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Full text of "Violations of State Department regulations and pro-Castro propaganda activities in the United States. Hearings"

ii 





■'l^'MX . ' :V; 






HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



U.^ 'Poo fl 

VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS 
AND PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES " 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

PART 1 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



MAY 6, 7, AND 23, 1963 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 



HA.nVARD COLLEGE L!3:iARY 

DEPOSrrtD f3Y THE 
Ur^JiTED STATES GOVERNMENT 

5tP 16 1963 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
9«765 WASHINGTON : 1963 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 
JOE R. POOL, Texas HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 
JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., General Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 

II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 223 

May 6, 1963 : Testimouy of— 

Fred Jerome 239 

Elizabeth Sutlierland 258 

Afternoon session 

Elizabeth Sutherland (resumed) 275 

Conrad Joseph Lynn 304 

May 7, 1963 : Testimony of— 

Leo Huberman 321 

Afternoon session 

Edward Walter Shaw 331 

May 23, 1963 : Testimony of— 

Vincent Theodore Lee 341 

Anatol Isaac Schlosser 358 

Afternoon session 

Anatol Isaac Schlosser (resumed) 369 

Stefan Martinet 373 

Appendix 411 

Index i 

III 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under wliich the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides : 

Be it enacted ty the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Conf/ress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

( q ) ( 1 ) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

( A ) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of uu-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attaclvs 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(ill) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any neces- 
sary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deem advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVEKSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 8STH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 9, 1963 
***** * 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

******* 

(r) Coumiittee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffvTsion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

V 



SYNOPSIS 

On May 6, 7, and 23, 1003, a subcommittee of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities held public hearings in Washington, D.C., on the 
subjects of travel to Cuba by U.S. citizens in violation of State Depart- 
ment regulations and the dissemination of pro-Castro propaganda 
within the United States by persons who had recently traveled to Cuba 
with or without passports validated for such travel by the Department 
of State. 

The legislative purposes of the hearings were to determine the need 

(1) for tightening laws regulating foreign travel of U.S. citizens, and 

(2) for broadening the definition of persons required to register with 
the Attorney General under the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 
1938. 

The subcommittee was composed of Representatives Edwin E. 
Willis (chairman), William M. Tuck, and August E. Johansen. Also 
in attendance at the hearings at various times v,ere Representatives Joe 
R. Pool, Donald C. Bruce, Henry C. Schadeberg, and John M. Ash- 
brook. 

The first witness before the subcommittee on ]\Iay 6 was Fred 
Jerome, 24, an unemployed writer of New York City and the son of 
V. J. Jerome, a long-time Communist Party official. Fred Jerome tes- 
tified that he had made trips to Cuba in February, October, and De- 
cember of 1060. He was in Cuba when the United States severed dip- 
lomatic relations with that country on January 3, 1061, and, according 
to his testimony, remained in Cuba until approximately April 11, 
1961. 

Mr. Jerome said he had not been aware that after January 16, 1961, 
the State Department required a passport or entrance ]iermit for per- 
sons returning to the United States from Cuba. He testified that after 
the severance of diplomatic relations, he did not register with the Swiss 
Embassy, which has served U.S. interests in Cuba since diplomatic 
relations were severed between the two countries. Neither, he said, 
did he make application at the Swiss Embassy in Havana for a pass- 
port or entrance permit before returning to the United States in April 
1961. 

With regard to his most recent trip to Cuba in December I960, Mr. 
Jerome testified that he had not made the journey on the advice or at 
the request of any Communist functionary. He told the subcommittee 
he had paid his own fare and made his own travel arrangements for 
the trip. 

Mr. Jerome refused, however, on various grounds, including the 
fifth amendment, to say whether he was on the payroll of the Com- 
munist Party at the time he went to Cuba in December 1960 and 
whether he had received any information, matter, or thing in Cuba 
which he was requested to impart or deliver in the U.S. to persons 
known to him to be members of the Communist Party. 

223 



224 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The witness denied that he had visited Cuba for the j^urpose of 
acquiring information or material with whicli to serve more effec- 
tively in the United States as a propagandist for the Conmiunist 
regime of Fidel Castro. He declined, however, to state the reason why- 
he had visited Cuba. 

In response to a question by the subcommittee's counsel, Mr. Jerome 
said he had not registered, or made application for registration, with 
the Attorney General under the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 
1938. 

The witness refused, on his previously stated grounds, to say 
whether at the age of 14 he had been a member of the Labor Youth 
League, which, on February 15, 1955, the Subversive Activities Control 
Board had found to be a Communist-front organization. He also 
refused to acknowledge that, for a period of time prior to 1958, he had 
contributed articles on youth activities to the Communist Daily Work- 
er newspaper and declined to say if he had been under the disci- 
pline of the Communist Party at the time. 

On his previously stated grounds, Mr. Jerome declined to say 
whether he had attended the Communist-controlled Fifth World 
Youth Festival at Warsaw, Poland, July 31 to August 14, 1955. He 
admitted he had been issued a U.S. passport on June 13, 1955, and that 
on the application for the passport he had listed only England and 
France as countries he intended to visit and had stated his travel was 
for sightseeing purposes. He acknowledged that the passport he 
received contained a prohibition against travel to Communist Poland. 
He denied that the principal purpose for which he had applied for 
the passport was to attend the Fifth World Youth Festival. He in- 
voked the fifth amendment and other reasons, however, in declining 
to sa}^ whether he had used an alias at that Youth Festival. 

Mr. Jerome declined to affirm or deny committee information that 
in 1957, under the alias of "Walter Hirsch," he had served as the 
East Coast recruiting agent for the U.S. Youth Festival Committee 
for the Sixth World Youth Festival held in Moscow from July 28 to 
August 11, 1957. He also refused, on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment and for other reasons, to admit that in 1957, in the capacity of 
recruiter for the U.S. Youth Festival Committee, he had applied for a 
post office box imcler the name of "Walter Hirsch" and that the names 
of Fred Jerome and Jacob Rosen had been listed on the application for 
the box as references for "Walter Hirsch." 

The witness declined to answer when asked if he knew Jacob Rosen ; 
if he had attended City College of New York with Rosen; if he knew 
Jacob Rosen to be a Communist Party member ; if he knew Rosen had 
been so identified before this committee on February 3, 1960; and if 
he knew Rosen had invoked the fifth amendment when asked by the 
committee on the same day whether he belonged to the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Jerome admitted that on January 23, 1957, he again had ap- 
plied for a U.S. passport, but he refused to say if he had done so for 
the purpose of attending the Sixth World Youth Festival in Moscow. 
He admitted that the application in question was denied by the State 
Department. 

He also refused, on his previously stated grounds, to say 
whether at the time of his testimony on May 6, 1963, he was a member 
of the Communist Party. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 225 

The second witness on May 6 was Elizabeth Sutherhind Martinez, 
a senior editor for the Simon and Schuster publishing house in New 
York City, who used the name "Elizabeth Sutherland" for profes- 
sional purposes. She is a native of Washington, D.C., and a 1946 
graduate of Swarthmore College. 

Miss Sutherland testified that in the spring or summer of 1961 she 
applied for a U.S. passport under the name of Elizabeth Sutherland 
Martinez, the name appearing on her birth certificate. She ob- 
tained a passport validated for one round trip to Cuba to begin Aug- 
ust 10, 1961, and to end not later than September 10, 1961. She actu- 
ally departed by air from Miami to Cuba about the middle of AugTist 
1961, she told the subcommittee. 

Miss Sutherland testified that the purpose of the trip, as she had 
informed the State Department, was to obtain material to write an 
article on new Cuban films for the magazine Film Quarterly^ spon- 
sored by the University of California. 

While in Cuba, Miss Sutherland said, she visited as an unofficial 
observer "probably each of the clays" the Cuban Writers and Artists 
Congress, held in Havana, August 18-23, 1961. She said she saw less 
than half a dozen other Americans in attendance at the Congress. 
She "declined," without citing any legal reason for doing so, to iden- 
tify the "few" Americans she said she had seen at the Congress. 

The witness was asked if while in Cuba she had seen a number of 
Americans whose names she was given by the subcommittee's counsel. 
She denied having seen some of them and clahned not to have known 
others. The only American she admitted having seen in Cuba was 
Leroy McLucas, a free-lance photographer who, according to the 
witness, "was there legally." 

Miss Sutherland admitted that part of the expenses of her stay in 
Cuba had been absorbed by the Cuban Government. She said that 
when she attempted to pay for the meals and lodging she had re- 
ceived at the Havana Libre Hotel, she was informed there would be 
no charge for them. 

She denied having had prior knowledge that her meals and lodging 
would be free at the Havana Libre. She further denied her priv- 
ileged treatment had led to an understanding that upon her return 
to the LTnited States she would disseminate propaganda favorable to 
the Castro regime. 

Miss Sutherland testified she had not registered with the Attorney 
General as a foreign agent as defined by the Foreign Agents Registra- 
tion Act of 1938 because, she said, she was neither a foreign agent nor 
a lobbyist. Although uncertain of the exact date, she nevertheless 
acknowledged that sometime during the winter of 1961 she had de- 
livered a report on "Cuba's Congress of Writers & Artists" at Adelphi 
Hall in New York City at a meeting and panel discussion sponsored 
by the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. The meeting was held, ac- 
cording to announcements, on December 4, 1961, nearly 3 months after 
her return to the United States. The event was advertised by the 
FPCC in the Communist Worker of November 28, 1961, and the pro- 
Communist National Guardian of December 4, 1961. 

The witness admitted having spoken on the above occasion at the 
request of the chairman of the FPCC. She testified she had been a 
member of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee in 1961 and 1962 and 
severed relations with it only because she had neglected to pay her 



226 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

dues. Miss Sutherland acknowledged having made other speeches 
fortheFPCC. 

The subcommittee questioned Miss Sutherland at length about her 
association with photographer Leroy McLucas, the one American she 
admitted by name as having seen in Cuba during her visit there. 

Miss Sutherland told the subcommittee that she had first met Mr. 
McLucas socially in about the middle of 1960. She later saw some 
of his photographs and was favorably impressed by them. 

The witness said it had been her idea for Mr. McLucas to go to 
Cuba and make photographs for a pictorial book Miss Sutherland 
had in mind for possible publication. INIr. McLucas did not have a 
formal contract with Simon and Schuster for the photography proj- 
ect in Cuba, she testified; it had been an informal arrangement be- 
tween Mr. McLucas and her, under which he was to pay his own 
expenses for the trip. 

The subcommittee's counsel introduced evidence that on July 13, 
1961, Mr. McLucas both filed for and received a U.S. passport from 
the New York Passport Office of the State Department. On his 
application for this passport, Mr. McLucas indicated that England 
was the only country he intended to visit and that he expected to de- 
part from New York on his trip about July 20, 1961. 

Miss Sutherland told the subcommittee she could not recall the 
precise date on which she learned that Mr. McLucas had received 
a passport. She denied, however, having known that he both ap- 
plied for and received it on the same date and that he had stated on 
his application that England was his only destination. 

Nevertheless, Miss Sutherland admitted that on July 14, 1961, on 
Simon and Schuster stationery, she had written a letter "To "Whom 
It May Concern," in which she stated that Mr. McLucas had been 
given a photographic assignment in Cuba. 

Further evidence introduced by the subcommittee showed that on 
the same date, July 14, 1961, Mr. McLucas enclosed the "To A^Hiom 
It May Concern" letter written by Miss Sutherland with one he 
forwarded to tlie New York Passport Office of the State Department, 
in which he aslved that his passport be validated for travel to Cuba 
on July 21, 1961. INIiss Sutherland said she recalled that on July 21, 
1961, the New York Passport Office rejected Mr. McLucas' request 
for permission to travel to Cuba, but on July 24, 1961, the State De- 
partment in Washington reversed its New York office and validated 
Mr. McLucas' passport for visitation to Cuba until December 31, 
1961. Miss Sutherland testified it liad been her "To Whom It May 
Concern" letter that had been responsible for the validation of Mr. 
McLucas' passport for travel to Cuba. 

Information obtained by the committee indicated that although 
Mr. McLucas had initially asked permission to travel to Cuba on 
July 21, 1961, he did not actually arrive there until September 3, 
1961. Miss Sutherland said she could provide no reason why Mr. 
McLucas had delayed his trip. 

The photographer remained in Cuba beyond the December 31, 1961, 
expiration date of his State Department-approved visit. On January 
4, 1962, he sent a letter from the Hotel Presidente in Havana to the 
State Department in Washington, requesting an extension of his stay 
in Cuba for 3 or 4 months to complete his photographic activities. 

The committee learned further that approximately 1 month later, 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 227 

on February 5, 1062, Mr. McLucas formally applied for a validation 
extension tlirongli the Swiss Embassy in Cuba, which was handling 
U.S. affairs there. The Swiss official who received Mr. McLucas' 
application was concerned about the American's strong political con- 
victions, which were not only favorable to the Castro Cuban Govern- 
ment but against the United States, his own country. 

The Swiss official was so disturbed by Mr. INIcLucas' unusual atti- 
tude that, instead of issuing a new passport, as he could have, he 
forwarded the application with a precautionary note about the ap- 
plicant's views to the U.S. Department of State for final decision. 
Despite the Swiss Embassy's warning, the State Department approved 
Mr. McLucas' application for a new passport and so notified the Swiss 
Embassy in Cuba on February 23, 1062. On March 30, 1062, how- 
ever, the Swiss Embassy informed Washington that McLucas had 
rejected the passport and no longer planned to return to the United 
States. 

Nevertheless, Mr. IMcLucas did eventually return to the United 
States and, according to IMiss Sutherland, about a year after he had 
gone to Cuba, brought photographs he had taken in Cuba to her 
New York office. 

Miss Sutherland testified that in the fall or early winter of 1062 
she had attended a public showing by Mr. McLucas of a movie film 
he had made in Cuba. The event took place in a building in New 
York City, Miss Sutherland said, but she could not recall its ad- 
dress. She also acknowledged having seen Mr. McLucas about 2 
months prior to the date of her testimony before the subcommittee. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities was unable to locate 
Mr. IMcLucas to subpena him for the May 6 and 7 hearings. 

The witness was questioned about her associations with the now 
defunct Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, which had been the subject 
of hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activities in November 
1062 and which the subcommittee's counsel said the record showed to 
be Communist-controlled. 

Miss Sutherland acknowledged that in an appeal for fmids adver- 
tised in the Neio York Times of November 13, 1062, by the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee, her name had been identified as the person 
to whom checks should be made payable. She stated she had not 
received the checks herself, because they had been sent to the office 
address of the MACC, where she went to endorse them. 

She denied having participated in the formation of the MACC, 
but testified that she had known Melitta del Villar, the founder, since 
the summer of 1062. Miss Sutherland acknowledged having been 
acquainted with Sidney J. Gluck and Dr. Louis Miller, MACC leaders 
with histories of Communist activities, but denied having had a close 
working relationship with them in that organization. She also denied 
having known about the Communist records of Mr. Gluck and Dr. 
Miller at the time she became a sponsor of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee. She said she had become affiliated wtih the MACC after 
receiving a mimeographed invitation from the group to attend one 
of its functions and after meeting and being favorably impressed with 
its chairman, Mrs. del Villar. 

In the course of her testimony. Miss Sutherland acknowledged 
that she had been a signer of an ad which appeared in the pro- 
Communist National Guardian on July 16, 1062, and which appealed 



228 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

to Great Britain to grant asylum to the late Dr. Kobert A. Soblen, 
who had jumped bail and fled the United States after being convicted 
of spying against this country. 

The final witness heard by the subcommittee on May 6, 1963, was 
Conrad J. Lynn of Pomona, N.Y., an attorney with offices in New 
York City. Mr. Lynn is a member of tJie National Executive Com- 
mittee of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee and defense coun- 
sel for Kobert F. Williams, an NAACP leader who fled to Cuba to 
avoid prosecution on kidnaping charges lodged against him in con- 
nection with a racial disturbance which occurred in Monroe, N.C., in 
August 1961. 

Mr. Lynn acknowledged to the subcommittee that he had been a 
member of the Young Communist League from 1928 to 1931 and a 
member of the Communist Party from 1934 until expelled in February 
1937. 

He said he and his family visited Cuba in the summer of 1960, about 
5 months before the breaking of U.S. -Cuban diplomatic relations. 
About January 16, 1962, according to Mr. Lynn's testimony, he re- 
ceived U.S. passport validation for another trip to Cuba and, on 
February 2, 1962, flew to Cuba for the purpose of interviewing 
Robert F. Williams. The witness said he remained in Cuba until 
February 6 or 7, 1962, when he made a return flight to the United 
States by way of Newfoundland and Montreal, Canada. 

In addition to Mr. Williams, Mr. Lynn recalled seeing only two 
Americans, Mrs. Azalena Johnson and Gerald Manuel Quinn, while 
in Cuba. He said the latter two had witnessed events in Monroe, 
N.C., which led to the kidnaping trial in which he was engaged. He 
said he did not know if Mr. Williams, Mrs. Johnson, and Mr. Quinn 
had possessed passports validated for travel to Cuba at the time or 
times of their arrival there. 

In response to a question about what route Mr. Williams had taken 
to Cuba, Mr. Lynn replied, "Well, we reconstituted the underground 
railroad, and he got out through Canada." He said the "we" he re- 
ferred to were friends of Robert Williams, none of whom was known 
to him (the witness) to be a member of the Communist Party. 

The witness confirmed that, as advertised in the pro-Communist 
National Guardian of April 9, 1962, he had made an address on Cuba, 
under sponsorship of the West Side Committee for Friendly Rela- 
tions With Cuba, at the Beacon Hotel in New York City on April 26, 
1962. 

Mr. Lynn acknowledged that earlier, on September 28, 1961, under 
sponsorship of the same group, he had appeared on a platform in New 
York with Mrs. del Villar and delivered a speech on the subject of 
Cuba. Reportedly, on this occasion, Mr, Lynn, in discussing the trip 
his family had made to Cuba in 1960, said that in Cuba for the first 
time he and his family knew what it meant to walk down the street 
"as a free man" and that, by keeping the light of the Cuban revolution 
aloft, the destiny of all the masses would be advanced. The witness 
acknowledged to the subcommittee that this could well have been a 
completely accurate report of what he said at that time. 
^ The witness testified he had never registered or applied for registra- 
tion with the Attorney General as a foreign agent under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 229 

The witness was asked if he had participated in recent years with a 
number of persons in activities described bj^ the subcommittee's counsel 
as Communist. Mr. Lynn admitted his participation, but dis- 
agreed with tlie characterization of some of the people and activities 
as being Communist, despite their having been formally identified or 
officially designated as such. 

The lirst witness at tlie subcommittee's public hearings on May 7, 
1963, was Leo Huberman, coeditor of the leftist Monthly Reyieio 
magazine, which is described on its cover as "An Independent Socialist 
Magazine.-' Mr. Huberman said he had traveled to Cuba twice in 
1960 — before the U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Cuba and again 
on April 14, 1961, for about a 10-day stay, 4 months after the diplo- 
matic break. On the occasion of the 1961 trip, he testified, his passport 
had been validated for travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Huberman acknowledged that between 1960 and February 1963, 
Monthly Reviev) had published numerous articles favorable to the 
Castro regime in Cuba, including a by-lhied article of excerpts from a 
speech made by Fidel Castro. This article was printed as a result of 
a prior discussion by Mr. Huberman with the bearded dictator about 
the use of such material for publication. Another article in Monthly 
Review consisted of questions submitted by Mr. Huberman and an- 
swers to them supplied by Che Guevara, an internjitional Communist 
functionary high in the Castro government. 

The witness affirmed that the Monthly Review Press, of w^iich he 
is co-owner, had published a pro-Castro book entitled The Second 
Revolution in Cuba^ by Joseph Parker Morray, a correspondent for 
the National Guardian newspaper. 

Mr. Huberman, who described himself as "a Marxist and a Social- 
ist" at a committee hearing in 1962, achiiitted that on two of his three 
visits to Cuba since Castro's rise to power his hotel expenses and the 
cost of liis travel throughout the island had been paid by the Cuban 
Government. 

Mr. Huberman insisted, however, that he is not a propagandist for 
Cuba. 

The final witness before the subcommittee's public hearings on 
May 7 was Edward Walter Shaw, the Midwest representative of 
the notoriously pro-Castro Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Through- 
out his appearance, Mr. Shaw invoked numerous reasons, in- 
cluding the fifth amendment, for evading practically all questions put 
to him, except those involving basic information about his education 
and background. Nevertheless, committee information brought out 
at the hearing showed that on March 9, 1961, Mr. Shaw applied for 
a United States passport to visit several Latin American countries, 
specifically Venezuela and Chile. In his application, the witness stated 
that he expected to depart from Miami in June 1961 and stay abroad 
for 2 months. A passport, with no validation for travel to Cuba, was 
issued to Mr. Shaw on March 13, 1961. 

On September 18, 1961, according to infonnation acquired by the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, Mr. Shaw departed from 
Mexico City for Havana, Cuba. Wliile in Cuba, he applied at the 
Mexican Embassy in Havana for a Mexican Tourist Card. Mexican 
Tourist Card No. 2798249 was issued to him on September 26, 1961 ; 



230 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

and on October 13, 1961, he used it to return to Mexico City from 
Cuba. 

According to announcements in The Worker and National Guard- 
ian^ Ed Shaw, with the use of color slides taken by him in Cuba, spoke 
on the subject of Cuba at meetings in Detroit on November 27, 1961 ; 
Cliicago on December 8, 1961 ; and New York on January 15, 1962. In 
each instance, the event was sponsored by a group affiliated with the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

Witness Shaw declined, for numerous reasons including the fifth 
amendment, to state whether he had ever belonged to the Communist 
Party of the United States or the Trotskyist Socialist Workers Party. 

At the conclusion of the ]May 7 public hearings, the chairman sug- 
gested to the subcommittee counsel that the case of Edward Shaw's 
travel to Cuba, apparently without proper passport validation, be 
referred to the Department of Justice for possible prosecution under 
the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952. 

The first witness before the subcommittee on INIay 23, 1963, was 
Vincent Theodore Lee, national director of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee. A native of New York City, Mr. Lee testified that he 
had received an elementary school education in New York City and 
2 years of vocational training in Florida, where he learned the wood- 
working trade. He invoked the iifth amendment on questions per- 
taining to nearh' all other subjects, however, including both past and 
present emplo3anent. 

Despite the lack of cooperation from the witness, the following 
facts about Mr. Lee, as obtained through a preliminary investigation 
by the Committee on Un-American Activities, were entered into the 
record of the hearings by the subcommittee's counsel : 

On April 3, 1961, Vincent Lee completed a State Department pass- 
port, application in which he stated his intention of touring jNIexico, 
Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua for a period of about 3 months 
beginning in June 1961, although no passport requirement existed for 
travel between the United States and the above-mentioned countries. 
On April 6, 1961, he received the requested passport from the State 
Department's Miami, Fla., office. (Mr. Lee declined to tell the subcom- 
mittee whether he had made the tour.) 

On July 19, 1962, Lee wrote a letter to the State Department re- 
questing that his passport be validated for a visit to Cuba between 
August 30, 1962, and November 30, 1962. In the letter, he indicated 
he would make tlie trip as a free-lance journalist for the North Amer- 
ican Newspaper Alliance and as a radio reporter for Kadio Station 
WBAI in New York City. 

Enclosed with Mr. Lee's July 19, 1962, letter to the State Depart- 
ment was a letter from Eichard M. Elman, public affairs director for 
Station WBAI, who supported Lee's request for permission to travel 
to Cuba. ]\Ir. Elman wrote that Lee had volunteered to go to Cuba 
and obtain tape recorded interviews with Fidel Castro and Ernesto 
"Che" Guevara, in accordance with questions prepared in advance by 
the staff of Station WBAI. 

Not enclosed with Lee's July 19, 1962, letter, however, was any sup- 
porting evidence that he had been given an assignment by the North 
American Newspaper Alliance. (On May 16, 1963, the editor of the 
North American Newspaper Alliance wrote the Committee on Un- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 231 

American Activities that he had never previonsly heard of Mr. Lee 
or any arrano-emonts between Lee and NANA.) 

On July 2G, 10(')2, the Department ol" State validated Lee's passport 
for travel to, and stay in, Cuba not to extend beyond December 30, 
1902. 

INIr. Lee departed from New York on December 20, 1902, just 4 days 
before the validation expired, and traveled to Cuba where he stayed 
for almost a month, returning to the United States on January 22, 
1903. (Mr. Lee declined to tell the subcommittee whether his hotel 
accommodations had been provided free of charge by the Cuban Gov- 
ernment, as had been done for other pro-Castro visitors in the past.) 

Both before and after his trip to Cuba, Mr. Lee, und,er the auspices 
of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, on numerous occasions lectured, 
exhibited color films, and disseminated pamphlets on the subject of 
Cuba. (Mr. Lee declined, under the fiftli amendment, to tell the sub- 
committee whether, as national director of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee, he had received compensation directly or indirectly from 
the Castro regime.) 

On April 0, 1903, Lee add,ressed a Los Angeles, Calif., meeting 
which had been arranged by the Greater Los Angeles Chapter of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Another speal^er on the same program 
was Helen Travis, an identified member of tlie Communist Party, who 
told the audience that the Fair Play for Cuba Committee was working 
strongly to educate the American people about Cuba and the need to 
aid the Castro go\^ernment. 

Mr. Lee invoked the fifth amendment, as he had on almost all other 
questions, when asked if he had registered with the Justice Depart- 
ment as a foreigii agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act 
of 193S. 

At the conclusion of the interrogation of Mr. Lee, Subcommittee 
Chairman Willis, after consulting the other members, requested 
the counsel for the subcommittee to send a copy of the transcript of 
Mr. Lee's testimony, along with exhibits pertaining to him, to the 
Department of Justice as a step toward possible prosecution. 

The second witness on May 23 was Anatol Isaac Schlosser, 20, a 
graduate of New York University, from which he also received a 
master's degree in English literature and drama. Citing the fifth 
amendment and numerous other reasons, Mr. Schlosser refused to re- 
veal his employment and declined to answer most of the questions put 
to him by the subcommittee and its counsel. 

A preliminary investigation by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities had disclosed that the witness obtained a U.S. passport in 
1958 and, on June 8, 1902, applied for a renewal of the passport for 
the purpose, he stated, of visiting England, France, Holland, and 
Italy. The renewed passport. No. 0^4149, was issued on June 11, 
1902. 

Mr. Schlosser declined to tell the subcommittee whether he had at 
any time asked the State Department for validation of his passport 
for travel to Cuba. He denied, however, that he had visited Cuba 
subsequent to June 8, 1902, but refused, on the grounds previously 
stated, to say wdiether he had traveled elsewhere outside the United 
States after that date. 

In November and December 1902, according to information acquired 
by the Committee on Un-American Activities, Anatol Schlosser was 



232 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

a frequent spokesman for the newly formed Ad Hoc Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba. The apparent purpose of the group was 
the organizing of a trip to Cuba, without validated passports, by 
U.S. college students in violation of a State Department regulation 
prohibiting such travel. As the spokesman for the prospective trav- 
elers, Mr. Schlosser reportedly said "the obstacles set in the way by 
the State Department constitute a further violation of the rights of 
all U.S. citizens," and that "students of the United States ought to 
go see with their own eyes how the Cuban people live and work." 
He implied that the U.S. newspapers had not reported the truth about 
the Cuban revolution. 

Additional information acquired by the committee, and introduced 
into the record of the hearings, was a report attributed to Schlosser 
on December 12, 1962, that 80 or more students were planning to de- 
])art for Cuba by way of Montreal, Canada, later that month. Also 
introduced by subcommittee counsel was a copy of a State Depart- 
ment press release of December 13, 1962, which warned U.S. 
students that willful violation of travel regulations pertaining to 
Cuba was punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. The subcom- 
mittee also produced evidence that Schlosser subsequently said pub- 
licly he expected a number of students to defy the State Department 
by making the planned, unauthorized trip. 

On the basis of the fifth amendment, as well as the other reasons 
he had previously cited, Mr. Schlosser declined to answer any ques- 
tions about the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba or 
his activities and associations with it. He also declined to acknowl- 
edge that the planned trip to Cuba was canceled because, on December 
22, 1962, the Canadian Government announced that it would not allow 
Canada to be used as a place of departure for U.S. students traveling 
illegal 1}^ to Cuba. 

The witness continued to invoke the fifth amendment when asked 
(1) if he had been correctly quoted by a January 1963 publication 
to the effect that the trip had not been canceled, only postponed until 
the summer of 1963, (2) if information acquired by the Committee 
on Un-American Activities that the Ad Hoc Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba had been replaced by the Permanent Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba was correct, and (3) if the witness' home 
also served as the location of the oiSce of the successor organization. 

Mr. Schlosser also declined to say whether he had been in touch 
with the Cuban mission at the United Nations or the Czechoslovakian 
Embassy, which has been handling Cuban affairs in this country 
since the United States severed relations with Cuba in 1961. 

The final witness at the subcommittee's public hearings on May 23 
was Stefan Martinot, 23, a 1962 graduate of Antioch College, Ohio, 
who had pursued postgi^aduate work at Columbia University until 
A])ril 10, 1963. He said he was a machine operator in a shop located 
in Xew York City. 

Mr. INIartinot acknowledged he had received a U.S. passport in 
1958, applied for its renewal on October 22, 1962, and received it 
the next day. He further confinned that in the application for re- 
newal of his passport he had indicated the intent to travel to France, 
although he had not subsequently made a trip to France. He ad- 
mitted that at the time he applied for the renewal of his passport 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 233 

for travel to France, lie also had in mind making a later appli- 
cation for validation of the renewed passport for travel to Cuba. 
The record shows that he asked for such validation on November 2, 
19G2, just a few days after receiving the new passport. The request 
was denied by the State Department on the ground Martinot had 
not indicated any emergency requirement to be in Cuba, and thus no 
exception to the limited-travel-to-Cuba policy could be made in his 
case. 

The witness told the subcommittee he had been at the founding 
meeting of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba on 
October 14, 1962, and that it had remained as such until the end of 
December 1962, when its name was changed to the Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba. Mr. INlartinot refused, on numerous 
grounds, excluding the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amend- 
ment, to provide the address of the location of the late-December 
1962 meeting at Avhich the name change of the organization was 
adopted. He said he would not testify about individuals other than 
himself or respond to questions about subjects the answer to which 
would reveal activities of persons other than himself. 

The witness acknowledged he had been one of the organizers of an 
avowed Marxist-Leninist group called the Columbia [University] 
Progressive Labor Student Club on the campus of Columbia Uni- 
versity in November 1962. He also admitted that the organization 
was affiliated with a group called Progressive Labor, which, accord- 
ing to information obtained by committee investigation, was formed 
in about January 1962 by Milton Rosen and Mortimer Scheer, both 
of whom had been expelled from the Communist Party in the fall of 
1962 as "neo-Trotskyites." 

Mr. Martinot, while claiming not to have been a Communist Party 
member himself, refused to say if he had been brought into the Pro- 
gressive Labor organization by a person known to him to be a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Martinot admitted to the subcommittee that he had been a 
spokesman lor the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 
and that, as such, in December 1962 he had continued to advocate 
unauthorized travel by students to Cuba, even after the State Depart- 
ment had warned against it and the Canadian Government had re- 
fused to permit U.S. students to travel to Cuba by way of Canada. 

The witness testified that when he talked to students about the 
planned trip to Cuba he always pointed out there was a State Depart- 
ment prohibition against it and, although he and his committee felt 
this prohibition was unconstitutional, those who went to Cuba w^oulcl 
probably have to face the consequences of having broken a law. He 
said the 80-odd students who attempted to go to Cuba during the 
Christmas holidays in 1962 had been required to send a letter to the 
Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, stating they knew 
about the ban on travel to Cuba without a validated passport, the State 
Department warning against making an unauthorized trip, and the 
possible consequences for doing so. 

When asked additional questions about the previously mentioned 
Columbia Progressive Labor Student Club, Mr. Martinot said an 
application for a charter for the organization was filed in March 



98-765— 63— ^t. 1- 



234 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

1963 and granted by Columbia University shortly thereafter. The 
stated purpose of the group at the time of the charter application, the 
witness said, was "to spread socialist ideas on the campus through 
leaflets and any other activities." He claimed that some of his pub- 
licly stated ideas about what the purposes of the organization should 
be were more radical than those of the organization itself. He ad- 
mitted, for example, having said during the planning stages of the 
group in November 1962, "The aim would be for the working class, 
people who don't have a stake in ownership or management, to seize 
political control of the state." 

Mr. Martinot told the subcommittee that there were approximately 
70 to 75 members of the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba and that they still planned to make the trip which had been post- 
poned the previous December. He said concrete plans had not been 
made as of the time of his testimony. He refused, for his previously 
cited reasons, to say whether he had held preliminaiy discussions 
with Levi Lee Laub, Milton Eosen, or INIortimer Scheer in connection 
with rescheduling the student trip to Cuba. He said he had not held 
such discussions with Vincent Theodore I^e, national director of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

The witness declared the money for defraying the cost of the op- 
erations of the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 
and its predecessor group had been raised through a $10 deposit by 
each of the students who planned to go to Cuba. He said no money 
had come to the organization either from the Cuban Government or 
from the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

He admitted, however, that prior to the scheduled Christmas 1962 
trip to Cuba his group had received an invitation from the Cuban 
Federation of University Students to be the latter group's guests while 
in Cuba. Also, he said, the Cuban Federation of University Students 
had offered the use of a Cuban plane for transporting the U.S. stu- 
dents from Toronto, Canada, to Cuba and back again. 

INIr. ]Martinot said he assumed the same offers would be made to the 
U.S. students by the Cuban student group when plans were completed 
for the second attempt at making an unauthorized trip to Cuba. 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS 

AND PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

Part 1 



MONDAY, MAY 6, 1963 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
public hearings 

A subconiiiiittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Of- 
tice Building, Washington, D.C, Honorable Edwin E. Willis (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members : Re]3resentatives Edwin E. Willis, of Lou- 
isiana; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. Johansen, of 
Michigan. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Johansen. 

Committee members also present : Representatives Joe R. Pool, of 
Texas; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wis- 
consin; and John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio. (Appearances as noted.) 

Staff members present : Francis J. McNamara, director ; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel ; and Louis J. Russell, investigator. 

Air. Willis. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Comisel for the committee tells me that another mike will have to 
be put before him. While that is being attended to, I will make this 
opening statement. 

The subcommittee is convened to conduct hearings upon the sub- 
jects of inquiry and for the legislative purposes set forth in the com- 
mittee resolution adopted April 24, 19G3. I offer this resolution for 
the record. It reads as follows : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties or a subcommittee thereof, be lield in Washington. D.C, or at such other 
place or places as the Chairman may determine, on snch date or dates as the 
Chairman may designate, relating to (a) Communist propaganda activities in 
the United States conducted in support of the Ccmimunist regime in Cuba, or for 
the purpose of advancing the policies and objectives of the world Communist 
movement in Latin America generally, (b) the activities of United States citi- 
zens acting on behalf of, or in the interest of, foreign Communist principals, and 
(c) foreign travel undertaken by United States citizens in connection with such 
activities and in violation of State Department travel regulations, for the fol- 
lowing legislative purposes : 

1. To provide factual information to aid Congress in the disposition of pres- 
ently pending legislation (including, but not limited to Sections 709 and 712 of 
H.R. 958), or in the proposal of remedial legislation, in fulttllment of the direc- 
tions contained in the mandate to the Committee by House Resolution 5 of Jan- 
uary 9, 1963, and Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress. 

235 



236 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

2. The execution, by the aduiinistrative agencies concerned, of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938, travel control laws (particularly Title 8 U.S.C. 
1185), and regulations issued pursuant thereto, to assist the House in apprais- 
ing the administration of such laws and regulations. 

3. Consideration of the advisability of amending Title 22 U.S.C. 611, by ex- 
tending the definition of the terms "foreign principal" and "agent of a foreign 
principal" so as to remove any doubt as to the true test of the agency relation- 
ship or its application to activities within the intent of Congress as expressed in 
the Act. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the bearings may include any other matter 
within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee thereof, 
appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

On December 16, 1950, over 12 years ago, the President of the United 
States proclaimed the existence of a national emergency (64 Stat. 
A454). Declaring that "recent events in Korea and elsewhere con- 
stitute a grave threat to the peace of the world," that "world conquest 
by Communist imperialism is the goal of the forces of aggression 
that have been loosed upon the world," and reminding the people of 
the United States that "if the goal of Communist imperialism were 
to be achieved, the people of this country would no longer enjoy the 
full, rich life they have with God's help built for themselves and 
their children," President Truman summoned — 

all citizens to make united effort for the security and well-being of our beloved 
country and to place its needs foremost in thought and action that the full moral 
and material strength of the Nation may be readied for the dangers which 
threaten us. 

The President then declared : 

I summon all citizens to be loyal to the principles upon which our Nation is 
founded, to keep faith with our friends and allies, and to be firm in our devo- 
tion to the peaceful purposes for which the United Nations was founded. 

This proclamation has not been altered or repealed by succeeding 
Presidents. We need not be reminded that this emergency continues 
and the peril has grown in urgency. 

Primarily because of U.S. militaiy action — and at a cost of 150,000 
U.S. casualties — the forces of world communism did not succeed in 
conquering South Korea. But by one means or another since that 
time, they have gained control of North Vietnam; have become a co- 
equal element with neutralists and anti-Communists in the govern- 
ment of Laos; seized Tibet and, with genocidal intent, suppressed 
resistance to their totalitarian rule there; and have also invaded India 
and occupied part of its territory. Today, they are carrying on open 
warfare in South Vietnam to topple the government of that country 
and have launched a civil war in Laos. Communist influence in Africa 
and Latin America has been extended, and some 2 years ago a Com- 
munist regime was established not in some far-off continent but in 
Cuba, 90 miles from our shores. 

Last Monday, Castro, the Cuban Communist dictator, was lavishly 
hailed and welcomed in INIoscow and, in the words of Khrushchev, 
described as the "envoy" of the first Communist revolution on the 
American continent, a "beacon" to all Latin America. In response, 
Castro affectionately attributed to the Soviet Union the continuing 
success of his movement. 

The Commmiist-led rebellion agamst tlie Batista government initi- 
ally gained acceptance here disguised as a "liberal" revolution. Well- 
intentioned people, both here and in Cuba, were led to support it. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 237 

Consequently, Castro successfully seized power in January 1959. The 
true character of this revolution quickly appeared in numerous acts 
of hostility committed against the United States and other non-Com- 
munist govermnents of Latin America. On January 3, 1961, the 
United States withdrew recognition of Castro's regime. Any doubt 
as to the course upon w^hich Cuba was embarked was finally dispelled 
in December 1962 by Castro's frank admission of his allegiance to the 
Communist cause. He said, "I am a Marxist-Leninist and will be one 
until the day I die." 

Under the protection and assistance of the Soviet Union, Castro's 
future was indefinitely secured. The efforts of the Communist Party 
of Cuba and its American comrades are synchronized through the 
Moscow leadership of the world Commmiist movement. To assist in 
maintaining this Latm American spearhead in the Western Hemi- 
sphere, the Communist Party, USA, at its last national convention 
held in New York City in December 1959, adopted as a main political 
resolution its "Hands Off Cuba" policy and called for an end to all 
"interference" in the afl'airs of Latin American countries. In other 
words, the basic Communist propaganda and agitation effort, enjoined 
as a directive upon American Conmiunists, was to assure the continued 
existence of a Communist Cuba. 

It is now apparent that Cuba was established as an advance Com- 
munist base in this hemisphere, intended to supply the inspiration, 
propaganda, training, conmiunications, and teclmical assistance to 
revolutionary groups in the whole of Latin America and — more omi- 
nously — to provide an outpost for the Soviet Union, from which it may 
more conveniently and effectively direct its activities against the 
United States. 

As pointed out by Central Intelligence Agency Director Jolm Mc- 
Cone in his appearance before the House Committee on Foreign Af- 
fairs February 19th last: 

The Cuban effort at present is far more serious than the hastily organized and 
ill-conceived raids that the bearded veterans of the Sierra Maestra led into such 
Central American countries as Panama, Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican 
Republic during the first eight or nine months Castro was in power. 

Today, the Cuban effort is far more sophisticated, more covert, and more deadly. 
In its professional tradecraft, it shows guidance and training by experienced 
Communist advisers from the Soviet bloc, including veteran Spanish Com- 
munists. 

Mr. McCone further stated that approximately 1,500 persons went to 
Cuba during the year 1962 from other Latin American countries to 
receive ideological indoctrination and guerrilla warfare training. He 
pointed out that some courses offered last as long as a year and include 
intensive training in sabotage, espionage, and psychological warfare 
and that these "visitors" to Cuba serve also as couriers for Soviet com- 
munications and the financing of the Communist effort in various 
countries. 

This liaison with Cuba, however, is not merely conducted by Com- 
munist Party members and others of the Latin American countries. 
Despite the presently existing ban on travel to Cuba, despite the proc- 
lamation of national emergency summoning all citizens of the United 
States to be loyal to the principles upon which our Nation is founded, 
a substantial number of U.S. citizens continue to conduct a liaison 
with Cuba on behalf of promoting the Communist Cuban regime. 



238 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

To control this traffic between the United States and Cuba, the De- 
partment of State announced on January 16, 1961, a modification of 
the travel control regulations, prohibiting travel to Cuba by any citi- 
zen of the United States, or any person owing allegiance to the United 
States, unless he bears a passport validated by the Secretary of State 
for travel to Cuba (22 CFE Pt. 53.3, as amended). These regulations 
are based upon tlie security provisions of the Immigration and Na- 
tionality Act of 1952, regulating travel of citizens and aliens during 
war or national emergency, and empowering the President to impose 
restrictions and prohibitions, in addition to those provided by the 
applicable section of the Act (8 U.S.C. 1185) . 

The regulations now proclaimed by the President require no pass- 
port for travel in the areas of North, Central, or South America, with 
the exception of Cuba. However, although travel to North, Central, 
or South America (excluding Cuba) generally requires no passport, 
this does not apply to U.S. citizens who travel to Cuba via countries of 
this liemisphere or any country for which a passport is required. 

It is interesting to note that the Special Consultative Conunittee on 
Security of the Organization of American States, on February 20, 
1963, offered an advisory document recommending to member states 
a general prohibition of travel to Cuba except for those who have valid 
reasons, such as those of a humanitarian nature, and to require a travel 
document for every person who crosses an international border. 

Despite the general ban on travel to Cuba unless a validated pass- 
port is obtained for such travel, Chairman Walter recently pointed 
out in a committee press release that the committee's investigation 
has determined that some 100 American citizens have traveled to 
Cuba in violation of these regulations. Committee investigations 
initiated in July of 1962 disclose that travel to Cuba and other Com- 
munist countries by United States citizens, both authorized and un- 
authorized, appeared to create a serious security problem, suggesting 
deficiencies in the law or its administration, in relation to travel control 
laws and regulations, and also with regard to the Foreign Agents Reg- 
istration Act of 1938. Propaganda and other assistance was clearly 
being rendered to the Communist cause in Cuba and tliroughout 
Latin America by United States citizens. 

On January 9, 1963, the chairman of this committee introduced 
H.R. 958, which was referred to the Committee on Un-American 
Activities. Sections 709 and 712 of H.R. 958, dealing with passport 
security and travel control and restrictions on the issuance and use 
of passports, are directed particularly toward the travel of persons 
associated with subversive organizations and with subversive objec- 
tives or aims. This problem has for some time occupied the atten- 
tion of this committee, and hearings from time to time have been 
conducted in relation to it in an attempt to provide factual informa- 
tion as a basis for solution to these grave problems. 

Other bills have been introduced in the House in an effort to resolve 
these difficulties, including H.R. 5320 introduced by Mr. Cramer and 
H.R. 5683 introduced by IMr. Walter, which are broader in applica- 
tion and have been referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. Pur- 
suant to its mandate of Congress to conduct investigations that will 
aid the Congress in disposition of necessary remedial legislation, it is 
believed that the present investigation of the Committe on Un- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 239 

American Activities, relating to Communist propaganda activities, 
will be helpful in the disposition of these bills. Moreover, hearings 
fixed by the present resolution of the committee will also assist the 
Congress in obtaining additional information with respect to other 
bills referred to the committee, including but not limited to, Il.lv. 475, 
a proposed amendment to the Internal Security Act of 1950, which 
provides penalties for becoming or remaining a member of Com- 
munist-action organizations. 

I now offer for the record the order of appointment of this sub- 
committee as follows : 

April 22, 1963. 
To : Francis J. McNamara, 
Director, Committee on Un-American Activities 

Pursuant to the provisions of tlie law and the rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Honorable Edwin E. Willis as Chairman, and Honorable William 
M. Tuck and Honorable August E. Johansen as associate members, to conduct a 
hearing in Washington, D.C., on Monday, May 6, 1963, at 10:00 a.m., on sub- 
jects under investigation by the Committee and talie such testimony on said 
day or succeeding days, as it may deem necessary. 

Please mal^e this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 22ud day of April, 1963. 

/s/ Francis E. Walter, 
Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Is your equipment ready, ^Ir. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, Mr. Willis. 

Mr. Willis. Call your first witness and let us proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Fred Jerome please come forward ? 

Mr. Willis. Please remain standing. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God. 

Mr. Jekome. I so affirm. 

Mr. Johansen. What was the response ? 

Mr. Willis. He says he so affirms. 

Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF EEED JEROME, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, JOSEPH 

EORER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, Mr. Jerome ? 

Mr. Jeeome. Before I say anything, I would like to state for the 
record I protest this committee's deliberately and inhumanly inter- 
rupting a honeymoon for me and my wife, despite a request on my 
part 

]\Ir. WiLiis. Answ^er the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. My name is Fred Jerome. My permanent residence 
is in the process of being changed due to the fact that the committee 
interrupted the honeymoon. I can give you either the last permanent 
residence or the next permanent residence, but I am unable to give you 
more than that because the committee refused a request 

Mr. Willis. Give both if you care to. 



240 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your last permanent address ? 

Mr. Jerome. 320 Second Avenue, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Jerome. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street, NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]\Ir. Jerome, have you heard the chairman's opening 
statement setting forth the subjects of inquiry ? 

Mr. Jerome. I have and I think it is a farce. 

Mr. FoRER. Incidentally, I was unable to make head or tail out of it 
because of the sort of monotone way it was read. I wonder if I could 
have a copy of it. It would help me to advise the witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. i\Ir. Forer, from long experience you are aware that 
these statements are available. 

Mr. Willis. Let the record show counsel is tendered a copy, al- 
though he has attended so many hearings of this committee the chances 
are he knows as much about it as I do. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Jerome, would you state the date and place of your 
birth? 

Mr. Jerome. February 10, 1939, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the son of V. J. — that is, Victor Jeremy — 
Jerome ? 

Mr. Jerome. Did you really interrupt my honeymoon just to ask 
me that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Jerome. I am the son of V. J. Jerome. I think it is a public 
fact. I really don't think the committee has to call me here, all the 
way from New York, to ascertain what is a public fact. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We want to establish your identification for the pur- 
poses of the record. 

Mr. Jerome. The committee has extensive investigative facilities 
to do that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Jerome, would you relate the extent of your formal 
education, including the dates and places of attendance at educa- 
tional institutions and any degrees you may have received? 

Mr. Jerome. I graduated from Stuyvesant High School in New 
York City in 1955, with an honors diploma. Graduated from the City 
College of New York in 1960 magna cum laiide, with a bachelor of 
arts. 

Mr. Nittle. While in attendance at City College of the City of New 
York, were you news editor of a college publication entitled Campus^ 
and, if so, will you state the period you were associated with that 
publication ? 

]\Ir. Jeroivie. I think this whole thing is a farce. I heard the chair- 
man's statement 

Mr. Willis. You know your rights. You have a good counsel. You 
may answer it or invoke the privileges available to you, if you invoke 
them properly. Please answer the question. 

Mr. Jerome. I am trying to find out what the question has to do 
with the introductory statement of the chairman. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 241 

INIr. Nni'LE. For purposes of background, wliich the Supreme Court 
has hekl to be relevant in any interrogation. Now, will you please 
answer the question ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. Yes, I was. 

]\Ir. NiTi'LE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Counsel, I think you asked for the dates; did 
you not ? 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I do not think he responded to that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Thank you. You did not state the period during which 
you were the editor of the college publication. 

Mr. Jerome. I don't believe you asked me if I was the editor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. News editor. 

Mr. Jerome. I really don't recall the exact dates. I think the 
committee could subpena the newspaper files if they really want to 
know the dates. It was during some period in my undergraduate 

Mr. Willis. Coidd you assist us by saying approximately how long 
i n terms of months or years ? 

]\Ir. Jerome. Approximately one semester, which is the normal 
period of the news editors of that publication. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

INIr. Jerome. I am an unemployed writer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When were you last employed ? 

Mr. Jerome. Once again I want to say this committee is a fraud and 
the hearings are a farce. I don't see any relationship whatsoever 
between these questions and any possible legislative purpose. xVnd I 
think that the committee is obviously afraid of having jDeople visit 
Cuba and obviously trying to intimidate anybody who did visit Cuba, 
trying to prevent other Americans from doing the same. I just think 
that the American people ought to know what kind of joke this com- 
mittee is turning Congress into. 

jNIr. Willis. Let us say you are the spokesman for people of that 
philosophy. But will you answer the question ? 

Mr. Jerome. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Nittle. When were you last employed ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. I would like to refuse to answer that question and all 
other questions about my employment on the following grounds : First, 
because I think this hearing is a fraud. I don't think it has anything 
whatsoever to do with un-American activities. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, ]\Ir. Jerome, would you kindly confine yourself 
to stating legal reasons for not testifying in response to this question? 
Your able counsel, I am sure, will advise you upon your constitutional 
rights. 

Mr. Jerome. I think this is a valid reason. 

Mr. Nittle. Upon what constitutional provisions 

Mr. Forer. I think he is trying to say in a layman's way. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you claim any privilege not to respond ? 

Mr. FoKER. His first reason is the language of legislative purpose 
as I interpret it. 

Mr. NiTiXE. Thej^ are adequately set forth in the chairman's state- 
ment. 



242 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. FoRER. He is disagreeing. 

Mr. Jerome. I hope you don't mind listing my reasons for not 
ansAvering. I understand that the few rights this committee allowed 
its witnesses was to state their reasons for refusing to answer. Maybe 
the committee is restricting witnesses' rights even further. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Jerome. The first reason is that I think this wliole hearing is a 
farce and has nothing to do with un-American activities — except in 
so far as the committee is probably the most un-American thing in 
Congress. 

Secondly, I think the committee itself is a fraud and has no basis 
for existence and is not at all interested in investigating un-American 
activities. If it were, I think it could look 

Mr. Willis. That is enougli on that score. You go on to another 
point. 

Mr. Jerojie. I am not disturbing you by stating the reasons? 

Mr. Willis. You are not disturbing anybody. 

Mr. Jerome. I think certain members of the committee have no 
constitutional basis for even being in Congress. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, I propose that we halt this line of 
answer right now. This is an old record that this committee has 
heard many times. You are not adding any information at all. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. The next reason for refusing to answer is that I object 
strenuously to the fact that this committee, with no reason stated 
whatsoever, has seen fit to interrupt my honeymoon without even 
considering the possibility of granting a postponement Avhen one was 
requested. My next reason for refusing to answer is that I refuse 
to cooperate in any way whatsover with this committee. I refuse to 
become an informer for this committee or take any steps which might 
lead in that direction. This seems to be the purpose of this committee. 
I refuse to cooperate with those I consider to be un-American. I 
think a further reason is that I refuse to answer on the basis of the 
rights guaranteed to me by the first amendment of the Constitution, 
the rights of free speech, free association, and I refuse to answer on 
the basis of the rights guaranteed to me under the fifth amendment 
of the Constitution not to be compelled to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been employed by the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jerome. For a committee that thinks it is so important that I 
be here and interrupt my honeymoon, I think you are not listening 
at all to what I am saying. I just said I intend to refuse to answer 
all questions dealing with employment in the same way. 

Mr. Willis. That will be satisfactory. You refuse to answer the 
question on the grounds previously stated, is that about it ? 

Mr. Jerome. That is about it, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Jerome, as you may know, the United States sev- 
ered relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961. Plave you traveled to 
Cuba at any time since that date ? 

Mr. Jerome. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You state that you have not ? 

Mr. Jerome. I have not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of page 11 of the Communist Party 
publication, The Worker, dated May 14, 1961, marked for identifica- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 243 

tion as "Jerome Exhibit No. 1." I direct your attention to a notice 
appearing in the lower right-hand portion of tliat page. 
The foHowing appears therein: 

EYEWITNESS TO CUBAN HISTORY 

A report on 3 month trip by Fred Jerome, just returned from Cuba 

Sun., May 14, 8 P.M. Polonia Club 

201 Second Ave. Adm. 50?S, 

Auspices : Lower E.S. Press Comm. 

Now, Mr. Jerome, it is the committee's information that you are the 
Fred Jerome whose name appears on that Worke?' notice which has 
just been exhibited to you. Are you the Fred Jerome to whom refer- 
ence is made in that notice ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

ilr. Jekojie. It would have been good if the committee could have 
heard some of the people who come back from Cuba. It mig-ht have 
saved them a lot of time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Jero^nie. I am going to refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. I think it only further substantiates my 
position that this committee and this hearing are both frauds. 

(Document marked "Jerome Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you appear at the Polonia Club at 201 Second 
Avenue, New York City, on Smiday, May 14, 1961, and deliver a talk 
or report on what you had seen during a recent trip to Cuba ? 

Mr. Jerome. Mr. Nittle, wdiy is it that you seem to find it necessary 
to ask the same question six or seven ditlerent ways ? I am intelligent 
enough — — 

Mr. Nii-TLE. We don't need you to tell us how to perform our duties. 
Will you please answer my question ? 

Mr. Jerome. You need somebody, I am afraid. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you appear at the Polonia Club on May 14, 1961, 
and deliver a talk or report on what you had seen during a recent trip 
to Cuba ? 

Mr. Jerome. I repeat my answer to the previous question. 

Mr. Nittle. The notice published in The Worker indicates that 
you were in Cuba for a period of 3 months just prior to May 14, 1961. 
Did you in fact visit Cuba at that time ? 

Mr. Jerome. At what time? 

Mr. N1TT1.E. In 1961, just prior to May 14, 1961. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. You seem to want to know when I was in Cuba or if I 
was in Cuba or when. 

Mr. Nittle. I am asking you if you visited Cuba in the year 1961. 
Did you, or did you not ? 

Mr. Willis. I think you asked for a period of 3 months. 

Mr. Jerome. I did not visit Cuba in the year 1961, if you mean that 
I went to Cuba in the year 1961. If you want to know when I was in 
Cuba, I will tell you when I w^as in Cuba. If you want to insist on 
the technical phrasing of wiiat I consider to be an inept question, the 
answer is that I did not go to Cuba in tlie year 1961, no. 

Mr. Nittle. "Wlien did you go to Cuba? 



244 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Jerome. I went to Cuba in the year 1960, February 1960. Again 
in 1960, October, and returned briefly, and returned to Cuba again in 
December 1960. 

Mr. Willis. Were you there previously ? 

Mr. Jerome. The hrst time I was there was in Februaiy 1960, as I 
said. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wlien in December 1960 did you go to Cuba ? 

Mr. Jerome. If vou want an exact date, I can't recall but it was 
around Christmas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you remain in Cuba ? 

Mr. Jerome. I remained in Cuba until April 10, 11, or 12, 1961. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So you were in fact in Cuba in December 1960, at or 
about Christmas, and remained in Cuba until April 10, 1961 ? 

Mr. Jerome. I tliink that is what I said, yes. 

Mr. Ni'rTLE. From what port did you depart the United States ? 

Mr. Jerome. Which time ? 

Mr. NirrLE. When you left in December 1960. 

Mr. Jerome. I believe it was New York, but it may have been Miami. 
I am really not sure. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By what means did you travel to Cuba at that time? 

Mr. Jerome. Airplane. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What airline did you travel by ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. I think it was Cubana. You speak of the last time? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Jerome. It was Cubana. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You traveled by Cubana Airlines out of Miami, 
Florida? 

Mr. Jerome. It may have been out of New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It may have been out of New York ? 

Mr. Jerome. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know ? 

Mr. Jerome. I really don't recall. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you leave Cuba? 

Mr. Jerome. I just told you, April 10 or 11 or 12 of 1961. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where did you go after leaving Cuba on that date? 

Mr. Jerome. Miami, Florida, 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you travel to Miami, Florida ? 

Mr. Jerome. Cubana Airlines. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Did you register with the Swiss Embassy, which was 
serving the interests of the United States in Cuba after the sever- 
ence of diplomatic relationships ? 

Mr. Jerome. I don't believe that is a legal requirement and I cer- 
tainly don't see any relevance that question might have to the hear- 
ing and I think it is just another attempt to intimidate witnesses 
and people who might be interested in seeing the progress being made 
in Cuba for themselves. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make application to the Swiss Embassy for a 
United States passport or travel permit to reenter the United States 
from Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. No, I did not. I once agam say there is no legal re- 
quirement to do so, and again it is just another attempt through 
fraud, intimidate, fraud and implication, intimidate witnesses and 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 245 

people who might be interested in seeing Cuba themselves. I wonder 
what the committee is afraid of. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please confine yourself to answering the 
question ? 

Mr. Willis. Ask the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not aware that the travel regulations of the 
State Department required a passport or entrance jDermit after Janu- 
aiy If), 1061, in returning to the United States from Cuba, or any 
area for which a passport is required? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerojme. No. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Have you traveled to Cuba at any time subsequent to 
December 1960 ? 

Mr. Jerome. Unfortunately, I have not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of your travel to Cuba in De- 
cember 1960? 

Mr. Jerome. Once again I think that this committee is just tidying 
to erect a w^all of fear around travel to Cuba. I think people should 
be able to go to Cuba for whatever purpose they want. I think they 
should be able to go to Cuba for all purposes, to see, look around, find 
out what is going on. I think it wouldn't even hurt some of the 
committee members to go look around. Maybe they would learn 
something. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you travel to Cuba upon the advice or request of 
any Communist Party functionaiy? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. No. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. By whom were arrangements made for your travel 
to Cuba ? 

Mr. Jerome. By myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who paid your expenses of travel ? 

Mr. Jerome. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were vou at that time on the paj^roll of the Comnnmist 
Party? 

Mr. Jerome. IVIr. Nittle, you interrupted my honeymoon. You 
found it imnecessary nnd you find yourself unable • 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Jerome 

Mr. Jerome, You repeat a question for no reason whatsoever. If 
you asked me that question once, you asked it twice. Now you nsked 
me a third time. Have you ever been on a honeymoon? IMaybe I 
should withdraw the question. I don't want to embarrass you. 

Mr. Nittle. It is unfortunate that your comments 

Mr. Willis. Did he answer the question ? 

Mr. Jerome. I answered the question twice before. 

Mr. Willis. Not that question. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Will counsel repeat it ? 

Mr, Nittle, Will the reporter read the question, please ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr, jERoaiE. I refused to answer that question before for the grounds 
stated and I just simply repeat the same statement, 

Mr, Nittle, Did you, in the United States, receive any informa- 
tion, or any matter or thing, that you were requested to impart or 
deliver to persons in Cuba ? 



246 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Jerome. Will you repeat that? I am not sure I understand 

it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, in the United States, receive any information, 
or any matter or thing, that you were requested to impart or deliver to 
persons in Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. I am not sure I understand what the purport of the 
question is. If you are asking if I was a courier for someone, the 
answer is no. 

Mr. Nitti.e. Did you, in Cuba, receive any information, or any mat- 
ter or thing, that you were requested to impart or deliver to persons 
in the United States known to you to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Jerome. That seems like an awfully loaded question. I wonder 
if you could not maybe break it down and ask one question at a time. 

( At this point Mr. Tuck left the hearing room . ) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think the question is a fairly simple and direct ques- 
tion. Answer it however you wish. 

Mr, Jerome. I received many impressions while I was in Cuba and 
when I returned I received many requests to impart the information 
about the impressions that I received. I received some impressions 
that in Cuba, for example 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. The question was whether you re- 
ceived anything tliat you were requested to deliver or impart to persons 
in the United States" known to you to be members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Jerome. That is why I said it was a loaded question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Forer. I think he was trying to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. No, he was not. 

JSIr. FoRER. He said answer it any way you wanted, break it down, 

Mr. Willis. Counsel, you of all people know the rules of this com- 
mittee. You know what the question is. It is restricted to the last 
part. 

INIr, FoRER. That is what Mr. Nittle said. 

Mr, Jerome, If you are only interested in the last part, maybe he 
should only ask the last part and why ask the first part ? 

Mr. Willis. That is all the question has to do with. Will you re- 
peat the question last and finally ? 

Mr, Nittle, Yes, sir. Did you, in Cuba, receive any information, 
or any matter or thing, that you were requested to impart or deliver to 
persons in the United States known to you to be members of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Jerome. I refuse to answer the last part of that question for the 
reasons stated, and I think it shows even more 

Mr. Willis. The next question. 

Mr. Jerome. The attempt of this committee 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Jerome, it is the committee's information that 
certain United States citizens traveling to Cuba are called upon by 
Cuban officials to answer a questionnaire, posing such questions as 
relate to one's past and present political affiliations, personal experience 
in the underground struggle, positions in government occupied by 
one or one's friends, offices in labor unions or cultural or social groups, 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 247 

police organizations and invest ig-ative agencies of one's area of resi- 
dence, names of ynnigglers with whom one may have come in contact, 
g()\ernmeiU control of borders in one's region, whether one can obtain 
l)ersonal identification documents for cash, wdiere military or naval 
bases are located in one's region, and other questions of like tenor. 
"Were such questions posed to you in Cuba '^ 

]\[r. Jeuo.m:i:. Why are you trying to create a smoke screen around 
I he attempts of this committee to set up a wall to prevent Americans 
from seeing what is going on ? 

Mr. "Willis. He is not restricting his statement to your experience. 

Mr. Jerome. 1 realize that. 

Mr. AViLLis. He is relating it as applicable to all, is that true? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jerome. That is exactly my point. He is trying to prevent all 
Americans from going to Cuba. The committee is trying to prevent 
all Americans from having an opportunity to see for themselves. 

Mr. "Willis. You are ordered and directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Jerome. AA'ould you repeat the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. jNIr. Jerome, I will repeat the question once more and 
ask you to pay attention to the question. It will not be repeated 
again. 

Mr. Reporter, would you kindly read the question? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. "Willis. That is a very simple question. Were such questions 
posed to you. That is the question. 

Mr. Jerome. No. 

Mr. "Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Innnediately upon return to the United States, the 
notice which appeared in 7'he Woi'ker — P]xhibit No. 1 shown to you — 
indicated that you spoke publicly as an eyewitness to Cuban history. 
Did you make this speech at the direction or request of any person 
known to you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jerome. If that is not a loaded question, 1 never heard one. 
AVhy don't you ask one question at a time ? 

Mr. Willis. He is simply asking you if you made that speech 
on the suggestion or instructions of persons known by you to be mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Jero:me. I realize that, but it has not yet been established that 
I made that speech. I think, therefore, it is a loaded question. I 
don't see why this congressional committee, they are intelligent peo- 
ple 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make a speech ? 

Mr. Jerome. Is it against the law to speak ? Is it un-American ? 

jSIr. NiTTLE. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the question, 
Mr. Chairman. 

IVIr. Willis. I direct 3'ou to answer the question. 

Mr. Jerome. I believe I already gave several reasons for refusing 
to answer that question or one very similar to it. And I would like 
to repeat those reasons and reemphasize the fact that this is invasion 
of my right of free speech as guaranteed to me under the first amend- 
ment and as the committee, the same way the committee has attempted 
to invade the rights of practically every witness they have brought 
before them. 



248 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it one of your purposes in visiting Cuba to estab- 
lish yourself as a firsthand eyewitness to events and conditions there 
so that you could serve more effectively in this country as a propa- 
gandist for the Communist regime of Fidel Castro ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of your trip, then ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. I think you asked me that question before, too, and I 
think I said before that this committee's attempts at these questions 
are just a way of trying to prevent people from finding out what is 
going on in Cuba. I think the committee would do well to find out 
for itself what is going on in Cuba instead of conducting these inane 
investigations. I think when you asked me that question before the 
record will show that I refused to answer that question for the reasons 
stated, and all I can say is that I will continue to repeat that as long 
as you continue to repeat the same questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you registered, or applied for registration, with 
the Attorney General under the Foreign x\gents Registration Act of 
1938? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. The answer is no, and I don't see any reason to. And 
I don't think I have to. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The notice indicates that your report to be delivered at 
the Polonia Club was under the auspices of the Lower East Side Press 
Committee. Are you a member of the Lower East Side Press Com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Jerome. I really tliink that you could have at least allowed me 
to have a honeymoon before you brought me down to ask me this kind 
of question. Is it that important a question that it couldn't have 
waited a week or two to ask me if I am a member of this or that ? Do 
you want me to become this type of witness ? 

Mr. Willis. Are you a member of that press committee ? 

Mr. Jerome. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds cited. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Through whom did j^oii make arrangements to speak 
under the auspices of the Lower East Side Press Committee ? 

Mr. Jerome. Let me just say I am not going to answer any ques- 
tions with relation to that organization or any other organization for 
the grounds cited, particularly I don't want to become a stool pigeon 
for this committee, which I consider to be totally un-American. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. He invoked the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you invoke the fifth amendment of the Constitu- 
tion in refusing to answer the last posed question ? 

Mr. Jeroime. On all the grounds previously cited. 

Mr. Willis. Including that one, necessarily. That is the way I 
understand him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Jerome, it is the committee's information that at 
the age of 14 you were a member of the Labor Youth League. Were 
you then, or at any time, a member of the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. Jerome. I could say something about the committee's informa- 
tion but I won't bother. I understand that this hearing had to do 



PRO-CASTKO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 249 

with Cuba and I understand from the chairman's report that it had to 
do with somethinf^ goin<^ on at the present time. At least with or- 
ganizations that exist at the present time. I really think that this 
question is so totally irrelevant that even under the committee's 
stretched version of the rules there is no place for it. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I ask that the chairman direct the witness to answer 
the question. 

Mr. "Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Jeroime. As I said before, I refuse to answer that question or 
any question about any organization for the grounds previously cited. 
You are not going to turn me or most witnesses you bring before you 
into cooperators with un- Americans. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Jerome, you cannot plead the fifth amendment in 
advance of the question posed to you. 

Mr. Jerome. I am putting you on notice so you won't Avaste your 
time or my time. I think you might save 3^ourselves some time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Subversive Activities Control Board in a report 
and order of February 15, 1955, after hearings under the Internal 
Security Act of 1950, found that the Labor Youth League was a Com- 
mimist-f ront organization created at a conference in Chicago on May 
28 and 29, 19-1:9, and controlled by the Coimnunist Party. It furtKer 
found, and I quote : 

The Labor Youth League is the principal means whereby a segment of Ameri- 
can youth is indoctrinated and trained for dedicated membersliip and future 
positions of leadership in the Party. It is also the means whereby these in- 
dividuals are put into active service in support and in aid of Communist Party 
policies and objectives. 

You were aware, were you not, Mr. Jerome, at the time of your 
membership in that organization that it was a Communist created and 
controlled grouiD ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerojvie. That sounds very loaded to me. I am not sure I un- 
derstand. You are asking me three questions at once, or just exactly 
what do you want to know^ 'i 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question, please. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. Could you repeat the question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware at the time of your membership in the 
Labor Youth League that it was a Communist created and controlled 
group ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. I don't think it has been established that I ever was a 
member of the Labor Youth League. I refuse to answer that question 
on the grounds cited. I think it was just the previous question. I 
am sure you remember that, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's further information that for some 
time prior to 1958 you, together with Jacob Rosen, contributed articles 
relating to youth activities for publication in the Communist Dally 
Worker. Did you make such contributions to the Daily Worker'^. 

Mr. Jerome. Once again I think this is totally irrelevant to any 
purpose the committee has. I can't understand how you can keep a 
straight face while you conduct this hearing. 

Mr. Nittle. If you desire a statement of pertinency, I think the 
chairman in his opening statement has made clear that we are inves- 
tigating Communist propaganda activities. 

98-765— 63— pt 1 3 



250 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. That is abundantly clear in the record. 

Mr. Jerome. You are just run out of things to investigate. Why 
don't you investigate what is going on in Birmingham, Alabama, or 
do you think that some of the committee or people on the committee 
would not be reelected ? What could be more un-American than police 
dogs being unleashed on 6-year-old children ? 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Jerome. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds cited 
and, in addition to that, I would like to refuse to answer on the basis 
that it is a clear attempt 

Mr. NiTTLE. We do not require further grounds than your fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Jerome. That is under the first amendment, freedom of press. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not a matter of Icnowledge to you that an indi- 
vidual is required to be under, and to accept, the discipline of tlie Com- 
miuiist Party in undertaking such work? 

Mr. Jerome. Could you explain which part of that question you 
want me to answer ? 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Let us make it very simple for you. Were you during 
the time stated, in the year 1958, and for some short time prior thereto, 
under the discipline of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jero:me. That is really what you wanted to know. That is why 
you interrupted my honeymoon to bring me down and ask me if I was 
a member of the Conmiunist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are more concerned about the honeymoons that the 
boys can't take who are now serving in the Armed Forces of the United 
States in South Vietnam and other trouble spots. 

Mr. Jerome. Why don't you bring them back ? Why don't you in- 
vestigate what they are doing in South Vietnam in chemical warfare? 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Jerome. I refuse to answer that question, as I said I would, 
and as I will continue to do for all questions regarding organizations, 
for the reasons cited. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. The Fifth World Youth Festival was staged in War- 
saAV, Poland, from July 31 to August 14, 1955, under the auspices of 
the Moscow-controlled World Federation of Democratic Youth and 
the International Union of Students. The committee's investigation, 
Mr. Jerome, reveals that you were in attendance at the Fifth World 
Youth Festival held in Warsaw in 1955. Did you in fact attend the 
Fifth World Youth Festival in Warsaw ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. At the previous hearing of this committee dealing with 
those festi^'als, the committee seemed to find themselves unwilling to 
let me testify about the festival. Tliey wouldn't even let me finish 
responding to the first question asked me. I certainl}^ think if they 
were unwilling to let me testify last time that it seems sort of a joke 
to drag me all the way down here to testify this time. Isn't there any 
consistency to this committee, bad as it is? 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. JoHANSEN (presiding). I direct the witness to respond to the 
question. 

Mr. Jerome. I would like to refuse to answer that question on the 
following grounds: In the first place, I refuse to cooperate 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a minute, Mr. Jerome. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 251 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. TliG witness lias amply stated his reasons for de- 
clining to answer and he can respond simply by reaflirming the pre- 
vious grounds. 

Mr. Jerome. I believe they are different grounds. 

]Mr. JoiiANSEN. Do the grounds include the first and fifth amend- 
ments? 

Mr. Jerome. Would you like to hear the grounds or not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. JERo:\rE. I Avould like to decline to answer that question on the 
grounds stated and also other grounds which I consider to be most 
important and which I think the committee doesn't feel that they want 
to hear. 

Mr. JoiiAXSEX. The next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mr. Jerome, were you issued a United States passport 
on June 13, 1955 ? 

(Witness conferred with counseL) 

Mr. Jerome. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your application of June 13, 1955, for a United 
States passport, did you not list England and France, only, as your 
places of travel and then state that your purpose was that of sight- 
seeing? 

Mr. Jero:me. Why dicln't you ask me these questions 3 years ago 
v.hen I was subpenaed, instead of dismissing me before I had a chance 
to respond to them? 

Mr. JoHAXSEX. The witness will answer the question, 

Mr. Jeroivie. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTEE. Did your passport contain a restriction prohibiting its 
use for travel to Communist Poland ? 

Mr. Jerome. Another example of the efforts of the Government of 
this comitry to prevent American citizens from finding out the truth. 
Yes, it did. 

Mr. jSTiTrLE. At the time you made application for that passport, 
was it not your principal purpose to visit Poland for attendance at 
the Fifth World Youth Festival which was to be held July 31 to 
August 14, 1955 ? 

Mr. Jerome. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in fact visit Poland in July and August of 
1955? ^ y ^ 

(Witness conferred wnth counsel.) 

Mr. jERo:^rE. That is a long way from Cuba. I think my refusal 
to answer the question about the Youth Festival is the fact tliat this 
committee would not let me state my additional reasons, the fact that 
this committee would not let me testify during the hearings devoted 
to questions of the Youth Festival. I can simply repeat them all. 
I think the less this committee can do would let me to indicate my 
full reasons for refusing to answer, but obviously is not interested 
in that. It does not seem to be interested in anything except dragging 
me down here from my honeymoon. 

_ Mr. JoHAXSEx. Has the witness answered the outstanding ques- 
tion? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No. I respectfully request he be directed to answer. 

Mr. JoHAxsEN. I so direct. 



252 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Jeroime. I believe I answered. My reasons include the reasons 
I stated before, the fact that the committee did not want me to testify 
before and is not sufficient in additional reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is sufficient for you to state — and it is the only 
ground that the committee recognizes for your refusal to answer the 
question — that you refuse to answer on the basis of the self-incrimi- 
nation clause of the fifth amendment. Do you plead that ? 

Mr. Jerome. I plead many grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you plead that particular one ? 

Mr. Jerome. Even if the committee does not recognize them all, 
I think they are valid and the committee recognizes not my criteria 
for validity. I stated my grounds before and I repeat all my grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I request the witness be directed to 
answer the question whether he includes the self-incrimination clause 
of the fifth amendment in refusing to respond to the questions. 

Mr. Willis. I assume you do, franldy, but it is a proper question, 
and therefore I direct you to answer it. 

Mr. jERoarE. The answer is clear ; it is yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr, Jerome, this committee on May 25, 1956, 
held hearings with respect to the attendance of Americans at this 
Fifth World Youth Festival. The hearings revealed that several 
Americans who participated in this Warsaw festival were Commu- 
nist Party members and that the American delegates appeared there 
under aliases because travel to Poland and other Iron Curtain coun- 
tries was forbidden by this country at that time. Did you assume 
an alias to conceal your attendance at the Fifth World Youth Fes- 
tival? 

Mr. Jerome. That is a loaded question ? 

Mr. NirrLE. Did you, or did you not ? 

Mr. Jerome. Did I, did I not— did I assume an alias, did I attend 
the Youth Festival ? 

Mr. Nittle. Did you assume an alias so as to conceal your attend- 
ance at the Fifth World Youth Festival ? 

Mr. Jero:me. It has not been established that I attended the Fifth 
World Youth Festival. 

INIr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Jerome. "Wliich part of the question ? 

Mr. Nittle. Did you assume an alias in attending the festival ? 

Mr. Jerome. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 
This committee has very slim pickings if it has to go all the way 
back there. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Jerome, although the Fifth World Youth Festi- 
val was ostensibly staged "for peace and friendship," it has been 
documented at an earlier hearing of this committee that the Inter- 
national Preparatory Committee, which regiilated festival activities, 
distributed a report at the festival charging American troops in 
Korea with various atrocities. This report stated in part : 

Besides shooting and stabbing with knives, Americans killed the KPA POW's 
[that is, the North Korean Army prisoners of war] by driving over them with 
tanks, throwing them into vats of boiling water, unleashing vicious dogs upon 
them, drowning, beating, starving and freezing to death, and other such horri- 
ble methods. 

But the American barbarians were not satisfied by merely killing. In order 
to intimidate the prisoners of war, the.v forced them to witness the execution 
of friends who were hanged. They then made both civilians and POW's watch 
while they cut these dead bodies to pieces. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 253 

Did you, Mr. Jerome, protest the dissemination of such falselioods 
at any meetings of the festival ? 

Mr. Jerome. I certainly hope it is not true. It would be a terrible 
thing if Americans allowed something like that to happen. But 
judging from the behavior of this committee, I think it might be 
possible. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked the question whether you protested the dis- 
semination of such falsehoods at the Warsaw Youth Festival. 

Mr. Jerome. I think that this committee and the question it is ask- 
ing are reminiscent of the worst aspects of nazism. I think I have 
already pointed out that this question and many others like it are 
loaded questions, are three questions in one. I refuse to answer the 
question about the Youth Festival. I think this committee is well 
aware of that fact. The questions here have nothing to do with any 
legislative purpose regarding Cuba. Fidel Castro was not even in the 
mountains of Cuba in 1955. How far can you stretch these hearings? 
Does not the committee have anything to do with the taxpayers' 
money 

Mr. Willis. He declines to answer. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Jerome, the Sixth World Youth Festival was 
staged in Moscow from July 28 to August 11, 1957, two years after the 
Fifth Festival in Poland. American preparations for the festival 
were mainly coordinated through an organization known as the U.S. 
Youth Festival Committee, Post Office Box 5793, Main Post Office, 
Chicago, Hlinois. The New York branch of the U.S. Youth Festival 
Committee conducted its business through Post Office Box 975, New 
York 1, New York. The individual who m.ade application to the 
United States Post Office for this box, 975, did so under the name of 
Walter Hirsch. Do you know Walter Hirsch? 

Mr. Jerome. Don't you get tired of asking these questions ? I have 
said before I am not going to be an informer for this committee or 
for anyone else. I think that the tyj^e of questions being asked in- 
dicate that is what the committee wants and that is all the committee 
wants. The committee has brought unrepentant Nazis before it to 
testify about the Youth Festival. If they like the Nazis' testimony so 
much you should go by the Nazis' testimony. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Jerome. I decline to answer the question for the reasons stated 
before. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a copy, Mr. Jerome, of an International 
News Sei^ce dispatch, under the by-line of Jack Lotto, entitled "Pro- 
Reds Recruit U.S. Youths To Attend 'Festival' in Moscow." This dis- 
patch was published, among other newspapers, in the Washington 
Post of July 19, 1957, at page A-6, which I have just handed you, 
marked for identification as "Jerome Exhibit No. 2." 

I quote from the dispatch : 

International News Service learned today that the East Coast recruiting agent 
for the Festival Committee operated under the alias of "Walter Hirsch." His 
"oflace" was a post office box. 

Actually "Hirsch" is Fred Jerome, 19, student-editor at City College of New 
York, and son of V. J. Jerome, "cultural commissar" of the U.S. Communist 
Party, just released from prison. 



254 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Is the information contained in this report correct, Mr. Jerome ? 
Mr. Jeeome. You really could have asked me these questions 3 years 



ago. 



Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Jerome. I think you already know and, if you don't know, I 
will tell you I refuse to answer the question on the grounds stated. 
It is a waste of time. 

(Document marked "Jerome Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, ]Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mr. Jerome, did you not make application in early 
1957 for a post office box, upon official forms provided by the U.S. 
Post Office, under the fictitious name of Walter Hirsch, pursuant to 
which you were assigned Box No. 975 ? 

Mr. Jerome. In 1957 Batista was murdering thousands of Cubans 
in Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. Jerome. I think I have already given my grounds for refusal 
to answer. This is pretty much exactly the same as the previous 
question. My answer is the same. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of that application for 
Post Office Box 975, filed on January 3, 1957, marked for identification 
as "Jerome Exhibit No. 3." Does not that document bear the signature 
of the alleged applicant, "Walter Hirsch," and give his residence 
address as care of Jerome, 320 Second Avenue, Zone 3, New York ? 

Mr. Jerome. That is totally irrelevant to the purpose of this hear- 
ing or any possible purpose these hearings can have. I just want 
to repeat it, repeat it, and repeat it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr, Chairman, maj^ I make a statement to this wit- 
ness of the pertinency of these particular questions? 

Mr. Willis. I think it has been set out. I direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Jerome. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Jerome Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mv. NiTTLE. 320 Second Avenue, New York City, is where you 
lived at that time ; is it not ? 

I\Ir. Jerome. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The application. Exhibit 3, lists Mr. Jacob Rosen and 
;Mr. Fred Jerome as references for "Walter Hirsch." The character 
of the business stated on the application is "personal mail." Are you 
not the "Walter Hirsch" who signed this application ? 

Mr. Jerome. Didn't you just ask me that question ? 

Mr. Johansen (presiding). The witness will answer the question. 

Mr. Jerome. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not also sign the reference as "Fred Jerome" ? 

Mr. Jerome. This is a terrible waste of time and waste of taxpayers' 
money. I think you should have something more vital to ask. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you please answer the question ? 

Mr. Jerome. I am trying to answer it and give you my reaction 
to the best of my ability. I just think it is a farce, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 255 

INIr. Willis. You are directed to answer. 

Mr. Jerome. I decline to answer on account of the same grounds, 
particularly this whole connnittee and the hearings are a joke. 

jSfr. NiTTLE. Althouiih you described the character of the business 
for wliich the postal box application was made as "personal mail," 
did you not in fact intend this box for the conduct of business cor- 
respondence in connection with the Sixth World Youth Festival ^ 

Mr. Jerome. I think in any court of law that question would be 
thrown out because it makes assumptions that are not at all proved or 
conceded by the witness. I realize this is not a court of law and I 
realize that the rules are much more flexible. It is certainly a loaded 
question. 

Mr. Joiiansen. Did you use the box for that purpose stated by 
counsel ? 

Mr. Jerome. I don't think it has been established that I used the 
box at all. 

jNIr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

IMr. Jerome. I decline to answer on the same grounds. It is get- 
ting very tiring. 

j\Ir. NiTTLE. I have likewise handed to you a photostatic copy of 
a United States Post Office form entitled "Verification of Reference of 
Applicant for Box'' — That is marked for identification as "Jerome 
Exhil)it No. 4" — upon which appears the statement to the postal au- 
thorities that you, Fred Jerome, as a reference for Walter Hirsch, 
declare that the applicant, Walter Hirsch, is "very reliable and trust- 
worthy." 

Mr. Jerome, did you thus certify, under your true name, to your 
own character under the fictitious name of Walter Hirsch? 

Mv. Jerome. Mr. Nittle, I really think you should have something 
better— — 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question. 

]\Ir. Jerome. My answer is the same to the previous question and 
the previous question and previous question and for the next questions 
for the next couple of hours. 

(Document marked "Jerome Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Now I w\ant you to examine again Exhibit No. 3, 
Avliich lists, in addition to you, one Jacob Rosen as a reference for 
"Walter Hirsch." Do you know Jacob Rosen? 

Mr. Jerome. I said before that I don't intend to be a finger man 
for this committee and I am not going to do it no matter how many 
times you ask me about names, no matter how many people you ask 
me, no matter how much it annoys the honorable members of this 
committee. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in attendance with Jacob Rosen at City 
College of New York? 

Mr. Jerome. I just said I am not going to be a finger man for this 
committee or stool pigeon for this coimnittee and I am going to repeat 
it again and again. I am sorry it annoys you, but it is the questions 
that are forcing the answ^er. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Counsel, I think both the pending and imme- 
diate preceding questions have not been answered. 



256 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is correct. I respectfully request that the wit- 
ness be directed to answer both questions, first, Wliether he knows 
Jacob Rosen, and the second. Whether he was in attendance witli 
Jacob Rosen at the City College of New York. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerozme. Whom are you requesting that of? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do 3^ou know Jacob Rosen, Mr, Jerome? 

Mr. Jerome. I repeat my grounds for refusal to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you become acquainted with Jacob Rosen while in 
attendance at City College of New York? 

Mr. Jerome. The same thing. 

Mr. Nittle. On February 3, 1960, in hearings before this com- 
mittee, Albert Gaillard testified that he joined the Communist Party 
in January 1957 and in the course of his membership he knew 
Jacob Rosen as a member of the Communist Party with whom he 
had met at Communist Party meetings. On the same day Mr. Rosen 
was called to testify and invoked the fifth amendment when asked 
wliether his identification as a Communist Party member by Al- 
bert. Gaillard was true. 

Mr. Jerome, do you not know Jacob Rosen to be a member of 
the Communist Party at the time he served with you on the Youth 
Festival Committee in New York ? 

Mr. Jerome. I was called to testify that very same day and I 
think if you look over your record you see I was called to testify 
that day and the committee did not let me testify that day. Since 
that is the day you are talking about, I certainly think you ought 
to examine why you did not let me testify that day and you are 
so anxious to testify today and to drag me from New York. 

Mr. Willis. You are now given a chance. You answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Jero^ie. It is a loaded question. In spite of the fact it is a 
loaded question, T refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. I now hand you a copy of a letter bearing return 
address of Post Office Box"^975, New York 1, New York, dated 
March 11, 1957, marked for identification as "Jerome Exhibit No. 
5." This is a letter addressed to an individual living in New York, 
vdiose identity has been blacked out by the committee, with which 
you enclosed an ap])lication blank for the Sixtli World Youth Fes- 
tival and a list of student activities to be conducted at the festival. 
It is signed by "Walter Hirsch." 

Is it not a fact, Mr. Jerome, that vou are the signer of the 
letter? 

Mr. Jerome. Did you say I enclosed something with that letter? 

Mr. Nitti^e. I asked you whether or not you were the signer of 
that letter which has been exhibited to you. 

Mr. Jerome. This part of the question. 

Mr. Willis. The simple question is. Did you sign this letter? 

Mr. Jerome. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

(Document marked "Jerome Exhibit No. 5" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. On Januaiy 23, 1957, did you not apply for a U.S. 

'nd of attending the Sixth World 



passport with the purpose in mi 
Youth Festival in Moscow ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 257 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Jerome. I think there are two questions involved there, but 
3^ou have raised it that way. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you on January 23, 1957, apply for a U.S. pass- 
port ? Now, will you answer that ? 

Mr. Jerome. Yes. 

Mr. NinxE. Did you apply for that passport with the purpose in 
mind of visiting the Sixth World Youth Festival in Moscow? 

Mr. Jerome. Once again I think it is irrelevant and I don't want to 
go into the whole business again. I think the committee knows it is 
irrelevant, but I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nitile. Was not your application then denied by the Depart- 
ment of State pursuant to reguhitions prohibiting the issuance or use 
of passports to persons who support the world Communist movement, 
of which the Communist Party of the United States is an integral 
miit? 

Mr. Jerome. Can't you subpena someone from the State Department 
to find that out ? 

Mr. Willis. Was your application rejected ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. For that reason ? 

Mr. Jerome. Which is the question ? For that reason ? 

Mr. Nittle. The chairman's question, respond to that first, of 
course. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. FoRER. You want him to to testify what the reason of the State 
Department was ? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. The question was wdiether the application was 
denied. 

Mr. Jerome. Yes, it was. It is another infringement of the rights 
of American citizens and the whole Government has been operating 
that way, with this committee in the forefront. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Jerome, are you now, as of this moment, a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Jerome. That seems to be your favorite question. I think you 
have heard the answer to that question enough times to know that my 
refusal to answer the previous questions holds true for this question, 
too, and for all questions about organizations. I really think this 
committee ought to look into some un-American activities and inves- 
tigate. 

Mr. Willis. Answer the question. 

Mr. Jerome. I just did. I refuse to answer that question for the 
same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. There are no further questions by the staff, Mr. Chair- 
man, of this witness. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Forer. Wliere does he go for his voucher ? 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess for not over 5 
minutes. 

(Brief recess.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Elizabeth Sutherland please come forward? 



258 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. LoNDOisr. She left the room, but she is here, Mr. Chairman. I 
will have her paged. She will be back in just a moment, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Willis. That is fine. 

Miss Sutherland, please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Miss Sutherland. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ELIZABETH SUTHEELAND, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, EPHRAIM LONDON 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Miss Sutherland. My name, full name, is Elizabeth Sutherland 
Martinez. I use the name "Elizabeth Sutherland" for professional 
purposes. I live at 146 East 97th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Are j'ou represented by counsel ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NirrLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. London. I have already clone so for the record. The name is 
Ephraim London. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your office address ? 

Mr. London. 1 East 44th Street, New York City. 

Mv. Nittle. Miss Sutherland, what is your marital status? 

Miss Sutherland. I am divorced. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you please state the date and place of your 
birth? 

Miss Sutherland. December 12, 1925, Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your fonnal education, 
stating the names of educational institutions you have attended and 
the dates of your attendance? 

Miss Sutherland. I graduated from Bethesda- Chevy Ch?ise High 
School in June 1946. I attended Swarthmore College from 1942 to — 
I am Sony. I am sorry, I beg j'our pardon. I graduated from 
Swarthmore College in June 1946. Yes, that is riglit. Before, I 
attended Bethesda-Chevy Chase High School. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you receive a degree from Swarthmore? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I did : bachelor of arts. 

Mr. Nittle. 'Wliat is your present occupation ? 

]Miss Sutherland. I am an editor at Simon and Schuster publish- 
ing house in New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you describe yourself as the "senior editor" of 
Simon and Schuster? 

Miss Sutherland. I am certainly not the senior editor. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you ever been the senior editor of Simon and 
Schuster, Incorporated ? 

Miss Sutherland. I beg your pardon. You said the senior editor? 

Mr. Nittle. Have you ever been senior editor of Simon and Schus- 
ter? 

Miss Sutherland. We have a number of senior editors. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you call yourself a senior editor? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 259 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Are you a senior editor ? 

Miss Sutherland. Could you repeat the question ? 

Miss Ni TTLE. Are you a senior editor ? 

Miss Sutherland. I am a senior editor. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Is that your official designation ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I suppose. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. There are assistant editors at Simon and Schus- 
ter also, which is the reason for the title "senior editor." 

Mr. NiTTLE. But you have used the designation ''senior editor" in 
official correspondence upon the business stationery of Simon and 
Schuster, have you not ? 

INIiss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are an editor of Simon and Schuster, which is 
a firm of publishers, is it not, which maintains its address at Rockefel- 
ler Center, 630 Fifth Avenue, New York City 20, New York? 

Miss Sutherland. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been thus employed ? 

]\Iiss Sutherland. I have been there since May of 1948 or '49. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have a prior employment ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "VYliat was your prior employment ? 

Miss Sutherland. I was employed at the Musemu of Modern Art 
in New York City as administrative assistant to the director of the 
photography department. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you briefly summarize your duties as senior 
editor for the firm of Simon and Schuster? 

Miss SuTL[ERLAND. As a sciiior editor at Simon and Schuster I am 
employed to find publishable manuscripts, Avork with authors on 
their books where editing is necessaiy, to supervise the production of 
those books from the time they come in as manuscripts until they are 
finished books; also to do some work in connection with publicizing 
and advertising those books. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As senior editor, are you authorized to engage in pre- 
liminary negotiations with authors, photographers, or writers in 
connection with books published by your firm? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Have you ever used any name other than Elizabeth 
Sutherland in your business correspondence ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, not to the best of my knowledge; no. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do 3^ou use the name Elizabeth Sutherland in your 
social activities? 

Miss Sutherland, Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Sutherland your maiden name? 

Miss Sutherland. No, it is my legal middle name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it the name of a prior husband ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. It was my mother's middle name also. It 
is a family name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Under what name are you registered for employment 
and social security purposes? 

Miss Sutherland. Elizabeth Sutherland. 



260 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What name do you use for legal purposes, such as 
negotiation, possibly, of contracts with authors and photographers? 

Miss Sutherland. Elizabeth Sutherland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time subsequent to January 3, 1961, 
applied for or received a passport from the Department of State of 
the United States? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "VVlien did you make that application ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember exactlv. It was, I think, in 
the spring or early summer 1961, and also previously. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Under what name did you make application for the 
passport ? 

Miss Sutherland. That is the one case in which I have used my 
full name, Elizabeth Sutherland Martinez, which is the name that 
appears on my birth certificate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this the only occasion for official purposes for 
which you have used the name Elizabeth Sutherland Martinez? 

Miss Sutherland. It is to to the best of my knowledge. I may 
have forgotten, but I cannot remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What made you depart from your usual practice of 
usin^ the name Elizabeth Sutherland in this instance? 

Miss Sutherland. In order to obtain a passport one submits a birth 
certificate, and this is my legal name on my birth certificate. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you at any time since January 3, 1961, obtained 
a passport validated for travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. When did you obtain that validation ? 

Miss Sutherland. I obtained the validation in early August. The 
passport was validated for one round trip to Cuba to begin on August 
10, 1961, and to extend not later than September 10, 1961. 

Mr. NirrLE. Pursuant to that application for validation for travel 
to Cuba from August 10 to September 10, 1961, did you travel, in fact, 
to Cuba? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Nittle. '\Vlien did you depart from the United States? 

Miss Sutherland. I am sorry ; I don't remember the exact date. It 
ATas, I believe, close to August 10th. 

Mr. Nittle. By what means did you depart from the United States 
for Cuba? 

Miss Sutherland. By airline via Miami. 

Mr. Nittle. "V\Tiat airline did you use ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember the domestic airline. I believe 
the airline from Miami to Cuba was KLM. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you go directly to Cuba from Miami? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you travel to any other parts of this hemisphere 
after receiving that passport, in addition to Cuba, during the year 
1961? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

JNIr. Nittle. When you requested validation of your passport for 
travel to Cuba, what did you state was the purpose of your visit to 
Cuba? 

Miss Sutherland. The purpose of my visit was to write an article 
for the magazine Film Quarterly on the new Cuban films. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 261 

Mr. NiTTLE. To do what? 

Miss Sutherland. To write an article for tlie magazine Film Quar- 
terly on recent Cuban films. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom is Film Quarterly published ? 

Miss Sutherland. It is sponsored by the University of California 
Press. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you pennitted, while employed at Simon and 
Schuster, to devote your attention to other occupations or employ- 
ments ? 

Miss Sutherland. Oh, yes. Well, if you mean free-lance writing, 
for example, certainly. 

Mr. NrrTLE. That was your stated purpose ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. I now hand you a photostatic copy of page 11 of the 
pro-Communist National Guardian dated December -i, 1961, marked 
for identification as "Sutherland Exhibit No. 1." 

You will note thereon, at the bottom of the left-hand coluimi, under 
the principal heading "calendar," a notice that appears as follows: 

CUBA'S CONGRESS of WRITERS & ARTISTS : a report by Elizabeth Suth- 
erland, an observer at the Congress, followed by a panel discussion with added 
participation of Irving Rosenthal and Howard Schulman, Monday, December 4, 
8 :30 p.m., Adelphi Hall, 74 5th Av., Ausp : Fair Play for Cuba Committee, 
Speakers Bureau, Contribution 75c. 

Did you on December 4 deliver the report amiomiced in that 
account ? 

Miss Sutherland. I am not certain, frankly, about the date, but I 
did deliver such a report at such a place under those auspices sometime 
that winter. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. I also hand you a photostatic copy of page 6 of the 
official Communist publication The Worker, dated November 28, 
1961, marked for identification as "Sutherland Exhibit No. 2." 

I call your attention to the lower left-hand colmnn or portion of that 
page, under the column entitled "What's On," where you \\i\\ note that 
a notice appears identical to that which appeared in the National 
Guardian^ Exhibit No. 1. These notices, apparently published for 
the edification of Communists and pro-Communists, indicated that you 
were an observer at the Cuban Congress of Writers and Artists. 

Were you in attendance in Cuba at the Congress of Writers and 
Artists ? 

(Witness conferred with counseL) 

Miss Sutherland. No, I did not go to Cuba to attend this Congress, 
if I understand your question correctly. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NrrTLE. Did you, in fact, attend the Cuban Writers and Artists 
Congress ? 

Miss Sutherland. I observed a number of their meetings as a com- 
pletely informal Adsitor. I was not invited to the Congress, nor did I 
have any official status there. 

Mr. Nittle. By the way, did you publish an article for the Uni- 
versity of California Film Quarterly when you returned ? 



262 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I wrote my report and it was published in 
the winter of 1961-62 issue. 

Mv. XiTTLE. Tliese notices of a panel discussion and a report by you, 
which appeared in the pro-Communist National Guardian and The 
Worker — did these notices appear with your knowledge and consent? 
("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. To tell you the truth, this is the first time I have 
seen this notice. 

]Mr. NiTTi.E. Do you have knowledge whether these notices appeared 
in any non-Communist publication? 

Miss Sutherland. The only other publicity given to this little talk 
that I laiow of was a mailing piece which went to members of the Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee. 1 don't know of any other announcement. 
But since I have never seen these before, there may have been others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you not a member of the Speakers Bureau of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee under whose auspices this report was 
delivered ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I am not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I am not a member. 

Mr. NiTTTJs. By whom were you contacted to deliver this report on 
the Cuban Congress of Writers and Artists ? 

Miss Sutherland. I believe the chairman of the committee called 
and asked me to speak on this subject. 

ISfr, Nitpi.e. Who was that ? 

Miss Sutherland. The chairman of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee at that time was Richard Gibson. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you written articles for the National Guardian 
at any time? 

Miss Sutherland. I have published two or three book reviews in 
the National Guardian. 

Mr. Nrmj2. Did you write these book reviews expressly at the re- 
quest of the editorship or management of the National Guardian? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "WHio made this request of you ? 

ISIiss Sutherland. The book editor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. T^^lo was that? 

Miss Sutherland. Of the National Guardian 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

INIiss Sutherland. — Charles Humboldt. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us the dates on which you were in at- 
tendance at the Cuban Writers and Artists Congress ? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Counsel, can we withdraw that question one 
moment; and before we proceed further, I understood the witness to 
testify that she was not a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee. 

Were you at any time a member of the committee ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nitti^e. Would you state what the period of your membership 
in the Fair Play for Cuba Committee was ? 

Miss Sutherland. I can't give you the exact dates ; I am sorry. I 
would say from 1961-1962, some portions of those years. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 263 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member during this year, 19C3 ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Were you at any time on the Speakers Bureau of the 
Fair Phiy for Cuba Committee '': 

Miss Sutherland. No, but I should add that I wasn't aware that 
tliey had an official Speakers Bureau. If they do 

Mr. NiT'n.E. Whether it was official or unofficial, were you on it % 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Let us assume there was no official committee, even. 
The point is. Were you asked to make speeches ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. I speak informally for the committee, but 
I was not on some list of available lecturers or somethino- of that sort. 

Mr. Willis. I think in fairness to us and you both, you should be 
asked why did you disassociate yourself from that committee ? 

Miss Slttiierland. I am afraid the only reason was that I didn't pay 
my dues. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us when you were in attendance at the 
Cuban Writers and Artists Congress ? 

Miss Sutherland. The Congress lasted for about 4 or 5 days around 
the middle of August 1961. 

Mr. Nittle. The Congress, in fact, was scheduled for the period 
August 18 to 23, 1961 ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

JNIr. Nittle. Were you in attendance for each of those days ? 

Miss Sutherland. I think I dropped in at a number of meetings, 
probably each of the days. 

Mr. Nittle. Was it one of your purposes in going to Cuba to attend 
the Cuban Writers and Artists Congress as an observer ? 

Miss SuTPiERLAND. I did not go with the expressed purpose of at- 
tending the Congress, but since it was taking place at that time, I 
thought it would be an interesting thing to observe. 

Mr. Nittle. And you had this in mind at the time you made appli- 
cation for your passport ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, not at the time I made application. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Were you requested by anyone to be in attendance at 
the Cuban Writers and Artists Congress ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Nittle. From whom did you receive informatioii that this Con- 
gress was to take place ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I am sorry ; I don't remember. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you obtain that information from tlie National 
Guardian or The Worker ? 

Miss Sutherland. Not from The Worker. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you obtain it from the National Guardian'^ 

Miss Sutherland. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Johansen. Did you obtain it before you reached Cuba, or after 
reaching Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I thinlv I heard it a week prior to my departure. 

Mr. Nittle. Did someone ask you to attend this ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Nittle. But you don't remember how you derived knowledge of 
its occun-ence in Cuba ? 



264 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember precisely. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect whether it was through reading the 
information or receiving it from some individual ? 

Miss Sutherland. I really don't remember. I Imow I wasn't 
mailed any announcements from Cuba or anything of that sort. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you mailed any announcement from a source in 
the United States? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Were there any other Americans known to you to be 
in attendance at the Cuban Writers and Artists Congress? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I believe there were some other Americans there. 
There were very few. 

Mr. XiTTLE. About how many ? 

Miss Sutherland. Very few. 

]Mr. Nittle. What is "very few" to you ? 

Miss Sutherland. Less than half a dozen. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Sutherland, for the purposes of the investiga- 
tions being conducted by this subcommittee, the subcommittee is inter- 
ested in ascertaining further information about the presence in Cuba 
of certain United States citizens which the committee is informed 
might well have been present there during your visit. 

Would you state whether you saw any of the following named per- 
sons in Cuba during your visit : 

Edward Walter Shaw, who is also known as Ed or Edwin Shaw ? 

(Witness conferred with coimsel.) 

jSIiss Sutherland. I am sorry ; I decline to answer. 

Mr. Willis. Why? 

Miss Sutherland. My reason is that I don't — I am very happy to 
give any information you wish about my own activities in Cuba. I 
don't want to discuss any other people. 

Mr. Nitt'le. Miss Sutherland, we assume that you, as any patriotic 
American citizen, would want to cooperate with a lawful investiga- 
tion of this committee. The Supreme Court has repeatedly stated 
that it is the duty of an American citizen to testify when called 
upon. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. I want to explain to you that the committee, as I have 
already explained, is seeking information relating to persons who 
have traveled to Cuba in violation of State Department regulations. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I am aware of this. I don't think that my 
loyalty as an American citizen should require any action against my 
personal conscience which makes me feel that it is wrong to discuss 
the activities of other persons. 

Mr. Nittle. Edward Walter Shaw is, in fact, is he not, the Midwest 
director of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee?. We have reason to 
believe that you know him. 

Miss Sutherland. I do not know him. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you laiow whether he was in Cuba at the time you 
were there in 1961 ? 

Miss Sutherland. I have already declined to answer that question. 

Mr. Nittle. You say you do not know Edward Walter Shaw, and 
yet refuse to respond to the question on the basis you don't want to 
talk about somebody. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 265 

Miss Sutherland. It is my general feeling that I don't want to 
discuss others; and in this particular case, even if I don't know, I 
tit ill don't want to talk about him. 

^Ir. NiTPLE. You mean to say you don't want to talk about some- 
one you don't know ? 

Miss Sutherland. 1 believe I answered the question. 

Mr. NiTiXE. Mr. Chairman, I would pose the question again and 
then request that the witness be directed to answer the question. 

JNIr. Willis. "\^niat is the question ? 

]Mr. XiTTLE. Did you see Edward Walter Shaw^ in Cuba during 
the period you were there ? 

Mr. Willis. I think that is an appropriate question and I am going 
to have to direct you to answer it. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mv. Willis. The question is, Did you see him ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know whetlier I saw him because I don't 
know him. 

jMr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you see Joseph Parker Morray while in Cuba in 
1961? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sltherland. I decline to answer for the same reasons I gave 
before. 

Mr. Willis. You see, you have not really answered that question. 
The question is. Did you see that person ? That is all. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. I mean my previous answer when I stated 
that I did not wish to discuss 

Mr. Willis. That is not the question now. We went over that 
ground with reference to the other witness, and the last question re- 
garding another person, you said you dichi't know whether you had 
seen him because you didn't know him. 

The question is. Did you see Joseph Parker Morray while you were 
in Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I decline to answer for the reasons I originally 
stated in declining to answer whether I had seen the other, the first 
person you asked me about. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Joseph Parker Morray ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. No. I don't know him. 

Mr. Nittle. Was he at any time pointed out to you in C^uba? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Nittle. How long did you remain in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. Approximately 3 weeks. 

Mr. Nittle. From August 10, 1961 ? 

Miss Sutherland. I may have left on the 14th or 18th. I think I 
arrived there about the l7th. 

Mr. Nittle. Of August 1961 ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. And left when ? 

Miss Sutherland. Left when ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

98-765— 63— pt. 1 4 



266 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Sutherland. I returned just under the deadline of my pass- 
port validation, about the 19th. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of what? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I am sorry ; about the 9th of September. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You returned on September 9th ? 

Miss Sutherland. Approximately: it vras just under the deadline. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Albert Jorgenson Lewis, executive sec- 
retary of the Greater Los Augeles Chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I do not. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Joseph North, editor or correspondent 
for The Worher? 

Miss Sutherland. By "know" you mean personally acquainted ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Miss Sutherland. No, I do not. 

Mr. Willis. Do you knoAv him when you see him, not necessarily 
socially ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I do not. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you ever been introduced to him ? 

Miss Sutherland. Not to mv knowledge. 

Mr. Nittle. At any meeting or otherwise ? 

Miss Sltherland. Not to my knowledge or recollection. 

Mr. Nittle. Was Joseph North ever pointed out to you while in 
Cuba in August to September 1961 ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

]Mr. Nittle. Was Albert Jorgenson I^wis, whom I just mentioned, 
ever pointed out to you while you were in Cuba during that period ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Vincent Ted Lee ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I know him. 

Mr. Nittle. How long have vou known him ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember the first time I met him. I 
would say I met him not more than a year or a year and a half ago. 

INIr. Nittle. Did you know him as the director of the New York 
chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Sutherland. I knew him as an officer of that committee. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you see Vincent Ted I^e in Cuba during the period 
you were there ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Ask her first if she knows him. 

Mr. Nittle. She has testified to that. 

Miss Sutherland. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Willis. "\'\^iat is the name of the person we are talking about? 

Mr. Nittle. The question, Mr. Chairman, is whether or not the wit- 
ness saw Vincent Ted Lee in Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. How long have you known Mr. Lee ? 

Miss Sutherland. I said, to the best of my recollection, I met him a 
year or a year and a half ago for the first time. 

]Mr. Willis. Was that before you went to Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Willis. Are you saying under oath that you did not know him 
when you went to Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. Just a minute. I may have met Mr. Lee once or 
twice, introduced and nothing more, before I went to Cuba. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 267 

Mr. Willis. Did you see him while you were in Cuba ? 

Miss SuTHERixA.ND. I have declined to answer that question. 

Mr. Willis. I Avill have to order you to answer that question. That 
is a pertinent question to our inquiry. You see, we are inquiring into 
the practice of some people violating American law in respect to travel 
to Cuba, and so on. This question is bigger than you and bigger than 
myself, and our business is to find out about these things and, if laws 
are being violated, refer that to the department enforcing the law. 
Enforcement is not our duty. But our inquiry also has to do with 
the possible necessity for amendments to these laws. So it is for these 
reasons that, as chairman of this subconnnittee, and I have been a 
lawyer 37 years, I think this is an appropriate question. 

I am being fair to you. Therefore, 1 nnist order you to answer that 
question, 

(Witness conferred Avith counsel.) 

iliss Sutherland. Sir, I believe that this committee has its own 
means of obtaining information about such persons as Mr. Lee. In 
fact, I think he has already testified at another committee, not this 
one, of the Senate. I, therefore, don't feel that my information is 
necessary or even could be helpful, and certainly not essential enough 
to compel me to give information about other persons when this is very 
much against my wishes. 

]\Ir. Willis. It goes beyond j^our wishes, really, as I said. I can't 
exercise coercion or force to compel you to answer a question. You 
have a lawyer. I don't know him. I take it he is a very good one. 
So you may take his advice or not take it on that. But I must tell 
you that your answer is not acceptable. 

For the last time, I direct you to answer it and call to your attention 
that your reasons for not answering are not satisfactory as a matter of 
procedure and as a matter of law and as a matter of constitutional 
rights. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I am sorry. I repeat that I decline to answer 
this question. 

Mr. Willis. On the grounds you have previously stated ? 

Miss Sutherland. On the grounds which I have previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. I tell you it is not acceptable to the committee, with 
the legal consequences that flow, and therefore, Mr. Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, while in Cuba in 1961, meet with James 
O'Connor? 

Mr. Willis. One second. You said that we had other means of 
getting at this information and said that Mr. Lee had testified. 

Miss Sutherland. That is what I have heard. 

Mr. Willis. How do you know 'i 

Miss Sutherland. I have heard. 

jMr. Willis. That was an executive session? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. I am just implying that you must know him pretty 
well. 

Miss Sutherland. No. As a member of the committee 

Mr. Nii^rLE. Nor did Mr. Lee testify before this committee or on 
the subject of this inquiry. 

Miss Sutherland. I believe news of this was carried in the New 
York Times. 



268 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. If it is a matter of public information- 



Miss Sutherland. I am sure it is a matter of public information. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet with James O'Connor in Cuba during 
your visit there? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The James O'Connor to which I refer was formerly a 
teacher at Barnard College and also a sponsor with you of the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee. 

Now, will you answer the question as to whether you met James 
O'Connor during your visit in Cuba ? 

Miss SuTPiERLAND. I decHiie to answer. I am sorry to appear so un- 
cooperative, but all these questions are of the same nature, that is, 
they concern other persons, and it is the same principle involved. 

Mr. Willis. I understand that. 

Miss Sutherland. In each question. 

Mr. Willis. But this is a matter of your Government, and the ques- 
tion is a proper one, and I can't coerce you or compel you physically 
to answer, but I tell you that your answer is not acceptable. You 
have a counsel. He can advise you, and the answer you give now is 
not acceptable. The consequence I am talking about is contempt 
citation. You know what I am talking about, but I am not compelling 
you. 

But I must make the record abundantly clear so that there will be 
no misunderstanding about it that your answer is not acceptable and 
that is that. You may proceed, if that is your position. 

Miss Sutherland. I have no comment to make and I can only re- 
peat what I have said. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, for the reasons you previously stated, 
you decline to answer. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. And it is understood that we don't accept that as a 
proper declination. 

You may proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet with Mr. Leroy McLucas in Cuba during 
your visit there ? 

Miss Sutherland. I decline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Leroy McLucas ? 

Miss Sutherland. I know Mr. McLucas. 

Mr. Nittle. And you know James O'Connor, the person previously 
mentioned ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, would you tell us whether any of these persons 
whom I have named have attended the Cuban Congress of Writeir 
and Artists ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Willis. Is there a pending question ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. You mean in Cuba, Counsel ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. That is a different question. Miss Sutherland. The 
other one was whether you saw these people. This one is whether 
they attended. It is not repetitious. It is a different question. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 269 

Miss Sutherland. No, none of the ])eis()ns Avliom you have men- 
tioned whom I know or could recognize attended the Congress, at 
least insofar as the meetings at which I was present. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were any of those persons present as observers of 
the Congress? 

Miss buTiiEiu.AND. No. I meant in any capacity. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were your experiences 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Counsel, before we proceed, I want to be very 
clear as to the names involved in your last question to which the 
witness' answer was "No." 

Mr. Nii'rLE. Yes, sir. 

Did you understand, Miss SutherlancL that the persons to whom 
I referred as being in attendance at the Congress were Edward Wal- 
ter Shaw, Joseph Parker Morray, Albert Jorgenson Lewis, Joseph 
North, Vincent Ted Lee, James O'Connor, and Leroy McLucas? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Are you now testifying additionally that you did 
not see them in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. The question I was asked was whether they had 
attended the Congress. 

Mr. Johansen. And you leave your answer to the previous ques- 
tions regarding named persons, when you were asked whether you 
saw them? You leave your answer the same, that you decline to 
answer ? 

Mr. London. Before the witness answers that • 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. You have just extended the question to include 
whether I had seen any of these people in Cuba, not merely at the 
Congress ? 

Mr. Johansen. Yes. I have no desire to confuse the witness. I 
am trying to clarify my own understanding and the record. I want 
to make very sure wliether your answer to the question of whether 
you saw these named persons at this meeting meant to convey that 
you were novr saying you had not seen any of these named persons 
while in Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. He is not asking you to answer it. He wants to know 
whether you understand the difference between the two. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. No, I have previously declined to answer 
the question of whether I had seen these people in Cuba. I did state 
that I did not see any of them at the Congress. 

Mr. Johansen. And your previous answer stands ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. I will add one statement to that. Of the 
persons you have mentioned 

Mr. Willis. Whom do you want to include as the people you don't 
want to say you saw ? Name them. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I will modify my statement and say that of the 
people that you liave asked me about, as to whether I saw them in 
Cuba, there is one person on that list whom I saw there and that is 
the last person you have named, who was Mr. Leroy McLucas, who 
was there legally. 

Mr. Willis. You mean at the conference ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I mean in Cuba. I am referring to presence 
in Cuba and not to presence at the Congress. 



270 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. Give me that list. Let us make it very short. Did 
you see Edward Walter Shaw in Cuba ? I think you said you didn't 
know him, is that right? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

]Mr. Willis. Did you see Joseph Parker Morray in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I said I didn't know him. 

Mr. Willis. Did you see Albert Jorgenson Lewis in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I said I didn't know him. 

Mr. Willis. Did you see Joseph North in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I said I didn't know him. 

]\Ir. Willis. Did you see Vincent Ted Lee in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Willis. Did you see James O'Connor in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Willis. Did you see Leroy McLucas in Cuba ? 

INIiss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. But j'ou did not see him, or did you see him, Leroy 
McLucas, at the conference we are talking about ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, you draw a distinction that you did 
see Leroy McLucas in Cuba, but you did not see him at that conference. 

Miss Sutherland. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were your expenses assumed for your attend- 
ance at the Cuban Writers and Artists Congress ? 

Miss Sutherland. I paid my own expenses. 

Mr. Nittle. Were any of these expenses in part assumed by the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, were any part, or the whole, of 3"0ur living ex- 
penses and accommodations in Cuba furnished by the Cuban Govern- 
ment? 

Miss Sutherland. Not by the 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. The question was, Were my expenses or any part 
of them paid for 

Mr. Nittle. Were your living expenses and accommodations, in 
whole or in part, while in Cuba, furnished by the Cuban Government? 

ISIiss Sutherland. Part of them ; yes. 

Mr. Nittle. AVliat part was furnished by the Cuban Government ? 

JMiss Sutherland. Some meals, and I think my hotel room. 

Mr. Nittle, Did you have any understanding with representatives 
of the Cuban Government prior to your departure for Cuba 

Miss Sutherland. No. Excuse me ? 

Mr. Nittle — that your meals and hotel room might be supplied by 
them without charge to you? 

Miss Sutherland. No. I was very surprised when I went to pay 
my bill to be informed that there was no charge. I did not know this 
until I left Havana to go on a trip into the country. 

Mr. Nittle. I see. In exchange for the privilege of your attend- 
ance at the Cuban Congress of Artists and Writers, and the fact that 
the Cuban Government assumed the expenses of furnisliing you meals 
and a hotel room, was it understood that you would conduct propa- 
ganda favorable to the Cuban regime in the United States on your 
return here? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 271 

(Witness conferred Avitli counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. Empliaticiilly no. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was anything said at that time 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTixE. — with respect to your activities upon your return ? 

Miss Sui'iiERLAND. Nothing Avhatsoever. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Was anything said at any time during your visit 
in Cuba about your activities on your return ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Wliile you Avere in Cuba, did you confer with any of- 
ficials of the Cuban Government ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. Excuse me, I think toward the end of my 
visit I consulted some sort of tourist director there because I wanted 
to get an earlier plane back. The planes were crowded. 

Mr. NrrrLE. What person was authorized to extend you free meals 
and room service? 

Miss Sutherland. I have no idea. I went to pay my bill and I was 
informed by the hotel clerk that it was not necessary to pay it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you arrived in Cuba, were you required to 
execute any questionnaire by the Cuban Government relating to your 
political affiliations or beliefs? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Or your membership in any organization ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, while in Cuba, make it known to Cubans that 
you were a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Sutherland, No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. You told that to no one ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I did not. They were very hospitable 
people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you, of course, were very friendly to the Cuban 
regime ? 

Miss Sutherland. I was not friendly to the Cuban regime because 
I had no contacts with the Cuban regime. The only Cubans I saw 
were writers and painters. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you not, both prior to your trip in Cuba in 1961 
and subsequent thereto, conducted propaganda in favor of the Cuban 
Communist regime? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. No, sir ; I have never conducted propaganda of 
any sort. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I have published an article on this Congress in 
the magazine The Nation^ which I consider to be a very objective 
account of what took place. It was primarily a study of the degree of 
artistic freedom existing in Cuba and what policies the Congress de- 
cided upon in this relation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you were also interviewed by The Worker cor- 
respondent? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Apparently your report satisfied him, did it not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know whether he was satisfied. He made 
no comment. He only interviewed me. 



272 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You don't think that is funny, do you ? 

Miss Sutherland. I think to ask me 

Mr. Willis. Proceed and ask questions. 

(Witness conferred with counseL) 

Miss Sutherland. I think it is a little funny. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you applied for registration, or have you reg- 
istered, with the Attorney General at any time pursuant to the ForeigTi 
Agents Registration Act of 1938 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. No. I have not because I am not a foreign agent. 

Mr. Willis. You see, by that you must understand we are talking 
about a Federal law which requires foreign agents of all governments 
to register. In other words, lobbyists must register and, therefore, a 
representative of all governments must register, and most of them 
do and brag about it. This is not intended to embarrass you, I am 
sure. It is just to develop information by questions and answers. 

Miss Sutherland. I do not consider myself in any way a lobbyist 
and certainly I am not in the employ of a foreign government. 

Mr. Willis. We are not in a position to dispute what you are saying. 
I think there is quite a contrast between you and the previous witness, 
who said that the whole Government was at fault in matters of pass- 
port and that the whole Government was wrong and that this commit- 
tee was at the forefront of it all. We appreciate the difference in your 
appearance here. We are simply after facts. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did you continue your membership in the Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee after your return from Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I believe so. 

Mr. Willis. Would you be able to say for how long ? 

Miss Sutherland. Until into 1962. 

Mr. Willis. "WHiat were your activities 

Miss Sutherland. Late 1962. 

Mr. Willis. 'Wliat were your activities, if any, as a member of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee subsequent to your return from Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I made this little talk which you have referred 
to in these announcements. I gave an even more informal talk on the 
same subject at a party, as opposed to a speech of this kind, which was 
sponsored by the committee. That is all. 

Mr. Willis. Was the general subject matter of the second talk on 
your trip to Cuba and your attendance at this Congress and your im- 
pressions based thereon ? 

Miss Sutherland. The subject matter of both talks was as follows. 
It was a review of cidtural policy in Cuba during the previous year and 
through the Congress which I had observed. 

Mr. Willis. May I go back a little bit to these names. If I recall 
correctly— and correct me if I am wrong — in your earlier statement you 
were asked, as I remember, whether there were a lot of American 
writers and representatives at that conference and you said just a few. 
Thereupon counsel asked you what is a few and you said maybe half a 
dozen. Is that about correct ? 

Miss Sutherland. I said less than half a dozen was my idea of a 
few. 

Mr. Willis. You named one, Mr. McLucas. Now, who were the 
other five or four ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. I did not say Mr. McLucas was at the 
Congress. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 273 

Mr. Willis. Pardon ? 

Miss Sutherland. I did not say Mr. INIcLiicas was at the Congress. 

Mr. "Willis. I see. That is right, you said you had only seen him. 
But now let us go back to what you did say, that there were less than 
half a dozen at the conference. Who were they? In other words, 
from our investigation and our records we are giving you names, and 
you said there were less than half a dozen at the conference. Now, who 
were they ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. At the conference in Cuba — or it may be you said you 
saw less than half a dozen in Cuba. ^Vliichever one, I am not putting 
the words in your mouth. I am paraphrasing your testimony from my 
recollection, and you agree I am paraphrasing it correctly. Whether 
at the conference or in Cuba, it is now established that, of the names 
we named, you said you saw Mr. McLucas. That leaves anywhere from 
five to less that you saw in Cuba, or at the conference in Cuba. Now, 
who were they ? 

Miss Sutherland. We are back where we were. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Willis. All right. We might come back to that; but in the 
meantime, as I recall, you said a moment ago that Mr. McLucas was 
there "legally." Did you use that expression ? 

Miss Sutherland. I said to the best of my understanding. 

Mr. Willis. What do you mean by "legally" ? 

Miss Sutherland. I meant, or I understood he had a validated pass- 
port to travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. Did you know some who were not there "legally"? 

Miss Sutherland. No. I mentioned that because I understand that 
one of the purposes of the present investigation is illegal travel to 
Cuba and I simply wanted to • 

Mr. Willis. Let me ask you this : Did you and Mr. McLucas travel 
together, or did you just meet him in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. He arrived after I did. 

Mr. Johansen. On what information did you base your statement 
that he was there legally, or with legally, properly validated passport ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. Mr. McLucas got his passport validation for 
travel to Cuba on the basis of a letter written by me. He went to 
Cuba to make photographs for a photographic book which I had 
under consideration as a publishing project. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has Leroy McLucas entered into any contract with the 
firm of Simon and Schuster by which he would prepare a book for 
publication by that firm, or will supply photographs on the subject of 
Cuba to be contained in a book for publication by the firm of which 
you are senior editor ? 

Miss Sutherland. You are asking me if he had a contract ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Any contract ? 

Miss Sutherland. Not a formal contract. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did assist Mr. McLucas in the preparation of an 
application to obtain a United States passport for travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I wrote a letter with which he obtained a vali- 
dated passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you. Miss Sutherland, a photostatic copy of the 
passport application filed by Mr. McLucas with the New York office 



274 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

of the Department of State on July 13, 1961, marked for identification 
as "Sutherland Exhibit Xo. 3." 

On page 1 of the passport application you will note a photograph 
of Leroy McLucas appended thereto. Is that a photograph of Mr. 
McLucas ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss SuTHERLAXD. Yes, it is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman I offer Exhibit 3 for the record, to be 
retained in the committee's files. 

]\rr. Willis. Let it be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 3"' and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. On this passport application he gives his address as 
84 East 3rd Street, New York 3, New York, and states he was born 
July D, 103.5 at St. Louis. Missouri. Did you know him to reside 
at 84 East Third Street, New York 3, New York, as of July 13, 1961 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Stttherlaxd. I do not really know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I direct your attention to page 2 of that application, 
on which he advises the State Department that the only country he is 
to visit is England, that his port of departure would be New York, 
and the approximate date of departure would be July 20, 1961. Did 
you assist Mr. McLucas in the preparation of that passport applica- 
tion? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he advise you of the facts contained in it which 
I have just recited ? 

]\Iiss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Is this the same passport with respect to which you 
provided Mr. McLucas a letter ? 

Mr. Willis. A recommendation of some sort. 

Miss Sutherland. The letter which I provided was for validation 
of a passport. I did not know at the time whether he had a passport 
or not. That is an additional step, the validation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will note on page 2 of the application. Exhibit No. 
3 

Mr. Willis. The Chair was inquiring as to the prospect of complet- 
ing the testimony before lunch. It jooks as tliough we cannot. 
So the committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12:55 p.m., ISIonday, May 6, 1963, the hearings 
were recessed, to reconvene at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

(Members present : Representatives Willis and Johnnsen of the 
subcommittee, and also Pool, Bruce, Schadeberg, and Ashbrook. 

AFTERNOON SESSION— MONDAY, MAY 6, 1963 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m.. Honorable Edwin E, 
Willis, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis and 
Johansen.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

You may proceed Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 275 

TESTIMONY OF ELIZABETH SUTHERLAND— Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Sutherland, just before the recess I had handed 
you Exhibit No. 3, which is a passport application executed by Leroy 
McLucas on July 13, 1961, in which he stated to the Passport Office 
that he Avished to travel to England and that his approximate date of 
departure was July 20, 19(51. Will you note on page 2 of the applica- 
tion, Exhibit No. 3, that Mr. McLucas lists your name, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Sutherland, Simon and Schuster, Fifth Avenue, New York City, New 
York, as the person to be notified in the event of death or accident. 

Does your name appear as I have stated in the passport application ? 

Miss Sm^iiERLAND. Yes, more or less. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What do you mean "more or less" ? 

]Mr. LoxDox. ]\Iisstatement of a name. 

Mr. NiTiXE. ^"\niat is misstated with respect to your name ? 

Miss Sutherland. I am Miss Elizabeth Sutherland, and it says 
Mrs., but it is not important. 

Mr. Nittle. I see. Did Mr. McLucas on July 13, 1961, at the time 
he filed that application, or prior thereto, discuss with you this fact, 
that he wished to name you as the person to be notified in case of 
accident or death? 

Miss Sutherland. I do not remember exactly. I think he informed 
me at the time that he had done this. 

Mr. Nittle. It is not clear to me whether this information he gave 
you was prior to the date of application or subsequent to it. Will 
3^ou clarify that? 

Miss Sutherland. I do not remember exactly. My recollection is 
that it was not prior to the date of application. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you aware that Leroy McLucas obtained his pass- 
port on the very same day on which he filed his application, namely, 
July 13, 1961 ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I am not aware that he obtained his passport 
the same day he applied for it. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. No, I was not aw^are. 

Mr. Nittle. When did you first become aware of it ? 

Miss Sutherland. Mr. JMcLucas was making a trip to Cuba. He 
did not inform me of the details of his travel arrangement to that 
extent. 

Mr. Nittle. I asked when yon first became aware that Mr. McLucas 
had received a passport? 

Miss Sutherland. When I first became aware that he had received 
a passport? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember the precise date. 

Mr. Nittle. Was it the very next day ? 

Miss Sutherland. I just don't remember. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you not made aware of this fact on July 14, 
1961, the day following the date of his application and the issuance 
of his passport for travel to England ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know when he told me that he had 
obtained his passport. I don't quite see the importance of the ques- 
tion. I certainly found out at some point that he was able to go. 



276 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE, All rig-lit. 

Miss Sutherland. But I don't know when. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On July 14, 1961, the day following the date of the 
receipt of the passport, Mr. McLucas addressed a letter to the Pass- 
port Division of the U.S. Department of State requesting permission 
to travel to Cuba in order, as he said, "to take photographs for a book 
which Simon and Schuster is interested in publishing." I hand you 
a copy of his letter of July 14, 1961, addressed to the Passport Divi- 
sion, marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 4," on which you will note that 
he advises that he would wish to leave for Cuba on July 21, 1961, and 
stay about 1 month before returning to the United States, although 
you will recollect that in his passport application to tlie New York 
Office he indicated his desire to travel only to England and to travel 
commencing July 20, 1961. 

Were you aware. Miss Sutherland, of the contents of this letter 
of July 14, 1961, being forwarded to the Passport Division by Mr. 
McLucas ? 

(At this point Representatives Bruce, Tuck, and Pool entered the 
hearing room.) 

Miss Sutherland. I was aware that he was making application for 
validation of his passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you see that letter of July 14, 1961 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember. It is possible. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will note that in the letter of Mr. McLucas of 
July 14, 1961, he refers in it to an "enclosed letter"; is that correct? 

I hand you a photostatic copy of a letter dated Jidy 14, 1961, the 
same date as Mr. McLucas' letter, on the letterhead of Simon and 
Schuster, Inc., marked for identification as "Sutherland Exhibit No. 
5." 

Do you not, in that letter addressed "To ^Miom It iSIay Concern," 
intend to advise the State Department that Leroy McLucas, whom you 
describe as a free-lance photographer, wishes to go to Cuba to take 
photographs in connection with a book which you state your firm 
is interested in publishing and request permission for him to travel 
for that purpose ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not know on July 14, 1961, at the time you 
addressed that letter on the official letterhead of Simon and Schuster 
and signed that with your name, "Elizabeth Sutherland, Senior 
Editor," that Mr. McLucas had already received a passport validated 
for travel to England, but not for Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I would have written the letter for him for us 
whether he had obtained his passport by that date or not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You would have ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I would assume 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you prepare that letter ? 

Miss Sutherland. On July 14 — I would assume that he would get 
a passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long had you known Mr. McLucas prior to 
July 14, 1961? 

Miss Sutherland. About a year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Under what circumstances did you meet him ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 277 

Miss Sutherland. I met him socially. I later saw his photographs 
and was impressed by them. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Did you meet him at any gatherings of the Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a photostatic copy of a letter of the 
deputy director of the New York Passport Office, dated July 21, 1961, 
addressed to Mr. McLucas marked for identification as "Sutherland 
Exhibit No. 6.;' _ 

That letter is in reply to Mr. McLucas' request for travel to Cuba, 
and declares that validation of liis passport for travel to Cuba cannot 
be granted because of the break in diplomatic relations, and returned 
his passport "for such other travel as Mr. McLucas might plan to 
undertake." 

Did Mr. McLucas inform you of the rejection of his application for 
validation of his passport ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, he did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Sutherland Exhibits Nos. 4, 5, 
and 6 for the record at this time. 

Mr. Willis. Let them be incorporated in the record. 

(Documents mark "Sutherland Exhibits Nos. 4, 5, and 6," respec- 
tively, follow.) 



278 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



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Sutherland Exhibit No. 4 



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PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



279 



Sutherland Exhibit No. 5 



Ai SIMON AND SCHUSTER, INC. 



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280 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



SuTiiERLAxn Exhibit No. 6 



In T^lj refer to 






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PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 281 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I return to the letter you wrote on behalf of Mr. 
JSIcLucas in which you seek a validation for him. You state you pre- 
pared that letter on July 1-i, 10()1 ; is that rio-ht '\ 

Miss Sutherland. That is the date on the letter. 

(At this point Mr. Johaiisen left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did Mr. McLucas make request for that letter of 
July 14? 

Miss Sutherland. I do not remember exactly. I would assume it 
was quite close to the elate, July 14. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Was it the day before ? 

INIiss Sutherland. I do not remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere did the discussions pertaining to this requested 
letter take place ? 

Miss Sutherland. The idea of his doing a book was originally 
discussed 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, I am asking Avhere the request for this letter of 
yours of July 14 took place ? 

Miss Sutherland. The location of the discussion ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Miss Sutherland. In my office. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At Simon and Schuster ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. At the time you prepared that letter for Mr. McLucas 
had you made any contractual arrangments with him for the taking 
of photographs in Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I answered that question this morning, I believe, 
and I said there was no formal contract. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You said there was no formal arrangement made, but 
you had discussed the matter ? 

Miss Sutherland. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you realize that Mr. McLucas would go to consid- 
erable expense in his trip % 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any authorization given to Mr. McLucas by any 
of 3^our official superiors in Simon and Schuster to travel to Cuba to 
incur these expenses in connection with a book to be published by 
Simon and Schuster ? 

Miss Sutherland. None of Mr. McLucas' expenses were to be cov- 
ered by Simon and Schuster. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were the arrangements exclusively made with you ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you discuss this with any of your superior officers, 
the fact that you were undertaking this arrangement with Mr. 
McLucas ? 

(At this point Mr. Johansen returned to the hearing room.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Miss Sutherland. My action in providing Mr. McLucas with a let- 
ter of accreditation was not unusual thing for me to do since, as I think 
you mentioned this morning, or asked me to confirm, editors such as 
myself often undertake projects and encourage authors without any 
existing contract for the work. I would like to add, since it has not 
yet appeared in the record, that Mr. McLucas did get his passport 
validated eventually. 

98-765— 63— pt. 1 5 



282 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We will come to that. 

(At this point Kepresentatives Ashbrook and Schadeberg entered 
the hearing room.) 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Just answer the question "Yes" or "No" as to 
whether your superiors were consulted. 

Miss Sutherland. I did not consult my superiors because it was 
a normal editorial undertaking. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The answer is you did not consult ? 

Miss Sutherland. There were no expenses involved. Therefore, I 
saw no reason to ask approval. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Simon and Schuster at any time subsequently pub- 
lish any book containing photographs supplied by Mr. McLucas ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. They did not? 

Miss SuTHEKL/VND. No, they did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time subsequent to this date discuss with 
Simon and Schuster, your superior officials, that you had discussed 
this with Mr. McLucas ? 

Miss Sutherland. Had discussed what? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your engaging him to travel to Cuba for this purpose. 

Miss Sutherland. Mr. McLucas was not engaged to travel to Cuba 
by Simon and Schuster. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, you talked to him about this. Did you ever discuss 
this later with your superiors ? Did Mr. McLucas ever present to you 
any photographs which were to be published ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, most certainly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why were they not published ? 

Miss Sutherland. He brought back a large number of photo- 
graphs. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why were they not published by Simon and Schuster ? 

Miss Sutherland. They were not published primarily because a 
photographic book is a very expensive publishing undertaking. By 
the time we received the photographs the chance of marketing such 
a book successfully seemed verj' small. 

Mr. NirrLE. Did you show these photographs to anybody in Simon 
and Schuster? 

Miss Sutherland. I believe I did. 

Mr. Nittle. You believe you did ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you show them to any official ? 

Miss Sutherland. I think I showed them to — a selection of the 
best ones — to one or two people on the staff. But I had by then 
realized myself that it was unlikely we would publish such a book. 

Mr. Nittle. You made that decision yourself, did you not? 

Miss Sutherland. I made it based on my observation of publishing 
practice and the situation at that time. 

INIr. Nittle. Now, we will go back to the application of Mr. 
McLucas for a passport, your letter in support of its validation for 
Cuba, and then the notice of July 21, 1961, from the New York office 
of the Passport Division that the application was rejected. 

However, you are aware, as you have expressed it here a moment 
ago, that the decision of July 21, 1961, of the New York office of the 
Passport Division was reversed on July 24, three days later, in Wash- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 283 

ington, and a passport validalcd for travel to Cuba— valid until De- 
cember 31, 19G1 — was granted to Leroy McLucas. You are aware 
of that fact, are you not 'i 

Miss SuTiiEKLAND. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. JNIr. Chairman, I offer for the record a Department of 
State reference slip or memo which was prepared in the United States 
Department of State, apparently on July 24, 1961, referring to the 
passport application for travel to Cuba by Mr. McLucas. This is 
marked for identification as "Sutherland Exhibit No. 7." 

The State Department memo reads as follows : 

IMr. McCloskey discussed case with Lincoln White and they recommend Mr. 
McLucas be permitted to go to Cuba since he has letter of assignment from Simon 
and Schuster. 

There are other notes upon the memo, including a statement that a 
TWX was sent to New York to okay Mr. McLucas' travel to Cuba. 

Now, Miss Sutherland, could you tell us when Mr. McLucas actually 
departed for Cuba after validation of his passport in July 1961 ? 

Miss Sutherland. He departed for Cuba sometime during my ab- 
sence from New York and his presence in Cuba. So I don't know the 
exact date. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 7" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Didn't he tell you of that date when you met him in 
Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. Not precisely. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Didn't he tell you that he had departed from the 
United States on or about September 3, 1961 ? Did he or did he not? 

Miss Sutherland. He did not mention the exact date. I think 
we met in Havana by the swimming pool of a hotel. I was very 
happy to see him. I said, "When did you get here?" He answerecl, 
"A few hours ago," and we went on to talk about other things. I 
had no reason to pin him down as to the date of his departure. 

Mr. NrrrLE. Were you not aware of his date of departure by some 
means of communication ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I was not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did he know at what hotel to find you a few hours 
after his arrival ? 

Miss Sutherland. I think he must have asked in various places. 

Mr. Nittle. Wliat places occur to you ? 

Miss Sutherland. I suppose the hotels, the two or three main hotels 
in Havana. 

Mr. Nittle. There are many hotels in Havana, are there not? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, but there are two or three main large ones. 

Mr. Nittle. You mean to tell us you do not knoAv how he estab- 
lished a contact with you at this particular hotel at which you were 
staying, at the swimming pool ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember. 

Mr. Nittle. What hotel were you staying at in September 1961 ? 

Miss Sutherland. At the Hilton. At the Havana Libre. 

Mr. Nittle. You will recollect that Mv. McLucas, in his application 
to the State Department, expressed an urgent desire to receive his 
passport promptly, indicating he wanted to travel on July 21. Was 



284 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

there any further discussion between you and Mr. McLucas that would 
explain his delayed departure? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't understand the question, "that would 
explain his delayed departure." 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did not leave the United States until August 10, 
1961? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. McLucas left on September 3, 1961. But in his 
passport application and accompanying letter he expressed an urgent 
desire to travel promptly. Yet as of August 10 you knew he had not 
left the United States, is that not true? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Was there any discussion between you and Mr. INIc- 
Lucas as to why he had not departed at an earlier date after express- 
ing urgency for a passport ? 

Miss Sutherland. He informed me, of course, that his original 
application had been rejected. 

Mr. Nittle. It was then validated on July 24. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. What was the urgency in his going to Cuba and was 
there any discussion between you and him as to why he delayed his 
departure ? 

Miss Sutherland. I have no idea why he delayed his departure. 
Possibly it was to 

Mr. Nittle. I don't want you to speculate. Was there any discus- 
sion between you and him ? 

Miss Sutherland. I am sorry, I do not know why he delayed his 
departure. 

Mr. Nittle. There was no discussion between you and him on that 
subject? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember any discussion. 

Mr. Nittle. The passport of Mr. McLucas was noted as valid 
until December 31, 1961. However, he continued to remain in Cuba 
after the expiration of his passport, and, Mr. Chairman, I state for 
the record that on January 4, 1962, Leroy McLucas addressed a letter 
from the Hotel Presidente in Havana, Cuba, to the TTnited States 
Passport Service, Department of State, Washington 25, D.C., request- 
ing an extension of his expired passport for approximately 3 or 4 
months to complete his photographic activities. That letter is marked 
for identification as "Sutherland Exhibit No. 8," which I now offer 
for the record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be received. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 8" follows.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 285 



Sutherland Exhirit No. 8 



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286 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On February 5, 1962, approximately 1 month after ad- 
dressing his letter to Washington, Mr. McLucas filed a formal appli- 
cation for passport with the Embassy of Switzerland in Cuba which 
was representing United States' interests. Mr. Chairman, this ap- 
plication is marked for identification as "Sutherland Exhibit No. 9," 
which I now offer for the record, to be retained in the committee's files. 

Mr. WiLus. Let it be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 9" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. In this application he requested an extension of his 
passport to April 15 or 20, 1962. He explained that his residence in 
Cuba was for the purpose of collecting piiotographic materials for 
publishing, and in this application he declares that in the event of 
death or accident the person to be notified is Mr. A. Spellman, 209 
F. 6 Street, New York City. 

Miss Sutherland, are you aware of any reason why Mr. McLucas 
now asks Mr. A. Spellman to be notified in case of death or accident, 
whereas in his application in New York he listed your name ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I am not. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know A. Spellman ? 

Miss Sutheri^and. No. 

Mr. Nittle. What is funny about that ? 

Mr. London. I heard the name Cardinal Spellman whispered from 
behind. I think that is what it was. 

Mr. NriTLE, Do you know an individual 

Mr. Willis. Let me say that you people are here as the guests of 
this committee and you are expected to demean yourself accordingly. 
There is nothing funny about tliis as far as I am concerned. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know A. Spellman ? 

Mr. Willis. Pardon me, those are the second bells. We will stand 
in recess for about 10 minutes. 

(Short recess.) 

(Members present at time of recess: Representatives Willis, Tuck, 
and Johansen of the subcommittee, and also Pool, Bruce, Schadeberg, 
and Ashbrook.) 

(Members present at resumption of hearings : Representatives Willis 
and Johansen of the subcommittee, and also Pool, Bruce, and Schade- 
berg.) 

Mr. AYiLLis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

You may proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Just before the recess we were talking about Mr. McLucas' applica- 
tion on February 5, 1962, presented to the Embassy of Switzerland in 
Cuba, which was representing United States' interests, asking for an 
extension of his passport. Mr. Chairman, the application of Mr. 
McLucas to the Swiss Embassy was forwarded to Washington for 
approval. It is to be noted that the officer in the Swiss Embassy who 
received the application on behalf of the United States made a nota- 
tion at the bottom of page 4 of this application. Exhibit No. 9, mider 
the heading "Opinion of Officer Taking Application." The follow- 
ing was the notation : 

As expressed verbally to this officer, McLucas has very strong political con- 
victions in favor of the actual Cuban Government, even against his own country. 
See attached letter of Mr. Leroy McLucas explaining reasons of staying in 
Cuba. In view of the declarations of Mr. McLucas against his country, we 
submit his case to the consideration of the Dept. of State, before delivering 
him a P. P. [passport]. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 287 

Now, Miss Siitlierland, did Mr. IMcLucas ever express such senti- 
ments in your presence ? 

Miss Sutherland. Could I have the phrase again, general 
sentiments 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think you have the exhibit. 

]Mr. Willis. "Very strong political convictions." 

Mr. NiTTLE. The statement contained in the passport application, 
under "Opinion of Oflicer Taking Application," states that Mv. Mc- 
Lucas had "veiy strong political convictions in favor of the actual 
Cuban Government, even against his own country." 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. What is your question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Mr. ]\IcLucas ever express such sentiments in your 
presence ? 

(Witness conferred witJi counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. Given the very general way in Avhich you have 
put that, I will say no. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the application of Mr. McLucas for an 
extension of his passport was nevertheless approved m Washington, 
and the Swiss Embassy was notified of the approval on February 23, 
1962. _ Subsequently, on March 30, 1962, the Swiss Embassy notified 
Washington that although the passport had been approved, Mr. Mc- 
Lucas now rejected the passport and did not plan to return to the 
United States. I offer the notice of the Swiss Embassy to that effect 
for the record, marked for identification as "Sutherland Exliibit No. 
10." 

Mr. Willis. Let it be made a part of the record. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 10" follows.) 



288 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



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PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 289 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Siitlierland, although it was indicated- 



Mr. Willis. So I can follow you from here on, did he come back 
or did he stay there, just a short answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Our information is that he did return, and I propose 
to ask Miss Sutherland about that. 

Mr. Willis. Is he under subpena? 

Mr. NiTTLE. He can't be located, Mr. Willis. We have endeavored 
to do so, but we cannot locate him. 

Mr. Willis. We will get him. 

JMi'. Nittle. ]\[iss Sutherland, although it was indicated that Mr, 
McLucas advised the Swiss Embassy that he did not plan to return 
to the ITnited States and rejected the passport for which he applied, 
haA^eyou nevertheless seen him in the United States thereafter? 

Miss SuTiiERi.AND. On his return from Cuba. 

Mr. Nittle. At any time after March 30, 1962? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I have. 

Mr, Nittle. When did you see him and where? 

Miss Sutherland. He brought me the photographs which he had 
made in Cuba to my office. 

Mr. Nittle. "Wlien? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember the exact date. It was ap- 
proximately a year after he went there. 

Mr. Nittle. That would be in September 1962, is that right? 

Miss Sutherland, Approximately. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have knowledge as to whether or not he is 
presently in the United States ? 

Miss Sutherland. I understand that he is. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know where he lives? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I do not, 

Mr. Nittle. From what source do you receive your understanding 
that he is presently here? 

Miss Sutherland, I have seen him myself, 

Mr, Willis, How many times since September 1962, about? Let us 
put it this way : "Wlien was the last time you saw him? 

Miss Sutherland. I would say about 6 weeks ago or 2 months ago, 

Mr, Nittle, Where did you see him at that time? 

Miss Sutherland. I think in my office. 

Mr. Nittle. Again ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. What was the purpose of his visit? 

Miss Sutherland. He came to pay a social visit to say hello, to 
show me photographs he had made. 

Mr. Nittle. Not, however, for the purpose of publisliing them in 
your publications ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you. Miss Sutherland, a photostatic copy of 
page 11 of the Communist Worker, dated Sunday, August 19, 1962, 
marked for identification as "Sutherland Exhibit No. 11." Under 
the column "What's On?" the following appears: 

fair play for CUBA— "New Cuban Film"— Welcome Home Leroy McLucas, 
showing his documentary, Saturday, August 18th, 8:30 P.M. Upshure Studio, 
647 P.rondway. near Bleecker. Contribution 09c. Refreshments, Dance, 
Benefit — Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 



290 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

To your knowledge, did Mr. McLucas appear at the Upshure Studio 
at 647 Broadway, New York, On August 18, 1962, and show his 
documentary on Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 11" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you present ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time seen this documentary to which 
reference is made in the exhibit? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Miss Sutherland. No, I have not seen this film mentioned here. 

Mr. Willis. Did you see any of his work on fihn, in your office or 
anywhere ? 

^liss Sutherland. I saw a film which he made. 

Mr. Willis. Would it be the same one as this one as far as you 
know? 

Miss Sutherland. I would have no way of knowing. 

Mr. Willis. Where did you see it ? 

Miss Sutherland. I saw it in a downtown loft. 

Mr. Willis. Downtown what ? 

Miss Sutherland. A building in downtown New York City. 

Mr. Willis. What was the occasion ? 

Miss Sutherland. It was a showing of this film. 

Mr. Willis. Who sponsored the showing ? 

Miss Sutherland. I think he himself. 

Mr. Willis. AVlio invited you ? 

Miss SuTHERi-4ND. He did. 

Mr. Willis. How many people were there ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't remember. 

Mr. Willis. Wlien was it ? 

Miss Sutherland. I would say last fall or early winter, possibly. 

Mr. Willis. Did you see it once, or more than once? 

Miss Sutherland. Once. 

Mr. Willis. Was that the only film that he produced that you saw 
or was it one of a series, or did you see more than one ? 

Miss Sutherland. Only one. 

Mr. Willis. That was tlie film he took while he was in Cuba during 
the time we have been talking about ? 

Miss Sutherland. I understand that he made the film there, yes. 

Mr. Johansen. Counsel, did the film you referred to bear a title? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, sir, it was simply entitled in the advertisements 
"New Cuban Film," and it was displayed by Leroy McLucas. 

Mr. Bruce. I would like to ask the witness, this location, this loft 
you described, was it a private one ? 

Miss Sutherland, I don't know. 

Mr. Bruce. You were in attendance. Was it in an apartment or in 
a theater? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Wliat particular place was it ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know who owned the premises. 

Mr. Bruce. I am not asking you who owned it. Was it a public 
showing or was it a private viewing in an apartment, in a theater, 
or what was it ? You were there. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 291 

Miss Sutherland. It was shown 



(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I think I have ah-eady answered that question 
when I said that the showing was sponsored by the maker of the 
film. 

Mr. Bruce. I was not asking you who sponsored the film. I am 
asking you the nature of the place where it was shown. 

Miss Sutherland. It was in wdiat is called a loft of the lower East 
Side of New York City. 

Mr. Bruce. Could you identify "loft" a little bit more for the com- 
mittee which is not familiar with the lower East Side terminology. 

Miss Sutherland. It is a large area such as is often used by various 
types of artists who need a great deal of space. 

Mr. Bruce. This was an artist's studio ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know. That is what a loft is. 

Mr. Bruce. Was this the residence of McLucas? Was this his 
loft? 

Miss Sutherland. No. I have no reason to think so. 

Mr. Bruce. The second part of the question — this was not in the 
area of a public viewing, then? It was a private viewing, is that 
right? 

Miss Sutherland. What do you mean by public ? 

Mr. Bruce. Anybody could not walk in. It was a private viewing. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, anyone could walk in. 

Mr. Bruce. By invitation ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. Anyone could have walked in if they had 
known it was there. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Had it been advertised in any way other than by 
word of mouth ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. There were a niunber of posters announcing it 
in coffee houses and other public places. 

Mr. Bruce. Let me ask you this : Will you recall for us the address 
approximately, or specifically if you can, of the loft where this view- 
ing was held ? 

Miss Sutherland. I am sorry I do not know. 

Mr. Bruce. Approximately ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't. 

Mr. WUiLis. What street was it on ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know the name of the street. I am not 
familiar with that part of the city. 

Mr. Wh.lis. Was it daytime or nighttime ? 

Miss Sutherland. In the evening. 

Mr. Willis. Were there anywhere from one to six people that you 
saw in Cuba, but decided not to name, in attendance at that showing ?. 

Miss Sutherland. Not as far as I can remember. 

Mr. Nittle. W^as any admission charged for this showing to which 
you last referred, in the loft ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, there was an admission charge. 

Mr. Nittle. To whom did the admissions go ? 

Miss Sutherland. They went to Mr. McLucas who had some re- 
f resliments served. 

Mr. Nittle. Did it go to the Fair Play for Cuba Committee? 

Miss Sutherland. No, not as far as I know. 



292 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was anything stated at that meeting to the effect that 
any of these f nnds went to any official of the Communist Party ? 

Miss SUTPIERI.AND. No. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. It appears, Miss SutherLand, that Mr. IMcLucas, having 
rejected his passport, may have returned to the United States from 
Cuba without one. Did you have any discussions with Mr. McLucas 
as to his itinerary in leaving Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know whether he had a passport validated for 
travel and admission to the United States on his return from Cuba? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know whether or not Mr. McLucas has traveled 
to Mexico after March 30, 1962, and prior to his meeting with you in 
September 1962 ? 

Miss SUTHERI.AND. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he discuss any travel to Mexico with you? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Or any other place in Latin America ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Sutherland, last Norember 1962, this committee 
held hearings on the subject of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, 
an organization which the record shows was formed on or about 
October 1961 by INIrs. Melitta del Villar. A large paid advertisement, 
published in the Neic York Times by the INIedical Aid to Cuba Com- 
mittee, was then introduced in evidence as del Villar Exhibit No. 2. 

Mr, Willis. I think, Mr. Nittle, I remember that well because I 
presided over the hearings you are talking about. That organization 
was formed to raise funds for medical aid to Cuba. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a copy of that advertisement, now marked 
for identification as "Sutherland JExhibit No. 12." 

You will note that this advertisement has as its purpose the solicita- 
tion of funds for the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee. At the bottom 
of the advertisement the following appears : 

Please mail your contribution today. Make checks payable to Elizabeth 
Sutherland, MACC [Medical Aid to Cuba Committee], Suite 409A, 147 West 
33rd St., New York 1, N.Y. For further information Telephone LA 4-0729. 

Are you the Elizabeth Sutherland refeiTed to in this advertisement? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 12" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Willis. Tliat is the second time instead of the first time that 
you used a name other than Elizabeth Sutherland? 

Mr. London. This says Elizabeth Sutherland ? 

Miss Sutherland. This says Elizabeth Sutherland. 

IMr. Willis. It does. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. The hearings relating to the Medical Aid to 
Cuba Committee were conducted upon the subject of propaganda ac- 
tivities of members and affiliates of the Communist Party of the 
Lhiited States for the legislative purpose of considering the advisa- 
bility of amendments to the Foreign Agents Registration Act and 
the administration of that act. We are today continuing our investiga- 
tion into activities of United States citizens acting on behalf of, or in 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 293 

the interest of, foreign Communist principals, and for that reason 
1 desire to pose the following questions to you : 

]\Irs. del Villar testified that the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee was 
formed on or about' October 19C1 and that you subsequently became 
a sponsor of that organization. I would like to ask if you actually 
participated in the formation of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

JNIr. NiTi'LE. How long have you known Melitta del Villar ? 

Miss Sutherland. Since the late fall or w^inter. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Beg pardon? 

Miss Sutherland. I would say since the late fall or winter of 1961. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. del Villar testified that she became acquainted 
with you during the summer of 1961. 

Miss Sutherland. Sunmier of 1961? 

Mr. Nin:LE. Of 1962. 

Miss Sutherland. That is probably more accurate. I w^as about 
to correct myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But you state "fall or winter," or have you changed 
that testimony? 

Miss Sutherland. I was about to correct it. I don't remember 
every single person I know. I am not sure it is relevant. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What were the circumstances under wdiich you met 
Melitta del Villar? 

Miss Sutherland. As far as I can remember I w-as invited to some 
Medical Aid to Cuba function. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whoui was that invitation extended? 

Miss Sutherland. I think it w^as a mimeographed invitation from 
the committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know by what means this committee obtained 
your name and address ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Louis J. Amster, the husband of Mrs. 
del Villar? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say you do ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know that he has been a writer for the Com- 
munist Daily Worker and New Masses f 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Louis J. Amster ? 

Miss Sutherland. I met him sometime after meeting his wife. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us whether her husband, Louis J. 
Amster, participated in the activities of the Medical Aid to Cuba Com- 
mittee? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't really see that this question is relevant, 
especially since you have had a hearing on this committee already. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I state to you. Miss Sutherland, that the record 
indicates that the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee was Communist- 
controlled. This course of inquiry into your relationship with that 
organization and similar conduct, we believe, will assist the Congress 
in appraising your present activities in relation to your travel to Cuba. 
This and the following questions we propose to ask are in accordance 
with a principle of the law of evidence to the effect that past conduct 



294 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

of a nature similar to that under present inquiry is relevant to show 
knowledge, disposition, and the purpose of the witness. Our inquiry 
relates to Communist propag-anda activities. 

Now, will you tell us, please, whether to your knowledge Louis J. 
Amster participated in the activities of the ISIedical Aid to Cuba Com- 
mittee of which his wife was ostensibly the chairman ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. We have reason to believe that you have knowledge 
of these inquiries because you have been listed as a sponsor of the 
Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, and you are listed in the adver- 
tisement as a person to whom checks will be mailed on behalf of this 
organization. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. Mr. Amster was present at a number of social 
functions by the Medical Aid for Cuba Committee for fund-raising 
purposes. That is the extent of my knowledge of his participation 
in the committee's activities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will note that the advertisement in the Ne\D Yorh 
T lines ^ Exhibit No. 12, was published November 13, 1962. At that 
time an individual known as Sidney J. Gluck was treasurer of the 
IMedical Aid to Cuba Committee and so testified in hearings before 
this committee of Congress. It appears that you were performing 
functions in close association with Sidney J. Gluck as treasurer. Did 
you know Sidney J. Gluck ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have not known him ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I met him and have been introduced, and that 
is all. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Beg pardon ? 

Miss Sutherland. I have been introduced to him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What did you do with the checks you received on behalf 
of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee? Didn't you deliver them to 
Sidney J. Gluck ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To whom did 3^011 deliver them ? 

Miss Sutherland. I acted as nominal treasurer for the purposes 
of this advertisement. I endorsed the checks received from contrib- 
utoi-s in the offices of the Medical Aid for Cuba Committee. That 
is, I endorsed some of the checks. 

Mr. NiTTLE. INIrs. del Villar testified that she thought the name Eliz- 
abeth Sutherland was a "beautiful name" and that it would be very 
attractive for this fund-raising purpose. 

Mr. Willis. I remember that very distinctly. She said she wanted 
to have a person of prominence to use for that purpose. That is part 
of the way she described your association, that she needed a person 
of prominence and, therefore, used you. She said a few other things. 
She, too, said that association with you was very casual and so on. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did you actually receive some of these checks 
yourself ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. As you see, the checks were to be sent to 
the committee offices. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. But they were made payable to you as treasurer ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 295 

Miss Sutherland. They were made payable to me, not as treasurer, 
but just to me by name. 

]\ir. JoiiANSEN". Who gave them to you to endorse ? 

Miss Sutherland. They were held in the offices in their envelopes 
unopened until I came to endorse them at the offices. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And nobody handed you the envelopes to open so 
you could endoree the checks? 

Miss Sutherland. Mrs. del Villar was there in the office. 

]Mr. Willis. How about Gluck? 

Miss Sutherland. No, he was not in the offices on the occasions 
when I went there to endorse the checks. 

JMr. Johansen. Are you saying the woman whose name you men- 
tioned is the one who gave you the envelopes to open so you could 
endorse the checks? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't tliink she, personally. I think it was one 
of her assistants, clerical assistants. 

Mr. Johansen. "Wlio is she? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know her name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it Rose ApoUoni ? 

]Miss Sutherland. I don't know that. There were a number of 
volunteer workers there, and I never was introduced to them. 

Mr. Nittle. You w^ere aware that Sidney J. Gluck was the treasurer 
of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

INIr, Nittle. The record reveals that Sidney J. Gluck has been iden- 
tified by Mildred Blauvelt, who was an undercover operative of the 
New York Police, as a member of the Communist Party and an active 
recruiter for it for a number of years. It was also pointed out that 
Sidney J. Gluck had been active as an instructor at Communist Party 
training schools. 

Did you know that Mr. Gluck had been so identified? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Nittle. My. Gluck testified tliat he was brought into the Medi- 
cal Aid to Cuba Committee by Dr. Louis Miller, whom he had 
known lor a number of years. Dr. Louis Miller was identified in 
the course of the hearings as the medical director of the Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee and was functioning as such during the period 
you were receiving checks on behalf of this organization. 

Did you know Dr. Louis Miller ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, I met him. 

Mr. Nittle. Plow long have you known him? 

Miss Sutherland. I met him at the offices on one of the occasions 
following this advertisement when I went there. 

Mr. Nittle. In the course of tlie hearings it was pointed out that 
Dr. Louis Miller was one of the principal New York contacts dur- 
ing the 1940's of Arthur Alexandrovich Adams, a Soviet espionage 
agent who received intelligence from certain atomic scientists at the 
ISIanhattan Engineering District project. Later, in 1951, Louis F. 
Budenz, former editor of the Communist Daily Worker w^ho subse- 
quently broke from the party, testified in executive session before 
this committee that Dr. ]\Iiller had been active in organizing 
Communist physicians as well. Sidney J. Gluck testified that it was 
Dr. Louis Miller who brought him into the organization. I want 



296 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

to inquire whether or not Dr. Louis Miller invited you to serve 
in the capacity in which you have served the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know these facts about Dr. Louis Miller 
which I have related, at the time you accepted this employment upon 
a committee of which he was the medical director and one of the 
founders ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. May I answer your question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Miss Sutherland. The answer to your question is no. I would 
like to add that my association with the conmiittee was strictly based 
on my feelin<T that sending medicines to the Cuban people who were 
not able to obtain those medicines under the circumstances of that 
time was a very humanitarian thing to do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The report about Dr. Louis Miller and his espio- 
nage activities was long ago published in a report by this committee. 
The report was filed on September 28, 1948, with the Congress, en- 
titled Report on Soviet Espionage Activities in Connection With 
the Ato7nic Boiiib. Did that fact come to your attention? 

Miss Sutherland. No, it did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you still serving on the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee? 

Miss Sutherland. The committee has been disbanded. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "We have not received that information.^ From whom 
did you receive the information that the Medical Aid to Cuba Commit- 
tee has been disbanded ? 

Miss Sutherland. There was an official letter which went out from 
the chairman to all sponsors and members. 

Mr. Willis. Roughly when was that ? 

Miss Sutherland. It was at the time when a large 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. Yes, a large indemiiity was paid the Cuban 
Government which enabled them to buy drugs; and, therefore, the 
purpose of the committee, namely, to provide medicines to Cuban 
people was no longer 

Mr. Willis. At least that is what the letter said. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Johansen. Were you associated with the committee up until 
this time of actual termination of its existence? 

Miss Sutherland. I remained a sponsor, yes. 

Mr. Johansen. You did not let your dues lapse in this orga- 
nization ? 

Miss Sutherland. There were no dues. 

Mr. N1TT1.E, James O'Connor, of whom we inquired earlier in 
these hearings, was a sponsor also of the Medical Aid to Cuba Com- 
mittee. We asked whether you knew him. 

Miss Sutherland. I believe I answered yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him as a sponsor of the Medical Aid 
to Cuba Committee? 



^ Actually, the committee was aware of the dissolution of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee. This matter had not come to the attention of counsel. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 297 

Miss SuTTiERi.AXD. Do joii mean did I know him to be a sponsor? 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Yes. Did you meet with him at any of the meetings of 
tlie Medical Aid to Cuba Committee ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Before I conchide the staff interrogation I shoidd like 
to pose a few remaining questions. Do you know that Leroy Mc- 
Lucas has recently written articles for a publication entitled New 
Horizons for Youth and has also furnished photographs to illustrate 
an article? 

JNIiss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I show you a photostatic copy of that publication 
marked for identification as "Sutherland Exhibit No. 13.'' 

Mr. Chairman, I offer that issue of Neio Horizon,^ for Yovfh for the 
record, to be retained in the committee's files. 

Mr. Willis. It will be received. 

(Document marked "Sutherland Exhibit No. 13" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you aware, INIiss Sutherland, that in the sunnner of 
1962 the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation publicly 
announced that the Communist Party was engaged in an extensive 
campaign to capture the minds of youth of this Nation and had imple- 
mented its program by th.e establishment of a new Comnumist national 
publication entitled Neio Horizons for Youth? 

jNIiss Sutherland. No. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Mr. McLucas to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel) . 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he ever communicate any information on that sub- 
ject to you? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I posed this question to one witness who has testified, 
iNIr. Jerome, stating that the committee has received information from 
reliable sources that certain United States citizens traveling to Cuba 
were called upon to answer a questionnaire. 

Mr. London. That question has already been answered. 

:Mr. NiTTLE. Did I ask that ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. NiTiT^E. I did not remember whether I asked you that. 

Mr. London. The witness said no, she had never been given such a 
questionnaire. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you sign or file any writing at the Cuban Writers 
and Artists Congress with that group ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you give your name and address to it ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you received any correspondence subsequently 
from it ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Or from those whom you knew to be in attendance 
there? 

Miss Sutherland. From Cubans who were in attendance there? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 



98-765— 63~pt. 1- 



298 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Sutherland. I have received personal letters from one or two 
Cuban writers whom I met there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff lias no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. I would like to ask just a few questions. Although 
I don't remember the dates, and those would be unimportant for the 
purpose of the few questions I have, it would seem from what has 
been developed in the record that the passport or the application for 
passport by Mr. McLucas was denied by the New York office of the 
State Department. That is correct, is it not? Then that action was 
overruled at the Washington level, and he did receive a passport. On 
this Exhibit No. 7 we have the stated reasons for overruling the action 
of the New York office. It reads : 

Mr. McCloskey discussed case with Lincoln White and they recommend Mr. 
McLueas be permitted to go to Cuba since he has letter of assignment from 
Simon and Schuster. 

What you construed your letter, apparently from your own testi- 
mony, to be was simply an aid in having the passport validated. But 
I see these significant words which, as a lawyer I would say, probably 
prompted the action in overruling the State Department official in 
New York, and these words are, "since he has letter of assignment." 

Mr. London. INIr. Willis, may I answer that question as one 
lawyer. 

Mr. Willis. Let me complete it. So it would seem to me that he 
misused the letter. It seems as though someone here got the im- 
pression that this tentative general discussion about photographs was 
the thing that caused the granting of the passport. Is not that the 
way 3^ou construe this thing ? 

Mr. London. Mr. Willis, that is the way Mr. White may have con- 
strued it. But I think the letter was clear that Simon and Schuster 
was merely interested in publishing a book if, as, and when it was 
produced. This book came in a year late, and they were no longer 
interested. 

Mr. Willis. I understand that, Mr. Counselor. 

Mr. London. There is no letter of commitment. I tliink this was 
the State Department's interpretation of a letter and I think you are 
as qualified to construe it as any member of the State Department. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, I understand that. What I have in mind goes 
much deeper than that. Here you have a man who applied for a 
passport and that application was rejected. "Wliy? Do you know 
why it was rejected ? 

Miss SUTHERI.AND. No. 

Mr. Willis. Did you know it had been rejected ? 

Miss vSuTHERLAND. YeS. 

Mr. Willis. Did vou Imow it had been rejected before you signed 
that letter? 

Mr. London. May I correct the record, please ? 

Mr. Wii-Lis. She is answering. 

Miss Sutherland. There is a misstatement that you made, and I 
want to correct it. 

Mr. Willis. I don't want to misstate the facts. 

Miss Sutherland. The passport was granted to England. Then 
an application was made for validation for Cuba. That was rejected. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 299 

Mr. Willis. To that extent I stand corrected. In any event he 
applied for a passport to go to Cuba, and that application was rejected. 
The New York office of the State Department did not reject it for "no 
cause." There was some reason for rejecting it. I can guess why. 
But I am asking you, Do you know why ? 

Miss Sutherland, No, I do not. 

]\Ir. Willis. Then was it after that he obtained a letter from you? 

Miss SuTHERLiVND. No, excuse me. 

Mr. Willis. He had the letter before? 

^liss Sutherland. The letter from me was submitted wdth his 
original application for validation. 

Mr. Willis. In New York. All right, then ]\Ir. McLucas comes to 
Washington, or asks someone in Washington representing him to go 
to the State Department here, and apparently not on his OAvn as an 
individual, but he got by and procured a passport on the basis of the 
facts that he had some kind of assignment from you. He may have 
overplayed it. I suspect he did. But it seems to me that the crux 
of the reason for the actions w^as this letter that was, let us say, mis- 
used if you did not uitend it that way, that he could not go on his own, 
but as your representative or having a contract with you of some kind, 
on that basis he was given a passport. I can't construe it any other 
w\ay. Either you did it on purpose or it seems to me probably you 
have been used. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck entered the hearing room.) 

Miss Sutherland. The letter which I gave to Mr. McLucas for him 
to submit to get his passport validated for travel to Cuba was in order. 

Mr. Willis. I am not disputing that. I am not disputing its date. 
Apparently in the chronology of events, you signed that letter before 
the action of the New York office of the Passport Division of the State 
Department. I accept that. But then stress was obviously put on 
that letter because the reason for overruling New York was that he 
had a letter of assignment. 

Miss Sutherland. That letter was originally submitted, and his 
application was rejected on the basis of my letter. 

Mr. Willis. That may be true. They had it all right. I think it 
was used as a basis at the Washington level to overnile the New York 
office. Anyway, you don't know why it was rejected ? 

Miss Sutherland. I don't know and I am not responsible. 

Mr. Willis. Don't you see the second instance, wdiere perhaps it is 
either on })urpose or again someone is using someone ? This ad, con- 
cluding with the sentence, "Please mail your contribution today. 
Make checks payable to Elizabeth Sutherland." You Imew veiy little 
about it. You were solicited and permitted the use of your name. 
By the way, Mrs. del Villar just about said that. She w^anted a person 
of prominence to act as the recipient of these checks. 

Miss Sutherland. Are you inviting me to comment ? 

Mr. Willis. This is really an observation of my interpretation of 
the evidence. 

Miss Sutherland. My willingness to have my name appear on that 
ad was based on the fact that I tliought the committee's work was for 
a good cause, and I was personally impressed by Mrs. del Villar. 

Mr. Willis. Of course, it would take too long to review the testi- 
mony of what that committee was really formed for and the contacts 
they had in Cuba and the jperson to whom those medical supplies were 



300 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

sent. The impression given by three physicians from Cuba who testi- 
fied here leads to the irresistible conclusion that it was not a question 
of humanitarianism. I am suggesting that this demonstrates how 
sometimes we are taken in. 

I show you this exhibit which has been passed to me, which is a 
photo by Leroy McLucas, Sutherland Exhibit No. 13. Is that one of 
the photographs he showed to you in your office? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Willis. Attached to that photograph as part of the exhibit is 
the editorial page with comments "About Our Writers" and then it 
says this : 

LEROY McLUCAS, the creator of 'Brigadistas' photographs, has recently com- 
pleted a docmiieiitary tilm concerniug the voluuteer sugar workers In Cuba, 
during the harvest of 1962 * * *. 

Are those the photographs he was going to get in order to compile 
the book about the workers of Cuba ? 

Miss Sutherland. That is a film which is referred to there. I was 
interested in still photographs. 

Mr. WiLJ^is. "Wliat about the photographs ? 

Miss Sutherland. None of the still photographs covered this sub- 
ject. 

Mr. Willis. And another writer, Gary Landis, do you know him ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Willis. A "college graduate from Philadelphia, has visited 
Cuba and worked actively to counter the propaganda barrage against 
Cuba," and he is right next to McLucas. It would seem if they were 
that close buddies to appear on the same editorial page that perhaps 
Mr. McLucas had something else besides taking photographs in mmd 
when he went to Cuba. You would not know ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Willis. That is all. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Miss Sutherland, did any of the pictures in the film 
which you saw in the loft in New York City deal with the harvest- 
ing of tlie sugar crop or the sugar workers ? 

]Miss Sutherland. That was the film I mentioned which was shown. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Is that the one you saw ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. What basically did this film portray ? What was its 
broad theme? 

Miss Sutherland. It is a documentary showing Cubans and cutting 
sugarcane on a weekend. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Was there any running, written or oral, com- 
mentary ? 

IMiss Sutherland. Only music. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Was there any commentary made by Mr. McLucas 
in conjunction Avith the showing of the film ? 

Miss Sutherland. No. Nothing but a brief introduction of the 
title and what the subject was. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Back to an earlier area of questioning, reference 
was made by counsel to the report of the Swiss Embassy official to the 
Department of State in Washington before they would issue the pass- 
port for his return to the United States, and the statement from that 
report was quoted to the effect that McLucas has very strong political 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 30 J 

convictions in favor of the actual Cuban Government, even against 
liis own countr}'. There is the further statement tliat in view of the 
dechirations of INIr. ISIcT^ucas against his country, we submit his 
case to the consideration of the Department of State before delivering 
him a passport. 

If I recall j'our response to a question as to whether Mr. McLucas 
had expressed strong political convictions in favor of the actual Cuban 
Government, even against his own country, you indicated you could 
not or were not disposed to answer it because of its general terms. I 
don't want to bandy words with you, but I submit in view of this 
further statement by a Swiss official, who apparently w^as capable of 
recognizing this sort of thing, in view of the declaration also of Mr. 
McLucas against his country, I now ask you. Did he at any time in 
your presence or to you indulge in declarations against his country? 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. JoHAxsEN. Then you are able to answer that categorically as 
no, is that correct? 

Aliss Sutherland. That is correct. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. That is all for the moment. 

Mr. Bruce. Miss Sutherland, I will not try to detain you much 
longer. I know you are tired, ]Most of wdiat we have discussed today 
dealt entirely with what you termed the humanitarianism of the 
IVfedical Aid to Cuba Committee, and you indicated some curiosity 
about seeing Cuba for yourself and going there, and what you per- 
haps would term the humanitarian interest of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee. 

IVIiss Sutherland, have you ever participated in other humanitarian 
interest operating on a worldwide scale? Committees and organ- 
izations? 

Miss Sutherland. I was an employee of the United Nations Secre- 
tariat for 5 years. 

Mr. Nittle. May I interject and ask under what name you were 
employed by the United Nations Secretariat? 

Miss Sutherland. I was employed there under the full passport 
name which I mentioned originally, Elizabeth Sutherland ]\Iartine2. 

Mr. Bruce. "\^^iat was your position there ? 

Miss Sutherland. I was a research assistant in the Department of 
Trusteeship and Governmental Territories. 

Mr. Bruce. Do you normally when somebody comes to you and asks 
you to sign a public ad, is it something you normally say, "Okay, I 
will sign my name to it." Is this standard practice for you ? 

Miss Sutherland. No, it is not standard practice. 

Mr. Bruce. Are you a signer of an ad that appeared in the National 
Guardian on July 16, 1962, entitled "the right to sanctuary," deal- 
ing with Robert A. Soblen and appealing to England and api>ealing 
to the public to demand that England grant sanctuary to Dr. Soblen? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. How did you happen to sign that ad ? 

Miss Sutherland. I had followed the case fairly closely. I was 
asked to sign the ad. 

Mr. Bruce. Who asked you to sign the ad. 

Miss Sutherland. One or two of the other signers. 

Mr. Bruce. Let us go down the list. Charles R. Allen, Jr. 

Miss Sutherland, No. 



302 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Bruce. Leroi Jones. 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Larry Mo3"er. 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Howard Schulman. 

Miss Sutherland. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Jolm Simon. John J. Simon. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce He asked you to sign the ad. 

Miss Sutherland. As far as I remember. 

Mr. Bruce. You did willingly and knowingly, out of what you 
termed earlier in another case humanitarian interests 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. — allow your name to be used in this ad appealing for 
sanctuary in England for Dr. Soblen ? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Johansen. During what period were you with the United 
Nations Secretariat ? 

Miss Sutherland. From 1948 to 1952. No, I am sorry, from 1947 
to 1952. 

Mr. Johansen. Earlier in the questioning, you testified regarding 
the fact that there were not more than a half dozen Americans in 
Cuba at the time you were there. 

Miss Sutherland. I said that was my impression. 

Mr. Johansen. Could you give us the names of the others that were 
there ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. I have declined to answer that question. 

Mr. Johansen. You mean by that you refuse to answer? 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. 

Mr. Johansen. I ask you, ]\Ir. Chairman, to instruct the witness 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. I^t me lead up to it. Was Mrs. del Villar one of them ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Sutherland. Mr. Chairman, I will answer that one question. 
I do not want to answer any more questions on this subject because 
I do not feel it is an appropriate part of this inquiry. 

Mr. Willis. That is exactly what I caution you. That is exactly 
what forces you to answer the next one. 

Miss Sutherland. Then I will have to decline to answer them all. 

Mr. Willis. I will be fair with you. You can't open the door and 
close it to suit your convenience as a matter of law. Wr. Dr. Miller 
one of them? 

Miss Sutherland. I have declined to answer all questions about 
people. 

Mr. Willis. Was Mr. Gluck one of them ? 

Miss Sutherland. In Cuba. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Willis. Could you at least be more accurate than to say that 
there was less than half a dozen. Would you want to be at least more 
accurate and say the number ? 

Miss Sutherland. I do not know the precise number. 

Mr. Willis. It could have been more than half a dozen. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 303 

Miss Sutherland. It could luivo been. I would not necessarily 
meet every American in Havana. It is not that small a place. 

Mr. Willis. How many of those of the more-or-less half a dozen 
did you know and recognize ? 

Miss Sutherland. I am sorry, I decline to answer. 

Mr. Willis. You see, tliese hearings have for their purpose under 
a Federal law the application of our laws relating to foreign travel in 
a country where travel is barred and banned without proper papers. 
We have some considerable number. I said that in my opening state- 
ment. We are not playing around when we say that. It means that 
our staff had to go to the State Department and pull out the passports. 
Some of them may or may not be on our list. It is important to us, to 
be able to make a report of what is going on, to have those names. I 
said a while ago this morning that I w^ould pass that up for the time 
being. But in view of all the other testimony and the questions asked 
of you and your answers to them, I now conclude as chairman of this 
subcommittee that is a proper request. Therefore, I order you to 
answer that question. 

Miss Sutherland. Mr. Chairman, this committee is asking me to 
inform about other people. I do not wish to do that for reasons I 
have already explained. I think I have done my best to answer all 
other types of questions you have put to me here today. But I will not 
provide information about other people. 

Mr. Willis. Yes, and I appreciate that. But upon the other hand, 
under our system, if you want to compare it to any legal procedure, 
one cannot be witness to an occurrence, whether civil or criminal, and 
say, 'T don't want to involve my friends and I don't want to name 
any names," It does not work that way. 

This does not lead to any particular proceeding against anyone, it 
has to do with passage of laws within the jurisdiction of this Congress 
and this committee. I know your hesitancy. I appreciate it. You 
have answered all questions, perhaps not as fully as we would have 
liked and probably you know more than you have said— and I am not 
saying that in an ugly way — but at least you have answered differently 
from the preceding witness and for that we are thankful. But I must 
say that under the circumstances, taking all of the testimony as a 
whole, the order is a proper one and, therefore, without any further 
ado and for the sake of the record in the presence of your coimsel, I 
make the order, since I understand that you persist in your attitude of 
refusals. 

Miss Sutherland. I do not understand why the committee needs 
names named by me in order to pass laws. 

[Applause.] 

Mr. Willis. That is the sort of thing that does not get anyone any- 
where, this performance. On the one hand, frequently it is said that 
we act upon phantom witnesses and phantom testimony and we do not 
want names. Here is an opportunity, and, as I say, you refuse to an- 
swer, and we will let the record remain in the condition it is. 

Governor ? 

Mr. Tuck. I have one question, Mr. Chairman. 

Would the witness care to tell us under what circumstances she left 
the employment of the United Nations ? 

Miss Sutherland. I felt that I could not advance further in my 
position there mider the circumstances. 



304 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Tuck. Under the circumstances. That is what I asked. 

Miss Sutherland. Yes. It was necessary to have some additional 
degrees in special listed fields which I was not inclined to acquire. 

Mr. Tuck. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess for not over 5 
minutes, 

(A short recess was taken at which time the following members were 
present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and Johansen, of the subcom- 
mittee, and also Pool, Bruce, Schadeberg, and Ashbrook.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will be in order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Conrad Joseph Lynn, please come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help joii 
God? 

Mr, Lynn. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CONEAD JOSEPH LYNN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID SHAPIRO 

JNIr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record ? 

Mr. Lynn. Conrad J. Lynn, Sky View Acres, Pomona, New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lynn. I am. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Shapiro. David Shapiro, 1411 K Street NIY., Washington 5, 

Mr. NiiTLE. Mr. Lynn, would you state the date and place of your 
birth? 

Mr. Lynn. November 4, 1908, Newport, Rhode Island. 

jNIr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
including dates of attendance at educational institutions and any 
degrees received ? 

Mr. Lynn. Graduate of Malvern, Long Island, New York, High 
School in 1926. A.B. from Syracuse University, 1930. LL.B. from 
Syracuse University in 1932. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Lynn. I am a lawyer. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Where do you maintain your office ? 

Mr. Lynn, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what states have you been licensed to practice law? 

Mr. Lynn. Only New York State. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you actively engaged in the practice of 
law? 

Mr. Lynn. Thirty years. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had any other employment since graduation 
from law school and, if so, will you state what it was ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes. I had temporary employment shortly after leaving 
law school. One was working or doing the research for a Ph. D. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 305 

tlicsis in New York City for another person. Then I was on WPA 
:is a research assistant from 1934: and some years after. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lynn, you have heard the chairman's opening 
statement ; have you not ? 

]Mr. Lynn. I have. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. You know, then, in tliis liearino- the committee, among 
other matters, is inquiring into the matter of U.S. citizens who have 
traveled to Cuba since January 16, 19C1, in violation of State De- 
partment regulations. 

The mere fact that a witness has been subpenaed to testify in this 
Iiearing does not mean that he is accused of violating these travel 
regulations, but only that the committee has reason to believe that 
lie possesses information which may be helpful to the committee in 
its inquiry. 

We hope that you, as an American citizen, will cooperate fully in 
this inquiry which is being conducted in the interest of the country. 

ILave you, Mr. Lynn, traveled to Cuba since January 16, 1961 ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have a passport validated for such travel ? 

Mr. Lynn. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this issued on January 16, 1962 ? 

iNIr. Lynn. It was, I believe, January I7th, if I am not mistaken. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think that date would be close enough. 

Had you traveled to Cuba prior to 1962 ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, I had. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state when and for what period ? 

Mr. Lynn. That was in the summer of 1960. I was in Cuba with 
my family for about 10 days at the end of July 1960 and the beginning 
of August. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, with respect to the year 1962, after receiving your 
passport on or about January 16, 1962, what was the date of your de- 
parture from the LTnited States ? 

]\Ir. Lynn. I believe it was February 2, 1962. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lynn. I traveled by Pan American Airways. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the date of your arrival in Cuba ? 

Mr. Lynn. February 2d. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. On what date did you leave Cuba ? 

Mr. Lynn. February 6th, I believe, or 7th. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you return to the United States directly from 
Cuba? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE, What was your itinerary ? 

Mr. Lynn. I was flown to Gander, Newfoundland, and from New- 
foundland I came in by plane through Montreal to New York City. 

jSIr. NiTTLE. Was there any purpose, or what were the circumstances, 
under wliich you were flown to Gander and through Montreal to New 
York City? 

Mr. Lynn. When I was on the way to Cuba — I had a one-way 
ticket— when I ^ot to Miami, Government officials told me that they 
would not permit me to board the plane for Cuba unless I bought a 
return ticket to Miami, and I then bought a return ticket to Miami. 
But when I inquired for passage back to Miami in Cuba, the first re- 



306 PRO-CASTRO PROPAG.\NDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

spouse of Pan American was that they had to give priority to Cuban 
refugees flying into the United States and they could not be sure 
^Yllen I could get a trip back. 

In addition to that, I was informed by the man who was my host 
that the Cuban Government had gotten information that if I went 
back to Miami I would be turned over to the Miami City Police and 
my life would be in danger. Therefore, it Mas decided to send me by 
plane to Gander, Newfoundland. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lynn, the committee investigation discloses that a 
number of other American citizens appeared to have traveled to Cuba 
without validated passports and were in Cuba at or about the time you 
were there. The coimxiittee desires to obtain information wdth respect 
to their presence and activities in Cuba. I would, therefore, like to 
ask you whether you met or saw certain persons during your stay in 
Cuba. 

Did you meet a person named Helen Travis ? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't recall that name. 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. Do you laiow Helen Travis ? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't recall the name. I met some people down there 
for the first time. I met some Americans and I met people of many 
other nationalities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet a person named Azalena Johnson? 

Mr. Lynn. I know Mrs. Johnson, if that is the same Mrs. Johnson 
from ]Monroe, N.C., and I believe that is the same person. Yes, she 
was there. 

Mr. XiTTi.E. What were the circumstances of your meeting Azalena 
Johnson ? 

Mr. Lynn. She is a witness in a kidnaping trial that I have in 
Monroe, X.C. She is a necessary witness to that trial, and I looked her 
up so that I might get her testimony. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, she was in Cuba before you were. 

Mr. Lynn. I don't know when she got to Cuba. I do know I was 
able to fuid her there and I talked to her about the case. 

Mr. NiTTLE. She was not your client ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, she is not one of the defendants. I represent the 
defendants, and they are my clients. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who are they ? 

Mr. Lynn. Robert F. Williams and, at that time. May Mallory 
and Harold Reape, Richard Crowder. These are my defendants. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Azalena Johnson disclose to you her means of 
travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lynn. She did not disclose them to me, and I did not inquire. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet a person named Mark David Schleifer? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't remember that name at all. I know I didn't 
meet anybody by that name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I take it you had not previously been introduced to 
him. 

Mr. Lynn. No. I found out about him later, after I returned to the 
United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet a person named Beth Wolland ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I don't recall that name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is also the committee's information, Mr. Lynn, that 
certain persons who, for one reason or another, had obtained valida- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 307 

tions for travel to Cuba were there at the time of your visit. Did you, 
durino; your visit, meet a person named Joseph P. Alorray ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I didn't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Joseph P. INIorray ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I did not know him then and I do not know him 
now. 

INfr. NiTTLE. Did you meet a person named Leroy McLucas? 

ISIr. Lynn. No, I never met liim. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Did you meet a person named Gerald Manuel Quinn? 

]\Ir. Lynn. I knew a Quinn, a Gerald Quinn, in the United States. 
If my memory is not incori'ect, I may have seen him there. 

Mr. Nin^LE. "Would you tell us the circumstances under which you 
met with Gerald Manuel Quinn ? 

]\rr. Lynn. Mr. Quinn was also a witness in Monroe, North Caro- 
lina. When I saw my defendants, I ascertained that I could also talk 
to him about the events in Monroe, North Carolina. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He was the executive secretary of the Monroe Defense 
Committee, was he not, at that time ? 

Mr. Lynn. If he was, I didn't know it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know where Gerald Manuel Quinn is 
presently ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I don't. 

Mr. Willis. You refer to defendants in the Monroe, North Caro- 
lina, incident ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes. 

]\Ir. Willis. I am not quite clear. They were not in Cuba, were 
they ? 

Mr. Lynn. One of them was. That is Robert Williams. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet with Robert Williams in Cuba? 

INIr, Lynn. That is the reason I went down there, and I met him. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Was he your client at the time you met with him? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, and he had been for a number of years. 

Mr. NiTTT^E. Did you discuss with him the route which he took to 
Cuba when he fled from the United States ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I didn't discuss with him the route. I knew the 
route, more or less. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us the route he took ? 

Mr. Lynn. Well, we reconstituted the undergTound railroad, and he 
got out through Canada. 

Mr. NiTTi>E. When you stated "We reconstituted the unclergromid 
railroad," to whom do you refer as "we" ? 

Mr. Lynn. The friends of Robert Williams who were interested in 
seeing that he Ayas not persecuted because of his stand that Negroes 
have the right to defend themselves from attack. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Were any of the persons to whom you refer as "we" 
Icnown to you to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lynn. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During your brief stay in Cuba, were you required or 
requested to, or did you, execute any questionnaire posed to you by 
Cuban officials ? 

Mr. Lynn. No. The North Carolina Superior Court in Union 
County had been queried on the question of whether a commission to 
take testimony of Robert Williams could be constituted in Cuba, 



308 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

and that was one of the reasons I was there, and subsequently that 
testimony was taken and filed with the Superior Court. 

Mr. Willis. He is not referring to that. He is talking about the 
possibility of Cuban Government officials or someone in Cuba ques- 
tioning you as a visitor to Cuba. 

Mr. Lynn. No, not as far as I know. I had conversations. Of 
course, I don't speak Spanish, so I could only talk to people who spoke 
English. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would like to interrogate you in a little more detail 
with respect to the underground railroad. Do you mean to say this 
was a means constituted to assist pei-sons to depart from the United 
States and to enter Cuba in evasion of the passport regulations and 
laws ? 

Mr. Lynn. This was a means to prevent what I considered to be 
an illegal persecution of Kobert Williams. I can go into that if you 
want me to. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No. I want to inquire whether you were assisting in 
the establishment of a means of entrance into Cuba that was contrary 
to the laws of the United States and its regulations. 

Mr. Lynn. "\'\nien Mr. Williams left the State of North Carolina, he 
was not in violation of any law, so that when it came to my knowledge 
subsequent l}'^ that he had gotten through Canada, I felt, and still feel, 
that he was not in violation of any law in his traveling through the 
United States. 

Mr. NiiTLE. He left for Cuba sometime after the Monroe incident 
of August 1901 ; is that not correct ? 

Mr. Lynn. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Mr. Williams have a passport validated for travel 
to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "VSHiat was the necessity of an underground if he had 
a validated passport? 

Mr. Lynn. The necessity was in the United States of America, not 
in Cuba. That was the reason. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have no knowledge as to whether or not he had 
a validated passport to travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "VVliile in Cuba, did you discuss with Robert Williams 
his activities in connection with his Radio Free Dixie radio propa- 
ganda broadcasts from Havana ? 

Mr. Lynn. I believe at the time I was talking to Robert Williams 
he was planning, or was in the process of getting or having, such a 
program setup. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It appears that, upon your return from Cuba, you as- 
sumed certain lecture engagements to speak on the subject of Cuba. 1 
hand you, for example, a photostatic copy of page 11 of the pro-Com- 
munist publication National Guardian^ dated April 9, 1962, and 
marked for identification as "Lynn Exhibit No. 1," which carried 
the following notice : 

Hear CONRAD LYNN on recent developments in Cuba ; slides, questions and 
answers. Ausp: West Side Committee for Friendly Relations With Cuba. 
Thurs., April 26, 8 p.m.. Beacon Hotel, B'way & 75 St. 

Did you speak at the Beacon Hotel on that occasion ? 
Mr. Lynn. I did. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 309 

(Document marked "Lynn Exhibit No. 1" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were tlie arraniremonts for this address made by the 
"West Side Committee for Friendly Relations With Cuba? 

Mr. Lynn. I assmne they were, since I got the invitation from this 
committee. 

]\Ir. N1TT1.E. By whom were you contacted from that group, or did 
you contact them for this purpose ? 

INIr. Lynn. No. I was contacted by someone representing the West 
Side Committee and I agreed to speak. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee who contacted you from 
that gi'oup ? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't laiow the name of anyone who contacted me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the West Side Committee for 
Friendly Relations With Cuba? 

Mr. Lynn. No. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Do you know who the officers of this group are ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I don't, 

Mr. NiTTLE. From whom did you obtain the slides exhibited at your 
lecture on Cuba ? 

Mr. Lynn. I didn't exhibit any slides. 

jNIr. NiTTLE. Then the report of the National G^iardian is not a cor- 
rect report ? 

Mr. Lynn. The National Guardian doesn't say I was going to ex- 
hibit the slides. 

Mr. Willis. Were slides exhibited ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, slides were exhibited. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom ? 

Mr. Lynn. By someone else there. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you exhibited slides at any other meeting under 
the auspices of the West Side Committee for Friendly Relations With 
Cuba? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I have never exhibited any slides in my life. I am 
not a photographer and I don't have slides on Cuba in my possession. 

Mr. Willis. Do you recall if Mr. McLucas exhibited those slides? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I don't know who exhibited the slides. That name 
]\lcLucas, the first time I can remember hearing that was in this com- 
mittee room. 

Mr. NiTTLE. INIr. Lynn, this was not the first time you appeared under 
the auspices of the West Side Committee for Friendly Relations With 
Cuba ; was it ? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you subsequently make an appearance on behalf 
of that organization ? 

Mr. Lynn. If I made it subsequently that would have been the first 
time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't understand wdiat you mean by that. You ap- 
peared at some other time before the West Side Committee for Friendly 
Relations With Cuba? 

Mr. Lynn. I have appeared at many, many organizations; and if 
you could give me the date, I might be able to recall. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the National Guardiam, dated 
September 18, 1961, marked for identification as "Lynn Exhibit No. 



310 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

2," and direct yoiir attention to a notice appearing on page 8 which 
reads as follows : 

MEETING 

Cuban- American Eelations 
Thurs., Sept. 28—8 p.m. 

CARLETON TERRACE 

100th St. & Broadway 

Among the speakers 

Corliss Lamont 
Conrad Lvnn 
Melitta del Villar 

Movies Adm. 500 

Aiisp: West Side Comm. for 
Friendly Relations with Cuba 

Incidentally, "Melitta del Villar" is another name with which we have 
become familiar in this and other hearings. 

Did you appear at the Carlton Terrace and speak at that meeting ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, that was after my first trip to Cuba. 

(Document marked "Lynn Exhibit No. 2" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us who invited you to deliver that ad- 
dress ? 

Mr. Lynn. Someone from that committee, I assume. I don't have 
any independent recollection. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have acted under the auspices of that committee 
at least on two occasions we have pointed out and you cannot tell us 
the name of the person who invited you to deliver this address? 

Mr. Lynn. No. I have spoken for many, many, many organiza- 
tions and I do not have any independent recollection of anybody who 
invited me for this West Side Committee. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Were you introduced to any of the officers of the West 
Side Committee at tlie time you were speaking there ? 

Mr. Lynn. No. I was introduced to the other speakers on the plat- 
form. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Corliss Lamont and Melitta del Villar appear upon 
the same platform with you as reported in the National Guardian? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, they did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Corliss Lamont has been repeatedly identified and is 
publicly known as a Communist. 

Mr, Lynn. I don't believe that to be true. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do 3'ou know him, or did a'ou know him, to be such 
at the time you addressed this meeting with him? 

Mr. Lynn. No. I knew him to be a professor of philosophy and 
that is his reputation with me throughout the years. I do not know 
him to be a member of the Communist Party and I do not believe him 
to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Melitta del Villar prior to this occasion? 

Mr. Lynn. I may have met her once before that at another meeting 
for the Puerto Rican people. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 311 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to your visit to Cuba in February 19(i2, did you 
make any arrangements with the West Side Conmiittee for Friendly 
Rehitions Witli Cuba to lecture on Cuba after your visit there'? 

Mr. Lynn. No. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Was it one of your purposes in going to Cuba in Feb- 
ruary 1962 to be able to relate this experience for the purpose of being 
more persuasive as a propagandist promoting the Cuban revolu- 
tionarv regime? 

]Mr. Lynn. No. I wanted to be more persuasive as a speaker on the 
case of Monroe, North Carolina, and my principal defendant was in 
Cuba. 

INIr. NiTTLE. The committee has information that at the West Side 
Committee for Friendly delations With Cuba meeting, which was 
lield on September 28, 1061, at the Carleton Terrace, and to which I 
referred in Exhibit No. 2, there were approximately 500 people in 
attendance at that meeting. Is that your memory ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes. It was approximately that number. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Y\^as not the chairman of this meeting Jesse Gordon, 
who is the public relations and editorial consultant of a magazine 
called The Nation? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't recall that he was the chairman. I don't know 
the man except I may have been introduced to him once. I just don't 
recall whether he was the chairman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact, he gave you a rather glowing 
introduction as the first speaker. Did he not introduce you as a 
lawyer and fighter for civil liberties ? 

Mr. Lynn. If he was the chairman, he might very well have done 
that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The report of your address at that meeting seems to 
indicate that your subject was solely Cuba. Do you recollect saying 
this, or words to this effect : 

The Cubans are working out a new way of life. We want that way of life to 
succeed because it represents an advance over anything we have known. It is 
true that the United States is the wealtliiest country on earth but it is not true 
that its vistas are as great as the vistas that have been opened for the Cuban 
people. . . . We have the power to seize the reins of our new future and to 
mold it more closely for the welfare of the people. This is the lesson of the 
Cuban revolution to us. 

Last year I felt that we had to go to Cuba. We went to Cuba and took the 
kids with us. We took them because we were told at the Pan American ticket 
counter that it was dangeroiis to take the children to Cuba because Russian 
troops were patrolling the streets of Havana. We went to Trinidad and the 
Pan American people cancelled the remainder of the flight. They would not 
take us to Cuba. We then went to Puerto Rico and had to arrange in Puerto 
Rico for another plane to get us to Cuba. They did not want us there because 
we could demonstrate to the people the lies that the American government had 
fostered about Cuba. In Cuba, for the first time, we knew what it meant to 
walk down the street as a free man ... by keeping the light of the Cuban 
revolution aloft, the destiny of all the masses will be advanced. 

Mr. Lynn. That may very well be completely accurate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Lynn, have you registered or applied for 
registration under the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I have not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe that you have publicly admitted your mem- 
bership at one period in the Young Communist League, as well as 
your membership in the Communist Party. Were you a member of 
the Young Communist League at any time ? 



312 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, would you tell us the period of your membership 
in the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Lynn. 1928 to 1931. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you thereafter become a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, in 1934. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you remain an official member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lynn. I was expelled from the Communist Party in February 
1937. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Then your association with the Communist Party was 
not voluntarily terminated on your part ? 

Mr. Lynn. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a pliotostatic copy of page 1 of the Daily 
Worker. 

Mr. Shapiro. Will you fix the date, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dated May 13, 1957, marked for identification as "Lynn 
Exhibit No. 3." 

Therein appears an announcement of the formation of the American 
Forum For Socialist Education. In the continuation of that story on 
page 7, the name Conrad Lynn appears as a member of the 40-member 
National Committee of this organization. 

Did you, in fact, join as a National Committee member in the estab- 
lishment of that organization ? 

Mr. Lynn. I certainly joined, but I was not a committee member 
right away. I don't have an independent recollection. This may 
very well be accurate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I offer Exhibit No. 3 for the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let the exhibit be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Lynn Exhibit No. 3" follows.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 
Lynn Exhibit No. 3 



313 




titmuTts u M«aM «««» «M<«» e«9. a. iMt. tK M* wm «•;>• m m« lers. is. t, m,tsr &» tm ws ktun* % wn 



Vol. xxxrv, N©. 93 



ttimUi 



He^ Y**r&, M««ila-/, M«y i3» 19S7 
iPrlc® 10 CmU 






H^lf WmmfSm 



EsUb^isliEieflS: of a forty-meniber ustiongj cammiitee of the AiJtcricsai! Fomm For 
Socialist Educatioo was annoniincedi yesterday by A, |, Musie, :w5y-faiowa pacifist, who 
wili serve as chairman ol the group. Secretary of the groap is Sidrsey Lens, author and 

director of Locsi 339, AFL, of CrtJ.i " T" ' " ~~ 

cago. - ba-tiej i»i gtan^i^ uier^rs cy ueWj f^ disciMsJJfw of th* {M^d)knas 

The «tatemenl of pvrpstti j^i&fgar.katioia. It "ise^sKer promote* ,jf sociatisin ai tJje Uss^ted Sta*e». 

«rB» that Amen<«« Fe*wm M«5c8'!!^lf5*',! !!w*"]! .llt^v .^^.t^ I'l^ ' **f^«'J'« ^^ « ^ewfag J«ter*st 

~" ' "^ * in suen dbcussion sanoag all' 

ek^wmff that think of them* 



to ptamtAt "^wdy i»«d «««««« b». "'•«»**" *" ^^'^'^ ?e*P^« ««'*)' ""^ 

«moag sH eJeaaejii «kst H>{nk of; Vke preskknSs of Ihe Forum are 
tlMmM«lv« tn Ttim»i «« K«»«ofic Krrmit Eby, pcofesso? of eco- 
tocia&t* and bfae* tres3id<>a«, v«l-,iiK!njic3, University of. ChicsgtJ; Mil- 
u«» »wi olijec»Sv«i . , . fcow^nwr, ion ^Saysr, ssutnor: asd feet«r«r, 
derp and hiUar thpsr t!^ei-«i!K«s C;an«e], Calif.; Johcj T, McManus, 
may have hs^su"* 'nsanagifig editor, Nftdeoal G««r» 



seiviss «» r*!«t(!»i fo historse so- 
dalsj* sud labor tradslinns, val- 
ues and objective ~ however 
de^ep niid b{tt!»r tfn?» diffesences ' 
sjay have be«au Moreover, tliere 
are jjjdicaHonx that in the sank* ' 



Kfusiis «npfwsjz«d tliit perscwis.^'*''''^-'^' '^^^'' 4*-*'*'^ AusJte.j of labw, among farmers, i» the 



servisgmj the National Committee j'^^c "^ 2^ editors^^of i.&«r!»Slam 

d<J' so as biiWt&Mih, *nd r.ot as maijajiine; &c^ *>i«<fwd Sibley oc: 

delegated repressntsHves of any *e PoUHcal Seieo^ faculty, Vni- 

gfoup. Americsn Fonsm pfoc9ed«j'^er»ttv of Mmn«sota. 

on th« convivtton, »a»d Musta, thatl Among the •♦() members of ^\e 

"indiviciiwis frora all tendftocfes' Forum s National ConMsittes are 

shwiW b« invofved invthe disciss- two ieadi«g rft«mh^rs of the Coas- 

sion, ^ovided they commit tbeaj-jmunfet Pariy, Df^ey Wilke»sao 

selves to « ffc« «xcha:£sg«» of vi?w$'and Albert felumbiBt^ 

ii a spirit of inquiry .'• | ^hs Forum'j sutment of pur- 

H« further stated that American !po»e follows; 
Forum is not a m««nbership orgsni- "AMERfCAN FORUM is or. 
zation arxl io^ no* pmmm to pro-' ganised ja ordeif to stinnilate 
mote (snited sctfoa by varioas study aisd serioia, tjntrammeJ- 



coliisges ar«d aarKsna lite Ameri- ■ 
caa sjcople aacerafly tfm* are 
amny wks flo not is«*ept tb«*; 
«tist«s <}«« »i«J who are dev«!ojv • 
iasg an interest in poKtical dis- ; 
atss»o«» provided » fnesh and 
uswiognutic apf>roach is under-] 
tsken. 

"Those who wgjansjte AMER- 
ICAN FOHUM do so not OB th« 
growftd that the prdjJena of 
bdlding « jound md effective 
American left have bwn solved 

<Ce»t&MM^ on Pa«e ?) 



98-765 — 63 — pt. 1- 



314 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Feram 



{OsotsiMed from ?aR« t) 
tK ti( pTowate ^t^ldv ant! fsp*-- 



Lynn Exhibit No, 3 — Continued 



Ri.nrftwmt m thf I' S. arid how 
! ; siioh it movffwent may be 

"Str,r« it h fi the j^r«ti?st 
unpcirtance thft lar^ numbers 
of pe«ipV, iif!c1«d«rtg yoi«t}t$. be 
<}i;iwn inSo •d!«ns»sk»n 1.'X'«l!y. 
from la!:«ir i«ik>B$. far«i {nrgan- 
fe<4ti«i!X. wtlk^w, e4iurcJ>rt, «^., 
ANfEftlCAN K)RU.M wiil haw 
as («x^ rtf ite awns fK* ftjrmatiott, 

local gTwu{-» o' tttm«nstt«*s fw 
tKis parfxiie, litis may bchKk 
sssistanoe b> local gro»^ m set- 
tisig isn {onim«. etc., arid spiin^ 
b<*vf)«d mfte occasional <{!«.t«s- 
siox m<?*tiiie*. 

"OtW purfsoses '»i51 he: 
"D To tall altentMnt lo tK« 
various perkidjcals aiid pjjhliea- 
ttfWiX til gro«ns whose memljMS 
«j« smiU^ in the daicv«!ca«»« 
«ml «mco»i!age penj^ie to rfad 
JtwTO; awl to piibiiih bsilletjm 
Oi- pwmphlets »<ide.r i»« own jm- 
pr.nt ta occasion rt«|«4r«s, 

"Tf To org«n<i« regimui! urn! 
iwtidfui! ci>«»l«Ti?ws^, «<«! by 
th»'*« sikI other tiscatt* to con- 
«nimtc mK only to wf^Ufv-fita! 
elariicatjoi! btit to tW- buikihig 
«f 3 nfw morale ajwl rtiiic, « 
«n;rit i>f fair play, labor mili- 



'ci.iHv ciwttnwnw 4isciussJOn in 
a <.!fiwtit»3 wli^nr many of the 
«<>\\vt'ss me not known and 

;n>iith tJivUkMi, c<»tfi>si<»! ind 

~«^>ii«-<jtif^t " frusiiratiotj ♦•xtst, 
T1i«v b^-lteve that afl intHvidnah 
fmi alt eleniMi's shoitUI }>»• m- 

^voKeti in tbi«. pmvkW t^>*>y 
commit tH«>trt«'fv<^ to « hrt ex- 
cli.tnR«> of vifw-s i»» ft spirit <>f b>- 
*j)i.r>. 

"AMEf^ICAM POMfM hcWs 
Out e%e«Uial socialist tmiiy Tf- 
q»iir« t-lsrity c«» fnmbmwital 
UKui i>Kii#s. aloitg with loWr- 

^aiK* of diS«^rej)ie.'^ »«> otjvw iriRt- 
Irr^ .*nd t'<«nr*d«rly disnwssiw •»? 
tbfjtt witbiij* a c<«nm»» ft>nsm. 
It Wteves, tl!<^!^«;te» tkit sU 
ln»jK»rtitnt probl^rstt miwt be 
ff-titkly und sharply tlisciissed 
fciit «)»ffllK' «hat Ihe dl<>cimio«!i 
should l>e or»pnt«i to tbf ftilure 

"aw! not the pcitt ar.d ctwrwi- 
imie mi tii»c<isstnn oC the pro- 

►'»%«« ttf a d*TrKXT«tk; jocialist 



&«f'<-v, <let*-n?»matk»rt a«d brtfNt 
aiTxWjg tbi? p«)«fie<aiyr ami ra- 
dst^al forwja in dhit ceuatry," 
The other metr^^rs of «}>• na- 
tsawel c(mimitt«e are; 

James Awn«o«. Kr«r York City; 
J«sseph Atkins, Bahsroorr, Miclw*! 
^Shkef, MsrjR««nii^; y»»f Bsumo, 
Paio Afhj. <;a!«; StrteftStSew &arr. 
?>»■ York OKv; Afcert Blumberg. 
New Yorii <!;it>-; V^^ Brawlpft, 
I.otiisvilk; Derk Bodde, PhUade!- 
phi*; Hsiald CharJi«a«, Q»icagOj 
Bert Cficbran, New Yorir Clh,-; Jadk 
CVpir,, Nassau 0»«»ty, N. Y.; Dor- 
oAy Day. New ItOTi City. 

N. J,; Farreli l>obfei<. New Vorlt 
Ot\-; VA E, B. DuB.*. New York 

' <-«>•; J. St5»rt lRtten:t, P««»(1«M; 
Rkwwci johinwT!, Btwt«n;VO{{ver 
Jjmtd, Y^ow S{«(ns?,i. t)hi«;Ot»-i 
rati Lvnn, Wocfcl«*id Crwsjtv, N. Y.; 
C H. Msyer, A»rf«, N. v.; €Mf. 

; feird ?«t<'Avw', New Tori: CMv; Ben-; 

j pw»fn MrLaitrrii, New York C«y; 
David MeReyrw4<b:. New Yorit 

; C.iiy. ' i ' j 

Wfbiam N>t«r»ann. Ba'ttm-trf;' 

'8<i-»8 iN««»».' JCew Vftrk i",ifyr 




Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a photostatic copy of pages 3 and 4 
of the Daily Worker of June 14, 1957, marked for identification as 
"Lynn Exhibit No. 4," where appears an article under the by-line of 
Lester Rodney entitled "Untrammeled Discussion Marks Opening of 
Socialist Forum." 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are reported as a civil rights attorney to address 
the forum. Did you participate in that opening meeting of the 
forum ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes. 

(Document marked "Lynn Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not aware, Mr. Lynn, that the 40-man Na- 
tional Committee of the American Forum For Socialist Education in- 
cluded the following identified Communists, namely: Albert Blum- 
berg, legislative director of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Do you want an answer after each name, or do you 
want to give it in sequence? 

Mr. NiTTi.E. I think you can note them. I will give them in se- 
quence. I think that would be better. 

Doxey Wilkerson, a member of the Commimist Party's National 
Committee at that time. 

Joseph Starobin, former foreign editor of the Daily Worker. 

Russell Nixon, former legislative director of the United Electrical 
Workers Union, a union expelled from the CIO as Communist-con- 
trolled some years ago. Mr. Nixon is presently general manager of the 
National Guardian, a publication to which we had frequent occasions 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 315 

to refer, and a publication described by this committee as "a virtual 
official propao-anda arm of Soviet Russia." 

Clilford JMcAvoy, former deputy Avolfare commissioner of New York 
City who resigned in 1941 after Communist charges were brought 
against him. 

Carl Braden, copy editor for the Louisville, Kentuclcy, Courier- 
Jommnl whom, I believe, at one time you represented. 

Mr. Shapiro. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you Imow those individuals, at the time you were a 
National Committee member of the American Forum For Socialist 
Education, to be members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Lynn. The Communist Party had official representatives in this 
American Forum For Socialist Education, and I knew them by that 
designation. 

I didn't know them personally, because this was an organizatioi 
just formed and they came there as representatives of the CommunisS 
Party. Not all those that you listed were representatives of the Com 
munist Partj^; and those who were not representatives of the Com 
munist Party, I could not identify as Communists nor do I know then 
to be Communists. 

Mr, NiTTLE. "Wliat pei-sons did you know at the time to be Com 
munists ? 

Mr. Lynn. Those who were official representatives of the Commu 
nist Party, Blumberg, Wilkerson, Starobin. 

Mr. NiTTLE. x\t that time were Russell Nixon, Clifford T. McAvoy, 
and Carl Braden on the National Committee, to your knowledge? 

Mr, Lynn. I know Carl Braden was not, because I was his attorney 
at one time and I am sure he was not a member of the Communist 
Party, nor do I think he ever became a member of the Communist 
Party, 

Mr, NiTTLE. Then do you mean to say that the Daily Worker ac- 
count is inaccurate? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lynn, Are you asking me are they on this committee ? 

Mr, NiTTLE. Yes, I am sorry you misunderstood the question, 

Mr, Lynn, I am sure whatever that list was in the Daily Worker 
was the list of the people at that Forum. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lynn, have you also been a member of the National 
Executive Committee of an organization known as the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee, which maintains offices in New York? 

Mr, Lynn, Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are presently serving as a member of the National 
Executive Committee of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, 
are you not ? 

Mr, Lynn, That is right. 

Mr, NiTTLE, How long have you been a member of the National Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr, Lynn. I suppose about 2 years, 

Mr, NiTTLE, A letterhead of the Emergency Civil Liberties Commit- 
tee dated December 28, 1959, which has been reproduced in a publi- 
cation of this committee contains your name as of that date being a 
member of the National Executive Committee of that organization. 

Mr, Lynn. 1959? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 



316 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lynn. I think I was on the National Council then. The Execu- 
tive Board is a smaller committee from the National Council. I think 
in 1959 1 was a member of the National Council. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that the title given to the Executive Committee ? 

Mr. Lynn. No. In addition to the National Council, there is an 
Executive Board. 

Mr. NiTTLE, How long have you been a member of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee otherwise than on the National Executive 
Committee or the Council ? 

Mr. Lynn. I am not sure how long I have been, but it has been for 
quite a number of years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member after its formation ? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't think I was a charter member, but I have been a 
member for quite a number of years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us approximately the date when you 
assumed membership or association with that group ? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't have any independent recollection. If I knew 
the date that it began then I would be able to form some idea when I 
became a member. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A report of this committee stated : 

Tbe Emergency Civil Liberties Committee is an organization with lieadquarters 
in New Torlj. * * * The committee finds that the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee, established in 1951, although representing itself as a non-Communist 
group, actually operates as a front for the Communist Party. 

Were you a member of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee in 
1951? 

Mr. Lynn. I am not certain, but I might very well have become a 
member shortly thereafter. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of the Daily Worker of Tuesday, 
October 2, 1956, marked for identification as "Lynn Exhibit No. 5." 

Page 2 reports your speaking at a rally in Hunt's Point Palace under 
the auspices of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee and de- 
scribes you as one of the attorneys for Carl Braden. Did you speak 
at Hunt's Point Palace on that occasion under the auspices of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Lynn. I very well likely did. 

(Document marked "Lynn Exhibit No. 5" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Both Carl Braden and his Avife Anne Braden have been 
identified as members of the Communist Party. Did you know them 
as such ? 

Mr. Lynn. I did not know them as such and I do not know them 
today and I do not believe such a characterization. 

]Mr. Willis. I remember you said that a while ago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you familiar with the testimony received in the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee with respect to the identi- 
f cations of Carl Braden and his wife as members of the Communist 
Party? 

"Mr. Lynn. I am not familiar with that testimony. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. I suggest you read it. Although you have represented 
Carl Braden and Anne Braden, his wife, for some time, you have not 
ad vonr attention directed 

Mr. Willis. He did not sav that. He said he did not believe it. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 317 

Mr. NiTTLE. — to these facts? 

IMr. Lynn, I represented them in 1954 and 1955 in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, on a case of housing segregation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are not interested in the facts of that case. 

Mr. Lynn. That is how I know them. I know you are not inter- 
ested, but that is how I became interested. 

IMr. NiTTLE. The public record demonstrates what the facts are. 

Mr. Willis. We do not need any argument about that. He has 
expressed himself. 

jSIr. Shapiro. May we have a direction of counsel not to badger 
the witness on a question he has already answered. 

Mr. Willis. Frankly they have been going on fine. Go on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of page 7 of the National Guardian. 

Mr. Lynn. What date is that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dated September 11, 1961, marked for identification 
as "Lynn Exhibit No. 6," which announces a public meeting in honor 
of the TOth birthday of Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos, the imprisoned 
president of the Nationalist Party of Puerto Rico. You are listed 
as one of the speakers that called for his release. 

Did you address that meeting ? 

Mr. Lynn. I certainly did. 

(Document marked "Lynn Exhibit No. 6*' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I might note here that tlie attempted 
assassination of President Truman in November 1950 at Blair House, 
resulting in the death of Leslie Coffelt of the White House Police, 
was conducted by members of the Nationalist Party, of which Campos 
was the founder and leader. 

I would also like to note that in 1943 William Z. Foster, chaimian 
of the American Communist Party, sent his greetings to Dr. Pedro 
Albizu Campos saying : 

The meeting of the National Committee of the American Communist Party 
extends its heartfelt fraternal greetings to Brother Campos and wishes him an 
early recovery from his illness. 

Mr. Lynn, I now hand you a copy of pages 1 and 2 of the National 
Guardian for November 20, 1961, marked for identification as "Lynn 
Exhibit No. 7," in which there appears under the heading, "Report to 
Readers : The man who never came to dinner,"' an account describing 
a banquet celebrating the occasion of the 13th anniversary of the 
National Guardian's publication. 

You are described as a guest of honor at this dinner. Other guests 
of honor included Laura Albizu Campos, wife of the imprisoned Dr. 
Campos to whom I just referred, and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, na- 
tional chairman of the Communist Party. Were you a guest of honor 
at that dinner ? 

Mr. Lynn. I was. 

(Document marked "Lynn Exhibit No. 7" and retained in Com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are aware, are you not, Mr. Lynn— and I men- 
tioned this a short wliile ago — that the National Guardian has been 
found by this committee to be, "a virtual official propaganda arm of 
Soviet Russia"? 



318 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lynn. I know that may be the opmion of the committee, but 
it is not my opinion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you not aware that Cedric Belf rage, described on 
the masthead of that publication as its "Editor-in-exile" and who is 
presently its Havana correspondent, has been identified by Elizabeth 
Bentley as a member of the Communist Party and a Soviet espionage 
agent ? 

Mr. Lynn. I don't know about that, but I don't know how relevant 
that is to this committee's inquiry today. 

Mr. Shapiro. Could we have a rule on the pertinency of this whole 
line because it is just about as far out in left field as it can be. 

Mr. Willis. I doubt we can go along that line very long. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I make a statement for the record, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. These questions are posed to you, Mr. Lynn, because the 
record mdicates that you seem to have been a long-time Communist 
propagandist. This course of inquiry into your past and similar con- 
duct, the committee believes, will assist the Congress in appraising 
your present activities in relation to your travel to Cuba. 

These and the following questions I will ask are asked in accordance 
with a principle of the law of evidence, which 3^011 as an attorney well 
know, to the effect that past conduct of a nature similar to that 
under present inquiry is relevant to show knowledge, disposition, and 
pui-pose of the witness. 

Now, further pursuing the matter of your association with the 
National Guardian^ are j'ou not aware that Russell Nixon, its gen- 
eral manager, and who served as a member of the National Committee 
of the American Socialist Forum [American Forum For Socialist 
Education] with you, has been several times identified as a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Anybody can ask the pertinency in a hearing room. 

Mr. Yv^iLLis. He asked the question, did he not ? 

Mr. Lynn. No, I don't. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Are you not aware that James Aronson, who is the 
editor of the National Guardian^ appeared before the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee in 1956 and invoked the fifth amendment to 
inquiries whether he was a member of the Communist Party and 
whether he accepted directives from the Publications Commission 
of the Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. Lynn. I am aware that as a lawyer because a person takes the 
fifth amendment does not mean he is pleading guilty to the accusation. 

Mr. Shapiro. Mr. Chairman, to avoid this kind of thing, I would 
please suggest that we have a ruling on the pertinency of this line be- 
cause it is clearly not. 

j\Ir. Willis. Mr. Nittle, are you about through ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am through with the National Guardian^ yes, sir. 

Now, Mr. Lynn, I hand you a copy of page 3 of the National Guard- 
ian of January 10, 1963, marked for identification as "Lynn Exhibit 
No. 8'' and direct your attention to an article appearing thereon en- 
titled, "Kennedy award protested." 

The article states that you, Conrad J. Lynn, a civil rights attorney, 
and others have joined in a statement of protest, calling for nation- 
wide demonstrations by "liberty-loving Americans" to protest an 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTFV^ITIES IN U.S. 



319 



award made to Presidont Kennedy by tlie Anti-Defamation League 
of H'nai IVrith and calling upon it to withdraw its award to the Presi- 
dent unless the Department of Justice withdraws its case against Wil- 
liam Worthy, who has been convicted of passport violation resulting 
from a recent trip to Cuba without a validated passport. 

Did you sign such a statement of protest ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes. 

Mr. Nm-LE. Mr. Chairman, I otfer Exhibit No. 8 for the record. 

]Mr. Willis. Let it be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Lynn Exhibit No. 8" follows.) 

Lynn Exhibit No. 8 

r WILLIAM WORTHY CASE CSTED 




rotested 



CALL FOR nation-Vide dtnuomtra- 
Uons this month by "Hberty-loving 
lAmerScans. colored and ^hite, JewiKft 
land Christian'' to protft'Jt a "deisiocratlc 
Irgacy" a^^^ard to Prc.-ident Kennedy n-as 
i"«;ued in New Yf-ik Jan. t> by a ^roup 
of prominent citizens. The nr<ii<-M RWina 
from the Wilhsrr. Worthy "iJI-pval re- 
irUrj" case. 

Di\ Linas Pai'linu. Nobd laurcaut^ in 
chenaistry, and author .Jainj's Bakfein 
lare among signers or a Ktateni?nt ur'Ung 
the Anti-Defaniatioti Leai'ae of B'naS 
B'rith to withdraw its a^rard horn the 
Pi-tjsident "unlasa the Depavtmcjit ot 
Justice droi>s the .scandalous h3rs;sKnK;nl 
of Mr. Worthy." Worthy. U.S.-born cov- 
le.'-pondent for the Baltimore Afx-a- 
AmerU^a, was coi*victcd of re-entering 
the U-S. without a passport after a trip 
to Havana. He is appealing a three- 
month sentence. 
The Anti-Defamation League plans to 



confer the award or* Kennedy at a fcaji- 
• tuet Jan. 31 at the Sheraton-Park Hotel 
m Wa.'^hlngton. "Die protect srroup called 
for i; deracnstratlon oiitslde the hotel at 
r>;30 p.m. Jan. 31, and F.unult&neous dem- 
ononstrattojis -'an 15 outside AJDL and 
B'nai B'rlth offii es acro&s the country. 
In Nf'Vv York, the Harlern Anti-Colcnial 
Comtuitte? will demonstrate outside the 
/iDL office Rt iil5 Msdison Ave. between 
noon mid 2 p.m. Jan. 15. 

The -statement of protest dedaj'ed, 
*'Tb.e Worthy case has, become a classic 
in miin'& endless .straifKle to ^'rite freely. 
to ;s!2€ak fi-eely, to travel freely and to 
know the truth about the world around 

Signers h-.cluded Ossie Dsvls. actor; 
Paihy Dee. actress; Dorothy Day, editor 
of the CathoUc Wcrker; David Deiilnger, 
editor of Liberation magasine: Lorraine 
Hansberry, playwright; Conrad J. Lynn. 
cn-j! tights attorney, and Mr.s. Pauling. 



Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has one final question. 

Mr. Lynn, on the basis of these exhibits which document your af- 
filiation with, or support of, such known Communist enterprises as 
the National Guardian, Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, and 
the American Forum For Socialist Education, would it not be rea- 
sonable to conclude that, although now you are no longer a member 
of the Communist Party by reason of your expulsion therefrom in 
1937, you knowingly and willingly support party projects? 

Mr. Lynn. I object to the characterization of these organizations 
such as American Forum For Socialist Education as Communist proj- 
ects. That was not a Communist project. I am perfectly willing to 
go into that in exhaustive detail. That was a project of people on 
the left — and I definitely am on the left — to see if in the process of dis- 
cussion we could develop a program to find a new way for America. 



320 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

I don't happen to be satisfied witli the Government that permits the 
brutalization of those Negroes in Birmingham. 

Mr. Willis. Have you finished ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff, Mr. Chairman, has concluded its interroga- 
tion. 

Mr. Willis. ]Mr. Lynn, you were asked about certain people whom 
you might have seen or not seen during your visit to Cuba. Counsel 
asked you about certain of them. 

As I recall, you said you remember meeting a Mrs. Johnson of 
Monroe, a Gerald Quinn, and Robert Williams. But let me ask you 
this question: 

Having said, I think, that you saw many others, could you name 
others that you saw outside of that list? 

Mr. Lynn. No. I met people there, and my memory for names is 
not too good. After I meet one person for one time, it is highly un- 
likely that I would remember him a year or more later. 

Mr. Willis. So your answer is that you do not recall seeing others ? 

Mr. Lynn. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess mitil tomorrow morning at 
10 o'clock. 

The chairman might state that demonstrations are not in order and 
will not be tolerated tomorrow. 

(Members present at time of recess: Representatives Willis, Tuck, 
Johansen, Bruce, Schadeberg, and Ashbrook.) 

("WHiereupon, at 5:10 p.m. INIonday, May 6, 1963, the committee 
recessed to reconvene at 10 a.m. Tuesday, May 7, 1963.) 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS 

AND PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

Part 1 



TUESDAY, MAY 7, 1963 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.O. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 a.m. in the Caucus Eoom, Cannon House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., Honorable Edwin E. Willis (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Loui- 
siana; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. Johansen, of 
Michigan. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives AVillis, Tuck, and 
Johansen. 

Committee members also present : Representatives Joe R. Pool, of 
Texas ; Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin ; and Jolni M. Ashbrook, 
of Ohio. (Appearances as noted.) 

Stail' members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel ; and Louis J. Russell, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

The counsel will call the first witness. 

Mr, Nittle. Would Leo Hiiberman ]:)lease come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Huberman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LEO HUBERMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

EPHRAIM LONDON 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record ? 

]Mr. Huberman. Leo Huberman, 06 Barrow Street, New York. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Hltberman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would comisel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. London. Ephraim London, 1 East 44th Street, New York City. 

321 



322 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Huberman, you recently appeared before the com- 
mittee — in fact, on November 15, 1962 — for questioning in some detail 
regarding another organization entitled "Friends of British Guiana," 
of which you appeared to be the provisional chairman, according to 
advertisements appearing in your own publication. 

That organization was admittedly raising funds for printing equip- 
ment in support of the People's Progressive Party of British Guiana, 
a party led by Checldi Jagan, the Communist Premier of British 
Guiana in South America. 

The hearings on that subject were likewise in connection with the 
committee's investigation of propaganda activities of members and 
affiliates of the Communist Party with the legislative purpose of con- 
sidering the advisability of amendments to the Foreign Agents Regis- 
tration Act. 

We do not propose to interrogate you upon the background infor- 
mation or the circmnstances surrounding your activities in that orga- 
nization. The hearings today are principally directed toward travel 
to Cuba in violation of the travel control laws, and Communist propa- 
ganda activities in connection therew^ith. In the course of our inter- 
rogation of you, I called your attention to an item appearing in the 
May 22, 1901, issue of the National Guardian^ then marked as del 
Villar Exliibit No. 4-A which appears at page 1875 of the printed 
record. 

I hand you a photostatic copy of that issue of the Natioiml Guardian^ 
now marked for identification as "Huberman Exhibit No. 1." 

I call your attention to the notice which appears as follows : 

Monthly Review Associates invites you to hear The Truth About Cuba, An 
Eyewitness Report by Leo Huberman. who was on the scene when the invasion 
occurred. Guest Artist Melitta del Villar, Chairman, Cai'ey McWilliams, Mon- 
day, May 22, 8:30 p.m., Grand Ballroom— Hotel New Yorker, 34th St. & 8th 
Ave. $1 in advance; $1.50 at the door. Send lor tickets to Monthly Review 
Associates, 333 Sixth Ave., NYC 14, CH 2-8403. 

Are you not the Leo Huberman named in that notice who is to be 
heard on "The Truth About Cuba" and who would render an eyewit- 
ness report on Monday, May 22, 1961, at the Hotel New Yorker? 

Mr. Huberman. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 1 for the record, to be 
retained in the committee's files. 

INIr. Willis. Let it be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The advertisement indicates that the invitation to the 
public to hear this report is made by the Monthly Eeview Associates. 
I believe you previously testified that the Monthly Review Associates 
is a corporation of which you, Paul M. Sweezy, and Sybil H. May are 
the sole stockholders and owners. 

Mr. Huberman. The Monthly Review, Incorporated ; that is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Monthly Review Associates is the publisher of 
Monthly Review^ a magazine of which you and Paul Sweezy are co- 
editors ? 

Mr. Huberman. No. Monthly Review, Incorporated, is the pub- 
lisher. Monthly Review Associates is one of the parts or one of the 
affiliates. 

Mr. NiTn.E. By whom is that run ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 323 

Mr. HuBERMAN. It is run by us. 

Mr. NiTiXE. The same persons. The notice states that you were on 
the scene durinc: the Cuban invasion. It is a matter of public knowl- 
edge that the Cuban invasion, also known as the Bay of Pigs invasion, 
occurred on April 17, 19G1, did it not? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes. It really began on April 15th. 

Mr.NiTTLE. 1961. 

Mr. Htjberman^. That is right. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in Cuba at that time ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the hearings on the Friends of British Guiana, you 
testified, as appears at page 2008 of the printed record, that you were 
in Cuba in April 1961 and that you were en route to a lecture engage- 
ment in Jamaica and, on the way to Jamaica, you stopped off in Cuba 
for tlie purpose of seeing again the Cuban scene and reporting on it. 

When you referred to Jamaica, you were referring to the island in 
the British West Indies, I believe 

Mr. HuBERMAN. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — which is immediately to the south of Cuba 

Mr. HtJBERMAN. That is right. 

Mr. Nittle. — and to the west of Haiti? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. At what date did you depart from the United States 
on your way to Jamaica ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. On April 14. I arrived in Cuba on April 14, the 
Friday before the invasion began. 

Mr. Nittle. How long did you remain in Cuba ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. About 10 days. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you then in possession of a passport endorsed 
for travel to Cuba ? 

INIr. HuBERMAN. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make application to the State Department for 
validation of your passport for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you make application for the passport vali- 
dation for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. HuBERMAisr. Sometime in February or March, I have forgot- 
ten which. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of 1961 ? ^ 

Mr. HuBERMAN, That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere did you make that application — to the New York 
office of the Department of State or directly in Washington ? 

]Mr, HuBERMAN. It may have been to Washington. I have for- 
gotten. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you address a letter of application, or did you 
make the application in person ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I wrote a letter. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have your passport in your possession ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN, I have a photostat of the validation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May we see that? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Surely. 

(Document handed to Mr. Nittle.) 



324 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By what means did you travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I think it was Pan Ain. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your application for a passport on that occasion 
did you state in the application the purpose of it ? 

Mr. HuBERMAisr. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat did you state was the purpose ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. That I was, as I recall it, a journalist and, there- 
fore, wanted to o;o to see what was happening. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What countries did you state you were intending to 
visit ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Cuba and Jamaica, probably. I had the passport. 
What I was writing for was the validation that was then necessary. 
So I assumed that I said Cuba and Jamaica, although I may just 
have said Cuba. I don't remember. I didn't need it for Jamaica. 
T was asking for Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Tliat is very true, you did not need a validated pass- 
port unless you were passing through Cuba or a country or area for 
which a passport was required. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I was writing for validation that was necessary 
for Cuba. I received it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you visit any other areas besides Cuba and 
Jamaica ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No, I did not. I did not go to Jamaica in the 
final event. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did no go to Jamaica ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No, I couldn't. Planes were not going from Cuba. 

Mr. NiTixE. You stated you were going to Jamaica to deliver a 
lecture engagement ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were you invited to make it ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Some club of which I think the Prime Minister 
was a member. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you remember the name of the club or what type 
of club it was, whether social or political ? 

INIr. HuBERMAisr. Political discussion group, and I was told in one 
of the letters that the Prime INIinister was a member of this club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But you were not invited by the Prime Minister ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were merely informed that he was a member of it? 

INIr. HuBERMAN. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect who invited you to attend or to deliver 
a lecture in Jamaica ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No, I don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect the name of the club at which you 
were to speak ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No, I don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. While you were in Cuba, did you have occasion to meet 
other Americans who were there ? 

Mr. HuBERiMAN. Yes, I met some Americans, but I didn't go down 
to meet Americans. I went down to look at Cuba. But I did meet 
some. We were there three times. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee who were the Americans 
vou met in Cuba at that time ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 325 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I met — I went down with Mr. Sweezy, so I met 
him. On one occasion we met Theodore Draper. I met Joe Morray. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. That is Joseph Parker ISIorray ? 

]\Ir. HuBERMAN. Yes. And I met Joe North. Then I was on 
occasion introduced to some Americans, but I dichi't know them or 
didn't see them aaain. 

Mr. NiiTLE. And these are the only Americans whose names you now 
recollect ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. That is right. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. While you Avere in Cuba, clid you have occasion to 
discuss with Joseph Parker Morray the publication of a book entitled 
The Second Revolution in Cuba? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Yes. 

Mr. NiTiT.E. I hand you a copy of page 11 of the National Guardian 
dated November 29, 1962, marked for identification as "Huberman 
Exhibit No. 2." It is on the left-hand column of the page. 

Mr. Ht7BER]MA:N'. I don't see it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will note there appears upon the page— I had 
said to the left; I meant to say to the right, I am sorry— an item 
entitled "Date of publication for Cuba looks advanced," which reads 
as follows: 

Because of the critical situation in respect to Cuba, Monthly Review 
Press is advancing publication date of two books on Cuba it had scheduled for 
publication early in 1963. 

J. P. Morray, Guardian correspondent, recently returned after almost two 
years in Havana, where he taught at the university, is the author of one book, 
The Second Revolution in Cuba. The other book, The United States, Cuba and 
Castro, is by William Appleman Williams of the history department at the 
University of Wisconsin. 

Both books will be off the press early in December. Orders are being taken 
at the prepublication price of $2.25 (a saving of $1 per book) — or both books 
for $4. Orders should be sent to Monthly Review Press, 333 Sixth Ave., New 
York 14, N.Y. 

(At this point Mr. Ashbrook entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The INIonthly Review Press, of which you are the co- 
owner, is the publisher of ^lorray's book The Second Revolution In 
Cuha? 

Mr. HuBERMAx. That is right. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. 2" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you were referring in that advertisement to the 
"critical situation in respect to Cuba," to what did you refer 
particularly ? 

Mr. Huberman. To the recent crisis in October. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This announcement, which you published about the 
book, followed the October 1962 missile crisis 

Mr. Huberman. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — in which the United States, the Soviet Union, and 
Cuba were involved ; did it not ? 

Mr. HuTiERMAN. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The announcement was published in November 1962, 
one month, approximately, after the missile crisis. 

Mr. Huberman, were you not opposed to the unseating of the Com- 
munist Cuban regime despite the maintenance there of nuclear missile 
bases at the time you made this publication ? 



326 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. London. I didn't understand that question. 

Mr. NiiTLE. In referring to the critical situation with respect to 
Cuba and the publication of The Second Revolution In Cuba, the 
speeding up of publication, was it not for the purpose of engaging in 
propaganda in opposition to the unseating of the Communist regime 
in Cuba despite the maintenance there of Cuban missile bases? 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Would you repeat the part of the question at the 
end, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps the reporter should read it. 

( Question was read by reporter. ) 

Mr. HuBERMAN. We had the manuscript of the Morray book in 
July. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Soviet bases, that should be. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. We got it out as fast as we could because it was a 
timely copy. IVlien you talk about propaganda, I am not a propa- 
gandist for Cuba or any government or any party or any organization. 
I am a propagandist for what I believe to be the truth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Huberman, in your appearance before the com- 
mittee, you testified that you were "a Marxist and a Socialist." Your 
testimony which 1 quote, appearing at page 2006 of the printed 
record, was in this language : 

Yes ; I am a Marxist and a Socialist, and like millions of other non-Communists 
throughout the world, I believe in working, together with others, including 
Communists, to the extent that their aims and methods coincide with mine. 

That was your testimony, was it not? 

Mr. Huberman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The JNIonthly Review Associates has not only pub- 
lished such volumes as that of J. P. Morray on the subject of Cuba, 
but your publication, the Monthly Revieio^ which is described on its 
cover page as "An Independent Socialist Magazine," has also pub- 
lished nimierous articles on the subject of Cuba ; has it not? 

Mr. HuBERiviAN. Yes, it has. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I hand you a list of some of these articles which 
have appeared in the Monthly Revieto on the subject of Cuba from 
the years 1960 to February 1963. I ask you to examine the list, and 
as you do so, I shall read Exhibit No. 3 into the record. 

Articles relative to Cuba appearing in the Monthly Review from 
1960 to February 1963 : 

"Why Cubans Resent the U.S.," by Manuel Pedro Gonzales, page 18, May 1960. 

"Cuba — Anatomy of a Revolution," by Leo Huberman and Paul M. Sweezy 
(Special 192-page issue) July-August 1960. 

"A Real Democracy," by Fidel Castro, page 30.5, September 1'960. 

"Women of The New Cuba," by Nancy Reeves, November 1960. 

"Cuba Revisited," by Leo Huberman and Paul M. Sweezy, page 401, December 
1960. 

"Reflections on the Cuban Revolution," by Paul A. Baran, page 459, January 
1961. 

"Reflections on the Cuban Revolution, II," by Paul A. Baran, page 518, Feb- 
ruary 1961. 

"The Truth About Cuba," by Leo Huberman, page 60, June 1961. 

"Cuba and Communism," by J. P. Morray, (Special 96-page issue) July- 
August 1961. 

"Cuba and the U.S.," by Che Guevara, page 222, September 1961. 

"Two Reports from Cuba," by Special Correspondents, page 406, January 
1962. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 327 

"A Letter From Cuba." Anonymous, page 511, March 1962. 

"Cuba .•ind Punta Del Kst(\"' from Tltc Empire Star, paw 587, April 19G2. 

"Review of the Month: Another Cuban Crisis," by Editors, page 289, October 
1902. 

"Review of the Month : The Cuban Crisis in Perspective," by Editors, page 401, 
December 1902. 

"Cuba's Mission : Letter From Cuba," Anonymous, page 549, February 1963. 

Would you advise us whether your magazine, the Monthly Review^ 
has published those items ? 

Mr. HtTBERMAN. I think at least these. Maybe some more that 
you haven't liere. 

(Document marked "Huberman Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. I note particularly that in the September 1960 
issue of the Monthly Revieio you ]3ublished an article entitled "A Real 
Democracy" by Fidel Castro. Did you at any time make personal 
arrangements with Fidel Castro for the publication of this article? 
Mr. HuBERivrAN. We didn't make any personal arrangements with 
Fidel Castro for the publication of that article, but we did, when we 
saw him in Cuba, discuss the publication of some of his speeches. That, 
we picked up out of one of his speeches and that was an excerpt, as I 
recall it. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Did you seek this conference with Fidel Castro, or did 
he seek it with you ? 

Mr. Huberman. We sought it with him. 

ISIr. Nittee. Do you recollect who made these arrangements for the 
conference with Fidel Castro ? 

Mr. Huberman. Yes. Some of the Cuban friends that we had there. 
When we came to Cul^a we wanted to see Fidel Castro. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did J. P. Morray participate in making the arrange- 
ments with Fidel Castro for you ? 

Mr. Huberman. I think we saw Fidel Castro before Morray arrived 
in Cuba. 
Mr. NriTLE. You had visited Cuba in the year 1960, had you not? 
Mr. Huberman. Twice. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your December 1960 issue of the Monthly Review con- 
tained an article entitled "Cuba Revisited," by Leo Huberman and 
Paul M. Sweezy. Did you on that occasion confer with Fidel Castro? 
Mr. Huberman. I think that was the occasion that we conferred 
with him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Monthly Revieio of September 1961, which is a date 
subsequent to the break in diplomatic relations between the United 
States and Cuba, contains an article entitled "Cuba and the U.S.," 
written by Che Guevara, also a well-known, top Communist leader in 
Cuba. Did you make i)ersonal contact with him for the preparation 
and dissemination of that article ? 

_ Mr. Huberman. Yes. We interviewed Clie Guevara and I, at that 
time — you say that was 1961 ? 
Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Huberman. That was after the invasion. I was not able to 

see him during the invasion so I submitted a list of questions to him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is subsequent to the invasion — September 1961 ? 

Mr. Huberman. That is right. When I was there I was not able to 

see him, so I submitted a list "of questions. I think that is a question- 

and-answer article, as I recall it. Do you have it there with you ? 



328 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

jSIr. NiTTLE. I don't have it immediately before me. 

Mr. HuBERiiAN. All right. 

Mr. Willis. You said a while ago that "We saw him," or "discussed 
it with him." Who would that be ? 

MrHuBERMAN. My colleague, Paul Sweezy, coeditor of the 
magazine. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have occasion to meet Che Guevara prior 
to April 1961? 

Mr. HuBERiMAN. Yes, we did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us when and where ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I think we saw Che Guevara both times we were 
there prior to April 1961. We had interviews with him. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you met Che Guevara at any place outside of 
Cuba ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. Never. 

Ml-. NiTTLE. Have vou met Fidel Castro at any place outside of 
Cuba? 

Mr. HuBERMAx. Never. 

Mr. NiTTi^E. Now, among other articles that were published in the 
Monthly Review was an article entitled "Two Reports From Cuba," 
by "Special Correspondents," which appeared in your January 1962 
issup. ^Yho were the special and anonymous correspondents? 

My. HrBERMAN. Well, as an editor, I would not want to divulge the 
names of anonymous people. No neAvspaper would. 

]\fr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way 

^Tr. HiTBER:\rAx. Without their consent. 

Mr. NiTTLE. T^et me put it this way : Were they American citizens? 

INfr. HuBERMAN. I don't recall in that particular case. We have 
had some letters, some of these were letters, and I don't recall in that 
]>arficiilar case. 

!Mr. NiTTLE. Was there some special reason why this was an anony- 
mous communication rather than a frank and open avowal of the 
man's thinkinc? 

Mr. HuBERixiAX. Yes. The reason Avas that these came to us as 
letters. Wf^ didn't have time to get in touch with the people, didn't 
know whether they would want to sign them, so we just ran them 
anonymously. 

^^r. NiTTT.E. Do you mean to say you did not know who they were? 

My. Httrerman. No, I don't say that. I say they came to us as 
letters. 

My. Ntttle. Unsismed? 

Mr. HuBER:NrAX. No, signed. They were sio-ned letters, but we had 
no time to write to the people to ask them if we could run them as 
articles. We assumed that they wouldn't mind. So we ran them 
without their naiues for that reason. 

Ml". NiTTLE. You did not know who thev were ? 

Mr. HuBERMAX. I am not saying that. I did know who they were. 

My. Nittle. Had you ever received other correspondence from these 
people ? 

Mr. HuBERMAisr. I may have. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you know them before the receipt of this letter ? 

My. HuBERMAisr. Yes, of course. Of course. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 329 

jNIr. JoTiANSEx. By knoAvino- tliom you mean that you not only knew 
the identity of the -writers because they signed tlicm, but you knew 
the individuals? 

Mr. IIuBERMAisr. That is richt. They were friends. 

Mr. NiT-rLE. Do not the exhil)its indicate that the Monthly Revieiu 
has become and is, in fact, a public relations organ for the Castro 
regime in Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IIuBKRZMAN. As I Said before, Uiey indicate no such thing. What 
they indicate is that we are interested in the subject of Cuba, as any 
serious student of politics is. They indicate that we applaud the 
achievements of the Cuban revolution. They indicate that we think 
that Cuba, like other underdeveloped countries in Latin America, 
faced a problem of unemployment, hunger, illiteracy, disease, and 
that the Cubans found a way to end that. We hope thaifc will be true of 
the other Latin American countries. 

We think that the Cubans have made tremendous steps in solving 
those terribly important problems. They indicate what we think 
about the Cuban revolution. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. When you say 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I might say that I had similar views about the 
necessity for revolution in the underdeveloped countries when Castro 
was maybe 10 years old. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it your hope, when you refer to the fact that others 
may find this solution, that this solution be obtained through Com- 
munist-led rebellions ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I never said that. You said that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking you whether that is your hope? You ex- 
pressed the thought rather vaguely. 

JNIr. PIuBERMAN. My hope is that the other Latin American peoples 
will solve their problem. I think they can solve it only through 
revolution similar to the type led by Castro. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Huberman, here is the May 1961 issue of Main- 
stream, the cultural publication of the Communist Party, which de- 
scribes the book Anatomy of a Revolution, as "Lidispensable," and the 
August 13, 1060, issue of the PeopWs Woi'Id, the Communist Party's 
West Coast publication, advising that one would do well to read this 
book to better understand the headlines about Cuba. 

Is it not a fact that your lOS-page Anatomy of a Revolution, pub- 
lished as a special issue of the Monthly Revieio, has been highly praised 
in the Communist press ? 

Mr. Huberman. I think probably that is true, although they have 
been critical of some parts of it. It has also been praised, I might say, 
in learned journals a thousand miles from communism. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During your visit to Cuba, did you confer with Cedric 
Pelf rage? 

Mr. Httberman. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Cedric Belfrage, as you well know at least now, has 
been described by Elizabeth Penlley as a Soviet espionage agent and 
a member of the Communist Party. He is presently the Havana 
correspondent of the National Guardian. J. P. Morray, whom you 

98-765 — 63— pt. 1 8 



330 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

described as the author of the book you published, The Second Revo- 
lution in Cuba^ is a correspondent for the National Guardian. 

Do you know Cedric Belfrage to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Htjberman. No, I do not, nor would I accept the testimony of 
so unreliable a reporter as Elizabeth Bentley. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Were your visits to Cuba in whole or in part financed 
by the Cuban Government ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. The visits to Cuba were paid for by ourselves. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the Cuban Government provide any accommoda- 
tions for you or render any free services ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. On two of the occasions they did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you describe those ? 

Mr, HuBERMAN. On two occasions they paid our hotel bill and travel 
throughout the island. They provided travel, as is customary fre- 
quently for journalists. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you made these arrangements with the Cuban Gov- 
ernment prior to your visit there ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No, we had not. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Plad you contacted the Cuban Embassy in Mexico or 
elsewhere ? 

Mr, HuBERMAN. No, we did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. With respect to the validation of your 1960 passport for 
travel to Cuba, was that validation obtained from the New York 
office 

]\Ir. HuBERMAN. I don't remember, 

Mr, NiTTLE. — of the Passport Division, or from Washington ? 

Mr. Willis. You asked him that, and he said he didn't remember. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. The validation or the passport itself? I don't re- 
member in either case. I went to the New York office at one point be- 
cause that is where you go in New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did visit in the New York office ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. I think that is where I went. Kockefeller Center, 

Mr, NiTTLE, No further questions, 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

First, let me ask a question. 

You haven't returned to Cuba since your trip of 1960 ? 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No, I was there during the invasion in 1961. 

Mr. Willis. I mean since 1961 ; I am sorry. 

Mr. HuBERMAN. No, 

(At this point Mr, Pool entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Tuck and Mr. Johansen and I are scheduled to 
appear before the Rules Committee at 11 o'clock in connection with 
a bill reported out by this committee. It is hard to tell how long 
w^e are going to be, so suppose I make this suggestion : that we will 
tentatively stand in recess until 11 :30 and if by that time we still have 
not completed our testimony, I will give you a ring and you can 
announce to the audience about when I will return. I will try to be 
as accommodating as possible. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Willis. Governor Tuck has made the suggestion that we not 
take that chance, so we may as well adjourn until after lunch. We 
will adjourn until 1 :30. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 331 

jMeiiibei's present at time of recess: Ilepresentatives Willis, Tuck, 
and Johansen of the subconnnitlee, and also Pool and Ashljrook.) 

("Whereupon, at 10:45 a.m., Tuesday, May T, 19G;^>, the hearings 
recessed to recon\-ene at 1 :80 p.m. of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, MAY 7, 1963 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1:30 p.m.. Honorable Edwin E, 
Willis, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and Johansen of 
the subcommittee, and also Schadeberg.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Please call your next witness. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Will Edward Walter Shaw please come forward? 

Mr. Willis. Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Shaw. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWARD WALTER SHAW, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, HERSHEL SHANKS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Shaw, will you state your full name and residence 
for the record, please ? 

Mr. Shaw. My name is Edward Walter Shaw. I reside at E..D. 
No. 1, Box 347, Washington, New Jersey. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Shaw. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel Idndly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Shanks. My name is Hershel Shanks, American Civil Liberties 
Union volunteer attorney. My office address is 1527 New' Hampshire 
Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Shanks, are you representing the American Civil 
Liberties Union or are you representing the witness, Edward Walter 
Shaw? 

Mr. Shanks. I am representing the witness through the American 
Civil Liberties Union. 

Mr. NiiTLE. JNIr. Shaw, are you also known as Ed Shaw and Edwin 
Shaw ? 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. SiiAW. I am known as Ed Shaw to my friends, but I have 
never been known as Edwin Shaw to anybody that I knew of, except 
perhaps someone makes a misprint or typographical error in writing 
out my name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have not yourself ever used any other name? 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Shaw. Could I understand or would you explain the pertinency 
of this question to the matter under investigation ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. For the purpose of identification. Therefore, I ask 
you, Mr. Shaw^, have you been known by, or have you used, any name 
other than Edward Walter Shaw or Ed Shaw^ or Edwin Shaw ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



332 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Shaw. I don't understand the pertinence of this question and 
I respectfully decline to answer this question and probably further 
questions on the following grounds, if I may be allowed to state them 
at this time : 

First of all, the question, other questions, on the larger subject to 
which they relate, are not designed to elicit information 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. 

Mr. Willis. He is assigning gTounds. 

Mr. Shaw. May I proceed ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 

Mr. Shaw. Tliese questions, I feel are not designed to elicit in- 
formation which will be used for any valid legislative purpose. They 
represent an attempt to humiliate me and to hold me up to public 
ridicule. This question is not a proper one. It attempts to try to 
convict me without any safeguards provided in courts of law which 
have been wisely provided by our Constitution. 

Secondly, this committee's inquiry relates to personal mattei's. I 
have observed other witnesses about it. It will involve my political 
beliefs and questions of conscience. I believe this question and others 
violate the first amendment guarantees of freedom of speech, as- 
sembly, and conscience. I answer only to my conscience for those 
beliefs. 

And finally, I decline to answer because any answer might open 
up avenues of questions to which my answers might at some future 
date be used in a legal proceeding against me. Under tlie fifth amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States, I cannot be compelled 
to give such testimony. 

Mr. Willis. Of couree, this question is just for purposes of iden- 
tification and laying the foundation and, therefore, I feel compelled 
to order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Shaw. May I say that I decline to answer on the grounds which 
I stated to your attorney ?■ 

Mr. Willis. All riirht. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Do you believe an answer to that inquiry may subject 
3'ou to a criminal prosecution ? 

Mr. Shaw. It may. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Shaw, you have heard the chairman's opening 
statement, have you not ? 

Mr. Shaw. Yesterday. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state when and where you were born? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Shaw. I was born in Lake County, Illinois, July 13, 1923. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion ? 

Mr. Shaw. Yes. I have 1 year of college, Illinois Institute of Chi- 
cago, in Chicago, Illinois. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what year were you in attendance there? 

]Mr. Shaw. I believe 1940 or 1941, to the best of my recollection. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have a high school education 

Mr. Shaw. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — and if so, would you state the dates and places of 
attendance? If you do not recollect the dates of attendance, would 
you state the school from which you received your high school cer- 
tificate ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 333 

IMr. Shaw. I received my high school diploma from Zioii Benton 
Township in Benton Township, Illinois, Lake County. 

JNIr. Niri'LE. What is your present occupation? 

Mr. Shaw. I will have to refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds which I previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. In the absence of any other thing before us, I don't see 
any connection that would justify your refusal. Therefore, I order 
you to answer that question. 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on the grounds which I 
stated earlier. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Shaw, I hand you a copy of a passport application 
dated March 9, 19G1, which you submitted at Detroit, Michigan, 
marked for identification as "Shaw Exhibit No. 1." 

In this application, you will note, you have stated your occupation 
as "stationary engineer." 

Mr. Willis. As what ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Stationary engineer. Did you execute that application 
for a passport ? 

]Mr. Shaw. I must refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does it not appear thereon that you represented to 
the Department of State of the United States that your occupation 
then was that of stationary engineer? 

Mr. Shanks. I think the exhibit speaks for itself and it does so 
indicate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is addressed to the witness. 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Is that a word of art ? Stationary engineer ? Do you 
know what that would be? 

Mr. Shaw. I would presume it is an engineer who does not move. 

Mr. Willis. Wliat? 

Mr. Shaw. I presume it is an engineer that doesn't move. 

Mr. Willis. Is that your occupation ? 

Mr. Shaw. I was just trying to help you. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Do you believe that a response to a question as to what 
your occupation is might incriminate you ? 

Mr. Shaw. It may. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently employed by the Socialist Workers 
Party, a Trotskyist Communist group ? 

Mr. Shaw. In order to save the committee time, must I wait for the 
chairman to order me and repeat ? 

Mr. Willis. Let us proceed in the regular way. 

Mr. Shaw. I must decline to answer that question. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, just to clear up possibly a minor 
point, the witness, I note, says he must decline. The record should 
show that he is under no compulsion to decline. 

Mr. Shaw. Only the compulsion of my own conscience. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. The witness does decline. 

Mr. Shaw. I feel I must because of the compulsion of my own 
conscience. 

Mr. Willis. You do decline ? 

Mr. Shaw. I feel I have no alternative but to decline to answer. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. We wanted to be sure that the source of tliis alleged 
compulsion 



334 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Shaw. It resides within myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you decline to respond to the question on the 
ground of conscience, do you include the fifth amendment privilege ? 

Mr. Shaw. I stated the reasons; yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that hereafter when you do decline to answer a 
question, it is to be understood that you decline for those reasons, in- 
cluding the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Shaw. For all the reasons which I stated. 

Mr. Johansen. Including the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Shaw. Including the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Then, Mr. Chairmfin, may I make a suggestion to the 
witness that if he refuses to respond on those grounds he may simply 
state that he declines to answer and it will be understood that he in- 
cludes those grounds ? 

Mr. Willis. That is understood. 

You understand the procedure, do you ? 

Mr. Shaw. Pardon? 

Mr. Willis. You understand the procedure. Instead of repeating 
it all when you say that you decline to answer for the reasons previ- 
ously indicated, it means just that. 

Mr. Shaw. Yes. It will give you the opportunity to get all the 
questions you want into the record and speed the proceedings up. 

Mr. Willis. All right. 

Mr. Johansen. It also gives the witness a clear understanding that 
this committee respects the constitutional rights guaranteed under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Shaw. Yes, I am aware of that. 

Mr. Nittle. In the application which has been submitted to you as 
Exhibit 1, it is stated that you intend to visit several Latin American 
countries, and you specify Venezuela and Chile. 

Mr. Chairman, I ought to state for the record that while the United 
States does not require a passport for departure from the United 
States for travel to Venezuela and Chile, or a passport or travel card 
for return to the United States from those countries, we are informed 
by the State Department that a passport is required by Venezuela, for 
a sojourn beyond 30 days, and Chile for entrance into that country. 

It may be a matter of interest also to note that certain other South 
American countries and other countries in Latin America similarly 
require a passport for entrance, including Brazil, Peru, Argentina, 
Bolivia, and Costa Rica. The Dominican Republic requires a passport 
for a sojourn beyond 30 days. 

Now Mr. Shaw, also on your passport application of March 9, 1961, 
it is indicated that you give the approximate date of departure for 
those Latin American countries, which you have specified as June 1961, 
and the port of departure as Miami via air. You state that your 
proposed length of stay abroad would be 2 months. 

Did you depart from the United States in June of 1961 ? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you depart from the United States at any time 
after March 9, 1961, from Miami by air? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 335 

Mr. NiTTLE. You staled in your application that the purpose of 
your trip was a vacation purpose. Was that your purpose? 

jNIr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The records of the State Department indicate that on 
March 13, 1961, you were issued a passport. Was this passport 
validated for travel to Cuba? 

Mr. SiiAw\ I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time after March 9, 19G1, receive from 
the Department of State a passport or other record or document 
validating travel to Cuba? 

]\Ir. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your application for a passport, you did not rnention 
Cuba. Was it your intention at tlie time you made application for 
this passport to travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Did you visit Cuba ? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Did you visit Cuba via Mexico City ? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The passport application contains a question relating 
to other persons to be included in j^our passport,. It is noted that al- 
though you asked that your wife, Rita Shaw, be notified in case of 
death or accident, you do not note that you were accompanied by 
anyone. Were you accompanied by anyone in your travels after 
March 9, 19G1 ? 

Mr. Shaw. You mean back and forth to work ? 

JMr. NiTTLE. No. Abroad. 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfidly decline to answer on all the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of the November 20, 
1961, issue of the National Guardian., marked for identification as 
"Shaw Exhibit No. 2." I direct your attention to page 11 thereof, 
where under the hearing of "calendar," the following appears : 

Detroit, CUBA TODAY — Eyewitness Reports. Main Speaker, ed shaw, just 
returned from Cuba. Illustrated with color slides. Don[ation] .50 c. Central 
Congregational Clmrcli, 7625 Linwood, (3 blks N. of Grand Blvd.) Mon., Nov. 
27, 8 p.m., Ausp. : Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

You are the Ed Shaw described as the person just returned from 
Cuba in that exhibit, are you not ? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

]\Ir. NiTi'LE. Did you address the meeting advertised in that ex- 
liibit? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 



336 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a photostatic copy of page 11 of the 
December 11, 1961, issue of the National Guardian. Under the col- 
umn "calendar" and heading "Chicago" the following appears: 

REPORT ON CUBA. Hear: ed shaw, Midwest rep. FPCC [Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee], give a report on latest developments in Cuba. Just returned 
from a 7-week tour of Cuba. Color slides will be shown. Fri., Dec. 8, 8 p.m., 
John Woolman Hall, 1174 E. 57th St. Ausp : S. Side FPCC. Cont. $1, students 
50 c. 

I assume the abbreviation "Cont.'' means "contribution." Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Shaw. I don't know. It could be "continued." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the Ed Shaw named in that exhibit ? 

Mr, Shaw, I respectfully decline to answer on all the groimds 
previously stated, 

Mr. Willis, Were you aware on that date or are you aware now that 
pursuant to the Immigration and Nationality Act of Congress of 1952, 
the Department of State issued regulations prohibiting travel to Cuba 
by any citizen of the United States, or any person owing allegiance 
to the United States, unless he had a passport validated by the Secre- 
tary of State for travel to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel,) 

Mr, Shaw, I raspect fully decline to answer on all the grounds pre- 
viously stated, 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I offer for the record Exhibits 1, 2, 
and 2-A, to be retained in the committee's files. 

]\Ir. Willis. Let them be incorporated in the record and marked as 
indicated. 

(Documents marked "Shaw Exhibits Nos. 1, 2, and 2-A," respec- 
tively, and retained in committee files.) 

Mr, NiTTLE, Mr. Shaw, are you not the Midwest representative of 
the Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE, Were you not then, at the time of the scheduled ad- 
dresses set forth in Exhibits Nos, 2 and 2-A, the Midwest representa- 
tive of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Shaw, I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE, Is there any inaccuracy in the facts set forth in Exhibits 
Nos, 2 and 2-A? 

Mr, Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have a passport validated for travel to Cuba in 
your possession at any time ? 

Mr. Shaw. I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Had you ever made an application for a passport 
validated for travel to Cuba after January 16, 1961 ? 

Mr. Shaw. I resx)ectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Had you traveled to Cuba at any time after January 
16,1961? 

Mr. Shaw, I respectfully decline to answer on all the grounds 
previously stated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 337 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Shaw, I will hand you a photostatic copy of page 6 
of The Wofker for January 9, 1962, marked for identification as 
''Shaw Exhibit No. 3." 

Under the heading "What's On" the following appears : 

CUBA IN CODOR TRANSPARENCIES— Ed Shaw, mid-west representative 
for tlie Fair Play for Cuba Committee, will sliow slides he took throughout Cuba 
last November. They chroiucle Cuba's progress and construction. Monday, 
Jan. 15, 8 :30 P.M., Adelphi Hall, 74 5th Ave. Contribution $11. Ausp. : FPCC. 

Did you appear on that occasion ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the gTounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are the facts concerning your visit to Cuba related in 
that exhibit true ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. JNIr. Chairman, I ask that Exhibit 3 be received in the 
record, to be retained in the committee's files. 

JNIr. Willis. It will be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Shaw Exhibit No. 3" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Shaw, I hand you a photostatic copy of The 
Worker, page 11, for Sunday, January 14, 1962, to be marked for 
identification as "Shaw Exhibit 4." 

Under the column "What's On" you will see an advertisement iden- 
tical to that contained in Exhibit No. 3. 

That notice. Exhibit No. 4, is identical to that in Exhibit No. 3, 
is it not ? 

Mr. Shaw\ My attorney advises me that they appear to be identical. 

(Document marked "Shaw Exhibit No. 4" and retained in coiximittee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did these notices which have been called to your atten- 
tion in Exhibits Nos. 3 and 4 appear in The Worker with your knowl- 
edge and approval ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge whether this notice or one 
similar to it appeared in any publication other than a Communist 
publication ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Shaw, I hand you a photostatic copy of page 
4 of The Worker for Sunday, March 12, 1961, marked for identifica- 
tion as "Shaw Exhibit No. 5," which contams an article headlined 
"Rally Urges Eelations With Cuba." 

It is stated therein that at a rally held in Chicago to restore diplo- 
matic relations with Cuba : 

Ed Shaw, midwest representative of the Fair Play to Cuba Committee, told 
the rally there are now 6,000 paid-up members of the organization with chapters 
in most of the large cities. There are also local chapters on 50 college and 
university campuses. 

Are you not the Ed Shaw referred to in this account of The Worker f 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Are the statements attributed to you correctly reported 
by The Worker? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit No. 5 for the record, to 
be retained in the committee's files. 



338 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. Let the exhibit be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Shaw Exhibit No. 5" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are the facts, which you are alleged to have reported, 
known to j^ou to be true with respect to the paid-up membership of 
the Fair Play for Cuba Committee and the establislunent of chapters 
on 50 college and university campuses? 

Mr. SiiAW. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Robert Williams, of whom we have already heard in 
the course of this hearing, and now a fugitive in Cuba, is also reported 
as addressing that rally to "Restore Diplomatic Relations with Cuba." 
Did he address that rally ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Mr. Shaw, I hand you a copy of the Kansas City, 
Missouri, Kansas City Times for January 24, 1962, marked for identi- 
fication as "Shaw Exhibit No. 6." 

There is a story there to the effect that you had appeared at the 
University of Kansas as a spokesman for the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee. Would j'ou advise the committee whether you did 
appear- 



Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer 

Mr. NiTTLE. — on the campus of the University of Kansas as a 
spokesman for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Shaw. I declme to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NriTLE. Would you tell us who made the arrangements for 
your appearance there ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the gi"ounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that Exhibit No. 6 be received in 
evidence, to be retained in the committee's files. 

Mr. Willis. The exhibit will be received and marked as an exhibit. 

(Document marked "Shaw Exhibit No. 6" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiiTLE. I had previously asked you whether you were on the 
payroll of the Socialist Workers Party. I would like to ask you now 
whether you are a member or an official of the Socialist Workers 
Party? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Have j'ou ever been a member of the Communist Party 
of the United States, which claims to have the orthodox Communist 
view, either before or after you became a member of the Socialist 
Workers Party? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Separate the question. Ask it independently. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of the orthodox Com- 
munist Party? 

]\Ir. Siiaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Have you ever been a member of the Communst Party ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds of conscience and 
constitutional right previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you also on the payroll of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 339 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. While in Detroit, MichioaUj did you not serve as an 
organizer for the Fair Play for Cuba Committee? 

Mv. SiiAW. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you establish chapters of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Connnittee on the campuses of Wayne State University and the Uni- 
versity of Michigan? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the course of its investigation, this committee has 
acquired information that you departed from Mexico City on Sep- 
tember IS, 19G1, for Havana, Cuba, and that while in Havana, Cuba, 
you made application for and were issued a Mexican Tourist Card 
bearing No. 2798249 ; that you were issued this card by the Mexican 
Embassy in Havana, Cuba, on September 2G, 1961. 

Did you apply for and were you issued a Mexican Tourist Card in 
Havana, Cuba, on Sej)tember 26, 1961, or at or about that time? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The investigation of the committee also reveals that 
you arrived in Mexico City from Havana, Cuba, on October 13, 1961. 
Did you ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the gTOunds previously stated. 

Mr. NrPTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. I again call your attention, sir, to the regulations 
promulgated by the Department of State on January 16, 1961, pur- 
suant to the provisions of the Iimiiigration and Nationality Act of 
1952 prohibiting travel to Cuba by any citizen of the United States, 
or any person owing allegiance to the United States, unless he bears a 
passport validated by the Secretary of State for travel to Cuba. 

I now ask you these questions : 

Did you, since January 16, 1961, travel to Cuba with a passport? 

(At this point Representatives Tuck and Schadeberg left the hear- 
ing room.) 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds of conscience 
and constitutional right previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Did you travel to Cuba without a passport ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Did you travel to Cuba via Mexico City and thereby 
circumvent the regulations indicated ? 

Mr. Shaw. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Counsel, I respectfully suggest that this case be 
referred to the Department of Justice for consideration for prose- 
cution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Shaw. Does that mean dismissed for the period of this sub- 
pena and not held over ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes, you are dismissed under the present subpena ; 
that is correct. 

Mr. Shanks. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Willis. The Chair announces that the members must go to the 
floor to respond to a rollcall vote on a bill and that will take about 
20 minutes, I suppose. 



340 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

In the meantime, when we reconvene within 20 minutes or a half 
hour, we will hear the next witness in executive session, meaning that 
at that time no one will be permitted in the hearmg room except 
the committee members, and that will conclude this phase of these 
hearings which probably will be continued at a later date. So the 
audience is dismissed. Wlien we get back we will hear the next wit- 
ness in executive session. 

(Subcommittee members present at time of recess: Representa- 
tives Willis and Johansen.) 

(Whereupon, at 2 :30 p.m., Tuesday, May 7, 1963, the subcommittee 
recessed to reconvene in executive session at 3 :05 p.m. the same day.) 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPART3IENT REGULATIONS 
AND PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

Part 1 



THURSDAY, MAY 23, 1963 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American iVctivities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 :15 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington, D.C, Honorable Edwin E. Willis 
(chairman of the subcommittee) presiding. 

Subconnnittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Lou- 
isiana; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. Johansen, of 
Michigan, 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Johansen. 

Committee members also present: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of 
Texas; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; and Henry C. Schadeberg, of 
Wisconsin. (Appearances as noted.) 

Staff members present : Francis J. McNamara, director ; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel ; and Louis J. Russell, investigator. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

This is a continuation of the meeting of May 6, 19G3. The purposes 
were fully outlined in the opening statement made on that day, which 
is already part of the record. 

Mr. Counsel, will you please call your first witness? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Vincent Theodore Lee please come forward. 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Lee. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF VINCENT THEODORE LEE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, STAITLEY FAULKNER 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 
Mr. Lee. My name is Vincent Theodore Lee. 
Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 



Mr. Lee. I am, sir. 



341 



342 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Faulkner. Stanley Faulkner, F-a-u-1-k-n-e-r, 9 East 40, New 
York 16, New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. JNIr. Lee, have you received a copy of the chairman's 
opening statement ? 

Mr. Lee. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been laiown by any name other than Vin- 
cent Theodore Lee? I ask that for the purposes of identification. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Willis. Do you fear that to disclose that answer might subject 
you to a criminal prosecution ? Is that it ? 

Mr. Lee. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution, which does not do anything but protect me from bear- 
ing witness, sir. It has nothing to do with fear of anything. 

Mr. Willis. I did not hear that. 

Mr. Lee. It has nothing to do Avith fear, sir; it has to do with in- 
voking my privileges under the fifth amendment, wliich provides me 
with the opportunity not to bear witness against myself. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth ? 

Mr. Lee. August 11, 1927, New York City. 

Mr, Nittle. Now, would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion, please ? 

Mr. Lee. I would say 12 years. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you give the names and dates of attendance at 
institutions of learning ? 

Mr. Lee. I can't remember those names or dates. It's been a long 
time. 

Mr. Nittle. Where did you have your 12 years of education ? 

Mr. Lee. My elementary school education was in New York. 

Mr. Nittle. Beg pardon ? 

Mr. Lee. New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. T^Hiat other education did you have in addition to 
elementary school in New York City ? 

Mr. Lee. I had vocational school training. 

Mr. Nittle. "\^niere was that obtained ? 

Mr. Lee. Florida. 

Mr. Nittle. And what was the name of the school ? 

Mr. Lee. The Brewster Vocational School. 

Mr. Nittle. How long did you remain at the Brewster School ? 

Mr. Lee. Two years. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Nittle. Now, you stated you had 12 years of educational train- 
ing. What other training did you have m addition to elementary 
school and attendance at the Brewster School ? 

Mr. Lee. None. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in attendance at the elementary school and 
the Brewster School for a total of 12 years ? 

Mr. Willis. Two years, he said. iHe answered that. 

Mr. Nittle. I mean both. 

Mr. Lee. The 2 years in Brewster. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 343 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, I meant to say, Didn't you say you had 12 years 
of education ? 

Mr. Lee. Yes. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Now the elementary school was a period of 9 years, 
I believe, and then you added 2 at Brewster. It seems to me that 
would be 11. Was there another year in attendance at some other 
school ? 

Mr. Lee. As I said earlier, I can't recall my earlier education, the 
early years, which took place quite some time ago, and I may not 
have the dates. 

Mr. Willis. Well, never mind the dates. 

Mr. Lee. I don't know 

Mr. Willis. Besides going to high school and the trade school in 
Florida, did you attend any other school, anywhere ? 

Mr. Lee. Not to my knowledge that I can remember. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the vocational training you received at 
Brewster ? 

Mr. Lee. Woodworking. 

jSIr. NiTTLE. Would you inform the committee of the principal 
emplo3'ments you have held? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation, Mr. Lee ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Now, as recently as April 3, 1961, in the passport appli- 
cation filed with the Department of State, you stated that your occu- 
pation was that of a furniture maker and salesman. Were you then 
thus employed ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
mider the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that your present occupation ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you also been employed at some time as a sea- 
man ? 

Mr. Lee. Decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not on August 14, 19M, issued a seaman's 
passport, No. 227364? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a free-lance journalist and radio 
reporter ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

]Mr. NiTPLE. ]Mr. Lee, I hand you a photostatic copy of the passport 
application subscribed to by a Vincent Theodore Lee as of April 3, 
1961, marked for identification as "Lee Exhibit No. 1." 

Did you not subscribe to that application and file it with the Depart- 
ment of State? 



344 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lee. Decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I oifer Lee Exhibit 1 for the record, to 
be retained in the committee's files. 

Mr. Willis. Let the document be admitted. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Pursuant to that application, was not a passport issued 
to you by the Department of State at Miami, Florida, on April 6, 1961 ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your application states that you intended to visit the 
countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua ; that the 
purpose of your visit was as a tourist; and that the approximate date 
of departure would be June 1961. Your proposed length of stay was 
stated as 3 months. 

Now, at the time you filed your application for passport, was it your 
true purpose to visit those countries ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you visit those countries ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you filed that passport application, did 
you have any purpose of travel other than as a tourist? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Neither the United States nor those countries of Latin 
America that you have listed upon your passport application require a 
United States passport for travel to such countries. Would you tell 
us what your purpose was at the time of application for a passport, in 
making application for travel to tlie countries you have listed? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you on July 19, 1962, make application to the De- 
partment of State for validation of the passport which was issued to 
you on April 6, 1961, for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, I hand you a photostatic copy of a letter dated 
July 19, 1962, at 331 East 9th Street, New York 3, New York, ad- 
dressed to the Department of State, Passport Division, Washington 25, 
D.C., and signed by Vincent T. Lee, marked for identification as "Lee 
Exhibit No. 2." 

Except for notations thereon by the Department of State, is that 
not a true copy of your letter to the Department of State of that date? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTiT-E. Mr. Chairman, I otf er Lee Exhibit No. 2 for the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be incorpoi-ated in the record. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 2" follows.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 345 






Lee Exhibit No. 2 




• ' ' ■ ■. 


331 Ivist /'t,i street 




New Tr.rk .), [.'i.'w York 




-'1 



\0t^ CM^'fiHrtiii'iiiL 01' State 



I Paaspi^rt Jivisi-on 



Wasliinrt.^n 2';, D. C. ^-</. - i ', ' 



» \ 
> 



V 



\.\ 



Gent l.'Tjieii: V ~ 



A'. 
\ 



I am hiTaby .aficLy irii^ycir, roritiissl'inytg Vis Lt CuSia Nitvfijon Au.^fust 30, l?('-'2 

anj Noir>mber 30j i'^ft:!! a^ a rjree l^ixvi JMornflj i.st and radio reinrtor. / Tn ad- 

\ ''■ ' , 

dition to tlie^ assignnent from fSivklo Station WBAT, X oxpt-jct to sitiu m; l.c-r i,-i1 to 

tile Nortii Am^'riJ;an Newspaper 'Aliianoi' and varii^ii:; sir.ilJ tiewHpJtict'H ■-ioru;:r3 biio 

\ country* i ri'n e'nc-J.tvjliiy niv p*9SV'ort r>j>r v;i I. idai.iun wiic i r ni.'i:t! will be 

r C p 

grant('d swiftly, ' T am alsVi onuloGlng a iottor rrcm ItiJio >'. 'i l.iOn WUAT, 



I ^ 



\^ i' > , Siuceri; Ly ynum. 






^ Vincent T. Lee 




Two eno-Lo^iurns. 






\\ 



y \ 



98-765 O — 63^pt. 1- 



346 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In that letter, Exhibit No. 2, you applied for permis- 
sion to visit Cuba between August 30, 1962, and November 30, 1962, 
as a free-lance journalist and radio reporter. You then state: 

In addition to the assignment from Radio Station WBAI, I expect to send 
material to the North American Newspaper Alliance and various small news- 
papers across the country. 

You add that you are enclosing a letter from Radio Station WBAI. 

I hand you a photostatic copy of letter of July 19, 1962, upon the 
letterhead of Station WBAI, signed by Richard M. Elman, their pub- 
lic affairs director, marked for identification as "Lee Exhibit No. 3." 

Is that not a true copy of the letter to which you referred and 
enclosed in support of your application of July 19, 1962? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Lee Exhibit No. 3 for the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be inserted in the record. 
(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 3" follows.) 



Lee Exhibit No. 3 



Lubai 



fiJUNOATION 
LISlfNFR SUPPORTED 
RADIO STATION 

;in EAST 38rH street 

NtW YORK IB. NY. 
OXFORD 7-2288 



J»ly 19, 1962 



Dsyartattnt Of Stat* 

B««kBf*ll«r Crater, H.T. 

To Vk«a It Ma/ C«mMm: 

Ifr* Tiae«tt T Le*, a free-laao* Javnallet, kas T*lut««r«4 
t* yerfam mm -rHciMt far ma wklak as kaTa !•■( tMata4 
ta B«a falfllle4 - maawly, ta gt ta Cuka aad ta eaadnct 
tap* reeardai IntarTiovs aaaelstl«c af syeclfle quest loas 
prayarad la airamoa by oar Publle Affairs DspartmaBt far 
Dr n<al Castra aai Dr SraaBta (Cka) OuaTara, 

Ikile ka l8 la C«ba, ka alsa kayafl ta aallect iaterriawB 
witk aaakars of tka aianuilty aa a wlAa variety af Bukjaeta 
«klak aomlA fara tka kaais far pracraae aa4 Aacuaan torlaa 
ta ke wdltl«Be< ami aaoepted far kroadeast arar WBAI 
if tkey are fauai ta ka of Interaat* 

On tkis kasis «• raqaast tkat jma validata kis yaesyart 
aa a«T kakalf ta ga ta Caka an 4 aaalaat tkis kaaiaesa. 



"^ / 



Siakar4 M Slaai ^^ 
Paklia Affair B Dizaeiar 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 347 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now that siipportino: letter of Station WBAI de- 
scribes you as a free-lance journalist who has volunteered to perform 
an assigiuiient for them, namely, and I quote from the letter — 

to go to Cuba and to conduct tape recorded interviews consisting of specific 
questions prepared in advance by our Public Affairs Department for Dr. Fidel 
Oastro and Dr. Ernesto (Che) Guevara. 

^Y\\at Ivtiowledge did Richard M. Elman, the public affairs director 
of Station WBAI, possess of your occupation, from which he con- 
cluded and described your occupation to be that of a free-lance jour- 
nalist? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privi- 
leges under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you known Richard M. Elman ? 

Mr, Lee. I dex?line to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What information did you communicate to him as to 
your occupational status ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you name any specific publications by which you 
had been employed, or which had published articles written by you 
at any time? 

Mr, Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would you name them for the committee now? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you on July 19, 1962, or prior to that date, 
consummated any arrangement with Castro or Guevara, or their repre- 
sentatives, to conduct such interviews with them? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Although you enclosed the letter of Station WBAI 
in support of your letter of application, you did not enclose any 
confirmatory statement of any official of the North American News- 
paper Alliance, to which in your letter of application you said you 
expected to send material as w^ell. 

Did you have any arrangements with the North American News- 
paper Alliance, Incorporated, to perform any service for them at the 
time you made this application on July 19, 1962 ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, I have before me an original letter dated May 
16, 1963, on the letterhead of the North American Newspaper Al- 
liance, Inc., signed by Sid Goldberg, editor, marked for identification 
as "Lee Exhibit No. 4." In this letter, Mr. Goldberg states that so far 
as he recalls, and so far as the records of the firm indicate, the North 
American Newspaper Alliance never — 

distributed a story — or received one — by Mr. Lee. 

I do not recall having had any dealings whatsoever with Mr. Lee, and never 
heard of him before Mr. Russell's call — at least not to the best of my memory. 

I might state that the "Mr. Russell" to whom he refers is a commit- 
tee investigator who contacted Mr. Goldberg on May 15, 1963. 



348 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



I hand you this exhibit and ask you to read it. 

Now, Mr. Lee, do you have any explanation to offer or any correc- 
tion to make to the statement of Mr. Goldberg? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer and invoke my privileges under the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Lee Exhibit No. 4 for the record. 

Mr. Willis. It will be incorporated. 
(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 4" follows.) 



Lee Exhibit No. 4 
NORTH AMERICAN NEWSPAPER ALLIANCE, INC 



230 WEST 4IST STREET 



NEW YORK 36 



SID OOLDBERG 

Editor 



Cable Addresses 

NEW YORK 
LON DON 
Tel. CHickerir.9 4- 1690 



N ANEWSAL 



May 16, 1963 



Mr. Francis J. McNamara 

Director 

Committee on Un-American Activities 

266 Old House Office Building 

Washington 25, D.C. 

Dear Mr. McNamara: 

Mr. L. J. Russell, one of your investigators, 
phoned me yesterday about Vincent Ted Lee who, as 
I understand it, is supposed to have had some 
connection with NANA. Particularly, Mr. Russell 
said that in 1961 we may have requested the State 



Department to validate Mr. 
travel to Cuba. 



Lee's passport for 



So far as I recall, and o\ir records Indicate, we 
never made such application to the State Department, 
nor do we have a record of ever- having distributed 
a story--or received one--by Mr. Lee. 

I do not recall having had any dealings whatsoever 
with Mr. Lee, and never heard of him before Mr. 
Ftussell's call--at least not to yne best of my 
memory . 



SG:dc 




PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 349 

Mr. NiTTLE. On July 26, 1962, the Department of State validated 
your passport for tiaxel to Cul)a for a period not to extend beyond 
JDeceniber 30, 1962. Did you not thereafter on December 26, 1962, 
leave New York via Mexico for Cuba, where you remained until Jan- 
uary 22, 1963, after the date of expiration of the validation? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Willis. When did the passport or travel papers authorize him 
to travel? AVhat was the limit of the time? Valid up to when? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Valid until December 30, 1962, Mr. Willis. 

Mr. Willis. And your last question was wdiether he had traveled 
after that? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. "V^Hiether in fact he did not travel, leave New 
York on December 26, 1962, for Cuba via Mexico, remaining in Cuba 
until January 22, 1963. 

Mr. Lee, I hand you a copy of a booklet of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee, the opening article in which is titled "Drums of War," 
marked for identification as "Lee Exhibit No. 5." 

Is that not a copy of a booklet issued under your name and dis- 
tributed by the Fair Play for Cuba Committee? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr, NiTTLE. And was not that booklet issued in 1963 after your re- 
turn from Cuba ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that your signature at the end of the item ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answ^er that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Lee Exhibit No. 5 for the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be incorporated as Exhibit 5. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 5." See appendix, pp. 411- 
418.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, I want to direct your attention to the second 
paragraph appearing on page 4 of Exhibit No. 5, which reads as 
follows : 

FIRST-HAND REPORT 

I would like to report that what I have to say concerning Cuba is based on 
first-hand information. On December 26th I left New York on a trip to Cuba 
and did not return until the 22nd of January. I spent almost a month in Cuba 
and was able to witness many of these things of which I si>eak. 

Is that not your own statement as to the period of time of your visit 
to Cuba? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Faulkner. Did you offer that in evidence ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Now, I have already mentioned that your passport was validated 
for a period expiring December 30, 1962. Did you receive any exten- 
sion of validation from the United States State Department, either 
directly or through the Swiss Embassy ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 



350 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. The question was what — Did he make the application 
to extend the period ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Whether he actually received any extension of valida- 
tion from the United States State Department or through the Swiss 
Embassy. 

Mr. Willis. Did you make application for such an extension ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question, sir, and invoke my 
privileges under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Willis. If you did not make any application, did you have any 
valid reason — sickness or other good reasons — for overstaying? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have no explanation to offer as to whether or not 
you obtained an extension, or have be-en excused from obtaining it, 
either prior or subsequent to your return to the United States in 
January of 1963 ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, the committee's investigation discloses that, 
upon your return to the United States, you reportedly made several 
eyewitness reports to audiences here. Indeed, a wireless broadcast 
from Havana, made April 3, 1963, reported as follows : 

New York — Vincent T. Lee, head of a Fair Play for Cuba Committee, 
announced in New York that the truth of the Cuban revolution and its great 
achievement will be made public in the principal U.S. cities through lectures and 
color films. For this purpose, Vincent T. I^ee left for Los Angeles, where he wiU 
be interviewed on radio and television programs. On Friday, 5 April, Lee will 
give a lecture at a university in Los Angeles during which he will show color 
films taken during his recent trip to Cuba. 

Now, in view of the announcements of your proposed efforts by 
Havana radio, we should inquire whether any arrangements or agree- 
ment was entered into between you and Cuban authorities whereby it 
was understood that you would undertake a lecture tour and certain 
activities on behalf of Castro's Cuba on your return here. Was any 
such arrangement made ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any compensation from the Cuban 
Government for such services to be rendered ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, several witnesses who have testified before this 
committee, and who have engaged in pro-Castro propaganda activi- 
ties, have testified that their hotel expenses and certain accommoda- 
tions were provided for them free of charge by the Cuban Govern- 
ment during their visits to Cuba. Did you receive any such benefits ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are informed that you are presently, or were until 
recently at least, the national director of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee. Are you the national director of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 351 

Mr. NiTTLE. The booklet, Exhibit No. 5 which I handed you, issued 
under your signature this year, gives your title as national director 
of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Does it not ? 

Mr, Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

(At this point Mr. Pool entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. XiTTLE. The Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security has 
conducted an extensive investigation of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee. There is substantial evidence indicating that the Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee has the endorsement of, and has received some 
financial assistance from, the Cuban Government and that the Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee has also received instructions through the 
Cuban mission to the United Nations. 

Would you, Mr. Lee, tell the Congress whether or not you have re- 
ceived compensation as national director of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee, either directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, from the 
Castro regime? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer and invoke my privileges under the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have in fact appeared in several cities of the 
L^nited States, both before and since your return from Cuba. You 
have lectured, shown color films, and written and disseminated pamph- 
lets upon the subject of Cuba. Is that not true ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And is it not also true that all of your activities of 
this sort have been intended to support, and have in fact supported, 
the Communist regime in Cuba? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. N1TTI.E. Would you tell us by whom your lecture engagements 
are arranged ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, I hand you a copy of page 11 of the official 
Communist publication, The Woi^ker^ dated Sunday, March 4, 1962, 
marked for identification as "Lee Exhibit No. 6." In the right-hand 
column, entitled "What's On." the following appears : 

CURRENT ACTIVITIES of the Cuban Counterrevolutionaries in the U.S.A., 
a report by V. T. Lee, Monday, March 12, at 8 :30 p.m., Adelphi Hall, 74 Fifth 
Ave., Contribution $1. Auspices: Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

The advertisement indicates that the lecture is under the auspices of 
the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Did your committee make any 
contribution for the publication of this notice in The Worker? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in fact deliver the lecture at Adelphi Hall upon 
the subject appearing in The Worker? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

( Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 6," and retained in committee 
files.) 



352 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now I hand you a copy of a booklet, priced at 15 
cents, titled "Cuban Counter-Revolutionaires in the United States: 
"Who are they ? Wlio subsidizes them ? How do they menace freedom 
in the U.S. as well as in Cuba?" by V. T. Lee, past president, Tampa 
Bay chapter. Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

The booklet is marked for identification as "Lee Exhibit No. 7." 

Appearing on the cover page is the statement that this is: "An 
abridged version of a lecture delivered at a forum of the N.Y. Chapter, 
FPCC [Fair Play for Cuba Committee] on March 12, 1962. Pub- 
lished by the Fair Play for Cuba Committee." 

Is that, Mr. Lee, a copy of the lecture you delivered at the Adelphi 
Hall on March 12, 1962? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Lee Exhibit No. 7 for the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be incorporated in the record, and so marked. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 7." See appendix pp. 419- 
430.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, would we be correct in noting that the style 
of English composition in Exhibit No. 7 differs noticeably from the 
style of English composition in Exhibit No. 5, "Drums of War," which 
likewise appears under your signature ? 

Mr. Faulkister. What's the question? 

Mr. Lee. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Nittle. Let me put it this way : In view of that observation, we 
would like to inquire whether you are the author of Exhibit No. 5, 
"Drums of War," issued under your signature, and Exhibit No. 7, 
"Cuban Counter-Revolutionaires in the LTnited States," which like- 
wise appeared under your signature ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Were these two exhibits, or either of them, written for 
you by other persons? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you not also seek church groups as a forum for your 
message about Cuba ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you address a meeting arranged by the Los Angeles 
chapter of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee at the First L'^nitarian 
Church of Los Angeles at 2936 West 8th Street, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, on Friday, April 6, 1963 ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you introduced by Rev. Stephen Fritcliman as 
the speaker of the evening on that occasion ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lee, committee investigation reveals that you did 
address that meeting; that you were introduced by Rev. Stephen 
Fritchman and, during the course of your address, you advised the 
audience that in mid-December of 1962 you flew to Mexico City and 
from there to Cuba ; that you spent approximately 30 days in Cuba 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 353 

and returned to the United States in mid-January. The committee's 
invest io;ation also reveals that another speaker at the meeting was 
Helen Travis, T-r-a-v-i-s, an identified Connmmist Party member, 
who was further recently identified in hearings before this committee 
as the secretary of the Los Angeles branch of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee. She opened the meeting, in fact, and introduced the 
Reverend Stephen Fritchman, who in turn introduced you. 

Helen Travis stated on that occasion that the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee was working strongly to reorganize the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee to educate Americans about Cuba, and to aid the Castro 
govermnent. 

Do you recall Helen Travis making those statements? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTT^E. As national director of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee, would you tell us whether that is the purpose of the Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee — to aid the Castro government? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that quastion and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Helen Travis ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
imder the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, the committee prepared a brief summary of 
some of your speaking engagements. This is not intended by any 
means as a complete listing of your itinerary. As I read this brief 
summaiy into the record, I shall ask you to examine a copy. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. June 16, 1961 — Unitarian Church, Tampa, Florida, 
meeting of Fair Play for Cuba Committee, billed as its "First Cuba- 
American Night." 

March 12, 1962— Adelphi Hall, New York City, auspices of Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee. 

Jime 20, 1962 — Palm Gardens, New York City, rally held by Cuban- 
American Civil Rights Committee. 

February 6, 1963 — Adelphi Hall, New York City, auspices of Fair 
Play for Cuba Coimnittee. 

February 8, 1963—691 Columbus Avenue, New York City, "Wel- 
come Home Party," under auspices of Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

March 11, 1963— Adelphi Hall, New York City. 

April 5, 1963 — University of California at Los Angeles, meeting 
held by campus chapter of Young Socialist Alliance. 

Is that account correct? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
imder the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also understand, Mr. Lee, that you are engaged to 
speak at Yale University tomorrow night as a representative of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact, Mr. Lee, that in each and every one of 
your lectures, including those listed in the summary, in which you 
have spoken on the subject of Cuba, your message has been sympa- 
thetic to, and in support of, the Castro Communist regime ? 



354 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lee, I decline to answer that question and invoke my privi- 
leges under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you delivered tliese lectures for the purpose of 
influencing the American people with respect to the political inter- 
ests, policies, and relations of the Cuban Government? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you to date registered, or applied for registra- 
tion, with the Attorney General as a foreign agent under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938 ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privi- 
leges under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, committee investigation reveals that you have 
also demonstrated an interest in the influencing of youth, particu- 
larly college students, on matters relating to Cuba. You have not 
only addressed students at the University of California, as the sum- 
mary indicates, but elsewhere, as well. Have you not sought audi- 
ences for your message at American universities ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privi- 
leges under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. For example, I hand you a copy of a leaflet issued under 
the auspices of the New York University Socialist Club, marked for 
identification as "Lee Exhibit No. 8." The leaflet states : "Had Enough 
Managed News? Then — 'eyewitness . . . cuba' with V. T. Lee," 
and announces a lecture at the Commerce Building, Room 726, Friday, 
May 10, 1963, at 5 p.m. 

Did you deliver a lecture on that date to students of New York 
University as advertised ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Lee Exhibit 8 for the record. 

Mr. Willis. Let it be admitted in the record. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 8" follows.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



355 



Lee Exhibit No. 8 

hao enough managed news? 

THEN--- 





WiTh 






o 



Si 



NAT'.'^'NAl 






/ He.AK At^'>*-T CU«A FROM '\ f/IAN' WWO 

WAS JUST THEKt. SEE COlOK SUUES 
'^-'' Oh HIS fAC(TlNG TRIP. 



MYU. gGDo:]A(An_a5¥ c 



a 



■^ 
-< 



356 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Lee, in what way did you make arrangements, or 
were arrangements made for you, to speak before a New York Uni- 
versity group? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a copy of the Columbia OWL, dated 
March 20, 1963, a publication of the School of General Studies of 
Columbia University in the City of New York, marked for identifica- 
tion as "Lee Exhibit No. 9." 

I direct your attention to a notice appearing at the bottom of the 
first page, titled "cuba and us foreign policy," in which the following 
appears : 

The Committee for Disarmament will present a lecture on 20 March, at 8 :00 
in Harkness Theatre. Mr. V. T. Lee of the "Fair Play for Cuba Committee" 
will speak on Cuba and US Foreign Policy. All interested are invited to 
attend. 

Now, would you tell us in what manner your appearance was ar- 
ranged for before the Committee for Disarmament at Columbia 
University ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

(Document marked "Lee Exhibit No. 9" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in the formation of an organiza- 
tion entitled "Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba"? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Steve Martinot ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Levi Lee Laub, L-a-u-b ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Were Mr. Martinot and Mr. Laub graduate students 
at Columbia University ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did either Steve Martinot or Levi Lee Laub arrange 
your speaking engagement at Columbia University ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know Anatol Isaac Schlosser ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is he a graduate student at New York University ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Anatol Isaac Schlosser arrange for your speaking 
engagement at New York University ? 

Mr. Lee. Decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Steve Martinot, Levi Lee Laub, and 
Anatol Isaac Schlosser as leaders of the Ad Hoc Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 357 

Mr. Lee. I decline to .answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

JNIr. Nrn-LE. Do you know them as leaders of a successor group, ti- 
tled the ''Permanent Student Connnittee for Travel to Cuba'' ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mr. Lee, did you counsel and advise them with respect 
to any of their activities in either tlie Ad Hoc or the Permanent Stu- 
dent group to which I have just referred ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, if you did not counsel and advise with them, 
how could that possibly incriminate you ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. On December 22, 1962, the Canadian Government re- 
fused to allow a group of American students, of which Martinot and 
Schlosser had been publicly reported as spokesmen, to use Montreal, 
Canada, as a point of departure for a Christmas trip to Cuba in viola- 
tion of United States travel regulations. 

Did you, Mr. Lee, participate in the arrangements being made for 
these students in Canada, designed to accomplish such travel to Cuba 
in violation of the laws and regulations of the United States Govern- 
ment ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you yourself initially planned your travel to Cuba 
to coincide with their departure for that country ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question and invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Before concluding the staff interrogation I would like 
to ask just one or two questions more. 

Have you ever been denied a passport ? 

Mr. Lee. I decline to answer that question, sir, and invoke my privi- 
leges under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Faulkner. Counselor, I still have here Exhibit 9 that is listed 
with the mention of the debate against HUAC here and the other thing 
on the bottom you brought up before. Are you offering Exhibit 9? 

Mr. NiTTLE. That has been offered. 

Mr. Faulkner. The full front page ? 

Mr. XiTTLE. The article to which we have referred. 

Mr. Faulkner. I see. 

Mr. Willis. After consultation with the committee, the Chair re- 
quests that arrangements be made to send a transcript of Mr. Lee's 
testimony and the exhibits offered to the Department of Justice, as the 
basis for consideration for possible criminal prosecution. 

Is that all with Mr. Lee ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions of this witness, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Anatol Isaac Schlosser please come forward? 

Mr. Willis. Raise your right hand. 



358 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. ScHLossER. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ANATOL ISAAC SCHLOSSER, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name, spelling it as well, 
and your residence for the record, please ? 

Mr. ScHLOssER. Anatol Isaac Schlosser, A-n-a-t-o-1 I-s-a-a-c 
S-c-h-1-o-s-s-e-r, 42 St. Marks Place, New York 3. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Schlosser. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself, stating his 
name and office address ? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer, and I am still at 711 14th Street, NW., 
Washington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Schlosser, have you been known by any name other 
than Anatol Isaac Schlosser? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. No, I have not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Mr. Schlosser. April 7, 1987, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the names of the educational institutions at which you were 
in attendance, the years of your attendance, and any degrees you may 
have received ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I am a graduate of James Monroe High School in 
1954, graduate of New York University with a B.A. degree in 1958, 
February — let's see. Attendant at Catholic University of Louvain 
for one year, from 1958 to 1959, attendant at New York University 
School of Law from 1960 to 1961, and I haA^e my master's, received 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. New York University School of Law ? 

Mr. Schlosser. That's correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. For what period ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I believe it was from 1960 through 1961. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Schlosser. And then through 1961 through '62, I received my 
master's from New York University. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your masters degree in what ? 

Mr. Schlosser. In English literature and drama. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the following 
grounds : I consider this inquiry an interference with the constitutional 
rights of free speech, free thought, free association, free travel. I 
believe that in a democracy it is the individual who has the riffht and 
the duty to question the Government as to its actions. The Govern- 
ment does not have the right to question the individual. This commit- 
tee has misused its legislative purpose by holding inquiry into foreign 
affairs and aiding in the propaganda of warmongering policies. This 
question is irrelevant to the avowed legislative purpose of this com- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 359 

mittee and to the avowed subject under inquiry, and on the grounds 
of my privilege under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Mr. NiTTi^E. Are you presently in attendance at Columbia Uni- 
versity in the graduate school ? 

Mr. SCHLOSSER. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a graduate student at New York 
University ? 

Mr. SciiLOSSER. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been in attendance at New York Uni- 
versity, since the year 1961 ? 

Mr. ScHLossER. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state the period since 1961 that you have been 
in attendance at NYU ? 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I completed my master's in 1962 and I started tak- 
ing courses there again towards my doctorate in September of 1962. 
But I am not now in attendance. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you in possession, Mr. Schlosser, of a United States 
passport? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLossER. I have already stated the reasons for my refusal 
and I stick by them to this question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Committee investigation reveals that you have held a 
U.S. passport since 1958 ; that you last applied to the State Depart- 
ment for its renewal on June 8, 1962; and that on June 11, 1962, you 
were issued a U.S. passport. No. C-44149. This information is cor- 
rect, is it not? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your application of June 8, 1962, you listed the 
countries to be visited as being England, France, Holland, and Italy, 
for an indefinite period of 8 months. Did you actually visit these 
countries at any time after that date ? 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds 
that I stated above. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time of your application of June 8, 1962, did you 
apply for the renewal of your passport with the purpose in mind of 
also applying later for a validation of that passport for travel to 
Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. This is what I consider a loaded question. This 
makes the assumption that I have applied, or possess a passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you can certainly clarify that situation. 

Mr. Schlosser. As I have already refused to answer 

Mr. NiTTLE. We have stated that the investigation reveals you did 
do certain things, and you have been given the opportunity to correct 
us if any error has been made. 

Mr. Schlosser. I have already refused to answer those questions, 
and I refuse to answer this one, for the reasons stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you at any time on or after June 8, 1962, at which 
time you applied for a renewal of your passport, make an application 
for a validation of that passport for travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
already stated. 



360 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time since that date visited Cuba ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. SCHLOSSER. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Schlosser, are you a member of a group titled the 
"Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba" ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
alreadv stated. 

Mr. Willis. You just said that you had not traveled to Cuba after 
the date indicated. Will vou indicate if you traveled out of the coun- 
try anywhere else, except Cuba ? 

Mr.FoRER. "\^niat date ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe Mr. Willis stated June 8, 1962, which was the 
date of application for renewal of the passport. 

Mr. FoRER. The date of the application, or the date of the alleged 
application? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Willis. Did you travel to Mexico? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you travel to Canada ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Would you, Mr. Schlosser. tell us the names of the offi- 
cers of the group and what positions they hold in the Ad Hoc Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. T refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
already stated and, furthermore. I believe so to answer this question 
would be against my principles and my conscience to become an 
informer. 

Mr. NtttTvE. Now. Mr. Schlosser, I will read the text of a wireless 
broadcast from Havana. Cuba, November 29, 1962. 

Mr. Wn.Lis. From what text ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of a wireless broadcast beamed fi'om Havana, Cuba, 
November 29. 1962. which we have marked for identification as 
"Schlosser Exhibit No. 1." 

The Cuban wireless reported in part stating : 

It came to my attention this morning that .some SO stndents in the United States 
have expressed their desire to travel to Cuba despite all ohstaoles. This was 
announced by Anatol Schlosser of the organizing committee for trips to Cuba, 
in a press conference at the Hotel Sheraton, New York. He is quoted as saying 
that "the obstacles" [and this is your quote, now] "the obstacles set in the way 
by the State Department constitute a further violation of the rights of all U.S. 
citizens," and that "students of the United States ought to go see with their own 
eyes how the Cuban people live and work." Students expressing this desire, he 
said, attend universities in New York, Boston, Buffalo, and other U.S. cities, 
but "cannot get a clear picture from their newspapers of what is happening in 
Cuba, though it is generally realized that the Cuban revolution is one of the 
most important developments in the Western Hemisphere." 

You are the Anatol Schlosser referred to in the Cuban broadcast as 
of the organizinsr committee for trips to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I have already refused to answer any questions 
about this committee or my association with it. However, I do agree 
with the sentiments that were expressed in that release, and I would 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 361 

like to go on record as saying that I believe that the right to travel is 
a right which is essential to American democracy. In fact, I consider 
it a'basis of American democracy. This basis is the informed citizen, 
and there can be no restrictions upon what this citizen is to know or 
where he is to find that knowledge. 

(Document marked "Schlosser Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Willis. Does that include the right to travel contrary to law 
and regulations? 

JNIr. Schlosser. I don't believe that there should even be such a law 
that should stand in the way of the right to travel or the right to seek 
knowledge. 

Mr. Willis. You mean that the Federal Government has no right 
to regulate travel with a country with which we have no diplomatic 
relations ? That we can't have laws on that subject ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I don't think that 

Mr. Willis. I don't want to discuss philosophy with you, but you 
opened the door, so I am asking you. 

Mr. Schlosser. I am stepping through and saying that I think 
that the Government does not have that right. In fact, this is an 
opinion not only shared by myself, but by the New York Bar Associa- 
tion, which made this statement in 1958, that "Wlienever American 
citizens, including members of the press, are denied freedom of travel, 
to that extent, they as individuals, and the Nation as a whole, are less 
well equipped to make intelligent choices among the various courses 
of action available to individuals and to nations." 

Mr. Willis. Well, that's probably true as a general statement; and, 
as a matter of fact, at present there is no denying people's travel to 
Cuba. There is a requirement that they have to have passports and a 
right to reject them. That's all we are talking about here. But you 
take the position that you can't stop or inquire into the question of 
travel in time of emergency, breaking of diplomatic relations, under 
a regulation simply saying that, in order to travel to Cuba, you have 
to have a valid passport ? Do you say that this Government does not 
have that power ? 

Mr, Schlosser. There might not be an emergency if people were 
given an opportunity to go and see. 

Mr. Willis. I am not asking you that. I have raised the question, 
and I am just about done with it. You have read a statement of a 
fundamental principle about the right to travel. Is it your opinion 
and your position that, under existing situations, the United States 
Government cannot require that people traveling to Cuba have valid 
passports ? Is that your position ? 

Mr. JoHANSEN". Mr. Chairman. 

Did the New York Bar Association advocate or endorse violation 
of existing law and regulation ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I have no idea whether they do or they don't. They 
just talk about a principle which we feel is inimical to the very 
principle of law and democracy in the United States and this country. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I am very sure they did not. I am sure the witness 
knows they did not. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

9S-765— ea— pt. 1 10 



362 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is not the organizing committee to which the broad- 
cast referred in fact the organization titled "Ad Hoc Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba" 'i 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds al- 
ready stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, as the Havana broadcast reported, make 
these facts known at a press conference at the Hotel Sheraton in New 
York? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I refuse to answer that question on the gromids 
already stated. 

Mr. Willis. Let me ask you this question, then, in view of what 
you have said. 

Have you ever given advice to students in groups to the effect that 
they had the right to travel to Cuba as they wished ; that no one could 
stop them, even to the extent of requiring a valid passport? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLossER. Well, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
already stated, Mr. Chairman. I am not a lawyer to advise people. 

Mr. Willis. I thought you were. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hold that press conference completely on your 
own initiative ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOssER. Again, this is presupposing that I have admitted 
having held such a press conference, and I refuse to answer that ques- 
tion on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did anyone assist you in arranging or conducting the 
conference at the Hotel Sheraton ? 

Mr. SciiLossER. That's still a presupposition, and I still refuse 
to answer that question on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, as reported, state that the American news- 
papers do not give a clear picture of what is happening in Cuba ? 

Mr. ScHLOssER. Again, that's a presupposition, and I refuse to an- 
swer that question. However, I do feel that the American press has 
often printed contradictory reports as to what is happening in Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you regard the American newspapers as giving a 
distorted account of the Cuban situation ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I will say that one can take up within a period of 6 
months within newspapers, or even within the same newspapers, and 
find contradictory reports, and often distorted, and I feel that is due 
perhaps to a large degree to the travel ban which has also existed to 
members of the press, and that their rights to travel are just as much 
affected as every other citizen of this country. 

Mr. Willis. Is there a travel ban against press people going to 
Cuba who have a valid passport ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. It's my understanding that some are allowed in, 
and some are not ; that all do not have equal access. 

Mr. Willis. Exactly ; you are so right. And I am not talking in 
terms of press. I am talking in terms of regulations. That is ex- 
actly what this hearing is all about, violation of that regulation. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 363 

Mr. NiTTLE. And Mr. Chairman, may I state for the record that 
the State Department has issued a release stating its policy to issue 
validated passports for travel to Cuba to legitimate and responsible 
newspapermen. 

Mr. Willis. Well, you can include in that legitimate, responsible 

people. 

(tVitness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, it is an interesting coincidence that Miss 
Nina Alekseyeva, a Soviet news analyst, in a ]\Ioscow radio broadcast 
of November 29, 1962, takes the same view as the witness. She said it 
was a "fine idea" the New York students had to arrange a trip to 
Cuba, and reported that, "Of any 10 dispatches about Cuba in the 
American press today, nine are sure to be distorted. Many U.S. politi- 
cians and journalists still claim that Cuba represents a major threat 
to the Western Hemisphere." She concluded, "That Washington does 
not want the truth about Cuba to reach Americans." 

Mr. Schlosser, subsequently on December 12, 1962, the Cuban wireless 
broadcast from Havana that : 

A group of 80 or more U.S. students who have expressed their desire to know 
the truth about Cuba personally are planning to leave the United States for 
Cuba on the 22d or 23d of this month using the Montreal, Canada, route, despite 
the prohibition of the Kennedy government. 

The text of the broadcast, which I have marked as "Schlosser Ex- 
hibit No. 2," is apparently based on a United Press International dis- 
patch. The broadcast stated further that : 

The UPI agency reports that a spokesman for the group, the young Anatol 
[Schlosser], said that the U.S. students expect to stay in Havana for 10 days to 
two weeks. 

You are the young Anatol Schlosser referred to, are you not, Mr. 
Schlosser ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser, Well, I will only admit to being young, but to the 
rest of the question I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

(Document marked "Schlosser Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

]Mr. NiTTLE. The broadcast indicates that the group of 80-or-more 
U.S. students were planning to leave for Cuba, using a Montreal, 
Canada, route, because their travel to Cuba was not validated in ac- 
cordance with the regulation and laws of the United States. As 
spokesman for the group, Mr. Schlosser, could you tell us whether 
any of the 80-or-more U.S. students possessed passports validated for 
travel to Cuba, or made application for same ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I don't want to interrupt, but again it presupposes 
a number of questions which I have already refused to answer, and I 
must refuse to answer this question on the gromids already stated. 

Mr. Willis. Tell me — you said that you disapprove of our regula- 
tion based on law, requiring a valid passport to travel to Cuba — do you 
know wdiether under the Cuban system anyone from Cuba can leave 
Cuba at will ? 

Mr. FoRER. Anyone from Cuba can what ? 

Mr. Willis. I am asking him if he knows. 



364 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Sghlosser. I have no idea if they can. 

Mr. Willis. If there is such a ban, you would disapprove of that, 
too, I suppose? 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I disapprove of all such bans. 

Mr. NiTTT^E. Did you in fact, as a leader of the group of students, 
plan to utilize the Montreal, Canadian route, despite the ban on 
travel ? 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I refuse to answer that question on the gi-ounds 
already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you yourself conceive of the idea of using the 
Montreal, Canada, route as a means of entering Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOssER, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did any representative, official, or agent of the Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee suggest this route to you ? 

(Witnessed conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. That is again another presupposition question, and 
I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Schlosser, in the course of these hearings, Conrad 
Joseph Lynn testified on May 6, 1963, that a route was established 
through Canada to provide a means of travel for U.S. citizens from 
this country to Cuba. Have you had any discussion with Conrad 
Joseph Lynn with respect to a Canadian route to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. No, I have not. I believe that he made mention of 
the underground railway. Isn't that it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are familiar with his testimony? 

Mr. Willis. Do you know whether the Canadian Government 
would prohibit such practice ? 

Mr. Schlosser. "WHiich practice? 

Mr. Willis. Of using a route via Montreal, or wherever it is, to 
go to Cuba contrary to the Canadian law and regulation ? 

Mr. Schlosser. Well, I can't speak for the Canadian Government. 
I assimie they are a sovereign nation and can make up their own 
minds as to their policies with other nations. 

Mr. Willis. If they had such a regulation, would you approve or 
disapprove ? 

Mr. Schlosser. That's up to the Canadian people to approve or 
disapprove. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Have you expressed yourself against such a policy, if 
it exists, with reference to Canada and Cuba, as you now express your- 
self with reference to American law ? 

Mr. Schlosser. My sympathies would be with the Canadian people. 

Mr. Willis. About what? 

Mr. Schlosser. My sympathies would be with the Canadian people. 

Mr. Willis. The Canadian people? You are assuming that the 
Canadian people would want to flout Canadian law^ ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. It is not a question of sympathizing with their right 
to break the law, but their right to travel, and my sympathies will 
always be on that principle. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 365 

Mr. Willis. And if they must travel, then they have a right to do it 
irroo-ularly? 

Mr. ScuLossEK. I don't think tliere should be any laws in the first 
place. 

Mr. Willis. But if there is a law, you are for flouting it? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. That's for the Canadians to decide. 

Mr. Willis. Let's come to America. If there is such a law, and 
there is, and such a regulation, and there is, you are so much for 
the freedom of travel that you advocate flouting American law and 
regulation ? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I have not gone on record as having advocated 
that position and have not given much thought to it. 

Mr. Willis. Did you think about it in preparing this press con- 
ference release attributed to you ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. SciiLossER. Again it has only been attributed, and that's a 
presupposition. 

Mr. Willis. If you had such an opportmiity, would you tell those 
students so to do, go via JSIontreal, Canada '? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. In violation of both our and Canadian law ? 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I consider this question both extremely hypothetical 
and rather obscure, and 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Vincent Theodore Lee testified today, as you know, 
immediately preceding your appearance on the stand. Mr. Lee is the 
national director of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 

Do you know Mr. Lee ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
already stated; and I did not hear him testify, by the way, to such 
fact. 

Mr. XiTTLE. As a matter of fact, Mr. Lee resides at 371/4 St. Marks 
Place, New York City. Is not this address directly across the street 
from your own ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. SciiLossER. Directly across the street, there happens to be two 
antique shops and an old-age home. I don't know what their numbers 
are, or in which one Mr. Lee might reside. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It's in the immediate area, is it not, of your residence? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. SciiLOSSER. If there is such a number, I imagine it would be. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, what is the number of your residence ? 

Mr. SciiLOSSER. I have already stated that. It's 42 St. Marks Place. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee has reason to believe that you do know 
ISIr. Lee, and we would like to inquire how long you have known 
him? 

Mr. SciiLOSSER. I have not stated that I have known Mr. Lee and 
I refuse to answer that question on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had any discussions with Mr. Lee relating 
to the organization of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba? 



366 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOSSEE. Again that's a presupposition, and I refuse to 
answer that question on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Very well, is the "presupposition" correct or incorrect? 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I refuse to answer that grounds — that question on 
I he grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Didn't Mr. Lee assist you in preparations made for 
travel to Cuba through Canada ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you assist in arranging for Mr. Lee's speaking 
engagement at New York University of May 10, 1963 ? 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I refuse to answer that question on the gromids 
already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you participated in the recruiting of students at 
New York University for the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba? 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Referring back again to the Havana broadcast of 
December 12, 1962, it was further reported that you stated that the 
travel to Havana would be made at the invitation of the Federation of 
University Students of Cuba. Was an invitation extended to the 
Ad Hoc Student Committee, of which you are the spokesman, by the 
Federation of University Students of Cuba ? 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
already stated, but I can very readily understand why the Cuban 
students might very well want to meet American students and a 
reciprocal feeling existing among the American students. 

Mr. NiTTLE. With respect to that feeling, is it also your feeling that 
the Federation of Cuban Students initiated the correspondence with 
3^our committee ? Is that what you mean to say ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I mean to say I refuse to answer that question on 
the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well now, New Times, a Soviet weekly published by 
Trud in Moscow in several languages, including the English, and 
circulated throughout the world, including the United States, reports 
in its December 26, 1962, issue, No. 52, that your committee initiated 
the correspondence with the Federation of Cuban University Students. 
The accoimt in New Times, at page 23, stated in part : 

The committee sent two letters : one to the Cuban youth organizations and the 
other to the State Department, asking it for exit visas. In its reply, the Federa- 
tion of Cuban University Students invited the American students to spend the 
Christmas holidays in Cuba. The invitation was gratefully accepted and eighty 
young men and women excitedly began to prepare for the trip. 

Does the New Times correctly report that your committee initiated 
the correspondence ? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. ScHLOssER. Well, I may as well refuse to answer that question 
on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Now, was this correspondence and invitation pre- 
arranged ? By that I mean to say, were you informed tlirough some 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 367 

source that the Federation of University Students of Cuba would ex- 
tend tliis invitation prior to the initiation of the correspondence by 
your committee? 

(AYitness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. SciiLOssER. If this is the invitation that is referred to in the 
preceding question, which I have already refused to answer, then 
I must refuse to answer this question on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Well, is the "presupposition" correct or is it incorrect? 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I must refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, the Havana broadcast mentioned the United 
Press International news agency as a source for at least a part of 
tlie information it reported. I now hand you a more detailed account 
of the United Press International dispatch as reported in the Wash- 
ington Daily News of December 12, 1962, at page 12, marked for 
identification as "Schlosser Exhibit No. 3." 

I ask you to examine the account in Exhibit No. 3. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you any corrections to make in the report of 
Exhibit No. 3 ? 

Mr. ScHLOssER. Would you say that again ? 

Mr. NiTTLE, Have you any corrections to make? Are the facts 
as stated by the United Press International in that report correct? 

Mr. Schlosser. I have already refused to answer that question in 
various forms and I refuse to answer it again on the grounds already 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Washington Dally News report. Exhibit No. 3, 
which you have just examined, reports you as saying that the group 
of students making the trip was "cognizant of the fact that the gov- 
ernment has denied us permission and does not want us to go." 

Did you make that statement ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on all of the 
grounds already stated. 

(Document marked "Schlosser Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTi'LE. An account dispatched by the Associated Press re- 
ported in the Christian Science Monitor of December 18, 1962, under 
the caption, "Students May Defy Cuban Travel Ban," ^ was as 
follows : 

A graduate student says lie expects from 30 to 100 American students to 
defy a State Department ban and travel to Cuba late this month so they can 
make up their own minds on whether the government of Premier Fidel Castro 
is good or evil. 

"We are exercising our rights to travel and seek and gather information," 
said Anatol I. Schlosser, a drama student at New York University, who describes 
himself as a spokesman for the Ad Hoc Student Committee. 

Mr. Schlosser said the State Department warned him in a letter last week 
that any students making the trip would face a fine of $5,000, and five years' 
imprisonment. 

This account, Mr. Schlosser, declares that you w^ere warned by the 
State Department in a letter. Did you receive a letter of warning 
from the State Department? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

1 Reprinted in Progressive Laior January 1963. 



368 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I think it's a shame that the State Department 
should send such a letter to anybody, and 

Mr. Willis. Well, did they send it to you ? 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. I refuse to answer that question on all the gromids 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Schlosser, the State Department issued a General 
Press Kelease, No. 729, on December 13, 1962, a copy of which I have 
before me marked for identification as "Schlosser Exhibit No. 4," I 
shall read it into the record. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

FOR THE PRESS 
December 13, 1962 NO. 729 

On January IG, 1961, the Department of State announced that in view 
of the United States Government's inability to extend normal protective serv- 
ices to Americans visiting Cuba, United States citizens desiring to go to Cuba 
must obtain passports specifically endorsed by the Department of State for such 
travel. This requirement is still in effect. 

Passports of United States citizens may be validated for travel to Cuba when 
their travel may be regarded as being in the best interests of the United States, 
such as newsmen or businessmen with previously established business interests. 

The Department has recently received information from several sources 
that a group of American students is being encouraged to visit Cuba during the 
Christmas holidays. Since these students do not meet the established criteria, 
their passports have not been validated for such travel. 

The Department warns all concerned that travel to Cuba by a United States 
citizen without a passport specifically validated by the Department of State for 
that purpose constitutes a violation of the Travel Control Law and Regulations. 
(Title 8 U.S. Code, Sec. 1185 ; Title 22 Code of Federal Regulations, Sec. 53.3) . A 
wilful violation of the law is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. 

I hand you a copy of that exhibit, Mr. Schlosser. 

As a matter of fact, did not the State Department send you a copy 
of that? And is not that press release the "letter" to which you 
refer ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on all the grounds 
previously stated. 

(Document marked "Schlosser Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Press reports relating to the j^roposed travel organized 
by the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba have also con- 
tained statements by a Steve Martinot, M-a-r-t-i-no-t, describing him 
likewise as a spokesman for your organization. 

Do you know Steve Martinot ? 

Mr. Schlosser. This is a presupposition question which assumes 
that it is my organization. The question is so designed to make me 
admit to that and to put me in a position of being a stool pigeon. I 
refuse to answer that question on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. But now, is the "presupposition" tliat this is your or- 
ganization incorrect ? 

Mr. Schlosser. That has been tried before, and I refuse to answer 
that question, yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. And are you cognizant of your duties as a United 
States citizen to testify in a proceeding that is lawfully constituted ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 369 

Mr. FoRER. I object to tliat question. The witness is not a lawyer. 

Mr. WiLi.is. Well, I thought he had a law degree, but proceed. 
Counsel. 

Mr. NirrLE. Yes, sir. 

Now, was Steve Martinot a spokesman for the Ad Hoc Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba, to your knowledge ? 

(Witness conferred witli counsel.) 

Mr. ScHLossER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds al- 
ready stated. 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will stand in recess until 1 :30. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :55 a.m., Thursday, May 23, 1963, the hearings 
were recessed, to reconvene at 1 :30 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— THURSDAY, MAY 23, 1963 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1:45 p.m., Honorable Edwin E. 
Willis, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Subcommittee members present: Eepresentatives Willis and Jo- 
hansen.) 

Mr. Willis. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Let us proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ANATOL ISAAC SCHLOSSER— Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Schlosser, the Christmas 1962 plan for travel to 
Cuba, we understand, was finally frustrated by the refusal of the 
Canadian authorities to allow the student group to use Canada as a 
place of departure for Cuba. This was announced by the Canadian 
Government in a press release issued December 22, 1962. Tliat is also 
your information, is it not ? 

Mr. Schlosser. It seems to be the committee's information. I refuse 
to answer that question on the ground that I have already stated at the 
beginning of this inquiry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has your Ad Hoc Committee now been organized as a 
group or a successor group titled the "Permanent Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba"? 

Mr. Schlosser. I don't recall that in any of the previous questions 
I ever admitted so, or knowledge of any previous committee, so I must 
refuse tliis question on the grounds I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Permanent Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you aware of the existence of a group called the 
Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, whether or not 
vou are a member of it ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Forer, you have been before this committee many 
times, and I don't imply anything by it, except to offer this observa- 
tion: that you have been acting as more than a coimsel advising a 
client today, and have been suggesting answers all along. I would 
suggest that you desist in that. 



370 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. FoRER. Well, I don't accept the statement that I have been sug- 
gesting answers. I have been advising him of his rights. And I 
don't think the chairman is in a position to know what I am telling 
my client. 

Mr. Willis. Well, the acoustics are good enough for my ears to 
hear, and it happens that others have observed the same thing. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Schlosser, do you recollect the outstanding 
question? Are you aware of the existence of a group called the 
Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, whether or not 
you are a member of it ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I am sorry, gentlemen, I can't help you on that 
question, either. I am compelled to refuse to answer that question 
on the grounds that I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee, that is, this subcommittee of Congress, 
has received information that you are in charge of this new organi- 
zation or successor organization titled "Permanent Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba." Are you a person in charge of this organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. Schlosser. Again, I must refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds tliat I have already stated. 

Mr. Willis. Of course, you are not compelled to answer, you just 
refuse to answer. 

Mr. Schlosser. Well, it's my conscience that compels me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is not recognized as a sufficient ground for refus- 
ing to answer a question. 

Mr. Willis. Therefore, I order you to. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. In my refusal, I also stated, and I state again, that 
I refuse to answer that question on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation discloses that an individ- 
ual named Levi Lee Laub, L-a-u-b, whose last known residence was 
gh^en as 217 Haven Avenue, New York City, appeared in San Fran- 
cisco, California, during the week of April 29th of this year. He ad- 
dressed a meeting there, at which he discussed the purposes of the 
Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba and stated he was 
a representative of that committee. Do you know Levi Lee Laub ? 

Mr. Schlosser. If the committee wishes that type of information, 
I suggest they ask Mr. Laub as to whether he is a member or is not. 
I myself refuse to answer that question on the grounds I have already 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is he now, or formerly, a student at Columbia LTni- 
versity ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was he a member of your Ad Hoc Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba? 

_Mr. Schlosser. As I have never acknowledged in front of this com- 
mittee any association with this Ad Hoc Committee, that again in- 
volves a presupposition, and I refuse to answer the question asked on 
the grounds already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, it is not a presupposition; the committee's in- 
vestigation discloses its existence. We are asking you whether or not 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 371 

this information is trne, and what connections you may have with it. 
You refuse to respond to those questions. That's the situation, isn't 
it? 

Mr. Willis. Well, proceed. Ask him questions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Schlosser, our investigation reveals that the Permanent Student 
Committee is planning to organize a student group to visit Cuba dur- 
ing July next, and that an invitation was extended by the Federation 
of University Students in Havana, Cuba, an organization to which we 
have already referred, to receive this group. The departure point for 
the trip to Cuba in July 1963 is to be Toronto, Canada, and all ex- 
penses, including air transportation from Toronto to Cuba and return, 
are to be paid by the Federation of University Students of Cuba. 
Wliat knowledge do you have of these arrangements ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I think it's extremely generous act on the part of 
the Cuban students, if they have done this and, in principle, I don't 
see why an American student group should not do the same. 

As to the specific question, I refuse to answer that on the grounds 
that I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, A publication, titled Progressive Labor^ of January 
1963, Volume 2, No, 1, in an editorial on page 11, titled, "Students To 
Challenge Ban on Travel to Cuba," in commenting on the refusal of 
the Canadian Ministry for External Affairs to permit travel to Cuba 
by the Ad Hoc Student Committee group, declared : 

Spokesmen for the student committee immediately announced that the trip was 
NOT cancelled — only postponed till the Summer. "We will go via anothei* 
route," the spokesmen — Steve Martinot of Columbia University and Anatol 
Schlosser of NYU — said, adding that the full plans would be made public soon. 
Local committees to organize for the Summer trip have been set up at various 
campuses around the country, including N Y U, C O N Y, Columbia, and the 
Universities of North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Buffalo. 

Would you tell us whether you are correctly quoted in Progressive 
Lobor\ 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr, Schlosser, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that I have already stated, 

Mr, NiTTLE, The editorial also notes : 

For more information on the Cuban trip, contact the Ad Hoc Student Com- 
mittee For Travel To Cuba. 42 St. Marks Place. New York 3, N.Y. 

That, of course, Mr, Schlosser, is your address, is it not ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel,) 

Mr. Schlosser, I have already stated at the beginning of the in- 
quiry that my address is 42 St, Marks Place, 

Mr. NiTTLE, Well, is your address the address of the Ad Hoc Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel,) 

Mr, Schlosser, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that I have already stated, 

Mr, NiTTLE, Is it also the address of the Permanent Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
I have already stated, 

Mr, NiTTLE, Does the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba mamtain offices at your home, or elsewhere? 



372 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. ScHLOSSER. Again, since I have not acknowledged any associa- 
tion with the committee, I must refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds tliat I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba maintain its records of membership and its business at your 
address ? 

INIr. SciiLOSSER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Schlosser, it has also come to our attention that 
there is in existence a group known as the Permanent Committee for 
Travel to Cuba. At page 11 of the pro-Communist National Guardian 
of February 21, 1963, the following announcement appears : 

FIESTA— ALL WELCOME 
DANCE TO LIVE MUSIC 

Sat., Feb. 23, 8:30 p.m., 32.5 W. 93 St., Apt. 23. Contribution 99e., Auspices: 
Permanent Comm. for Travel to Cuba. 

Can you tell us whether the Permanent Committee for Travel to 
Cuba is the same organization as the Permanent Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are the two organizations controlled by the same per- 
sons, or in any way affiliated with each other? 

Mr. Schlosser. Again, since I have not previously acknowledged 
any existence of these organizations, I must refuse to answer that 
question on the grounds I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it the purpose of the Permanent Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba to recruit and organize American students for 
travel to Cuba in July 1963, with or without passports validated for 
such travel? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
that I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has the Ad Hoc or the Permanent Student Committee 
been in contact with any representatives of the Cuban United Nations 
mission relative to its proposed Cuban travel plans? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
have already stated. 

INIr. Nittle. Do you have knowledge of that fact ? 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I 
have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, if you did not have such knowledge, how could 
that possibly incriminate you ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Schlosser. I refuse to answer on the same grounds that I have 
already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has either the Ad Hoc or Permanent Student Com- 
mittee been in contact with any representatives of the Czechoslovakian 
Embassy, which has been handling Cuban interests in the United 
States since the severance of diplomatic relations between the United 
States and Cuba ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. [ 373 

Mr. ScHLOssER. I must refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge of this fact ? 

Mr. SciiLOssER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds that 
I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Stefan Martinot. 

Mr. Martinot. Excuse me, but my attorney has not yet arrived, 
and I wish we could wait for him. 

Mr. Willis. Do you expect him ? 

Mr. Martinot, Yes, veiy shortly. 

Mr. Willis. Tlie committee will stand in recess for a few minutes. 

(Short recess.) 

Mr. Willis. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF STEFAN MARTINOT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LAWRENCE SPEISER 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name, spelling it as well, 
and your residence for the record, please ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. My name is Stefan Martinot, S-t-e-f-a-n, M-a-r- 
t-i-n-o-t, and my address is 414 West 121st Street, New York 27, New 
York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are also known as Steve, S-t-e-v-e, Martin; are 
you not ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. Steve Martinot, M-a-r-t-i-n-o-t. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are known as either Stefan and/or Steve Martinot. 

Mr. IVIartinot. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Martinot. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating liis name and office address ? 

Mr. Speiser. I am Lawrence Speiser, and my address is at the 
American Civil Liberties Union, 1101 Vermont Avenue, NW., Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, have you either used or been known by 
any name other than Stefan or Steve Martinot? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mr. Martinot. September 25, 1939, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion, giving us the dates and places of attendance, and any degrees 
received at educational institutions ? 

Mr. Martinot. Grade school and seventh and eighth grade, I went 
to Elizabeth Irvin. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Elizabeth Irvin what ? 

Mr. Martinot. Elizabeth Irwin High School. 



374 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Irvin or Irwin, did you say ? 

Mr. ]\Iartinot. Irwin. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I-r-w-i-n? 

Mr, Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Located where? 

Mr. Martinot. 40 Charles Street. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What city ? 

Mr. Martinot. New York City. Up until 1953. High school at 
Bronx High School of Science, in the Bronx, from '53 to '57 ; college, 
Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, '57 to '62, where I received a 
bachelor of arts degree in mathematics. 

Then I attended Columbia University graduate faculties, until 
April 10, 1963. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I wonder if the witness could speak just a little 
louder, please. 

Mr. Martinot. All right, sir. 

Mr. Speiser. Does this help ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Martinot. I am at present working in a machine shop at Cen- 
ter and Broome Streets. 

Mr. NiTTLE. New York City ? 

Mr. Martinot. In New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been employed there ? 

Mr. Martinot. Five weeks. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat is the nature of your work there? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I operate a machine. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have any other employment, whether part- 
time or otherwise ? 

Mr. IVIartinot. No. 

Mr, Willis. Proceed. 

Mr, NiTTLE. A^riiat other employment have you had since you left 
Columbia University on April 10, 1963 ? 

Mr. ]\L\RTiN0T. None other. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently in possession of a United States 
passport ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, committee investigation reveals that you 
have held a United States passport since the year 1958 and that you 
last applied for its renewal on October 22, 1962, at New York City. 
Based on this application, you received a passport on October 23, 
1962, numbered C-719424, Is this information correct? 
(At this point Mr. Bruce entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Martinot. I really forget the number of the passport and the 
date upon which I received it. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Otherwise, you would agree with the information that 
has been stated? 

Mr, Martinot, To the best of my memory, I can neither agree nor 
deny, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, did you apply for a passport sometime last year? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. Prior to Christmas ? 

Mr. IVIartinot. Ri^ht. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of 1962? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 375 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your application of October 22, 1962, it appears 
that you stated your occupation to be that of a student and that the 
application was for the purpose of traveling to France to study. Do 
you recollect those statements in your application ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IVLvRTiNOT. Yes, to the best of my recollection, that's correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you filed that application, were you then 
already enrolled for study at a university in the United States ? 

]\Ir. Martinot. At that time, I was enrolled in Columbia Univer- 
sity graduate faculties. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you traveled to France since you made applica- 
tion on October 22, 1962, for a passport, in which you stated you in- 
tended to travel there ? 

Mr. ISIartinot. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you on the date of your application, in which 
jou set forth your intention to go to France, also have in mind apply- 
ing later for a validation for travel to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IVIartinot. I would like to challenge the jurisdiction of this 
committee to ask me questions on my application and use of pass- 
ports as being investigation into my personal activities, which is 
beyond the jurisdiction of this committee, and I would like to chal- 
lenge the applicability of this information to any legislative purpose 
by this committee. 

(At this point Mr. Willis left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. You received, did you not, Mr. Martinot, a copy of 
the chairman's statement? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have read it ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Talked to your attorney about it ? 

Mr. ]\L\RTiN0T. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You understand it? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I can only say, Mr. Chairman, that the pertinency of 
the questions would seem to be indisputable, appears with indisputable 
clarity in your statement. I don't think further explanation is re- 
quired. 

Mr. JoHANSEN (presiding). There is no further explanation re- 
quired, and I request that counsel repeat the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that it may be accurately repeated, Mr. Chairman, 
I will request the reporter to read it back to the witness. 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows : 

Did you on the date of your application, in which you set forth your intention 
to go to France, also have in mind applying later for a validation for travel to 
Cuba?) 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I would like to repeat that I challenge the jurisdic- 
tion of this committee in asking me questions about this, that the 
legislative purpose under which the committee is holding these hear- 
ings is in violation of the Constitution, asking me questions on this 



376 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTR^ITIES IN U.S. 

is in violation of the first amendment, my right of association, my 
personal liberties; however, in view of the directive of the chairman, 
I will answer the question. Yes, I did have the intention of applying 
for this permission to go to Cuba at the time I got the passport. 

ISIr. NiTTLE. Why did you not mention that fact in your initial ap- 
plication? 

Mr. IVLvRTiNOT. It was not essential that I stated all my purposes 
in the application when I applied for the passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any intention of travel to France at the 
time you made application ? 

INIr. Martinot. Certainly. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. What was your answer ? 

Mr. Martinot. Certainly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In fact, 10 days after receiving your passport, you 
applied to the Passport Division, Department of State, Washington, 
D.C., for a validation of the passport for travel to Cuba ; did you not ? 

Mr. Martinot. I applied after receiving the passport for validation 
of my passport for travel to Cuba. I forget the date. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. A letter dated November 2, 1962, was addressed 
to the Passport Division, Department of State, Washington, D.C., 
under the signature of Stefan Martinot, 360 First Ave., New York 10, 
N.Y., a copy of which I. shall read into the record : 

Dear Sirs : 

I hereby request that you validate my passport for a trip to Cuba over 
the forthcoming Christmas vacation. I am a student and would like to 
see and evaluate for myself what is happening in Cuba. I am fully 
cognizant of the present state of relations between the United States 
and Cuba, but trust that my [sic] the end of December the tension 
may have subsided sufficiently to permit a more objective view of the 
situation. 

I would appreciate it if you would notify the New York passport office 
of my request, and advise me as to when I may bring my passport there 
to be so validated. 

Thank you very much. 

/s/ Stefan Martinot. 

Is that your recollection of the letter you sent ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now in reply, a letter dated November 16, 1962, from 
Mr. Jolin A. Mang, Chief, Domestic Operations Division, Passport 
Office, was addressed to you as follows : 

Dear Mr. Martinot : 

Reference is made to your recent letter requesting permission to travel to Cuba. 
Exceptions to the general policy of limiting travel by United States citizens are 
made only in cases of extreme emergency requiring the immediate presence of 
the applicant in Cuba. It is not considered that your request comes within the 
criteria. 

It is regretted that a more favorable reply cannot be made to your request. 

Did you receive the original of that letter ? 

Mr. iViARTiNOT. I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, from whom did you receive advice that 
in your initial application for renewal of passport, you should not in- 
clude an application for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. IVIartinot. No one. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did that on your own initiative ? 

Mr. IVIarttnot. That is correct. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 377 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you talk to anybody about it ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, press reports have identified you as a 
spokesman for tlie group or organization laiown as tlie Ad Hoc Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba, to which we have already referred 
in the interrogation of prior witnesses. 

Are you a spokesman of that group ? 

Mr. ^LvRTiNOT. Would you repeat the question, please ? 

Mr, NiTTLE. Are you a spokesman for a group laiown as the Ad Hoc 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Martinot. At the present time, there is no such committee 
known as the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. This 
committee existed from October 14 up until the end of December. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of last year? 

Mr. iVLvRTiNOT. 1962. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the witness how he knows the 
exact dates of the existence, of the begimiiiig and ending of tliis 
committee? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. On October 14, a group of students from 
New York City universities and colleges met and were discussing the 
the present situation, vis-a-vis Cuba-United States, and the situa- 
tion within Cuba. 

Mr. Bruce. May I interject there just briefly to say are you giving 
us an eyewitness 

Mr. ]VLa.rtinot. I am giving you an answer to your question. 

Mr. Bruce. Well, I want to put it in perspective. 

Is this an eyewitness answer as a part of that meeting? 

Mr. ]M.\RTrN0T. I was at that meeting. 

Mr. Bruce. All right, thank you. Go ahead. 

Mr. Martinot. Certain press reports were brought out about Cuba 
and they were found to be contradictory. It was thought that as 
students, that it behooved us to achieve a better miderstanding of what 
was happening in Cuba in the face of these contradictory reports and 
that on this — on these grounds, we decided that it was our responsi- 
bility as students in the United States and as citizens to attempt to 
form as objective and as complete an opinion as w^e could of the Cuban 
situation. And hence, decided to make a trip down to Cuba to see and 
evaluate the situation for ourselves. 

Mr. Bruce. Well, pursuing that a bit further, what was the date you 
said that the committee, in effect, disbanded ? I believe j'^ou gave it 
earlier. 

Mr. Martinot. It 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. The question is incorrect. 

The Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba was not dis- 
banded, it was changed to the Permanent Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Bruce. Were you present at the time of the meeting that 
changed this? 

Mr. Johansen. And what was that date ? 

Mr. Martinot. I forget the exact date. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Approximately ? 

]VIr. Martinot. It was at the end of December. 

98-765—63 H 



378 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Bruce. In 1962 ? 

Mr. Martinot. 1962. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now where was this meeting of the organization held ? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. ]\L\RTiNOT. The meeting was held in New York City. 

Mr. NiTiLE. What was the address ? 

Mr. Martinot. I would not answer that question, for the following 
reasons : 

The address involved is the address of an mdividual, and I will not 
answer any questions before this committee with any individuals other 
than myself for the f ollowmg reasons : 

The history of this committee has shown it to be a committee for the 
purpose of exposing for exposure's sake, irrespective of any legislative 
purpose which the committee may at any time have been involved in 
or is involved in. 

Secondly, that the names have no relevance to any legislative pur- 
pose, because any legislation on these would be legislation in violation 
of the first amendment, and therefore the mandate of tliis committee 
does not give it the permission or the ability to ask questions into these 
individuals; and 

Third, that such a question would be in violation of the due process 
clause of the fifth amendment ; and 

Fourth, that such questions as to individuals and addresses con- 
nected with them would, in effect, put me into the position of being 
an informer on these individuals, and this I will not do. 

I disdain to hide my views and my activities from the public eye, 
but I will not in any way be an informer on associates, friends, or 
acquaintances. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Martinot. I fully recognize what possible consequences this line 
may take, but I will risk this, rather than to soil my honor or my con- 
science in speaking about individuals other than myself. 

This committee has already shown that it holds the possibility of 
an indictment and conviction for contempt of Congress over those 
people who do not answer questions about acquaintances, friends, or 
associates. 

JMr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. ISIartinot. This is tantamount to some kind of coercion on the 
part of the witnesses called before this committee, which is an act 
which one finds in most totalitarian states, but which is most unworthy 
of any governmental institution in a democracy. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, as a point of clarification from my 
standpoint — of all of the words used by the witness in reply to this 
question, the one phrase that is applicable here would be the invoking 
of the privileges of the fifth amendment. Am I correct? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. That is correct. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Martinot, you have earlier testified that you were 
present at the organizing meeting and then the meeting that formed 
it into a permanent committee. I am sure you have been advised by 
your attorney of exactly what the fifth amendment is and what it 
covers. Having testified as to your presence at this meeting, and fur- 
ther having testified — and we assume it was honest testimony — the 
purpose of the meeting to be organizing an objective study, a means 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 379 

of getting out what you considered objective reports and views on 
Cuba, surely, Mr. Martinot, the fifth amendment against self-incrimi- 
nation or prosecution would not apply there, would it ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. JMartinot. I have already stated my reasons for refusing to 
answer the question, and the record of my testimony speaks for itself, 
and I do not have to say anything else in that regard. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Cliairman, 1 will observe that the witness opened 
this line of questioning by his statement that he was present at the 
meeting, by stating what, he would have us believe, would be the 
objectives of the meeting. Therefore, I request that the witness be 
ordered to answer. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I direct and order the witness to answer the question, 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. JSIartinot. I refuse to answer that question on the gromids that 
I previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I state to the witness that he has 
seen fit to respond to questions that were of a self-serving nature to this 
organization and the moment the committee endeavors to probe the 
actual situation, he now refuses to testify, claiming certain privileges 
other than the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment. 
(At this point Mr. Willis returned to the hearing room.) 
Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I request the committee recess for 5 
minutes. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 
(A short recess was taken. Members present after recess: Repre- 
sentatives W^illis, Johansen, and Bruce.) 
Mr. AViLLis. The hearing will be in order. 
Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, you are aware that the committee is man- 
dated by the Congress to investigate Communist propaganda activities 
within the United States, whether of a domestic or a foreign origin ? 
That mandate is established by House Resolution 5 of the 88th Con- 
gress and also by the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946. The 
committee's authorizing resolution is, in turn, based upon the Consti- 
tution of the United States, which authorizes the Congress to make its 
own rules for the disposition of its business. The Supreme Court has 
repeatedly said that the House Committee on Un-American Activities 
is constitutionally authorized and that it has jurisdiction to make 
these inquiries pursuant to its legislative mandate. 

You have already told us that you have received a copy of the chair- 
man's statement of May 6, 1963, which sets forth the subjects of the in- 
quiry in this hearing, its legislative purposes ; and it is pointed out to 
you again that the resolution authorizing this hearing is for the pur- 
pose of investigating Communist propaganda activities in the United 
States conducted in support of the Communist regime in Cuba; the 
activities of United States citizens acting on behalf of, or in the interest 
of, foreign Communist principals; and foreign travel undertaken by 
United States citizens in connection with such activities. 

The committee has reason to believe, based upon its investigation to 
date, that this organization for which you appear to be a spokesman 
and a leader — the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba — is 



380 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Communist-influenced and, indeed, that you yourself are a member 
of a Communist splinter group organization. 

You have seen fit to testify to the objectives and purposes of the 
organization, and the committee now desires to determine whether 
the situation is as you state it to be, or as the facts seem to indicate, 
based upon the investigation. We have information that this commit- 
tee, for which you are a spokesman and organizer, has been active on 
behalf of, and in the interest of, the Communist regime in Cuba ; that 
it is engaged in Communist propaganda activities; and that it was 
established to conduct foreign travel by United States citizens in vio- 
lation of the travel laws and regulations. 

The Supreme Court has said that it is the duty of a responsible 
citizen to testify in a lawful inquiry in response to relevant and ma- 
terial inquiries. The question which has been posed to you is obviously 
material and relevant. We have no other source of information as to 
what occurred at this meeting — which was its organizational meeting — 
to ascertain the degree of Communist influence in its organization, ex- 
cept by the testimony of those who were present at it. You were 
present at it. You have so testified. The committee deems this in- 
formation to be of importance to it, and for that reason I again ask 
the cliairman to direct you to answer the question which has been 
posed. I shall pose the question again to you. 

You have testified that you were present at the organizing meeting 
of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba on October 14, 
1962. Is that correct? 

Mr. Martinot. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTn.E. We desire to know wliere that meeting took place. 

Mr. ]\L\RTiN0T. I have stated that the meeting took place in New 
York. Any further detail on this question is not only irrelevant to 
the legislative purposes of this committee, but I refuse to answer it 
for the reasons which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not include then in those reasons the self- 
incrimination 

Mr. Willis. Wait a moment. Wliere was that meeting held ? You 
said it was held in New York. 

Mr. Martinot. New York City, yes, that is correct. 

]\f r. Willis. Where in New York ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. ISfr. Chairman, you were not here at the time, but 
I gave an explanation as to why I would not answer that question. 
It is now in the record. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the reporter read the answer 
of the witness into the record again. 

Mr. Willis. I am asking, ^Yhere was the meeting held? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I will not answer that question for the reasons previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Willis. And what are those reasons ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I ask you to refer to them in the record and have 
the recorder read them back. I stand on those reasons. 

Mr. Willis. That will be done. But in the meantime do you — do 
I understand you to know where the meeting was held, but for the 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 381 

reasons indicated, you refuse to divulge the place? Is that the 
situation? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ]\L\KTiNOT. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. INIr. Chairman, I ask tliat tlie reporter note specifically 
the presence of the subcon:imittee members and that a quormn is in 
attendance. 

(The following members were present at this time: Representatives 
"Willis and Johansen of the subcommittee, and also Bruce.) 

Mr. Martinot. I would like to state that at the time the question 
was first posed, a quorum was not in attendance. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That may be. However, a quorum has been present 
upon the delivery of counsel's explanation to you of the purpose of 
the inquiry and the pertinency of the question, and is present at the 
time I am posing it to you anew. 

Mr. Wnxis. You now refuse to answer the question that has been 
repeated to you ? 

Mr. INIartinot. As to the address of that meeting ? 

Mr. Willis. Pardon ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes, I refuse to answer that question for the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not include in those reasons the self-incrimina- 
tion clause of the fifth amendment, is that clear ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. No, I do not include that in my answer. 

INIr. NiTTLE. And you do not claim that the question asked you is 
not pertinent to the inquiry ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

]\Ir. Martinot. On the contrary, that was the first reason I stated, 
that such a question is not pertinent. 

Mr. Willis. That is a question of law and that is a question for 
the committee to decide. The Chair rules that the purposes of the 
question, the objects of the meeting, his familiarity with the opening 
statement, the court cases involved all rest clearly in the record at 
this time, as just stated within the last 2 or 3 minutes by counsel. 
The question is a pertinent one. The witness has refused to answer 
that question on grounds that the Chair and the committee do not 
recognize as valid reasons for refusal. He has not invoked the privi- 
leges of the fifth amendment; and therefore since the question is 
pertinent and proper, within the jurisdiction of this committee and 
the purposes of this hearing, I now direct you to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I again refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. I recognize the committee has the ability to make 
its own iTiles and Congress has the ability to make its own rules for 
the conduct of this committee. But it can only make rules insofar 
as it does not infringe or impair the individual constitutional rights 
of the individuals involved in these hearings. This, in a sense, restricts 
the ability of this committee to make rules as to its procedure. 

Mr. Willis. What are the constitutional rights you are invoking? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I have already spelled them out, Mr. Chairman, in 
my previous statement. 



382 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. You have done that and you have just reiterated that 
those rights to this do not inchide an invocation of the privileges 
accorded to you and everybody else under the fifth amendment. I 
want to be sure that you were not broadening those rights by an 
invocation of the privileges of the fifth amendment. I am asking 
you again : Are you invoking the privileges of the fifth amendment 
as grounds for refusal to answer the question, and do you want to 
broaden your refusal to answer to include them ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. I might add, in which case, that would end the matter. 
On the other hand, if you stand on grounds other than constitutional 
grounds, to wit, invocation of the fifth amendment, then I would have 
to order you again to answer the question. Upon your refusal, now 
being fully aware of your rights, it would be then a matter for you 
to take the consequences, meaning possible contempt citation. I am 
trying to advise you all I can now that we have reached this point. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Mr. Chairman, please repeat the question. 

(The record was read.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I have already answered that question. 

Mr. Willis. Pardon? 

Mr. Martinot. I have already answered that question. 

Mr. Willis. Meaning, as far as I am concerned, that you have not 
answered it. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many persons were in attendance at the organiz- 
ing meeting of October 14, 1962 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Approximately 30 or 35. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Was Levi Lee Laub in attendance at that meeting? 

Mr. Martinot. The name you mentioned belongs to an individual ; 
and, therefore, I refuse to answer this question on the grounds and for 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. The name I liave mentioned belongs to an individual 
whom the connnittee has reason to believe is a member of the Com- 
munist splinter group and is a Communist. It is important for the 
committee to determine whether Levi Lee Laub was in attendance at 
that organizing meeting of October 14, 1962. 

I therefore ask the chairman for a direction to the witness to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Willis. I order you to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. JkL^RTiNOT. I refuse to answer on the grounds I previously 
stated, and I suggest that if the committee wishes to find out this 
information they get in touch with the individual involved. 

Mr. Willis. So that we may proceed, and I understand you to say, 
and I think it is a fact, that the grounds you are now invoking do not 
include invocation of the privileges of the fifth amendment; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Martinot. I have already answered that question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer it. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 383 

Mr. Martinot. I rely iijion the answer I have previously given. 

JNIr. Willis. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Vincent Theodore Lee present at that meeting? 

Mr. Martinot. Again I refuse to answer this question on the 
grounds and for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. And it has been established from your own testimony 
within the last few minutes that those grounds do not include an invo- 
cation of the privileges accorded to you under the fifth amendment. 
Let the record show that. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are aware, Mr. Martinot, that the committee's 
investigation discloses that Vincent Theodore Lee is the national di- 
rector of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, an organization which 
we have reason to believe has been in part financed by the Communist 
regime in Cuba and has received directives from the Cuban United 
Nations mission; that we are in this investigation, as a subject of in- 
quiry, seeking to determine the activities of United States citizens 
acting on behalf of foreign Communist principals ; that the commit- 
tee has reason to believe that Vincent Theodore Lee is an agent of the 
Communist Cuban Government. It is therefore important for the 
committee to determine whether Mr. Lee was in attendance upon this 
organizing meeting. 

The committee has information which leads it to believe that Vin- 
cent Theodore Lee was active in the organization of the Ad Hoc Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba. We have sought to determine 
from Mr. Lee personally the degree of his participation in the or- 
ganization of this group. He has refused to testify, invoking the 
fifth amendment privilege against self-incrimination. The commit- 
tee has no other source readily available to it to determine these facts. 

Therefore, it is important for us to have the information from you. 
We ask you again : Was Vincent Theodore Lee present at the organiz- 
ing meeting of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba on 
October 14, 1962, which you testified took place in New York City ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IVL^RTiNOT. Again I refuse to answer any question about any par- 
ticular individual for the grounds and reasons that I have previously 
stated ; and, as far as the constituents of the meeting on October 14 
is concerned, I have already stated my testimony that it was composed 
of students from universities and colleges in New York City. 

Mr. Willis. Since those grounds do not invoke any privileges or 
protections under the fifth amendment, I direct you to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Martinot. Again I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated and for the reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, you recognize that the committee has 
not accepted your grounds 

Mr. Willis. That is obvious. We have gone over that. If it is 
necessary, I repeat it, reiterate, and state it again. He has been 
ordered to answer, he has refused to answer. He understands. The 
implication is a contempt citation, and that is the situation we are in. 

Proceed. 



384 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr, Martiiiot, for a moment we would like to turn to 
another subsidiary subject pertinent to the committee's investigation. 

The Colurribia Spectator of November 14, 1962, carried an article 
titled "Marxist-Leninist Organization Formed by Columbia Stu- 
dents," an article with which you are no doubt familiar. I shall read 
a portion of it into the record as reported by the Golumbia SpectatoT : ^ 

"We consider ourselves Marxists-Leninists. Whatever name you vp'ant to 
call us — communist, socialist — if it fits, we'll wear it. We defend the com- 
munist party's right to exist in the United States, and we're opposed to the 
sustained campaign against it." 

These were statements made yesterday by organizers of the Columbia Progres- 
sive Labor Student Club, which held its first organizational meeting Monday 
night. 

The club plans to file a registration petition with the university in order to 
be recognized as an oflicial student club. Its goal is "work toward establish- 
ment of a revolutionary socialist party in the U.S." 

"The aim would be for the working class, people who don't have a stake in 
ownership or management, to seize political control of the state," say the 
organizers, Levi Laub '63 [Class of '63, I take it] and Steve Martinot, a gradu- 
ate mathematics student. 

"We'd like to involve students with trade union struggles ; some students 
who are now members took part in picket lines during a strike of the Retail 
Drug and Hospital Workers Local 1199 in January." 

You are the Steve Martinot to whom the article refers as one of the 
two organizers of the Columbia Progressive Labor Student Club, are 
you not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IMartinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that the Columbia 
Progressive Labor Student Club is a student affiliate or branch of an 
organization called Progressive Labor. Is that not correct, Mr. Mar- 
tinot? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Yes, I would say it is an affiliate of the Progressive 
Labor. However, when the student club was set up at the Columbia 
University, it was set up to have a large degree of autonomy, if not 
complete autonomy, and participating in student activities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The statement attributed to you in the Columbia Spec- 
tator of November 14, 1962, and the other facts relating to you and 
Levi Laub as being organizers of this Columbia Progressive Labor 
Student Club are correctly reported ; are they not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IMartinot. As far as I myself am concerned, the facts as re- 
ported in the article are substantially correct. I believe there may 
have been a certain degree of misquoting there, but I don't really recall 
exactly what we did say at the time. 

Mr. Nittle. "Wliat is misquoted, if anything ? 

Mr. Martinot. Would you like me to go into an explanation of it? 

Mr. Nittle. No, I just want to know whether there is any misquote 
in this article which I have read, the portion which I have read. 

Mr. Martinot. At the time the article appeared, I remember recog- 
nizing a few points; however, I forget them at the present. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Let me read this to you. Did you say, "We consider 
ourselves Marxists-Leninists" ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



1 Article as reprinted in Progressive Labor, December 1962, p. 12. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 385 

Mr. Maktinot. If you are going to read the statement phrase by 
phrase, I said that it is substantially correct. However, there are 
other things which we said which were not. 

Mr. NirrLE. Do you know Milton Kosen ? 

Mr. Martinot. I refuse to answer that question for all the grounds 
and reasons previously stated with respect to my attitude toward 
questions concerning individuals. 

Mr. Willis. The Chair does not recognize that answer. It is a new 
subject, a new name, and the privilege of invoking reasons previously 
stated is one of mutual arrangement to save tune. Therefore, I direct 
you to answer the question. 

Mr. JMartinot. The subject matter under which I raised these rea- 
sons and grounds for refusing to answer the question was question- 
ing concerning individuals. This question falls mider the same subject 
heading, and therefore I feel that my grounds and reasons hold. 

Mr. Willis. And what are the subjects involving individuals? 
"Wliat do you mean by that ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I explained that I would refuse to answer questions 
concemmg individuals and I stated my grounds and reasons for doing 
so, that also I would answer any questions concerning my own views 
and activities. 

Mr. Willis. And that involves reasons which you believe are justi- 
fied from your point of view in not speaking about others; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. You are not refusing to answer the question because 
of 3'our privileges under the fifth amendment, correct ? 

Mr. ]\Iartinot. I have already answered that question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you now to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I stand on the reasons I previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Pardon ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. JMartinot. I stand on the reasons I previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Are you refusing to answer the question because you 
apprehend that so to do would be compelling you to testify against 
yourself, give evidence against youreelf , or because of an apprehension 
that it might subject you to prosecution? 

Mr. IVL^RTiNOT. I have already stated my reasons for not answering 
the question, and they are in the record. 

Mr. Willis. And the reasons which you gave just a few minutes 
ago from your own lips did not include invocation of the privilege of 
the fifth amendment. Therefore, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Martinot. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds and 
reasons I have previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Proceed, Comisel, 

Mr. Nittle. I would like to pose one question, by the way, to the 
witness : 

You realize, of course, that no court or congressional investigation 
could function if it were possible for a witness to refuse to testify 
because he doesn't want to testify about somebody else ? You realize 



386 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

that, don't you ? The courts of the United States could not function 
on the reasons that you assign. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. With that, I will proceed. 

It is also the committee's information that the organization called 
Progressive Labor is a Communist splinter group which was formed 
on or about January 1962 by Milton Rosen, former labor secretary of 
the important New York State Communist Party, and Mortimer 
Scheer, defeated candidate for the Communist Party's National Com- 
mittee at its last convention in December 1959. Scheer was also the 
Erie County chairman of the Communist Party in New York State. 
Both Rosen and Scheer, in the fall of 1962, were expelled from the 
orthodox or official Communist Party as "neo-Trotskyites," who re- 
fused to accept the present united-front tactics of the party, denomic- 
mg the Commmiist Party as revisionist, that is, as too conservative in 
the revolutionary struggle. 

The Progressive Labor is, in brief, a local split in Communist ranks, 
similar to that on the grander scale between Peking and Moscow today. 
The committee knows that the Progressive Labor organization, with 
which you have so openly identified yourself, is composed largely of 
persons who were expelled from the Communist Party because they 
advocated a more extreme or radical line than the Communist Party 
wishes to proclaim today. 

Mr. Martinot, the committee has not received any testimony, and is 
not in possession of any record at the present time, which would iden- 
tify you as a member of the orthodox Communist Party. However, in 
light of the situation as I have just expressed it, I think it is reasonable 
and fair to inquire of you and to ask you whether you would care to tell 
this conunittee whether you were a number of the Communist Party 
prior to joining the Progressive Labor group ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to say by that, you do not care to tell 
the committee whether you were a member of the orthodox Communist 
Party prior to becoming a member of the Progressive Labor group ? 

Mr. Martinot. No, I was not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you brought into the Progressive Labor group by 
Milton Rosen or Mortimer Scheer ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. Nittle. By whom were you brought into the Progressive Labor 
organization ? 

Mr. Martinot. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds 
and reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you brought into it by a person known to you to 
be a member of the Communist Party or an expelled member of the 
Communist Party ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Will you read the question ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Martinot. I am answering only questions about myself and 
I will not answer any question which contains identification about 
other people. 

Mr. Nittle. The question is not addressed to the identification by 
name of any specific individual. It is merely asking for an identifica- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 387 

tion as to membership in an organization, whether you were brought 
into the Progressive Labor group by someone who was a member of 
the Communist Party or who was, on the other hand, an expelled 
member of the Communist Party. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Well, I don't know what information you have 
about any other people and, therefore, I will not answer the question 
in that it might involve other people, not only myself. 

Mr. Kittle. I ask, Mr. Chairman — I request that the witness be 
ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. I direct you to answer the question because this involves 
yourself. We did not ask you tl\e name, at least thus far, of anyone 
in particular. The question is whether, to your knowledge, you were 
invited or brought into, or solicited to become a member of, this 
organization by someone known to you to have been a member of the 
Communist Party or an expelled member of the Communist Party. 

Under these circumstances, the question is proper. I direct you to 
answer it. 

(Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Martinot. Well, I refuse to answer this question because it 
is not part of the jurisdiction and not part of the relevancy to the 
matters at hand before this committee and also for the grounds I 
have previously stated. 

]Mr. Willis. Let it be noted that those grounds do not involve an 
invocation of the privileges of the fifth amendment. If the Chair is 
mistaken about that, of course, the witness is at liberty to correct the 
Chair. 

Mr. Kittle. Returning again for the moment to the orga- 
nizing meeting of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, 
which you say took place October 14, 1962, in New York, were there 
any persons at that meeting known to you as Communists or expelled 
Communists ? 

Mr. Martinot. Again I refuse to answer that question as it is about 
individuals other than myself. 

JNIr. Kittle. I have not asked you the names of other persons. I 
have asked you merely whether there were any persons in attendance 
at that organizing meeting known to you as Communists or expelled 
Communists ? 

Mr. ]VL\RTiisroT. For all the reasons stated above, I refuse to give 
any information about any individuals other than myself, whether 
they are identified or not. 

Mr. Kittle. I ask for a direction. 

Mr. Willis. You have been given a full explanation stated hereto- 
fore in the record. The Chair directs the witness to answer that 
question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously state^L 

Mr. Kittle. We would like to return again to your specific role in 
the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. The Progres- 
sive Labor organization, to which I have already referred, publishes 
a monthly magazine entitled Progressive Labor, of which the editors 
are Milton Rosen and Mortimer Scheer, whom I have likewise men- 
tioned. 

The "First Anniversary Issue" of Progressive Labor of January 
1963, Volume 2, Kumber 1, at page 11, contains an editorial which is en- 



388 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

titled "Students to Challenge Ban on Travel to Cuba." The editorial 
opens with a quotation of an extract from the Harvard Crimson of 
December 19, 1962, which is as follows : 

Some forty or seventy-five American students plan to defy a State Department 
ban on travel to Cuba and spend their Christmas vacations there on a tour 
financed by the Castro-controlled Cuban Federation of University Students 
(FEU). If the trip comes off as planned, the Americans could face criminal 
prosecution on their return * * *. 

The editorial, at page 11, then sets forth the facts concerning the 
refusal of the Canadian Government to grant a landing permit to a 
Cuban plane which was to carry 75 United States students from 
Toronto to Havana. Then the editorial states : 

Spokesmen for the student committee immediately announced that the trip 
was NOT cancelled — only postponed till the Summer. "We will go via another 
route," the spokesman — Steve Martinot of Columbia University and Anatol 
Schlosser of NYU — said, adding that the full plans would be made public soon. 
Local committees to organize for the Summer trip have been set up at various 
campuses around the country, including NYU, CCNY, Columbia, and the Uni- 
versities of North Carolina, Wisconsin, and Buffalo. 

Mr. Martinot, at the time these statements were attributed to you 
by Progressive Labor^ did you have knowledge of the warning issued 
by the State Department in its press release of December 13, 1962, 
which I have already read into the record in the interrogation of Mr. 
Schlosser ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you desire a copy of that press release ? 

Mr. Martinot. No, that is all right. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Yes, I do acknowledge, 

Mr. NiTTLE. I said did you have knowledge at the time ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is, at the time these statements were attributed to 
you. 

Now, let me ask you further whether Progressii)e Labor has cor- 
rectly reported your statements as I have quoted from the editorial ? 

Mr. Martinot. The only incorrect thing in the Progressive Labor 
article is the quote from the Harvard Crimson. They incorrectly 
describe our activities as being those of defying the travel ban. 

Our position has always been, and we have stated this publicly and 
openly and even in a press release issued December 15th, after the 
press release issued by the State Department, that the ban has no 
legality and has no base in the Constitution. 

It is, in fact, unconstitutional. It is destructive or at least harmful 
of the democratic process in the formulation of good foreign policy 
by this country. 

Mr. Willis. Is that all ? 

Mr. Martinot. That is all. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Supreme Court has always said that these ques- 
tions are to be tested in the courts, that you are not openly to defy and 
evade the law. Is it not clear to you? Or did you feel you had this 
right to go to a country with which the United States' had severed 
diplomatic relations, a country wliich by many hostile acts has declared 
itself the enemy of our free form of government? Is it something 
that you should have considered ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 389 

Mr. Martinot. As any lawyer would know, one way of testing the 
law is to actually bring it to court by some act. This is, in fact, the 
way most of the segregation laws of this country have been tested, by 
some act which has brought them into the courts and brought about 
a ruling on them. This is the way the constitutionality of most acts 
is tested. 

In addition, I would like to say that I agree with the committee in 
that these regulations concerned about citizens' travel to Cuba do not 
hold that citizens who go to Cuba through other countries in this 
hemisphere, as stated in the release 

Mr. Willis. These regulations do not do what ? 

Mr. Martinot. The regulations now proclaimed by the President 
require no passport for travel in the areas of North, Central, or South 
America, with the exception of Cuba. However, although travel to 
North, Central, and South America excluding Cuba generally requires 
no passport, this does not apply to United States citizens who travel 
to Cuba via countries in this hemisphere, or any country to which no 
passport is required. 

That is in the statement of the chairman. 

Mr. Willis. What page ? 

Mr. IVL^RTiNOT. Page 3. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are talking about Cuba, not travel to other areas. 

Were you not advised by 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. It says right here that this does not apply to U.S. 
citizens who travel to Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to say, Mr. Martinot, that some attorney 
advised you to defy this law and travel to Cuba in order to test it ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact, did you consult any attorney about 
rights of travel to Cuba as a means of testing that law ? 

Mr. ]VL\RTiN0T. We made an investigation into the legality of what 
we were doing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not advised that you could apply to the courts 
of the United States for the issuance of a passport without subjecting 
yourself to a criminal prosecution by deliberately evading the law ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. ISIartingt. This is another M'ay of doing it. The question at 
hand here is the travel to Cuba and not the passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, as a matter of fact, Mr. Martinot, I want to ask 
you this question : 

Is it not a fact that your purpose of traveling to Cuba in defiance 
of the law was a response to your Communist ideology and to instruc- 
tions by Communists to do it just that way, as an expression of Com- 
munist class struggle ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. No, but 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IVIartinot. But that is a loaded question, in that it again 
reiterates that we were acting in defiance of the travel ban, the legality 
of which we have never recognized; and it therefore is not a valid 
question. The committee actually agrees with this by the statement 
it has put into this press release. 



390 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Wnxis. Let me see if I get your point. Are you referring to 
paragraph 2 on page 3 of my opening statement? 

Mr. Martinot. No, paragraph 3. 

Mr. Willis. This paragraph, paragraph 3, on page 3, reads as 
follows : 

The regulations now proclaimed by the President require no passport for travel 
in the areas of North, Central, or South Ajnerica, with the exception of Cuba. 
However, although travel to North, Central, or South America (excluding Cuba) 
generally requires no passport, this does not apply to U.S. citizens who travel 
to Cuba via countries of tliis hemisphere or any country for which a passport 
is required. 

What is your point about that paragraph that you have made ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Namely, that this paragraph is susceptible to the 
interpretation that if you travel to Cuba via other countries, travel 
into Cuba would not require a passport. 

Mr. Willis. Well, of course, that is faulty reading of it. I wanted 
to be sure that I understood you. That is not the meaning of it at 
all. I think the paragraph on its face is very clear. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, the editorial from which I just read in 
Progressive Labor stated that local committees to organize for the 
summer trip had been set up at various universities. 

Did you play any role in organizing student groups, to which refer- 
ence was made, at City College of New York, New York University, 
Columbia, and the Universities of North Carolina, Wisconsin, and 
Buffalo? 

Mr. JVIartinot. I am sorry. This is incorrect. Committees have 
not been set up on these campuses. 

Mr. Nittle. Has organizing activity been conducted at any of those 
campuses, whether or not committees have been set up? 

Mr. Martinot. Knowledge of our trip was made public, as well as 
the purposes for making the trip. It was known to students over the 
entire comitry, and any students who were interested in going on the 
trip were invited to contact us and join it. 

Mr. Nittle. Did not your committee, your Ad Hoc Student Commit- 
tee, send r^vi Laub all over the West to organize students for this trip ? 
Did you not send Levi Laub out to San Francisco State College, to 
Stanford University, the University of California for this very 
purpose ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IVIartinot. You are asking me a question about an individual. 
Again I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Nittle. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. I think the question is whether you, meaning you per- 
sonally, or the organization of which you are a member, as a member 
of the organization with some authority, did send this individual to 
the West Coast for the purpose stated. So, it does not involve a 
third party. 

Mr. Martinot. The question does not involve myself personally. 
I am a spokesman for the committee. 

Mr. Willis. You are a spokesman ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. That is my job. 

Mr. Nittle. We are asking him to speak now, Mr. Chairman, but 
he seems reluctant to do so. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 391 

Mr. Willis. As a spokesman for the committee, did you send the 
individual named to the West, the pLaces stated, and for the purpose 
indicated, namely, to recruit students to travel to Cuba ? Did you do 
that personally ? That is the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr, Martinot. That question does involve information about an- 
other individual. Therefore, I refuse to answer it. If you ask about 
my activities in general or in the abstract or just by themselves, I will 
answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. Did you travel west, or any other place in the coun- 
try, to universities or other institutions or other places or other groups, 
for the purpose of recruiting students to go to Cuba under the auspices 
of your organization, for which you are spokesman, and for the pur- 
poses we have been talking about ? 

Mr. Martinot. I did not. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Have you had, yourself, communications with stu- 
dents on other campuses, in other universities, who had, by communi- 
cation with you or your organization, indicated their interest in join- 
ing such a trip ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. How many such communications have you had ? 

Mr. ]\Iartinot. I don't remember. Not many. 

Mr. JoHNSEN. Well, I mean 1, 6, a dozen, 100 ? 

Mr. INIartinot. Maybe 6 or a dozen. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you personally appeared on campuses of New 
York University, the City College of New York, or Columbia Univer- 
sity to enlist or encourage individuals to take part in this project of 
the Ad Hoc Student Committee ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Well, as I used to be a member of, and enrolled in, 
Columbia University, I would appear on that campus. It was on 
that campus that I did speak to people about the trip, explained to 
them the purposes why we were going, and explained to them our 
views on the matter. 

Mr. Willis. Wliat were those purposes ? 

Mr. Martinot. The purposes of the trip to Cuba were to see and 
evaluate Cuba for ourselves. We have stated that openly many times. 
We feel that, in order for the American people to form a better opin- 
ion of the Cuban situation, they should and indeed must be allowed 
to see Cuba for themselves, see it as it really is, and for that purpose 
they must be allowed to travel there. This is our position. 

Mr. Willis. Did you deliver a lecture or make a talk to a group 
of six, or more or less, expressing the view that you are now stating ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. Or was it an individual contact from person to per- 
son? There is no trick in this question. I just want to know the 
facts. 

Mr. Martinot. No, I did not speak to any groups. It was on the 
basis of individual contacts, individual conversations. 

Mr. Willis. In explaining the purposes, you also solicited or urged 
some students to go to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



392 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Martinot, No, my activities were involved in explaining the 
purpose, and I would ask people if tliey were interested in going. If 
that is considered soliciting, I really don't know, but this is what I 
was doing. 

Mr. Willis. When you made those contacts and explained the pur- 
poses you have stated and asked them whether they would be in- 
terested in going, did the conversation involve also a discussion as to 
whether going would be within the law and regulations as written or 
not? 

Mr. Martinot. In explaining to anybody the trip and the purposes 
of the trip, I always was very careful to make sure that they under- 
stood the possible consequences, that they were acquainted with the 
press release issued by the State Department, and that they were well 
acquainted with the legal aspects of the situation as we understood 
them and as we had studied them. 

Mr. Willis. In other words, you openly and frankly explained to 
them that on the face of it, on the statute books, there was a law and 
based on that law there was a regulation prohibiting travel without a 
passport, or a validated passport, but that you did not recognize 
the validity of that law and that regulation ? 

Is that in substance what it was ? 

Mr. Martinot. In substance. We disagreed with the ability of the 
State Department to issue a ban on American citizens to travel any- 
where in the world. This was the position of the committee. 

Mr. Willis. And you told them your position was that, according 
to your notions of constitutional law, they had the right to go in 
defiance of the statute and the existing regulations, meaning that yoa 
did not recognize it, that is, the law, and did not recognize the regula- 
tions on the books, and you explained to them that they must realize 
the consequences and that, so far as you were concerned, you would 
urge people to go under that situation ? 

Mr. Martinot. No, I at no time put it in those terms. I explained 
to them what our position and our purposes in making the trip were. 
I explained to them what our views of the legality and the constitu- 
tionality of the travel ban were ; and we allowed them to make up their 
own minds as to what they considered their rights to be. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. "Wliat was the nature or character of the assurances 
that you could give these students that by their visit to Cuba they 
would be able to make an objective evaluation of what was trans- 
piring ? 

Mr. ]\Iartinot. The purpose of the trip was to attempt to make an 
objective evaluation of Cuba. Any intelligent person who makes 
such a trip would be able to understand whether he is being given the 
opportunity, or at any given time whether he is making an objective 
analysis or coming to any understanding of a situation. 

Mr. Johansen. Let me be specific. 

Did you have arrangements or contacts within Cuba which enabled 
you to assure them that they would have access to information from 
the horse's mouth, so to speak ? 

Mr. Martinot. The entire trip was at our initiative. 

Mr. Johansen. Pardon ? 

Mr. Martinot. The entire trip was at our initiative. 

Mr. Johansen. That does not respond to my question, I do not 
think. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 393 

Did you have contacts, prearranged contacts, or arrangements with 
the officials of the Cuban regime wliich you could offer as an assurance 
that they would have access to information enabling them to make an 
objective evaluation? 

Mr. Marti NOT. We had no contacts with any individuals in the 
Cuban regime at all. All our contacts with Cuba revolved around 
an invitation extended to us graciously by the Cuban Federation of 
University Students, an organization of ;^>0 or 40 years' standing in the 
univei-sities of Cuba. They extended us the invitation and the rest 
was up to us. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. That was the extent of the contact that you had? 

Mr. Martinot. That was it. 

Mr. Willis. Do you have any information, personally, as to whether 
or not the present regime in Cuba would permit people from Cuba, 
nationals of Cuba, to travel at will in the United States, as you say 
the United States citizens should have the right to go to Cuba? 

Mr. Martinot. I have no information on this. 

Mr. Willis. I think you would recognize, would you not, that Cuban 
citizens cannot freely and of their own volition simply pick up and 
leave Cuba and come to the United States. You would have knowl- 
edge of that, would you not ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Well, if this is true, I would have to disagree with 
this, and I feel that any individual anywhere in the world should 
have the right to travel anywhere he chooses. 

Mr. Willis. You would assume they would have that right? 

Mr. Martinot. No, I feel that any individual anywhere in the world 
should have that right. 

Mr. Willis. And that no government has the right, after officially 
breaking diplomatic relations with another government, to have any 
system of control of its nationals in travel to that country? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Willis. You say no such rights exist under international law, 
is that your position, or should exist ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. It is common knowledge that passports have not 
always existed and that they were instituted fairly recently, I would 
say 40 or 50 years ago, solely for identification purposes. 

Diplomatic relations between nations are agreements between gov- 
ernments and should in no way infringe on the rights of individuals 
to travel. For instance, when the United States broke diplomatic 
relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961, I feel that tliis should in no 
way have infringed on a citizen of the United States' right to travel 
in Cuba if he was willing to waive whatever protection had been given 
him by the existence of diplomatic relations between the United States 
and Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. Now, coming back to your discussions with students on 
university campuses about going to Cuba on the invitation of the 
student group in Cuba, I take it that these discussions and the ex- 
planations you have given were given to all those who would want 
to go to Cuba, as far as you know? 

Mr. Martinot. This w\as the explanation given to anybody we hap- 
pened to be talking to about the trip. 

98-765 O — 63^-pt. 1 1^ 



394 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. And do you feel that the 80-odd students who tried to 
go during the Christmas holidays of 1962 were well aware of the ex- 
istence of the law of the United States and of the regulation to the 
effect that travel to Cuba was prohibited, except upon the obtaining of 
a passport, a validated passport ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. Every student Avho was involved in the at- 
tempt to go to Cuba over Christmas fully understood this. 

The committee required that any student who was going to make a 
trip write a letter to the committee stating that they vmderstood what 
the laws were that were on the books, what the statements were, and 
that they understood fully the possible consequences of their act. 

Mr. Willis. Do you know the gist of that letter that they were 
required to give? 

Mr. Martinot. It wasn't a single letter. Each individual wrote an 
individual letter to the committee stating in their own words that they 
understood. 

Mr. Willis. What was the general purport of the letters? You 
have seen them. Generally what did those letters say? I am not 
asking you to be accurate, unless you want to produce a copy, which 
you probably do not have with you. If you could, it would be the 
oest evidence. But as best as you can recall, what did the letters from 
those students addressed to the committee, indicating their awareness 
of the situation say, generally ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. The letters, in general, stated in the individual's 
own words, his purpose for going to Cuba, his awareness of the legal- 
ity, and the character of relations that existed between the United 
States and Cuba, his awareness of the consequences of the act. And 
if the committee would desire one in evidence, I could produce a letter. 
However, it would be after clipping off the name and any evidence 
that might identify the person. 

Mr. Willis. What was the average age, would you say, of these 80 
students ? That is a hard question and I do not want to pin you down, 
but generally. 

Mr. Martinot. They were of college age. 

Mr. Willis. Usually below 21 years of age, would you say ? 

Mr. Martinot. I don't recall if there were any individuals involved 
in the trip who were below the age of 21. I don't think so. 

Mr. Willis. And do you recall whether it was a policy of your 
committee, besides having a letter from the student, to also have con- 
sent or a letter from the parents of the students? I do not know. I 
am just asking. 

Mr. Martinot. This would be required if the individual was under 
the age of 21, in order to obtain passports. This is why I think that 
there were no individuals under the age of 21, because I can't recall 
any of them required to have such permission. 

Mr. Willis. So, you would say that by and large the parents would 
know about the trip and the implications and consequences that might 
be involved ? I am not pressing you for anything you do not honestly 
know and feel. 

Mr. Martinot. Any questions of this nature, you see, were left up 
to the individual, the individual's relations with their parents, et 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 395 

cetera. It was highly their own. The committee has nothing to say 
about this. 

Mr. Willis. And from what, predominantly, universities did these 
students come ? '^ 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Well, we got applications, or at least students, from 
the New York universities; that is, NYU, Columbia, City College, 
students from Wisconsin, students from California, students from 
Buffalo, making up the majority of the students who were going. 

Mr. Willis. Did your committee have a policy also as to some sort 
of consent, awareness, or approval of these universities about the 
proposed travel of these students for the purposes and under the 
circumstances we have been talking about ? 

Mr. Martinot. Again, the relations between any individual and the 
university or college in which he was enrolled w^as entirely in the 
hands of the individual and had nothing to do with the committee. 

Mr. Willis. I was talking about committee policy. You did have a 
committee policy, you said, requiring letters from students. 

I am wondering whether you had some kind of policy relating to 
making the university aware of the trip and asking for approval, 
disapproval, or comments. 

Mr. Martinot. No, the universities weren't on the trip. The trip 
was open knowledge 

Mr. Willis. I am talking about your committee policy now. 

Mr. Martinot. The trip was open knowledge. Anybody could have 
found out about it if they wanted to. Anybody could express any 
opinion they wanted to about the trip, and often did. But there was 
no grounds for having any policy concerning universities in which 
these students were enrolled. 

Mr. Willis. I am not implying that there should be grounds. I 
just wanted to know the facts. 

This is my last question : From what you have said, I think the situ- 
ation is that you — and by you, I mean yourself personally, your com- 
mittee, of which you were spokesman, and all the students who finally 
decided to make the trip — were fully aware of the existence of the ban 
against travel without passports or validated passports and that the 
trip was proposed to be made despite the existence of the laws and 
regulations? 

Mr. Martinot. I think it is fairly evident that any law-abiding 
citizen of the United States would not make a trip unless they felt, 
as the other individuals and myself on the committee felt, that the 
travel ban instituted by the State Department on travel to Cuba w^as 
not irroundecl in law or in the Constitution. 

They were fully aware of the statements upon which the travel ban 
was allegedly based that were in the law books and in the Constitu- 
tion, and they were fully aware of the consequences, every one of 
them. 

Mr. Willis. I am finished now, but I want to say for the record 
that among the reasons for this hearing is the consideration of whether 
or not laws on the books as they stand should remain as they are, 
should be strengthened, or should be made more to the point under 
existing conditions, because such legislation is pending. 



396 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Wlien you knew of the interest of a student in mak- 
ing the trip, and he thereby becomes a prospect for it, did you submit 
to him, you or the committee, any type of questionnaire to secure basic 
information about him and his interests? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. No. No questionnaire was ever submitted to any- 
body. 

. Mr. JoHANSEN. Was the source of names of prospective students 
for the trip derived exclusively from response to just the general 
information that the trip was being projected, or were there sources 
of names given to you of such prospective joiners in the expedition? 

Mr. Martinot. No. I, as spokesman, would merely make public, 
either by speaking to individuals or through other means such as the 
press releases which have been issued by the committee, that such a 
trip was planned by students and that anybody who was interested 
in joining could. 

This is the way we got in touch with people who were involved. 
They contacted us. And they stated an interest in going once they 
heard about the trip. 

Mr. Willis. It escapes me whether or not you answered this ques- 
tion, but let me pose it. 

Roughly, how many members were there on your committee ? 

Mr. Martinot. A member was anybody who was going to go on the 
trip. So it varied from time to time. 

Mr. Willis. I know, but you had a committee. Wliat was the name 
of it? 

Mr. Martinot. The Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. We do not want to rehash names. We have been 
through that. But about how many members composed the commit- 
tee itself, the Ad Hoc Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. As I stated, anybody who was going to make the 
trip with the committee was a member of the committee. So the mem- 
bership varied from the original students at the original meeting, up 
until the end, when there were some 80-odd. 

Mr. Willis. That is what I am talking about. "\^niat was the origi- 
nal membership that formed this idea? That is what I am talking 
about. 

Mr. Martinot. As I said, there were 30 or 35 students at the origi- 
nal meeting. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Willis. And then those who decided to make the trip became 
members ? Is that what you are trying to say ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. Those who decided to make the trip main- 
tained their membership. Those who decided not to, did not. 

Mr. Willis. You started with 30 or 35, and finally some 80. Is that 
the correct figure ? They decided to go ? 

Mr. Martinot. Some 80-odd, I forget the exact figure. 

Mr. Willis. And you said that these 80-odd students were from 
New York universities, a Wisconsin university, and a California uni- 
versity. Any others ? 

(At this point Mr. Bruce returned to the hearing room.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 397 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. Buffalo. There were some from Buffalo. 
There were some from other colleges in the Midwest, et cetera. 

JNIr. JoHANSEN. Were there any from Michigan, either the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Michigan State, Wayne State University, Weste-m 
Michigan Univereity ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. Willis. Would it be accurate to say that you had something 
that could be referred to as a chapter of active members in these uni- 
vei'sities perfonning about the same missionary work that you de- 
scribed you did ? 

Mr. INIartinot. No. That would not be correct. 

Mr. Willis. Pardon? 

Mr. Martinot. No, that would not be correct. There w^ere no or- 
ganizers on various campuses. The information of the trip spread 
most effectively by word of mouth, that is, one person talking to the 
other and, you know, the old chain reaction of rumors, until eventually 
it would come to somebody who would actually be interested in making 
the trip, and they would address the committee, or w^rite, and would 
then get in touch. But the trip was general knowledge and was 
spread around quite rapidly by the students themselves. 

. Mr. Willis. It would have to be more than by w^ord of mouth in 
order for it to be heard from New York to California, would it not? 

Mr. Martinot. I also include in this from one friend to another, 
who would explain that he had come across some people who w^ere 
going to make a trip over for the Christmas vacation. 

Mr. Willis. And what was the rendezvous from which they would 
depart ? Where did you plan to meet ? 

Mr. Martinot. As we stated in one of our last press conferences 
or releases, there were two rendezvous. One was New York and the 
other was Buffalo. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And then where were they to converge, or were they 
to go from those two points, separately, directly to Cuba ? 

(Witness confeiTed with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. As we explained, from Buffalo we would go to 
Toronto, and from there we would fly to Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. All right, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of the 80-or-so students, would you tell us how many 
of them you knew to be members of your Progressive Labor group? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds and 
for the reasons stated above, and I w^ould also like to raise the ques- 
tion of the relevance of any questions about the Progressive Labor 
in that the topic for the hearings before the committee at present 
concern Cuba and legislation about Cuba and travel there. 

Mr. AViLLis. The statement from w^hich you read, and with which 
you are obviously very much familiar, being the opening statement, 
makes this issue perfectly pertinent. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You asked for a statement of pertinency on this 
question. 

It is rather important, Mr. Martinot, for us to know how many of 
these students w^ere actually members of Communist organizations of 



398 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

one sort or another, whether of the orthodox Communist Party or of 
the Progressive Labor party or of the Trotskyist faction or other va- 
rieties of Communists. 

It was pointed out by Director John McCone of the Central In- 
telligence Agency, in his appearance before the House Foreign Affairs 
Committee as recently as February 19 last, that the Cuban effort at 
present is far more serious, he said, than the hastily organized and 
ill-conceived raids that the bearded veterans of the Sierra Maestra 
led into the Central American countries. 

And, he further said, as recorded in the opening statement, that 
today the Cuban effort is far more sophisticated, more covert, and 
more deadly. In its professional trade craft, it shows guidance and 
training by experienced Communist advisers from the Soviet bloc, 
including veteran Spanish Communists — and we would add American 
Communists. 

Mr. McCone stated that approximately 1,500 persons went to Cuba, 
were invited there, during the year 1962, from other Latin American 
countries to receive ideological indoctrination and guerrilla-warfare 
training. 

The committee is interested in determining, Mr. Martinot, par- 
ticularly in view of your own declarations — that the aim of your organ- 
ization, the Progressive Labor Student Club, would be for the working 
class to seize political control of the state — whether your objective is 
not merely to see what was going on in Cuba, but, rather, to introduce 
American youth to the Marxist-Leninist viewpoint, to indoctrinate 
them, and to recruit Connnunists. 

We want to know how many of that group of 80 persons included 
persons known to you to be members of the Communist Party or Com- 
munist splinter groups, of which you are one. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. It seems to me that the confusion shown by mem- 
bers of this committee as to, for instance, the Trotskyist and Com- 
munist parties is absurd, particularly for anybody who was supposed- 
ly involved in a discussion or understanding of the politics in this 
country and, hence, makes an absurd presupposition into the ques- 
tion, which renders the question, itself absurd. 

I have been very open about my own beliefs as far as the students 
PL Club at Columbia is concerned. This, as I said, had a certain 
amount of autonomy. I think that this question is irrelevant as far 
as the purposes stated. 

Mr. WiULis. I direct you to answer the question. I think it is a 
proper one, and you have not assigned valid grounds for refusing. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. IMartingt. Would the chairman please repeat the question? 

(The Eeporter read from the record as requested.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I can't say, because the committee never asked 
any questions as to the political affiliations of any of the members or 
any of the students who were going to go on the trip. 

Mr. Nittle. I didn't ask whether you asked them for their political 
affiliations. I asked you how many of this group you knew to your 
knowledge 

Mr. Martinot. I stated I didn't know, because we didn't ask. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 399 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You said what? 

Mr. Martinot. I said I didn't know, because we didn't ask about 
the political affiliations of the individuals who were going to make 
the trip. 

Mr. Willis. You do know, however, about the 30 or 35 who formed 
this committee. May we assume that they would be included in 
that question? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Again, I could not possibly know, as these were 
students from all over New York, from every New York university, 
and we did not inquire as to their political affiliations, or, rather, no 
inquiry was made into their political affiliations. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, were you informed as to the affiliations 
of these individuals who composed your group through some other 
source ? 

Mr. Marttnot. Absolutely not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you furnished with the names of any individuals 
with whom to conduct correspondence around the country by either 
Milton Rosen or Mortimer Scheer ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I didn't initiate any correspondence on this trip. 
All I did was answer the letter that came to me. 

Mr. Nittle. I did not ask you that. I asked if you were furnished 
the names of any persons with whom to correspond by either Milton 
Rosen or Mortimer Scheer. Would you answer that question, please? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I wasn't furnished names by anybody. I didn't 
initiate any correspondence. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you visited Mortimer Scheer in Buffalo, New 
York? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. I will add to that question — in connection with the 
business of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba or the 
Permanent Committee ? 

Mr. Martinot. I have already stated in my testimony that on the 
business of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, I 
did not leave New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you visit Mr. Scheer in connection with the busi- 
ness of the Permanent Committee? 

Mr. Matinot. Again, in connection with the business of the Per- 
manent Committee, I have not done any traveling. 

Mr. Nittle. I have asked you whether you met Mr. Scheer in Buf- 
falo, New^ York, in connection with the business of this committee. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I have answered that question. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you correspond with Mortimer Scheer in Buffalo 
or any other place? 

Mr. Martinot. Again you are asking questions into my association 
with other individuals, and I refuse to answer the question for the 
reasons and grounds already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. May we take it that you did, in view of the fact that 
you did answer questions about visiting Mortimer Scheer in Buffalo 



400 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

and now refuse to testify as to whether you had any correspondence 
with him on the business of this committee in Buif alo ? 

(Witness conferred with coimseL) 

Mr. Martinot. I didn't correspond with anybody in Progressive 
Labor concerning these trips or the business of these committees. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, you have a bachelor's degree in mathe- 
matics from Antioch College, you attended graduate school at Colum- 
bia, and now you are working in a machine shop. Do you perform 
labor in the machine shop ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. I already stated that, that I operate a machine. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee, over the years, has received a good deal 
of testimony relating to Communist recruiting techniques. The Com- 
munists have extensively used a tactic of colonizing industry for the 
purpose of recruiting members and participating m labor activities 
in response to the Communist doctrine of class struggle and the ad- 
vancing of that struggle. 

We would like to know whether your present laboring job was em- 
barked upon for the purpose of recruiting labor for the Progressive 
Labor party in response to the aims which you have expressed as set 
forth in the Columhia Spectator 

Mr. Martinot, No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — that the aim would be for the "working class" people 
to seize political control of the state? 

Mr. Martinot. The answer is no. 

I left school on my own initiative and got the job to earn a living. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you ever make application to utilize your skill as 
a mathematician and your extensive educational training in a capacity 
other than laboring at a machine in a machine shop ? 

Mr. Martinot. I got this job because I felt like doing physical 
labor. This was my desire. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is your answer ? 

Mr. Martinot. I have had some experience in machine work, and 
this is how I got the job in the shop. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, in this statement in the Golumbm 
Spectator of November 14, 1962, I read this: "The club" — referring to 
the Columbia Progressive Labor Student Club — 

plans to file a registration petition with the university in order to be recognised 
as an oflScial student club. Its goal is "work toward establishment of a revolu- 
tionary socialist party in the U.S." 

Did the club file such a registration petition with the university? 

Mr. Martinot. I would like to state that this is confusion in the 
quote, namely that this was not the stated aim of the students club 
that was going to file for registration at Columbia L^niversity. 

I would also like to state that in that semester the Progressive Labor 
Student Club was not able to get a charter and did not file. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Let me be sure I understand this. You were not 
able to get a charter ? 

Mr. Martinot. We did not file for one. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did you at any time file a petition for a charter? 

Mr. Martinot. A petition for a charter for the Progressive Labor 
Student Club was filed in March, I believe. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 401 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Of last year ? 

Mr. MiVRTiNOT. Of this year. 

Mr.JoHANSEN. Of 1963? 

Mr. Martinot. That is right. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. With whom ? 

Mr. Martinot. Columbia University. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And what action, if any, w^as taken on that petition ? 

Mr. ISIartinot. It was okayed, and we began a campus group. 

Mr. Johansen. And you are now, therefore, enjoying tiie status of 
an official student club. I mean to say this organization now enjoys 
that status on the campus of Columbia University, is that correct? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. Johansen. Did the petition, which you state was filed and was 
granted, state that its role was to work toward establishment of a 
revolutionary socialist party in the United States ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. That was not the purpose of the Columbia 
Progressive Labor Student Club. 

]Vlr. Johansen. And this one that you are speaking of is which 
group? 

Mr. Martinot. I am speaking of the Columbia Progressive Labor 
Student Club. That is not the purpose of it. That is the — well, just 
a minute. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. The application for the charter for the Progressive 
Labor Student Club merely stated that was a socialist group and 
that its purpose was to spread socialist ideas on the campus through 
leaflets and any other activities, and I believe that was all. 

Mr. Johansen. It is my understanding that your earlier testimony 
was that, in substance, this statement was correct with respect — that 
this statement from the Columbia Spectator was substantially accurate 
in stating the purpose of the Columbia Progressive Labor Student 
Club. 

Mr. Martinot. I am sorry if I gave that impression. What I meant 
was that the statements there are substantially correct as far as the 
interview of myself was concerned, myself as a member of the Pro- 
gressive Labor. 

Mr. Johansen. Then you are stating now,, if I understand it, that 
this statement in the Columbia Spectator was accurate as far as stating 
your understanding of the purpose of the Columbia Progressive Labor 
Student Club? 

Mr. Martinot. No. Explaining my political approach, but in no 
way reflecting upon the Student Club. This was a misrepresentation 
given by the article. 

Mr. Johansen. You were speaking, then, as one of the organizers 
of this club in this inter^new ; were you not ? 

Mr. IVIartinot. That is right. But the purposes of the club were 
different 

Mr. Johansen. Were you correctly quoted in this statement : 

The aim would be for the working class, people who don't have a stake in 
ownership or management, to seize political control of the state. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. The interview was of myself ; and as far as I myself 
was concerned, the statements connected with the interview are cor- 



*^ 



402 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

rect. I was also involved in organizing tlie Columbia Progressive 
Labor Student Club. However, the application for a charter for the 
Progressive Labor Student Club of Columbia University did not state 
this, and this was not the purpose of that organization. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Then are you testifying that you misstated, or that 
you have misunderstood, the purpose of this club when you made this 
interview, when you gave this interview ? 

Mr. Martinot. What I am saying is that the two were confused by 
the reporter. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Is it not a fact that if your statement as quoted 
here, which you say is an accurate quotation, if that statement is cor- 
rect and if that is the purpose of the Columbia Progressive Labor 
Student Club, then that club in filing its application, its petition, was 
guilty of concealment as to its full purpose ? 

Mr. ;\LiRTiNOT. No. What was stated on the application for the 
Progressive Labor Student Club was the purposes agreed to by the 
students who were involved in setting it up. I openly stated my views 
in that interview, and they were published in the paper so everybody 
knew them. There was no concealment here at all. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You are stating then that, in effect, the club, when 
it finally organized and when it submitted this petition, repudiated 
your statement as to its purpose ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. They didn't repudiate anything. They just stated 
their own. The club brought out statements and purposes of its own, 
not mine. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Their statement at least substantially and radically 
differed from your statement of the purpose ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. Martinot, are you familiar with a group known as the Young 
Socialist Alliance? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. Are you a member of the Young Socialist Alliance? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Is there any connection between the groups that have 
been mentioned in this hearing since you have been on the stand and 
the Young Socialist Alliance ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Do you work in concert with them, in harmony with 
them? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Do you exchange information or direction or plans 
with them? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. You must remember that the group at Columbia 
didn't start until March, and I left in the middle of April, so as far 
as I know, there wasn't any. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Let me interrupt at this point. 

You did not start until March of 1963 ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. It started then in the sense that is was granted 
recognition ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 403 

Mr. Martinot. That is right. 

Mr, JoHANSEN. But this statement is dated November 14, 1962, in 
wliich there was a reference to the organizers of this ckib, so that the 
organizational activity had started well in advance of March 1963; 
had it not ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. We had attempted to form a club at the time 
that the article was written. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You stated that there was a radical difference be- 
tween your statement of November 14th in this interview, represent- 
ing your views as to the aim of this club, and that set forth in the 
petition for recognition as an official student club. What is that 
difference? 

Mr. Martinot. You stated yourself that there was a radical dif- 
ference. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. And you accepted that. 

Mr. Martinot. There is, in fact, a difference. 

The difference is, my \dews are as stated in the Spectator^ and the 
purposes of the Columbia Student Club are as I enumerated — to set 
up a club with a socialist orientation, primarily dedicated to the 
spread of socialist ideas. 

Mr, JoHANSEN. Am I to construe, therefore, that you were dis- 
appointed with what was stated and what apparently you allege is the 
purpose of this club as set forth in its petition ? 

Mr. Martinot. Don't construe that, because nothing has been said 
or intimated about my attitude toward it. In fact, I wasn't. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You certainly indicated by an affirmative answer 
that there was a substantial, radical difference. 

Mr. Martinot. There was a difference. That does not mean that 
I was disappointed by it. 

Mr. WiLLJS. And what is that difference ? 

Mr. Martinot. I just stated. The difference lies in the two differ- 
ent statements, and they are already in the record. 

Mr. Willis. Can you substantially state the difference in a few 
words ? 

Mr. Martinot. How do you mean ? 

Mr. Willis. You are talking about the difference between the views 
that you personally entertain and the views stated in the application 
for a charter and that those views — at one point the word "radical" 
was used and at another point "substantial" was used — differed. 

I am asking you what are those differences, whether they be "radi- 
cal" or "substantial." 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. The difference is quite obvious. 

One is excerpts from a general political approach, and the other 
is merely a statement of proposed activities on a student campus. 

Mr. Willis. And I take it, therefore, that the difference is stated in 
the fourth paragraph of the quotation from Coluinhia Spectator, 
namely : "The aim would be" — which represents your view — "for the 
working class, people who don't haA^e a stake in ownership or manage- 
ment, to seize political control of the state." 

Is that the difference we have been talking about all along? 

Mr. Martinot. That is a statement. I don't see that it is a difference. 



404 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. Pardon? 

Mr. Martinot. That is a statement. I don't see that it is a diflFer- 
ence. That is a statement. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Do not quibble. We are comparing this statement 
with what you testified were the declared purposes of this club as 
presented in the petition for recognition. 

Mr. Martinot. Look, this is part of the general political outlook, 
which includes views concerning the working class of this country, 
and the other is a statement concerning activities of a group of stu- 
dents on a student campus. 

I don't see how the two have anything to do with each other. 

Mr. Willis. But it is your view that the aims should be for the 
working class, people who don't have a stake in ownership or manage- 
ment, to seize political control of the state? Those are your views? 

Mr. Martinot. My views are that, as the working people of this 
country make up the majority of it and produce all the wealth of this 
country, that they should have the majority of the political represen- 
tation in the various levels of Government in this country and that, if 
they don't, they are being denied their just political representation. 

How they get this political representation is another question, and 
electing workers' representatives to Congress, to State assemblies, 
to city councils by democratic elections under the present Constitu- 
tion I would also consider seizing power. 

Mr. Willis. Pardon? 

Mr. Martinot. I would also consider seizing of power. 

Mr. Willis. You say "also." What else would be a seizure of 
power ? 

Mr. Martinot. One can never tell until it happens. In the various 
situations throughout history, the various seizures of power from one 
class to another differ radically. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But you are a Marxist-Leninist, as you say, and that 
preaches the revolutionary seizure of power by force and violence, 
if necessary. 

Are you quibbling? 

Mr. Martinot. No. You are. 

Mr. Willis. You say in this statement 

Mr. Martinot. The transfer of political power from one group to 
another 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a Marxist-Leninist ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So is Castro. That is what he said, that he would be 
one until he died. 

Mr. Martinot. What I said, the seizure of power from one class to 
another could be considered as revolutionary, inasmuch as the politics 
of that country would then be conducted in the interest of this class 
rather than in the interest of the other. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand you addressed communications to college 
campuses upon the subject of the Ad Hoc 

Mr. Martinot. I didn't hear the beginning of your question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand that you addressed communications to 
college campuses, to students on campuses, in connection with your 
objective of enlisting students in the Ad Hoc Student Committee ? Is 
that right? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 405 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you address any correspondence to college 
students 

Mr. INIartinot. As I recall, the only correspondence that we ever 
mailed out were press releases, which we mailed to city newspapers, 
radio stations, and collefje newspapers. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understood you to say that in December 1962 the 
Ad Hoc Student Committee was reorganized into the Permanent 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. Is that correct? 

Mr. Martinot. As long as the travel ban exists on American citi- 
zens, restricting their ability to see and evaluate situations in this 
world for themselves, there are always going to be people who are going 
to bring this to a test, and this is why 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking you whether the Permanent Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba was organized as a successor to the Ad Hoc 
Committee on or about December 1962 ? You can answer that "yes" 
or "no," I believe. 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many members compose the Permanent Commit- 
tee as of this time? 

Mr. Martinot. Again, anybody who is on the original trip and who 
is dedicated to trying again was a member of the committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking you how many are on it. 

Mr. Martinot, At the present time? 

Mr. NiTTLE. As of now. 

Mr..MARTiN0T. I really couldn't say. It is about 70 or 75. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have the records of membership of the organ- 
ization ? 

Mr. Martinot. No, I don't. 

Mr. NiTFLE. Who maintains them ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Well, again, this is a question about an individual 
other than myself, and I refuse to answer on the grounds and for the 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. laskforadirection, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. I direct the witness to answer that question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Again I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
and the reasons stated above. 

Mr. Willis. Would you read the pending question? 

(The reporter read from the record as requested.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me repeat it in this form, Mr. Chairman : 

Mr. Martinot, in whose possession are the records of membership 
of the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Martinot. Again, this is a question of an individual, the iden- 
tity of an individual other than myself, and I refuse to answer the 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Willis. Do you know who has possession of them ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. No, I don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Information has come to our attention that the Perma- 
nent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba has a target date of July 
1963 for leading a group to Cuba without validated passports, if 
necessary. 



406 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

How many students or other persons have indicated their intention 
to travel to Cuba without validated passports in July of 1963 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. There are no definite plans yet made for this sum- 
mer; and as a result, I do not know how many people will make an 
attempt to go to Cuba over the summer. 

Mr. Willis. Then you say, No plans yet made ? 

Mr. Martinot. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. Have there been discussions about another attempted 
trip ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes, there have been discussions ; and although no 
definite plans have been made, I can assure you that as soon as definite 
plans are made, they will be made public through press releases and 
anybody can know about them. 

Mr. NiTiLE. Have you had these discussions with Vincent Theodore 
Lee? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) \ 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have them with Levi Lee Laub ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I refuse to answer that question as it is about an 
individual for the above-stated ground and reasons, and I withdraw 
my answer to the previous question and refuse to answer it also on 
the above-stated grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you had these discussions with Milton Rosen 
and Mortimer Scheer ? 

Mr. Martinot. Again, I refuse to answer that question for the 
above-stated grounds and reasons. 

Mr. Willis. You said you had discussions and you indicated defi- 
nite plans probably would come about and that when they are formu- 
lated they will be announced. I think it is proper to ask you whom 
you had the discussions with. 

Therefore, I order you to answer the question. I am making a 
record. 

Mr. Martinot. The only people party to discussions for proposed 
trips over this summer are the people who are involved in going, that 
is, the students who are going to make the trip. They are the only 
people who are party to these discussions. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Do you mean that you are, therefore, the only 
organizer of this trip ? 

Mr. Martinot. I am a spokesman for the trip. The organization 
is taking place by the entire committee, discussions and various things. 

Mr. Willis. You said the organization is taking place by your 
committee, which obviously indicates that there are a number of people 
on that committee. 

Mr. Martinot. That is the Permanent Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. And you have had discussions with those people. "Who 
are they ? 

Mr. Martinot. I refuse to divulge the identity of any of my asso- 
ciates for the above-stated grounds and reasons. 

Mr. Willis. For the reasons previously indicated as to the perti- 
nency and propriety of it, I order you to answer the question. I am 
making a record. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 407 

Mr. Martinot. Again, I refuse to name other persons, to speak of 
the activities of other individuals, for the reasons stated above. 

Mr. AVlllis. And what are those reasons? 

Mr. Martinot. They are in the record. 

Mr. Willis. And they do not include the invocation of the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mr. Martinot. I have answered that question. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Are any of the persons who are planning to be par- 
ticipants in this trip non-students? 

Mr. Martinot. I am. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Are there any others besides you? I am not asking 
you identity or names. 

Are there any others who are not students ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is the office of the Permanent Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba maintained at 42 St. Marks Place, New York 3, N.Y. ? 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Martinot. This is a question similar to the first question which 
I refused to answ^er, and therefore I refuse to answer it again on 
the same grounds. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I ask, Mr. Chairman, for a direction to the witness 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Willis. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Martinot. I again refuse to answer the question for the above 
reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom are the expenses of these organizing efforts to 
enlist students for travel to Cuba borne and from what source do you 
derive them ? 

Mr. Martinot. Excuse me, would you restate the question, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLB. From what source are the organizing expenses in re- 
cruiting these students derived ? 

Mr. Martinot. From a deposit paid by the students themselves to 
the committee to defray expenses. The deposit is $10. 

Mr. Willis. Pardon? 

Mr. Martinot. The deposit is $10. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you receive any assistance from the Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom are the expenses paid for the recruiting 
travels of Levi Lee Laub ? 

Mr. Martinot. They are paid for out of the money 

(Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Martinot. I retract that and I refuse to answer that question 
on the same grounds and reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On advice of counsel, is that right ? 

Mr. Willis. Let the record show, so it will be clear and with no 
implication on anyone's part, that counsel whispered to his client to 
stop answering the question, and he then refused to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. By w^hom were the expenses of travel to Cuba to be 
borne or supplied ? 

(Witness conferred with his counsel.) 



408 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

Mr. Martinot. Could you please rephrase the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it this way, and I will withdraw that par- 
ticular question. 

Has the Cuban Government, through the Students Federation of 
Cuba, subsidized the expenses and operations of your committee ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has it offered to bear the expenses of the travel of your 
group to Cuba ? 

( Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Martinot. As no definite plans have yet been made for this 
summer, this is quite impossible. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you had correspondence with the Federation of 
University Students of Havana ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. Only insofar as another invitation was extended to 
the committee to visit Cuba for 1 month over this summer. 

Mr. Willis. You failed to respond to the question just now on the 
basis that the plans have not been formulated or completed. I ask you, 
Did the student group from Cuba agree to make any kind of contribu- 
tion, any number of dollars, from one up, in connection with the trip 
that had been planned in the Christmas holidays of 1962 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Martinot. The invitation stated that those people who came 
down to Cuba, either over Christmas or this summer, will be the guests 
of the Cuban Federation of University Students. That is, that our 
living expenses, therefore, wliile in Cuba, would be taken care of by 
them. 

Mr. Willis. What would that include? Hotels, meals, travel, 
what? 

Mr. Martinot. I imagine room and board and travel facilities. But 
as far as the Cuban Federation of University Students offering any 
subsidies to the operation of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba or the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, they 
did not at all. 

Mr. Willis. Well, of course, "subsidy" is a broad word. I was talk- 
ing in terms of any kind of contribution. 

Mr. Martinot. They did not give any contribution to the operation 
of these committees. 

Mr. Willis. They did not send any money ? 

Mr. Martinot. That is right. 

Mr. Willis. That is, from Cuba to the United States? 

Mr. Martinot. Exactly. 

Mr. Willis. Now with reference again to the trip of December 1962, 
which did not materialize, did the students at that time also con- 
tribute $10 apiece for organizational work, such as you just described, 
$10 per person ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. That was the way the committee financed its 
operations. 

Mr. Willis. In addition to the $10 for organization and other ex- 
penses involved, how much did the students have to pay per student 
for travel and other expenses ? $100, was it ? 

Mr. Martinot. This is for the Christmas trip ? 

Mr. Willis. Yes. 



PKO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 409 

Mr. Martinot. For the Christmas trip, the students had to pay, I 
think, $25 round-trip fare from New York to Toronto, and at that 
time Ave were graciously oti'ered the use of a phine which was going 
to be paid for by the Cuban Federation of University Students. 

Mr. Willis. From Toronto to Cuba ? 

Mr. Martinot. From Toronto to Cuba and back. 

Mr. Willis. Who made the gracious offer ? 

Mr. Martinot. The Cuban Federation of University Students. 

Mr. Wii>Lis. You had not included that aw^hile ago. I had under- 
stood that the only thing they would do would be to pick up the tab 
while living in Cuba, room and board. 

Mr. Martinot. I said that is what the invitation included. 

Mr. Willis. But subsequent arrangements were to the effect that 
the students would put up $25 for the passage from New York to 
Toronto and that that student group in Cuba would pay, or had ar- 
ranged for the loan or charter of a plane to pay, for passage from 
Toronto to Cuba and Cuba back to North America, wherever that 
would be? 

Mr. Martinot. That is correct. Those were the final arrangements 
that had been made for the trip in December. 

Mr. Johansen. Do you anticipate similar arrangements with re- 
spect to the projected trip next July ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Johansen. I am talking about similar arrangements by the 
Cuban student group. 

Mr. M.\RTiN0T. Well, I am guessing, but I would think so. 

Mr. Johansen. You would think so ? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. 

Mr. Willis. That plane, was it a commercial plane or a private 
plane ? 

Mr. Martinot. It never materialized, I can't say. 

Mr. Willis. But you know what it was supposed to be. You stated 
that they graciously made a plane available or offered to pay passage. 
Was this a private plane or was it on a regular cominercial line ? 

Mr. M'VRTiNOT. There are no regular commercial lines, or at least 
there weren't at the time, between Canada and Cuba. 

Mr. Willis. So what would it have been if the plan had material- 
ized ? Come, you know that one. 

Mr. Martinot. I don't really understand what you are driving at. 

Mr. Willis. It is very easy. 

Somebody, you said, and they are your words, graciously made a 
plane available. Now we find that that is through the good offices of 
the student group from Cuba. Was that a Cuban plane, for instance, 
would you know? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes, the plane was Cuban. 

Mr. Willis. So it would have been a plane sent from Cuba to 
Toronto ? 

Mr. Martinot. That is correct. 

Mr. Willis. Would you know whether that was a government 
plane? You must know that one, too. 

Mr. Martinot. No, I have no idea. 

Mr, Willis. I do not want to ask you to guess, but w^hat do you 
think about it? Surely you must know something. 

98-766 O — 63r— pt. 1 13 



410 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

Mr. Martinot. I have no information as to who owned the plane. 
I don't. 

Mr. Willis. It would not be the students personally. They do not 
own a plane, do they ? 

Mr. Martinot. I don't know. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. It is obvious certainly that this plane would have 
had whatever clearance from the government authorities was neces- 
sary for that plane to depart and return, would it not? 

Mr. Martinot. Yes. It didn't get the clearance from the Canadian 
Government, though. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I did not ask about the Canadian Government. I 
said it would have to have clearance from the government authori- 
ties of Cuba to leave and return, is that not correct? 

Mr. Martinot. I imagine so. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Are you not positive that that is so ? 

Mr. Martinot. No. This is one of the reasons why I would like 
to go to Cuba, you see, to find out what the situation is down there, 
exactly what the relationships are. 

Mr. Johansen. You want to go to Cuba in order to find out whether 
they have to have clearance from the aviation authorities in Cuba 
to leave Cuba and return to it, is that correct? 

Mr. Martinot. This is one of the things we could find out while 
we were down there, yes. I don't believe this information is avail- 
able in this country at the moment. 

Mr. Johansen. I fail to see any humor in it, and I reject, of course, 
your explanation that that is one of the reasons. 

Mr. Willis. Do you know, as I think you do, that the plane that 
was to be sent from Cuba to pick up the students in Toronto was a 
Cuban National Airlines plane, a Cubana plane? 

Mr, Martinot. I do not know this as a fact. 

Mr. Willis. Are there any more questions ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, the staff questioning has concluded, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Willis. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Speiser. Thank you. 

Mr. Willis. The committee will stand in recess, subject to the call 
of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 5:15 p.m., Thursday, May 23, 1963, the committee 
recessed, to reconvene subject to the call of the Chair.) 

(Members present at time of recess: Representatives Willis, Johan- 
sen, and Bruce). 



APPENDIX 



Lee Exhibit No. 5 








m 



<r- / \ iff^fH 

799 EROAIWAY Km YORK 3, N. Y. 

IRUIS OF WAR 

As this is being written Washington is rolling the cbrums of war. 
News media are pushr-rg a Cengressionai bandwagon full of reactionary 
forces screaming fcr the suppression of Cuba, and an aggressive ad- 
ministration, far from really silencing these sounds, presents us 
■vdth a situation that has frightening parallels with events leading 
up to the crisis of last October. 

Do not be lulled by White House deception framed in a TV panel. 
let us not forget that Tfashington continues to call for more strii>- 
gent measures against Cuba throughout the world, is making further 
donands on Cuba's internal affairs, arid FOREMOST, continues to. dergr 
tc all queries from all quarters the real existence of any ccmoi'tauent 
not to invade Cubai . . 

We find that the same people who underestimated last fall and 
scoffed at our warnings (in September we issued thousands of warning 
leaflets; SAND IN TIE EYES CAN lEAD TO BLOC® ON THE BEACH) are using 
the same President's promise and evidence that it can't happen, and, 
again, our Canmittee faces a war crisis. 

Fidel Castro, speaking to the Wanen's Congress in January, said; 
"...the Caribbean crisis has not been solved, ...a war was prevented, 
but peace was not achieved — and these are not the same thing." He 
detailed the adndnistrgtion' s conplicity in continued aggression in 
and ag&inst Cuba and asked: "n/Riat peace is there for us?" 

The answer is the same for both our peoples; there is no peace, 
and the threat of war hangs heavy on the world. Present U, S, policy 
against Cuba makes this ^hreat grave and immediate. 



411 



412 PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 5— Continued 

) CUBA REFUSES THE GAUNTI£T 

Cuba has done and is doing all she can to avoid military con> 
flict. Cuba has consistently refused to be drawn into battle despite 
sane of the most outragecxis provocations in modei>n history, Cuba has 
studiousJiy avoided aggression to the point where Kennedy is forced to 
proclaim she has absolutely no offensive force, Fran the beginning, 
Cuba offered negotiation of all differences and to this day welcones 
a feasible plan of disarmament, based not cai mere words, but on ac- 
tions which would guarantee her peace with sovereignty as a free and 
equal neighbor. It is impossible to deny that peace must be a bi- 
lateral responsibility, and Cuba has tried. 

U. S. THRUSTS 

Despite Cuba's consistent refusal to be drawn into open conflict 
the U. 5. continues to bayonet the peace. Thrusting U. S, armed and 
trained terrorists onto Cuban soil to murder men, women and children, 
Washington violates every huihan law. Violations of Cuban air space 
and -coastal waters are puulicly proclaimed by the Proeident hijnself. 
Thousands and thousands of U, S, military personnel are aimed at the 
heart of Cuba fron the on2y foreign base on the island, iHiich stands 
as a constant threat to peace in the hemisphere. Ana now, just as 
last fall, the trumped up "attacks" by Cubans, last September in 
prelude to the infamous blockade we had a supposed firing on a U, S. 
plane by a Cuban shipj today it is the firing on a U. S. ship \jy a 
Cuban plane (with equally confused, conflicting and questionable re- 
ports). The parallel is amazingl Additionally, cutting off trans- 
portation to the island, imposition of a travel ban against U. S, 
citizens going to Cuba and the intimidation of all who dare speak out 
against these measures have left a picture of the U.S, as a cruel ag- 
gressor b^nt on mayhem in the hemisphere. 

THE PEOPIE'S CHOICE 

Cuba, it seems, has done and is doing all possible to win peace 
and is frustrated at every turn. International forces still struggle 
in this direction but more is needed. We must, once and for all make 
up our minda that it is the American people who must be the principal 
factor in the outcone of this dilemma. 

We in the U, S, can and must make a determined effort to expose 
the dangerous path our governnent follows. It is up to us to speak 



PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 413 



Lee Exhibit No. 5— Continued 

out against the forces of traction and make a forceful contribution ~K 
to the movement for peace already afoot in our nation. Strong ef- 
forts must be made to get the peace groups on the move, not just a- 
gainst TTar, but against the Cuban war in particular. They must be 
made to realize what faces our people in the event of such a war, and 
no amount of discouraging apathy must deter us. The situation is so 
serious that it is not a question of whether we can or cannot effec- 
tively speak out, but that we must. The impending war threat makes 
any other consideration impossible, and in the final analysis, who 
else is there who will undertake this responsibility? 

FAIR PIAY CARRIES THE BURIEN 

Conditions today are so critical that the Fair Play for Cuba 
Canmittee hinges its upccming third anniversary on the question of 
the existence of Cuba. V/e know that Dr, Castro spoke the truth viien 
he said that the U, S, might annihilate the (Xiban people, but could 
never destroy their Revolution; but that is not enou^ for the Amer- 
ican people. We know that we continue to live as Americans, true A- 
mericans in the spirit of om? founders, only so long as we can live 
as equals alcwigside the Cuban Revolutionaries, 

Above all others, because we do stand independent and yet open 
to all, to us lies the burden ot struggling so much harder to achieve 
the peace we so sorely need, not just as a Canmittee, but as a real 
segnent of humanity. It is up to us to reach into the camnunity and 
bring the truth to our fellow citizens concerning the actual condi- 
tions vrhich affect the peace between the U.S. and Cuba. T7e must con- 
tinue to report to ohe American people the truth of conditions in 
Cuba; v*y and how the Cuban people live through their Revolution. We 
must strive unceasingly totvard this end so our people may know and 
understand, and as a consequence, respond. 

lEMAND DIPLOMACY 

Imagine if you will, for a moment, the absence of diplomatic re- 
lations betvj-een the U.S. and the Soviet Union during all the critical 
periods of history which have faced our people in recent years. In 
the light of such a question the possibility is frighteningi Yet to- 
day one of the keys to peace in the world, and most certainly in our 
hemisphere, is Cuba, and we stand (or falll) without any diplomatic 
relations. This con?)lete lack of relations with Cuba continues to be 
the most critical factor in resolving the question of war. 



414 PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 5— Continued 

Fair' Plajr* liiust begin- immediately the institution of a national 
campaign demanding- the renev/al of diplonatic relations. We' know thai 
this has been a principal plank in our platf oim all alqng,, but now we 
must concentrate on this and organiza our forces in this direction. 
AljBost every other point in our prdgram could or would be resolved 
through the renewal of diplomatic relations, and carrying such a cam- 
paign to the people stands an excellent chance of acceptance in many 
quarters which Would not v/ork on other aspects. We must remember at 
all times that not only the resolution of all other points hinges on 
the renev/al of diplcraatic relations, but today it means peace or war. 
Without this peace, all our hopes and desires become bitter ashes. 

. ' jflRST-HAND REPORT 

I would like to report that what I have to say concerning Cuba 
is based on. first-hand information. On December 26th I left Hew York 
on a trip to Cuba and did not return until the 22nd of January. II 
spent almost a. month in Cuba and was able to witness many of these 
things of which I speak. ' 

When I report continued U, S. aggression against Cuba it is. be- 
cause I could see with the naked eye vrarships cruising off the coast 
of Cuba three months after the blockade was supposedly over. Not far 
from trfiere I was visiting friends, one evening a little girl was bur- 
tally murdered. A young reforestration worker was burned alj,ye, 
Southern style, and the list of atrocities goes on and on. 

I ivas there when the ne\7s' broke of the, U. S. attempt to put Cuba 
out of the postal system. This fantastic plot made world history, 
although it has been silenced here at hcane. Calling a hei][ii spheric 
meeting to exclude Cuba, someone fouled up and Cuba, too, was noti- 
fied of the meeting* The outccme was such an overwhelming defeat, for 
the U. S. that it has been. conveniently forgotten. 

I traveled around as much as I could during my visit, completely 
unrestricted, and saw a great deal (although I missed Oriente, i^ch 
I shouldn't have). I spoke to innumerable workers, farmers and pro- 
fessional people as well as leaders of the Cuban Revolution. I heard 
the Voice of America spewing lies and had a first-hand example of its 
propaganda failure. I heard them report the shooting of a leader of 
the Cuban Revolution one night and met and spoke to him on the street 
the very next day. 



PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 415 



Lee Exhibit No. 5— Continued 

; T'vdtnesGed.ovep 7pO, foreign vifeitci'S jfrem- aJmost every obuntry u: 
on earth aWd shared a. magniTiceii+r eotperience Trith them as we sat in . ^ 
thestandsTirith Fidel .-and listened to him speak .after rev leWing the , ; 
Cuban defense forces in front df mixlions of enthusiastic Cubans, A-r - 
lone, that spectacle of the multitude pouring forth 'to cheer ttieir 
leaders, could erase any- doubt abwit the support of the Cuban people • 
for "their governnent. And, if that isn't enough, witnessing thfe Re-y:- ^ 
olutionary leaders wa3Jcing s'treets whicli swarm with fully armed cit- - 
izens does the trick. •• I.can^t recall any unarmed Cubans; they are .• 
all armed, with loaded gunsrV 

Opposition? I saw that too. Passing the abandoned Am'eriean: em-. 
bassy I saw a crowd- .-of about 200 milling persons, stopping to dis- 
cover the reason, I learned that they were applying to leave Cuba and 
seeking U. S." visas .from the S^Tfiss, who now run the onbassy. After 
being told by the Sviriss that they wouldn't grant visas because Castro 
had cut off Pan Am planes from Miami, (a lie. Pan Am. long before.'had 
announced that it v.-as cutting service tp Havana) this crowd deraonr 
strated, A "spontaneous" demonstration began with a yvell organized 
shouting that Fidel was a traitor, a liar and other vile things and a 
march began toward the center of town. The continued filth against 
Fidel brought' immediate response from the people around,., who ;^wanned 
to the streets against this demons tration^ People dropped what they 
xsere doing (except for seme housewives brandishing mop handles) and 
buses, cars, cycles andrscooters quit in the middle of the street as 
drivers and occupants took out on foot after the demonstrators; shops 
and stores and even bank tellers dropped their money to chase them. 
In a few minutes over 5 1 000 people vyere a clamoring mob, and the few 
demonstrators were in a dangerous -position. Police and militia flew 
i-o the scene and tri6d to quiet the angry people and makg the cro7»d 
disperse. But the .people were furious with the would-be exiles who 
reviled their governnent and leaders, and wanted their blood. It was 
a very trying situation for the police who were attempting to protect 
the dononstrators, and they were forced "to bring in a contingent of 
trucks -to get them away from the mob. While they were loading these 
"trucks I heard one man' screaming that they had no freedom to protest, 
A very disgusted young militiaman invited him to leave the truck and 
go back on the street if ha felt he was being forced. He sat dovm, 
shut up and they drove away from the angry people, who chased for a- 
bout a block before giving up. I later met sane of those same demon- 
strators and talked with them. They complained bitterly against this 
new Cuba and said they were leaving on the ships bringing in the med- 



416 PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 5— Continued 

• ical indemnities being paid for the April 1961 invasion. All I saw 
'were wealthy, were nostolgiac for the "old days" before Castro! 

Achievements of the Qaban Revolution are visible everywhere. I 
have seen how Cuba achieved equality in society. Racial and relig- 
ious equality is a fact of life there. For the first time, wanen are 
really equal. Fact; 50^ of the students in the University's Medical 
School are women. Appraximately U,000 administrators were appointed 
in the nationalized stores and 90^ are wcmen, and on and on. The old 
wall between fanners and workers is being broken as workers pour out 
into the country each weekend to share the work on the farms and har- 
vest the massive new crops bfdng produced. Cuba, unlike the U. S,, 
T^iich has a serious unamployment problem, is extremely short of farm 
labor. Workers are vollinteering their spare time to harvest foods 
never before available to the Cuban masses in such great quantity. 

I have seen the building of industries which never before exis- 
ted in Cuba as well as impro^Tement and expansion of production frcni 
plants foiTOerly foreign oimed. Everywhere one sees the finest equip- 
ment in the world coning frcm socialist countries, along with techni- 
cians to teach Cubans to run their own industries. Aided development 
of a giant fishing industry, a modern merchant marine and discoveries 
of oil, cobalt, copper, nickel and iron all brighten Cuba's future. 

In a time which ended far too soon I saw such achievement that I 
could talk on it for hours. I'm still putting notes and recollection 
together and you will hear much more on this subject in the future. 

ATTEMPTS TO SILENCE 

Hardly had I returned to the U.S. than the pressures were put on 
to keep me quiet. The day after my arrival a subpoena was issued by 
the infamous Eastland ccmmittee. After repeated postponements there 
was a closed hearing in February, Rather than consume good space ai 
this waste of taxpayers' money (nine people to question one witness 
part of one day cost an estimated ^1,000), let's just say there was a 
very cool response to three hours of questioning during which period 
I invoked my privileges as an American. Sample of type of same ques- 
tions: Answer yes or no, do you still take money from Ccmnunists? 

I will not surrender to this or any other f oim of intimidation 
(including exiled counter-revolutionary thugs who have threatened to 
"gin down" Fair Play leadership) and I am going to tell the frue fact 



PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 417 



Lee Exhibit No. 5— Continued 

about Cuba and the U. S, t« all irtxo will listen and that I can reach. ( 

SPEAKING OUT 

In the area of our National Office I have already begun to speak 
in forum and lectures, aand I am ready to speak in other areas too. A 
critical situation in U. S. -Cuban relationsddemands that all our peo- 
ple learn the truth about Cuba and be warned of the dangers rrhich our 
government instigates. It is necessary to reach out far and wide "to 
the broadest possible audience rtght away* 

NOT ALONE 

Bringing the message to the America* pe(^le is a considerable 
task and cannot be acccmplishej by anyone alone. The publicat3.on of 
pamphlets like Fidel's key fepeech of January 15 th requires much work 
and many hands and dollars were used to make this available today, A 
new leaflet takes work and money too, lots of It, To travel to and 
fron each cammnity exhibiting ^ict^jres and bringing the story direct 
frcm Cuba requires the Iielp of many. Above all, it will ctfflt us more 
money than we have now. 

Our National Office is too lijait«d financially. The response to 
the last mailing's appeal for renewals and contributions helped, t«it 
there ai^ still too many who have not yet sent in their renewals, and 
they should be sent in now. You must realise that" we cannot carry on 
with ui^id subscriptions indefinitely, our list will be purged soon. 

The legal costs of that Senate hearing took an ill-afforded bite 
frcjBi our treasury (enough to d» a conplete national mailingl) There 
are many pamphlets and leaflets we must jarint and we need more funds 
for that. The combination of taxes, reWts, talaphone, stationary and 
other normal operating expenses are high and go on forever. As an. 
example of the cost's let me point o«t tiat even after a weeding out 
of the files, the increased postal rate will- bring the cost of this 
mailing up to wrer $325; $250 for postage alone and we are using the 
cheapest reproduction and volunteer labor, "Riis means that these two 
mailings have »«nsumed about 125 annual subscripticwasl The hearings 
in Washington lurned up another 50 subs and a cheap printing 35 morel 
(A more detailed financial r«p«rt is forthcoming thia spring,) 



418 PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 5— Continued 

A JOB TO DO 

The job we have to do is enormous, but it is a job that MUST be 
done. Each of you across the nation has a very great responsibility. 
I accept mine willingly and wholeheartedly and ytLII do bqt upmost. I 
hope you will help me bear this burden and share the responsibility 
of getting this most imp^ortant work done. 

Don't procrastinate." We cannot afford to wait for the burning 
heat of a crisis which aould very well consume us. We must act, and 
act now, to do our part to stave off this crisis and begin a concrete 
program for the future. Today, before it is too late we must, with 
solidarity and with discipline, make the sacrifices needed to carry 
through our progi^ra. There is no irriividual among us who can contri- 
bute too little, any more than there is ai:yone who can contribute too 
much. Those of you who have not yet sent in your renewals do so im- 
mediately. Don't forget the contributions either; subscriptions a- 
lone do not fill the gap and we have a great deal to do and little 
enough time to do it in. 

Alio EE ORGANIZACION 

Sitting in the Plaza Civica on January 2nd I heard Dr. Castro 
announce that this would be called in Cuba: THE YEAR OF ORGAI^IZATION. 
I could not help but think that this would be a fine slogan forthis, 
the third year of the Fair Play for Cuba Ccmmittoe, I suggest that 
this be (XJR Year of Organization and that our motto be Solidarity, 
Discipline, Sacrifice. I hope ycu will join in a program which will 
win for us the ri^t to fX'eelygo together and visit our neighbors in 
Cuba, Free Territory of the Americas. 

5i:^ternally, . 

y ^ V. T, Lee, National Director 

Send to: FAIR PUT FOR CUBA COffiilTTEE, 799 B'Way, New York 3, N, Y. 
ry $5 annual membership. /^ ^5 subscription only. /V Contribution 
NAME: 

ADDRESS: 

CITY: ZONE STATE: 



y 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 419 

Lee Exhibit No. 7 

price 15^ 



CUBAN COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

* Who are they? 

* Who subsidizes them? 

* How do they menace freedom in the U.S. 

as well as in Cuba? 

by V.T. LEE, Past President, Tampa Bay Chapter, FPCC 



An abridged version of a lecture delivered at a 
forum of the f/.Y. Chapter, FPCC on March 12, 1962 



Published by the Fair Play for Cuba Committee 



420 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

Prior to liberation, Cuba's people suffered under a U. S. -sponsored 
dictatorship which conducted a campaign of oppression and terror in which 
thousands were murdered to preserve that dictatorship. Batista's crimes 
equal the horrors of Nazism. Whole armies of torturers were maintained 
which killed people for the sheer sake of torture. 

Dr. Castro's revolution removed the leaders, directors and partici- 
pants in this crime against humanity. Some were convicted of their acts 
by Revolutionary Tribunals, some escaped into hiding in Cuba, but most 
fled the wrath of a freed people and entered the U. S. as exiles. 

These participants in the rape of Cuba were accomplices of the U. S. 
And all they did to the humanity of Cuba was done in the best interests 
of the U. S. Financial interests controlling U. S. policy coordinated 
their activities, and the international view of the dictatorship was 
sponsored by the U. S. Militarily, the oppression was directed by a Pen- 
tagon officer staff, military supplies came from U. S. armories, their 
military leaders were decorated for their actions by the U. S. with med- 
als appropriated by Congress, and the U. S. State Department officials 
honored dictator Batista above all men. 

The U. S. ran the economy of Cuba. U. S. firms owned or controlled 
its wealth, skimming the top and leaving a portion for lackeys who per- 
mitted this thievery. The corruptors of Cuba became extraordinarily 
wealthy, but the masses of Cuba starved as a consequence. 

Political life was directed by Washington and all political activity 
between the nations was in the best interests of the U. S. So deep did 
this go that even the capitol in Havana is a miniatvre of Washington's. 

This band of Cuban butchers now exiled in the U. S. is still working 
for the same interests. Their policies are unchanged, their personnel un- 
changed, and but for the grace of the people's militia of the Free Terri- 
tory of the Americas, only their locale remains unchanged. 

The U. S. resisted the changes brought about by Dr. Castro before he 
entered Havana; and at this time, the changes represented no more than an 
end to butchery and starvation. They were resisted by a Cuban dictator- 
ship in the interests of the U. S. garrison state. 

Inferences that the U. S. sympathized with Castro are made to white- 
wash U. S. complicity ia the rape of Cuba. If the U. S. did not oppose 
the advent of a new government, why did it supply Batista's regime with 
tons of arms to fight the rebels? It stopped them only when it became ob- 
vious that he could use no more than he had already received! Why did we 
decorate Batista generals who led attacks on the people? Why did our mil- 
itary staff stand by Batista to the bitter end? Why were rebels arrested 
and imprisoned in the U. S. for trying to send aid from here? And final- 
ly, why did it welcome the professional killers to our land and why do we 
continue to aid and abet them today? 

The U. S. didn't keep hands off Cuba during the Revolution. It threw 
rebels in prison, where some of them are today! Recently, Cuban women 
protested the holding of their men in U. S. prisons where they have been 
since Castro was in the mountains. Their pleas are still unheard. 

Press and government reports show control of the U. S. by financial 
giants who once ran Cuba. Action taken against the Revolution from the 
time of Batista until today has been in the best interests of the U. S, 
The Cuban Revolution could be replaced by only one other system: that fos- 
tered by interests of the U. S. These interests never have, never will, 
and never can be the interests of Free Cubans. 

Evidence of these financial interests is advanced in press coverage 
of the counter-revolutionary groups of Cuban exiles. First in the press 
and first m the hearts of the bankers is JOSE .MIRO CARDONA, head of the 
Revolutionary Council organized in the U. S. (Note that this same press 
which complains about no elections in Cuba never says a word about the 
strict autocracy of these counter-revolutionary groups!) 

Cardona is considered the official representative of the counter-rev- 
olutionaries by the U. S. According to the press, he has at least the 
semi-official backing of the government and is known to be a confidant of 
the White House staff. Cardona is palmed off as a liberal. Hearst papers 
auote Cardona liberalism for Cuba thusly: "I would repudiate all those 
(recent Icaus) which strike at private property. ' ' Meaning, this U. S.- 
styled liberal would take the land from the Cuban peasants and return it 
to the U. S. companies and their Cuban lackeys. 

Exiles are now part of our public life. They have been imported 
from Cuba, are allied with the Li. S., are dedicated to the overthrow of 



PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 421 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

Cuba and maintain close ties with Batistianos. Many Americans are de- 
ceived into believing that the exiles are liberal and democratic, but 
Cardona's Council is made up of political lackeys, opportunists and rem- 
nants of a dictatorship. These so-called liberals include publishers of 
Cuban periodicals, politicians who served Batista, bankers, industrial- 
ists and landowners who shared the spoils. 

Cuban periodicals cooperated with Batista's dictatorship to suppress 
the people just as they had done under Spanish rule. Waldo Frank in his 
recent book, ''CUBA, PROPHETIC ISLAND", recalls that the paper DIARIO DE 
LA MARINA abused Jose Marti, favored Spanish rule and survived through 
subsidy and troop protection. Batista continued this policy of subsidy 
and protection for his prostitute press, and the exile publishers are now 
here for further protection and subsidy. 

An example of the ''freedom of the press'' type exiles is JORGE ZA- 
YAS, publisher of AVANCE, now being published under the auspices of the 
U. S. Zayas has been classified as a ''refugee'', but he left Cuba of 
his own free will, openly, on a regu lar ly- schedu led flight of the Cuban 
Aviation Co., on January 20, 1960. He voluntarily went into exile m the 

U. S. 

Four days later, Zayas was elected Regional Vice-President of the 
Inte r- American Press Association's Freedom of the Press Committee for the 
Caribbean Area. (President of this is Andrew Heiskell, Board Chairman of 
TIME, INC.) The MIAMI HERALD ran a series by Zayas slandering Cuba's 
government and he was lauded as a hero and democrat of U. S. caliber. 

Zayas' caliber speaks for itself in the pages of AVANCE and this is 
what he said in response to the people's growing unrest under Batista: 

'If the country is showing its willingness to cooperate with the govern- 
ment of General Batista m the task of national order and direction, as 
proved, by the fact that the most representative sectors of the economy 
and of labor are pleased by the integration of the Consultative Council, 
no minority group, and much less if it represents disorganizing and anti- 
democratic tendencies , can be accepted as an obstacle to the total effort 
which must culminate precisely m a democratic restoration within the 
frame conceived, and promoted by the people, with the credit of the ante- 
cedent, now kistorical, of he who was the champion of the Constitution of 
19^0: General Batista. '' Later, in 1952, a newspaper strike was pro- 
posed as a result of the kidnapping and torturing of newsman Mario Kuchi- 
lan by Batista's police; Zayas responded in AVANCE on August 21. saying: 

''On this occasion, as m October of last year, we disagree with the pro- 
posal, considering it totally mcongruent with the very function of jour- 
nalism, fulfilled, on the contrary, by the extraordinary occurrence of a 

protest m which the national press has given evidence of a spirit of 
solidarity. A voluntary newspapermen's strike would really make no 
sense.'' The following year after additional crimes by Batista, Zayas 
printed on March 11th: ' 'Yes terday ' s pronouncements could all be summar- 
ized m the conclusion that the obj ectives of the 10th of March, recapit- 
ulated by General Batista, reside essentially m the pacific reestablish- 
ment of Constitutional life with a democratic regime, an achievement 
which no Cuban should refuse to support. ' ' Notice the ''pacific''. 
Thousands of mutilated bodies rotted in Cuba to keep it ''pacific''. 

Perhaps Zayas was just deceived and hadn't found Batista out yet as 
had the rest of Cuba. No! Four years later, on January 15, 1957, Zayas 
printed: "Tomorrow will be the saint's day of the President of the Re- 
public. Major General tulgencio Batista Zaidivar, who will spend it happi- 
ly with his family and numerous friends and admirers. On such occasion A- 
VANCE IS particularly happy to express to him, cordially as well as re- 
spectfully, its salutations and best wishes, praying to the almighty that 
the moderating placed in his hands by the Constitution through the highest 
office of the nation, will enable him to give a pacific and harmonious co- 
existence for all Cubans to enjoy. " This published a few days after the 
Gramma landing and again the word ''pacific'', used when Batista murder 
figures had surpassed 15,000. Don't be disillusioned, Zayas did it only 
for the money. Records showed that Zayas drew 1200,000 from an account 
set up by Batista. Quantities of cash handouts were large too. 

Zayas, like all the newsmen in exile, fled Cuba for the same reason. 
Cuba's press was subsidized by Batista; that is, except for the revolu- 



422 PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 



tionary press, and that is still freely published. We in the land of 
''freedom of the press'' cannot read that because our government has it 
on an embargo and we cannot pet that side of the story at our newsstands. 
Yet, Zayas still publishes AVANCE in exile and is U. S. -subs idi zed ! 

Zayas is the rule. Recall the incident when exiles presented docu- 
ments, later proven forgeries, which denounced Frondizi? These were sup- 
posedly taken from the Cuban Embassy and were an attempt to make Argenti- 
na sever from Cuba. The man presenting those forgeries in that subver- 
sion was representing the F. R. D,, the gang led by Cardona. That sub- 
versive was MANL'EL BRANA, former editor of EXCELSIOR in Cuba. 

There are many of these ''freedom of the press'' men, or rather, as 
a Cuban calls them, ''gusanos'', or worms, crawling around. Active in 
some counter-revolution against his people and ours is LOUIS BOTIFOLL, 
editor of EL MUNDO. He too still makes money off his publication in ex- 
ile. These propaganda experts are still inspiring and supporting the vi- 
olence that they thrived on under Batista. The WASHINGTON NEWS in mid- 
October reported a speech by newsman CARLOS TCCD who spoke as a counter- 
revolutionary activist committing violence against Cuba who returned to 
Miami and was publicly organizing further violence. Remember the foiled 
assassination attempt on Cuba's leaders? Participants were captured and 
identified. One of the assassins was ALFREDO IZAGUIRRE RIVAS, of the de- 
funct reactionary periodical, EL CRISOL. 

The list goes on with details of exile newsmen involved in crime and 
corruption. Members of a reactionary press seem adaptable to such occu- 
pations. But the yellow press has no corner on evils being perpetrated 
against the Cuban people. The entire counter-revolutionary movement is 
riddled with corruption and their roster is a wanted list of criminals 
that has no end. 

An attempt to list the counter-revolutionary groups with the offi- 
cers needs more space than is available. Even then it would be inaccu- 
rate because they fluctuate so much one cannot be pinned down very long. 
The process is that a potential politician sets up an organization and ex- 
pects prestige and, of 'course, money. Some they lure from their cohorts 
and the rest comes from a U. S, agency, the CIA being best because they 
spend the most. Difficulties arise from the fact that there is only so 
much room for officers and even by padding the executive rolls a group is 
soon saturated, and, each exile being an opportunist, a split develops. 
Another group is soon formed and the process is repeated over and over. 
Today there are hundreds of exile organizations vying for power. 

Floridians are witness to these activities and in Miami can see an 
ambulance at one of the exile ''peaceable assemblies''. In Tampa, one 
night the sidewalk in front of F. R. D. headquarters was littered with 
pieces of folding chairs and two women were seen scurrying home to re- 
place clothing torn to shreds. Gusanos put on some great spectacles. 

The WASHINGTON NEWS said on October 3, 1961: "The exiles' ranks 
are splintered with 177 organizations vying for allegiance. '' Remember, 
the NEWS favors them, so you had better add quite a few! The following 
day the N. Y. TIMES said: "DR. JL'STO CAMILLO HEBNANDEZ, former Presi- 
dent of the Cuban Bank for Agricultural and Industrial DeveLopment quit 
the Revolutionary Council. Dr. Carrillo, 1*8, is President of the Monti- 
cristi Movement. " Notice his title of the past, no worker he. TIME re- 



ports: "They (the exiles) spend their time talking, arguing and 
fighting their own civil war against the Fidelistas m Miami s permanent 
Cuban population of some kO.OOO. Score in recent weeks: two dynami.t- 
mgs, four Molotov cocktail attacks, and one case of arson. '' 

A Miami UPI report said on October 7th: "A group of Cubans set up 
a Cuban government- m-exile here to rival the Revolutionary Council of 
Jose Miro Cardona. '' Four days later the MIAMI HERALD reported that the 
F. R. D. , which IS part of the Council, was fighting back by trying to u- 
nite "20 organizations including: The Triple A Independent; The Student 
Directorate; The Christian Democratic Movement; The [Workers Front; The 
November 30 Movement; The May 30 Movement; The People's Revolutionary 
Movement and the Revolutionary Recovery Movement. '' 

These are just a few of the many and their names. There is also a 

Wiite Rose Society, led by ex-Senator RAFAEL DIAZ-BAU^RT, which is 100% 

ratista. Others hide their Batista affiliations, but they openly espouse 



PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 423 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

the return of Batista. And, despite their public relations claims, the 
other organizations are riddled with Batlstianos. One could hardly be a 
banker, big landowner, newspaper publisher or politician during the Ba- 
tista regime and not work with him. Those who fought Batista had no part 
in that aspect of public life before the Revolution. 

Note: Batista soldiers are still receiving personal checks from the 
dictator every month. Those with continued loyalty receive the Batista 
check for $250. Many Flondians have been present while these checks 
have been cashed and spent by these butchers. Batista is maintaining an 
army of foreign mercenaries on U. S. soil with money stolen from the poor 
people of Cuba. These killers are some of the ''freedom fighters'' 
lauded by the U. S. press, embraced by the government, and paid by its a- 
gencies ! 

Don't forget ESTEBAN VENTURA and ROLAND MASFERRAR. They move freely 
in Florida living a rich life. They are seen with their killer body- 
guards, armed, on U. S. streets. Ventura's reputation was that of the 
''Himmler of Cuba*', and Masferrar's crimes too cruel to title! 

Last year Masferrar was arrested and Americans who knew his record 
breathed a sigh of satisfaction. The press played it up with the impli- 
cation that we were removing an undesirable alien. The story quickly 
died out. Why? Because Masferrar is still free in Miami and was only 
interrupted because his privately conducted invasions of Cuba were not 
helping U. S. prestige and stealing steam from the U. S. -backed Council 
of Cardona. Oljviously, the U. S. and Masferrar came to an agreement as 
he still runs around Miami playing tough guy. He will continue to do so 
as long as this government pursues a policy of admitting the scum of the 
earth classified as refugees from communism. Even a butcher like Masfe- 
rrar, leader of an army of torturers who castrated hundreds of Cuban 
teenagers to insure Batista elections, will not be classified as an unde- 
sirable alien while able to operate within walking distance of the law 
offices of a racist like SENATOR SMATHERS! 

These invading exiles are involved in everything contrary to the 
welfare of our people. If you lived amongst them and suffered their dep- 
redations you would be well aware, but whether you see them or not, the 
impact of their activity is paid for many times over by all Americans. 

While our students suffer from an acute classroom shortage, Dade 
County, Florida is setting up separate classrooms to cater to the exile 
children. Reports grow of friction in the schools, and Ribicoff an- 
nounced the allocation of $2,000,000 just for the Cubans' education. All 
this was in one edition of the MIAMI HERALD, on September 19th. Most 
children from American working class and even middle class families can- 
not afford universities and colleges, but these sons of exiles can go to 
the college of their choice because our government pays for it with our 
tax dollars! 

If an American is sick and without insurance, property or money, it 
is really tough. Not so for exiles, they have free medical and dental 
care compliments of the U. S. Taxpayer. Then, we have so much ''freedom 
of the press'' that our taxes are subsidizing the publication of counter- 
revolutionary periodicals. Our tax dollars buy every kind of corruption 
imaginable, but worst of all, they may be buying our deaths m a war of 
international proportions in an attempt to take Cuba from her people who 
now enjoy the only liberty in their history. What a futile expenditure! 

Exiles contribute nothing and take everything. All last year our 
press reported that the class of fleeing Cubans had changed to laborers, 
farmers and members of minority groups. The WALL STREET JOURNAL ran an 
article with headlines screaming: "Many More Laborers, Fanners blee 
Castro Regime''. Proof that this was an unmitigated lie comes in the 
form of another U. S. paper which failed to coordinate its ''voluntary 
censorship" with Wall Street. On the last day of November, the MIAMI 
HERALD goofed and refuted this lie by reporting: "Plans to put Cuban 
refugees to work m south Dade fields have been abandoned, a tlorida 
State Employment Service official said Sunday. Bryan Page, h . S. E. S. 
Farm Placement Officer, said the Cubans are unsuited to farm Labor. We 
tried using U8 of them last year and the longest anyone Lasted was 3 



424 PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

days, ' Paee said. 'It's not that they don't try, ' he said, 'It's just 
that they re middle and upper class people not conditioned to that kind 
of work. ' Page conferred with Refugee Officials last month on possibili- 
ties of easing the farm labor shortage with Cubans. He was hopeful that 
since last year more farm type Cubans had arrived. 'But I found that 
this was not the case, ' Page said. Marshall Wise, Director of the Refu- 
gee Center, said a check of his rolls turned up so few Cubans with agri- 
cultural experience that it appeared useless to try them as farm labor- 
ers.'' Note that this report is from the current crop season of '61-'62, 
not a similar one from a year ago! Despite the JOURNAL'S contentions, 
this will always be the case. Working class Cubans don't flee because it 
IS they who now own the land, they who now enjoy the fruits of their la- 
bors, and It IS they who are resisting the tyranny the counter-revolu- 
tionaries wish to place them under at the instigation and with the aid of 

the U. S. 

The class character of the exiles is not, never has been, and never 
will be working class. The exiles are the parasitic worms who ate away 
at the decaying corpse of a corrupted society and who have come here to 
feed anew. As the MIAMI HERALD so accurately put it, they are ''upper 
and middle class people'', and certainly, the worst element of that. 

Please note that most of this damning evidence against the exiles is 
not ''communist propaganda'' but comes in the main from the U. S. press 
which IS their support. This evidently was part of Kennedy's worry and 
caused him to request our editors to exercise restraint and censorship. 

Further information concerning the class character of the exiles 
came from a woman with the International Rescue Committee, who was quoted 
in the last April SATURDAY EVENING POST as saying: "I've seen more true 
gentility here, more understated elegance than I've ever seen before. " 

Ventura and i\lasferrar must throw ''elep-ant'' parties in that ''ele- 
gant mansion on that island near Miami Beach which often has the gen- 
teel' ' company of the .''elegant'' Senator Smathers! Much more ''ele- 
gant than the miserable hovels that American migrant workers live in 
down the road, where the exiles are ' ' unsuited' ' to work! 

Exiles are unsuited for work, but seem well adapted to other things 
and it's no wonder they've found champions in SMATHERS of Florida and 
TOWERS of Texas. Southern bigots and exiles make good bedfellows. The 
overnight achievement of racial equality in Cuba, not toleration, but E- 
OUALITY! ! , must really burn them. Politicians don't overlook this, and 
are well aware that Cuba has the support of its minority groups, and the 
bigots and parasites are the only Cubans coming here into voluntary ex- 
ile. On December 29th, the WASHINGTOV NEWS quotedCFhe famous witch-hunt- 
er, REPRESENTATIVE WALTER,, as saying about the exile influx: "There are 
no ^egroes m the exodus, not even mulattoes , because Castro isCicounting 
on the support of minority groups. 'J^ Walter is correct, they are not 
coming here, and they are not coming here for the same reason that Robert 
F. Williams had to flee the U. S. and seek asylum in Havana, capitol of 
the Free Territory of the Amer icas , fT; he only free and equal place in the 
hemisphere! What sane black man would want to live in this white hell? 

Miami Police Chief Walter Hadly, in that same edition of the POST, 
disagreed about exile ''gentility''. He said the Cubans are a ''head- 
ache, given to settling political quarrels by acts of violence, such as 
shootings, bombings and throwing rocks through store fronts''. TIME has 
reported troubles with the exile numbers racket, and the city has had 
more than its share of a prostitute problem from Cuba. for two years the 
Miami schools have been plagued by narcotics attempts and suddenly the 
Federal government has shifted the blame to Communist China's influence 
in an attempt to pacify citizens' ire and save their proteges. In Octo- 
ber the MIAMI HERALD was reporting trouble in the schools but it was 
hushed up. Miami is seething with violence over these exiles and that is 
the only reason they are trying to relocate some of them now. The simple 
fact is that it is so bad that even Federal funds can't soothe the head- 
ache ! 

To many members of the working class, black and white, it's more 
than a ''headache'', it's a downright bellyache and not from irritation, 
but from lack of food. The area suffers serious unemployment, so serious 



PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. " 425 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

they have been forced to food doles to hungry workers from the black com- 
munity. The November 9th issue of JET ran a feature story on the plight 
of that community. Here are some auotes: "A Co llec tion Agency ... man- 
aging 10,000 apartments and homes (owned by whites) for Negroes in Miami, 
said It was forced to create a free employment agency primarily to seek 
jobs for their tenants. An estimated 20% of the tenants have Lost jobs 
to Cubans. " And: ''Melvin Jackson, head of Miami Labor-Domestic Div . 
of F. S. E. S. , saia that many ^egroes and whites 'have told us about 
losing their jobs to Cubans, but we haven't taken any notes on it. ' Mar- 
shall Wise, Director of the Federal Cuban Refugee Center m Miami, de- 
fended his 'charges' with the assertion that 'of course the Negro would 
be the first to suffer. The guy with the least will work for the ^least. 
This is a part of the American (capitalistic) system'. '' Also: ''Ne- 
groes, by and large, are sympathetic to the Cubans, jeel that Castro has 
given the black Cuban status he never before knew in Cuba. The black Cu- 
ban comprises an infinitesimal percentage of Cubans coming to Miami. 
'Cubans can be treated (at government expense) and are housea m modern, 
air- conditioned wards at Miami's Jackson Memorial Hospital', declared 
Garth Reeves, editor of the MIMiI TIMES. 'but paying Negro patients are 
not alloued m there, ' he said. Charles A. Lockhart, a former union or- 
ganizer said: '1 don't know the outcome. But if it continues this way. 
It can become explosive!'' On another page of this same edition they 
talk about: ''The Miami woman who was denied welfare aid because she had 
an illegitimate baby and the question she posed about the thousands of 
Cuban mothers coming into the city with children and receiving welfare 
aid. She left welfare officials with this puzzler: 'How ^do you know 
which of those Cuban mothers have illegitimate children?' ' 

Exiles are granted surplus food parcels too, but it is quite differ- 
ent. They also get preferential treatment and government checks far ex- 
ceeding anything Americans receive, plus free medical and dental care and 
free education, besides hidden fringe benefits. As for their receipt of 
surplus foods it is interesting to note that they were not using them on 
the basis that it wasn't good enough. Perhaps it was not good enough, 
but it was good enough to warrant black Americans going into the alleys 
of Miami to salvage what many exiles threw away! 

Most of them taking jobs away from Americans are those who came out 
after Castro cracked down on those removing the country's wealth. If re- 
strictions on removing the country's wealth were unique to socialist 
countries the press could be excused for its attack of Cuba on this ba- 
sis, but it must be recalled that this is an old practice throughout the 
world and it was only recently that Britain, for instance, eased its mon- 
etary restrictions on Continental tourists. Cuba, in an effort to pre- 
serve her economy which was being attacked by the U. S. and tiring of 
seeing its wealth being used for counter-revolutionary activities, halted 
its exodus . 

Cubans who were unable to land here with what in most cases were ill- 
gotten gains, were hard put, especially since their wealthier prototypes 
are very uncharitable. (Batista alone has enough ready cash to bail out 
the entire invasion army that was captured at Playa Giron! ) In their 
cases there is much collection of U. S. checks and since it is hard to 
have been rich and then adjust your taste down, they work also for the ex- 
tra money. And, since they do have the checks and all the other free 
handouts, they cut the wages out from our workers. 

It is hard to tell which of the exiles is really broke because they 
hide their wealth and lie to get the checks too. For instance, on the 
25th of February of 1962 the MIAMI HERALD had this item: ''Mr. X has been 
receiving a $100 family allotment since the fall of I960. He reported on- 
ly pocket money and $216 in the bank. Actually he had $16,576-80 on de- 
posit m a Miami checking account. His wife had a savings account in five 
figures.'' Those who live with this element can tell you that this is the 
rule, not the exception. Too many are seen driving up to local markets to 
cash their checks, and driving away in Continentals, Cadillacs, Chryslers; 
and all of them new models! 



98-765 O— 63— pt. 1 14 



426 PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

The Miami press carried some further reports of exile corruption as 
citizens became indignant, but little is really done as the exiles get ev- 
erything ''fixed'' from the top. However, there is more talk of refusing 
checks to those who deliberately refuse jobs, and this is causing the la- 
bor problems anew. Those who get all that free medical care, food, cloth- 
ing, gifts, etc., can afford to work for half wages in competition with 
our workers. Unscrupulous businessmen fire our workers and replace them 
with exiles. They save on wages, combat trade unionism and fulfill the 
capitalists' dream of a well-controlled working class. Needless to say, 
friction between Americans and Cubans is at the burning point. 

Businessmen love the whole set-up, as expressed in this article from 
the September 30th MIAMI HERALD: "Employers say they (the Cubans) make 
superior workers. One employer likes Cubans because: 'He works at a min- 
imum wage, ' caxd also, 'He never talks and even eats while he works!' This 
businessman hired seven more right away. " Think of that now, he even 
works while he eats! If that businessman can only get the Refugee Center 
to send him some no eating type Cubans, he'll have it made! 

Proof that the exiles receive preferential treatment comes from an 
October l6th MIAMI HERALD article which reports: "that under the Cuban 
program more people are eligible, that they get 20% more than ordinary aid 
to Americans and about 33 1/3% more than our old age assistance. Ana. 
$2,000,000 a month is available for Cubans and only one million for the A- 
mericans, and there is always a shortage for the Americans. '' That sum 
represents only the cash, not the other benefits, and there is no short- 
age! 

There is a taxi driver in Miami who can tell you how he picks up a 
little rich girl every morning, drives her three blocks to school, and re- 
peats the trip in the afternoon. He receives a dollar each time. In be- 
tween, he takes exiles to town to collect their checks by taxi. By now 
they are well-known to each other and there is no need to tell him to park 
around the corner while he awaits their return trips. He knows it doesn't 
look good to drive up in a taxi to collect a pauper's check. 

An American gas station owner in Tampa can tell you about the exile 
who drove up in a new car one afternoon and asked him how much his mechan- 
ic was getting. Upon discovering the wage he told the owner he was for- 
merly boss of the Ford concession in HaYana and knew the job, had the 
tools (he had, all new, never used, in the trunk of the car), and would 
work for a third less if he'd be hired in the other's place. Much to his 
surprise, the gusano found himself being run off the property with the 
warning never to return even as a customer, because the owner felt that 
anyone who would do a thing like that to another man was a thief. Howct- 
er, this type of businessman is the exception; most fire Americans. 

The plight of American workers is particularly sad in Tampa, which 
is a one industry town, already suffering ''creeping'' unemployment in a 
semi- automated cigar industry. (Newer industries coming in are no help, 
as they are all fully automated.) Tampa's workers have just received the 
U. S. bonus from Punte del Este: an embargo which completely eliminates 
all their jobs. These people who never were well off will really suffer! 
Historically, this is the second time that Tampa's Cuban-American cigar 
workers have been persecuted in attempts to oppress the Cuban people. 
During the revolt against the Spaniards, Tampa's workers responded to the 
pleas of Jose Marti who lived amongst them and spoke on the steps of the 
factories. In retaliation, the Spanish ruler in Havana imposed an embar- 
go on Cuban leaf to put them out of work. Now their descendants, who on 
the whole still sympathize with the plight of the Cubans, are about to be 
supposedly finished off again. But this time, as before, tlie boss must 
learn that oppression and hardship cannot destroy an idea and he is only 
going to get his troubles back two-fold. 

It is interesting to note that m Tampa, the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee has Its only southern Chapter. This is still a large and active 
Chapter, publishing its own bi- lingual newsletter on a regular basis. A 
national television broadcast with the Governor of Florida last year had 
the Governor admitting that exiles won't move to Tampa because they con- 
sider it too ''pro-Castro''. The fact is that Tampa has easy access to 
the truth about the Cuban situation through innumerable, relatives living 
there, and Tampans can hear Cuban radio on standard broadcast. Under 
such circumstances it's difficult to deceive them with false reports. 



PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 427 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

Before last April's invasion the people of this city vigorously pro- 
tested against the action they saw building up, and many went to Cuba to 
join what they felt was a just cause. Since that invasion, many more 
have relinquished residency and citizenship in disgust with this nation. 
If ever the truth were revealed and not covered by false reports the A- 
merican people would learn that thousands of Cubans have and are still 
leaving the U. S. to go to Cuba. Even non-Cubans are taking flight to 
live in the new, free land to the south. 

These people know only too well that the U. S. is preparing another 
invasion and they have chosen their side forever. This unfortunate truth 
is something that must be learned by all our people, and quickly. 

The evidence is there and we must expose it. For instance, the 
N. Y. POST, on October 9th, printed this report out of Miami: ''Tomorrow 
IS the Cry of Yarra Day celebration for the exiles. (Cry of Yarra being 
the old call to arms against the Spaniards. ) The Cubans are beating the 
war drums again. Miro Cardona, President of the Revolutionary Council, 
will observe the occasion with announcing the reorganizing of the Council 
on a hoped potential war basis. '' On the 11th of the month there were 
denials that there were any exile military camps in the U. S., but one of 
the exiles in the Council admitted that there just might be some ''wild- 
cat camps'". It is interesting to note that there is even the possibili- 
ty of ''wildcat camps'' in violation of American law, when all know that 
none could operate here for Castro during his Revolution! Additional 
proof comes from an AP report out of N. Y. saying: "Anti-Castro Cubans 
are recruiting m N. Y., Chicago, Miami, and San Francisco for a war to 
liberate Cuba, a spokesman said Saturday night. JUAN BRAS, speaking for 
a committee which organized the rally, said the U. S. has a duty to help 
arm them. The rally speaker, JULIO GARCERAN, provisional president of an 
exile government, said: 'This is a call to war'.'' Garceran is part of 
a group competing with Cardona's Council, but you see within a few days 
of each other they are pushing the same war line. Garceran was a former- 
Supreme Court Justice, so we know his interests. _ He's being sponsored by 
PRIO SOCARRAS, another of the infamous Cubans who hopes to get some of 
the gravy Cardona is making from the U. S. However, the Council does not 
wish to cut the cake any thinner, so there's lots of in-fighting. That 
AP report was on the 30th of October, and in response to the setting up 
of this exile government in competition to Cardona, the U. S. Justice De- 
partment on the 7th sent a note to Garceran telling him it was illegal to 
have an exile government here. This was a mild protest just for the re- 
cord and made to assure Cardona's success and not have his supporters de- 
sert to a new camp. Obviously, the U. S. doesn't really oppose any of 
the counter-revolutionaries, it wants all their people held in reserve 
for the big push against Cuba. But it must make real overtures to the 
Cardona Council because it already has so many of its men committed to 
the military camps throughout Central America. 

Supporters of the opposition exile government included CONGRESSMAN 
VICTOR ANFUSO, D-Brooklyn. Anfuso went to Miami as the guest of Prio So- 
carras to address a rally at the formation of the exile government. On 
September 15th, the MIAMI HERALD quoted Anfuso as saying he had met with 
RUSK, ''and gathered that the U. S. government 'would like to see a gov- 
ernment- m- exile, but would not want to take an official position; they ^ 
want the Cuban people to form an exile government without interference. 
He added that he believed a second military movement would soon be 
launched against Cuba. '' It was quite a rally in Miami, about 6,000 
gathered on September 17th to hear Anfuso praise the exiles, the exiles 
praise him back again and there mingling in the crowd, two of the main 
instigators of the rally were warmed to the cockles of their hearts. 
Which two? GENERAL MANUEL BENITEZ and RAFAEL DIAZ-BALART! Remember Ba- 
lart, he's the head of the White Rose Society! There were more, too many 
more ! 

Let's settle the issue about a more ''Liberal'' counter-revolution- 
ary group. It's been spread around that one MANUEL RAY is no Batista 
man. It's entirely possible that he wasn't tied in with the dictator be- 
fore, but if his claims are true, his acts now make him little better. 
He's put up to be the number one sabotage man in Cuba now. You know, 
those bombs that have been going off in theatres, department stores, 
streets, and let's not forget the one in the school child's desk. Rela- 



428 PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

tives of innocent Cubans who have been murdered and maimed might be able 
to tell you a little bit about this kind of liberalism. Strangely e- 
nough^ the American Social-Democrats spoke well of his sabotage efforts, 
so either they have been well-conned or are a pretty miserable bunch; you 
choose. Proof that Ray is just another one of those gusanos is given by 
U. S. NEWS, which found no aversion to his shade of ''liberalism''. They 
said: "In November (I960) however, from his secret hiding place in Ha- 
vana Ray issued a manifesto that attacks Castro's ties to the Communists. 
It called for restoration of democratic freedom, return to free enter- 
prise and the restitution of property seized by Castro. '' That ''resti- 
tution'' amounts to exactly tne same policy as Cardona's Council and an- 
other try at subjecting the Cuban peasants to U. S. imperialism. Rather 
''liberal'' with Cuban property rights is about all there is to Manuel 
Ray. He's among the missing these days and it is assumed that either he 
fell out of the graces of the CIA completely (that could be dangerous) or 
he got off his high horse and joined GENEFIAL PEDRAZA's Batista army down 
m Guatemala (that will be fatal). 

He hasn't been seen around Florida recently, but neither he or the 
other exiles will ever be missed down there. Flondians have had enough 
of them all and their rotten ways. Our people have been shot, stabbed, 
beated and bombed by this mercenary army of the CIA. Yes, there really 
is subversion in the U. S., plenty of it, and it's being financed and di- 
rected by the U. S. CIA. There is a foreign army operating on U. S. 
soil, and they are attacking Americans with immunity, not only in Florida 
but throughout the nation. In Hoboken, N. J., an American girl received 
shards of broken glass in the eyes when a Molotov cocktail was thrown 
through an office window. In N. Y. C. there have been innumerable cases 
of beatings and other violence against those who have opposed the exile- 
program. In Los Angeles exiles attacked a FPCC rally and had to be for- 
cibly driven away from the speakers' platform which they tried to attack 
with black-jacks, chains and tire irons. Continuing the fight outside, 
one of the exiles shot at a detective and at that point arrests were 
made. It was obvious that police needed protection even if Fair Players 
didn't. In Miami the home of an American woman called pro-Castro was de- 
molished by bombs: this in response to her refusing to move and buying 
iron window shutters to stop the rifle, pistol and machinegun bullets. 
In the heart of Miami's business district a restaurant was bombed repeat- 
edly until the owner was forced to sell out. So was a nearby barber 
shop. At the latter, the bombers were caught in the act in oroad day- 
light by unknowing passers-by and held for the police. With Federal rep- 
resentatives at the court, they were released for ''lack of evidence''. 

As for Freedom of the Press, imported Cuban periodicals have been 
vandalized, their distributors attacked (one shot in the neck), and the 
readers' homes bombed. The only time arrests are made is when the victim 
gets caught resisting. Southern justice strikes white as well as black 
and it really pleases southern police to witness this imported style of 
Klan activity. There have been pseudo-raids on homes in Florida in which 
police, FBI and gusanos all shared. Many of the exiles carry ID cards 
which explain them as some sort of Federal helper boys, and occasionally 
they try to pass themselves off as full-fledged FBI men. 

Tampa, considered pro-Castro, was thought to be such a prize that 
the exiles made repeated forays and committed all kinds of violence in an 
attempt to drive Fidelistas under. Once there were two different Cuban- 
American clubs just a few doors apart. Both were repeatedly attacked and 
reopened time and again after repairing damages. At first, attacks were 
made while people were in the clubs and men and children had been beaten, 
slashed with razors and shot at. Later, some of the attackers were 
caught and dealt with by the members, and that ceased. Finally, they 
spent half an hour one early morning completely demolishing both offices, 
down to rebreaking the broken pieces of furniture and knocking out com- 
pletely door and window frames. 

Tampa's FPCC became active just about the time these Clubs were 
forced to disband and attempts were made to intimidate the Chapter per- 
sonnel. However, it had no office to lose and by this time people had 
learned how to protect themselves against this sort of violence and the 
attackers were satisfactorily discouraged from repeating these acts. 

mere is a force operating within the U. S. which is coftposed of 
foreign mercenaries, and this force is being used to attack Qiba and to 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 429 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

try to silence anyone here vA\o might effectively protest this illei?al and 
inrnoral act. Tliat it is led, sponsored and financed by the U. S. is be- 
yond any shadow of a doubt. Hie CIA has created a subversive army! 

Evidence is again piling up for another invasion of Cuba. In view 
of the critical international situation, this threatens the world with 
nuclear holocaust. This war policy of the U. S, can be attributed to 
men totally blinded by greed and vindic t iveness . They pose Americans not 
with the question of whether or not they agree about Cuba, but whether 
they wish to see their nation go further fascist and whether they wish to 
be destroyed in horrible nuclear war. 

The conference at Punte del Este was set up to bring U. S. military 
intervention to Cuba and since the conference failed in this, the U. S. 
is forced to resort to its underhand counter-revolutionary army. Today 
the forces in the off-shore training camps and bases have doubled. The 
U. S. IS still working with the old Batista forces to make a Cuban war. 
As recently as February 27th the MIAMI HERALD ran an article about at- 
tempts to relocate a few exiles in a rather unwelcome Cleveland. One of 
the exile leaders interviewed express their attitude thusly: said DR. 
OSVALDO SOTO, a member of the Cuban Revolutionary Council: ' 'Personally 
I'm. against resettlement .. .our problem is to go back and. free our country 
as soon as possible. We are trying to get any kind of help to go and 
fight Castro. Resettlement makes it hard to do that. '' Also, the press 
has reported speeches by one GUTURREZ MENOYA reporting on guerrilla 
fighting in Cuba. He is reported as touring with top (Cuban) officials 
to Cuban colonies in U. S. cities to obtain contributions to buy arms and 
supplies. He said they were highly pleased with support received. On 
January 1st the AP reported Cardona asking for joint military action a- 
gainst Cuba. The TAMPA TIMES on February 6, 1962 reported a rally held 
by the Student Directorate to solicit funds to make war on Cuba. It 
said: ''Cuban students m exile want some $20,000 'to supply the under- 
ground in Cuba with fighting equipment'. Speakers included two members 
of the DRE executive council m Miami— LUIS ROCHA and LUIS OflltMEZ. " 
In September the BALTIMORE SUN announced "a planning commission oj the 
F. R. D. which called for the U. S. to gii;e m billion to put the Cuban 
economy on its feet after they took over. '' This 25 man commission in- 
cludes ''liberals'' of the stripe of PEDRO MARTINEZ FRAGA, Chairman and 
former ambassador to the U. S.; JOSE ALVEREZ DIAZ, former minister of the 
treasury; ERNESTO FREYRE, a lawyer whose firm represen'ted a number of A- 
merican businesses; and SAMUEL GIBERGA, former Cuban Congressman. 

Final proof of U. S. ties and intentions come in U. S. press quotes 
on the case of COLONEL MARIANO FACET. WASHINGTON POST, October 23rd: 
''The Justice Department confirmed yesterday that Mariano taget, former 
Batista official, is assisting U. S. Immigration Service in screening at 
Miami. 'He never questions alone. There is always an American Immigra- 
tion Officer present, ' a spokesman said. 'His purpose is to keep out any 
Castro agents. ' Paget formerly served as Director of Repression of Com- 
munist Activities. A source of complaint against Faget has been exile 
Cubans who say he spends more time questioning those who may have fought 
Batista than anyone else.'' N. Y. POST, October 26th: ''Faget left Cuba 
on December 31, 1958, the same day as Batista. A Washington spokesman 
for Immigration says there is no reason to remove Faget. 'We have known 
this man for years, ' he saia. 'We are thoroughly aware of his entire 
background and there is nothing in it which would have made us stop his 
working for us in this fashion. He is an ex-police official who spent 20 
years working with Batista governments ' . '' The day before the N. Y. 
TIMES reported the White House as saying through Salinger: ''the problem 
of Colonel Faget is not a White House problem and the mite House has 
nothing to do with it. '' Final settlement of the issue came in the N. Y. 
TIMES report of November 27th, stating that ''the creation of a special 
committee of anti-Castro leaders to help screen security risks among Cu- 
ban refugees was disclosed today by the .Justice Department. '' Also, that 
the department had received protest's over Faeet but olanned to keen him 
and that policy. It also announced: ' 'Cooper at ive evaluating by anti- 
Castro organizations of Cubans seeking refuge will continue as standard 
policy. 



430 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lee Exhibit No. 7— Continued 

So many ''liberals'' have been heard from that it would be best to 
conclude the press quotations with one from the ''liberal'' to end all 
•'liberals'', KENNEDY, In his April 20th speech after the invasion last 
year he lauded the ''freedom fighters of Playa Giron'', and gave special 
praise to the commander who sent the ''I will never leave this beach'' 
message for the publicity gang. (It's true, he never did leave the 
beach, he was captured.) Who and what kind of a man was the so-called 
freedom fighter so dear to the ''liberal'' Kennedy? His name is ROBERTO 
SAN ROMAN, he was a Brigidier General in this invasion. This was a big 
jump in rank; this ''liberal'* brother of Kennedy was just a Captain in 
the armies of Batista when he fought against Castro in the mountains be- 
fore! *" 

It has been shown that the U. S. has allied itself with the worst el- 
ements of fascism to attempt the conquering of Cuba. These elements are 
doubly illegal in that they are used against Americans as well as Cubans. 
Americans must resist this subversion against themselves, and for the sake 
of peace for all humanity, fight for HW6 (*F OBM ! ! 



FAIR PLAY FOR CUBA COMMITTEE 
799 Broadway, New York 3, New York 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Page 

Ada"ms, Arthur Alexandrovich 295 

Albizu Campos, Laura (Mrs. Pedro Albizu Campos) 317 

Albizu Campos, Pedro 317 

Alekseyeva, Nina 363 

Allen, Charles R., Jr 301 

Alverez Diaz, Jose 429 

Amster, Louis J 293, 294 

Amster, Mrs. Louis J. {See del Villar, Melitta.) 

Anfuso, Victor 427 

Apolloni, Rose 295 

Aronson, James 314, 318 

Atkins, Joseph 314 

Austin, Bayard 313 

B 

Baker, Michael 314 

Baldwin, James 319 

Baran, Paul A 314, 326 

Barr, Stringfellow 314 

Batista y Zaldivar Fulgencio 254, 420-423, 425, 427, 429 

Belfrage, Cedric (Henning) 318, 329, 330 

Benitez, Manuel 427 

Bentlev, Elizabeth Terrill 318, 329, 330 

Blauvelt, Mildred 295 

Blumberg, Albert Emanuel 313-315 

Blumberg, Warren P 288 

Bodde, Derk 314 

Botifoll, Louis 422 

Braden, Anne (Mrs. Carl Braden) 316 

Braden, Carl 314-316 

Brana, Manuel 422 

Bras, Juan 427 

Budenz, Louis Francis 295 



Campos, Laura Albizu (Mrs. Pedro Campos). {See Albizu Campos, 

Laura.) 
Campos, Pedro Albizu. {See Albizu Campos, Pedro.) 
Cardona, Jose Miro. {See Miro Cardona, Jose.) 

Carrillo Hernandez, Justo 422 

Castro, Fidel 224, 229, 230, 236, 237, 248, 325-329 , 

346, 347, 367, 404, 411, 41i5, 415-418, 420, 424, 425, 427-430 

Charbnau, Harald 314 

Cochran, Bert 314 

CofiFelt, Leslie 317 

Cro wder, Richard 306 

Cypin, Jack 314 

D 

Davis, Ossie , 319 

Day, Dorothy 314,319 

Dee, Ruby 319 

Dellinger, David (Dave) 314,319 

del Villar, Melitta (Mrs. Louis Amster) 227, 

228, 292-295, 299, 302, 310, 322 



n INDEX 

Page 
Diaz, Jose Alverez. (See Alverez Diaz, Jose.) 

Diaz-Balart, Rafael 422, 427 

Dobbs, Farrell 314 

Draper, Theodore 325 

DuBois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) 314 

F 

Eby, Kermit 313 

Elman, Richard M 230, 346, 347 

F 

Faget, Mariano 429 

Faulkner, Stanley 341 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley 317 

Forer, Joseph 239, 358 

Foster, William Z 317 

Fraga, Pedro Martinez. {See Martinez Fraga, Pedro.) 

Frank, Waldo 421 

Freyre, Ernesto 429 

Fritchman, Stephen H 352, 353 

Frondizi, Arturo 422 

G 

Gaillard, Albert 256 

Garceran, Julio 427 

Gardner, Glen 314 

Giberga, Samuel 429 

Gibson, Richard 262 

Gluck, Sidney J 227, 294, 295, 302 

Goldberg, Sid 347, 348 

Gonzales, Manuel Pedro 326 

Gordon, Jesse 311 

Guevara, Ernesto "Che" 229, 230, 326-328, 346, 347 

Gutierrez, Luis 429 

H 

Hadly, Walter 424 

Hansberry, Lorraine 319 

Heiskell, Andrew 421 

Hernandez, Justo Carrillo. (See Carrillo Hernandez, Justo.) 

Hickey, Edward J 280 

Hirsch, Walter. (See Jerome, Fred.) 

Huberman, Leo 229, 321-330 (testimony) 

Humboldt, Charles .- 262 

I 

Innerst, J. Stuart 314 

Izaguirre Rivas, Alfredo 422 

J 

Jackson, Melvin 425 

Jagan, Cheddi 322 

Jerome, Fred (alias Walter Hirsch) 223,224,239-257 (testimony), 297 

Jerome, Victor Jeremy -_ 223, 240 

Johnson, Azalena 228,306,320 

Johnson, Russell 314 

Jones, Leroi 302 

K 

Kennedy (John F.) 318, 319, 412, 424, 430 

Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich 236 

Kuchilan, Mario 42 1 

L 

Lamont, Corliss 310 

Landis, Gary , 300 

Laub, Levi Lee 234, 356, 370, 382, 384, 390, 407 



INDEX m 

Page 

Lee, Vincent Theodore 230, 231, 234, 

266, 267, 269, 270, 341-357 (testimony), 365, 366, 383, 406, 418 

Lens, Sidney 313 

Lewis, Albert Jorgenson 266, 269, 270 

Lockhart, Charles A 425 

London, Ephraim 258, 321 

Lotto, Jack 253 

Loud, Oliver 314 

Lynn, Conrad Joseph 228, 229, 304-320 (testimony), 364 

M 

Mallory, May 306 

Mang, John A 376 

Marti, Jose 421, 426 

Martinez, Elizabeth Sutherland. {See Sutherland, Elizabeth.) 

Martinez Fraga, Pedro 429 

Martinot, Stefan (Steve).. 232-234, 356, 357, 368, 369, 371, 373-410 (testimony) 

Masferrar, Roland 423, 424 

May, Sybil H 322 

Mayer, C. H 314 

Mayer, Milton 313 

McAvoy, Clifford T 314, 315 

McCloskev 283, 298 

McCone, John . 237, 398 

McLaurin, Benjamin 314 

McLucas, Leroy i. 225-227, 268-270, 272-292, 297-301, 307, 309 

McManus, John T 313 

McNamara, Francis J 348 

McReynolds, David 314 

Mc Williams, Carey 322 

Menoya, Guturrez 429 

Miller, Louis 227, 295, 296, 302 

Miro Cardona, Jose 420-423, 427-429 

Morray, Joseph Parker 229, 265, 269, 270, 307, 325-327, 329 

Moyer , Larry 302 

Muste, A. J J 313 

N 
Neumann, William 314 

Nixon, Russell Arthur (Russ) 314, 315, 318 

North, Joseph 266, 269, 270,325 

O 

O'Connor, Harvey 314 

O'Connor, James 267-270, 296 

P 

Page, Bryan 423,424 

Pauling, Linus (Carl) 319 

Pauling, Mrs. Linus 319 

Pedraza (Eulogio) 428 

Pedro Gonzales, Manuel. (See Gonzales, Manuel Pedro.) 

Q 

Quinn, Gerald Manuel 228, 307, 320 

R 

Ray, Manuel 427, 428 

Reape, Harold 306 

Reeves, Garth- 425 

Reeves, Nancy 326 

Ribicoff, (Abraham A.) 423 

Rivas, Alfredo Izaguirre. (See Izaguirre Rivas, Alfredo.) 

Rocha, Luis 429 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Rodney, Lester 314 

Roman, Roberto San. (See San Roman, Roberto.) 

Rosen, Jacob 224, 249, 254-256 

Rosen, Milton 233, 234, 385-387, 399, 406 

Rosenthal, Irving 26 1 

Rusk (Dean) 427 

Russell, Louis J : 347,348 

S 

San Roman, Roberto 430 

Scheer, Mortimer 233, 234, 386, 387, 399, 406 

Schleifer, Mark David 306 

Schlosser, Anatol Isaac 231, 232, 356, 357, 358-373 (testimony), 388 

Schulman, Howard 2^1, 302 

Shanks, Hershel 33 1 

Shapiro, David 304 

Shaw, Edward Walter (Ed).. 229, 230, 264, 265, 269, 270, 331-339 (testimony) 

Shaw, Rita (Mrs. Edward Walter Shaw) 325 

Sibley, Mulford 313 

Simon, John J 302 

Smathers (George A.) 423, 424 

Socarras, Prio 427 

Soblen, Robert A 228, 301,'3O2 

Soto, Osvaldo - 429 

Speiser, Lawrence 373 

Spellman, A 286 

Starobin, Joseph 314, 315 

Sutherland, Elizabeth (born Elizabeth Sutherland Martinez) 225-227, 

257, 258-304 (testimony) 
Sweezy, Paul M 322, 325-328 

T 

Todd, Carlos 422 

Tower (John G.) 424 

Travis, Helen (Mrs. Robert C. Travis) 231, 306, 353 

Truman, Harry S 236, 317 

V 
Ventura, Esteban 423, 424 

W 

White, Lincoln 283,298 

Wilkerson, Doxey A ~i 313-315 

WUliams, Robert F 228, 306-308, 320, 338, 424 

Williams, William Appleman 325 

Wise, Marshall 424,425 

Wolland, Beth 306 

Worthy, William 319 

Z 
Zayas, Jorge 421,422 

ORGANIZATIONS 



Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba {see also Permanent Student 

Committee for Travel to Cuba) 232, 

233, 256, 257, 360, 362, 365-372, 377, 379, 380, 383, 387, 390, 

391, 396, 399, 404, 405, 408. 

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 331, 373 

American Forum For Sociahst Education 312-313, 318, 319 

B 
B'nai B'rith, Anti-Defamation League 319 



INDEX V 

C 

Pag© 

Christian Democratic Movement, The _. 422 

City College of the City of New York (CCNY)_. 240, 253, 256, 371, 388, 390, 395 
Columbia Progressive Labor Student Club. {See entry under Progressive 
Labor (movement).) 

Columbia University (New York City) 233, 

234, 356, 371, 374, 375, 384, 388, 390, 391, 395, 398, 400-403 

School of General Studies 356 

Committee for Disarmament 356 

Communist Party, Cuba 237 

Communist Party of the United States of America 237 

National Committee 314, 317, 386 

National Conventions and Conferences: 

Seventeenth Convention, December 10-13, 1959, New York 

City 386 

States and Territories: 

New York State 386 

Erie County , 386 

Cuban- American Civil Rights Committee 353 

Cuban Writers and Artists Congress. {See National Congress of Cuban 
Writers and Artists.) 

E 

Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of American, United 319 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 228, 315, 316, 314 

F 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC) - 225, 

229-231, 234, 261-264, 270-272, 289, 291, 301, 335-339, 349-353, 
355, 356, 364, 365, 383, 407, 411-430. 

Greater Los Angeles Chapter 231, 266, 352 

New York chapter 266, 352, 419 

South Side (Chicago) chapter 336 

Tampa Bay (Fla.) chapter 352, 353, 419, 426, 428 

Federation of University Students of Cuba (Havana, Cuba) 234, 

366, 367, 371, 388, 393, 408, 409 

First Unitarian Church (Los Angeles). {See Unitarian Church, First) 

Friends of British Guiana 322, 323 

H 
Harlem Anti-Colonial Committee 319 

I 

Inter- American Press Association, Freedom of the Press Committee for the 

Caribbean Area 421 

International Union of Students (lUS) {see also World Youth Festivals)-. 250 

L 

Labor Youth League 224, 248, 249 

Lower East Side Press Committee 243, 248 

M 

May 30 Movement, The 422 

Medical Aid to Cuba Committee 227, 268, 292-297, 301, 353 

Los Angeles 353 

Monroe Defense Committee 307 

Monthly Review, Inc 322 

Monthly Review Associates 322, 326 

Monthly Review Press 229, 325 

N 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 228 

National Congress of Cuban Writers and Artists, First Congress, August 

18-23, 1961 (Havana, Cuba) 225,261-264,268-271,297 

Nationalist Party, Puerto Rico. {See Puerto Rican Nationalist Party.) 



VI INDEX 

Page 
New York Bar Association 361 

New York University (New York Citv) 356, 358, 359, 367, 371, 388, 390, 395 

Socialist Club 354, 355 

North American Newspaper Alliance, Inc 230, 231, 345-348 

November 30 Movement, The 422 

P 
Pacifica Foundation 346 

People's Progressive Party of British Guiana 322 

People's Revolutionary Movement, The .. 422 

Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba (see also Ad Hoc Student 

Committee for Travel to Cuba) 232-234, 357, 369-372, 377, 399, 405-408 

Progressive Labor (movement) 233, 384. 386-388, 397, 398, 400 

Columbia Progressive Labor Student Club 233, 384, 398, 400, 402, 403 

Puerto Rican Nationalist Party 317 

R 

Radio Free Dixie (radio broadcasts from Havana) 308 

Retail Drug and Hospital Workers, Local 1199 (New York). (See entry 

under Retail, Wholesale, and Department Store Union, AFL-CIO). 
Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union, AFL^CIO 

Retail Drug and Hospital Workers, Local 1199 (New Itork) 384 

Revolutionary Recovery Movement 422 

S 

San Francisco State College (San Francisco, Calif.) 390 

Simon and Schuster, Inc. (New York Citv) 225, 

226, 258, 259, 261, 273, 275, 276, 278, 279, 281-283, 298 

Socialist Workers Partv 333, 338 

Stanford University (Stanford, Calif) • 390 

Student Directorate, The 422 

Switzerland, Government of: 
Embassies: 

Havana, Cuba 223. 227, 286-289, 300 

T 
Triple A Independent, The 422 

U 

Unitarian Church, First (Los Angeles) 352 

Unitarian Church (Tampa, Fla.) 353 

U.S. Government: 
Senate, U.S.: 

Internal Security Subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee. 
(Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the 

Internal Securitv Act and Other Internal Securitv Lavs) 351 

State Department 227, 245, 288, 300, 368 

Passport Division 274, 

276, 278, 280-286, 298, 299, 344-346, 376 

Subversive Activities Control Board 224, 249 

University of Buffalo (Buffalo, N. Y.) 371, 388, 290 

University of California (Berkeley) 390 

University of California (Los Angeles) (UCLA) 353, 354 

University of Kansas (La'WTence, Kans.) 338 

University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, Mich.) 339 

University of North Carolina 371, 388, 390 

University of Wisconsin (Madison, Wis.) 371, 388, 390 

W 

Wayne State University (Detroit, Mich.) 339 

WBAI— FM (radib station) (New York City) 230, 345-347 

West Side Committee for Friendly Relations with Cuba 308-311 

White Rose Society 422 

Workers Front, The ... . . . 422 



INDEX VII 

Page 
World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY) 250 

World Youth Festivals: 

Fifth Youth Festival, July 31-August 14, 1955, Warsaw, Poland 224, 

250-253 

International Preparatory Committee 252 

Sixth Youth Festival, July 28- August 11, 1957, Moscow, Russia 253, 

255-257 
U.S. Youth Festival Committee 224, 253, 256 

Y 

Yale University (New Haven, Conn.) 353 

Young Communist League, USA 228, 311 

Young Socialist Alliance 402 

University of California (UCLA) (Los Angeles) chapter 353 

PUBLICATIONS 

A 
Anatomy of a Revolution (Huberman) 329 

B 
Baltimore Afro-American 319 

C 
Campus 240 

Christian Science Monitor 367 

Columbia OWL (publication of the School of General Studies, Columbia 

University) 356 

Columbia Spectator (Columbia University) 384, 400, 403 

F 
Film Quarterly 225, 260, 261 

H 
Harvard Crimson (Harvard University) 388 

L 
Louisville (Ky.) Courier Journal 315 

M 
Monthly Review 229, 322, 326, 32 9 

N 

Nation, The 311 

National Guardian 314, 317, 318 

New Horizons for Youth 297 

New Times 366 

P 
Progressive Labor (monthly magazine) 387 

S 
Second Revolution in Cuba, The (Morray) 229, 325, 326, 330 

U 
United States, Cuba, and Castro, The (Williams) 325 

o 



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