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Theological Seminary, 


Cfise,,_X^^..^'-:rr. L'. -'O" ; 

S/ielf. c<U'^j 3ecti»fl 




A '-^ 


O F T H E 

Divine Pecrees 

O F 

Election and Reprobation. 

Being the S u b s T a n c e of Teveral 


On Rom. ix. 6, 24. 

Preached at ?ulham-Margaret in Norfolk. 

By John'Rutland. 

Walk about Smt^and go round about her, and tell the 
Towers ther^J MoiJi ye well her Bulwarks, and 
conjider .her. P maces, that -yejnay tell the Generation 
joUowing : For Ms God is our God for e-ver and 
ever ; and he will }Le our Guide even unto Death. 
Pfal. xlviii. 12, 13 J i\. 



Printed for J o h n. Marshall at the Bible in 
Grace-church-fireety and Joseph Marshall 
at the Bible in Newgate-jlreet. M d c c x x\ 


* t 



H A T the Mighty God, ( who 
hath prepared his Throne in 
Heaven, whofe Kingdom ruleth 
over all, ) inlluenceth, over-rul- 
eth, and direfteth all the Ads 
of all the Children of Men, to 
ifTue in the Glory of his Attri- 
butes, is the evident Doftrine of 
many Texts of the Holy Scrip- 
tures ; and confirmed by the many Afis of Divine Pro- 
vidence therein recorded, as the Malice of ^ofeph^s 
Brethren in felling him into Egypt, and cafting him 
into Prifon, were both Steps of Aicsnfion to that Dig- 
nity and Glory in this World, which God had before 
determined him. Wherein God's Pre-ordination of that 
which in the Courfe of Providence he brought to pafs, 
his Power in preferving his Servant Jofeph through all 
his Tryals flatering and threatning, efpeciaily in pro- 
viding for his Favourite y<ic:.b, in time of Famine, was 
confpicuoufly feen. Thus Jofiph tells them, Gen. I. 20. 
But as joY you, you thought evil againft me, but Gtd 
meant it unto good. 

The Providential bringing the BlelTed Virgin Mary, 
under thelnHuence offo many cafual contingent Caufc's, 
which concurred fo near to the Execution of the Decree 
ofChrifl's Nativity at Bethlehem, Luke ii. i, 2. 3, 4. 5. 
fhcws plainly, that God doth in his Wifiom exe-» 
cute his Decrees by Ways and Means vifibly accidental, 
and as to the abfence of all humane Provilion, meerly 
cafual and fortuitous j in whi.^h his fecret influencing, 
A 2 directinj^ 

iv The P RE F ACE. 

direfcing, and over- ruling, is difccvered; by which 
'we may fay, the Hand of the Lord is in allthisj Jobxii. 9. 
Tiaverfe the whoje Hiftory of the Birth, Life, and 
peath, of the Blofled Jefus, and compare it with the 
Prophecies going before of him, and in him we may 
fee, as in a Mirror, that God influenceth, direfteth, 
and over-ruleth, all the Ads of all the Children of 
Mcn^ to ifl'ue in the Giory of his Attributes. Thefe 
18 Verfes of the 9th of the Romans^ which are the 
Subieri of the enfuing Dilcourfe, are an unexcepti- 
onable Proof of this Truth ,• wherein we have the 
Glory of God's Goodnefs and Mercy in Saving one, 
and the Glory of his Juitice and Wrath in Reprobating 
another. All the Tranfactions of his Divine Provi- 
dence, being no other than a vifible or latent Eaergeti' 
cal Influence of the divine Will, into, and upon all ac- 
cidental and fortuitous Caufes, whether more remote 
from the Etied, or more near, whether more hidden, 
or manifeft ; whether natural and congruous, or con- 
trary and irritative, in reference to their final Caufes ; 
for though thefe Caufes mediate by which God ex- 
ecuteth his Decrees, are hidden both from our Senles 
and our Reafon ; i/?. Partly by reafon of the diverfe 
and various Influence of the fame Caul'e upon different 
Subjects. 2^, And to difterent Ends, feme nearer, and 
to fome more extenfive. 5;//)', As likewife in a dif- 
ferent Degree and Meafure upon the like Subjects; and 
4/^', By reafon of fome hidden Adjuncts, which are in- 
deed but leflfer helping Caufes, all which may be learn- 
ed in the Hiftory of jaccb's determining the Event 
of divine Providence concerning 3''i!/^//-'j the v/ay of 
God, being in this refpect far above him, and out of 
his fight ; yet in refpect to Diving Providence, all 
things come to pafs according to his certain Council, 
and iir.mutable Will, being predeflinated according to the 
Ptirpnfe of him -who worketh all things according to the 
Council ojhts orcnWii/, Ephef. i. ii. I think no Reader 
of this Ninth of the Rohians, will deny that the A- 
pollle is handling the Divine Decrees of Eleclion and 
Reprobation; even the^rw/V/A/^j' themfelves, ^sHunnins 
faith, here the Apodle in Campum Predefiinationis di- 
gre'diy goeth oii into the Field of Predeitination, and 
whether they or we make the more genuine hxpli- 



plication of the Text, let the Reader judge : They fay, 
in their Synodical Writings of Dorty ( Explication of 
the Remonilrants in T^hejis i. upon Romans ix. ) 'viz,. 
*' The Scope of the Apoftle in this Chapter, is to fhew, 
" God without any Violation of his Promifes^ to re- 
" ject the unbelieving 3^ciw, though defcended from 
" Abraham, and mofl obfervant of the Law; but to be 
" able and willing to make them that believe Partakers 
" of the Promifes, whether they be Jevjs or Gentiles^ 
" not defcended from Abraham, nor are Obfervers of 
" the Law, this is manifeft from the 30, 31, 32 Verfes, 
" of this Chapter and from the i ith Chapter Verfe i, 
" 7, 17. The Polition of others of them is. Viz.. 
" The Scope of the Apodle is to defend this Pofition, 
" That the purpofe of God hath been from of Old ac- 
" cording to his good Pleafure, not to juflifie, adopt, 
** and blefs, thofe who feek Juftification from the Law, 
" but thofe who believe the Gofpel/' In thefe two 
Pofitions is contained, all the Election of Perfons to 
Glory our Adverfaries hold ( for Election to Grace, 
they deny), and both are in Oppofition to the Election 
our Apoftle teacheth j this Election of theirs being no 
other than a certain preference of Faith, and Charity, 
fe. in the Soul, and an Edi(S, or Decree, That, who- 
foever obtain and perfevere in thefe fhall have E- 
ternal Life : Whereas the Eleftion our Apoftle teacheth 
here, is not an Eleftion of Qualities and Conditions, 
but an Eledion of Perfons, ( before they do believe and 
do any good Works ) unto Calling and Salvation. The 
Caufes of Election, why God choofeth one and not an- 
other, afligned by the Annimans, are found only in 
Man ; the Caufes affigned by the Apoftle, of this difcri- 
minating one from another, ate wholly in God. They 
teach from this Chapter, how God will juftifie a Sin- 
ner, but 1 have in thefe Sermons fliewed their Doctrine 
to be fallly gathered ; and the Subject which the A- 
poftle handles, is, that God out of his meer good Plea* 
lure choofeth and reprobateth whom he will, the 
Virtue or Vice of the Perfon being no Caufe of God's 
Aft of Ordaining, though in reference to the Order of 
Ketribution, there will be a gradual Difference accord- 
ing to Merit. Tis objected that becaufe in Verfe 30, 
the Apoftle concludeth the Gentiles ^ which followed 


vi The PREFACE, 

not after Righteoufnefs, have attained to Righteoufn^fs 
and Ifrael that followed after the Law of Righteouf- 
jiefs, and attained not unto the Law of Righteoufnefs ; 
therefore in the foregoing Part he handleth theDofirine 
of Juftificatlon. To this I anfwer : F/r/}, They grant 
luch an Election of Perfons as truly is to be contained 
in this Chapter. Secondly ^ Whiift they maintain the 
way of Juftihcation to be taught in this Chapter, they 
iTiuit reeds confound Election and Jultihcation toge- 
ther, which are formally diftinct, as the Caufe and Ef- 
fect are. T^hhdlyj We deny the primary and direct Con- 
clulion of the Premifes to be contained in the 30 Ycrfe, 
and the Verfes following ,• or, that the Apoftle is there 
handling the piirpofe of Election and Reprobation, 
or, That the firlt Caufe of Election and Reprobation ; 
is there declared. Fourthly^ We fay the primary Con- 
cluficn of the foregoing part is, That EleBwK is not 
of hi?n that zvil'et/j, nor oj him that runneth, but of God 
thatjheweth Mercy. True it is, that the Apoflle ha- 
ving taught the terminating of Electing Grace in the 
Vocation of the Gentiles, and a Remnant of the 'JetcSy 
Verfe 24, inferreth here the Juflilication of the Gentiles, 
and Rejection oit\\e'Jews,zs to the greater part of them. 
I have not in thele Sermons fetch'd Arguments from 
every Quarter in defence of the Doctrine of irrefpec- 
tive Election, as from the Death of Chrifl:, from the 
Operation of the Grace of God, in Effectual Calling, 
and from the Perfeverance of the Saints ; all which 
when examined may be found fruitful places of Argu- 
ment in Defence of the Polition; but have contented 
my felf chiefly, if not only, with fuch as have an im- 
mediate Refpect to Predeftination. 

Many Reafons might be alleged, why every Chri- 
ftian Man and Woman (hould embrace and hold faft 
this Doctrine of the Divine Decrees of Election and 
Reprobation, but I Ihali content my felf with mention- 
ing two. ^ . , , . ' 

The Firft is from what is cllential to this 
Doctrine, the Second is from an Accident of it. Firfl. 
This Doctrine doth beft comport and agree with the 
Attributes of God, with his Omnifciency, under which "' 
is comprehended his Frefcience of things to come, as 
his perfect Remembrance of things that are paff, his 



The PREFACE. , vi] 

Omnifapiency, or infinite Wifdom, by which he num- 
bereth, timeth, and fituateth, ( i. e. ) difpofeth all 
things ; his Omnipotency, by which he moveth all 
things into Being in Being, and extendeth them to their 
End ; And is it poflibie for us to imagine, that a God 
of fuch Perfpicacy, Purity, and Subtilty who makes a 
Scrutiny into the moft minutal parts of the Creation, 
and takes the cognilance of the Hairs of every Man's 
Heady Luke xii. 7. whofe Providence can meet with 
no Neceility, and whofe Power can be matched with 
no Oppofjtion ; that a God of fuch adorable Perfecti- 
ons, who worketh all in ail in the Means, fhould make 
any one Man, and not determine his End ? And that he 
fhould have only a fimple Science or Knowledge, and 
idle Speculation upon a Creature, about whom fo many 
wonderful Acts of Providence are converfant, and not 
be refolved of the final State of that particular Per- 
fon ? But becaufe this Doctring of Election doth beft 
agree with the immutable Will and confummate Wifdom 
of God, therefore every true Chriftian fliould receive 
and hold fail: this Doctrine. 

The Second Reafon I fliall give, why every Chriftian 
Ihould embrace and maintain this Doctrine, is from an 
Accident ; which though it will not fufficiently evince 
the Truth, becaufe an Accident may be prefent in, or 
abfent from its Subject, without the Deftruftion of it, 
yet will it in this Cafe incline us to believe this Doftrine 
of Divine Decrees to be of God. 

Thofe Dodrines, which were raifed up in the 

Reformation from the Ruins of Chriflianity 

made by the Antichriftian Synagogue, we ought 

to embrace and hold faft. 

But the Doctrine of Divine Decrees of Eledion 

and Reprobation, as we teach, was rais'd up in 

the Reformation from the Ruins of Chriflianity 

made by the Antichriftian Synagogue: 

Therefore this Doctrine we ought to embrace, and 

hold fad. 

The miner Pfopcfiticn is abundantly proveable, that 

this Doctrine, as (ome of the fincere Milk of the Word 

was fucked in at the Reformation. Luthery the firft 

glorious Inllrument in the Protellant Reformation, was 

3 zealous Predejliimriany fo was 'Johannes Oecolampaduis, 


vHi the PREFACE, 

Partus, Ziihigliusy Jjr/imSy Pehcanus, Mufculm, 
VatabluSf Marhratusy Phagitis^ Pagnius, Munfierusy 
Eugubinus, Bucer, Pifcator ; in Tiguria many, as 
BuHinger, GuakheruSy &c. of Geneva^ Calvin, Virety 
£ez,ay Daneusy and many more famous Divines for 
Learning and Piety, Chriftian Heroes, flout Champi- 
ons againft Arminian Doctrine, as againft other Parts of 
Popery ; neither are we neceffitated to a Cloud of Wit- 
nefles abroad, but have abundant evidence of the Truth 
at home. Of the Church of England, as it believed 
and taught in the Reign of King Edward, and under 
Popifh Ferfecution in the Reign of Queen Marvy in 
the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, and King ja?nes, the 
Articles of whofe Faith are profe/fed by their Suc- 
ceflors, the now Church of England, the 17th Article 
of which, iscrf" Predeflinaticnand Election, viz,. 

" Predefiination to Life is the everlafling Purpofe of 
" God, whereby before the Foundations of the World 
" were laid, he hath conftantly decreed by his Council 
*' fecret to us, to deliver from Curfe and Damnation 
*' thofe whom he hath cholen in Chriil out of Man.- 
*' kind, and to bring them by Chriil: to everlafling Sal- 
*' vation as Vefiels made to Honour. Therefore they 
** which be endued with fo CNxellent a Benefit of God, 
'' be called according to God's Purpofe by his Spirit 
" working in due Seafon, Szc ? 

With this Article confenteth the Faith of there- 
formed Divines in the Countries of Germany, France, 
Scotland, Den-mark, Geneva, Holland, Srvitzerland, 
as appears by their Society with Archbifliop Parker, 
Doctor Parkhuft Bifhop of No; zvich, Archbifhop Grin- 
daly Dr. Remolds, and valt numbers more of Godly 
Preachers of the Church o( England m their Writings, 
Treatifes, and Epiftles. The Brethren likewife in 
King James's days unanimouny maintained this Ar- 
ticle" though they dilicnted from the Prelacy in many 
Ceremonies. I make this brief Collection, not becaule 
I would have that to be taken limply for Truth, which 
hath the Majority of Votes, but becaufe a Multitude 
of People amongil us, unacquainted with the State of 
the Ciuirch, are impos'd upon by unfaithful Men, by 
pretending the Singularity of our Doctrine, and that 
lio body maintained fo horrible a Doctrihe, but Mr. 


The PREFACE. ix 

'John Cnhin, and a (ew of his Followers ; whereas in 
Truth this Chriftian Doctrine was at the Reformation 
received by all the Frctefiant Churches, and defended 
by Men of that Piety and Labour, that the beft Di- 
vines, who in this day maintain this 'X'ruth, will count 
it no Difgrace to be outfliined by. Therefore this 
Doctrine becaufe it was rais'd up at the Reforniation, 
from the Opprertion of Antichriftian Darknefs, ought 
to be embraced and holden faft. I fhall fuper-add a few 
Lines of Mr. Henry Burton in his Epiflle Dedicatory to 
King Charles the ill in his Book of the Seven Vials, 
Anno 1628. " We hoped that Armmian and jPcpi/^ 
" Doctrine would be huflit and filenced : We by ex- 
** perience find it quite contrary ; fome are neither af- 
" fraid, nor afhamed to fay in plain Terms, they mull 
" Licence no Books againll Arminians. Good God . 
" What pitiful Times do we live in ! and how different 
" from former, as I was bold to tell my Lord of London ; 
*' but I truft your Majefty will vindicate your Honour 
" herein ; Goa s Truth expreft in Scripture is no chang- 
" ling. This is that we call the Doctrine of the Church 
" of England^ and no other : This hath been fealed 
" with the Blood of fo many Martyrs, witnefTed by fo 
" many Worthies of our Church for almoft this four- 
*' foare Years without Intermiflion, whofe Writings 
" no Time fhall blot out, and ratified by fo many Acts 
•* of Parliament, as not all the Devils in Hell, nor all the 
*' Arminians on Earth, fhall be able to difanul it : The 
" Gofpel fhall flourifh, maugre all Oppofites." Thus he. 
Wherein the Reader may fee two things; F/>y?, How odi- 
ous and contrary the Armmian Doctrine was to the then 
Church o( England, and how contrary they underflood 
and expounded the Articles of Election, to what they do 
now. Secondly, With what Zeal and Vigilancy they did 
oppofe it, joining it together with other parts o'i Popery 
fo deflructive to the Vitals of the Protejlant Religion, ancl 
even to Chriflianity it felf 

Objection. Ifijce tnuji hiow the Mind and IVill oj God 
by the Rejormation, v:ejhallthenbe at as great a Lrfs as be- 
fore, the Rejmned differing ainongft themjehes;befideije- 
leral ^te^f have been made^ by drcers Profejp.ons amongft 
lis, tGzvmds a further Reformation, which mujl upon this 
Siippofition be' a Stepping out of the Way. To this 1 anfwer: 
lliis is alalfccy from that which is fpoken of a parf, as i^ 


it was fpoken fimply or wholly : I don't fay we mufi; 
know the Mind of God, by the Reformation fimply, 
but by the Word of God; but inafmuch as we Prote- 
Pants believe the Reformation to be of God, we are 
therefore the rather led to believe Election of particular 
Perfons to be of God, becaufe it is one of the Articles 
of the Reformed Doctrine, and the contrary is Popijh. 
And as for the Reformed diftering amongfl themfelves; 
if it be that one dillenteth in more particulars, from 
Popifo Doctrine than another, it is no Reafon againfi 
my Proportion, which is, That we are to embrace the 
Doctrine raifed up in the Refonivation from the Ruins 
of Antichrift, For then we are to follow the Refor- 
mation, fo i'ar as they all go together, and when they 
part, we are to leave the part \tk Reformed ; and to 
follow the part more Reformed. As for example, Luther 
denied Tranfubfiantiation, and retained Images in 
Temples ; but without any Adoration of them ; Calvin 
denied both Tranfubilantiation, and Confubftantia- 
tion, and maintained the pure Inftitution of the Lord's 
Supper, deOirined the Im-ages,and threw them out. Now 
according to our Rule, Calvin diffenting in more Parti- 
culars from the Popifh Religion, than Luthery we are to 
follow him. Further, the Rule being true of the continu- 
ed body of tbeReformation,muft be generally true in the 
Diftribution of the Parts; and whereas divers Steps have 
been (by diverfe ProFeflions amongft us) gradually made 
fince, towards afurther Reformation, can be no Objec- 
tion to the Propofition ; if Steps have been lull made 
from Po/'/yZ) Doctrines andDifcipline without the Autho- 
rity of God's Word : as for Example, It is a Popijh Ordi- 
nance to befmear an Infant with Oyl, Spittle, and Salt, 
and lign it with the Crofs, and to have God- father's and 
God-mothers ; the EflaUiflied Church amongft us 
ufe only pure Water; here v/e follow them : The Church 
oi Scotland reject God- fathers and God-mothers and the 
Sign of the Crofs, as Popijb Vanities j and here we follow 
them. The Baptijis deny Sprinkling to be the right 
Mode of Baptifm, and Infants to be the proper Subjects, 
and baptize them who make a credible Profeilion of 
Cbridianity,- and in this we follow them: Some of us reft 
on tl.e 6\:U\ith Day according to the Commandment, 
and can neither difpenfe with i^^^^o/i^jProphaning of it, 
by fcrvile Liibour, fiwernecellarily, or diminifliing, or al- 


tering the Time of it, Daniel vii. 25. and herein we fol- 
low them : And rho' divers Steps have been made in the 
Reformation in fuccelTi ve Times, yet being notStcps back, 
as Armimanifm; but forward, as in the inftances; we are 
rather*induced to believe we have the Mind of God in 
them generally, and in this Doctrine in particular. 'Tia 
true indeed, the Church of Rome is fuch an Antichrifli- 
an, that we may argue aproprio from her Property, which 
is to corrupt true Chriftiamtyy and intrude her Anticlra- 
jiian Doctrine and Obfervances upon Chrift's Church. 
2 "Tbejf, ii. 4. Who oppofetb and exalte th above all that 
is called God, or that ii worjhiped. 

The Arminiansy by denying the Doctrine of irrefift- 
ible and irrefpective Election, run into a great many 
Errors, tending to rafe thefoundation of Religion; as, 

Firji^ That a Man may be converted to God, be- 
come a true Believer, and fo be one of thofe God doth 
verily love, and upon this his Believing hath elected 
him to Salvation, through Sanctihcation of the Spirit, 
and Belief of the Truth, and fo become one of the 
Godly ; of which the Pfalmifl faith in the 4th Pfalm, 
Knm) that the Lord hath Jet apart the Man that is Godly 
for himfelf, and being thus truly converted, we hold! 
thePerfon muft certainly be fayed, Jchn x. 27, 28. / 
give unto them eternal Life^ and they Jhall never perijh ; 
but on the contrary they teach fuch a Perfon may re- 
volt, and apoftatize from this true Converfion; and fo 
be none of the Elect, but be hated of God. and deferted 
by his good Spirit ; and fo be by him ordained to Con- 
demnation: Again, this Perfon may repent, turn again to 
God, believe in him; and upon this, God fhall love 
him, take him into the Number of his Elect, inhabit 
him again by his Spirit, and ordain him to Eternal Life: 
And again, the fame Perfon fliall become an Enemy to 
God, and God become an Enemy to him, and adjudge 
him to that horrible and milerable Ell ate ; and quoties 
totiesy how often foever this perfon fhall change, U) 
often God fliali ordain him for Heaven or Hell : How 
incongruous this conditional Election is, to the Being 
of a God of fuch adorable Perfections, of Wifdom, 
Power and Will let every Chriftian iudge. 

Secondly y They hold a Perfon being juftified by the 
Righteoufnefs ofChrift, receiv'd by Faith, and fo, ac- 
cording to us, mufl n'eeds be giorilied, may have his 
B a Sins 

xii The PREFACE. 

Sins imputed to him upon Illapfion, and be damned. 

T/jirdlyy They hold, that ChriCt hath impetratcd and 
obtained nothing moie for every Man than the Condi- 
tution of an uncertain Covenant, which may be broken 
by the Elect ; fo that Damnation may befai thofe under 
the Covenant of Grace, as well as thofe under the Co- 
venant of Works. 

Fourthly^ Notwithflanding the Death of Chrift, and 
the powerful Efficacy of the fame, it might fall out that 
not one Man or Woman in the World might be fav'd. 

Fifthly, They contend for fuch an internal Difpofi- 
tion of Mind in the very Heathens, fo grateful unto 
God, that they may pleafe him, and be faved. There- 
fore the Jerus, the Pagans, the Nominal Chriftians, fol- 
lowing the Light within, or Law of Nature, may be of 
God, and Sheep of Chrift, know the Truth, and do 
the Will of God, be drawn of the Father, hear and 
learn of the Father, fear God, and work Righteoufnefs, 
and be of the Truth; fo that they are ordained to e- 
ternal Life, and have it though they never believe in 
Jefus Chrift : All which is contrary to the Gofpel, and 
muft needs be calculated to ferve the Kingdom of Satan. 

Sixthly^ According to their Doctrine, notwithftand- 
ing the Decree of God, and the Death of Chrift, the 
whole Church Militant may fall away, and the Gates 
of Hell may prevail againft it. 

Sei'emhhy It hlemiflieth and difparageth the other 
part of Chrift's Mediatorial Office, which is that of an 
Advocate ; for hereby the Devil and a Man's own Will 
fliall fruftrate all Chrill's Endeavours at the Throne of 
Grace, and procure and eiiect the Damnation of a great 
Multitude cfPerfunsin all Ages, for which he hath 
been making continual Intercefilon. 

Lnftly, They hold the univerfal affiftance of all Grace, 
fufficicnt to '[iMc all Men, which the Qjiakers ftoutly 
defended in their Difputation ; therefore according to 
them, the Love of the Father, the Death of the Son, 
the Imputation of his Righteoufnefs, his continual In- 
tcrcedion, the Holy Spirit, with all the Powers of the 
World to come, mirJ all ftay waiting for their Event 
upon the poor blind dead Sinner's Uberum arbitviimt, 
his free Will, his act of Election, whether he will be 
faved, or v/hether he will be damned ; which is high- 
ly dl;honoitrible to Almighty God, and repugnant to 


The PREFACE. xiii 

our Apoflle's Conclufion. It is not of him that "jjilieth, 
nor of him that runneth, but of God that jheiveth Mercy. 
There are many other Errors which feme of the Armi- 
niam are infected with, which I will not charge upon all 
of them, ofthe divers Profeffions of Religion amongft 
us, the Errors of Felagius and Socinus, viz. the Non- 
Imputation of Original Sin, the abfolute Purity of In- 
fants, that Chrift was not the Object of Faith to the 
Old Tedament Saints, and that Believers arenotjufli- 
fied by the Imputation of Chrift's Righteoufnefs. But 
becaufe I would not dilate my Epiftle further, in re- 
moving the Prejudices to my Dodirne, I fliall pafs to 
the Circumflances and finifli. 

The Providences of God, like Links in a Chain, 
lead one to another, and it is not at all uncommon for 
divers fecondary Efficients, and mediate Caufes, which 
in regard to us are contingent, to be us'd to produce 
the Effect : A lefs publick Conference of my Coufin 
Smith with Charles Barret, in order to reclaim my 
Coufin's Sifter's Son, from the Principles of the People 
called Quakers, gave Occafion of a more publick 
Difputation at Pulham Margaret, Aiigufl the ifi, 
where were four of the Paptiji's Pr ofeliion, and as 
many of the Qjiakers, to difcourfe upon thefe four 
Articles : The Eall of Adam ; Of the Juilihcation of 
a Sinner ; Of the Refurrection of the Body ; And 
of the holy Scripture. The BaptJJis were to confefs 
their Faith on thefe Heads , and the Quakers to affent 
or did'ent, according to their Faith, We had difcours'd 
a very little while upon the firff of thefe Articles, but 
the Qi/ake^rs urg'd us vehemently with the Caufes, in 
provolcingLanguage ; upon which we aHign'd the Di- 
vine Pre-Ordination, its I lace in the Order of Caufes, 
and they taking Occafion from hence, turn'd the 
whole .Difput:^tion upon Election of Ferfons, we for 
and they againfl ; quite contrary to our Expectation 
or Defign at that Time : Which Difputation was 
feconded on their Side, by their -Preachings at their 
publick Meeting-place at litjhal, where a further De- 
fence was made of their oppofite Doctrine ; which 
together with the popular Applaufe and greedy En- 
tertainment, fo lufcious and f^efli plealing a Doctrine 
met with; ( For fuch is the Difpoliticn of Mankind , 
that if the moft neceffary Inftrumentg or Means of 



Salvation be but lodged in their own Will, that they 
can chofe or refufe, repenc and convert ; or can have 
all divine Grace for thefe Duties^ fubfervient to the 
innate Powers of their Free- Will, they are then con- 
tent to lie dormant in the moft flefh-pleafing Life ; 
nay, in the moft abominable FiJthinefs, and in the 
greateft danger of impending Wrath and Diftruction ; 
K> that they delight themfelves in their opinionate 
Potentiality or Ability of making themfelves happy, 
and hereby teftify themfelves to be moft gigantick 
Enemies againft God, that have it in their own power 
to be holy, and out of his power to hinder them 
from being happy ,• for when they have run the Cir- 
cle of this Life in actual Rebellion againft his Majefty, 
they can derive his Grace to themfelves, and act fuch 
Conditions, as fhall quit them of their Guilt, and 
make God their Debtor to fave their Souls, ) Thefe 
human Delicacies^ the Refult of Aiminian Doctrine, 
caufing natural Men generally to naufeate the Truth, 
excited our Brethren to defire a Sermon in Defence of 
Election, at the Baptifl Meeting-place at Pulbam, 
which was followed by others on the fame Subject ; 
which are here by the Importunity of fome, after 
'fome Months, more publickly divulg'd by Printing, 
than at the firft they were intended in preaching. 
'Tis true, they are not altogether the fame, for in- 
ftead of feveral Obfervations then made , after 
Arguments laid down, there are Objections ftated and 
anfwer'd ; efpecially in the Cafe of Jacoh and EfaUf 
divers Quotations are added out of fome eminent 
Protefiant Divines, which are generally put in the 
Margin j and fo will not difturb the Reader, which 
are not inferted there for Oftentation, but for Di- 
rection of thofe who are learned in this World, but 
yet are prejudiced by Education, or otherwife, to this 
Truth of the Gofpel ; where they may read," if 
they pleaie to confult the Authors, that the moft 
famous, learned and godly, and fuccefsful Divines in 
the Reformation, were of the Faith we now teach, 
from whofe Doctrine 1 have not in the whole Sermons 
tranigrefs'd, but have clofely adher'd to, and very often 
have ufed their very Sentences, fo far as Memory would 
afTift in my Preaching. I have Ukevvife, for the fake 
ef fuch as cannut be converfant with thefe Au- 

The F RE F ACE. vl<9 

thors, exprefs'd in Englijh what is inferted in the 
Margin, that the Chriitian Reader may rejoice in th« 
Harmony of his Faith, with that of Saints in Ages 
paft. Our late Difputation led me to be more argu- 
mentative than is ufual in Sermons, and indeed a bare 
Enunciation of Matter would hardly have been fo 
convenient, where the Oppofition runs high. I have 
at the End added the Solution of fome Texts of Scrip- 
ture, out of Dr. Ames's ^nimadverfions on the Thefis 
of the Synodkal RemonjirantSy and have noted where 
it begins. The whole is much abbreviated in the tran- 
fcribing, wherein the Freedom ofExpreffion, is much 
reftrained, from what it was in Pronounciation, which 
may perhaps to thofe unacquainted with this DoSrine, 
render it lefs intelligible, and indeed the diminifliing of 
the Words, and preferving the Matter and Scope, was 
no fmall Difficulty to overcome. If it be ftrange that I 
contrafted the Sermons to fo little, and yet enlarged 
the Preface fo much ; I anfwer the Arminian Tares 
caufed it. I did the rather choofe thefe i8 Verfes of 
the pth of the Romans for my Text, partly becaufe the 
State of the Queftion in Controverfie is here handled, 
and partly becaufe I never met with a Sermon in 
Englijh upon them, or any large Expofition of the 
Orthodox, but only fuch as is in large Volumes, as 
Annotations or Commentaries, which are in the 
Hands of but few. I have taken the whole i8 Verfes 
rather than fome one of them, becaufe the Apoftle lays 
down, illuftrares, and confirms the fame Truth in 
them all ; and I believe the Auditory rather chofe to have 
the Apoflle's Mind at large than mine. I have this only to 
excufe my Frailty and Weaknefs in the Performance, the 
Dulnefs of my Conception atid Invention, and Want of 
Knowledge in the deep Myfteries of the Gofpel,and Skill 
in handling the Spiritual Weapons; which with fome o- 
ther Obflacles, render me very unfit for fuch Service, 
which 1 fhould have been glad to have fallen to the (hare 
of fome of God's Servants more equally furnifh'd to the 
Labour. The Lord Pardon my Errors, and blefs my poor 
Endeavours to your Souls, that (hall read thefe Sermons , 
and guide you in -all Truth, is the Prayer of your Servant 
toy y ef lis Jake f 

JoH>j Rutland. 












A Narrative of the Life of ihat faithful Minifter 
of the Gofpel of Chrift, Mr, John Rutland, 
of Woodbridge in the County of Suffolk, 
who departed this Life the lyth Day of OdiO' 
ber 1 7 1 8. /"» the ^xd Te-ar of his Jge. 

=f. E was born at Eaflgate in Cclcbef- 
ter, defcended of Mr. John 
Rutland J his Father, who was 
of an antient Family in Rut/and- 
Ihirey and Mrs. Mary Rutland^ 
his Mother, Daughter of Mr. 
Matthew Thurton in the County 
of Suffolk; thefe religious Pa- 
rents are yet living zt Eaft-gate 
in Colchefier in the County of EJfex : He was of preg- 
nant Parrs from his Childhood, and had an Aptitude to 
take Learning. At Six or Seven Years old he could 
read tlie Bible well, and was forward in his Accidence ; 
he was faithful to what he undertook, he was very 
ftudious, and Night and Day labour'd to improve his 
time, in reading and ftudy ; he was dutiful and obedi- 
ent to his Parents ; he was fo difpofed to Charity fiom 
a Child, that tho' he had but a Half-penny, when he 
faw a poor Perfon, he would give it them, if he judg- 
ed them in need. 

He had his Education from a iJublick School-matter, 
while he reiided with an Uncle in Hertjordjlme, where 
he m.Kle a good ProHciency, and by Indullry atterward 
he mucli improv'd it. 

His Temper was aliable and courteous, yet of nrm 
Refolution/and vigorous in A6ion : His Converli- 
. on was early, at Thirteen or Fourteen Years of Age, or 
thereabout, in which there appeared fo great a Con- 

A ISFAR RAT lY tf of tktM 

ctta for the Souls of Men, that on the Occafion of a 
Neighbour lying drawing -on to Death, he lo \vept«for 
the Man's Soul, until the Pillow^ on which He lay, ran 
dbwii with Tears ; poffibly thcfe ftrorig ImprefTions of 
Grace, fo early, were as the firll Fruits of* that Faith- 
fulnefs and great Zeal, that did afterward fliine fo 
bright in his preaching of, and contending for, the 
Word of God, and the Truth therein contained, that 
was once delivered unto the Saints. The Work- of 
God upon his Soul was very evident, in that he fo 
earneflly and conftantly prayed to God, obeying the 
Gofpel of Chrift in the Love of it, like as a new and 
heaven-born Babe, crying to the father of Mercy and 
the God of all Grace. 

When he undertook the Work of the Miniftry, be- 
ittg moved thereto by God's Grace, powerfully working 
upon his own Soul, together with the Call of the Peo- 
ple' to whorn he had joyn'd hiinfelf, it was with verjt 
great Concern of Spirit ; and I muft not omit one re- 
markable Thing relating to this; as he engaged to ferve 
God in the Work of the Miniftry, fo he covenanted 
qr vowed unto God, that if the Lord would ftand by 
him, and aflift: him by his Grace and Spirit to preach 
his Word, he would not make any fecular Advantage 
of it, or Profit by talcing Money for himfelf ; the 
which he faithfully obferved, and the Lord never left 
him, neither preaching, nor dilputing. The Succefs 
of his Miniftry was confiderable, feeing the Station he 
continued in did not render him to Ke fo publick and 
popular, as otherwife he might have been, 

A^ong the many Gifts God gave him at his^Requeft, 
he did obtain as God's Gift the Favour of afuitable 
Wife ; with her he Jived almoft Sixteen Years, and was 
bjefled with an Offspring of Six Children; two only did 
furvive himfelf. God fo hedg'd about and profper'd 
his Subftance, that tho' he had not a great deal oi 
Riches in the \Vorld, yet he lived comfortably, and en- 
tertairi'd his Friends courteoufly, as though there ha<> 
been no Room for Charity, and his Benevolence to the 
Poor, to the Widow and the Fatherlefs, the Sick and 
Affiifted, as if there had been no Room for hofpitable 
living : The Places where he paded when hejourney'dj, 


IVoodbridge, and the Towns adjacent, can better fe 
forth this than I can. 

As to the Affairs of the World, in which he affifled 
his Wife in keeping their Shop, his Difpatch in Buli- 
nefs, his Juftice and Equity in Dealing, his laying out 
his Money many times with poor Tradefmen to help 
them, his felling of Goods with fo few Words, the 
Love of them of whom he bought, and the Character 
given him by them to whom he fold, if enquir'd into, 
will fet this part of his Life in a true Light. 

It muft be faid of him, as of the Righteous, that his 
Lips fed many; the fweet and faithful Counfel that he 
gave, the informing the Ignorant ; rebuking and ex- 
horting with all long-fufiering, fo much of his Speech 
being with Grace feafon'd with Salt, his fpirituallizing 
Difcourfe in ordinary Converfation ; his Moderation in 
eating, and drinking, and Temperance in all other 
parts of his Converfation : Which fliews that he was a 
lingular Man, and had learnt to pofTefs his VcfTel in 
Sanctification and Honour, 

His great Defire for the Profperity of Sion, (for 
which he failed and prayed in Times of Danger) and 
the Welfare of all God's People, make manifefl, that 
he was pafs'd from Death to Life, by his great Love 
for the Brethren, the Saints, the excellent in the Earth, 
in whofe Society he fo much delighted : It was obfer- 
ved, the Lofs of good Friends was the greateft Grief 
he met with in this World. 

His Gravity and Sincerity in Behaviour, the Sound- 
liefs of his Speech, his Uncorruptnefs of Doctrine, his 
enduring Hardnefs as a good Soldier, his vifiting the 
poor Sick or Prifoners, make it evident, that no part of 
his Mafter's Work or Commands was grievous to him. 
He has been heard to fay, That he ought to lay 
down his own Life for the leaft Truth of God's Word. 
He feared not the Face of Man whofe. Breath is in his 
NoPcrils, no Adverfary, nor Errour was formidable to 
him, neither in preaching, difputing or writing, his 
Soundnefs of Judgment, his Progrefs in the Knowledge 
of the Myflery of Godlinefs, his holding faft the Form 
of found Dodrine, fhew, that by Grace, he wisjied- 
fafty unmoveabky alivays absunding in the JVork of the 
Lord, forafmuch as he knew the Lord's Faithfulnefs not 
%o forget his- Work and Labour of Love, As 

JNARKATlVEoftk Life 

As to his keeping of, and preaching the Seventh Day, 
.as commanded in the Decalogue, tho' he was other- 
wife minded, than the moft of Chrift*s Church in that 
particular Matter, he believ'd it, and therefore he 
preach^, and walked in it all his Days ; in the latter 
part of his Life he did more earnefllj^ preach and con- 
tend for it, which (hews us that he firmly believed the 
Fourth Command, to ftand firm and inviolable in that 
part which refpeds the Time, as well as all other parts 
of the Command ; and he thought it was his Duty not 
to Ihun to declare the whole Counfel of God, and truly 
it was matter of Grief, a Man of fuch Worth (hould 
be fo flighted on that account. It appeared that he 
was greatly defirous to promote the Good of all that 
love our Lord jefus Chrift, by preaching and other- 
wife, to counfel, advife and aflift, by which he (hew- 
ed his Love to thofe that he hoped to be Followers of 
Chrift in Truth, though they differed from him in ma- 
ny Things. 

His Humility and Condefcenfion in giving of Alms 
appeared to all, but efpecially to thofe whom he belie- 
ved to be of the HouOiold of Faith, he would bow to 
them as they bore the Image of Chrift, and often fhoW 
his Abhorrence againft a lofty and lordly Way of com- 
municating Alms, faying, Chrift would never accept 
fuch Alms. Our Lord himfelf hath told us. In as much 
as ye did it to one of the leafl ofthefe my Brethrenyye did 
it unto me. 

God affifted him in two publick Difputes, one a- 
gainft a learned Clergyman of the Church o(Englandy 
and the other againft the Quakers ,• in both which he 
gave great Satisfadrtion to all that knew and loved the 
Truth,, and were Friends to it. His Knowledge of 
the Tongues, his vaft Knowledge of the ScriptureSj 
the Quoting of the Text, the ready Expofition of it, 
with the Sound nefs of Argument, the Agreement of 
the Fathers, that he fliewed himfelf a Workman that 
needed not to be afliamed, his Enemies themfelves be- 
ing Judges. 

Some Years before he died God laid a great AfRi<Si- 

on oh him by a dangerous Swelling in one of his Knees, 

on the account of which he receivM the Sentence of 

death in himfelf; he called for the Paftor and his Friends 

G 2 of 

4 Mr. J.PUN R VthA^^. 

©f the Churchjwhp at his Requeft and Defire^prayed o- 
Ver him, and anointed him withOyl in thcNarne of the 
i,ordj!<Vhich being done, he immediately left pft the Ufe 
of all'ftuman Means and Medicines in that cafe, and the 
Lord refiored him in, a. few days; and he never had any 
ffioj^Pain or Trouble of it more; altho* there were m 
his Ivclstions, that were conduced to the Grave by the 
like Difeafe, as many families ate with Diftemperjs that 
are hereditary : Our Lord lays, if ye had Faith as a 
Grain of Mujiayd-feed, ye might fay to this Mountain rjs- 
move hence yPAnt. xvii. 20. When the Lord vva;s pl^fed 
to fend a SicJcnefs unto death, he was feized with a Fe- 
ver going to his Father's Moufe, the FJacewhere he \ya$ 
t)Oin : During his lUnefs, which was about Six Weeks 
in this Affliction, he was fometimes indifpos*d with 
the Fever in his Head, and fpmetimes very fenfible: 
-fiends and Phyficians earneflly defwed him to take 
Advice and ufe Means from a Doftpr, the which he 
refufed, Choolmg rather to commit himfelf to the gieat 
Phyfician, who is able to he»l with or without Means, 
if confiftent vvith his own Pleafure ; h^viij^g ajjejiie 
to depart and to b? wth Qhrijly rhis Lord and Maiter, 
rather thin continHe h«re ; He cired little to fpeakaay 
thijo^ ^. this- lower World, ^s one forgetting the things 
that are behind. 

'Fiis Pffcourte was about JefwiChrift, his precious 
Blood, "Re«J?nTf|tlon by hini, and his everjafling and 
redeeming Love, and Grace by Chrift Jefjjs. Qn 
Change into, an, iinmortal State, ht was heard tofajr, 
tkere-jsjm'Bl0fm, with fych a feeling Senfe of the 
Sweetn?fs and Comfort of the Dodrine (as the iTrtn 
Article of- the Church oi' Ef^land doth exprefs it) tnat 
vC'hen a ; Friend and Minifter aiEfled him, and pray«l 
\vithhirn, he "defired he might bj led more into the 
Knawledge of God's everlalling Love ; as he had lived 
ifi the iFaith of if, fo in the Comfort of it he defired 
to die. 

As he loved Jefus Chrift whom he had not f€en,,Ib 
he loved Chrift s Followers whom he had feen : Wheji 
a QodJy Miniijer came to fee him, he embraced him 
in hjs Ar;i)S, leaving his lafl Commendation to his 
^ftant Relations, Jfaid, Tell them that the moft Simple 
Life of Faith .upon, k&s.Ghxi{l is the beft Life. 


a' IS! A R R A Tf V E of the Life 

He was heard to fay with Hands and Eyes lifted-.up 
to Heaven, with great Vehemency, " O mighty Gp4 
*' Redeemer do wonderous Tl;jings! O mighty Re- 
** deemer do wonderous Things! O mighty Redeem- 
" er do wonderous Things i" At this De^re of hia, 
God gave Manifcftations of Chrift's Love to tlje very 
laft, even at the finifliing of the Work of Faith. Hi^ 
dear Wife coming in to fee him as her departing Huf- 
band, he clofed his parched Lips to take his laft leave 
of his loving Wife, hs being paft Speech^ fhe ask'd 
him if Chrift was precious to him, that he would lift 
up his Hand ; then he did readily, according to his 
fmall ftrength, lift up his Hand and Arm- Thus having 
kept the Faith, he hnifiied his Courfe with Joy. 

He did not Black afted to wear, nor to drefs fine. 
But decently, like an Old Puritan Divine, 
Grave, Sage, Godly, Ancient,a comer'd Beard did wear. 
He marr'd it not, but wore it with his own fhort Hair. 

A N 

E L E G y, 

On the much Lamented Death of ^t Faithful 
and Laborious Minifier of the Gofpel Mr. John 
Rutland, of IVoodbridge^ in the County pf 
Suffolk^ who Departed this LiiQy the 27th of 
OMer 1718. In the 4a d Year of his Age. 

Rev. xiv. 13. Blejffd are the de.adthat die in the Lord, 

Finis Coronat Omnia, 
Written by a Friend of the Deccafed. 
Vy HAT dreadful News is this founds ki our Ears, 
And fills our Trembling Hearts with pannickFears ? 
Isthat bngnt Star, but now which fhin'd fo bright 
Obfcur d ? and left us in the Shades of Night > ' 
No Starfo bright in all our Hemifpheje, 



But moft eclips'd and clouded every where : 

This Taper burnt fo bright, began fo foon. 

And wafted faft, and fo went out by Noon. 

His Tongue was tipt with heav'nly Power divine 

His Faith and Works moft glorioufly did fhine. 

And his great Soul all bafe Ends did defy. 

His Faith was true, and he did foar on high ; 

He did afcend from all Things that were mean. 

His Heart was pure, his Doftrine always clean ; 

No Rub, nor Flaw that any could efpy. 

He always had his Saviour in his Eye, 

And fet the Crown upon his royal Head, 

And would not fuller any Thing inftead 

Of his Redeemer's Love to have a Place, 

But always taught us we are fav'd by Grace; 

And not in any Thing that was forefeen 

In any Creature, not the beft of Men : 

Thefe heav'nly Myftcries oft he did repeat 

Which from his dear Lips drop'd like Honey fwect. 

In fuch elegant Strains as filenc'd thofe 

Which were his very Enemies and Foes. 

Js[q Name nor Fame could ever make him ftoop 

To any Thing that was beneath his Hope.- 

His End was to exalt his Saviour's Name, 

And not to fty upon the Wings of Fame ; 

His very 6oul was noble, great and good. 

His Words weje copious not to be withftood ; 

His Gefture ^Tave, all Things with fuch a Mien, 

The very Like is rarely to be feen ; 

With no afieaed Airs he did appear, 

He was fo juft, fo holy and fmcerc ; 

Altho' he was fo very vvife and learned, 

No Pride at all in him was e'er difcerned. 

His humble Soul could ftoop to any Thing, 

That might but Honour to his Saviour bring : 

His faithful Works were not at all conhn'd, 

But his brave Adions like unto his Mind, 

His Charity it did fo far extend 

Unto his very F^nemies and Friend, 

Not any Sed or Party, if in need. 

But 'twas his Pleafurt to help them with Speed. 

At Liberty he was to ferve the Lord, 

According to the Tencr of his Word, 


That ev'ry Step he took did feem to be 

A moft rare Pattern for all Men to fee : 

This bleffed Saint did run, and run apace 

He'd not give o'er till he had run the Race. 

He did redeem the Time, and won the Prize, 

And is accounted now amongft the wife. 

When he was dying, ready to depart. 

We might oblerve what then was in his Heart ; 

Jult as his very Soul was going forth. 

He left a token of his Saviour's Worth, 

And fo immediately he took his Flight 

Above the Skies unto the God of Light ; 

And then immortal Robes he did put on. 

Which Ihine far brighter than the fapphire Stone : 

He is fet down upon the royal Throne, 

And finging Praifes to the holy One, 

Amongft the heav'niy Quire he's founding forth. 

With Halellujahs, his Redeemer's Worth ; 

And with Perfection he doth brightly fhine, 

Amongft thofe bleded Saints that are divine ; 

And fatisjfied with thofe ceieftial Joys, 

He's gone where Sin, nor Sorrow more annoys. 

Sleep on dear Saint, and take thy glorious Reft 

In thy Redeemer's Love, and on his Breaft ; 

And when thy Jefus come with all his Train, 

With Saints and Angels thou'lt appear again. 

Ceafe then dear Saints, and dry your brinifh Tears ; 

For he is got above the Reach of Fears. 

Altho' his Body is lay'd in the Duft, 

He'll come again when Chrift doth raife the Juft . 

And in the Morning of the Refurredion, 

He'll rife again all brightned with Perfedion ; 

A glorious Body then he will receive, 

And Ever Ever with his Jefus live. 

Thou valiant Man, 'tis thou art highly bleft : 

Our Lofs is great and cannot be expreft. 

It isindeedthe fovereign Will of God, 

To thee a Mercy, but to us a Rod. 

And now let us, whom he hath left behind. 

Which did behold the Beauties of his Mind ; 

Pray to the Lord, that he would give us grace. 

That in fomeMeafure we may fill his Place; 

And that this Man of Honour we may meet. 



And caft our Crowns at our Redeemer's Feet ; 
And pray to Chrift his Spoufe to keep. 
For he is ftill the Shepherd of the Sheep. 
Altho' the Church is low, {he (hall arife, 
And her bright Glory far ejfceed the Skies : 
In rpite of Men and Devils (he (ball fland. 
She's on a Rock, Chrift doth the World command. 
The fall'n Angels (hall her not affail. 
She's fafe, the Gates of Hell cannot prevail. 


/ t is high Time for us for to arife j 
O let usfoar aloft above the Skies, 
H ave not our Conv^fation here below, 
N ow is the Time for to prepare to go 

R evive us Lord, and grant to us thy Grace, 

U ntil we come to fee thee Face to Face ; 

T ill then^ O Lord thou be ourBlefled Guide, 

L eave us not whatever us betide ; 

^ nd from thy Precepts never let us Aide, 

jV ow and ever let us live to thee, 

D eath comes apace to Old and young you fee. 


E P I T A P H. 

'ERE lies interred one in bis PriwCy 
Who did much Work m little Time, 
A Hujband, Father, Son, all three. 
In him together did agree; 
A Faithful Frienii, a rare Divine, 
True Virtue all in one did joy 
Now Death, Thou 'afi done thy ivorflunto my Friend^ 
Thou 'aft done thy all, for thou 'aft loft thy Sting. 
Virtue itfelfivasnofufficieiit Screen, 
To Jhield himjrom thy cruel Darts Jo keeii . 
Thou 'aft hid him in the Grave ninv from our Sight^ 
Thou 'aft done thy all, andfhovon greatefiSpight, 
Thou art a Conqueror nova but for a Time,, 
Hell come again, and then more brightly fiiiie. 
He was Born pain folly, lived Pioufly, and died 

Peaceably. . 


Rom. IX. 6 24. 

A^ot as though the Word of God hxth taken 7ione 

Ejfect, For they are not all Ifraely which are 

Neither becaufe they are the Seed of Abraham^ 

are they all Childre/i: But iff Ifaac Jhall thjf 

Seed he called. 
That isy They which are the Childret^ of the 

Flejhy theje are not the Children of God : 

But the Childre/f of the Bromije are coufJted 

for the Seed. 
For this is the Word of Promife, At this Time 

will I come, and Sarah jhall have a Son. 
And not only this, but when Rebecca alfo had 

conceived by one, even by our Father Ijaac, 
(For the Children being not yet born, neither 

having done any good or evil, that the Fur-- 

pofe of God according to Flexion might [land, 

not of Works, but ^ him that calleth.) 
It was faid unto her. The elder [hall ferve the 

As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Efatt 

have I hated. 
What fhall we Jay then ? Is there Vnriohteoufiefs 

With God ^ God forbid. 
For he faith to Mofes, I will have Mercy on whom 

I will have Mercy, and I will have Com^afjion 

on whom I will have Com^JlfJion. 


So then it is not of him that rvilleth^ nor of him 
that runneth, but of God that fheiveth Mercy. 
Tor the Scripture faith unto Pharaoh^ Even for 
this fame Purpofe have I raifed thee up^ that 
J might jherv my Power in thee^ and that my 
Name might be declared throughout all the 
Therefore hath he Mercy on rvhom he rvill have 

Mercy y and tvhom he will, he hardneth. 
Thou ivilt fay then unto me, Why doth he yet 

find Fault ? For who hath reffled his Will .<? 
Nay but Man, who art thou that repliejl a- 
oainfl God ^ /ball the Thing formed fay to 
him that formed it, Why hafi thou made me 
thus ? 
Hath not the Potter Power over the Clay, of the 
fame Lump, to make one Veffel unto Honour, 
and another unto Dijhonour ? 
What if God, roilling to (herv his Wraths and to 
make his Power known, endur e d with much 
Long-fufftring the Veffels of Wrath fitted to 
Defiru^ion : 
And that he might make known the Riches of his 
Glory on the Ve^els of Mercy, which he^ had 
afore prepared unto Glory ? 

HAT the Apoflie Paul, that excellent 
Organ and Penman of the holy Spirit is 
handling the facrei Myfteries of Elec- 
tion and Reprobation in this Chapter, is 
generally ap^reed, though about the Ex- 
plication, Expositors both Ancient and 
Modern differ ; but above all, the Pelagian and Sociman 
Errors are moft injurious to this divine 't'ruth, who af- 
fign the good or bad ufe of Man's Will, or Foreiight 

Election W Reprobation. 19 

of his Faith or good Works, as Caufes without God 
moving him to eled: or reprobate this or that Perfon. 
Let us therefore deteft Doctrines fo abominable to 
God's Sovereignty, and fay with our Lord Jefus, / 
thank thee^ O Father., Lord ofHea"jen and Earthy that 
thou haft hid thefe Things from the vjife and prudent^ 
and haft revealed them unto Babes iforfoy Father, it 
hathjeemedg^odin thy Sight, Matt, ii, 16. 

Concerning the Coherence of this Chapter, which, 
together with the two following, contains the Third 
Part of this Epiftle to the Remans. Some think it is 
Explanatory of what the Apoftle faith in the 2d Chap- 
ter and nth Verfe, viz.. Inhere is no refpeSi of Perfons 
•with God, in the Bufinefs of Jufiification ; lb here is 
no Caufe found why God fhould chuCe one and rejeft 
another, but the mere good Meafure of his Will, that 
the Jews which were, and Gentiles which now be, arc 
the eled People of God. 

Others think that the Apofile having in the 3d, 4th 
and 5 th Chapters treated of the free Jufiification of a 
Sinner by the Righteoufnefs of Chrifl:, received by 
Faith ; in this pth Chapter fheweth the Subjeds of 
thefe Favours to be only thofe, upon whom God of his 
diftinguifliing Grace is plcafed to confer them. 

Others, that he having in the foregoing Chapter, Ver. 
29,30, fet forth the Dodrines of Divine Predeftination 
ofMenandWomen toGlory, and of all theintermediate 
Acts of Grace conducive thereunto, taketh occalion 
to anfwer an Objection made, is an AfFumptron to the 
Apoftle's j?ropoIition ,• but the jeivs were Jbreknowny 
predeftinatedj^al/edy juftifed, Sec. and not the Gen- 
tiles i how then cometh it to pafs now that God ju- 
flifieth not the Jews, but the Gentiles ? for the Jexvs 
reject this Righteoufnefs for Salvation, which the 
Gentiles truft to : And if this Gradation made by Paut 
be good, it feems rather that the Doctrine of Jufiifica- 
tion by Faith, is not true, which the "Jews^ the elect 
People of God, reject ; or that the Nation of the 
jfews of old Elected , are now reprobated ; from 
whence it will follow, God hath broke his Promife ; 
for either the Doctrine mult be falfe, which God's 
People reject, or clfe the Promife of God mufl be bro- 
ken j but the Promife of God cannot be broken, thcre- 

K z for 


fore thy Doctrin^ is faife : To thefe Objections the A- 
poflle anfwereth in this Chapter, and clears his Doc- 
trine from thefe invidious Confequences, reconciling 
the feeming Difficulties ,• fhevving, the Jeim indeed to 
be a People reprobated, as to the greater Part of them ; 
and therefore no wonder they are ignorant of God's 
Righteoufnefs, though neverthelefs the Word of God 
is not become of none Eftecr, or the Promife broken ; 
becaufe the Promifes are not to all the Carnal Seed of 
Abraham^ but to his Spiritual Seed ; that is, to the E- 
lection of Grace, both yews and Gentiles : All Inter- 
preters agree, that the Apoftle here treateth of the di- 
vorcing of the jfeivs^aTid calling of the Gemiles, which 
. he proveth by the Scriptures of the Old Tellament, 
out of Jfainhy Hofeay Szc. 

Fir/i, As to the Method of Handling the Doctrine 
of this Chapter, ^tis obvious that the Apofile bewaileth 
the niiferable Apoflacy, Blindnefs and Rejection ofxhis 
Nation, to the 6th Verfe. 

Secondly, He vindicateth the Promifes and Word of 
God, againfl the Objections of the Carnal ^evos and 
Gent'desy and proveth his Doctrine to be neither a- 
gainft the Arbitrary ilercy, nor abfolute Right of the 
Creator over the Creature, unto Verfe 24. 

T'hivdlyj He declareth the Myftery, which elfewhere, 

he faith, -was hid jrora Ages and GenerationSy which 

, is the Vocation of the Gentiles ; and then, the Remnant 

oj Ifrael; all which he proveth out of the Prophets, 

and this to the end. 

In the firft and fecond Verfes, I fay the Truth in 
Chrifiy J lie not, &c. we have the folemn ProteRation 
of his excelTive Grief for his Brethren the^ewsy by 
which he endeavours to allay that Indignation againft 
him, which was rais'd in their malevolent Mind, in- 
cenfed for his fuppofed ApoPiacy and Alienation from 
them, and to convince them of his inviolable Love 
and Afrection to them, that fo their Hearts being 
mollified, and the Prejudices his Perfon and Doctrine 
Jay under being removed, he might, if it were poffible, 
by the Grace of God, at leafl: fave fome of them ; 

Fir fly We have what the Apoflle propoundeth to 
uSj and that is his Grief and Sorrow, I fay the Truth 


Eleflion and Rebrob^tion. 2« 

mChrifii J lie not J my Confcieme bearing me Whnefsin 
the Holy Ghofli that I have great Heavinefs and conti- 
nual Sorrow in my Heart. 

Secondly, We have in the 3d, 4th and 5th Verfcs, 
the Reafons of the Propofition, viz.. For my Brethren, 
my Kinfmen according to the Fle/h, 6cc. 

In the Propofition we have i/i. The Truth of his 
Sorrow, I Jay the Truth in Chrift. 

2dly, The Bitternefs of jt, / have great Heavinefs. 
^dly. The Excefs of it, I could wijb my jelf ac~ 
curfedy Sec. 

(i.) We have the Aflertion Affirmatively, I fay 
the Truth ; then negatively, / lie not, my Lips and 
Heart agree, I neither lie again ft my Knowledge, nor yet 
affirm beyond or without my Knowledge. 

(2.) He calleth three WitnefTes to his Vindication. 
I. Chrift, in whom he believeth. 2. His CoKJcience, 
which is a conftant Witnefs of a Man's Sincerity, 2 Cor. 
I. 12. 3. The Holy Ghoft, who is the Spirit oj Truth y 
John i^. 17. by whofe Infpiration the Apoftle wrote 
this ; the hke folemn Affirmation is no where ufed by 
the Penmen of the hoiy Scriptures; hence we may 
likewife learn the Lawfulnefs and true ufe of an Oath. 

idly. We have the Bitternefs of his Sorroxu ; i. 
Great Heavinefs in the Difcharge of his Apoftoiick 
Office, Spiritual Services and Succefs amongft the 
Gentiles ; for which, though otherwife he had Caufe 
of great Joy, yet the Reflection of the Unbelief of his 
Brethren, was a Load of Grief wonderfully abating 
that Joy and Exaltation, he might otherwife have 
had. 2. Continual Sorroio in my Heart , whefe 
Griefs far exceed the acuteft Pains or Difeafes of the 
Body ; this ferveth for a fevere Rebuke to theiii, whofe 
continual Sorrow of Heart is, becaufe they cannot per- 
fecute their Brethren. 3. We have the Excefs of 
the Apoftle's Sorrow in wifliing himfelf accurfed 
from Chrift ; the Word fignifieth a dedicated Gift 
hung up on the Pillars of a Temple ; but by Tranflati- 
on it fignifieth thofe Things which God abominateth ,• 
thus 'Jericho and the Amalechites were accurfed to 
God ; but amongft the Gentiles, " Sacred Perfons 
were faid to be Anathema, which were devoted to 
" Gods, Ghofts and Dc^mons, aad were flain for the 

*' purging 


" purging and expiating their Cities, when any PJsgii* 
" or Calamity broke in upon them, whicli they 
*' thought would be affwaged, when their Gods were 
" appeafed by humane Sacrifices ; to thefe Paul ailu- 
" ding, wiftieth himfelfto be accurfed ; thus Rodolph. 
" Guaherus upon the Place. ' 

How the Apoftle would be accurfed, and in refpect 
to what Expolitors difter (i will pretermit many un- 
fcriptural Comments j) fome fay he wiftied his Body 
might be (lain ; but Ws not likely the Apoftle would 
here confider that with fo great Solemnity, as an Ar- 
gument of invincible Love to his Brethren, which a!- 
moft every where d^e he flights, or rather glories in 
the Injuries and Lofs of, 2 Cor. 4. 8, 9, and to the 
end, Gal. 6. 14. Be£des, this would bring him nearer 
to Chrift, and not feparate him from him. Others 
think he wifiieth to be feparate from Chrift Soul and 
Body for ever ; but this hardly confifteth with his en- 
tire Love to Chrift, and the Preference he ever gives 
him, thus to prefer his Brethrens Salvation to the Vi- 
lion and Fruition of him. Others think the Apoftle 
ufeth fuch an Hyperbole as he did not well confider, 
and that his Wi(h proceedeth from Eafhnefs or Preci- 
pitation ; but furely this is not confiftent with the 
Gravity of the Apoftle, and his deliberate handling fo 
weighty a Matter in this Epiftle, enforced with fo 
many cogent Arguments. :iJdftly, I think his wifhing 
himfelf Anathema, deligns the Happinefs and Glory 
which he would be willing to be deprived of to fave 
them from perifhing (as if he faid, Oh that I were ac- 
curfed my felf alone, that I might perifti in the Place 
qf my Brethren, that they might enjoy Salvation ;) 
not that he would be deprived of the Love of Chrift 
to his Soul, nor of his Soul's Love to Chrift. We learn 
here the miferable Eftate of thefe 'Jevcs, to be in whole 
Koom and Place the Apoftle mult needs be accurfed 
from Chrift; which Curfe contains in it the Lofs of 
God, the Lofs of Grace, and the Lofs of eternal Hap- 
pinefs, and the fuftaining the Vengeance of eternal 
^ Fire. Thus we have fet forth unto us the Truth and 
*Bitternefs, and direful Extent of the Apoftle's Sorrow. 
Secondly^ We have fubjoined the Reafons of the Pro- 
poiition in Ten laudable Adjuncts of his Nati^oa i firft. 

Eledion and Reprobation.^ 2^ 

hcaufe they ivere his Brethren ; for his Brethren he 
wrould bear all Injuries, and refufe no Labours, no not 
the greateft Hardlhips; next to Chrift he loved them 
belt, and would fet no Bounds either to his Service or 
Sutterings. Gideon having fpoiled Zeba and Zal~ 
munna of their Power, would neverthelefshave fpared 
their Lives, had they been kind to his Brethren, 
Judges 8, 19. This brotherly Love of the Apoftle 
condemneth that unnatural Difpoiition now, alas, 
frequently found amongfi the afpiring Chrifliansof our 
Age, who will fpare no Coil to keep up their Reputa- 
tion, and maintain the Friendfhip of this World to 
lighten the Burden of the Crofs, and widen the Way 
to Heaven by their Conformity ; but fcarce find an 
Opportunity at any time to deal faithfully and heartily 
with their Brethren about their Souls, or out of the 
Sufficiency of feme, or the Abundance of others to 
cloath their Backs or fill their Bellies, who are Fratres 
uterini, Brothers and Sifters of the fame Bowels ; nay, 
our Apoftle would put himfelf in thefe Perils for his 
Kinfmen, wherein is to be underilood an Auxejisy an 
increafe of Pity upon lefler Obligations. But then wfe 
have the Apoltle^s Limitation, they are Brethren ac- 
cording to the Flefli, ccnjunBi Sanguine^ fed disjunBi 
Fide, united in Blood ; but, alas ! divided in Religion. 

The other Adjundts are in Verfe the 4th, who 
are Ifraelites, to whom pertaineth the Adoption, aijd 
the Glory, and the Covenants, and the giving tM^ 
Law and the Service of God, and the Promifes. \ 

In this the Apollle celebrateth the Praife and Glory 
of his Nation, above all the Nations upon Earth, and 
openly acknowledgeth his own Hope andHappin^fSjas 
jhatof the Roinans, and all other of the Eleft afGod 
in the World, to be derived unto them from the Fa- 
thers of the Jews, their now glorious Anceflors, the 
Jerujakm aho-ve, the Mother of us all. Gal. 4. 26. as if 
the Apoflle fhculd fay. So far am I from adorning the 
Gentiles with your Praifes, and fubRituting them in 
your Places, that I teach them all the glorious Mani- 
feftations of the Wifdom, Power and Goodnefs of God 
were originally to your blelPed Anceftors, and thro' our 
Nation is the Conveyance of the Law, Prophecies, 
^mnt Worfiiip, Promifes, the Meffi-h and Saviour of 



the World. And, firft, who are IfraeHtes; this firft 
commendable Character of our Apollle, being a Patro- 
nimic from that honourable Name which God of old 
conferred upon that noble Patriarch yacof^y when he 
wreflled with the Angel and prevailed, and fo became 
a Prince, and Overcomer of God himfelf, the Memo- 
rial of which Name muft needs be precious to all his 
Pofterity, efpecially to all his Spiritual Seed, Gen. ^2. 
28. I Kiri^s 18, 31. 

The 3d Commendation is to whom pertaineth the 
Adoption, Exod. 4. 22. Tifjus faith the Lord, Ifrael is^ 
7ny ScKy my Firft- borriy Levit. 19. 5. And ye Jhall be a 
peculiar Treafure aborve all People. 

The 4th, the Glory, Levit. 26. 11, 12, The Pre- 
fence of God in his Worfhip is his People*s Glory. 

5 th, The Covenants, (the Plural Number for the 
Singular by Enal/age,) or elfe by the Covenants, be- 
cause of the divers repeating and renewing the fame 
Covenant. So the Apcftle mentioneth the Ark of the 
Covenant, I^b. 9. 4. " Truly, faith Gualterusy the 
*^ Apollle doth not inconfiderately efteem thisamongft 
'^ their greateft Dignities, inafmuch as the Glory of 
" Mankind fhineth chiefly in this, that he who is the 
" chiefeftGood, fhould eflabliQi his Covenant with 
*' us, by w^hich he would engage his Faithfulnefs to 
" beftow upon us all his Bleffings. 

The 6th Commendation was the giving of the Law ; 
God was the Author of this Law, and promulgated 
it with his own Voice ; other Nations glory of their 
La^s, as the Laws of LycurguSy SoloUy Rome, Sic. But 
what are thefeL^ws, in Comparifon of this abfolute, 
perfect and Royal Law given to the Jeivs, which is 
tainted with none of the Corruptions of Humane 

The 7th Commendation is the Worfhip of God ; 
that is, the right way of Werfhipping him, of his own 
prefcribing, which other Nations had not ; for all o- 
ther Nations worfliipped according to the Devices of 
their Princes, Prieils, Philofophers, all which was ar- 
bitrary, and will worfhip, ABs 17. Colojf. ^.23. 

8thly, The Promises were made and confirmed nrlt 
unto their Fathers, after they were feparated and di- 
ftinguifhed from all the Families of the Earth ; the 


EIe6lion and Reprobation. 25 

Promires of the Mefllah were made and confirmed to 
them, viz^. Abraham^ Ifa^c, J^cob, Dcwid^ and the 
reft, they are call'd Heirs of Promife, and that by 
Way of Eminence, ABs ii. 3^. Heb. vi, 18. 

9thly, The Fathers. What Nation in the World 
can produce fuch illuftrious Fathers, honour'd with 
fo many divine Vifions, advanced and fav'd by fo 
many miraculous Deliverances, adoiti'd with fo many 
confpicuous Virtues, the very Chari D i^ Darlings of 
Heaven ? But above all, the Mefliah, who is over ally 
God hlejjed for ezier, drawing his Original, according 
to the Flelh, from this Stock, wonderfully ennobles it ; 
by which Limitation, according to the Flefli, we 
learn Chrift had another Nature (befides the humane) 
by which he is over all, God blejfed for ever. 

lothly and Laftly, As in the fccond Chapter he 
faith the Name of God is blafphemed, becaufe of their 
Tranfgrelfion of the Law, fo here becaufe of their 
rejeding the Gofpel, as in Ifaiah xlix. 5. and iiii. i. 
and fb God's Word in their Eftimation is made of 
none EfFeft. 

Thus having briefly expounded the foregoing Ver- 
fes, I come to the Text ; Ver. (5, 7, 8. 

Not as though the Word of God hath taken none 
Effect. For they are not all Jfraely which are 
oflfrael : 

Neither becaufe they are the Seed of Abraham^ 
are they all Children : But in Ifaac /ball thy 
Seed be called, ^ 

That is, They which are the Children of the 
Flejh, thefe are not the Children of God : 
But the Children of the Promije are counted 
for the Seed. 

In this fecond Part of the Chapter we have the 
Dodrine of abfolute and perfonal Eleftion to Grace 
and Glory, flowing from Ciod's eternal Purpofe in 
Chrift Jelus before the World began, 2 "Tim, \. 9. or 
a Vindication of the fovereign and arbitrary Mercy 

c: of 


of God againrt three blafphemous Cavillations of the 
unbelieving Je-dos and carnal Chriflians. 

The Firft is a Vindication of his Faithfulnefs a- 
gainil the Charge of Breach of Covenant, beginning 
a,t Ver. 6. 

The Second is the Vindication of his Juitice a- 
gainft the Charge of Injuftice, beginning at Ver. 14. 

The ^'hird is the Vindication of his Mercy againft 
the Charge of Cruelty and Tyranny, from Ver. ip to 
\'er, 24» 

But firft of God's Faithfulnefs. The ApoRle ha- 
ving fuggefled to the jevjs in the five foregoing Ver- 
fes their miferable pfiate and Condition in being ana- 
thema, doth in this Verfe, by a Prolepjis, take up and 
anfvver an Objection of the 'yevjs to his Doctrine, 
which mun: be of this Nature. 

If thy Doctrine be true, than we jfeivsy which are 
the People of God, are anathema (i. e.) accurfed ; 
if we yeivs are anathema, the Promife of God, Gen. 
xvii. 7. Ar.d J iviU eflablijh my Ccruenant betvoeen me 
and thee, and thy Seed after thee, in their Generations, 
for an everJafting Covenatit ; to be a God untq thee, and 
thy Seed after thee ; all this is fallen and void. 

But according to thy Dodrine, Paul, we Jeivs are 
anathema ; therefore according to thy Doctrine, the 
Word and Promife of God is made void. 

thefe Words fomething various; HierofJU Non autern 
qucd excideret i-erbitni Dei : But not becat/fe the Word 
of God hath fallen* T'remeliitis and Junius, Fieri 
•vero ncn p(vefi : But it cannct be done. Pifcator, Non 
tamen hac hquor quaft quod, Szc. Ne'verthelefs I don't 
fay thefe things, as ij that the IVord oj God could have 
fallen. Here \Ifay thefe things) is put in as a Supple- 
ment, and fo the Trahflator underPiocd an EUypfis to 
be in the Speech. Whatever fmail Diiterence here is, 
any of. thefe maketh the Prolepfis evident enough, 
and fheweth the Apoflle to meet his Advcrfaries Ob- 
jettion. That tho' the Jsijjs reject the Cofpel, and fo 


Ele^ioh and Reprobation. iy 

are anathema ; nevertbelefs the Piomifes of God remain 
firm CO the E/eci, and that not a i^Vord of God can 
fall to the Ground^ i Sam. iii, ip. And in this he 
agrees with the "Jeijoi, but denies the Coherence of 
their Antecedenc and Confequent in the major Propo- 
lition, and (hews the Fallacy of their Enclofure of all 
the Ifaelites in the Antecedent, and fo the Falfity of 
the Confequent, ('viz.) That the IVord of God is made 
of none EJfeSL And this he doth by a Divifion of 
the Subjecis of the Promife, which are the Remnant 
according to the Eledion of Grace, from the main 
Body of the People of the y^wij and proverh flrong- 
ly the Promife to be eftediual in ail the Subjects of it; 
Fir ft. By the Partition oi Ifad. Seiondly, By the 
Partition of the Seed o{ Abraham. And, Thirdly y By 
the Partition of the Sons of Ifaac. 

Firfiy By the Partition of IJrael; Fur they are not all 
Ifrael that are of Ifrael. In the Fi)fi Place we are to 
imderliand the Word colle6tively of all the Ifraelites. 
In the Secondy Individually of the Patriarch JaaL 
The Argument is, 

Ail the Ifraelites are defcended from Ijrael ; 

But all the Ifraelites are not the Sons of Promife 
or Eledion of Grace : 

Therefore all that defcended from If-ael are not 
the Sons of the Promife, or of the Election of 
That all the Ifraelites are not the Election of Grace 
the Apoflle in the nth Chapter proveth out of the 
Eirft Bdok of Kings xix. / ha've referi'ed to my felj 
Seven Thoufandy who have not bowed the Knee to the 
Image of Baal : Evenfo then at this prefent tirHe there is 
a Remnant according to the EleBion of Grace, Rom. ii. 5* 
And ver. 7. What then .<* Ifrael hath not obtained that 
which be feeketh for ; but the Eleciicn hath obtained it, 
and the refl were blinded. Which Place of Scripture 
fully proves the Minor, that all the Ifraelites are not 
Sons of Promife, or of the Election of Grace j for 
fome of them were only Ifrael after the Flefh, i Cor. 
X. 7. In the ift Verfe of the nth Chapter he occu- 
|5ieth an Objection of the 'Jews made to the Conclu- 
lion of the loth Chapter, Then we Jews iire cafl away: 
Nay, faith the Apoftlc, God forbid thHt his People 

C 2 Jh^uld 


fhould be cafi aroay ; this is Vox abowinantii, the Lan- 
guage of one that abominateth ; yet he proves the 
Rejection of the greater Part of Ijrael. The Argu- 
ment is. 

God hath not call away his People whom he did 

foreknow ; 
But he hath caft away the greater Part of Ifrael: 
Therefore the greater Part o^ Ijrael are not God's 
People i whom he did foreknow. 
The major Propolltion are the Words of the id 
Verfe j the minor is proved out of feveral Verfes of 
this nth of Romans -y the Conclufion is the Propofi- 
tion I was to prove. 

Objed:. i. 'Though this proves God hath not made 
loid his Prornife in the Rejeciion of a Part of Ifrael, 
yet it frci'es net but that their Unbelief x\:as the Caufe 
ef God's reJeEling them. I anfwer : i. Unbelief could 
not be the Caufe of excluding them from Grace, 
becaufe then the Apoflle would have been excluded ; 
but he was not excluded or rejeded, yet he was an 
Unbeliever. 2. The Seven Thoufand muft have been 
rejefted; for they were born in Unbelief 3. The 
Remnant according to the Election of Grace muft 
have been rejected from Grace, if their Unltelief could 
have been the Caufe : for they alfo were firft in Un- 

Objed. 2. The Jews^uere broken off by Unbelief y 
ver. 20. therefore Unbelief ivas the Caufe. To this I 
anfwer : If the QueHion was about the Profeflion, 
the Conclufion were true ; but the Quefiion being 
concerning Election, therefore the Conclufion is falfe; 
for the EleBion obtained ity and the reH were blindedt 
ver. 7. 

Objed. 3. Thofe Ifraelites u'^/V/; God hath mt cafi 
away, are fuch as he foreknevj vjould believe ; there- 
fore their Belief is the Caufe of their EleBion^ and 
according to the Nature of contrary Caufes, their Un- 
belief uai the Caufe of their Non-EleEiion, ver. 2. God 
hath not cafi away his People whom he hath foreknown, 
that isy whom he foreknew would believe. I anfwer : 
If they mean a meer inaftcctive Foreknowledge, I de- 
ny it to be in God ; but if they mean an affective 
foreknowledge, which the Apoftle, Chap. viii. 29. 


EIe£i:ion afjd Reprobation. 29 

joins together with Predeftination, as the certain 
Caufe of Adoption, Vocation, F^tith and Glory ; 
J granc fuch a Foreknowledge to be provifional of 
Faith, and the Caufe of their not being cait away ; 
For whom he did forekmiUy thofe alfo he did prede- 
jlinate ; and uhom he did predejlihatey thofe he alfo 
called : And this Foreknowledge in God being the 
Caufe of Faith, and fo the Caufe of the Difierence 
between them that are caft away, and them that are 
faved, Faith cannot be the Caufe of that. Laftly, 
our Adverfaries own no divine Predeflination and 
Foreknowledge of the Elect as caulal of their Faith, 
and fo blafphemoufly exempt God from the prime 
Caufality of making the Apoflle to differ ; and the 
Seven Thoufand which he faith exprefsly he hath 
referv'd, and the Remnant according to the Election 
of Grace : For God, fay they, hath predeflinated Co 
fave them that believe, not that he hath predeflina- 
ted any certainly to believe ; fo that Abrahain, Ifaac 
and Jacub were bo otherwife predeflinated by this 
conditional Predeftination, than Cain, Efau, or Ju' 
doi ; for they were predeftinated to be faved, if they 
would have believed. 

The fecond Argument of the Apoflle is made 
by the Partition of the Seed of Abraham from the 
Children of Abraham, to fhew the certain Accom- 
plifhment of the Promife, though the major Part of 
the Jexvs be broken offl By the Seed of^ Abraham 
he underJRands all that carnally proceed from the 
Loins of Abraham, and by the Children of Abraham 
he means the Children of the Promife. The Pro- 
pofition is : 

All Abraham's, Seed are not Children, for Ifaat 

and Ijhmael were Abraham's Seed. 
But Ifanc and Ijhmael were not both Children. 
Therefore all Abraha?n's^eed were not Children. 
And therefore God's Promife is not broke, though 
many of Abraham's natural Seed were rejected. The 
Apoflle explains and applies this Inflance, ver. 8, 9. 
That is, They vohich are the Children of the 
FlejJjy thefe are not the Children of God : 
But the Children of the Promife are counted 
for the Seed. For 


for this is the Word of Promife, At this Time 
mil IcomCy md Surah ^dl have a Son. 

The ApoiUe here teacheth the 7^X0/, that God is 
under no Obligation to them from his free Fromife, be- 
caufe they are Abrahams carnal Seed ; for fo was- 
Ijbmael Abraham'^ carnal Seed, but the Promife did 
not terminate on him. And as was the private Capa- 
city oflfaac and Ijhmael (in Abrahaiih Houfe) refpect- 
ing Religion, fuch is the Condition of ail true Belie- 
vers and nominal Chriflians in the World : So that 
Jjaac giveth us a View of all true Chriflians ingrafted 
by a living Faith into Chrift, and Ijhmael of all falfe 
ones abiding in Chrilt only by Profeffion, or held in 
any other Miflake about their Salvation. The Argu- 
ment from the ApoIUe's Words is : 

All the Children of God are united to Chrift by 

Faith, and gather'd into the vifible Church, as 

Ifaac was brought into Abyahants Family. 
But Ifaac was brought into Abrahams Family 

^'i PYcmijJioniSj by the meer Virtue of the 

Promife : 
Therefore all the Children of God are gathered 

into the vifible Church by the meer Virtue of 

the Promife. 
The major Propofition we may prove out of Gal iv. 
28. But ice Brethren, ^j Ifaac uaJ, are the Children of 
the Promife ; the minor out of the Oracle, Gen. xviii. 10. 
Romans iv. 19. by which we find ffl, the natural 
Impoflibility of 7/"^^c*s being born into^this World. 
Abraham's Body was now dead, Sarah's Body was 
dead ; fhe had been barren when young, but now i& 
paft Age. Thus every Child of God is firft dead in 
Trefpaffes and Sins, dark in his Underftanding, ob- 
ftinate in his Will, and earthy in his Affections 5 an 
Enemy unto God, Eph. i. 18. and ii. 2, 3. having no 
being as a Chriftian, but in the Promife. Seamdlyy 
We learn hence the Efficacy of the all-conqueririg 
Promife. Abraham and Sarah's Body is quickned by 
k, and Jfaac the Heir, along time before promifed, is 
born into,the World by it. Thus it is by an Heir 
of Promife; when he is dead God quickens him, 
Ephel ii. when in the Devil's Vaffalage, Chrift deli- 
^ "^ veretb 

' EleQion a^d Reprobation. ji 

vereth him, Luke xi. 22. when in his Blood, God faitfi 
unto him live, Ez,eL xvi. and he is born not of the 
JViUof the.FleJh, nor of the MAll of Many but of Gody 
Johni. i^. and as in Ifaac we fee the Efficacies of 
God's Promife, fo likewife in him vve fee the An- 
tecedency of God's Purpofe, and the certain Perfonal 
Termination of it upon the Subjects for efrectual cal- 
ling and Glory. The Arguments is : 

All that are Children of God, and Children of, 

the Promife, as Ifaac was, are fo difcriminatcr 

ly in God's eternal Purpofe. 
But all Believers are Children of the Promife, as 

Ifaac was : 
Therefore all Believers are Children of God dif^ 

criminateiy in God's eternal Purpofe. 
Jfaac was promifed long before his Birth generally, 
Gee. xii.'3. more explicitly c/j^/'. xiii, xv. but yet A- 
braham in chap. xvi. miltook the Promife, and faw 
not his dear Son Ifaac ; but God intended him at 
hrft, and knew him, and diflinguifh'd him in his Pur- 
pofe from all the Men in the World. In the xyiith 
of Genejis a more difcriminate Promife Is made to 
Abraham of his Son, and that Sarah fliall bar? him. 
Thus the Promife of God cometh between his Pur-, 
pofe and the Thing promifed, and is a Difcovery of 
his Purpofe; Hebrezvs vi. 17. God •willing 7mre abun- 
dantly to jhew unto the Heirs of Promife the Immut^hi* 
lity of his Counfel. God knoweth all his Works at 
once -y ASis xv. 18. Kmxvn unto God are all his IVorks 
fom the Beginning of the f For Id. Therefore the Per- 
fon and Calling to Grace muft be diftinct Acts of 
God, flowing from his Purpofe and determinate 
Counfel. Thus the Gentiles were determin'd by God 
to be call'd, 'ver. 24. and every particular Perfon 
which is call'd ; For as many as xoere ordain d to eter- 
nal Lifcy believdy Acts xiii. 48. 

Thus we have fliewn, from the 7th, 8th, and 9th 
Verfes, that the Promifes of God are not made of 
none Effect, but are fully accomplifh'd upon all the 
Heirs of them which are perfonally defign'd and ap- 
pointed by God to Salvation before the World began, 
fet forth in a fecond Divilion of the Subjects of the 
Promife in the Seed of Abraham. 



"Gbj. The Perfons Sarah, Hagar, Ifaac, and Iflimael 
are allegorkally applied Gal. iv. 21, 2 a, &c. to fet 
forth the divers EJiate and Affections of thofe who feek 
'Juflification by the Law, and of thofe that feek it by 
Faith ', ijohereas I teach them to be Patterns of perfonal 
and irrefiftable EleBion to Grace and Salvation ; there- 
fore I teach falfe. I anfwer : It is a Fallacy of the 
Confequenee ; for the Apoflle teacheth Election in 
this of the Romans, and the Way of Juflification 
In the Galatians. One Subject may reprefent divers 
Significations. 7he IVaters wherein the IVhore fttteth, 
are Peoples y Nations ^ andTongueSy Rev. xvii, 15. but 
Co they are not in the twelfth of the Revelations y where 
they manifeftly fignify Perfecution. Ifaac and IJhmael 
figuratively reprefent two Sorts of Peoplo^ : ErgOy 
they are not perfonally related ; but who fees not they 
have a proper Relation as Brothers, and a figurative 
one befides ? 

The Third Diftribution is of Jacob and EfaUj ver. 
10, II, 12. 

^fid not only this, hut when Rebecca, alfo had 
conceived by one, even by our Father Ifaacy 

(For the Children being not yet horn^ neither 
having done any good or evil^ that the Fur- 
pofe of God according to EleBion might ftandy 
not of Works ^ but ^ him that calleth.) 

It was faid unto hery The elder Jball ferve the 


Here the Apoflle by a Gradation afcends to a 
more evident and unexceptionable Proof of the free 
Election of God, and fovereign Determination of 
his Grace ; and that he is not bound to the carnal 
Stock of Abrahamy but makes whom he will Heirs of 
Grace : And this he doth by a Preoccupation, ta- 
king up the Jevis Objection, viz.. No wonder that 
Ifaac was bieifed, and Jjhmael rejected, there being 
fo great a Difparity between thefe two ; Jjhmael was 
a wild Man, and a Mocker, of an evil and vicious 
Nature, born of a bond Woman, an Egyptiany of a 
malignant Stock, and a Concubine; whereas Ifaac 


»Ele6lion And. Reprdbatlon. 33 

was. a good Man, of a Frecwoman, and Virtuous, 
eminent for her Faith, of a good Stock, and in "la^V- 
ful Marriage : Moreover when Ijhmael was born, Iils 
Mother was young, in a vigent, f^ourifhlng .AgCj and 
Al>raham's Body was not now dead ; but Hvheh biir 
Father Ifaac was born, his Mother was funjfc into de- 
crepit old Age, fo that his Birth was the Effect of 
miraculous Power and Goodnefs ; therefore there w^s 
good Caufe for honouring Ifaac with fach Favours, 
and neglecting Ijhmnel. To this the Apoille anfwers: 
And not only this j the like Occupation we have Anm. 
V. 3, and viii. 23. fome underftand it, r.ot om/^' this 
Sarahy_ but this Rehcca, and fome underftand it of 
the Word of Promife ; as if the ApofUe 'fliottld fay. 
Not only Ifaac was an Heir of Promife, and Ijlmael 
pafTed by j but Jacob likewife was an Heir of Prornife, 
and Efau pafTed by. The Argument is ; 

yacob and ^fau were both the Sons of Ifaac : 
But only Jaab was an Heir of Promife, beloved 

of God and elected, Efau being palled by. 
Therefore all the Sons of Ifaac were not Heirs 
of Promife, blefTed of God and elected. , 
The minor Propofition with the Caufes we have in 
the nth arid 12th Verfes, and the fuppole^'Gaufe of 
the Difference between Abraham's Seed in Ifaac and 
Ijhmael, and Ifaac s Seed in 'Jaccb and Efau,, , remov'd. 
And Jifi, though they both, viz. Jaccb and £/rz«, were 
bom of believing Parents, the fame pious Father and 
Mother, both Heirs of Promife, yet jaccb was loved, 
Efau was hated. Secondljy They were,, as St, Atiflitt 
faith, uno Concubitu^ p.nd by one Conception, and not 
under different Afiecticns of their Mother, nor yet 
difierent Influences of the Stars, yet God mride a vaO: 
Difference in the Perfons. Thirdly, They were not 
yet born; and therefore the Election of the one, and 
the Leaving of the other to Defiructfon, was from no 
Acts of Grace in yaccb, either in his Mind or Practice; 
nor from any Acts of Rebellion in Efau, either of his 
Mind or Practice ; for they both had done neither 
Good or Evil. Fourthly, Forefeen Works of Righ- 
teoufnefs in Jacob, which af'terwards he fliould do, 
and forefeen Works of Wickednefs in Efau, which 
after wardis he Ihould do, was not the Caufe of lo- 

D ving 


ving and choofing Jacobs and hating and rejecting 
Efati : For it was, that the Purpofe of God according 
to EleEitcn might fland, not of TVorby but of him that 
calleth. Fifthly^ Neither could it be forefeen Faith 
. in yacob, and forefeen Unbelief in EfaUy that one 
' was elected, and the other left to his Deflruction : 
- For, I. They both were born in Unbelief Rom. in. g. 
. What then ? Are we better than they ? No, in no wije : 
And except a Man be born again, he cannot fee the King- 
dom of God, John iii. 3. 2. Faith in the Meffiah. 
Tho' it is not a Work of the Law, yet is it a Work 
of the Gofpel,; and fo Generally 'tis a Work, and Spe- 
cifically 'tis an Evangelical One. When the 'Jezv!; 
faid, *yohn vi, 28. IVhatjhall we do, that we may work 
the Works of God? Our Lord anfwereth, T'his is the 
Work cf God, That yori JJjould believe on him whom he 
hathfent. 3. By Works here is to be underftood Be- 
lieving as well as Doing, becaufe they are both Acts 
of the Creature, and are equally oppofed to God the 
Sovereign, to whofe good Pleafure our Election is 
afligned. 4. If Faith had been excluded from thofc 
things which the Apoflle excludeth from the Caufes 
of Election, and fo had been made a Caufe of it, up- 
on which the Blefiing of the Election to Glory doth, 
depend, Paul would rather have feid. That the ^r-.^ 
pofe of God, according to Election, not of W^^^^' 
but of Faith; whereas the Apoflle faith. Not of 
Works, but of him that calleth : Which Calling of God 
is before Faith, and the fpecial Caufe of it. Ro7n. i. 
7. Beloved of God, and called to be. Saints. There- 
fore Election is not of Faith. 

Ob). But Faith is every where oppojed to Works, 
Rom. iii. 27, 28. and iv. 3, 4. therejore, tho all other 
ABs of the Creature are exempted from being Cahfes oj 
Eleciion, Faith is required. 

To this I anfwer : 'Tis oppofed to Works in the 
Bufinefs of Juftification. Fir/l, In reference to the 
firfl and fecond Covenants. Secondly, In reference to 
the Rules of either ; the Rule of Good Works is the 
Law, the Rule of Faith the Gofpel, Rom. iii. 27. 
Gal. iii. 12. T'hirdly, In reference to the different 
Op/'rations of either; but then it is upon their proper 
different Subjects -, the Law's Precepts work Wrath, 


Eleflion and Reprobation. 35 

but theGofpel's Precepts bring Life, Kom. iv. 14, 15. 
Gal.iil 2j 5. and this finally. But though in thefe re- 
fpects, andfbme others. Faith and good Works are 
oppofed, it foiloweth not that Faith mufl be fome 
way caufal of all our Bleffings in the new Covenant, 
becaufe 'tis pre-requifite to Glory; i. 'Tis not caufal 
ofit felf but 'tis the gift of Gcd, Eph. ii. 8. 2. Nei- 
ther is it the caufe of Vocation, for that is antecedent 
and leading to it, Gal. i. 6. I marvel that you are fo 
foon removed from him that called you into the Grace 
of Chrift. 5. Neither can it be the Caufe of Election 
of this or that Perfon to Glory, for then it mufl be the 
Caufe of God's Love ; but it is not the Caufe of God's 
Love ; for we love him becaufe he firft loved us, and 
our love arifeth out of our precious Faith y Peter, i. 21. 
2 Pet. i. I. therefore 'tis not the Caufe of our Eledion ; 
The Love of God and Election of God are fuch cor- 
relatives, that whatfoever is excluded from being the 
Caufe of the one, is likewife excluded from being the 
Caufe of the other ; for, 

1. Whatfoever thing is the Gift of God, that 
thing is not the Caufe of the Love of God, 
and fo not the Caufe of the Election of God. 

But Faith \smm the Gift of God, Phil. i. 29, 

Eph. ii. 8. 
Therefore Faith is not the Caufe of the Election 

of God, 

2. Whatfoever thing is a fpiritual Bleffing is the 
donfequent of Election : 

But Faith is a fpiritual V>h^\ng Ephef. i.^.Gal. 
iii. p. 'They which be of faith are bleffed with 
faithful Abraham. 
Therefore Faith being the confequent cannot be 
before Eledion. 
The major is proved out of Ephej. i. 24. who hath 
Bleffed us with all fpirituel Bleffings accor- 
ding as he hath chofen us in him before the Foun- 
dation oj the IVorld. 

3. Our fpiritual Bleffings come to us as our A*' 

But our Adoption cometh to us from our E- 
D 2 lectioo 


lection Ephef.i. 5. being predefiinated upto A- 

dppticn of Sons. 
Tjberefore cur Faith being a fpiritual BleiTing, 

Cometh to us from our Election. 
And as Faith is denied having any hand in thefe 
Bleffing^, as caulal (1) of its ov n Being, (2) Voca- 
tion, (3} Election, and therefore cannot be oppofed 
1(5" Works on thefe Coniideraticns , fo is it denied 
the primary Caufaiity of good Works, becaufe 'tis 
God that liorketh in us tu zcill and do of his good 
Pkafme ; therefore Faith and Works are not oppofed 
in their Caufe, for both are from God, Jam. i. 17.. 
nor are they oppofed in the Subject containing for an 
adMit Chriitian is. the Subject of both : Neither gre they 
oppofed in their End. Fi-fi, not in their End 0/, 
I leter i. 9. T'he end of both is Sahation, Match, v. 12. 
great, is your Revsard in Heaven. Secondly, not in their 
End tOy I Cor. vi. 20, 31. Whether therejire ye eat or 
drinky or uhatfvez/er ye do, do all to the glory of. Gcd. 
Laflly, We ought to conclude they are both the Eiiects 
of Electki^n \jor u)e are hisworkmanjbip, oeated m Ch Ji 
jefus unto good IVorks, which Gcd hath before ordained 
ii^ejhould walk in, Eph. ii. 10. Rudolf bus GiudteruSy 
faith upon this place : (a) " But that which fume fay 
*' concerning Faith is equally mfolous, that God 
" forefaw we fliould have it ; for God forefaw this in 
'' us, becaufe he would afterwards beiiow it upon us:Be- 
" caufe therefore Faith is God's {xez Gift, they do him 
*' no little Diihonour, who make him for his Gift to be 
" the rather bound to us. " Thus he. Moreover Faith 
cannot be the caufe of our Election, becauie of the total 
Abfence of it in a great part of the Elect, I'iz,. them 
that die in Infancy. '"For either there muft be difie- 
rent Gaqfcs moving God to elect, or elfe Infants 
have Faith, or elfe they are faved without being E- 
lected, and fo are not of the remnant according to the 

(a) Quod autem alii de fide dicunt, quam nos habituros efle 
Deus provident, xqw frivolum eft ; nam banc ideo in nobis pro- 
videt, quod earn nobis dammsefc: quia ergo ilia gratuitum iplms 
donum eft* injuiiam illi non parvum faciunt, qui eum magis no- 
big obftriftura tacsre conanturj &e. 


Election and Reprobation. jy 

EJeclion of Grace; which are Abfurdkies too plain to 
be proved ; whence i argue. 

Becaufe Election hath its Being and Efficacy with- 
out Faith, therefore Faith is not the Cauie of 

Election : but Election is of meer Grace. 

J- f, > — 
. For wharfoever Condition of Man hath its Being 

of Nature or Merit, muft have its Being of 

meer Grace, 

But Election of Men and Women hath not 
its Being of Nature or Merit therefore E- 
lection, djc* hath its Being of meer. Grace, 

The minor Propofition is the Subject of" the lo, xi, 
12, 15 Verfes. Thus we have fhewn what are not 
the Caufcs of Election, and i'o of the Difference be- 
tween the Elect and fleprobate. I fliall in the next 
place {hew what are the Caufes of the Difterence. 
And though Election is not caufed by, nor terminated 
upon any, on the account of his Faith and good 
Works, yet Election itfelf is the prime efficient 
Caufe of Faith and Salvation, and Vocation is the 
leading and feconuary efficient, and the Purpofe of 
God is the final Caufe ; "n/oc n ^Gfr' iKKoylu^^ that the 
purpofe of Cod according to Electic n (mVm might 
fland. " This eternal purpofe of God was the caufe 
*' of his making fuch a Ditierence between Efau and 
" Jacob. Efau was corrupt by Nature, and not lefs 
*' corrupt was Jacob, both were conceived in Sin, 
" neverthelefs God Loved the one, and Hated th©^ 
*' other ; verily, not for any inherent Difference, or 
" any thing forefeen, but J(^t iHKoyUji, becaufe he 
" chofe one, and chofe not the other. " Thus (a) 
Par am upon the Place. And indeed Eleftion of the 
one neceiTarily implieth the Reprobation or Defer- 
tion of the other j Eledion being not the choofing of 
all, but choofing of fome, and this i? unto the Adop- 

(«) Caura igi tur fliit eternum Dei propofipum, quo C09ftituic 
tale difcrimen rerum facere. Pravus fuit 'Efau naturi non minus 
ctiam Jaeoh, uterquc enim conceptus in peccato, &• tamen hunc di- 
lexit Deus, ilium odio habuitmon utiqueob difcrimen aliquod 
inhaerens-aut praevifum, fed <ejiT* i|>c^o)'»p, qujj unuffl ekgitj alt«runj 
non elegit. J?r<?jc«i jn loc^ ^ ^: ^ 



tion of Children by Jefus Chrift to himfelf y^Totriiv 
IvJ^oxIav tk, according to the good Pleafure of his 
Will. It was to this kvJ'oyjA our Lord attributeth the re- 
vealing of the glorious Myfteries of the Gofpel to 
Babes, as the fole Caufe and Foundation of it, Matth. 
xi. 26. The Places the ApoflJe allegeth for the Proba- 
tion of his Dodrine are, G^;2. xxv. 23. and Mall it 
was faid unto her the Elder Jhall fevue the Younger ; 
this was part of the Oracle to Rebecca upon her En- 
quiry, and fets forth unto us the Sovereignty of God, 
and his arbitrary Difpofal of the Sons of Men, accor* 
ding to his abfoiute Right and Dominion, which he 
hath over his Creatures, and that himfelf is under no 
Law. According to God's Law i't was a Blefling to 
be the Elder ; for Firfty the firft-born was God's. 
Secondly, the greaell: part of the Inheritance was his, 
£xO(^. x:iii. 3, and xxii. zg. Deut. xxi. 17. Thejirji 
horn Sons Jhall thou give unto ine ; and "Third- 
ly^ the Dignity, Gen. xlix. p. All thefe were Favours 
partly Temporal, and partly Spiritual ; Temporal in be- 
ing invefted with greater Power and po/Iefled with 
greater Inheritance; Spiritual in that it was a Favour 
facramental and fignificative of the Love of God 
and Adoption of Grace, and an hereditary Right to 
and Fruition of an eternal Inheritance, Thus the Lord 
faith to Vharaohy Exod. iv. 22. Ijrad js my Son, even 
my fi) ft hum., and I fay unto thee let my Sen go; in this 
place the Lord fets forth unto us his free Adoption 
and Grace, in diiTevering the Patriarch Jacilf, who was 
by Birth the younger, from his Brother EJaUy who 
was by birth the Elder, and diverting him of that 
which was his Right by Nature nnd by Law, and con- 
ferring it upon jfacobyHS a Specimen of unmerited Grace 
and Pledge of his free Adoption : And thus the Birth 
right was yacolf'Sy and upon this account Ifrael was 
God's firfl- born. Thi? the Apoflle brings as his Hy- 
pothefis to illuftrate his Thefis of irrefpective in- 
defective Election ; from whence I argue j 

God adeth from the fame Caufes in choofing 

and loving fome of us Jezus and Gentiles^ and 

rejeding others as he did, in choofing and 

loving yacclf and rejecting Efaii. 

^ut God acted not from the Cautes of any per- 


Ele£l:ion and Reprobation* 39 

fonal Good or tMerit in Jacob, or any Vicioul- 

nefs in Efau-Jhut from his own fovereign 

Will and mcer good Pleafure in choofmg the 

one, and rejecting the other. 

Therefore God afts from his own fovereign Will 

and meer good Pleafure, in choofing fome of us 

Jevjs and' Gentiles and rejecting others. 

*' And this Example is the rather of moment, becaufe 

" God did it againit his own Laws, in that he took 

" this Dignity away from Efau, the hrll-born, tho* 

" in the Law he claims the fird-born as his own, 

" and vindicateth them to hirafelf, and would have 

" them to be more honourable than their Brethren ; but 

" thus it muit be, that the Confidence of the Flefh 

*' might be taken from us, and to manifeft that not 

" only Salvation is of the Election of God, but that 

" alfo h« is free and bound by no Laws, for the fake 

** of which he ought to choofe this or that Perfon. 

" Giilterus. (a) 

The fecond Place of Scripture brought by the Apo- 
^{lle is, M:itL i. 2. which I t^'ill give you in the 
Periphrafe of the (aid Guaherus. ** Where the Lord 
" fets forth a Dialogue between Himfelf and Ifrael^ 
*' and begin neth, — I have loved you ? Ijrael replieth, 
" Wherein haft thou loved us? As if they fhculd fay, 
" Veriiy they are egregious Arguments of thy Love, 
" that thou haft detained us Exiles and Captives 
" now in Babylon^ for the Space of 70 Years, and 
*' being returned thou fufFereft us to be vexed with 
" Treachery and other Injuries of the neighbouring 
" Nations. To which the Lord anf.vereth. Was not 
'^ Rfiiu, Jacob's Brother, yet» 1 loved Jacob and 
*' hated { Efuu in this the Lord confuteth them, re- 
" mitting them to the original Difpenfarions of his 

{») Koiol^lHS Gnaherus Tigurtrms in loco' Efique hoc exenv 
plum eo majoris momenti, <iuod Deus contra proprias leges fe- 
cifle. videtur, quando dignitatem hance primogenito £>*• e* 
ipuit, qui tamen in lege primogenitos tanquam luos fibi \'m' 
dicat, & eos pro aliis f ratnbus honoratiores elfe voluit ; led ita 
fieri oponeba: ut omnis carnisfiducia nobis eriperetur, iitque con- 
jftaret non modo ialutcm ab eleftioxie Dei pendere, fed huac 
quoque omnino liberum, et nullis legibus altriftum effe, pro- 
pter quas vel htinc, vel ilium eligere gcbeat, Q'c, 



" Providence to their Nation. By the Word Loving 
" he fignifieth his iinguiar Favour which he fol- 
"** lowed Jacolf with ; and by tlie Word Hating he 
" flieweth himfelf not to be fo atiected towards EJau, 
" but to will that he fliouid be left to his own De- 
" ftruction. He alfo brings forth Arguments of his 
*' Love, that he gave to Jacolfy and his Poflerity^ a 
*' Land flowing with Miik and Honey -, but Efau 
*' placed in a barren Country, and there, though out- 
*' ragious, he confined him, that he fliould not moieft 
" the 'Jews : Alfo that he reftored them their Land 
" and Cities, but fuftered the Country of the Edo- 
** mites to lie vvafte and ruinated ; and though thefe 
^ were temporary Benefits ; notwithflanding, becaufe 
** they hand their Foundation in Chrift, who was to 
" be born of 'Jacob, and for whofe fake the 'Jetvijh 
*' Commonwealth muft needs be preferved until 
" he fhould be born, Paul fitly brings this Place in 
" the prefent Caufe, For unlefs you can obferve 
*' Chrift in the Pofterity of yaccb, and that in him 
*^ they can bare rule over the EdomiteSy and the reft 
" of the Nations, the Promife which was made to 
•* Rebecca would have become void. For theugh 
" David fubdued the Edo?nites, that Goverment 
" was but f[:ort, and fcarce worthy to be counted that 
" it fnould be adorned with fo peculiar a Prophecy, 
" unlefs under it you ftiall confider a Type of the 
"Kingdom of Chrift. '' Thus he. 

To this Doctrine of perfonal and irrefpective E- 
lection, as fet forth in the Partition of jri:2c;^ and 
Efau, many things are objected. Firfi, That the A- 
poftle in this Chapter is (hewing that 'tis the Purpofe of 
God not to juftify and blefs them who leek Righ- 
teoufnefs by the Law, but to juftify, and adopt, and 
blefs them vv^ho believe the Gofpel. 

To this I anfwer : It is not at all probable, that the 
Apoftle in the ift and 2d Chapters having proved 
the Jews and Gentiles to be all alike miferable by Na- 
ture, and Life, and incapable of being juftified by the 
Law, and in the jd, 4th and 5th, propofed to them 
Chrift, and the Righteoufnefs of his Blood, as the 
one and only Catife of Remiffion of Sin, Juftification, 
and Reconciliation with God j and having given Ex- 

Ele£lion md Reprobation. 41 

amples of Abraham and David believing in it, and 
trui;ing to it; and in the 6th Chapter illulbated this 
by the Ule ana End ofiiaj tifm ; and in the 7th, con- 
firmed ir by the Believers ireedom from the Dominion 
of bin, and Divorce from the Law ; and in the 8th 
abfoiute Exemption from Condemnation, and hnal 
Prefeverance ; that after ail this, fo fully handled ill 
the eight foregoing Chapters, the Apoltle Ihould be- 
gin again, and obfcurely handle the fame Doctrine. 
The i'ropolition of the Jews is fuppofed by us on 
toth lldes to be, — P<;i«/preacheth falfe Doctrine. 

The objection to him is, — If your Doctrine of Jufli- 
fication be true, then we Jews that don't beleive it 
cannot be faved ; if we Jews that don't believe your 
Doctrine are not faved, then God's Promife is fal- 
len and of none Effect. — But the Promife of God can- 
not fall, and become of none efi^ect ; therefore we 
jexvs are faved without believing your Doctrine ; 
therefore ycur Doctrine of Juftification is falfe Do- 
ctrine — So that by the ApoRle's Anth]pop}ma the Jev^J 
prove two tilings ; the one as confequent of the other. 
T he is, '1 hey are faved by the Promifes with- 
out his Doctrine of juftification. 'I he Second is, His 
Doctrine is falfe. Both thefe they prove by God's 
Prosnile as their Mcditim ; the Apoftie joins iflue 
with them, agreeing upon the fame Medium, and 
by a StYCj'he turns the Concluliion agalnfl them 
in thefe eight Veries: His Propofition is : Though 
you Jevjs are not faved, God's Promife ikndeth faft^ 
The Argument is : 

(i.) If Gtd's Promife fl.ood faft, though the greater 
Part of Ilrael were not Subjects of it, and were not 
faved; if the Promife of God fland fafl, though the 
ji/eater part of the Seed of Abraham were not Sub- 
jets of it ; and, if the promife of God fiand fait, 
thoui'h both the Sons of Ijaacwere not Subjects of 
it ; then it may ftand fafi, though the greater Parfi 
of IJracl nov/ be not Subjects of it : But the Antece- 
dent is true, therefore the Confequent. 

(2.) Again, If the Promife of God fland fall, though 

the greater part of IJrael now be not Heirs of ir, 

and fo not faved ; then my Doctrine of Juftification 

may be true, though the greater Part of Ifrael rejecc 

E it; 


it : But the Antecedent is true, therefore the Con- 

(^.) The Apoflle doth not here handle the Jufti- 
fication of a Sinner, becaufe he faith nothing of it, 
or of its Concomitants, nothing of Remiilion of Sin, 
nor of Propitiation, nor of Redemption^ or Recon- 
ciliation ; neither doth he fay any thing here of Chrill, 
as the Author, or of his Blood and Righteoufnefs, 
as the meritorious and material Caufes of our Jufti- 
fication ; nor doth he fay any thing of God the 
Father his imputing it, which is the formal Caufe, nor 
yet doth he fay any thing here, in all his whole Ar- 
gument, of Faith, which fome Divines call the Infiru- 
mental Caufe, under which Grace by a Metonymy, the 
the Elejjing of Juftilication, is frequently fet forth un- 
to us ; whence I argue : 

Where none ofthefe are handled, the Doctrine 
of yuftification is not taught. 
But in thefe thirteen Verfes none of thefearehandled. 
Therefore in thefe thirteen Verfes the Doctrine 
of Juftification is not taught. 

(4.) Whereas they fay God's Purpofe is to cafl 
oft the 'Jeim for their Unbelief, and to make 

the Gentiles his People, becaufe they beleive. 

I anfwer : If the Apoflle is teaching that Unbe- 
lievers are cafl: oft for their Unbelief, and that Election 
ofBeleivers is for their Faith's fake ; then he don't teach 
of that Election to Grace, of which thofe that Be- 
lieve not partake- — But he doth teach of that Electi- 
on to Grace, of which thofe who believe not do par- 
take, ver. 24. even us v\'hom he had called, not oj the 
Jeius only^but alfo of the Gentiles. As he faith alio 
in Ofee, dec. -— Therefore he doth not teach, that 
Unbelievers are caft oft for their Unbelief, and, that 
Election of Believers is for their Faith's fake ; neither 
doth that Obfervation of the Apoftle, "iuhen they had 
done neither good or evil, at all agree with any fuch 
cafting oft' Unbelievers, or Electing Believers. 

Mr. Loi'eday in his Book of Reprobation Reprobated 
fiith '' Election and Faith may be taken one for the 
« other". 

I anfwer : If credo and eligo be fynonymous, they 
are indeed convertible Terms, and it matters not much, 


Eleflion v«W Reprobationi 43 

whether by Election or believing the Greek Word 
iKf^oyi be rcndred ; but in as much as there is 
fuch a vaft Diiierence between tiiefe two, it would be 
a great Tranfgreflion to chan^^e one for the other. 
In jfo/jn iv. i<5. Te have not thofen me^ but I have 
chojen yotij which will be by this Change, Te have 
not believed me^ but I have believed jo//. Again Verfe 
19, / have chojeit you out oj the PJ^crld mult be / 
have believed you out of the TVorld. But what ho- 
nelliMind can bearfo perverfea Conitruction of aWord, 
wherein the Emphalis of the Sentence lieth ; and 
if once Words can fuffer fuch a moveable Significa- 
tion, every Heretick may at his Pleafure with feigned 
Words make Merchandife of us : But let us try how 
this Converfion will do in the place before us Verfe 
II. "That the Purpofe of God according to EJeBion 
might fland, viz. T'hat the Purpofe oj God according to 
V 2.ii\\ Jnight fiand; and Faith being a Grace within 
us, then if our- Faith may be changed unto Unbe- 
lief, as thefe Men teach it may, and that we may 
fall away, then God's Purpofe of Saving us may be 
turned into a Purpofe of Damning of us ; and fo the 
Purpofe of God, concerning the Salvation of this 
or that Believer, muft be mutable, as this fuppofed 
State of a Believer is : But this is abominable i for / 
am Godf and change not. Mai. iii. 6. 

Thirdly, It is Objeded, That, Jucob and Efau thus 
conditionatedare not to be underfiood in a proper Senfe 
of their Perfons, but figuratively only; and fo they 
are an Allegory, Efau fetting forth unto us thofe who 
feek Juftification by the Law, and Jacob thofe who 
feek it by Faith. To this I anfwer : How this can be 
according to their own Judgment I don't fee, for. 

(i) They hold Efau to be a Perfon f^ved, and if 
fo, it was by Faith in Chrift, and fo many Sins muft 
be forgiven him ; and how he cannot fet forth unto 
us thofe who feek Juftification by the Law, and at- 
tain not unto the Righteoufnefs that is by Faith, I 
do not fee. 

(2) They hold there was no other Predeftination, 
of Efaun eternal State, than what v/as common to 
Jacob v/ith him, both being purpofed by God to Sal- 
vation, upon Condition of Believing, and they vj'ere 

E 2 both 


both bom of one free Woman, and at one time, 
and under one Diipenfation, be it Law or Gofi)el, and 
how two Perfons, thus exactly circumftantiated in fpi- 
ritual Things, could be Types of fuch ditierent Con- 
ditions and People, I don't fee. The Occafion that 
the Apoille to the Galatians takes to Decypher jfe- 
mfalem that then was, by Hagar and IJJymael, was, 
becaufe the Mother was a Bond Vv oman, and the Son 
born after the Flefb, in Comparifon of Ifaacy who 
was born by Promife. 

(3) I hold thefe Perfons can be no fit Types of 
thofe who feek Jufcification by Works, and thofe who 
feek it by Believing ; becaufe thefe two Perfons ^re 
confidered in fuch a Capacity, as neither admits cf 
one's working, or the other's Behtving , they both 
Bemg not yet BorUy having done aciiher Good or 

(4; It is plain, the Apoftle is proving his Pofition, 
(viz,.) "The Word ojGvd h not madt cfmne ejjeB, Fur 
which Caufe he diJdnguiOieth between Ijiuei and 
Jfraely (viz.) For they are rut all ifrae! luhiLh .1 e of 
Ifrael. Again, Neichenbecanfe they are cue ieed o/Abra- 
ham , and again, by Appolition, that by not the Chil- 
dren of the FleJJj are the Children of Gid. ^c. and in 
the loth Verfe, and not on^yfoy but Rebecca, &c. v^hich 
is Conjunctive to the other two Inilancti, and more 
full and Demoniirative of the abfo'ure De't'Cv v{ 2\\ 
Caufes, Natural and Meritorious, afcribing rhc v^ hole 
Caufe to the meer good Pleafure of God. This i ith 
Verfe is added to the other, by way of Amplification, 
and is a farther Demonft^'attion of the Effiracy of 
God's Purpofe, without rei^'eft to any previous Quali- 
fication, and is brought in with a Conjunciicn Caujal^ 
as the other Infiances were. All which are unex ep- 
tionable Proofs of God's Faithfulnefs in performing 
his Fiomife to thofe very Perfons they were made to.; 
whereas, if they were allegorically intended to fet 
forth to us, thofe who feek Juftification by Works, 
and thofe who ktk it by Faith, they could be no 
Proof of God's Faithtiilneft in keeping his Promife : 
For 'tis not the Order of the Salvation, but the Ex- 
ecution of the Order, that proveth God Faithful. 
Therefore this infiance oi Jacob and Efau is to be 


Election ^nd Reprobation. 45 

und^rftood expoficively, and they are examples of God's 
l-redeftination. ^ 

Fourthly^ 'Tis objected, ifiat yaab and Efau here are 
not to be taken perfonaiiy, buc co'leciivly of the Ij]a- 
elites and Edomitei. 1 answer : That they were to 
be underflood of the Perfons Jaab and Efaii indi- 
vidually, in foine refpect, and c iJectivIy of their I'of- 
terities, in other refpedts, I grant, inany Texts uf .ijcrip- 
ture have not only an immediate iu-fpect to the next 
Subject, but an extenfive Refpect to remote Subjeas 
but that the Perfons 'Jaab and Efaa^ are in this 
place to be underftood, beiides other Reaions, this 
one feem valid, viz,, they that were in Being, whofe 
Strugling in the Womb occafion'd Rebecca to enquire 
at the Oracle, were the Perfons the Apouie fairh were- 
not yet B -n; but yacob and- Efau 'vere the only Per- 
fons m Being ftrugling in the Womb, having done nei- 
ther Good or E"jil ; therefore the Perfons J nab and 
Ejau are here truly underftood by the yiv»^nu>Vy the 
Children not yet B>n ; And though Mr. Lo-veday de- 
nies the Place to be rightly fupply'd by Children, yet 
SeduliuSy Scot us, Bez,a^ Paroeusy Bit [linger, Cajieliamis. 
and all the relt which I have feen, fupply the Place 
with either nath; jcetibus. partu, piieris, (i. e») Chil- 
d-.ta, Imng, Fruits, Sons. 2dly, They allege the O- 
rac!'. '^en. xxv. 25. wljere 'tis read, two Nations are 
in thy 14'omb^ ansl tvoo Manner of People ftiail be 
feparrr<*d from thy Bowels, and the one People (hall be 
iijoni,: t'lan the other People, and the Elder Jhnll 
fe.rve tkt lounger ; it it true thefe Words are exprel- 
five of the fucceflive Nations, the fe two Fathers, but 
then inafmuch as they are defcribed to be in her Womb, 
it is a figurative Speech, and by a Metonymy of the Ef- 
fect for the Efficient, the Nations are put for their re- 
. fpective Progenitors ; for the Nations were not truly 
in her Womb, otherwife than feminaiiy and virtually, 
and not actually. Secondly, That what wasfaid of the 
Children doth properly agree with the Nations, is 
true. 'Thirdly, That what was faid properly of the 
Nations arifing; of thefe two Brothers, may be faid of 
the Brothers themfelves, by a Synecdoche of a Member 
of the Oracle. Fourthly, That all this hindreth not 
but that our Apoflle doth accommodate this Relation 
to the divfrfe State of Jacob and Efau, perfonally, as 


46 -^ V I N D I C A T 1 N (?/ 

well as collectively ; for what the Oracle (peaks figu- 
lativeiy of the Place of the Nations, ^vlz^.) Rekaa's 
Womb and their Birth, that the Apoitle Ipeaks pro- 
jjerly of yaccl^ and Efau. Such Alterations, fome- 
times of the Subject, fometimes of fome ivlember of 
the Defcription, is frequent in bringing Prophecies 
out of the Old Tedament into the New : Thus in 
Pfal. cxviii. fome Things agree to David only, as, / 
/ball not die, but live ; and fome Things to David 
and CM'//? both, thus, I'he Stone xvhich the Builders 
refufed . The Builders in the Pfalm are the Princes in 
the Gofpel, the Builders are the Priefis ; yet both Pla- 
ces fpeak of Chrift, though fome particulars agree 
only to him : So likewife here of Jacob and Efauy 
fome Particulars agree only to them, aud fome to their 

Fifthly^ It is objeded, 7'hdt the Apoflle in this Place 
doth not handle eternal Predefiination of fome to everlafi- 
ing Lifey and others to Death ; but only an external 
Prerogative^ becaufe it is faidy The Elder jhall ferve 
the Imngevy Sic. 

To this I anfwer : That which the Apoflle wifli- 
cth himfelf to be for the fake of his Brethren, that 
they were in their caft off State what Efau was, by 
whom their cnit off State is fet forth to us ; but the 
Apoflle wifheth himfelf to he accurfed from Chrift, 
and their caft oft State was from the Bleffings of the 
Covenant of Grace, from the Promifesy frcm Calling, 
from Adoftitm, and from Glory : Therefore EJau wzs 
without the Promifes, Calling, Adoption, and eternal 

1-iie. . . , 

Again, The Difpofing of Jaccb and Efau is faid 
to be, That tie Piirpofe of God according to EleBion 
might jlandy net of IVorksy but of him that calleth. 
Now can we imagine the Apofde would fo fo- 
lemnly affign fo high a Caufe for the djvefting Efati 
and invelling 7^^^"'^^ ^'^'^^^ outward Blefiings, which is 
every where elfe, when mention'd, alleged as the final 
Caufe of the eternal Salvation ? Thus Rom. viii. 28. 
hphcf. i. 9, 1 1. 2 Tifn. i. 9. And indeed, what elfe can 
the Apoflle intend by the Purpofe of God according to 
j'.kHioH ; but Eledtion of GracCy as he expretTeth it in 
C l;ap. V. Ver. 5 ? There is a Remnant according to the 


Eledion af7d Reprobation. '4-7 

EleSiion of Grace^ and that he faith, not of Works, 
hut of him that calleth. What elfe fliould this teach us, 
than that Saab's Calling, and fo curs, is of meer 
Grace, refpeiting not our earthly, but our heavenly 
Calling? Thus our Apoflle G^/. i, 15. But vohen it 
pleafed God ivho fepnrated jfiefrom my iMuthers M/mb 
and called me by his Grace. So in the 6th verfe of the 
II Chap, and if by Grace, then it is no more oj Works, 
that is Election to Eternal Life; and in Ver. 7. 77?e 
Eletiicn hath obtained it^ that is, the People elected to 
Salvation as the end, hath vbtained jujlifying Faithy and 
the reft irere b/inded, that is, the Mylieries of the Gofpel 
were hid from them. Matth xi. 25, So verfe 28, the 
Apoiile fpeaking of his Nation faith. As concerning the 
Gofpel they are Enemies jit yuur jnke, but as touching the 
Eleciion they are beloved fw the Fathers fake. In all thefe 
Places it's manifeil he intends Election to Eternal Life, ■> 
and 'tis equally evident, that the Election handled here 
is the fame with that handled in our Text; Bur the 
Eledion hnndled here is the Elcdion of Grace and E- 
ternal Life; Therefore the Election in our Text is the 
EleSion of Grace to Eternal Life. Parcsus faith, "Why 
*' fhould we hope for the Salvation of the 'Jews, when 
"they are Enemies of the Gofpel } Indeed now they ■ 
" are fo, but that Nation don't ceafe being dear to 
*' God, becaufe of the Election once done; neither is 
*' the E!e6tJon become void by the Pcrhdioufnefs of 
" feme, Vvho now hate the Gofpel, when the Gifts and 
*' Calling of God are v/ithout Repentance : If therefore 
" the Vigour of Election endure yet in that Nation, ve- 
*' rily wo may hope for their ConverJion. 

Neither did EJau fliadow out the Reprobation of 
his Poficrity only, but he himfclfwas reprobated from 
the Covenant and Saivati( n : For if he was Eled, how 
could he be aT'ypeoftheReprobation of others.'' But the 
Apoftle tells us what he was, Ih-b. xii. 16. whereas our 
Adverfaries allege tlie words of the Oracle, the greater 
Jhalljewe the lejfe- ; that it means only temporal Servi- 
tude. I Anfwer : This was never fuiiilled in the per- 
fons J.icvb and Efiu by a TemjK)rai Serxitude; There- 
fore the Servitude of Efau muil be underflood of his 
being deprived of the Primogeniture, or Birth Right, 
v,'hjch was a T'ype of Grace anc^ Adoption, as we ob- 



ferved before, though it is true of his Poi.erity tem- 
porally, who ferved the Ifraelites from David's Con- 
queii, 2 Samuel viii. but it was but for a while. 

Secondlyy To that part of the Objedion made to our 
Application of that Place in Alalachy, viz. Jaal) haue 
/ k^ed and Eja/i have I hated ; that it does not intend 
Ete*!:tion to Salvati n, I fha|l Anfwer in the Words of 
{:i) Lahe.y'm his i^ook deSewo ArhitriOj " That though 
** Mulachy fpeaketh only of a Teinporal AfHittion, ne- 
** verthelefs he overthrows Free Will; for by this place of 
'* Malachy the Apoftle proveth that the Affliction was 
" brought upon Efaii by the meer Difplealure of God 
" without his own Defert i for why God fhould love 
** ^M'jh and hate Efa^i^ the Apoitle denies to have 
" been for their good oi" bad Works, but only in the 
" purpofc of God, who calleth or not calleth ; for nei- 
*' ther d.-ih God reprehend by Malachy them which 
" would build the Defoiations, but upbraideth the In- 
*^ gratitude of the Ifraelites, that when he had loved 
"them, they neither loved him again a sa Father, nor 
'* yet feared him as a Lord; but that he loveth them. 

( « ) Primo, Concefllone quod etfi MaUcHas tantum de temporal! 
Aifliftione loqueretur, rueret tamen iiberum Arbitrium, quia JPaulus 
M«/acfei<e dido probat illaiTi AfBidionem fine merito, foloqueDeio- 
dio, allatam £jauo- Cur eium Dens delexerit J»cobum^ oderic EfMUHm, 
caulam Apoftolus negat fuifie m bonis vel malis eorum meritis, fed 
in folo Dei vocantis, vel non vocantis, propofito. Stenndo, neque 
enim Deus apud Malachiam reprehendic eos qui earn extruere vole- 
bant, iodilSraelitii exprobat Ingratitudinem, quod cum eos dilexerit, 
illi vJciflim neque diliganc ut Patrem, neque timeant ut Dominum. 
Dilexilfeautemfe probat tam Scriptur3 quam opere, nempe quod 
cvm J etcob Sc '£■[<*>* effent Fratres, ut Mo/« fcribit Gen. t\, Jacob 
tamen dilexerit, & elegerit, antequam naiccrctur : Efait vero (Ic o- 
derit, uc regionem ejus redegeritin folitudinemj deinde ea pertinacia 
odiat & pergat, ut cum Jatob leduxerit dc Captivitate, & reftituerit* 
Idnmeos tamen non finat reltitui, fed etiamfi dixcrint fefe velle aedifi- 
care, ipfe minetur eis Deftruftionem i nonigitur hie reprehenditur 
temeritas IdttrndorHm^ fed ingratitude Filiorum factb, quod non 
vident quit! iliis conferat, & fratribus fuis Mum&is auferat, nulla 
caufa, nifi quia hie odit, illic amat : Quomodo nunc itabit quod Pro- 
phetade temporaria Afflidione loqueretiu: ? cum evidentibus verbis 
teftetur fefe Ijjqiii de duobus Populis, a duobus Patriarchis natis, 
ilium fufcepfum in populum, & fervatum, hunc vero reli(5him, & 
tandem deltruftum j fufcipere vero in populum, & non fufcipcre in 
populum, non pertinet ad temporalia bona, vel mala, tantum, fed ad 
oniniaa neque «niai DtusnoAer tantum temporaliura, && 


Eleflion and Reprobation. 49 

" he proveth as well by Scripture as by Providence, to 
**wit, that vvhen 3^;.c(^ and EJ'au wete Brethren, as 
" Mojei writes, Gm. 25, yet he loved and chofe Jacch 
** before he was bom, but he hated EjaUy fo that he 
*' turned his Countrey into a Wildernef's, and continu- 
*' ed his Indignation aj^^ainft him to that height, that 
*' when he brought back Jiicclj and reilored him from 
*•' Captivity, yet he fullered not the Edomitcs to be re- 
*' Itoied , for though chey faid they would build, yet he 
*' thrcatned their Dcllruction ; therefore the RaQinefs 
*' of the Edvmites is not here reprehended, but the Ini- 
" quity of the Sors oi^aaby which fee not the Bleflings 
" he beUoweth oti them, and taketh away from their 
" Brethren the Ihimeam^ for no caufe, but for that he 
" hates here and loves there. How will that Doctrine 
** Hand now, that the Prophet fpeaketh here only of 
" Temporal Afflictions ? When in plain Words he tefli- 
" heth that he fpeaketh here concerning two People, 
" defcended from two Patriarchs, the one received and 
" preferved a People, and the other left and at laft de- 
" flroyed : To be taken for a People, or not to be taken 
** for a People, pertain not to Temporal Good or Evil 
■** only, but to all; for neither is our God the Qod of 
" Temporal BlelUngs only, but of all Bleffings." Thus 

ithirdly^ Thofe Privileges and Ble{fings the EIe(5k 
Gentiles were Invelted with, the Nations of the 
'Je-wi were diverted of; and thofe Privileges the 
Nations of the 'Jfc^s were diveHed of, Ijbmael znd 
Efau were Examples of: 
But thofe Privileges the EleSi Geyitiles were invefl- 
ed with, were the Riches of Glory, the Covenants^ 
and Promifes, and Oiling our of Darknefs, v. :j3, 
and 24. and to make kmvm the Riches of his Glory 
on the Vejfels of Atercy afore-Pi epared to Glory y even 
us vjhi)m he hath caliedy &c. 
Therefore thofe Privileges th^t Ijhmael 2nd Efatt were 
Examplesof being denied, were the Riches of Glo- 
ry, and the Ci venufits yVTQimks of Grace and Callings 
Sixthl^y h is Objected It Ijhmaet and Efau are thus 
coKfidered in a Pe>fonal OfpautVy awd alio their Ptfie- 
rities Colletihely Ly themy then all their Pcfierities are *x- 
cludedfYGm the Grace of Salvntion ; But their Pcfieiities 

t ar> 


are not excluded from the Grace oj Salvation ; therefore 
not they. 

To this lanfwer : It foiloweth not ; for by the Argu- 
ment a Natura contrartommy Jfaac and yaccl; are confi- 
dered in a Perfonai Capacity, and alfo their Polierity 
colledively by them, and they both are included in the 
Grace of Salvation. Are all their Pofterity therefore in- 
cluded in the Grace of Salvation ? Surely no : for the 
Apoflle is now proving the contrary ; and as they are 
not all included neceirarily, and yet Ifaac and Jactl; 
faved ; fo Ijhmael and Efaus Poflerity are not all ex- 
cluded Salvation, though they perifh. But the Defign 
of the Apoftle in thefe Jnftances ofjacib and EfaUy in- 
dividually and collectively, is to demonftrate Calling and 
Salvation to be according to the Purpofe of free Election 
and Mercy. 

Obj. 7. Some fay that Election Is National, and the 
whole People o( Ifrael v^'-ere the Eleci of God, thou art 
an Holy Peopky Dent, 7. 6. So thzt it is m fuch great 
Favour to be Elect ; and confequently there is no fuch 
thing as abfolute irrefifiible EleBicn of particular Per- 
fons to Salvation. 

To this I anfwer : There is a National Election, 
which is an Election of the People containing, which 
is the Election in Genefts xxv, 23. and in Deut. vii. 6. 
and there is a Perfonai Election, which is an Election 
of the Perfons contained, which is the Election handled 
by /*<2«/ in this very place: By the firft Election the 
Nation of the Ifraelites were chofen, and not only the 
Edomitesy but all other Nations, rejected ; for fo our 
ApoRle tells us, for the Gentiles to be fellow Heirs, 
that is, with the 3^^xui^, ivas a Myfiery^ which had been 
hid from Ages^ Ephes. iii. 5, and p. and this Election 
confifteth in thefe leveral things. Firft out of this People 
were raifed up all his Dignitaries and Favourites, gene- 
rally fpeaking, his Priefts, Prophets, and Kings, Pfal: 87. 
his Foundations are in the Holy Mountains^ that is, of jfa- 
coby and in the laft Verfe, all my Springs are in thtey all 
my Favorites are in thee, i. e. Ziony which I love and ho- 
nour on Earth, by whom I ferve the Purpofes of my 
Grace. It is according to this National Election, that 
the Mejpah, the Reftorer of Mankind was raifed up of 
Jacob, and according to this that the Divine Law, the 


Eledion and Reprobation. 5 1 

only perfect Rule of Life in the World, was delivered to 
this Nation ; and according to this, that the Revelati- 
on of the Covenant of Grace, and the fo frequent Re- 
newal of it, and further Difcovery of ir,which was made 
to Prie/ls, Prophets and Kings, was made to-this Na- 
tion ; and according to this, that the true Way of Di- 
vine Worfliip was commited to this Nation ; and ac- 
cording to this, that all the Divine Law, I'falms, and 
Prophecies were commited to, and conveyed through 
this Nation ; and according to this all the Symbols of 
Grace, Tabernacle, Ark, Circumcilion, Sacrifices, a- 
dorned this Nation; and it was according to this' 
that the Mcffwh was fent, not but to the kft Sheep of the 
Houfe oj Ifraely Matiheiu 15. And according to this, 
that the Twelve Apoflles of the Lamb, whole Names 
are engraven upon the Foundations of the new Jeru~. 
falem, defcended of this Nation ; it is according to this 
that every true Believer is called a jTfu', and all others are 
the Synagogue of Satan, Revel. 2, and 9. 'tis according 
to this, that the Jews in all the Scripture are p;efered to 
the Gemi/esi'ns according to this,TwelveThoufand are 
Sealed out of every Tribe of ^^^-Z fir ft, and then the 
G'entiles.Rb'u. vii. 12. 'tis according to this, that thejfeu'i- 
are the Bride the Lamb's Wife, /y.v/w xlv. 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 
Ke^i. xix. 7. and that the glorious Kingdom of Chrifl is 
faid to be the State of the new Jerufalein. Maugre all 
Religion derived tons fiom Devils, Oracles, Sybils, 
Philofophers, Pricfts of the Gentiles, Light of Nature, 
nothing is Divine but what hath come to us through 

the Loins of 7'^a'^' '^^'^" Gofpe! Bleilingsare the^^^^^y 
Spiritual Things, Rom.KV. 27. but alas, all a< e mt Ij- 
rael that are oj IjyaeL Cahin upon Gen. 25. after hav- 
ing explain-'d the 23d verfc, (a) ** I^now arifeth a 

(/» ) Nunc exoritur nobii Qiiaeftioi nam quum dc priori fpccie E- 
ledttonis Mojts nunc tvactat, TatilHs zd lecuadam torquct enis Verba, 
liquidem dum probaret, vulc nonouincs, qui origine lunt "Judti^ cfle 
vita: Hanedes, nee omnes, quilecunduni Carnem ex Jacoi delcen- 
dunt; pro veris IfraelUis haberi, fed Dcum pro luobeneplacito, quo 
voluit eligere, teflimoniumhoc 2dd\,Ki,major ferviet mincri, Rom. 9. 11- 



"QueRion (faith he); for when Mfes handleth the 
"hrlt kind of Election, P^«/ turns his Words ro the 
" fecond ; for that he would prove not all that are Jevjs 
" by Nation, are Heirs of Life, neither ail that deftend- 
**ed from 'Jaab^ acording to the tlefh, are to be ac- 
" courted tor true ////£'/(t^.f, but thofe which God of 
'* his own good pleafure is piealed to choole : for which 
"he brings this Teiiimony, ^r be elder jh all feve the 
^^ younger. They that endeavour to extinguilh the Doc- 
" trine of free ablolute Election, would fain pcrfwade 
"us the W"rds oi Paul are to be underilood only of an 
" outward Calling, but the Context plainly dii'claims 
" that; and whilft they would bring a Mitt of Dark- 
" nefs over {o plain a Iruth, they fhew themfeives to 
*' be not only inllpid, but impudent. Let not Efau ( fay 
" they) glory in theHe{h,his Dignity is tranllared to his 
*' younger Brother; became here isa nev^/ Promife made ; 
*' we grant what they fay to be partly true, but we fay 
" they omit that which is the principal thing in thisCaule; 

Qui DoSrinam gratuita; Eleftionis extinguere conantur, perfuaderc 
cuperenr, P««Kquoque verba non nifi de externa vocacione debere 
intelligi,fed contextus aperre exdamat I'eque non modo inlullbs led 
impudenteselfeolteadiinc, dum tarn claras luci tenebras vel tumum 
tenrant inducere. Neglonetur Efau in Carne, inquiunt, ad Fratrem 
natu minorem transfermr ejus dignitas-, quia nova hinc afFertur pro- 
midio ; fatemur aliquid elfe quod dicunt, led quod in Caufa prasci- 
puum erat, ab ipfis omitti dicimus 4 externa enim Vocarione deflni; 
unt quod hie Itatuirur difcrimen, atqui nifi velint irritum i;acere Dei 
foedu», concedant nccelle elt conlbrtes externse vocationis perseque 
fuifle, Bf^u &■ Jacob; nnde patet arcano Dei concilio legregiri quibiis 
communis vocatio erat, & ftatus Dilputationis lanlinA perlpicuus efi, 
quod cum Ji<^<ii infiati Jicclefiae titulo Evangelium reipuerent, labal- 
ccbat fides limplicium, quia probabilis non erat Chrifluin, & ialuterh 
in eo promi!iam,abeledo populo,gente ran(fta,8i: naturalibusDei filiis 
poffe reiicii : hiccontendit renins non oniues qui alcenduntex Jack 
lecundum Carncm cfle veros Ifraelitas, quia Deus gratuito arbitrio e- 
Jigat quos habere vulreterns lalutis htTCdes. Qlhs non videt Paulus 
a comuni Adopcione ad particularem delcendere, ut (lianius non om- 
nef qui lofum occypant in EccJefia pro veris Ecclefia? Membris repu; 
tari? Certe palam abordine Filioruni Dei abdicit, adquosficut alibi 
dicit ipeftabat adoptio, Sec. and about 30 llms lower. Fixum iraque 
maneat hoc DcclrinK caput, quod ex Hominibus aliipereanr, aliil'alu- 
tern conlequantnr, caufam ex ArcanO Dei benepiicico pendere ;_ unde 
eni.n fit ut quilunt ex ^V.i?>jrw geniti non in eodemiureconfiftunti 
ciifpar cerre conditio neque huius virtuti neque illius .vitio afcribi 
potcft,qu! nondum nati eiaur. M. Calvhi cxpofitio Ecclefiaftica in 
ioco Gtnfjys. 

" for 

Ele£lion and Reprobation. 5j 

*-' for they define the Difterence vvhich is made here by 
" outward Calling; but unleii they will make voidGod's 
«* Covenant they mult be forced to grant 'Jaccb and Efau 
** to be both alike partakers of the out waid Calling; from 
" whence it is manifeft they were feparared by the pur- 
"pofe of God who were called in Common ; and the 
"ftate o( Paul's Difputation is evident, that when the 
*^ Faith of weak Believers did flagger, becaufe the Jews 
** who fweiled with Pride in the Title of Cliurch, re- 
'* jected the Gofpel, and becaufe it was not probable 
*' that Chrift and Salvation promifed by him, could be 
** rejeded by an Elec^t People and holy Nation, and the 
*• natural Sons of God : Hereupon Paul proveth that 
*^ not all ihat defcended from Juah according to the 
*' Flefh are true Jfraelitesy becaule God of his free good 
** pleafure may choofe whoirr he will to be Heirs of E- 
" ternal Salvation. Who feeth not that Paul defcends 
** from Common Adoption to particular, that we may 
*' know, not all that poflefs a Mace in the Church to be 
" reputed for true Members of the Church** Verily he open- 
*' ly excludeth from the number of the Children of God, 
" thofe perfons to whom ( in the beginning of the Chap- 
" ter he faith) pertaineth the Adoption/* And about ;o 
Lines lower he faith, "Let this point of Dodrine remain 
*' fiNed, that of Mankind fome Perifh, and fome obtain 
''Salvation, the Caufe depends upon the fecret good 
*' Pleafure of God. From whence it cometh to pafs, 
*' that they which are Born of Abraham (land not in 
"the fame Relation ; certainly their difierent State can 
"neither be attributed to the; Virtue of this, nor the 
" Vice of that, becaufe they both were not yet Born." 
Thus he. 

T his Dodrine tends to fiain the Pride and Glory of 
all carnal Chriftians, who Glory over 'Jews and Turks, 
as if themfelves were the Elect People of God, and fo 
fliail be faved ; and thofe other becaufe they are Lifideh 
fliall be damned: But alas being born in a ChriRian Na- 
tion, or of Believing Parents, will not fave you ! lihmael 
and Efau were both born of the befl Chriftians and 
greateft Favorites of Heaven in the World, the Jews 
were fuch a Nation, and yet the greater Fart penflied 
eternally. Perhaps you will fay, I am Baptized and Ini- 


dated into a Chriftian Church : I anfwer: Tiius ihe IfrsL- 
elites had all of them the bymbols of Grace, they had 
Circumcifion which toAbrahriin was a Seal of the Kigh- 
teoufnefs of Faith, they had the Paliover and other Or- 
dinances, Symbols of the fame Grace that our Ordi- 
nances are, and yet with many of them God was not 
\Vell pleafed : Nothing but a living Faith on the Son of 
God, which is infeparable from a true Converfion to 
God and Victory over the World, can be an Evidence 
of Election to Eternal Life, Thus we have confidercd 
the Diviilon of the Subjects of the Promife from the 
CarnaJ Seed in the Partition o^Jaab and Efau. 

To this Defence of God's haithfulnefs in keeping 
Promife, the 'Jewszxe fuppofed to object thus-: Whilit 
you Paulhzve vindicated God from the Blafphemy of 
Unconflancy, you muft needs charge him with In- 
juflice,- for he that without refpect of MeHt, loveth one 
and hateth another, Choofeth one and Reprobateth 
another, is unjufi. 

But according to- your Doctrine God loved yaccb and 
hated EfaUy chofe Jacob and reprobated EJmiy without 
refpect of Merit : Ergo God is unjufl 

This is the Objection the Apoltle by a fecond Prokp' 
fis doth take up and Anfwer, Verfe 14. What fyall VuC 
fay then, is there unrighteoufnefs with God ? God for bid. 
This Objection the Apoflle (heweth, deferveth rather 
a Deteflation then a Solution, yet this is the Language 
cf the Carnal Mind, which will have God to he cir- 
cumfcribed within the fame Laws with themfeives, who 
when they hear that God choofeth and placeth his e- 
ternal Love on fome, and that he reprobateth others e- 
very way equal of the fame fame Condition and Degree, 
and that without refpect to any Works they have done 
or iliall hereafter do, and that when the Condition of 
all Mankind is alike vitiated by Original Sin contract- 
ed from our firft Parents ; they fay, he ought to proceed 
alike in the fame Judgment towards all, and either to 
receive all into his' Grace and Favcjirr, or elfe leave all to 
their own Deftructiorr; which thinp; becaufe he doth 
not do (as we teach ,), but choofeth and faveth fcm.e, 
and ieaveth others to their Dcfiruction, lie muil needs 
bean Accepter of Perfons, and don't dilpence equal 
judgment to all. The ApoRlc's Anfwer is : Though 


EleOfion anii Reprobation. 5^ 

God difcence unequal Things to equal Perfons, he is 
not unjwft. The Argument is, 

God who is ablolutely Righteous by Nature, is 
Righteous in all his Works. 

Dut God out of his m«er good i leafure, doth Love 
and Choofe one, and Hate and Reprobate another. 

Therefore becaufe thefe are Acts of God, they are 
Righteous Acts : 
The major Propolition is contained in the 14th 
Verfe, and is (ufficiently proved out of Roinans iii, 4. 
Let God be True and every Man a Lyer^ as it is u'ritten. 
That thou mighteft be jujlified in thy Sayings y and over- 
c'jne iihen thou ai t judged : if God were not thus Jufl: 
and Righteous, how could he judge the World ? ""l his 
was the pious Conciufion of the Prophet Nabakkuk, 
That God is of purer Eyes than to behold Iniquity^ even 
at fuch time when h^ knew not how to foive the ap- 
pearance of Divine Providence, becaufe the "zoicked de- 
vouied the Alan more righiecus than hCy Hab, i. 13. 
The minor Propofition that God, doth out of his meec 
good pieafure, Love and choofe one, and Kate and re- 
probate another, the Apoftle proveth out of Ex. xxxiii, 
19, after Aicjes had been pleading with God for Par- 
don and Favour tor his People, and had obtained it^ 
he interceedswith God for further evidence of his Grace, 
and obtaineth this Anfwer : I will be Gracious ftnto 
'whom I ix)ill be G/aciousy and IzcilljJjew Mercy on whom 
Iidll jhew Mercy. In which Anfwer the Lord fhews 
his Soveraignty, that he is not bound to fiiew Mercy 
to any Sinners, and thofe he doth (hew Mercy to, he 
doth it from Caufes not in them, but from his mcer 
good Pieafure; becaufe they had defervej^ hi* Wrath 
as much as thofe upon whom he doth execute it: 
This place the Apoitle allegeth for the Proof of the 
firfl Member of the Propofition, that he will fhew Mer- 
cy from no other Motive than his own Will. The In- 
Hznce oi Pharaoh \h the 17 Verfe, is a proof of the fe-* 
condPartof the Propolition, That God of his me^r good 
Pieafure doth Hate and Reprobate whom he will, which 
he doth to fiiew his ]u(Hce. The Propofition it felf, 
that God doth all this from his own Vvill, as the Pole 
Caufe, we have in the i8th Verfe. The^-^fore hath he 
Mercy on vohom he vjill hai/e Mercy, andiuham he toill 



he hardmth. Which is brought as an Inference, becaufe 
the i^robation of this Proportion is in the Verfes befoie 
it ; and in the Probation we have the Caufes alleged, 
and thofe ^vhich are not real Caufes deny'd. 
. The fole Caufe is, IwiU be Gracious y and I will JJjevj 
Mercy. God's Will is the only Law and Rule of his Pro- 
vidence, My Council jhall jiandy and I will do all my 
Pleafuye : There are three Things in the Divine Will 
that are Effective of the Calling and Salvation of the 
Elect, ifl. Sovereignty, zdly^ Conflancy. 3^/y, Mercy. 
ifiy Sovereignty, Luke xxii, 42. Father ijthou be will- 
ing remove this Cup from 7ne, nevertheless not my IVdl but 
thine be done. 

zdly, Conftancy, Ninnb. xxxiii, 19. Gcd li net a Man 
that he jhoiild I?>, nor the Son of Man that hejhouldre' 
pent. The change of Times in which the Elect live, or 
Change of their Condition makes no Change of God's 
Will ; for with him is no Variation^ nor foadow of turning, 
yam. i, 17. Pfalm xc, 1. Lord thou haji been ojir dwell- 
ing place in all Generations. Hence we learn the Rotation 
of Divine Providence makes no Change in God's Will. 

^dly, Mercy. That God will have Mercy is the Foun- 
dation of all our Bleffings, and hence we learn that God 
looketh upon us as miierable Sinners and not perfect 
Creatures; neither in this doth God any Injuftice to o- 
ther Sinners miferable as our felves to whom he doth 
not fhevir Mercy ; for whofoever vouchfafeth Mercy to 
another, without doing any wrong to a Third Perfon, 
is not unrighteous in fo doing. But God vouchfafeth 
Mercy to whom he will, without any Wrong done to 
whom he will not. Therefore God is not unrighteous 
in fo doing. This our Lord teacheth us by the unequal 
Labourers receiving equal Wages. Mat. xx, i^. Friend 
I do thee no wrongy take that thine is ; I will give unto this 
lafl even as unto tljee. Thus having confidered the Cau- 
fes unto which our Bleffings are attributed, and why 
God chofe one and not another, we (hall next confider 
the feeming Caufes to which our Bleffings are deny'd. 
Verfe 16. So then, It is not of him that willeth, nor of 
him that runneth y but of'Godthatjheweth Mercy. From 
the Teftimony of God to Mofes in the 15 th Verfe, by 
which the Apoflle refufeth the Cavillations of the Na- 
tural Jews and Carnal Chrifiiansy he inferreth this Con- 


EleQion And Reprobation. 57 

clufion of the Queftion, Viz. Whence then is th^^ 
Election ? Not of him that Vuilkth, nor of him that nm- 
nethy Sec. 'Tis true, as our Adverfaries allege, that the 
Word EleBion is not in this Verfe, but then they ought 
to confider, ^tis the necefTary Supplement ; for what 
elfe fliculd that be, which is immediate to the Mercy c£ 
God, and goeth before our Willing and Running, but 
Election? which in the nth Verfe the Apoftle af- 
figns as the Caufe of the difterent fcate of 'Jacob anu 
EfaUy and in the nth Chapter and 5th Verfe, attri- 
buteth the Prefervation of the Remnant to, even fq at 
this prefent Time alfo there is a Remnant according to the 
EleBion of Grace: So then we have here the non 
Caufes of diftlnguifhing Grace, viz,. Not of him that 
•wiileth, nor of him that runneth ; in thefe are included ail 
the flowers of Nature as Free- Will, Probity, good Dif- 
pofitions, which are abfolutely excluded from any (liare. 
of obtaining thefe Bleilings to any of the Sons of Men. 

i/?, By Willing we may underltand all the Powers of 
the Soul, which do indeed receive Motion and Opera- 
tion from this principal Faculty the Will, and regularly 
aft upon Election, Deliberation, and P*.efoIution, the 
proper Operations of it, by which all Men are natural- 
ly led to will Happinefs to themfelves: Yet this noble 
Faculty profiteth nothing to Salvation, it being fetter'd 
and chain'd by the adverfe Powers Sin and Satan. So 
that we neither will nor know the fumrnum bonumy the 
chiefelt good, nor fee, much lefs approve, the only true 
way of obtaining it. 

idlyy By Running, we may underfiand all the Acts 
of the Converfation, whether Moral or Religious, which 
being performed by the natural Man ( not yet refcued 
by everlafting Arms from the Dominion of Sin and 
Satan) avails nothing to Salvation. Or if we under- 
ftand running by way of AmpliHcation, and fo con- 
junctly v^ith willing attributed to the whole Man, Body 
and Soul, we fhall find it altogether beyond Creature 
Power to produce Caufes either of Election or Salvati- 
on; for in an unconverted Hftate every Man and Wo- 
man in the World, both 7^'^^* Chriftian^ and Heathen^ 
is dead in Sin, and a Chi! J of Difobedience. Eph. ii, i. 
And his carnal Mind is Enmity againji God. Pjrii. 8. 

G *' Go 


"Go to (a) (faith Gualterus) Let us examine 
" that little Portion of Power which with fuch immo- 
" derate Pride they fo mightily glory in, whatfoever it is, 
" either 'tis a part of the Underftanding or of the Will ; 
" but our Underflanding receivcth not the things of 
" the Spirit of God, and thofe Myfteries Chrift himfelf 
" faith are hidden from the wife Men of the World ; 
" the Will alfo is not inclined but to evil, therefore the 
" Lord faith the Imagination of our Heart is evil from 
" our Touth. Thus he. 

Secondly J Neither is Eleftion of him that Willeth in 
his converted Eftate, for in this Grace hath prevented 
him. • Titus iii. 5. Not by works of Righteoufnefs that 
ive have done, but according to his Mercy he hath faved 
us by the wafbing of Regeneration^ and renewing of the 
Holy Ghojl. Neither can it be partly of Man for the fake 
of his believing, and partly of God's Mercy; becaufe 
then i/?, Our Believing would be before God's work of 
Converting, idly^ Believing or rather Faith, is the 
prime Difference that God makcth betv/ixt a Saint and 
a Sinner, and fo the Eftect of Election and Mercy. 
Rem, viii. 29. and therefore can be no part of theCaufe. 

'Thirdly y Then neither are the Members ofOppofition 
in the Apoftlc's Antethefis lawfully oppofed ; for if it 
bepanly of hhn that Willeth and him that Runneth, 
then it is not folely of God that fneweth Mercy. But 
^tis folely of God that flieweth Mercy, therefore foiePy 
without his Willing and Running. 

The only colourable Objection to this Explication 
that I remember, is m:;de from i- Peter i. ?.nd 2 Verfe: 
EleH according to the foreknowledge of God the tather 
through Sanclification cfthe Spirit^ and fprinkling of the 
Blood of yefiis Chrifi ; The Argument is : 

\Ve are not Elect but through Sanctification, 
But Sanctification is always with- Faith. 
Therefore we are not Elect without Faith. 

( j: ) Rodol^hm GHalteiKi in Icco, Homiiia 51 ait: Sed agedurn.ex- 
cutiamus modicum illud quod illi immodica ambitione tantopere Ja- 
danti hoc cjuicquid fir, aut intelligent ire, aut voluntatis pars fjc 
oportet ; 3.tqm mtclleifiiis nofter non capit ea qus iunt Spititus Dei, 
& Myfteria ifta fapieiitibus huius i'xculi abfcondita efle ipfe Chriflus 
tefiatur.- voluntas autem non nill ad malum propendet, & ideo Domi- 
aus figmenta cordis noftri mala efle dicit, ab ineunte xtate, &c. 


£te£lIon and Reprobationt* 59 

. To this I Anfwer: It can't mean the Sanctifying Act 
of the Spirit tranfitively, nor yet Sanctification abfolutc- 
iy taken, that either of thefe is the Caufe of Election, 

ift. Becaufe thefe follow Election ( taken properly ) ? 
Thus in Galatians vi. 6. Becmijc ye are SonSy God 
hath fent forth the Spirit of his Son -into yotir Hearts. And 
to this they Tcere Eleciedy EpheC. i. 5, 

zdly. We are fp Elect through Sanctification of 
the Spirit, as wc are through Iprinkling of the Blood of 
Jefus ; but this Is not the Caufe of our Election : For the 
Apoftle faith Verfe 9, Tevcere redeemed "Juith the pre- 
cious Blood ojChiJiy zvho ivas verily for c-ordained before 
the Foundation oj the IVorld, but ivas manifefl in iloefe 
lafi 'Times for you. , -^ 

^dly. We are Elected unto Obedience 3s the End; but 
Obedience is not without Faith, therefore we are elected 
unto Faith : So then Faith is the Effect of Election, and 
confcquently no Caufe of it. 

Thus having fhewn what is not the Meaning of this 
place, I fha!l next fhew what is ; if we put Calling intot 
the Text as a Supplement, which is no way againft the 
Analogy of Faith, and is necefl'arily underflood, if Elec^ 
tion here be taken properly ; and then we read it, E- 
hU according to the Pore-kmwkdge of God the Father 
( Khto Calling ) throtigh SanBification of the Spirit, &c.' 
And fuch an Ellypfis is found in Hundreds of places of 
the Old and New Teftainent, and according to this In- 
terpretation, Election and Fore-knowledge is finnma Ef^ 
ficiensy the higheft Efficient, and the Spirit is proximo, 
agens Caufay the next operating Caufe. Pifcator upon, 
the place intcrpreteth it by a Metonymy of the efficient 
Elect for the Etfect , which is Calling the like we have 
in John xv. 19. 

And fo I come to the fecond Part of the Apoflie's An- 
fwer, where handling the Decree of Reprobation, hz 
muft needs have greater Conflicts with humane Pru- 
dence, which couJiteth it an iTnrighteous Thing to hear^: 
that whitft God doth Love and Eled fome, he Hateth. 
and Reprobateth others, therefore he convinceth.them 
by a manifeft Example in Phnraohy out of the Old Te- 
fliament, Exod. ix. 16. The Scripture laith to Pharaohy. 
Even for this fame pur p(fe have Irais'd thT^up^ that / 
G 2 ^ might 


might pew my Poiver in thee^ and that my Name might he 
declared throughout all the Earth : The Particle ^et^f 
For.y is caufai, and fheweth to us that the Apoftle is go- 
ing to prove, that God is not unrighteous in Loving 
one, and Hating another, which is his Polition. It is the 
fecond part that he proveth here; After God had fmit- 
ten ILg)pt v^'ith the Plague of the Blainesy he fends 
Mofei with this MeiTage to Pharaoh to let him know, 
that when he pleafed he could reduce the tj^prbitancy 
of his Power, and put a Hop to his Tyranny, as well to 
check his Rage and abate his Fiercenefs, as to raife the 
drooping Spirits of his People, and animate his Servant 
Mofes in the Difcharge of his Office ,• and. in this Proof 
of Dfvine Sovereignity v/e have. 

1. The Conftitution of the Perfon. 

il. His Work and Adminiltration j that I might Jhew 
my Poxver in the Earth. 

III. The final Caufe ; that my Name might be de- 
dared throughout all the Earth. 

I. God made Pharaoh fuch a robuft and terrible Per- 
fon that he flriveth with his Maker, and faith, 1 know 
not the Lord, neither vcill I let Ifrael go. Exod. v. 20. 

2. God indued him with fuch Gifts of -Mind as 
TJ/ifdcm, Willy Deliberation, Refolution, Fortitude, ziid 
the reft. Job xxxviii. 3 6. 

3. God raifed him up to his Eftate in the World : 
His Regal Dignity, Favoul-, Policy and Authority over 
his People, were of God's Difpeniing ; 'twas God that 
fill'd his Hand with a Scepter, and covered his Head 
with a Crown, that cloathed him with Honour and 
Majefly- If the Lord would he could have raifed up a 
Prince of a Mild and Benign Nature, which fhould 
have intreated his People gently, and have difmilled 
them peaceably, and not have fufrered them to have 
been opprefled, and the World alarmed by fo cruel 
and hardy a Tyrant : But this was his Pleafure, IVho 
•worketh all things after the Council of his own Will. 

Thus having fpoken a k'vj Words concerning his 
Conftitution, I come next to the 

IL Secc;nd thing God's Power Was converfant about.. 
'viT.. his Adminiftrafeion, and i. In the Toleration of his 
Pride ztd Tyranny a while, and in a meafure for the 


Election md Reprobation." 61 

Chaftizing his People's Degeneracy, Tryal of their Pa- 
tience, and exciting of their Graces, 

2. In greatly hindering the Execution of his Bloody. 
Edid", by the JVIercy andCou.-age of tv\o feeble Women 

3. In caufing him to cherifh and nourifh in his 
Court a poor miferable Hcbrevjlnhm, expos'd to Pro- 
vidence by his miferabJe Parents, who by reafon of the 
Cruelty of the Times, and Scrutiny of tiie Inquifitiorr^ 
could no longer harbour him. 

4. By bringing Ten wonderful Plagues upon the 
fucceliive Tyrant, maintaining and continuing of him 
•under fuch an amazing Cataiirophe of Divine Provi- 
dence, when he might reafonably think his Kingdom 
Ihould be deftroyed, and himfeif perife in the Ruins. 

5. By his hardy and defpera^e Adventure into the 
Red Sea and his hnal overthrow in it. 

6. In the Hardening of his Heart ; hence it was 
that he endured lo many dreadful Judgments, and nei- 
ther lijnk under them, nor yet converted from hisMale- 
Adminiftration to deliver himfeif from them. Some- 
times it is faid, he hardned his Heayf, and other times, 
that God hardned Pharaoh's Heart, and in this place of 
the Apoftle it is attributed to God, Verfe I'^.Whotn 
he will he hardneth. But how doth God hardea 
Pharaoh's Heart ? 

I ) Not by Converting his Heart from foft to hardj, 
though the contrary to Hardnefs God doth for the E- 
led by Converfion. Ezekiel xxxvi. Pie ivi/l take away^i 
the ftony Heart out of their Flejh. 

2) Not by infuflngany Hardnefs into his Heart; 
for there is a latent Hardnefs in every Man naturally, 
which is a Plague of the Heart, and God may occafi- 
onally excite it, but never jfifufe it ; For only good and per- 
jeSi Gijts cojne doivn /rojn above, 'James i. 17. 

Thus having obfervedhowCod doth ^o/Harden^we 
fhall proceed to fliew how he doth^ and in whatSecfe ic 
isto be underft-ood, God hardned Pharaoh's Heart. And 

(i.) By not foftning it : fFhy haft thou (faith the Pro- 
phet ) made us to err from thy IVays, and hardned our 
Hearts horn thy fear. Jfaiah Ixiii. 17. St. Ar-gu/Iine, in 
Librofuo de Prade/iimtioney faith, Deus indurat qucs ncn 
vult emollirij that God Harden^ thofe whom he will 
not make Soft. 

( 2 } By 

63 :^VINDICATI0N bf 

( 2 ) By diverting and turning that innate Hard- 
nefs of Pharaoh's Heart into fuch Ways and Channels,, 
as may ifTue in the Glory of that Attribute which God 
defigns by him to magnify; and this is done, i. By a 
Providential Acceffion of fuch Helps as may Harden 
Men and Women ; thus the falfe Prophets were to 
Harden Ahab, 2 Chron. xviii, 4, and thus the concur- 
rent Cruelty ofPhamoh's Pet^ple helped to harden him. 
2. By prefenting fuch things in his Providence, as 
become Objects of Hate or Love, or other Affections, 
Which by reafon of their Carnal Minds are all Sinful : 
ThusNabotl/s Vineyard was an Object of Ahab's vora- 
cious Covetoufnefs, and proved a means of Hardening 
his Heart to Murther ; and the Multiplication of the 
Poordiflrefied Ifraelites proved the Objects of Fear 
and Jealoufie to wicked Pharaoh and his Servants, and 
gave them flrange Ideas of Victory and Ruin, which 
they from their Blindnefs feared from them. Thus ift 
Pfahn cv. 25. 'tis faid. He turned their Heart to 
Hate his People, and to dealfubtilly with his Servants, 
which is to be underflood of directing Pharaoh's and 
his People's Malice in that Channel againfl his /^W, that 
his Power might be feen in delivering his Ifraely and 
over-ruling Pharaoh's Malice, and bounding his Tyran- 
ny ; and that his Juflice might be magnified in his De- 
Uruftion ; Forfurely the Wrath ofManfiallpraife thee, 
and the remainder of Wrath thou Jlmlt refrain. Pjalnt 
Jxxvi. 10. 

( 5 ) God is faid to Harden Pharaoh by irritating and 
provoking him. i^, By his Commands, idly. By his 
Miracles. 7,dly, By his Plagues, God Commands him 
to let Ifraet go, this inraged him : / kncvj net the Lord, 
faith he, neit/jer will I let Ifrael^o, Exodus 5. The Mi- 
racle and Plagues, inflead of learning him Righteouf- 
ii^[s and the Fear of God, as they do the Elect, made 
him more hardy and daring to run upon the thick Bofjes 
cf God's Buckler ; and as a rapid flream being ammed 
up, when it makes an Eruption, runs more violently, fo 
did he : And thus the Law of God worketh Sin in us oc- 
cnfonally by Provocation, Remans vii, 8. 

( 4 ) God judicially Hardened Pharaoh, by giving 
him to Blindnefs, to Lufl, and to Satan; which is done 
by taking off the Reins of Reflraint and Moral Defence, 


Ele^lion 'and Reprobation^ 6| 

^tid fufFering him to be carried down to Deftr uction by 
thefe three Mortal Enemies. Rom. i. In all which it 
appears that God hath the Ordering, or Directing and 
Limiting Mens Sin, to the Glory of his Power and 
]uftice, though he hath no part in the Act of Sinning. 
In the manner of Hardening we have firil: God defert- 
ing the Sinner whom he is not bound to foften. In the 
Second, directing and over-ruling his Hardnefs. In the 
Third, provoking the Sinner. In the Fourth, aggrava- 
ting his Sin, in that he juftly punifhath one Hardnefs by 
another. Rom. i. 28. God gave the?n tip to a reprobate 
Mind. In all which God fliews his Sovereignty. O Lord, 
thou baft ordained them for Judgment, Q mighty God thotc 
haft eftablijhed them for Correthon. Habakkuk i. 12. 
III. And Laflly, we have the Hnal Caufe of God's 
raifing up Pharaoh^ and making him fland the fliock of 
all thefe Judgments, That his Name, that !s, his Jufiice 
and Power, might be known in all the Earth. I faw 
( faith Habakkuk ) the Tents of Cuihan in AffiiElio/iy 
and the Curtains of the Land of Midian did tremble. 
Habakkuk iii. 7. By thefe Providences Rahab was Con- 
verted, and her King Hardned : And this is the Rear- 
fon why God tolerateth all the Sin and Sinners that are 
in the World, why he Reprot)3teth, why he Harden- 
eth ; to illuftrate the Glory of his Name, and tp 
Magnify his Juftice, to whofe Glory all Creatures in 
Heaven and Harth and Sea and Hell mujft and ought to 
be fubfervient. Thus I have endeavoured to prove the 
Propofition, That God out of his mere good Pleafure 
(for theGlory of his Mercy/doth Love andChoofe one, 
and out of his meer good Pleafure ( for the glory of his 
Juftice ) doth Hate and Reprobate another. Therefore 
becaufe theie A6ts are Ads of God, who may law- 
fully feek his own Glory, they are righteous Acts. 
'Therefore hath he Mercy on zvhom he xvill have Afercyy 
and whom he xvill he Hardneth. As Loving one 
and Hating another, and having Mercy on one, and 
Hardening another, are proved to be Jufr, becaufe God 
hath done them; fo likewife he concludeth from the 
Teftimony out oi' Alofes in Verfe 15, for he faith to 
Mofe(, I xvill have Mercy en xjj horn I xvill have Mercy. 
And from the like TefHmony in the lych Verfe, of the 
deitroying Pharaoh; from thefe two Teflimonies he in- 



fer/eth the abfolute Sovereignty of God. Viz.. There^ 
fore he hath jYicrcy on vchom he will have Mercy, and 
zvhom he will he Hardncth. 

Firfi, We learn hence, that all Men are not the Ob- 
jects of God's Mtrrcy. The Argument is: 

God giveth Faith and Salvation to all the Objects- 

of his Mercy. 
But God dcth not give Faith and Salvation to all 

Therefore all Men are not the Objects of God's 
The major Propofition is proved out of i Peier i. 3, 4. 
Bkjfed'be God and the Father of our Lord Jefus Chrifi, 
•who according to his abundant Mercy, hath begotten us a- 
gctin unto A lively Hope by theRefurreclion of Jefus Chrfi, 
from the dead, unto an inheritance incorruptible and un- 
defiledy that fadeth not aviay, reserved in Heaven for you. 
Here is a lively Hope which is infeparable from juftify- 
ing Faith, and an incorruptible Inheritance in which 
confifteth Salvation, 

The minor Propofition is as evident, That God doth 
not give f/?. Faith to all, jor all Men have not Faith. 
1 Thef. iii. 2, nor, 2^/r, Salvation to all, Matheiu vii. 19. 
For wide is the Gate, and bread is the ivay, that leadeth 
to DeJlruBion^nnd many there be that go in thereat. 

Again, all Men are not called, (i. e. Efte6iualy) there- 
fore all Men are not the Objects of God's Mercy, be- 
caufe they ivhich are calkd receive the Promife of an eter- 
nal Inheritance. Hebrevjs iii. 5. 

Secondly, We learn hence by the Sovereignty of God 
in dicwing Mercy, and hardening, that FJection and 
Reprobation are to be referred to the Will of God as ' 
the fum?na Caufa, the highelt Caufe, and not to a meer 
PermifTion : For there is no precedent Caufe to be al- 
leged but his meer good Pleafure. Therefore they are 
exceeding Arrogant and Kardy, who will pretend to 
give a better Account of Myfteries of the Kingdom of 
(God, and Secrets of his Providence, than that in which 
fo great an Apoflle acquiefceth ; "Who, faith Augufiine, 
" but a Fool, will think God unjuft, whether he brings 
" penal Judgment upon him tliat deferveth it, or ftevv- 
" eth Mercy unto him that deferveth it not ? But why 
** fo to this Man, and not fo to this Man? Who art 

'' thou 

Ele£lidn attd Reprobation. ($5 

" thoUjO Man? If thou payed not thy Debt, thou haft 
'* tor which thou mayft be thankful ; if thou payeft it, 
*'thou haft not for which thou mayft complain." {a ) 

But for their ^akes which will have Hardning of 
Men to be by a bare Permiflfion, left they fhould there- 
by make God the Author of Evil, we (ball anfvver in a 
few Words : Whilft they fhun Scylla, they run into 
Charybdis : for Permiflion is alfo fome kind of Will ,• 
and with Aiigufune I would have them anfwer me, 
Whether God permit fuch Evils willingly or unwilling- 
ly ? If they fhall fay unwillingly, go to then let, them 
Ihew us, Who is able to force God againft his Will .? 
But if willingly he permitteth Evil, he cannot in this be 
excufed, if as they are wont to do, they will try him 
by the Laws of Men ; for he could have created 
new Minds and new Wills in the Reprobate, which 
Thing in as much as he will not do ( though he doth 
it for the Eleft ) he fliall be efteemed guilty of the fame 
Evil, from which they delire to free him, who think 
Blinding and Hardning in this Matter to be over rigid 
Expreffions : And as hereby they don't defend the Righ- 
teoufncfs of God, fo in the mean while they bring in 
Danger his Omnipotency, and Providence,, which are 
fome of the chief Properties of his Divinity. Let us 
therefore ftand to the Words of the Scripture, and we 
. may there find that God don't infufe new Malice into 
their Hearts, but by fome Occafion, bringeth to Light 
that which lay hidden there before, (^as I fiid (^{Pharaoh) 
that he may ufeit to fuch Ends as himfelf purpofeth. 
And fo theCaufe of Hardning is not without the Wick- 
ed only, but within them, who naturally fight againft 
God; and fo go on to do, as long as he vouchfafeth not 
to them his fpecial Grace. And as ( faith (b ) Guaherus) 
*' It is wont to be done in the upper Region of the 

( «) i<i<g«^i«i Enchiridion Capite 98. Quisnifi, Inflpiens, Deum 
iniquum piitet, Cwq judicium pcenale ingerat digno, live Mifericor- 
diam prxftat indigiio? quare tamen huic ita, huic non iu ? homo tU 
qui es: debitum li non reddis, habes quod graculeris, li reddis, won 
habes quod querans* &c. 

(i) Idem hie quod in fiiperiori Aeris Regione fieri folet, ubi a 
circumtut'o calore nubes ffigidse per «frin-ff(?-*T»' condenfantur, uc 
nmlem srando jnde prodeat,& tonitrua fiant, arque Rilguraciimftil' 

H Air 


** Air, where the frigid Clouds from an ambient Heat 
*' condenlated by an Antiperiftafis or Contra- circulati- 
" on, that at length they produce Hail, and Thunder, 
" and Lightning, with Thunderbolts : So the Wicked 
"by how much they have Occaiions oftered, and are 
*^ urged to do weil, by fo much the more they fume and 
" rage: And therefore being fpoiJed of all Grace, deferve 
" that God fhould deliver them up to a Reprobate Mind, 
" that when they have filled up the Meafure of their 
" Wickednefs, they may pay juft Punifhment." And 
that fuch things as thefe have hapned in Cnin^ Pharaoh, 
Saul, and many others, the Scriptures plainly teitifie. 
Hence we learn i/i. How to judge of thofe ferfons 
who flubbornly refiit God, and become worle, for thofe 
Providences which are wont to give Occaficn of Re- 
pentance and Piety toothers; they fhew thcmfelves to 
be Perfons of a Reprobate Mind, neither ought they to 
be counted for the People of God, to xvhum all things 
work together for good: In the mean while let no Man 
accufe God, who though he knows them to be fuch, 
doth notwithdanding thofe things by which they are 
made worfe : for as we faid before, his Glory is illiif' 
trated by them, and he fo guideth their Adions as that 
they ferve to the InfiruBion andSahation of his Children. 
idly. We learn here, and indeed in the whole Argu- 
ment concerning Eledion, Thai the Fountain of all 
our Bleffings isthe meer good Pleafure of God, and 
nothing is to be attributed to the Freedom of our 
Wills, Natural Probity, or any good Difpoiitions as 
Caufcs of Faith, and Repentance, and Salvation, And 
fo I come to the third Calumny of the natural yeivs^ 
viz,. Then God is Cruel. 

Verfe ip, I'hou wilt Jay umo vte. Why doth he yet find 
fault, for who hath refified hi) Will. Thefe Words are 
manifeflly an Objedion of the Reprobates, or the Cavil 
of Carnal Reafon againll the meer good Pleafure of 

Ita quo raagis a Deo urgentur impii, & bene a- 
propoficas vldent, eo ny?-^'-' fr»r„„.,.. ». ■^a^-.^r . 

iucu4uc uijjiu luui quos omni gracia ipolia 

mentem tradat, uc ubi impietatis meiiluram 

pgsius exolvant, 6cc. vide Qudtems in loco. 

Ele£lion and Reprobation. 67 

God, who denying the Jufiice and Equity of God's 
Proceedings in his Difpenfations, arefuppofed to make 
this Interrogation: Why doth he find Fault? 'viz^. 
there is no Caufe why he (houid find fault with me, 
for being a Hardned Wretch, when he himfclf hath 
Hardned me. He deny'd his Grace to Efau^ and gave 
it to Jaob^ and when he had Mercy on the Ifraelitef, 
he Hardned Pharaoh^ and that without his Fault; and 
if he raifeth up, hardneth, and throweth down Pharaoh 
and other Reprobates, of his Arbitrary Will and meer 
good Fleafure, they are not to be blamed who are rai- 
led up, hardned and precipitated by the meer good 
pleafure of God. Why doth he yet find Fault ? The like 
Objection we have, Rom. iii. 5. Ifonr Unrightecufncfi 
commend the Righteoufnefs of God; the Anfwer by them 
is : Then God in puniQiing our Unrighteoufnefs doth 
not righteoufly, becaufe it ferveth to fo good an End, 
and why are all the Complaints and Threatnings in the 
Prophets and elfwhere In the Scriptures ; as in Ifaiah i. 
[have murijhed and bntight up Children^ and they ha^e 
rebelled againft nie, zn^'m Jeremiah ii. 13 My People 
hi'.ve committed tzvo great Evils, they have forj'aken me 
the fountain of living IVaters, and in Ffalm 50, and 
Micah vi. where the Lord calls his People to his 
Barr of Equity, and demands the Reafon of their A- 
poflacy ; and if this matter depends upon the Will of 
God only,andhe will have Mercy on whom he will,and 
Harden whom he will, by what Reafon then can he 
reprehend us? why doth he fault, accufe, or damn us 
for doing what we do ? Thefe are the Anfwers of the 
Men of our Age, Adverfaries of the Divine Decrees 
of EleEiion and Reprcbation. To this, I anfwer. 

i/i. Adam and Eve upon their Examination accufe 
God's Providence. 2dly. They err, not knowing 
the Scriptures, that gather from them, that we have 
power in our Will, to will good or evil, and fo accord- 
ing to this Dodrine, they fay God muil needs aft the 
part of a Tyrant in compeling our Will to Evil, which 
thing is moft falfe, becaule we lln from original Corrup- 
tion, and of our felves can will nothing but Evil, nei- 
ther can the Will be compelled; it is a maxim in Phiio- 
fophy, nemo nolem vult, no Man willeth any thing a- 
gainfl his Will, and God that is Righteous by Nature 
H 2 cannot 


cannot change our Will from good to bad ; for God 
canmt be temfted to Evil, neither temfteih he any Man ; 
therefore when God hardens the Sons of Men, he 
don't chan§,e their Will from fofc to hard, as we faid 
oi Pharaoh y but only denieth his Grace to them, which 
he may do with the greateft Juftice, in that we are un- 
worthy, and he is Debtor to none of us. Their Cavil- 
lation may be reduced to this Argument. 
They which are hardned by the Will ofGod,and can- 
not avoid committing thofe Sins which they com- 
mit, becaufe of the abfolute Inability of their Will, 
which Inability and Perverfnefs God can help but 
will not ; they are therefore undelervedly blamed, 
and deflroyed by him. 
But Pharaoh and the Reprobates are hardned by the 
Will of God,and cannot avoid committing tholeSins 
they commit, becaufe of the Inability of their Will. 
Therefore Pharaoh and the Reprobates are unde- 
fervedly blam'd and deflroy'd. To this I anfwer: 
litheCeWotds hardned liy the IVill of Gody be un- 
derflood of God's Commandments, then we deny the 
Minor; but if it be underftood oi voluntas beneplacitiy 
the Will of his good Pleafure, we deny the Confe- 
quent. That the Wicked are undeferyedly hardned by 
the Will of God, the will of God beinj? Original Righ- 
teoufnefs, which is impoffible to be Unjuft ,• and this 
voluntas lenplacitiy the Will of God's good Pleafure, is 
the higheft Caufe,into which, in all this Epiftle and that 
to the EpheJianSy the Apoftle refolvcs all the Ads of 
Providence, vvhatfoever the Gigantick Enemies of 
the DivineDecrees belch out againft it. * Let the Ex- 

* ample, of the Prophet ^^/Z; terrify us, f faith Gualterm) 
' who was not afliam'd to confefs, his Feet had xvell 

* nigh flipt^ and that he had condemn'd the Geneva- 

* tkn of God's Childreny when he would needs judge 

* of the Grace and Faithfulnefs of God from the Events 
' of this prefent World; and therefore found it needful 

* for him, if he would approach nearer to the Myfieries 
*of God, to inform himfelf better out of God's Word ; 

* and if thisTemptationafTaulted fo great a Prophet,how 

* much rather doth it become us humbly and modeflly 

* to fearch into the external Decrees of Election and 
' Repiobatioii, \yhich are jmpoluble to be iearched out 


Eleflion and Reprobation. 69 

* by.the (harpeit Penetration of humane Wifdom/ Thus 
he. To which I may add the excellent Caution of Paul 
himfelfj which Marlovatus takeih for his Motto, 
fct over the Tree with his Branches broken, of the 
Emblem of the ^ews Condition, Ndi altumfapeye, 
mind not high things. As to the fecond part, viz.. That 
they cannot avoid committing thofe Sins they commit, 
becaufe of the abfolute Inability of their Will, and 
therefore they don't deferve to be punifhed; I anfwer; 
'Tis true, if that themfelves were willing to avoid the 
committing thofe Sins, and did not commit them with 
their Will and Choice ; but as Reprobates cannot avoid 
their hardening, neither will they j neither are they 
conilrainM againft their Will, but are hardned with 
their whole Will. Thus having fct the Obje(5iion of our 
Adverfaries in its true Light, I (hall come to the A- 
poflle's Anfwer, Verfe 20. Nay but^ Many voho art 
thou J ivbich reflyeji againfl God ? Shall the thing formed 
fay unto him that formed it, IVhy haft thou made me tJms? 
Verfe 21. Hath not the Potter pov^er of the Clay to make 
of the fame Lump one Vejfelfor Honour ^ and another for 
Dijhonour ? 

In this Anfwer, we have the Apoflle's fevere Rebuke 
and Detertaion of fo blafphemous a Confequence, IVho 
art thou Man? O Worm and Clod of Dufl:, thou 
breathing Nothing, floating Bubble, that ventureft to 
challenge God concerning his Judgments, and tranf- 
grefs and intrench upon his feverals. The Propofition 
the Apoflle is about to prove, is. That God may make 
what Men and Women he will, and di(pofe them to 
what Ends he will ; becaufe he hath an abfolute Sove- 
reignty over them, which is reftrained and bounded by 
no Laws, but directed only by his meer good Pleafure. 
This the Apoftle proves by the Similitude of the For- 
mer, and Thing formed. As the Thing formed may 
not, ought not, to carp at his Former, for Sloth, Ig- 
norance, or Ill-will, whatfoever Form, Ufe, or End, 
he difpofeth it unto, becaufe he hath abfolute Right 
and Power over it ; So Men and Women ought not to 
carp and malign at God their Former, whatfoever 
Form, Ufe or End he difpofeth them to, becaufe he 
hath abfolute Power over them. The Propofition by 
vv/hich this Sovereignty of God is fet forth wnto us, 



feemeth to be taken out of Ifaiah xiv. 9. the Lord hav- 
ing before this foretold the Captivity oijudnh, and in 
this place their Deliverance by King Cyrus, meeteth an 
Objedion of the Jews which is fuppofed to be ; 
"What needeth ail this Order of Caufes? Could 
not God as well have pardoned us, and amend- 
ed us, and kept us in our own Land, and ne- 
ver have fufFered us to be carried Captive by Nebuchad- 
nex,ar into Babylon, and be brought back by another 
King raifed up with fuch a Solemnity ? What need all 
thefe Labours and Changes? To check this Infolence 
the Lord faith, M'^o unto him that ftriveth -with his 
Maker, let the Pctjheard Jlri've with the Potjheards oi the 
Earth : Shall the Clay fay unto him that fajhionsth it, 
lohat makefl thou ? or thy fPork, He hath no Hands. 
I will take this way to illuftrate my Glory in my Pro- 
vidence, by carrying you into Babylon to corred you, 
and bring you back to comfort you. The Apoflle al- 
fo proves this abfolute Sovereignty of God by the Simili- 
tude of the Clay and Potter ; brought out of the Pro- 
phecy of Jerem. xviii. 4. 5, 6 : The Argument is. 
Such a Right and Power ; as the Potter hath over 
the Clay, fuch a Right and Power God hath 
over the S©ns of Men. 
But the Potter hath an abfolute Right over the 
Sons of Men, to make one piece of Clay a Vef- 
fel for an Honourable tjfe, and of another piece 
to make a VefTcl of a Diflion curable U(e. 
Therefore God hath an abfolute Right over the 
Sons of Men, to make one Honourable, and 
another Bafe ; to fave one and harden another, 
and then to deltroy him. 
In this Similitude here is the Potter3 the Clay, and 
his Work, the things comparing; and God, and Man, 
and God's arbitrary Difpenfation, the things compared. 
The Aftedions of this Parable, are abfolute Right and 
Sovereignty. The Intention of it is, to fiiew that fuch 
a Power over the Sons of Men is in God, of his meer 
good Pleafure to convert and fave, harden and de- 
ftroy, whom he will, which is the contrary to our 
Adverfaries Conclulion. The Major Propofition is ob- 
vious, That if God be compared to a Potter, he hath 
as great Power over his Work, as the Potter hath over 


Eleftion And Reprobation. 71 

his. The minor Propofiticn is the necefTary Affirma- 
tion to the Apoftle's Queftion, Hath not the Potter 
Povcer ? the Anfwer is, Ves. In the Similitude we are, 
without doubt, put in mind of our OriginaJ, that it 
was the Dult of the Ground, and that God made us a 
Lump of Clay, which did not concur to help and 
dirett its Former ; but he made us of fuch a Principal, 
fuch Height, fuch Breadth, fuch. a Compofition of the 
whole, and fuch a Dillribution of the Parts, fuch a 
Symmetry and Proportion, fuch Powers and Faculties, 
and, for fuch Offices and Fundions, juil asliis eter- 
nal Wifdom faw fit. Thus the Church confefleth, 
Ifa. Ixiv. 8. PVe are the Clay thou art our Potter ; lue 
all are the Work of thy Hands. And as the refuiing this 
Objection of the Adverfaries is plain, from the Parity 
or Likenefs of the Things dompared, fo likewife it is e- 
vident by the Difparity of the Things compared^ from 
which we may argue, from the Right the Potter hath 
over the Clay, to the greater right God hath over his 
Creatures. The Potter can make of the fame Lump one 
Veffelfr Honour and another for Difbonour j and thi»^ 
he may do, not only defaBoy but de jure, of his Right, 
without any Injuftice to the Clay, though perhaps the 
Potter may in this different Formation exprefsfomeVanity 
or finful Paffion: Much rather then may God, all who(e 
Ways are righteous, exert his Power over Man, of the 
fame finful Lump to choofe fome, and leave others, of 
his meer good Pleafure, without Injuftice. Again, Ano- 
ther Difparity conlifteth in this, that the Potter made 
not the Clay, the Matter; but God created the Matter, 
and Form of his Creatures. We learn from hence, ifl. 
. 'I'hat God doth form and difpofe of us according to his 
own Will; and idly. That he choofeth, reprobateth,. 
Iheweth Mercy, or hardneth, without Injuftice or 

Objedion. Li the Parable of the Potter in the Prophet 
Jereiniah, the Reafon of the Potter's altering his Mind is 
jaid to be, becaufe the Vejfel luas marred in the Hands of 
the Potter^ perhaps by one ofthefe Aaidents^the over 7noiji~ 
nefsof the Clay, the too hard bearing his Hand to thejide, 
a Knot of uutetnper'd Clay or Stone, and then the Potter 
difcerning the marred place alters his Intention: Thus Gcd 
grjes to all Men afufjiciemy of Grace tofave them, and 


72 AVllsiDlCMlOyf of 

for the negkci and abufe of his Graccy alters his Mind 
and damneth them. ' 

To this I anfwer : ifi. Paul draweth not his Com- 
parifon from the Accidents of the Clay, but from the 
abfolute Right of the Pottery for he faith, Hath not the 
Potter power over the Clay f 2dly, Neither doth he draw 
his Comparifon from the Change of the Potter's Mind, 
caufed by the Accidents of the Clay ; but from the free 
Arbitrement, and Determination of the Potter, upon 
accident.- -^dl^. If feveral Properties of the Potter and 
Clay are not exempted from the Comparifon, then 
many Abfurdities will follow, vi:^,, i/i, God did not 
forefee what would happen. 2dlj, That his Mind 
changeth. ^dly. That he betters his own Work by 
Experience ,• all which are abominable, becaufe knozvn 
unto God are all his IVorks from the begiyining oj the 
World, A&.S 15. and folcometo the 22^and 23^ Verfes. 

What if God willing toJJyew his Wath, and make his 
Power known y endured with much long faffering the Vef- 
^els of Wrath fitted to DeflruEiiony and that he might 
tfiake known the riches of his Glory en the Veffels of Mer- 
cy, which he bath afore-prepared to Glory ? Some take 
thefe two Verfcs to be a Reddition to the former Propo- 
rtion of the Potter and Clay, and fo the Argument is: 
As the Workman hath an abfolu're right to form his 
Work, and the Potter to form his Clay, either to vile 
or honourable Veffels, although it is all of one Lump ; 
fo God hath an abfolute right out of the fallen Mafs of 
Mankind, which all deferve Wrath and Condemnation, 
to (hew his Wrath on fome, and his Mercy on others. 

But it feems to me rather, that the Apolile by a fur- 
ther Allegation of Caufes, is fuppreffing and filencing 
further ObjeAions of Carnal Reafon, fo violently in* 
cenfed againft the abfolute Sovereignty of God, and, 
v^fith the greateft eagernefs and Hercenefs, denying the 
Confiftency of fuch arbitrary A6ts with God's Juflice, 
Mercy, and Goodnefsjand though a Potter, a Pallionate 
and inconfiderate Man, may, becaufe of fome accident, 
work his Will upon a Lump of inanimate and fenfelefs 
Clav, yet it cannot be that the Jufl:, Merciful, and good 
God lliould further any fucn Cruelty, either medi- 
ately or immediately. Eefides, if we con.fider Man, the 
fubjewt, endued with Reafon, having many finguLir 


Election and Reprobation. 73 

Favours of Divine providence conferred upon him, and 
that he is capable of immortal Happinefs or Mifery, we 
Ihall find no Proportion between him and the Clay ; 
therefore it futeth not the Goodnefs of God to bring 
him forth under any fuch violent al'ped, as eternal Re- 
probation. To this our Apoflle anfwereth. What if 
God willing tojhew his Wratb i Whether we take thefe 
Words as the Reddition of a former Propolltion, or a 
new Propofition, the Dodrine is the (ame, and may be 
hid down in this Argument : 

Whatfoever God doth to illuftrate his Glory, 
who hath abfolute Dominion over the Crea- 
tures, and is abfolutcly Righteous, and can pro- 
fecute his Purpofes and Ends, no otherwife 
than juftly, that Thing is not cruel nor unequal: 
But God to illuftrate his Glory, fliews his Wrath, 
and makes his Power known on the VefTels of 
Wrath, and makes known the Riches of Glory 
in the Veflels of Mercy, 
Thefe Acts therefore, becaufe they are Acts of 
God, and ferve to fo good an End, as the II- 
luftration of his Glory, are not unjuft or cruel. 
The Major Propofition I fuppofe will be granted, the 
Minor are the Words of the Text, and the Conclufion 
is evident. In the foregoing Similitude, i . We are fet forth 
by VefTels, 3. We are all VefTels of the fame Matter, 
all of an unclean and filthy Mafs. By one Man Sin enter- 
ed into the World and Death by Sin \ and i£e vjerejhapen 
in Iniquity. 5. God is the common Author and 
Maker of us all. 4. He may fhew his Mercy, if 
he will, or forfake and harden us, if he will, of meer 
Sovereignty \ and yet not be unjufl, as is abundantly 
proved from the 15, 16, 17, and 18 Verfes. 5. What 
hindreth then but that he may fhew his Wrath on the 
Veflels of Wrath? The Minor Propofition is illuRrated 
and confirmed from the End oi Reprobation and EleEiion 
which is the illuflration of God^s Glory to which end 
ferve, Fi)fl^ His Wrath. Secondly, His Power. Thirdly 3 
His long Sutlering. All which are occupied about the 
Reprobate, which are called Veflels of Wrath, and that 
upon feveral accounts. 1. Becaufe they are appointed 
to Wrath, They are Men before oj old ordained to this 
Condemnation^ Jude 4, ALvle to be taken and dejhoyed. 
-a Peter ii. 12. Ordained to 'judgment ^ Hab. i. 21. 

i 2 They 


1. They are called VelTels of Wrath, for that Go J 
ufeth them as Inflruments oftentimes of executing his 
Wrath ; thus the Ajjyrian is called the Rod of God's 
Anger, Ifay x. 5. So m Jeremiah 1. 2v 'The Lord 
hath opened his Armoury, and brought forth his Weapons 
cf his Indignation, (i.e.) the Vefleis of his Wrath. 
3. They are fo called, becaufe of their oppofite Con- 
dition to the Veilels of Mercy, i Thef. v. 9. For God 
hath not appointed us to Wrath, but to obtain Sahation 
through 02ir Lord Jefus Chrift. 4. They are faid to 
be fitted to DedruCtion, not only by God, as the Crea- 
tor and Ordainer of them to fuch an End, as Judgment 
or Deftruftion, which GoH may do as the Potter, but 
by themfelves, as voluntary Corrupters, Enemies to 
God, Oppofers of Holinefs, and Defpifers of God's 
Commandments ; by which they are VelFels of Wrath, 
and dothofe things which deferve Wrath and Puniih- 
ment ; which agreeth to the VefTels of Wrath. Thus 
our Apoflle Rom. i. 5. after thy hard and impenitent 
Heart treafurefiup unto thy felf Wrath againjl the Day 
of Wrath, &c. In all which refpeds the Wicked are 
confidered in Proverbs xvi. 4. God hath made all things 
for himfelj, the wicked alfo againjl the Day of Evil ; 
"Namely, their Ordination, Creation, and End, of God, 
but their Wickednefs of themfelves. 

It remaineth to fhew how God illuflrateth his Glo- 
ry on the VefTels of Wrath 

ijl. In executing: his Wrath, and Indignation upon 
them. Rom. i. The Wrath oj God is revealed from 
Heanjen agair:Jl all ungodlinefs and unrighteoufnejs of 
Men; and Revelation xiv, 7. Fear God; give Glory to 
him for the Hour oj his Judgment is come \ and Verfe 19. 
The Angel thrujl in his Sickle and gathered the Vine oj 
the Earth and c a ft it into the great Wine Pre] s oj the 
J'JA ath of God. And In xvi. 5. Thou art righteous 
Lord, vjbich art, and xuaji, andjhallbe, becaufe thou 
haji judged thus. 

id!y. He iiluflrateth his Glory, in making his 
power known, thus he did upon Pharaoh, and thus 
he will do upon Babylon, Rev. xviii. 8- //otu much 
(1)6 hath glorify d hC'- j'elf, and lived deli cioujly,fo much 
'Torment and Sorrotv give her: Therefore Jh all her Plagues 
come in a^e Day, Death and Mmrning, and jhe fJjall be 
burnt vci'.h Fire ; for firon^ is the Lord vohojiidgeth her. 


EIe£lion and Reprobation. 75 

Sinner, whatfoever thou art, which art an Abetter 
and Defender of falfe Worlhip and falfe Worlhipers, be- 
hold what a black Lift of Reprobates thou art number- 
ed with, and can thine Heart endure^ or thy Hands be 
jlrong in the Day that God Jhall deal thus with thee ? 
JEzekiel xxii. 14. It may be, thou bitingly and contu- 
melioufly revileft the true Worftiipers of God and ap- 
plaudeft and magnifieft falfe Worfliip, becaufe it is com- 
mended by Cuftom, and hath the greateft Number of 
Votaries; but how wilt thou account for it at the Day 
of Judgment, before the terrible Judge, who will try 
thee to a Minute, for thy Hardinefs, in paying him A- 
doration according to thy Fancy, when he comes to 
ihew his Wrath, and maKe his Power known fab rati- 
cne poenay according to his order of Vengeance. 

:5^/5', His Glory is illuftrated in his much long fufter- 
ing. God is fo good that he beftows many Blefiings 
upon the Reprobate, as Health, Strength, Wifdom, 
Riches, Honour, Authority, and when raging and 
perfecuting his Church, Lamen. ii. \6. vi. 19. He 
don't immediately ftrike them dead, but bean longjtime 
with them^ Rom. i. 4. or defpifefl: thou the Riches of his 
goodnefs, forbearance^ and longfafferingy 8cc. and what: 
hinders but when their Meajure is full Math, xxiii. 32, 
God fhould revenge the abufe of his common Goodnefs 
in their Eternal Deftrudion, 2 Pet. ii. 9. and to referve 
the unjufl unto the Day oj Judgment to be punifhed f 
And becaufe all the Difpenfations are juft, and ferve to 
illuftrate God's Glory, therefore he is not cruel. 

And fo I come to the 23 Verfe, And to ?nake known 
the riches of his Glory on the Veffels of his Mercy, Sic. 
This is the 4?/? way by which God illuftrateth his Glo- 
ry, -viz. in the Declaration of his Sovereign Ivlcrcy, 
both the Eleft and Reprobate are VefTcls, and there is 
no Worth in one VefTel more than another, why God 
fhould difcriminate one from another ; we are both 
made of the fame Lump, and we both have finned 
and come fiiort of the Glory of God, and are on that 
account both alike obnoxious to Wrath, and both alike 
capable of Mercy,and both alike uncapable to dcferve it; 
and if our Mifery was the impuilive Caufe (which 
could be the only Caufe without God moving him to 
Mercy ) we all flood alike fair fur it ; for we are all a- 
like miferable by Nature : but yet not^vithfiandlng this 

I i Equality 



Equality fome are Veflels ofWrath^and others are Vef- 
lels of Mercy. The DiRerence of thefe two manifeflly 
appeareth to be of God, and is made in this Life by 
difiinguifhingDifpenfations. Thus the Apoftle i Cor. l\\ 
7. For who maketh thee to di^er from amther ^ and 
"what bajl thou ivhich thou hnfl not received? and there- 
fore the Apoftle declaring the Subjects upon whom this 
Mercy terminateth, and in what it primarily confifleth, 
fairh, [Vhom he hath njore-prepared to Glory, even us 
zvhcm he hath called: So that i. Our calling is the Eftect 
of God's Mercy, (liewn only to the VefTeU of Mercy ; 
and Mercy proceedcth from his Will and meer good 
Pleafure, by which he fheweth Compaffion, and by 
which he hardnerh. 2. Our Adoption is eauivalenc 
to our Effectual Calling, and is of Grace, and in this 
Life; but Election is the Caufe of our Adoption, 
Ephef. I. 5. Therefore Election is the Caufe of our Ef- 
fectual Calling, and is Election to Grace, and manifeft- 
ed in this Life in the VelFels of Mercy, ' 

The Veilels of Mercy are fo only by Virtue of the 
Will of God; this is the one and only Caufe, this Sove- 
reigne Will, I ivi/l be mereiful on ixhom I will ie merci- 
ful. It cannot properly be faid we were Predefiinated or 
Elected to Mercy, as Kdercy is caufal of all our good ; 
for between thefe Acts of God there is no Priority or 
Pofcefiority : The Will of God's Pleafure to fhew Mercy, 
his Fore-knowledge, his Predefunation, his Election 
are all coeval or rather coeternal, and thefe are only 
Names of diverfe Acts in God. His Will of good Plea-: 
fure is his Sovereign Arbitrement of things ; his Forc- 
knovv'lege is the Prefcnce of things to him ; his Pre-,- 
deliination is his Afore-ordination of all things, good 
and bad ; Election and Reprobation are Species of Pre- 
deftination ; Election is the Act of chooling them thac 
are faved, and Reprobation the refufing them that 
periOi.. 'Lis true rhe Veifels of Mercy are fo in Con- 
tradiPJnction to the Vcilels of Wrath, but then the Op- 
poiition is not to be underRood of all the Caufes ; for 
the Vellcls of Wrath ate fitted to DeRruction, as well by 
their voluntary Enmity and Rebellion as by Ordination, 
and '[o they undergo Wrath, fub ratione Retributionis, 
as the juil Rccompencc of Revvard; but the Elect are not 
fitted thus for Solvation, that they deferveit before they 
enjov it : For tl;e.} Uy, Nut nnto it":, O Lord, net unto us, 


Ele£i:ion eind Reprobation. 7^ 

hut unto thy Name give Glory ^ for thy Mercy and thy 
Irut^sfake, Pfal. cxv. I. And this dMerence is intima- 
ted ift the Words of the ApofUe, the Vejfels of JVrath, 
he faith, Kurti^TKTiJiivee. are fated unto DeJiruSiioK, a Word 
of thepailive Voiceibutofthe Elect he faith, "^rejWTw'/ixat^ir 
J}e hath afore-prepared to Glory ^ attributing it to God, 
and is a Word of the active Voice. Thus having fhewn 
what theVeffels of Mercy are, together with the Caufes, 
I fhall fhew how they are afore-prepared to Glory. 

( I ) By Ordination, 1 'Thef. v. 9. For God hath not 
appointed us to IVrathy hut to obtain Salvation through 
our Lord Jefus Chrift. Moreover whom he did predejii- 
Kate,themhe alfo called, Rom. 8. 30. 

( a ) By Creation, Ifaiah xliv. 9, 21. Rememherthefe 
jbingSy Jacob <3r«i Ifrael, thou art my Servant, J have 
formed thee. 

(3) By Redemption, Revel, v. 9. And theyfung a aevi 
Song, faying, thou art worthy to take the Book and vpen its 
Seals, becaufe thou wa/i/lain^ and hafi redeemed us to God 
hy thy Blood, out of every kindred, and Tongue, and People, 
and Nation. Herein is included Juflification and Re- 

(4) By Vocation. TVlien it pleafed God, who feparatei 
me from my Mother's IVomb^ and called me by his Grace, 
Gal. i. 5. Even us whom he hath called, not of the 
Jews only, but alfo of the Gentiles, giving thanks unto the 
Father, who hath ?nade us ?neet to partake 0} t be inheri- 
tance of the Saints in Light. Colofs. i. 13. 

(5) By Perfeverance. i Pet. i. 5, Referved in Heaven 
for you, zvho are kept by the Power of God thro' Faith un- 
to Salvation. Thus I have briefly [hewn how the VefTels 
of Mercy are by God prepared for Glory, viz.. eternal 
Glory by Jefus Chrift, after they have fuficred a while. 

Next, 1 fhall confider how God maketh known 
the Riches of his Glory on the VefTels of Mercy, Of the 
Veffels of Wrath, 'tis faid, en them God f jewed his 
iVrath, made his Power known, endured with much long 
fiifjering^ : Who that is not blind fees not a manifefl Dif- 
ference in the ads of God's Providence, upon VefTels 
by Nature of fuch an abfolute Congruity and Likenefs, as 
as we have fhewn before ? But how doth God make 
known the Riches of his Glory.?* No doubt but hy the 
Riches of his Glory, the Apoftle meaneth, that Treafure 
of Spiiituql and Eternal Blefiings laid up in Chrifl fof 


the EIe6l, of which Treafure Paul fpeaks. Colof. i. 19 
Eecaufe it plea fed the Father that in himjhoulalljnlnejs 
dwell J and in him are hid all the Tteajures oftViJdom 
and Knowledge. Cokfs. ii. 3. God hath his treafure cf 
Wrath, Shame and Confufion,which fometimes he pour- 
eth upon the Wicked i here, but alas there is a dreadful 
ftorm of Wrath, without mixture, which will inevitably 
be poured upon them hereafter : fo hath he Riches of 
Glory, Riches infinitely more beautiful and valuable than 
all thefe temporal Riches, which are perifhing Trifles : 
and thefe Riches of Glory are manifefled in the Proba- 
tion or Tryal of the Saint's Faith, which is much more 
precious than oj Gold that pevijheth. i Pet. i. 7. The 
Pearls and Jewels of all kinds in the Indies, are no fuch 
Manifeftation of the Riches of his Glory,^ as a Saint's 
Contempt of the Riches and Grandeur of this World, in 
the hopes of an eternal Inheritance; neither is there a- 
ny fuch Mirror by which a divine Eye can in this Life 
take a profped of the Powers and Riches of the World 
to come, as the Triumph of 3 Believerby Faith over all 
the fufterings of the Crofs, in the Expeftation of a ne- 
ver fading Crown of Glory. Thus Mojes chcfe rather 
to filler jffliclion with the People of God than to enjoy 
Pieafures of Sin which zvere but for a Seafon, efteeming 
the Reproach of Chrif!: greater Riches then the Trea- 
sures of £^i/'?, becaufe he had an Eye to the recom- 
pence of Reward. But idly, What is this View in 
Comparifon of the Fruition of Glory in the World to 
come, in the Inheritance of which is indeed what the 
Apoftle calls the Praije or Co'mmendation of the Glory of 
his Grace, and that we Ihould be to the praife of his 
Glory who have firfl hoped in Chrift. Efhef. i. 6. and 
12, of which he tells the Corinthians, Our light Af- 
jitBom which are but for a Moment, work for us a far 
more exceeding and eternal Weight oj Glory. 2 Cor. iv. 17. 

In this whole Vindication of God's Difpenfations of 
Mercy and Juftice, we have a view of the Perfons and 
Conditions of all Mankind. 

i/l, Their Likenefs. They are all alike VefTels of the 

fame Lump. r ^ u 

2r//y, Their Unlikenefs. i/2. In their State of Gods 
purpofe ; the one are Veflels of Wrath, the other 
areVelFelsof Mercy, -dly. The one , ire fitted to De- 
ilruction, tlie other are prepared for Glory. 

Ele£lIon mcL Reprobation. 79 

3^6", upon the one, God fhews hiS Wrath, make 
his Power known, endures with much long fuftering; 
Upon the other, God makes known the Riches of his 
Calory in his Grace in this World, and Happincfs in 
the World to come ; the Reafon of the difterence of 
thefe two is to be refolved into the will of God, What 
if God -voilling 'i Thus 1 have over briefly and abruptly 
handled the third Vindication of the Difpenfarions of 
G od from the blafphemy of Tyranny and Cruelty, in 
the genuine Explication of the Apoltle's Words^ and 
natural Obfervations from them, 

I fhould now make copious Ufe of this Doctrine, 
but the petulant Objections of its Adverfaries, and my 
intended Brevity force me to omit; Only 1 Ihall obferve 
this by way of Caution to thofe that hold this Doct- 
rine: I. Not to wax infolent againft our fellow Sin- 
ners, for tee cm/elves ivere fofnetrfnes foolijh and dijobe- 
dient, Titus iii. 3. And what haji thuii which thou haft 
not received ? i Cor. 4. Remember thou wafl made of 
the fame Lump. 2. Not peremptorily to judge of this or 
that particular pcrfon by his prefent Condition (of Sin 
having Dominion over him ) that he is certainly repro- 
bated; God hath not fhewen his Mind in this particular, 
that fo thou mighteft take the common Rule of his 
Word for the Exercife of thy Piety and Charity towards 
all Men in the endeavouring their Salvation, and God 
will take fuch Methods in his Providence as fhall fuc- 
ceed thy Endeavours according to the Council of his ozvn 
IVtll. Ephel. i. II. Remember the Apoflle's Words, 
2 Corinth, ii. 14, 15, But thanks be to God loho always 
maketh us to triumph in Chrifty and maketh manijefi the 
favour of his knowledge by us in every place ; for we are a 
good favour oj Chrijlto God in them that are faved, and 
in them that perijh. Pifcator, upon the place, faith, 
*' He illuftrateth the fuccefs of his Preaching from the 
" Diftribution of the Subjects, which are hearers, be- 
" ing of two forts ; fome Elect, others Reprobate ; 
" fo likewife his Preaching hath a twofold Event : To 
" fome it becometh Life of its own Nature, to others it 
" caufeth Death by their own Corruption and acciden- 
*' tally." 3, Be fure to walk as thofe who be 
lieve their Eledion of God. The Apoftle tells the 
Thejfalonians that they knew their EleBion of God, be- 
caufe the GofpeJ came mt to them in Word only^ but in 



Pevoer ; and a YefTel of Election when called, mufi 
pojfefs hts Vejfel in SanBiJication and Homttr .i T^hejj, 
i. 4, and vi. 4, and they which are VeJJels of Mercy, 
in which coniifteth tneir Eledion before Calling, 
are Vejjels of Honour fitted jor their Mafler's Ufe, 
after Calling, in which confifts their Sandification, 
2 Tim. ii. 21. But if God hath not wafhed you by 
SanCtification, we know nothing of his afferting his 
Right to you by Election ; we verily conclude the Le- 
gitimacy of your Adoption by your Conformity to the 
Image of his Son, Rom. viii. 29. We are in this Life, in 
reference to our felves and others, in a State of Proba- 
tion» and therefore ought to give diligence to make our 
Calling and EleBionJure, 2 Pet. \. 10. And fo I come 
to anfwer fome Objections made to this Doctrine, 

Objection i. If this DoBrine be trtiey then God is a 
YefpeEhr ofPerfons. 

Anfn:er. This place of the lothofthe ASls is to be 
underftood of all Kinds and Nations of Men in the 
World ; for fo Cornelius was a Gentile, and Peter knew 
not that the Gentiles were to be converted and ingrafted 
into Chrift, Afts xi. 3, 4, 5. until he was inftructed 
into it by the Vifion of C/f"^?? and Unclean Meats, by 
which he was taught to call no Man common or unclean, 
and fo to underfland the Gentiles to be Fellow-Heirs 
with the "Jeivs-, and therefore 'tis not to be underflood 
of every individual Perfon in the World, that God loves 
them all, for fo he did not the Seed of Abraham, he 
iomed Jaccb and hated Efati. St. Augufine faith it is to 
ie underflood de generibusfiugnlorum, and not de fingu- 
\is generum, of the fort of every individual, not of every 
individual of the Sort. , r j j 

Objection 2. God icill have all Men to Oejavea ana 
iome to the kno^^Iedge of the Truth. 

Anher. The Grace of God, by which he will have 
all Men to be Saved, is not to be underflood Univer- 
fallyof all the perfons in the World, for then eventually 
thev fhall be Saved ; for Salvation is of God thatfheueth 
Me'-cv, and this is on -vjhom he vcill; but he don't {hew 
Mercy to all, ( as we have been teaching out of Paul s 
Difputation ) for fome he Hardens ; therefore this is to 
be underltood of the Elect. That God ivHl have all to 
he faved, and that Chrifi gave himjelf a ranjomfor all, 
i§ not to be underaood here of every Perlon, but tor 

Election and Reprobation. §i 

fome of every kind and degree, which are the Elect; 
for fo in the firft Verfe he exhorts, that Prayers be made 
for all Men, and then in the fecond he enumerates the 
particulars by way of D'dtnbauon^ Jor Kings and all 
that are in Authority, as if he fliould fay, not only for 
Common People, of which there is a great Number 
who embrace the Faith, but alfo for Magillrates, which 
now almoft every where perfecute it, for which rcafon 
the poor Saints might rather think 'twas their Duty to 
pray againft them; yet even of this fort God hath his E- 
lect, which he willfave, becaufe he will have of all kinds 
to be faved: And thus we muft underftand, that God 
•will have all Men to ie faved ; for if otherwife We will 
have it every particular Perfon, we fhould make the A- 
poftle contradict Chrift, who, when he was about to 
pay the Price of Redemption, doth exprefly exempt the 
World, Job. xvii. 9. J pray not for the World, but for 
them that thouhaftgiven me, by which he underftands his- 
Difciplesjto which v. 20. he joyns all the reft of his E- 
lect Militant ; therefore Chrift prays only for his Elect. 

Obj. 5. If there he fuch an abfolute perfonal EleBion, 
as that God willeth to fiew Mercy on fome ; and fuch 
a Reprobation, as that he willeth not to Jhew Mercy on 0- 
thers; to what purpofe thenfevve Ordinances, Prayer iy 
Preaching, Hearing, reading all manner of good Inflruc' 
tion to the Reprobate ? do what we can, we are not the neav 
er liapPinefs, being precluded by Eletlion. 

Anfioer : The Ordinances or Means of Grace may 
be two ways confidered, either paffively for thofe Or- 
dinances miniflred for the fake of othersj or actively 
for thofe Ordinances they themfelves ufe. The Anfwer 
is the fame in refpect to both, jfi, Their vifible Cc^- 
dition being the fame, the outward Means muft be fo 
iikewife ■ theGofpel muft be preached to all in common 
that the Elect may be converted in particular, jfolm iii. 
7^//f Wind blowetb where h lifleth, jo is every one that is 
born of the Spirit, 2 Cor, ii. i > . For we aie a good Sa- 
vour of Chvjfl to God in them that are faved, a;:d in them 
that perijh ; their contrary Condition being fecret and 
known only to God, the diftinguifning them by effec- 
tual Calling muft be of God folely : So that forMini- 
fters to preach to both forts, is an act of Necellity, for 
hov/ can they diiiinguifli of fecret Things? Secret 
thing: belong only to God. idly, It is the Duty of 
■ K ' - Minifters 


MiniRers to preach to all. Math, xxviii. 19. and the 
Duty of all to read, hear, meditate, and Pray, and 
keep Sabbath. Chrift's Command is general, yoh. v. 2^1 
Search the Scriptures, jor in them ye think ye have eternal 
hife, and they are they ivhich tefline of me. The Scriptures 
tell all Men that read them where eternal Life is, and 
the Way to it, and all that ever had eternal Life have 
had it by hearing or reading of it ( or fome way enjoy- 
ing the Chrift of God revealed m it before it was writ- 
ten ) and thou flandefl as fair for it, in refpect of any 
helping or hindermg Caufes in thee, as Ab/ahamy Ifaac 
and jfdiob did: It is a Lot in regard to mankind j no 
doubt thou vv^ouldft cait in a Lot of a Shilling, at the 
odds of a Hundred to one againfl: thee, for the gaining a 
a Thou land i-ounds ; call in thy Lot here, in hearing, 
reading, praying, and meditating; 'tis poiiible, for any 
thing 1 know, but thou mayeit obtain eternal Life ; for 
the vjhoh difpcfing is oj the Lord^ Prov. xvi. yohn x. 27. 
Chrill: faith, w/y Sheep hear my Voice, I give to them eter^ 
■nal Life. Luke siii. 24. our Lord faith, fi>ive to enter in 
at ike fir aight gate, and the reafon why is rendred, jov 
■wide IS the gate, and broad the zvay that leadeth to de- 

The other Objections which I (hall take up and An- 
f;ver Ihall be fome of thofe made by the Antifymdine 
Remonfirants at Dort, and anfwered by L'veral Ortho^ 
dox Divines, and collected by Dr. Ames, Chap. 1 1. 
Thefis 7. in vi'hich Poiition they object: 

I. ihe Hinge oj the zuhole matter turns upon this, 
that the Contra-Reinonfirants teach, that God out of hi^ 
nteer and abjolute good pkafure zcithout any refpe^ to 
Jmpenitency, Unbelief, and antecedent a^ual Sin, as the 
meritorious Caujes, hath reprobated from Eternity the 
greater part of mankind, and fo of them ivhich are called 
by the Gofpel, and addiEied them to eternal Damnation. 

Anfwer : If the Hinge of the wh')le matter turns up- 
on this which one part teach, then 'tis lawful for us to 
put the Hinge of the Matter to that which the Armi^ 
nioKs teach, That God hath reprobated all Men with- 
out any defert of theirs, as the Caufe of the Decree, and 
.afterwards by the defert of fome certain perfons pro- 
perly iTioving his Will reprobateth them : but from no 
Sin original or actual before the laft Contumacy mani- 
felled when they come to die. Perhaps the Reader will 


Eleflion and Reprobation. 8j 

wonder at fo ftrange a Reprefentation of this Principle 
of fo many otherwife wife and learned Men ; but the 
Solution is eafy, if we confider they hold a general Re- 
probation by which they mean no more then a Decree 
or Edict, that the Soul that (Ins fhall die. iJ/y, They 
hold a particular Reprobation, which Act of God paf- 
feth upon none till final Impenltency ; fo that by this in- 
confident Doctrine a perfon may be generally Reproba- 
ted and then particularly Elected, and at laft particular- 
ly Reprobated, xdly^ We do not exclude the meritori- 
ous Caufe from Reprobation in reference to Damnation 
ordained, but only in reference to the Act of Ordaining. 
4t/>/y, They odioufly gather from our Confeffion that 
tod hath addicted Men to Damnation, as if the Ordi- 
nation of God was the only Caufe of Damnation and 
Damnation the End proposed by God; whereas Sin alone. 
is the Caufe, and the Glory of God's Juftice the End. 
•^thlyy Our Sentence is that God hath not chofen certain. 
Pcrlbns fas he hath chofen others); but hath decreed 
to permit that they ftiould remain in their Sins, and 
for thofe Sins undergo the Punifliment ofdeferved 
Damnation ; and of this Decree no Caufe is to be found 
in the Non-elect, which is not in like manner to be 
found in the Elect of God ; the Truth of which Sen- 
tence is fufEciently proved by the Event it felf, and by 

Objection 2. T^his Sentence concerning an abfolute 
Decree 0/ Reprobation ccntradiEletb all thofe places of 
Scripture, vjhich teach God to he highly difpleajed, and 
that for his inexpreffible Love to Mankind^ he is affeEled 
with intimate Bouels of Compaffion, that more Sinners 
are net converted unto him. 

Anf. I. Ifthefe things feem to Reafon to be con- 
tradictory. Faith neverthelefs underftands them not to 
contradict, which arc both taught in the Holy Scrip- 
ture. 2. Our Sentence doth not more contradict 
thofe places of Scripture, than their Sentence who a- 
mongft the Armittians acknowledge the Decree of fpe- 
cial Reprobation to have been done from Eternity. 
For if God fo fpeaketh as to fiiew himfelf difpleafed 
with tbem which he hath before abfolutely reprobated, 
that they which were a long time before now Repro- 
bated are not converted, then an abfolute Decree 
t^ Reprobation doth not contradid thofe places of 
K a Scriptu 


Scripture in which thofe things are taught, g. There 
is no greater Repugnancy between thofe two, viz.. God- 
will permit and punifli Sin, and that Sin highly dif- 
plealeth God, than between thefe two ; God can moft 
eafily hinder Sin, but will not, and neverthelefs Sin 
doth highly difpleafe God : Notwithftanding neither 
of thefe can be deny'd by any one who knows the 
true God, the fum of Agreement confifteth in this, 
that God wiileth after a juft manner to permit Sin and 
infiicS Punilhment, and therefore to teltifie that Men 
fin by their own Fault, and fufter Punifliment accord- 
ing to their own Defert, whileil they do thofe things 
Icnowingly and willingly which contradicteth the Law 
prefcribed by him. 

Objefiion g. 2 Pet. iii. 9. God ivill not that any 
fhould ferijby but that alljhculd come to Repentance. 

Anjwer : Thefe words ought not neceffariiy to be un- 
derftood concerning that Will of God, which is the 
Reafon of the deferring the coming of our Lord, as 
appeareth from the Context ; but that Will, which is 
faid to will the Salvation of all and every Man which 
have been from the beginning of the World, is not the 
caufe of this Delay, becaufe fuch a Salvation doth not 
lefs con fiil: with the coming of the Lord, if it fhould 
have been that Day Peter writ this, than if it fhall be 
hereafter at the time appointed, or elfe that God defer- 
reth the Day of Judgment, that m the mean while the 
Number of the Eie6t may be compleated, as in xxiv. of 
Mat. he is faid, for the EleEis fake to jhorten thofe Days. 
Objedion 4. Ez.ekiel xviii. 25. God teftifieth with 
an Oath, that he xcilleth not the Death of him that dieth, 
Anfwer: i, Thefe Words are not to be underftoW 
fimpJy as they found, all will grant, who acknowledge 
God inflidteth Death upon Sinners according to his 
righteous Will : Therefore the meer Sound of the 
Words deflitute of all Interpretation is fophiftically ob- 
jected, idly, The true and genuine Senfe of this Anfwer 
ought to be fetched from the Queftion which it refpec- 
eth. The Queftion was. Whether or no righteous 
Sons fliould fufi-er Puniftment for the Sins of their Fa- 
thers, that is, whether the Ifraelites who lived in, that 
Time, fliould fuuer Death without their own Defert ? 
Many falfe accufers of God's Juflice affirmed it, but 
God denieth he wilieth the Death of a Sinner in this 


EleSlion tind Reprobation. 8.j 

Senfe, that he will to inflid Death upon any one for 
other's Fault : This is a clear and certain Explication 
flowing from the Analylis of the Context, that Inter- 
pretation cometh aimoil; to the fame, that God will not 
the Death of a Sinner ( i, e.) of him that doth repent ; 
for thefe two fitly agree, God willeth not the Death of 
him that dieth ( if that is to fay he will to repent ) to 
will that he may repent, and to will not the Death of 
him that doth repent. 

Objedion 5. The like Sentences we haveD«/f. v. 29. 
O ! that there icasfuch an Heart in them, Pfal. Ixxxi. 13. 
O! that my People had hearkned tinto me, Ifaiah xlviii.17. 
O! that thou hadji hearkned to my Commandments ^ 
Ifaiah Ixiii. 7. He faid, furely they are my People, Chil- 
dren that will not lie, 6i.c. 

Anf. i/l. It is manifcft enough to every intelligent 
Perfon, thefe things can't in rigor and properly be af- 
firmed concerning God, (aving the Honour of the Di- 
vine Majelty : O! that there were fuch an Heart is as the 
form of wifhing feme good to another ; and after fome 
fort invoking that other Perfon. Again, I wijh or 
would is a Sign of an ineftedual Defire of him that hath, 
as they fpeak it, a Willingnefs to this or that Thing, 
but hath not power of obtaining that which he willeth. 
Again, to fay t/uly they are my People, (peaking of 
fomething hereafter to be which is not to be, is the 
Language of him which is ignorant, or erring, or is de- 
ceived; and certainly to attribute fuch Things properly 
to God, is done by him who is fhamefully ignorant or 
erroneous, or, which is worfe, that defireth to deceive. 

idly, VVe therefore fay, with the whole Choire of Di- 
vines, God in thefe forms of Speech, puts on the Man, 
that he may accomodate himfelf unto Men, and fo pro- 
pof(^his Counoils to us in that Order, that we may the 
better under/land them to Salvation. 

^dly. Neither in this part alone which refpeds, the 
Salvation of Men, imperfeft Volitions or WillingnefTes 
5fe attributed humanely to God, but alfo in that other 
parr w^hich refpecteth the Deftruction of Men, and that 
at*ne and the fame time, as appears, Deut. xxxii. 26. 29. 
That if all thefe things (hould be rigidly urged, it 
{feuld follow that God hath at the fame time a Will, or 
>yiljingnefs, of deflroyingand faving the fame Perfons. 

Objection 6. That Sentence alfo is the like. Math. 

2#' xxiii. 


xxiii. 37. yerufalem, yerufaleniy how often would ly &e. 
The Words of this Textjhew here is not handled the In- 
ternal Will of God which vemaineth always the fame 
mthout JntermiJJion, but concerning the Will of the Sign, 
and its Jingular Adminifirationy zuhichfo often did exiji at 
*Itmes, as often as Prophets were extraordinarily fent to 
the yewSy or otherwife they were fingularly invited tofeek 
God rightly ; for therefore it isfaidy not how Vehemently 
•would I, but how often would /. 

They Cavil much that an Anthropopathia is fignifiedy by 
which God is exprejfed Suffering humcme Pajjtonsy as if 
we granted no Figurative Speech. 

To this we Anfwery the Nature of the word of 
God, and his Difpenfation to be iigniiied, that in- 
ilantly he may perfwade to Faith and Obedience. 

Laftly, It is fignified, that God willeth by thofe Me- 
diums eftectually to bring topafs the Salvation of certain 

Objection 7, This Reprobation oppofeth the Glory of 
Gody becaufe the Glory of God conjijieth not in this chief 
ly or ottlyy that whatfoever he will he doth ; but chiefly in 
the Manije/iatinn of thoje PerjeElions which are declared. 
Exod. xxxiii, 18. and xxxiv. 6. that is, in his Good' 
nefsy Mercyy Iruthy Righteoufnefs, and Power y dec. 

Anfwer : This Argument begins from a Frefumpti- 
on with which we are unwilling to communicate ; 
for it doth not become us r.o define in what Attri- 
bute the Glory of God doth chiefly confift ; and 
this Prefumption involves it felf into a manifeft Con- 
tradiftion, and that for two Reaf^ns, for i. It attribut- 
eth the chief Glory of God to be in that which was 
rcveai'd to Mofes^ viz. his Mercjy Exod, xxxiv, when 
notwithflanding God himfelf teitiheth in that place, 
that his Face, that is, his chief Glory, Mufes did notfee, 
neither could he, 2. The A' r^inians deny the Glory 
of God chiefly to con (ill; in that, that whatfoever he 
willeth to do, he doth ; and yet affirm that his Glory 
coniiftethas in other perfections, fo in his Power. 3. To 
the Glory of God we may obferve what he doth in his 
Providence, The Arminians to fhew the Repugnancy 
between the Glory of God and theDo6trineof Predefti- 
nation bring that place in which this Doctrine is mani- 
fefliy taught ; For from thofe words which are cited 
out of Exod. xxx. ip. LiiiiU have Mercy on whom I will 

Election and Reprobation. 87 

•have Menyjthc Apoftlehimfelfdoth in vincibly conclude 
theTruthof both £/?^/o« and Reprobation. Rom.ix. i8. 

Object. 8. The DoBrine of the abfolute Decree of Re- 
probation takes away the univerfat Love of God to all 
Mankind and AjfeBion ofGoodnefs, and frcpofeth him to 
us as fparing to Mercy, but exceedingly ready to be Angry. 

AnJ. I. Defervediy doth it take away that Univerfal 
and equal Love to Mankind which the Armini am teachf 
for the Scripture teaching that fpecialLove to fome takes 
away that Univerfal and equal Love to all. 2. The Ar- 
minians impofe upon the Ignorant whilft they would 
feem to be fuch hot Defenders of the Goodnefs of God ; 
for in this very thing that they eftablifh a univerfal equal 
goodnefs of God, they deny that efficacious Goodnefs 
of his, by which he certainly maketh Men good and ac- 
ceptable to himfelf, and etfecteth, that fome Men actu- 
ally will that which is good rather than others, and 
in thus willing perfevere j and this chief good done for 
Man from which all other things depend, they make to 
depend upon Man's Free Will, and not from the fpecial 
Goodnefs of God: And this is of fo great moment as {a) 
Bucer obferves upon R.07n. 9. " He which affirmeth there 
"is fome good which God don't eftect, denies the being 
** of a God j for if there be never fo little good which is 
" not of God, he is new no more theEftecterof allgood, 
" and therefore neither is he God/' 3 . They who ac- 
knowledge an eternal foreknowledge of God (as fome 
of the Arminians do) by which he knows from Eter- 
nity fo many Men fliall perifli for rejecting his Grace, 
according to that Difpenfation of his which he now ob- 
ferveth, whom neverthelefs he could eafily have faved 
by fome other way known to himfelf, they (I fay) 
who grant this, which no godly Man will deny, are to 
be asked to (Iiew us, How it is poflible to agree with the 
divine Goodnefs to approve of that Difpenfation, which 
being eftablifhed, God feeth fo many Men will perifli, 
and pafs by that other Difpenfation by which he could 
have faved all ? After they have loofed this Knot, there 
will remain no great Difficulty to us to difcufs this 
Objection, 4. No Body can ever fatisfie the foolifh Wif- 
dom of Humane Reafon, in reconciling thePermiffionof 
Sin with the Goodnefs of God. For after the fame man- 

( 4 ) Q.ui aliquid boni non aSci a Deo affinnac, iUe Deum efle negat: fi namque vel tancillaa 
^iVl a pc9 rton eft, )w\ ngn owii; boni cfeftpr eft, eoquc occ Pcui, O, ivirv id *»m, it. 


88 ^VINDICATION o/e^c. 

ner that the Arminians exchim ^gim[iRepro&ation(whei e 
is thisgoodnefs ? where is this Love of God to Mankind?) 
Curious Reafon cries out againft this Permiffion : What 
Father who amongft the Sons of Men knowingly would 
permit him to rujh into Perdition, whom he is able without 
any pains with a wordfpeaking tofave ? To fortifie the 
Mind againft this popular Objection, we inuft obferve, 
the Old Hereticks have brought credulous Perfons into 
their pernicious Errors, by the fame Colour of fpecious 
Scphiitry, faith ( b) Tertullian againft Marcicn Book 2. 
Chap. 5. " O Dogs ! who barking againft the God of 
" Truth the Apoftle cafts out of Doors; thefe are the 
^* Bones of the Arguments which you gnaw : If God be 
** good and forekoowing of that which will happen, and 
" able to turn away evil, why did he fuffer Man, his ve- 
" ry Image and likenefs, to be circumvented by the Devil, 
" and to fall from the Obedience of his Law into Deftruc- 
" tion ? for if he which is God be good, he would be 
" unwilling any fuch thing fhould happen ; and if he 
" were foreknowing, he could not be ignorant of what 
" would happen, and if he were mighty, he could 
" have hindred it; that it could by no means have 
** happen'd ; which thing could not have happened 
" under thefe three Conditions of the Divine Maje- 
" fty, which if it do it is abfoiuteiy true- on the con- 
" trary, God is neither to be believ'd to be good, fore- 
" knowing, or Mighty." And verily this arguing of 
the Moi'CJoniteSy jf we pafs by fome hard Phrafes in it, is 
not lefs ftrong than that of the Remouftrams. Our Sen- 
tence which they oppofe may limply be feen in it felf. 
•y/z,. God from Eternity to have decreed to permit certain 
perfons to Sin, and to leave them in Sin, and to punifh 
them for Sin. This whole matter is contained in that 
Defcription of Foreknowledge, which 'Tertullian op- 
pofeth to this Objection, wi. As God in ordering all 
things hath foreknown them, fo certainly in foreknow- 
ing Sin it felf, he hath ordered it. 

! the depth of the Riches both of the l^ifdom and 
Knowledge of God, how nnfea)xhiibk are hisfudgment and 
his ways pafi finding out. Rom. xi. 33. 

< t ) O CatiA quo? fbras Apoftolu! •vpellit latnnce! Deum Verintis, hiec funt Argomentati- 
•numoffaquc obraditis! fi Deus bonus, & prefcius fucuri, &aTt;rceiidi iiah jpocenf, curho- 
minem, 8e quidcin iiraginnn & fimilitudintm fuaro, &c. paflus eft labi deobicquio Icgistn 
Mortpji circumventum a Diabulo ; fi cnim bonus quiarenive ale quid noUer, fe prefcius flul 
eTtnturum non ianorarcc, & poten?, qui depelltre TSliret, nuUomodo evcnjftei ; quod fubnii 
trbu* Conditionibus Uivinae Maeftatis eveniie non poffet: qucd fi evenir, abfoUinun coin- 
ftario, Deum n;que bonum sredendum, neque prefcium, neque poRnten. 

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Shop-Books, Pocket-Books, Letter-Cafes: Alt forts of 
Writing Paper, Wax, Wafers, Pens, Japan Ink, Indiarj 
Ink, and the beft Common Ink, &c. Wijere is fold by 
Wholefale or Retale Dr. Marwoocds Brittannick Ink-Pow- 
der to Stationers and Habevdafliess, (a-'c. Likewife Brmn^ 
field's Pills, Mattheros' sVWh^ Blackgravc's Spirit of Scurvy- 
grafs, and 5j'm<^/.>/o«'s Elixir. All fold by Jofeph Mar)h:.'.\ 
at the Bible in Newgate- Street, as above j Countr;^ 
Chapmen may be fupply'd. * 


Order of Caufes : 

r God's Foreknowledge^ 
Of ) Eleftion^ and 
^ Predeftination^ 
And of Man's Salvation^ and Damnation* 

Laid down fo clearly, and proved fo I)laiflly by the Scrips 
tures, that ev n the tneaneft Capacity amongft Rational 
Men may underftand it, to their great Satisfadion. 

A s A L s o 
Whether Chrifi Died for AU, or Not for JIL 

With the Caufes and EfFcdis that may follow, or not follow* 
fcrioufly confidered, meekly controverted ^ and proved 
plainly by the Scriptures of Truth : To the great Satif- 
fadiion of all Rational People fearing God. 


By mSiMmfli:^:: ^ '^^>'G ^^R - 'phUo-Veritatis. 

€]^e $>tjct]& CDitton, 

JJeverthelefs, the Foundation ofGodflandeth fure^ having this Seal^ 
The Lord knoweth them that are his : and let every one that nameto 
the Name of Jefus Chrifl, depart from Inlqwty. 2 Tim. 2.19. 

for therefore rve both labour, and fuffer Reproach,, becaufe vs>e hufl in 
the living God, who is the Saviour of all Men, but especially ofthofe 
that believe, i Tim. 4. 10. 

L N t> K 

f tinted fot Joseph Marshall at the Bilf/& 
in New^ate-Sfreet, 1724, 



R E A D E R. 

Courteous R e a d e r, 

Have prefented thee with a fmallVolume^ 
in which is contained much Truth ; vohich 
may^ through the BleJJing of God, give 
thee great SatisfaSion, if thou fear ch the 
Scriptures diligently, and askWifdpm in ^^< 
faith, of him who is the Giver of every ^n- 

good and perfect Gift j mthout vohofe Uelp^ I can pro- 

mife thee no frofi. 

The Matter I treat of, is about God's Predeflinatioo^ 
Ele&ion, and Reprobation, according to his foreknowledge^ 
and of the Death of Chrifi for the Sons oj Men. The 
Body and Subflance of all Obje&ions, I have laboured to 
Anfwer, briefly and plainly, and that both by Scripture 
and Reafon, to the SatisfaHion of all rational Men fear- 
ing God : And I am conjcious to my felf before God, 
that I aim at nothing more, than the Glory of the Qreat 
.God, in whom we live, move, and have our Beings \ 
and to whom we muft all give an Account of all our 
A£lions, at the Great Day -, And in the next place, at 
- the Good and Benefit of all that fhall read or hear the 
'Moly Scriptures, and by them try thefe following Lines : 
They are fo fexxi, that thou mayfi eafily purchife them\ 
and if they prove profitable to thee, thou wilt think 
thy Money very well bejiowed. 


To the fiEx\DER. 

The Times are now drawing nigh^ in which the Lor^ 
hinifelf will appear from Heaven^ to take an Account of 
every Man\ how they have /pent their Talents ofWtfdom 
and Underftanding which he hath lent them ? And happy 
voill every Man he, that c-an give up his Account with 
Joy ; can fay, with Paul, That they have laboured to 
have Conlciences void of Offence towards God, and 
towards all Men •, and walked in all the Ordinances 
and Commanditients of the Lord, blamelefs : The which 
while fome Men are labouring after, I find them drowned 
and loft in a Labyrinth about Tredeftination, Ele^lion^ 
and Reprobation ^ of which Dijfra^ions, I my f elf have 
forinerly had myfloare \ but now, through Mercy, having 
ejcaped them, by the help of the Lord, I think it no lefs 
than my Duty to inform others ; and to that end, I 
have compofed thefe few Lines, which 1 now commit td i 
^hy ferio7/s Confideration ; dejiring thee, tc fearch the 
\criptJ/res, and fee whether thelhings I have written, 
be fo, or not, and judge impartially ^ . and the Lord give, , 
rhee Underltanding in^all things: . into whofe Hands,!.: 
commit thee, to be guided here by 'his Counfels, thai ' 
afterwards thou may eft be received into Qlory with Him : 
Jn whofe Service I defire to continue ^ \r^ 

A Servant of all that fear God^ 

and keep his Commandments^ -^v-, 



V/7/ heathy .i-^ 



Order of Caufes, &c. 

H E Scripture faith, Ephef. i. 4 . fpeak- 
ing of God's EleSlion, that he hath cho- 
fen tcs in h'wi^ before the Foundation of 
the Wor/dj that we Jhould be holy, and 
without blame before him in love^ &c. 
And ^eter alfo, i Vet. i. 2. calleth 
the Saints EleU according to the foreknowledge of God 
the father, through Sand i fie ation of the Spirit unto Obe- 
dience, &c. And Faul {2 TheJJ'. 2. i^, 14.) faith to 
the Saints, that God hath from the beginning chofen 
them to Salvation, through fanUification of the Spirit^ 
and belief of the Truth : whereunto he called you by 
our Gofpel, to the obtaining of the Glory of our I^ord 
Jefus Chrifl. 

From all which Places we mull needs conclude, that 
God hath cholen fome to Life and Glory, ev'n be- 
fore, or from 'the Foundation of the World, becaule 
the Scripture faith it; and (as Chrift faith in ano- 
ther cafe) the Scripture cannot be broken. Therefore 
the Wifdom of all Chriftians is, To labour to have 
Judgments informed according to the Scriptures, and that 
the Scriptures and their Judgments may fpeak both one 

JB thing ; 

2 Z'i)t ^fi}tt of Cattfejs, ^c. 

thing: And to that end, let us confider the manner 
of God's (peaking to the Sons of Men. 

Rom. 4. 17 He faith to our ^dXh^x Abraham -^ (As 
it is written, I have made thee a father of many Nations) 
before him whom he be/ieveth, evn God, who quickneth 
the Dead, and calleth things that are not, as though 
they were^ Stc. Obferve, God fpeaks then in that pre^ 
feni Time to Abraham, faying, I have made thee a father 
0} many Nations -, notwithitanding Abraham was not 
the Father of one Child at that time, but Ifhmael -, 
lee Gen. 17. 5. How then muft we underftand, / 
have 7nade thee a father oj many Nations ? 

Anfw. The Apoftle telleth us plainly, Rom. 4. 17.' 
that it was fo before God, who calleth things that 
are not, as though they were : and fo he calleth 
Abraham the Father of many Nations, though he was 
not as yet, no not the Father of Ifaac, in whom h^ 
Seed fhould be called. 

The f ke may again be ob(er.ved, when he called 
Chrilt a La7nh fain jrom the foundation of the World, 
Rev. 15. 8. yet he was not flain many thouland Years 

Therefore the fame may again be confidered al)Out 
God's E:e£lion from the Foundation of the World, 
thus : 

God calleth Ahraha?n a father of many Nations, tho 
mt fb ', God calleth Chrilt, a Lamb fain from the 
foundation of the World, though not flain many tnou- 
land Years after, 'till he was a Man in the Flefh : 
£V n fo he calleth Men elected from the Foundation 
of the World, though not ele£led many thoufand Years 
after, 'till they are Men in the Flefh : yet it is all fb, and 
done before God, who forefeeth and knoweth all things, 
ev'n from Eternity to Eternity •, and therefore calletlr 
things that are not, as though they were : for he feeth 
the Beginning and End of all Mens A£tions, whether. 
Good or Evil, at once : And knowing as well from 
the Foundation of the World, what Men would do in 


^fte iDthtv of Caufeg;, 6cc. ^ 

their Generations, as they can know when their Lives 
and Adions are finifhed j He therefore could as well 
conclude of Mens Salvation or Damnation then, as Men 
can know themfelves at the End of their Days, or 
at the Day of Judgment. 

By all which it is clear, that as Chrlft was called 
a Lamb /Iain from the foundation of the World, and 
yet not flain nor touched 'till the Day of his Death ; 
fb alio, although God calleth Men Ele£l: from the 
Foundation of the World, yet they are not Ele£\ nor 
Cholen, until the very Day of their Converfion, and 
turning from Sin to God : for God calhth things that 
are not, as though they voere : from whence it is evi- 
dent, they were not El€£led, although io called. 

Again, If we confider Ele^ion according to the Fore- 
knowledge of God, it is plain from that Text iri 
1 Vet. I. 2. Ele^ according to the Yoreknovoledge of God^ . 
through Sanffifcation of the Spirit unto Obedience, 
From whence I reafon thus : 

If the Ele£l are cholen through the Sanditication 
of the Spirit, then they were not cholen before 
they had the Spirit, and were fari£lified by the 
But they had not that ian£l:ifying Spirit before they 
had a Being, either in the World, or elle in 
their Mother's Womb at leallwife. Therefore not 
chofen from the Foundation of the World, but 
only as afbrelaid. 
Again, 2 Thej]'. 2. i^. We are bound to give thmh 
dvoay to God for you. Brethren, beloved of the 
Lord', becaufe God hath from the Beginning cho- 
fen you to Salvation, through fan&ification of the 
Spirit, and Belief of the Truth, where unto you xxwr^ 
called by our Go/pel. From whence I argue thus : 
If the Saints are chofen to Salvation, through Sancfi- 
f cation of the Spirit, and believing of the Truth, 
and were called to believe that Truth by the hear- 
ing of the Go/pel', then they were not chofen be- 
B 2 fore 

fere they had believed the Truth, and before they 
did hear the Golpel, by which they were called 
to believe. 
But they were chofen through believing the Truth, 
and called to believe it by the Gofpel, as afore- 
laid •, and Faith cometh by hearing^ Rom. lo. 17. 
Therefore not chofen before they had a Being, no 

more than Chrift was flain before he had a Being. 
For according to the Scripture, they were chofen 
through Santiification of the Spirrt, and Belief of the 
"Xruth : and if through it, then not without it 5 (ob- 
ierve that:) but it is through it^ therefore not with- 
out it. Moreover, they were called to this Faith by 
the Go/pe/j.yvhkh they never heard,, befqte ,tlj^ihad 
a.Being. "'^- -•- ■ .:^p^' '.• . ■' 'rl" n?"^-- 

Therefore It "is clear, their Be6\ion was not Before 
their Converfion, tho' God faw it before^ neither in- 
deed can it be, becauie the Eled are all chofen in 
ChriJI, Eph. I. 4. But I can prove, that thole very 
flle^ Ephefians were once out of Chrilt, chap. 2. 11, 12. 
'Kemember f faith the Apoftle) that, nt that' time ye 
tccre vcithoiit Chriji^ without Uope^ without God in the 
World. From whence I argue thus 5' 

If at that Time they voere without God, and with- 
out Chrift, then at that Time they were not in him : 
for they could not be without him^ and within him, 
both at one time : and if not in Chrift, then not cho- 
fen in him, as all rational Men, will grant*; .From all 
ipvhich I conclude, ''\] -; ;; 2 ."•■ 

That Men were Elecled in Chrift, according to the 
Scripture ^ yet never in him, before they believed ia 
him : and they never believed in hirn, before they 
heard the Gofpel; and they never heard the Gofpel, 
before they were born. Therefore not Ele£led, though 
ib called by God^ who jujiifieth the Ungodly, and xallr 
€th things that are not, as though they were. 

Again, how plain is it, Ephef. i. 11, 12. where Vaul 
i^itb, That they whom God did pedefinate, according 


©i^e iDttitx of CautejS, 6cc. j 

/^ /^<f Counfel if his ovon WiU^ to be to ths Vrmfe of 
lis Glory ^ were fuch as did firft trufi in Chrift : And 
in Verfe 13. he faith, That they trufted in Chrifl af 
they heard the Word oj Truth, the Go/pel of their Saha- 
tion 5 (not before •, ) the which they never heard before 
they were born, all Men will grant that have Reafon. 

Again, how clear is that Text, i ?et. i. 2. EieS ac- 
cording to the foreknowledge of God ? Whence it is 
plains if God Mnerv them, before he E/e^ed them, then 
he knew them as Men in their Flefh, and not as they 
were Nothings : and if he knew them as they were 
Men,, they muft needs be born fir It 5 for of nothing, 
nothing c$n be known before Time, nor cholen in 
Time. Therefore I conclude. That the real and abfb- 
lute A^ of:Ele£lion comes to pals in Time, though 
known of God before Time ; who, according to his 
Foreknowledge, ca//etb things that are not, as though 
they were I Sitii Id calleth Men that are not Eleded, 
as though they were Ele£led, 
: And thus is the great ObjeQion about God's Ele- 
£lioa anfwered, and the Stumbling-blotk taken aWay *, 
to the End that Men might work out their Salvation 
voith fear M tremUmgi.M^ make their Calling and 
Elelfion fure. . '» i.-; , 

', The lame may alio he confidered of God's Fiede- 
ftination, or Fore-appointing all obedient Believers to 
Life and Salvation, (not without, butj according to 
his foreknoiifledge of- all their Words and A£lions jro7n 
the foundation of the World. And lb likewile he pre- 
dtftinatetbi or forfe-appointcth, all dilbbedient Unbe- 
lievers arid Apoftates to Death and Damnation, (not 
without, but.) according to his foreknowledge of all 
ttheir WcJrds - :and A£lions from the Foitndatio/t* of the 
World. ••. 

Thus I do believe that God forelaw all Men and 
Things pall, prdent, and to come, at once: I do be- 
lieve that God for'efaw Adams Fall long before he 
was a Creature in Beings for nothing is hid from 


his Eyes, but ^/Z things are naked and. hare before him 
vo'ith whom we have to do, Heb. 4. i^. 

But it may be Ibme will fay, If God did foreknow 
Adam would fall when he had created him, why then 
did he make him ^ 

To which I anfwer Two things : Firft, What have 
we to do to Reply againft our Maker ? flmU the Thing 
jorjned fay to him that formed it. Why had thoU 
made me thus «" Shall Adam fay to his Maker, Why 
haft thou made me thus, [fubje£l to all?] What 
is that to Adam, feeing God hath given him and^ 
his Pofterity Means to riie again to as good or a* 
better Condition ? and the neglect of that Means, is 
that which will rife up in Judgment againft all floth- 
iul difobedient Ones that will not make ufe of their 
Talents of Power, Wifdom and Underftanding, which 
God hath given them, to work out their Salvation with 
fear and trembling while they may. This well confi- 
dered, will give light into ^om. 9. to, 11,20, 21, 22. 
and if Men will neeeds underftand that God loved 
jacoh^ and hated Efau^ before they were born, they 
fhould confider, that God knew them both before they 
were born, and after they were born, [a-like,] accord- 
ing to his Foreknowledge, as aforefaid. .'^>v..\. 

But I know that this is brought td prove, that 
God's Ele&ion is not hecaufe of Works forefeen. To 
vshich I anfwef^ - > '-^' _r' "'■ ' ■ 

But what Works? It istfue, God -doth not chufe 
us becaufe of any Works of Righteoufnefs that we 
have done, or can' do, out of Chrift ^ for out of him 
no works are accepted : therefore it is faid, Not of 
Works, left any Man fJmild hoafl: therefore no Works 
2re required of Unbelievers 5 but the very Vrayers (f 
the wicked are an Abomination to the hord : but it is 
becaufe of Works of Righteoufnefs, that Chrift him- 
feif hath wrought for us in his own Perfbn 5 and 
doth work by us, and in us, by his Spirit, when we^ 
iiz Believers. And though boafting in the Works of 


C^e jSDjDer of Caufejsi, &c. 7 

the Law, and boafting of Works before Believing, be 
reproved •, yet '?aul laith, As the Truth of Chrifl is 
in me^ no Man JJmll flop me of that boafting, 2 Cor. 
II. 10. And although he cried down Works before 
Faith in fo many places, yet he preached up Works 
after Believing loud enough, in thefe words. Tit. 3. 8. 
Ihis is a faithful faying, and thefe things 1 xoill that 
thou conftantly affirm. That they vchich have believed 
in God, might be careful to maintain good Works ; for 
they are good and profitable, ^c. And Phil. 2. 12, 13. 
Work out your Salvation with fear and trembling •, for it 
is God which worketh in you, both to will and to do of 
his good Vleafure, Thus we may fee, that although 
it be not for our workings without Chrift, that we 
are cholen or predeftinated to Life and Glory -, yet 
it is by our workings with Chrift, when he by his 
Spirit dwelleth in our Hearts by believing, and is in 
us the Hope of Glory : for then he worketh in us, 
and our Works are acceptable, becaule he works them 
by us, and we work them in him. Therefore Paul 
laith, We therefore as workers together with him, be- 
feech you, &c. 

Therefore if Mea would but open their Eyes, they 
might eafily fee what Works the Apoflle fpeaks 0^ 
when he fairh the Ele£^ion is not of Works. But of 
this more plainly anon. 

Secondly, I anfwer : Although God faw Adam would 
fall, yet he faw him a Creature firft, or elfe he could 
not have forefeen he would fall when he was a 
Creature : therefore God is the God of Order ■ and not 
of Confufion, i Cor. 14. 33. and forefeeth all things 
orderly, and not confutedly. 

I.. So then I conclude, that, firff, he faw Adam 
created. 2. He faw him fillen, and all his Pofterity 
in his Loins. 3. He faw Chrift Crucified for them. 
4. He fbrefaw the Gofpel preached to all Men ia 
their Generations. ^. He forefaw all Mens receiving, 
or refufing ; believing, or not believing -, obeying, ot 


& %\^t &iUt of caafejsj, ace. 

difbbeying his Gofpel, in their leveral Generations, aS 
it was, is, or fhall be conFimunicated to. the End of 
all Ages in Order at oncev And feeing as well then, 
what Men would do in their Ages and Generations 
to come, as they do know themlelves when their 
Lives and A£lions are finiflied, God could thereupon 
make up his Eledion and Reprobation, chufing or ele- 
6iing obedient Believers, according to his Foreknow- 
ledge, to Life and Salvation ; and refufing and repro- 
bating difobedient Unbelievers, to Eternal Death and 

And thus is Ele£lion and Reprobation to be confi- 
dered, according to the Foreknowledge of God in 
Chrilt, or out of Chrift, from the Foundation of the 
World, according to the Scriptures. Which if well 
confidered, it would put an End to all the confufecj 
and diftraQed Thoughts in Men about thele things. 

But it may be, that fome will yet objeft. That I holi 
Faith and Obedience in us, to be the Caufe of God'^ 
EleUing or Qhufing us to Life and Glory. 

Anfw. That Faith in Chrift, and Obedience to Chrift, 
is [^ Caufe'] without which, God chuleth none ta 
Life and Salvation, I affirm ^ becaule we never read 
that God chofe any difobedient Unbeliever to Life and 
Glory, which lived and died fo: But that it is [The 
Caufe] for which he doth chule any, I (hall ut- 
terly deny, and fhew the contrary, in the Order of 
Caufes, thus : 

Suppofe I fliould , affirm my Obedience to be a 
Caufe of my Eleftion to Salvation •, then what is th& 
Caufe of my Obedience ? 

Anfw. My Love to Chrift. 

But what is the Caufe of my Love to Chrift? 
, Anfw. My Faith in Chrift. 

But what is the Caufe of my Faith in Chrift ? 

Anfm, The preaching of the Gofpel of Chrift, {viz) 
that he died for my Sins^ and rofe again for wy 
juflipcation ^ without which, there could be no Be- 
lievers ; 

Ifevers : for, take away Chrift, and take away Faith 5 
and then believe who can. 

But what is the Caule of the Preaching the 
Gofpel to us > 

A??/^. Chrift's Dying for us. 

But what is the Caufe of Chrift*s Dying for u$ ? 

Anfw. Ev'n God's great I..ove of Pity wherewith he 
loved us, ev n tvhen we toere dead in Trefpnjjes and 
Sins, Ephef 2. 4. At that time he commended his Love 
toT^ard^' us, in that while we were yet Sinners, Chrifl 
died p.r us, Rom. 5' 8. 

T':us all Men may fee, that t do riot hold, that 
God chofe any to Life and Salvation, for any good 
in them, before he put it in them 5 as 1 (hall now 
make appear, more at large, by the Scriptures, con- 
fidering the Caufes in Order, defcending from God to 
us, or afcending from us to God. 

1. <^aufe.'] God's Love to the Sons of Meil, as the^ 
were Sinners againlt him, and Enemies tO him, w'as 
the Caufe of his fendihg his Son to die for Sinners, 
for his Ef.emies, for the Ungodly, for the Unjuft j as 
appeareth by thele following Scriptures: John ^. j6, 
t(om. 5. 5, 8, 10. I Pet. 3. 18. God fo loved the 
World, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whofo- 
ever believeth in him, fhould not perijh, but have ever- 
laflingLife. Tor when we were yet without flrength, ijt 
due time Chrijl died for the Ungodly. And, God corn- 
mendeth his Lo^e to us, in that while We were yet 
Sinners, Chrift died for us. for if when we were Ene* 
tnies, we were reconciled to God by the Death of his 
Son ; much more, being reconciled, we fljall be faved by 
his Life, for Chrift alfo hath fuffered for Sins, the 
Jufi for the Unjuft, that he might bring us to God. 

2. Caufe7\ Chrift's dying for our Sias, and rifing a- 
gain from the Dead is the Caufe of the Gofpel's being 
preached to Sinners •, as appeareth by thefe Scriptures : 
Mdt. 28. 18, 10. Mark 16. 15-, 16. i Cor. ij. i^, i<. 
And Jefus came and f pake unto them, faying^ All Tower 

C is 

to ti^t ^lUt of CaufejsJ, 6cc, 

fs mine, both in Heaven and in Earth: Go ye therefore aft^ 
teach all Nations, &:c. And again he laith unto them. 
Go ye into all the World, and preach the Go/pel to 
every Creature^ &:c. hut if Chriji be not rifen^ then 
is our Freaching vain, and your faith is vain ^ and 
ye are yet in your Sins, 8ic. 

?. Caufc^ The GofpeFs being Preached to Sinners, 
is the Oule of their Believing j as appeareth by thele 
Scriptures: Kom. lo. 14, 17, 17. How then fhall thty 
Call on him in vohom they have not believed? and how 
fhall they believe in him of vohom they have not 
heard ? and hovo flmll they hear without a Treacher ? 
end how fhall they preach except they be fent ? as it 
is written. So then. Faith cometh by hearing, and 
hearing by the Word of God, 

4. Cauje.'] Mens Believing, is the Caufe of their Ju- 
Rification from Sin^ as appeareth by thele Scriptures: 
A^. 13. 38, 39. Rom. 3. 26, 28. chap. 4. 3, 23, 24, 27. 
Be it Anown unto you therefore, that through this Man is 
f reached unto you the forgivenefs of Sins, &:c. By him, 
all that believe, are juflified from all things^ 8ic. 'lo de- 
clare his Right eoufnefs, that he might be jufl, and the Ju' 
iiifier of all that believe in Jefus. Iherefore we conclude, 
that a Man is juflified by Faith, without the "Deeds of the 
l^w. For what faith the Scripture ; Abraham believed 
ijod, and it was imputed to him for Right eoufnefs. "Nox^ 
it voas ndt Urittenfor his fake alone, that it was imputed 
to him for Right eotfnefs ; but for us a/fo, to whom it 
fhall be imputed, if xve believe on hijn that raifed 7ip Jefut 
our l^ordfrom the Dead ; who was delivered for our Sin^, 
r.nd raifed again for cur Juflification. 
,. 5^. Cauje^ Our knowing our felves juflified from our 
^ins, 6y Faith in the Blood of Chrlft, is the Cauls 
of our Love 'to Clirift -, according to thefe Scriptures : 
1 Joh. 4. 10, 19. Herein is hove, not that we loved 
God, but that he 'loved us, and fe?it his San to be 
the Propitiation for our Sins. [^Therefore "] we love: 
f)im, becaufe hs loved us firjf, 

6. Caufe.-] 

Cl^e £>^»5cr of Caufc^, 5cc. 1 1 

6. C/;^?.] Our Love to Chrilt, is the Caufe of our 
Obeying ot Chrift ^ according to thele Scrip:ures : 
1 7i7/;« 5. ^. 7<?/;« 14. 15, 21, 23. //" 7^ /w^ ^r/^, 
/^(?/f^ my Commandments. And, /ii? //;<g^ hath my Qom- 
tnandments, and keepeth them^ he it is that loveth me. 
And, Ij any Man love me^ he will keep 7?iy Words. For 
this is the hove of God, that we keep hk Command- 
ments ; and his Commandments are not grievous, 

7. Caufe?\ Our Obeying of Chrift, is a Caufe of his 
giving us Eternal Lifcj as it is written, Mark 16. 16. 
\ev. 11. 14. Heh. j. p. He that believe th, and is 
baptized,, Jhall be faved. And, BleJJed are they that do hjs 
Commandfnents, that they may have Right to the Tree 
of Life, and may enter in thorough the Gates into the 
City. And, Chrift being made perfeff through Suffer ings, 
he became the Author oj Eternal Salvation unto all 
them that obey him. 

Thus are the Caules of God's Ele£lion and Man's 
Salvation laid down in order, ib clearly, that the 
meaneft Capacity may underftand them: Which more 
briefly are thus ^ 

1. God's Love, was the Caufe of his (ending his 
Son to die for Sinners. 

2. Chriffs Dying for Sinners, and Rifing again for their 
Juftification, is the Caufe of the Gofpel's Preaching. 

3. The Preaching of the Gofpel, is the Caufe of 
our Believing. 

4. Our Believing, is the Caufe of our Juftification 
from Sin. 

5. The knowing our felves Juftified from Sin, by 
the Blood of Chrift, is the Caufe of our Lcr\'e to 

6. Our Love to Chrift, is the Caufe of our Obey=- 
ing of Chrift, 

7. Our Obeying of Chrift, is a Caufe of his be- 
coming the Author of Eternal Salvation to us, and all 
them that obey him. 

C 2 NovT 

%2 ®:]^e ^jhtt of Caufe^, &c. 

Now if we confider the Caules in order from U5 
to God, it is as clear, beginning at the laft. 

7. Our Obedience, is a Caufe of our Salvation. 

6. Our Love, is the Caufe of our Obedience. 

5:. The knowfng of our lelves Juftified from Sin, 
hy the Blood of Chrift, is the Caufe of our Lovg 
to him. 

4. Our Believing, is the Caufe of our Juflification. 

3. The Preaching of the Gofpel, is the Caufe of 
our Faith. 

2. Chritfs Death and Refurre^lion, is the Caufe of 
the Gofpefs Preaching. 

I. God's Love, is the Caufe of fending his Son to 
pie for us. 

Thus it appears, that it is /2ot for any Works of 
"Right eoiif fiefs that voe have done, but of his Love and 
Kdercy he faved us, by fending a Saviour, Tit. 5. 4, 5^. 
From all which, thefe following Things are confider- 
able, and ought to be confidered of all that defire to 
fear God aright. 

1. There Was a necefllty of God's Love, in fending 
his Son to Die for us; without which, he had not 
come to die, i John 4. 10. 

2. There was a neceflity of Chriffs Love in Dy- 
ing for us-, without which, the Gofpel could not be 
Preached, i Cor, 1$. 3, 4- 

3. There was a necefiity of the Gofpel's being 
Preached ; without which, there could have been no 
Relieving, Bom. 10. 14, 15;, 17. 

4. There is a necefiity of our Believing the Gof- 
pel \ without which, we cannot be Jultilied from ou|: 
§in3, by Faith in the Blood of Chrifl, Rom. 3. 2j. 

5. There is a neceflity of our being Juftified by 
F^i'rh in the Blood of Chrift ^ without which, we 
tannpt cpme to knovy that he loved us, and wafhed 
2is from cur Si,vs in his own piood, Rev. i. 5. 

6. There is a neceflity of our knowing his Love 
vvherewith he firlt loved Ǥ ; witliout which, we can- 
'■■"■' " ^ '• •■ ' ■ ■ not 

®]^e j©^t)er of €mtt$, 5cc. 15 

npj: love him again : For, we love h'm, hecauje he lo- 
vd us jirfl, I John 4- i9- 

7. There is a necefiity of our loving Chrilt, who 
Ipyed us firft ; without which, we cannot keep his 
Commandments: For, this is love, that we keep his 
Commandments 5 ani his Commandments are not griev- 
ous, I John 5., 3- 

8. There is a necefiity of our keeping his Com- 
mandments, and obeying his Voice •, without which, 
we cannot inherit the Promifes, nor be Heirs of Eter- 
nal Life. For, Chrifl is become the Author of Eternal 
Salvation to all thofe th^t obey him, Heb. 5. 9. And, 
Blejj'ed are they which do his Commandments, that they 
may have Right to the Tree of Life, and may enter in 
through the Gates into the City, Rev. 22. 14. And, 
We have need of Fatience, that after we have done 
the Will of God, we might inherit the Fromifes, Heh. 
10. 36. for the Doers of the Lord's Work are blef- 

Jed in their Deeds, Jam. i. 25. But unto thofe that are 
contentious, and do not obey the Truth, but obey Un- 
right eoufnefs, he will renaer Indignation and Wrath ; 
Tribulation andAnguifh upon every Soul of Man that doth 
Evil And, Thofe which will not hear him ( ev'n Chrift 
that Great Prophet) in all things whatfoever he fljall 
fay unto them, fball be deflroyd from a??wng his Peo- 
ple, with an everlafling DeftruSion from the Prefence 
of God, and from the Glory oj his Power, when he 
fhall come in flaming Fire, to render Vengeance on them 
that know not God, and obey not the Go/pel of our 
Lord Jefus Chriji. See Rom. 2. 8, 9. Ail. 9. 22, 23. 
2 Jhejf. 1. 7, 8, 9. 

By all which we fee, that there is as great a ne- 
peflity of our keeping the Commandments and Ordi- 
nances of Chrift, as there was of God's lending his 
Son to Die for us; and as there was of Chrift's Dying 
for our Sins, and rifing again for our Juftification : For, 
without Faith in Chrift, and Obedience to Chrift, ther& 
jj5 no Promife of Life and Salvation by Chrift. 


14 ^^t i^^hn of Caufeg, dec: 

All which may ferve Iharply to reprove three 
ibrts of People. 

Firft, Thole which are Ignorant, and know not Chrlft, 
nor his Commands, what they are ; and are contented 
with their Ignorance, and think to make that a Cloak 
for their Sins. 

Secondly, Thole which are Carelels, and when they 
know God, and Chrift, and his Commandments, will 
not do them, but prefume upon Mercy and Salvation, 
without Obeying of Chrift : Thele are thole which 
think to be laved by Faith only, without doing ihe 
Will and Work of God in their Generation ; the 
which fames calleth vain Men, Jam. 2. 14, 17, 20. 
laying, What doth it profit, if they have faith, and not 
Works ? Can faith fave them f* But wilt thou know, O 
vain Man, that faith without Works is dead? Was 
not Abraham our father jufliped by Works, when he 
had offered up his Son IJaac ? SeeJ} thou not how Faith 
wrought with his Works ; and by Works was his faith 
made perjeU ? 

Thirdly, It ferves to reprove thole moft (harply, 
who after they have known the Truth, and walked 
therein, having tafied the good Word of God, and foumj 
it fweet and plealant to their Souls, and have had 
their Hearts ravilhed with the Powers and Conlbla- 
tions of the World to come •, if they jail away, and turn 
from the Holy Commandment once delivered to them, 
their latter end mil be worfe than their beginning, 
And, it had been better for them they had mver known 
the ^way of Truth : for they chiefly fhall be punifhed, 

2fV/. 2. 9, 10,11,12, 13,14,15^,16,17, 18,19,20, 27. 

for in them is fulfilled the true Proverb, TIjc Dog is 
turned to his own Vovoit again -, and the Sow that voas 
toafhed, to her wallowing in the Mire, ver. 22. 

But it may be, fome yet will fay. All this is no- 
thing to many thoujands in ths Worlds that never h^ard 
ef God nor Chrifi, 
^ " To 

e^e iS>fi}tt of Caufe0, ^c 15 

To which! anfwer in the Words of Ptf«/, Rom. to. i8. 
But have they not heard ? Xes verily^ their Sound went 
into nil the Earthy and their Words unto the Ends of 
the World. And again, ASs 26. 26. Vaul iairh, He 
was perlwaded that none of thofe things uoere hidden^ for 
it x)oas not done in a Corner. And certain it is, that the 
Knowledge of God is manifeft throughout the World. 
For, Jfal. 19. I, 2, 3. The Heavens declare the Glo- 
ry of God; and the firmament fijeweth his Handy- 
work. Day unto Day uttereth Speech^ and ]\!ight un- 
to J^ight fheweth Knowledge. And, Ihere is no Lan- 
guage nor Speech where their Voice is not heard. 

Obj. But it may be fome will fay, But what Knovo' 
ledge is this ? 

Anfw. I anfwer with Paul, Rom. i. 19, 20. Ihat. 
tahich may be known of God, is manifeft. in them ; 
for God hath ff)ex!on it unto them, for the inviftble 
things of him, from the Creation of the World, arc 
clearly feen, being underftood by the Things that are 
made [ evn "1 his Eternal Power and Godhead : fo that 
they are without Excuje. Now if all know enough to 
leave them without Excule, then the Dlfpute is at 
an end. Notwithftanding, it is yet further remark* 
able. That as we hear there is a People in the other 
Parts of the World, which worfhip Idols, or the Sun/ 
Moon and Stars, yea, that worfhip the Devil ; lb al* 
fo thofe People do as well hear that there is a Peo- 
ple in this part of the World which worfhip God 
and Chrift; and do as familiarly call us Chriftians, 
as we call them Heathens. 

Again, All that worfliip any Thing for a God, do 
by that acknowledge that there is a God 5 and all 
that offer Sacrifice to a God, do by that confefs there 
3S a God oftended, or may be offended, and is recon- 
cilable by Sacrifice. And it is apparent, that thofe 
tvhich have not the Law, are a Law to themfelves, as 
Paul ^i\\,\\, Rom. 2. 14, 17. which Jhew the Work of 
the Law written in their Hearts^ their Confciences at- 


i6 c^e ^i^n of Caufefc see: 

Jo bearing them voitnefs, and their Thoughts the mean 
while accujing, or elfe excufing one another ; In the 
Day when God Jhall judge the Secrets of all Men by 
Chrifl Jefus, \_according to my Go/pel,'] faith ?aul^ 
ver. 1 6. 

And thus are all Cavils of this Nature eafily an- 
Iwered, and all Men left without Excufe. 

Having thus briefly gone thorough Predeftinatioft 
and Eleftion, according to the Foreknowledge of God, 
I (hall now fpeak a word or two about Chrift's 
Death, and the OflPer of Grace, by his Death, to the 
Sons of Men. 

The main Queltion is, Whether Chriji Died for all, 
or but for fome ? 

To which I (hall anfwer by the Scriptures •, (hewing, 
I. The Teftimony of all the Prophets ; 2. Of the Angel 
of God: 3. Of Chrilt himfelf: 4. Of the Holy Apo- 
ftles of our Lord and Saviour Jelus Chrift. 

T. The Prophet Ifaiah, chap. 53. 4, 5, 6, faith thus: 
Purely he hath borne our Griejs^ and carried our Sor- 
rows : yet we did efeem him Jiricken^ fmitten of God, 
and ^ffli^led. But he voas wounded jar our IranfgreJ- 
fions, he tvas bruifed for our Iniquities ^ and the 
chafifement of our Feace voas upon him 5 and with 
his Stripes we are healed. All we like Sheep have 
gone ajlray \ we have every one turned to his ow?i 
lV(iy ; and the Lord hath laid on him the Iniquities 
of us all Thus Ifaiah (heweth plainly, that the Ini* 
quities of all thofe that went altray, were laid up- 
on Chrilt. And to him the Teftimony of all other 
Prophets agreeth -, AUs 10. 43. To him' give all the 
frophets witnefs, that through his Kn?ne whofoe^ 
ver be/ieveth in him, fhall receive retniffion of Sins, 
The fame pith that great Prophet John Baptijf, 
John I. 7. tVho came to bear Witnefs of the Light, 
that alt Men through hi?n might believe. And a-* 
8;ain, ver. 29. Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh 
'away the Sins of the World, Thus have ail the Pro- 

t:tie 0fitt of (taufeis, to. tj 

^liets, with one Confent, teftified, that God laid upon 
Chrift the Iniquities of all that are gone aftray ^ that 
he was the Lamb of God that taketh away the Sin 
of the World, that all Men through him might believe ; 
and that through his Name, Wholbever believeth in 
him, fhould receive Remiflion Of Sins. 

Likewiie the Angel of God teftifieth (Luh ± to,) 
the fame things in efte£l, laying, Fear not ^ for 1 bring 
you glad ty dings of great Joy which fhail he to all Peo- 
ple : which was, that there, was born unto them that 
day, in the City of David, a Saviour, which was Chrijl 
the Lord. By all which it ftill appeareth, that Chrift 
died for all Men, or elfe it could not be glad Tydings 
of great Joy to all Feople \ but rather, lad Tydings to 
all thole for whom he died not, if rhere were any 

And now we come to the Words of Chrift him- 
felf. Who knew his oWn Bufinels better than any Maft 
elle-, and therefore, if his Teftimony agreeth with 
thole that have gone before. We mult needs be con* 
vinced that it is a Truth. For which, fee John ^. 
i4, 1$, 1 6. in thefe words ; As Mojes If ted up the 
Serpent in ;he Wildernefs, even Jo muji the Son of 
man he lifted up ; that whofoever 'believeth in him 
fhould not perifh, but have everlafiing Life. Tor God 
fo loved the World, that he gave his only Ic'gotten 
Son, that whofoever believeth in him, fhould not pe- 
rifh, but have everlafiing Life, &c. For God fen t not 
his Son to condemn the Word, but that the World 
thro' him might he faved. Thus we lee the Words 
of Chrift agree with the Words of the Prophets: 
therefore it mult needs be owned for a Truth, that 
Chrift died for all, as aforefaid. 

And how we will hear what the Apoftle Ipeaks 
concerning this thing, 2 Cor. 5. 14, y%. The Love of 
"Chrifl conflraineth us^ becaufe we thus judge, that jf 
one died for all, then were all once Dead ; and that he 
tticd for all, that they which live., fhould not henceforth 

D live 

i8 Zf^ i^^t^tt of Cattfeisf, 6cc. 

/ive to themf elves, but to him that died for them, ant 
rofe again. And ^aul faith, i Tim 2. 5, 6. that thert 
is one God, and one Mediator between God and Men^ 
the Man Chrifl Jefits, who gave himfelf a Ranfom for 
[^//J to be teftified in due time. From whence the 
Reader may do well to confider, that if we may un- 
derftand the Scripture as it is written, that there is 
one God and one Mediator j fo alio we may under- 
ftand, from the lame Scripture, that the fame Media- 
tor gave himfelf in due time a Ranlbm for all, A- 
gain, Faul faith, in the fame Epiftle, chap. i. 15. that 
it is a faithful Saying, and worthy of all Acceptiitienj 
that Chriji came into the World to fave Sinners, of 
whom Paul was the chief. 'Whence I conclude, If he 
came to lave the chief of Sinners, then furely he left 
none without a Saviour, and Means of Salvation. A- 
giiin, he faith to Titus, chap. 2. 11. That the Grace 
of God, that bringeth Salvation to all Men, hath ap- 
peared. And, Uebr. 2. 9. That he by the Grace of 
God fljould tafle "Death for every Man. And, i Jdl^n 
2. 2. that he is the Propitiation for our Sins 5 and not 
for ours only, but alfo for the Sins of the whole World. 
And, chap. 4. ia he lairh, ( fpeaking of himlelf and 
the reft of the »Apoftles ) fVe h^ive feen, and do tefii-* 
fy, that the Father fent the Son to be the Saviour of 
the World. 

Thus we have the Teftimony of all the Prophets,' 
tlie Angels of God, Chrift the Lord himfelf, and all 
his Holy Apoftles, agreeing together in one, to prove, 
that Chrift died for all Mankind 5 and by him, Grace, 
Mercy, and Eternal Life is offered to all, and the 
worft of Sinners. The Subftance of which, I ftiall \n 
order once more put down, that you may take No- 
tice of the fweet Harmony of Scriptures in the Proof 
of this precious Truth, which is thus : 

That the Lord laid upon him the Iniquities of all 

that went aftray, Ifa. 5;^ 6. that he gave himfelf a 

Eanfom in due time, for all Men, yea, the chief of 

' ~ " Sinners, 

&)e €>;jtier of Caufeg, &:c. ip 

Sinnei^i i ^w. 2. 6. chap. 1. 15. That he by the 
Grace of God tafted death for every Man, Hebr. 2. 9. 
That he is the Propitiation for our Sins 5 and not for 
ours only, but alfo for the Sins of the whole World, 
I fohfl 2. -2. That the Father lent the Son to be the 
Saviour of the World, i John 4. 14. That he is 
the Lamb of God, which taketh away the Sin of 
the World, that all Men through him might believe, 
John I. 7, 29. and to him give all the Prophets 
Witnefi, that through his Name, wholbever believeth 
in him, fhall receive Remiflion of Sins, Affs 10. 4?. 
And Chrift teftified of himfelf, that God fo loved the 
World, that he gave his only begotten Son, that who- 
lbever believeth in him, (hould not perifh, but have 
everlafting Life, John 5. 16. And this is glad Tydings 
of great Joy to all People, Luke 2. 20. 

And thus the pleafant Harmony of Scriptures, out 
of the Mouths of ib many faithful Witnefles which 
none dare deny, muft needs make fweet Melody in 
the Hearts of all true Believers. 

But now it remaineth for me to fpeak to thofe 
Obje£lions, which are ufually brought againft thele 
Scriptures. To which I fliall give a brief; yet (thro* 
the help of the Lord, I hope, a) fatisfa£lory An- 
Iwer. And to that end, I fhall fum them all up into 
Four Heads, thus: 

The common Obje£lions are railed againft the word 

tal/ Men,'] and the word [every Man^] the word 
World,] and the word [whole World.] Which are? 
managed thus : that Chrift died for [all] the [Ele^lJ] 
for [every one] of the [_Eleti {] for the [World] of 
[Believers,] or the [whole World] of the [E/eff.] 

To which I Anfwer : That Chrift died for the E- 
Ie£t,' I freely grant, becaule he died for all Men, e- 
very Man, and the whole World, as aforelaid : but 
that he died for the Ele£f, as they were Ele£l, or becaufe 
they were Ele£l, I utterly deny, and will fliew the 
contrary by the Scriptures anon. But firft I wiH 

D 2 con- 

30 t:^e iS>Mt of €auftg^ &c. 

confider the Obje£lions, whether they arife naturally 
from the Scriptures, or no : which will appear thus : 

If the Scripture no-wherp fpeaks of a World of 
Believers, and Ele£l Perfbns j then we have no ground 
to believe that Chrift died for a World of Believers 
and Ele61 Perfbng. 

But the Scripture no-where Ipeaks of Juch a 

Therefore we have no ground to believe that Chrift 
died tor fuch a World. 

Nay, the Scriptures are Ilo hi from calling BeliC' 
vers, and Eleft I'erfons, a World, that they are oppo- 
fed againft the World j as appeareth by the words 
ot Chrift, John 15. 19, If ye were of the World, the 
World would love his own : but hecaufe ye are not of 
the World, hut I have chofen you out of the World, 
therefore the World hateth you. 

But now if we fhould grant thefe Men their Argument,' 
it would deftroy their own Principle, which is, That 
none of the EleU can perifh. But that fome that 
Chrift died for, may perifh, is evident in thele words 
of Vaul s And fo fhall thy weak brother perifh, for 
vohom Chrifl died, 1 Cor. 3- n.' But if Chrift died 
for none but the World of Ele^, as they fay, then 
fome of the Ele£l may perifh. And thus their Fol- 
ly is manifeft. Therefore I fhall now fhew, by the 
Scriptures, what World Chrift died for: Rom. ^. 6. 
When w were yet without f\rength, in due time Chrijl 
died for the \Jngodly. Ver. 8. But Qod commendeth 
his hove towards us, in that while we were yet Sin- 
ners, Chrift died for us. Ver. to. F^/- if when we 
were Enemies, we were reconciled to God by the Death 
of his Son \ much 7nore, being reconciled, we fhall be fa- 
yed by his Life. From all which, we clearly fee, 
that Chrift died for the World of Ungodly, and for the 
World of Sinners, and for the World of his Enemies, yea, 
for the Unjuft. j Pet. 9. 18. For Chrift alfo hath once 
fuffmd for Sins, the Juftfor th§ U^juf}, thi k^ m^? 


t^t €>^tjer of CaufejcJ, to. 21 

hiffS vs to God. But the EleQ, as EleQ, are not Unjuft 5 
for, vffhojhall lay any thing to the charge of God's EkH ? 
It is God that jujlijieth 5 "doho is he that coniemneth ^ Sec. 
See ^om, 8. 33, 34. Therefore, he died not lor the 
EIe£l, as, or becaufe they were EIe£l, but ev'n for the 
World that John fpeaks of, when he lairh. We knoxo 
we are of God^ and the whole World lieth in Wickednefs, 
1 John %. 19. 

Objei^, But the Saints, and thole that (hall be laved, 
were once Sinners, as well as others, Eph. 1. 

Anfvj. But that was not as they were Eleft in Chrift, 
but a§ tjiey were Reprobates, or void of Judgment 
concerning the Faith 5 out of Chrift, without God, 
without Hope ; yea, Enemies in their Minds by evil 
Works : See v^p. i, 2, 3, 11, 12, 13, ^c. all which 
hath been the Condition of the beft of God's People, 
until they be juftified by Faith, and made nigh by the 
Blood ofChriJi : for Jevps and Gentiles are all under Sin, 
and every Mouth flopped, and all the World guilty 
before God, until they be let free, by Believing in the 
^iood of Chrift : SeeR^«?. 3. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 
25. Therefore, to affirm that Chrift Died for the EIe£l, 
or Believers, as they were, and becaufe they were Ele^l: 
and Believers, is ablblute Nonlence j as I fhall now 
prove, thus : 

They which hold, that God intended to fend his 
^on to Die only for the World of Believers, mutt alfo 

of neceffity hold, that there was a World of Believers 

before God intended to lend his Son to Die •, and they 

were the Caufe of God's fending his Son. 

Anfvo. If there was a World of Believers before God 

intended to fend his Son to die 5 then, I pray tell me, 

I . What they believed ; and, 2. Whom they believed 

in, before there was a Chrift intended for them ; and I. 

am fatisfied : but 'till then, I mull needs conclude it is 

abfolute Nonfence and Confufion. '- 

/^gain, They which believe that Chrift was lent to 

die only for a World of Eled, muft alfq needs conclude 


that there were a World of EleQ before God intended' 
to fend his Son to die. 

To which I Anfwer : Thoie which are Ele£l are 
chofen in Chriji, Eph. i. 4. and out of Hirt there is 
no Ele6:ion : therefore if there was a World of Ele£t 
before God intended a Chrilt to die for the EIe£l, I- 
pray ttU me, i. Who they were EIe£l in ; 2. and What 
they were Ele£t unto •, otherwife 1 mult needs conclude 
asaforefaid, (namely,) that iuch Reafoning is without 
Sence, and without Scripture. 

But to end the Controverfy, I (hall commit theie fol- 
lowing Things to the Confideration of all rational Men 
fearing God. 

1. The Scripture faith, That Chnft came tofeek an^ 
tofave that which was lojl^ Luke 19. 10. 

But the EleQ:, as they bear the Name of EIe6l, are not 
loft, but a found and laved People, l Cor, 1, id, 
2 Tim. I. 9. If a. 64. $. 

Therefore he died not for the Elea, as, or becaule 
they were Ele6t ^ for that had been to feek and 
fave that which was found and la\red before. 

2. The Scripture faith, That he came not to call the 
Righteous, but Sinners toRepentance^ Mat. 9. 13. 

But the Ele£l are all Righteous, Ifa. 60. 21. & 2^* 
J 2. Luke I. 6. Zacharias and Elizabeth were 
both Righteous before God ; and he that doth Righ- 
teoufnefs is Righteous, i John 5. 7. 

Therefore Chrift died not for the Elea, as they were, 
and becaufe they were Ele£l and Righteous ^ neither 
could he, for there is none Righteous, no not one^ 
until they be made Righteous by Faith in Chrift : 
See Rom. 3. 10. with chap. 4. 5;. for then he had 
come to call them to Repentance and Righteouf^ 
nefs, that had repented and were Righteous be- 

3. The Scripture faith, That in due time Chrifi died 

for the Ungodly, Rom. 5. 6. 


€i^t ^jtrer of Catrfejs, scc. 15 

6ut the Eleft are not Ungodly : for, God hath chofen 
to hmjelftfje Man that is Godly ^ Plal. 4.3. 

Therefore Chriftdied not for the Ele£t, as, or becaule 
they were Ele£t ^ for that had been to redeem them 
by ins Blood that were redeemed before. 

'4. The Scripture faith, That Chnft died for the 
Unjujl, that he might bring them unto God, i Pet. 
4. 5. 

But the EleQ are not Unjuft, but a Jollified People : 
zvidi. who Jhall lay any thing to the charge of God's 
Eleif ? for it is God that jujfijietb, voho then fliatl 
condemn ? Rom. 8. 35, 34. 

Therefore Chrilt died not for the Ele8:, as Ele£} ; 
for that had been to juftify them that were juft 
before, and to bring them near to God that were 
near before. 

■5. The Scripture laith, That he came to preach De- 
liverance tQ the Captives. 

But the EleCl are not Captives and Prifbners under 
Satan, but let at Liberty by Chrift, and are his Sol- 
diers, and do fight the Lord's Battles againit Sin, 
the World, and the Devil : flanding Jajl in that 
"Liberty wherervith Chrift hath made them fred See 
Ephef. 6. II, 12. with 2 T;/vr 4.. 7. Gal. %.i. 

Therefore Chrift died not for the E]e£l, as, or becaule 
they were Ek£l ^ that had been, to fet them at Li- 
berty that were at Liberty before. 

6. Ths Scripture faith, Tiiat he came to give S-ght to 
the Blind, and Light to them that fit in Darknefs, 
Luke 4. J 8. with Mat. 4. i5. 

But the Eleft are not in Darknefs, nor yet Blind ^ but 
blejjed are their Eyes, for they fee. Mat. 13. T<5. 
and they are all the Children of the Light, and oj 
the Day, i Thef 5. 4, 5. 
Therefore Chrift died not for the Ele£f, as, or becaufe 
they were Ele£l ; for that had been to give Light 
to them which had Light before, and to opert the 
Eyes of them which faw before. 

7. The 

24 €f)c S>^t^it at €m(tSy Sec. 

■). The Scripture faith, (Ephef. 2. 5:, 12.) that hS 
quickned them that viere dead in Trefpajjes an! 
Sins i luch as in time pajt were without Ghftjf, 
or Aliens from the Common-wealth of Ifrael^ and 
Strangers jrom the Covenant oj Vromife^ having 
no hope^ without God in the World. 

But the Eleft are dead in Trefpafles and Sifts, but 
alive in Chrift •, and their Lfe is hid with Chrifl in 
God : Neither are they without Chrift, for they 
are chofen in him 5 nor Strangers and Foreigners to 
the Common-wealth of Ifrael, and Covenant of 
Promiles, but they are Fellow-Citizens with the 
Saints^ and of the Houjhold of God^ EpheC 2; 1 9. 
and are made nigh by the Blood of Chrifl, ver. 1 3, 
neither are they without Hope, for their Faith and 
Hope is in God ^ and they have put on Hope 
as an Helmet of Salvation, I Thef 5;. 8. 

Therefore Chrift died not for the Elecl, as they were 
Eie£l, nor becaufe they were Ele£l ^ for that had 
been to quicken them that were alive before, to 
bring them into Covenant that were in Covenant 
before •, to make them near to God, by his Blood, 
that were near before. And thus, by thefe Mens 
Account, the Lord Chrift loft his Labour of Love^ 
and accompliftied a folemn Nothing. 

And thus have 1 fliewn plainly, by the Scripture, 
and found Reafon, that it is abfolute Nonfence fot any 
to fay, that Chrift died for the Eleft, as they were, or 
becaule they were Eleft : Becaufe, 

1. That had been to feek and to fave them that were 
found and faved before. 

2. To call them to Repentance that had Repented 

5. To preach Deliverance to them that were Deli- 
vered before, and to let them at Liberty that were as 

Liberty before. 

4. To 

t^t S>mt of €au(t0, ^ci if 

4. To give Light to them that were out of Dark-* 
hefs, and had Light before ; and to open the Eyes of 
them which had their Eyes opened, and fuw be- 

5. To make them near by his Blood, that were 
near before. 

6. To jultify them that were Juft before. 

7.. To bring them into Covenant, and make them 
Fellow-Citizens with the Saints, and of the Houfhold. 
of God, that were in Covenant, and. had thole Privi- 
leges before. 

8. To make them Members of his own Body, that 
were Members before. 

9. To quicken them that were alive before. 

10. To make them Children of God, that Wete lb 
before ; and to preach glad Ty dings to them that 
were in a happy Condition before, and had no need 
pf it. 

Thus having (hewed the ContradiQions of thole 
that hold that Chrift died for none but the EIe£l ^ 
1 fhall now proceed to prove by undeniable Realbns, 
that it muft of neceflity be a Truth, that Chrjji died 
for all Men^ and tafled Death for evety Mdn^ and 
was a 'Propitiation for the Sins of the World : that 
all Men through him might believe-^ and that wbofo- 
ever helievcth in him, fhould not perijh^ hut have Ever^^ 
lafling Life, 

Reaf, I, Becaule all the Prophets, the Angel of 
God, the Lord Chtilt himlelf, and his Holy Apoftles, 
do teltify it with one Conlent. 

Reaf. 2. Becaule tnere in not one Scripture, from 
the beginning o^ Genefts, to the end of the Revelation^ 
that doth deny it •, either negatively ^ in faying, that 
he died not for all ; nor yet affirmatively, in faying, 
that he did die but for fonie. Therefore, what '^o 
many faithful Witnelfes affirm, and none deny, muK 
Heeds be a precious Truth. 
I E Reaf, 

i6 ti%t ^lUx Df Caufejj, 6{c. 

Rciif, 9. Becaule, as Chrift died for every Man, 
Hebr. 2. 9. lb he commanded the Goipel to be preach-*' 
ed to every Creature, Mark 16. 15, 16. He faith 
unto them, Go ye into all ihe World, and preach the 
Go/pel to every Creature. 

Red/. 4. Becaule he calleth all Men every-where to 
Repentance: Aff. 17. 30. At that time of this Ignorance 
God winked ^ but now he calleth all Men every-where 
to Repentance. 

Red/. '^. Becaule thofe which are damned, are 
damned, becaule they believe not in Chrift the only 
begotten Son of God: John 3. 18. He that believeth 
not^ is condemned already, becaufe he believeth not in 
the Name of the only begotten Son of God: which 
could not be, except Chrilt died for them. 

Reaf. 6. Becaufe they which are damned , might 
have been faved : 2'Thelf. 2. 10, ir. They received 
not the 'Love of the Truth, that they might be faved, 
therefore Gcd [l:all fend them f\rong Delufions to be- 
lieve lyes, that they all might be damned. 

Reaf. 7. Becaufe fome deny the Lord that bought 
them: But how can they deny the Lord that bought 
them, except the Lord bought thole that deny him, 
and bring upon themfelves fwift Deltru6lion ? See 
2 Pet. 2. 2. 

Reaf. 8. Becaule they n>hich follow after lying Vani- 
ties, forfake their own Mercies, Jonah 2. 8. But what 
Mercies can thofe forfake, for whom Chrilt died 

Reaf 9. Becayfe fome Men may and .do negle[l 
their own Salvation, Hebr. 2. 3. But what Salvation 
can they negleft, lor whom Chrift never died to offer 
it to them? 

Reif 10. Becaule we are commanded to make Pray- 
ers and Supplications, and giving of Thanks for ali 
Men, I Tim. 2. But to what End fhould we, or 
how can we in Faith pray tor all Men, if Chrilt did 
not die for all Men ? And that Prayer that is not 

itpe £);tDet; of CaufejsJ, &c. 27 

of Faith, is Sin : for, whatfoever is not of faith, is 
Sin, Rom. 14. 25. and, without Faith, it is impojfible 
to pleafe God, Hebr. 11. 16. 

And now having give thefe Reafbns for the Con- 
firmation of Chrilt's Death for all Men, I fhali brief- 
ly (hew the dreadful Abfurdities which follow their 
Judgments, which believe that Chrilt died for none 
but the Elea. 

1. If Chrift died not for all Men, then Defpair 
is no Sin in them that perifh by it, feeing there is 
not any thing for thole Men to believe unto Salvation 
for whom Chrift died not. 

2. If Chrift died not for all Men, then it would 
be a Sin for fbme Men to believe that Chrift died 
for them, becaufe they (hould believe a Lye ; and all 
will confefs it is a Sin to believe Lyes. 

5. If Chrift died not for thole that are damned, then 
they (hall not be damned becaufe of their Unbelief; 
according to the Scriptures, Joh. 9. 18. M^ir^ 16. 16. 

4. Satan doth no Evil in perfwading Men that 
Chrift died not for them-, but doth perlwade them 
. to believe the Truth, if it be true that Chrift died 
but for fbme few of the World. 

5r. If Chrift died not for all, then the Devil de- 
ceiveth not thofe that are damned for Unbelief: And 
as for the Ele£l, thefe Men affirm they cannot be de- 
ceived, and fb the Devil is no Deceiver. 

6. If Chrift died not for all Men, then it is no 
Herefy to teach fome Men to deny that Chrift bought 
them: contrary to 2 Pet. 2. 21, 22. where he faith 
plainly, That fome Men bri/?g in damnable lierefies^ 
evn denying the Lord that bought them ; and bring 
upon themfelves fooift DeflruUion. 

7. If Chrift died not for all Men ; then it is a 
Virtue in fbme Men to be Unbelievers, and not to 
believe in Chrift that died for them, but rather to 
believe that he did not die for them : for if that be 
a Truth, it is a Virtue to believe all Truth; And 

E 2 then 

sS ®^e ^lUt of €mtt&, ^c. 

then it followeth, that thofe that believe that Chrift died 
not for them, do as well as they which believe Chrift 
did for them, feeing both are true j and it is as much 
Virtue to believe one Truth as another. . 

g. If Chrift died not for all Men^ then the Apo- 
files, and thole, which according to the Command of 
Chrift (Mar^ i6. 16.) do preach the Gofpel, the 
glad Tydings of Grace and Peace to a// Alen, and 
fvery Creature, do fin, in th^t they preach Lyes to 
moit Men. 

o. If Chrift died not for all Men, then in vain 
doth God, by the Golpel, call all Men every-where 
to Repentance: For what good can Repentance do to 
thofe for whom Chrift died not > 

ic. If Chrift died not for all Men 5 why then do 
the Minifters of the Nation baptize all, and lay, they 
make them Members of Chriji^ Children of God, and 
lleirs of Heaven, in their Baptifm } 

11. If Chrift died not for all ; why do the 
Minifters of the Nation give the Sacrament fas they 
call it) to all, and tell all that cotne, Tihe Body of 
the Lord was broken for thee -, Take, eat this, &c. 
And, The Blood of the Lord Jefus was fhed for thee ^ 
Take^ and drink this, &c. What, will they offer to 
tell Untruths, when they are about fiich a Work as 
that? How then can Men believe them in any thing 

1 2. If Chrift died not for all ; why do the Minifters 
of the Nation take Tythes of all ? What, will they 
take Tyihes of thofe that Chrift died not for ? Hovv 
can they think to do them any good for that they 
■^ave of them, if Chrift died not for them? Would 
they take it well, if a Man fhould yearly take ths 
tenth part of theiy Gqods, anil yet do ^othing %ox 

13. Laftly, if Chrift died not for all; why then 
doth the Lord fay, (2 Vet, 3. 9.) that he is not wil- 
ling that (iny fbmii perifb, ht that all flmM coma 

fo Repentance ? Now if the Lord be not willing that 
any Ihould perifh, then did he not give his Son for 
fill? Confider and judge what (hall hinder theleMen 
from pleading thus: " Lord, thou laidft thou waft 
" not willing that any fhould perifh ; but yet thou 
" waft willing that we (hould perifh, or elfe thou 
" wouldft have fent thy Son to die for us, as well 
" as others, and then pofTibly we might have been 
" ftved \ or, however, we had been left without Ex- 
*' cule. '* But now, how (hall the Lord judge the 
World in R'lghteoufnefs^ by that Man Chrift Jefus, 
whom he hath ordained^ if the Man Chrift Jefus did. 
not die for the World ? And therefore the Scripture 
iaith. That to this end Chrift died, and rofe again^ and 
revived, that he 7night be Lord both of the Dead and 
"Living, Rom. 24. 9. which Quick and Dead he will 
judge at his Appearing, and his Kingdom, 2 Tim. 4. t. 
And when he doth judge them, he will judge them 
according to the Gojpel : But how can he judge them 
in Righteoulhels according to the Gofpel, when there 
was never any Gofpel for them, or Mercy offered to 

Obj. But if Chrijl died for all, and God was voil- 
ling that all fhould be faved 5 why then are not all 
faved ? . 

Anfw. Becauie they believe not in the only begot- 
ten Son of God, who is their Saviour, John ^ 18. 
And God called, and they refufed ^ he ftretched out 
his Hand, and they regarded not ^ he counlelled them, 
but they would none of his Counlels -, he reproved 
them, but they iet at nought all his Reproofs, but 
followed after lying Vanities, and fo forfbok their 
own Mercies, and denied the Lord that bought them, 
and brought upon themlelves Iwift DeftruQion : And 
becaufe they received not the Love of the Truth, 
that they might be laved, therefore (if you would know 
wherefore^ God gave them up to ftrong Delufions, 
to believe Lye?, that they all might be damned who 


believed not the Truth, but had plealure in Unrlgb^ 
teoufnefs. See Prov. i. 24, 2J, 26,^27, 28, 29, 30, 
31, 92. 2?^/. 2. I, 2. 2 TheJJ] 2. 10, II, 12. And 
again, Chiift faith, How oft would I have gathered you. 
together, as a lien gather eth her Chkkens under her 
IVings, and ye would not ^ Mat. 2;^. 57. ilnd this is 
the realbn why fome Men are not laved : for God 
never promileth Life and Salvation to any Vizn whe- 
ther he will, or no ; but threatneth Death and ever- 
lalting De[tru£lion to them which believe not, and 
obey not the Gofpel, 2 Thejj. i. 8, 9. 

Obje£t. hut then you hold free-will ; and that Men 
may be faved^ if they will. 

Anfw. I hold nothing but what the Scripture laith, 
and that you fLali give me loave to hold : neither 
do I believe that any Man hath, or ever had any 
Will or Power of himfelf, without God, to do any 
thing that is good ; for in him we live, move, and 
have our being : but in, and through, and by God 
^nd Chrift, we may do all things : for the Lord h 
a Sun, and a Shield, and will give Grace and Glory, 
and no good thing will he with-hold from them that 
' roill walk uprightly, Pfal 84. 11. And he hath given 
Chrilt to Death for all Men, as I have proved al- 
ready at large \ and, Ue. that /pared not his, only Son, 
but delivered him up for us all •, how fhall he not with 
him give us all things ^ Rom. 8> 9 2. And his Hand 
is ftretched out all the Day long to a fiiff-necked 
gainfaying People. What Man is there that knoweth 
not, that if he make ufe of all the Will, Power, 
and Underftanding that God hath given him, the Lord 
will double his Talent, and give him more ? And 
that the Lord hath given all Men enough to leave 
them without Excule, I have already proved in 
the former part of the Book ; and if any Man would 
have more, they muft improve that which they 
have, faithfully 5 for, he that is faithful in that which 
is leaji, will be faithful alfo in much : but he that 


©^ iS>ti}tt of Caufeis, ^c\ 51 n 

7j '»;?/»/2 i;z /^^ ieaji, will dljo he unjuft in much, 
Luke 16. 10. And what Man is he that doth not 
know, that he is not condemned lor not doing that 
which he cannot poflibly do, but for leaving undone 
that which God hath given him Power and Ability 
to do > Let any Man deny it if he can. 

And now. Whereas it is a Queftion, Whether all 
Men may he faved if they will ? 

Before we anfwer this Queftion, we fhall fhew the 
Opinion of thofe Calvinijis who make this Obje- 
ction \ for it is ufually made uTe of^ as a meet 
captious Invention^ themfelves being compelled to grant 
as much Freedom of Will, as we defire to plead 

For, I. The Affembly of Divines, in their Confef- 
Jion of Faith, chap. 9. do exprefly fay, God hath en- 
dowed the Will of Man with that 'Natural Liberty^ 
that it^n neither forced^ nor by any ahfolute necejjity of 
Nature determined to do good or evil. And to prove this, 
they quote Mat. 17. 12. Jam. i. 14. Deut. 30. 19. 
Which places do (hew, that the Jews were no way 
forced to abufe fohn the Baptiji, nor to put him 
to Death, But that Men are dravcn to fin by their 
own LuJ}s ^ And, that God calls Heaven and Earth to 
record againft Men, that he Jets Life before them as 
voell as Deaths and that it is Gods Will they fhould 
chuje Life. 

Let us add to this Teftimony, the Witnels of 
Mr. Baxter^ who tells us, in his Preface to his Call 
to the Unconverted, " That Calvin as well as Arminius 

" held Free-will ; and, that no Man of Brains 

" denieth that Man hath a Will that is naturally 
'"'' free^ it is free from violence, it is a f elf-deter* 
*' mining Principle. " But that the Will of Man ^ is 
not free from evil 'Difpofitions\ we grant as well as 
Mr. Baxter^ and all Men know it to be too true. 
Sure, here is as much faid for Free-will as any Man 
need to lay, and perhaps more. For, 


3t ^U 0^tin of €mtt&, Bed 

The difference between Us, feems to be this ; Thef 
iay, Man hath a Will vohich is naturally free : We 
fay, Man hath this freedom of Will by the Grace 
of God. And which is molt likely to be true, judge 

It is certain, that when Adam had finned, he gave 
no Signs at all of any Freedom of Will to lee God, 
nor to hear his Voice, but was afraid, and hid him- 
lelf from God ; he was fo far from humbling him- 
felf for the Sin which he had committed, that he en- 
creafed it by excufihg it. But God in Mercy, before he 
fentenced him for his Sin, gracioufly gave to him, 
and his Potter ity, a Promife of a Saviour, and by this 
Grace reftored him (ev'n v^holQ Adam) to lome gra^ 
cious Liberty and Power to leek for Life; and this 
appears, in that he was now capable to put forth 
his Hand and to take of the Tree of Life : but this 
being now^ not the Means by which he (hould live 
for ever, [^but only that ObjeS of Faith in the promi- 
fed Seed] God drove him out of the Garden o{' Ede;t, 
and by a flaming Sword kept the Way. to THAT 
Tree of Life (planted in Eden) from Adam and all 
his Polterity : for all which, fee Gen. 3. 8, to the 
end. Whence it is clear, that it was not Nature, 
but God's free Grace, which did reftore Mankind to 
a pofiibility of Salvation ; which yet could not be 
poflible, but that God gracioufly gave Mankind this 
Mercy, ev'n Liberty and Power, to accept of Life 
■when 'propofed to him, or offered by the Lord, in 
fuch way and manner as was molt convenient, for 
liim in his fight 5 In which Tenders of Life, he is 
ready, with further Supplies of Grace, to make an 
Everlafting Covenant with all that incline to his 
Voice, that their Souls may live, Ifa. 45. 22. and ^rj. 
;,i, 2, 3, 4. Mark. 16. I J, 16. Rev. 22. 17. And 
! in ail this, Man's boafting is excluded, the whole of 
that which is good in him, ev'n from the firft Mo- 
tion of his Will, being of Free Grace, and not of 


&)t i^ihtt of CaufcisJ. s<c. 55 

Nature. And thus we approach the Queltion, Whether 
All may be faved, if they will ^ 

■I. The Premifes duly confidered, I Anfwer -, What 
(hould hinder them, if they be willing ? And, 2. God 
is not willing that any Jhould penjl). 9. God is ivil- 
ling that all Men Jhould come to the knowledge of the 
Truths and be faved^ 1 Pet 3. '9. i Tim. 2. 4. And 
Chrifl is willing ; for he came not to judge the World^ 
hut to fave the World. And how did he weep over 
ferjifdlem ? And how eft (as aforefaid ) would he have 
gathered them together, as a Hen doth her Chickens ? 
but they would not. And now, what hinders Mens 
Salvation, but that fame \_they would not?'] confider 
well, and judge. 

Obje£l. But it is not in him that willeth, nor in him that 
runneth, but in God that fheweth Mercy, Rom. 9. 16. 

Anfvo. Very well. Then it leemeth by that Scrip- 
ture, that Men have Free-will to be iaved j and in- 
deed, I wonder what Man alive defires not to be fa- 
ved : but it leems, their willing and running in their 
own Ways, will not attain it ^ it was not Cains Sa- 
crifice, nor the Scribes and Pharifees long Prayers and 
Faltings, with disfigured Faces, nor yet their giving Alms 
to the Poor, and Tythes of all they poflefled, that could 
give any of thefe a Manfion in Heaven ; ( And why ? ) 
becaufe they fought it not by Faith, but by the Works 
of the Law, Rom. 9. 30, 31, 32. And fo it is to 
this day ^ Men would, with Balaam, gladly die the 
. Death of the Righteous •, and Oh, who would not be 
faved ! But then they Ihould come at Chriffs Call, 
and turn at his Reproof, and wait for his Counfels, 
who is the Wonderful Counfeller, and live to him 
that died for them, walking in all the Commandments 
and Ordinances 0^ Chrifl, blamelelsj hearing him in all 
things whatfoever he fhall fay to them, and follow- 
ing him wherelbever he goes ; and when they have 
done all this, with a good Confcience, be contented 
to bear the Reproaches and Shame that belong to 

F the 

54 t£t)t i^fi^tt Of Caufeg, dec 

the Crofs oiChrift-, and to have Men, yea, wicked 
Men, and fome devout and honourable Men and Wo- 
men, perfecute and revile them, and fay all manner of 
evil-Sayings on them fallely, for his Name fake 5 and 
endure all this patiently, with fuch a Spirit as can 
pray for the Salvation evn of their worft Enemies, 
as tor their own Souls 5 as Chrift, who when he had 
fulfilled all Righteoufnefs, was numbred among the 
Tranfgreflbrs, and crucified between two Thieves, and 
at that time prayed for his Enemies: When we can 
thus follow Chriji, then happy are we, for the Spirit 
of God and of Glory doth reft upon us. See i P<?/. 
4. 12, i^, 14, 15:. And the greater is our Reward in 
Heav'n ^ for in like manner perlecuted they the Pro- 
phets before us. But I confels, this Way is fo nar- 
row, and this Gate is fo ftrait, that few can enter 
and walk therein, except they learn of Chril}, who is 
liumble and meek, and then they will find Relt to 
their Souls ^ and by and through him who is the 
Door, they will go in and out, and find Failure. See 
Mat. 5. 10, II, 12. 

Thus we fee, that although it be not in him that 
willeth, nor in him that runneth in his own Ways, 
and after the Imaginations of his own Heatt^ yet, it- 
is him that will run in fcods Ways, and follow 
Chrift in his Commands and Ordinances w'therlbeveE 
lie goes: for it is in God that flieweth Mercy, who 
hath indeed (lie wed Mercy unto Sinners, and the 
ivorft of Sinners, in fending his only begotten Son to 
die for them, to take away their Sins, to call them 
to Repentance, to give them the knowledge of Sal- 
vation, by the remiffion of their Sins, through his 
[Mercy,] yea, through the [tender Mercy] of our 
God, whereby the Day-lpring from on high hath vi- 
Jited us, to give Light to them that fit in Darkneis, 
and in the (hadow of Death, and to guide our feet 
in the way of Peace, Luke i. who before did not 
know the Way of Peace. 


C^e 0tut of €anU^y d<c. 55 

I'herefore now let all Men take heed how they 
fin againft fuch rich Mercy aud Free-grace as is ot- 
fered to them, cv^n to the worft of Sinners, by the 
Lord, in the Gofpel of Truth, (which is the glad Ty- 
dings of our Salvation) left Mercy rile up in Judg- 
ment againft them in the great Day, and left they fin 
againft that true Light that is come into the World 
to enlighten every Man, f which is Ci??r//?,) who by 
his Word and Spirit hath made known to the 
Sons of Men whatfoever he faw in the Bofom of 
the Father, yea, ev'n the whole Counfel of ISod, 
which is neceflary to Salvation. Therefore, let al| 
Men take heed of (hutting their Eyes againft the 
Light of the glorious Gofpel of Jefus Chrijl : for 
ibis is the Condemnation, that "Light is come into the 
World, and men love Darknefs rather than Light, bd- 
caufe their "Deeds are EviL 

Reader, Confider what is written for thy In- 
ftruftion in the Scriptures of Truth ; and read them, 
and confider them again, and the Lord give thee Un- 
derftanding in all things. 


ERRATA. P 20, I. laft fave one, r. for the World ofVn]ufi. 
F. 24. 1. 7. r. not dead. P. 25. 1. 31. for in r. /j. P. 26. 1. 7. for 

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Hett, at the Bible and Crown, in the 
Poultry, near Cheapfide. M.dcc-xxv. 

[Price One ShiUing.} 






SHALL take Leave, before 1 pre^ 
fent the Reader with the folloiuing 
Difcomfes, to give a brief Account 
oj feme "Things, which led me both 
to preach and yublifh them. Being 
called to bear my Part in a publick 
is attended by many, who excel in 
'Judgment as well as Piety, and are able to defend the 
Truth, as well as defirous to exprefs their Love to it^ 
I thought it my Duty to injtft on thofe important Sub- 
jeBs, which are mofi controverted in the Age in which 
we live. Therefore I firfi attempted to caft in my Mite, 
with others, in Defence of our Saviour.'x Divinity and 
Satisfaftion, as founded on fever al Texts of Scripture, 

the laft of which was Phil. ii. 6 p. And then I 

judged it no lefs necejfary to apply my felf to a further 
Search into thofe DoBrines, that refpeEi the Eternal 
Purpofe of the Divine Will, and the Execution 
thereof in God's fpecial Providence and Grace ; 
that fo I might be able to remove grotmdlefs Prejudices, 
and vindicate the Divine PerfeBions : and accordingly 
I began with the DoBrines of Eledion, Reprobation^ 

A 2 and 

iv The PREFACE. 

and Aflurance, from i Thef. i. 4, 5. The Defign 

ivas certainly good ; and -whether 'tivas rightly managd^ 
is to be try d at a higher Bar, and not to Jiavd or fall by 
the uncertain Determination of Mans judgment. Tet 
this I muft fay, through the great Goodnefs 0/ God, thefe 
Difcourfes have not been -without a Tefiimony to the 
Truth and IJfefulnefs thereof in the Confciences offome, 
and have been bkjfed, as I am given to under/land, as 
a Means of their further Eftablifhment. 'This induced 
me fo far to comply with their Dejire^ as to give them 
feme Expectation that they fjould be publijh'd in due 
Time. But having been hinder d, for fome Months pafl, 
'hy much IVork upon my Hands, from making any great 
Progrefs therein, I hoped to gain a little farther Refpite, 
*tiU in my Turn in the LeBure I had preached fix or 
eight Sermons more, in Purfiuince oj the abovemention d 
Defign, of which thefe I have now publifi/d are two. 
They are therefore abortive, and like to meet zvithfuch 
hard Fate in the IVorld (if any Thing may be inferred 
from the Cenfures they have already pafl through) that 
there is but poor Encouragement for me to profecute it. 

1 fincerely declare, that I tvas far from entertaining 
any Defign to a-mufe the JVorld with vain Speculations, or 
nexv Not ions, if any Tiding I have deliver d may bethought 
fo ; though firiclly f peaking there is nothing new herein^ 
excepting the Manner oj conveying Ideas of Things ; 
'■vihich in mofi Writings on this SubjeB, are either wrapt 
up in fcbolafi,ick Terms, which every one does not un- 
derfland, or explain d in a differing Way, and often- 
times with a Plew very remote from that which I have 
had, as will be farther obfervd in the Poftfcript. 
Butfuppofe 1 have fiept a little out of the beaten Track, 
to take a Path which I thought more fafe and pleafant, 
' (hould tins be reckon d a fetting my Face towards fome 
other End ? However, I am ready to flatter my felf 
that this Part oj my Charge is at an End ; and hope, that 
tvhen the impartial Reader has condefcended to be xvilUng 
i(? receive CovyiBi^n hy ocular Demonfiration, he zviH for- 


bear to report, what he has received by Hear jay ^ that 1 
deny the Imputation of Adam's firft Sin, and as a 
Confequence drawn from it, the Imputation of Chrifi's 
Righteoufnefs ; or the univerfal Depravity and Cor- 
ruption of humane Nature; or Man's Propenfity to 
Sin in and from his Infancy : which I have been Jo far 
from doing, that I hope it will appear, that I have ra- 
ther eflablifh'd thofe DoBrines by jufl Arguments, than 
faid any T'hing to weaken them. I could eafily point 
out particular Perfons who have made me an Offender 
for a Word j or rather, given out, that I afferted what 
I have profejfedly oppofed. But as, I think, it has never 
been my PraEiice, to defcrihe particular Perfons, when 
1 have endeavour d to plead the Caufe of Truth, either 
from the Pulpit, or in common Converfation ; fo I am 
as little difpofed to do it, in defending my f elf from the 
Prefs. Only I would take Leave to give them this Can- 
-tion, that they would for the future not be fo forward to 
believe all they hear concerning Miniflers, before they have 
given them an Opportunity to vindicate themfelves ; nor 
charge them withfalfe Doctrines, when they dont know 
what the DoSirines are which they fo call : and I know 
fo?ne that have done fo in this Cafe ; which give^ me 
farther ConviBion every Day concerning the Difficulty 
of the 7ninifierial Work, and how much more we need 
the Prayers of thofe that hear us, than deferve their 
Cenfures, efpecially in thofe Cafes where we are able to 
defend our f elves. 

What I have fuggefled, plainly evinces the Necejfity 
I was under of publijhing thefe Sermons, xvhich I have 
done with as much Expedition as my leifure "Time would 
permit, "the former of them I have taken the Liberty 
to enlarge and alter, that the Argument might be more-, 
iUujlrated, becaufe I never yet heard that any Objeciion 
has been jnade againfl it. And the latter, efpecially to 
Page 4(5. / have rendred a little more concife in fome 
places, as well as taken away the ufual Repetition to 
refrefh the Alefjjory of the Hearers, which would be 


vi The PREFACE. 

f.-fperfluous in printed Difconrfes ; and in others added 
a fezo Se::tences, and a. little correBed the Stile. T'his 
J ventured to do., becaufe no one could well found the 
Charge ahovementimied on it : hut as jw the remaining 
Part of it, efpecial/y from Page 4.6, to Page y>. 1 
have thrufi it forth into the IVorld a' 'twas v/eaihed ; 
leaving out only fuch IVords^ or SenteiiieSy as iveie ju~ 
pe,jlucus, and nothing to the Argument, or note und 
then tranfpojing a Sentence, to make the Method appear 
more clear : and what is added as fupplemcntal in the 
aforefaid Pages, I have dijlinguifhed by infciting it in 
an ItzWck Char aFler. 'The R^afon^ why Jwa^fo very 
cautious in this Matter, was, becaufe, it may be, fome 
who have had very hard Thoughts of me, will be ready 
to fay, if they find nothing worthy of the Charge they 
have already brought, that I have prevaricated, in not 
publifloing a true Copy of what I deliver' d fro?n the 
Pulpit I which now they cannot jtijlly do : fince 1 have 
.omitted nothing, that I know of, in this or any other 
Part of the Difcourfe, that appears to be obnoxious, or 
might tend to exaggerate, or jttflify any Part of the 
,Charge brought againjl it. However, becaufe there are 
fome Exprejjjons which may be thought not fo well guard- 
ed, nor the Arguments fo fully evinced as was needful, 
which indeed the Limits of an Hour, zvould hardly aU 
low, I have added a Poftfcripr, that I might farther 
explain xvhat has been fo much mifreprefented in that 
Difcozirfe, and do my felf the Jufiice, which popular 
Reports have denied me. 

There is one Thing mere which I am obliged to add, 
namely, that as it has met with much Oppofition from 
fome, fo has its Publication from others : Some of whom, 
having been cccaficnally asked. What they had to ob-^ 
jetl againjl it, have difcovered, if not confeffed, that 
they knezu but little of it ; only they were afraid that 
the printing it, wQiild make a Flame in the World, and 
raife a new Paper-War. This, I confefs, was of 
eq^iaJ, if not more^ Weight to me^ than the Vindication 


The PREFACE. vii 

of my own Sentiments. But I hope their Fears will prove 
groundlefs 3 for though they tell me fome have refolvsd to 
anfvjer. it, yet 'tis in my Power, and not in the leafl con- 
trary to my Inclination, to quench the Flame, by forbear- 
ing to reply i though I hope none xuill give the?n [elves the 
trouble to militate againfl thofe T'hings which 1 have de- 
livered, about which I have declared my felj not to be 
very peremptory, as being of a more indijferent Nature ; 
andif anyjhould think fit to objeB againfl the Imputati- 
on of Adam's Sin, which many in the World deny, 
I hope fome of thofe, whofe Condufl hai laid an Embargo 
on my Pen, will do fomething in Defence oj that Truth 
according to their own Method of Reafoning. 

1 cannot here forbear to mention an obliging M:ffage, 
which wasfent me by a Reverend Brother, fignifying, 
that if Ifaid any T'hing againfi Origwa] Sin inherent, 
he would fend ?ne a Civil Letter about that Matter \ for 
which 1 heartily thank him, but hope he will find no Oc-' 
cafion to put his Intention in Execution. And ij he 
fees any Thing elfe exceptionable, 1 f^ould, v:ere not 
my Hands tied up, without fearing a Flame, think my 
f elf Happy in interchanging Epifiolary Difcourfs with 
one, who has given a publick Proof, that he is not d/fpo-^ 
fed to treat his Antagonifi in any other way, than what 
becomes a Scholar and a Gentleman. 

Before I conclude this Preface, / cannot but acknow- 
ledge the obliging Ti-eatment I have met luithfrom ano- 
ther Reverend Brother, who,though he heard the ficond 
Sermon, determined not to give his Sentiments about 
it, till it was publifhed. Had all others done fo, I 
fhould have had no reafon for Complaint ; and flmdd 
have taken more Pleafure in fubmitting what I have 
publifhed to their Judgment, than I can have in my 
frefent Views, of being tried by thofe, who have pafl 
Sentence upon me before they have heard the Caufs. 
However, mtimhfianding all they have faid cf me, 
and herein have not f flriBly adhered to the Golden 
Rule laid down by otir BieiTed Saviour, o/Doin^ to 

^ all 

vrn The PR EFFACE. 

all Men, as They would that others (hould do to 
them ; I think I can truly fay , I abhor the T'houghts qf 
fpeaking Evil of any Man, or throwing Charges of 
Heterodoxy on thofe whofe Sentiments I am a Stranger 
to; much lefs would I weaken the Hands ofAIiniJierSj and 
add to the Burden they /loop under, in a Day in -which 
many would be glad, if fuch Allegations could be made 
good. Could this be juftly laid to my Charge, Ijhould 
conclude, that the Scourge of Tongues is a jufl Rebuke 
upon me for it : But as the great Apoflle fays, I know 
nothing by my felf, yet am I not hereby juftified. 
/ zvifl) I had nothing more to refleEl on in the Progrefs of 
my Minjjiry, than the 'Tendency of thefe Sermons to lead 
the People out of the Way of Truth ; or, that no Ser- 
mon 1 ever delivered had more Blemifhes in it, than thefe 
have erroneous DoEirines ; or, that I had never more 
defervedto be accufed of not fpeaking that which is right 
concerning God, than 1 have in thefe Difcourfes . 

A'ly earnefl Dejire, and Prayer is. That the God of 
Truth and Love would favour me, and all my Bre- 
thren, with a greo'-er Me af lire of Knowledge^ and Efia- 
hlijhment in the Faith, that neither I nor they may 
give any real Occajicn to any to fay, that we are de- 
parted from the Simplicity tha*- is in Chrift ; and, 
that we All may fpeak the Truth in Love, and 
maintain it with a Zeal becoming the Importance of 
,the Subjeci, and the Glory of Him whofe Image it be firs. 

Dec. id, 1724. 




ROM. V. 18. 

^y the Offence of One Judgment came upon 
all Men to Condemnation* 


»v «K«t2^;^'i 

H E N we find by v/oful Experi- 
ence, that the whole Human Na- 
ture is depraved, vitiated, and ex- 
pofed to all manner of Sin, ic 
Ihould certainly lead us to enquire, 
whence this took its Rife , or, 
tvhat is the Origin of all that moral Evil which 
is in the World, and of that long Train of Mife- 
ries that attend it. Befides, if Original Sin is to 
he lamented, vve muft befatisfied, that it is really 
a Sin. I therefore chofe to infift on thefe Words, 
that I might give you my humble Thoughts on 
a Doftrinc, which is greatly oppofed in the Age, 
in which we livCj having in Ibme late Difcour- 
fes endeavoured to eftablifh your Faith in the Do- 
iKrine of God's eternal Decrees, which no one 

B deniesi 

i - i^he Doctrine of 

denies, that ever I heard of, but he alfo denies 
Original Sin. And, indeed, 'tis a Subject, that 
has in it fo m?.ny Difficulties, that it requires a 
great deal of Thought to be able to account for 
them. This I fliall endeavour to do, as well as I 
am able, and as is conliilent with the Brevity of 
our enfuing Difcourfe. 

Nor is it a vain, empty, or trifling Subjeft which 
we hai'e before us, but fuch as is of the greateft 
Import?aice ; and as I would not be miftaken my 
felf, fo I hope my Way of handling it will not lead 
you into any Miftake. And to this End, I fhall 
endeavour, as much as I can, to keep clofe to the 
Analogy and Rule of Faith , and I hope I (hall 
fay nothing inconfiftent with, but what rather tends 
to give Glory to the Divine Perfedlions. 

You are very fenfible, that there are many, 
who, when they fee the Pronenefs of Man to Sin 
from his Childhood, will not deny, but that our 
Nature is corrupted : But how it comes to be fo, 
there's the Difficulty. To fay that it comes only 
by Imitatioyij is to fuppofe, that Sin, and confe- 
quentlyrDeath, reigns only over thofe who (in af- 
ter the Similitude oi Ada7ns Tranfgreffion, which 
Vvas an aftual Sin ; whereas we read, Verfe 14. 
of this Chapter, that/V reigned over them, that had 
not jinned after the Similitude of Adam'i 'Tranfgreffi- 
m.. It alfo fuppofes, that Judgment ccmes only 
for ^in committed by us, while we readily follow 
a bad Example; whereas our Text plainly fays, 
that it took its Fufe from the Oflence oi Adam. 
That this is the Senfe thereof, to me feems obvious 
even to a Demonfcration ; or elfe we are very much 
at a lofs, as to the Senfe, and juft Idea of Words, 
' which cannot, without manifcil Force put upon 
them, be taken in any Senfe, contrary to what is 
contained in ourTranflation. 

Original Sin, 3 

If we look back to the 1 2th Verfe of this Chap- 
ter, of which our Text is a parr, we find the Apd- 
ille afferting, that Sin entered into the World, and 
Death by Sin, by one Man, that is, by the firfi 
Man, in whom * all have Jtnned ; and alfo by his 
firft O&nce, andfo itpaffcd upon ail Men. And ac- 
cordingly 'tis {aid, Verfe 14. to reign from Adam 
unto Mofes; that is, from Adam iucceffively hi 
all the various Generations of the World. Be-» 
fides, I'^er. !<?. he fays. By one Man's Difobedience 
many luere made Sinners. And in our Texr, By the 
offence of One 'Judgment f came upm ail Men ta Con- 
demnation. Ihe Wojd, i^AlcLitiyc, which we ren- 
der Cihdemnatiun, cannot, with any manner of 
Confiflency, be taken in any other than a forenfick 
Senfe. Ke^V^ I!, indeed, may fometimes fignify a 
Judgment palTed upon Feribns, or Things, that 


* This feems to be the moft «ex, qni copJemntMtitr, reaiiim 
natural Senfe of 53 w ; and fb jmm contraxerUttty ah, Anius 
it proves Adctm, in whom all hominis offenfii ; fic & qmtcjitot* 
finnc'.-l, to be their Head and 
RcpreientaLive, and alio agrees 
bell: wich the Apoirles general 
Dc{i£»n,or Argument infijted on, 
and further iilujiirated ia the 
following Verfes. 

f Thfi Word, though net in 
the Original, is very jufily fup- 
plied in our Tranliation, from 
Ver. xvi. Or elfe, as the learn- 
ed Groihis obfervcs, the Word 
\y'ivi\o might have been fup- 
plied ; and fb the Meaning is, 
P^es procejpf in Gondemnatiomni : 
Vv'liich will not in the leall al- 
ter the Senfe of the Text. And 
here I cannot but take Notice 
of a very good P^araphrafc of a judicial or forenlick Senfe. So 

f. Ca^cUus on this r«ye, which that, according to the ConUru- 
think contains the true Senfe. (flion of the VVord, KctTciitetiAA 
thereof: His Wor^ls afe thefe : fignifies, y»(licinm adverfus ali- 
^emadtncdmi onims Horn- quern, 

B 2 i^ 

'vi'iiijicar.iur^ abjolnttomm fuani 
ohthinenint ab una. unim hcmi- 
71! s cbcd:entia. 

II That Ktiua. is not always 
taken in a forenfick Senfe, fee 
Mat. vii. I. Rom.\i. jj. As 
for Kctldneiixai we don't often 
meet with it in the New Tefca- 
nient, but Vv'hcrelbcver it is 
ufed, it is fo taken, ^qq Verfe 
16. of this Chapter; and.i^owz. 
viii. I. And fb are thofe 
Wo'-ds,the Sealc v/hercof hasan 
Atfinity to it, as Rem. viii. 54. 
Tij i K'x\a.Keivc<>v. Aiid alfb 
aKA\d,K':i\oi, as in AEis xvi. 57. 
and C^'YJ^. xxii. 25. is taken in 

4 'Ihe Doctrine <?/ 

is not forenfick ; but this Word ufed in our Text, 
I think, is never underftood otherwife : And 
therefore whatever Wordive fupply before it, whe- 
ther Sin^ as fome do, or 'Judgment^ as 'tis in our 
TranfLation, 'tis exprefsly faid to be unta Condem- 
nation. This came l^y the Offence of One, to wit, 
Adam; and therefore where one Perfon is condem- 
ned for the Offence of another, this muft neceffa- 
rily argue the Imputation of that Offence to him; 
otherwife the Condemnation is not juft. Thus the 
Offence, though not committed by all Mankind, '\^ 
faid to be plac'd to their Account, that is, impu- 
ted to them, and fo they are liable to Judgment or 

Our main Defign in chufing to inEfb on this 
Text was, that ive might take Occafion from it to 
fpeak to that, which is the mofl difficult Part of 
Original Sin, wx,. what we call fo by Imputati- 
on, or confifts in Adam's Sin being placed to 
our Account. And, I think, it very plainly con- 
tains this Doflrinal Propofition, which ftiall, by 
Divine Affiftance, be the Subjed of the following 
Difcourfe, i^/z.. 

All Mankind are under a Sentence of Condem- 
nation for the Sin of our firft Parents. By the 
offence of One 'Judgment came upon all Men to 

The Word, which we render Offence, is in the 
fingular Number ; implying, that Judgment does 
not come upon all Men to Condemnation, for all 
the Sins that Ada7n committed ; but that one Of- 
fence, which was the. firft Inftance of Sin in this 
lower World, that which firft caft a Reproach on 
the Human Nature, or that, by which Man firft 
caft off the Allegiance that was due to his Creator. 
And tl.e Apoftle ufes the Word in the finguiar 


Original Sin. 5 

Kumber in a following Verfe, Ver. 20. 'fhe Lain 
entered that the Offence might abound : that is, that 
this firft Sin might appear in all its aggravating 
Circumftances, as well as that we might be lium- 
bled under a Senfe of all thofe Sins, whicii are 
the neceffary Confeqvients thereof. 

The Method in which we fhall, by Divine AC- 
fiftance, fpeak to this Propofitionj fhall be 

I. To confider, That all Mankind are concern- 
ed in Adam's firft Sin. 

II. To ihew. What is that Judgment unto Coa- 
demnation, which all thereby are fubjeded to. 
The Offence imputed, and the Judgment in- 

I. To prove, That all Mankind are concerned 
in Adam's firft Sin. 
Here we fhall fpeak to two Things. 

1. That Adam was made Holy, and Happy j 
yet he finned, and fell. 

2. That he did this, not as a private, but a 
publick Perfon, the Head, Reprefentative, and 
common Father of all his Pofterity ,• and there- 
fore, that all Mankind' are concerned in this Sin. 

I.. Adam was made Holy, and Happy ; yet 
he finned, and fell. This Head contains twa 

The Firft to be confidered, is. That he was made 
rloljy and Happy. If he was made //o/y, it follows, that 
he was made Happy, for God doth not delight to fee 
his Creatures miferable, unlefsMifery be inflided 
as an Ad of Juftice, as the Punilhment of Sin. 

That Man was made Holy, appears from what 
is faid, Gen. i. 31. Godfaw every Thing that he had 
made, viz. after he had made Man, and behold all 
'ix)as very good. He could never have pronounced 
.this conqerning Man, if ho had made him in a 

^■-'' State 

6 The D o c T R I N E (?/ 

State of moral Evil ; for that is to give the higheft 
Charader to that, which the greateft, I might fay, 
the only Objeft of his, Abhorrence ; oi', to teftify 
his Approbation of that, whick no one ought to 
look upon, but with the greateft Diflike and irre- 
concileable Averfion, 

Moreover, The Soul of Man in its Nature and 
Powers is indeed the moft excellent Part of this 
lower World ,• but how vile and bafe muft it have 
been, if it was framed deftitute of the Divine Image, 
and its Faculties filled with the greateft Diforder, 
and void of that Reditude, which is the Beauty and 
Glory of the Human Nature ? Had God made 
the World in fuch a State, as now it is in, liable 
to the Curfe and Bondage, which now it groans 
under ; and efpecially, had he mride the intelleftu- 
al Part thereof, which only is cnpable of it, in a 
State of Enmity, and Rebellion ag-.unft him : to 
pronounce it Good would be contrary to the Ho- 
linefs of his Nature. 

Befides, to make a Creature prone and inclined 
to Sin, is to be- the Author of Sin ; which is the 
greateft Refledion caft on an Holy God, which 
can be exprefl'ed in Words. For vvhat is this, but 
to m.ake him a Viojater of his Law, and confe- 
quently in fuch a State, that he is in Honour obli- A 
ged to condemn him? Whoever aflerts this, lays * 
himfelf fufficiently open to that Charge, which is 
thrown upon us without ground, as though we 
thought, or gave others ground to conclude from 
tvhat we alTert, that God made Man to damn him. 
But far be it from us to think fo of the Great 
God : He l»;id other Ends more Glorious jn ma- 
king him ;' and therefore did not create hinv in a 
Stale of Damnation, which he Vv'ould havQ:d0n6> 
if he had made him in a State of Sin. ; ; /.' _ 

Moreover, had he been made in a State of Sin, 
he niuft have been made in a State of Separation 


' 'O R I G I N A L Sin. 7 

from God ; and th'ereforfc utterly incapable of Con- 
verfe with him, and as fuch fet at the greateft moral 
Diftance from the Fountain of all Holinefs and 
Happinefs. He could not be the Subjed of Di- 
vine Influences, which fuppofe an Intereft in Di- 
vine Love ; and confequently, he muft be altoge- 
ther unable to anfvver the moft valuable End of his 
Creation. Such a Blemifli as this would have fulli- 
ed the Beauty of this lower World to fuch a De- 
gree, that the Pfalmift would have had more Rea- 
fon to fay, as he doth, Pfal. Ixxxix, 47. Wherefore 
hafi thou made all Men in vain ? Therefore we can- 
not but conclude, as Solomon does, Ecclef. vii. 25?. 
that God hath made Man upright. 

From hence it follows, that Man was made 
Happy I or, as he had Powers capable. of knowing 
and enjoying God, fo he was Happy in the Know- 
ing and Enjoyment of him. Yet we muft obferve, 
that when vye fpeak of Man's firft State of Holi- 
nefs and Happinefs, we do not fuppofe, that when 
God made him Upright, he aded to the utmoft of 
his Power. This he never did in any Inftance ; 
therefore he never made a Creature in fuch a De- 
gree of Perfeftion, but he might have made him 
move perfeft, had he pleafed. There are no Per- 
feftions fhort of Divine, but he might have com- 
municated : He might have made Man, whom he 
conftituted a little lower than the Angels, above 
them ; fince all created Perfedions are bounded 
by his Sovereign Will. 'Tis true, Man's Dignity 
and Happinefs was very great, and he was, as we 
generally exprefs it, perfed in his Kind i yet he 
was not made in fuch a -State of Perfedion, as he 
fhall arrive to wlien he is brought to Glory. 

And as he might have been made with a greater 
Degree of Perfedion, fo he might have been admit- 
ted to partake of feme greater Privileges, even in 
this World. God might, as is more than probable, 


$ The Doctrine cf 

had he pleafed, have granted him a greater De^ 
gree of Communion with himfelf. For, as he ne- 
ver in framing Creatures, aded to the utmoft o£ 
his Power, as was hinted but nowj even fo in 
inanifefting himfelf to them, he never fhined forth 
tvith fuch a Luftre, nor manifefted fo much of his 
Glory to any, even the beft of Creatures, but 
he could have made fuller and brighter Difcove- 
jies of himfelf to them, had he been pleafed'to 
add fome further Degrees of Enlargement to the 
Capacities of the Subjeds, fo that they might be 
thereby rendered more capable pf receiving them. 

This will further appear, if We confider, what 
Man had ground to expect, had he performed per- 
fed Obedience, according to the Tenor of the Co- 
venant which he was brought under ; for then the 
Promife of Eternal Life would have been fulfilled, 
and he pofl'efled of a Degree of Happinefs, whieh^ 
from the Nature of the Thing, he could not be 
poflfeffed of in his firfl Creation. 

For the further llluftrating this let us confider 
two Things. 

(i.) What Man was poffeffed of, as a reafon- 
able Creature, antecedent to, or in Order of Na- 
ture before, his being in Covenant, which fome 
call God's natural Image or Creation-Grace. 

(2.) What he was given to expefc, as being con- 
cerned in the Covenant made with him, in which 
Eternal Life, and many Circumftances of fuper- 
added Bleflednefs attending it were promifed, up- 
on Condition of perfed Obedience. This con- 
tains more efpecially God's fupernatural Image, 
or what is fometimes called Super-creation-Grace. 

Under the former of thefe Heads let us obferve^ 

[i ] That God could not create Man in a State 
of moral Evil, polluted with, or Iiaving in his Na- 
ture the leaft Propenfity to Sin, for that would ar- 
.gue him the Author of Sin. 'Tis VQry eafy to 


Original Sin. ^ 

fhew, what we mean by this Propenfity, Biafs, or 
ftrong Inclination to Sin, by defcribing Man as 
ihe is at prefent in his fallen State. Let us confi- 
•der every Imagination of the T'houghts of the Heart as 
only E'vil, and thai continually^ Gen. vi. 5. Take a 
View of the Will as filled with Obftinacy, fee 
againft God and Holinefs, bent to backQide, 
fomerimes compared to an Iron Sinew^.noz to be 
perfvvaded to fubmit to the Divine Government, 
whatever Arguments are brought, or Motives al- 
-ledged to perfwade it thereto. This is the Chara- 
ftcr of Fallen Man, deftitate of the Divine Pre- 
fence and Grace- And can we fuppofe it pofli- 
ble, for God to have created him in this Conditi- 
on ? This would make his Ruin necefl'ary by a 
Neceffity of Nature : yea, it would fuppofe him 
to be habitually a Sinner, before he was aftually 
fo. And thefe Habits being deeply rooted in Na- 
ture, and Concreate therewith, muft be culpable ; 
for that which produces Sin, which is a Crime, 
cannot be exempted from being equally, if not 
much more, fo. And can we fuppofe fuch vicious 
Habits to proceed from a Holy God ? God for- 
bid ! 

[2.] Man was made without the leaft Charge of 
^uilt brought in againft hiln, and confequently "he 
muft be the Object of the Divine Approbation ; 
for, as we obferved before, he pronounced every 
Thing he had made very good- This is the re- 
fult of the former, and necelTarily arifes from his 
being finlefs. • 

[3.] No fuperior external Force could prevail 
againft him, fo as to render his Fall ncceflary or 
unavoidable by a natural Necefficy. For as the 
former reflects on the Holinefs of God, this feems 
inconfiftenc with his Goodnefs ; and it would be 
an Impeachment of his Juftice to fuppofe, that he 
punifhes Sin in thofe, to whom he had not given 

C iufli- 

I o T^he Doctrine of 

fufficlent Power to refift any Efforts that might 
be made to enforce it- The Tempter might ufe 
his utmoft Endeavours, but could do no more than 
prefent the infnaring Objcift, or follicite a Com-* 
pliance with his Suggeftions ,• but he could not of- 
fer Violence to the Will. Therefore he might 
conceal the Deformity of Sin, with all the fubtle | 
^Arts that his Malice could invent ^ or put the ^ 
fairell Colours on it, that it might appear with 
all the Beaut}^, which it is capable of receiving : 
yet Man had Wifdom enough to deted the Fal- 
lacy, and Strength fufficient to repel the AfTaulti 
and retain his Integrity. So that had our firft 
Parents ufed that Power, which God endowed 
them with, as a Part of his natural Image, they 
■would have appeared more than a Match for the 
Adverfary, who could by no means prevail againfl: 
them without their Confent. 

But all this was no more than what Man was 
porieiTed of i thefe were the Gifts of Nature, or 
Creation-Grace. There was fomething beyond 
this, that was promifed and expeded, which we • 
call Super-creation-Grace, which is the jeconS. 
T'hing to be confidered. 

Tliis carried in it fome farther Degrees of Com- 
munion with God, as well ^s a Right and Title t€f 
a greater Degree of Blefiednefs ; or, at leaft, the 
Grace of Confirmation, whereby his Fall would 
have been rendered impofiible : Which will fur- 
ther appear from what will be confidered under a 
. following Head, when we come to fpeak ofAdam 
as the Head of a Covenant. Thus we have fhewn, 
how Man was made Holy and Happy ; which leads 
us to the femid Branch of this fir fl Head^ 

2. To fpeak of him as having fmned and fallen. 
Though he was in thefe advantagious Circumftan- 
ces^ he abafed himfelf even to Hell, he fought out 
many Inventions. 


Original Sin. i i 

If any one fay, how was it poffible, that an 
innocent Creature fhould fin, and thereby fall : 
though the Polfibility of a Thing, where the Fad 
is fo evident, can't reafonably be queftioned i yet 
to this it may be replied. That Man, though crea- 
ted Innocent, was notwithflanding Mutable; for 
nothing is Immutable but God, or what is render- 
ed fo by his IVill or Providence, That Man's State 
was not rendered Immutable by the ^/// of God, 
is plain i for then he could not have fallen, with- 
out fuppofing the Divine Wtl/ to have been fru- 
ijr|ted. And that Man's State of Innocency was 
irRlriendered Immutable by God's Providence^ is no 
lefsud^vious ; for that was a BlefTing which Adam 
rather expefted, than enjoyed, and which he had 
no Reafon to expeft, without his performing per- 
fed Obedience, according to the Tenor of the 
Covenant he was lender. Had he done this, he 
would have had the Grace of Confirmation, which 
would have rendered his State of Innocency im- 
mutable ; and then 'twould have been an eternal 
Truth, that it is impoffible for this confirmed Crea- 
ture to fall. Now that Man {hould fall, not having 
obtained this Privilege, is no unaccountable Thing; 
for 'tis only to fuppofe him created with a free 
Will to what is Good or Evil, and at the fame 
Time left to the Freedom of his own Will, to chufe. 
or rc&fe without conftraint. 

But that we may underftand what this Grace of 
Confirmation implies, which Adam had not arrived 
to, which would have fecured him from falling, 
and which glorified Saints enjoy, whereby theii^ 
State is rendered fecure and unalterable ; it con- 
fifts in God's, freeing them from all Temptations 
from without. For as for inward Temptations, 
they are hardly confiftent with a fin lefs State ; for, 
as the Apoftle obferves, 'James \. 14. Every Man is 
Uri^tfidy^ wheii i^e is drawn azuay of his oivrt Lujiy and* 
- '< . C 3 enticeJk 

I i The Doctrine of 

enticed. Or, provided God fhould fufier Man to 
be tempted, as he did our firft Parents in Inno- 
cency : yet if he was pleafed to afford him a pre- 
fent Interpofure of Providence, telling him, that 
the Enemy is at hand, and therefore he has more 
than ordinary need to be on his Guard, look to 
himfelf, and take heed of Inadvertency or a Sur- 
prize ; I fay, if there was fuch a prefent Interpo- 
fure of preventing Grace, 'tis next to impoffible, 
that an innocent Creature fhould fall ; and much 
more fo, if to this we add, the prefent Influence 
of Divine Grace, exciting thofe Habits of Grji^, 
that are already in the Soul. This would ^^^t^' 
ally prevent his Fall ; but this Ada?n had notfiiut 
being left to himfelf, the Snare was laid by the 
Tempter, and his Feet entangled therein, and fo 
he finned and fell. 

That he finned and fell, appears from the Con- 
fequents thereof, and from all that Sin, which has 
ever fince invaded, and polTeiTed all the Powers 
and Faculties of the Souls of all his Poflerity, 
our Saviour himfelf only excepted- 

Now when we confider Man ^sjtming, we con- 
fider him as cafting off his God, refoiving to be 
his Subjeft no longer, chufing another Lord, or 
determining to give Laws to himfelf, and. be at his 
own difpofal. It alfo contained in it a Separation 
from God. Man feparated himfelf from his God 
hereby; that was his Crime; and God refolyed 
not to coiiverfe with him any longer, nor conti- 
nue to him theBIefiings he had forfeited ; there's 
his Punifhment. 

We iiave an Account of the Fall of I^fan, and 
the Manner .how it was broupfht about, in Gen. iii. 
What was the Temptation, how it was managed, 
and how itfucceeded, according to the Tempter s 
Defire; as alfo what were the Confequences there- 
of, to wit, Guilt, Fear, Shame, Flight from 

■ . God, 

Original Sin; i^ 

God, and the Curfe of God pronounced on the 
whole Creation, which was from that Time fub- 
jefted to Vanity. And henceforth Man was 
weighed in the Balance, and found wanting. And 
it was impoffible for him to yield perfed Obedi- 
ence to the Law of God ; for he that hath loft his 
Integrity can never be faid to be innocent, with 
refped to paft Guilt. For that would be to ren- 
der that not done which is done ; and therefore ic 
can never be faid of one that hath finn'd, that he 
hath not {inn'd. 'Tis fuch a Perfedion as this 
that would have given Man at firft a Right and 
Tide to Eternal Life ; but this is irrecoverably 
loft ', and therefore Man muft now expect to ob- 
tain the Favour of God another way. For being 
fallen, he is liable to the Curfe, or condemning 
Sentence of the Law ; for 'tis exprefly faid. Gal. 
iii. lo. Curfe d is e'very one that continue th not in all 
'Things^ zvbich are ivritten in the Book of the Law to do 
them. Now Adam having thus revolted from 
God, he was immediately under a Sentence of 
Death ; the Threatning made it due upon his' 
firft Tranfgreflion. Gen. ii, 17. In the Day thoti 
eatejl thereof thou /halt furely die. And by a parity 
of Reafon, 'tis the fame as though it had been faid. 
In the Day thou violateft the Divine Law, in any 
other Inftance, thou fhalt furely die. As foon as 
ever Sin entered into the World Death accompa- 
nied it, or entered by it, to ufe the Apoftle's 
Words, Rom. V. 12. Therefore it might be faid 
of him, that the Moment he finned he was dead 
in Law ; and as for all the other, and more com- 
mon Ideas of Death, fuch as the Separation of 
Soul and Body, or all the other Miferies of this 
Life, which are fometimes called Death*; thefe 
are only the Confequents of this legal or forenfickv 

? Exod. X. 17. i Cor. iv. 1 1. Cp xi. z ?. 


i>f %he Doctrine of 

Death ; and therefore are remotely contained m 
this firft Threatning. That which was primarily 
intended therein, was, as was hinted but now, a 
Reparation from God, a being brought under his 
Wrath and Curfe, and expofed to the total Lofs o£ 
that Communion and Intercourfe with him, which 
he had before j as alfo a Lofs of that Right and Title 
to Eternal Life, which the firfl Covenant gave him a 
fure ground to exped, had he retained his Inte- 
grity. This therefore raufi: bring him into a State 
of Defpair ; for no Relief was to be had but by 
an Acl of Grace, or the Interpofure of a Media- 
tor, which he had then no ground to expeft. 

And to this let me add, that another Confequejit 
hereof was, an utter Inability to do any Thing 
that was in all its Circumftances good. For as his 
Hope proceeded from his Intercft in, and Near- 
nefs to God, which was then loft, and nothing 
but Defpair enfuM i fo his Power to do what is 
good proceeded from the Reditude of his Na- 
ture, which now became vitiated by Sm, and turn-^ 
ed cut of the right Way; it alfo proceeded from 
the Divine Influences, which were now forfeited ; 
fo that his Strength to do good, and preferve him- 
feif from falling by future Temptations, was in- 
tircly loft, fince the Lprd was judicially departed 
from him. 

Thus ftir we have confidered Man as firft advan- 
ced to great Honours, and then as fallen from 
them, which leads us to the Second Branch of our firft 
general Head, viz. 

2. To confider him in all this not as a private 
Peifon, but as the Hs^d and Reprefentative of all his 

Here let ic be premifed, that he was under a 
Laid, and a Ccveuant ; iirft under the former, at 
leaft in order of Nacure, and then under the lat- 
ter. Not that there v/ere two DifpenfacionSj which 


6 R I G I N A L 3 I Ni tf 

he was under, viz,, a Legal and a Federal, which 
no body ever alTerted ; but the Difpenfation 
he was under had thefe two diftinft Ideas in it. 
Had it been only a Law, I humbly conceive, no one 
would have been concerned in it, but himfelf j and 
therefore they who are not willing to allow, that 
he was the federal Head, and Reprefentative of 
all his Pofterity, contend for its being only a 

But that wie may endeavour 'to fet this Matfer 
in a true Light, and further illuftrate the Head we 
are now entered upon, we fhall enquire, 

[i.] What is the Difference between aPerfon's 
being under a Law, and under a Covenant ; and, 

[2.] Endeavour to prove, that Adajn ivas under 
a Covenant, which will prepare our Way for the 
third Head ; to wit, 

[3.] That he was the Head and Reprefentative 
of all his Pofterity ; and, 

[4.] We {hall confider how the Divine Perfedi- 
bns may be vindicated in this providential Difpen- 
fation, in ordering One to fl:and in the Room of, 
and ad: for All Mankind in this Matter. "" 

[i.] To confider the Difference between a Per- 
fon's being under a Lazv, and under a Covenant. 
A Law is the declared Will of a Sovereign, which 
Subjefts, as fuch, are obliged to obey, provide4 
it be juft, without any mutual Stipulation between 
him that made it, and thofe that are bound there- 
by. And to fecure the Honour thereof, and en- 
force Obedience, it is neceffary, that there b^ 
feme Punifliment annexed, proportioned to the 
Nature of the Crime, which the Violater there- 
of renders himfelf obnoxious to. But as for Re- 
wards, efpecially fuch as a Subjed hath not a na- 
tural Right to, I humbly conceive they are not pro- 
perly included in the Nature of it, as ^ Laiv ; but 
Mrc rather contained in ic, as having the Idea of a 
K:' . Cove^ 

i6 T^he Doctrine of 

Co'venant annexed to it. A Covenant, efpecially as 
palling between a Sovereign and his Siibjeds, which 
is moft adapted to the Head under our prefentCon- 
iideration, is a Law, with a fuperadded Promife 
o£ fome Advantage, or BJeffings, which could noc 
be claimed but by Virtue of that Promife. 

Now, to apply this to our prefent Purpofe, the 
Divine Law, or revealed Will, is that which we 
are under a natural Obligation to obey ,• which 
Obligation arifes from the Relation we ftand in to 
God, as Creatures and Subjeds : fo that we can 
be no more exempted from it, provided the Law 
be promulgated, and remain in force, than we 
can ceafe to be Creatures. And the Puniihment 
annexed to it, is alfo proportioned to the Nature 
of the Crime i fb that as the Lawgiver is infinite- 
ly greater than any Creature, the Crime and Pu- 
niftiment is in proportion greater, than what can 
be inflided by any other than God. 

The immediate and neceflary Confequence of 
Obedience to this Law, is an Exemption from Pu- 
niihment, and, I think, nothing elfe; except you 
add, the Continuance of the Privileges he enjoy- 
ed j which God determined .not to take away, un- 
lefs forfeited by Difobedience : but no fuperadded 
Privileges are annexed to it as a Law. If there- 
fore there be a Promife contained in it, of fome 
greater degree of Communion with God, or of the 
Grace of Confirmation, or the Glory of the hea- 
venly Scare, or, indeed, any Thing more, than 
what Man was at firft polfefled of by an Ad of So- 
vereign Pleafure, which we call Creation-Grace : 
I fay, if there be any Thing more promifed to> 
the Creature, provided he does not violate the 
Law, then 'tis more than a Law, for it contains 
in it the Nature of a Covenant, which leads us 
to the fecond Head. 

[2.] Ta 

ORiGiisrAL Sin. 17 

[2.] To confider, i\\Q.t Adam was under a Cove- 
lant. If the Explication, we have given under the 
i,i{l Head, of 9 Covenant, as contradiftinguilhed 
from a Law, be jiift, we have nothing now to do, 
but to prove, that there was a Prom'fe of iuper- 
added Happinefs given to him, as performing per- 
feft Obedience. This to me feems very evident, 
though all the Arguments brought to prove it arc 
not equally conclufive. 

Some attempt to prove it from Hufia vi. 7, 
which Words they chufc to rendei", T'hey like Adam 
have tranfgrejfedthe Covenant. Therefore, fay they, 
Adam w^s under a Covenant : And fo they think 
that Adam is the proper Name of our firft Parent ; 
in n hich Senfe they fappofe the Hel/rezv Word 
(uD^^^) ADAM is to be taken, as we Hnd ic 
in our Tranflation, in ^^c^ xxxi. 53. If I have co^ 
vered my Tranjgreffion as Adam. q. d. If I have 
ufed fuch vain, trifling Excufes, as Adam did, to 
palliate his Sin, Gen. iii. 12. But, though this 
Argument is not to be treated with Contempi', 
fince there are Perfons of confiderable Note, that 
take the Text in tliis Senfc*j yet I cannot lay 
much Strefs upon it ; becaufe the Words may be 
rendered, as they are in our Tranflation, They 
like Men, 6cc- Or, according to the common Gu- 
ftom of vain Man, they have tranfgrejfed the Cove-^ 
nam ; i. e. They are no better than the rcil of 
Mankind, difpofed to break Covenant with God, 
So the Apoftle ufes the fame Way of fpeaking iiii 
this Senfe, i Cor. iii. 3. Are je mt carnal., ayulroalk 
as Men 1 Or, it may be taken in the Senfe tiiac 

* Grothts, though net much lie pt \ ficut kA^m\, quia paB urn 

inclia'd to allow yj^rtw/ to have meton vioLivit, '"vxptdfus ejt ex 

been the Head of a Covenant, lledene ; ita teqtwm eji ex ftiA 

yet fays, Mihi Latina J.\ec in- terrd expelli. 
terfretntio vcn difplic:t^ ut firiftis 

P Others 

i8 T^he Doctrine o^ 

others * give of it ,• ^. d, They have tranfgreffed 
the Covenant, as chough it had been a Man's Co- 

A more common Argument, to prove, that A- 
ilam was under a Covenant, is that taken from 
Gen. ii. 17. In the Day thou eatefi thereof thou fialt 
furely die. Whence it is argued. That if Man had 
not finned, he fhould have been made Partaker of 
the heavenly Blefl'ednefs. 

I am very fenfible, that many will think that 
much Strefs is not to be laid on this Argument : 
for it will be objected, that though a Punrfhment 
threatened infers, that it (hall not be inflided, if 
not deferved ; yet it does not follow from hence, 
that if the Guilt of Death be not Incurred, a 
greater Degree of Happinefs muft neceflarily be 
conferred. Thus if a Legiflator threatens his 
Subjeds with Death, in Cafe they are guilty of 
Rebellion ; it only follows, that there is an Inti- 
mation given, that provided they do not rebel, 
they fhall be continued in the quiet Poffeffion of 
what they had a natural Right to as Subjeds, and 
not advanced to any higher Degree of Dignity. 

However, that we may not wholly give up this 
Argument, let it be confidered. That this Threat- 
ning was denounced, not only to fignify God*s 
Will to punilh Sin, or the certain Event that 
fhould follow upon it, but as a Motive to Obe- 
dience, which i:> one great End of Threatnings 
in human Legiflature. Now it highly becomes 
God, and is agreeable to the Methods of his Pro- 
vidence in all Ages, to encourage his Creatures 
to obey him, by Promifes, as he does in the Dif- 
penfation we are now under. And thefe Promi- 
fes refpeft fome Bleffing we are not at prefent 
poffefs'd of. So that Life, when promis'd in Scrip- 

* Jmu & 7Vf w. Ta-fiquam homlnis. 


Original Sin. 19 

ture, is generally taken for eternal Life, or an 
Admiffiori to the higheft Blelfednefs in Heaven. 
Why t!ien {liould it impon fo great a Privilege in 
one Difpenfation, and nothing elfe in another, 
but: an Exemption from Punifhment ; which Adam 
knew f jcm the Moment that he was created he had 
a Right to, as not being, 'till his Fall, confcioas 
of Guilt ? and why may we not then allow the 
Confeqncnce : If thou finneft, thou fhalt die ; 
therefore if thou finneft not, thou (halt obtain 
eternal Life ? 

Moreover, if the Death threatened implies a 
Privation of the heavenly Blefl'ednefs, as well as 
the Lofs of what he was adually poflefied of, as 
it does in other Scriptures, why may we not fup- 
pofe, that the contrary Bleifing oppofed to it, 
which Adam was to expeft, was the Enjoyment of 
that Bleflednefs ? As, to apply the Similitude ta- 
ken from human Government, If a King, from 
the Goodnefs of his Nature, and his Deiire to 
be reckon'd a common BlefTing to all his Subjeds, 
fliould give them Occafion to conclude, that he 
would not only pi'eferve them in the Pofl'effion of 
their natural Rights, but make them as happy as 
they are capable of being by his Adminiftration ; 
then, to threaten- Death to them in Cafe of Rebel- 
lion, is not only to tell them, that they fliall be dif- 
.poffefled of what they before enjoy 'd, but of the 
jarge Expeftations they had Reafon to entertain. 

That this is eminently true in the divine Ad- 
miniftration, is evident : for Adam could not but 
know God to be the Fountain of BlefTednefs ; and 
when he looked into himfclf, he would find, that 
he was capable of a greater Degree of Bleflednefs 
than at firft he enjoy'd i and, which is yet more, 
that he had a Deiire thereof planted in his Na- 
ture. Then, what might not be fartlier expettcd 
from hence .'' Would he not conclude, that God 
#) 2 did 

2o The Doctrine of 

did not give him thefe enlarged Defires for no-. 
thing, nor put a Thirft into his Soul after fome 
Degree of Happinefs, and Communion wich him- 
felf, which there was no PoffibiUcy cf attaining? 
Would he not therefore conclude, that there was 
fonierhing more contained in that Life, which he 
was cautionM to take Care not to forfeit, than 
bare!}' what he enjoyed in Paradife ? 

But, if it be farther objeded, that we cannot 
nrgue from xvhat God might have done for Adarriy 
or the Happinefs he was capable of, that he had 
therefore Ground to exped a greater Degree of 
Happinefs \ let me farther add, that "'tis more 
than probable, that Man was not without fome 
fiirther Intimation of this, if the 'tree of Life had 
in it the Nature of a Sacramental Sign, for the 
Confirmation of his Faith in this Matter, from 
which it took its Denomination. Some, indeed, 
conclude, that it was called the Tree of Life only, 
becaufe it was defigned to be a natural Means for 
the Preferration of Life, or the repairing the De- 
cays of Nature, having a Kind of medicinal Vir- 
tue, to give as it were a new Life, when the Spi-'^ 
rits were exhaufted, or any Thing had occurred 
which tended to break the Conftitution, or de- 
{Iroy the due Temperament thereof. This Con- 
jecture is framed to fupport a groundlefs Conceit, 
"tliat Man was made mortal ; or at leaft that Death 
w*asoniy to be prevented by this Expedient, I'iz,. 
His eating of this Tree. But I fuppofe, it is no 
diRicult Matter to prove, that the DiiTolution of 
Soul and Body, and all the Miferies of this Life, 
and a Liablencfs to eternal Death, are the Con- 
lequence of ^^^^^w's Apoflacy. /jnd if fo, then' 
the Tree of Life was defigned for a very different 
life ', not fo iriuch to preferve the Strength and Vi- 
gour of Nature, as to put Man in Mind of that 
celeftial Life, which he was given to exped. 

r That 

O RT G I N AL Sin. 21 

That this may funher appMi', let it be pre- 
mifed, tha: ir was not inconfu with that State, 
in whicii M-an was' created,- lor him to be in- 
Ih'uttcd, or have the Promife of eternal Life 
brought to his Mind, by fignif-cant Signs. And 
that the Tree (j- Life was of this Kind, appears 
from the Ailufioi: lo it in the New Teftament, ia 
fome Places I wnere the heavenly State is repre- 
fented. This we are to underftand by the Tree 
of Life in the Midji of the Paradife of God, Rev. xxii. 
2. and Chap. ii. 7. Nothing, I think, could juftify 
this Allufion, but the Sacramental Ufe of this Tree 
loAdam in Paradife. And we have feveral Allu- 
fions in the New Teftament to thofe Things thac 
were typical in the Old. ThusChrifl is called our 
Piijfover, and SanEiification is called the Circumcifion 
made xvithout Hands; and Regeneration is called Bap- 
tifm, or being born of Water : which Allufions would 
never have been ufed, if they had not elfewhere 
been deligned to fignify thofe refpective Things. 
Even fo the heavenly Blelfcdnefs would never have 
been eating of the "Tree of Life, if this 
Tree had not been an Ordinance for the Confir- 
mation of the Faith of our firft Parents, in the Ex- 
pectation of eternal Life. Therefore it follows, 
that there was a Promife thereof given. 

If it be objected, that when Man was driven 
out of Paradife after his Apoftacy, this Reafon 
is afligned for it. Gen. iii. 22. Lejl he take of the 
Tree of Life, and eat, and li've for ever ; and thac 
therefore it had a natural Virtue to make him im- 

To this I anfwer, That I humbly conceive, the 
Meaning of this Scripture is, as though God 
fhould fay. Left the poor deceived Creature, who 
is now become blind, ignorant, and expofed to 
Error, fhould eat of this Tree, and think to live 
for ever, as he did before the Fall, therefore he 


22 The Doctrine^/ 

(hall be driven out of Paradife. This was in feme 
Rei'peft an Ad of Kindnefs to him, to prevent a 
Miltake, which mi^ht have been of pernicious 
Tendency, in turning him afide from feeking Sal- 
vation in the Prcmifed Seed. Befides, when the 
Tning ligniiied by this Tree was not to be obtain- 
t!d that Way, in which it was before, it ceafed to 
be a Sacramental Sign ; and therefore, as he had 
no Right to it, fo it would have been no lefs than 
a Profanation to make a religious Ufe of it in his 
fallen State. 

But that it may further appear, that our firft 
Parents expeded a greater Degree of Bleflednefs, 
and confequently that they were under a Federal 
Difpenfation \ let us confider, that our Saviour's 
Defign in coming into the World was, that he 
might recover that out of the Hand of Juftice, 
which Adam forfeited and loft ; but this was no- 
thing? lefs than the heavenly Bleflednefs. Does 
the Second Covenant contain a Promife of eter- 
nal Life, in God's immediate Prefence in Hea- 
ven, and flipll we fuppofe that th-e firft had no 
fuch Promife annexed to it? Chrift came into the 
World to deliver us from the Curfe, that is to fay, 
the condemning Sentence, which. Man's firft Apo- 
ftapj brought us under : but this v:is not all ; 
he had a further Defign, namely, that we might 
have a Right to the Favour of God, and fpiri- 
tual Communion with him begun here, and con- 
funmiated in Glory. This is evident from what the 
Apoftle fjggefts, Gal.\\\. 13, 14. where he fpeaks 
not only of his redeeming us from the Curfe of the 
Law^ but procuring for us the Bleffing of Abra- 
ham, which was very comprehenfive, including 
in it that Promife, that he would be a God to hi^y 
and would deal with him in fach a Way, that 
he might appear to be his Shieldy and exceeding 
great Re-doard. See Gcti. xvii. 7. compared with 
Chap. XV. I. More- 

O R I G I N /:. L Sin. 23 

Moreover, in Gal. iv. 4, 5. the Apoftle fpeaks 
of both thefe Ends of Chrift being Tent into the 
World, njiz.. Not only to redeem them that were un- 
der the Law (that is, the Curfe of the violated 
Law J or Covenant ^ for it had both thefe Ideas in 
it, as was before obferved ; and therefore may 
juflly receive a Denomination from one or the 
other of them : If we call it a Law, then "'twas 
fuch a Law as had a Promife of fuperadded Hap- 
pinefs annexed to it i or if we call it a Covenant, 
yet it had the Obligation of a Law, (ince it was 
made with a Subjeft, who was under a natural 
Obligation to fulfil its Demands ; which I ob- 
ferve, that we may not think the Apoftle's calling 
it a Law overthrows our Argument. I fay, the 
Apoftle obferves, that Chrift came not only to re- 
deem us from the Curfe of the Law) but that we 
might receive the Adoption of Sons. This implies in 
it, a being taken into his Family, or our having 
a Pvight to all the Privileges of the Sons of God, 
which comprehend in them Eternal Life. Thefe 
Privileges therefore Man would have had a Right 
to, had he retained his Integrity, and fo ftood 
in no need of a Redeemer to procure them for 

This will further appear, if we duly obferve 
the Verfe immediately following our Text ; As by 
one Man s Difobedience many were made Sinners., fo by 
the Obedience of one fhaU many he made Rlghsous. 
From whence it may be argued, that Chrift per- 
formed aftive Obedience to the Law of God ; for 
the Word here ufed, which we render Obedience, 
is v-TAKori, which I think is never taken in any 
tother Senfe : and that this adive Obedience gives 
[us a Right to eternal Life, and not barely an Ex- 
emption from Punifhment, is plain from the Ef- 
feds and Confequences thereof, as ic is faid, 7>ta}iy 
[liereby fiaH be made righteous, or fiiall -have a j'-ifti' 


24 T^he Doctrine vf 

ficationof Lije^ as the Apoftle fpeaks in the Words 
immediately foregoing, which certainly implies a 
Right to Life. And that this Obedience was fub- 
ftituted in the Room of that which Adam fhoiild 
have performed, but did not, is plain, from its 
being oppofed to his Difobediencei the Word being 
Tlct^^'xoYt^ which fignifies a Defed of aftive Obedi- 
ence. Therefore Chrifi's Obedience procurM for 
us, that which Adami would have done, had it 
been perfed, 'vix.. a Right to Eternal Life. 

Lee me alfo add, that this feems to be the 
main Drift of the Apoftle's Argument, in Rom. 
viii. 3. IVhat the Laio could not do^ in that it xvas 
weak through the FleJJy, God fending his oivn Son in the 
Likenefs of Jinjid Fleflj, and for Sin condemned Sin in 
the Flefl} : 'That the Righteoufnefs of the Law might 
be fulfiird in us. q. d. According to the Tenor 
of the Firft Covenant, Eternal Life was not to 
be expeded, iince it was become weak, or could 
not give it, for this Reafon only, becaufe we 
were unable to yield perfed Obedience to it. But 
God fent his Son, that its righteous Demands 
might be fuIfillM in the Humane Nature ,* and by 
this Expedient we may obtain that Life, which this 
Law or Covenant, would have given, had not our 
Fall rendered it weak : therefore the Life which 
Chrift procured, and that which was promised, had 
Adam Q:ood, were for Subftance the fame. 

The Reafon why I ufe this Caution, in avert- 
ing it to be only for Subflance the fame, which in- 
deed is enough for our prefent Purpofe, is, be- 
caufe I would not be underftood, as though I fup- 
pos'd the Glory, which God's People (hall be ad- 
vanc'd to by Chrifl, is not much greater in many 
circumftantial Refpefts, which render it, beyond 
any Thing elfe, that ever did or could happen, 
either as enjoyed or expected, the Wonder of 
Angels and Men. For here is a Divine Perfon 


O R I G t K A L StT^; ajf 

incarnate, and fo made under the Lav!>i which he 
perfedly fulfilled : and thereby not only approved 
hinifelf/<^/f^/tt/ to him that appointed him^ but here-* 
in magnified the Law, and made it more honourable 
than it would otherwife have been ; which no meer 
Creature, by any Inftance of Obedience^ could 
have done. Beiides, here Was an Inheritance pro-^ 
cured j not meerly by the Performance of altive 
Obedience, but by the fhedding that Blood which 
is of infinite Value. Thefe are fome Circum- 
ftances of Glory, which the firft Covenant knew 
nothing of. The Happinefs which we Obtain by 
Chrifiy has aifo this peculiar Advantage, which 
renders it moft eftimable and wonderful, in that it 
contains a Deliverance from Death and Deftfu-* 
ftion, as well as a Right to Life. It fuppofes a 
Forgivenefs of all Trefpafles, as well as an Ad- 
miflion into Heaven, to behold the Mediator** 
Glory there. 

Thus have We endeavoured to prove. That A-^ 
dam was under a Covenant, in as much as he had 
the Promife of the heavenly Bleflednefs. But 
fuppofe we could not prove that he had the Pro- 
mife and Expedation thereof, it xvould be fuffi- 
cient to our Purpofe, and would evidently prove 
the Difpenfation he was under to be that t)f a 
Covenant, if it were only allowed, that he Was irt. 
Expectation of a State of Confirmation, in thof^ 
Advantages which he was poffefs'd of irt Paradife j 
which would make a X'ery confiderable Aceeflion 
to his Happinefs. But I humbly conceive^ it will 
appear from what has been faid, that there was 
much more expefled, and therefore that he was 
imder a Covenant, which w-as the Thing to bd 
prov*d; which leads us to the next Head. 

'Thirdly^ To prove that Adam was conftitUte<d the 
Head and Reprefentative of all his Pofterity. This 
is a Matter or Pure Revelation, therefore we muft 

E noK 

i'6 'The Doctrine i?f 

not look beyond the Scripture to evince the Truth 
of it. And one Scripture, which fufficiently proves 
it, is, what the Apoftle fays in the Chapter of 
which our Text is a Part ; laying down the Do- 
ctrine of Original Sin, and fhewing how we fell 
in Aiiam, he ifays concerning him, ver. 14. T'hat 
he luas the Figure of him that was to come : TyVo?, a 
Type. Now in what was Adam a Type of Chifl ? 
He was not fo as he was a Man, confifting of 
Soul and Body ; for in that Refped all, who liv'd 
before Chrift, might in the fame Senfe, and as juft- 
ly, be callM Types of him, as he was. 

This will appear, if we confider, that when we 
read of any Perfon or Thing being a Type in 
Scripture, there are fome peculiar Circumftances, 
Jjy which he or it may be diftinguiih'd from all 
other Perfons or Things that are not Types. Now 
in what was Adain diftinguifh'd from all others fo 
much, as in this Circumftance of his being the Fe- 
deral Head and Reprefentativ^e of all his Pofterity ? 

And that he was fo, the Apoftle not only occa- 
fionally mentions, but enlarges on this Head, and 
(hews, in what Refped this was true i and parti- 
cularly obfervcs, that as the one conveyed Death> 
the other was the Head or Prince of Life. The 
refpeftive Things convey'd were indeed direftly 
oppofite : therefore tlie Analogy or Rcfemblance 
between them, confifted only in the Manner of 
conveying them : fo that, as Death did not become 
due to us, in the firlT: Inftance of our Liablenefs 
to it for our own adual Sin, but the Sin of Adam ; 
fo that Right to eternal Life, which we have in 
Juftification, is not the Refult of our own Obe- 
dience, but Chrift's. Now if Chrift was in this 
^efpeft a Federal Head, and Reprefentative, of 
his People, then Adam who was in this, or elfe in 
nothing, his Type or Figure, muft be the Head 
of a Covenant, in which ail his Pofterity were in- 

Original Sin, '27 

eluded. Now that Chrifi the Antitype was the 
Head of a Covenant, in which all faving Blef^ 
fings are contained i That his Righteoufnefs is 
imputed, or plac'd to our Account, and we faid to 
be made righteous therein, might be proved from 
many Scriptures- Therefore it follows, that Adam 
as being the Figure of Chrifi^ muft be the Federal 
Head and Reprefentative of all his Pofterity. 

Another Scripture, by which this might be pro- 
ved, is I Cor. XV. ^') to 49, where the Apoftle 
fpeaks of the firft and fecond Adam. By the latter 
he means Chrift : now why (hould he call him fo, 
who lived fo many Ages after Adam, if he did not 
defign to fpeak of him, as typified by him, or 
bearing fome Refemblance to him ? And in other 
Expreflions he feems to imply as much, as that 
we derive Death from him, of which he had been 
fpeaking in the foregoing Verfes i and fo he fays, 
•ver. 47. T'he firft Man was of the Earth, earthy ; and- 
njer. 48. As is the earthy, fuch are they alfo that are 
earthy i and 'uer. 45?. JVe have horn the Image of the 
earthy : where he feems to allude to that Part of 
the Curfe mention*d in Gen. iii. i^. Duft thou art^ 
and unto Duft fialt thou return. 

And this Death is confider'd as being not meer- 
ly a Debt owing to Nature, as he was made of the 
Earth ; and therefore defign'd, as fome fuppofe, 
in his original Formation, to be refolv'd into his 
firft Principle : but it is fet forth in a very differ- 
ing, yea, formidable View, as having a Sting m 
it, "ver. 56. T'he Sting of Death is Sin: and tliis 
arofe from a Violation of the Law, as the Apoftle 
obferves in the following Words, which implies, 
that this Death is not only afiliclive, but Penal j 
and if fo, it muft enter into the World by Sin*, 
as he faith, Rom. v. 1 2. This is what we derive 
from the firft Adam, Death, with all the Effeds 
of the Curfe, that attend this prefent State. 

E 2 On 

aS ^he Doctrine of 

On the other Hand, he (hews us how the Se- 
cond Adam luas made^ or ordained, as Mediator, 
to be a quickening^ or Spirit ; and 
therefore in him we hope to enjoy a fpiritual and 
better Life : in which Senfe he elfewhere ftiles him- 
felf, yohtixi. 2^. "The KefuYYetiion and the Life, and 
is called, ABsin. 15. T'he PYimeofLife. He is, as 
fuch, the Author and Foundation of fuch a Re- 
furrection to eternal Life, as difarms Death of its 
Sting, and gives us a compleat Vidory, i Coy. xv. 
57. In this Refpect the FiYJi and Second Adam are 
compared together. If the Firft Adam's being 
made a living Soul, implies nothing elfe, but his 
being the common Root, and Father of Mankind, 
in that, indeed, there is no Refemblance between 
hrm and Chrill ; but in all thofe other Things, 
which are fpoken of him in this Context, there is 
a man ifeft Refemblance. So that asChrift is the 
Fountain of that Life and Immortality, which is 
brought to Light by the Gofpel ; fo Aidiam was the 
procuring Caufe of that Death, which all his Po- 
fberity are liable to. Thus he prefents to our 
View Death and Lifej Mortality and Immortality, 
in a legal as well as a natural Senfe : a Liablenefs 
on the one Hand, not only to the Stroke, but Sting 
of Death; and on the other, a Vidory obtained 
over it. The latter we derive from thefecondA- 
dam, as the Head of the Covenant of Grace : the 
former we derive from the frfi Adam ; which 
therefore argues him to have been the Federal 
Head, and Reprefentative of all his Pofterity. 

Moreover, if he had not been appointed the 
Head and Reprefentative of his Pofterity, that 
could not be true, which is exprefsly afferted in 
our Text, that l^y his Offence Judgment came upon 
all Men to Condemnation i or that all are juftly pu- 
niftied for his Sin. For though God might dif- 
penfe feme lefler Degrees of Evil to a finlefs 


Original Sin: 29 

Creature, out of his meer Sovereignty ; and tho' 
I will not contend with any that <hnll fay, that he 
might, without any Dilhonour to his Perfedions, 
fend on him an Evil fenfibly great, provided "'twas 
pAOt only confiftent with his Love, but attended 
with thofe Manifeftations and Difplays thereof, 
which would more than compenfate for it, and no 
Way tend to prevent his anfwering the End of 
his Creation : Yet 1 may be bold to fay, that, 
from the Nature of the Thing, God cannot in- 
flift the leaft Degree of Evil, as a Punifhment on 
a Creature, who is in all Refpeds guiltlefs ,• fince 
that would be for the Judge of all the Earth not 
to do Right. For if Puniihment be juft, there 
niuft be Guilt either imputed or contraded ; which 
renders it due by the Sandion of a righteous 
Law, which is fuppofed to have been violated. 
Now this is inconfiftent with a State of Innocency ; 
therefore Judgment cannot be inflided, unlefs Sin 
be committed. Therefore if Adam had not fin- 
ned, neither he, nor any of his Pofterity, on his 
Account, could have been liable to Puniihment. 
But if Judgment comes unto Condemnation, not 
only on himfelf, but on all Men, for his Sin ; it 
follows, that all are chargeable with it, or, whicii 
is all one, 'tis imputed to them. And this certain- 
ly argues their Concern in his Sin, which could by 
no Means be fuppos'd, had he not been the Fe- 
deral Head, or Reprefentative of all his Pofterity : 
which was the Thing to be proved. 

This was an important Truft, and Honour con- 
ferred upon him, by the Sovereign Will of God, 
who may govern his Creatures, in what Way he 
pleafes. It was, I fay, the Refult of a Divine 
Grant : therefore though he was indeed the natu- 
ral Head of all Mankind, and in that Refped 
more honourable, than any who afterwards de- 
fcendf '' ^ ' : him, the Second Adam only excepted ; 


30 lihe D o c t r i n e (>/ 

yet that the whole Affair of Life or Death (hould 
be put into his Hand, or committed to his Ma- 
nagement, was owing entirely to a divine Con- 
ftitution, and. not due to him by a natural Right, 
as the common Father of all Mankind : which 
leads us Xo the fourth Head. 

Fourthly^ To con fider how the divine Perfedions 
may be vindicated in this providential Difpenfa- 
tion, in ordaining, that One fliould ftand in the 
Room of All Mankind ; fo that, without any A^ 
of their own Will, they fhould ftand or fall in him, 
and Punifliiment accordingly be due to them. Since 
the Difpenfacion, that Adam was under, did not 
contain barely the Obligation of a Law, but inclu- 
ded in it the Nature of a Covenant, as has been be- 
fore confider'd ; and fince he flood in the Room 
of all his Pofterity, fo that they are all punifliable 
for his Offence, as has alfo been proved, which 
is plainly afferted in our Text : it only remains 
that we obviate thofe Objeftions which are ufually 
brought by thofe, who entertain a differing way 
of thinking, and more efpecially rejeft the Dodrine 
of the Imputation of One Man's Sin to others with 
a kind of Abhorrence. 

The fum of aUthe Obj.eftions we meet with is, 
that this tenjis to caft a very great Refleftion on the 
divine Perfeftions : 'tis to luppofe him to do that 
which we fhould account unjull and fevere in all 
Methods of Humane Government : that 'tis con- 
trary to the Law of Nature and Nations, which 
is eftablifhed by no Icfs than a Divine Sanction : 
and (hall we think it pofUble for the Divine Ad- 
miniftration to give the leafl Umbrage to that, 
which he has given us Reafon to think a great 
Defed in all thofe which are of an inferior Na- 
uire ? 

Some alledge the Unreafonablenefs of one 
M^n's being punifti'd for the Sin of another j 


Original Sin. 31' 

but that only holds good in Punifhments infllded 
for another Man's Crime, on thofe who have no 
Manner of Concern in it : but where a Perfon is 
juftly appointed the Federal Head or Reprefen- 
rative of others, *tis not contrary to the Ldw of 
God and Nature, for his Crime to be placed fo 
far to their Account, as that they (hall be liable 
to Punifliment for it. Sacred and Civil Hiftories 
abound with Inllances of the like Nature, which 
no one can reckon exceptionable. 

Therefore the main Strength of the Oh}eCi\on 
lies, in the Unreafonablenefs of Perfons being 
punifh'd for the Crime of one, who is appointed 
t'o be a Reprefentative, but not chofen by thofe 
whom he reprefents, though fo much concerned 
in the Event of his Condud. The Cafe, fay they, 
is much the fame, as though a King fnould ap^ 
point a Reprefentative-Body of Men, and give 
them a Power to enaft Laws, and determine the 
Fates of whole Nations at once, and render them 
happy or miferable ; fo that, if they fnould plun- 
der Men of their Eftates and Properties, there is 
no Redrefs to be had ; which no one would call 
juft. The plaufible Pretence is, that they are their 
Reprefentatives,and what Perfons whofuftain fuch 
a Charafter do, is in Effcd the fame, as though 
it were done by themfelves ; thouirh there would 
be no Ground to complain of Hardfliip, provided 
rhey^ were duly elected by thofe, who are con- 
cerned in what they do, as being reprefented by 

The Objedion, as fet in this Light, which I 
was willing to confider in the fulleft Strength it is 
capable 'of, that our Anfwer may appear more 
juft ; I fay, the Objedion is apply'd to our Notion 
of the Divine Difpenfation in the Cafe before us. 
God is, fay the Objeaors, fet forth by us as ap- 
pointing a Reprefentative, who was indeed a fin- 


3j2 The Doctrine vf 

lefs Creature, but yet mutable '■, fo that being lefc 
to himfelf, by one fingle Inftance of Inadvenency, 
Sin might enter, and the whole Race of Maa- 
kind be involved in Ruin. This, fay they, is in- 
con fiftent with the Equity and Goodnefs of the 
JDivine Adminiftration. 

There are various Methods taken to anfwer 
this Obje(9:ion, and remove the Difficulty that 
feems to lie in our Way. The Anfwer which 
feme give, who lay more Strefs on it than they 
need, is, that if Adam had retainM his Integrity, 
we (hould have accepted of and rejoyced in that 
Life, which he would have procured by his Stand- 
ing, without complaining, or finding Fault with 
the Divine Difpenfation : therefore fince he fell, 
and thereby brought Death into the World, why 
Ihould we not fubmit, and acknowledge that all 
the Ways of God are equal ? 

Others fay, that fince Adam was the common 
Father, and therefore the moft honourable of 
Mankind (Chrifly as was obferv'd before, only ex- 
cepted, whom he did not reprefent) therefore it 
was fit that he Ihould have the moft honourable 
Poft, as this muft be fuppos'd to be ; and there- 
fore had all his Pofterity been then exiftent, and 
the Choice of a Reprefentatlve wholly referrM to 
them, the Law of Nature would have direded 
and pointed out the Man, who ought in this re- 
fpecl to have the Preference to all others. This 
Anfwer, I confefs, bids fairer to remove the Dif- 
ficulty, than the other : efpecially if it be added, 
that God might have given Adam fome Advanta- 
ges of Nature above all the reft of Mankind, as 
well as that Relative one, which arifes from his 
being their common Father ,• and therefore that it 
would have been their Intereft, as well as their 
Duty, to have chofen him, as being beft qualified to 
perform the Work which was devolv'd upon him. 


Original Sin. 3 j 

But fince this will not altogether remove the 
Eifficulty, 'tis alledg'd, that God chofe him, and 
therefore we ought to acquiefce in his Choice. 
Since he thought fit, that he fhould be the Repre- 
Tentative of his Pofterity, had all been then ex- 
igent, fuppofing them to be in a State of perfect 
Holinefs (and we muft not fuppofe the contrary) 
then chey would have fubfcrib a to the Equity of 
his Procedure, and approved of what his Sove- 
reign Pleafure determined ; or otherwife they 
would have adually finn'd, and fallen, in rejefting 
or complaining of what they knew to be his Will. 
For what is Man, that he {hould reply againft 
God, or fay that any of his Difpenfations are noc 

But this will not fatisfy thofe, who advance the 
contrary Scheme of Dodrine, and deny the Im- 
putation of Adarns Sin to his Pofterity, who ftill 
complain of it, as a very fevere Difpenfation, and 
conclude that the Divine Sovereignty is pleaded 
for againft his other Perfeftions. And therefore 
let me add fomething further, which I hope will 
fufficienrly anfwer the fore-mentioned Objedion. 

We freely allow, that it is not equitable for. 
a King (ro ufe the Similitude taken from human 
Forms of Government) to appoint a Reprcfenta- 
tive, who (hall have a Power committed to him, 
to take away the Property or Eftates of his Sub- 
jefts ; and that 'tis not enough to fay, that they 
ought to acquiefce in what he does. But if we 
fhould a little alter the Similitude, that it might 
be more adapted to what it is brought to illuftrate, 
and fuppofe a humane Form of Government, 
where the Subjects had nothing which they could 
call their own, feparate from the Will of the 
Prince, and their Property and Eftates were not 
barely defended, but given by him ; fuppofe alfo 
that he was und^r no Obligation to do this, and 

F chac 

34 5^^ Doctrine ^/ 

that he had a Right to difpoffefs them hereof at 
his Pleafure : in this Cafe he might, without any 
Injuftice, appoint a Reprefentative, by whofe Con- 
duft they may be forfeited or retained. 

Now to accommodate this to the Matter before 
us, fo far as it may be ufed to ilhiftrate it, let 
me obferve to you, that there are two Things 
which Adam was either poflefled of, or expeded. 
The one I call Creation-Grace, or God's natural 
Image ',' this he had as a Man : the humane Na- 
ture was given him without Stain, or Guilt, or* 
Blemifh i for that would have been unworthy o£ 
its Creator. But befides this, he had partly in 
Pofleflion, and partly in Expeftation, God's fu- 
pernatural Image, which I call Super-Creation- 
Grace j confining in a Right to, and further Ex- 
pedation of, a very great Degree of Nearnefs to 
himfelf, or gracious Communion. This he part- 
ly had, and was to have retained or loft : and a 
greater Degree hereof was expefted, according to 
the Tenor of the Covenant, which he was un-» 
der ; and, confequently, this was to be obtained 
or loft, not only for himfelf but all his Pofterity, 
according as he ftood or fell. 

Let me farther add, that Man could claim no 
Right to this fpecial Favour, unlefs he had 
ftood : and then his Claim had been founded, 
firft in that Grace that made this Covenant, and 
then in the Faithfulnefs of God, who could not 
but fulfil what he had promised therein. Yeaj 
God fhight have made him without it : for it is 
one Thing to be a reafonable Creature, and ano- 
ther t6 have the humane Nature fo much advanced, 
as it was in this Covenant. Now can it be faid to 
be unjuft, for God to repofe that in the Hand of 
XL Creature, who was able to retain it, which muft 
be confider'd, as well as tliat he was a mutable 
Creature, and fo might lofe it ? If he loft it, did 


Original Sin. 


he lofe any Thing which he had a natural Right 
to, as Subjeds of earthly Princes have to their 
Property, which is given them by a greater So- 
vereign, and whereof they are appointed Guar- 
dians, and not allowed to difpofe of it at Plea- 
fure ? And may I not further add, that this Cove- 
nant could not be violated, but Guilt muft be con- 
traded ? For Man was obliged to perform the 
Condition thereof by the Law of his Creation : 
and therefore in not performing it he was ren- 
<lered guilty, and fo were all his Pofterity, as 
will be farther obferved in our next Difcourfe. 

JsJ?/tf, If this be excepted the Reader may pleafe to fee it 

againft as an uncommon Way fet in a very juft Light, by G. 

,or accounting for the Dodrine y. VoJJius, in Hifi. Velag. p. 

flf Imputation of Original Sin, 136, &c. 

F a 



ROM. V. 18. 

Sy the Offence of One Judgment came upon 
all Men to Condemnation. 

^.SS'*|**E made fome Entrance laft Time 
* 'jxj^r:^* on this Subjefl : and, I hope, 
*^^W?^* my Defign in choofing to infifl: 
*.'^'c^j2^'^« on it, was not barely to give you 
^' *i:x--''&G v^Si* my own Thoughts on a DoArine, 
*r^v:-•w•R««H^••.*« vvhich has in it very confider- 
able Difficulties j but that I might endeavour 
to make it appear, that, that important Article of 
our Faith concerning Original Sin^ may be defend- 
ed in fuch a Way, as is not juftly liable to the 
Charge which is fometimes brought againft it, as 
though it was inconfiftent with the Divine Per- 
feftions, or made God to be, if not the Author 
of Sin, yet, at leaft, cruel and fevere to his 


38 T^he Doctrine (?/ . ... ■ 

The Propofitidn we laid down to be infifted on^l 
which is plainly coniained in our Text, was this: 

That all Mankind are under a Sentence of Con- 
demnation, for the Sin of our firft Parents. Or 
thus ; Adam broke the Covenant which he and all 
Mankind were under in him, and they hereupon 
were liable to Condemnation, 

The Method in which we proposM to fpeak to 
this Proportion, was, 

I. To prove, that all Mankind were concern'd 
in Adam's firft Sin. 

II. To confider, what is that Judgment unto Con- 
demnaticnj which they are thereby liable to. 

The fiyfi of thefe Heads we enlarged on the'lail 
Tim^ 'y and (hall now proceed to the fecond. 

II. To confider what is that Judgment unto Con- 
■demnation, which All by Adam^s Fall are liable to, 
Judgment y efpecially the Word '^tt,T<i<tt.y.dt, here ufed, 
which we fo render, is a Forenfick Term i and 
therefore it fuppofes Sin firft committed, and 
Guilt hereby contraded, which is an Obligation 
•to fuffer Panifhment, or elfe it fuppofes Sin im- 
puted, or charged, or plac'd to the Account of 
Perfons concerned therein, as it does in our Text, 
Avhere *tis faid. Judgment came upon all Men to 
Condemnation. We obferv'd in our laft Difcourfe, 
riiat Chrift is excepted j and the Reafon is, be- 
caufe though he was the Son of Adam, by a Simili- 
tude of Nature, yet he was not his Son by natu- 
ral Propagation, or Generation, but was brought 
into the World by Creation, or miraculous Pro- 
dudion ,• and therefore was not included in thac 
Covenant, which was made with him. Adam was 
not confidered as his Federal Head, but onl^ ay 
the Federal Head of his natural Seed* 


Original Sin. 3^ 

Here then we are to confider, what is that Pu- 
"niibment, that was due to Adam and all his Pofte- 
rity for his firft Offence ; and more efpecially, 
what is the Punifhment due to his Pofterity. Here 
obferve, we do not exempt Adam from an Obli- 
gation to Punifhment ; for in Order of Nature, 
Sin was firft charged upon him, and then upon 
his Seed, fo that he is to be look'd upon as the firft 
Subjed: of Puniftiment : therefore we muft con- 
fider him, as falling under the Stroke of Juftice, 
and then all Mankind in him. It will be proper 
here to enquire, 

[i.] What there was peculiar in his Crime and 

[2.] What were the Confequences of his Sin, 
tliat equally affeded all his Poflerity. 

[i.] What there was peculiar in his Crime and 

There were fome Aggravations in his firft Sin, 
that can't be apply'd to Original Sin, as tranfmit- 
ted to his Pofterity. For his Sin was ours only by 
Imputation, not as committed by us. In him 
Was an adual Sin, or Violation of the Law of 
God, with the Confcnc of the Will, which imme- 
diately brought with it Malignity, and a Propen- 
fity of Nature to all Sin j but though Original 
Sin imputed to us brings after it a Biafs to all 
Evil, yet this it does not fo immediately, as will 
be confider'd in the fubfequent Part of this Dif- 

It follows from hence, that there is a Punifh- 
ment due to him for this Sin, according to the 
greater Aggravations thereof, which is not in all 
Refpefts due to his Pofterity. We are to take an 
Eftimate of the Greatnefs of the Punifhment, by 
the Aggravations of the Sin ; there ore if the Sin 
4n him was greater, the Punifliment due to him 
muft necefl'arily be greater. 

■40 T^he Doctrine of 

If it be inquired, wherein does the Pnniiliment 
of this Sin, as due to him, exceed the Purjifliment 
confequent upon it with Refpe6t to us? 

I anfwer, One Thing that neceflarily aitended 
it in him, wasSelf-Retledion, or a Charge biciight 
in by Confcience, for the aftual Violarion of a Di- 
vine Law. Confcience might be faid to fly in his 
Face, or wound his Spirit with a diftrefling Senfe 
of what he had been doing, as it generally does 
when Guilt is adually contrafted. We know too 
well what the Meaning of this is. But I cannot 
fee, how our Confciences can charge us with fuch 
a Guilt for Sin imputed, as'it lays hold of and 
gives us a tormenting. Senfe of, for Sin commit- 
ted by us. And that which follows upon this is, 
that doubtlefs there is a greater Degree of Mife- 
ry confequent on the one, than there can be on 
the other, which leads us to confider, 

[2.] What were the Confequences of Adams 
Sin, abftrafting from the peculiar Punifliment due 
to himfelf for it, which equally affeded all his 

(i.) There was the Lofs of what he expeded, 
according to the Tenor of the Covenant made with 
him, a Privation of God's fupernatural Image, 
a total Separation from him who is the Fountain 
of all Bleflednefs. So that it was from that Time 
impoffible for him, having ruin'd and deftroy'd 
himfelf, being brought under the Dominion of 
Sin, to render himfelf finlefs ,* and, confequent- 
ly, (ince to be finlefs was the Condition of attain- 
ing Life by that Covenant, he could not, accord- 
ing to the Conftitution thereof, obtain Salvation 
that Way- This was one Confequence of his 
Fall,, which belonged not only to himfelf but all 
his Pofterity. 

(2.) He was left to himfelf, to his own Con- 
dud, which to be fare, for the fui;uie, would be 


Original Sin. 41 

very vile. And how much does this differ from 
his being letc to the Freedom of his own WiU 
before his Fall, when the Will had a Power to do 
what in all its Circumftances is good, which now 
'tis dertitute of ! But that, which ftill makes the 
Tendency hereof more fatal, is, that we are ex- 
posed to Temptation without a Guard, or fuffi- 
cient Means of defending our felves againft it. 
Adam^ 'tis true, was liable to Temptation, at 
leaft from without, before he fmn'd ; but -then 
it was not a Punifhment, but rather the Refuk 
of God's Sovereign Will. It could not be a ju- 
dicial Difpenfation, which always fuppofes Sin, 
inafmuch as 'twas antecedent to it : But the Cafe 
was orherwife after the Fall ,• for from that tima 
he became weak, and unable to ftand his Ground 1 
and therefore our Liablenefs to Temptation is a 
Part of that 'Judgment, which came upon all Men ti 
Condemnation. Man is now judicially left in the 
Hand of Enemies, that lie in wait to devour him ; 
and God, as a righteous Judge, refufes to inter-* 
pofe for his Refcue. 

(3.) Another Confequence of this Sin, was an 
Impotence to all that is good. In Adam's pecu-r 
Jiar Cafe there was, indeed, a Malignity, as Was 
hinted but now, as the immediate Confequence of 
his Fall; but the Cafe is a little differing in us, 
for there is firft an Impotence to what is good, 
and then a Malignity, as will be further confn 
der'd under a following He^d. 

And it is in no wife unbecoming God, to deal 
with fallen Man in all thefe Refpeds as we ha\'e 
now obferv'd ; namely, not to beftow the Bleffing 
which was conditionally promised, or not to give 
Life to one, that did not perform the Condition of 
it; nor to defert a Rebel, who had forfiaken him ; 
nor to leave him impotent to what is good, who 
had forfeited that S.iength, which at firft he gave 

Q hinr 

42 ^The Doctrine of 

him. And being thus left in the Hands of Ene- 
mies, and not able to Hand in the Battle, nothing 
but further Ruin is to be expefted. This is the ' 
Punifhment equally due to Adamj and all his Po- 
fterity, for his firft Offence. 

Thefe Things being prefnis'd in general, let us 
now more particularly confider, what is the Pu- 
nifhment due to Original Sin, as fuch. 

But we muft firft enquire, who are the Perfons 
to whom Punifliment is due only for Original Sin : 
and thefe are Infants. This will be allow'd i at 
leaft by thofc, who grant, that there is fuch a Thing 
as Original Sin ; or, to ufe the Words of my 
Text, that 'Judgment came upon all Men to Condem- 
nation ; or that there is a Punifhment due for that 
Sin, abftrading from that fuperadded Punifliment, 
which is due to adiial Si-n. All, except Infants, 
have Sins of tneir own committing to anfwer for ; 
■ and therefore are Sinners by Inhefion, or by Pra- 
dice, as/tis commomly exprefsM. None but In- 
fants are Sinners only by Nature, or by Imputa- 
tion. What then is the peculiar Punifhment due 
to thofe, who have no -Charge brought againft 
them, but that which refpefts Original Sin ? 

. (i.) It is far fliort of the Punifliment dtieto 
adual Sin. 'Tis certain, there are fome aggra- 
vating jCircumftances in ' Aciual Sin, and, confe- 
quentlyi fomething in" the Punifliment due to it, 
which cannot be in Original. As for Inftance, 
Aftual Sin is committed with the Direction of the 
Underftahding, and the' Confent of the Will. 
This belongs to it as fiich, befides thofe peculiar 
Aggravations, which are taken from the Circum- 
ftances of the Perfons committing it, tvhich are 
x^arious. In fome it is attended with Rebellion 
agajnfl: a greater Degrefe of Light, a breaking 
through <all the EngnEgements of Divine Love, a the Thoughts from the Terror of his 


Original Sin, '43 

Judgments, and a fixed Refolution not to be with- 
drawn from their Purpofe, notwithflanding the 
many Convidions of Confcience, and Strivings of* 
the Spirit, which they have been favoured with. 
And above all, there are the Aggravations of 
Actual Sin, as 'tis committed by them who live 
under the Gofpel Difpenfation, which are much 
greater than thofe that attend the Sin of the Hea- 
then, who never heard of the Gofpel. And ac- 
cording to the greater Degree of Obftinacy, that 
therq is in Sin, 'tis flill more aggravated j and, 
confequently, the Punifhment due to it muft be 
greater in Proportion. Thus we read of fome, in 
Mat. xxiii. 14, who are charged with the vileft 
Hypocrify, in making a Pretence to P^eligion, to 
give Countenance to their immoral Practices, as 
the Scribes and Pharifees are faid to do, who turned 
their Eyes from the greateft Evidence that could 
be given to fupport the Truth^ and defpifed the 
greateft Kindnefs that ever was extended to Men : 
therefore our Saviour tells them, that they (liould 
receive the greater Damnation. And tiie Prophet 
^Jeremiah fpeaks of fome of the greateft Oppofers 
of his Meffage, concerning whom he fays. Chap. 
xvii. 18. Deftroy them with double DeflruBion. Thus 
then as atSual Sins are greater or \t{s, fo is the 
Punifhment in Proportion thereunto. 

But none of thefe Things are to be apply 'd to 
Original Sin. (My Meaning here is fufficiently 
plain ', I. fpeak of it as in Infants, in which Cafe 
*tis not only diftinguifh'd, but even feparated 
from Adual Sin.) Tiiis is not voluntary, at leaft, 
not committed with the Will of him to whom it 
is imputed ; neither are any of the other Aggra- 
vations above-mentioned to be apply'd to it. So 
that I may truly fay, that the Sins of thofe, ivho 
live under the Goipet-Difpenfation, are moft ag- 
gravated, and thofe 'of Heathens lefs, in Pro- 

G 2 portion 

44 5"^^ Doctrine of 

portion to the lefs Degree of Light they have i 
but Original Sin in Infants can have none of theftf 
Aggravations. And, indeed, \is fafficientiy ob- 
vious, that its Guilt is alike in all, and, by Con- 
iequence, fo is the Punifhrnent due to ic as luch. 

Two Tnings will neceiiarily follow from hence. 

(i.) In the Punifhment of Oiiginal Sin, as 
fuch, there are no Checks or Accufations of Con- 
fcience, as there are for Adtaal Sin committed. 
Therefore there being no Confcience of Sin, in 
this Senfe there is a very confiderable Circum- 
ilance in the Punifhment of Non-Eleft-Infants, 
which is far lefs than that of all others. 

(2.) Wiiich is the Confeqiience of the former, 
there is nothing of the Wrath of God breaking 
in upon Confcience, which is the moft terrible 
Idea of Hell. You muft confider, that the Soul of 
Man is a thinking Subftance, it carries Thoughts 
with it out of his World into another. And as 
Thoughts are engaged in reflefting, as well as ar- 
ouing, the Soul carries with it the Didates of 
Confcience into another World, and cannot get 
rid of them. If thofe that are in Hell could get:. 
rid of tv.t. Reflexions of Confcience, the Wovm 
that dies net, they would be comparatively happy. 
They cannct flee from themfelves ; there is fome- 
thing in Nature, that purs them upon calling 
Thinps pafi: to Remembrance ; and when the 
Soul is diflodg'd of its Body, the Weaknefs and 
Infirmities whereof caufe the Memory to be of- 
tentimes defedive, it may be it will be more re- 
tentive of what is paft, or the Soul be more ca- 
pable of calling it to Mind, than it was before ; 
and that isits Mifery. Could they but lofe the 
Refledion they have on what they have done, 
how happy, comparatively, would they be! And 
as they cannot but think on what they have ddne^ 
rhey cannot but refled alfo on what chcy have hjly 


Original Sin; 45 

and confider, what God was, and what he was to 
them, and what the Gofpel-lvifpenfaaon was, which 
they were once under. How glad would they be, 
could they but erafe out of their Minds the Idea 
that there was a Gofpel, or fuch a Perfon as 
Chrift ; or could they but believe, there is no God 
the Objed of Worfhip, or no fuch Perfons as 
Saints or Angels, who are happy in his Prefence ! 
Thefe Thoughts they carry out of the World with 
them. They therefore, who are guilty of Adaal 
Sin, carry with them their own Puniflnmenr, the 
greateft Accent of their Mifery. Efpecially if 
you confider, that there is in this, not only what 
is natural to the Soul, but what is judicial, the 
Wrath of God breaking in upon their Confcien- 
ces, God's bringing Sin to Remembrance, ftir- 
ring up the Soul to call to Mind what it has for- 
gotten. This is fet forth in a very terrible Man- 
ner, in Pfal. 1. 21. / will reprove thee, and fet thine 
Iniquities in order before thine Eyes. I will brino- to 
Mind, what thou wouldft fain forget. This, I 
fay, is the judicial Hand of God ; but it contains 
no Reflefcion on his Perfedions, to bring to Mind 
what the Sinner has done, to make him miferable. 
And this cannot be without fome Punifhment of 
Senfe. The Mind cannot be made uneafy with 
thefe Thoughts, but it muft affed: the Body. What 
the further Punifhment of Senfe will be, I (hall 
not enquire. Now to apply this to our prefent 
Purpofe, I humbly conceive, that this Punifhment 
does not belong to Non-EIecl-Infants, dying in 
Infancy i it can't, from the Nature of the Thing. 
I think what I fay is obvious ,• and if it be falfe, I 
fhould be very glad tobeotherwife inform'd : there- 
fore I hiuft conclude, that Infants have no Con- 
fcience of Sin committed, they carry not with 
them out of the World thofe Slings, and that Re- 
morfe that others doi fo that whatever Puuifiiment 



4^ The Doctrine <>/ 

they are liable to, it is void of Self-Refledion, But 
of this we {ha!I have an Occa^on to fay foinewhat 
more under the Third He^ji/4..^ 

(2.) They have a Punimmlint of Lofs. There 
is the Lofs of God*s fupern^tural Image, the Lofs 
of his fpecial Prefence, the'Xofs of all the Bleffings, 
Man had ground to exped, had he retained his In- 
tegrity. For fince Adam, has forfeited and loft 
thefe Privileges, all his Seed muft lofe them. We 
{hewed in our laft Exercife, that that, which Adam 
was concerned for in our Name and Beiialf, was 
what God might have refufed to have given ; and 
therefore he might appoint a Reprefentative that 
might fin them away, and not be charged with do- 
ins his Creatures wronj^. On this Foundation we 
fay, that Adam forfeited and loft the fpecial Pre- 
fence of God, which was his Glory, and Guard, 
and Safety, in cafe of Temptation, which contain- 
ed in it much of Heaven j and this all Mankind 
have loft. 

(3.) Though Infants have this Punlfhment of 
Lofs, yet let me further add, that they have no 
Senfe or A.pprehen{ion of what they have loft ,* in 
which refpcct the Punifhment is comparatively ve- 
ry fmall. The Man indeed who goes out of the 
World under the Guilt of adual Sin, cannot help 
tliinldng on what he has loft, ' and done to pYocure it ; 
but the Infant has no Refleftion on any act of Sin 
committed by him. 'Thismtifi be fuppofed^ ifiuefup- 
fofe him taken out of the IVorld before capable of com- 
mitting acTual Sin. I conceive he has no Idea or Ap- 
prehenfion of what he has loft; and therefore we 
may compare his State to that of a poor Idiot, who 
never knew what Reafon meant, and therefore 
perceives not the Lofs of it, though others that, 
behold him know him to be unhappy, in not' ha- 
ving that BlefTing which they enjoy. Or (if Si- 
militudes may be conjidered, as not ill uj} rating 'Things 


Original Sin. 47 

in every particular Ciraimjlance) his Condition is 
like that of one, who is born Heir to a Crown, who 
having been carried in his Infancy into a Cottage, 
• and there bred up in the meaneit Way, has no 
Knowledge or Apprehenfion of what he has loft, 
or was born to ; and therefore is comparatively 
Happy though deprived of it. But if any one 
fhould inform him of this, he would render \\\mjen- 
fibly miferable, from his own Thoughts 0/ /j/j Cok- 
dition, occajioned thereby .- Even fo, he who hath com- 
mitted actual Sin cannot hit know what he has loft, 
though the Infant, I think, does not. I am wil- 
ling to be convinced, or better informed, if it be 
otherwife. . r.. \.Uv 

My only Argument for this is. That if heknoxvs 
what he has loft, it muft be by fome Method of 
Divine Providence leading him into the Knowledge 
hereof^ after he is gone out of this World j and 
that muft confift in fome way or other revealing 
the Gofpel to him ; and that Revelation of the 
Gofpel to him muft be only with this Defign, to 
make him miferable" as a further PunijJoment of Ori" 
ginal Sin. For the Gofpel cannot be knoivn by the Light 
of Nature y and the Defign of revealing it cannot he^ 
that itjjjould be improved by him for his good; unlefs you 
ftippofe another State of Probation, which is not ko be 
admitted of. Therefore I cannot have fiich an Idea 
of the Divine Providence, as to ftippofe, God 
would reveal Chrift and his Gofpel to him merely 
that he might knozv what he has lo/l ; and confequently, 
that he might enhance his Mifery .Therefore I hum- 
bly conceive, that though Infants have the Punifti- 
ment of Lofs, they have not the Apprehenfion or 
Senfe of what they have loft, as others, who have 
committed aftual Sin, naturally and judicially have. 

If it be objected. That this is inconfiftcut with 
the Souls being a Thinking Subftance, or being a 
Subje(5l capable of Converfation ; or if it be faid, 


48 The Doctrine of 

how can he reafon, but he muft Infer, that there 
is a God the Fountain of all Bleifednefs, and tliaq 
he is not in the adual Enjoyment of him? Or, 
how can he converfe with thofe who have loft the 
Gofpel Difpenfation, and not from hence argue, 
that he is Partner with them in that Mifery, ani 
from his knowing what they have lofi^ be able to con- 
clude his own ? 

To this I Anfwer. * T'i sane afyJVay to anfwer an Ar- 
gument bypropnjing a contrary one. T'here are Difficul- 
ties on each Side : therefore 1 am obliged^ till my Argu- 
ment to the contrary is anfwered, to content my f elf with 
fuch a Reply as thiSy which is little more than to confefs 
my own Ignorance as to this Matter ; though when Ifay^ 
that 1 cannot account for it, I will not be fo confident 
as to fay^ that it is by no means to be accounted for. It 
may be {though I dare not pojitively ajfert it as fome 
have done) he may remain deprived of the adual 
Exercife of Reafon in the other World, as well as 
he was in this ; or if not, he may be feparate 
from the Company of thofe, who are capable of 
telling him what he has loft. However, whether 
this be true or no, I muft ftill remain by my Afl'er- 
tion, fo far as to conclude^ that God will not reveal 
Chrift and the Gofpel to him in another World, 
barely that he may know what he has loft. And 
if this be triie^ fuppo/ing him to have the aSiual Exer- 
cife of Reajon, certainly he can have no tormenting Re- 
fleEiion, fuch as they have who look back on their Con- 
tempt and NegleEl of the Gofpel. 

(4.) Another Punilhment of Original Sin, as 
fuch, which is the immediate Refult of Adam's 
Apoftacy, and the Confequence of the Punifhment 
of Lofs mentioned in our laftHead, is an Impo- 
tence, or utter Inability to do what is fpiritually 
good. So that if Infants were fuppofed to be 
born with the Exercife of Reafon, improved to 

that Degree, as it is when they come tp^e.State 

1 gf 

Original Sin. 49 

of Manhood, this may be truly {aid of them, as 
fallen Creatures, vjhich no one will denyvjbo ginjei in- 
to the DoBrine of the Necsjjity of Special and Ejjicaci- 
ous GrAce. And it contains no Refleclion on the 
Divine Perfedions, to leave a fallen Creature (in 
a judicial Way) in fuch a Condition, as to refufe 
to communicate himfelf to him ; which will necef- 
farily infer an Impotency to what is Good /> all its 

(5 J Though Infants are born Guilty, and Im- 
potent to what is Good, yet I humbly conceive, that 
before tljefirji beginning of the aElual Exercife of Reafcn, 
this is not attended with a Binfs to what is Evil. 
The Reafon why I nlfert this, is, becanfe if there 
be a Biafs to what is Evil ivith this Circu7njlance^ God 
is the Author of it; and then I can't conceive, 
how the Divine Majefty can be freed from th€ 
Charge of being the Auchor of Sin. I don't fay, 
as fome do, that Infants are Innocent^^ for \^ fup- 
pofe in this Head that rhey are Guilty; nor do I 
fay, that they can by any Means in their own Povjer, 
norii,ill they be able when they are Adult thereby to obtain 
Salvation, for that is fuppofed in their Impotency to 
what is Good : but I can't fee, how they can be born 
with an adual Biafs to what is Evil. For that is to 
fuppofe that God creates their Souls, in fuch a State 
as that they muft ncceffarily oppofe him, viz.. Not: 
front Habits contracled but implanted by him as a Creator. 
Whereas I would rather attribute this Neceffity of their 
oppojing him to the Privation of his Prefence, and tlfc 
Impotency confequent thereunto, which are'^Judicialj to- 
gether with the acquired Habits of Sin, which are the 
mediate Refult thereof, the fivfi Acls of Sin interve^ 
ning, than to any corrupt Habits inftfed into the Soul by 
a Holy God. 

^Tis true, if the Soul were not from God by 
.'mmediate Creation, but the Parent was" the im- 
:nediate Caufe thereof, as well as of the Body, as 

50 The Doctrine of 

many fnppofe, I cnuld eafily account for this Mat-r 
ter, and would readily grant, that it has a Biafs to 
what is Evil propagated with it by its Parents. 
But I can^'t fee lufficient Reafon for this. We ge- 
nerally fuppcfe therefore, that God is called the 
Father of Spirit i^ becaufe he is the immediate Cre- 
ator of the Soul : and if fo, let us confidcr, how 
God ads in this Cafe becoming himfelf ; for we 
muft not afi'ert any Thing unbecoming him in this 
Matter. He may, 'tis true, create a Soul guilty, 
without any Impeachment of his Perfedions, or 
giving the leafl ground to fuppofe him the Author of 
Sin ', for. that is a Punifliment due to us for the Sin 
of our firfl: Parents : I can conceive alfo how God 
can create a Soul, and yet not manifeft himfelf to 
it, ivhen this Privilege has been forfeited : I can 
conceive how God can create a Soul impotent to 
what is good, without any Impeachment of his Per- 
fedions, efpecially if we conjider the Privilege now de- 
fiied, as having been once given, and then forfeited : But 
I can't conceive, how he ,can create a Soul with a 
Biafs to Sin without ading inconfiftently with his 
Perfedions. Therefore though Infants are guil- 
ty, and can't attain Life by the firfi: Covenant, nor 
be faved without Chrift, as the Lord their Righteouf" 
nefs, and the Spirit as the Fountain of Regenerating 
Grace ; yet their Souls have not a Propenfity to 
what is Evil in tl^eir firfl: Creation. 

Obj. '"Tis ohjeBed by fo?ne, that God may do this 
in a judicial IVay^ as the Punifhment o/Adam'j firfi 

Jnfzv. 'Tis true, God fometimes proceeds in a 
judicial Way, by punifhing Sin with Sin, as fome 
exprefs it ; but he never does this by infufing Sin, 
or by putting a Biafs into the Soul, which (hall inr- 
dine it to Sin. Thus when God is faid to have 
hardened Pharaoh's Heart, he did not do it this 
Way J but only frivati'pdy^ by denying him Hearn- 


Original Sin* 51 

fbfcning Grace. In the fame Senfe all thofe other 
Esprejjion^ ufed in Scripture oj the like import ^ in which 
the ProxiaeMce oj God is laid to be cowverfant about the 
finjul Actions oj Men^ are to be iinderflood : as -when he 
is J aid to have put a l)ing 'Spirit in the Mouth q/Ahab'i" 
ProrhetSy i Kings xxii. 23. Or to have bid Shimei 
curfe Y}a\'\(.\y 2 bam. xvi 11 Or when his Provi" 
dence it J lid to be converjant about Jofeph'i being fold 
into Egypr, Gen. xlv. 8. In thefe, and all fuch like 
Places, we are not to fuppofe that God put a corrupt 
Habit into the Souls of Men, but only that he denied 
them preventiug Grace. The fame may be applied 
to die Inflaiice before us, which is plainly tny Mean- 
ing in this Head. 

Bi^.t you will fay, Jince a Propenfity to Sin appears in 
Infants, as foon as they appear to be reafcnable Creatures, 
and increafes more and more together with the Increafe of 
Knoivledge, and fince it is not from God ; whence 
does ic aiife ? 

This is juftly efteemed the moft difficult Qiiefli- 
011 in the whole Scheme of Divinity ; and various 
have been the Conjectures of Divines about it. 
Some * hcive aflerted. That the Mother, while the 
Child is in the Womb, having a finful Thought, 
makes an Impreffion thereof on its Soul, whereby 
it becomes polluted j but this Conjedure is, I 

* T'.; 

rid. JB. Piiflet Theol. Chr. in utero gefiant tali colore twHi 

Jib. 5. cap, 7. Alftt ^tt animam nafcantur It a tntime coy- 

creiiri inipuram dkamus, cum ni- pus QP mnmam uniri ut 'ad mo- 

hil inipurtim a Dei ivanibus pro- turn corporis certx orianfur in 

dire pojjlt Dum infatit eji mente eogitationes Motus 

in utero matris ohjeSl-a in ejus qui fmit in cerehro wfantiuin 

cerebrum eafdem imprcjftones cf- idem pr^Jlare in ilUs ac in ma- 

Jiciunt ac in matris cereLrum : iribus nempe corum animam re- 

Hec patet ex eb quod contingit cens creatam rebus fenftbilihus & 

muheribus pregn.intibus cum rarn.^libus allrgare ; un:e z-'dc- 

enim avide infpiciwu aliouid -vel n:i'. f injantium animas omnia ad 

rubra vel fiavo clore unBum y'^adfuumreftn'^iorpus. 
contigit feptjjlme ui uifantes quos 

H a think, 

5 2 ^he Doctrine oj 

think, without ground. Others have confeiTed 
themfcives unable to determine it, which is a bet- 
ter, as v;ell as a modefrer Anfwer to the Queftion. 
Wefliali not pretend to determine it, but with a 
due Humility and Mcdeily. Therefore I humbly 
conceive, that this Biafs to Sin enters into the Soul 
ftt the Door of Temptation- I fuppofe, that the 
Child, as foon as ever it is capable of receiving a 
Temptation, that is ^ as foon ash has its fir fl Ideas ^ is 
tempted. IfycuiviJlfay,tbisis as foon as 'tis united to 
the Bcdy^ or at any other Time zvhik in the IVoml^, or as 
•Joan as 'tis bornj I will neither affirm mr deny^ but he 
iOfitent to fay I cannot tell ; but as foon as it has Ideas, 
it is capable of beirg tempted, and is immediately 
overcome by the Temptation, and fo becomes 
bialTed to Sin : and it^'s needlefs to fay, that a Soul 
is biailed to Sin, before it is capable of linning. 
Now that it is immediately expofed to Temptati- 
on, as foon as it is capable of acting, is evident; 
fer if Satan don't tempt it, Ten'-pration will arife 
from the Body to w^hich it is unired ; and the Temp- 
tation ariiing from thence is agreeable to its natu- 
ral Confl:itution, w!iich was derived from the im- 
iTiediate . Parents. Nor/ the Body thus deling ob- 
■jeEii'vcly, and the Soul being impotent to what is 
good, it muft neceflarily be overcome, and from 
that Time become mote and more defiled, and 
prone to (in. I m.ight illuftrate this by a Similitude 
talcen from a drop of Poifcn being injected into the 
Veins of a Man, which will, by degrees, corrupt 
the whole Mafs of Blood. Thus Sin enters into 
the Soul j it was before this guilty, and mipo- 
tent, then tempted and overcome, and fo biaifed 
to lin i or firft the Body acis cbjetiively on the SouJ^ 
and then the Soul is overcome, and fo rendered prone tit 
'Sin. This lays Sin at our own Door, and clears 
tod from being the Author thereof. 

if you fay, that accoi'ding to this Scheme the 


Original Sin. 53 

Infant is not born defied : (T'boiigh, by the IVay^ 
if any one ivili prove, that there are innate Ideas, then 
what has been afferted, ftippofes that he is i but i£ 
brherwife) 'tis enough forme to fay, that 'tis de- 
iird, as foon as 'tis capable of ading 3 and that is 
as loon as we are capable of difcerning it, or it 
may be before the latter : htit I pretend not to tell 
when this is. 

If you ftill fay, that all this is not enough, but 
r^e miifl afcribe this Propenjity to Sin to Jome other 
Caufe, than that of the Body's aBing objeciively upon the 
Soul : I will add further, that the Impotency we are 
expofed to, by Reafon of the Divine Deiertion, 
accompanied with a Liablenefs to Temptation, is 
the Caufc, I Jhotdd rather fay Occajim, of our Com- 
pliance with the Temptation, and that is the Cau^ 
of our being biaffed to Sin ; and therefore as Cauja 
^Caiifa eft etiam Cnufa Catifati, fo the Impotence we 
have to what is good in our Original Conftitution, 
is the remote Caufe, or rather Occajion^ of this Pro- 
penlity to Sin. 

Thus I have given you my humble Thoughts 
on this difficult Subject, and endeavoured to vin- 
dicate the infinitely holy Gcd from the Charge of 
Cruelty, or Severity, brought by fome, or of be- 
ing the Author of Sin, by orhers, in confidering 
the Puniihment due to Original Sin, as fuch. I 
confefs, I do not like the ExprefTion which fome 
have us'd : That there are Infants of a Span long 
howling in Kell : 'Tis an unfavoury ExprefTion. 
I had rather fay, there are Infants of a Span 
long, guilty of Adam's Sin, and deprived of the 
Divine Prefence ,• which is agreeable to what I 
have aflerted, in which my De/tgn has been to put a 
jufi Difference between the Puniftmient due to AEiual 
Sin^ and that which is due to Original Sin, as fuch. 

If our Time would permit, I fhould have fliewn, 
th'C this Doyenne is not contrary to^ or incon- 


54 ^ke Doctrine ^?f 

fiflent with, the Senfe of thofe Scriptures, by 
which we generally prove Original Sin i as PfaU 
li. 5. Behold, I voas P)apen in Iniquity , and in Sin 
did n:y Mother conceive me : That is, I was con- 
cei\ed and born guilty of Sin, wirh an Inability 
to do what is good, and m fuch a State that AAu- 
ai oin would neceiiarily enfbe, as foon as I was 
capable of committirg it j wiiich would bring 
witJi ic a Propel. ii y to all Manner of Sin. And 
that David had a Senfe of Guilt, as well as '■he 
Pollution of Nature, is plain from fereral Ver- 
fes of this Pfalm, efpecially ver. 14, and 16. It 
is therefore as though he (liould fay, " I was a 
" guilty Creature as -.oon as I was conceived in 
*' the Womb, and left of God, and fo Sin has 
" tlic Afcendant over me. I was conceiv'd a 
" Sinner by Imputation, under the Guilt of A- 
*' danii firft Sin ; and to this I have added much 
*^ more Guilt, and lately tJiac of Blood-guiltinefs." 
Though he is faid to have been (bapen in Ini- 
quity, it does not necefl'arily follow^ that the 
Soul was created vvith infus'd " .:!>its of Sin. 
Whatever the Parent is the Caufe of, with Re- 
Ipecl to this Corruption and Pollution, let it be 
attributed to that which they produce, not to 
God as the Caufe of it. 

Again, 'tis faid in 'Job xiv. 4. Who can bring a 
clean T'hing mit of an unclean ? -not one. It is no 
Strain upon the Senfe of this Text, to fuppofe 
that by unclean, he means gaiUy ; arid by Clean- 
nsfs, Innocency, as oppos'd to ic : for in' moft 
Places of this Book it is fo taken ,- that is, in a 
Fcrenfick Senfe, and therefore why not in this ? 
And if fo, then it is not at all inconfiftent with 
what we have faid. See Chap. xi. 4. I am clean in 
thine Eyes ; that is, guiltlefs : otherwife Zopba/s 
Reply to him would not have been fo juft, when 
he faith, God exaBeth of thee lefs than thine Mqui- 

Original Sin. 5:5 

ty d^erveth. And Chap. xv. 14. What is Man, 
that he fjould be clean ? and he that is born of a Wo- 
man ^ that hejhoiddbs righteous^ Where to be righ- 
teous feems to be exegetical of being clean ; and 
both of them being taken in a Forenlick Senfe, 
agree well with what Job is often reprovM for by 
his Friends, for boafting too much of his Ri<^h- 
teoufnefs in the Sight of God. And Chap, xxxiii. 
p. / am clean zvithont 'Tranfgreffion, •neither is there 
Iniquity in me : that is, I am not fo guilty as to 
deferve fuch Punifhment as he inflids ,* He findeth 
Occajions againfi me, 8cc. Surely, Cleannefs here is 
the fame with Innocence, as oppos^'d to Guilt : 
And Chap. ix. 50. If I wafjy my felf -with Snoiv Wa- 
ter, and make my Hands never fo clean. This plain- 
ly implies, that if he fliould pretend himfelf guilt- 
lefs, yet he could not anfwer the Charge which 
God would bring againft himg neither could they 
come together in 'Judgment, ver. 32. Now if this be 
fo frequently, if not always, the Senfe of clean, 
in other Places of this Book, why may not we 
take the Senfe of thefe Words, Who can bring a 
clean 'Thing out of an unclean, to be this, that a 
guilty Child is born of a guilty Parent, which 
will be accompanied with Uncleannefs, and prone 
to it, as foon as it is capable thereof ? 

Another Scripture, which we bring to prove 
Original Sin, is Gen. vi. 5. Every Imagination of 
the Tljought s of the Heart of Man, is only evil conti- 
nually. Why may*nt we underftand it thus : The 
Imagination of the Thoughts are evil, as foon as 
there are Imaginations or Thoughts, though not 
before ? And this rather refpeds the Corruption 
of Nature, than the firft Rife of it ; and fo does 
that parallel Scripture, in Gen. viii. 21. The Lna- 
^ination of Mans Heart is evil from his.Toutb. q. d. 
Sin encreafes with the Exercife of Reafon. 

And ill Pfal. Iviii. 3. The Wicked are eftranged 

5^ l['he Doctrine of 

from the Womb i they go aflray as foon as they he born, 
freaking Lies. ' This agrees well enough with what 
we have faid, concerning their Separation from 
God from the Womb, from whence arifes Adual 
Sin ; fo that they fpeak Lies as foon as they are 
capable of it. 

There is alfo another Scripture, ufually brought 
to prove Original Sin, which is to be underftood 
in a Senfe, not much unlike that which we but 
now mentioned -, (vi^.) Ifa. xlviii. 7, T'hou waji 
calfd a T'ranfgvejfor from the Womb. This don^'t 
overthrow what we have faid i for a Perfon may be 
a Tranfgreffor from the Womb, and yet the Soul 
not have a Propenllty to Sin implanted in it by 
God, in its firfi: Creation. Allow me but that ; 
and I will not deny the Soul to be a Tranfgreffor 
from the Womb ; or in it, if you fuppofe it to have 
Ideas then : But I can't fee how it can tranfgrefs 
before it can think. The plain Senfe of this 
Scripture feems to me to be, q. d. Thou haft been 
a Tranfgreffor, as it were, from the Woijib : that 
is, ever fince thou waft capable of ading, thou 
haft carried on thy Rebellion againft me, and 
been a Violater of my Law. 

Again, Gen. v. 3. Adam begat a Son in his own 
Likenefs ; i. e. a fallen Creature, involved in Guilt, 
and liable to the Curfe, like himfelf,- and that would 
be like him in Aftual Sin, when capable of it 3 born 
in his Image, as having loft the Divine Image. 

Again, fohn iii. 6- 'That which is born of the 
Flefi, is Fkflo. We may underftand this. That 
every one that is born of finful Parents is a Sin- 
ner, deftitute of the Spirit of God ; which is a 
great Truth : But furely our Saviour did not de- 
fign hereby to fignify, that any one is franiM by 
God with a Propenftty to Sin : which is all that 
we militate againft in ihis Head, 


Original Sin, 57 

Thus we have finifh'd this Subjed : and the 
Ufc which we fhould make of it is, to be very- 
humble before God, as guilty, fallen Creatures. 
'Tis a very humbling Confideration, that we have 
loft that which was the Glory of the human Na- 
ture, that Beauty which God at firft put upon it. 
And let us moreover be very humble for the Cor- 
ruption of Nature ; which, though God be not 
the Author of it, is to be obferved in us in our ve- 
ry Infancy, and afterwards grows to a very great 
Height, and brings with it a great deal of Guilt. 

And let us alfo have a due Senfe of the many 
Adual Sins which we have committed, whereby 
we have expofed our felves to a greater Condem- 
nation. If Original Sin needs a Pardon to re- 
move its Guilt, what need have we of pardoning 
Mercy, who add Iniquity to Iniquity ? Joh xv. 16. 
Hovi much more abominable and filthy is Mar;, which 
.dvinketh Iniquity like IVater ? 


?i/!j 37iaD'>T 


VERY one who is CQtnverfant Jh 
the Writings of thofe who ate on 
the other Side of the Qiieftion, 
cannot bdt obferve, that there are 
fome Heads of Argument infilled 
on by us, which they are by rio 
Means difpofed to treat with a common Decency, 
as fuppofing that we fpeak unbecomingly of the 
Divine Perfeftions ; from whence arifes that com- 
mon Reproach, Deus Calviniftarum eji ' 
The reft I dare not mention- If they have no Oc-' 
cafion thus to teftify their Abhorrence of our Way 
of thinking, or fpeaking of the Divine Being, 
they are highly to blame ; but if they have, though 
it be only through our Inadvertency of Expreifi- 
on, we can t altogether clear our felves. 

That, which they fuppofe we attribute to God, 
is Injuftice and Severity in punifhing Sin arbi- 
trarily, and beyond its Demerit, and, as it were, 
delighting in the Displays of Vengeance rather 
than of Goodnefs. 

Therefore, as I h<ive on another Ocdafion) en- 
deavoured to roll away this Reproach, and to 

1 2 prove, 

66 TO srsCRlTT 

prove, that our Way cf thii.kinr is much more 
confiftent with the Divine PerfedionSj wi-h Re- 
fpeft to the Doftrine of EleFti.n and Reproba- 
tion, than theirs j lb I hare in the foregoing 
Difconrfes endeavoured to explain and account 
for the Dodrine of Oripnal Suiy in fuch a Way, 
as may a little foften the Minds of Enemies to- 
wards us, and better difpofe them to receive this 

As to the former of thefe Difcourfes, which 
refpefts the Imputation of Ada?ns Sui, I am un- 
der no Neceflity to explain or vindicate, what I 
have therein delivered ; for I never yet heard of 
any Objedions made againft it. What I have 
therefore now to add, principally refpeds the 
latter, which treats of the Puw(hment due to Ori- 
ginal Sin 'y in which my main Defign, as is obvious 
to thofe who are difpos'd to be impartial, is to 
put a juft Difterence between the Punilliment 
thereof, and that which is more efpecially the 
Demerit of Aftual Sin. This I was the rather 
induced to do, becaufe they who write againft this 
Doftrine, feem to underftand what we iay in fuch 
a Senfe, as though we thougnt Infants and the 
Adult equally miferable in the other World i and 
to this End they frenerally lay held on fome un- 
wav} Expreflions, which add very little to the De- 
fence of ti.e Dcterine, and mir^ht ns well be fpared. 
Thefe are, indeed, for the mol^ Part, u(her'd in 
with an Apology for that Want of Pity which they 
feem to contain : our milder Thoughts, fay they, 
concerning tliis Matter will do no Good, as our 
more fev^ere ones can do rhem no Prejudice. But 
though that is true, yet this lays Prejudices be- 
fore thofe whom we oppofe ; and gives them Oc- 
cafion to exprefs themfelves with fuch an Air of 
Infult, as though the Caufe were entirely their 
dwn, and wc were no longer worthy to be difputed 



with. Severity on the one Hand, and making 
God the Author of the Corruption of the human 
Nature, on the other, are the two pretended Rocks 
of Offence, at which they ftumble. Thefe two 
Things, I truft, are fet in a juft Light, even ia 
the Second Difcourfe, how much foever it is ex- 
cepted againft. But not having Opportunity to 
make good my Argument in its proper Place, I 
fhall endeavour to do it here. And, 

[i.] Shall make fome brief Remarks on what I 
have laid down in Page 46. That though Infams 
have the Pimijhment of Lofs^ yet they are deflitute of 
the Senfe thereof To this End let me premile, thac 
I would not have my Readers think that I lay any 
Strefs on this Aflertion, or that I make any more 
of it than a probable Conjedure. And it will be 
obferved, that I had been fpeaking juft before of 
the Wrath of God breaking in upon Confcience, 
in thofe who have committed A<5i:ual Sin j and im- 
proving an Argument which is not fo often infifted 
on, to prove a future State of Punifhment which 
is due to it, from the Necefliry of Self-ReHedion ; 
where we confider the Reafonablenefs of fuppo- 
ling, that this may be cncreas'd in a judicial 
Way, as a further Degree of Punifhment, ac- 
cording to the various Aggravations of Sin, with- 
out determining what are the Puniflimenrs of 
Senfe which are further due to it. And this led 
us to enquire. Whether the like Punifhment is 
inflifted for Original Sin, as fuch, namely, in Inr 
fants ? If I had only faid, that Infants will not have 
fo much to refleft on in another World, as Adult 
Aftual Sinners, no Notice would have been taken 
of it : But I fuppofed them to be without Self-Rc- 
fleftion, or that our Saviour's Wards, Mark'ix. a^.^. 
fVhere their Worm dieth not, are not to be applied 
to them ; or, fince they knew not the Gofpel in 
this World , they Ihall have no Ideas of it in 


^^2 TOSrsCRITT. 

another, and therefore no to:Emeiitin^^ Senfe «£ 
their Lofs of it, this, I [jeicei-ve, fpnie Jiave mt 
underflood J and therefore conclnde from = 'hen<ie, 
that lam eftablifbing 9. Limkds In'mtium: Wiiich, 
by the Way, is to ftrain my Meanirig beyond 
what it will bear, for I mention nothing t\ any 
Place aflign'd for them. 

All that I uim nc in this, is what Augufiine * 
himfeif afferts for Subfu'nce : That their Puni(h- 
ment is moft mild of any who are the Objeds 
thereof, and cannot be reckoned fo great, as that 
it may be faid of them, it had been better for 
them not to have been born. This he aflerts 
againft Pelagius^ who denyM Original Sin, and, con- 
fequently, that any Punifhment was due to Infants 
for it ; but yet fuppofes them incapable of being 
admitted into the heavenly Glory without Baptifm, 
and that they remained in, as k were, a middle 
State, between Heaven and Hell. "Whereas others 
thought that all who were unbaptiz'd were damn'd, 
and thofe that were baptiz'd, dying in Infancy, 
were fav'd. And the Schoolmen f, many of them, 
improved this Notion, and invented certain A- 
partments for them ; though this was not gene- 
rally received by the Papifts ; and neither one nor 
the other of them pretend to eftablilh their Af- 
fertions, by any Methods of Reafoning, which 
give the leaft Convidion. 

Some modern Remonjirants in Holland have gi- 
ven into a Notion founded upon it, that they re- 

* Contra ^ttliamtm, lib. 5. baptifmo de covpofe exewites, in 

cap. 8. Bgo non dice, pavjuhs damnatione omnium mitijfimA 

(Ine laptifmo Chrifii morJentes futuros. 

tant^ poena eJfepleBendos, uteis f Vid. Aquinat. Stimm. in 

r.on nafcipotius expediret, &c. Snppl. ■ixpart.Q.69. ^etlav- 

And again, De peccat. merit, viine himlelf does nor give into 

& remifT. Jih. i. c. 16. Poiefi it. rid. Centrov. torn. ^. lib, 6. 

■proinde reBe did, parvulos ftyie cap, 1, 


<posT:scR.iTr. e^ 

main alwsiys in an infantile State^ (which is a 
Matter that I pretend to know nothing of) and 
all this with a Defign to militate againft Origi- 
nal Sin. But what I have allerted, i^alls Ihort of 
this, I think ; and I have not been fo perempto- 
ry in my AfTertions, as to leave the Matter alto- 
gether out of Doubt : Yea, I have faid as much 
by Way of Objeftion againft it, as I have to efta- 
blifh it, and have aflign'd the only Reafon upon 
which my Suppofition is founded ; which if it be 
once anfwer'd, or if it could be prov'd, that all 
Infants dying in Infancy, aia favM, which fome 
have attempted to do, or that there was any 
other milder Punifhment, fuch as Amiiftine fpeaks 
of in the above-mention'd Place, I am very rea- 
dy to relinquifli my Notion. 

That which gave me firft Occafion to entertain 
this Way of thinking, concerning the Poffibility 
of Non-Ele(^ Infants, dying in Infancy, being 
deftitute of Refledion in another World, on what 
others enjoy 'd in this, was not To much the Evi- 
dence of Arguments of thofe above-mention d, 
who either content themfelves with pofitive Afler- 
tions, or the Opinion of others concerning it, or 
the Senfe they give of fome Places of Scripture, 
which they have miferably perverted, as the No- 
tions I had received, in many Refpefts agreeing 
with, though in' others widely differing from, 
Mr. Lock's Way of Reafon ing about Ideas, in his 
EJfay concerning human JJnderflanding^ Book i, and 
Book 2. Chap. I, If there be any Thing juft in 
that Scheme it muft lead us to conclude thefe two 

(i.) That though the Soul hath in its very Ef- 
fence a Power of thinking and reafoning, yet this 
Power may not always be deduced into Ad, as I 
fuppofe it is not in the Womb : but whether it be 
or no, as foon as the Child is born, I pretend not 
to determine, (2.) This 


(2.) This Power's not being deduc'd into A51, 
may arife from other Caufes, bcfides the Weak- 
nefs of the Body, and its refpeftive Organs, or 
the Want of Objects to draw it forth. This we find, 
in feme Meafure, in thofe who are fo ftupid that 
they have little more than the Shape of Men, 
whofc reafoning Faculty, is feldom or, at leaft, 
in a very fmall Degree deduc'd into Ad, though 
as to Age they are more than Infants : and how 
far this may be the Cafe of Non-Elect Infants 
in another World, I cannot tell. And I hope no 
one will be angry with me for my prcfeffed Igno- 
rance, when I pretend to know little or nothing of 
the Nature and afting of Spirits, either as joyn'd 
to, or feparate from Bodies: therefore 'twould be 
a Vanity to be too peremptory in Determinatioms 
of this Kind. 

All I contend for is plainly contained in that 
Afl'crtion, That I can't fee fufficient Reafon to 
conclude, that God will either enlarge the Capa- 
cities of the Soul in another World, or reveal 
thofe Things to Infants, which without Ipecial 
Revelaiion they could not know, meerly that they 
may have a tormenting Senfe of their Lofs. As 
for Philofophical Niceties, I am by no Means in- 
clined to found important Articles of Faith upon 
them, nor argue from the Poflibility of Things to 
the Certainty thereof ; much lefs would 1 regard 
the ludicrous and bold Aflertions of the School- 
men above-mention'd. And whether my Reafon- 
ing about this Matter be true or falfe ; as I have 
faid as much as I need or well can for and againft 
this Conjcfture, I hope the Dodrine of Original 
Sin is not in the leaft (haken by it. And I don't 
fee, how it has any dangerous Tendency to lead 
Perfons from their Duty to God, or having right 
Conceptions of him. It does not militate againft 
o? overthrow Pradical Religion, in any op its 


Branches. Should I, indeed, aiTert the fame con- 
cerning the Adult, as I do concerning Infants, it 
might have a Tendency to embolden and harden 
them in Sin, and would enervate the Force of fomeof 
the main Arguments which are uled to deterfrom it, 
taken from thofe Confiderations, that tend to awa- 
ken their Fears. But this does not in the leafl 
refped the Cafe of Infants, who are not Sub- 
jects capable of Convidtion, nor of being under 
the Influence of Hope or Fear j neither doth it 
exclude the Duty of Parents towards them, in gi- 
ving them up to God, in hope of his Acceptance; 
nor doth it extinguifh that fecret Hope which they 
have, when he enables them to do this by Faith, 
that he accepts their Dedication, and that the Child 
dying in Infancy is fav'd; for we are only fpeak- 
ing of the Infants that are fuppofed to be Non- 
eleded. And to be fure, it is a great Encourage- 
ment to thofe Parents, who are not fenfible of their 
Intereft in Chrift ; who are fometimes ready to 
entertain many fad Thoughts of Heart, when 
their Children are taken away in Infancy, that 
they have brought them forth for the Deftroyer. 
Nor does this Dodrine, certainly, refled on any of 
the Divine Perfeftions. For if he teftifies his Dif- 
pleafure againft Sin, in fome Inftances, with re- 
fped to Infants, I mean theNon-Eled, by eternally 
excluding them from his Prefence,does not this tend 
to advance the Glory of Juftice, and to (hew his Dif- 
pleafure againft Man for Adam's Sin, more, than if 
we fuppofe that there is no difference in the Punifh- 
ment of Original and Aftual Sin, and fo advance 
the Divine Juftice at the Expence of his Goodnefs? 
But if all that has been faid will not difcharge 
me from the Imputarion of being in an Error, I 
hope it will wipe off the Charge of its being a 
dangerous one. Let the Reader then, if he 
pleafes, reckon it one of the tokraUks imptia 

K o£ 


of one who pretends not to be Infallible, nor de- 
(ires to defend any Thing that is not confonant 
with Scripture and Reafon, nor would aflert what 
is doubtful, with that Allurance u ith which we de- 
termine Matters of greater moment. 

I have faid as mucli as Charity and Candor will 
demand of me on this Subjed ; but before I dif- 
mifs it, Ihall give a brief Account, why I am fode- 
firous to eftabliih the true Difference between the 
Puniihment due to Original and Adual Sin. Much, 
I think, depends upon it, to vindicate the Divine 
Difpenfation from the Charge of Severity, not on- 
ly with refped to Infants, but the Heathen, who 
are deftitute of the Gofpel. This gave Occafion 
to what was but briefly hinted at in my Sermon ; 
which, I humbly conceive, will very much tend to 
obviate a Pelagian Objcftion, relating to the Sal- 
vation of the Heathen ,* concerning which many 
Volumes have been written on both Sides the Que- 
flion, and great Complaints made of Hardftiip, 
that fuch Men as Plato, Socrates, Cato, and others, 
Ihould be excluded from the Heavenly Bleflednefs, 
according to the Sentiments of moft who have 
wrote on this fide the Qiieftion. Tliis gave me 
Occafion to afiert what may be briefly laid down 
in the following Propofitions. 

1. That all Mankind are punifliable for Origi- 
nal Sin ; for e'very Mouth mi/fi be /lopped, and the 
vihole M'^orld bemne guilty before God. This, I think, 
has been fufficiently proved in the firfl Difcourfe. 

2. Punifhment due to Original Sin, is equal, 
with refpeft to all, without Diftinflion, which ari- 
fes from its being imputed. And what this is, has 
been particularly confidered. This will further 
appear, if it be obferved. 

3. That *tis not voluntary with refpeft to the 
Will of him to whom 'tis imputed, in which it dif- 
fers from nftual Sin, which is more or lefs volun- 


tary, according to the Gircumftances of the Per- 
fons commit ing it. 

4. It difters from Original Sin inherent, or 
corrupt Habits of Sin contracted, which are much 
greater in fome than in others, and confequently 
the Scing, or Wound of Confcience, that attends 
them, and the Punifl'ment due thereunto, is great- 
er, or lefs, accordingly. 

5. Thofe are greater, or lefs, in particular, ac- 
cording CO the Means of Grace beftovved and 
abufed. In Chriftians they are the greateft, in 
Heathens lefs, in Infants leaft of all, though ftill 
more or lefs, according to the Ideas they have, 
which are accompanied with Adual Sin, and the 
Degree of their Propenfity to Sin. 

6. As Infants are not punifhable for Aftual Sin, 
fo the Heathen are not punilhable with a greater 
Degree of Condemnation for Adual Sin, but in 
proportion to the Light they have rebelled againft ; 
or the corrupt Habits of Sin they have contraded. 
And therefore, as God was not obliged to fave 
any, he is not to be charged with Injuftice or Se- 
verity for punifhing any according to the Demerit 
of their Sin. 

We come now to the other Head, viz,. 

II. T'hat Infants are born without a Biafsy or PvO" 
■penfity to Jin- 

I am fenfible, the only Thing that gives Offence, 
in this Expreflion, to fome, is, becaufe I fay they 
arc Born fo. If I had faid, they are inclined to 
lin before they are born, and confequently, that 
they are born with the Pollution and Contagion of 
it in their Nature, no one would have objeded 
againft it ,* and this I could have afferted upon the 
Foundation of the Soul's Thinking in the Womb, 
if I believed it true that it does fo, very confident- 
ly with the Scheme that I have laid down : And 
Ihail fo great a Charge, as overthrows the Dodrine 
K 3 which 


which I am eftablilhing, be founded upon fuch a 
Nicety on this ? I have plainly enough faid, that 
foon after the Soul has Ideas^ it is inclined or bi- 
ased to fin ; therefore I will freely affert, that if it 
thinks before it is born, it is inclined to fin be- 
fore : But the moft that can be made of this Ex- 
preiTion, concerning Infants Being born without 
Inclinations to fin, is, that they have no innate 
Ideas ; for I ftill fay, that they can't fin before 
they think : but as I hinted before, I would not 
regard philofophical Niceties in eftablifhing Di- 
vine Truths ; it is no Matter of moment to me, 
whether the Soul thinks before, or immediately af- 
ter 'tis born. It is enough forme to fay, that Sin 
is feated in the Soul, to wit, in the Underftand-- 
ing and Will, and therefore cannot be committed 
before the Ading thereof j and before it can com- 
mit Sin, I don't fee how it can be inclined to com- 
mit it : for that is the fame as to fay, that -here 
may be Motion before there is a Subjedi: capable 
of it; or, that the Perfon can be inclined to that 
which from a Neceffity of Nature he cannot do. 
An Inclination, which is the fame with Propenfity, 
fuppcfes a Subjecft inclined to ad ; and I muft be 
pardoned, if I fay, that a Perfon can't be inclined 
to ad: before he is capable of ading. The Word 
Biafs is a relative Term, and connores a Thing to 
be moved by it; fo is Propenfity : Therefore there 
is no Biafs or Propenfity to Sin at the fame Time, 
that there is no poilibility of committing it. 
^ Again, this Polfibility of ading or committing 
Sin, whether before or after the Infant is born, 
fuppofes Thought or Ideas. Tell me then, when 
the firft Ideas are in the Soul, and I will eafily af- 
fign the Time, when this Propenfity to Sin takes its 
rife. I own, that the firft Ad of the Soul is a fin- 
ful A6i:, for 'tis the Aft of a Creature feparate 
from God, which can be no other than finful ; for 


TOsrsCRITT, 69 

we fuppofe that a Soul, judicially feparate from 
God, is impotent to what is Good : and whar can 
follow from hence but that which is Evil ? That 
which I principally militate againil in this Head, 
is the Suppofition, That God impels Men to Sin : 
And to fay, that there is a pofitlve Influence to 
what is evil, differs little from faying, that he im- 
pels them to it j and what is this but to fay, that 
he is the Author of Sin ? 

It will then be inquired how comes our Nature 
to be inclined to Sin ? I anfwer. The Body, to 
which it is fo clofely ignited, inclines it thereun- 
to ; though only objeftively ; for the Body is no 
otherwife capable of inclining to it. This I call a 
Temptation to Sin proceeding from the Body, to 
wit, from its natural Conftitution ; which moves 
more ftrongly in fome than it does in others. 

Here I fuppofe the Soul immediately created 
by God : and if fo, that in is created without 
any habitual Difpofition to Sin, as well as with- 
out a Power to what is good. The former arifes 
from its being the VVorkmanfnip of God : the lat- 
ter from its being feparate from him. That God 
created the Soul pure, that is, unbiajfed to Sin, 
(for I deny in my Sermon that he created it in- 
nocent) is not my Sentiment alone ', I could re- 
fer to the Writings of many who are of my Mind 
as to this Matter. Some PaiTages I fhall tran- 
fcribe, that the World may not think this is a new 
and ftrange Dodrine, peculiarly my own *. 


* I could eafily refer to fe- tomy of Armmanifm^Chap. 10. 

vcral ancient Writers, but I § '^.''Tis a^ej^ioyihardto be :ieter- 

fhall rather chufe to turn my mind^y-what means Stn is travf- 

Readers to fbmc Paflages in mined fnmi Parents to.the'r Po- 

thofe who are more modern, Jferity, and how the Soul d rives 

whofe Works are dcfcrvedly this Depravatiot : fur fince all 

valued. See Dtt Moulin ^ Ana- Things that God doih, are good, 



Since God, according to this, don't defile the 
Soul, or put into our guilty Nature a Propeofity 


nve are not to think^ that he put 
Original Sin into Mens Souls : 
for honv fiould he puntp thofe 
Souls which he himfelf had cor- 
rupted? And § 15. It is a 
great Wicked7jefs to believe, that 
Cod put into the Sotd an Inclina- 
tion to sin. And § 17. Gcd 
creates the Souls of Men goody but 
defiitute of heavenly Gifts and 
fupernatural Light, and that ]uji- 
/y; becaufe Adam loji thofe Gifts 
for himfelf and his Poflerity. 
And the Subltance of what fol- 
lo^TS in that Seiftion, isjthat God 
denies fupernatural Light to 
the Mind, whence arifes Blind- 
nefs of Mind ; and being de- 
flitute of this Light the Will 
ads accordingly in an inordi- 
nate Way ; hence arifes a Pro- 
pcnfity to Evil ; as if the Light 
of the Sun be taken away from 
a Travelle-j though this doth 
not force him to wander ©ut of 
the Way, yet it occalions him 
to take fbme unknown Path. 

See alfb Turret. I?:Jlit. Theol. 
Elenff. Tom. i. lib. 9- ^ i^- 
$ 8. Licet anima fine ulld lahe 
creetuT a Deo, non creatur ta- 
men cum ]ufttiin OYiginali, fed 
cum ej:-s carentia in pocnam pri- 
7}>i peccati, uti hie dtfiinguen- 
e(um fit inter animam puram, 
impuram, & non puram. Ilia 
pTira did fur, quA orjiata efl ha- 
tifufanflitatis ; impura, qu& 
canirarium h^ibitum injufiitia 
tabet ; non pnra, qi^ic licet nul- 
lum hcbeat h:' hit urn honum, nul- 
Iran tatjmi habet malum, fed 

creatur fimpliciter, cum faculta- 
tibus naturalibus ; qualis fup- 
ponitur creari a Deo pofl lapfum. 
$ 9. ^amvis autem anima 
creentur a Deo, deflitut£ jujiitia. 
originali ; non propterea Deus 
potefl cenfcri author peccati, quia 
aliud eji impuritatem infundere^ 
aliud puritatem non dare. 

See alio Perkins on the Creed, 
concerning the Propagation of 
Original Sin. The Section be- 
ing long I fhall only abridge, 
it. The common Opinion of 
Divines is, that Sin may be 
propagated two Ways : The 
firft is. That when God created 
Adam in the Beginning, he fb 
order'd it, that whatfoever he 
receiv'd, fhould be not only for 
himfelf, but for his Pofterity ; 
and whatever Grace he loft, he 
fliould lofe not only for him- 
felf, but. all his Pofterity ; accor- 
dingly he firft depriv'd himfelf, ' 
and then hi:. Pofterity, of the 
Image of God ; accordingly, 
when the Souls of Men are cre- 
ated, and plac'd in the Body, 
God forfakes them ; not in re- 
fpeft of the Subftance of the 
Soul, or the Faculties, but on- 
ly in rcfp'.ft of his own Image, 
of v.hich it is deprived ; then 
follows the Want of Rightc- 
oufnefs, which is Original Sin : 
and God in depriving Man of 
that which Adam loft, is not 
therefore to be thought the Au- 
thor or Maintainer of Sin. The 
iecond Wav which Divines take 
in accounting for this DifEcuI- 


CO Sin, it will be enquired. What Hand has he 
therein ? To which I anfwer. Though his Pro- 
vidence is not converfant about it in a Pojttwe 
Way , yet it is in a Privative ; which is very 
agreeable to the Illuftration taken from God's 
hardening P/?rtK<3o//s Heart. See i^*^^^ 50. lean- 
not fay, but I have met with fome Divines, who 
have aflerted, that God puts a Propenfity into 
the Nature of Man, as afting poficively herein ; 
but 'tis an unguarded Expreffion, much more lia- 
ble to Exception than mine : and many others 
who have deferv'd well of the Truth, have deny'd" 
any fuch Thing, and fuppofed that the Priva- 
tion of Original Righteoufnefs alone is fuiEcient. 
For this I have Dr. Goodwin * on my Side, whofe 
Name had I mentioned, it luould have prevented 
many of the hard Cenfures that have been caft on 
thefe Difcourfes. 

All that I have afferted, I think will amount 
to no more than this : Though, 'tis true, when 
I enquire into the Rife of this Propenfity to Sin, 
I afcribe it to the Temptation which proceeds from 
the Body ; and fuppofe that there is the Inter- 
vention of finful Ads, which produce it, though 

ty hy that the Corruption of Sotthyfince the Privation of Kigh- 

Nature is deriv'd fi-om the Pa- teoufnefs is fptficient to infeB the 

rents in Generation by the Bo- Soul with all that is evil. 'Tis 

dy, as fweet Oil is infefted by not, fays he, a Pofitive ^nalityy 

a mufty VefTel, fb the Soul crea- come in the Room of Original 

ted good, and put into a cor- Rightecufvefs, as Heat into Wa- 

ru^L Body, receives Contagion ter ivhen Cold is expeWd. And 

from thence. This Conjum^ion he I'urther proves, that wc 

of t^'C pure Soul with a corrupt ought by no means to fay fo, hc- 

Bo.!v, is not againft the Good- caufe rhis pojltive ^H.'ihty ivould 

ni.fs uf God, becaufe 'tis a juft have a true re 7 Beim a?:d JLn- 

Puniiliment of Sin. tity, a.d fo it ivvuld be gojd ; 

* Vol. J. lib. 8. c. 6. in which is to f ppofe Sin to be 

which he proves that ther; is goou, aid God the Author of it, 

tioKeceJfty of ajfrt:n!r Oripinal ^tsjho cannot fo much as tempt to 

Sin to he a pof'tive ^ality zn our sin, 


72 TO srSCRITT. 

both are fuppofed to proceed from the Privation 
of God's fupernaturn] Image. See Dr. Goodwin z 
Works, Vol. 5. p. 8. Now it is certain that whether 
every Man had had this Original Sin or not, yet upon 
any AB of Sinning committed by any Man, there doth 
and jhould have entred into that Man a Depravation 
of Nature ; for by finning a Man is made the Servant 
of Iniquity unto Iniquity. As to the Similitude 
which fome make Ufe of, of Oil's receiving a 
Tindure from the Veflel into which 'tis put, that 
is deilgn'd to prove that Sin arifes from the Body j 
and if that Similitude be juft, I have nothing 
more to contend for. 'Tis plain, all, that ufe it, 
who fay that the Soul is created pure, but receives 
a corrupt Tindture from the Body, aifert the fame 
Thing, for Subftance, that I do, when I fay, that 
God does not put a Biafs into the Soul to Sin, but 
the Body ading objeftively upon it, is the Caufe 
thereof. We both diftinguifh between putting 
a pure Soul into a corrupt Body, whereby 'tis 
render'd impure j and putting a Principle of Cor- 
ruption into the Soul : The only Difference, as I 
apprehend, between my Way of expreffing my felf 
and theirs, is this j they feem to fuppofe that the 
Body corrupts the Soul, as the Thing containing 
does that which is contained therein, by a Sort of 
Mechanifm, in a Kind of Phyflcal Way ; or elfe 
there's little in the Similitude to iiluftrate it : but 
if any Thing elfe be intended by it, it muft be 
the fame that I fuppofe, namely, that it does it 
in an objedive Way : and then, I hope, I Ihall 
not, upon calmer Thoughts, be blamed, for agree- 
ing with the greateft Number of Divines, whom 
they who oppofe me pay a juft Deference to. 

Moreover, I cannot but conclude, that if the 
Body were never fo corrupt, that is, if the Hu- 
mours were in never fo undue a Temperament, 
which is the only Idea I have of its Corruption ia 



this Cafe (except you confider it relatively and 
inftrumentally, winch is nothing to our prefenc 
Purpofe) I Iky, if it was in this Senfe never ih 
much corrupted, I can*t fee how it can affect the 
Soul any otherwife thah objediveiy. If the Soul 
were not guilty, deprived of the Divine Image, fe- 
parated from his Prefence, and impotent to what 
is good, it might be united to a corrupt Body, 
and not be corrupted by it. 

This will be better underftood, if we confider,' 
how Habits of Sin are increafed in the Adult by 
the objeftive Influence of the Body- As fuppofe 
the Body to be of a fanguine or cholerick Confti- 
tution, &c. this would not fo much affeft thd 
Soul, as to neceflitate its Depravation, if it were 
not judicially left of God, and fo become weak^ 
and unable to withftand the objedive Influence of 
its Temptations. 

This, in a fmall Degree, is evident in thofe, 
whofe natural Conftitution is overcome by the In- 
fluence of Divine Grace ; and fo not only runs in 
another Channel, but is made fubfervient to the 
Glory of God, which it would otherwife flrongly 
oppofe. Whence it appears, that though the Body 
were very much corrupted in its Frame and Con- 
ftitution, yet if the Soul was not guilty, forfiiken 
of God, and indifpofed to what is good, it would 
not neceifarily be tindured or corrupted thereby. 
Therefore I am rather inclined to chufe this Way,. 
of accounting for the Origin of moral Evil^ or the 
firft Propenfity of Nature to lin, than that which 
is illuftrated by the Similitude above-mentioned ; 
though the Difference is not fo great, as to make 
it very material, which fhould have the Preference. 
And I have the Satisfadion to obferve, that the Pro- 
-jjofition I laid down, viz,. That God doth not put a 
^iafs or Propenfity into the Soul to fin, which foma 
have thought abfurd and indefenfible, bccauie they 

L eon- 


concluded it a Fidion of my own, is confirmed 
by the Method of Reafoning made ufe of by the 
greater part of thofe Divines, who have fo hap- 
pily defended the DoBrine of Original Sin, as to 
be entitled to the Efteem of thofe who conclude 
it to be an important Truth, founded upon the 
moft folid Arguments. 

And n vv that I may give a brief Abftraft of 
what was delivered in my Sermon, and which I 
have endeavoured to maintain in this Poftfcript^ 
I fhall lay down a few Propofitions. 

1. God is not the Author of Sin. This is al- 
lowed by all, and is as certain, as that he is a Ho- 
ly God, and therefore cannot do that, which he 
can by no means take any pleafure in. 

2. The Providence of God is not converfant 
about Sin in a way of pojitive Impulfe, or Influ- 
ence thereunto ; for he cannot impel, or move any 
one to that, which is ^contrary to his Nature, and 
revealed Will. 

3. He cannot infufe corrupt Habits into the 
Souls of Men. For if Habits are (inful, which 
they muft neceflarily be, if what they produce 
is fo j then he cannot be the Author of them, by 
the firfi Propofition ; and if to infufe a Habit in- 
to the Soul contains fomething pojitivey it is con- 
trary to the fecond; and that it does contain 
fomething fofitive, is obvious, becaufe he is fup- 
pofcd, in putting a Biafs to Sin into the Soul^Jn 
its lirft Formation, to aft as a Creator ; and it is 
alfo contained in the very Idea of thefe Habits 
being infufed. 

4. There are corrupt Habits in the Souls of 
Men from their Infancy. This is evident from 
Scripture, and Experience ; and that thefe in- 
ereafe and grow, is equally obvious. Therefore, 

c. Thefe 


jr. Thefe corrupt Habits cannot be from God, 

viz,, in a pojitive Wn^^ by theT^cWand third Pro^ 

pfitions ', which is ail one as to fay, that God doth 

not put a Biafs or Propenfity into the Soul to fin. 

6. It is no Diflionour to God, if we fay, his 
Providence may be converfant about Sin in a priva- 
tive Way ,• but on the other Hand, k is a Branch 
of his. Glory, to take away from Man, as a Judge, 
that which before was forfeited. 

7. Whatever the Providence of God is conver- 
fant about in a privative Waj', though this Priva- 
tion may ht the (?i:ci3/?ow of a Thing's happening, yet 
it is not properly the Caufe of it ; becaufe a Priva- 
tion, as fuch, cannot exert pofitive Influence, as 
an efficient Caufe is fuppofed. to do : Even as the 
Withdrawment of the Sun, which is a Privation 
of Light, is the Occafion, but not the. Caufe of a 
Traveller's ftumbling, or miffing his Way. 

8. God's judicial Withdraivment from the 
'Souls of Men iov Adajns firft Siri is the. Occafion 
of the Corruption of Nature, and its vicious Ha- 
bits : but not the pofitive efficient Caufe thereof. 
It follows therefore, 

9. That we rnuit feek for the Caufe of thefe vi- 
cious Habits, or Propenfity to fin elfcwhere. 

10. This muft therefore arife from the Soul's 
Union with a corrupt Body, as fome fay, or, as 
I rather chufe to exprefs my felf, from the Infiu- 
ence of the Body upon it in an objective Way. 

Thus I have given a brief Abllraci: of my Sen- 
timents about this Matter j and I fliall now oni/ 
make an Appeal to the impartial Reader, whe- 
ther there be fo much ground for Cenfure, with 
refpect to what I have delivered, as feme have 
thought, who have received Accounts thereof by 
uncertain Hear-fay. I rather hope, that what I 
have laid down may be found to have ai]f\vsred 
* L-'2 mw 


my Defigjn, by vindicating the Divine Perfedii- 
ons. And if there be any Thing erroneous con- 
tained in it, certainly the Error is of no pernicious 
Tendency to overthrow any Article of our Faith, 
nor is it inconfiftent with praftical Religion. For, 

(i.) What I have advanced tends to lay the 
Charge of Sin, both as to the Habits and Afts 
thereof, at our own Door ; and not in the leaft to 
lay the Blame on God, as it would do, Ihould we 
fuppofe that he infufed thefe corrupt Habits into 
the Soul. 

(3.) It prepares our Way to affert, that Chrift 
was finlefs in the Formation of his Human Na- 
ture, becaufe not liable to the Curfe, as not be- 
ing reprefented by, or fallen in, Adam : There- 
fore he ' was not feparate from God, nor had he 
any Propenfity in his Nature to fin ; fince a Pro- 
penfity to fin could not in him arife from the fame 
Caufe it doth in us. His being miraculoufly 
form'd by the Holy Ghoft was fufEcient to render 
him finlefs in all Refpeds ; and his htmg fanSiified 
from the Womb did not confifl in the overcoming, 
or rooting out corrupt Habits, but entirely pre- 
venting them. 

(3.) It does not overthrow the Dodrine of the 
Imputation oi Adains firfl: Sin. For that is laid as the 
Bafis of all that we have delivered, and is confider'd 
as the Occafion of God's Withdrawment from a 
fallen Creature, and that Impotency to Good which 
enfued thereupon, and of the Influence which th6 
Body has on the Soul to render it propenfe to Sin. 

(4.) It don\ overthrow the Doctrine of Origi- 
nal Sin inherent, or the Pollution and Corruption 
of Nature, or its Propenfity to Sin. For 'tis one 
Thing to fay, that this Propenfity arifes from 
Inch and (i^ch Caufes, and another Thing to deny 
that there is any fucli Thing : or it is one Thing 
to fay, that there arc no corrupt Habits infus'd 


into the Soul, in its firft Creation ; and another 
Thing to fay, that there are no fuch Habits in it 
afterwards. And the Reader will obferve, that I 
exprefsly aflert, that there are corrupt Habits 
invading the Soul, as foon as it is poflible for 
them to produce linful Actions, that is, as foon 
as there is fuch a Thing as Thought ; and this is 
fufficient to eftablifli the Dodrine of Original Sin 
inherent y and the Corruption and Defilement of the 
human Nature not only in its Progrefs, but in 
its early Beginnings. 

(5.) Though finful Habits are acquirM, and not 
infus'd, it don't follow, that all Habits are ac- 
quired. There are fupernatural Habits of Grace 
which are infus'd, which Dodrine is not weakened 
in the leaft by what we have aflerted. For tho' 
it be a Reproach on the Holinefs of God, to fup- 
pofe Him to be the Author of Sin ; yet it is a 
Branch of his Glory, to be the Author and Infu- 
fer of Grace, 

(6.) The Doctrines, we have laid down, are fo 
far from being fubverfive of Pradical Religion, 
that they lead us to the greateft Humility i from the 
Apprehenfion of our being deftitute of a Power or 
"Will to what is good ; which is as it were the Root 
from which all Sin proceeds, and this has been laid 
down as the very Foundation of all that hath been 
faid. We are alfo hereby led to a Dependance on 
the Power and Grace of God ; which is a Duty 
not only becoming, but neceffarily incumbent on 
thofe, who are fuppos'd to be unable to do that 
which is good. 

(7.) Nothing we have faid tends in the leaft to 
preclude the Confeffion of the Sin of our Nature. 
We may truly fay, that vje are Tranfgrejfors from 
the IVomby doing that which is evil as foonas we are 
capable of doing any Thing j and that our Souls 
wejre guilty, and feparate from God in their firft 



Formation or Creation. Therefore, if, after allj 
what hath been faid, fhould be charged with being 
an Error, I hope that it vviU appear not to be a 
dangerous one. 

Thus I have given a brief Account of what is 
excepted againft in the fecond of the foregoing 
Difcourfes, and fhewed, that neither of the two 
Things there laid down, has the leaft Tendency to 
overthrow any Article of our Faith, or Praciicai 
Religion, in any of its Branches, But fince Con- 
traries illuftrate each other, and 'tis certain, that 
two contradictory Propoiitions can't be both 
of them true ,• fo that to deny what I have 
faid, muft lead us to afifert the contrary there- 
unto, which I (hall take Leave, for Argument 
Sake, to reprefent : Therefore, if what I have faid 
be not true, it will follow, as to what refpeds the 
former of the two Heads in Difpute, that " Tho' 
" Infants have no a<5lual Exercife of Thought, 
*^ efpecially in a Way of Self-Refledion in this 
" World, nor have any Jdea of the Gofpel, or 
" what it is to enjoy or lofe it, yet we are fiire 
" that they have in the next ; and it necefl'arily 
*' follows, becaufe God enlarges the Souls of Eled 
" Infants, to make them receptive of the Joys of 
" Heaven, that therefore he rmifi necejfarijy en- 
" large the Souls of Non-Eleft Infants, to make 
*' 'them capable of that Self-Reiledion, which may 
" in fome meafurc fet them upon a Level with 
" others in Kell : for ii^e ays certain that nothing 
" can occur that fhould hinder this, and it is tri- 
" fling to pretend to be in Doubt about this Mat- 
" ter/' I appeal to the impartial Reader, whe- 
ther this peremptory W'ay of talking would not 
have given him as muchDiiguft, as vv^hatl have faid 
on that Subjed- has done others i but tiiis we fup- 
Dofe to be of farlefs Importance than the other. 



Therefore let us confider, how it would have 
been received, if I had aflferted direftly the con- 
trary to what I have done under that Head, 'viz^* 
That " God creates the Soul with a Biafs, Pro- 
" pcnfity, or Inclination to Sin, a pofitive Aver- 
"/fion to him, and that before this Averfion is 
*' capable of exerting it felf. That 'tis not 
*' enough to fay, that he created it with a Pri- 
" vation of Reditude, with the Guilt of Adarns 
" Sin upon it, and an utter Impotence to what is 
" good ; but we muft fuppofe that the Providence 
" of God is converfant about this Matter in a 
*^ Pofitive Way : and this it may be, and yet he 
" not be the Author of Sin ; for he that creates 

or infufes a Habit, is not, in this Inftance, the 
** Author or Caufe of what he creates : but if 

this win not do, we muft aflfert, that the Soul 
" is impure in its firft Creation, but not created 
" impure i we muft affert, that *tis impure be- 
" fore 'tis capable of any Ideas ; otherwife this 
" Propenfity to Sin muft be adventitious or ac- 
" quired, which is abfurd j for though all other 
** Habits of Sin are fo, yet this is an Exception 
^* from them/' 

This muft have been my Method of Reafoning,' 
if I had afferted the contrary to what I have 
done ; and if I had advanced fuch a Scheme of Do- 
6:rine, the World would have had much more 
Reafon to charge me with Abfurdity and Error, 
than now they have. 

Therefore the fafeft Way would have been 
lightly to have paft over thefe Things, and not 
pretended to enquire into the Origin of Moral 
Evilr; and let them, who are in another Way of 
thinking, bring in never fuch heavy Charges 
againft us, as though we refle(5ted on the Divine 
Perfeftions, it were an eafy Matter to have faid, 
their Charge is groundlefs, without pretending 




to prove it fo. Such a Precaution as this would 
have fecured me from popular Cenfure j but 
I fhould have had another Kind of Cenfure; 
which would have made me more uneafy, name- 
ly, a Refledion on my felf, as fhunning to declare 
an important Truth, becaufe it was probable 
fome would not underftand it, and therefore 
would endeavour to bear hard upon me, and 
weaken my Hands in my Work; which yet, I 
hope, the Providence of God will fome Way or 
other overrule for Good. I will conclude with 
the Words of the royal Pfalmift, Pfal. Ixxvi. lo. 
Surely the Wrath of Man fhall praife thee : the R^^ 
mainder of Wrath (halt thou refirain. 


Dr. Martin Luther's 


Mr. John Calvin's 


Concerning the 


From the Original. 

With feveral Texts of Scriptures^ 
proving the Lord Je§us Christ 
to be one and the fame God with the 

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^^^.-^^^ /iVC£ the unhappy Controverjies of the 
■^ S^ Trinity ha^ engaged fo many Pens, as well 

S '^ as the Adlnds of fo many Men, I thought 
*t tft "^ fliould not do amifs, if I publifh'd the 

(^^f^-'Jfiffi^ /o//oTp;?7g ColleHions, in hopes 1 might by 
*^*** ^ij^f Means contribute fomething towards 
putting an end to this Dispute. 

1 here, therefore, prefent you with the Opinions of 
Dr. Martin Luther and Mr. John Calvin (who were 
the fir ft and principal Reformers) upon the Trinity \ 
not that their Opinions are ahfolutely conclufive in this 
or any other Point, hut only to let you fee hifiorically, 
t/^at thofe great and good Men held the fame Things 
in this Particular, as the Orthodox do now, and, in- 
deed, as all the Chriflians have done, without Difpute 
for near Fifteen Hundred Tears ', and that the Chri- 
fiians for the other Three Hundred Tears, were of the 
fame Opinion, though difputed by fome, is pofitively af- 
firmed by others ; but J mufier not up thefe many Tears 
for fear to appear formidable in time^ fince that might 
look too much like a Popifh Way of Argument, but I 
mention this only by way of Hiflory or Fad:, whence we 
7nay knsw what was actually believed by all the Chriflian 
Congregations for fo many Hundred Tears ; but whether 
they were in the right in their Interpretation of the holy 
Scripture, I had not here pretended to determine, 

hz J 


J could heartily w'fn-, with the Learned Dr. Prideaux, 
thnt Chnfiians wozdd lay ajide their AniTnofities^ and . 
not run with extremity and keat into the Difcurjions if 
Point Sf which are i;j thetr. [elves confefid to be above the 
Reach of Human Reafon-^ and are therefore incapable of 
being decided by it. 

It was on fuch ohfcure Articles cf Faith, that the 
Chrifiian World wts fo hotly engagd-, when Mahomet 
fir fir fnade his appearance in the World ^ and it was frotn 
the Herefics fpnnging froin thcfe Difputes, with the Ani- 
37iofities and Hatred arifing from them, that his DoU:rine 
fpread ft) cafdy over all Afi.u 

We arc, as the fame Learned Doctor obferves, to fear 
th& Corifequcnce as fatal to Religion itjelf, from our pre- 
fent Divifio?2s '■, to put an End to which, therefore, all good 
Ch'''i(}ians ought to make their perpetual Prayers to thai 
G O D, who can only give ZJnity and Peace. 

One Thing, however, I would recommend in the mean 
time, and. that is, that thofe who take the Right in this 
Controverfy, take care not to let an imprudent Zeal for 
a difputed Point, 7nake them loofe that Char aciari flick of 
Chri(lianity, given by our I,ord himfclf. By this fhall 
all Men know that you are my Diibiples, if you love 
one another. Tloe Remembrance of this pojitive and un- 
difputed Dotirrne of our' Saviour, will, by abating the 
Heats of Argument, in all probability, much fooner bring 
us to the Truth ; for thofe Heats of Argument, as they 
proceed more from Pafjton than Reafon, fo they, by way 
cf cijfetiation to OjiaUty, contribute more to the Raijing 
the L'affion of the Readers, than to fatisfy their Reafon 
and Vnderfianding. 









Dr. Martin Luther's 


Concerning the 


That the Article of the Holy Trinity furpaffeth 
all Humane Senfe, Reajon, and l/nderjland- 
ing (a>. 

HAT Three is One, and One 
Three (Taid Luther) the fame go- 
eth beyond all JHumane Senfe^ 
Realbn, Wit, Wirdoin and Un- 
derftanding. No Arithmetician^ 
no Phiioibpher, Lawyer, Jav nor 
Turk, cm fafien and comprehend 
it •, neither doth that Comparifon or Similitude o^ 
the corporeal Father and iiou ferve any thhig to" 

B thef 

U) Ar?Iclc5 of the' Holy Trinity. 


the purpofe ^ for it is a very weak Pifture or Like- 
nefsj in which is /hew'd only the Difference of 
the Two Perlbns, namely, that thofe Two Perfons 
are an undivided Subftance, which is not to be 
comprehended nor underftood by any Humane 

(b) Baf/liujy one of the antient Teachers, iliew- 
eththe beft Similitude or Pifture thereof, name- 
ly, th^t all Humane Creatures are called fen- 
fihle and underftanding Creatures, by reafon of 
the Senfe and Underftanding which is common 
to] all Humane Creatures by Nature ^ for that 
which hath Senie and Reafon, the flime is of 
Humane Kind •, yet, notwithftaiiding, there is a 
dilTerence (c) amor.g Humane Creatures, though 
that Name be common to all : That, they are call- 
ed Uhderflanding Creatures in general, yet in 
particular, the one to the other is much unlike, 
feeing the one farpaiieth the other far in Rea- 
ibu, \v illlom and Underflanding. 

(I;) Bafillm. 

{c) Pre-eminence and Difference of Mankind. 

Witneffes of the Holy Trinity, 

N the Gofpel of St. John^ Chap. 3. is plain- 
^^ ly and direftly Ihewed the (d) Diiference of 
the Perfons, in the higheft and greateft Work 
that God accompliiheth with us poor Humane 
Creatures, in that he juftilieth and fiveth us j 
for there is plainly written of the Father, that 


(d) Divers known Mmh of the Divine PepfcMi. 


he loved the World, and hath given to the 
World his only begotten Son : Thefe are two 
ieveral Perfons, Father and Son, the Father lo- 
veth the World, and giveth unto it his Son : 
The Son luffereth himfelf to be given f^ the 
World; and as Chrift clearly faith, He fj.Tered 
him ft; If to be lifted zip on the Crofs^ as the Serpent iv.u 
lifted up in the Wildeniefs \ whofoever bellevcth 
in hlm^ Jho:ild net periJJjy but have everlafting Life. 
To this W^ork cometh afterwards the Third 
Perfon, the Holy Ghoft, which kindle^h the 
Faith in the Hearts, and fo regenerateth us 
into God's Kinprdom. 

This Article (faid Luther) although it be 
handled moft clearly in the New Teftarnent, 
yet, notwithftanding, it hath been always af- 
faulted (e) and oppofed in the higheft Meafure, 
•inlbmuch as the Hiftories do lliew, that the ho- 
ly Evaugelift St. John (lor the Confirmatioa of 
this Article) was conftrained to write his Gof. 
pel. Then came prefently that Heretick Cerin-. 
thus, who taught, thatChrill could not be Gcd, 
neither that God could be Man : In fuch man- 
ner he prated out of Humane Reafon and Un- 
derftanding, and thought it m.uft needs be juft 
fo as he concluded it. 

But Cfaid Luther) we ought to keep clofe to 
God's Word, what in thefe Cafes the holy 
Scriptures laith, namely, that Chriil: is true Gcd 
with God the Father; and that the Holy Ghoft 
is true God, and yet they are not three Gods, 
nor three Subftances, (as three Men, three An- 
gels, three Sons, three Widows, &cj No, God 
is not leparated nor divided in fuch manner hi 

B 2 his 

(e) Coutradliting of this Article. 


his Subftance^ but there is only and alone one. 
Divine Effence, and no more. 

Therefore, although there be three Perfons, 
(f) God Father, God Son, God Holy Ghoft, yet 
potwithftanding, we muft not divide nor fepa- 
rate the Subftance ^ for there is but one only 
.God in one only undivided Subftance, as St. 
Paul clearly fpeaketh of Chrift, Calof i. 15, 
1 5. Tloat he is the exprefs Image of the invifiblB 
God, the Flrfi-horn of all Creatures : For through him 
all things are created that are in Heaven and on 
Earth, vifible. Sec. And all is through and in 
liim created ^ and he is before all, and all things 
confift in him. 

Kovv, what the Third Perlbn is (g% that 
teacheth the holy Evangelift St. John, in the 
1 5th Chapter, where he faith. But when the Com- 
forter is come, which J will fend unto you from the 
Father, the Spirit of Truth which proceedeth from 
the Father, he Jhall teflify of me. ■ Here Chrift 
fpeaketh not only of the Office and Work of 
the Holy Ghoft, but alfo of his Subftance and 
Paith: He goeth out, or proceedeth from the 
Pather, that is, his going out, or his proceed- 
jjig, is witl>out all Beginning, and Everlafting ; 
therefore the holy Prophet gives him the Name, 
fend calls him 7he Spirit of the Lord., Joel 2. 
■ ;JnJow (faid Luther) although this Article feem- 
eth ftrange or fooliih, what matter is it, here 
is nO difputing whether it be fo or no, but whe- 
ther the fame be grounded on God's \\^ord or 
ro ? If it be God's Word, (as moft fure it is) 
then let us^ make no doubt thereof, he will not 
lie, therefor^ let us keep clofe to Go4's Word, 
' and 

(f) Unity of tfie Pivine ElTcncc. 
U) Holy Ghoft. , ' • ■ 

[ 5] 

and not difpute how Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghoft can be one God i^ for we, as poor Wretch- 
es, cannot know how it cometh that we laugh, 
or how, with our Eyes, we can fee a high Moun- 
tain Ten Miles off, or how it cometh, when we 
fleep, that in Body we are dead, and yet we 
live J this fmall Knowledge we cannot attain 
unto, no, not although we took to help the 
Advice and Art of all the Wife in the World, 
we are not able to know thefe leaft Things 
which concern our lelves, and yet (in the De- 
vil's Name) we will clamour up with our Hu- 
mane Wit and Wifdom, and will prefume to 
fa/ten and comprehend what God is in his lu- 
comprehenfible Majefty. 

I (faid Luther) out of my own (^h) Experience, 
am able to witnefs, that Jefus Chrift is true 
God :^ 1 will be no Epicure, I know full well, 
and have found what the Name of Jefus. has 
done for me. It is indeed well Ipoken, and 
the plain Truth, where we fing in the Pfalm, 
God layeth a Burthen ti^on vs, but he helpeth us 
alfo : We have a God that helpeth, and a Lord of 
Lords that delivereth from Death. Therefore (by 
God's Grace) no Trouble, no Tribulations, or 
other Creature whatfoever, fliall feparate me 
from Chrift. I (faid he) have oftentimes been 
{6 near Death, that I thought verily now muft 
I die, becaufe 1 teach his Word to the wicked 
World, and acknowledge him ^ but always lie 
mercifully put Life into me, refreilied and 
comforted me, therefore let us ufe diligence 
only to keep him, and all is i^'^'io, although tiie 
Oevil were never fo wickqd and crafty, and the 


(h) Luther s Experience that Cbrlft Is God. 


World never Co evil and falfe. Let whatfbever 
will or can be fa I me, ffliid Luther) I will lure- 
ly cleave by itiy fvveet Saviour Chrift Jefus, for in 
him am I baptized, (i) I neither can do nor know 
any thing, but only what he hath taught me ^ 
but truly, it is a very great and difficult Art, 
whereunto appertains much and manifold Tri- 
als and Experiences, when one from his Heart 
can name Chrift a Lord and a God, that deli- 
vereth from Death. 

(z) Proof of the Acknowledgement. 

Whereby the Godhead of ChriH is known, 

IT followeth hence moft certainly and power- 
fblly (faid Luther) (k) that Chrift is true God. 
The holy Scripture (efpecially St. Paul) every 
where afcribeth even that unto Chrift, which 
he giveth to the Father, namely, the Divine 
Almighty Power ^ Co that he can give Grace 
and Peace of Confcience, Porgivenefs of Sins, 
Life, Viftory over Sin, Death, and the Devil : 
Kovv, unlefs St. Paul would rob God of his Ho- 
nour, and would give it to anotlier that is not 
God, he dared not to afcribe fuch Properties 
and Attributes unto Chrift, if he were not tfue 
God; and God himfelf faith even fo, Ifa. 42. 
/ wiil give my Glory to none other. And indee_dj 
no Man can give that to nnother which he 
hath not himfelf: But feeing Chrift giveth 
Grace, Peace, the Holy Ghoft, redeemeth from 


(i^j Proof of the Delry. 


the Power of the Devil, ol S-n and Death ^ fb 
it is nioft fare, that he ha'h an ei;.dlefs, an 
unme?furabie Almighty Power, equal with the 

Chrift bringeth alfo Peace, (/) but not as 
the Apoftles bring it, namely, through Preach- 
ing ; but he giveth it as a Creator, as his own 
proper Creature. The Father createth, and giveth 
Life, Grace, and Peace •, and even fo giveth the 
Son the fame Gifts. Now, to give Grace, Peace, 
everlafting Life, Forgivenefs cf Sins, to juftify, 
to fave, to deliver from Death and Hell : Surely 
thefe are not the Works of any Creature, but of 
the fole Majefty of God •, and fuch Thi:-:gs the 
Angels themfelves can neither create nor give^ 

Therefore fach Works pertain to the high 
Majefty, Honour and Glory of God, who is the 
only and true Creator of all Things. We muff 
think of no other God than of Chrift •, that God 
which fpeaketh not out of Chrift's Mouth, is 
not God. God will hear no Man nor Humane 
Creature, but only through Chrift. Biit as the 
moft part of the Jews ran too and again, burned 
Incenfe, and offered here and there, therewith 
to worihip and ferve God, fought God in holy 
Places, and did not much regard the Tabernacle ^ 
even fo goeth it now, we feek God every-where, 
but feeiiig we feek him not in Chrift, there- 
fore we find him no where. 

(I) How Chrlfl brlnireth Peace. 



To Bslkve in ChriH is the true Religion, 

ALthough no Religion feemeth more foolifb 
to the World than the (m) Chriftian Re- 
ligion • yet, notwithftanding, I believe in that 
God which is the Son of the heavenly Father, 
namely, in Chrift Jefus. In no other God will 
I believe, as the Infidels and Idolaters do -^ for 
they are rejected and given over to a reprobate 
Mind. I Martin Luther^ neither do nor will take 
Kotice of any other God, but only of hira 
that hung on the Crofs, Chrift Jefus the Son 
of God. 

(m) Chrlftian Faith. 

Of the Humanity of Christ, 

THE Humanity of Chrift (faid Luther) is 
a great Myftery, which by Humane Wit 
and Reafon is not to be uttered nor fearched 
our, where God the higheft Majefty hath uni- 
ted our Flelh unto himfelf : Therefore when 
we have this Chrift, then we have All. 

No Man can comfreheni the Tivo Natures irP 

THAT Chrift is Cod and Man-, the fume 
is agriinft (n) Humane Senfe, Reafon and 
Underftanding •, for when we are to bring the 


(ff) OiTence of Natural Senfe and Reafon. 

. t9] .. 

Two NaCures in Chrift (the Divme and Hu^ 
mane) into One Perfon, then Humane Wit, Wil- 
<iom, Senfe, Reafbn and Underftanding do ftar- 
tle, and fay, Row can this be ? I underftand 
it not. O (faid Luther') no thanks unto thee 
for this Confeflion •, for it is not written to 
that End and Purpofe, that thou fliould un- 
derftand and comprehend jt with thy natural 
Senfe, Wit and Wifdom, but thou muft yield 
thy feif captive, and believe the Word of the 
Gofpel, through the Operation of the Holy 
Ghoft, and give God the Honour, that he is 
true. Chrift faith, (o) John 1 6. Matth. 2 1 . Mark 
1 1 . Whatfoever ye jJmll ask the Father in my Name, 
that will he give unto you. Here Chrift fpeaketh, 
as he who hath all in his Hand and Powery 
to give every thing which a Man prayeth un- 
to him for in Faith. 

(o) Chrift's Power. 

To acknowledge ChriH furpajfeth all Tbwgs elfe 
in the World, 

WE ihould not take the whole (^) World 
in exchange for this Knowledge (fiid 
Luther) that we know that Chrift is Chrift; 
that he is our only ijaviour, our High Prieft, 
our Lord and King. This did net I know (faid 
Luther) {^ long as 1 lived a Friar in the Mona- 
fteries ^ now, although, the Cafe iliould lo fall 
Out, that we ihould lofe our Lives for the Ac- 
knowledgment's fake, yet Chrift liveth, and if 

C he 

(p ^ Who believe thefe Word^'. 

[ 10 ] 

he livedi, then ihall we live alfo moft certain- 
ly \ for our Sentence ftands fail, and will for 
ever fo againft the Gates of Hell, where 
he iaith, / live, and ye Jhall alfo live, Kow 
Chriil:, whom we preach, is God ^ therefore the' 
whole World, in comparifon of this Chrift, is 
no thin 2; at all. 

All die V/ife of the World do (^) feoff and 
fcorn us Chriftiar^s, that we with fuch ferven- 
cy do take Chrift's Caufe in hand •, but at hft 
their Scoiiii g and Scorning will fall into their 
own Bofoms. 

The chiefeft fitudy in Divinity (faid Luther) 
is, (r) That we learn to kmw ChriB aright : There- 
foi'e faith St. Peter ^ Grow nf in the Knowledge of 
Jefus ChriB ^ namely, that he is the moft Merci- 
ful, the Beft, the moift juft and Wife •, and, faid 
he, if I miG;ht leave behind me but only this 
LeiTon, which, v/ith great diligence, 1 have driven 
and taught, namely, that People would beware, 
andta'ie good heed of Speculations, and inftead 
thereof, would compreheiid and take hold on 
Clirift only, in the moft plain and fimple Manner, 
then I would think my felf happy, and that J 
had accomplifli'd much. 

((^) Scoffer'^ at Chriftlnns. 
(rj Preaching's Profic. 

We muH nop fe^arate the Deity from the Hu- 
manitj/ of Chrish 

ON the Eighteenth of June,, 1538, Luther 
received a Letter from Viennci^ out of which 
he underftood, that there was one who denied, 


C " ] 

that the (s) Godhead in Chrift did not fuffer, but 
only the tlumanity. Luther laid, That camwt he'^ 
for it is written^ God who hath furchafed the Chitrch 
with his Blood. But (faid he) he^e lieth the Bu- 
finefs, the Devil goeth about to tear our Savi- 
our Chrift in pieces ^ fuch Brains are not Di- 
vine but Ambitious, they leek not God's, but 
their own Honours-, they feek to be refpefted 
and had in efteem better and before others, and 
'will leave Scholars and Dilciples behind them. 

(f) Such feparating of the Divine Nature from the liu- 
mane in Chrift, the Htsrcticks do forely drive on. 

Of common Questions in the World concsrning 

TH E moft fiequent and chief Qi-ieftion of 
thofe that will be called Chriftians, is 
thiS;, (t) Whether Chrift be Chrift- or no? that 
is. Whether the People only through him are 
delivered from Death, are juftified and laved 
before God, only by Faith in liim. We (^aid 
Luther) that have, and do acknowledge God's 
Word, fay, Yea thereto -^ that only aad alone 
through Chrift we are received of God to Grace, 
and are faved ;, we know, believe and acknow- 
ledge, that the fame is the infallible Truth, 
and therefore we preach of it, and therefore 
alfo we muft fuffer, as we read in the lixteenth 

C 2 There 

(t) Oppofire Opinions of the feschcrsof Works, and 
of t\\t ConfelTors of Chrift. 

There are (fiiid Luther') always three fbrj? 
of (u) Sefts which are at difcord about this 
Article : The firft Sort are they that make 
doubt thereof. The fecond, which do oppofe, 
deny, and perfecute the fame : But the third 
Sort are they, that dp hold the fame to be 
moft certain and true -^ and alfo, they do ac- 
knowledge and confefs the fame before the 
World. Of the two firft Sorts, there are a great 
Multitude J but of the laft, a very fmall Kumber. 

(u) Three Parties. 

Of the Prophets Achmvledqmem of ChrisK 

TH E Prophets (faid l^uther) did know that 
Chrift fhould, and miift be (x) true and na- 
tural God, to the End he might deliver from 
the everlafting Curfe thofe that ihould believe 
in him, as their Prophecies do clearly manifeft. 
Ifaiah in the 7th Chapter, calleth him, Imma- 
3iuel, that tSj God with us. Jeremiah in the 33d, 
iaith, He pall be called the Lord our Righteoujnefs-, 
&c. But, as touching the particular Circum- 
ftances, how, or after what Ibrt he would de- 
liver the Generation of Mankind from the e- 
ternal Curie. I believe (faid Luther') that all 
the Prophets did nof know the fime -^ but I ra- 
ther think, that they, and other godly Hearts, 
among the People of Jfrael, were preierved in 
their Faith (like as oar Children are, which 
fLTply and plainly do believe, that Chrift is 


[x) What the Prophets knew of Chrift. 

our God and Saviour) and that they have Kad 
alfb joyful, and comfortable Cogitations concern- 
ing the fame. 

^hat the Faith of a Chriftian is a rvonderful 

OURYjvJ Faith (faid Luther) is a wonder- 
ful thing, that I, and others (if we intend 
to be faved) muft believe in that Man, Jefus 
Chrift, that he is true and natural God, and yet 
died fb fliameful a Death, and was hanged be- 
tween two Malefaftors, as he liimfelf faid to his 
Dilciples ihortly before his Paffion; as it is writ- 
ten. He was reckoned among the Tranfgrejfors. Whom 
we have not feen^ i Vet. i. infomuch, that he is to 
us like a S;:one lying in the Sea, of which we 
know nbtuing. 

But (faid Luther) feeing he faith in the Gofpel, 
(z.) I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life ; no Man 
Cometh to the Father, but by me. Alfo, To me Is gi- 
ven all power in Heaven and on Earth ; therefore, go 
and teach all People, and baptiz.e them, &c. teach them 
to keep all Things which I have commanded you : Then 
moft fure it is, that he is Lord over all, and hath 
all Power both in Heaven and on Earth, therefore 
are we lafe enough thereby. 

And truly (faid Luther) Chrift ihewed himfelf 
to be a powerful Lord, (a) at the Imperial Diet 

fat Aufpurgh^ Anno T 530, where were gathered to- 
gether againft him, the greateft and moft power- 
ful Heads in the Chriftian World, fpiritual and 


(y) Againft the Scoffers of Faltli. 

(r.) Chrift's Divine Tide. 

{a) Imperial Diet at Mfpur^h, 1530. 

[ '4] 

temporal States, who were fiercely refolved alto- 
gether to have overthrown, and rooted out his 
holy Word,and utterly to have deftroyedus ^ yet, 
notwithflanding, they were fiiin to alter their 
Purpole, and to let God's Word and us alone. But 
(f-iid Luther') although we knew not that the Lord 
ruled above all, yet ihewed at that Time his Ma- 
jefty elfeftually, (Jj) infomuch, that we never can 
be able to render fufHcient Thanks to Almighty 
God for the fame : And we ought to have this 
Hire Confidence in him, that he can, and will fave, 
and deliver us from all Dangers, be they never 
{o great and grievous \ but, what fliall 1 fiy, this 
grf at Work of Wonder, fhewn at that Imperial 
Diet and Affembly, is already of us quite for- 
gotten, as if it never had been done. 

We that are truly Chriftians (faid Luther) do 
not trouble our felves with (c) that Humane Wit 
and Wifdom (the Devil's Whoi e) according to 
her Blindnefs thinketh, that the Chriftian Faith 
and Religion of all other is moft fooliih, feeing 
they do fix their Belief and Faith upon a cruci-r 
fied Jew J Chrift Jefus ^ but let them go on in 
their Wifdom, and in the Kame of the Devil, 
their Idol, let them fcoif and fcorn fo long as 
they can, yet we boaft of it as being the higheft 
Grace of God, and do acknowledge Chrift Jefus 
for us crucified and flain •, and in him we believe, 
and know for certain, that no other Name under 
fleaven is given among Men^ whereby we muU he 
faved, Afts 4. And therefore (faid Luther) do 
we utterly rejed and condemn all other Beliefs 


(l>) Experience in the greatefl: Danger of Rcliglpn's 
iO Thrice happy mOxd FqoUfhnefs, 

and Religions, as abominable Blafphemies and 
Lies of the Devil, which the Pope, Mahomet, and 
others have feigned and devifed, and we are fure 
that God hach given over unto reprobate Minds, 
and quite rejefted the Founders and Supporters 
of fuch their fiiperllitious Religions. 

No Man Afcendeth into Heaven^ &c. John j. 

IN this Sentence (S'^id Luther) Chrift will lay 
thus much, (<n!) No Man can be found Good 
and Juftified before God, nor come into Heaven 
without me, neither through his own Strength 
and Deierts, through his feif-chofen Devotion 
and Sarftity, nor through the Works of the 
Law ^ for I am, and remain in Heaven, and yet 
I am come down from Heaven, that I may take 
you up with me. In thefe three Words, ( ^ ) (To 
afcend up into Heaven ^ To come down from Heaven '^ 
And to be in Heaven^ Chrift briefly comprehend- 
ed his Almighty Power. r. To afcend up into 
Heaven, is. That from thenceforth he would 
no more appear on Earth in corporal Form or 
Shape. 2. To come down from Heaven, is. That 
he, who appeared here on Earth, was made Man 
(in every thing like unto us. Sin only except- 
ed) and by Blafpheming, John lo. 35. (as the 
Je-ives unjuftly call'd his Sayings) and Miracles 
would fhew his Glory, and at laft, would finifh 
the Work of Deliverance of the Generation of 
Mankind. 3. To he in Heaven, is, That he never 
forfook the Right Hand of the Father, that is, of 


i^d) Expcnindlng of rhe Sentence, 'jihn 5. 
\i) ChrilV$ brevity in Preaching. 

C i^ 1 

the Godhead, but for ever and ever hath been/ 
and ftill is, in Heaven ^ and that he never forfook 
Humane Kature, which he took upon him, nor 
never will forf.ike the fame. 

That Chrisi is our everlajling Mediator. 

THere is hut one God, faith St. Taul, i Tim. 2* 
(f) and one Mediator between God and Aian \ 
namely, the Aian Jcfus Chrift, who gave himfelf a 
Ranfom for all. 1 herefore. Jet no Man think to 
draw near unto God, or to obtain Grace of 
him without this Mediator, High Prieft, and 
Advocate, Heh, 5. and i John 2. 

Kow, if he be an Intercejfor for us to God, 
then doth it follow for certain, that we are 
Sinners, and are loft, and we cannot through our 
good Works, civil kind of Life, Virtues, De- 
ferts, Sanftity, neither through the Worlds of 
the Law, appeafe God's Wrath, nor obtain For- 
givenels of Sins. Likewife, through this one 
little Word (Adediator before God) ( g) all Deferts 
of Saints, our own good Works and Righteouf- 
nefs are quite rejefted and condemned -^ fo that 
through the fame, no Pumane Creature can be 
juftifted before God. Moreover, we fee hereby 
how fierce a^.d intolerable God's xA^nger is a- 
gainft Sins, feeing that by none other Sacrifice 
andOtfering they could be appeafed and ftill- 
ed, but only through the precious Blood of the 
Son of God. 


CO Accefs to God. 

(g) Words of great Weisht In the Holy Scripture. 

it A A A ti A A A A ti A A A lA A A A A A A A A A A i?# A A A . Jt 

,«T>. jT^ ^ Jf j, jr\ jf^ Jgj ^Jr*t -fi * Jf^ jf\^^ jn> jTh jr \ ^-^ uj> s^^ >^t\ ^ jT^ j*\ ;£V-<^ J** ^ ^k 
-f^ ^ ^ .^ ^ .^. ^ -^1 .^» .J. ^» ^» ^ ^ .j» ^> .^ ^ -J. ^ .^ .^. .^ -|i f ,, .^x ^ ^ 

Mr. John Calvin's 


Concerning the 

T R I xN I T Y. 

71je Scriptures teach one Divine Effence^ ivhere- 
in there are Three difiinguijjjedy but not divi* 
de'd Ferfons fubfifiing, 

GOB fets out himfelf by a fpecial Mnrlc,^ 
whereby he may'be' more nearly known. 
For he fo declares himfelf to be but 
Oi;e, that he yet gives himfelf diftinftly to be 
confider'd in Three Perfbns :;, which, except we 
learn a bare and empty Name of God, witnouc 
aily true God, flies in our Brain. And that no 
Man fliould think, that he is a threefold God, or 
that the one Effence of God is divided in three 
Perfons, we muft here feek a iliort, and eafy De- 
finition to deliver us from all Error. But be- 
caufe many make much adoe about this Word 
Perfon, as a Thing inverted by Man ^ how juft- 
Jy they do fo, is baft firft: to fee. The Apo- 
file (a) naming the Son, the engraved Form of 
the Hypoftafis of his Father, he undo^jbredly 

D rp-an.s, 

(a) iteb\ 1.3. 

[ i8] • 

means, that the Father has fome Being, vvherem 
he diiiers from the Son. For to take it for Ef- 
lence (as Ibme Expofitors have done, as if Chrift, 
like a piece of Wax printed with a Seal, did re- 
prefent the Subftance of the Father) were not 
only hard, but alfo an Abfurdity. For lince the 
Effence of God is fingle, crone, and indivifible, 
he that in himfelf contains it all, and not by 
Peice-mea!, or by Derivation, but in whole Per- 
feO:ion, iliould very improperly, yea, fondly be 
calFd the ene;rav'd Form of him. But becaufe 
the Father, tho' he is in his own Property di- 
liinft, has exprefs'd himfelf wholly in his Son, 
it is for good Caufe faid, that he has giv'n his 
Bypoftafis to be (een m him : Wherewith aptly 
agrees, that which imm.ediately follows, that 
He is the Brightnefs of his Glory. Surely we may, 
from the Apoftle's Words^ gather, that there is 
certain proper Hypofi^fis in the Father, which 
ifliines in ti)e Son :^ whereby alfo is eafily per- 
ceiv'd the Hypofiafis of the Son, which diiftin- 
guiOies from the Father ^ like Order is in 
the Holy Ghoft : For we fhall, by and by, prove 
him to be God, and yet he muft needs be other 
than tlie Father. Yet this DiftinEtion is not of 
the Elleuce, which it is unlawful to make mani- 
fold. Therefore if the Apoftle's Teftimony be • 
credited, it follows, that there are in God three 
Hypojiafes. As to this Term, fmce the Lat'mes ' 
have exprefs'd it by the Name of Perfcn^ it wou'd 
argue too much Pride, and Waywardnefs, to braul 
about fo clear a Matter : But if we were Word 
for Word to tranflate, we m?iy call it Suhfiflance ^ 
tho' manv in the fame Sei\ce have call'd it Sub- 
fiance. The Name of Perfon has not been us'd 
among the Lat'mes only, but the Grecians alio, 
perhaps to declare their Confent, have tauaht, 


that there are three ProfopU, that is to fay, Per- 
fons ill God. But they, whether Greeks, or La- 
tines, who differ from owq another in the Word, 
do very well agree in the Sum of the Matter. 

The Names of Triaity and Perfon no Man 
fiou'^d be offended with, 

HO W much foever the Heretlcks bark at the 
Name of Ver[on, or fome too-precife Men 
carp, that they like not the Word feigned by 
the Devife of Men : Since they can't get us to 
fay, that there are Three, whereof evTy one is 
Avholly God, nor yet that there are many Gods : 
How unreafbnable is it, to mlilike Words, which 
exprefs no other Thing, but what is teftified 
and approved by the Scriptures ? It were better 
rfiy tney) to reft rain not only our Meanings, but 
alfo our Words, within the Bounds of Scripture, 
than to devife ftrange Names, that may be the 
Beginning of Difagreement and Brawling ^ fo we 
tire ourfelves with Strife about Words-, lb is 
Truth laft in Contention \ fo is Charity broken 
by odioufly brawling together. If they call that 
a ftrange Word, which can't be iliew'd in Scri- 
pture, as 'tis written in Number of Syllables, 
they then bind us to a hard Law, whereby is con- 
demn'd all Expofition that is not peirc'd together, 
with bare laying together of Texts of Scripture. 
But if they mean that to be ftrange, which being 
curioufiy devis'd,is fuperftitloully defended,which 
makes more for Contention than Edification, 
which is either unaptly, or to no Profit us'd, 
which withdraws from the Simplicity of the 
Word of God, then with all my Heart I embrace 
their fober Mind. Fo: I judge, that we our,hc, 

D 2 with 

with no left devout Reverence, to talk of God, 
than to think of him •, forafmuch as whatfover 
we of ourfelves think of him, is fooliih, and 
whatfoever we fpeak is mifavory. But there is 
a certain Meafure to be kept, we ought to learn 
from the Scriptures, a Rule both to think, and 
fpeak ^ whereby to examine all the Thoughts of 
our Mind, and the Words of our Mouth. But 
what hinders, but that fuch as in Scripture are, 
to our Capacity, doubtful and entangl'd, we may 
in plainer Words exprefs them ; being yet fuch 
Words, as reverently and faithfully ferve the 
Truth of the Scripture, and are us'd fparingly, 
modeftly, and not without Occafion ? Of which 
Sort .there are Examples enough. And whereas 
it ihall by Proof appear, that the Church of great 
Neceihty was enforc'd to ufe the Names of Tri- 
nity and Perfons *, if any then fhall find fault with 
the Newnefs of Words, fhall he not be juftly 
thought to be griev'd at the Light of the Truth, 
as he who blames only this, that the Truth is 
made ib plain, and clear to difcern ? 

The crooked Suhtilties of Hereticks has caused found 
Believers to devifc new IVords, for ^plaif/er Ofening 
of that, U77der which their Foifon lurked, as Con- 
fuhflantial againFt the Arrians , Verfond Trinity 

againfi- the Sabellians. 

NEwnefs of Words, if it may be fo call'd, 
comes then chiefly in Ule, when the Truth 
is to be defended againft Wranglers, who mock it 
put with Cavillations, Which Thing we have 
at this Day too much in Experience, who have 
great Bufmefs in vanquifhing the Enemies of 
true, and found DoOirine. With fuch Folding, 
and crooked Winding thefe fiippery Snakes Aide 


away, unlefs they be flrongly grip'd, and holden 
hard when they are taken.- So the old Fathers 
being troubl'd with contending againft falfe 
Podrines, were compelfd to iliew their Mean- 
ings in exquifite Plainnefs, leil they ihou'cf 
leave any crooked By-ways to the Wicked, to 
whom the doubtful Conftruftions of Words 
were hiding Holes of Errors. Arriui confeis'd 
Chrift to be God, and the Son of God, becaufe 
he cou'd not gainfay the evident Words of 
God, and as if he had been i'o fufficiently dil- 
charg'd, did feign a certain Conlent with the 
the reft. But in the mean while, he ceafed 
not to fcatter abroad, that Chrift was created, 
and had a Beginning as other Creatures : But 
to the end they might draw forth his wind- 
ing Subtilty out of his Den, the ancient Fathers 
went further, pronouncing Chrift to be the eter- 
nal Son of the Father^ and Confubfiamlal with the 
Father. Hereat Wickednefs began to boil, when 
the Arrians began to hate, and deteft the Name 
Omoouforiy Confubftantial. But if in the Begin- 
ning, they had ftnceYely, and with plain Mean- 
ing confefs'd Chrift to be God •, they would 
not now have deny'd him to be Confubftantial 
with the Father. Who dare now blame thefe 
good Men as Brawlers and Contentious \ becaufe 
for one little Word's fake, they were fo hot 
in Difputation, and troubled tlie Quiet of the 
Church ? But that little Word ftiew'd the Dif- 
ference between the true believing Chriftians, 
and the Arrians, who were Robbers of God. 
Afterwards rofe up Sabeilius, who accounted in 
a Manner for nothing the Names of the Fa- 
ther, Son, and Holy Glioft, faying, in Difpu- 
tation, that they were not made to fhew any 
manner of Diftinftion, but only were feveral 
Additions of God, of which Sort there are ma- 

ny. If he came to Difputation, he cdnfefs'd, 
that he believ'd the Father God, the Son God, and 
the Holy Ghoft God. But afterwards he would 
readil)'^ flip away with fayinp;, that he had in no 
otherwife fpoken, than as if he had named God, a 
ftrong God, juft God, and wife God -^ and fo he 
fung another Song, that the Father is the Son, 
and the Holy Ghoft is the Father, without a- 
ny Order, without any Diftinftion. The good 
Doftors, which then had Care of Godlinefs, to 
fubdue his Wickednefs, cry'd out on the other 
Side, that there ought to be acknowledg'd in 
one God three Properties ? And to the end to 
fenfe themfeWe? agairft the crooked writhen 
Subtilties with plain and fimp'e Truth, they af- 
firm'd, that there did truly fliblift in one God, or 
(which came all to one Effe£l:) that there did flib- 
lift in the Unity of God a Trinity of Perfbns. 

The Effence <?f God is one fimple and fmgle Thingy 
wherein there are three Subfijlences^ each dif- 
fering from the other, huving feme incomrnu- 
nicahle Property. 

BUT leaving difputation of Words, I will now 
begin to fpeak of the Matter it felf I call 
therefore a Perlbn a Subfiftence in the Effence of 
God^ which having Relation to the other, is dif^ 
tinguifli'd from tnem with uncommunicable Pro- 
perty. By the Name of the Subfiftence we mean 
another thing than the Effence •, for if the Word 
had fimply been God^ and in the mean time had 
nothing feverally proper to it felf, John i. i. the 
Apoftle had faid amifs, that it was with God -^ where 
he forthwith addeth, that (Tod himfelf was the 
fame Word, he calleth us back again to the one fin- 
gle Effence : But becaufe it could not be with God, 



but that it muft reft in the Father ; hereof arifeth 
that Subliftence, which, though it be joined to the 
EfTence with an infeparable Knot, yet hath it a 
Ipecial Mark, whereby it doth differ from it. So 
of the three Subfiftences, I fay, that each having 
Relation to other, is in Property diftinguiflied. 
Relation is here exprefly mention'd ^ for when 
there is limpleand indefinite mention made of G".?^, 
'this Name belongeth no lefs to the Son, and the 
Holy Gboft, than to the Father. But when the 
Father is compared with the Son, the feveral Pro- 
perty of either doth difcern him from the other. 
Whatlbver is proper unto every of them, is un- 
communicable : For that . which is given to the 
Father for a Mark of Diftinftion, cannot agree with, 
nor be given to the 5w. And I miflike not the Dif- 
finition of Terfu/lian, lb that it be rightly taken. 
That there is in God a certain Diffofjion or Difiribu- 
tiony which yet changeth nothing of the Vnity of the 

The Places of Scripture which prove ChriFi to be 
God, and the Shifts which the Jews have to 
avoid them, 

ALthough I do not yet touch the Perfon of the 
Mediator,but do defer it to that Place where 
we ihall fpecially treat of the Redemption *, yet, 
becaufe it oupht to be certainly holden without 
Controverfy among Men, that ChriFt is the fame 
Word clad with Flefh. In this Place it will be 
very fit tp recite all thofe Testimonies that prove 
Chrifl to be God \ when it is faid in the 45t]i Ffalnty 
Thy Tljrone, O God, is for ever and ever. The Jews 
do cavil and fay, that th:; Name Elohim is alfo 
applied to the Angels and Sovereign Powers : But 

[ ^4 ] 

3J1 all the Scripture there is not a like Place, that 
raileth an eternal Throne to any Creature ^ for he 
is here not iimply call'd 6W, but alio the eternal 
Lord. Again, this Title is given to none but with 
an Addition, as it is faid, that Mofes fliall be for 
a God to Pharaoh, Some read it in the Genitive 
Cafe, which is very foolilh. I grant indeed, that 
oftentimes a Thing is call'd Divine, or o^God, that 
is notable by any fmgular Excellence ^ but hereby 
the Tenour of the Text it appeareth, that fuch a 
Meaning were hard and forc'd, and will not agree. 
But if their Stubornnefs will not fo yield, Jfa. 9. 6. 
is very plainly brought in for all one, both Chrili- 
J^nd God •, and he that is adorn'd with the Sovereign 
Power, which is properly belonging to God alone. 
This (laith he)- is the Name whereby they ihall 
call him, Iheflrong God,the mighty Father of the World 
to come, &c. Here the Jews bark again, and turn the 
Text tlius, {This is the Name whereby the ftrong Gody 
the Father of the World to come jhall call him : So that 
they leave this onlv to the Son to be call'd. The 
Trince of Peace. But to what purpofe fliould ^o 
many Names of Addition, in this Place, be heap'd 
Vi^ouGod the Father, feeing it is the Purpofe of the 
Propliet to adorn ChriH with fuch fpecial Notes as 
may build our Faitli upon him ? Wherefore it is 
out of doubt, that he is here in like fort call'd The 
firong God,, as he is a little before call'd Jmmannel : 
But nothing can be found plainer then that Place 
01 Jeremiah, where he faith, That this jjjall be the 
Name whereby the Seed of David JJiall be called Jehovah 
cur Ris:;keoufnefs. For where the Jews themfelves 
do teach, that all other Names of God are but ad- 
jeftive Names of Addition, and that this only 
Name Jehovah, which they call m/fpealahle, is a 
fubftaiitive Name to exprels his Effence, we ga- 
ther that the Sm is the only and eternal God, Jfa. 


C ^5 ] 

42. 8. which faith in another Place, that he ro'ill. 
not give his' Glory to another. But hear alfo, they 
leek to efcape away, becaufe that Mofes gave that 
JoJame to the Altar that he builded ^ and Ez,ekicl 
gave it to the New City Jerufalcm. But who doth 
not fee that the Altar was builded for a Monument, 
that God was the Advancement of Mof^s^ and that 
JerufJem is not adorned with the Name o^God, but 
only to teftify thePrefence of God? For thus laith 
the Prophet, The Name of the City from that JDayJhall 
be Jehovah there. And Mofes faith thus, He build^ 
ed an Altar ^ and called the Name of it Jehovah, my 
E.xaltation. But more Bufmefs arifeth by another 
place of Jeremiah 33. \6. Exod. 17. 15. Ez^ek. 48. 
35. where the fame Title is applied to Jemfalemy 
in thefe Words, Tins is the Name whereby they fiall 
call hery Jehovah our Right ecu fnefs- But the Teili- 
mony is {<o far from making agaiiift the Truth 
which we defend, that it rather confirmeth it: 
For whereas he had before teftified that CWi? is 
the true Jehovah^ from whom floweth Righteouf- 
iiefs ^ now he pronounceth, that the Church ihall 
fo verily feel the fame, that ihe may glorioully 
ufe the very Name it felf 

The Godhead of Chrift plainly avouched in the 
New Teftament. 

AS for the Nero Teflament^ it fwarmeth with 
innumerable Teftimonies, therefore we 
muft travel rather Shortly to choofe out few, than 
largely to heap up all : For tho' the Apoftles fpeak 
of him fmce he was now become the Mediator in 
Flefli-, yet all that I fhall bring forth ihall apHy 
ferve to prove his Godhead. Firlty This is worthy 
fmgularly to be marked, that thofe things that 

E weri 


C ^^ ] 

wore beibre fpoken, touching the eternal Gcd^ th« 
Apoftles do ihewjtliat they are either aiready per- 
formed, or hereafter to be perform'd in ChrlTh : 
For when Ifa. 8. 14. prophelyeth that the Lord of 
ilofts fjiall be to the Jewj and Ifraelltes a ftum- 
bling Stone, and a Rock to fall upon, Rom. 9. 24. 
Rom. 14. 10. P*i«/ affirmeth that the fame is ful- 
filled --n Chr'Ttr. Therefore he declareth him to be 
the Lord of Hofts likewife in another Place, We 
niUil all (laifh he) once be brought to apTiear before the 
' udgmcnt-Throne of Chrift. For it is written, "To 
me fljtzll all Knees bow, and to me fid all all Tongue^ fwear, ■ 
feeing God in Jfaiah fpeakeththis thing of himfelf, 
Ifa. 55. 23. And Chrift indeed perforraeth it him- 
felf, it followeth that he is the felf fame Co^, 
whofe Glory may not be withdrawn to aiother. 
And that which,wrlting to the EphefanSjCh.S. 4. he 
alledgeth out of Pfal. 57. 1 9. is evident, that it can 
be applied to none but Go^a! alone. Afcending^on 
high, he hath carried captivity captive \ meaning that 
fach afcending was in Shadow iliewed, when Cod 
in notable Viclories againft Foreign Kations did 
dhew forth his Power •, but he declareth, that in 
ChriU it was more fully perform'd. So John 1.14. 
teftifieth, that is was the Glory of the Son., that was 
revealed to £/^zy by a Vifion, Ifa. 61. whereas in- 
deed, the Prophet hinifelf writeth, that the Ma- 
jefly of God appeared unto him. And it is evi- 
dciit, that thofe things which the Apoflle, writing 
to the Hebrews, applieth to the Son, are the plain 
Titles of God : as, Time Lord, in the Beginning, didFt 
lay the foundations of Heaven and Earth, &C. Agam, 
Worfhp him nil ye his Angels. And yet he abufeth 
not thole Titles, when he draweth them to Chrift: 
For all thofe Tilings, that are fpoken of in the 
Pfulms, he himfelf alone hath fulfilled : For it 
was he that rofe up^ and had. mercy on Sion : it 


. 1^ ^7 ] 

was he, that claimed to himfelf the Kingdom of 
all Nations and Iflands; and why iliould John Hick 
to apply the Majefty of God to Ch-iji ? John i . i . 
who in his Preface had faid, that the Word was 
always God? 2 Cor. lo. Why fliould Paid fear to fee 
C6r//? in the Judgment-Throne of God^ Rom 9. 5- 
having before,with fo open Proclamatioa,declared 
his Godhead ^ where he laid, that he xoas God blejjld 
to the cyjd of the World ? And to make appear how 
well he agreeth in this Point with himfelf, in ano- 
ther Place he writeth, th^t Chrlfl is God, openly 
fPiewed in the Fleili- If he be God, to he praifcd to 
to the end of the World^then is he the fame^ to whom, 
in another Place, he aihrmeth all Glory and Honour 
to he due,' i Tim. 3. 16. i 'Tim. 1.17. Vhil. 2. 6. John 
5. 20. I Cor. 8. 5. A^s 20. iS.^John 20. 28. And 
thus he hideth not, but plainly crieth out, that 
he would have counted it no robbery, if .he had Pjcw- 
ed himfelf ecjual with God *, but that he willingly 
abafed himfelf. And that the Wicked fhould not 
carp,that he is fome made God, John goeth farther, 
and faith, he is the true God, and eternal Life. Al- 
though it ought abundantly to fatisfy us, tliat he 
is call'd God, efpecially of that Witnefs which ex- 
prefly aftirmeth, that there are no more Gods than one. 
That (ame Witnefs is Paul, which faith thus. 
How many foever he called Gods, either in. Heaven or in 
Earth, to us there is hut one God, front whom are all 
jToings. Then we hear from the lame Mouth, that 
God was openly jliewed in the Flefh j that God with his 
own Blood purchafed the Church unto himfelf; why 
ihould we imagine a fecond God, which he him- 
felf acknowledgethnot? And it is no doubt, that 
all the Godly were of the fame Meaning. Likewile 
Thomas, in protefting him to be his Lord, and his 
God, doth profefs, that he is that only one God, 
whom he had always worihipped. 

E 2 Ckin- 

[ -^s -J 

ChriBy M the Ston of God, yet properly God ; 
not by a certain d^erived Deity, hut by the fame 
Godhead, whereby his Father is God, 

WHereas they obje£t, that if Chrift be pro- 
perly God, he is not rightfully call'd the 
Son : To that we have already anfwer'd, that be- 
caufe in fach Places, there is a Comparifon made 
of the one Perlbn and the other, the Kame of 
God is not there indefinitely taken, but reftrained 
to the Father only ; infomuch as he is the Begin- 
ning of the Godhead, not in making of EfTence, 
as the mad Men do fondly imagine •, but in refpeft 
of Order. In this Meaning is conftrued that Say- 
ing of Chrift to the Father, This is the Eternal 
Life^ that Men believe in thee the cne true God, and 
Jefus ChriB whom thou haft fent : For fpeaking in 
the Perfon of the Mediator, he keepeth the De- 
gree,thit is,Mean,between God and Men, and yet 
is not his Majefty thereby diminifhed ^ for though 
^e ab^frd himfelf, yet he left not with the V2i- 
th.Q'C h\S Glory that was hidden before the World ^]6hi-i 
17. 5. So the Apoftle in Heh. 1. though he con- 
feilech, that Chrifl: for a ihort time was abafed be- 
neath the Angels, yet he fticketh not to affirm 
withal, that he is the fame eternal God that 
founded the Earth : We mail: therefore hold, that 
fo oft as Chrifl:, in the Perfon of the Mediator, 
fpeaketh to the Father under this Name of God, 
is comprehended the Godhead, which is his alfo. 
So when he faid to the Apoftles, John 16. 17- 
It ii profitable that I go up to the Father, becaufe 
the Father is greater. He giveth not unto himfelf 
only the fecond Degree of Godhead, to be as 
touching his eternal EfTence, inferior to the Fa- 
ther ^ but becaufe having obtained the heavenly 


[ ^9-] 

Glory, he gathereth together the Faithful to the 
{)artaking of it ; he fetteth his Father in the 
higher Degree, infomuch as the glorious Perfe- 
<^lion of Brightnefs, that appeareth in Heaven^ 
differeth from that Meafure of Glory, that was^ 
leen in him, being cloathed in Flefli. After like 
manner, in another place, i Cor. i 5. 24. Paul faith, 
that Chrift jliall yield tip the Kingdom to God 
and his Fat her ^ that God may be all in all ; 
there is nothing more abfurd, than to take away 
eternal Continuance from the Godhead of Chrift : 
If he fhall never ceafe to be the Son of God, but 
iliall always remain the fame that he was from 
the Beginning ^ it followeth, that under the Name 
of the Father is comprehended the one EfTence, 
that is common to them both : And furely, there- 
fore did Chrift defcend to us, that lifting us up 
unto his Father, he might alfo lift us up unto 
himfelf, inafrauch as he is all one with the Father : 
It is therefore, neither lawful nor right, fo exclu- 
fively to reft rain the Kame of God to the Father, 
as to take it from the Son \ for John doth for this 
Caufe affirm, that he is true Cod, John i . i . that 
no Man ihou Id think that lie refteth in a fecond 
Degree of Godhead beneath his Father. And I 
marvel, what the Framers of new Gods do mean, 
that while they confefs Chrift to be true God, yet 
they forthwith exclude liim from the Godhead 
of his Father ^ as though there could any be a 
true God, but he that is the one God ; or a^ the' 
the Godhead poured from one to another, be rot 
a certain new forged Imagiiiation. 


C 30 3 

His Working with the Father^ his Governing of 
the World^ his Pardoning of Sinners^ his -per- 
ceiving the very Thoughts of the Heart Sj prove 
him to be very God. 

N'OW if we efteem his Godhead by the 
Works that in the Scriptures are afcribed 
unto him, it fhall thereby more evidently appear^ 
for when he faid, that from the Beginning he was 
thitherto working with his Father, John 5. 17. 
The Jews^ which were moft dull in Underftand- 
ing all his other Sayings, yet then perceived 
that he took upon him the Power of God. And 
therefore, as John telleth, they fought the more 
to kill him, becaufe he did not only break the 
Sabbath, but alfo did call God his Father, ma- 
king himfelf equal with God • Hovv dull fhall we 
be then, if we do not perceive that his Godhead 
is herein plainly affirmed ? And truly to order 
the World with Providence and Power, and ta 
govern all Things with the Authority of his own 
Might, which the Apoftle afcribeth unto him, 
Heb.i.'i belongeth to none but only the Crea- 
tor : And he not only enterparteneth the Go- 
vernment of the World with his Father, but alfo 
all other Offices, which cannot be made common 
to God with his Creatures. The Lord crieth out 
by the Prophet, / am he, I am he, that do away thine 
Offences, for mine own fake ^ Ifa. 43. 25. According 
to the Meaning of this Sentence, when the Jews 
thought that wrong was done to God, for that 
Chrift did forgive Sinners, Chrift not only affirm'd 
in Words, but alfo prov'd by Miracles, that this 
Power belonged unto himfelf, Matth- 9. 4. 6. We 
fee therefore, that he hath not the Miniftratiow, 
but the Power of Forgivenefs of Sins, which the 


J.,ord faith he will not luffer to pafs away from 
himfelf to any : What iliall we fay of fearchingand 
peircing the fecret Thoughts of Hearts ? Is it not 
the Property of God alone ? But the fame had 
Chrift, whereby is gatheied that he is God. 

The Word, in the ^sginning of Things began- 
to fljew it jelfy hut was before arty Thing 
Began y and, was it felf without Beginning. 

HEre the Enemy, which when they dare noto- 
peiily take from him hisGodhead,do fecretly 
fteal from him his Eternity : For they fay, that 
the Word then began firft to be, when God, in the 
Creation of the World, opened his holy Mouth : 
But very undifcreetly do they to imagine a certain 
Innovation of the Subftance of God ^ for as thofe 
Names of God, that have Relation to his out- 
ward Work, began to be given unto him after 
the Beginning of his Work : As for Example, 
this, That he is called the Creator of Heaven 
and Earth : So doth Godlinefs know or admit 
no Name, that ftiould fignify any new Thiiig 
in himfelf to have chaunced unto God. For 
if any iliould come to him from elfewhere, 
than in himfelf, then this Saying of James fliould 
fill. That every good and every perfeB Gift is from 
above, and cometh down from f'he Father of Lights, 
With whom is no Fariablenefsy fieither fjadow of 
Jurnitig. Therefore nothing is lefs to be fuf- 
fered, than to fain a Beginning of that Word, 
which both always was God, and afterwards 
was Creator of the World. But full fubtilely, 
forfooth, they Reafon, that Mofes in faying, 
that God then firft fpake, doth iecretly ihew, 



that there was no Word in him before, whicli 
is a moft trilling Argument ^ for it followetb 
not, becaufe a Thing at fome one certain Time, 
beginneth to be ilievved openly, that therefore 
it had never any Being before. But I con- 
clude far otherwile, and fay. Seeing that in the 
fame Moment that God faid. Let Lhht he made^ 
the Power ot the Word appeared, and ihewed 
it lelf, Gen. 1.3. the fame Word was long be- 
fore : But if a Man ask how long before, he 
fhall fin^ no Beginning. For he appointed no 
certain Space of Time, when himfelf faid, Fa- 
they^ glorify me with the Glory which J had with 
Thee before the World was, John 17. 5. And this 
Thing John alfo left not untouched, becaule he 
firfl: fheweth. That in the Bcffi?7ni?7o; the Word wa4 
with God, bef'M-e that he cometh to the Crea- 
tion of the World. We fay therefore again. 
That the Word which was conceived of God^ 
before any Beginning of Time, was continual- 
ly remxaining with him, whereby both his Eter- 
nity, true EiTence, and Godhead is prov'd. 

Some Scriptures in Vindication of the Dccirine 
of' the Holy Tririitj, 

DEuteronomy 6. 4. Hear, O Ifrael, the Lord 
our God IS one Lord. Ifa. 44. 6,8. Thus faith 
the Lord J the ICnja- of Ifi-ael, and his Redeemer^ the 
Lord of Hofls ^ / am. the Flr^, and I am the LaShy 
and be fides }7:e there is no God. L there a God be- 
fides me, yea, there is no God, I know not any: 
John I. 14. I Cor 8. 6- But to us there is but one 
God. See John \ J. 3. Ffilm^%.6. Tloy Throne O 
God, is for ever aid ever j applied unto Chrift. Heb. 


1.8. But unto the Son he faithj 7hy Throne, O God, is 
for ever and ever. Plalm 68. 17,18,19. EpheC 

4. 8. Pfaim 110. 1. The Lord fiid wnto my Lord, 
fit thou at my Right Hand 3 applied unto Chrift 
by himfelf. Matth. 22. 24. I(a. 6. i, 2, 3. 
John 12. 41, 42. Ifa. 8. 13, 14. applied unto 
the Son. Ifa. 9. 67. Jer. 23. 5, 6. Holea 12. 
3, 4, 5. Zach. 2. 8, 9. Match. \6. \6. Tliou art 
Chfift, the Son of the Living God. Luke i. 35. 
John I. 1,2, 3, and 14. John 3. 3. John 8. 57, 
58. John 10, 1^0. / and my Father arc one. John 
17. 3. John 20. 28. u4nd Thomd-S anfwered, and 

faid unto him, my Lord and my God. A£ls 20. 28. 
Rom. 1.3,4. Rom. 9. 5. Rom. 14. 10, 11,12. 

1 Cor. 8. 6. And, one Lord Jefus Chrifl, by whom are 
all Things, and we by him. i Cor. i o. 9. compared 
with Numb. 11. 6. Phil. 2. 5, 6. Col. K i 5, 

16, 17. I Tim. 3.15. Tit. 2. 3. Hebrews i, 
throughout, i John 3. \6. Rev. i. 8, 11, 17. 
Rev. 2. 23. Rom.^. 5, Jer. 10. 11. Tloe Cods 
that have not made the Heavens and the Earth, even 
theyjljall per :JJ} from the Earth. Phil. 2. 7, 8. John 
i> 2, 3, 10, 11,14,17,18. Pro. 8. 23. John 

17. 5. John 8. 58. Before Abraham was, I am. 
Ads 4. 24. Heb. I. 10. Gen. u i. Prov. 8. 
23. Mark i. r. Col. i. 16. Heb. 3. 4. For he 
that made all Things is God. Ver. 14, and fo onwards. 
Gen. I. 2. Pfal. 33. 6. Job 25. 23. Job 33. 4. 
Pfal. 104. 30. Matth. 28. 19. A£ls i. 16. Afts 
5.3,4. Acts 28. 25,2(5. I Cor. 3. 16. I Cor. 
12. II. 2 Cor. 13. 14. A£ls 30. 28. Matth. 
1 2. 3. Pfal. 1 39. 7. U/Vuher full I go from thy Spi- 
rit. John 14. 26. Luke 12. 12. Atis 13. 3, 4. 

2 Pet. 1.21. I John 5. 7. 1 Cor. 12. 3, 4, 5, 6. 
Ads 5, 3, 4. I Cor. 2. 10. John 10. 30. f John 

5. 7. Matth. 28. Ig. BaftizJng them in the Name 
of the Father^ Son, and Spirit. Matth. 16. 16. Tl)ou 

F an- 


art ChriFi the Son of the living Gcd. Job r. 14, 1 8. 
John 5. 26. I John 5. 20. John 14. 25. i Cor. 
2. 1 1 . But the Thlfigs of God knoweth no Man^ htit 
the Sprit of God. Ephef. 3. I4, 15, 16, 17, 18,19, 
Col. 2. 2. 

Some Texts of Scripture to prove the Lord ^efu^ 
ChriH to be God, 

John T. 3. Pfal. 83. 18. Jcr. 23. 6. Prov. 16. 4. 
Kehem. 9. 6. John 8. 58. Gen. 6. 3. i Pet. 
3. 18,19,20. 2 Tim. 3.16. I Pet, I. 10, 11. 
Pfal. 78. 56. 1 Cor. JO. 9. I Chron. 29. 11, 12. 
John 16. 15. John 17. 10. Ifa. 44. 6. T'hus faith 
the Lord, the King o/Ifrael, and his Redeemer the Lord 
of Hojls, I iT.m the FirFt, and I am the Laft, and he- 
fides me there is no God. Rev. i. 11, 17. Rev. 2. 
8. Saying, I am Al^ha and Omega, the Fir Ft and the 
LaB. Ifa. 8. 13. SanEiify the Lord of Hofis him- 
felf, 8cc. Joel 2. 27, 28. / am the Lord your God, 
and none clfe, &c. Ifa. 6. 8. Mark i. 2, 3. John 
1.23. Plalm 93. 2. Hebr. T. 8, 9, lo, II, 12. 
Col. 2. 9. I Chron. 29. l i . Thine, O Lord, is the 
Greatn'fs, and the Power, and the Glory, &c. John 
3. 3 1. He that comet h from above is above all. Rom. 
9.15. Mai. 3. 6. Pralm68. 7, 8. Ephef 4. 
•8. Chrift afcended up on high, &c. Luke I. l5. 
John 20. 28. Rev. 22. 6. Tit. 2. 13. i John 
<;. 20. Jer. 10. 10. Gen. 17. i. Ephef. 4. 7, 
8. I Tim. 5. 16. King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. 
Rev. 17. 14. Rev. 19. \6. Hebr. i. 5. Gen. 
18.25. 2Tim. 4. I. Rom. 8. 22,30. Matth. 
24. 3 1 . The Lord Jefus Christ ele[hs Perfons to Grace 
and Glory. John 13. 18. John 15. 19. Pfal. 68- 
2o- He that is our God is the God of Salvation, &c. 


[35 ] 

Deut. 32. 39. See norv that I, even I am he^ and there 
is no God -with me, .fyc- Rev. i . 1 8- I am he that 
livethy and was dead j and behold I am alive (or 
evermore, Amen : and have the Keys of Death and 
Hell. Rom. 5. 23. The Giver of eternd Life- John 

10. 28- Pfal. 95.2. O thou that heareth Prayer, unto 
thee fiali all Flejh come, i John 5. I4, i 5. i Tim. 

4, 10. John TO. 11,14. Jen 3. I 5. >4«^ /tp/// 
£ive you Pafiors according to mine Heart, which jh.ill 
feed you with Knowledge and ZJnderfianding. Jer. 

23« 4. Ephef. 411. I Tim. 4. 6. 2 Cor. 1 1 . 2- 

Rev. 21.9. Pfal. 83. 18. Luke I. 75. Pfalm 

89. 9. Mark 2. 7. Match, 9. 6. i Kings 8. 39. 

Rev. 2. 2, 3. Heb. 4. 23, 24. John 21. 17. Jer. 

23. 24. Do not I fill Heaven and Earth, faith the 

Lord. John 3. 13. Exod. 20. 24. Matth, 4. 10. 

John 5* 23. Mark 12. 29, 50. Luke 14. i6. 

Pfal. 34. 8. Pfal. 84. 12. John 3. 16. Ua. 61. 

1 5. Gal. 6. 14. Rev. 22. 6, 19. 


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to the Capacity and Ufe of fuch as may be 
in danger to be feduced, and the eftabliihment 
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3. Two ihort Catechifms of the Doftrine of 
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4. An hum.ble Teftimony unto the Goodnefs 
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5. Difcourfes of Evangelical-Love, Church- 
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9. Caufes, Ways and Means of underftanding 
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Thefe 1 3 by the Reverend Dr. John Owen. 

t H E 

Layman's L E TTE R S 

T O t H E 

Diflenting Minifters 



A List of their NAMES 
on Both Sides 2 

Confifting of 
A Letter of T H A N K s to thofc 
Divines who Subfcribed the De^ 
claration for the T R I N I T Y. 

A Letter of P E R S W. A S I O N to 
thofe Minifters who Refufed it, 

A Letter to the Reverend Mr. John 
Conder^ who Sign'd on Both Sides. 


Printed, and Sold by Joseph Marshall at the 
Bib/e in Newgate-ftreet ^ T. Harrison at the 
Royal Exchange '^ and J.Roberts In Warwick' 
Lane, 1719. [Price ^ d,] 



INCE the fimjhing thefe Let- 
TERS, that I might fecure my 
feljfrom mijiak'wg the Non-Sub- 
Icribers in any Particular, I cajl 
my Eye once more over what they 
have publijhed in their Account 
of this important Affair ; and 
left they Jhould pretend, that the Letter to the 
Brethren at Exeter, Suhfcribd by the Reverend 
Mr. Oldfield, D. D. mi^ht have been fufficient to 
have prevented all I have /aid a^ainjl them, Jince 
there the proper Divinity of our Saviour and the 
Blefled Trinity are own a in Words that are meer- 
ly Humane j which Letter is Sub/crib'd in all their 
Shames, by Mr. Oldfield, D. D. their Moderator. 
But this partial Compliance, this life of two or 
three Words, meerly Humane, to notify or make 
known what they mean, adds new force and Strength 
to what 1 have /aid in my Letter to them -, for if 
they could depart from their Adherence, to the ex- 
pr effing them/elves in no other Words but thofe of 
the Holy Scripture, in two or three Words they 
might have done it in the whole Declaration : But 
they did this, they fay, to Notify the Things we 
^eak of 5 and we do not prefume, in the way 

A 2 of 


of Teft, ^c. hut there is no more re^uir^d tf 
them, in their Subfcription to the Declaration, 
than to Notify the Thi?ig of which they were de- 
fired to give their Belief. By Notify, Ifuppofe^ 
they mean, to let the Hearer or Reader %nor» 
perfe^ly what is intended by the Words they make 
life of: If that be the Senfe of Notify, they mufi 
give me leave to tell them, that thefe Unfcrip- 
tural Words cf Trinity and Proper Divinity, art 
not fufficient to notify that they do believe the 
Trinity in the Senfe of the Declaration •, for the 
word Trinity has various Senfes, as that of the 
Modelifts and Reallifts, a meer nominal Sa^fei 
and a Senfe which it implies, or that is mentionedt 
in the Declaration: And in the fame manner iV/y- 
per Divinity may be taken in the Senfe ef thS 
Trinitarians, or in that of the Arians or Sociniansj 
for Socinus himfelf allowed Chrifi to be Deus 
fa£lus, that is, a Made or Created God ; but the 
Words of the Declaration leave us in none of 
thefe Doubts, fo the NeceJJity of Subfcribing of 
it fiill remains. * 

One Word or ttoo more, and I have done ^ 
thefe Non-fiiblcribers, in their Letter, plainly deny 
themf elves to be Arians, but not one Word of Sod' 
nians, or any other of the Unitarian Fatiion ; fo 
that here, as well as elfewheri, they are refdved 
to leave us in the Dark. 


T H E 

Laymans Letters 


Diflenting Minifters 

of LONDON^ &c. 

v^Letter of Thanks to thofr 

Diffenting Minifiers of London who 
Subfcrihed the Declaration for the 

Reverend Gentlemen, 

HE late unhappy Divifion which 
has happen'd heiwixt our Teachers, 
and made fuch a Noife in the World, , 
tiath been the Occafion of much Joy 
to our Enemies, and too much Scan- 
dal to our Selves j 1 mean, to us of 
the Laity, Who cannot fee thele Divifions without 
a great deal ot Pain and Confufion. I confels, that 
the honelt Condu^, by which you, Gentlemen, 

B have 

( o 

have dIreQed your lelves, in Subfcribing, in fuch 
fcxprefs Terms, to the DoQr ine of the Hefy Trinity, 
has, in Ibme meafiire, alleviated both our Pain and. 
Confufion : I wifh it vpere able entirely to remove 
that odious Obloquy, which, the Refufal of lb great 
a Number, has given the Common Foe an Oppor- 
tunity of fixing upon us. 

I hope, that notwithftanding the Evil Appear- 
ance, vvhich the Refufal of thole Gentlemen who 
have denied to join with you in the Subfcription, 
and the Triumph of the Socinians, Arians^ and 
others, are without that Ground with which they 
flatter themfelves, of having gain d lb ftrong a 
Party among the Dijfenters •, fince the Non-Sub- 
fcribers have own'd the Divinity of our Saviour, 
and the Holy Spirit. 

I fhall take the lels Notice of their Meafures 
in this Place, becaule I (hall have Occafion to ipeak 
to them more particularly in the following Letter^ 
where they come more diredly under my Coii- 
iideration 3 but this I muft needs fay in this place, 
that their Averlion to do the fame which you have 
done, very much heigthens our Obligations to you, 
in having that Regard to the Satisfaftion of thole 
who are committed to your Charge, as not to let 
any needlefs Scruple or Nicety deprive us of the 
SatisfaQion which is not only due to us, but to all 
the Churches of Chrift : We therefore, the Laity, 
think our felves obliged to return our molt hearty 
^Thanks unto you, not only for the A£l itlelf, but 
for the Manner in which it was done, and the 
Endeavours you have fince ufed,*by Realbn and 
Argument, and a true Brotherly Love, to prevail 
'with them to quit that obftinate retenfion of what 
they had firft done, and lb fatisl)^ the World, either 
in your Words, or Words chofen by themlelves, 
that they do believe the Trinity in the lame Senfe 



which all known Jrinitarians do, and not to ad- 
here to Words which may be own'd even by .an 
Arian himlelf, by help of a little Equivocation. 

They have been pleaied to call their's, A Kohle 
Stand for Liberty-^ but, I am afraid, there is a 
manifeft Abule of the word Liberty in this place, 
and that it fignifies, in their Senfe, a Licenle to 
let all Se£ls and Herefies into the very Adminiftra- 
tion of the Church : For if they will neither con- 
lent to let their Congregations know what their 
Opinions are in fuch expreis Words, Words of a 
certain and determinate Senfe, nor allow that any 
other (hall draw up for them any Declaration to 
the fame Purpofe, they may hold the moft hetero- 
dox Opinions in the World, though never fo de- 
ftru£tive of Chriftianity it felf, and the Congre- 
gations are in no way of getting rid of a Wolf in 
Sheep's-cloathing : We muft therefore Thank you 
who have difcovered fuch a Readinefs, liich a 
Willingneis, fuch an Alacrity in complying with 
the Defire, and removing the Doubts and Scruples 
of our diftant Brethren of Exon, which difcovers 
a truly Chriftian Concern for the Souls of thofe 
who are not direftly under your Charge. You were 
not for negleGing the Surmiles and Reports of the 
Enemies of the Chriftian Name, which had iix'd 
fuch a Scandal upon the Diflenting Teachers of 
London, as if they were almolt all in the Arian In* 
tereft. The only Means of putting a Stop to this 
Reproach, was the Method you have taken, that 
is, by publickly Subfcribing to fuch a Declaration 
as fhould -fufficiently and eminently prove to the 
World, that you did really believe the Bleffed Tri- 
nity in the lame Senle of the Scripture which has 
httn always given-it by all the Proteftant Congre- 
gations in the World : And it is amazing to me, 
that there (hould lie lb many lound in your Reve- 
B 2 verend 


lend Body, who aie plealed to give too much 
ground ot fuch Sufpic on, that their Profeflions 
and Words are not iincere enough to be depend- 
ed upon ^ and by confequence, that the SatisfaQion 
of fb many of the Laity, who depend on, and 
expeft their Publick Aflurance of being for the 
Ifo/y Trinity, is not of Importance enough to en- 
gage their Conlent. 

But, Gentlemen, the greater Difficulty they make 
of doing this, the greater the Neceflity is that it 
fhould be done 5 becaufe it has made known, and 
ipread thofe Doubts and Reproaches, which can 
only be removed by fuch a Declaration: And the 
more are our Obligations to you, who would have 
prevented all this Scandal, and have ^0 much le£^ 
ien'd it by what you have done. 

This Obligation cannot be fufficiently paid, with- 
out our communicating, as often as we can, your 
Names to the World, which is the Reafon that 
they are printed again ■ at the End of this Let- 
ter. My Wifhes and Prayers fhall always be con- 
tinued, that your pious Endeavours, and Zeal for 
the Chriftian Religion, may meet with fuitable 
Succefs, efpecially that they may quickly bring 
over your miflaken Brethren to do what you 
have done. I am. 


Jour humble Servant^ 8ec. 



Tuefday March S' 1718-19. 

the Firji Article of the Church of 

Of Faith in the Holy Trinity. 

" rTpHere is but One Living and True God, 
" X. Everlafting ^ without Body, Parts, or 
" Paflions : Oi Infinite Power, Wifdom, and 
" Goodnels 5 the Maker and Preferver of all 
^ Things both Vifible and Invifible : And in the 
" Unity of this Godhead, there be Three Per- 
" Ions of One Subftance, Power, and Eternity j 
« the Father^ the Son^ and the Holy Ghoji, 

We do heartily Suhfcrjhe to that which is above 
exprefs'd, as what we believe to be the Do- 
ftrine of the BlelTed Trinity, reveal i in ths 
Holy Scriptures. 

PASTORS in and about London. 

William former, S. T. P. 

J<?r. Smithy "Daniel Wilcox^ 

Samuel Tomfret, John 'Newman^ 

W. Tong, Jaz. Earle^ 

B. Robinfon, Tho. Loyd, 

Tho. Reynolds^ James Wood, 

Tho. Bradbury, George Davy, 

John Motterjhead, John Skepp, 
Jofeph Hill, John foxon, 

Tho, JJarrifon, James Andsrfon, 


Jahn Cummings, 
Jchn KiHinghall, 
James GaUovoay, 
J. Lewis, 
Tho. Deivburjl, 
Ifa. Bates, 
John Sladen, 
William Curtis, 
James Matthews, 
John Baker, 
Zachary Merrill, 
John Beaumont, 
Francis Freeman, 
Da. Rees, 
Tho. Michell, 


John Nesbitf, 
Robert Bragge, 
Matthew Clark, 
Tho. Ridgley, 
John Noble, 
John Afiy, 
Edw. Wallin, 
Vatrick Ruffel, 
Mark Key, 
W' Chapman, 
Samuel Harris, 
Tho. Maflers, 
Edward Ridgway, 
Abraham Mulliner, 
William Uocker len. 

P A S T O R S in the Country, 

Daniel Mayo, 
John Ollive, 
John Sharpe, 
Williajn Bujhnel, 
Stephen Crifp, 
Veter Goodwin, 

Lachlan Rqfs, 
Richard Fain, 
John fojier, 
Samuel Bourne, 
George Burnett. 

PREACHERS Ordained or 

Herman Hood, 
John Conder, 
James Gillejpy, 
William Mc.Oatchy, 
Fh. Gibbs, 
John Hubbard, 
William Ben/on, 
Merriman Norris, 
John Toms, 

James Wildman, 
Fcter Bradbury, 
John Mitchel, 
Thomas Charlton^ 
Henry Francis, 
jofeph Tate, 
Richard Glover, 
Emanuel Ellerker, 
Jofeph Matthews. 



Tuefday Marcb 3. 1718-1.9. 

The Anfwer to the Fifth and Sixth Que- 
flion in the Affemblies Catechifm. 

" npHere is but One Only, the Living and True 
" 1 God. There are Three Perfons in the 
" Godhead ; the father, the Son, and the Holy 
" Ghoft, and thele Three are One God, the fame 
" in Subftance, equal in Power and Glory. 

We vohofe Names are above do heartily Sub- 
fcr'ibe to that which is above exprefsd, as 
what rve Believe to be the DoQirine of the 
Blefled Trinity, reveafd in the Holy Scrip- 

A Letter ofPERSWASiON^ 

to the Non-fubfcribing Minijiers^ 

Reverend Gentlemen, 

FO R that Title of Refpea I would fain 
yet think your due, notwithftanding your 
ftrange Conduft lately at Salters-Hall, by 
which you have plainly (hewn, that altho' the 
Peace of our Souls is committed unto you in lb 
Iblemn a Manner, you difcover fo little Regard to 
that Peace, as to refufe to confirm it by a pofitive 
Declaration that you are Chriftians, that is, that 
you do really Believe in ths Blefled Trinity j tho' 
no more was required by this, than what you 


(8 ) 

Were obliged to do at your firft Admiflioii into 
the Miniftry : This therefore it is that has given 
us, the honeft Plain-meaning Laity, fo terrible an 
Alarm, and has rouzed me in particular to inform 
you what is expe£led from you, in order to re- 
move that Difquiet and Scandal which your Con- 
duQ has produced. Nor would I have you re- 
jedi what I (hall offer, becaufe it comes from a 
Lay-man ^ as you have refufed Signing the Decla- 
ration, becaule offered by a Minority, and out of 
that Order which you make fo Elfential. For 
when the Clergy fet fo light by their Congrega- 
tions, it is but reafonable that fbme of thofe Con- 
gregations fhould put them in Mind of that Duty 
which they leem to have fcargotten, and peremp- 
torily Demand Satisfa£lion in this Particular. 

But hecaufe ibme of your Champions have in 
Print infinuated, that this Declaration was without 
any juft or important Ground •, give me leave to 
recapitulate and give the Matter of Fa£t, as I 
find it in the Accounts publifhed on both Sides ; 
from whence not only the Importance, but the 
Neceffity of fome Declaration on this Head will 
manifeftly appear to every Man that (hall think 
of it without Prejudice or Prepo(re(rion. 

Two or three Minifters of Exeter had advanced 
liich Notions againft the Dofttine of the Trinity^ 
as made their Congregations depart from them, 
and refufe to be any farther joined with Men 
©f fuch Principles. But that they might not do 
any thing rafhly and on their own Heads, they 
dire£led Leners to their Brethren in London, for 
their Advice in this Particular ^ but with this 
exprefs Caution, That this Advice be lent by fuch 
Minifters as (hall fufficierttly convince them that 
they are for the DoOrine of the Trinity ; fince 
their Minifters at Exon^ and their Parti zans, had 




irifitiuated, that almoft all the teachers ahiongth^ 
Dijfenters were of their Opinion. Accordingly, 
a Meeting of all the Divines of the three Deno- 
minations, in and about London, Were Summoned 
to Meet together at Sdlters-Hall : Where being 
met, the Subfcribing Klinifters propofe, as a ne- 
ceflary Preliminary to thole Advices which thejr 
Were afterwards to give thole diftra£led Churches 
of the Weft, 'That every Member (hould Sub- 
* Icribe a 'Declaration, That they did firmly Be- 
' lieve the Do£lrine of the BlelTed Trinity, in thd 
' Very lame Senle in which all the Reformed 
' Churches in the World did Believe it. To 
this End, the Subfcribing Divines did not make 
choice of any new Words of their oivn^ but of 
thofe which are found in the firji Article of the 
Church of England, and the Aniwer to this Que- 
ftion in the AJJemblies Catechifm : Which they 
did, becaule they could not imagine that there 
could be one Minifter among them vi/hich (hould 
make a Scruple of the very Words vvhich they 
had already Sublcribed ( as I have obferved ) at 
their Admiflion to the Minifterial Function. 

This is the true State of the Cale : And as the 
Neceflity of this Sublcriptiori plainly appear in 
this, that, without it, it would be to no manner 
of Purpofe to proceed to draW up any Advices 5 
fince thole. Who were to receive thofe Advices, 
had declared, they wou'd receive none, but from 
iiich as (hould give fufficient Teftimony of their 
not being infe£led With Arianilin, or any 
Anti-Trinitarian Notion. And the only way to 
do this, the Subfcribing Divines juftly fuppofed, 
was to rrlake ufe oF Words that were Plain and 
Pofitive,, and incapable of Evafion. 

The Non-fubfcribing Minifters, On the contrary, 
tho' they feem'd fatisfy'd, that a Declaration of 

( »o ) 

their Faith in the Trinity, ,was a neceflary Preli- 
minary to the Advices they wefe to give, woul^ 
not agree that this Declaration Ihould be made in 
any Words hut thofe ot the Holy Scriptures. Gen- 
tlemen, you muft pardon me, .that I arreft your Con- 
feffionol^e Neceflity of fuch a Declaration ; for 
if' it be rtfceflary, as you leem to grant by your 
Proceedings, it is equally neceflary that it (hould 
be in fuch* Words as fhould be fatisfaQory to the 
Perlbns for whom you defign d it, otherwife it muft 
be rp them as no Declaration at all. 

It is Very well known, that the Arians, Socinknsy 
and Xjnitnrians, as they call tbemlelves, in Oppo- 
fition to Trinitarians, do allow all! thofe Texts of 
Scriptures, which we, who are for the Doftrine 
of the Trinity, do quote to prove it : It is therefore 
not the Words of the Text that can make the Di- 
ftin£lion between us, but the Senfe and Meaning 
that each Side does put upon thole Words, that can 
be iufficient Evidence to prove that any Man is 
for or againftthe Trinity, in 'the receiv'd common 
Senfe of that Word. Which is fufScient to fhew, 
tliat the Kon-Subfcribers, tho' they allowed the 
Neceffity of the Declaration, was relblved, how- 
ever, not to comply with that Neceflity. 

Thus much for the Neceflity of the Declaration ; 
I fhall next lay a few Words as to its Importance : 
Though, indeed, having prov'd the Neceflity of it, . 
it would feem too fuperfluous, were we to deal 
with Men of an unbiafs'd Reafbn and a Chriltian 
Compafiion -, but fince our Adverfaries feem more 
eminent for their Obftinacy than Reafbn, I fliall 
add a Confideration or two upon this likewile. 

firfl. It feems to me Important -, becaule our Lon- 
don Miniliers had been mil-reprefented to our Coun- 
try Brethren as Arians : And fure, Gentlemen, you 
will think, that to clear your felves from this Im- 
■ " putation 


putation with two or three Congregations, is Im- 
portant enough to engage your utmbft' Care and( 
Caution. But, 

Secondly^ When this Notion of your. Guilt, i'fl 
this Particular, was not confinM to^b or three 
Congregations, but induftrioufly, b^the Malice 
and Policy of your Enemies, fpread not only all 
over this TQwn, but almoll all over -the Nation, 
it was certainly of the high eft Importance, that 
you fliould take care to give the World the highefl 
Evidence that you were not guilty of this Imputa- 
tion J if' at leaft, you think, that the Vlndicatioq 
of lb illuItriousaBody,'as that of the Proteltant X>'^'. 
fenting Miniiters, from fo foul an Acculation, be 
of any Importance \ which can only be done by 
fuch a Declaration as has been fign'_d by the 
worthy Minifters whorn ye have been ple^fed x^ 
oppole. \ c 

Gentlemen, you muft excufe ine,.iF I fhould 
leem to urge this Matter a little too clofe upon 
you, fince Chrittianity it felf is lb much concern '(i > 
in it: \ mult therefore tell you, thairwe of the 
Laity are under fome Apprehenfion, that under th^ 
Ipecious Pretence of an Honour paid to the.BiBLpJ 
you feem to conceal your real Sentiments, and giv^Q 
us but too much Sufpicion that the bcft of out 
Enemies were but tpo well grounded, fince fb ma- 
ny Miniiters among us have but too manifefily in 
this Affair a8ed for their Caufe. Gentlemen, if 
you are really in your Hearts for the idrw/^pg- 
6trine, if you are fo unhappy as to be fallen in t.d 
that deteitable Herefy ^ be fo Honelt, at leaft, as 
plainly to own it, that we may knpw, our Friend^ 
from our Foes ; defend your Cauft opfenly and fair- 
ly, avow your Principles in their own Colours 5 for 
then we may pity your Misfortune, and convince 
{)y ouj ArguiTients, and endeavouy to Convert by 

C 3 ©UJ 

( t?) 

our Prayers fo tnany unhappy Perfbns from To foul 
?n Error: But whilft you conceal your Principles, 
Snd daub over lb notorious a Pefe£tion by ieeming 
itill to remain among us, you can merit nothing 
tut our Deteftation of your Hypocrify. It would, 
I confefs, be a very melancholy ProfpeCt, to be- 
hold fo many Learned Men falling from the Faith 5 
out yet it would be a lefs melancholy Profpe£l, 
than to iee ib many Enemies of our moft Holy 
faith Careft in our Bolbms, and Teaching in oui; 
rulpits, as well as Propagating privately amongft 
US a po£lrine deftru£liye of our Common Chrilti- 
anity. God ! What a miferable Condition are 
your poor Congregations in, when they mull al- 
tvays either be upon their Guard, perpetually en- 
tertaining a Suspicion of their Teachers^ or elfe, 
|)y a too cafy Credulity, aud too Itrong an Opi- 
nfon of their Veracity, Iwallow down that fatal 
foyion, againft which, by their Duty, they ought 
tp; furniOi them with an Antidpte ! 

There are three Reafons remaining, which fur- 
nifh llrong Sufpicion of the Infincerity of your 
Intention, and which are never to be found in a 
^pd| Gaufe, nor made ufe of by any Defenders of 
ftch Caule. Th^ firft Is, your Falfification of Mat-. 
fe'r of Fa£l, which has been publickly prov'd upon 
you. The next is, your Contrivance of gaining 9. 
Majority, by the Afhftance of fuch who had m 
Itight to be To 'much as prefent at your Debates, 
tJ^bich has Hkev^ife been prov'd upon you. The 
tTiird Realbn is, the perfbnal Refie£lions, the odious 
Sarcafms, conjured^ up to blacken the Character of 
youraClive Opppsent: This is \ery evident in one 
6f your moft. Eloquent Defenders, where he dir 
grelfes into a very clumfie Abul^ of the Reverend 
Mr. Thomas Briidhury^ which, M of no manner ol" 
^^X<i[ tlj^ yiiictity, of your Argument, and ikxves 
1'.'. ■■ ' ' only 

( '3 ) 

pnly to vent your Malice •, for what fignifies it 
whether Mr. Braihury be a pleafant Companion, 
or a Ibw'r, morofe, ill-humour 'd Perfbn: No Man 
in the World, that ever I knew, excluded an inno- 
cent Mirth from true Religion ^ and even your Advo- 
cate does not lb much as pretend, that this Reve- 
rend Gentleman's Good-humour is ever criminal 
He does, indeed, not only not like a Chriftian, but 
not lb much as like a Gentleman or an honeft Man, 
give yillanous Innuendo's, as if Mr. Bradbury was 
roo fond of the Bottle-, but that is too plain a 
piece of Malice to need any Confutation. Your 
Caule mult be very bad indeed, when it forces 
you to have recourle to io abandon'd a thing as 
Scandal for its Support, and fit only for the wretchr 
ed Scriblers of Lampoons. If, in Anfwer to this, 
there has been aay thing offef d not fo leverely 
^rious as this Dilpute requires, you mult remem-: 
ber that you were the Aggrellbrs \ you began to 
throw Dirt, and cannot wonder at any Man's En- 
deavour to lecure himfelf from the Filth. 

Thefe are the three Reafons that confirms me in 

my Sufpicion of the Infincerity of both what yon 

have faid and done, and heigthens my Fears, that 

Botwithftanding all your Pretences, you areAgainlt, 

and not For us ^ that you are Ariam, or the like, 

and not Trinitarians^ though you have not 

had the Courage and Honelty to lay lb in ex- 

prefs Words. If I injure you in this Opinion, I 

have a great many Partners in the Guilt 5 but 

we do promile publickly to ask your Pardons when 

you fhall give fufficient Proof, by your Subfcribing 

the Declaration, that we have done you any In- 

jultice : But there is no other Way poffible either 

to do your fekcs Right, or remove that Scandal, 

whigh you have given the World. I would have. 

jfou tememher, that this is not impofing a Creed 

^^..- • upoa 

upon you, but only a Defire that you wou'd let us 
know plainly, and without any Equivocation, what 
your Belief is in this Particular, and in what Senle 
you take the Words of the Holy Scriptures, from 
whence we deduce the Do^lrine of the Holy Tri- 
nity, according to the Firft Article of the Church 
of hngland, and the Anfwers In ;the Ajjemhlies Ca- 
tecb/Jm. If you refufe this, you do plainly tell 
us, that you will not, for the Satisfa£tion of all 
the World, let us know your real Sentiments on 
this Point ^ which is fufficient to juftify all that 
can be laid to your Charge. Let me recommend 
to you one Text of Scripture, It is necejjary thaf 
Scandal Jhould be : but wo to them by whom it JhaU 
come^ Mat. xviii. 7. As therefore you would avoid 
this Wo pronounced by our Blefled Saviour, in 
time remove that Scandal which you have already 
given, by Subfcribing the Declaration : Which is 
the hearty Wifh and Prayer of. 

Tour humble Servant^ 8tc. 

TheS'' be the Names of the l^on-. 
fubjcribing Minifters. 

Jojh. Oldfeld, D. D. Moderator, p. t, 

John Sheffield, Samuel Wright, 

John biUingfley,^ Benjamin Grofvenor, 

William Harris^ John Rarcliff, 

Simon Erown^ Samuel Rofewell, 

John Evans, Jofeph Jenkins, 

John Hughes, Mofes Lowman, 

Tljomas Sleigh, Jofeph Burroughs^ 

John Sav^e, John Ingram, 


( '5) 

Thomas LeaveJJy, 
George Smyth, 
Lewis Douglas, 
Benja. Avery, L. L. D. 
J^ojeph Baker, 
Ben. Andrews Atkii^on, 
Gabriel Barber, 
'Nathanael Lardner, 
William Jacomb, 
Samuel Savage, 
Samuel Highmore, 
Robert Lamb, 
Afnos Harrifon, 
John Bradley, 
Samuel Clark, 
Daniel Burgefs, 
John Qornijh, 
Thomas Newman, 
^uintus Naylor, 
John Sher?nan, 
Jeremiah Hunt, 
Samuel Baker, 
Thomas Petken, 
John Gale, D. P. 
Jfaac Kimber, 
Clerk Old/worth, 
Richard Rigby, M. D. 
Thomas Kerby, 

Edward Bearne, 
Samuel Chandler, 
William Sheffield, 
Nathanael Hodges, 
Robert Billio, 
Thomas Slater^ 
James Read, 
Henry Read, 
William Hocker, jun* 
Richard Bifcoe, 
Jofeph Bennet, 
Richard Parker, 
Samuel Oldfield, 
John Cambden, 
Nathanael Foxwell, 
John Conder, 
Thomas Simmons, 
David Jennings, 
John Eaton, 
Obadiah Hughes, 
Arthur Shallet, 
Richard Tuddeman, 
E. Rofcoe, 
Jojnes Richardfon, 
Mathew Ran^yt 
William BuL ' > 
Thomas Cotton. 

A Let- 

( I6) 

A Letter to the Reverend 
Mr. John Gonder^ on his Signing 
. on Both Sides, 

Reverend S I R^ 

I Cannot Conclude without a Word of two 
to your Self; whole ConduQ has been 
very furprifingly particular in this grand. 
Debate which has fo unhappily Divided the 
Reverend Body of our Minifters. You leem to 
aim at a Thing which never can be obtained, 
the Reconciling of Oppofites, and of the Two 
Difterent Parties, center in Mr. fob?? Conder^ for 
your Name we find in Both the Printed Lifts ; 
and either Side claim you as their own, becaule 
you have fet your Name to the Oj)inion of 
each Side. Perhaps you imagine by that, that 
you fhall at leaft be in the Right by One of 
them. This Way of making Sure, was pra^liled 
by a certain Phyfician within thele twenty Years, 
who, to rriake fure Work, as he imagined, on 
his Death-bed had the Prayers of the Church of 
England read to him by a Proteftant Minifter, and 
the Extreme Un£lion of the Papifts adminiftred 
to him by a Popifh Prieft. In the lame manner 
there was one of the Sax^on Kings of our Hep- 
tarchy, who, upon hearing the Gofpel of Chrifl 
preached, fet up an Altar to Chrift by the Altar 
of his former God. So thele two Inltances leem 
to bear Ibme Parallel to what you have done. 
Bur tho' they might leem to make fure of the 


( 17 ) 

Truth on one Side ; it is plain, that Doubt was 
the Motive of their Aftions, that they were not 
Fix d in either Opinion, but Wavering between 
both. The fame, I am afraid, will hold good 
in your Self; For if you had been fully latif- 
fy'd that the Sublcribing Minifters were in the 
Right, and for that reafon Sublcribed with them 
to the Declaration, it is impoffible that you 
could ever have thought of joining your Name 
to thole who were of a contrary Opinion ^ for 
that will be reconciling Truth and Error, as giving 
the fame Teftimony to both. 

Not to multiply Words, or put a worfe Face 
on the Matter, than is confident with thai good 
Chara£ler which you have in the World ^ I 
am willing to believe, that what you have done, 
has only been a Work of Supererogation in 
Chriftian Charity, and an inconfidering Defire 
to Unite tha ' Brethren, whole Difunion might, 
perhaps, give you fo much Uneafinels. But' 
Reverend Sir, this ConduQ of your's could not 
afford you, in Reaibn, any fuch valuable Pro- 
fpe£l. For while you difcover'd fuch an Incon- 
fiftency in your Opinion, you could not hope 
to have any great Influence upon either Side. 
Halting between two Opinions, is what fhould 
never fait in with the Character of ^ Teacher; 
For how can he direO: a Congregation, who 
wanders hi mfelf in the Wiles of Uncertainty ? 
What Dependance can a Congregation have 
upon a Preacher who . docs not fo much as 
know his own Mind ? In fhort, we of the 
Laity expe£l that our Teachers fliould be of 
more fix'd and certain Principles : And fince 
you have, by your Condu£l, given us Offence, 
vve hope you will have io much Regard to 

D youi 

( i8 ) 

your Self, as to let us know what your Real 
and Pofitive Opinion is in tiieie Af&irs, or 
Juftifie what you have done, with Reafons lb 
clear and evident, as may remove all our 
Doubts, and prove that you have aQed like 
an Honeft and Good Chriftian : Which that 
you may, is the Hearty Willi of^ 

Teur Humble Servant^ 

The Lay- Man. 


Books t^evoly Printed for Jofeph Marlhall 
at the Bible in Newgate-ftreet. 


A Brief Declaration and Vindication of the 
Do£lrine of the Trinity, as alio of the 
Perlbn and SatisfaEtion of Chrift. Accommodated 
to the Capacity and Ule of fuch as may be in 
Danger to be Seduced ^ and the Eftabliflimcnt of 
the Truth. The 7th Edition. 
Sd* ^11 Verfons defirous to promote Jo ufejul a 
Book as this on the Doftrine of the Trinity, 
by givi77£ them avoay, may have them for los. 
a Dozen Bound, or Jingle at is. each. 

2. Gofpel-Ground, and Evidences of Faith. 
Price Bound i s. 

3. Meditations and Dilcourfes on the Glory of 
Chrift, in his Perfon, Office, and Grace. 2d Edit. 

4. Caufes, "Ways and Means of Underftanding 
the Mind of God, as revealed in his Word. 2d 

$. Church of Rome no Safe Guide. 

6. A Guide to Church-Fellowfhip : Bound 5 x. 
a Dozen, to give away. 

7. Two Difcourles concerning the Holy Spirit, 
and his Work. 

8. A Brief and Impartial Account of the Nature 
of the Proteftant Religion, and its Prelent State in 
the World. 2d Edit. Price 6 d, 

Thefe Eight by the Reverend Dr. John Owen. 

9. The Beft Mirth, or, The Melody of Sion : 
Being a ColWion of Sp' ritual Hyrtins, compofed 
on divers Occafions. By Mr. Wright. 

10. An Eflay towards the forming a true Idea 
of Fundamentals in Phyfick. 

1 1. The Singing-Mafter^s Guide to his Scholars : 
With the Pfalms according t© the Old and New 


Books Printed for Jofeph Marfliall. 
Tranflations ; the Old on one fide, and the New 
on 'the other. By leveral Hands, (viz.) Sternholi 
and Hopkins, Barton^ Patrick, Tate and Brady, 
Milbourne, and Sandys. Contriv'd for Com-s 
rnon Ufe : With the Tunes in two Parts : By 
'Daniel Warner o^Ewelm in Oxfordjhire, Singing- 

1 2. Prefervatives againft Melancholy and Over- 
much Sorrow j or, the Cure of Both. By Mr. 
'Richard Baxter. Price Bound i s. 

1^. A True Second 5/7irj ^ or, A Soul plung'd 
In his Cale, but yet Recover'd ; Being Comfort 
for Backfliders, or Salvation for S:nners in the 
height ofDefpair. And is a True and In^partial 
Account of fonie B^ckflidings o^lAx.Hmel Ha/ford 
of Thrapflon in iKorthamptonfmre. To which is 
added, An Account of Elizabeth Boodger, with 
Ibme of her Experiences. 2ei Ediv. Pr. 6 d. 

14. Calvin ?, Vindicating the Scriptures ; in An- 
iwer to a Dialogue between a Thief and ^ 
Preacher : Or, An Antidote againft the Socinian 
znd Arminian. The ?d Edition. 

i^. A Treatife of Baptifm -, wherein that of 
Believers, and that of Infants, is examined by 
the Scriptures. The 3d Edition, with large 
Additions. By Henry D^Anvers. 

16. Thofe Ingenious and Highly-approved Pieces 
of Mr. William M^ifons New Short-Hand Books 5 
Intituled, I. Arts Advancement. ^ Price is. II. La 
Tlum VaLwte •, Bound, Price 2-s. III. A ColleQion 
of Aphorilms •, Price is. IV. Aurea Clavis^ or,' 
A Golden Key ; Price i ^. V. An Eafie Table of 
Contra£l;ons •, Price 6 d. 

Likewife, at the Bible in Newgate-frreet is to. 
be fold Mr. Jeremiah Rich's Short-Hand Book. 
Price IS, 



Z I 6 N. 

O R, 

Separate Congregational Protejiunt Chrijlian 
Churches proved to be the Old^ ApofioUcal, and 
Primitive Chrijlian Churches, come fully out of 
the P^pal and Antichriflian Apollacy, and gone 
back to the Rules of the Word in their firft 


A^hercin is (liewed. 

That they run Uniform, and Parallel with the 
Firft ChrijUnn Churches, and have theii: Doftrine, Pre- 
cepts and Practice for thcfr Pattern, and Warrant. 

Herein is alfo, 

A full Declaration of the Way of the Royal, and Evangeli- 
cal Churches of the Son of God, and King of Jvings, in 
all Particulars, meafur'd by the Royal Standard, Charter, 
and Rule of the Word, and found to be according to the 
Pattern of Primirive Cbriftianity, that Chrift, and his 
Apoftles gave in the Gofpel Mount or Rc^velation. 

By C. M , ""^ ' 

L-O N D Ny 


Printed for, and fold by ^ofeph Mar^MUy at the Bible in 
Ntvffate-jireety 1712. Where are fold ail Sorts of Books 
and Stitionnrj Wares. Alfo Dt.Manvooi'sBrit^nnitk Ink- 
Powder by Wholefale or Retale. 


Prefatory Obfervations. 

LET the Reader mind thefe Ohfervationsl 
Obf. I. The Signification of Abbreviations 
in this Church Book^ or Book of the Church, (i ) 
•j- Notes ; A Marginal Reading is in that 
Place. (2.) i. e. that is. (3.) viz,, to wit. 
(4.) q. d. as if he flionld fay. ^5.) &e. 
and fo forth. 

Obf. 2. Some Serif tures are quoted by way 
of JltujlratioTtf Allufion and Proportion, 

Obf. 3. Here is an Epitome of all the chief 
Things y that have^ of can be wrote on this gr eat ^ 
fiecejfary, and ufeful Subjep, that the generality 
«/Chriftians, in all Chriftendom arefo ignc 
rant of^ and therefore fo erroneous about a j a Jfa, 60, t, 
yet the Right Knowledge and ?x2i^\cQ.thereof 
Js of great Importance to the Glory of God b, b Lev. 10. 3. 
and of high Concernment^ and Advantage to the 
Souls of Aien c, and Felicity of Kingdoms d. c P/^/.pz.ij. 
Obf. 4. The Holy Scriptures make a Difco'^ if"" 6 <)» 8 f 
tfltery of two Sorts of Falfe Churches, or Apofiate 
Church-States, (i.) Ifraelitifh, under ihe Old 
Tefiament e* (2.) Papal, under the New Te- e r K^tigs iz, 
fiament Difpenfatiohy tn which the Church^'^'t-- 33- 
has been in a Captivity to Humane ^^^'P^^^^h\^^''^^'y^^^' 
longer and worfer than that in Literal Baby- j^^^„/j,' J 
ion, 'Rev. 13. 10, and, II. 2,3. and 12. 6. H0fea.i,iyg, 
and 13. 5. andz.z.&y. 

Obf 5. Here the Reader may fee^ that there i-- '?• ^»^.* 
is a great Difparity, and Difference, between >' " ' 
the Chriftian Church before, and in the Apo- 
A 2 fi^y. 


,' 4 prefatory Obfervations. 

Jiacyy and how A^anhnd hath been imposed upon 
by the Bijhop o/Rome a?7d his Creatures^ who 
to cheat Mankind^ calls all Apoflolical, &c f, 
fifhef.i'A' ^^^ ^^^ calleth him ill. The- Son of Perditi-^ 
„ y^yj-g ^, e« gi Wicked and Lawlefs One h. idly, A 
h Verfe 8. * fallen Star with the Key of Hell tn hit Hand i. 
i/^ev.9.),z. 3dly. An Hellijh Beajl^ MeJJenger^ and De- 
k Verfe II. fir oyer k» 4thly, A falfe Prophet and Two- 
,and II. 7. horned Beafi, or Cruel Monjier \. 5thly, ^nd 
and 20*^0* ^/i Bigniffd Bijhops and Clergy, Hellijh Lo- 
and 1 3! II.* ^^fi^ '^' Earthly Merchants, and Ship-Majlers 
m ibid. 9.* tf^it^ g'^^^^ Ships, |~». e.] Bilhopricks^ and Be » 
2,-11. nefices ]] and their Hired, Mercenary and 
n l^v. 18. i^Serving Priejis, Sailers n. 6thly. Hid Cere- 
II, -*- 17. monies ^ ^^e Number or Invention of a Man 0, 
o S^v. j^. 18.^ 1^ g^ 2^^^ ofSin'X and hellijh Smoak, and Fil- 
p Kev,^,z. thinefs p. 7thly, And his Church-State, ift, 
and 17.4. Earth q. idly, Sodom and Egypt r. 3dlyi 
q ifev. 14. 5. Babylon, for mixing together Divine and Hu- 
andi6.iz. mane Infiitut ions %. 4thly, A Bloody Whore, 
s ^^vl 14* 8.' f^fp'^^^^d by Bloody and Perfecutive Magi' 
Gen. It. 9. Jirates t. 

t ^'v*. 17.3. Obf. 6. Of the Marh and Notes of true, 
"•' S- 15. and falfe Churches, See Obf. 5. and 7. and 
Chap. I. ro io. 

Obf. 7. The firft Chr'iflian, and Gofpel 
Churches, were particular, diJlinH, independent, 
holy and heavenly Congregations, Communities^ 
and Societies of the faithful, profejfing and prac* 
fifing without any humane Inventions, the Faith, 
Obedience, Worfhip, Alirfiflry, Order and Po* 
\'lity injlituted by Chriji u. 

' ' Obf. 8. Reformation being for the Glory oj 

}f/;.Cod, Profit, Honour, and Happinefs of Men^ 
Trov. 8. 18. ^]^y Jfjould any be offended at thofe that endea^ 

Tsm.'z^to.'^^'*^ 'f ^* Farewell. 

z Sam. 6. I J. 
jiag. 2. ^."13* 
pfxlm 141. 5« 



Royal Throne 

I N 


O R, 

Separate Congregational Proteftant 
Chrijiian Churches, proved to be the 
Old^ ApoftolicAly and Primitive Chri" 
fiian Churches, come fully out oi 
the Papal and Antichrijlim Apoftacy, 
and gone back to the Rules of the 
Word in their firfi: Infticution, &c a. a UU u the 

latter 'iay-glt' 
ry, Ezek. 4?. 

CHAP. I. 2..-"4.wii; 

V. ir, 12. and 

H E Separate Congregational PrO" 
tejiant Chrijlian Churches ovon^ and 
confefsj that Chriji in the Exercife 
of his Mediatorial Kingly Tower is the only 
Political Head^ Efficient Caufe, Author^ In*- 
fiitutor^ and Founder of Chrifiian Churches in 
their Conftitution^ Worjhip^ Minifiry, Order^ 
polity ^ and all the Adminijlrations of the Word^ 
Seals, and Cenfures, that are therein to he per^ 


6 SefAVAte Congregational Proteftant Churches 
b ifAiAh 9. 7. formed b. Note I. Wherein the Chriftiaii 
and 41. 8. New-Teftament Gofpel, Religious, Holy, 
p/a/ii*."/ Spiritual, Heav'nly and Vifible, Congrega- 
Zech, 6. 1*2. tional Church-State is of God, or of Divine 
CoKi.j,— 10. InftitutioH c. See from Chap' i^t a 20. 6c 

and 5. 17. ji^at. 16. 13, — 19. & 18. 15, — 20. & 
C Mat. 16. g^ ip, jj^y^ 5^ 2^ .... ^^ ^ij-h ^,^, 8. 5. 

is "iV?.- 20 ■E^'^-'^^'^S- ?• I <^^^- iS- 12, 19. iVofei. The 
& '28. 19, 20' Apoftles with Chrifl's Mind, Will and Or- 
jiBs 1,2,?. der, «i fettl'd by ftiflitution C i- c- Precept 
Beb. 12. 28. and Pradice 3 a perfect, perpetual, unal- , 
^ '^'"'•^'^^•terable and uniform Worfhip, Miniftry, ' 
^ '^'"';"' Order and Polity e ^ and no Powers on 
L"'rrL/]t*Eatth'C;they being but his Subjeas and 
2 7k/.5-6-i 2. Servants/ J may add, or diminilh, or al- 
Mat. 28. 19, ter any thing in the leaft Meafure therein^. 
2C.E.V/.2.I2. Note 3. In this Royal and Heav'nly Church 
^^'''^•^^' 4* State, God reigns, and is worfliipped ia 

g x>tf«t.* 4,' 2. Glorious Mejjiai\ fpiritual Kingdom wit- 
Si 52. 4. Gal. nefled to by Types /', foretold by the Pro- 
i.8.9./(cv.i2.phets*, teftify'd of by himfelf /, and his 
YxmCo'^^' ^V^^^^^ ^ • I^ which Kingdom or Govern^ 
i Lute u\l\ "^^'^^ ^^-* '^fi' ^ Lawgiver to be obey'd n. 
2 Cor. e^. 16, ' 2^/y. Subjeds to obey 0. %dly. A Charter 
k p/. 89 1" 5 5. and Rule of Obedience f. fifthly. Laws, Du- 
//a 2. 3. & 9. ties and Ordinances to be obferved q. ^thly. 
im ^\'-^^' ^ffi^^^s ^Q ^"^^' ^"^ ^^e thera obferved, to 
I A^^jdN 3'. ^'^^"^^'^ Honour and Intereft in the World r. 
19.& 18.' i7.*<^f^(y« Priviledges in Cale of Loyal Obedi- 
& 21. 43. &ence /. vfW;'. And Penalties to be inflicted 
^^l9'^o. in Cafe of Rebellion againft, and Tranf- 
ia"i2^^'-> greffion of thofe Royal Laws f. See GaL 
m ^fl/2o:25: ^•8>P' CHAP. 

& 28. 23- J I. jj^ Jht: Jpoftks by Commij^nfiom Chr Hi, gathered 
Beb. 12. 28. Churches, avd fettled in them all Church- JffxirSy Mat. 
j(ev. 20.4. & ^g^ j^^ 3Q ^^3 jj^^^^ J (^Q^^ u.2,2,% iV« Gal. 

'^}ir;l!i2.''^>^' 2 Cor.. I. 2, 3,4. 

oJ^eCJbiip. 3.p5'«CJb4p. 7. qCh,i5,i6, i sCh.i6, t Cj!t.i4. 

f roved to be the Old ChrifiUn Churches, 

THE Chriftian^ Rtligiont^ and Holy Means 
C the injirurnentd Caufe ] by which thefe 
Separates plant^ and build Churches, is the 
Treaching of the Goffel, and Word of Chriff, 
Note, Thus the Apoftles built the firft Chri- 
ftian Churches, Mat, i6. i8. vtith Mar. i6, 
^15. I C(?r. 4. 15. 2 Cor, I®. 4. 2Thef.i,i^» 
See Mic,^. 10,-12. Re'u, 13. 17. SeeC^^p, 
20. Vfe 4. 


HE Chriflian^ Religiom, Spiritual and\iMat.x6.i8, 
Holy Matter in thefe Churches, were in with iCor.r4i 



the jipoflolical. Primitive, and firfi Chrifian ^ ^; ? 7* 
Churches ', rix.. They arc conllituted and , rtVi A. 
built of vifible Saints, and their immediate zar. 2 j.* 19. 
Seed, as their material Gaufe w. Nota i.iCor. j. 15. 
Holy Things are only for Holy Perfons w, ^^'iw" 2- ^»8, 
Note 2. Chrift never intended to take whole ^^^'^' ^"J' 
Towns or Nations into thcChurchAr. ^ofe3.]^JJ^^^'7; °; 
Such a Pradice was the Caufe, and Means of x^oL i8.g5. 
the Apoftacy >. Sqg Chap, 20. Vfe /^. J^v. 14.1-12. 

y Rev, 13. 5. 

CHAP. IV. \i^i^^r, 

■ 1 7 , 1 -" I o Ex 

fTTI HE Chriftian, Religious, Spiritual, <««^ ip. 8.&2*4.3~ 
J|[_ Holy Form in thefe Churches, were in theB,Deut.z6,i-* 
fir(t Chrijiian Churches , yiz.. They are ga- '7'& i?* 25. 
thered, founded, built, joyned, united, and^^*^^*^- ^^• 
incorporated, by a voluntary, and holy Co'yy-/^*/^*"^^^* 
venant, or Confent, Agreement, and Pror2i.*&*44.4--5.' 
feflion of the Chriftian Faith and Obediencc,& $6. 4,-6. 
as their formal Caufe x,. Note i. This holy ?^':' 5o. j. 
Matter and Form is in our Chriftian Creed,^ !^'^7-4r. 
Baptifmal Vows, and ^fmbi Cat. A, PS'^il &m 2! 

i>eeco/. I. 2. 

S Sefarate Congregational Profeftant Churehes ^ 

See Amos^, 3. Note i. That through the 
Negleft of mutual Watch, the Sin of one 
jichan in breaking the Covenant, or Char- 
ter of their firft Conftitution, was the Sla 
^fof.7.ii-i6. of all Ifrael a. 

^'\^l'l'.^t CHAP. V. 

I^eff, 9, 38. & 

20. Jfa.\. 3! T^ ^^ M^^ Caufe^ or Chrijlian^ Religitim^^ 
f^elfe. 43. ri. JL ^^^ tloly Ends of tbefe Churches^ were 
in the Churches built hy^ and in the yipofiles» 
Days ^ wz.. i/f. The Glory, and Honour of 
h2Cor.9,i^, God in Chrift h. idly^ Their Souls Benefit* 
f^'lf ^'* 1* ^"^ Growth, in Grace, under Ordinances, 
iFaAll' o ^^ *^ worfhipping of God according to the 
c^ohn 4. 24! Rules of the Word only c ^dly. And Com- 
Tfaim92. 13. munion with him, and one another, in the 
d I Cor. 1.9. holy Ufe of his own Worfhip, Miniftry, 
||°**^^»*7-and Polity, ftatedly and focially, in one » 
tPet.z.\-<. Place d. Note i. This is no Work for the 
c pfiil. 9. ij, profane e. Note 2. Thefe Ends being all fpi- 
i Cor. 2. 14. ritual, and concern only fpiritnal and eter- 
nal Things, therefore, the Worldly, and 
Civil Powers need not to fear, that this 
Church-State, Order and Government will 
^^ohn 18. 36 be any Prejudice to them / See Chaf. 8. 1 8. 

2 Cor, 10, 4. 

Jfaiah (55- 8. C H A P VT 

1 i^or. 5.4, * T^^£ Chriflian Latitude^ Extent^ Compafs^ 

2 Cor. 2. 6, JL ^»d Quantity of thefe Churches, was by 
2 Cor, 1 1.20- Divine Injiitution in the firft Chriflian Churches-^ 
^Jn^^^'^l' wx. Congregational, that met in one Place 
& 6 V'& u* ^° "^^ ^^e P^w^"^ °f ^h^ Keys in all Church- 
23. & *i^. 22.' Adminiftrations g. Not^ i . The true Reli- 
h 5:oJb?; r. 12, gion, and this Church-State are Twins, and 
13. 2 Tbe^. I. both ofGod/?. iVi>ff 2. Chrift is faid to gather 
4.%».i6.i6. jjjs Difciples into a Gofpel, Vifible Congre- z" 3,4. S^^i^na^ Church-State, by a Profeflion of the 


f roved to be the Old Chrifiian Churches. 9 

Chriftian Faith which includes Obedience » i i ^^t. 16-16^ 
in refped to which Confeflion are Promifcs. 
i/. Of building the Chriftian Church k. zMy^ ^y- 18. 
Of preferring it /. 3^/y, Of the Keys, all * '*'^* 
which were given to Peter, and the reft of 
the Difciples, as Chrift's aflbciated Church 
on Earth m. And as their Paftor, he admi- *" ^' '9* 
niftred to them, as his afTociated Church on 
Earth, the Lord's Supper » j See A^at, i(J. nMau26.z6» 
1 8. Vpon this Rock I wilt huHd my Church, q. d. ^^^^ ^^/ *• 
My Churches, or my Gofpel, Vifible Con-j^'^^g /: 
gregational Church-State. Note i. Their ' * '^' 
rifible ProfciTipn together in one Place 0. o M.mb. 16, 
Ti.) The Gift of the Keys, i, e. full Power ^3> - ^7. 
of all Ghurch*Government, and of the Ad- 
miniftration of the Word, Seals, and Cen- 
fures in this Church-State />. (3J Chrift thus P v* ^9* 
expounding it q. (4.) And the Apoftles q i^. 1 8, i y,- 
Pradice in this Cafe r prove that by '^> ^o* 
Church, ini^^f. 16, 18, 19. Chrift ^^^^U^^gChi^A 
and the Apoftles underftood him ot a/^co^,^"/^' 
Gofpel, Viliblc Congregational Church -zcor. 2.6^0*. 
State s. TsO The Rockt or Foundation ofs^e^Noteja. 
the Vifible Church is not Peter confeffing, ^ ^o^^ '4. 
but Chrift confefled t. (5.) A particular t f/^k/. i. 20. 
Congregation of the Faithful, is not called » -or. 3^ :i. 
a Part, but a whole Vifible Church, and di- * ^^'' ** 2**^* 
ftindt Body Politick u. (7.) We read not in u a^s 15. zt, 
Chrift's Teftament of a Reprefentative ^w. i<5. zj, 
Chutch of Elders, thefe are never calfd the ' ^^J M- 23. 
Church, but the Body of the People are cal- j^^^V^*^* 
led the Church in Difcindion from their 3^^0.17*28! 
Officers IP. (^.) The Church is the Houfe> 1 cor, iz, 28*. 
Flock, and feled People of God x. (9.) Ec^^m. $, 14. 
cle/ia is put in one Place for a Civil or com- ■^<'*'. 2. i. 
mon Aflembly lawful or unlawful ^, but in j pe^.^2°*^^' 
a facred Senfe, in all other Places it is taken y^^I ,p/* 
cither for the Catholick Church ;?., or for 39, 41, * ' 
B par- 2 ^<^*. 12. 3;, 

1 Separate Congregational Froteflant Churches 

particular Congregations of the faithfnl cal- 
a I Ceri4 2^ led out a. i/. From whence. See b. idly. To 
hfohnis.19. what.See r. 3^/y, By what. See <:/.Cio.)Therc 
1 Pet. 2. 9. were three Churches that met in three pri- 
i(ev. 18. 4. vate Houfes or Families e. (11.) Some fpeak, 
c^ohn4. 24. irj, Of a Place of Wood and Stone as a 
I pZ\]\ K\ Church/. 2dly, Of a Parochial Church, con- 
d 2 riff/: 2.14! fifting of all in a Parilh. 3^/y, Of a Colle- 
c i^m. ttf. 5, giate or Cathedral Church, /^.thly. Of a Dio- 
I Cor. 16. 19. cefan Church. 5t/?/y,Of a Provincial Church. 
plVi '^* ^^^^*'' ^^^ National Church, 'jthly. Of a Re- 
f Bucfee.i5. P^^?"^^tive Church 8rW;^ Of a Cathojick 
12. J. Vifible Church connfimg of all hopeful Pro- 

j^m 15.4,5,16 feflfors of Chrifcianity^ living at the fame 
Mat, 18. 17. Time on Earth ^ of all which we read not a 
P^iM- 6. ^Q^^ i^ Chrift's Teftameet^. (12.; Of this 
g (;JJ^' 2* §'/' Congregational Frame was the Chriftian 
Ms 5. \ Z. Church at Jerufalem h, Amioch i, Cxjarea k. 
Mat. 15.15. Trods 1, Efhefus m, Corinth n, and all the 
h Af4M8.F7. Chuj;ches the Apoftles built according to 
a3:sz. 47. the Pattern given in the Gofpel Mount or 
%lruzl^' Revelation p. (13.) Our Engllfh Art. 19. 
& I'l. 22*. faith, the Vifible Church of Chrift is a 
& 12. T, J. Congregation of faithful Men, &c. See aifo. 
& 15.4,22. Affemh.Cat.A. 95. (14.) We read in Chrifrs 
i^Cor.12.28. ygframent but of two Sorts of Churches, 
"^Au'i.\-i, '^^^' ^fi^ ^^^' ^^^^olkk Church, and Myfci- 
t^il. 3, <5.* cal Body of Chrifc, confifcing of all true Be- 
S&sAiis 1.14- lievers in all Ages, and Places, and will be 
»(5l8c6.2-.5. invifible 'till the judgment-Day q- This is 
&TV^f' 18 not the Subjea of vifible Ordinances, Mini- 
&2i;ir-22.' niftry, and Polity r. idly, The vifible and 

& ig.\r. & ■■ ^ - 

34,25,^7. &«5.3- k>^Sj 18.22. \Jih2o,Sy''8. mib.Y.ij, 
28. I T^m. 5, i6. with i. 3» & 3. 15. J^cv. 2. i. n ^om. lei. 23. 
3 ^ofc« 6, le. I Cor, 5. 4. & n. 20, 35. & 14. 23. o CoL 2. 2. 
, Jk/. 4. 18. &.?..! 1-14- ^«*-'0- 2 y. pMaf. 16.15-19. 5c 18. ry.i8. 
gC 28. 19, io. ^^f "i, 2, 3. q E/fe. 1, 10 .. 25. & ?, 10, 21. & 5, 2 J - J 2.* 
Cpi^i, t8. i4, fftfi. 2. 12. & 12. 23. r i Cor. 5.4- ij»& 14. zn 

f roved to be the Old ChrijlUn Churches* 1 1 

inftituted Church of one particular Congre- . ^ 
gation of the faithful s. (15.) Where there^ ^ ''* 
were but one Congregation of the faithful 
in a City, Town, or Village, they are called 
the Church in the Singular Number, and 
.may be read, and fignifie a particular, iingle, 
and diftind Congregation CAflcmbly^Com- 
munity, or Society ^ of the faithful. 

And for their Edification that want a 
Concordance^ I will give about Sixty hfiances 
thereof. Upon this Rock I will build my 
Church t. Neglect to hear them tell it tot,}fUt. r5.i8. 
the Church. If Negled to hear the Church 
let him u. The Lord added to the Church vo, a Mit.i^.i-j- 
And great Fear came on all the Church a-.^ -^2. 47. 
A great Perfecution againft the Church 7. ^ 
Aflembled themfelves with the Church z..'^„ 
And had ordained them Elders in every 
Church a. And had gathered the Church a 
together h> Being brought on their Way ^ 
C or fent forth 1 by the Church c. And El-*: 

ders with the whole Church to fend ^.^ 3 22 

Gone up and faluted the Church <?. Likewifef 7^:3, Vi-.j/ 
greet the Church that is in their. Houfe f.xCor. id. 19. 
As I teach every v/here in every Church ^.^'^" 4* ^J* 
He that prophefieth edifieth the Church /j.^'^^'i'V 
That the Church may receive Edifyings iX ^ ^^' fj!!' 

If the vphole Church be come together k.\ T.c^^ 

This ii not affile able to a M^eting'Tlace^ to a^ — ■ — ■ — 2j, 
Diocefan-t Vrovincial^ National^ nor to a. C^- 
tholick , F'ifibU Church. Perfecuting the 
Church/. No Church communicated withi-PA/V. j. 6. 

mc but ye only m. Paul and Timothy unto'" 4* i5» 

the Church >/. Let not the Church be char-" ^^^^'^•4- ^i- 
ged 0. The Church that is at Babylon falu-Q iriml<\l'. 
tech you p. Witnefs of thy Charity beforep r /»er.'5*.i3| 
the. Church q. I wrote unto the Church, but a 3 fohn 6. 
Dl'jtrefhcs x* In the Chureh. In the Church r — — =9. 
B 2 in 

1 2 Sepxr^ie Congregatimal Protejiant Churches 

s A^s 7. 58. i^ the Wildernefs /.Teachers in the Church 
t . — iui. at Antioch t. Who are lead efteemed in the 
u I Cor. 6. 4. Church u. When you come together in the 
w-— II. 18. Church w, i. e. Church- Ajftmbly cr Church' 

Meeting. God fet the Apoftles C primarily 3 
X— -t2.2S. in the ZJerufaUm2 Church x. Yet in the 

Church C AiTembly 3 I had rather fpeak 
y- — 14- ^9- five Words y. Let him keep filent in the 

2 i8. Church z. C AiTembly 1 . A Shame for Wo- 

ai Cor. 14.^5. men to fp^k in the Church 4 CAflembly]* 
b Col, 4, 16. Caufe that it be read alfo in the Church b 

CAflerablylJ. Of the Church. Saul madeHavock 
c^^ 8. 3 of the Church c It came to the Ears of the 

e ."li^i* C]\uTch£l. Herod vcxM certain of theChurche. 

f — 15! Prayer was made of the Church/. They were 

g — — IS, 4! received of the Church g. Called for the El- 
]^7 — »o. 17. ders of the Church h. Phebe a Servant of the 
i^bm. 16. I. C^iurch of Cenchrea'i. Note, It is <• Haven 
J „ . "^"^'lown near Corinth, yet it had a dijiin[i Church 
m^am,$!\A,.fi'"^ Corinth. Galpu mine Hoft, and of the 
n 3 ^oin to. ' '^hok Church k. That ye may excel! to the 
o Jtev, 1. 1, edifying of theChurch /.Let him call for the 
P Compare Elders of theChurch m.Diotrephes calls them 
5J; ^^'•'^'^'g out of the Church «. Unto the Angel of the 
»f^^2.7 lo.u ^^"^^^ of £p^f/«< 0. \_Angd or A.rgelf} i? e. 
q i^ev. 2. 8. Elders^ for thefe Efijiles were not fent to any 
t — . — i2./ingle Perfonp. Unto the Angel of theChurch 
^ " • ••' - »8. of, or iia Smyrna q. Pergamos r. Thyatira $• 
^ '- ^' ^' Sardis t. Philadelphia u. And of the Laodice- 

^ ^^l ans vi. Church of God. feed theChurch ofGodA*. 

X Ms 20. 28.* Unto theChurch of God ^. Or defpife ye the 
y I Cor. I. I, Church ofGod z,. i. e. Church- AJfembly or Poof 
2Cor, J. r. o/(fee Church.l perfecuted theChurch of God a. 
ziCoMi.zz.Hc takes Care of the Church of God h. The 
<?tfi. 1.1*3, Church of the Living God c (16.) Where 
biTim. J* 5. there vyere more than one Congregation of 
e-^r" ''• i;;ithe faithful, yea, tho' ii) one and the fame 

NatiPD, Couatry, and Proyince, they are 


proved to he the Old Chrfflian Churches, i j 

Cabout five and thirty Times 3 call'd Chur- 
ches in the Plural Number, . and may be 
read, and (ignific particular Congregations, 
C AfTemblies, Communities, or Societies 3 of 
the faitfirul. The Churches of Judea^ Gali- 
lee^ and Samaria^. Note, Thisjhews that there d A^s 9. 3 r. 
is no National Church under the Go/pel of Di- — — — !$• 41. 
vine Jnflitution. The Church of Syria^ and f'^^^VJ*^^* 
CUicia t. So were the Churches eftablilhed \cor,i' u^* 
in the Faith /. All the Church of the GontUes ^f v. 1.4,11,10. 
gave Thanks^. The Church ofChriJl falute See ai. 2. 8. 
you h. And fo I ordain in all Churches ». J-^^* *^*/^' 
No fuch Cuflom, neither the Church ''/gZ^'g T 
God k. As in all the Church of the Saints or ^ \t\ 

holy ones /. Let your Women keq) filent in i 1 cor. 7. 17. 
the Church m. i. e; Church 'Ajfembliei srk— — 11.16. 

Church'Meetin^s» As I have given Order to l '4' 3?* 

the Church ot Galatia^ even Jo do ye n. The IJ* ^^^^^ 

Church of j^fiaS^lute you <». The Grace «f q «. 'xp* 

God beftowed on the Church of Macedo- p 2 Cor. 8. i. 
ma p. Whofe Praife is thro' all the Church ^. q — — 1$. 
Chofen C Greek ordained. So Afts 15.^ 

terminedy Beza ordained. ] Of the Church r. r i9» 

The MelTengers of the Church /. Shew the « — *5- 

Proof of your Love before the Church t, t — — ^4. 
Paul took Wages C '• «• the more Mainte- 
nance 3 of other Churches u. And had inu- — -ii. 8. 
his Apoftolical Office the Care of all the 

Church rv. \_Thii ps what the Vnholy Pope pre- w — • 28. 

tends to xO Wherein were ye inferiour to 0-^ * ^^^/*« ^•4' 
ther Churches >. Unto the Church ^^ ^^'*^''' \^y''^]\'..\\\ 
tia z. Unknown by Face unto the Church yzcor.ia.i/. 
in Judea, in Chrifl a- Ye Brethren became 2 Cai. i. z. ' 
Followers of the Church in Judea^ in Chrifi a - — •— zi. 
JefHs b. We our felves glory of you in the |, x ihcf,2.i4,. 
Church of God q. Send it to the feven Chur- c z Tbej. t. 4. 
ches in j^fa d. The feven Stars are the An- ^ j^^, ,.4, » i, 
gels [or Pallors] of the feven Churches. 


|i 4 Separate Congregatiofjd Frotejtant Churches 

The £Q\ta Candlefticks are the fevea Chur- 

« Kev. 20. ches e.What the Spirit faith to the Church /. 

So"Tn7 zo* ^^^ ^^* ^^® Church (hall know that Chrilt 

& ^'.6y\iJi\ fearcheth the Hearts^. I Jefus hav^ fent my 

£ i^ev/2.'23. Angel to teilifie thefe things in theChurch h, 

h— • 22. i6. Note^ So dear to Chrift are his Churches, 

that John by his Order, fhut up, and copT 

pleated the-Holy Chmxh-Canons, or Rules 

of all Church- Affairs Zi. e. of the Churches 

Faith, and Pradtice 3 with the Grace of our 

. Lord Jefus Ghrift, be with you all [ /. e. all 

f^T f.'zo.&^is Churches 3 Amen .^V (17.) J^s 19. 37. 

2! 14,25.' Robbers of Churches^ Greek Temple-Spoilers, 

Ms 2. 5. i. e. Pa^an Idol- Temples, for then there was 

z Tim, J. i7' no Chriftian Temples, or Meeting - Houfes 

built, but they met in Fields, and private 

Houles, as the Iniquity of the Time^ would 

k^^Ss 16.15. |jg3^ j,^ Neither were there then any Chri- 

& 20! I?* ^^^^ Schools, with Univerfity-Degrecs, Cuf- 

& 28. 30, jr. toms, Vows, Ceremonies, Attires, e^e. Sec 

'Xoni. 16. 5. Col. 2. 8, 

CHAP. yiL 

THE Chrijliart^ Religiouiy and Holy Ruh 
in thefe Separate Churches^ were in the 
firfl- Chrijiian Churches • 'Viz,. The Word of 
God, which is the only, perfe<5t, fufficient, 
perpetual, and unalterable Rule and Direc- 
l^ee Ajfeitibl. tory of the Churches Faith and Praftice /. 
c«t. ^. 2, 3. See Gal. i. 8, 9. It is only by the Royal 
Charter, Rule, Warrant, and Liturgy C *'• ^' 
SfsVo'^ao Service-Book 3 of Chrift's Teftament, that 
jiEts \^,\l. * t^^y ^^ ^^^ Church- Affairs ro, i. e. Ccnfii- 
Col. 5.17. cution^ IVorjhi^^ AUniftry^ Order and VoUty^ and 
I Ihef, 4. I. all the Adminifhr aliens f of., or in this Polity 2 
z Tim.iASyiJ of the Word, Seals^ and Cerifures. Note i . That 
jpe^^** ''2^* there is a certain Form of Church-Govern- 
&?4!i--'i2. meat prefcribed iy the Word of God, and 
&?i! 12.-1(5*. . pel- 

povti to he the OldChriJlivn Churches, i ^ 
perpetual for all Ages», Ndte 2. The re-n^«v.2.24,ij 
vealed Mind, and Will of God in his Word^^^Tr "'^**=^- 
teacl^eth evny good Work o. ;. r. all that^/^^; Y. 17 
we ftould believe, and do^ to be com- Mat. 6. lo! 
pleat Chriftians />, and all true Religion that nom. iz. 2. 
is, i/, Faith in God. idly^ And Obfervancc i ^^f- 4- i- 
of him, which is all that concern God's Glo-^^^^^J^* ^'J"!^^ 
ry, and Man's eternal Salvation and Happi- q,j: 2.' < .'\o. 
nefs f \ therefore all Church- Affairs is fet & 4. \z. 
down in it, both as to their elTential Parts rjqJ^cAflemb. 
and neceflary Circumftances , as Time j, Cat, A. 2, 3, 
Place ^ Gefture, &c, belonging to Decency ^^ ^'^4 T 
and Order « ^ for nothing of Man mull bCg'^^, zo. 7/ 
our Rule in Church - Affairs, i/. Not hiszTm. 4/2.« 
Will w. idly. Inventions x. ^dly, Dedrine^. iCor. 16. r. 
4fJl'(y,Commandments,Edicts, and Statutes z.. * 7^*r-5'5^,7* 
<thly. Examples a. 6thly, Good Intentions b. ^ ^f > °'^^' 
(3.) Superitition , or Addmgs to God s^o_^^j2g 5 
Word, or Church-InltitutioiTs, and Perfecu- ^loii^ 17, i. 
tion are Twins, and both of the Devil c.Cei.2. 5- 10. 
For it blafphemes or reproaches, ij^, God's iC(3r.i4»i"4o. 
Attributes of WilHom, &c. idly, Word.^/^^'g^; J^' 
Sdly^ Worlhip. ^thly. Government. S^%> x jifaJ. I'j. z , 
And Chrift's Offices, as if there were fome- 1 cor..ii. 16. 
thing wanting ia them, that Man mutty -^-Jt' 15.9- 
' mend d. See Eccl. 2. 12. Note, Humane Ce-^ * M^fjgnz. 
remonies, as Parts of Divine Worfiiip, are ^^7 ^^^^'^.^ 
P(?/)iJfc^ Works of Supererogation, Ifa. i. i3-Af/V*. d. i5, 
(4.J & the Apoftacy they are gone off, and i(ev. ij. 18. 
feparated from this Rule in their Church- a i Cor. i r. r. 
Affairs. ($.) All in Church- Affairs, that h^^^'^JY^- 
not to be found in this Rule, is to .be re-jj^^.^^ j^* 
jeded e. (5.) We are»all Servants, and it xg. &i5.'z2. 
becomes Servants to do all Things by Rule, ictw; rj.13. 
and not without their Malter's Order to 3=^r.22.i8-29. 

make^f- '^' ^3- 

: . cGcn. J. 1-5. 

z Chro)!. II. I J. I{evs ^, lo, & p. 1 - n, d itrj/. 13. i, J, <5. & 17. 
4. iJjfwr. 4. z, 3; 3i, 4. <?«/. i. 8, j), e y/ji^i 8. ic, F^v. 11. 

1 5 Separate CoftgregationAl Proteftanf Churchts 
f 1 Cor, 4. -y* make new Roles /. (6.) That which is not 
Gal. 6, 164 done according to this Rule, i/?, God rec- 
g iCor. 11.20. kons it as not done^. 2dly, III done h. ^dly, 
?r* '^2?* ^°^ accepts in Church - Affairs only thac 
withj^r.6.20. which is of his own Inftitutioa, j4mos 5. 

iChron.i 0.1^', St 22. Hof p. I, 15. I Kiiigs 12. 

Uim. 28. <5. *<J, — 33. 2 Chrott* II. 15. Riv. p, I,— II. 

hLev, 10. ?. and 13. 2,— i8« and 17^ 4. and 18. 4» 

i ^ot« 10. 5. (7.) In all Church-Affairs Chrift's Royal 

p/ii.P4,iy. y-Qj^^ j^ ^j^g Chartef of the Word alone 

mufb rule, and all the Sheep, and upright 

in Heart, will hear, follow, and obey it u 

('S.) Let aH Things be done decently^ and in 

y.^C9f.\^'\-Ao^^der\iy (J. d. Let them be for Principle, 

, cfcrw.13.15. Matter, Manner, and End/ as God has pre- 

p/i/. ?7. ^3' Tcribed, and inflituted in his Word. CUpon 

& 50» ^3- thisText the Vofe builds all his Invcntions-H 

^luto.!' ^"^ ^^^ ^^'^' ^' ^^' ^"^ ^3- 18. and 17- 4- 
col.i* s-i'o. and 18. 4. * 

. t H A P. VIII. 


'//£ Chrijtian^ Religiam^ Holy^ Spifitudl^ 
Divine^ and Heavenly Polity ^ i. e. DSf- 
cipline^ Rtile^ and Government'2 in thefe fe far ate 
Churches y were in the u^pofialicat and Primitive 
Churches in all /IBs^ and Cafes wherein they 
ufe and exercife the Power of the Keys \. Note I. 
1 Mit, 16,19, "^here are Twelve Cafes, and Afts of the 
& 1 8.' 17,18! Power of the Keys, or of the Grandiand 
1 Cor. 5, 4. Royal Charter of Church - Government /. 
z Cor. 2.6.10, AH ^vhich are the Rights, Prerogatives, 
& u ^17^' ^^^ Priviledges of the Chriflian Church, or 
Cd^z. 5--10, Churches. (2.) The Keys (Ignifie full Power, 
& 3. 17. * and Authority of all Church - Affairs> and 
i^v, u. J. Adminiftrations m. (3.) The Keys arc the 
^ ^^' t* o Churches Ufe, Exercife, and Praiflice of its 
mM^ Ifxl', Charter «f Power and Authority, ifl. In 
I Cor. 5. 4, * Admifllon of Members, by a ProfefTion of 
j^<rv. 3, 7. Faith 

provect to he the OU ChriJtUn Churches. 17 
Faith in Chrift, and Obedience to him ^-^-^f 'J'l^M* 
idly. In Members orderly removing fro'^is. 2 cJr.p.if* 
one Church to another^ by Lcttersof Re-&n.2.iPfJ,jJ 
commendation, for Travelling Members tots.i^v.i^^u 
have tranfcient, and occafional Commu-with^xup.i-s 
nion in the Seals . And by Letters of & *"* ^j^*** - 
Difmifllon for full, and •fixed Communion, j^jj-i. 2 3*. 19. 
when Members, and their Families remove j^ev. 21. iz. ' 
to dwell near another Church f. ^dly. In a^s 9. 26. 
a Voluntary Contribution to the Support^''^'4o. 10. 
of Ordinances, Miniflry, Meeting-Place, ^^^^^-'/^^ 
and Poor ^. ^thly. In Miflion, or Sending & j^, *^^* 
of -gifted, fit, faithful, and approved Bre-& 16. i6l 
thren upon the publick Service of Chriftj'^w.i^,!.!,, 
and his Church^, ^thly. In mutual, and ^*^* '*'7« 
holy Prayer, Praifes, Conference, Edifica-^^^^^^* JJ* 
tion, Comfort, Exhortation, Ad monition, & ,8.^7/' 
Watchfulnefs, and Submifiion to one a no- iCor. 15./, j^, 
ther in the Lord, in this their Commu-i8.iC(7r.j.i.3, 
nion/. 6thly. In Occafional Meeting of^*^'^- 2. 29. 
Elders and Brethren to give Advice, ^nd /^J^'^^g* 
Counfel from the Word when defired f'\)i(pm.ic.i,'z, 
nthly. In Trying and Examining of their qiCor.i^.,j2, 
own Matters, and Members within them-»^"-4-io,ii» 
felvestti and in Expoflulating with any ^^^^^^P*?'-- 
Member in Cafe of a fuppofed Offence, ^^t Mi'g.l)^,' 
which the very Apoftle fubmitted w .^ii.2i-.{q, 
%thly. In Publick Admonition, and Binding & ij. z- 27. 
by the Cenfure of Excommunication .v.^18. 27. 
9thly. In Loofingfrom it^. lothly. In Gall-2^^°''g*J- ?• 
ing and Ordaining of their own Servants, p^^;' ^\ 25V* 
or Officers z.. i ithly. In the OlBce, 'Ad- s a'^s n, \, 
miniflration of the Word and Seals, by the Bph. $. 19,2 r. 
C teach- '^^^/-S.'i-H. 

. — tA?x 15.2.-35^^ 

rrov. 11. 14. u Mat. 18, 17. I Cor. :. ij. Sc J. u. /^v« i. 2. 
w Ails 8. z--i8. & 9. 26. & 21. i6'-2». X 2 Cor. 2. 6. Mat n5. 
J9< & 18. 18. ^ohn 20. 2?. I Cor. j, 4, 12. y 3 Cor 2. 7,... 10, 
Mitt. \6. 19. & 18. 18. ^sh» 20. 2 J. GaJ, 6. 1, £pi'f/, ij, 32, 
2 .4f?i I. r-j-26. 8;(5, 2-.J. 5s 14. »J. Tir. 1, 5, 

iS SepArdte Congregxtiond Protefiant Churches 

a Mau iS.ip. teaching Elders 4, who are the fame that 
b ASs 50. 17. are called Bilhops and Pallors h. i ithly. In 
z8,£ph..^.iu the Exercife of Prophecy, or Preaching by 
fiu I- 5'-7- gifted, and approved Brethren , not in 
c A^'s 8*. 1' Paftorial, C or Epifcopal 3 Office c. Note 4. 
&ii.i9~2u Here is an Epitome of the Congregational, 
& 18. 27. i. e. Apoftolical, and Primitive Church- 
i{om. 12. 6. Government in aU the Parts, Objefts, Ads, 
I Cor. 14. 3, ^j^j Duties, about which it is converfant^. 
d cJ.M-io, ^°^^ 5* Chu'^ch Polity is the wife Orderi^ig 
;^v. 2. 14,25! all Church Affairs according to the Roysd 
eiFzw-^jjij. Chartier, and Rule of the Word, for the 
£^ek.4?. 11,12. King's Honour and Intereft in the World, 
Icor't ^^' ^"^ Edification, Comfort, Purity, Peace and 
2,5j..lgj**^' Safety of the Church-Corporation, and his 
iftfv. 2.i4, People and Subjeds therein e. Note 6. 
& 1 1 . 2-4. Church Power in Government, or the Power 
&21. i2,i5.of Adtingof Church Affairs is, I. Supream, 

mT'r^of'-'' K^^S^y' ^^^' Right, and Officer- 
Zion'/ iHtjg. making. This by way of New Covenant 
z. of tkchri' Gift from the Father, is peculiar to the 
ftian churth. Lotd Jcfus Chrift. Pfalm 2.6. & 5)3. i. 
^,0ftbeCkr-jj-a, p. 7. & 24. 23. & 33. 22. Mat. 28. 18. 

Note 3,6,7,8. ^^^^ ^' ^' Servant, lubordmate, delegated, 

and executive : This is, iji. 'Extraordinary ^ 

as in the A po files, Prophets, and Evange- 

f Jol&«2o.2i.Iifts /. zdly. Ordinary \ as in every parti- 

2Cor. II. 28.cular Congregation, built on the Chriftian 

Faith, and Obedience, or on Chrift, and his 

Dodlrine, which VeteY in the Name, and as 

|j^|-J^;'9-the Mouth and Reprefentative of the reft 

I Cor'. 3. 2^. profelTed g. And this Ordinary Church 

gc 5. 4. Power lodged by the King's Gift, Promife,' 

Col. i' J--10. and Charter of the Word in every Con- 

j^x/. rr.g. gregational Church ^ is, ifi. Fraterml, or 

p/i°*r49 8 9 P^^^^ of Priviledge ■, this belongs unto the 

h^i^»i&/ii.*)Siotherhood, and is exercifed ia Suffrages, 

,3«.ip. in 

proved to he. the Old Chr^fiUn Churches. 19 
in Eledions ?, Admlilions ^, and Cenfures /, '' ^^* M- H' 
and in mutual Prayer, Exhortation, ^^' { i cou\^^±', 
monition, &c m, 2dly. Official, or ?0WQr jnEpheJ.yii. 
of Office j this is proper to the Presbytery neb, 10. 25. 
or Epifcopacy, /. e. Elders w. iVbre 7. The ^n*- M- '9* 
Fraternal and Official Power of Acting of ^ 'rjjJ^' 
Church Affairs do not in any wife preju- ^ fm. 5^*17!* 
dice each other, but may fweetly agree tO' ffeb.i^.'-jyij, 
gether j as we may fee in the Example of 24.2Co)'.8io. 
the Apoflles furniffied with the greate{lo^^^'»4-i<S 
Church-Power, who took in the Prefence, ^ j*^^^ 
Concurrence, and fionfent of the Brethren ^ ij.^.Vij, 
in Church Adminiftrations 0. Note 8. This i ^^5.4, 12; 
Government of the Church is a mixt Go- 2Cor.2^.-io. 
vernment, in regard, ifi- Of the Body or ^^' *^- 

Brotherhood of t!ie Church, it is ^^^^''^'^'llcor'ttz 
tied p. 2rf/y. Of the Elders, it is Arijio- ^ , j-y,^; ^^^^\ 
cratical q, and Elders being the fame with vA^s 20. 17. 
Biflieps r, it is Prefi>yterial afjd EpifcopaLmthiS. Greek 
Sdly, And of Chrilt it is truly Monarchial/. Bilhops, & 
A parallel Example to the like P^rfeftion, ^p^J'^''^* 
is not to be found on Earth t. Note 9, Tho' s pfj, 2. (<, 
all the Members have a Right to, and In-i^ev. j. 7. ' 
tereft in the Power of Memberfhip, or frl-Mat. i5. 19. 
viledge, yet as Children by their Non-^^^-43- 
Age-, fo Women, by their Sex, are debarred^la! 
from the Exercife of Authority in the tz?m.4.6J. 
Church u. Note 10. A Church-Polity to de- iKjngi 10.5. 
prive Men of Civil, or Religious Rights, /p- 2. z, j. 
for Non-Conformity to the Cob-Webs of"'L9''-»4-?4. 
humane Cereraonisfs, is no Ordmance, or ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ 
Inftitution of Chrift w. Note 1 1. In the Pro- & 9. j^J j ,[ 
teftant , Reformed , and feparate C fi'oni & n. 7. 
Rome'} World, iMen have named three ^»3.2'-x7- 
Sorts and Forms of Church-Government, ^'j!^^^ ^^'^5 ^• 
and it*s controverted amonglt them, who can ^\^\ ^'^'^^ ' 
lay, and put in the belt Plea, Claim, and & 1.24. 
Right to Divine Authority, and Inftitu- tMK22.24-27 
tion, viz.. C 2 (i. Fp;/-:?"*" »»• ?'• 

20 Separate CongregAtiond Frolefiant Churches 

^ItifJaUthat (i.) Epifcopal Church-Government j See it 
thefirdfepin- \^ Dr. Confm^ of the Polity of the Church 
*'l^f^,^^^oi^^g^^nd, or of the National Way. Note, 
fn the Accmni^^^^ Js conUderable, I. Their Matter, 11. 
J. of their Their Liturgy, Ceremonies, aad Worfhip- 
CburchMatter.UL Their Miniflry and Officers, Cfonie of 
2- f°:^^^' which are alfo Civil Magiftrates] which arc 

i' AniVoliti ^^ ^^^ ^°^^^ ^'^ Degrees, viz.. i/?, Parochial 
•^* Redtors, Vicars, Curates, &c. idly^ Colle- 
giate, or Cathedral Deans, Prebends, Arcb- 
Deacons, Prayer- Readers, Organifts, crc, 
3%, Diocefan Lord-Bilhops. 4?^;/, A Pro- 
vincial Metropolitant Lord Arch-Bifliop of 
Tork, yhly, A National Primate, or Metro- 
politant Lord Arch-Bifhop of Canterbury, 
!v. Their Cenfures and Penalties. 

(2.) Presbyterial Church of Elder Sy for the 
Government of the Church in five Spiritual 
^ue.AJfem- Courts f. [See them in the Directory of 
khescf Elders. ^^Q Eftablifti'd Church of Scotland-] viz.. 
i/. Congregational, of Ruling-Elders. 2^/y,- 
Claflical, of Teaching-Elders. 3^/y, A Pro- 
vincial Synod. 4^%, A National Synod. 
$thly. An Oecumenical Synod. Note i. Here 
are three Sorts of Synodical Aflemblies for 
the Government of the Church, i^/y. The 
Church can do what the Synod pretends to. 
See Note 3. and Chap. 13, 14. 

(30 Congregational Church "Government. 

\. See an Epitome of it above Note 3, and 

Chap. I. to 20. II. Here all Men have their 

juft Dues, and Rights giv'n them. See Chap. 

1 5, 1 8. III. All is done by the Royal Laws, 

xchap.f. and Rules of the Word only x. IV. All is 

y'a^s 9. z5. done by voluntary and mutual Confent, for 

S*"^' Q ^ ^* P^'ivate Brethren ought to be fatisfy'd as 

pi//m 14." ^^" ^^ Officers >. Note^ Here no Thing or 

jtas s.'a-is. Perfoa is impofed, but all is done by a free 

gc 21. 1^-22. Coa- 

f roved to be the Old Chrifiian Churches. 21 
Cpnfent of the Body Politick z. V. Here is 2 ^Cou 7, 24, 
binding and loofing, without paying Money ^^^' ^3* ^»9* 
to Court-Keepers a. VI. It cannot do any jL"j^^*,g' ^^^ 
Wrong to its Members, for all Ach, not 2 Cor. 10.' 4/ 
according to Chrift's Rules in his Word, LuHi.i^-z6 
are here efteem'd meer Nullities, that hind ^ ^5* 4» ip. 
not the Confcience to Obediance h. VII. |J>^^'^j 
This Church - Government inftituted ^y ^eb.iy^j-l, 
Chrift, is a Blefling, and beneficial to Civil iiief. j. 12. 
Governments Cthat permit its Exercife 3 ^^^^f. iS'P. 
for in it, are Precepts of all Piety, Juftice, ^^Z'** ^' 9' 
and Charity : Thus it promotes all ^y^^lKErellh 25 
and furthers, and flrengthens Obedience ^^.1 2.* g.& 
to all Superiours, Inferiours, and Equals c, 30.2 ;.& 5 9. 5. 
and by its Cenfures it punilhesSins againft 2<jw^i2.i2. 
all Perfons d^ yea the Practice of the Laws, ^•^/'"* ^- *^* 
Precepts, and Rules of this Chriflian, and|^^"2.&n. 
Gofpel Polity, will make Men good, and af- she'chaf. ij! 
fordBleffinp.s in ev'ry Relation, in theFamily, d iCor.y i-i?l 
Church, and State e. VHI. All the Chrifti-eT/f.?, 1-8,14 
anity in the firft, and whatever is of God ^'!f-^'-*'"3>9« 
in all other Chriftian Societies, is in Con-^^;^^*^^;^- 
gregational Churches. IX. Primitive Pref-&/^. /..J^. 
bytery, and Primitive Epifcopacy is all one & 21. 12, id. 
Thing in arScripture-Sence, in which Sence, 
Congregational Church -Government is 
Presbyterial, and Epifcopal "t'- See ^^s 20. f jie Con^re- 

17. with 28. 7it. I. 5. with 7. I Pet. 5. 2. githnalifisare 

See Chap. 10. X. That Way of WorOiip, ^r*^^^*^''''''»' 
Miniflry, and Polity m any Chriftian Sod'J^//llffl 
ety. is moft like to be the Way of God, or derftood/^^' 
of Divine Inftitution. iji-, That hath moft f/^^v.i 4.1-1 2, 
Scripture-Precepts, and precedential Prac-& i-t. 17- 
tices on its Side f. idly, The leaft of human ^ ^i* i^» »^- 
Inventions, and Impofitions in it^. S^^^jh^X^'/'io 
And moft of the ignorant, erroneous, fiiper- j ^ohuA.'^X 
ftitious, and profane World againft ith.i^v.ii.'y!' 
XI. The Obje^ions againft this Way are very & 12. 17. 


,& M j, 8. 

t^ Separate CongregAtional Protejlmt Churches 

impertinent, -t/ix.. i/, tt often wants the 
\A&s i6, 38. Countenance of the Civil Powers i. idly^ It 
k 2 Cor, 7. 1. is for itria Holinefs h ^dly. But a few of 

Jams'l^K,' ^^^ g*"^3^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ embrace it /. , 
%v, 13! 8.' 4'%i The Evils of a few of its Members w, 
& 18, 11-17, Cyet when known, they are cenfur'd]. An^ 
mzar.u.zoy^j/r. Ail 'this was the Cafe of the firft 
i^Co^.5.i-.i3. Chriftian Churches, yet Thoufands joynM 
Miy^2 V? ^^ ^^^"^ ^' ^^^ Chrift walk'd amongfl: 
n^iist/a. ^i.them 0. See C'ii/. i. S, p. 

oz Cor. 6,16, 

f^i:^ CHAP. IX. 

& I J*. I. '"^1 "•//£ Chriftian^ Religion, and Holy Vra- 
8c 18.24-18. J[_ pf^ejying, or Preachings by gifted, and 
J(om. 12. j6. approved Brethren [_ not. in Paflorial Office, , 
^Epher^'^"^^' but in Large Congregations, are Afliftants ' 
qlfu'iuz6~2Q ^^ P^ftors 3 i^ ^hefe Churches, were in the 
iSam,io,'iyiz. P^^fn^fi"^^ Churches p. Note i. That, that is 
iCo>.^.5-59,with us call'd Preaching, or Speaking of 
^ru r^' ^' God's Word, and Works, was of old, cal- 
^J^^J-^^'led Prophefying^. A"^^^ i- The Church is 
^sVkiiTi'd. thrift's Spiritual School, that traineth,and 
jmoi 7. 14. * bringeth up holy Youths for the Work of 

1 Cor. 12. 7. his Miniflry, by the Exercife of thbfe Gifts 
C?i4.?,2(5,n. ^ji^ Graces, that he beftows upon them r. 
\ter.'io, 21^* ^°^^y- And by this holy Order and Means, 
l^^Vii 8.' 15,^*7. they perpetuate an holy Miniltry amongfl, 
cmt. 8. s! * and within themfelves s» For i/, Out of 
A^i I. zi. thefe, Perfons are chofen to Paftorial Of- 
^^ ^^g^"^*fice t. idlyy And upon a juft Call, and Oc- 
1^ ji,li\lly3ifion, they are fent out with the Apj>ro- 
Thii,\. 6. ' bation, and Prayers of the Church to mini- 

2 Cor. 8. 22. Iter the Word, for the calling in of the un- 
g^am. 16. 10. converted, and Plantation of other Chur- 
^» "r *^' i' ^^* ^^^s "• ^°^^ 4' This Approbation, and Mii^ 
fi.Tz;l!' fion is necelTary. iy?,To fhew the Churches 
PW/.4. 15. ^^" 

frovU to be the Old ChriJtUrt Churches* 4 J 

Order w, idly^ And Power over their Mem- ^ ^^^* 2* Jf* 
bers X. sdly. And that they may be rcceiv'd ^col^'i^lf' 
with Satisfaftion in other Churches j. j^rrt, i6.' loj 

Fhil, Zi 29. 

CHAP. X. ^'^"r-?."- 


THE Chri/lian, ReUjious, and Holy Mi- ^'j^\'l*^'^y^i 
niftry -{', or Officers and Strvants^ under 2Cor, 8. 22!* 
Chriji in theft Churches^ were by Divine^ and iCor,i6.3,i8, 
Royal Infiitution in the firfi Chrifiian Churches \Phih 2, 29. 
vtz.. I. Elders for the Miniftry, and Govern- i5^*? ^; , 
ment of the Church z,. Note, Elders are the Vo^mrlani 
fame with Bifhops, for ijl. Elders are call'd service, but 
Biftiops, Ad:s 20. I?' with 28. Overfeers, ww^iorrf/ib/p. 
or Superintend ents, to fuperintend or over- ' ^^'>«« 5. 17* 
fee one Flock or Congregation, G'r^e^Bifhops, J^f'"'* f t- ^ 
fo Tit. I. $. with 7. ^dly. They are exhor- iyjJljfj^!^'* 
ted to take the Overfight, or to a(a as Bi- z]^m.'i2.7,8. 
fhops of one Flock or Congregation, i Pet. i Cor, 12. 28. 
5. 2. Every Bilhop is an Elder, and every ^^* 14- i3» 
Elder is a Bilhop, ^iffj 20. 17, 28. T/r. i. ^/°' '7,23. 
5, 7. I r/>w. 3- >. ^^»V. I. I. ^et/. 2. I. ptiTu'u^' 
II. Deacons, who are as the Churches Truf- itim.'i.i^io, 
tees, Stewards, and Treafurers to colled, Tit. r. y, 7. 
receive, keep, and diftribute the holy Oife- 1^^^* 4- ??• 
rings. Gifts, Stock, and Treafure of the ]?^^* ^» ^' 
Church, and therewith to ferve the Tables p^//* J '^ * 
the Church is to provide for, as the Lord's i/iw. 3,8w?. 
Table, the Table of the Minifter, and Poor ^,iCor.i6.,^2,e? 
but not to adminiitcr the Word, Seals, ov^^'7'Gai.6.6. 
Difcipline b, and to execute this Office well, "^'^iflf'^^' 
is the Way to much Honour, but not one'n. 
Step to the Priefthood c G* Of the uninfti- luke 21, i, * 
tuted Miniftry in theApoftacy. See Chap. 19. b jicli 6. 4. 

See Ez^ra 2, 61. Nih. 2. 20. Mm. 15, 13. 'Hl'°^^^^* 

8. C?2i. 8,CJ 

8.? 7. wascjf- 


CH AP.ciTw.S,8,ij. 

24 Separate Qofjgregationd Vrotefiant Churches 

THE Cbrifian^ ReligiottSy and Hety Qua^ 
lifications of Minifiers in thefe Churches^ 
were m the Miniflers of the firjf Chrijiian 
Churches, Thefe Churches lee to it, that 
him they call C or invite 3 to Paftoriai Cor 
Epifcopal 3 Office in the Church, be duly 
qualify'd, according to the King's Mind, 
tlibXV'^^^ Rules in the Royal Charter of the 
tiu I's'-y.* Word. I. That he be a Man found in the 
fiTw. 3. 6. Faith d: II, Of good Report e. III. No 
giWi.4. II. Novice/. IV. Of exemplary Grace, and 
iivt.5,3. Piety ^. V. And approved Abilities to 
izibiLi.\\'. ^each h. VI. Rightly to divide the Word 
Ti'f. t,\'-io. of God /. VII. And defend the Truth k. 
k ibid. I. 9, ^otcy An ignorant, erronioiis, fuperftitious, 
Phil, I. 7. and prophane Miniflry is to be fliunn'd, ab- 
?p \'a 4 ^o^r'd, feparated from, and not fufFered in 
PA50 ,6. the Churches of Chrift /. 

I Tim. 6. 5. CHAP. XII. 

V^dnill ^IP^^ Chrifilan, ReVgiopu, and Holy Or- 
:fohn 10. 5*. JL dination in thefe Churches^ were in the 
Mat. 7.15--17. Afofiolical^ Chrijiian Churches- Note, (i.) 
Jit. ?. n. They own, that Calling to Office is necef- 
m. 3. 2. fary ,;,. .(2.) And that Calling to Office 
Gcn'.49!6j' *S' ^' Immediate by Chrift himfelf ». And 
pf.i.*i.^*26.5. ^^' Mediate by the Church 0. (3.) That 
^.'r.' 17.15, 19, Ordination is the folemn Eledioa of a Pcr- 
Nekem. -z.zo. {oa duly called [or invited] to an Office 
^ja^'^'^'. in the Church, and his Separation thereto 
GaLuVrt by ^he Prayers of the Church ^ Here they 
o Ms'i^. ii. ordain Bilhops and Deacons by the Choice 
p»A.i. 14-16. and Prayers of the Church /?. (4,) That 

23.ef;/M.5. — - ,_ 

Note, //ere ii O.'d^natiotJy roithout fwearing Ohdicnce 
Tcfupcriottr rnhta, or hunune Jf/jUtnthns C? Dsvii^i 

f roved to he the Old QhriftUn Churches, 55 

there is a Right in the People to choofe the 
worthy, and rejed the unworthy, or that 
they have Power to choofe their own Ser- 
vants. This might be prov'd and argued,' 
I. From its being an Adt of the Power of 
the Keys, which are giv'n to the Church f » q JM^^. i6.t5>. 
n. From this Power being in the 7em//& ' 
Church r. III. Fr6m this PoWer and Pri* rti?V<j». 29; 
viledge in the Subje<fts of E^thly Kings, 20-- 22. 
Who by Chaif ter choofe their own Servants, J^^^ 3?- 2- 
Mayors, Reprefentatives, &c s, IV. They ^^^^ Jj'^' 
may put out of Office : Now to put out, uv. k 2, 
and into Office, are Afts belonging unto i^umh. 
the fame Power f. V. The People have the »2. & 27, zi, 
Apoftle's Rules, and ordinary Elders, to f 5^;|''-'°»^J- 
lay them before them w. VI. Stewards, y^^/^; "*^' 
Shepherds, nor Mayors, do not give Office q?/. 2'. ^'..lo, 
to each other. VII. From the Apoftolical 1 1 Cor. j, ij' 
and Precedential Practices in this Cafe, re* ^^^: 4* '7* 
corded foi* the Imitation of the Churches ^^^^"•^^•^"'?- 
'till Chrift's fecond Coming ir. Of fuch ^^j-^^^^*^^ 
Moment is the Prefer vation of this Power, r/», r. 5/ 
that the Churches exercifed it in the Pre*- Goi invefis 
fence of the Apoftles, firfl: in the JerufaUm '^^nvfith of 
Church, I. In the Choice of ^^ A^^^t^^^SJ^^^ 

Acts I. Hi 25. Here note (i.) The^^ ^f„ p ''^ 

Men and Brethren pray'd. (2J And gaVe 1^*^,29.20-22 
forth their Lots. (3- j And chofc Matthias, 2 chron. 22 r", 
V. 25. And he was numbered with the Eleven^ ^5-2$. 
Apojlles. The Learned read it, And he n>4s &"^^"^^jf '"• 
hy common Corifent chofen unto the Eleven Apor ^ 2?! 2/ 
files, JI. In the Choice of Deacons. ABs w Ads i'xa.. 
6. I, — 5. Here note (lO The Apoftlcs 2<5. &'5.3, j. 
appointed, ». e. gave Direftion about this ^ '4-2?. 
Buiinefs, or Office, nj. 3. as rit. i. 5. (^^^f^^'^ 
They commanded the Men and Brethren, ' ^' ^' 
to look 9Ut amongft thtmf elves for Oncers. 
D Y 3- 

i6 Se-parate Congregatiotid Protefiant Churches 
X Ms%' 17" r. 3. i. e. choofe, as v. 5. (i.) Here was 
fi?*^'^K^''^* the Men and Brethrens Obedience, And the 
^ f .^\' ' Saying f leafed the whole Multitude £ L e. of 
i/m. 4. 14. the Men and Brethren 3 and they chofe Sit^ 
2 Tim. 1. 6. phen,erc. v. 5. (4.-) Prayer, v. 6. ($.') Here 
Num. 27, 23. vvras one Ad extraordinary, viz.* After C not 
Mar'l\^* in] Prayer, the Apoftles laid theii^ Hands 
&*^6. 18?* °^ them. For fee a- ^^zl^'s Annot. here 
Msg.ij. faith, The Gifts being taken away, the 
& z8.8. with Ceremony mufb ceafe x. See 1 Tim. 5. 22. 
^^.^.1.2. vvith u4S/ 8. ip, — 22. Secondly, u^Bs 
iCffr^iA. 2- ^4* ^3* ^" -^ntiochy and all the Grr?^ •, or 
^' "* Gentile Churches, the People ordained by 
+ As Numb. Choice under the Apoftle's Diredion '|- . , 
21. 21, with i^Qf^ j^ jjg^g ^35 Eledion. Our Learned, 

Get'^9. 22. 2"^ ^^'^ Reformers own, that the Eledioa 
of the People is in the Greeli. and read it, 
and when they had ordained them Elders 
by Eledion, or by common Votes, one read 
it, and when they had ordain'd them Elders 
in all the Churches by Eledion, G-zteh, witll! 
lifting up of Hands [ i. e. of the People to 
iignifie their Suffrages, and Confent, ^ had 
chofen them Elders. (2.) Prayer with fafl- 
11^55 ij.2-27 ing. Again, Tu. i. 5. Paid exhorted the i|-E- 
aCor.^z. 13. vangeliftT/f«/, [not Metropolitan 3 to or- 
7iu\. 12. ^^^" Elders in every City, or Place, where 
there was a Church, as he had giv'n liim 
Diredion or Command [as ABs 6. 3 J /. e. 
by the Suffrage of the People, as he himfelf 
had done. See it, 4Bs 14.23. 


proved to he the Old Chnjlicin Churches, 27 


fX^HE Chrijiian-i Religious^ and Holy Inde- 
JL pendency in thcfe Churches^ were in the 
fii'jt Chriftian Churches. Note i. Each Orga- 
nizM Church-Corporation, the King, by the 
Charter of his Royal, and Revealed Will in 
his Word, hath endow'd "with the exxellent 
Right, and Priviledge of having the Power 
of Government, Qor an intire, and inde- 
pendent Judicatory ' Court 3 within it feif 
only> And in Point of Power and Autho-V ^^hif.i.x9. 
rity of Church- Adminiftrations, they 4e-S^j\^*^*^* 
pend only on Chrifl:/ his Word, and Spi- g^ 20] P* 
rit z,. Note 2. There are ten Proofs of this & 2t. 2. 
Independency of the diflindt Corporations, /A- 26, r, 
or Churches of Chrift, viz.. I. The Gift of^ ^O' H- 
the Keys, i. e. all dcligated, o^dinaryChurch-f^^/j^^ \^^^ 
Power is lodg'd, and to be found in each ^-^^^ 2] 5.'. 10! 
Congregation of the faithful, built on Chrift& 3. 17. 
and his Doctrine, which Petir inthe Nanie<PW-4« n- 
of the reft vilibly confefs'd a. II. The juft,'^'^"*' ^- ^• 
and regular Sentence of a particular Con- ^^^^'^' 'j**"^' 
gregation of the faithful is confirm'd, oraAi.iM6.'i9. 
accepted in Heaven, without any further See cL;. 8. 
Appeals, and no Powers on Earth can re- 
verfe it^. III. The Practice of the Church '3'^^'*»-»8 17,18 
of Corinth c. IV. No one Church is ever '^ ^ ^°''* ^* ^* 
Llam'd for the Sins, nor prais'd for the Ver- ' ^"''""^"'^^ 
tues of another, i Cor. 5. 2. Fev. 2. & 3. 
V. They had Officers of their own, that 
had neither Office, Relation to, nor Charge 

aS Sep4rate Congregational pyoteflafit Chfirches 

e Cant. 8. 8. of Power, and Authority in all Churches e» 
zcor. 12. r^ VII. And in all their Elders/. VIII. Elders 
^^n^r ^ *' ^'Cor Bilhops] are commanded to feed [ by 
^pjj;^;^ ^*, the Word, Seals, and Difcipline] oneFloqk, 
gyiSfio. 17. or Congregation^. Note i, There are no 
zZ.?hiL 1. 1. Rules laid down about a Claflical Church. 
I tkf.'i. 12. 2.dly^ We read of feveral Bifhops in one 
\ev\'^'iV Congregation /?, but not of many Congre- 
h vi'^/i^'zj.gations under one Bilhop. IX. Office, Power 
&20. 17, 28and Care over more Congregations than 
Phil. I. I. one, v/as peculiar to the Apoftle* i. X.Chrift's 
jrhs:/. 5. 12.fij.ft inltituted Churches were gathered un- 
Kev.'z/i ' ^^^ Pa^an., and Perfecuting Emperours, till^- ^' 300, which fliew they did not de- 
kMs 16. gg.pend Cfor Power and Authority of Church- 
& 17. 6, Adminiftration ] on the State, and Princes 
but fee ^ev.^^ ^his World ^. [Of a Congregational Bi^ 
%^'*hilli7'^^^^''^^' or Truft and Charge of Souls, See 
Seefki8.j6^^'»?- ^' 1 
?,Cor* 10. 4. 


THE cyiflian^ ^eligiousy 4nd Holy Cen^ 
fares in thefe Churches^ were in th^ fir(^ 
Chrijlian Churches, See Ez.ek. 43. II. and 
44. 5. Note I, The Eccleliaftical Cenfure, 
or Punilhment of Excommunication, is the 
Churches A6t, and not the Elders alone, 
meeting apart, from» or Without a Church- 
Aflcmblyi this may may be evinc'd, i/^, 
From its being an Ad of the Power of the 
iM««,i5. i9.Keys giv'n to the Church/, z^/y, She re- 
ceives into Communion : Now to receive 
^a/'r' 4' ^*into, and put out, are Ads belonging un'tq^ 
Sec€hJ<>. 8, ^° ^^"^^ Power m. 3^'/y, Jfrael might put 
n Exoii . r'aaV "^^^ Leaven , 0^0 n. Note, A CQmpleat Body catf 

proved to he the Old ChrifiUn Churches, 19 
fHrge itfelfo. ^thly^ From Precepts p» $tklyy rCor, 5.7,9. 
from Praaice. It is expredy faid to be P^'**- '8.17. 
done by many, or by the Majority ^, but 2XiV!^.6,i4l 
not by Paul alone, for here is, J judge, and qiCcr.z.d.' 
ye judge them that are within r, ». e. Members r i Cor. 5.11; 
in the particular Congregation oifthe faith- saCor.z.y-io. 
ful at Corimh^^hd without. Note^Kone Mem- ^ \%'i,^\^ 
bers therein. 6thly^ He commands the Com^ ^ ^ 
munity to releafe it : Now, they that can 
loofe, can bindj this was not done by Paul 
alone, for here is, / forgive, and ye jorgive. 
He would neither bind, nor loofe without 
the Prefence, Concurrence, and Confent of 
the People in the Church of Corinth s. 'Jthly, j^ Verm or 
The Apoftle expounds Chrift's Meaning in Vote. 
Mat. 18.17,18. Tobeof the whole Body, •*« Cor. *,i5. 

or Community of the faithful come togc- f/'**^\^*^' 
ther t. Sthlyy tfe that ufurp'd the folc Power x W.18,17. 
of this Ad orthe Keys is reprov'd for it, mmb. p.'ijl 
SIS one that affeded Primacy or Prelacy «• *fof.7. 11-26, 
^thly^ Wby fhould not fo choice a Corpora- '^V* *®' ^' ' 
tion, Community, or Society, as a Church^ j^^**^*^^*' 
of Chrift is, or fhould be, have as great ^^^ j.'i-?. 
Priviiedges, and Abilities to judge herein, Rom. 16. 17/ 
as the Subjeds of Earthly Kings-, a Jury of lO. $,4.-15. 
them is prefent, and judge who is Guilty, ^ i<5.i2. 
or not Guilty, according to whofe legal + frkA.X'.u* 
Vote, the judge pafleth Sentence of Con- iTi«. *i ,20.' 
demnation, or Abfolution, and all Men reft & 5.12.20,2^* 
fatisfied in it xo. fz.) The Sins that deferve & <^- s- 
^t, and what this Cenfure is call'd. See x. "tJ'^- 5* 5. 
(3.) In the Apoftacy it is greatly abus'd, /SJaVr*. 
and Money is concerned, both in binding, He^.ioij-jo 
and loofing, here they put out the Sheep, Tfai.ioi.y-8. 
and keep in the Goats y. (4.) Before a Man Y ^/^- ^9- 1<5- 
is proyM Guilty, Sufpenfion. is unjuft, and ^.l^'^'^'^'l^ 
after, it is needlefs, and come§ fljort of ^o][,„*jJ'*j^^* 

Ghrift's p^v, 13. 17, 

go Sep dr ate CofigregAtional Protejlant Churches 

z M4m8. 17. Chrift's Inftitution z.: C5. ) When Mens 
ia>M«5>iJ* Crimes are fcandalous , and notorioufly 
^K' -^5/5. grofs, the Church proceeds immediately to 
trim. 1. 20/ cenfure, to fliew that it cannot bear Evil «, 
ac 5. 20, 24. but in Cafe of private Cknown but to one, 
iCor.5.4-11' or two Perfons] Faults of injuring, or 
wronging one another, the Churches Pro- 
cce(}ing mull be more gradual, and medi- 
ate, according to the three Degrees of Ad- 
monition in the inftituted Laws, and Rules 
of Congregational Church Difcipline, in 
Mat. 18. 15, — 17. ((J.) That in Cafe of 
\om of Order, private Offences, it is prepofterou J t to tell 
the Eiders of them, before they have rc- 
jefted the two lower Degrees of Admo- 
bM«MS.i5-»7nition h. (j.) When the Elders are told, it 
is laid before the Church, the Church, or 
Society, gather'd together iatold, who ad- 
monilh Cby their Eider or mouthy twice 
at leaft before it proceeds to Excommuni- 
C2 Cor. tj. I, cation c. (%.) He that is prov'd guilty, and 
^'*^' '^* '7. impenitent, is fully ripe, for this Great, 
i^MluhT\B. Holy, Spiritual, and Awfal Cenfure^. (9 J 
,y,_- 17. * Then the Elder, or deputed Mouth of the 
c I Cor, 5, 2^4. Church, in the Name, and with the Power 
2C0/. J 2. 2 1, of the Lord Jefus, and with the Confent 
^^L}^' T °^ ^^^ Church gather'd together, he grave- 
I 6. iz!^' * ly> humbly, and forrowfully e pronounceth 
him cut off from the Communion of the 
Church in its Priviledges of fpecial Ordi- 
nances C call'd the Kingdom of Heav'n 3 /» 
and N4^Uver him to Satan C put him into 
the World which is his Kingdom 3 j, for 


Note, It i* a. Cutting off a Member from the PoJr 
ileal JHody of Chrift^ Numlx 9. 13. Gal. 5. 10, 12, 
r Cor, 12. 20,— 27. 

proved to he the Old Chrifiian Churches, j i 
th^ f Deftruclion of the Flefb, that hh\ViortiJuu<m 
Soul may be favM in the Day of the Lord IfJ:;,:;;:^ 
Jefus /?, declaring, that he is not to return bit Perfin and 
to their Communion, *till by his Repcn- Lift, 
tancc, he gives Satisfaftion to the Church /, ^ i cb'-.5.4,y, 
who then with Joy in themfelves, and ^liauTisT' 
Thankfgivings to God loofe him, and re- j ^v^um'.iz.i'ijl 
admit him to all Church-Priv Hedges, and pfd. ^6.'6, ' 
thus confirm their Love to him k. (lo. )M<if. j. 24. 
The holy Ends of this folemn Inftitutionki-Mfc»5.2o-js 
of Chrift are i)?, God's Glory /. zdly^ '^^^ url.'66''u' 
Churches Vindication, and Prefervation in ^of.'j. 19.' 
Its firft Purity and Order tn. sdly. The m iCor^s.y^fj, 
Sinner's Reformation , and Salvation ». n ibU. v. y. 
^thly. That Others may be deterr'd from^"^'"'' '^- '$>• 
the like Evils 0. (i i.) That thefe Ends may l^'"*;^!^^ 
be attain'd. Prayer mull be before it, i^sazi'iB-io, 
it, and after Up. (11.) We muft make p p/;//. 4. <$/ 
fach aftiam'd, by with-drawing from them, 1 Tim. 4. 4,5. 
in all fpecial Church -Communion, and^^/^J"'*^' ^i- 
civil Converfationalfo, fo far as may ^^\fim6.V^' 
without the Violation of any natural, or e/>/-*/:' 5.* i i. 
civil Bond ^. (13) Such may hear r. (14.) zTiw. ?, $. 
And if hopeful, he is ftill admonifh'd as a Lukt 9. s^. 
Brother/. (15.) An Admonition is infohn8.i6, 
Chrift's Name, with Love, Wifdom, and ^^''[;^^;4^f- 
Meeknefs, to warn, reprove of Sin, and ^ ^ 1^^] 14I 
exhort to Duty t. (16.) This Branch, or 14, 25. 
Part of Church-Difcipliae, Rule, and Go-s2nej,-y\s. 
vernment, that concerns Corredion, and ' ^"'' ^^•M* 
tleformation of Manners, difcovers fo much gj"^^'^* 
y/ifdom, Law,Tendsrnefs, Care, and Faith- zjiln. V'i^* 
fulnefs of Zioni King, in providing for 


Note, jf aU the IVided were Excommunieatai in 
fomr Churches^ tkrc muU k but afeva kjr^ i Tim. 

jl SefArate Congregational Protefiant Churches 

the Purity, Order, Comfort, Honour, ^cacc,' 
and Safety of his Churches, and free Peo- 
ple, and Subjefts therein, as the like 13 
not to be found in all the Government* 
in the World »• See Cha^» i, 7, 8, 15. 

«^^cM.3..(5. See Vfe 3. Exhortmon 4. 
oc o. 0. 

Deuu 4. 7. 

Ephef J. 10. CHAP. XV. 

C9I, Z, f, 10. 

TJ-fE Chfifiian^ Religious, and Hoty Dtt^^ 
ties praBifed in thofe Churches were ejPt 
joyned to the firfi Chriftian Churches'^ \ii:i 
( I.) The Duties of Officers TP. (^2.; Of the 
"^J^I f'^^* Members to their Officers at, and to each 
^Gai.lle,* other >. See them in the Latter Part o£ 
^e^. 13.7,17.311 the Royal Letters, or Epiftles to the 
y iTfce/.j.M- Churches *, there ye may fead of the Pro- 
14- ^*" '9^'7» hibitive, and Preceptive Royal Laws, Ca- 
i^ J, ^Qj^5^ Cor Rules 3 Statutes and Conflitu- 
%u^'lo! ^ions of the Chriftian, and Gofpel Polity 
ifeb,io.i4,zsof the Apoltolical, and Primitive Churches, 
2 aBs 12. J. See Chap^ i, 8, 10, 16, ip, & 20. 
EpheJ. 6. 18. . ^ 

J^. 8. 17, 
^«^» r6. 23. /^ T-T A P WT 

i^rfwj. 14. 1^ ti A r. -a. VI. 

fude zo. 

TH E ChHftian^ Religiom^ and Holy War- 
Jhip^ and Standing Ordinances in thefe 
Churches, were in the fiffi Chrijiian Churches | 


Mat,i6. 50. ('•) Thofe of general Communion, I. Prayer 
j^rv. 15. 5. without a Book, or Beads z,. II. Singing 
bzHw. 2.1J. Pfalms without Oi:g3ns rf. III. Preaching 
& 4; 2. without Reading of Humane Liturgies b. 
tiie^T^z."^*^^' Contribution without Fines in Spiri- 
Cxi. 6. 6, ro, tual Courts r. 
iFet.^,io,\u (2.) 7hofe 

f roved to he the Old ChriflUn Churchesl J j 
( 2') ThojjB of [fecial Church-Commufjion ; 
and fince the Apoftles ceafed, are limited 
to the Vifible and Inftituted Church-State 
of a particular Congregatioa of the Faith- 
ful 9 'Viz* The Seals and Keys; See Exod: 
12. 48. Rbm.9.^. & i£* 17. I Cor. 5. 

4. 12. Rev, II. 3. & 20. 4. 

^ I. Baptifm without the Human Inven- 
tions and Additions, i. Of a Liturgy. 2: 
Crofs in the Fore-head. And, 3. Holy , * „ , 
Veftments, e^. ^. ^ j^frllht 

II. The Lor£s Supper-, without the Hu-withi^v. 1/. 

man Devices and Additions, i. Of a Li- i<5, 17. 

turgy. 1. Holy Altar. 3. Holy Garments. iCVo«.i$.n. 

4. Carrying it to the Sick. 5. Proftituting®'^^*'* 4*' 

or -Giving it as a Teft to qualify Men forfcor.'/r, ^6* 

Worldly Offices. 6. Or forcing Men tOwithE^ei.zz* 

it, by Outward Penalties e. Note, God's 8, z6. 

Word, Worfhip, and Work is perfed. C(?/.& 4^ 8. 

2. 5,10. iTim. 3. 17. P/ii//w 19. 7. 2>fW.^44-9« 
^' p / J ;" / Mit. 7.5. 

III. 7l?r /upy of Knowledge and JboHrine, io/l-i7. 

i. c. The Power of Paltoral Preaching, for ^ohn rP.V. 
he is their Pallor only that chobfe him *, he ^ Cor» 10. 4. 
is the Relate, and they his Correlate/. See ^"j^"-^ 4* 27 
A<fat, 15. 19. X«;^e II. 52. with j^aslS. H-oi/^Vp^V; 
& 28. 26. I The/. /. iX 

IV. The Key of Church Rule and Govern- i^v. z. ,. 
rnent is ufed by the Elders in the King's ^^^ H- i?. 
Name, and according to his Royal Rules ^'"^' ^' *• 
only, and with the Prefence, Concurrence, 

and Confent of the Brethren g. i. With- ^^f£/;^/* 
out Bribes. 2. Superiority. 3* Paying of ^cor. 12 -19, 
Money to Court-Keepers. 4. Tells, Terms See cha^, 8. ' 
£ and 

Note, The ApoftUs did. not adminifler the Worf^Jp, 
Seals i and TolUy of the Gofpel^ te if if mro done in 
the Jfofla^/, ir*', iy. i^. 

f4 Separate Congregatlond Proteftant Churches 
^ohn jS.^d, ^n(j Conditions of Communion , which 
'^^^' ^' *^' Chrift, xior his Apoftles, never required, 
& it. 8" 10. neither to let Men into the Church below. 
Col. 3. 17. * nor Heaven above h. 

Aht. 28^20, 

m^U}- CHAP. XVII. 

k 1 Cor, 10. 1 2, 

P/^//. I. loi i'jj ^ // £ Chrijlian% Keligiom^ and Holy 
^^s 2,4. 15. j[^ Commttnion in thefe Churches one with 
C^!'^i^8~^' ^"^^^^^^ ^-^ ^^ ^^^ fi^fi Chrifiian Churches, 
Ephcf. 6.- 18, ^'' ^^ '^ according to their DoEirine, Note I . 
Ki ABs /j, 2- The Pradical Part of Communion of 
io^Prov. II. Churches confifts, and is exercifed in the 
nt/l^ .s '^' ^"^i^^ °^ °"^ Church to another j i/Z^l. 
2cJr.^! i.!r ^' ^^ ^ Concurrence of Principles of Faith 
j{om'i6. iVz*. ^^^ Order /. 2. In Walking \ fo as to give 
See c%. 8. ' them no Offence h 3. By way of mutual 
oiWit.i8.ij-i7 Love, Care, and Prayer, for each others 
^^.^•-^•^^»M' Peace and Profperity. 4. By way of Con- 
J?ev,i8.*y' fuitation w. 5. By way of Recommenda* 
l>Ahs 1*1^ zp, tion» and DirmiiTion n. 6. By way of Ad- 
&24. 17, * monition, and if impenitent, to have no 
J Cor, 1(5. ij2. Communion with the guilty in it 0. 7. By 
sar.S.i-ij^^gy q£ Contribution, of Supplies of each 
& ?*i! s/* others Wants according to Ability p. 8. By 
rJb/7. r.^',15, way of Congregating, and AlTembling to- 
qGjj,z.p. gether, in Holy Convocations, Councils, 
Frov, ir. 14. Synods, i.e. MefTcngers, Meetings, or Oc- 
rZech,/^.y. cafional Meetings of Elders, and Brethren, 
Vibii^z. 2.^' ^^ Countenancing, by giving the Right 
Col. 2.$'. ' Hand of Fellowfhip^. Thus where they 
A9s9.3i. can be had, they ought to be prefent to 
Cot. 4. 17. cry Grace, Grace r, and as WitneiTes s. 

Lfplo^ili" ^' ^^^°" ^ Church in its firll Gathering, 
^^^J^'ifg^*'^' Embodying, and Setting down f. 11. Un- 
I Thef.\.'6. to Elders at their Ordination «. III. AI- 
& ^. 14. fo they are cenfured, y^ith th€ like grave, 
«^2fi4-2?. and 

f roved to he the Old Chrijlian Churches. J f 

and folecnn WitnelTes ir. IV. And when «^^f»*- ^' ^.^ 
one Church is propagated, and Jn^^tiply'd J,^^^**^^^-^*^' 
out of another : When a Church is too ' * °'* 
numerous to meet in one Congregation, a 
Part brake off by Confent, and become 
a Church by themfelves Cas we put fwarra- 
ing Bees into new and diflinft Hives ] and 
procure Ibme Officers to them, . as may 
enter with them, into a Church-State a- 
mongfl themfelves x, Note^ Thus Chrift's x Ca.nt, 4. ir. 
Political Kingdom is propagated, and en- /T'^- 2. 2, ^ 
larg'd y. (2.) The fraternal, and officials^ 49.20, 21, 
Power of the Keys, and this Communion y^/^;/^!.",^* 
of Churches is a fufficient Means, and Re- cant. 4. rV * 
iHedy againll . all thofe Inconvehiencies, 7/^. 2. 3. 
which fome think cannot be redrefs'd, & 54,. i>2, . 
without Epifcopal, or Claflical Hierarchy, . 
or Jurifdidion 1| over particular Congre- n i. e. Pow^-r 
gations, in their Qrdinations and Cenfures ^. '^^^ Juthomj. 
bee Cal. i. 8, 9. 2 coi. 2.5,10. 

' 2 Cor, ir. i^; 

& 12. 13, 


THE Chriftian Duties to the Civil Mi- 
giJiratCy that thefe ' Churches fra^ice^ 
were enjoyned to the firft Chri^ian Churches^ 
viz.. I. To pray, and give Thanks unto God 
for them a. II. To honour them b. HI. To a iT/ra.2.1,2, 
obey an their juft Lawsc.^ IV. To pay them t> i Veu 2.17. 
all the Rights, Prerogatives, Tribute, and ^''^^^* ^ ^"^ 
Taxes that are due unto them^. Note 1 ■ , ^J*.';'.^*,' j";* 
Chrift's beft Servant^ are the Magillrates ci?aw.(5. 5,' 
beft Subjeds, the mofl; holy are the moft f ^)n.r?.4,5.' 
juft e. (2.) It is no Part, or Duty of their with iPa.2,i j 
Office, to cor?;mand Sin, herein it is noj(^-^°-'' 
Ordinance- of God/. (3.) It is no Duty of ^^*'' *'^' ^'■'* 
the Subjed to obey them, when they com- 
E2 rnwvX 

'^6 Separate Congregattond Proteftattt Churches 

g>i^f5.2p. inand Sins of Omifilon, or CommifTion ^,' 
SccVJez, (^,) See I^ev. 17. 3, 7, 13 fsO The Ma- 
%w*'i4^togi^r^tes Supremacy in Caufes Ecclefiafti- 
ch'^S' Epu], confilt in foar Tilings, 'y/z,. In givr 
toCb.8.Neh.z in^y I. Liberty. IL Protection. III. And 
jo.&3-^oc-»3- provifion to the Churches of God, in al} 
E:^ra 7. 2.6. ^jjgj^ Rights, and Afldirs h, for he muft 
&toi"^i''-8*^^^ that Church - Affairs, Matters, and 
i/<t.*49. 2^ 'Things be kept as his Royal Mafter left 
& 60. 17. thera h but he muft not add totjaem k^ 
y^efe. 45. 8,9. nor make new Ones /. IV. And in remov- 
i)^w.5u9,;;Oe jj^or all humane Inventions, Devices, and 
fpcVtt, Inibitutions in Worfiiip, MinifTry, Order, 
1 r/wt*. 2*1, 2. Polity, and Adminiftrations of the Word, 
j^w. 13. <. Seals^ and Cenfures out of the Churches or 
prov. 8, J 5. Qod^ See 2 Chmi. 14. and 29. and 33. and 
kl^v.2t.i9'^^^ 2 I<^mgs 9. and 10. and 18. 4. J^r. 6^ 

Gai.u%y' ^^' ^^^^ *5' ^^* -^Z^* f.*^^' and 30. 22. 

with,,. 15. CHAP. XIX. 

?^'w.i2.25-n < 

Vcor^iiV^' qr/^£ ChriflUr^ Religioufy and Haly Sepa^ 
Gal.'i. 8 ration^ that theje Churches praH-ice, wa^ 

Deut. 4. 2, * enjoyned to the fir ft Chriftian Churches \ Note 
& 32. 4«\^ iy^> To be Separate from, and Non-Con^ 
+ >i5i 2. 40. formifts to Evil, is no Schifm, for iX Our 
Fn'J\l' o Baptifmal Vow?. 2^/y, And Chriftian Creed 

1 Cor. 5. II. oblige us to It m. sdlyy It is agreeable to 
^pf'cf. 5, 1,.* our Prayers w. 4f%, To Scripture-Types <?. 

2 7Je/.3.6-i4. 5fW^, Prophefiesp. ^fW;*, Precepts ^. jthly^ 
f '^JJP* I' 1* Practices r. Note 2. There are twelve prin-? 
^Mat 6*^10 *!^*P^^ Tranfgrefiipns, or Faults in the Papaf^ 
HofJiViA. Beaftly, 

l^iAt i 2 O.J 3 2 

oNum.< 2.' *^ ^^^ twofold Perfecuttng Poroer of Anthhrid if 
Exod 12 I? fetjorthbj two Beajis, ift. Its Secular Tower ^ Rev. 
V^er sc S '^* '• *^'y' E<":H^^fti<:<^^ Power, Rev. rg. 11. And 
*7i V ' ' f^^ '*• 7' & '4* >'• & »5- i. & x(5. 2. «t 17. 3, 7, 
m./r8.'4, &»9-i9,?-o. &20.4, 10. 
gc 14. i--'.i2,y/itU ih 3« ^ iiaf*i.49« r^^» !?♦ P» ^«v. 14. l-u. 

proved to be the Old ChriJlUn Churches. -^j 

Beaftly, and Antichriftian ,Cor oppolite 
Kingdom, or Government headed by Sa- 
tan 3 Church -State ta the great Dilhonour 
ofChrifti I ft, In hif Jttributes of Wifdomy 
&c. idly, Word. 3dly, IVorJhip. 4thly, Go^ 
vernment. $thly. And Offices, whjch are the 
Grounds, Reafpns, and Caufes of the Pro-- 
ufiants, and Reforfpijls Separation from it. 
ifiy They do nqt like their Church, fub- 
ordinate Heads, and Law, or Ceremony- 
Makers s. 2£//y, They do not like their sJ^^v.p.i-n. 
Charch-Mattcr r. 3^/y, They do not like ^'^- '3- 3'^' 
their Church-Form u. ^thly. They do not u ib. v. 14.-17, 
like their Church Extents. %thly,- They w/(fv. 13. 3. 
do not like their Church-Dependencies a;. & i?* J- 
The Parilhes in the, or P./;^/ Em- y^'^* J- ?• 
pire, are no inftituted Churches of Chrift, ' *'* * 
for both People, and Priefts ftand in a 
fworn, or fervije Bondage, and Captivity 
to fqpdriour Prelates, and humane Inven* 
tions in their Worftiip, Miaifcry, Order, 
Polity, and Adminiftration of Prayer, the 
Seals, and Cenfures^. 6thly, They do notyi^»t.($. t5. 
like their Church -Dodrine, John 10, 5. isv. 18. 3. 
^rov^ ip. 27. ithly. They do not like their ^^' '• '-• * 
Church Ceremonial Worlhip, Rev. 13. iS.^Tj^ ^6^-14* 
^thiy^ They do not like Church Cand un-^Jj/^ j.^j"' * 
iafiicuted j Miniftry, or Officers, Some of Mat. z-^^^. 
which have the Two Horns of Secular -^ and 1 Cor. 7. i-^, 
C.urch'Povper Ij hut a true Bijhop^ or Cof-^o^- '^°' ^y- 
tel'Minifler, mufi give himfelj wholly to ^^^^nji^"'*' 
fpiritual Work a. In thjs Church are five , xm. 4.1 5-. 
Sorts, and Degrees of Minifters, viz.. iji,2ibid. 2.* 4.' 
parochial Rectors, Vicars^ Curates, &c. E^eh. 44. & 
zdly^ Collegiate, or Cathedral Arch-Dea- ^«^;^2. 14. 
cons, Deans, Prebends, Organifcs, Prayer- "^-•^»^7' 
Readers, &c. ^dly^ Diocefan Lord-Bi/hops. 
0^thly^ Provincial Lord Lord, Arch-Bilhops. 

3 8^ Se far ate CongregationAl Frotejlmt Churches 

$tUy^ And a Cathdlick, or Univerfal Lord 
Arch-Bifhop, &c* 
b Jo&.to.^,io. Note^ Here is a New and Strange b 
Ze<.-/'.ii.i5,i7. Miniftry, of whofe Name, Callings, Or- 
^ev.9. i"ii.(jiiiation , Offices , Entrance into them, 
& 18 1V--17. ^^^ Adminiftration therein, we read not 
& 19.* 20. ^ ^ Word of in Chrift's Teftament , and 
& 20.' 10. firft Chai!H;hes therein recorded 5 there- 
2Tky.2.3-8.fore, they fhould hare no Name, or Me- 
c E^rn 2. 6z. morial in the Churches of Chrift c. 9thly, 
^Xm'ii'zo '^^^y ^° ^°^ l^J^^^ ^^}^^^ Church Hierarchy, 
_gljt. 13. 9.* Of Polity <^. lothiy-. They do not like 
d i(ev. 9. 2. their Church-Mafs-Bodk, Rule, or Liturgy, 
&i3,2 -i/'for by it, anew, lirange? and uniaftituted, 
Worfhip, Holy-Days , Miniftry, Polity, 
and Adminiftration is kept up, in that 
which they call the Chriftian and Apofto- 
e ii/i. V. i8. lical Church f. 1 1 thly. They do not like 
zTbef. 2.4, their Church Impolltions, unheard of in the 
f^fv. 15. i7.fTrft Churches f. iithly^ and Laftly, They 
gzT/w.^.^.do not like their Church Lives^. Note i. 
h2Tk/".2. 3- Communion with her is damnable h. zdly* 
i2,^v. 14.9, -pj^g Proteftant Separation, and Reformat 
&*^.*ia°* tion is prediaed/. zdly. Here they pre- 
5;?ev.* 15*. 2. f'Ef Mens Inventions before God's pure, 
& 14.1-12. and unmixed Inftitutlon ^ yea, they rejed 
& 18. 4-6. this, and adore a Worfhip, Miniflry, Po- 
& 20. 4. Y\vj^ and Adminiftration, mix'd with Hu- 
*^A^^'* ^?* ^man Additions^. ^thly. This Hellifh 
\ibiL 11^7- Beaft, / will certainly be deftroyed m, 
m]biL\\\'o.'yf^h' '^ill any but thofe giv'n up to be- 
fit 164*1, ^c lieve Lies, believe the" Romijh Church •» 
& 17- 17- State, to be the Chriftian, and Gofpel 
& 18. 1--24. Church-State iaftituted by Zion\ King w, 

Jja. 29. 10. 

CaU I. 8,9. — ■ ■■ 

Note, Hsre they do noty nor dare not preachy mr prxe- 
tice the true Chnftun Faith, l{epenti»ce, JVorJhip^ AJi« 
niflry, Order^ and Polity ^ Rev, 13. I7« 

f roved to be the Old Chrijtian Churches^ J9 

Wij^f Earthly King would bear his SubjeBs^ 
^ithmt ins Order , to appoint New Officers^ 
tctws^ Penalties, &c ? 6thiy. Here the People 
and Priefts Communion in Ordinances, is 
a meer Ufurpation, and as abominable to 
God, as that in the Typical Apoftacy ia 
Jprael o. 'jthly. The Magiflrates that; fup- o i jQw^j is. 
port it, perfecute a Scripture Worlhip, 26— 55. 
Miniftry, Polity, and Adminiftration of2Cfc''o«.iT.ij. 
our Holy, and Chriftian Religion f. 8f^/> g'y \\^'gf J,^ 
Here they keep the Apoftle's Days, butj^i^'gc'^. ij[ 
have not C yea, hate 2 their Dodrine, Amoi j.s-*22. 
Worlhip, Miniftry, Polity, Adminiftra- ^«v.9.i,ii,io. 
tion, and Lives ^. 9thly. Here a Superior^ ^^ ^"*^- 
Clergy make Prayer-Books, for an Infe- p /J^/^^^ 
rior Clergy to read to God, and to keep 7^15^*1^*, 
Faft and Thankfgiving-Days withal r, but& 13. 14--17. 
the Apoftles did not do thus. \othly.<\ib.iT.i-6. 
The Number or Inventions of the ^^n '^ ^ c^row. 20. 
of Sin, or Bifliop, aad Bilhops of Rome^ ^^J^^ 4.5*.\o 
are a confiderable Number and Sum, i. '• iTi»».2.r,i. 
Six Hundred, Sixty aad Six i. See Mr. si?ev. 13.18, 
Fox'^ A^s and Monum. p. 118. 


CHAP. XX. ' 

Ere followcth the General Applica- 

VSE \^ Of Information. 

Then it is a great Immorality, and Wic- 
kednefs, to forfake Church - Aflemblies, 
wherein is God's inftituted Worfhip, Mi- 
niftry, Polity, and Adminiftration without 
%he Babel of humane Mixtures-, for it 1%, 


40 Separate Congregatlonai Protejlant Churches 
tffeb. 4. 14. contrary to many Precepts, Laws, and 
g'°-/j3, 25. Rules of jj,e Qofpgj Polity t; and God 

i(um.' ^P^^^ °^ ^^» 3S both heinous «, and dan- 
iCor.i4.u,2(5,gcrous TP. iVoff, God is moft glorify'd, and 
32. <?^/. 5.1. our Souls moil edify'd, in keeping our 
with mm. 1. Place, and Duties in the Church, where 
iCorT\^3p^'^^^ Relation, and Membcrfhip is x^ 

i^ohniyi^, Vfe 11, Of Dehortati$n. 

^ude 19. 

w ifeb. 10. I. Not to marry with the vifible Wicked, 
Vcam. I 6 °^ Enemies of Chrift, and his Church- 
P/tf/:9*2. i?.* Ways J'. II. Not to go to Places where 
X Cor, 7. 24'. there are Errors in Dodrine, and human 
j^w. 14. rp. Idols, or Devices, Precepts, and Inftituti- 
y iCor. 7. 5p. ons in their Worfhip, Miniftry, Order, Po- 
^en.'^\ '4- lity, and Adminiftrations therein, of the 
a^iw.S.isizd. Word, Seals, and Cenfures 2:. III. Not to 
2C^ro». i8.,*.obey Men, but only when they command 
Gen. 26. 55. what God commands in his Word, Cwho 
& 27. 46. only hath an irrefiftible Authority || ] we 
Hon '4'^!^'^^'^ not obey Men, when they command 
2?ei'. 1*8^4^* Sins of Omiflion, or Commifllon a. li 
Ephef. 5*. ir. Pot God hath forbidden fuch Obedience h. 
Gew. 49,5. 2. God hath threaten'd, and punifli'd 
P/.1.1.&26.5. thofe that m'ade Laws requirino; fuch O- 
fSa ^l*'^*'^' bedience c* 3. God hath commanded, 
& jf 19,^ 2?.^ and rewarded Difobedience to them here- 
Ge».22.i-f2. ill ^' 4- God hath puniih'd Subjeds for 
3^m. 13. 5. yielding fuch Obedience e, 5. There are 
^'fj^'^'^^^-ij many Examples of Difobedience to them 
CoiT'iS-'^^' ^^^^^^ ^' ^' Obedience to fome fuperioiir 
iCor'.7.'z\t^^^^^^-f God hath threaten'd with no left 
c ifa, lo. 1.' than Eternal Damnation^. 7. Such is made 
d^e^;.. 18. 4. the Character of the worit of Men /?. 8* 
Exod 1,17,^1, QqJ complains of it i. 'Vfe 

e Hof. 5. ir. ^ - 

i I Slim. 14, "■" ' ' 

45. & 2.Z. 17. , }Qvgs 21. 5. 4 Chroft' TO, 16. with 11. 4. £5. 5 
i. Diin. 3. 17, & 6. z2. M«. I J. i" . iiftj 4. 19. fit s. *?♦ 

f roved to he the Old Chriftian Churches* 41!, 

V8E III. Of Exhort mon. 

Exhortation i. To the Godly every where 
to enter into this Saci-ed, and Heavenly 
Church-State, inftituted by Chrift^^ thiskzChro.;c,^ 
im%ht be argu'd^ arid urg'd, I. From the i P^t. z.^.-sJ 
Prdmifes to, and PriViledges in it /. IL irfaiSjA-.y, 
Precepts m. III. Examples n. IV. Threat- & 13^. i-j. 
nings 0. Note, If all Believers fhotild neffle&- j^i Mxt.ii.ig. 
this Dmy^ Chrift would hiwe no Churches onSz 28. 20. 
Earth -[. Exhortation 2. To call Perfons ^M 2, 12. 
out of Babylon f or Mixtures ] to Zion in n Luie r. 6. 
its firfl Glory p. -Exhortation 3. To L'ove^,:22. 15. 

and Union, and the belt, only, and ^^^^'cant^l'^A's 
tual Way, and Means to efFed it-, and to ' '' ' ' 
keep Tvpery^ and all Evils out of the Chur-^^^jJ ,' j-4« 
ches of the Son of God, and King of Kings, iMt? ijij^y* 
is to reduce all Church - Affairs to the ixoi. ^, aj." 
Royal Standard, and Rule of the Word,^"'"'^- p. i^ 
in their firft Inftitution and ? ^.^""^ ^^'^' 
Exhortation^. To Ihiin all thofe Things ^^f* ^*,f^' 
whereby a Church is in Danger, now, a&g.'^.* '^ 
Church is in Danger, I. By the Neglect ^ p;,/;. 2. 21. 
of a Scripture- Difcipline, by this Means,pd:^^ ,,j^ ^* 
Primitive Chriftianity in its Worfhip, Mi'Dan.^i't^, 
niftry, Polity, and Adminiltrations therc-PM ^^2, i. 
in, is utterly perverted, and lolt in the^f'^- ^^^l* 
greateft Part oi Chriflendom v. II. By Er-j!,'^' Js^* ' 
rors in Doftrine s. III. By Superftition in ' * 
Worfhip t. IV. By Perfecution in Polity «. |^<':«'^-«.»?. 
V. By Divifionn'. VI. By Vicioufnefs in^^."<5;^',7. 

F Life,^v.u.z.&i2, 

i. ^M. 12,16. 

r Deui, 23.1^. 
J Cor. $, 7,9. i?fv. 1. J. Ifa, 29. 1^. ^v. 13. 3. 5 A^s i$. 24. C £r». 
10. ;. Pfnl. (^9 8. u Gen. 12.3, i^v. 18. 24. w Mat, 12. 25. Fj^^ 
5 J. 9. Gd. V 1 5. Note, Holy things are only for holy Ferjons, $st 
Chip. J. jCcr» II. 29. tev. 7. io. zTim, ?, 5- iT*^/'. ^.i-i^. 

4^ Sepdntie CcngregAttond Vrotefiant Churches 
x;^owr.8j,8. Life, and Impenitency therein, or fifta- 
Heb.^i. 6. blifriias; Iniquity by a Law, Rev, 2. s- & 

ftR^-;^' 3.3. j*M94. 20! 

I Cft>-. 2. 14. 

1 p^r. 2. ?, ^. D 5 E IV. Of ExAminAtion, 

^mes 2. 18. 

ymat. 16. 17. ^ I. ^i3o a^g j^t for Church-Fellowfliip ? 

2 ^'^^; 5^.' /I' ■^*^' ^^^ ^^^'^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^ Nature j for 
^^ohn6.^i. they cannot pleafe God, nor worfhip hiia 
Gal. 2. 20, in Spirit, and Truth x. 

See jjembh A. 2. Such as are fit, are faid to be 
h\co?''f'^^ I. illuminated , and blefled Ones y. II. 
^i^.'-il] ^' Believers z.. Note, The Beings and ABi- 
cA^s II. 26. "^^y ^/ G'^ce^ is necejfary to the Lord^s Sup- 
Mat. i6. 24. fer a. III. Saints, or holy Ones b. IV. 
d X Cor. 6.1 1, chriftians, and Difciples c. V. Juftify'd ^.' 
eE^i^.j. I. yi^ Adopted e. VII. And Sanaify'd Ones/. 
Gal. ;. 2*6. ^- -^^ ^^y the Chriftian Religion ■-, or 
fiCor. i.k. this Chrifdan, and Religious Church-State 
&6. II. beforc'd? 

Tfai 9i>s. A. It is to be taught, but not for- 
J ^'^"^j Z^: /• ced ^ the Reafons are, I. Becaufe Faith 
\ i^m. 1*0.17. ^^^^^ ^y Hearing, and all Religious Ads 
p/fli. no. 3/ are voluntary^. II. The proper Seat of 
hz?eM. 30.19. Religion is the VJ'i\]j but the Will can- 
i^^er. 51. 5. jjQ^ ^g forc'd /;. III. In Propagating Re- 
£pk/!V,t'. ^'SJ^'"^? W€ muft imitate God in our Con- 
aLnj.45,48. verfton, who draws with loving Kind- 
le lufce 9.*5^. nefs /. IV. Chrift, and his Apoftles, u- 
Mar 16. 15. fed only the Word, in Propagating of 
vm' 6%^' Chriftianity k. V. Where Violence is u- 
Mat.'j.'ii. ^^^' ^^^^^ ^^'^ ^^ ^° Juftice /. VI. Nor 
m1C0r.15.1- Charity m. VII. Nor God, for be is in 
9. & 16. 14. the foft, and ftill Voice;?. VIII. No 
jii^M 19.12. Man c-an believe, except it be given' him 
l?ohn-^'li'^^^^ above 0. IX. It is the Way to 
Mphlp I'-'ip.' ^^^^ Hypocrites, and to promote Sin, 
j^bii. 2. 13. ^ aad 

proved to he the Old ChriflUn Churches, 45 

and Hypocrifie, which God hates />. X. P/A-io-i-<^» 
Violence herein hath tuni'd Bethel iiito^''^'^9,^i, 15. 
Beth-Averty and Zion into a Babel^ and ^, '\ ^' 
thus ruin'd Pure, and Primitive Chrifti- 
anity, in the greateft Part of the Chri- 
ftian World ^^ and filled Nations with q i^-j. 18. 24. 
Sins, Confufiohs, and Miferies \ it hath „ 
procured Wrath amongfc , and brought g.^' j^* °* 
> God's Wrath upon Men r, XI. Violence^ i,.*!..!^;' 
herein is contrary to, and condemn'd by & 16. 6. 
both Law, and Gofpel, our Chriftian ^ '7- 1— <^« 
Creed, Baptifmal Vows, and Prayers s.^Ephef.6.\-i$. 
XII. It is of the Devil f. XIII. And ^^^-^-y, 10. 
thus Antichrift, the Bifhop 0^ Rome [ who^^^^-'-^^- 
is Chrift's grand Enemy, and Satan's Vi- 
car on Earth 3 makes Proielytes u. Seei^''^'9- i-n. 

Rev. 15;. 14, — 20. Note^ Our holy Re-^^^- 7* 
ligion is to be propagated only by ^^- ^ll',zl\j, 
ly Dodlrines, and Pra(ftices, 2 Cor. 10. /{. ^ohn s. a^'. 
Rev* 12. 2, 5, See Micab 3, 

V SE V. Of ConfoUtion* 

ConfoUtion i. Great are the Promifes 
to, and Priviledges in this Royal Churcl- 
State, inftituted by its Royal Head ir. w P/. 87. 1-7, 
ConfoUtion 2. It ftiall never be quite & ^33* '"S* 
rooted out of the World ; but its Roy- 
al Worlhip, Miniftry, and Polity, fhall 
eontinue *till the King's fecond Coming, 
to raife the Dead, judge the World, 
and deliver up his difpenfatory Kingdon? 
to the Father, after which, God will be^Af^Md. 18' 
All in All, to all Eternity, in the Church- & iS. zo. 
Triumphant a:, Cwithout Militant-Church- fp^- 4-^f>'5- 
Ordinances 3. irm,6. 14. 

Confoliition 3. Liberty, Provifion, ^r^d^^' ,*^J] 
Protedtion by the Civil Magiltrace, are iCorl\u'7z. 

F 3 fome & 15, z4, 28. 

44 Separ^fe Congregationd Troteftant Churches 

fome of the ,Rights of the Churches of 
y,Seea<ip,r8. God;', and have been granted, by the 
zE^r^itoc-B. very Pag^M z.. For in all Parts of Re- 
^c?x28. 8.31. ligion^ and Church - Affairs, One is our 
jfa, 1^.3, 4. Law-Giver, even Chrifc a\ no Man hav- 

Z'aw. 5.30. . _. . '. 1 in,- .* - . 

£?r^ 7. 2(5. i^g Dominion , or Lord (hip over our 
aAJdt.i5.8,9. Chriftian, and Scripture-Faith, and Prac- 
7/<i. 2f. 13. tice, or any Right, to deprive us of our 
&33-^2. Chriftian, Cofdy, and given Liberty. Eof 
«r^!^' V ^o* Confcience, to worlhip God accordins to 
& 12. 19. & b^s Word, jt being a Part or tlpe Li- 
ij'. 8— 10. berty] wherewith Chrift hath made us 
icor. 7. zj. free, and entangle us again in the Yoak 
*^^i*^' ^' °^ Ceremonial Bondage b. Note, God did 
b iCor 7°'2J ^"^ remo've his own Holy - Days ^ and Cere" 
Gal. J*, r*. * fnOnieSy to make Room for humane Ones j and 
cl(om, 6, 14. ^/ Chrijlians are freed from the firfiy then 
& 7- 4. much more from the latter c. 

G4/.4.9, 10. ConfolaHf-n 4. Tell the foreign Ambafla- 
CoLz! 20. <^ors, that the Lord hath founded Zlon d, 
djfd.\^,\2. Confolation 5. They fliall profper, that 
epy^/.i22.6,9 ^ove Z?o» e. 

HhiL 87. 2. Confolation 6. God loveth her' Gates /, 
Iu8'^°*^* and blcfleth Perfons in, and out of Z/<;» g, 
& .3///,.., which is the Perfeftion of Beauty h^ and 
h;W.'fc. i." Joy of the whole Earth /. 

li^iJ. 48.2.' 

^^Jbid. 129.5. i; 5" £ VI. 0/ Tenor. 

& ijij.VJy. Terror i. They Ihall be confounded, that 
iW. V. 10. * hate Zion k. 

& 14. & 15. Terror 2, To the beaftly Church of ^o^^r, 
& ij. &17. for God will fuddenly, and irrecoverably 
?o&?'^* dellroy her, by the Golden Vials of his 
^nef. z.'ot ^rath / y the Confequences of which will 
' ^ ' be various, viz.. \. Great Sorrow to her 
impenitent, and bigotted Clergy, and Ma* 
m /i.i8.p-.j7, giiirates m* Note, The JSeafi^ and Falfe Prok 


f roved to be the Old Chrifiian Churches. 45 

fhet-, that war with tl^e Lamh, ard that he 

rvlll overcorne^ and eternally deproy^ u the 

Perfins in the Civil, and Ecclefiajlical Power 

of Antichrijl, Rev. 19. 14, — 20. and 20. n i(«v. 1$. 2. 

10. II. Great Joy in the then Apoftoli-& 18. 20. 

cal, Chriftian Churches n. III. The Con- |^^°- 4__ 
verfion, and Confederation of the Jews to^ J'j^'"' ' 
Chrifl, in his Golpel, Vifible Church- & 21. 3. 

verfion, and Confederation of the Jews to ^ ^-^'j^'"'^ 
Chrifl, in his Gofpel, Vidble Church- & 21. 3. 
State 0. IV. Great Alklujahs amongfl: p£^.43-i'-n, 
Jews^ and Gentiles, in this Chriftian, ■ and ^^'^^ 7-i4>27- 
Heavenly Church -State , and Spiritual g"^/'^;'-^^** 
Kingdom Cor Government] of the Son g^ 20! 4! 
of D.ivid^ and King of Kings f. iVofe, & 21. 1-16. 
This is the latter-Day-Glory /?. Even fo & 3- 7- 
come Lord Jefus, come quickly q. And f ''* ^* ^ 
let all the People fay Amen r. |'^J^'; ^^'^^^ 

& ?7. 25. 
Hof. 3. 5» 
Mat. 21. 9. 

. Lille 1. ?2. 

q %y.i2.2i. 


E J^K^A TV M, 

IN Page "40. L. 52, ??» and 34.. The Scripture 
Notes referring to the Letters, g, h, /, are in- 
advertently omitted, which the Reader is defir'd to 
take Notice of; they are as follow, g, I{ev. 14. 9, ir. 
h I Sam. 22. iS. I I^j^gs 21. ii. 2 ihidf 16. ic— -17. 
jW<zr. 28, 13, 1$. Hev. i?.3, 8. \ Jfa. 29. 15. f^^jk. 
43.8, Matyl'). 2 — ^, Co/. 2. 20 -— 23» 

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