pin* and Badge*, etc Made to Order. 

EngraTlngs In General and Special 'Work. 

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70O At*eh St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(M'Pr of the Villanova College Prize Medals.) 









Vol. I, 



Villaiiova College, October, 1893. 



ISTo. 1(). 



CUANDO SEBA. 

From the Spanish of Fray Luis Ponce De Leon, O.SA. 
Henry Phillips, Jr., of Philadelphia. 



By 




H, when shall I, from prison free, 

To the Empyrean wing my longing flight, 
Cleaving the skies in liberty, 
Leaving this earth's entombing plight. 
Behold, unharmed, the Truth's most sacred light? 

There shall I tarry, freed from care, 

In Heaven's pure splendor, glorious demense ; 

All knowledge 'fore my soul laid bare 
That e'er can be, or e'er has been. 
Its most recondite lore will clear be seen. 

Before my eyes' the laws displayed 

How once the Sov'reign Hand the stars did greet. 

The world's foundation firmly laid 
By plumb and level, true, complete. 
To ponderous elements gave stable seat. 

Those lofty columns shall I see 

That high-exalted bear our planet's weight 

That fetters know 'gainst which the sea 
Rolls billows curbed by kindly fate, 
By Providence that chains its will estate. : 

And why this globe doth tremble, quake. 

And why the shrilly North-Winds rage and roar, 

The hollow waves in surges break 
That lash the skies, to heaven soar. 
And why the ebb and flood-tides ne'er give o'er. 

Whence babbling brooks their being take, 

Where flowing fountains, whence the streams 
drose, 

The rills that ripple to the lake. 

Whence come the frosts, the winter snows, 
What brings the summer-heat when Sirius glows ; 

The drizzling rains within the sky, 

Who holds their misty burden in its place 



Who wields the thunderbolt on high. 
Who holds the lurid levin's pace, 
And holds the day and night in his embrace. 

Hast thou not marked, in days serene 
A-sudden clouds the balmy air of spring, 

The air grows black, no ray is seen. 

The wild winds blow, no bird doth sing. 

The powdered dust to Heaven the tempests fling ? 

Within that sombre, boding cloud 

God's chariot rolls in dread, majestic flight, 

'Midst portents dire, in thunders loud. 
Whilst vivid fires flash blazing light. 
The planets quake, and nations bow in fright. 

The angry floods in deluge fall ' \ 

Filling the swollen river's turbid bed. 

The peasant's soul the storms appall. 
Destroy his harvest, ruin spread — 
In one short moment is a year's work fled. 

In Heaven's most exhalted sphere 

The movements of the starry host I'll know, 

The signs and omens that appear 
From planet houses, earthward flow, 
And rule the fate of all the orbs below. 

Who guides their course in nightly ways. 
Who first applied the torch that lit their flame 

With myriad, sparkling, gilded rays; 
And why the Pleiads trembling came 
L,ed to the Ocean's brink in fear and shame. 

The eternal source of life and light 

That burns immortal, fed from its own spark; 

Wherefore so slow the summer's flight, 
The winter's night so drear and dark, 
All shall I know, and well their causes mark. 

My soul in Heaven shall raptured be 
Amidst the Seraphs of the loftiest race; 

Full of content, from troubles free. 
In mansions pure, of golden grace,' 
Of happiest spirits most blessed dwelling place! 



122 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



ORATORY. 

Oratory is derived from the Latin verb, orare, sig- 
nifying to plead, to beseech, and may be defined 
the art of producing persuasion or conviction by 
means of spoken discourse. 

Aristotle distinguished three kinds of oratory, 
namely, demonstrative, deliberative and judicial. 
The first included panegyrics, invectives and aca- 
demic discourses ; the second included legislative, 
and other debates on public policy, moral lectures 
and all instructive oratory ; and the third included 
pleading, accusation and defence as before a court 
of justice. He makes the oration consist of intro- 
duction, proposition, confirmation and peroration, 
and most writers on oratory have adopted his divi- 
sion. The modern division is that of the Pulpit, 
the Bar and the Senate, which is hardly as conve- 
nient as the ancient. It comprehends the four 
following divisions, namely, invention, disposition, 
elocution and delivery. The first has reference to 
the character, the second to arrangement and diction, 
the third and fourth to the utterance and action 
with which they are communicated to the hearer. 
Therefore the faculties of the orator are not ex- 
ercised within certain limits, and it is this which 
makes oratory the most comprehensive of the 
vi: whole circle of arts. 

It was justly said by Themistocles that speech is 
like tapestry unfolded, on which the imagery ap- 
pears distinct, but that thoughts are like tapestry 
in the bale in which the figures are rolled up to- 
gether. Thus he alone can be deemed an orator who 
can use the most persuasive arguments, and clothe 
■ f them in such language as to become the dignity 
of the subject, who can penetrate into every minute 
■ •; circumstance, and turn every incident to its great- 
est advantage. The master of oratory is an artist 
■ gifted with the divine power of executing images 
and forms of beauty which dissolve into the very 
essence of the soul. He has the power to give a 
resonance and fire to words of genius and to express 
what others feel but cannot express. He is to in- 
: terpret the very thoughts of the few privileged 
mortals upon whom God has bestowed genius and 
a soul susceptible to all forms of beauty. He pos- 
sesses the key to every human heart, and stirs up 
such feelings that no other art can accomplish. 
As an evidence of this we need only consider the 
influence which oratory has always exercised over 
.. . man since the very beginning. In the Old Testa- 
, ment we find that the Prophets and Kings inspired 
the armies of Judali by means of their eloquence. 
Again in Homer's immortal Iliad there is abundant 
• proof of the high esteem in which the art of 
oratory was held by the Greeks. 



The golden age of Greece is the age of her 
greatest orators. It commenced with Pericles and 
ended with Demosthenes. It was not till Demos- 
thenes appeared that Grecian eloquence reached 
its highest perfection. He was the prince of all 
orators, and no one has yet succeeded in wresting 
this title from him. After his time Grecian elo- 
quence which was coeval with Grecian liberty 
declined with the fall of the latter. 

Roman oratory reached its perfection in Cicero, 
but like Grecian declined with the fall of Roman 
liberty. It was long held in check by the military 
spirit, so incompatible with a high degree of civil 
freedom, because it lessened that popular intelli- 
gence, which is the only element in which the 
noblest eloquence is nurtured. But at last the study 
of oratory was introduced from Athens and found 
a jealous disciple and a great master in Cicero, 
whose fame is second only to that of his Athenian 
predecessor. 

It has often been a question how ancient orators 
attained such a height of perfection. The reason 
is simply this : they bestowed great pains upon 
the education of the young in this most difficult 
art and took great care in preparing all their ora- 
tions before delivery. This made Greek eloquence 
simple and severe, the Latin, florid, and both de- 
void of every particle of wit. 

In modern times oratory has not reached such 
a height of perfection as among the ancients because 
it has been cultivated with less care. The reasons 
of this are in many ways apparent. A speaker of 
the present day is mainly known to the public 
through the press and it is often more important 
for him to be read than heard. Again the many 
arguments and different opinions carried on through 
the press contribute in some degree to the neglect. 
However the power of oratory must always be ifn- 
mense in all countries especially if they are repub- 
lican. It seems to flourish and decay according to 
the freedom of the people and therefore there 
is no excuse for neglecting it in republican coun- 
tries. We have a good example of this, viz.: 
France. It was not until she thiew off the yoke of 
a despot that she produced such orators as Mirabeau 
and Vergniaud and we can see by the records that 
the eloquence of her national assembly has been in 
proportion to the freedom of her Government. The 
highest eloquence is found in the Catholic pulpit of 
France where Fen^lon, Massillon, Bourdalone and 
Bossuet raised pulpit oratory to its highest place. 
The struggle against despotism in England 
brought forth great bursts of eloquence from Eliot, 
Vane and others. In the eighteenth century such 
geniuses as Pitt, Burke, Chatham and Sheridan 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



123 



flourished, but in Germany and I may say Italy, 
Spain and Portugal the systeni of government 
checked to a great extent the growth of oratory. 

In America we find the eloquence of James Otis 
and Patrick Henry brought out by the revolution, 
and later the senatorial speeches of Clay, Webster 
and Calhoun which may be compared with the most 
perfect orations of any time. 

To become a master of oratory we should regard 
no degree of labor as idly bestowed, and remember 
that eloquence is the most select boon which 
Heaven has bestowed upon man. Our supreme 
ignorance of the fact that this art is such a grand 
accomplishment is the cause of its being so much 
neglected. True, it is often very difficult to over- 
come some natural faults, but by degrees we be- 
come more perfect. The student perhaps cannot 
perceive his own improvement so readily as his 
audience. '''' Nemo judex in propria causa.'''' If we 
strive earnestly, systematically and perseveringly 
failure will not be the result, but on the contrary, 
we will derive an incalculable benefit from the 
study of this beautiful and useful art. We cannot 
forget Demosthenes, who became eminent only 
after diligent and strenuous exertion. The same 
may be truthfully said of numerous other artists, 
both ancient and modern. It behooves us, there- 
fore, not to allow the many splendid opportunities 
of the present day to pass unnoticed, but rather to 
take every advantage of them and strive to excel 
in an art that was hardly neglected as much in the 
early ages as in our age of boasted enlightenment 
and progress. J. Stanley Smith, '96. 



ST. AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO 
Third Paper. 

The popular demand of the Faithful at Hippo to 
have Augustine appointed as their preacher was 
readily assented to by Valerius bishop at the time 
of that see. 

Though himself a wise, able and respected pre- 
late, the bishop Greek by race was, it is said, but 
indifferently skilled in Latin — the common 
language of the Western Church and people. 
Besides he labored from some kind of impediment 
in speech, that prevented him from addressing his 
flock as he wished. 

Being thus persuaded that he needed a represen- 
tative in the pulpit, and desirous of having his 
flock instructed by one whose piety and learning 
were beyond question, Valerius gladly acceded to 
the wishes of his people, and ordained Augustine 
to the priesthood in the year 391 of the Christian 
era, and the thirty-seventh of his age. 



This step of Valerius in appointing a priest as 
preacher in ordinary was an innovation on the 
customs of the time in the Western Church. 
Among congregations of the Faithful in the 
churches of the Eastern world it was customary 
for priests to preach to the people, while in the 
Western or Latin churches bishops only were wont 
to give public and formal instruction from the 
pulpit. 

With Augustine's promotion to the office of 
episcopal preacher begins to dawn in a measure 
his wonderful influence over the Church, which 
through his words and his writings during the 
four years of his simple priesthood but in a far 
"more brilliant, impressive and efficacious measure 
during the 35 years of his episcopal life won for 
him prominence and regard among all classes of 
churchmen and laity. 

To the very incomplete list of titles accorded to 
St. Augustine by Popes and by Councils of the 
Church, which was given in the First Paper of 
this series, [seethe June number of the Monthly, 
page 63,] might easily be added, did space allow, 
many others to attest still more strongly the con- 
tinual and universal esteem for Augustine's master 
mind in affairs of Church and State. 

Christian theology and philosophy in so far as it 
can be said to have been moulded by human genius, 
is largely Augustinian. St. Thomas of Aquin the 
Angelic Doctor of the schools refers to him as 
master. 

I have read some where or other though just 
now I am unable to recall the place, that in the 
Council of Trent in which were discussed and 
settled so many questions of vital and supreme im- 
portance to Christendom, two volumes, it is said, 
were kept on the table in the council hall of the 
Fathers to which they referred as final arbiters in 
all matters under discussion. These were the 
Holy Scriptures and the Works of St. Augustine. 
It will occur too to those who are versed in the 
writings of the schoolmen that the phrase one so 
often meets with — Dubitat Augiistiims — , that is, 
Augustine has not ventured to decide the point, 
indicates that in matters where Augustine has not 
spoken the question may be considered still open 
and debatable. 

Nor truly could Valerius have well made a 
better choice for assistant priest than the saintly, 
learned, and able scholar who trained in all the 
profane and sacred sciences of his day, in music, 
geometry, arithmetic, rhetoric, dialectics and 
philosophy, had himself filled with honor the most 
important chairs at the imperial and quasi-imperial 
cities of Carthage, Rome and Milan. Moreover 



124 



VILLANOVA MONTHIvY. 



Augustine had for some three years or so been 
ruler at Tagaste of the brotherhood of saintly and 
learned men of whom several were afterwards 
raised to episcopal sees in Africa. 

Thus to his many moral and intellectual qualifi- 
cations for his new position is to be added his 
experience in directing and ruling others. 

But Augustine was also well known to the world 
of letters by his many writings in scientific and 
moral subjects that even in our age of critical 
scholarship challenge the admiration of the 
thoughtful for their originality of view, their 
thoroughness of treatment and their clearness of 
expression. 

At Carthage before his conversion probably in 
the year 381, he composed his work on the Beauti- 
ful and Fit^ which he dedicated to Hierius a Roman 
orator. 

At Milan subsequent to his conversion he wrote 
several treatises on Order ^ on the Immortality of 
the Soul^ on the Blessed Life — an ethical composi- 
tion that reads as well to-day as when first written, 
and his Soliloquies^ if he really be its author. 

At Rome where he sojourned, as has been said, 
for a time after the death at Ostia of his saintly 
mother, he completed in two volumes his work On 
the Morals of Catholics and of Manicheans^ and 
besides wrote two treatises — one. On the Soul and 
the other On Free Will. 

While at Tagaste amid his cares for the brethren 
in the hermitage he wrote on such varied topics as 
Music^ the True Religion^ and an Exposition of the 
Book of Genesis. 

The universal esteem in which Augustine's 
works have always been held receives singular con- 
firmation and support from sources that cann. t be 
suspected of favoring partisanship or bias. These 
are the opponents of the Catholic Church. Even 
the devil — so runs the saying — quotes Scriptures 
when it's to his purpose. And nothing is com- 
moner, (and may not one say more laughable ?) than 
to hear such extremists as predestinarian Calvinist 
and atheistic Liberal claim the great Augustine — 
the acknowledged champion of the orthodox Faith 
and the unswerving defender of the Papacy — as 
favoring their own oddly contradictory and irre- 
ligious views. John Calvin strives to make 
Augustine a denier of man's freewill. It is almost 
an every day experience to see freethinkers in their 
writings quote from Augustine as an opponent to 
Rome. 

Thus Augustine, whose well-deserved fame as a 
teacher and writer had already preceded him to 
Hippo, brought to his new field of active life the 
best of all qualifications in a leader — popular esteem. 
No wonder that the people desired to have him 



among them. As a rule Augustine was wont to 
preach at least during his episcopate once, and even 
sometimes two and three times a day, mostly in 
Latin, but in out-of-the-way places where Latin 
was not understood by the people in the Punic or 
Carthaginian dialect the only tongue of many 
country villages. At Hippo in the year 393 was 
held a plenary council of the African Church, 
under the presidency of the venerable Aurelius 
primate of Carthage, at which Augustine then only 
two years a priest delivered at the request of the 
assembled prelates an address — On Faith and the 
Creed. Two years later Valerius, now infirm and 
nearing the close of his days, designated Augustine 
as his coadjutor in the episcopal see of Hippo. He 
died the year after. 

As to Augustine's daily life while priest and 
bishop, — it is not easy to separate them, — one may 
gather from many places in his IVorks, here an 
incident, there a chance description of something 
or other, from which he may form a very fair and 
reasonably complete picture of his daily doings. 
Every day he said Mass and assisted at the reading 
of the Divine Office in church. At a fixed hour 
in the afternoon he gave instructions in church to 
candidates for baptism. In these early ages the 
sacrament of baptism was unless in cases of 
urgency not administered to infants, but was 
deferred until the candidates were fully instructed 
in the mysteries of the Faith. 

Thorough scholar as he was Augustine as was 
natural enough inculcated a love for books. As 
bishop he founded a library in or near the episco- 
pal iiesidence for the benefit of his clerics. He 
was fond of writing, and at times complains that 
his various duties kept him away from his desk. 

He was a lover of neatness in dress and apparel, 
and severely reproves the Girovagi — an ill- disci- 
plined and unruly body of fanatical and false 
religious, that gave great trouble and scandal to 
the church in Africa, — for their disregard among 
other things for cleanliness. 

They went unwashed, with filthy and tattered 
garments. 

At table Augustine was a moderate eater and 
drinker. He discountenanced the use of food or 
drink outside of meals. No plate was allowed in 
the community ; spoons only were of silver ; dishes 
were of clay, or wood, or stone. For strangers and 
the sick meat was allowed ; for the members of 
the house only herbs and pulse ; while wine was 
served by measure. 

At meals there always was reading for the in- 
struction of the community, and, when all had fin- 
ished, conversation on the questions of the day, — 
a kind of debating society, — in which as a rule 






VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



125 



Augustine acted as moderator or chairman, the 
others giving their views or opinions and he sum- 
ming up the conclusions. 

It was characteristic of Augustine's well known 
charity for all men and his concern for others' 
reputation especially the absent, that in the com- 
munity refectory at Hippo was displayed on the 
wall in the sight of the eaters a warning against 
backbiting, which ran thus : 

Quisquis amat dictis absentem rodere viiam^ 

Hanc mensam vetitam noverit esse stbi* 
which in English may be translated as follows : 

This board allows no vile detractor place, 

Whose tongue shall charge the absent with dis- 
grace. 

Mention has already been made of the admira- 
tion Augustine felt for the quiet and peaceful life 
of the religious whom he had encountered at Milan 
and at Rome, and how in pursuance of his plan to 
introduce a similar system of brotherly life into 
Africa, he established a community of his relatives 
and friends at Tagaste. When bishop Valerius 
summoned Augustine to Hippo, he gave him the 
use of a garden within the church precincts, 
wherein Augustine formed a second brotherhood of 
religious on similar lines with the one at his old 
home. With these he still continued as priest and 
bishop to correspond by letter, and at times — it 
may not unnaturally be supposed — he paid them 
occasional visits. 

But as he could not take Hippo to Tagaste, he 
brought thence some of his old companions in the 
hermitage, and settled them near his epi.^copal 
home. This garden convent or hermitage imme- 
diately under the eye of the bishop became the 
training school or seminary as we would call it 
for the future prelates of the African church. 

Among those who were brought thither from 
Tagaste were Alypius, Augustine's life-long friend, 
afterwards bishop of Milevis, Evodius, whom we 
have seen with him at Milan, Severus, and Possi- 
dius, his biographer and subsequently bishop of 
Calama. 

Arguing on the plain and quasi fundamental 
truth that the regeneration of society must spring 
from perfect leadership, and that tlie community 
form of holy living was the fittest school for train- 
ing the future leaders of the African Church, 
Augustine during the many years of his episcopate 
established monasteries in many places under his 
jurisdiction, wherein he could raise up a body of 
learned and saintly associates in the work of the 
sacred ministry. In his IVorks he refers to some of 
these episcopal foundations. 

T. C. M. 
{To be continued^. 

* The Life (elsewhere quoted) by St. Possidius gives four 
variants of this distich, none of them however affecting the 
sense. See Vita S. Augustini by St. Possidius, in vohinie X of 
the Antwerp edition. 



The Destruction of Pompeii. 

In the south-western part of Italy, on the shore of 
the Bay of Naples lay Pompeii, a beautiful and oj 11- 
lent city f)f Campania. Of its history compara- 
tively little is known; its name is mentioned but 
once during the wars of the Romans with the Sam- 
nites and the Campanians, but it played a promi- 
nent pait in the insurrections of Central Italy, 
known as the Social War, during which it with- 
stood a long siege by Sulla but was finally reduced 
by the Romans and afterwards admitted to the 
Roman franchise. 

The inhabitants of Pompeii were intelligent and 
. industrious ; some of them were engaged in com- 
mercial pursuits, while others belonged to that 
class whose wealth and leisure enabled them to sur- 
round themselves with all the luxuries and enjoy- 
ments of life. The city continued to prosper; 
beautiful palaces and temples and villas were erect- 
ed; it was never thought possible that the neigh- 
boring mountain, so beautiful to look upon, with 
its vine-clad sides and olive groves, could contain 
the elements of dire destruction. But their security 
was only a fancied one. The day came when Mt. 
Vesuvius, which had slumbered for ages, awoke 
from its long slumber, and in its awakening 
brought death and destruction to the beautiful city 
which lay so peacefully at its foot. 

One beautiful August night in 79, A. D., the 
Pompeians retired to rest, little dreaming that it 
was to be tluir last. They saw that the sky was 
gloomy; that the beautiful bay, usually so calm 
and still, was surging and foaming as if agitated 
by hidden tempests; they felt an unaccountable 
oppressiveness in the air; no refreshing breezes 
came from either mountain or sea. Animals, seem- 
ingly wiser than men, sought shelter amid rock -5 and 
caves. The next day the inhabitants were filled 
with terror; the sunless sky was covered with a 
lurid glare; dense clouds of smoke were issuing 
from the summit of the mountain; the sea was a 
boiling and seething mass ; suddenly a report as of 
a thousand cannon was heard; flames and ashes and 
rocks leaped forth into the air, only to fall in over- 
whelming masses upon the doomed city. The 
people rushed out only to meet on one side the burn- 
ing mountain, on the other the raging sea. For 
three days and nights Vesuvius wielded its de- 
structive agencies, and when all was over Pompeii 
in all its beauty, splendor and magnificence lay 
buried beneath fifty feet of ashes, rock and lava. 

Thus it remained for centuries. Over its tomb 
other houses and villas and towns were built, their 
inhabitants all unconscious of the city lying in 
ruins beneath them. About the year 1748, while 
digging wells and quarries they discovered these 



126 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



ruins for the first time, and immediately made 
preparations for the carrying on of the excavations 
on a very large scale. To their utter amazement 
they found everything in a state of almost perfect 
preservation. Paintings, sculpture of exquisite 
design and workmanship, richly ornamented lamps, 
mosaic work, costly jewels, utensils of various 
kinds and gorgeously-woven silks were found in 
great profusion. 

Our knowledge of ancient painting has been de- 
rived more from the ruins of Pompeii than from all 
other sources; and when we contemplate the beauty 
and variety of the objects which the entombed city 
contained we cannot but ask ourselves what would 
have been the result had a great and opulent city 
like Naples or even Rome itself been preserved for 
us in the same manner as the insignificant Pompeii. 

Interesting as are the numerous works of art 
that have been unearthed during recent excavations, 
and important as is their bearing upon some branches 
of the history of ancient art, they cannot compare 
in interest with that flood of light which this mar- 
vellous discovery has thrown upon ancient life in 
all its details, enabling us to picture to ourselves 
the habits, manners and customs of a cultivated and 
intelligent people eighteen hundred years ago in a 
manner which no amount of study of ancient liter- 
ature could accomplish. 

M. H. McDonnell, '95. 



:'^r:--.^--^-'y' :■ -v ■^■-. ■,• --;-;■- rpj^g Clover. '■:-"'-'^'>':- ;''-:';'-^-i.- 

Some sing of the lily, and daisy, and rose, 

And the pansies and pinks that the summer-time throws 

In the green, grassy lap of the medder that lays 

Blinkin' up at the skies through the sunshiny davs. 

But what is the lily and all of the rest 

Of the flowers to a man with a heart in his breast ' 

That was dipped brimmin' full with the honey and dew 

Of the sweet-clover blossoms his babyhood knew ? 

I never set eyes on a clover-field now, / ;; i 

Er fool round a stable, er climb in a mow. 
But my childhood comes back jest as clear and as plain 
As the smell of the clover I'm sniffin' again ; 
And I wander away in a barefooted dream 
Whar I tangle my toes in the blossoms that gleam 
With the dew of the dawn of the morning of love 
Ere it wept o'er the graves that I'm weepin' above. 

And so I love clover; it seems like a part '''■;.^-;i.-:;"^ ''i::: 

Of the sacredest sorrows and joys of my heart ; '■::'-i-';.:'^'-' 
And wharever it blossoms, oh, thar let me bow ' ' 

And thank the good God as I'm thankin' Him now ! • 
And I pray to Him still for the stren'th when I die, 
To go out in the clover and tell it good-bye. 
And lovin'Iy nestle my face in its bloom, ; ' . 

While my soul slips away on a breath of perfume. 

—Jama Whitcotnb Riley. 



The Head and the Heart. 

There are two main channels through which we 
endeavor to improve men in character and conduct ; 
first by increasing their knowledge, and second by 
arousing their feelings. Some believe exclusively 
in mental enlightenment. In their view, education 
is the great moral renovator. The schools are 
their chief reliance for abolishing vice, for cleansing 
impurity, for promoting honesty, industry and 
fidelity, for establishing right principles, and lifting 
men to a higher plane of action. They trace all 
wrong-doing to ignoarnce, and think that in pro- 
portion to the spread of knowledge will be the in- 
crease of virtue. In personal efforts they endeavor 
to convince men by arguments, and make all their 
appeals to the understanding. They point out 
why certain lines of conduct are good, and certain 
others are bad, and portray the ultimate conse- 
quences of each. They feel well assured that if 
men only know what is right, they will follow it; 
that if they only believe what is true with their 
intellects, they will accept it with their hearts, and 
embody it in their lives. 

Another class of philanthropists with the same 
beneficent object in view repudiate this method, 
and make their entire appeal to the feelings. The 
heart, they say, is the mainspring of the character, 
the true source of good and evil conduct. It is, in 
their view, a long way from the intellect to the 
actions, and the whole range of feeling lies be- 
tween ; therefore they deem it better to play upon 
the nearest string, to awaken dormant emotions, 
to excite languid, feelings, to soften hard-hearted- 
ness, to melt coldness, to arouse fear or hope or 
gratitude or remorse, and through them to effect 
the changes in life and action that they desire to 
produce. 

Both of these methods are legitimate to a certain 
extent, but neither of them is sufficient alone. ■ 
Knowledge is a primary necessity before any one 
can become a moral agent. No one can choose the 
right till he distinguishes right from wrong, or 
follow the truth till he knows what is true. If he 
is to be honest, he must understand something of 
the principles of justice ; if he is to be diligent, he 
must learn the value of time ; if he is to restrain 
self-indulgence, he must comprehend in some de- 
gree to what it will lead if unrestrained ; if he is to 
be a good husband, or father, or citizen, he must 
know what duties those relations involve. The 
study of practical ethics— that is, of the principles 
which underlie right]conduct and the consequences 
which follow both right and wrong actions — is of 
the utmost value, and might well be introduced into 
every system of education and adapted to every age 
and condition. Also the mere fragmentary instruc- 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



127 



tion of this nature, that we may be able to give or 
to receive, as circumstances permit, has a value 
which no one should depreciate. The mistake 
sometimes made by those who advocate it, is not 
that they prize it too highly, but that they make it 
their only reliance. Any part of our nature, culti- 
vated to the exclusion of the rest, will destroy its 
harmony, and to this law the intellect is no excep- 
tion. The most thorough knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of justice will not suffice to make a just man 
unless his heart also embrace them ; nor will the 
most accurate understanding of the nature and 
results of selfishness suffice to make a benevolent 
and sympathetic man, unless the emotions of love 
or compassion are awakened within him. 

On the other hand, while the head needs the 
heart to give warmth and vitality to its ideas, the 
heart equally needs the head to give wisdom, calm- 
ness, order and strength to direct its impulses and 
embody its desires. Feeling without knowledge 
is like a ship without a rudder or a horse without a 
bridle. Unintelligent emotions may drift us into 
all kinds of excesses, and their unrestrained ebb 
and flow render all steady growth impossible. The 
stronger and the more intense they are the more 
urgently do they need the guidance of clear thought, 
a well-informed mind and a strong will. 

The best benevolence is that which relies upon 
both these influences, and so blends them as to form 
the habit of right doing. For, after all, it is the 
constant repetition of right actions which builds up 
a noble character. A distinguished English clergy- 
man, deprecating the extreme reliance often placed 
on external aids, said : " Crutches are capital for 
locomotion, but for strengthening the limbs which 
they save from the ground not very capital. No, 
rely upon it, the spiritual life is not knowing 
nor hearing, but doing. We only know as far as 
we can do ; we learn to do by doing, and we learn 
to know by doing ; what we do truly, rightly in 
the way of duty, that and only that we are. 



Who steals my purse steals trash; 'tis something, 

nothing ; 
*Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands ; 
But he that filches from me my good name 
Robs me of that which not enriches him 
And makes me poor indeed. 

:' OthellOy iii, 3. 

There is a tide in the affairs of men. 
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune ; ; 

Omitted, all the voyage of their life / ': i^ :; v " 
Is bound in shallows and in miseries. , ' : i; 

fulius Caesar, iv. 3. 



ATHLETICS. 

Owing to the numerous challenges which we re- 
ceived last season, and also to uncertainty of dates, 
we were obliged to postpone some games until the 
reopening of our college. The members of the 
base-ball nine having all returned with one excep- 
tion, we were prepared to meet our opponents. 
The first of these games was played with the Con- 
shohockens on Saturday, September 23d, before a 
large assemblage. The game throughout was 
rather one-sided — the superiority of the home team 
being ever manifest. The features of the game 
were the magnificent pitching of Herron, who 
struck out eleven men, the all-around playing of 
O'lvcarv and the field work of Blake. 



Villanova College. 

R. H. o. A. E. 

M. J. Murphy, 2b 23000 

Nolan, If, .... 4 I o o o 

Mahon, cf, . . . i i 000 

Herron, p, . . . i 2090 

Dugan, rf, . . . 2 2 o o o 

Field, lb, . . . i 3 15 i o 

McDonell, c, . . i i 7 3 o 

Kavanaugh, ss, . i o 2 2 o 

O'Leary, 3b, . . i 3 3 3 o 



Conshoh 


ock 

R. 


en. 

H. 


0. 


A. 


E- 


P. McGuire, ib 


. I 





20 


I 


■\ 


Kelly, cf,. . . 


. 


I 











McGough, rf, . 


. 











I 


Dougherty, c . 


. I 


I 


2 


2 


2 


Blake, ss, . . . 


. I 


2 


I 


.-^ 





Davis, p . . . 


. 


.2 





4 





Donnelly, 2b, . 


. 











2 


J. McGuire, 3b, 


. 





4 


.^ 





McHugo, If, . 


. I 














Totals, . . . 


.4 


6 


4 


27 


8 



Totals, ... 14 16 27 18 o 



Earned runs — Villanova, 7 ; Consholiocken, 3. Two base 
hits — Murphy, Field. Left on bases — Villanova, 8 ; Consho- 
hocken, 6. Struck out by Herron, ir ; by Davis, 2. Passed 
balls — Field, 4. Time— 1.45. Umpire, Mr. J. J. Ryle. 

Villanova 12 Conshohocken 10. 

On Thursday September 28, the Conshohocken 
base ball team for the second time met defeat at the 
hands of the Villanovians. The features of the 
game were the masterly playing of Murphy at 
short, the general good work of McDonald for the 
home team and the pitching of Dougherty for the 
visitors. The score : 



Villanova . . 4 . i 2 i o 6 
Conshohocken . , 4 o o 2 o 



o 

2 



2 
2 



Earned runs— Villanova, 6 ; Conshohocken, 4. Two-base 
hits— Murphy, 2, Blake, McGuire. Left on bases, Villanova 7 ; 
Conshohocken 5. Struck out by Herron, 9 ; by Dougherty, 4. 
Umpire — ^Jno. f. Ryle. 

On October 7th the Ithans fell an easy victim to 
the College nine. The pitching of Herron, as 
usual, was too much for the visitors. Also, much 
credit is due to the phenomenal playing of Walsh. 
The score : v:7;'v■,^^'v •>:■.■.■■■■■■•;;■.: -..;, ■■: " 

, :V c/ ;^/ 1' 123456789H R ■ 

Villanova College. 81020340x1018 

Ithans 000000000 2 o 

Earned runs, Villanova, 10 ; three base hit, Walsh ; two-base 
hits. Murphy, Herron ; left on bases, Villanova 6, Ithans 4. 
struck out by Herron, 18 ; by Davis, 4. Umpire, J. J. Ryle. 



128 



VIIJvANOVA MONTHIvV. 



The Villanova Monthly, 

PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF 

]^IL.L.nN0127C COLI-ECFr. 

UILLANOUA, PA. 



OCTOBER, 1893. 

THB STKF=F=. 

Editor in-Chiff. 
J. F. O'LEARY, '94. 

Associate Editors. 
J. I. Crowley, '94. J. J. Ryle, '94. 

J. J DoLAN, '94. M. T. Field, '95. 

T. J. Lee, '95. M. J. Muri'HY, '95. 

B. J. O'DoNNELL, '95. J. S. Smith, '96. 

W. J. MaHON, '96. J. E. O'UONNELL, "96. 

E T. Wade, '96. 

Business Manager. 
JOHN J. FARRELL, O-S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 

Remittances and business communications should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Pi ice, o.ie year $1 00 

Single copies ........ 10 



Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second Class Matter. 



EDITORIALS. 



The present j'ear of Villanova's existence seems 
destined to be one of more than ordinary prosperity. 
The splended appearance of the bnildings con- 
nected with the institution and the beauty of the 
surrounding grounds are due in a great measure to 
the magnificent preparations made at the close of 
the last term for a proper celebration of the Golden 
Jubilee. The number of students in attendance 
already exceeds that of any previous year, making 
necessary a proportionate increase in the members 
of the Faculty. Altogether the outlook is a most 
promising one. While the intellectual develop- 
ment of the student receives careful consideration, 
his physical development which is equally impor- 
tant, is not by any means neglected. Already 
there are plans under consideration, the execution 
of which will greatly benefit this branch of col- 
legiate training. This course of action, together 
with the co-operation of those immediately inter- 
ested, will give such an impetus to athletics as they 
have never before experienced here. Thus all 
things considered an epoch is presaged most mem- 
orable in the annals of our grand old institution of 

learning. : - " "•^^•;^ 

«« » 

An event extremely important in conjunction 
with the World's Fair was the g..thering there of the 
most representative body of Catholic thought and 
action in the United States. This congress, which 
is only one of the many convoked since the open- 



ing of the Exposition, had for its object the con- 
sideration of matters of vital importance to all 
mankind irrespective of creed. 

The encyclical and letters of his Holiness Leo 
XIII were the basis of the dissertations on the 
social, educational and temperance questions, and 
the relation of these to religion. By reason of 
the spirit animating all the citizens of the United 
States during this Columbian year eulogies were 
pronounced on the mission and character of Colum- 
bus, and likewise on the nobility and self-sacrifice 
displayed by Isabella, that most virtuous of queens. 

The tone of the congress was in perfect harmony 
with the principles of our Government, and the 
sentiments expiessed displayed that spirit of lofty 
patriotism which emanates from deeply-rooted 
religious conviction and fond love of country. 
Throughout the entire session, respect and defer- 
ence to all the wishes of the Sovereign Pontiff were 
manifest. The effect of this congress cannot be 
overestimated. Even the extreme partisans of 
Protestantism can now understand that one can be 
at the same time a good citizen and a good Catho- 
lic ; that the Catholic Church is seeking not self- 
aggrandizement and union with the state, as preju- 
diced minds suppose, but rather the welfare of all 
mankind. So the mask of misrepresentation being 
removed she stands forth in all her effulgence ; in 
the words of Cardinal Gibbons "men will look 
upon her with admiration, and admiring her will 
love her, and loving her will embrace her." 

m-m-w 

All of us upon entering college should have 
some definite purpose in view ; to those who hive 
not, the following remarks are especially pertinent. 
Having determined to pursue a collegiate course, 
the most important matter to be considered is the 
selection of a profession in which we may expect 
to be successful in after life. This decided, it now 
devolves upon us to strive strenuously for the 
accomplishment of our purpose, remembering that 
this can only be accomplished by strict application 
and persevering effort. But while we apply our- 
selves industriously, we must do so as systematic- 
ally as possible, for it would be unwise to employ 
the time that is so precious in the pursuit of tliose 
studies which have little or no bearing upon the 
profession which we intend to adopt. Nevertheless, 
we should not go to extremes in this matter, and 
omit other studies which are of great assistance to 
us in the development and culture of the mind. 
For although a man be an excellent physician, 
attorney, or a member of any of the learned pro- 
fessions, his repute among intelligent men wonld 
be not at all great if he were not also conversant 
witli matters of a more general nature. It 
behooves us, therefore, to make use of all the 
opportunities which a collegiate course affords for 
developing our faculties and fitting ourselves for 
all the duties of life. 



VlLLANOVA MONTHLY. 



129 



MATHEMATICAL CLASS. 

To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send problems, 
queries, etc., and their solutions, or any difficulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 

All such communications should be addrepsed to 

D. O'SuLLivAN, M.A., Villanova ColWge. 

30. — The angle of elevation of the top of an in- 
accessible fort C, observed from a point A is, 12°. 
At a point B^ 219 feet from A and on a line AB 
perpendicular to ^C, the angle ABC is 61° 45'. 
Find the height of the fort. 

Solutio7t by T/ios. J. Lee^ '95. 

c 




In right [\CAB 
cot ABC= ^^ 



AC=- 



AB 



AC Cot ABC 

log A C=\ogAB+ co]og cot ABC 
log ^C=log 219 + colog cot 61° 45' 
log 219=2.34044 

colog cot 61° 45'= .26977 



CD 



AC 



log /4<7=2.6io2i 
In right A ADC, sin CAD-- 

CD=AC sin CAD 
log CZ>=log ^C+log sin 12° 

log y4C=2.6l02I 

log sin I2°=9.3i788— 10 



log CD=i.g28og ^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ Vv 

CD=8^. 74 feet=lieight of fort. 

3r. — A farmer buys oxen, sheep and hens. The 
whole number bought is 100, and the whole price 
;^ioo. If the oxen cost ;^5, the sheep £1, and the 
hens IS. each, how many of each did he buy? 
Solution by Thos. J. Ronayne. 
Let -r= number of oxen 
andj= " sheep 

100 — x—y— " hens 

100 — X — y 
^x-Vy-\ =100 



(I) 



20 

I00A:+20^+I00 — X — ■J=:2000 

99;t:-|- I9J)'= 1 900 
i9j= 1 900 — 99;*: 



(2) 



41" 

divide by 19. j=ioo — ^x 

4.f 

Iranspose. 10c — ^x — 5J= — 

19 
x 

multiply by 5. 500— 25.1-— 5j)/=;»rH 

19 

X 

Let — =;;/. then ;r=i9;« 
19 

substitute value of ;r in (2) i88i;«+i9^=i900 

transpose. i9j/=i90o — 188 iw 

j:=ioo — 99;^ 

if m=i, x=^ig, y=i and 

100 — X — •j=:8o 

Hence he buys 19 oxen, i sheep and 80 hens. 

See problem 28 in June number, for a similar 

question solved by arithmetic. 

32. — The radii of two circles are 8 inches and 3 
inches, and the distance between their centres is 
15 inches. Find the lengths of their common tan- 
gents. 

Solution by Martin T. Field, '95. 

Case I. — Let AB be the exterior tangent, to find 
the length of ^^. 




15 



6"o/«/7b«.— Draw O'C parallel to ^7?. OO' 
inches, (9C=8— 3=5 inches, 0'C=\l OO'^—OC 
=T/ 15^ — 5^=14.142 inches=v4i5. 

Case II. — Let ABh^ the interior tangent, to find 
the length of AB. 




Solution. —Make 0C= OA + O'B. ; ; 

Draw O'C 

0(7=8+ 3= ir inches, 0'0=\^, O'C- 



YOO"—OC^=j/^iS'—ii'=io.iS inches=AB. 

33. — The dimensions of a trunk are 4 feet, 3 feet 
and 2 feet. What are the dimensions of a trunk 
similar in shape that will hold four times as much. 



130 



VlIvLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Solution by John E. O" Donnelly '^5. 



I : 4=4^ : x'' 

:r='-p^256==6.35 feet 

I : 4—3' : x^ 
;r»=io8 

;ir=^V 108=4.76 feet 
I : 4=2'^ : x^ 

x=:' V 32=3. 17 feet 
The dimensions are 6.35 feet, 4.76 feet, 3.17 feet. 

34.— Given four points, no three of wliich are 
collinear; describe a circle whicli shall be equidis- 
tant from them. 

Sohition by J. F. O' Leary^ '94. 



H 




Let A^ B, C, D be four points, no three of which 
are collinear, it is required to describe a circle 
which shall be equidistant from them. 

Sohition. — Describe a circle passing through A. 

B. C. Let O be its center. Join (9Z>, cutting the 
circle in E. Bisect ED in F. With O as center 
and OF 2lS radius describe the circle GHI. This 
is the circle required. ;--:f~-;iV":.l 

Join OA^ OB^ OC^ and produce them to meet the 
circle GHI. Because OF=OI, and OE=OC\ .'. 
EF=CI\ but EF=DF\ .: CI=DF. In like 
manner BH qax^ AG Sir&^=DF. Hence the circle 
through G^ //, /, F\s equally distant from yi, /?, 

C, D. 

New Problems. 

35. The continent of Asia has nearly the shape 
of an equilateral triangle, the vertices being East 
Cape, Cape Romania and the Promontory of Baba. 
Assuming each side of this triangle to be 4,800 
geographical miles, and the earth's radius to be 
3,440 geographical miles, find the area of the 
triangle : (i) regarded as a plane triangle ; (ii) re- 
garded as a spherical triangle. • 

3 V.' 

36. Expand to four terms (9 — 2x^) ■^ 

2^']. How many square feet of tin will be required 
to make a funnel, if the diameters of the top and 
bottom are to be 28 inches and 14 inches re- 
spectively, and the height 24 inches? ' -<:;■•: 



Splinters. 

Boo. 

Blues. 

Shiners. 

Javelin. 

Initiations. 

Homesick-ness. 

Happy Returns. 

The new "Cur." 

"Well, I say it is." 

Baraboo, ha ! ha ! ha ! 

Quid sit amor, Dick? 

Michael, dear, why so angry ? 

What's in the bottom drawer ? 

" I'll not clane out the sphittoon.'''' 

Where did you leave that hat, John ? 

Wanted — A tenant for the glass house. 

What about that new adventure, John ? 

This is no philosophical picnic. 

How often do you get that prescription filled? 

Oh, those hideous yells ! Jerry's volume has in- 
creased. 

" Rouse up ! " *' Rouse up ! " is the favorite six 
o'clock ejaculation of the dormitorian. 

Tom will eventually become a sailor. He handles 
the ropes well while "sinking." 

Gentle Will is anxious for a position on thfe foot- 
ball eleven. He has the feet to kick. 

I couldn't take the stains out, but I put my time 
on it. Aint it? Rising inflection. 

The question is : Who is to be official scorer ? 
Ten to one on the Sec. 

The glee club has reorganized. George still 
hangs on to A. tenor with both feet. 

And would you believe it. The veteran Tom 
was pulled on the lung tester. 

When E. J. was refused the toast, he murmured 
audibly, " There is no place like home." 

But never mind, Billy, for your great kindness 
to me, I'll reward you in this world or the next. 

Dick's soliloquy : The man who threw that 
brush shall not enter the " Zink " again. 

A commotion was raised in John's room one 
evening lately. His explanation was that he was 
removing M. T's x's. - ^^ '^■'"^^'-f-\y 

We thought Roger too modest to indulge in any 
frivolities of the present day. Yet, with careful 
attention and diligent coaxing his tache will win 
the race. 

How the south paw fiddler hung on to the lin- 
gering strains of "Why art thou sad when I am 
near ? " Let him beware, the soft axe is ready. 

J. S. says that Bro. Mark is well " Bread " all 
"dough" he has an awful "crust," but J. S. 
" knead" not " salt " us with such " y-eastern " 
stories, ^■■■'f^;'^-/ '■ ■■'r-x'-'"-^!- ■'■'■: 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



131 



The smoking-room society reorganized with the 
usual — or who bought the last box of cigarettes ? 

Pickett is off duty, but his place is doubled. 

Jim holds that a verbal acknowledgment is all 
that is necessary for a person to become a benedict. 
Now for instance he says : " If you had two sisters 
and I am engaged to one, I cannot marry the 
other." But hold on Jim one at a time, please. 

Once more Jimmie V heaves his usual sigh, 
As tlie east-bound train moves rapidly by. 

'* Come ! Line up, Tom ! the Prefect said, 

' Tis twenty minutes to one ; 
For breaking bounds — poor youth misled 

Five hundred must be done. ' ' 

" Our 'Jug,' unlike the Janus fane, 

That closed when war did cease ; 
' Tis strange ! but thus the fates ordain, 

Is oped by a long piece. 

Our Jersey friend, seeing a tandem cart ap- 
proaching, said to his companion : " That's a very 
funny way they have for driving horses in this 
section, one afore and t'other afther." 

The. Hartford boy, with many names, parades 
the walks with a scowl on his usually pleasant 
countenance. Probably he is considering what 
punishment he should inflict on the person who 
relieved his chicken of the legs and wings. 

Something has transpired within the past month 
that deserves more than a mere mention. It is the 
changing of the name of the lower flat from " Zink " 
to " Auditorium." At least the sign reads : " Pass 
on, gents ; the Zink is here no more." 

The" long" and the "short" of it are found in 
the " Casino." /M:J.^:-':'''^' :■■■'[ \^^^''--: -/:^---v- ^"^/'v^v-v.'-' 

Remember, now, my name's Ed. Good-bye, 
John.,., ,,;.„.- .,.. .^._'. 

' The worthy philosopher who undertook to ex- 
plore the near-by towns on a wheel (went off on a 
tangent). He is an adept in describing a circle, but 
he outdid himself on that occasion. 'Tis needless 
to add he and his wheel returned in an express 

wagon. ,. ■;: ••;o,--o ■•,-■-■-•..■■...-■■;■--;.."■':-••- --^ ■> :,:,■- 

Mary and John. You be Mary, and I'll be John. — 
Jimmie V. 



PEBSONALS 



The suite M. and S. now occupy v : 
Is the envy of the passers by. 
Not for the ornaments rich and rare, 
But for plainness visible there. 



■•'. y..: 



Revs. W. A. Jones, O.S.A, of Atlantic City, 
N. J.,and M. J. Geraghty, O.S.A, of Chestnut 
Hill, Philadelphia, were the guests of the P^aculty 
on St. Thomas of Villanova's day. 

A large number of the members of the Senior 
Department attended on two or three occasions the 
Fair held under the auspices of the Church of Our 
Mother of Good Counsel at Bryn Mawr. 

Mr. T. J. Fitzgerald, '95, paid us a very pleasant 
visit while on his way to St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Miss Annie Nolan of Reading, Pa., visited her 
brothers Bernard and Edward during the latter 
part of September. 

Misses Hannah and Lida Fahey of Philadelphia, 
called on their friend, John Conroy, of Chicago. 

Messrs. P. O'Donnell of University of Pa., J. 
O'Donnell of Mt. St. Mary's, Bernard Donnelly 
and H. McMenanim of St. Charles, Elliot City, 
recently paid a visit to their friends, J. J. Ryle, R. 
J. and B. J. O'Donnell. 

Mr. William Wilson and wife recently visited 
their son William of the Junior Department. 

Rev. George Bradford of Wilmington, Del., was 
the guest of our Very Rev. President. 

Misses Mar/ and Teresa McCrea of Chestnut 
Hill spent a Sunday afternoon with their brother. 

Mr. William Sullivan of Philadelphia recently 
visited his son Daniel. 

Mrs. McCarthy of Philadelphia and Miss Annie 
Norriss of New York called on E. J. Murtaugh. 

Fr. O'Brien, O.S.A, entertained the priests of 
Villanova on the occasion of the opening of his 
new residence. v'.v ■'■: ""■.■'■■, 

The new Hall of St. Thomas' T. A. B. Society 
was opened Sept. 27. Our President, Very Rev. 
C. A. McEvoy, O.S. A, delivered an able address. 

We are glad to announce the recovery of Neal 
Dugan of the Senior Department, who on account 
of illness was obliged to go home for a few weeks. 

Rev. Fathers McGill and Landry, O.M., of Ger- 
mantown. Pa., paid the Faculty a visit during the 
past month. 



132 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 



K D. S. The Villanova Debating Society held 
its initiatory meeting for the present term Satur- 
day, September 30, 1893. The following officers 
were chosen : President, Rev. L. A. Delury, O.S.A.; 
Vice-President, J. F. O'Leary; Secretary, J. E. 
O'Donnell ; Sergeant-at-Arms, T. J. Ronayne. A 
Literary Committee, consisting of Messrs. Ryle, 
Mahon and Dolan, was appointed. 

We expect great results from this society for the 
coming year, as many of the members are becom- 
ing noted for their oratorical powers, and we hope 
that they will show increased interest at the com- 
ing meetings, so as to enable us to give several 
public debates. 

There is no doubt but that they would prove a 
source of pleasure as well as benefit. 

V. L. /. The reorganization of the Literary 
Institute for '93-' 94 took place Thursday, Sept. 
14, 1893. 

The following officers were elected for the ensu- 
ing term : President, Mr. J. J. Farrell ; First Vice- 
Pres., J. F. O'Leary ; Second Vice-Pres., F. Tour- 
scher ; Recording. Secretary, W. J. Mahon ; Ser- 
geant-at-Arms, John Carey. 

Messrs. B. J. O'Donnell, J. T. O'Malley, M. T. 
Field and A. J. Plunkett, Directors. 

With such an efficient board of managers we 
do not doubt but that the society will be as suc- 
cessful as it was last year. Every student should 
take special interest in this society, because by 
making good use of its privileges he has the power 
of increasing his intellectual abilities greatly and 
thereby equipping himself for his future career. 

We hope, therefore, to see the name of every 
student of the college on its register. 

V. A. A. The Villanova Athletic Association 
was reorganized Thursday, Sept. 21, when many 
new members were admitted. On Satiuday, Oct. 
7, the officers for the ensuing term were elected 
as follows: Mr. McKenna, O. S.A., Pres. and Field- 
Manager ; James O'Leary, Vice-Pres. ; John Dolan, 
Treas. and Scorer ; John E. O'Donnell, Fin. Sec; 
Wm. Mahon, Rec. Sec. ; and Charles Medina, 
Serg' t-at-Arms. 

Messrs. Hart, E. T. Wade, B. J. O'Donnell, John 
E. O'Donnell, M. T. Field and James V. O'Donnell^ 
at an adjourned meeting, were elected assistant 
field-managers. A commit!ee also was appointed 
to obtain funds for the support of the College base- 
ball team. This committee will solicit funds from 
members of the Alumni and look into the advisa- 
bility of producing a play, under the auspices of 
the Association, before Christmas. 



EXCHANGES. 



After two months' absence from our sanctum, 
we joyfully and heartily return to it, with renewed 
spirit, and will do all in our power to make the 
exchange column as successful, if not more so, than 
last year. 

Let us hope that this year all of our " exchanges " 
shall grace our sanctum regularly, so that we will 
not, with regret, note their non-appearance. 

We welcome to our sanctum, for the first time. 
The Mirror. This magazine, published in the 
interests of the Central High School of Philadel- 
phia, shows order and regularity in the division of 
its departments, and care in the selection of its 
literature. It possesses very unique but appropriate 
headings for its various divisions, thus presenting 
a pleasant appearance that confers credit upon the 
young men who edit it. 

We cannot too highly commend the treatise on 
" The Picturesqueness of Longfellow," found in the 
September number of The Notre Dame Scholastic. 
It is from the pen of a scholar, and an experienced 
one — one who has learned to observe, and to -vrrite 
down those of his observations which are of interest 
and profit to the general reader. Extracts from the 
works of Longfellow appear here and there through- 
out the treatise, and would be, even if alone, worth 
the attention of the reader. 

In perusing the columns of our esteemed contem- 
porary, the Owl., for the month of September, we 
noticed two articles deserving of honorable men- 
tion ; one, entitled " About BehringSea," very ably 
treated by Mr. James Murphy, '94, and the other, 
"The Silver Dollar, and the Ado About It," by 
Mr. John R. O'Connor, '92. The articles are treated 
in a manner that shows much knowledge and re- 
search by these two gentlemen. Furthermore, they 
are written at an opportune time, as they are two 
of the great questions now before the minds of both 
statesmen and people. . % 

In reviewing our exchanges, the St. Mary^s 
Sentinel particularly attracted our attention and 
elicits from us a few words of praise. " Lynch Law 
Is Never Justifiable ' ' is the title of one of its excel- 
lent articles. The masterly way in which this 
subject is discussed, the strength of its arguments 
and the forcible expression and beauty of its lan- 
guage fully repay the reader. Its editorial on the 
rejection of the Home Rule bill is deserving of no 
less credit ;'■■/:>■'' vC-'_ .-■■^■'''■' 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



SEE 

B. F. Owen & Co., 

1416 Chestnut Street, 
BEFORE YOU BUY 

A PIANO OR ORGAN. 

You u/ill 33ve /Aop^y ai^d [laue a 

CHOICE OF THE BEST. 

200 NEiA£ PIANOS. 

9 WORLD RENOWNED MAKES. 

WEBER, HALLET & DAVIS, BRIGGS and 

STARR PIANOS, ETC. 
Write for Catalogues, Prices, Terms, etc. 

1416 Chestnut Street. 

JAMtCS McCANNtCY, 

Saddle, Harness i Collar Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 

P HII^ADELPHIA. 

THE DeMORAT studio, 

914 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILA. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL BRADTCHBS. 

Special Rates in Groups, also to Colleges and Societies. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H. B. HHNSBURV. 

THE ONLY HOUSE 

In Philadelphiia, 

In fact, IN THE COUNTRY, that makes a 
specialty of sacred heart pictures. 
Framed and Un framed. Have yon seen 
his Hand-Painted S. H. on Placqnes ? 
Drop in and see Progress at 

Conway's Catholic Supply House 

i8th and Stiles, first Store above Gesu Church. 

Agent for the American Line and White Star Line Steamers to and from 
the Old Country. Drafts at the Lowest Rates. 

""~ E. K. WILSON & SON, ""H" 

' Manufacturcrt of and Dsaltr* in <■•;._'' ;.• 

|i'iitst-(§lass 1^00t;s and §h0es^ 

Btpairing Neatly and Promptly attended to. Onstom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^ancastcT Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



I wUl bbU YDU 

$10.00 worth of Clothing, Dress Goods, Ladies' 
Coats and Cloaks, Furniture, Carpets Watches, 
Je-welryt China-ware, etc., for 

$1.00 CASH AND $1.00 PER WEEK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 

ON SATURDAY 

UNTIL 

TEN O'CLOCK. 



PHILAD'A 



If the Goods are not sat- 
lifactory, come to me and 
I will allow all reasonable 
ciaimt. 



Physicians' Prescriptions Accurately Compounded at all hours at 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY. 

FR/*^K U/. PRIC;KITT. Craduate it) pi?ar/i\aoy, 

PROPRIETOR. 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 

BOOKS BOUGHT. 

J^F you want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
^ at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old Books in America, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to spare is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. 

I-eKRV*S OLD BOOK STORO. 
9 Soutli Nintli Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

A. M. BUCH 6c CO.. 
156 North Ninth Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

LADIES' AND GENTS', 

iA£IG TV^KKERS. 

HAIR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 
JVWigs and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Theatricals.^it 

UllfVDOm ••• GLiflSS, 



WHITE LEAD, COLORS, OILS, VARNISHES, BRUSHES, ETC 
No. 1 702 Market Street, 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



D. J. GALLAGHEB. GEO. W. GIBBONS. 

D. J. GALLAGHER & CO., 

Printers, Publishers 

And Blank Book Manufacturers. ;:,;;^^ ^r. 

Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationery 
246-47 North Broad Street, Phila. ; 

(OaUajrher fluUdlnsr.) 



Publishers of "AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW," 

-V';' -/::•'":.; ;'"/•■■';,'■■':,. , . l3.5o Per Annum.:,' i;-.,?;V'. 



\/VlNDSOR HOTEL, 

PHILRDELPHIfi. 

Half Block from New P. & R. Terminal, and One and a Half 
Blocks from Broad Street Station. V' :" 

1219-29 Filbert Street. ■;;; 

PRESTON J. MOORE, Proprietor. 



n 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 





Thomas Bradley, 

K. W. Ul Twenty-first 

aud Market Streets. 

E extend an invitation to you to call at our GREAT 
WESTERN MEAT MARKET and see what a choice 
selection of 

Beef, Mutton, Lamb, Dried Beef, 
Lard, Hams and Provisions 

We h»ve conataiitly on hand anil note the Low Priws at whicli we are 

Brlling. We handle only the Best Goods, and Quality considered, 

Our Prices are the Lowest in the City. Come, see for 

yourself. 

Ijb^ral Di8(;our7t to public aipd Ql7aritable I^&titutioQS. 
ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION. 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, 

Undertaker I Embalmer, 

241 North Fourth Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

THOMAS J. FOG ARTY, 

DEALER IN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Clothing, Hats and Caps, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 



Lancaster Auenue, 



Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



JOHlsr J. I^YRINTES, 

DEALER IN 

Carpets, Oil Clotti, Linoleums, 

^ RUGS, WINDOW SHADES, ETC., 

No. 37 SOVXH SECOND SXRBEX, 

Below Market. East Side. PHILADELPHIA, 

""~"" WILLIAM J. REED, 

■.■ ."•,:>■.. ■■ DEALER IN V L- /-.-J'-,;. ■ ;; • ',-. 

♦ Pine Hats, Caps and Umbrellas, f 

ALL THE NEWEST STYLES, 

CLOSING OUT TRUNKS AT COST. 

261 North Eighth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEXT TO FOREPAUGH'S THEATRE. 

prouidept [\fe 9 Jrust ^o. 

Of [Pliiladelpliia, 
N. W. Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts., (40T-409) 

fSSUES Life, Endowment and Term Policies, 
which can be made payable at death in 10, 15, 
20, 25 or 30 yearly instalments, thus saving 
the widow, who is the usual beneficiary, the trouble 
and risk of investment. 

Safe investments; low rate of mortality; low^ rate of 
expenses ; liberality to ijolicy-holders -. . 

In Hvetiything Excelled by no othet* Company 



BRYN MAWR PHARMACY. 

ELEGANT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS, 

PresoriptionB a Specialty. 
•f CHRlSTIAISi MOOt^H.-f 



OBLINQER PR05. & C2.; 

FACTORY, LANCASTKR, PA. 

SALESROOM, 154 N. THIRD ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
Wlioleaale only. 



PETER F. CUNNINGHAM k SON, 

PUBLISHERS 



AND 



Catholic Booksellers, 

IMPOUTKRS OF ' 

CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

Nd. B17 Arch Street, 

PHII^ADHI^PHIA. 

Sverytbing at lowest prices. 



DR. STEINBOCK, 




1630 f/ortl? Jwelfti) 5tr^^t, pi?iladelpl?fa, pa. 

Specialist in Gold and Silver Fillings, and Artificial Teetii. 
GAS AND ETHER ADMINISTERED. 

"Hallahan's Shoes are the Best." 

Our stock of Fine Footwear is always attractive^ 
in quality, variety and price. 

HALLAHAN, 

^ Eighth and Filbert Sts., Philadelphia. 

P. I. CQLAHAN. m MARKET sT 

Dealer ip pipe Qroeeries. 

BEST BRANDS OF FLOUR, $5.50 PER BBI,. 

"" OKSH OR CREDIT. 
i BUY YOUR GOODS 

■ ;^-';;;i'^^.-'C;'v.; ; from 



• ♦ 



KELLY & CO 

808 and 810 Market St., 

\C(-^W-\ PHILADELPHIA. 
On Bill of $io— $1 Down— $ I per Week. 

SPECIAL TERMS ON LARGE PURCHASES. 



DANIEL GALLAGHER, 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 

FDFi)itni<B|BB(I{iiDg 

Of Every Description, 

43 South Second Street, 

Above Chestnut. Phtladelpbla. 

Special Discount to Institntions. 




VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



itl 



CHAI^LiHS B. UYflCH. 

WATCHE8, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY, 

S. E. Ck^r. Market and 16th Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 

i8K. Wedding Rings. Fine W atch Repairing a Speeialty, 

LOGUE * HATTER 



STRICTLY ONE PRICE. 

1236 MARKET ST. 



MONEY 
REFUNDED. 



BOOKS. BOOKS. 

CATHOLIC SCHOOL | COLLEGE 

•^TEXT BOOKS, •»» 

Ne-w and Second Hand. 

Have constantly on band a fall line of Catholic 
Theological and Miscellaneous Books. 



Libraries and small parcels of Books 
purchased for cash. 

SEND YOUR ADDRESS OR CALL 

JOHN JOSEPH McVEY, 

39 Ji. Thirteenth Stireet, 

PHlIiADBLPHlA, PA. 

CHARLES G. HOOKEY, 

#UNDERTHKER,4^ 

626 NORTH FOURTH STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



MART. D. BYRNES. 

Livery, Sale § Exchange Stables, 



Lancaster Auenue. 



RoscMONT, Pa. 



HAULING DONE. 



•wTAT W. IFi^A.ISrOIS*- 



DEALER in 

Diamonds, Watches, Clocks 
Jewelry and Silverware. 

Also a complete stock of Spec- 
tacles and Eye Qlanses. 
Fine Watch and Clock Repairing. 

UKNCHSTER n^B.. KRD7WTORE. F>K. 



AOK^T FOB 

Spalding's, Reach's ant. 
Tryon's Spotting Goods. 

Estimates furnished to Clubs at 
the lowest club rates. 




BROGAN & SMITH, 

Practical Steam Fitters 

STEAM and HOT WATER HEATING. 
1^0. 810 f^nCH ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



Lithographers 



.... Printers 



won 






Stationers 



jHcI1ANUSJ''-^<:«- 



Blank Book Makers 



5 



TIM. QUINLAN & BRO., 

BlUHMITIJS HOME HUH 

BRYN MAWR, PA. 

Horae-Sboeing a Specialty. Old JCancaater Road, 

TRY BOSTON LAUNDRY, 

235 aid 238 NEW ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

THOS. E. HOUSTON PROPRIETOR. 

^" M. A. CALLANAN, 



DEALER IN 



DRY GOODS, NOTIONS, 

Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

LanoEtster Avenue. Bryn Mawr, Pa. 




'<^^/^ 



1025 Maiket St., 

Bells everything needed 
for the Table, Kitchen and 
Honsehold *t half otber'a 
prices, 

10 ct. goods are 5 cts. 



Surprising? Wonderful? Yet True I I 

Standard Text Books. 

Wentworth's Mathematics. 

Allen and Greenough's Latin Series. 

Goodwin's New Greek Grammar. 

Montgomery's U. S. History. 

Whitney's New English Grammar. .; 

Tarbell's Language Lessons. ■ i;-; : 

PUBlilSHEt^S, 



70 Fifth Avenue N. T. 



T. B. Lawler, Agent. 




M.GALLAGHER,. 

PRACTICAL 

Hariiii IHakir 

1 ' 15 K. 9th St., ^ 

/ Philadelphia. 

MANUFACTURER OF FINE HORSE BOOTS. 

H. MUHR'S SONS, 

Diamonds, Precious Stones, and Watch Manufacturers. 
Salesroom, 629 Chestnut St , Factory, Broad and Race Sts. 
Branches : 139 State Street. Chicago. 

20 John St., New York. 

131 Avenue du Sud. Antwerp. 

THOmAS I^. CliHAf^Y, 

#FUNERAL DIRECTOR*^ 

S. W. Cor. Twelfth and Jefferson Sts., 

V- ; ; ^: PHILADELPHIA. 

49~ Feraonal attention day or night. 



tt 



VlttANOVA MONTHLY. 



Mass in Honor of St. Augustine. 

FOR SOPRANO, ALTO, TENOR AND BASS, WITH ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT. 

This Mass in honor of St. Augustine, has recently been published and issued from this office, and 
to it we respectfully invite your attention. 

It is the composition of Rev. D. J. Leonard, O.S.A., who had in mind the production of a Mass 
that would be short, melodious and devotional, and we think he has not failed of his purpose. 

Though a simple Mass, easy to the ordinary choir, we venture the opinion that, if well rehearsed 
and faithfully rendered, it will become a favorite to both priest and choir. 

Specimen copies sent to any address on receipt of seventy-five cents. On all orders the usual dis- 
count to the reverend clergy and choir directors. 

SEND ORDERS TO 

D. J. Gallagher & Co., 

24^-47 North Broad Street, Phila., Pa. 

• , : (Gallagher Building.) 




A Fitting Mass for St. Augustine's Feast Day, August 28. 

A FACT TO BE REMZMBEREB 

THAT THE HRADQUARTEBS FOR 

Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments 

IS AT 

J. E. DITSON St CO.*S, 

1228 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 



horwai p. i)rr)all 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 




Butter, Eggs, 
a And G ame r 

stalls, 1 1 12, 1 1 14 and 1 1 16 Eleventh Avenue, 
Reading Terminal Market. , ,, 

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I 




rt 



^55i^ 



o-,\\anova 



— ^^ 




Vol. I. 



Villanova College, ISToveinber, 1893. 



No. 11 



§ 



THE LADDER OF ST. AUGUSTINE. 

T. AUGUSTINE ! well hast thou said, 
That of our vices we can frame 
A ladder, if we will but tread 

Beneath our feet each deed of shame ! 



All common things, each days events, 
That with the hour begin and end, 

Our pleasures and our discontents 

Are rounds by which we may ascend. 

Tlie low desire, the base design. 
That makes another's virtues less ; 

The revel of the ruddy wine, 
And all occasions of excess ; 

The longing for ignoble things ; 

The strife for triumph more than truth ; 
The hardening of the heart that brings 

Irreverence for the dreams of youth ; 

All thoughts of ill ; all evil deeds, 

That have tlieir root in thoughts of ill ; 

Wiiatever hinders or impedes 
Tiie action of the nobler will ; — 

All these must first be trampled down 
Beneath our feet, if we would gain 

\\\ the bright fields of fair renown 
The right of eminent domain. 



We have not wings, we cannot soar ; 

But we have feet to scale and climb 
By slow degrees, by more and more. 

The cloudy summits of our time. 



The mighty pyramids of stone 

That wedge-like cleave the desert airs. 

When nearer seen, and better known. 
Are but gigantic flights of stairs. 

The distant mountains that uprear " 

Their solid bastions to the skies. 
Are crossed by pathways, that appear 

As we to higher levels rise. 

The heights by great men reached and kept 

Were not attained by sudden flight, 
But they, while their companions slept, KK > ' 

Were toiling upward in the night. ;^^^^^; ;;'-;; 

Standing on what too long we bore 

With shoulders bent and downcast eyes. 

We may discern — unseen before — • 
A path to higher destinies. 



Nor deem the irrevocable past, ^^: ^ r ' 

As wholly wasted, wholly vain, " 
If, rising on its wrecks, at last ;vv . .; ; "'-V ■ 
-To something nobler we attain. 

Henry Wadsvuorth Lotigfcllozv. 



134 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Civilization of Ancient Oreece. 

When, from the sacred garden driven, 

Man fled before his Maker's wrath, 
An angel left her place in Heaven 

And crossed the wanderer's snnless path. 
'Twas Art ! sweet Art ! New radiance broke 

Where her light foot flew o'er the ground ; 
And thus with seraph voice she spoke, 

" The curse a blessing shall be found.," 

Just as a star shining through the black clouds 
that endeavor to conceal its radiance sends a bright 
ray to cheer our world, so art or civilization shining 
through the darkness of ignorance, reveals to us 
her beauties and advantages. Long ages ago the 
world was buried in almost universal barbarism. 
One by one the nations of antiquity arose from 
this degraded state to a greater or less degree of 
civilization, but none reached such sublime heights 
of culture as "Greece, lovely Greece, the land of 
scholars and the nurse of arms." 

Civilization does not signify merely the process 
of reclaiming a country from the condition of 
barbarism to that of refinement and culture ; but 
taken in a liberal and more extensive view, is that 
state which leads directly to the contemplation and 
appreciation of the fine arts. So intimately con- 
nected, then is civilization with the study of the 
fine arts, that we may easily estimate the perfec- 
tion of the former by the value given to the latter. 
Thus in Ancient Greece civilization and art went 
hand in hand, and brought out of the chaos of 
barbarism, a fair and lovely land of poetry, paint- 
ing, sculpture, architecture, music, oratory and 
philosophy. 

The history of no other nation presents to our 
eyes such a chapter as that of Greece from the 
time of Homer down to the reign of Alexander 
the Great. Within so brief a period is comprised 
that astonishing collection of mental achievements 
which has been and ever will be the object of 
universal admiration.; ;,: - 

The literature of early Greece possesses a pecu- 
liar and indescribable charm for the reason that it 
has been the model or rather the master of compo- 
sition and thought for all posterity. In the con- 
templation of these august teachers of mankind 
we are astonished and are filled with conflicting 
emotions. It is the early voice of the world better 
remembered and more cherished than all the 
intermediate words that have been uttered ; just as 
the lesson of childhood still haunts us when the 
impressions of later years have been effaced from 
our minds. Homer is called the Father of epic 
poetry ; Aeschylus, the Father of tragedy ; 
Thucydides, the Father of history. In fact in all 



the important branches of literature, such as, epic, 
lyric and dramatic poetryj history, philosophy and 
oratory, the Greeks, though the first in the field 
have never been surpassed. 

The Grecian philosophy, though owing its 
origin in some degree to the Orientals, nevertheless 
attained such a degree of perfection, that in no 
other branch of learning has their genius displayed 
so much originality and rich invention. Even 
their erroneous opinions with regard to God, the 
creation of the world, and the immortality of the soul 
instruct us, since they are absolute proofs of the 
heights of Iruth to which unaided human intellect 
can attain. The names of Plato, Aristotle and 
Socrates will shine forever in the realm of Philos- 
ophy, and will be revered by all who wish to be 
guided through the dark and cheerless paths of 
error into the light of truth. 

Eloquence was also understood and recognized 
as an art among the ancient Greeks, and reached 
its culminating point in the immortal orator 
Demosthenes. 

Grecian music was the handmaid of poetry, 
reverently following the bard's inspiration, animat- 
ing and accenting his words, giving character to 
the whole, but without independent existence 
either in lyric or dramatic poetry. Music and 
poetry were inseparably united ; musical rhythm 
followed the poetical cadence, or rather this cadence 
was a musical one ; poets were in like manner 
musicians. That the influence of marvellous 
charm which poetry acquired by its union with 
music had deeply moved the poets themselves, is 
attested by the renowned enconium of Pindar in 
the first Pythian prize song : " Even the flaming 
lightning dart is extinguished by the tones of the 
lyre, the eagle slumbers on the sceptre of Jove ; 
his swift pinions droop on each side of the royal 
bird , for the sound has shed a dark mist over his 
bowed head, and softly closed his eyelids ; slum- 
bering, he raises his gently heaving plumage, 
tamed by the power of melody ; yea, even the 
heart of mighty Ares is rejoiced ; see, the terrible 
lance rests peacefully on his large temple. But he 
whom Jove loveth not is terrified, and withdraws 
himself in fear when he hears the voices of the 
Pieridos on the earth and boundless ocean ; yea, 
even Typhos, abhored of the Gods in Tartarus." 

Painting did not at first acquire so great a prom- 
inence among the Greeks because of its dependence 
on architecture. > When painting ceased to be 
subordinate to architecture, much progress was 
made. 

In architecture as well as in the other branches of 
art, the Greeks surpassed their contemporaries. 
They joined beauty and symmetry with the mas- 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



135 



siveness of the structures of Egypt. They origi- 
nated three styles, the Doric, the Ionic and the 
Corinthian, which have influenced the architecture 
of all succeeding ages. 

Sculpture attained a higher degree of perfection 
among the Greeks than it did among the Egypt- 
ians, because the former indulged in a more free 
and lively spirit than the latter. Sculpture in 
Greece as elsewhere, was entirely dependent on 
religion ; but ** whilst the religion of the Egyptians 
was a religion of the tomb, and their ideal world a 
gloomy spot peopled by sleeping lions, dreamy 
sphinxes or weird unearthly monsters, the myth- 
ology of the Greeks, rightly understood, is an 
exquisite poem, the joint creation of the master 
minds of infant Greece, and their art is a transla- 
tion of that poem into visible forms of beauty." 

It is not, therefore, a cause for astonishment that 
we celebrate with feelings akin to reverence the 
the civilization of ancient Greece, so lofty in con- 
ception, so grand in execution. And though long 
since her glory and pride have departed from her, 
yet the very thought of this former glory and pride 
makes us love Greece still, and with Lord Byron 
we exclaim in lamenting tone : 
" Such is the aspect of this shore ; 
'Tis Greece — but living Greece no more ! 
So coldly sweet, so deadly fair, 
We start — for soul is wanting there. 
Her's is the loveliness in death. 
That parts not quite with parting breath ; 
But beauty with that fearful bloom, 
That hue which haunts it to the tomb — 
Expression's last receding ray, 
A gilded halo hovering round decay, 
The farewell beam of feeling past away ! 
Spark of that flame, perchance of heavenly birth. 
Which gleams, but warms no more its cherished 
earth." ;l;:^'>■'!•;:v^^■"■'-;v:^.■'\■■;^:^; '•■.:-■•:: 

•' . ' ' M. J. Murphy, '95. 



Silver Jubilee. 



Rev. J. J. Fedigan, O. S. A., of Atlantic City, 
N. J., ex-president of our college, celebrated his 
silver Jubilee on the 24th ult. The ceremonies com- 
menced with a Solemn High Mass, with Rev. Fr. 
Fedigan, celebrant ; V. Rev. J. F. Loughlin, D.D., 
chancellor of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia, 
deacon ; Rev. M. Taylor, of New Ydrk city, sub- 
deacon ; Rev. J. A. Nugent, O. S. A., Atlantic 
City, master of ceremonies. 

The sermon was preached by Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Keane, Rector of the Catholic University, on the 
Gospel of the day, the Feast of St. Raphael. It 
was undoubtedly one of the grandest and most 



eloquent discourses ever delivered within the walls 
of St. Nicholas' Church. 

There were present Most Rev. P. J. Ryan, D. D.; 
Rt. Rev. Bishops O'Farrell, of Trenton, N. J.; 
McGovern, of Harrisburg, Pa. ; Vicar General 
McFaul, Trenton ; Dr. Kiernan, Philadelphia ; 
Very Rev. Frs. Fitzsimmons, Camden : Waldron, 
O. S. A., Provincial of the Order; McShane, 
O. S. A., Chestnut Hill ; O'Brien, O. S. A., Bryn 
Mawr ; our esteemed President, C. A. McEvoy, 
O. S. A.; also very many prominent laymen. 

In the evening a magnificent public reception 
was tendered him, during which an ode composed 
for the occasion by Miss Eleanor C. Donnelly, was 
read. May he live long to continue the good work 
thus far so well carried on is our sincere and heart- 
felt wish. 



ODE. 

All glory to the King of Kings upon this blessed feast ! 
-To Christ, the new Melchisedech, the everlasting Priest ! 
All glory to Augustine great, to Monica with heart of Gold. 
To Nicholas of Tolentine, and all the Saints of old ! 

Our Father keeps beside the sea, 

His Silver Jubilee ! 

All homage to Saint Raphael blest, the Angel sent of God, 
One of the Seven, near the Throne, in heaven's bright abode ! 
For he who, to Tobias, gave a spouse (across the Tigris tide). 
Espoused our Father to the Church, his fair immortal Bride ! 

And now, he keeps beside the sea, 

His Silver Jubilee! 

Beyond the main, in olden Ghent, 'mid Austin's chosen sons, 
In Belgium's sweet " 6"/. Elienne,^' his life-monastic dawns. 
A novice in a stranger land, he, joyous,heard the call of Christ, 
And bravely trod the Narrow way — home, mother, sacrific'd ! 

That he might keep beside the sea, 

His Silver Jubilee ! 

In Penn's dear state, in fair New York, in Massachusetts gray, 
In old New Jersey, by the strand, since that eventful day 
(That bright St. Raphael's day of yore when he a priest of God 

was made), 
His life has passed in fruitful toil, in sunj-hine and in shade. 

And now he keeps beside the sea, 
;^^;j. :"^::v His Silver Jubilee ! 

A faithful shepherd he hath proved for five and twenty years. 
Hath ever shared his people's joys, andwiped away their tears. 
His thoughts, his words, his works, his prayers, were all 

devoted to his flock. 
And though he toiled upon the sands, he builded on the Rock ! 

Thrice-blessed, then, dear Father, be 

Thy Silver Jubilee ! 

Arise, O city by the wave, and bid the billows blend 

Their music with our greeting to thy Soggarth and thy friend ! 

For more than half his priestly life, his love, his labors, have 

been thine. ■ ■/.■f-[-.'\ 

O turn his silver into gold — the gold of meed divine ! \. :.,'■: 

That he may keep eternally, 

God's Golden Jubilee ! 

Eleanor C. Donnelly. 



136 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The North American Indian. 

In tracing the reclamation of a country from the 
state of barbarism, some knowledge of the diiTer- 
ent periods of its existence previous to that recla- 
mation becomes necessary. This is especially true 
if the inhabitants themselves submit willingly or 
unwillingly to the process of civilization. This 
great Western continent was at one time barbaious. 
The European settlers have reclaimed it from that 
condition, not by civilizing the former inhabitants, 
but by establishing colonies of their own people. 
Indeed, hardly any attempts were made to elevate 
the condition of the Indian. From the very begin- 
ning he seemed to recognize in the whites the 
character of Destroyer, and therefore, sullenly and 
despairingly he went further and further away from 
them until he is now almost lost sight of in the 
prairies of the far West. 

When Columbus discovered America, he found 
it inhabited by red men who were preceded by a 
race of which few traces remain. Their ancestors 
are connnonly supposed to have emigrated from 
the north-eastern part of Asia. 

The American Indians were divided into clans 
or tribes ; each tribe had a different dialect ; 
although the red men differed somewhat in dispo- 
sition, yet they posses ed the same characteristics 
in common. With regard to their external appear- 
ance they were copper-colored, with coarse black 
hair, little or no beard, regular and noble features 
and a haughty demeanor. They lived in huts or 
wigwams made of branches of trees, or skins of 
wild animals ; they were very indolent, despising 
work and wandering from one place to another ; 
while the men were engaged in the pleasures of 
hunting or fishing, the women were compelled to 
perform all the drudgery. Many tribes of the 
Indians were gentle, amiable and hospitable, but 
in general the Northern tribes were very cruel and 
tortured their prisoners with .shocking ingenuity. 
At the head of each tribe was a sachem who held 
supreme power ; he was recognized chief either by 
descent or by some act of heroism ; but since his 
authority depended entirely upon his personal in- 
fluence, it was often contemned. 

Since the discovery of this country by Columbus, 
the native Indian has been the subject of curious 
speculation ; by the very want of those things which 
are so very attractive in other nations, he lias be- 
come the object of mysterious interest. By the mere 
absence of facts and dates by which the course of 
his migration might be known, and also by the 
uncertainty of his origin he has become a frequent 
character in romance. The mere mention of the 
name Indian brings to one's mind a picture of a 



shadowy image, looming up dim but gigantic in a 
darkness which nothing else can penetrate. 

" The efTorts of a poet's imagination are more or 
less under the control of his opinions " ; but man's 
opinions are founded on history, and properly 
speaking there is no historical Indian ; and as a 
consequence poets and novelists have founded their 
savage personages on a hypothetical standard of 
either the virtues or vices of the savage state. If 
this rule were applied to the portraitwre of civilized 
men, it would be discarded as false and pernicious. 
The reason, therefore, of its toleration in the case 
of the Indian must be that the separation betwee:i 
him and ns is so broad that our conceptions of his 
character would exert little or no influence on cur 
intercourse with mankind. 

The American Indian is the ideal of a savage — 
no more, no less ; since he possesses those qualities 
which are characteristic of an unenlightened race 
isolated for many ages from all civilizing influ- 
ences. He differs in a certain sense from the other 
barbarians ; but the principal distinction lies in 
the completeness of his savage character ; the 
peculiarities of the country in which he lives, its 
climate and its remoteness from other countries 
have been instrumental in stamping upon him the 
peculiarities of his race. 

The state of the continent when the Indians first 
landed on its shores was that of a vast unbroken 
solitude ; the contemplation of this almost bound- 
less extent, together with the profound loneliness 
which is the consequence of such vastness, were 
the most powerful agencies at work in modifying 
their original character. The primary effects of 
this cause may be observed in the migration of 
white settlers to forests and prairies ; no matter 
how jovial and light-hearted they may have been 
before, they soon become meditative and taciturn ; 
these (and especially the last) are the peculiar char- 
acteristics of the Indian ; indeed, he carries his 
taciturnity even to austerity. 

" Isolation," says Carlyle, " is the sum total of 
wretchedness to man," but, in the words of De 
Quincey, " No man can be truly great without 
chequering his life with solitude," for while sep- 
aration from his fellowman deprives a man of those 
humanizing influences which are the effects of 
association, yet, on the other hand, it may strength- 
en and develop in him some of the noblest 
qualities of human nature. Surely this must have 
been the foundation of that proud dignity which 
has always been characteristic of the Indian. 

The Indians believed in a Great Spirit, but did 
not worship Him ; they also believed in an Evil 
Sp rit, whom they endeavored to propitiate by 
magic and witchery ; their idea of a future state 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



137 



was that, after death, their bodies would be borne 
to the happy hunting grounds. B:it throughout 
their religion materialism reigned supreme ; the 
whole system was a degraded superstition. The 
faith of the Greeks was embodied in ceremonies 
and observances; regularly appointed religious rites 
kept alive in them a spirit of piety ; the erection of 
temples in honor of their deities, whatever may 
have been their conception of the character of these 
deities, attested their genuine piety and kept before 
them the abstract ideaof a Supreme Being. Before 
the coming of the white man the Indian erected no 
temples in honor of his divinities ; on the contrary 
he revered them only as long as they conferred 
physical benefits upon him ; his religious rites were 
grotesque in their conception, varied in their 
character, inhuman in their details. 

Corrupt manners and degrading systems cannot 
exist in conjunction with a pure religious system ; 
the outlines of social institutions are coincident 
with the limits of piety, and the purity and refine- 
ment of morals depend on the purity of religious 
faith. Thus the prevailing spirit of a nation's 
religion may be determined by an inquiry into its 
manners and customs. Now among the relations 
of life the one existing between parent and child 
forms the best index of human advancement ; filial 
affection is, as it were, a secondary manifestation 
of a devotional heart, and such affection and obe« 
dience to a father on earth are but imperfect signs 
of our love to our Father in heaven. But what of 
this sentiment in the Indian ? This question may 
be answered in a few words : there is no such senti- 
ment in the Indian character. The children seldom 
or never have been known to love or respect their 
parents ; like beasts of the field, no sooner have 
they become able to take care of themselves than 
they cease to remember by whose care they have 
become so. The written law of the Indian exacts 
no higher penalty for parricide than for homicide 
and the command to honor his father and mother 
because they are his father and mother appears to 
the mind of the Indian simply absurd. 

Of late years there has been much lamentation 
in this country over the gradual extinction of these 
interesting savages ; and in Europe we have been 
the object of indignation for our ' ' oppression of 
the Indians." But four centuries ago millions of 
them were roaming the forests and prairies and 
valleys ; now their numbers have gradually 
dwindled to a few hundred thousand, who are 
but the shadows of their former selves and 
who owe their existence to the protection of 
the whites. The extermination of the Indian 
decreed by a law of Providence ; barbar- 



inevitable, but also right that such should be the 
case. Man must advance at the word civilization 
or decay from the earth. The Indians refused to 
accept the civilization proffered by the white man ; 
they have set themselves in opposition to all refining 
influences, and thus the lesson which all history 
teaches has again been taught, that two distinct 
races cannot co-exist in the same country on equal 
terms ; the weaker must be incorporated with the 
stronger or invariably be exterminated. 

M. H. McDonnell, '95. 



IS 



ism must g\i/e way to civilization ; it is not only 



The college founded by the late Alphonso XII. 
king of Spain, in the celebrated Kscurial convent, 
called the eighth wonder of the world, has been 
aided and encouraged by the Queen of Spain, and 
now, in charge of the Augustinians, is a univer- 
sity, in which all higher branches of learning will 
be taught by the most distinguished scholars of 
that country. 

British Rule in India. 

In the sixteenth century the Dutch, always 
noted for their sea-faring tendencies, in one of 
their trading expeditions touched at India. Con- 
vinced of the immense wealth of the country and 
of the vast resources for the development of which 
only strong and willing hands were needed, they 
established trading posts and began the work of 
exporting the products of that region. England 
was the principal mart for these exports, until a 
discrimination having been made against her with 
regard to a certain commodity, her principal mer- 
chants were incensed at this act, and formed a 
company of their own under the title of the " East 
India Trading Company," with quarters in India. 

Other countries, France and Spain especially, soon 
became interested in the new discovery, and they, 
in like manner, established companies of their 
own, with branch offices in India. The traders 
of these different countries, being engaged in the 
same business of colonization and exportation, 
were constantly interfering with one another on 
account of competition and jealousy. Numerous 
conflicts were the resiilt, and, as a matter of course, 
the several European Governments aided their 
respective countrymen. The natives also sided 
with the particular cause which they espoused. 
For many years this internal strife continued, 
until, finally, the entire country was brought under 
the control of the English Company, and this 
control was eventually transferred to the crown 

itS-lfi - .,'. -.■;>.:.-.;>..,;:> r.::,n:-^ .v..; .^ ./; -. ... ,•;• : 

England thus assumed the government of India, 
and, if we contrast the condition of the inhabi- 
tants of to-day with that which existed during the 



138 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



career of the celebrated Lord Clive, we may safely 
say that India owes a debt of gratitude to England 
for this assumption of power, which brought with 
it all the civilizing influences of an enlightened 
country. At first there were abuses, and we may 
say necessary ones. The natives had for many 
years been subject to tyrannical and despotic princes, 
and, being naturally superstitious and ignorant, 
they submitted patiently to the oppression of their 
rulers. This oppression degraded them, made 
them indolent, treacherous and suspicions, and, 
and although these defects have not been 
removed, yet justice, enlightenment, freedom 
security which followed in the wake of England's 
assumption of power elevated their condition and 
inclined them to yield to her civilizing influences. 
Moreover, many who were formerly sluggish and 
inactive are now engaged in the cultivation of the 
rich and fertile soil that had been so long neglected. 

The improvement in education is also remark- 
able ; schools, colleges and universities have been 
established with great success. 

The material progress is no less wonderful ; 
miles of railroad have been built, lines of tele- 
graph have been constructed, and irrigation, so 
essential to agricultural pursuits, has been accom- 
plished by the aid of canals. 

Thus a beneficial change has been wrought in the 
condition of India by its British rulers. Manners and 
customs and opinions have been directed more and 
more to the manner of British thought and action ; 
so much so that a great German statesman, struck 
by this unprecedented phenomenon, remarked : " If 
the British lose Shakespeare and Milton and every 
other writer who has made their name illustrious 
throughout the world, the justice and ability with 
which they have administered India will be an 
imperishable memorial of their nation." 

The reasons of this powerful and salutary influ- 
ence over these Orientals are many ; their poli- 
tical qualities, their strong individuality which 
meets reverses and difficulties with composure and 
even indifference ; their natural gravity and serious- 
ness of character, which is itself so marked a pecu- 
liarity of the Oriental ; but especially their non- 
interference with the religious rites and belief of 
the natives, for religion outweighs every other 
consideration with the Oriental, and is, therefore, 
the most serious and solemn duty of his life. 
Such, in brief, is England's power and influence 
in India, attained only after many years of strife 
and bloodshed, and so firmly and systematically 
established that it is destined to last as long as 
England herself is recognized among the powers 
of earth. , •■:;:;.;/"•> 

J. F. O'Lrary, '94. 



The Brook. 

I looked in the brook and saw a face ; 

Heigh-ho, but a child was I! 
There were rushes and willows in that place. 
And they clutched at the brook as the brook ran 
by; 
And the brook it ran its own sweet way, 
As a child doth run in heedless play, 
And as it ran I heard it say : 
" Hasten with me 
To the roistering sea 
That is wroth wi th the flame of the morni ng sky ! ' 

I look in the brook and see a face ; 

Heigh-ho, but the years go by! 
The rushes are dead in the old-time place. 

And the willows I knew when a child was I ; 
And the brook it seemeth to me to say, 
As ever it stealeth on its way, 
Solemnly now, and not in play : 
" Oh, come with me 
To the slumbrous sea 

That is gray with the peace of the evening sky!" 

Heigh-ho, but the years go by — 
I would to God that a child were I! 

— Etigene Field, 



LABOR AND GENIUS. 

The history of the past and present affords ample 
evidence to prove how much depends upon labor ; 
not an eminent man has lived or lives whose life 
does not exemplify it. Nevertheless, very many 
young men believe that labor can accompli -h little 
or nothing ; that greatness is the result of chance, 
and that every one must be content to continue just 
what he is ; they lessen the importance of labor, 
add to that of genius and are mistaken in their 
notions of both. Many are the instances of men 
of the greatest genius, whose beginning gave such 
brilliant promise, but whose after life was a com- 
plete failure owing to their indifference to labor 
and misplaced confidence in their own gifts. ; i 

A knowledge of the untiring industry of the 
greatest poets, orators, statesmen, and artists of 
every kind, men of the most brilliant and com- 
manding talents, should serve most effectually to 
dispel the erroneous notion that natural talent is 
the primary consideration and labor only second- 
ary. Homer by ceaseless effort mastered all the 
knowledge of his time ; Demosthenes toiled un- 
ceasingly ; Cicero narrowly escaped death from 
study ; Pascal killed himself by it ; Burke is said 
to have been the most laborious and indefatigable 
of men ; Milton seldom left his books, and like 
Homer, was thoroughly acquainted. with all the 



\ 



VILLANOVA MONTHLV. 



159 



knowledge of his age ; Leibnitz was continually 
in his library ; Gibbon was in his study every 
morning at six o'clock ; Raphael, who lived but 
thirty-seven years, by labor and application carried 
the art of painting far beyond any mark of excel- 
lence it had before reached ; Gladstone's life is one 
of ceaseless industry, and his constant companion is 
a useful book. 

There are examples to the contrary ; but com- 
monly speaking, all truly great men have labored 
industriously. The early part of their life was 
usually passed in obscurity. They spent it think- 
ing " while their companions slept," reading while 
others sought pleasure less profitable, ever feeling 
something within them which told them that their 
labor and perseverance would be crowned with suc- 
cess. Thus they toiled, and when their time came, 
gave to the world the results of their labors, those 
works which have thrown around their authors the 
bright halo of undying fame. Then, do men praise 
them and exclaim: "A miracle of genius ! " 
" Yes, " some author says, " they are miracles of 
genius because they have been miracles of labor." 
They have knocked unceasingly at the door of 
knowledge, of wisdom, of art, of science, of facts ; 
and have questioned every phenomenon. They 
trusted not to the resources of their own mind 
only, but acquired the knowledge of a thousand 
minds. "Excellence," declares Samuel Johnson, 
"in any department can be attained only by the 
labor of a lifetime ; audit is not purchased at a 
lesser price. " 

Is all this endless toil necessary ? Is it 
profitable? Yes, for "the fire of our minds," 
says a modern writer, " is like the fire which 
the Persians burn on the mountains : it 
flames night and day, and is not to be quenched \ 
Upon something it must act and feed — upon the 
pure spirit of knowledge, or upon the foul dregs of 
polluting passions. " Labor is profitable. It is a 
rest from sorrows, petty vexations, and a safeguard 
against sin. It is the enemy of idleness which is 
the bane of body, mind and soul. . . 

Labor then, although the beginning promises 
little. Time will bring the recompense. " Only 
let your mind be full," says a well known writer, 
"and then you will want little or nothing to 
fulfil your happiness." 

T.J. Lee, '95. 



PATRONIZE 



OUR 



ADVERTISERS. 



To-Morrow. 

Who says "To-morrow still is mine?'* 

As if his eye could peer 
Through the thick mists of future time, 

And trace out life's career : 
To-morrow ! — stranger, it may be 
A phantom never grasped by thee. 

How canst thou tell to-morrow's sun 

Shall shine around thy path? 
Thy mortal work may then be done, 

And thou niayst sleep in death. 
Oh ! say not then, "To-morrow's mine" — 
The presei;t hour alone is thine. 

Hast thou not seen the eager child 

The butterfly pursue ? 
He almost grasped it — as he smiled, 

It vanished from his view. 
And oh ! has not to-morrow seemed. 
To some, as near — yet never beamed ? 

Where is to-morrow? hidden deep 

From human ear or eye ; 
And who shall smile, or who shall weep. 

No mortal may descry. 
And he that lives upon to-morrow. 
Shall often drink the cup of sorrow. 

But should to-morrow never rise. 

What other scenes would meet thee ? 

Were earth to vanish from thine eyes, 

Would heaven's bright splendors greet thee? 

Oh ! then it matters not to thee, 

Even should " to-morrow " never be. 



■^^X ■;'''':■''■■:'■■ "'v■■'■^^■^^ :.-■•■'■•■;:■': Great Men. 
Great men were all great workers in their time ; 

Steadfast in purpose, to their calling true ; 

Keeping with single end the aim in view ; 
Giving their youthful days and manhood's prime 
To ceasless toil : matin and midnight chime 

Often upon their willing labors drew ; 

In suflTering schooled, their souls endurance 
knew. 
And over difflculties rose sublime. 

Genius alone can never make one great ; 
There must be industry to second skill. 
Faith, tireless perseverance, strength of will, 
;: Ere triumph and success upon thee wait. -- 

Wouldst thou ascend Fame's rugged, frowning 

steep? ^.,^.;_^_.:^ 

It must be thine to toil while others sleep. 



i4o 



VlIvIyANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Monthly, 

PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF 

UILLANOUA, PA. 
NOVEMBER, 1893. 



TUB STKF=I=. 



Editor- in-Cliief. 
J. F. O'LEARY, '94. 

Associate Editors. 
J. J. Crowley, '94. J. J. Ryle, '94. 

J. J. DoLAN, '94. M. T. Field, '95. 

T. J. Lee, '95. M. J. Murphy, '95. 

H. J. O'DoNNELL, '95. J. S. Smith, '96. 

W. J. MaHON, '96. J. E. O'DONNELL, '96. 

E. T. Wade, '96. 

Business Manager. 

JOHN J. FARRELL, O.S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 
Remittances and business communications should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, one year |i 00 

Single copies .10 



Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second- Class Matter. 



EDITORIALS. 



In the catalogue of .stiidie.s of all educational 
institutions, as well as our own, history occupies a 
prominent place. The reasons for this are obvious. 
History from its very nature, is indispensable to us 
all, and no matter what profession we may adopt, 
or occupation we may engage in, time and labor 
should be given to acquiring a knowledge of this 
particular branch. ^ i^:-^^^ 

The interest attached to the lives of remarkable 
persons, to revolutions, to civil and military trans- 
actions, to the manners and customs of the 
ancients, together with the aid that history affords 
us to imderstand the Greek and Latin classics, is a 
strong reason why this particular branch should 
not be neglected. Its importance has been recog- 
nized by illustrious men of all nations. Cicero 
calls it, "the witness of ages, the torch of truth, 
the life of memory, the oracle of life, the inter- 
preter of the past ;" and further adds, "that to be 
ignorant of what has happened before one's birth 
is nothing less than to remain in a continual state 
of childhood." Since history embraces science, 
literature, art, moral and material decline and im- 
provement, it should be studied in all its divisions, 
thereby affording us a knowledge of each and its 
relations to the others. Having followed .such a 
course and believing in the old proverb that " his- 
tory repeats itself," we will be able, in a mea.sure, 



to determine the issue of contemporary events. 
History, moreover, conduces to the ennobling of 
the heart, by inspiring in us a desire to emulate 
the heroic actions of those described as models of 
courage and patrioti-sm ; certainly its pages teem 
with accounts of crimes, but the mention of these 
inspires in us only horror and disgust, and proves 
that unruly passions degrade humanity, and cause 
the downfall of empires, and the ruin of families 
and individuals. Therefore, considering the vast 
amount of information in this, " the interpreter of 
the past," the many uses to which it can be 
directed, and the influence it exerts over the head 
and heart, let us neglect no opportunity to become 
conversant with it, so that, profiting by the expe- 
rience of those who have gone before us, we may 
know how to guide our actions, and help our 
fellow-man. 



While every organization whose object is the 
mental improvement of its members is worthy of 
study and attention, it is not surprising that so 
many of our advanced students are taking such a 
keen interest in the literary societies of which 
they are members. But, while this is generally 
the case, we regret that there are some who fail 
to appreciate the great benefits which the debating 
society affords them. Our minds are expansive 
fields, ideas the seeds sown therein, which after- 
wards ripen and are separated from the chaff by 
the industry and vigilance of the careful debater. 

But this is not the only feature of a debating 
society ; herein subjects are discussed with whith 
heretofore we have been partially or totally un- 
familiar. Furthermore the embarrassment and 
timidity we all experience in our first attempts 
to address an audience are considerably lessened y.^'; 
and sometimes entirely removed. :• vv 

It would be well for all who have determined to 
pursue a calling in which public speaking will 
play a prominent part to join the society, attend 
the meetings, and take an active part in them. ;i ^ 
We have no sympathy for those who are present :'V: 
at all the meetings, but take little or no interest in V\ 
the proceedings. The loss is their own. We can- 
not too forcibly empha.size the fact that the really 
practical part of one's education is the ability to 
express thought composedly and correctly, and this 
is acquired in a debating society. Even if we 
have resolved to lead a quiet and reserved life, 
yet, considered in the light of college graduates, 
we may at some time be called upon to address an 
as.se inbly, and if we cannot do so with composure, 
our theoretical knowledge will be of little conse- 
quence, provided we are unable to give a practical 
demonstration of it. 



VltLANOVA MONTHtV. 



141 



MATHEMATICAL CLASS. 

To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send problems, 
queries, etc., and their solutions ; or any difficulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 

All such communications should be addressed to 

D. O'SuLLiVAN, M.A., Villanova College. 



35. — The continent of Asia has nearly the shape 
of an equilateral triangle, the vertices being East 
Cape, Cape Romania, and the Promontory of Raba. 
Assuming each side of this triangle to be 4,800 
geographical miles, and the earth's radius to be 
3,440 geographical miles, find the area of the 
triangle : (i) regarded as a plain triangle ; (2) re- 
garded as a spherical triangle. 

Solution by Augustine. 
(i) Regarded as a plane triangle. 
Altitude = yj aW-^^- 




BD = 1/4800'^ — 2400^^ = 1/17280000 
Area = I (base X altitude) = AD X BD 

log area = log 1/17280000 + log 2400 
log v/1728000 = 3.61877 
log 2400= 3.38021 



log area = 6.99898 

Area = 9976500 sq. miles. 

' (2) Regarded as a spherical triangle. 

The area of a spherical triangle is found when 
the three angles A, B, C, are given as follows : 




Let R = radius of sphere. • 

E = the spherical excess — A + B + C — 180°, 
F = area of triangle. - 

E 



then by solid geometry F 



180° 



r. R2 



When the three sides a^ b^ r, are given as in the 
above example the spherical excess is computed by 
means of the following formula, which is known as 
I'Huilier's Formula. 



tan'' ){ ^=tan Yz s tan ylis—a) tan y>{s—b) tan 
«,/^and c=- 



60 



= 80°. 



Z s = 240^= 
% {s—a) = 



20° 



% {s—b) = 20° 

y^ {s — c) = 20. Then we have log tan' 
% E = log tan 60° + log tan 20° + log tan 20'' 
+ log tan 20° "i 

log tan Yi s =: 60° = 10.23856 ) ■ 
log tan Yi {s — a) = 20° = 9.56107 
log tan Y U — ^^) — 20° = 9.56107 
log tan Y {■^ — ^) "^ 20° = 9.56107 
log tan^ j^ B z=: 8.92177 

16° f 8.1". 
E = 64° 28' 32.5". 
£ = 2321 12.5". 

180°"^ 

7* 

\ogF=\og 232112.5+log 6^8^./+log ^' 
log 232112.5 =5.36570 



^^ 



Then from E 



log ^' = 7.07312 
, ^ogE = 7.12439 

/^ — 1 33 1 6560 sq. miles. ■ 

36.— Expand to four terms (9 — 2x") - 

Solution by Tliomas Condon^ '^<5. 

(9-2;r2)-^ 

= (9r'+3 (9)"^(2^)+v(9r^(2^=')%i2 (9r^(2^/ 

4- 

I • • • • 



{2--^)' + 



1_ 

2 7 



«i 1458 



+ 



39366 



-h 



37. — How many square feet of tin will be re- 
quired to make a funnel, if the diameters of the top 
and bottom are to be 28 inches and 14 inches 
respectfully, and the height 24 inches ? 

Solution by J. S. Smith.,'' g6. 

The funnel is evidently the frustum of a cone. 
The lateral area of the frustum of a cone of revo- 
lution is equal to one-half the sum of the circum- 
ferences of its bases multiplied by the slant height. 

Let 5" denote the lateral area, C and c the cir- 
cumferences of its bases, R and r their radii, and L 
the slant height. ■"i:S^^.--:\ .:■: ::;/.,'_;. 

^ Thus S= Yi{C ^- c)y. L. /<>:.' V'-; ":-v' ■; v- 



1/576 H 49 
inches = 11.45 square feet. 



1 625= 25 
1649.34 square 



142 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



38. — Inscribe in a given circle a trapezoid, the 
sum of whose opposite parallel sides is given, and 
whose area is given. 

Sohttiou by 0\S\ 

Let AB, equal half the sum of the opposite 
sides, and the area equal the rectangle A BCD, 
Proof. — ^Join JiD, and in the circle place EF=^ 
BD. At the point /^make the < EFG = <ABD. 
Join EG, and draw EH parallel to EG. EHEG 




is the required trapezoid. From the centre O let 
fall a perpendicular OI on FG, and produce it to 
niQ&t EH in/. Let fall a perpendicular EK on 
EG. Produce EH, and draw EL parallel to EK. 
Because EE= BD, and the \__EFK= V_DBA, 
and the rgt L EKE= L DAB, . '. EK = AB, 
. • . 2 AB = 2 IE -\- 2 IK; that is = EG + EH. 
Again, the |__ s EGE and EHE, equal two rgt 
L. s, and EHE,LHE equal two rgt L -^ / • ' • 
the [\s EGK a.\\d i^Z,//'are equal because the !_ s 
ECKand. EKG, are equal to LHEand FILE, and 
the side EK = EL. To each add the figure 
EHEK. Hence EHEG = ELEK, and therefore 
EHFG= A BCD. , .. ^ 

\-r/0*--,--.'<::-''r''^--''^::':-- ^^^ Problems. , - ' , 

39. — A man in a balloon observes the angle of 
depression of an object on the ground, bearing 
south to be 35° 30'; the balloon drifts 2^2 miles 
east at the same height, when the angle of depres- 
sion of the same object is 23° 14'. Find the height 
of the ])alloon. 

40. — Prove that the sum of the squares of the 
diagonals of a parallelogram is equal to tlie sum 
of the squares of its four sides. 

41. — Prove that three times the sum of the 
squares of the sides of a triangle is equal to four 
times the sum of the squares of the medians. 



SPLINTERS. 



42. — Extract the square root of 103 — 12 \ 11. 

43- — I" a mile race between a bicycle and a tri- 
cycle their rates were as 5 : 4. The tricycle had 
half a minute start, but was beaten by 176 yards. 
Find the rates of each. 



Pie. 

Boston. 

Almonds. 

'Chestnuts. 

Handkerchief. 

Close up. 

Hallow-e'en. 

Willie strings. 

Rubber overcoat. 

Cards are out. 

Not on your 80 cents. 

Who ran the gauntlet? 

Give me four seconds. 

Two many pounds — 271. 

Tom's folks are well. 

» 

They live m a new block. 

Mike's folks are well. 

Train leaves quite early. 

How very punctual you are ! 

The spots are not worn off. 

How about you ? ( ) smiled. 

We miss the dog catcher " long." 

But now he sends his pious regards. 

He was ''''/rowing formatoes^'' at me. 

How we miss Felix and his audible soliloquies. 

Don't make me any redder than I am. 

And for those eyes I'd Paradise forsake. 

Never take the shingle from the door. 

He didn't bite but he took the cake. 

A Lawrence soliloquy : Oh ! for a sleep over 
those cold Nov. mornings. 

Eddie was floored when accused of Philosophical 
heresy. 

This goes to the highest bidder. All the way 
from the flowery kingdom. 

We still have an example of classicality in 
John's Albertus Magnus. 

Please Father I cannot submerge my pedal ex- 
tremities in cold water. . ,:- . 

A quotation from the conservatory. Guard well 
thy tongue lest you suffer embarrasment. 

We would like to know if our Conn, friend still 
retains the idea of purchasing the place. 

We are pleased to state on very good authority 
that they had a real, live, pocket Gopher from M — . 

"Give me a piece of steak and I'll pray for you 
eight days next week." 

Much merriment was caused by Dick's transla- 
tion of Rapit ill jus — He dragged him in the soup. 

If he were here this year he would find a good 
definition and moreover a description of Crinoline 
in Dick's Albertus Parvus. 

What an advice ! Now I hope there will be no 
*'/!//r//" among the Ed's. Why certainly not- 
they have made no preparations. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



143 



We have no sympathy for the worthy senior, 
who with his " Acornia" is endeavoring to cheat 
the straggling minstrels of a few pennies. 

The nocturnal visitor's sojourn in France seems 
not to have entirely eradicated his nomadic pro- 
clivities. 

The " Casino Concerts " have become very pop- 
ular this year. The soloists are many and varied. 
The quality of voice is a secondary consideration 
with them. The "Longfellow" takes the high 
notes without " winking " and the dyspeptic tenor 
dressed in "Buff" deserves considerable mention. 

We heard it faintly, at dead of night 
' Twas a sound that seemed not earthly 

By the struggling hall lamps misty light 
We approached on tip-toes stealthily. 

The stairs we climbed with breath suppressed 
The landing gained, we paused to rest 
And again burst forth the tone F (sharp) 
Fingered by " Charlie ' ' on his Jew's harp. 

Carlos' (Para Poleos) usual remark "During my 
first year." What an excellent memory. 

John never "Iters" to speak as he passes by. 
He merely salutes. 

Who is there ? McKenna. Do you want me ? 
The door was opened and he shuffled in. 



The messenger boy rang the bell. 

He had a despatch to deliver ; 
But when it was found to be only a "sell," 

J. no longer did cower or shiver. -, ..v.; ; /: -; 

Not content to wait till nine, ^ ;; ^ ■ 
He took the first one on the line ; 
And nothing happened worthy of note "CV,^ 
Except he almost lost his coat. :^ i\^ t 

Marsh, Holt-on to the Dore, 
There's a Kerr behind it. (First Gram, class.) 

When Charlie G. was a boy '''■-:r:'\<::^^::-\y v 

He was quite mischievous ; ' ;: '^ ■: . ; i \y K 

And it was his pride and joy 
To make the old folks peevish. 

One day on the table was seen 
Some nice red pickled cabbage ; 
. With a drop of soda he made it green 
And was thrust out bag and baggage. 



PERSONALS. 



We extend our sincere sympathy to Notre Dame 
University in the loss of her founder, V. Rev. 
George Sorin. The work accomplished by him is 
sufficient evidence of his zeal and untiring energy. 

Rev. T. A. Field, O.S.A., Greenwich, N. Y., 
visited his nephew, Martin Field, of the Senior 
Department. 

Mr. William Parker, '93, entered St. John's 
Ecclesiastical Seminary, Brighton, Mass. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Coar, of Jersey City, spent a 
very pleasant afternoon with Father Coar, O.S.A., 
on the 22nd. 

Mr. William Picker, of St. Charles, Ellicott 
City, was entertained by his friend, A. J. Plun- 
kett, of the Senior Department. 

Joseph Finnigan paid a brief visit to his college 
friends on the 22nd. 

Mr. William Murphy, of Philadelphia, was the 
guest of his son, Michael, of the Senior Depart- 
ment. 

Rev. James E. Vaughan, O.S.A., on account of 
the illness of Rev. T. F. Herlihy, O.S.A., will 
assist Father Fedigan, of Atlantic City, for a few 
weeks. • 

Mr. J. Sullivan and Miss Hannah Gallagher, of 
Chestnut Hill, visited friends on the 29th. 

M. A. Tierney, '93, is pursuing a course in law 
in Troy, N. Y. 

D. F. Hat kins, B.S., '93, is now studying medi- 
cine in the University of New York. 

Rev. F. X. McGowan, O.S. A., of Lansingburg, 
N. Y., for a long time Professor in our college, : 
recently paid us a brief visit before starting for 
Europe. ■.■.^.. -...^ ;..,,.,, . • ■ , ..■,,,- Vv ,-;.-, ;-;. :..;■• :':■■',■-■■■:: v.y-- 

■ M. J. Mullen, in company with his mother and 
aunt, recently visited some of his old friends. 

Among the very welcome visitors to our college 
on the 27th were Rev. Fathers Waldron, Sullivan, 
O.S.A., of St. Augustine's, Philadelphia, F. J. 
McShane, O.S. A., Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, 
and Father O'Neill, of Manayunk, Phila. 

Rev. James T. O'Reilly, O.S. A., an alumnus of 
our college, prior of St. Mary's, Lawrence, Mass., 
also president of the Catholic Total Abstinence 
Union, of Boston, delivered a very able and im- 
pressive address before an enthusiastic audience in 
favor of the cause which he has so long and so 
nobly defended. 



144 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 



The Sodality of Holy Rosary of which Rev. J.J. 
Ryan, O.S. A. , is Spiritual Director, and Mr. J. F. 
Kennedy, O.S. A., Prefect, re-organized Sunday 
morningjOct. 8th, for the ensuing year. This society 
has a large membership and is well attended. 

V. L. I. — The Villanova Literary Institute held 
its second regular monthly meeting, Saturday, 
Oct. 7th. The report of the committee previously 
appointed to revise the constitution and by-laws, 
was accepted. Six new members were admitted. 

V. D. S. — The Villanova Debating Society com- 
menced regular work on the evening of Oct. i8th. 
The subject, resolved : " That Spoken Language 
Exerts More Influence than Written Language," 
proved to be one that caused more interest than 
has been experienced in the society for some 
time. 

J. J. Dolan opened the debate for the affirmative 
with a verv interesting discourse, which showed 
that he had given the subject deep thought and 
long consideration. During the whole discussion 
he evinced a very fair display of argumentative and 
cool reasoning power. .;; ^ ._,.: 

M.J. Murphy followed with a well written com- 
position and had he dealt a little more in particulars 
and facts he would have succeeded admirably in 
refuting his opponent's arguments. 

J. J. Ryle, the second for the affirmative, favored 
us with a choice rhetorical production and his 
manner of substantiating statements made them 
seem indisputable. ... 

J. F. O'Leary closed the debate for the negative. 
He expressed himself in a manner which proved 
that he was entirely familiar with the subject. 

He attracted a good deal of attention and de- 
serves praise for the orderly way in which he dealt 
with the statements of his opponents and brought 
forv/ard arguments in favor of his side of the ques- 
tion. When the appointed debaters had exhausted 
their supply of arguments the debate was thrown 
open to the house. 

Many availed themselves of the opportunity and, 
we are pleased to state, kept up the already very 
spirited discussion. Their example is well worthy 
of imitation and will undoubtedly produce good 
results. The critic decided in favor of the affirma- 
tive. The next debate will be between Messrs. M. T. 
Field, T. J. Lee, M. H. McDonnell and W. Rior- 
dan. Subject — " Modern Oratory is Equal to 
Ancient." '\''- :",:■'./''■■.■' ':-'^ '-.---:/-\'./:-.y :---^ , ■-■■■-'■'"' 



EXCHANGES. 



A marked feature of the Fordliam Monthly is 
the variety of its literature. We especially appre- 
ciate the address of the Rt. Rev. Mgr. John Farley 
to the graduates, in which is mirrored the char- 
acter of this eminent prelate. 

The essay on "Literary Criticism" contains many 
and suggestive thoughts expressed in an easy and 
graceful style. 

We are glad to see the Wake Forrest Student 
again in its accustomed place in our sanctum. It 
appears in a new cover, which conforms with those 
of other college journals. Of the contents of the 
Student itself, it would be, after thirteen years of 
popularity, more than useless to speak. 

The task of editing The Catholic High School 
Journal^ of Philadelphia, appears to be performed 
by the professors rather than by the students. The 
latter, therefore, are to be congratulated on their 
success in having professors, who, not only wil- 
lingly, but also very creditably perform duties, 
which indeed would be far more interesting and 
better appreciated if done by the students. 

We are surprised to notice in the pages of our 
esteemed contemporary, the Richmond College Mes- 
senger^ an apology for poetry, copied from the 
Columbia Spectator. A college paper should not 
copy such nonsensical stanzas and indulge in such 
frivolities. A piece like this should be placed in 
the "joke column " at the best. Surely some mis- 
take or oversight was made. 

The current numbers of the Niagara Index open 
with an entertaining treatise entitled " Conscience - 
in Shakespeare." The illustrations and deductions 
reflect credit on the writer. Its exchange and per- 
sonal columns are models for imitation. Let us 
hope that we may receive many such productions 
from the "old monk with his many scars." , 

The following exchanges grace the table of our 
sanctum : Notre Dame Scholastic^ The Ozvl^ ^igli 
School Bulletin^ Lawrence, Mass. ; Ave Maria^ 
Doane Owl^ Crete, Neb. ; ML St. Joseph^ s Colle- 
gian.^ St. JohCs University Record., and The 
Georgetown Journal, Many of these arrived too 
late for review in this issue. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Philadelphia Bed and Desk Co. 



Leaders aad 
9Ioney Savers in 



DESKS. 



Our Roll-Top Desks »te built willi special reference to streiijjtli and 
durability in the running points, aud contain the modern Desk improve- 
ments. Prices as low as the lowest, consistent with good workmanship. 

Made to take apart In Sections. Can be taken through narrow doorway. 

Our Flexible Curtain Tops were never known to get out of order. 

Drawer Cases are panelled underneath, and keep out mice. 

Self-Locking. Our lever combination, in cc nnection with spring-lock, 
makes one motion only necessary to lock the entire desk- the simple 
pulling down of the Roll-Top Curtain. 

riovable Partitions iu the drawers increase their convenience and 
capacity. 

Pigeon-Holes are arranged ti meet the requirements of the greatest 
number of desk u.sers. 

Two Hollow Pen-Rests and two bracket drawers for pens.pius, ttamps, 
etc. Hook drawer lower right drawer in every desk. 

Letter Drop iu roll near top of desk. Best anti-friction desk casters used. 

H H STOUT. 919-921 ARCH STREET, 

C. E. Stout. PHILADELPHIA. 

JAMES MCCANNEY, 

Saddle, Harness i Collar Moker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 

PHIIvADELPHIA. 

THE DeMORAT studio, 

914 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILM. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL BRANCHES. 

Special Bates in Groups, also to Colleges and Societies. 

H. B. HKNSBURV, 



ESTABLISHED 1864. 



THE ONLY HOUSE 

In Ptiiladelphiifi, 

In fact, IN THE COUNTRY, that makes a 
specialty of SACRED heart PICTURES, 
Framed and Unframed. Have you seen 
t his Hand-Painted S. H. on Placqiies ? 

Drop in and see Progress at 

Conway's Catholic Supply House 

i8th and Stiles, first Store above Gesu Church. 

Agent for the American Line and White Star Line Steamers to and from 
the Old Country. Drafts at the Lowest Rates. 

' E. K. WILSON & SON, 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Ji^iitsfe-^lass 1^00te and §h6es^ 

Bapairing Neatly and Promptly attended to. Onstom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^aitcaster Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



I will sell YDU 

$10.00 worth of Clothing, Dress G-oods, Ladies' 
Coats and Cloaks, Furniture, Carpets Watches, 
Jew^elry, Ohina-ware, etc., for 

$1.00 CASH AND $1.00 PER WEEK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 

ON SATUIfDAY 

UNTIL 

TEN O'CLOCK. 



PHILAD'A 



If the Goods are not sat- 
isfactory, come to me and 
I will allow all reasonable 
claims. 



Physicians' PreHcriptions Accurately Compounded at all hours at 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY. 

FR/1NK U/. PRIWTL graduate iq pj?ar/naey, 

PROPRIETOR- 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 

BOOKS BOUGHT. 

J' F j-oii want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
(v at our store. We have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old Books in America, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to spare is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. 

L-eKRV'S OL-D BOOK STORO, 
9 Soutli Ninth Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

A. M. BUCH & CO., 
156 North Ninth Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

LADIES' AND GENTS', 

iA£IG 7VT7XKERS, 

HAIR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, 
4^Wig8 and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Theatricals.*S(t 

^wm:. E. HINCH, 

oiifiDoai ••. oiiflss, 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS, OILS, VARNISHES, BRUSHES, ETC 
No. 1 702 Market Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
D. J. OALLAOHEE. OEO. W. GIBBONS. 

D. J. GALLAGHER & CO., 

Printers, Publishers 

And Blank Book Manufacturers. , 

Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationery 
245-47 NortA Broad Street, Phila.- ; ^ : .; ^ 

(GaUaerher Building'.) ■.■..:,.' ;-:;^ 



Publishers of "AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW," 

-v::;; ,.\. '■•>;.>.•."■'' v-/" 13-50 Per Annum. , ;•,■■-,":■ "V:"'s >;;-- :'-•■ 



7V^OORE*S 

WINDSOR HOTEL, 

.:;.%• PHILRDELPHIfl. -.v.,. 

Half Block from New P. & R. Terminal, and One and a Half 
Blocks from Broad Street Station. 

1210-20 T^ilbcrt Street, rVS^ 

PRESTON J. MOORE, Proprietor. 



n 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 




Thomas Bradley, 

N. W. Sor. Twenty-first 

and Market Stceets. 

WK extend an invitation to you to call at our GRKAT 
WHvSTKRN MEAT MARKET and sec what a choice 
selection of 

Beef, Mutton, Lamb, Dried Beef, 
Lard, Hams and Provisions 

We have constantly on hand and note tlie Low Prices at which 'we are 

selling. We handle only the Best Goods, and Quality considered, 

Our Prices are the Lowest in the City. Come, see for 

yourself. 

Ijb^ral Di8(^our)t to public aijd (^I^aritable Ir^stitutlotjs. 
ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION. 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, 

Undertaker I Embalmer, 

241 North Fourth Street, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

THOMAS J. FOCARTY,- 

DEALER IN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Clothing, Hats and Caps, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 



Lancaster Auenue. 



Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



JOHIST J. BYIINES, 

DEALER IN 

Carpets, Oil Cloth, Linoleums, 

RUGS, WINDOW SHADES, ETC., 
No. 37 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 

Below Market, East Side. PHIIiAPELPHIA. 

^^ WILLIAM J. REED, 

DEALER IN 

♦ Fine Hats, Caps and Umbrellas,*- 

ALL THE NEWEST STYLES, 

CLOSING OUT TRUNKS AT COST. 

261 North Eighth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEXT TO FOREPAUGH'S THEATRE. 

prouidept l^ife 9 Jmst <^o. 

^ -- Of r»]iilndelpliia, - ^ 

- N. W. Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts., (40T-409) 

fSSUES Lite, Endowment and Term Policies, 
which can be made payable at death in 10, 15, 
20, 25 or 30 yearly instalments, thus saving 
the widow, who is the usual beneficiary, the trouble 
and risk of investment. ;' :^^ >;>;;. 

Safe investments ; low rate of mortality ; low rate of 
expenses ; liberality to policy-holders 

In Everything E^^elled by no other Company 



BRYN MAWR PHARMACY. 

ELEGANT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS, 

Prescriptions a Specialty. 
•f CHf^ISTIAfl MOOf^H.-f 

OBLINQER PR05. & C2., 

FACTORY, LANCASTER, PA. 

SALESROOM, 164 N. THIRD ST., 
PHII.ADELPHIA. 

AVltoleiiale only. 

PETER F. CUNNINGHAM ^ SON, 

PUBLISHERS 

AND 

Catholic Booksellers, 

IMPOUTKltS OF 

CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

No. B17 Arch. Street, 

PHII^ADEI^PHIA, 

JSverytbing at lowest prices. 



DR. STEINBOCK, 



'^• 




i^ 



1630 f/ortl? Ju/elftl? 5tr(j^t, pi?iladelpl?ia, pa. 

Specialist in Gold and Silver Fillings, and Artificial Teeth. 
GAS AND ET HER ADMINISTERED. 

"Hallahan's Shoes are the Best." 

Oiir stock of Fine Footwear is always attractive^ 
in quality^ variety and price. 

HALLAHAN^ 

Eighth and Filbert Sts., Philadelphia. 

P. T. COf.AHAN, 1838 MARKET st: 

Dealer ip pipe (Jroeeries. 

BEST BRANDS OF FI,OUR, $5.50 PER BBL. 

OKSH OR OREDITv 

BUY YOUR GOODS ^^^^^ % I 

FROM 

GEO. KELLV & CO 

808 and 810 Market St., 

PHILADELPHIA.. 
^ > On Bill of $10— $1 Down— $1 per Week. 

SPECIAL TERMS ON LARGE PURCHASES. 

"dANIEL GALLAGHER, 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 



• » 




Furqiliui'elBBilding 

Of Every Description, 

43 South Second Street, 

Ahovc Cbestnat. Philadelphia. 

Special Discount to Institutions. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Ill 



CHARIiHS B. UYHCH. 

WATCHES, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY, 

S. E. Oor. Market and 16th Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 

l8 K. Wedding Rings. Fine Watch Repairing a 9peel*lty, 

LOGUE * HATTER 

8TRIGTLY ONE PRICE. 

1236 MARKET ST. 



MONEY 
REFUNDED. 



BOOKS. 



BOOKS. 



CATHOLIC SCHOOL | COLLEGE 

•W-TEXT BOOKS, -i^ 

Vfe-w and Second Hand. 

Have oonatantly on band a fall line of Catholic 
Theological and Miscellaneous Books. 



Libraries and small parcels of Books 
purchased for cash. 

SEND YOUR ADDRESS OR OAT.T. 

JOHN JOSEPH McVEY, 

39 |4. Thirteenth Street, 

PHILADBLPHIA, PA. 

CHARLES a. HOOKEY, 

^ UNDERTAKER, *0 

626 NORTH FOURTH STREET, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

MART. D. BYRNES. 

Livery, Sale I Exchange Stables, 

Lancaster Auenue. Roscmont, Pa. 

*" hauling done. 



DEALER IN 

Diamonds. Watches, Clocks 
Jewelry and Silverware. 

Also a complete stock of Spec- 
tacles and Eye Olasses. 
Fine Watch and Clock Repairing. 



AGENT FOB 

Spalding's, Reach's anu 
Tryon's Sporting Goods. 



Estimates fnrniahed to Clubs at 
the lowest club rates. 




BROGAN a SMITH, 

Practical Steam Fitters 

STEAM and HOT WATER HEATING. 
]io. 810 HRCB ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



Lithographers 



.... Printers 






Stationers.... 



,>Mcl1ANUS*''C' 



Blank Book Makers 



TIM. QUINLAN k BRO., 

BUmSMITIS I lOISE SIIEH, 

BRYN MAWR, PA. 

Horae-Shoeing a Specialty. Old I^ancaster Road, 

Foi?. (3-oor) -wok^k:. 
Try boston LAUNDRY, 

235 and 238 NEW ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

THOS. E. HOUSTON PROPRIETOR. 

M. A. CALLANAN, 



DEALER IN 




DRY (K)ODS, NOTIONS, 

Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Lancaster Avenue. Bryn Mawr, Pa , 

1025 Market St., 

Sells everything needed 
for the Table, Kitchen and 
Hcnsehold at half other's 
prices, 

10 ct. goods are 5 cts. 
Surprlsingr? Wonderful? Yet True I! 

^ ^ $io and $20, Genuine Confederate Bills only 
tP^J five cents each ; $50 and ;?iioo bills 10 cents 
each ; 25c. and 50c. shinplasters 10 cents each ; 
$1 and $2 bills 25 cents each. Sent securely sealed 
on receipt of price. Address, Chas. D. Barker, 
90 S. Forsyth St., Atlanta, Ga. 

Philadelphia Photo-Electrotype Co., 

707 and 709 FILBERT STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 

Engraving for all purposes and by all methods. Half- Tone Illustrations 
from Photographs. \Vash-Dra\ving.s, Taiutings, etc., etched on Copper. 
C. W. BECK, Manager. 

M.GALLAGHER, 

I'KACTICAI.. 

Harness |||Bl((r 

15 N. 9tli St., 

Philadelphia. 
MANUFACTURER OF FINE HORSE BOOTS. 

~"~ H. MUHR'S SONS. 

Diamonds, Precious Stones, and Watch Manufacturers. 

Salesroom, 629 Chestnut St., Factory, Broad and Race Sts. 

Branches : 139 State Street, Chicago. 

20 John St., New York. 

131 Avenue du Sud, Antwerp. 

THOmAS H- CUHARY, 

4FUNERAL DIRECTOR*- 

S. W. Cor. welfth and Jefferson Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
tSr Personal attention day or night. 




IV 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 




'T^HIS is the Overcoat for the coming season — 
* fly front, cut long, full and .loose fitting, 
with a strictly-gently swing. The higher grades 
arc silk lined throughout, others have cassimere 
lining with body and sleeves silk-lined. Made in 
Kerseys, Meltons and Fur Beavers, Black or Blue. 
The Kersey the favorite material and Blue the 
popular color. Any price you wish from ^15.00 
to $45.00. 



K. C. YHTES St CO 

13th and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia. 



• f 




hon^ai) p. i)Fine[II 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 




Butter, Eggs, 






Stalls, 1 112, 1 1 14 and 1 1 16 Eleventh Avenue, 
' 'v: Reading Terminal Market. ■ i , 

109,171 AND 173 UNION MARKET, 2d AND CALLOWHILL STS, 
PHILADELPHIA. 

A. L. PLUSH, 

DKAI.IvR IN 

Bicycles -;■: 
Of all Kinds. 

Also Se^t'liiK Maclilnes, 
Ouns, Klfles mid 

^ porting Ciooda. 

lOCKSMITHING, BELL HANGING, LAWN MOWER AND ALL 
LIGHT MACHINERY REPAIRING. 

LANCASTER AVENUE, BRYN MAWR, PA. 




A FACT TO BE REMEMBERED 

THAT THE HEADQUARTKRS FOR 

Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments 

IS AT 

r. DITSON S^ CO/S, 



J. E 

1228 Chestnut Street, 



Philadelphia. 



BELLAK'S, 

PIANOSrtORGANS 

1129 CHESTNUT STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. _- 

VAN HORN & SON, 

:',;J MAKERS AND DESIGNERS 

THEATRICAL AND HISTORICAL 

Catalogues Furnished. Costumer For the Mask and Wig Club, 

AL.I. KINDS OF STAGE DIAKE UP, TIGHTS &.c. 

121 N. NINTH STREET, Philadelphia. 



L. Bookbinder & Co., 



Manufacturer 
for the Trade, 



, lool^ii}^ Classes a^d pit(:ur^ pra/r\^s. 

APPROI'RIATE PICTURE FRAMING OUR SPECIALTY. 

GILT MANTELS AND PIER MIRRORS, REGILDING. 

232 Arch Stfeet, Philstdelphia. 



(Jold ^ 5''^?f"/n<?^al8 for all Oeeasiops 

Pins and Badges, etc. Mnde to Order. 

Kngra-vlngs In General and Specal 'Work. 

D. A. REESE, Engraver and Manufacturer, 

700 Apeh St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(MTr of the Villauova College Prize Medals.) 




rt 



^Si^ 







Vol. I. 



Villaiiova OoUege, Decen:Lber, 1S98. 



No. 12. 



LONG AGO. 

Taken from the Celtic Monthly and composed by Jolin Locke, 
brother of Revs. Dr. Joseph and Fr. Michael Locke, O.S.A. 



Y harp, dost thou remember 

When first youth's fragile fingers 
Used to touch these fairy strings and 

Make their wildest music flow? 
Now, one more burst of song- sound 
While backward memory glides to 

Those grand, old summer evenings 
Of long, long ago. 




God be with them, God be with them, 
They were bright though evanescent, — 
Full of legendary lustre, 

Glowing, golden, sweet and bland ; 
And they left me, ere they faded, 
A few dearly-treasured memories 
Like wave-forsaken pearl-shells, 
, On Oman's yellow strand. 



In the mellow wine red radiance 
Of those hallowed olden evens, 
When the finches came to nestle 

In their leafy hostelry, 
I used sit between the hazel boughs 
Above the brook to listen 
For a little foot-step coming '■ ■ t' " 

Down the pasture-paths to me. 



\\\ the moonlight and the starlight, 
Still those hazel boughs are swinging, 
And flows that baby brooklet 

As of old it used to flow ; 
But she whose merry laughter 
Echoed back its rippling tinkle 
Faded with those summer evenings 

Of long, long ago. 

And where's the glowing future. 
The radiant, ripened manhood, 
The guerdon of achievements -^H 

I dreamt that should be mine ? 
Ah ! trusting heart of youth-hood, 
Never have I found them 
All were fickle phantasies 

Of Fancy's and of thine. ' - 

And yet I love to muse on — 
I pleasure in recalling 
Those beautiful illusions 

That Fancy used to strow 
Along th' untrodden turnings 
Of life's delightful pathway 
r th' grand old summer evenings 

Of long, long ago. 

Sweet harp, my harp be silent ; 
I would I had not waked thee 
For oh, beloved ! 'twere better 

We both had been laid low — 
Had sunk to dreamless slumber 
In the golden-gleaming glory 
Of those grand old summer evenings 

Of long, long ago.. 



146 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Christmas Reflections. 

As the year draws to its close, our thoughts 
naturally revert to that once peaceful land so redo- 
lent with poetic and historic memories, and while, 
with the shepherds, we listen to the angels sing- 
ing, "Glory be to God in the highest," we our- 
selves participate in the joy and peace that were 
echoed over the hills of Judea nineteen hundred 
years ago. Nor is it strange that such should be 
the sentiments of our hearts when we remember 
the wondrous nature of the event first made known 
by that Angelic Choir to the humble shepherds 
keeping the night watches over their flocks on the 
bleak mountain-passes of Bethlehem. Truly we 
may say that this is the source of all that joy which 
may find a home in the heart of man. 

An event of such great importance to the human 
race invites our attention, and the origin of the 
celebration of Christmas may well command our 
notice. The exact chronology of the birth of 
Christ is not determined in Holy Writ. Neither 
the month nor the year is designated. At least 
one hundred and thirty-eight years passed before 
Bishop Telesphorus celebrated the day. He or- 
dained that the Gloria in Excelsis should be sung 
on the eve of the Nativity, But the date was 
variable, and it was not until the year -^^-y] that 
December 25 was taken. Rome declared this to be 
Christ's Natal-day, and we should accept this 
authority since in that city are, even yet, found 
the records of the enrollment of the Blessed Virgin 
and St. Joseph at Bethlehem. 

To the early Christians this feast was of a relig- 
ious character altogether, and many of the elabor- 
ate customs which characterized it, have come 
down to us, laden with the memories of centuries, 
to give life to our worship of the new-born infant. 
Among them the most familiar and the most touch- 
ing is that of placing the manger in our churches 
during this season. This is attributed to St. 
Francis Assis', who, in order to instruct the people 
by bringing the very scene before their eyes, 
erected a stable and had all its simple details rep- 
resented in a most realistic manner to make it 
more touching and beautiful. 

When we look at Christmas in our own land, a 
scene far less pleasing to the Catholic meets our 
eyes. The Pilgrim Fathers, fearing that the joys 
of Christmas would dissolve the air of gloom with 
which their manner of worshipping God was sur- 
rounded, abolished its celebration and instituted 
Thanksgiving Day to take its place. To them, 
and indeed to all non-Catholics, Christmas was an 
idolatrous festival. This tradition bore so heavily 
upon our country that up to within thirty years 
this great auniyersary was not even a play-day. 



Shops were open ; men worked and traded ; only 
Catholics glorified the Incarnate God with prayer, 
song and sacrifice, rest from labor and joyous 
pleasure. 

Lately, however, a change has been wrought. 
One after another, the Protestant churches, follow- 
ing in the wake of their Catholic neighbors, have 
begun to add a little more spirit to the celebration 
of Christmas. Business is abandoned, labor is set 
aside for the time, to be replaced by religious exer- 
cises and social enjoyment. With each recurring 
advent of Christmas we are struck with the general 
and increasing interest which this great feast ex- 
cites, and, although shorn of many of its ancient 
and festive honors, the preparations made on every 
side — the evergreen decked churches and houses, 
the generous smile of the gray-haired sire and the 
glad shouts of the little ones — all show that Christ- 
mas is hailed with delight. 

The date when social pleasures began to mingle 
themselves with the religious celebration of this 
feast cannot be well fixed. It is but natural how- 
ever, that the glad noise of laughter should blend 
with the Christmas carol and that the day which 
commemorates the announcement of "peace and 
good will " to all should be selected as the occasion 
for gathering together the scattered members of the 
family. Than this no more appropriate day could 
be chosen to draw more closely the bonds of kindred 
hearts, to assemble the wandering children about 
the parental hearthstone where one grows young 
again amid the endearing mementos of childhood. 
In this charmed circle " heart calleth unto heart " 
and from its deep well of living kindness is drawn 
that peace and gladness which re-animate the 
drooping spirit and rekindle the genial flame of 
charity in the quiet recesses ot our bosoms. 

Under the influence of this season, man's better 
nature is aroused and with it comes the desire to 
make his fellow-men sharers in his joy. We find 
the expression of this desire in the salutation 
"Happy Christmas" which our pleasure-loving 
contemporaries have corrupted to " Merry Christ- 
mas." " Happy Christmas," What recollections do 
not these few words conjure up in our soul. How 
they strike the chords of our memory, and with 
the spell that surrounds them call forth our tender- 
est thoughts — thoughts, which if sometimes min- 
gled with sad recollections, raise our souls to that 
divine Child who sends comfort and " p?ace to 
men of good-will." 

.^,„, Edward G. Dohan, 96. 



Our advertisers will be pleased to have you call 
on them during the holidays. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



147 



The Story of a Shipwreck. 

BY A SURVIVOR. 

Often do I think of the days gone by — some re- 
membrances sweet, but others so sad. The sad 
thoughts of those days forever past outnumber the 
merry ones and oftentimes cast a gloomy shadow 
o'er me. 

Nearly sixty year ago I left my father's home. I 
lived with him, my mother and sister, in a large 
manor overlooking the Thames. I became dissat- 
isfied with the slow, monotonous life in old England 
and sailed across the billowy deep to the new 
world to seek new adventures — and a fortune ; for 
by leaving the paternal roof I was disinherited. 

The year '49 brought with it many good things 
for me, for, as is well known, in that year the gold 
mania was raging in California. I went thither, 
and after five years of hard, but successful labor, I 
had amassed great wealth ; indeed, fortune smiled 
at my every effort. 

From California I went to New York and settled 
there for the space of twenty years, in the mean- 
while taking unto myself a life partner. 

Year after year rolled by and I was comparatively 
happy, yet an irresistible desire took possession of 
me ; it was to visit once more the haunts and 
scenes of my childhood days ; to see once again 
the face of my venerable father, to hear again the 
soft, loving voice of my dear, patient mother. At 
last the desire conquered me and we took passage 
for merry England. 

" Many a year is in its grave 
Since I crossed this restless wave." 

We arrived in safety. My spirits were buoyant 
at the prospect of seeing again the places I once 
detested, of beholding the faces that always had a 
place in my heart. Alas ! proud hope.s, soon to be 
blasted ! Dame fortune for the first time turned 
her smiling countenance from me and never looked 
my way again. God in His justice rightly punished 
the sin of my youth. 

I arrived at my birth-place, only to hear the sad 
news of my father's death reverently whispered 
among the village gossipers. I could hardly believe 
my ears, but too soon and too truly was the news 
verified. This plunged me into a chasm of sorrow 
which was deepened by the loss of my dear mother, 
who died of a broken heart. 

The joyous spirit in which I found myself 
whilst sailing o'er the briny ocean now gave place 
to feelings of melancholy. My wife and sister were 
now the only ones for whom I had to live. The 
estate, which reverted to my sister, was sold, and 
she gave the proceeds to me for safe-keeping. We 



decided to leave for America, as England had no 
charms for us. 

Ah ! how little does one know that his cup of 
bitterness is not yet filled. 

it * * * * 

Old king Sol has just gone down ; the dazzling 
reflection from his golden chariot is plainly seen as 
he fast disappears below the horizon — his purple 
and crimson fleecy robes trailing after him. 

The queen of night, in all her royal splendor, 
accompanied by her myriads of attendants, each 
trying to outshine the other in paying homage to 
her, peeps from beneath her silvery covering and 
suddenly shines, it seems to me, more brilliantly, 
serenely and beautifully to-night than I have ever 
seen her shine before. The waters are so placid 
that her shadow scarce trembles on their vast 
expanse. 

Under such propitious signs we sail out of the 
harbor. Old England, with its neat cottages along 
the shore and the mouldering ruins of many old 
abbeys covered with ivy, fast disappears. 

The ship is now two days upon the waters, and 

" How gloriously her gallant course she goes ! 
Her white wings flapping — never from her foes — 
She walks the waters like a thing of life. 
And seems to dare the elements to strife. 
Who would not brave the battle fire — the wreck — 
To move the monarch of her peopled deck? " 

Toward noon of the third day a cloud — the first 
that mars the beauty of the skies since we set sail — 
is seen. At first it appears so insignificant that no 
one pays any attention to it. — No one do I say? 
There is one on board, who knows that it forbodes 
naught but evil, and that person is the brave cap- 
tain of the proud vessel. The darkening brow, the 
troubled look, the ominous shake of the head, 
warn us in a manner unmistakable that something 
is wrong. 

The cloud approaches nearer and nearer, and the 
bright blue sky grows darker and darker. It is 
now evening and the ship is bounding on her way, 
as the maddened waves flash into spray around her 
prow. Night, with all its impending terrors, is fast 
approaching. Little do we know what this dark 
night has in store for us. ••';■." >\''. \ ; : V \ '^ ;:. 

Suddenly there is a flash of lightning, a peal of 
thunder, and the cloud bursts. In less time than it 
takes to relate it, the storm with all its fury is upon 
us. The giant form of the massive ship is tossed 
about like a chip upon the wrathful surge. She 
ploughs through the mountainous waves, eager to 
be free, her sails panting to be on their flight. . . . 
Midnight is at hand, and still the storm is raging 
wrathfully and loud. Darkness surrounds us, save 



148 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



when the lightning's terrible flashes play upon the 
crests of the broken waves, and light the gap 
between them. About the ship the waters roar, 
and the roar is answered by a crash of the falling 
masts. The word confusion is inadequate to ex- 
press what is taking place on that ill-fated ship. 
Husbands and wives, brothers and sisters, parents 
and children are swept away by the merciless 
waves. Before my eyes (I shudder at the remem- 
brance) my wife and sister disappeared into that 
boiling abyss. Never shall their death struggles 
and painful woe-begone looks leave me. The 
groans and cries of those unfortunate ones still 
ring in my ears. 

Those of the ship's crew that are left are hurry- 
ing hither and thither, with ghastly faces ; wailings 
and moanings are heard on every side. Brave men, 
maddened with despair, know not what they do. 
There is a sudden lurch, her keel strikes a hidden 
rock, the timbers are torn asunder with a reeling 
shock, a vivid glare of lightning making those 
who yet survive look like so many ghosts, and with 
a crash, simultaneous with the thunder, the proud 
ship sinks — with many hundred souls. The raging 
seas close over them, forming a common grave for 
all. No one seems to have escaped but myself, 

"Alone in the dark, alone on the wave, 

To buffet the storm alone ; 
To struggle aghast at a watery grave, 
To struggle and feel there is no one to save ! 

God shield me, hapless one ! " 

I clung to the masts, which came together form- 
ing a raft. VT, :.,..::;.;,...■ ;..■ >a..;.,v..::,:--:j. ■..•'.•/■•.--•■..:::.. s- 

{ " Quick brightening, like lightning it tore me 

■■"■>/■■•'■■'■■.' along) ■■'■■/■-•■.: ;■■■•'■. .■■'■"■■■■^: -■■>:;■' -■■>..■..■■■": ■^^' w;';:.' v'i';"'-?;- V' 

; : r Down, down till the gush of a torrent at play 

In the rocks of its wilderness caught me, and 

strong 

As the wings of an eagle, it whirled me away. 

■ ' Vain, vain were my struggles — the circle had 

won me, 
^ Rounl and round in its dance the wild elements 
spun me ; 
And I called on my God, and my God heard 
my prayer. " v ^'' :■;:.-■ 

Would that God in His mercy had not heard my 
prayer. A terrible thought I know, but my present 
unhappiness at times overwhelms me, and I long to 
be with those whom I loved. :.;-"'" /^ ; :v :'■, .^' 
: I was on the raft for about six hours, in the ter- 
; rific storm, when it began to abate. :■;:::>';" 

The storm had sunk to rest, and the breast of 
the treacherous ocean lay motionless beneath a 
cloudless sky. The sun is high in the heavens ; 



silence, dreadful silence all around me, silence in 

the air, silence in the deep, silei.ce in those voices, 

which I had heard only the day before. I almost 

give up in despair of ever being rescued, when over 

the horizon a snowy speck appeared. I strain my 

eyes to watch this harbinger of safety in the 

distance. 

Nearer and nearer she approaches. Ah ! she is 

by my side. A fervent prayer ascends like incense 

to Heaven, from the depths of my heart — "Thank 

God, I am saved." 

John J. Dolan, '94. 



Book Review. 



History of the 121st Regiment Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers. By the Survivors' Association. " An 
Account from the Ranks," Philadelphia, Pa.: Press 
of Burk & McFetridge Co., 306 and 308 Chestnut 
St., 1893.* 

This History of the 121st Regiment— one of the 
" 300 fighting Regiments " of the late Civil War — 
gives a fairly complete record of the various haps 
and mishaps that befell the Boys in Blue from 
their first serious engagement of any importance at 
Fredericksburg, Va., to their last at the celebrated 
battle of Appomattox Court House, on April 9, 
1865. 

Though it is rather late in the day for war 
records of over thirty years ago to be published, 
yet a story is none the less readable when told long 
years after the events described took place, especi- 
ally as (in the case of the gallant 121st) the Penn- 
sylvanians showed themselves to be anything but 
slow at the moment of battle. The war loss of the 
Regiment in killed and mortally wounded is set 
down at 13.26 per cent, (page 157.) The list of 
the names, etc., of all the officers and men of the 
Regiment adds value to the work. 

Our fellow parishioner Mr. Strong, of Villanova, 
Chairman of the Committee of Publication, is to be 
congratulated on the successful completion of his 

task. :,■.:.;„.• ,;;..v-^.:?- ,;■ -:r: ,....'.^.- -,..,. .-.'-V ■ -...;■■■ ;- 



French Prose. .:",.-..'■:/ "^ •;■■;. .:.^ ■ 

Popular Science, by Prof. Jules Luquiens, Ph.D., 
recently published by Ginn & Co.., of Boston, is an 
admirable collection of extracts. The book is in- 
teresting and instructive, and far better suited for 
the enlargement of the mind of the young French 
student than selections from fiction. I would 
recommend it to all French students as a Reader 
particularly suitable for advanced French Classes. 

*Ov:tavo ; pages 287 ; with Illustrations and Maps showing 
the Battlefields of the Regiment. By Wm. W. Strong. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



149 



Beminiscences of the World's Fair. 

" O joy almost too high for saddened mortal ; 

O ecstasy envisioned ! Thou should'st be 
lyasting as thou art lovely ; as immortal 

As through all time the matchless thought of 
thee ! 
Yet would we miss then the sweet piercing pain 

Of thy inconstancy. Could we but banish 
This haunting pang — ah, then thou would'st not 
reign 
One with the golden sunset that doth vanish 
Through myriad lingering tints down melting 
skies ; 
For the pale of mystery of the new world flower 
That blooms once only, then forever dies — 

Pouring a century's wealth on one dear hour. 
Then vanish, City of Dream, and be no more ; 
Soon shall this fair earth's self be lost on the 
unknown shore." 

The evening of the Fair has passed and midnight 
falls upon the White City by the lake. But from 
out the gloom that envelops that enchanted 
spot can not many happy memories be recalled, ere 
the gorgeous scene fades from view and is gone. 
How great the sadness contained in tliat word 
gone! But what is gone? Can it be that those 
beauteous palaces which so delighted our fancy, 
pleased our senses and baffled our imaginations 
have passed forever from mortal gaze? Not quite 
gone as yet, but the seal of doom has been placed 
upon them and vigilant agents are ruthlessly 
obeying the dictates of the grim destroyer. Very 
soon nought will remain of those wonderful 
edifices. There will be no material signs of the 
grandest collection of structures ever conceived ; 
only history will record in its commonplace way 
that a World's Fair was held in Chicago, U.S.A., 
to. celebrate the 400th anniversary of the discovery 
of America by Columbus. But in spite of all this 
there are certain things that no earthly power can 
remove, and no human force can take from us, and 
as we sit and muse, picture after picture arises of 
that dream city and for a time we are back 
again in spirit, and are wandering here and* 
there amid the charms of a paradise. We see 
agfain lofty towers and stately domes, and among 
them the golden dome of the Administration 
Building stands forth in its mark of royalty. 
Diana still holds sway from her pinnacle on that 
architectural gem, the Agricultural P>uilding; the 
bright lights .still glimmer through the palace of 
electricity; Machinery Hall retains its dni in the 
same loud measures ; Manufactures and I^ibera} 



Arts remains in its seemingly unassailable position ; 
the Colonnade with its pillars and groups of statuary 
still surrounds the sparkling lagoon ; the fountains 
are playing ; patriotic music fills the air ; the great 
throngs of people are passing to and fro ; the gon- 
dolas move quietly and lazily along in their grace- 
ful fashion, while the little electric launches are 
swiftly passing over the clear waters, and it is thus 
that the World's Fair comes back to us — a scene 
which can certainly defy the invasion of the 
wrecker's tools. Once in a while we recall the 
meeting with a companion or a distinguished per- 
sonage, and these questions, or similar ones,are aj^t 
to have invariably followed our greeting : " When 
did you come?" and "How long do you intend 
staying?" and then we probably continued by in- 
quiring if he has seen the exhibits which mo.stly 
pleased our fancy, such as the picture " Breaking 
Home Ties," the battle ship, the marvels of 
electricity and if he has ridden in the Ferris 
Wheel? 

Who could banish from memory the recollections 
of a night spent at the Fair? The very thought 
makes our hearts swell with emotion and pride. 
We see in fancy the myriads of electric jets ; the 
colored lights from the wooded island and imagine 
it inhabited by elves, fairies and goblins ; we behold 
the rainbow sprays as they shoot high in the air 
and their reflection in the clear lagoon ; we watch 
the shifting of those wonderful search lights and 
hear the inspiring music from the orchestra as it 
mingles in tuneful harmony with the splashing 
water, and falling under the influence of .so much 
grandeur we are moved to a reverence of the 
Creator who has done so much for man. On such 
a night, as in the imagery of Trowbridge, probably 
many voices were heard to exclaim : ;■ ;'V;;>^ 

; -■ Becalmed along the azure sky t- ^■/-'■:''y--:y-:'^--'^l 
Ay V The argosies of cloudland lie ; 4:^r. ..(^^^^^ 
; V- Whose shores with uiany a shining rift -^ ':^- 
.,;>;/; Far off their pearl white peaks uplift. ■ ■/- 

Probably no one visiting the Fair failed to appre- 
ciate the glorious night exhibit, but it is ludicrous 
to note how a simply indescribable scene impresses 
itself on different minds. During the past summer, 
while the myriads of fiery beads were appearing on 
the buildings surrounding the basin, how many 
different views were taken of the numberless unex- 
celled scenes ? I remember in particular hearing 
one young man compare the golden dome on the 
Administration Building to a "vision of the great 
white Throne," and another to the " Holy of holies 
in the Old Temple," while one old couple with thf. 



I50 



VIUvANOVA MONTHLY. 



utmost assurance agreed that it reminded them of 
a large mound of molasses candy. And so it was 
with the entire exposition — no two people viewed 
objects in the same light, and possibly no two 
people were alike interested in the same exhibit. 
However, there each individual could find his secret 
ambition illustrated and his particular hobby grati- 
fied in the most satisfactory manner ; all forms of 
human industry were there given recognition, and 
all men could study in that object school which held 
session for six short months. While " the greatest 
of all exhibits at the Fair were the palaces that 
contained them," we are not all imbued with suf- 
ficiently poetical natures to be content with the 
mere outward survey of the landscape shown ; we 
admire the exterior beauty to the fullest extent of 
our capabilities, but we must take a look at the in- 
terior as well, and then permit ourselves to be 
overwhelmed at the scope of the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition. If we are students of art our 
desires lead us to recall the miles of canvas that 
were stretched before us in that cpiiet but superb 
structure devoted to the fine arts, and we call to 
mind creations we had heard of and had read of, 
but had never hoped to see ; the classic dis])lay of 
famous artists as shown in the loan collection ; the 
true reproduction of life in Holland with the quaint 
Dutch windmills and homely landsca})e views ; the 
characteristic work of the Russians ; the magnifi- 
cent offerings of the French, and the numerous 
portraits of men famous in spheres of literature, 
science or politics — all return to answer the beckon 
we niakje towards the past. And thus it was with 
everything and now alas ! even the glancing back- 
wards presents a panorama which certainly seems 
to have existed without a limit. Apart from the 
Fair and of it was the Midway. The gay, noisy 
Midway in speaking of which, Julian Hawthorne 
calls the " world a plaything." Just survey in 
memory that merry street as it appeared during 
the summer months. Here comes the ''hot, hot, 
hot Elakasari " old Turk with his sweetened 
waffles : now we see the turbaned Hindoos and un- 
assuming little Javanese ; there stroll side by side 
the Esquimaux clad in his garment of furs and the 
Dahomian with but a mere pretense of raiment ; 
we see the dancing girls in their odd costumes, the 
band from the German village marching down the 
Plaisance to the strains of many old German airs, 
and in contrast with these we hear the grating 
sounds that fill the air from the numberless 
orchestras which make not only night but even 
day hideous ; we distinguish the voices of the wiity 
gentlemen of the theatres and the advertising agent 
of the ostrich farm with his amusing harangue. 
As we jouney along we catch echoes of the iJhie 



Danube coming from old Vienna and cannot resist 
a halt in Cairo street. Here bald headed men and 
aged women become as children again, and now 
that it has appeared and vanished the thought 
re". urns of the unbounded glee which took posses- 

' sion of all who entered there, and even the most 
disagreeable of men must have given way before 
the innocent but tantalizing manner of the children 
of different nationalities. What a curious picture 
we likely i;epresented when mounted on the great 
cumbersome camels, and when riding the powerful 
burros, which though wont to be lazy, were urged 
to their utmost speed amid the excitement and 
yells of the multitudes there congregated ; we pay 
a quarter to mount the eighty steps of the Blarney 
Castle that we might stoop to kiss the "real" 
Blarney Stone ; we watch the dairy maids while 
they make the delicious butter ; we gaze with ad- 
miration on the renowned Irish beauties ; we listen 
with rather languid attention to the bagpipes, but 
enjoy the melodious songs of old Erin's Isle ; as a 

* finale we take a trip in the big I'>rris Wheel and 
see Chicago in the distance. Chicago, the city on 
the plains — the so-called " Windy City," where, so 
said those whose judgment remains unques- 
tioned, " art had no abiding place," and yet she 
gave to America and to the whole world a triuni- 
])hant creation of beauty and utility which future 
ages may imitate but cannot surpass. Farewell, 
indeed, to the greatest World's Fair ever held; 
farewell to the greatest event that has happened in 
this or any past century. The exhibits which have 
been gathered within the limits of the one square 
mile of ground have been gazed upon by twenty 
millions of people who had come from every part 
of the e irth to witness all of the rare novelties of 
art and n iture selectei from the different parts of 
the world. Th2 great Wliite City, grandest monu- 
ment ever erected to-the genius of man, has been 
the ino-5t magnificent of all. 

E. T. Wade, '96. 



Gjeeting. 

AUhough the holidays are somewhat d"stant, yet, 
as they will have come and gone before the next 
issue of the MoNTflUY, we take advantage of this 
one to wish our patrons, friends and subscribers all 
the comj)liments of the season ; a Merry Christmas 
and Ilajipy New Year and many returns of both. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY 



151 



Labor in the United States. 

There was a time, not far distant, when men 
thonght they had found in the United States the 
sovereignty of labor. The working classes looked 
with something like contempt upon the condition 
of their fellow-laborers in Europe. Here was a 
land where every man's independence rested in his 
own hands and in his willingness to labor. No 
day should come when an honest day's work would 
not earn, not bread alone but a home — an American 
home. This was the time when the followers of 
Boone were disclosing to wondering eyes the virgin 
richness of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys ; when 
later, adventurous spirits led the way over the 
Rocky mountains to a new western empire. Yes, 
here at last was found what the poets and philoso- 
phers of Greece and Rome had only dreamed of — 
the ideal commonwealth. Thus had a free repub- 
lic, established in the richest and grandest territory 
that the sun ever shone on, conquered at last the 
problem of ages, and labor stood the peer of capital. 

Is this state of things true of to-day ? Yes, in 
part, it may be answered. Looking at the com- 
parative independence and comfort of the great 
masses of the working classes of this country, 
noting that intelligent zeal for personal liberty 
which pervades them, much reason for congratula- 
tion still remains. But now the country has 
grown to manhood and, growing thus, has met the 
harsh experiences inseparable from national as 
well as individual life. Labor has met war, its 
fever, its deadly collapse ; labor has met deJ^t and 
lastly, labor has met capital which rises portentous 
to its full strength and stature out of the smoke of 
war and the shadow of death. 

Here, then, is a problem for the statesmen of 
this age widely differing from that which engaged 
the attention of our forefathers of the Constitution, 
yet, like it in this, that its successful solution 
aims at the amelioration of the condition of 
mankind. .■.:.:,•. •\:,-.-.\ ■•■■•-:■■/ 

Must we sink Into the old ruts along which 
labor has slowly and painfully dragged its burdens 
for ages in Europe? Is there no help for this? Is 
it possible that the light which the founders of this 
Republic set up for the political regeneration of 
mankind one hundred years ago, may be rekindled 
in the same land in a successful age to lead the 
way to the regeneration of labor? 

The people are called upon to consider these 
questions; to answer the complaint of the laborer 
against the capitalist. 

Hence able and eloquent speakers and writers 
are now contending that labor does not receive its 
full and merited reward ; and that the laboring 
class, the most important of all, whether you look 



to its numbers or the actual service it renders, is 
oppressed by the laws. For it is the working 
classes who by their labor and trade and their con- 
tribution to the revenues, enrich the land ; it is 
they that fill the ranks of our armies and navies ; 
to which we owe all our home trade, all our 
manufactures ; which supply us with laborers for 
our factories and grainfields. In fact it is this class 
which does all the productive work, whether in 
town or country. 

Some, however, regard the miseries of the 
laboring class as the accumulated effects of many 
mere circumstances, principally personal impru- 
dence and vice ; others, however, attribute them 
to more general causes, such as a selfish and 

uncharitable spirit or the rapid increase of popula- 
tion ; or the present land ownership system ; 
usury, monopoly, rents, banking, speculation and 
the like. Above all these looms the fact, whatever 
may be the cause, that capital is becoming less in 
the hands of those who produce it, and is growing 
greater and greater in the hands of cunning and 
lucky speculators. 

Hence a great number and variety of novel 
measures and institutions are ingeniously con- 
trived. Some think that more education and 
better lodging houses at less cost would be a good 
and sufficient remedy, while others go so far as 
even to propose agrarianism. 

The doctrines of some economists are : " Tear 
down all barriers, leave trade free and production 
will regulate itself. Competition will regulate 
supply and demand on the one hand, and the price 
of labor through human necessities on the other. " 

Another class of economists cries out : " Destroy 
the barriers to free exchange of products; let all 
who have capital enter the race ; the strongest will 
win and if the weak fall others will take their 
place." But what grand day-dreams were these to 
give to the people — no more restrictions between 
the communities, between nations. All men are 
brothers ; all have an equal right in the struggle 
for existence. But, alas ! it remained but a dream. 

The roseate picture the land reformers and 
trade reformers outlined for this country had great 
weight in fostering those dreams of equality, 
afterward so prevalent ; but dear experience 
brought the laborer to the conclusion that his 
freedom did not consist so much in the freedom to 
toil as the freedom to enjoy that boon, and that 
capital, free from legal restraint, proved anything 
but a true saviour. 

Such has been the result of the dream of liberty! 
Liberty to struggle, to wrangle, to fight alone, 
remains. As a logical consequence escape lies 
only in combination. And on the one side we 
have trade unions, torn in great part by intestine 
discord, struggling against fate for mere materiyl 
advantages. And on the other side, associated 
capital governing the operation of demand and 
supply, and both insensibly drifting in their 
struggle for vantage-ground, to the " despotism of 
state socialism and the quagmires of Communism." 

Martin T. Fiei^d, '95. 



ts^ 



VlLtvANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Monthly, 

PUBLISHED HV THE STUDENTS OF 
UILLANOUA, PA. 



DECEMBER. 1893. 



THE SXKI=F=. 



, Editor-in-Chief. 

J. F. O'LEARY, '94. 

Associate Editors. 
J. J. Crowley, '94. J. J. Rvle, '94. 

J. J. DoLAN, '94. M. T. Field, '95. 

T. J. Lee, '95. M. }. Muri'hy, '95. 

B. J. O'DoNNELL, '95. J. S. Smith, '96. 

W. J. MaHON, '96. J. E. O'DONNELL, '96. 

E. T. Wade, '96. 

Business Manager. 

JOHN J. FARRELL, O-S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 

Remittances and business communications should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, one year • •' |i 00 

Single copies . i 10 



Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second- Class Matter. 



EDITORIALS. 



Of the iiiimeroiis blessings conferred upon man 
by the Creator not the least important is speech, 
by means of which reason becomes manifest, thus 
proving clearly man's superiority over irrational 
creatures. Apart from this, the great value of this 
natural gift may be easily understood, when we 
realize that the strength of the reasoning mind is 
reflected in the clearness, propriety and i^erfection 
of language. While we thus recognize speech as 
the ordinary medium for communicating thought, 
we must not overlook the fact that written lantruaire 
is an almost indispensable adjunct in accomplish- 
ing the same purpos.e. Assuming this as true, we 
readily understand how important for acquiring 
perfection in spoken and written language is the 
study of literature. . In this, however, an ostenta- 
tious display of words should be avoided, as the 
substance, rather than the shadow, is desirable, 
ostentation marring the beauty of real ornament. 
Now a study of literature, while making us familiar 
with all that is beautiful in style, will enal)lc us to 
detect the deficiencies in our own language and in 
that of others. It will help us to avoid the vulgar- 
isms and improprieties of expression so common in 
our vernacular, to form a style clear, elegant and 
forcible, and make our language, written or spoken, 
pleasing to others and satisfactory to our.selves. 



When we consider, iiioreover, what a prominent 
place the arts and sciences hold in literature and 
how this sways the pas.sions and opinions of men, 
is it not surprising that this important study is so 
much neglected? In many of our high schools 
Greek and Latin classics cannot be studied con- 
jointly with English literature, .hence graduates of 
these institutions who have pursued a course in the 
former, but devoted little or no time to a study of 
the latter, lack in conversation and in writing that 
confidence so manifest in a fully educated man. 
For these there is some excuse, but for those who 
attend an institution whose curriculum requires 
that a pro])ortionate amount of time be devoted to 
each, and do not improve their opportunities to the 
best of their ability, there is none. 



With this issue of the ViLi.iVNovA Monthly 
closes the first year of its existence. During this 
time we have endeavored to make it take its ap- 
propriate place among the college journals and 
fulfil all the promises we made for it in the begin- 
ning. We have spared no expense to make it pleas- 
ing and interesting to its readers. Now, in conse- 
quence of all this, we ask our subscribers who have 
not paid their subscription to do so now. We have 
thus far refrained from mentioning money matters 
and hope this one reference to the subject will be 
sufficient. There are many expenses attached to 
a work of this kind, which — let us add — good wishes 
and sympathy will not defray. You will confer a 
second favor when sending your subscription, if 
you will inform us whether you will continue tak- 
ing the Monthly or not. If you do not tell us to 
cancel vour name we will allow it to remain on 
our subscription. list.; ■;•.;;; ; - ;; -^ 

Any one wishing to have bound volumes of the 
Monthly will notify us, and we will guarantee to 
furnish them at very reasonable prices. If you 
have preserved the different copies, you may send 
them to us and thereby lessen the price still more. 

Please send your order before January first. 



We would suggest to those students who occa- 
sionally forget tliemselves and indulge in loose 
remarks, commonly known as slang, that the 
I English language is sufficiently comprehensive for 
j a proper expression of their ideas. As habits 
I formed in youth are with difficulty abandoned in 
more mature years it is your interest to take special 
care now of your manner of speech, that in the 
I future you will not have reason to regret your 
negligence. 



VlUvANOVA MONI'HLY. 



155 



JM THEMA TICAL CLASS. 

To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send pfoblenis, 
queries, etc., and their solutions; or any difticulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 

All such communications should be addressed to 

D. O'Sui-LivAN, M.A., Villanova College. 



39. — A mail ill a balloon observes tlie angle of 
depression of an object on the ground bearing 
son til to be 35° 30'; the balloon drifts 2% miles east 
at the same height, when the angle of depression 
of the same object is 23'' 14'. Find the height of 
the balloon. 




Solution by Monad. 



In (Fig. I) sin A = 



X 

'AB 



sin 35 30 



X 



X 

AB 

AB X sin 35° 30' 



X 



In (Fig. II) sin B = ^ .\ x = BC X sin 23° 14' 

Therefore sin 35° 30' X AB = sin 23° 14' X BC, 
and . '. sin 35° 30' : sin 23° 14' : : BC : AB, and 
hence in (Fig. Ill) we can pnt for the sides of the 
A formed by the lines joining the two positions of 
the balloon with the object on the ground, that is 
to say, with AB and BC, sin 35° 30' and sin 23° 

14.' 




. ^ - sin 2-1° 14' • 

sin C = . -^ ^ , 

sin 35° 30' ^ 

log sin C = log sin 23° 14' -|- colog sin 35° 30' 

log sin 23° 14' = 9.59602—10 

colog sin 35° 30' = .23605 

log sin C = 9.83207 — 10 



C= 42° 47' 23" 



tan C= •"'";'^ .;^ .-. tan 42° 4?' 23" . 
2 % miles 

AB = 23^ X tan 42° 47' 23" 

log AB = \og 2yl + log tan 42° 47' 23" 



AB 

2/. 



log 2>i =-: .39794 

log tan 42° 47' 23" == 9.96046—10 
log AB 



36440 
and in (iMg. I) 



sin 35° 30 



1/f 



Height 
AB 
Height = sin 35° 30' . : 
log height = log sin 35 ^, 

log sin 35" 30' = 9-76395— 1" 
log.ii9--== .36440 

log height -12835 



o 4- log 



l/>' 



Height 



r.344 mile.s. 



40. — Prove that three times the sum of the 
squares of the sides of a triangle is equal to four 
times the sum of the squares of the medians. 

Solution by Edward G. Dohan, ^ g6. 

Let D, E, E be the middle points of the sides. 
Then in any A the sum of the squares of two 
sides of a A is equal to twice the square of half 
the third side increased by twice the square of the 
median upon that side. Therefore 







AB'^-^AC ==<^BJ^2DA^ and hence 

2^//=^-!-2^C'' = 4fe>'+4ZM- that is 

iAB'^iAC = liC^^ ^DA' similarly (1) 

2BC'-^2/M' =^ C^--!-4£"i52 ; ; ^ and (2) 

2CA'+2CI^ -=AB'+^EC'' therefore (3) 

By adding equations (i) (2) and (3) we get 

4 {AB-+BC'-hAC') = : 

aW \ BO-VAa^\ {AD-^-BE-VCE') ^''%--% 
then by subtracting we get 

^{A~B'+BC--tCA') =- 4{DyP-{-BE"-\ CE-) 

:v-:- ■?:;:;:;: q. e. d. 

41. — Extract the square root of 103 — 12I 11. 
Solution by Thomas J. Condon, '96. 



Let 1 X — 1 y = ' 103 — 121 II 
Then I x f V y = 1 103 1 12 1 11 



154 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



By nniUii)lyin^ \vc j;cL 

v — y =^ \ i()6(K) — 15^4 

■»"—;' =-95 
But r -\- ^ = 103 

.r = 99 and y -= 4. 

I .r — I; _J/ ;^ I 99 — I 4 

r .1- — 1" )' ^- 31 II — i. 

42. — 111 a niile race between a bicycle and a tri- 
cycle their rates were as 5:4. The tricycle had 
half a minute start, 1)ut was beaten by 176 yards. 
Find the rates of each. 

Solution by Iidicard McKi'oitgJi^ '96. 

Let X = number of yards bicycle goes joer minute 
and j= " " " ■ tricycle " '' 

then ;r : jj' :: 5 : 4 ^'•; ■ ; 
'W^r 4-1" == Sy 

^ "^ 4 . ;^--ri, 
Vr = number of minutes tricycle was 



1584 

y 



going after bicycle started. 



y 



xy 



3i68;ir — xy = 3520;/ substitute "7 for ;f ', 

■^■•-'^■"-.•■^■^■^--■:v:-''^-:- . sy = 1760 

J r= 352 yards per minute, 
jt = 44*-** 

New Problems. " ,^^:-^;:;■:V■''■■'v;.v"''■T■':■:;^, 

43.— Two objects A and // were observed from 
a ship to be at the same instant in a line bearing 
N. 15° E. The ship then sailed north-west 5 
miles, when it was found that . i bore due east and 
B bore north-east. Find the distance from A to B. 

44. — If a cubical foot of brass were to be drawn 
into wire of 4V of an inch in diameter ; required 
the length of wire, allowing no loss in the metal. 

45. — A side wall of a house is 30 feet high, and 
the opposite one 40, the roof forms a right angle at 
the top, the lengths of the rafters are 10 and 12 feet ; 
the end of the shorter is placed on the higher wall 
and vice versa: required the length of the upright 
which supports the ridge of the roof, and the 
breadth of the house ? "'.; -4 

46. — Find the value of .v: -J 

_ sin- 121° 17' 6" :■: tan 136° 14' ;, 
cos ;i; _ ^,ot T2°l7' 13" v. cos* 148° 16' ^ 

47. — Prove. If two equal triangles ABC and 
ABD be on the same base , //?, but on opposite 
sides, the line joining the vertices C and D is 
bisected by AB. - t 



SPLINTERS. 

Choir. 

Charlie. 

iMirnishings. 

Blow out. 

All hail. 

jNIince i>ie. 

Camp fire. 

" Snow drops." 

Chrysanthemums. 

A short one, Billy. 

vStable equilibrium. 

Wasn't it amusing? 

" Soft-crabbed shells." :.: :. 

" Be wary ; speak low." 

Where's the history lesson, " Ed. ? " 

Call him Bernard, please. 

" We called all hands upon deck ! upon deck ! '' 

" Some came on bicycles because they had no 
fare to pay." 

B's electric Greek method Cora — Co-Ryan. 

They did not know the time as the study-hall 
clock was stopped. 

" Ah! he cannot say anything to us now, for he 
gets up himself on a free day." 

'Tis very evident that the would-be patients do 
not relish dry-bread and tea. R. knows his biz. 

He took John to town and never told me. Well, 
we'll have to work Sunday to make it up. 

Let the poetical, type-writing law student be- 
ware, or we will " Troy " and even up accounts. 

Most students at this period of the year have 
foot-ball hair, but the joker from S. , N. Y. claims 
to have hand-ball hair. 

Referred question : What did B. do with the 
works of the study-hall clock ? We would like to 
know, Geo., as we are losing time. 

His friends of last year should be pleased to 
learn that Jno. no longer sallies forth as "Knight 
of the Corridor," he is now " Knight of the 
Cleaver." 

They are " Dolan " 'em pretty lively since the 
Chinese exclusion act went into effect. Of 
" Corr"-se that was to be expected. 

Who among us can explain the facial expression 
and contortions of the body that Carlos midergoes 
while engaged at hand-ball. ■ ■ * :^ ' 

His face was as long as his legs when he was 
politely requested not to partake of the bounteous 
repast. 

The "Casino" which plays a most important 
part in our history has been lately furnished with 
ornaments galore and Turkish rugs upon the floor. 

We were surprised one evening lately by hearing 
that the heart of the waiter from Brooklyn was 
upside down. Why not stand him on his head 
and right matters ? 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



155 



If the old saying is true, " That fish is brain 
food," the students at one of the upper tables 
should now possess massive brains as they have 
'* Herron " three times a day. 

Practice nnkes perfect ; 1)ut practice is some- 
times expensive, as was the case with one of our 
worthies endeavoring to arrive at perfection in 
making a capital P. 

It is amusing to watch the growth of the fire- 
escapes 0:1 the face of our friend from Jeddo. As 
he is a waiter probably he is cultivating them for 
the purpose of providing a trolley system. 

Billy has purchased a mute for his violin. 
What a relief it would be for the occupants of the 
flat if he could provide mutes for the pianos. 

What is it attracts his attention, 
As close at the window stands he ? 

'Tis needless to those it to mention, 
Who comprise the Villa's S. C. 

But to others, ignorant that Jack 

In a wager bet indiscreetly. 
We will say 'twas the almanac, 

On which was his capital P. 

THE WASH HOUSE SCARE. 

The laundry girls in awful plight 
Gave us a scare the other night ; 

They ran up here with dreadful tale 
Of miird'rous burglars on their trail. 
'Twas such a dreadful, horrid thing 
We hardly knew what help to bring, 
But John O'l). with base-ball bat 
Ran down to knock the rascals flat. 
While F'ather V. in his alarm 
Pull'd out a gun and shot the barn. 
To Walter C. we gave a stick 
He vow'd he'd make those burglars sick ; 
To Feather L,. we gave a gun, 
He ^aid : " No, no, I'd shoot some one." 
When all were ready for the fray 
The burglars were ten miles away. 

Yhe saddest feature of the case 

Was Annie's fainting from the chase; 

" They has poor Sal " she faintly said. 
And then fell over, almost dead. 

CtO tell the tale where'er you can 
That "bins has more pertection " than 
The four poor girls wlio got the fright 
From burglars bold at dead of night. 



PERSONALS. 



Rev. PVancis I^'arley, of Hochessen, Del., was a 
welcome visitor to our President on Nov. 4th. 

Mrs. Williams, of Phikidelphia, paid a brief visit 
to her son Harry, of the Junior Department. 

Misses L. Mahoney and T. Olsen, of Phila- 
delphia, called on their friend,, John Hughes. 

Miss Barthmaier of Philadelphia, visited Nicho- 
las Vasey, of the Senior Department, on Nov. 26th. 

Miss ,Mamie McHugh, of Philadelphia, was 
entertained Sunday afternoon, Nov. 26th, by her 
brother Frank. 

Mr. Laurence McCall, of Philadelphia, recently 
spent a very enjoyable afternoon with his son 
Joseph. 

Mr. Charles Healey, a medical student in the 
University of Pennsylvania, enjoyed a short visit 
to his friend, John Maher. 

We are glad to announce that Lex Hart is 
improving rapidly from the injury received on the 
Qth, while playing foot-ball. 

Rev. Father Conway, of Our Mother of Sorrows, 
West Philadelphia, was the guest of the Faculty 
on the 2 1 St. 

Walter F'ord, one of the Juniors, who was called 
home on account of the death of his grandfather, 
Pv. C. Lyons, of Media, Pa., has returned. 

Rev. P. H. O'Donnell, O.S.A , was transferred 
from St. Denis' Church, Haverford, Pa., t3 Water- 
ford, N. Y. The vacancy was filled by Rev. E. 
A. Daily, O.S.A., former pastor of St. Monica's, 
Berwvn. 

Rev. P'^athers Leonard and Gleeson, two of our 
esteemed professors, preached very eloquent ser- 
mons lately ; the former at the dedication of St. 
Mary's Church, Coaldale, Pa., on the 19th Nov., the 
latter at the dedication of St. Anthony's, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., on Nov. 26thv 

It is with deep sorrow that we are obliged to 
publish the sudden death of Mrs. Bernard Kerr, 
who died in Annandale, N. J., on Monday morn- 
ing, Nov. 20lh. vShe was the mother of Richard 
and John, our fellow students of the Senior Depart- 
ment. W« extend our heart-felt sympathy to the 
family in this its hour of bereavement. 

We extend our heartiest congratulations to our 
fellow student John T. vSliea of '89, whose pro- 
motion from the Council Chamber of Cambridge, 
]\Iass. , to the State Legislature was effected by an 
overwhelming majority in -the late elections. We 
extend greetings, John, and wish you success as 
a law maker of the great commonwealth. But 
don't stop there. Carry the "White and Blue" to 
the Ht.lls of Congress, 



156 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 



r. D. S. — The debate which took place Wednes- 
day evening;, November 22, was really interesting 
a«id instructive. The question was Resolved — 
That Modern Oratory is equal to Ancient. Messrs. 
M. T. Field, T. J. Lee, M. H. McDonnell and W. 
D. Riordan were the debaters. 

Mr. M. T. Field opened the debate for the affir- 
mative and although his arguments were few, yet 
they were forcible, inasmuch as they were very 
pointed. Then followed Mr. M. H. McDonnell 
for the negative. He treated the audience 
to a very well written essay on Oratory, but 
did not, we believe, speak very well to the point 
at issue. 

The next speaker for the affirmative was Mr. T. 
J. Lee, who deserves special praise for the manner 
in which he resolved the subject into all its details, 
mentioning and treating separately and collectively 
all the essential parts. His arguments were well 
selected and forcibly advanced and consequently 
made a deep impression on his hearers. Mr. W. 
D. Reardon, after summing up the arguments of his 
opponents and criticising tliem lo such an extent 
as to call forth much applause, gave his own solu- 
tion of the subject and closed the debate. 

When the (|uestion was given to the house many 
arguments for and against each side were brought 
forward which kept the result for a long time in 
doubt. 

The discussion throughout was listened to with 
nnusual interest. When the time came for onr 
critic to give his decision on the merits of the 
arguments he was almost at a loss how to decide, 
but having highly commended the debaters on the 
efficiency they displaced he awarded the palm of 
victory to the affirmatives. 

The next debate will be A'^-.w/rrr/— That the 
Pulpit is more influential than the Press: The 
debaters will be Messrs. Jno. K. O'Donnell, B. J. 
O'Donnell, S. T. Kenny, and \\.}. Wade. 

V. L. /. — The November meeting of the V. L. L 
was held on the 12th. A large number of the 
members was present and manifested the usual inter- 
est in the proceedings. After two new members 
were admitted, the chairman of the committee for 
refurnishing the Library made a satisfactory report. 
The society recently received some instructive and 
valuable books for which the members are very 
grateful. 



PATRONIZE 



OUR 



ADVKRTLSERS. 



EXCHANGES. 



The "Pearl of Literature" holds a prominent 
place among the contributions to the St. John's 
IJniversiiy Record. The manner in which the 
writer has handled this essay reflects credit upon 
him. He shows familiarity with the subject, 
and traces with a skillful hand the different kinds 
of literature from its origin among the ancients to 
its height of perfection in subsequent ages. A 
treatise on " Evolution " is filled with learned 
thoughts, and brings forth proDfs strong and con- 
vincing that the Catholic Church has never been 
an oppressive incubus on .'scientific progress. 

The Quecii's Vniversily Jo^irnaPs "just coming 
to age " is a fact worthy of notice, and we wonder 
not that such an event produces a " mingling of feel- 
ings " in the editors. The criticism this journal 
has passed upon the " Prince of India" is by no 
means unjust, and displays on the part of the critic 
a careful perusal of the work. We are surprised 
that our Canadian friends devote so much space to 
athletics. It could be much better filled with 
literary matter. 

A regular and esteemed visitor to our " Sanctum" 
is the Chattanooga Facts. To young and old this 
paper is both interesting and instructive. Its 
literature is the choicest. Its articles, pertinent to 
Cliurch and State, are selected with care and ; 
written in a simple but pleasing style. 

The editors of the Niagara Index may well 
feel proud of their Jubilee number in honor of the 
Silver Jubilee of Rt, Rev. Bishop Ryan. The 
account of the proceedings is very succinct and 
interesting. The cuts distributed throughout the 
journal are well executed and make it a very pleas- 
ing sheet. ,...,,., , . ., -:.,-^. :..:,.. i...y ■■■ 

Fvvery issue of our esteemed contemporary The 
Atheuaeum gives us nnich pleasure. The main 
feature of this journal is its Editorial department .: 
in which the Editor expresses himself in that ; 
strong, original and " right to the point, " style not 
so often seen in college journals. ^ ^ 

" American Literary Woman" is an article in 
the November issue of the Agnetian Monthly 
that shows care and research on the part of its fair y 
writer. '"'"'' : '" -■'■■-■>-■■■■■ '"r\,^ 

One thing very noticeable in this bright monthly ; 
is the absence of an exchange column. We would '■'■ 
suggest that an exchange editor be added to the 
Monthly'' s staff. 

The absence of The Highlander., Denver, Col., 
has been felt for a long time in our sanctum. We 
hope it has not forgotten us. Its reappearance 
shall be heartly welcomed by us, 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE NEW CATHOLIC BOOKSTORE, 

824 Arch St., 

H.S. KILNER&CO. 

Finest Goods, Lowest Prices. 

Largest Catholic Bo ole Store south of New Yofi(. 

GRAND CHRISTMAS EXHIBITION 

AT 

SCHWARZ'S TOY BAZAAR 

1006 CHESTNUT STREET. 

Our assortment and fine selections of TOYS, DOLLS and NOVELTIES 
is acknowledged to be the largest and without competition. 
PRICES THE LOW^EST. 

JAMES IVrcCANNEY, 

Saddle, Harness i Collar Maker, 

3132 Chestnut Street, 
PH11.ADELPHIA, 

THE DeMORAT studio, 

914 CHESTNUT STREET, PHILA. 

PORTRAIT AND LANDSCAPE 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALl. BRANCHES. 

Special Rates in Oroups, also to Colleges and Societies. 
ESTABLISHED 1864. H. B. HHNSBURV. 

THE ONLY WM. 

In Pliiladelphiifa, 

In fact, IN THE COUNTRY, that makes a 
specialty of sacred heart pictures, 
Framed and Un framed. Have you seen 
his Hand- Painted S. H. on Placqnes ? 
Drop in and see Progress at 

Conway^s Catholic Supply House 

i8th and Stiles, first Store above Gesu Church. 

Agent for the American Line and White Star Line Steamers to and from 
the Old Country. Drafts at the Lowest Rales. 

"~ E. K. WILSON & SON, . 

Manufacturers of and De»lers in 

Ji'iitsfe-glass 1^00ts and ghees^ 

Repairing Neatly and Promptly attended to. Custom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^aiicaster Avc, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



I will sell YD1T 

$10.00 worth of Clothing-, Dress Goods, Ladies' 
Coats and Cloaks, Furniture, Carpets Watches, 
Jewelry, Ohinaware, etc., for 

$1.00 CASH AND $1.00 PER WEEK. 

PHIL. J. WALSH, 

28-30-32 AND 34 SOUTH SECOND STREET, 



OPEN 

ON SATURDAY 

UNTIL 

TEN O'CLOCK. 



PHILAD'A 



If the Goods are not sat- 
isfactory, come to me and 
I will allow all reasonable 
claims. 



Pbysioians' Prescriptions Accurately Compounded at all hours at 

ROSEMONT PHARMACY, 

JtHf^l^K ^' PR'WTL Craduatc Iq pj?ar/nacy, 

PROPRIETOR. 

Also a full line of Patent Medicines, and Druggists' Sundries. 

BOOKS BOUGHT. 

F you want a book, no matter when or where published, call 
at our store. \Vc have, without exception, the largest 
collection of Old I{ooks in .A^nicrica, all arranged in Depart- 
ments. Any person having the time to spare is perfectly 
welcome to call and examine our stock of two to three hundred 
thousand volumes, without feeling under the slightest obligation 
to purchase. 

LBHRY'S OL-D BOOK STORe. 
9 South Ninth Street, 

(First Store below Market St.) PHILADELPHIA. 

A. M. BUCH & CO.. 
156 North Ninth Street. Pbiladelphia, Pa. 

LADIES' AND GENTS', 

1a£IG 7VVAKERS, 

HAIR GOODS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 
49*Wig8 and Beards to Hire, for Amateur Theatricals.'SCl 

AV"]Vr. E. HIlSrCH, 

OllNDOCn ••• GliflSS, 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS, OILS, VARNISHES, BRUSHES, ETC 
No. 1702 Market Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



D. J. GALLAGHER. GEO. W. GIBBONS. 

D. J. GALLAGHER & CO.. 

Printers, Publishers 

:; : V And Blank Book Manufacturers/ |^:;^gC 

Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationery 
:•; t 246-4'7 North Broad Street, Phila. ... 

•;■.;;.• (GaUagrber BuUdlntf.) .■•' .> 



Publishers of "AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW," 

' ' ■-• ''■ -■ ■ ^•' y''-''--' '■'-■" $3.50 Per Annum. ■■ / 

MOORE'S 

Windsor hotel, 

PHILRDELPHIfl. ■'-'-'-■■■^^-■>''''-- 

Half Block from New P. & R. Terminal, and One and a Half 
Blocks from Broad Street Station. , 

■' iai!)-9i) Filbei-t Street. ;; ;;( 

PRESTON J. MOORE, Proprietor. 



n 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 




Thomas Bradley, 

N. W. gor. Twenty-first 

and Market Stceets. 

WK extend an invitation to you to call at our GREAT 
WESTERN MEAT MARKET and sec what a choice 
selection of 

13eef, Mutton, Lamb, Dried Beef 
Lard, Hams and Provisions 

We hHve constantly on hand and note the Low Prices at whleli we are 

selling. We handle only the Best Ooods and Quality considered. 

Our Prices are the Lowest in the City. Come, see for 

yourself. 

IJb^ral DigqouQt to public a^d Qljaritable Ii78titutioi78. 
ORDERS BY MAIL 
GIVEN 
SPECIAL ATTENTION. 



GOODS DELIVERED PROMPTLY 

AND FREE OF CHARGE. 




JOHN A. ADDIS, . 

Undertaker I Embalmer, 

241 North Fourth Street, 

^ PHILADELPHIA. 

THOMAS J. FOG ARTY, 

DEALER IN 

Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

Clothing, Hats and Caps, 

Dry Goods, Notions, Trimmings, Etc. 



Lancaster Awenue. 



Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



DEALER IN 

Carpets, Oil Cloth, Linoleums, 

RUGS, WINDOW SHADES, ETC., 
No. 37 SOUXH SECOND STREET, 

Below Market, P:ast Side. PHILADELPHIX. 

"^ WILLIAM J. REED, 

DEALER IN 

•f'Fine Hats, Caps and Umbrellas,*- 

ALL THE NEWEST STYLES, 
CLOSING OUT TRUNKS AT COST. 

261 North Eighth Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEXT TO FOREPAUGH'S THEATRE. 

prouideF>t Ijfe 9 Jmst <^o. 

: Ol' Ir^liiljidelpliia, 

N. W. Cor. 4th and Chestnut Sts,, (40 r -409) 

fSSUES Life, Endowment and Term Policies, 
which can be made payable at death in 10, 15, 
20, 25 or 30 yearly instalments, thus saving 
the widow, who is the usual beneficiary, the trouble 
and risk of investment. 

Safe investments ; low rate of mortality ; low^ rate of 
expenses ; liberality to policy-holders 

In Everything Ex-^ellcd by no othcp Company 



BRYN MAWR PHARMACY. 

ELEGANT PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS, 

PreBoriptions a Specialty. 
f CHRISTIA N MOOt^B.-f 

OBLINQER DR05. & QO.^ 



FACTORY, LANCASTER, PA. 

SALESROOM, 164 N. THIRD ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
Wholesale only. 

PETER F. CUNNINGHAM ^ SON, 

PUBLISHERS 

AND 

Catholic Booksellers, 

lAIPOliTKItS OF ' 

CATHOLIC BOOKS AND CATHOLIC GOODS, 

Nd. B17 Arch. Street, 

PHII^ADE^LPHIA. 

JSverytbing at lowest prices. 



DR. 8TEIN80CK, 




1630 jv/ortl? T^elftl? 5tr^(?t, pi^iladelpljia, pa. 

Specialist in Gold and Silver Fillings, and Artificial Teeth. 
GAS AND ETHER ADMINISTERED. 

"Hallahan's Shoes are the Best." 

Our stock of Fine Footwear is alwa\s attractive^ 
in quality^ variety and price. 

HALLAHAN, 

^___^___ Mghih and Filbert Sts-, Philadelphia. 

P. J. COLAHAN, 1838 MARKET ST. 

Dealer ip pipe (iroGerie$. 

BEST BRANDS OF FI.OUR, $5.50 PER BBL. 

OMSH OR CREDIT. 
^ ^ V BUY YOUR GOODS 

FROM 

GEO. KELLY & CO., 

80s and 810 Market St., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
On Bill of $10— $1 Down— $1 per Week. 

SPECIAL TERM S ON LARGE PURCHASES. 

DANIEL GALLAGHER, 

Manufacturer of and Dealer in Durable 

FDri]itiU[<eifie(lding 

Of Every Description, 

43 South Second Street, 

Ahoye Chestnut. Pbiladelpbia. 

Sitecial Discount to Institutions. 




VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



tti 



CHARliHS B. IiYflCH. 

WATCHES, CLOCKS AND JEWELRY, 

S. E. Cor. Market and 16th Sts., 

PHILADELPHIA. 
x8 K. Wddlng Rings. Fine W atch Repairing a Specialty, 

LOGUE * HATTER 

STRICTLY ONE PRIGE. 

1236 MARKET ST. 



MONEY 
REFUNDED. 



BOOKS. 



BOOKS. 



CATHOLIC SCHOOL I COLLEGE 

•0*-TEXT BOOKS, -J^ 

Ne-w and Second Hand. 

Have oonatantly on band a full line of Catholic 
Theological and Miscellaneous Books. 



Libraries and small parcels of Books 
purchased for cash. 

SEND YOUR ADDRESS OR OAT.T. 

JOHN JOSEPH McVEY, 

39 fi» Thitrteenth Stireet, 

PHlIiADKIiPHIA, PA. 

CHARLES G. HOOKEY, 

626 NORTH FOURTH STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA . 

MART. D. BYRNES, 

Livery, Sale I Exchange Stables, 

Lancaster Auenue. Rosemont, Pa. 

^ hauung done. 

DEALEB IN ^ AOBMT FOm 

Spalding's, Reach's anc 
Tryon's Sporting Goods. 



Diamonds, Watches, Clocks 
Jewelry and Silverware. 

Also a complete stock of Spec- 
tacles and Eye Glaoses. 
Fine \Vatch and Clock Repairing. 



Estimatet furnished to Clubs at 
the lowest club rates. 



UKNCKSTER KlfB.. KRDTU^ORE. ^7^- 




BROGAN & SMITH, 

Practical Steam Fitters 

STEAM and HOT WATER HEATING. 
|<lo. 810 l^ACE ST., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



Lithographers 



.... Printers 






TIM. QUINLAN k BRO., 

ILUISMITI! % lOni UOERI, 

BRYN MAWR, PA. 

Horse- Shoeing a Specialty. Old Lancaster Road. 

FOK. o-oor) ^woK^ic. 

Try boston laundry, 

235 and 238 NEW ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

THOS. E. HOUSTON PROPRIETOR. 

M. A. CALLANAN, 

DEALER IN 

DRY GOODS, NOTIONS. 

Ladies' and Gents' Furnishing Goods, 

L ancaster Avenue. Bryn Ma'wr^Pa, 

1025 Market St.. 

Sells everything needed 
for the Table, Kitchen and 
Household at half othcr'a 
prices, 

10 ct. goods are 5 cts. 
Surprising? Wonderful? Yet True I I 

C£^ [^ $io and $20, Genuine Confederate Bills only 
tPJ)) five cents each ; $50 and ^100 bills 10 cents 
each ; 25c. and 50c. shinplasters 10 cents each ; 
^i and $2 bills 25 cents each. Sent securely sealed 
on receipt of price. Address, Chas. D. Barker, 
90 S. Forsyth St., Atlanta, Ga. 

Philadelphia Photo-Electrotype Co.. 

707 and 709 FILBERT STREET, >. 
PHILADELPHIA. 

Engraving for all purposes and by all methods. Half-Tone Illustrations 
frotn Photographs. Wash-Drawings, Paintings, etc., etched on Copper. 
C. W. BECK, Manager. 




"ai^^ 




stationers .... 



Blank Book Makers 



M.GALLAGHER, 

PKACTICAL 

Harness IQaksr 

15 N. Qth St., 

Philadelphia. 
MANUFACTURER OF FINE HORSE BOOTS. 

H. MUHR'S SONS. 

^ J e iA£ e Le R s -k^ - 

Diamonds, Precious Stones, and Watch Manufacturers. 
Salesroom, 629 Chestnut St., Factory, Broad and Race Sts. 

Branches: 139 State Street, Chicago. 

20 John St., New York. 

131 Avenue du Sud, Antwerp. 

THOmRS R. CUEARy, 

^FUNERAL DIRECTOR*- 

^ V S. W. Cor. Twelfth and Jefferson Sts., ; '• 

PHILADELPHIA. 
49* Personal attention day or night. 



tv 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 




'' I ^HIS is the Overcoat for the coming season — 
*• fly front, cut long, full and loose fitting, 
with a strictly-gently swing. The higher grades 
are silk lined throughout, others have cassimere 
lining with body and sleeves silk-lined. Made in 
Kerseys, Meltons and Fur Beavers, Black or Blue. 
The Kersey the favorite material and Blue the 
popular color. Any price you wish from $15.00 
to $45.00. 



K. C. YKTES S CO 

13th and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia. 



• f 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

Butter, Eggs, 





And Game 



Stalls, 1 1 12, 1 1 14 and 1 1 16 Eleventh Avenue, 

':;;.;: Reading Terminal Market. : v^:■v 

109,171 and 173 union market, 2d and callowhill sts, 
Philadelphia. 



A. L. PLUSH, 

dkai,i;r in 

Bicycles 

Of ail Kinds, 

AIko Se\%'iiiK 9IncliliivM, 
<>nii!i, Rifles niid 

Sporting (aOOllB. 

LOCKSMITHING, BELL HANGING, LAWN MOWER AND ALL 
T-yy LIGHT MACHINERY REPAIRING. 

LANCASTER AVENUE, BRYN MAWR, PA. 




A FACT TO B£ REMEMBERED 

THAT THE HEADQUARTERS FOR 

Music, Music Books, and Musical Instruments 



IS AT 



Ji E. DITSON Si CO.'S, 

1228 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. 

" BELLAK'S, 

PJANOS^ORGANS 

M29 CHESTNUT STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA. 

VAN HORN & SON, 

. . MAKERS AND DESIGNERS 

theatrical AND HISTORICAL 

Catalogues Furnished- Costumer For the Mask and Wig Club. 

AL.1. KINDS OF STAGK MAKK UP, TIGHTS d&c. 

121 N. NINTH STREET, Philadelphia. 

L. Bookbinder & Co., "ffSfSe, 
IpoKiQ^ dlass^S ai)d pi(;tur^ pra/n^s. 

APPROF^RIATE i'lCTURE FRAMING OUR SPECIALTY. 

GILT MANTELS AND PIER MIRRORS, REGILDING. 

232 Apch Street, Philadelphia. 

(Jold ^ y\\\}((r (V\({d^\h for all OeeasioQS 

Plus and Badges, etc. Made to Order. 

Engravings In General and Specal VTork. 

D. A. REESE, Engraver and Manufacturer, 

700 Apeh St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(MTr of the Villanova College Prize Medals.) 



IV 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 





HIS is the Overcoat for the coming season — 
fly front, cut long, full and loose fitting, 
/ \v • with a strictly-gently swing. The higher grades 
are silk lined th rough ont, others have cassimere 
lining with body and sleeves silk-lined. Made in 
Kerseys, Meltons and Fur Beavers, Black or Blue. 
The Kersey the favorite material and Blue the 
popular color. Any price you wish from $15.00 
to $45.00. 



T;-. : 



H. C. YKTeS 5t CO 

13th and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia. 



• f 



'hor^ai p. (imall 



Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 



Butter, Eggs, 
Poultry 
And Game 



Stalls, 1 1 12, II 14 and 1 116 Eleventh Avenue, 
Reading Terminal Market. 

109,171 and 173 union market, 2d and callowhill sts, 
Philadelphia. 




A. L. PLUSH, 

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VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



,'';,-■' :;'-,;;.,/ ',:;,;. Happiness. 

" Omiies homines beati esse volunt et hoc ardentissime 
appetiint, et propter hoc catera appetunt." 

SL Aug. de Trin- r.5. 

All men, without exception, wish to be happy ; 
in fact, the first and strongest desire of the nature 
of man is happiness. It is his sole aim and is 
what moves him to the performance of great deeds 
or restrains him from. them. He seeks it every- 
where, and all his acts are performed that he may 
attain that end. Even though disappointment 
conies, inevitably, in one way or another, he still ■ 
persists and never gives up, nor grows weary of 
the search. The question, therefore, naturally 
proposes itself : In what does real happiness con- 
sist ? One after another, gayety, mirth, laughter 
and pleasures are tried, and again and again the 
apparent happiness fades away and eludes the 
grasp. .••■ ■-■.,. ■ ■'?:./'■■-■■. 

Happiness is defined as the possession and enjoy- 
ment of good. Good must be understood here as 
that which will satisfy the appetite of man. Hence 
we see . that anything that is not desired will in 
nowise conduce to happiness. We know by expe- 
rience that man is constantly seeking different 
objects and having obtained them, soon tires of 
them. Yet he is not happy. The human appetite 
can be satisfied by the possession of infinite good 
only. The perfect happiness of man is in no 
created good, but reposes in God alone. For a 
prime requisite of happiness is, that it be perman- 
ent and not a fleeting shadow. This can be had 
only in that which transcends created things. It 
must last beyond the end of time, and certainly we 
have yet to behold anything created that will bear 
this test. Hence we must look beyond the created 
and seek the Creator. 

It is not in the perpetual seeking and never find- 
ing that happiness consists, it is in the attainment 
and not in the pursuit. We have an illustration 
from the ancient Pagans whose poets, according to 
their idea of punishment in Hades, represent 
Tantalus in the midst of a pool of water, yet 
never able to slake his 'burning thirst. Moreover, 
being deprived of the light of faith on which 
much depends, especially in this case, they mis- 
took happiness for a state in this life. They 
placed it in mental tranquility, or made it synony- 
mous with a i)lacable or imperturbable state of the 
mind. Horace most beautifully describes it in the 
third book of the Odes : 

" Justum ac tenacem propositi virum 
Non civium ardor prava jubentium ; 



Non vultus instantis tyranni 

Mente quatit solida : Neque Auster 
Dux inquieti turbidus Adriae, 
Nee fuhninantis magna manus Jovis, 
Si fractns illabatur orbis, • v:- 
Impavidum ferient ruinae." - ■;: ^H 



*•■- . -J 



Happiness, however, is Jiot a state, it is an act. It 
/-^ not a passion, but an action. Contentment 
must not be confounded with our subject, else this 
world were full of happiness. While a very little 
will render a man content, to be happy he requires 
an infinity. Neither are we to mistake the words 
of the eight Beatitudes, which say — " Blessed are 
they that hunger," and " Blessed are they that 
mourn." Their happiness consists in the promise 
that they shall be filled and comforted. We know 
what makes labor light, troubles bearable, is the 
hope of finding rest, calm and peace. Without 
this hope we would have nothing in the world but 
misery and pessimism. The happiness of this life 
comes from living for a supernatural end, the true 
end of man. When we make this life or world our 
end we deny the very condition of either indi- 
vidual or social happiness, since it is dependent on 
infinity. 

Man can find good, only when seeking his ulti- 
mate end, and whenever he loses sight of this 
end, he abandons the source of good, and since 
the human appetite can be satisfied only by the 
possession of good, he virtually abandons happi- 
ness. The avaricious man places his happiness in 
the possession of money ; the voluptuous, in the 
gratification of his passions, and the ambitious, in 
honor. They are foolish enough to imagine that 
in these can be found the greatest of all good. 
Yet, who ever heard of a miser being content and 
happy; a libertine satisfied, or an ambitious person 
resting on his laurels? The Apostles taught that 
cupidity is the root of all evils. How then can it 
bring happiness which requires only good ? Noth- 
ing need be brought forward to condemn the 
libertine, his own actions are sufficient. Finally, 
happiness ought to be in him who is happy, as a 
good intrinsic to himself. But honor is an ex- 
trinsic thing and in him only who confers the 
honor. Therefore it is not conducive to happiness. 
Again, being unstable and depending on the 
opinion of men, which changes as a weather-vane, 
it contradicts the stability and eternity required 
for happiness. Religion provides for earthly 
felicity, for it draws our minds from earthly things 
and fixes them on God. 

T. J. Fitzgerald, '93. 

St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. 



;^._«>v, .^ J 



iiS^ 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



/V 



Address to a Black-thorn. 
Written for the Villanova Monthly by Patrick Carey. 

To thespot where you flourished I send a fond greeting, 
That dear liltle island, afar, o'er the sea ! 

For time since we parted, tho' changeful and fleeting, 
Has brought but few blessings to her, or to me : 

You come from the glade where in truancy often 
I sought the sweet solace of freedom from books ; ; 

The future all dark, with no sunbeam to soften 
' The schoolmaster's rod, or his ominous looks ! 



freedom from school, what an exquisite pleasure 
To chase the gay butterfly over the lea ! 

To watch where the wild bee unloaded her treasure 
• Or capture the young birds high up in the tree ! 
Than the wisdom of sage, or the brain- racking grammar, 

Such pleasures were sweeter in youth's sunny prime ; 
Tho' oft their indulgence brought birchings and clamor 

Which troop down the vistas of old Father Time ! 

Incisive and keen is the sting of your thorn, 

No blossom blooms fairer in woodland or lea; 
And your odorous breath on the zephyr of morn 

Is sweeter than spice-breeze from Araby's sea ! 
And many a time, I am minded this minute, 

I gathered your berries as black as the night ; 
While safe in your branches the mavis and linnet 

Poured out on the morning their songs of delight ! 

1 pledge me the spalpeen, whose name I wont mention, 

Who tore you away from the spot where you grew. 
Must have tried every art of the coward's invention 

To battle your armor protective and true ! 
To the Pattern or Fair with the lawless and lowly 

They bore you away in the vigor of youth. 
And, there, as an actor, in strife all unholy 

They dimmed in Old Erin the Crystal of truth ! 

No longer o'er innocent heads do you hover, — 

For Donnybrook Fair is a thing of the past ; 
The wild days of feud, and of faction are over, 

And concord o'er dissonance triumphs at last ! 
From Cork to Fermanagh, from Limerick to Derry, 

There is but one county in Ireland to-day ; 
And Antrim may sneer at the mountains of Kerry, 

Without one blackthorn being raised in the fray ! 

You may travel incog, from Athlone to Dunleary, 

Or spend the fair-week in sweet Ballinasloe ; 
Yet, never have fear that a single shillelagh 

Will speak you uncivil, or ask where you go ; 
But yet I wont vouch, if the bailiff" or peeler 

Who happens to trust himself near you in fight. 
Will not kiss mother earth with that catapult feeler, 

Which scatters strange stars thro' the ebon of night ! 



As knitted thy fibre as sinewy Erin, 

The first in the onslaught, the last in retreat ; 
Intrepid to dare, in the conflict unfearing ; 

Yet mild as the pink flow'r which grows in the wheal! 
There are strength and endurance in thee my blackthorn, 

A type of the land where your armor was cast ! ' ■ V 
For like our good actions, the more you are worn, I ■ ; 

The more does your time-service laugh at the past ! 

To that beautiful glade by the bright shining river, { 

Where ferns are woven by fairies at night ! 
Where the sweet scented primrose, the balm-bieuthing 
'''■''■ clover .-■'■■■'-/v'-" ^ -■ ■■"'-■- ■:'r-'-':r^:_:_ 

Inspires the gay lark to the regions of light ! > - 
To thee, dearest spot, do I send my fond greeting. 

And wonder if Death will not bear me to thee. 
When my soul takes its flight, and the earth is retreating, 

Shall I see thee once more, fairest isle of the sea ? 



St. Augustine of Hippo. 

FOURTH PA.PKR. • I ;: 

Africa at all times fruitful in men of merit and 
genius, — in scholars, poets, writers, statesmen, 
saints and martyrs, vv^as in Augustine's day 
blessed equally with other portions of Christendom" 
with learned and holy men. 

Besides those who have been named in previous 
papers was Aurelius the primate of the African 
Church, whose see was Carthage, and who was a 
worthy successor of the saintly Cyprian, the mar- 
tyred Doctor of the Church. 

One may form a fairly good idea of the flourish- 
ing state of religion in Africa, the southernmo.st 
portion of the Roman Empire, from the great 
number of bishops that held sees therein. 

In the fifth century of the Church the number 
of Catholic sees in Africa was 481, viz., 54 in 
Africa Proconsularis ; 125 in Numidia ; 122 in the 
Byzacena Province ; 123 in Mauritania ofCaesarea ; 
44 in Mauritania of Sitizum ; 5 in the Tripolitana 
Province, and 8 in Sardinia and the Balearic 
Isles.* 

The reader will observe that throughout this 
paper the term — Africa — is not employed in its 
modern geographical sense, — to embrace, namely, 
the whole of the vast continent known as one of 
the great land divisions of the earth. 

The Africa of the fifth century comprised merely 
that belt of land along the southern coast line of 
the Mediterranean Sea, which reaches westward 

* The figures given above have been taken from that mag- 
nificent monument of Catholic scholarship,— the Series Episco- 
pormn Ecclesiae Catholicae, etc., (Ratisbon, 1873,) of tlie 
learned and painstaking Benedictine, Rev. Pius Boniface 
Gams, for which see page 463. 



■'t^--;'.- „:-. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



from Barca to the Atlantic Ocean. l^ast of it lay- 
Egypt. 

Among the many sees subject to Carthage, Hippo 
styled Regms^ or the Royal, because of its once 
having been the residence of the kings of Numidia, 
was not the least important. Among the African 
cities Hippo Regius ranked next to Carthage. „ . 

Thus did the sublime charge of chief pastor and 
guardian of souls, which had devolved on Augus- 
tine, — the one time trusty and experienced assist- 
ant of Valerius, call into play not only at home in his 
own see, but abroad all the marvellous abilities and 
gifts of him, who in later ages of the Church was to 
be known as her chief doctor. It would not be 
within the scope of this paper, even were it pos- 
sible, to detail, except in a very summary form, 
the many social, political, literary, and ecclesias- 
tical achievements of Augustine in the interests 
of Church and fatherland during his long and 
eventful episcopal career. During the thirty-five 
years of his rule of the diocese of Hippo, no one 
who makes a study of his life, or of his works, — 
no one who considers the eulogies accorded to him 
by his contemporaries and his successors, can fail 
to observe with what earnestness, faithfulness, zeal 
and wisdom, this holy Bishop, raised up as it were 
by the Providence of God, at this most critical 
period of the history of His Church, corresponded 
to the task set before him. One must recognize 
how everywhere throughout Africa, not to say of 
the Church at large by his words and writings, and 
in a far more efficacious manner by his virtuous 
and exemplary life Augustine sought to organize 
and strengthen the society of the Faithful accord- 
ing to the loftiest Christian ideals, —to implant in 
it the good seed of truth and the love of virtue, — 
to guard it against the evils of the times, — in a 
word, to be the mainstay of his brethren in the 
clergy, the guide of the laity, and to all the norm 
and model of the good Christian. 

Briefly as Augustine, in pursuance of his plan to 
rebuild Christian society, established, (as has been 
.said,) during the early years of his converted life a 
brotherhood of devoted and sympathetic followers, 
— his kinsmen and friends, — at Tagaste, and later 
on another community also of earnest-hearted 
disciples at Hippo, so, it may be stated here, was 
he in his solicitude for the welfare of his flock ever 
careful to provide for all classes of his charge, the 
means to work out their sanctification. 

At Hippo were many good souls, who in imita- 
tion of the sainted followers of our Lord at Jerusa- 
lem, sought to lead a perfect life, some by retire- 
ment from worldly cares, others by their active 
ministry in the vineyard of the Lord. 

With the far-seeing wisdom of the true lawgiver, 



Augustine recognized it as of primary necessity 
that in the development of his ethical reforms on 
Christian principles, he should begin at the sum- 
mit of the social edifice, and that in vain would he 
labor to effect good in the ranks of the Faithful, if 
their leaders and guides were dissolute, wayward 
and false to duty. 

Hence his life-long efforts, in private and in pub- 
lic, to raise up around him as assistant teachers of 
his flock, a body guard, as it were, of saintly and 
learned ecclesiastics. In his City of God^ not to 
mention the many treatises wherein he lays down 
the true principles of social and political reform, 
he has shown how society owing to the faults of its 
leaders, fell into moral as well as material decay. 

Hence in so many places in his diocese especially, 
were communities of religious and seminaries or 
training schools of the clergy opened. ^ ^ • 

Besides the communities at Tagaste and Hippo 
we find frequent mention in his works of other and 
similar bodies of churchmen in and throughout 
Africa, all more or less under the watchful care of 
the bishop of Hippo, to whom the other prelates, 
the primate Aurelius first of all, seem to have 
accorded full powers of supervision and even juris- 
diction. St. Paulinus writing to Alypius some time 
before the year 395, requests him to salute the 
brethren in the Lord, in the churches and monas- 
teries at Carthage, Tagaste, Hippo-Regius, and in 
all the parishes of Africa.* ; -v -.^ ^ ■ 

But the organization into formal ecclesiastical 
communities of such members of his flock, as felt 
themselves called unto the higher life, whether by 
total retirement from the busy cares of earth, or by 
actively co-operating with their prelate in the care 
of souls, was not restricted by Augustine to merely 
those of the so-called stronger sex. As in the Acts 
of the Apostles'\ we read that in the holy brotherhood 
of the first Christians, established shortly after the 
ascension of our Lord, at Jerusalem, under the care 
of the Apostles themselves, were assembled with 
them and the other disciples of the Lord, also 
many of the pious and God-fearing of the weaker 
sex, so did Augustine, in imitation of this saintly 
band, this first great Christian brotherhood, the 
type of perfect Christian society, establish at Hippo 
a community of women religious. 

Like their brethren at Tagaste these female ser- 
vants of the Most High were employed in the com- 
mon practices of devotion and of manual labor. 
From the Ride of Holy Life^ drawn up by the 
saintly bishop for the religious in his diocese, it 
seems that among their other duties they were 
engaged also as writers. The Rule refers distinctly 

* See Epist. 39, now 24, in the Works of St. Augustine. 
t See chapters IV and V. 



k , 'itMthM. - iiJii \ ^r. 



VILlvANOVA MONTHLY. 



to their use of the library codices. Among these 
nuns at Hippo, we have it on the authority of 
Augustine himself, were his nieces and some other 
kinswomen, and on the same authority we learn too 
that his sister, whom many Augustinian writers 
have named Perpetua, was their first superior. ;- 

This Hippo nunnery, like the hermitage of the 
brethren at Tagaste, was the first establishment of 
its kind in the African Church, or for that matter 
in the Western. 

As St. Augustine was the first to introduce 
monasticism into Africa, so was he the first of the 
Latin, or Western, Fathers to draw up a complete 
scheme of life for such as sought to model their 
lives in close imitation of the Apostolic brother- 
hood at Jerusalem. * 

And as Tagaste became the mother house of 
other communities of hermit brethren, so did Hippo 
nunnery, it would seem, branch out into many 
other similar female communities throughout 
Africa ; but of these we have only the meagerest 
details. T. C. M. 

( To be contifiited. ) 



Success. ■ 
A short time ago the thoughts of the whole 
world were centered upon one man ; all nations 
united to do honor to Columbus, to praise the man 
who dared believe what the world disbelieved. 
In the eyes of his countrymen he was a fanatic, 
but to-day he is ranked among the heroes of the 

past. •:■ ;, .._,;yJ:._^ :ry -.; V. ;,-.;■.•..'.:; ■■; ■■■:"■...-•■.:/■■•■'■-]'. 

Thus we, like Coltimbus, set sail upon an un- 
tried sea ; unknown dangers lie before us ; but 
for those who dare persevere, new worlds lie 
yet to be discovered. Every branch of learning 
or of industry is but partially explored, and in 
every direction stretches the unfathomed deep. 

Like the great Genoese, we shall find many 
labors to be endured, many obstacles to be over- 
come, and the constant need of self-watchfulness 
and self-control ; though there be faltering and 
temporary defeat, yet if our spirit be strong and 
our heart upright we need not despair of ultimate 
success ; should we fall short of this, every honest 
eftort in the right direction is a benefit both to 
ourselves and to mankind. 

The world owes much to its men and women of 
courage, the courage that displays itself in silent 
effort and endeavor, that dares endure all and 
suffer all for truth and duty. Courage together 
with energy and perseverance will overcome diffi- 
culties apparently insurmountable, will give force 

* The firs* to draw up a written rule for religious is com- 
monly said to liave been St. Basil, surnamed the Great. Hp 
died A. D. 379. 



and impulse to effort and not permit it to retreat. 
A man to succeed must have the courage to be 
himself and not the echo of another ; he must 
exercise his own powers, think his own thoughts, 
and speak his own sentiments. He must form his 
own thoughts and convictions, even though they 
be different from the thoughts and convictions of 
the multitude. All the great work of the world 
has been accomplished by men of courage ; eyery 
step in the progress of our race has been accom- 
plished in the face of opposition and difficulty, 
and has been achieved by men of intrepidity and 
valor — great discoverers, great patriots and great 
workers in all the walks of life. These had the 
courage to seek and to speak the truth, the cour- 
age to be honest, the courage to be just, and the 
courage to do their duty. Their great example 
becomes the common heritage of our race, and 
their great deeds and great thoughts are the most 
glorious of legacies to mankind. Such men con- 
nect the present with the past, and give nobility 
of purpose to the man of the future. They hold 
aloft the standard of principle, maintain the dig- 
nity of human character, and fill the mind with 
the tradition and instincts of all that is most 
noble and most worthy in life. 

Thus, with the light of great examples to guide 
us — representatives of humanity in its best forms — 
every one of us is not only justified but bound in 
duty to aim at reaching the highest standard of 
character ; not to become the richest in means, but 
in spirit ; not the greatest in worldly position, but 
in true honor ; not the most powerful and influen- 
tial, but the most upright and honest, ever bearing 
in mind that, " Energy, invincible determination, 
with a right motive, are the levers that move the 

world !" 

Martin T. Field, '95. 



The Assassination of Caesar. 

The student taking a cursory glance at the long 
list of injustices and crimes recorded in the history 
of the world, pauses before some that are more 
conspicuous than usual, either on account of the 
eminent merit of the victims or the important 
results which followed from the deeds themselves. 
Such a one is the assassination of Caius Julius 
Caesar. 

In order to understand and appreciate the char- 
acter of this truly great man and to measure his 
influence over the age in which he lived, it will be 
necessary to consider briefly the condition of Rome 
at that time and also the customs and manners 
that prevailed among the Roman people. 

For nearly half a century previous to the begin- 
ning of the public life of Caesar, Rome was 



-irt^fSJ^^ki 



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VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



plunged into all the miseries of civil war. The 
alternate rule of Marius and Sulla in which the 
whole state was divided into two opposing factions 
was the signal for slaughter, confiscation of private 
property and other public crimes of the same 
nature. These civil wars may be considered the 
dividing line that separates two great epochs in 
the history of Rome — one consisting of the condi- 
tion of affairs that brought about the civil wars, and 
the other, the condition of affairs that resulted 
from them. Their influence over the people was 
no less remarkable. They had gradually departed 
from that austere mode of life which was charac- 
teristic of their ancestors and had considerably 
deteriorated in their moral habits and qualities. 

Sobriety, frugality, honorable poverty and labor- 
ious life were now superseded by the opposite vices. 
" Simultaneously with this decay of morals among 
the Romans," writes a noted historian, "the 
fertile fields of Italv were converted into flower- 
gardens, groves, places for sumptuous baths, or 
parks for hunting to gratify the fanciful taste of 
wealthy individuals, and the number and duration 
of their repasts, the abundance, variety, delicacy 
and seasoning of their meats, were carried to an 
inconceivable degree of refinement." Besides this 
luxury of the table there was joined another great 
vice, that of an inordinate relish for pageantries, 
games and theatrical representations. After a 
short time the dramatic exhibitions did not satisfy 
the inclinations of even the most lenient and were 
consequently abandoned for more costly places of 
amusements, the amphitheatres which rivaled the 
Egyptian pyramids and obelisks in massiveness of 
structure and symmetry of form. The purpose for 
such magnificent buildings did not equal the skill 
displayed in the architecture but was rather deplor- 
ably inferior. In the amphitheatre lions, elephants 
and other ferocious beasts were, at first, made to 
fight against one another, afterwards men against 
beasts and finally men against men. These gladi- 
ators, as they were known among the ancients, in 
their inhuman combats became the favorite spec- 
tacle and shed the blood of one another for the 
mere diversion of barbarous spectators. And, 
moreover, to these two vices already mentioned 
there were added the practice of bribery, corrup- 
tion, extortion, oppression of subjects and of con- 
quered provinces. The cruel treatment of children, 
slaves and insolvent debtors, the frequency and 
facility of divorce, the adulteries, plots, conspira- 
cies, treasons, murders, were so frequent during 
these corrupt ages as to excite universal horror and 
condemnation. Such a people required a leader who 
possessed extraordinarily moral, intellectual and 
physical power. Caesar possessed these qualities 



and was therefore destined to rule the Roman 
people and to restore the Roman State. 

Cains Julius according to the common account 
of Plutarch, Suetonius and Appian was born on 
the twelfth day of July, loo (B. C). He was 
begotten of a noble family which was traced to an 
illustrious ancestry, that of the descendants of 
Yulius or Ascanins the son of Aeneas. When a 
youth he was ordained a priest of Jupiter by 
Marius, his uncle by marriage. When still a youth 
of 1 8 or 20 years, he boldly refused a legal separa- 
tion from his wife Cornelia, daughter of Cinna, 
and barely escaped the proscription of Sulla, who 
"saw many a Marius in that young man." At the 
age of 35, he was appointed Questor in Southern 
Spain. Two years afterwards he was Curule 
Aedile. At 39, he was elected Pontifex Maximus — 
that is, oflEicial of state religion — Quintus Catulus 
being his opponent and leader of the aristocracy. 
This ofl5ce he held for life. The following year 
(B. C. 62), he was chosen Praetor, and the next 
year he went as Propraetor to govern the province 
of Spain. He returned to Rome in the following 
year and soon formed a political coalition with 
Pompey and Crassus. This coalition is sometimes 
called "the first triumvirate." The meridian of 
Caesar's life was devoted to the subjugation of 
Gaul, Germany and a portion of Great Britain. He 
carried on war against these nations with so much 
energy that in a remarkably short time he subdued 
them. The remainder of his life belongs to the 
general history of Rome. At the close of the 
Gallic war he returned to Rome, and, after defeat- 
ing Pompey who fled to Greece, but was afterwards 
murdered in Egypt, was made Imperator. This 
scheme of government became an hereditary 
monarchy under the name or form of republic. 
During the short period of Caesar's dominion he 
enacted a series of measures of wise and political 
statesmanship, namely the reform of the calendar, 
the regulation of the administrative system and a 
policy of checks upon abuses of money power. 
But this supreme authority excited the envy and 
hatred of a fanatical party who vainly thought to 
restore the rule of a licentious aristocracy. On the 
15th of March, 44 (B. C.) Julius Caesar was foully 
assassinated by a number of conspirators under the 
leadership of the ungrateful Brutus. There in the 
senate house, surrounded on all sides by enemies 
and by those whom he had regarded as friends, 
Caesar stood erect and defiant, with a determination 
characteristic of the man, unyielding and uncom- 
promising. When he was asked to recall from 
exile Publius Cimber, the brother of Metellius 
Cimber, one of the conspirators, he gave them a 
positive denial. Forthwith they began the assault, 



'«k.i' 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



as agreed upon before, and although receiving 
many wounds he continued to fight like some 
savage beast attacked by hunters ; until stabbed 
by Brutus, for whom he had a sincere affection. 
Then drawing his robe over his face he died. As 
Shakespeare beautifully remarks : 

** Ingratitude, more strong than traitors' arms. 

Quite vanquished him: then burst his mighty heart; 

And in his mantle muffling up his face, 

Even at the base of Pompey's statue, 

Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell." 

Julius Caesar was, indeed, a man whose character 
is well worthy of the closest analysis. His great 
power and influence with the Roman people were 
entirely due to his extraordinary talents and 
indomitable courage. His lofty ambition was 
made manifest early in life. The story is told that 
when he and his followers were crossing the Alps 
they came to a certain insignificant town. One of 
his friends said jestingly : " Can there be any 
such envy and ambition here as we see among the 
great?" To this Csesar replied proudly: "I 
would rather be first here than second at Rome." 
His ambition was indeed his ruin. He had 
received from the people all the attributes of kingly 
power, but was not satisfied until he was crowned 
King. Although even this was freely given, it did 
not take long for his enemies to make use of this 
title as a means of arousing the hatred of the people 
against him. They were reminded of the detested 
Tarquins, and were cautioned against opening the 
way for kingly tyranny and oppression. But 
with all this he was a hero, a noble-minded and 
magnanimous citizen who loved his country and 
used the great powers which nature bestowed upon 
him for its best interests. 

After the death of Caesar, terror and dismay 
prevailed, not only at Rome, but also throughout 
the extent of the empire. The conspirators were, 
at first, permitted to go unmolested ; in some parts 
they were even received with approbation. The 
plebeians revered them as heroes and patriots who 
had liberated them from the dominion of a tyrant. 
But the body of Caesar was scarcely cold before they 
realized the magnitude of their loss and the mon- 
strous ingratitude of which they were guilty in 
approving the assassination of their greatest friend 
and benefactor. They were consequently so in- 
censed against the assassins that the latter deemed 
it expedient to leave the capital and to conceal 
themselves in some distant country. Civil war was 
again renewed with increased vigor, and the com- 
monwealth was plunged in a deeper state of bar- 
barism than that from which it had been rescued 



under the short dominion of Caesar. That he had 
been always devoted to the welfare of the state and 
spent his brilliant career chiefly in promoting the 
true interest of the republic is attested by many 
prominent contemporaneous authors. Plutarch, in 
writing of Caesar's attempt at sovereignty, says 
that his oppression was merely nominal, for no 
tyrannical act could be laid to his charge ; and he 
adds:— "Nay, such was the condition of Rome 
that it evidently required a master ; and Caesar was 
no more than a tender and skilful physician 
appointed by Providence to heal the distemper of 
the state." 

The assassination of Caesar was, therefore, a mark 
of the basest ingratitude on the part of the Roman 
people ; and it is only fair and reasonable to con- 
jecture that had he been permitted to reach a 
mature age, he would have doubtless by that same 
authority which had always characterized him as a 
statesman, elevated the republic to as great a 
degree of prominence as his grand-nephew, Caius 
Octavius, surnamed Augustus, at a later period. 

^ ■'^:?'-;-^-'/, /;^w^ ,. M. J. Murphy, '95. 



The Annual Retreat. 



The students' annual retreat commenced on 
Sunday evening, Dec. nth, and ended Thursday, 
Dec. 15th, '93. The exercises were conducted by 
the Rev. M. J. Garaghty, O.S.A., of Chestnut Hill, 
Philadelphia. 

How fully the students realized the truth of the 
opening text, " Now is the acceptable time, now is 
the day ot salvation," was best shown by the fervor 
and sincerity manifested during the retreat, a 
truly edifying sight to a new-comer at Villanova. 
Nor are we surprised that such was the case when 
we consider the important part taken in our retreat 
by the Rev. Father Garaghty who exercised to the 
very best advantage his influence over young men. 

Who could listen to him and not be touched by 
his eloquence when he spoke of the goodness of 
God and the ingratitude of man, of God's mercy 
and man's perverseness, of the eternal truths and 
their influence upon the soul ? During his confer- 
ences he referred frequently to the faults prevalent 
among young men and earnestly exhorted his 
auditors to avoid them. 

The retreat is over, but is it forgotten ? No, 
the seeds then scattered, we hope, have fallen on 
good ground whence they will spring forth and 
bear an hundredfold. 

Edward G. Dohan, '96. 



8 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Monthly, 

;. '''' PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF 

VILLANOUA, PA. , , / 

? ' "- ' ' " ■ ■ 

JANUARY, 1894. 



THB stp:i=f=. 



' : Editor-in-Chief. 

J. F. O'LEARY, '94. 

Associate Editors. 
J. J. Crowley, '94. J. J. Ryle, '94. 

J. J. DoLAN, '94. M. T. Field, '95. 

T. J. Lee, '95. M. J. Murphy, '95. 

B. J. O'DoNNELL, '95. J. S. Smith, '96. 

W. J. MaHON, '96. J. E. O'DoNNELL, '96. 

E. T. Wade, '96. 
Business Manager, L. A. Delurey, O.S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
should be addressed 

"The Editor," Villanova Monthly. 

Remittances and business communications should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, one year $1 00 

Single copies to 

Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second- Class Matter. 



EDITORIALS. 



To THE old year we bidia fond adieu. While to 

many it has brought more than its usual share of 
trouble and affliction, yet for us it had more than 
its usual share of joys and blessings, and on accoiuit 
of these we forgive the old year for whatever trials 
it has sent us while executing the decrees of divine 
Providence. To the students of Villanova the year 
just past will be a memorable one, not only for the 
pleasant associations formed during that time, but 
also on account of the Golden Jubilee celebration 
of the founding of our College. The Alumni and 
friends of our institution who were present on that 
occasion will look back to it as one of the fondest 
memories of the past year. 'Twas the year which 
witnessed the establishment and subsequent pro- 
gress of oiir Monthly. Filled with the happy 
spirit of the New Year we extend to all our sub- 
scribers and patrons the compliments of the season. 
Particularly are these extended to the members of 
the original staff, whose interest in the monthly 
contributed so much to its success. And since it 
is customary at the beginning of a new year to 
make resolutions, ours will be to continue the good 
work of our predecessors. If the close of the 
present year will be productive of such results we 
will be convinced that our work has not been in 
vain, moreover, we will be amply repaid for our 
efforts, and satisfied with ourselves. 



Our Catholic people are displaying considerable 
anxiety about the new organization, professedly 
hostile, which has lately attracted so much atten- 
tion. At first sight its title, A. P. Aism, suggests 
to us something of the animal kingdom, which 
ordinarily would be considered harmless, but 'tis 
more, 'tis a hideous monster, ever ready to destroy 
the innocent and unwary. Its animating principle 
is a spirit of bigotry and hostility to everything 
Catholic and this spirit is manifested in such a 
repulsive and repugnant manner that no self-re- 
specting person can approach it. But if, led on by 
the irresistible impulse of curiosity natural to us 
all, we desire to examine it thoroughly, this would 
be impracticable, since it is only associated with 
dark and obscure places, concealed and shielded by 
its own blackness. By this time it must know that 
it is considered by all pure minded persons an 
undesirable addition to the animal kingdom and 
foreign to this beautiful land of ours, in which free- 
dom of thought and freedom of action have ever 
found protection under the Constitution. As it 
would be most dangerous to allow this monster 
further liberty, proper measures should be imme- 
diately taken to check its destructive course. 



In all the whirl and excitement of this busy 
life of ours, there is one fact which cannot escape 
the notice of even an ordinary observer, namely, 
that most men interest themselves only in matters 
of great moment to themselves or their fellow-men, 
to the total neglect of everything of a trivial 
kind. While generally there may be little or no 
harm in such a course, yet it frequently happens 
that great evil results from a mistaken notion of 
what really constitutes trifles. The single per- 
formance of an act may be trivial in itself. Re- 
peated it assumes greater significance, and so on it 
grows in importance with every repetition until 
it becomes of great moment. If the first tended 
to good, the last will also ; if to bad, so will the 
other. Herein then lies the evil. Many fail to 
draw the line between the first and second acts 
when the first is bad in itself. They fail to note 
the error of their ways in the beginning, and 
their bad acts grow into bad habits, to the destruc- 
tion of the unfortunates who have acquired them. 
Pope faithfully portrays the transition in the well 
known words : 

" Vice is a monster of so frightful mien ; 
As, to be hated, needs but to be seen ; 
Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face, 
We first endure, then pity, then embrace," 



'^£.L^- 



'.j^:...- *u;tt*-;-i;7**'J:-- 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



MATHEMATICAL CLASS. 

To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send problems, 
queries, etc., and their solutions ; or any difficulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 

All such communications should be addressed to 

D. O'SuLLivAN, M.A., Villanova College. 



40. — Prove that the sum of the squares of the 
diagonals of a parallelogram is equal to the sum of 
the squares of its four sides. 




Solution by M.J. Murphy y''<^^. 

Let ABCD^ be the parallelogram. Draw CE^ 
parallel to BD ; produce AD^ to meet CE. Now, 
AD-^BC, Qin^ DE=BC\ .: AD = BE] .'.AE 
is bisected and CD is the median, hence AC'^-\-CE'^ 

=2A& -\- 2DC'' \ but CE^ = BJD^\ .'. AC' + 
B&=2A&+2DC^ -^v^J-v/: -■:■■:■■:-, -'-^r;;: 

But 2AB'-^2BC^ = l4D^-fDC^+AB'+BC^ 
.'. AC'^-\-BEP' = the sum of the squares of the 
four sides of the parallelogram. 

43. — Two objects A and B were observed from 
a ship to be at the same instant in a line bearing 
N, 15° E. The ship then sailed north-west 5 



Solution by J. F. O^Leary^ '94. 
Let Fig. I represent the cardinal points. 6" the 
first position of the ship. S' the position after 
sailing 5 miles. 

BSN = 15° ■:V.:;^ \: :':-■;-■ :,'^'y; 

BSS' = 60° ■:.-...;'V'-:'-\-.-'^ -'•-;■: -vv;.:; 

SAS' = 7s° ;v.::l';':,^itv/;,-- >.:■ :.,r:::i^^:MW^>:^-. 
BAS' = 105° ^^^V:./:/:^-/'.'::^::; '"-:;-;■ i-r^^'X::/'^'.--'.-'^-, 
ABS' = 30° ^'''S'v::^---- -■.--/V-^^'/'v'V^' ■ ":-<-::'■:■■ 
S'A ^ sin ASS 'VI '; '-/y^- ■[::<:''': -:,■;; vO ' '■;;• 

-V ss' sin5'^^-^; '-^^ ■■■■ ^-^i-"-^-'':.-:^'-'-^ 

; S'A = SS'^s\nASS' ' v 

sin S 'AS vl; 

log S 'A^= log ►SIS ' + log sin ASS ' + colog sin 
6* 'AS. 

log S'A = log 5 miles + log sin 60° + colog 
sin 75° "■■ ' , \sy^-.. ' -:^^:.^ .,,,,, 

log 5 = 0. 69897 
log sm 60° = 9. 93753—10 
colog sin 75° = o. 01506 

log S'A =1 o, 65156 
AB ^sin BS'A 
S'A~ sin S'BA 

~ "sin5'^^ 
log AB = log S'A + log sin BS'A + colog sin 

S'BA. 
log AB = 0.65 1 56+ log sin 45° + colog sin 30°. 
log 6" M = 0.65156 
log sin 45° = 9. 84949 — 10 
colog sin 30° = 0.30103 

log^i9 " 




miles, when it was found that A bore due east and 
B bore north-east. Find the distance from A to B. 



AB — 



0.80208 

AB = 6.3399 miles. : : ?; 

44. — If a cubical foot of brass were to be drawn 
into wire of ^s of an inch in diameter ; required 
the length of wire, allowing no loss in the metal. 

Solution by Walter D. Riordan^ '95. 

The wire is a cylinder, whose volume divided by 

the area of a section equals its length. 

volume 1 4.1 

= length 

area of base 
one cubic foot =1728 
cu. inches (-4^)^ X . 7854 
= area of base . * . 
1728 _ 

(iV)^7854 
1728 

TtsVff X . 7854 
1728X^6^ 



= length 
= length 



2764800 

•7854 



length in inches 



divided by 63360 the number of inches in 
a mile. 



7854 
2764800 

•7854" 

2764800 .,1 -, -1 1 i.1 r • 

-— ^ >^ ? — ? = 55o miles = length of Wire. 

.7854 63360 ^:5» s _ 

47. — Prove : If two equal triangles ABC and 
ABD be on the same base AB, but on opposite 
sides, the line joining the vertices C and D is 
bisected by AB. 



lO 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



Solution by Martin T. Fields '95. 

Through A and B draw AE, BE, parallel to 
BD^ AD, respectively ; join EC. Now, since 
AEBD is a parallelogram, the A AE:B = ADB\ 
but ADB = ACB (hyp) ; . '. ACB = AEB, 
. • , CE is parallel to AB, because equal triangles 




on the same base and on the same side of it, the 
straight line joining their vertices is parallel to the 
base on which they stand). 

Let CD, ED meet AB in the points MN. 

Now, since AEBD is a parallelogram, ED is 
bisected in N \ and since NM is parallel to EC, 
CD is bisected in M. 

New Problems. 

48. — The length of a lake subtends, at a certain 
point, an angle of 46° 24', and the distance from 
this point to the two extremities of the lake are 
346 and 290 feet. Find the length of the lake. 

49. — {a). The base of a regular pyramid is a hexa- 
gon, of which the side measures 3 feet. Find the 
height of the pyramid if the lateral area is equal 
to 10 times the area of the base. 

(J)). If the edge of a tetrahedron is a, find the 
homologous edge of a similar tetrahe?dron twice 
as large. 

50. — Given two sides of an obtuse-angled tri- 
angle, which are 20 and 40 poles ; required the 
third side that the triangle may contain just an 
acre of land. 

51. — A straight railway passes two miles from a 
town. A place is four miles from the town and 
one mile from the railway. Find by construction 
how many places answer this description. 

52. — A workman has a squared log twice as long 
as wide or deep, he made out of it a water trough 
whose sides, ends, and bottom are each three inches 
thick, and having 11772 solid inches. What is the 
capacity of the trough in gallons? 



SFLUrXEES. 



New ' ■■:'/^' ■''■:■%■' :. .,.,.., -^ ::''''' •■'y^'-'^y.: ,.-■,.... . 

Year's '■■■;'■■-/',;,>■•■•■', ■'/.;/.■..:;'•'■■■''>■'■:<■■ 

Greeting. '■■•■''. V','^-!.-':^: '// 

Got the Grippe ? • :: 

Oyster stews. 'A;;.:'^^'; ■■,.■•■ ^^■\:-:-:'^;/4-l-;'",./tA:'''V!;'^^ 

■ ;V Cream puffs.^' ■. -'Vv';^;;;:.-'.,-/'./ ^; /'-v^.' V■:■'V:^^^■V^: v^h:. -■-;'■■.',:■• 
;■,; Oh ! I forgot. '■'-:'■)■': ''Cf'y : '^^-' "^ S'^-/ '"'^- '':■/■- /'K'^ 
': Brown mixture. ^^^^^^^^ \ ■ ' 

Who went skating ? 

The " Crows " have flown. - , 

Didn't you carry a skate bag? 

He took his final drive. " . 

He knows his little book. 

We had a good time, didn't we? 

Gents, look out for the milkman. 

You have an elephant on your hands. 

It was easily deduced from the proposition. 

At last we have it. " Next ; no waiting." 

Of course it's no trouble. 

Who is that fellow that looks cross-eyed at the 
kitchen ? 

You know I have been as true as steel. YeSj I 
know that ; but here now is another chance to test 
your metal. 

Bro. Rob. has a new remedy for the " grippe." 
Peaches and chop-sticks. 

Oh, John ! I thought you would never come. 
What kept you ? ' - . ; ■ 

The daily question : Did your ship come yet? 

The worthy seniors may be all right, but they are 
four J's just the same. 

He listened intently, and discovered from remarks 
dropped that some of our young men are making 
rapid progress in the art of decorating. 

Our friend from S — . is more fortunate than 
many of us. He carries his little cottage with 
him, and thereby suffers no inconveniences. 

A. — Say, you put one in on me. 

B. — I will \i you will put one in on me. 

A.— All right. 

B. — It's a go. 

Smiles, handshaking, etc. 

We have learned from good authority that the 
"Glass House " which nurtured such tender plants 
as a "Cally" and a R — is soon to be leveled to 
the ground, not by the hatchet of George Wash- 
ington, but of George . 



.■ 'Lf, ■,^•0..-^^..,- 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



iz 



Professor, some more music, please ? 

He fell in and got wet. 

Two little girls in blue. 7 ;; 

Have you a corner? Yes, he has the other. Oh ! 
every Field has a corner. , , . .. 

May the dog that ate my rubbers die of indiges- 
tion. iV. ■:■■:^^. '. ;•• - -..v^\-: '/.> i; :;v ;„;,■ •-•.;■ u-'\-:-^r/-- ^: ■.ni^r;-^' 



PEBSONALS. 



Who are you ? I am Mr. 



Perhaps you 



know my uncle who was here twenty-five years 

Oh ! excuse me, that was before my time. 

We have just four miles to walk. Let's hurry 
it's only a mile for each. 

Joe, after a hard year of study, beholds his semi- 
annual examination in music approaching, and as a 
consequence has rosined his bow for the occasion. 

There is boy a named Abel, 

Who plays the violin ; 
The builders of old Babel 

Aren't in it with him. 

The Hand-ball player reported that on a certain 
nail in the dormitory there hung a vest which 
belonged to the man from the "city of watches," 
and that in that vest there was something that 
ticked like an eight-day clock, and disturbed the 
peaceful slumber of the boys. What was it ? 

Big John has promised his friends a reception 
after the holidays. He said that he would send a 
box to himself, and freely distribute the contents. 

Slowly they ope'd the door, 

Softly they trod the floor. 

They stopped ! for they heard some talk ; 

They dusted ! for they dared not walk. 



"ode to the respected professor of jug- 

MATICS. ' ' 

There was a teacher and every day 

Jugging fellows for him was play. 

He thought he was "strictly in the swim " 

When for five hundred he got you in. 

The paper came out, the name went down. 

He told you the reason with many a frown. 

I'll jug you to-day without a doubt 

Was greeted with many a laugh and shout. 

You think with me you are having fun. 

You'll find your mistake at twenty to one. 

Oh ! all you "Grammarians" for him look out ! 

If he gets you in jug you'll never get out ! 

H. F. Nelson. 



Rev. R. F. Harris spent the holidays in Boston. 

Michael Kelley, '82, visited the College on 
Sunday, Dec. 31. •,? - ^ v \ -■ 

Mrs. J. G. Loretto paid a short visit to her son 
Joseph, Monday, Dec. i8th. :-.,.. ,ry\-:-'--: ..■/':^,<--:,r .•<':■ ■ 

Rev. J. J. O'Brien, Bryn Mawr, Pa., spent New 
Year's day with the Faculty. ^. ; ^ ,: : : ; 

Rev. James Curran, of Schaghticoke, N. Y., was 
the guest of the Faculty lately. 

Rev. Jno. Leonard spent thq holidays with rela- 
tives and friends in Lawrence, Mass. 

Mr. Andrew Ryan, of New York, was lately the 
guest of his friend, Mr. Edward Dohan. 

Rev. F. X. McGowan writes us that he is enjoy- 
ing his trip through Europe very much. 

Miss Coar, of Jersey City' paid a short visit to 
her brother Rev. W. A. Coar, O.S.A., Sunday, 
Dec. 17th. 

Mr: Merino, of Philadelphia, called at the Col- 
lege and took his ward, Narciso Valhonrat home 
for the holidays. 

Rev. N.J. Murphy, of St. Augustine's, Philadel- 
phia, has returned, having made a very enjoyable 
trip through Europe. 

We announce with pleasure the recovery of Rev. 
Father O'Connell, of Hoosick Falls, N. Y., after a 
long and serious illness. 

Mrs. Laura McCloskey, ot Pittsburgh, recently 
called at the College to take her son George home 
for the holidays. Maybe George wasn' t glad to 
see her. ' ■'■ "^' 

Rev. Fathers L. A. Delurey and W. A. Coar 
assisted at the Solemn Pontifical Mass in the 
Cathedral at Harrisburg on Christmas day. The 
former preached on the occasion. The latter then 
proceeded to his home in Jersey City to spend the 
holidays. 

Another Silver Jubilee in Philadelphia helps to 
bear out the statement that the year '93 was a 
notable one for such celebrations. We congratu- 
late Rev. William Kieran, D.D. of St. Patrick's on 
his twenty-five years of faithful work in the service 
of God and his people. 

During the past month the Archdiocese of Phila- 
delphia in general and Port Richmond in particu- 
lar suffered a great loss in the death of Rev. 
Thomas Mullen. While his health had been 
delicate for many years, yet he was ever attentive 
to the wants of his people, ever ready when duty 
called him. We sympathize with the people of 
St. Anne's for we feel that it will be difficult to 
make good their loss. 



12 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



THE SOCIETIES. 



V. D. S. Oil Friday afternoon, December 15, 
Messrs. J. E. O'Donnell, B. J. O'Doniiell, E. J. 
Wade and S. T. Kenney proved to be pleasing and 
forcible debaters, when they discussed the subject: 
Resolved — That the Pulpit is more influential than 
the Press. - - -■,:.■,•-'. ,.,;■ ^-■■■•, -,.■;' --■:.;:"y: \-:':4:- ■; -r ; : / 

The affirmatives, Messrs. J. E. O'Donnell and 
B. J. O'Donnell, who are not brothers, showed the 
far-reaching influences of the Pulpit. They 
brought forward striking instances from the early 
Christian times to the present, and considered their 
subject from various points of view. 

Messrs. Wade and Kenney, the negatives, were 
well prepared to reply to the apparently incontro- 
vertible arguments of their opponents. The former 
gentlemen clearly and cogently discussed the great 
influence emanating from the Press. 

When the debate was open to the house, Messrs. 
Buckley, Dohan, Riordan, O'Leary and Dolan, all 
able disputants, spoke upon the question. Mr. J. 
E. O'Donnell's sallies of wit, and Mr. Wade's 
telling retorts throughout the debate, won much 
applause. The critic, when his time came to 
decide, reserved his decision, after much reflection. 

V. L. I. The V. L. I. held its monthly meeting 
December 11. As it was to be the last meeting of 
the year a goodly attendance was requested and the 
members responded almost to a man. Much busi- 
ness of importance was transacted. Among the 
recent presents to the library is a neatly prepared 
Index, the work of Michael S. Gibney, '95, for 
which the society wishes to return sincere thanks. 
The new furniture, which is expected soon after 
the holidays, will be a great improvement. After 
the admission of six new members the meeting 
adjourned. 

V. A. A. On December 6, the V. A. A. held 
the last meeting of '93. As the interest in athletics 
is rapidly increasing, there was an unusually large 
attendance. The association intends to make the 
year of '94 a very successful one. Such being the 
case the expenses will be heavier than ever before. 
To meet these expenses, besides the usual amount 
raised among the students, the association will give 
an entertainment. The association has this year, 
for the first time, called upon the Alumni for some 
assistance in this line. It is needless to say that the 
association will feel very grateful for whatever is 
done for it by its friends. 



EXCHANGES. 



" Great Oaks from Little Acorns Grow," is a very 
well chosen motto for T/ie Collegium. The appear- 
ance and size of this journal compared with 
last year's are quite in keeping with its modest 
motto. If it continues to "grow," especially in 
its literary articles, it will soon hold an enviable 
place among college journals. Why not be a little 
more careful in the arrangement of literary contri- 
butions ? For instance, in the November issue, , 
" The Beauties of Nature," an article of real merit, 
could indeed have a more conspicuous place. The 
Exchange Column, "November Nonsense," 
" Local Items," seemed to be inserted at random, as 
if they were written for unoccupied space. 

Although the Owl is not the acme of perfection, 
nevertheless it may be justly entitled a bureau of 
miscellaneous information. The treatise on " The 
Elements in Connection with Sanitation " is a 
learned contribution of scientific truths ably 
written. Among the many articles " Once Mon- 
arch of the Prairies," " Methods and Aims of 
Grecian Universities," deserve perusal. 

The November number of Si. Mary^s Sentinel 
contains many literary articles appropriate and 
interesting. " Manly Exercises in Colleges," 
should attract the attention of all, not only for the 
common sense and sound judgment displayed in 
it, but for the manner in which the utility of such 
exercise is shown. 

The editorials in the Manitoba College Journal 
manifest careful study and preparation, and reflect 
credit upon the journal. " First Quarter Century 
of the Dominion " is in brief a history of Canada 
in her infancy. The writer clothes his ideas in 
simple but strong language. Diligence of research 
is displayed throughout the composition. 

We extend a hearty welcome to our latest ex- 
change The Eatonian^ Jackson, Tenn. The initial 
number gives promise of a great future for this 
journal. The general appearance in regard to form 
and type is very good. Long may this journal 
flourish. 

In our opinion The Earlhamite stands a leader 
in typographical display among college journals. 

The following exchanges were at their regular 
places : Ave Maria^ Agnetian Monthly .^ Catholic 
High School Journal^ Phila.; Carmelite Review^ 
The Mirror^ Phila.; Lawrence High School.^ Ar- 
thenaeum^ Orphans' Bouquet^ Viatorian^ Notre 
Datne Scholastic Facts^ St. Johns's University 
Record. 



^L:.jyAi-j:-i:.; 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



t 



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824 Arch St., : v 

H. L. KILNER&CO. 

Finest Goods, Lowest Prices.K ' 



Largest Catholic Book Store sonlb of New York. 

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Framed and Unframed, Have yoii seen 

his Hand-Painted S. H. on Placques ? 

Drop in and see Progress at 

Conway's Catholic Supply House 

i8th and Stiles, first Store above Gesu Church. 

Agent for the American Line and White Star Line Steamers to and from 
the Old Country. Drafts at the Lowest Rates. 

E. K. WILSON & SON, 

Manufacturers of and Dtalars in 

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Repairing Neatly and Fiomptl j attended to. Cnatom Work a Specialty. 
TERMS CASH. I^ancastcr Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pa. 



D. J. GALLAGHER. 



GEO. W. GIBBOHS. 



ii c: D. J. GALLAGHER & CO., ,^ 

Printers, PuBlishers 

And Blank Book Manufacturers. 

Convents, Schools and Colleges supplied with all kinds of Stationery. 
245-47 North Broad Street, Phila. 

(OaUagrher Building.) 



Publishers of "American Ecclesiastical Review," 

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Vol. II. 



Villanova College, P^ebriiary, 1894:. 



No. 2. 




Jfe, K V V: ''God's Will be Done." 

OD'S will be done ! " it is the only prayer 

That Cometh now into my faint, sad heart, 
For, from God's will I have no will apart : 
Jf, And yet I gain no grace, for my despair 

Hath bowed me thus, and brought me to His feet, 
And not the meekness of a spirit sweet 
And gentle, filled with love, submission, trust. 
But a crushed spirit, humbled to the dust. 



" God's will be done ! " the path seems drear and long ; 

I have no aim to guide to any goal. 

And looking onwards as the slow years roll. 
No light can I discern, no purpose strong. 

To nerve and brace me for the battle-field. 

I could lay down my arms and weakly yield. 
Before the guerdon of the fight is won ; 
The victory gained, the day's long conflict done. 



"God's will be done ! " Again, and yet again, 
The words return, and echo through my soul. 
And some day, may be, they may " make me whole," 

And work a cure and ease me of this pain. 
And I shall feel again the pulse of life 
Quicken within me, and the weary strife 

Be ended, of these long and empty days ; 

And, gazing upward I shall give God praise. 

M. W. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



"^ The Early Western Politician. 

The colonizing of the "Great West" was 

attended by many peculiar circumstances whicli 

had their origin principally in the character and 

surroundings of the colonists. The settlements 

■ were weak and the population small ; with the 

^V exception of a few narrow fields in the vicinity of 

each frontier, fort, or stockade, the vast extent 

; of territory was wild and uncultivated, and held 

in undisturbed possession by Indians and wild 

beasts. 

The distance l^etwten these settlements and the 
original States was so great that assistance was 
impossible. In those times, therefore, though a 
few were looking forward to separate political 
organization and the erection of new States, the 
larger number of the Western people were too 
constantly occupied with their defence to give much 
attention to internal politics. Such organization 
as they had was principally military ; the early 
pioneer, who had distinguished himself in the first 
explorations of the country, or by successfully 
leading and establishing a new settlement, became 
not only the commander of the fort but also the 
law-giver of the community. 

The pressure of external danger was too great 
to allow a very liberal democracy in govern- 
ment ; and, as must be the case in all primitive 
assemblages of men, the counsels and commands of 
' him whom they knew to be the most able were 
always observed. He who had proven himself 
competent to lead was, therefore, the leader by 
right ; and the evidence required was the per- 
formance of such exploits and the display of such 
courage as were necessary to the defence, well-being 
and protection of the settlers. It is obvious that 
no mere pretender could exhibit these proofs, and 
that where they were taken as the sole measure of a 
man's worth, skill with a rifle was of more value 
than skill with the tongue — Indian-fighting a more 
respectable occupation than speech-making. The 
people had neither time nor patience to listen to 
declamation ; the man who rose in a public assembly 
and called upon his neighbors to follow him in 
avenging a wrong made the only speech that they 
cared to hear. Besides, the men of the frontier 
were simple-hearted and unambitious, desiring 
nothing so much as to be left alone, and willing to 
make a compact of forbearance with the whole 
world, excepting only the Indians. They had 
never been accustomed to the restraints of munici- 
pal regulation ; they were innocent of the unhealthy 
pleasures of office-seeking ; their lives had given 
them little or no knowledge of the nature and 
importance of offices. 

But as time rolled away and the population of 



the country became more dense, as the pressure of 
external danger was withdrawn, and the necessities 
of defence grew less urgent, the rigor of military 
organization gradually became irksome. The seeds 
of civil institutions began to germinate among the 
people, while the extending interests of communities 
required corresponding enactments and regulations. 
The instincts of social beings, love of home and 
family, attachment to property, the desire of tran- 
quility and, perhaps, an ambition for a good repute 
among neighbors, all combined to open men's eyes 
to the importance of peaceful institutions. Then 
began to appear for the first time the class of poli- 
ticians, though, as yet, office-seeking had not 
become a trade, nor office-holding a regular means 
of livelihood. Politics had not acquired a place 
among the arts, nor had its professors become the 
teachers of the land ; there were few, indeed, who 
sought to fill civil stations, and although men's 
qualifications for oflfice were probably not any more 
rigidly examined than now, those who possessed 
the due degree of prominence were, either in their 
own opinion or in that of their fellow-citizens, 
peculiarly capable of performing such function*?. 
They were generally men who had made them- 
selves conspicuous or useful in other capacities, 
who had become well or favorably known to their 
neighbors through their zeal, courage, sagacity, or 

public spirit. .:,?■/.;■ ::■::■'>:' \::K:V:;^^:'^'-1'm\::r'-^ . 

A leader of regulators, for example, whose ad- 
ministration of his dangerous powers had been 
marked by promptitude and severity, was expected 
to be equally efficient when clothed with more reg- 
ular authority. A captain of the rangers, whose 
enterprise had been remarkable for certainty and 
success would, it was believed, do quite as good ser- 
vice in the capacity of a civil officer. A daring 
pioneer, whose courage or presence of mind had 
saved himself or others from the dangers of the 
wilderness, ought surely to make as safe a guide in 
the pathless ways of politics. There was another 
class whose members were distinguished as being 
noisy, loud-talking, wise-looking men, self-consti- 
tuted oracles, with a better opinion of their own 
wisdom than any one else was willing to endorse. 
Such men became "file-leaders," or "pivot men," 
because the taciturn people of the West, though in- 
clined to undervalue a mere talker, were simple- 
minded enough to accept a man's valuation of his 
own powers, or easy-tempered enough to spare 
themselves the trouble of investigating so small a 
matter. 

Those were the halcyon days for mere pretenders, 
since their claims were allowed, chiefly because 
they were not deemed worth controverting, and the 
difference between these and the more worthy class 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



was hardly recognizable, since the methods which 
both classes used to assert their claims were the 
same and were equally admitted by the people. 

In personal appearance the primitive politician 
was well calculated to retain the authority invested 
in him by such a people ; he was in fact an epitome 
of all the physical qualities which distinguish the 
rugged people of the West ; and between these 
and moral and intellectual qualities, there is a gen- 
eral correspondence. He bore upon his brow and 
features the marks of the great struggles through 
which he passed, and although these features were 
for that reason harsh and severe, nevertheless he 
was usually kind-hearted and sympathetic in his 
relation with his fellow-citizens. 

In those things for which his qualifications were 
agpropriate the politician did thoroughly well, but 
sometimes the success which was in fact the result 
of his manly candor, was attributed by him to his 
cunning management. Naturally he was always 
forming and attempting to execute schemes to cir- 
cumvent his political opponents, but usually, if he 
bore down all opposition, it was in spite of his 
chicanery, and not by its assistance. He resorted 
to every conceivable art to induce the freemen to 
voX.^ properly^ and when he could not succeed in 
this, his next effort was to prevent them from vot- 
ing at all. On election day he would gather his 
clans about him, among them " the boys from the 
heads of the hollow," men who were never seen be- 
yond the precincts of their own little clearings 
from one end of the year to the other, except on 
that day and the Fourth of July. He would chat 
with them, whittle with them, drink with them, 
watching all the time, however, that no one over 
whom he believed that he had control went away 
without voting the straight ticket^ and then if 
elected, he and his friends would celebrate their 
success in a right royal manner. 

In the course of time, his class began to decay , 
the tide of immigration, or the increasing intelli- 
gence of the people, raised up men of larger views ; 
and he speedily found himself outstripped in the 
race and forgotten by his ancient retainers. Then, 
like his predecessor, the original frontiersman, dis- 
gusted with civilization and its refinements, he 
migrated to more congenial regions and in the 
scenes of his former triumphs was heard no more. 

M. H. McDoNNEi^L, '95. 



Then all too late comes counsel to be heard. 
Where will doth mutiny with wit's regard. 
Direct not him whose way himself will choose ; 
'Tis breath thou lack'st, and that breath wilt thou 
lose. 

Richard 11.^ ii. i. 



St Augastine of Hippo. 

f--:/P;t,:::'::g':'C:'^.:'v.. ,. FIFTH PAPER. ' '•■^'^.J;";:/-'- ,V ;■:■; ■■;.;,;:';; 

It does not seem uncalled for by our subject, here 
to make a slight digression, so as to set forth a 
little more in detail the Augustinian scheme of 
virtuous life, — to tell more fully in just what 
Augustine, in his clear-headed and common sense 
way of viewing human nature in all its varying 
phases of good and evil, insisted on in his spoken 
and written words, as the primary, the fundamen- 
tal, and the wholly necessary basis of what one 
may style a good every-day Christian life, — one 
that would fully come up to the standard of moral 
goodness required by the Maker and the Redeemer 
of mankind— and the one that by word and example 
He sought to have His disciples follow. 

Augustine perceiving that as man who has been 
created only for good, for happiness, for eternal 
glory to which he has been destined by a loving 
Creator and Redeemer, falls away from his great 
birth-right and divine ideal, because of his volun- 
tary yielding to the evil bents of his nature, hence 
in pursuance of his plan of leading his charges 
back again to the primitive and natural duties of 
their station in life, did he set out by laying down 
very clearly and emphatically certain plain and 
evident truths known to all by reason and religion, 
which may be looked upon as the ground- work of 
all social and ethical reform. ^: 

Augustine was led to this rebuilding of the 
moral edifice at Hippo, by recognizing that while 
in Africa there were many evil-minded men, there 
were also many just and holy souls. Despite the 
troubles and sorrows of the times, virtue was not 
dead in Africa. Besides the many references in his 
works to the saintly men and women who illustrated 
and adorned the diocese of Hippo by their virtues 
and sanctity, the persecution of the Vandals, which 
followed not long after Augustine's death, attests 
by its ferocity and its -long duration and by the 
countless martyrs it sent to heaven, that the age of 
heroism had not vanished. 

But he also saw that in the harvest-field of the 
Lord, much cockle was mixed with the good seed, 
— that while there were many saints, there were 
also many sinners, and these he desired to convert. 

Frequently does the pious and warm-hearted pre- 
late in his solicitude for religion and his zealous 
care of his countrymen, deplore this sad state of 
his people, — this falling away of the multitude 
from the teachings of their fathers, from the 
first principles of all natural and revealed law, 
from the very commonest dictates of conscience, 
and of decency and of belief. And apart from his 
thirst for souls, Augustine (no doubt inspired by 



Vill'anova monthlv. 



the Most High) was moved to his task of reform- 
ing his people, by liis views of the society of .his 
day. - 

Society throughout the Christendom of the IVth 
and Vth centuries was confessedly very corrupt. 
All classes of men, not merely the giddy world of 
pleasure, but the cultured world of the day, the 
world of labor, and the world of science, and the 
world of trade and commerce, as any one who 
chooses may learn from the records of the times, 
were being led astray by the spirit of the world 
from the truths of (xod and of nature. 

The histories of this era, the chronicles, the 
dramas, the school-books, the state reports of 
'ulers and officials, bear witness to the otherwise 
almost inconceivable depth of moral and religious 
/ottenness, into which the Western World —Africa, 
Gaul, Spain and Italy, not to speak of the Eastern 
World, was plunged. Augustine's own works, 
especially his City of God^ wherein may be read 
the story of his times, relate enough to show us 
that everywhere two evil influences were at work 
against the Church and State. These were bad 
teaching and bad example — the one assailing the 
intellect, the other corrupting the will, of men, 
and both together undermining the Church in 
Africa and wrecking the fairest hopes of ecclesi- 
astical and civil society. Of the evil doctrines 
taught it niay be said, that there was barely a 
religious or moral truth that was not endangered 
in some guise or other. Of God— the Supreme 
Being, it was taught that He was not one but 
more than one ; that He was not pure spirit, but 
a kind of medley of matter and spirit, — a com- 
posite of flesh and blood and passions ; of Christ 
— the only Son of God, that He was not God, nor 
even divine, that He probably had been a good 
man, but nothing more than man ; that His 
merits. His graces. His atonement were of little or 
no avail ; that they were in fact not needed by 
man, and at best could do him but little good ; of 
the Sacraments of Holy Church — the Life-giving 
symbols of the infinite love of a Redeemer, and 
the institutions of His infinite mercy, that they 
were of little efficacy ; were mere shadowy rites, 
of little importance, and were even largely the 
foolish remnants of a childish and unmeaning 
superstition ; of man himself, who (as every one in 
his own inner heart can bear witness) is capable of 
the full and free exercise of his powers, it was 
taught by some that he was merely an automaton, 
a being ruled by blind destiny and fate, and by 
others that he was a being so perfect and all-suffi- 
cient, that he needed no aid, no grace from on 
high, that of himself he could win everything in 
this world as well as in the next. 



Such were some of the evil doctrines taught in 
the chief cities, — in the famous schools of the 
Western and Eastern Empires. They were the 
teachings of Manes, Arius, (of whom St. Jerome, 
a contemporary of Augustine, had said that the 
whole world was becoming Arian,) of Donatus and 
Pelagius. 

While the schools, very many of them fre- 
quented by the Faithful, — schools that should 
have been training-grounds for natural and Chris- 
tian morality, and the public shows with their 
games and circuses, whither flocked even the 
Christians, for their pastimes, were utterly un- 
healthy for soul and body, — were, in fact, publicly 
and unblushingly training-schools of mischief and 
hot-beds of viciousness in its most seductive, 
obscene and corrupting forms. Thus the people — 
not only pagan but Christian, not only one class, 
but all classes, were in one degree or another, 
being given over, some slightly, others gravely, 
wholly to the spirit of evil, — to the spirit of the 
flesh, and to the pride of life. In brief, the trend 
of the age in its teachings and examples was 
largely anti-Christian, and sanctioned a maximum 
of worldly riotings and delights with a minimum 
of self-restraint and common decency. Men were 
being paganized again. 

In thus stating the intellectual, moral and 
social decay and rottenness of this era, in which 
the people — rulers and ruled — reveled in their 
waywardnesses and lusts, the pen almost shrinks 
from relating except in general terms the frightful 
corruption ot the age, which not many years after 
Augustine's death, (he died A. D. 430, and the 
Fall of the Empire is commonly placed in A. D. 
475,) drew down on the great empire — the 
mightiest social and political fabric that ever had 
been reared by the hand of man, — the awful 
punishments of the offended majesty of the Most 
High. 

Whoever wishes to learn more of the chief 
features of these times, may find enough in 
Augustine's City of God to show how like another 
Soiom and Gomorrah the proud empire of Rome 
went to its doom. Yet, — and there was some 
consolation though sorrowful in the thought, — 
the unbelief and viciousness of Augustine's age 
were evils, that in all times, from the very begin- 
ning of the world, had been making men traitors 
to the Most High. The world had been saved 
once, why then not again ? 



- ■ J: ' vt'rt^'- 



T. C. M. 



{To be Continued^ 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



Time ; its Value and Uses. 

What subject is more natural and appropriate 
than the above for the consideration of young men, 
especially of those at college? They, as a rule, 
never fully realize that they have arrived at the 
turning point of life ; that they are passing through 
that critical period of their existence, which is 
destined to tell extensively on their whole future 
career ; that they are under influences, which, for 
good or evil, will undoubtedly give a tone and 
color to their conduct, habits and character. If 
these momentous truths could take possession of 
their souls, they would undoubtedly grasp, in its 
varied phases, the meaning of the word. Time. 

Let us consider briefly that portion of youth 
which verges on manhood. Whatever motive 
principle a young man has in him, is then stimu- 
lated into activity, and suddenly attains a strength 
and power previously unfelt and unknown. It is 
at this time that the young man and those whose 
duty is to mould or form his character should bear 
in mind that, "as the twig is beat the tree's in- 
clined." This period of life, lying between early 
youth and the maturity of manhood, has as much 
of the fire of youth, of its liberal warmth, of its 
amiable frankness, as to leave the mind open to 
receive the impressions which it is very desirable 
should be made upon it ; and at the same time, it 
has as much of the tenacity of approaching man- 
hood, as to retain those impressions through after 
life. Surely it must be evident to every one that, 
when the cares and responsibilities which come 
with mature years shall have engrossed his atten- 
tion, the many opportunities which his youth 
afforded him will have been lost forever. In the 
United States Mint at Philadelphia, a rack is placed 
over the floor of the gold room to prevent a visitor 
from carrying away with the dust of his feet the 
minute particles of gold, which, despite the utmost 
care, fall upon the floor when the rougher edges of 
the bar are filed. The sweepings of the building 
save yearly thousands of dollars. " How much 
more precious," says an American writer, "are the 
minute fragments of time which are wasted by the 
young, especially by those who are toiling in the 
mints of knowledge ! Who can estimate the value 
to a college student of this golden dust, these rasp- 
ings and parings of life, these leavings of days and 
remnants of hours, so valueless singly, so inestim- 
able in the aggregate, could they be gleaned up 
and turned to mental improvement !" 

The improvement of time is important in itself ; 
but how to improve it, is equally so. It is neces- 
sary not so much to get knowledge, as to strengthen 
and develop the intellect. The possessor of know- 
ledge should understand its value and be able to 



turn it to account in the way of utility. Milton 

says : 

" Who reads incessantly, and to his reading brings not 

A spirit and judgment equal or superior, 

Uncertain and unsettled still remains,' 

Deep read in bojks, but shallow in himself." ,^ 

In order to be profitable, reading and reflection 
must be united. It has been said that a mere 
swallower of books is no more likely to become 
wise, than is a glutton to be healthy and strong. 
To improve time, it is necessary to read intelli- 
gently and thoughtfully. 

Writing your own thoughts will make them 
clear to your own minds. "I confess," said St. 
Augustine, " that by writing I have learned many 
things which nothing else had taught me." Every 
young man can recall to mind Bacon's words, 
" Reading makes a full man, talking a ready man, 
and writing an exact man." Of all means of 
mental culture, writing is held to be the best ; it 
strengthens and deepens the intellectual faculties. 
It may be safely said, that any man who has never 
translated his thoughts into written language, is 
unable to think correclly or profoundly. One 
must take the pen and do honest work to learn the 
secret of diligent meditation, to acquire the habit 
of grappling intelligently and successfully with the 
problems which greatly concern him as man. 

The proper and assiduous employment of time 
is essential, also, to the preservation of health, 
cheerfulness of temper, purity of heart, and growth 
of character. Young man, if you learn the present 
value of single minutes, you will not look back here- 
after with dissatisfaction and repentance. How 
vengeful wasted time is ! How it stings at the last! 
It diminishes the chances of a happy and successful 
end. Use your time well and conscientiously, not in 
hope of success, but of excellence which is its own 
recompense. T. J. Lee, '95. 



Very Rev. Father McKenna's Visit. 

During the past month the Very Rev. C. H. 
McKenna, the distinguished Dominican, paid us a 
visit. He was accompanied from Philadelphia by 
Very Rev. J. D. Waldron, O.S.A. , provincial. After 
dining with the faculty, he was escorted to the 
college dramatic ball, where the students enter- 
tained him with the following programme : 

Selection from "Robin Hood," R. De Koven, 
college orchestra; "The Old, Old Story," solo and 
chorus, Woolson Morse, College Glee Club, string 
accompaniment. 

After the above two numbers were finished R. J. 
O'Donnell, in the name of the students, welcomed 
the distinguished visitor in a very appropriate and 
well-rendered address. The speaker referred to the 



VILIvANOVA MONTHLY. 



similarity between the Dominicans and the Augus- 
tinians, speaking words of praise for the immortal 
St. Thomas Aquinas and for the guest's missionary 
labors. Mr. O'Donnell closed his remarks by ask- 
ing the Very Rev. Father for some words of en- 
couragement, requesting also that his influence be 
brought to bear upon the faculty to give the stu- 
dents at least one day's freedom from studies. The 
speaker was loudly applauded for the manner in 
which he acquitted himself. Undoubtedly a good 
share of the applause was in response to his last 
request, for, freedom from study, even for one day, 
is, we all know, very gratifying to the tired stu- 
dent. 

The venerable Father arose and in some well- 
chosen and effective words thanked the students 
most cordially for the reception tendered him. He 
said he had long since wished to visit Villanovaj 
but not till the present had he the opportunity to 
realize his fond wish. He expressed himself as 
being very agreeably surprised, as such a recep- 
tion was altogether unexpected. He dwelt at some 
length on the memorable Dr. Moriarty, O. S.A., to 
whom he, as a boy, was wont to listen with the 
greatest enthusiasm, and from whom he learned 
his first lessons in public speaking. Continuing, 
he exhorted the students to appreciate the advan- 
tages now at their disposal, and to cherish a deep, 
love for their Church and faith, and finished by 
asking and obtaining a holiday for the students. 
It is scarcely necessary to say that the speaker was 
listened to with great attention and received long- 
continued applause. 

The remainder of the programme consisted of 
Rossini's " Carnival," by the College Glee Club 
and Herman's "Cocoanut Dance," by the College 
Orchestra, for both of which the students were 
highly complimented. The Very Reverend Guest 
left soonafter, bearing with him the good wishes of 
all for his continued success and another visit from 
him in the near future. 



Mythology. 

The mythology of the ancients has always been 
considered a matter of utmost importance on 
account of the great light which it throws upon 
the history, the literature, the manners and cus- 
toms of the various nations of antiquity. Every 
nation had some fabulous stories both religious and 
patriotic, which we, if not totally ignorant of, are 
at a loss to understand and explain. No nations 
abound in myths more than Greece and Rome. 
Their works are filled to overflowing with such 
stories, some representing the gods as beautiful, 
omniscient and rational beings, protectors of na- 



tions, propitious in war, kind and beneficent to 
mankind ; others clothing the divinities in the 
forms of irrational beings. 

Many have attempted to fathom the mysteries of 
mythology but in vain, for to man in general 
mythology is a puzzle that has never been solved. 
It was to the ancients what religion is to us. It 
seemed to guide them in their daily lives, whether 
their occupation was domestic, commercial or 
military. ■' v'^.;,:v'Vv-^^;,--.5 y^,:^'•■?■■■^^^■;v',.:::n^'^v■V^^■i:^■■^^;^':•^\^;:i 

By some Homer and Hesiod are considered the 
originators of mythology. Their poems contain 
numerous representations more or less worthy of 
the Olympian divinities. Even the ancient critics 
denounced many of these stories as unjust and false, 
and the authors of them as impious and irreverent. 
Nevertheless we, viewing these poems as immortal 
works of literature, cannot but admire the graceful 
happy manner in which they intwine the fables of 
the gods with stories of the great heroes of 
antiquity. ' ■' ■'■■'■■■/■ ' ' '''^ '-■ ■■•■'"■>■■ v>-.':'-''~^;-v .-' ;;.^:vv 

Virgil, too, clothes mythology in a poetic garb 
and the beauty and splendor thereby added to his 
narrative of the foundation of Rome cannot be 
underrated. One who has ever read Ovid, will 
notice with what an agreeable play of the imagina- 
tion he traces the lineage of his people to the 
ancient heroes, and of these in turn to the gods 
themselves. Thus we might take up volume after 
volume of the works of ancient authors, whether 
historians, poets, dramatists, philosophers or orators, 
and find them all abounding in myths and mytho- 
logical allusions. 

That mythology was beneficial to all nations and 
more especially to Rome and Greece is fully verified 
in the histories of these countries. The idea of it 
seemed to stir them on to patriotism, and filled 
them with a holy and reverential fear for the 
deities who guided them in war and peace. It was 
in fact a restraining influence, and wherever it was 
deeply rooted in the minds of men, there was a 
greater simplicity in life and a more strict atten- 
tion paid to the laws of morality. So much so that 
had it not been for mythology, it is almost certain 
that Greece and Rome would have lapsed into their 
former barbarism. 

Egypt has also given to the world a mythology 
different from all the others. Like all Orientals, 
the Egyptian^, not content with worshipping in 
the ordinary form of Pagan ceremony, created, as 
it were, out of their fervid imaginations the deities 
that governed them. They recognized the divinity 
in the sun, moon and stars ; in lakes and rivers ; 
in beasts and birds. Although in this manner the 
Egyptians possessed numerous deities, they were 
never incorporated into the literature of that 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



country, and as a result, we look in vain for those 
sublime works that characterize the literature of 
Greece and Rome. 

The beginnings of all the ancient nations are in 
this way clouded in the obscurity of myth and 
fable. The Norseman with his myths of Odin and 
Thor and the Valkyrie ; the Indians with their 
hunting grounds and their spring of perpetual 
youth ; the dusky savages of Africa worshiping 
the sun and attributing to it wondrous works 
wrought in behalf of their ancient lineage; all of 
these give evidence that some form or other of 
religious belief and worship prevailed at all times 
among all nations. The wise men of each nation, 
it is supposed, in attempting to solve the problems 
of their own existence, the creation of the world, 
the nature of the divinity, etc., are accountable for 
the numerous myths that are found in the histories 
of all nations. Others, however, assert that all 
the myths regarding God, the origin and destiny of 
man and the existence of the earth are corruptions 
of a revelation that was made to man in the begin- 
ning, but which became obscured more or less by 
reason of separation from the parent stem, and by 
consequent vice and barbarism. It is difficult, if 
not altogether impossible, to give an explanation of 
these ancient myths that will be satisfactory to all. 
They are myths and myths they will ever remain. 
But the student of ancient history will find a study 
of them absolutely necessary in order to understand 
the most important events of ancient times. 
Mythology is not therefore ^evoid of interest ; 
neither is it devoid of benefit ; and aside from its 
pleasant and entertaining qualities it fills the mind 
with poetical ideas and will be forever associated 
with all that is immortal of ancient times. 

J. J. RylE, '94. 



OBITUARY. 



OUR OCTOGENARIAN BROTHER JOHN GOES TO HIS 

REWARD. — BY HIS DEATH VILLANOVA HAS 

LOST THE OLDEST MEMBER OK 

HER COMMUNITY. 



Brother John, known in the world as Dennis 
Gallagher, was born about the year 181 2 — the 
precise year of his birth is not known — in the 
parish of Tulloughbegley, County Donegal, Ireland, 
of Joseph Gallagher and his wife, Bridget Feary. 
After some years' service in his native land and in 
Scotland, where he worked for a while at Glasgow 
in the manufacture of delfware, Dennis Gallagher 



came to the United States with letters of recom- 
mendation to the late Dennis Kelly, Esq., of Cobb's 
Creek, and there found a friendly welcome and a 
home. This was about 1839. In 1843, having 
been received in the meantime as a postulant of the 
Order at St. Augustine's Church, in Philadelphia, 
he was sent out with another brother postulant to 
Villanova, that had been purchased a year or so 
before for community purposes of the province. 
Here, in that same year, on the Feast of All Saints, 
Dennis Gallagher was vested with the religious 
habit of St. Augustine and given the name of John, 
and as Brother John was known ever afterwards. 

At Villanova, with the exception of a few 
months — about a year in all — Brother John spent 
the fifty-one years of his religious life, serving the 
community faithfully as head cook, or as chief of 
the baking department, until the last five or 
six years of his life, when old age and in- 
creasing infirmities obtained his release from 
active duty. He made profession of his vows of 
religion on November 10, 1849, and in the year 
just spent (1893) celebrated the golden anniversary 
of his entrance into religion. Thoroughness and 
faithfulness seemed to be special characteristics of 
the good old man. Blessed with a powerful con- 
stitution and — by temperament and habit — a model 
of steadiness in his ways, he was always at his post, 
and never known to be ill. When not on duty in 
the kitchen or bakery he filled up his spare time in 
bead-making. His rosaries— so neatly wired^were 
were famous far and near. V 

A week or so before his decease he caught a cold 
— a heavy laryngeal affliction — that soon laid him 
abed, and, despite the prompt attention of Dr. 
Allison, the monastery physician, and the soli- 
citous care of the brother infirmarian, brought him 
to the grave. On Thursday evening, the 8th inst., 
after receiving the holy oils, the old brother passed 
to his reward. 

The funeral services were held in the monastery 
church on last Monday. After the recital of the 
solemn Office of the Dead the Requiem Mass was 
chanted by the monastery choir. The officers of 
the Mass were : The Very Rev. James D. Waldron, 
Provincial of the Augustinians, celebrant ; Rev. 
John B. Leonard, O.S. A., deacon, and Rev. John 
McErlain, O.S. A., sub-deacon. With the abso- 
lution services fiuished, the religious in procession, 
chanting the " Benedictus," bore the remains of 
their old companion to the monastery graveyard 
and there laid them to rest. 



PATRONIZE 



OUR 



ADVERTISERS. 



8 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



The Villanova Moixthljr, 

PUBLISHED BY THE STUDENTS OF ■ 

iZILLKNOiZK COLI-BCR, 

;;v. ,. V VILLANOV/A, PA. >: ' 

FEBRUARY, 1894. 



TME STKF=F=. 



Editor-in-Chief. 
J. F. O'LEARY, '94. 

Associate Editors. 
J. J. Crowley, '94. J. J. Rvle, '94. 

J. J. DoLAN, '94. M. T. Field, '95. 

T. J. Lee, '95. M. J. Murphy, '95. 

B. J. O'DoNNELL, '95. J. S. Smith, '96. 

W.J. MaHON, '96. J. E. O'DONNELL, '96. 

E. T. Wade, '96. 
Business Manager, L. A. Delurey, O.S.A. 



Literary contributions and letters not of a business nature 
sliould be addressed ; ■ : 

"Tlie Editor," Villanova Monthly. 
Remittances and business communications should be 
addressed to Business Manager, Villanova. 



Subscription Price, one year |r 00 

Single copies 10 



Entered at the Villanova Post Office as Second- Class Matter. 



EDITORIALS. 



By the death of Geo. W. Childs the city of 
Philadelphia has lost one of its most esteemed 
citizens, and the world at large a most devoted and 
generous friend. The tone of sympathy that per- 
vaded the numerous accounts of his death, and the 
references made to his many noble and charitable 
acts evidence the respect and regard in which he 
was held by his fellow-men. In his life were 
beautifully portrayed the words of Shakespeare, 
" He hath a tear for pity, and a hand open as day 
for melting charity," while from it, too, those 
abounding in this world's goods might learn the 
lesson of thoughtful, systematic charit)'. There 
are some who possess enormous wealth, yet seem 
altogether blind to the wants of the needy. But, 
happily, there are others to whom the condition of 
the poverty stricken, and their change from a life 
of distress and want, to that of comfort and plenty 
are ever matters of consideration. Of such a kind 
was the late ]Mr. Childs. His charity will live 
after him, and his kindly deeds will be a reminder 
to the many that their sphere in life should not be 
confined within the narrow limits of self, but 
extended, so as to embrace in universal charity 



the poor and unfortunate ones of earth. And 
when we look over this great world of ours, how 
many are the phases of life that appeal to us ! 
The uneducated, the hungry, the maimed, the 
destitute. All cry out in plaintive tones: Help us, 
we are in need. While it is pleasant to note that 
these appeals are not always in vain, yet it is a 
matter of regret that charity is sometimes mis- 
placed by the deceit of those asking it. For the 
peace of mind, however, of those who look beyond 
the grave for the rewards of righteousness in this 
life, let them remember that the Almighty con- 
siders the motive of charity and not the deed. , 



If there is any thing which a young man should 
constantly have in mind, and to which all his 
actions, either directly or indirectly should tend, it 
is the moulding or forming of his character. 
This must be all the more noticeable to the obser- 
vant when they look around them and see the 
mixture of good, bad and indifferent qualities in 
the manners and habits of men. There are some 
who are wafted around on every wind of fortune, 
whose friendship endures only while it can be 
made the means to a selfish end, whose persever- 
ance lasts only as long as the effort affords novelty, 
and whose sole aim in life seems to be personal 
gain, no matter how acquired, by fair means or 
foul. The world is the loser by reason of such 
men. They are lacking in character. They are 
lacking in that whigli gives us confidence in our 
fellow-man, the want of which makes every one 
only too eager to profit by his neighbor's loss. 
While it is consoling to reflect that there are 
many in whom mankind can repose confidence, 
and to whom it can look with pride as examples 
of nobility of character, yet still we cannot close 
our eyes to the fact that there are many whose 
lives show just the reverse. From a moral point 
of view it must be evident, therefore, that a grave 
responsibility devolves on those whose duty it is 
to mould properly the character of the young ; 
and on the latter when they have attained the age 
of discretion to strive by every means in their 
power for the accomplishment of that end. 



We owe an apology to our many readers for the 
late issue of the February number of the Villa- 
nova Monthly. This, however, is not due to 
negligence, but to circumstances over which we 
had no control, such as examinations and La 
Grippe. We promise them more prompt consider- 
ation in the future. 



VILLANOVA MONTHLY. 



MATHEMATICAL CLASS. 

To this class all students and others interested in mathe- 
matical work are respectfully invited to send problems, 
queries, etc., and their solutions ; or any difficulties they may 
encounter in their mathematical studies. 

All such communications should be addressed to 

D. O'SuLLiVAN, M.A., Villanova College. 

45. — A side wall of a house is 30 feet high, and 
the opposite one 40 feet, the roof forms a right 
angle at the top, the lengths of the rafters are 10 
and 12 feet ; the end of the shorter is placed on 
the higher wall and vice versa ; required the length 
of the upright which supports the ridge of the roof, 
and the breadth of the house? 

Solution by Thos. J. Lee^ '95. 

; BC= 30 feet ; FD = \Qt\ AB = 12 ; AF= 10. 
To find AG (the length of the upright which 
supports the ridge) and ^^ (the breadth). 
: EB is drawn parallel to DC .'. EB= 30 feet and 

FE = 10. •■■;; :.c-,yt- .,v :■;■-;.., ■■ ^;: -, ■.■,,\\.;:':' ::. ■■; 

: Proof; in the rt. As FAB and FEB. . £ ; : 
■::':FA = FE 2ind. FB = FB. Hence, the As are =, 
and AB ■■= EB .'. EB = 12 feet, which is the 
breath of the house. 



B 



a 



J) 

Join FB and AE. Now the As at ^4 and ^ are rl. 
As . ". the As at F and B are = to 2 rt. As; hence the 
angular points of the quadrilateral A FEB are in 
the circumference of a circle ; and therefore {AE X 
I^B)={AB X FE) + {AF X EB). The rectangle 
contained by the diagonals of a quadrilateral in- 
scribed in a circle, is equal to the rectangles con- 
tained by its opposite sides). A being a rt. A- 

1/1 



15.62. 



FB^ = AD" + AB"" .-. V 10^ + 12' 
(10 X 12) + (12 X 10) _ j^^^ _ ^^ 
15.62