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Full text of "Violations of State Department regulations and pro-Castro propaganda activities in the United States. Hearings"

HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



// 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS 

AND PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES 

IN THE UNITED STATES 

PART 2 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



JULY 1 AND 2 AND AUGUST 5, 1963 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee ou Un-American Activities 



'.'AR'/ArD COLLEGE ini.MlY 
DEPOSITED DY the 
t'N/TED STATES GOVERNMENT 
DEC ij J963 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
98-766 WASHINGTON : 1963 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN. Michigan 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

GEORGE P. SENNER, Jb., Arizona JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., General Counsel 

Alfred M. Nittlk, Counsel 



CONTENTS 



Pa^e 

Synopsis 431 

July 1, 1963, (Los Angeles, Calif.): Testimony of — 

Helen Travis. 446 

Rose Schorr Rosenberg 447 

Afternoon session: 

Robert Eugene Randolph 465 

Valeda Bryant Randolph 479 

George Waegell 488 

Joseph Abram Shapiro 497 

Jon Joseph Read 500 

Karl Vladimer Weichinger 505 

Jovita Lopez Weichinger 509 

July 2, 1963, (Los Angeles, Calif.): Testimony of — 

Irene Paull 512 

Jean Estelle Kidwell Pestana -- 525 

Frank Simplicio Pestana 527 

John Allen Johnson 527 

Margaret Frances Evelyn Willard Johnson 534 

Afternoon session: 

Frank Simplicio Pestana (resumed) 538 

Jean Estelle Kidwell Pestana (resumed) 539 

Harriett Buhai - 541 

August 5, 1963, (Washington, D.C.): Testimony of — 

Jean Estelle Kidwell Pestana (resumed) 562 

Frank Simplicio Pestana (resumed) 574 

Joseph North 585 

Index i 

in 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946]; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDINO COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

***** * 

(q)(\) Committee on Un- American Activities. 

(A) Un-American acti\ ities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time invest iiiations of (!) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-Aiuerican proi)a"anda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion williiii llie United States of sub\ersi\e and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from forei-n countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as uuaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial leuislntion. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, totiether with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investi ation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcomnuttee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the Uiu'ted States, wlietiier or not the House is sitting, 
has rece'ssed, or has afljourned, to hold s\u-h liearin.'S, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the prodiution of such l;oo' s, i)a})ers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deeu's necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the sianature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member desitnaled by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANiilvjG COMMITTEES 

Sec 136. To assist the Congress in appraisin.; the administration of the laws 
and in develoijiu" such amendmenls or related le islation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulues.'* of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, tlie subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such cotimiittee; and, lor that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Con. res? by the aL;encies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE SSTH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 9, 1963 
• «*«*** 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

* * * it: * It: :lf 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 
******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activitie.^, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-.American propaganda acti\ities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American |)rop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to tlie House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together vrith such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is autliorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to lold such hearings, to recuire the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such boo';s, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities con- 
vened in Los Angeles, California, on July 1, 1963, for 2 days of pub- 
lic hearings relating to (1) unlawful travel to Cuba by U.S. citizens 
and (2) the dissemination of pro-Castro propaganda by some of 
these persons after their return to this country. These hearings were 
a continuation of a series of public inquiries on these subjects begun 
by the subcommittee in Washington, D.C., on May 6, 1963. 

The purpose of the hearings was to gather information that would 
aid Congress in determining whether there is a need for legislative 
action to strengthen the travel control and foreign agent registration 
provisions of existing legislation. 

The first scheduled witness on July 1 was Mrs. Helen Travis. Be- 
fore she was sworn in, however, her attorney moved that the subpena 
served upon her by the committee on June 19 be withdrawn because 
on June 26, 1963, Mrs. Travis had been indicted by the U.S. District 
Court in Southern California on two counts of making trips to Cuba 
by way of Mexico without a proper passport, in violation of regula- 
tions issued under the immigration laws (sec. 1185(b), Title 8, U.S. 
Code). 

The subcommittee acted favorably on the motion, and Mrs. Travis 
was excused as a witness. 

The first sworn witness before the subcommittee on July 1 was Mrs. 
Rose Schorr Rosenberg, an attorney with offices in Los Angeles. On 
January 24, 1952, former Communist Party member, A. Marburg 
Yerkes, in testimony before this committee, stated that Mrs. Rosen- 
berg had been known by him in the late forties to be a member of 
the professional unit of the Communist Party in Los Angeles. Mrs. 
Rosenberg cited the fifth amendment, among other reasons, in refus- 
ing to tell the subcommittee if Mr. Yerkes' testimony about her had 
been correct. 

According to the committee's preliminary investigation, Mrs. Rosen- 
berg, on January 28, 1960, applied for and obtained renewal of a 
U.S. passport which had been issued her many years earlier. In her 
application for renewal, she listed Denmark, Sweden, England, 
France, Italy, and Israel as countries she planned to visit over a 
period of approximately 2 years. 

Mrs. Rosenberg refused on numerous grounds, including the fifth 
amendment, to say whether the renewed passport was still in her 
possession. 

She refused on the same grounds to confirm or deny the commit- 
tee's information that in April and May of 1962, in the company of 
another Los Angeles attorney, Jean Kidwell Pestana, she had visited 
Cuba without first obtaining special passport validation to do so, 
as had been required by the State Department since January 16, 
1961. Mrs. Rosenberg likewise declined to confirm or deny that, 

431 



432 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACnVITIES IN U.S. 

as advertised in the People's World of June 2, 1962, and the National 
Guardian of June 4, 1962, she and Mrs. Pestana had shown slides 
and talked about their trip to Cuba at a meeting sponsored by the 
Los Angeles Committee for Medical Aid to Cuba on June 6, 1962. 
Mrs. Rosenberg declined to tell the subcommittee what disposition had 
been made of the reported $1 "donated" by each of the estimated 
200 persons who attended the event. 

Mrs. Rosenberg also invoked the fifth amendment and other reasons 
for refusing to say whether she had understood the Medical Aid to 
Cuba Committee to be a Comm.unist-created and -controlled enter- 
prise; whether she was a member of the Greater Los Angeles Chapter 
of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee; whether she held member- 
ship in the Women Strike for Peace and the National Lawyers Guild; 
whether she had been a member of the Communist Party and had, upon 
return to the U.S. from Cuba in 1962, engaged in pro-Cuban speak- 
ing activities while under the discipline of the Communist Party. 

The next witness was Robert Eugene Randolph, holder of a 
master's degree in economics from the University of California and 
a resident of Sacramento, Calif. 

Mr. Randolph cited the fifth amendment and other reasons in 
declining to confirm or deny the committee's information that in 
the forties he had belonged to the American Youth for Democracy, 
successor organization to the Young Communist League, and in 
the fifties to the Labor Youth League, officially cited by Federal 
authorities as a Communist organization. 

Mr. Randolph declined for the reasons cited above to answer nearly 
all questions put (o him by the subcommittee. 

Thus, he neither confirmed nor denied tlie committee's information 
that on January 6, 1961, he applied for and received a U.S. passport; 
that, in his application for the passport, he had informed the State 
Department he intended to take a pleasure trip to England, France, 
and Sweden ; that he attended the Mexican Peace Conference in 
Mexico City from March 5 to INIarch 8, 1961 ; that, without having 
obtained State Department validation of his passport for travel 
to Cuba, he and his wife, Valeda Bryant Randolph, departed from 
Mexico on March 13, 1961, for a visit to Cuba as guests of the Com- 
munist Cuban Government. 

The witness continued to refuse, citing the reasons previously 
stated, to reply affirmatively or negatively when queried by the sub- 
committee's counsel about his activities after his return from Cuba in 
1961. According to information uncovered by a preliminary investi- 
gation, JNIr. Randolpli delivered an "eyeAvitness" report on Cuba and 
Latin America at a meeting held in Oakland, Calif., on May 19, 
1961, and told his audience that he had been in Cuba from March 13 
until April 3 of that year. The chairman of the May 19 meeting 
was Paul Heide, identified as a member of the Communist Party 
in testimony given before this committee in 1953. Mr. Randolph also 
declined to tell the subcommittee wiiether he knew Mr. Heide to be 
a Communist Party member. 

Mr. Randolph declined to state whether he and his wife had 
appeared at the Palo Alto Unitarian Church on May 28, 1961, and 
given a color-slide talk on Cuba, as announced in'^the Palo Alto 
Times of May 21, 1961; whether the Fair Play for Cuba Committee 
had made arrangements for this meeting and whether he belonged to 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 433 

the Bay Area Fair Play for Cuba Committee; whether, under his 
own by-Ihie, he had written a pro-Castro article which appeared 
in the June I'JGl issue of The liberal «Je7??.ot-m^ magazine; whether 
he had received any compensation, directly or indirectly, from the 
Cuban (Jo\ernment witli the understanding he would participate in 
activities supporting the Connnunist regime of Cuba; whether he had 
registered with the Attorney General under the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act; whether, in the sunmier of 19G2, he had attended 
both the Connnunist-staged World Peace Congress in Moscow and 
the Communist-sponsored Eighth World Conference Against Atomic 
and Hydrogen Bombs and for Prevention of Nuclear War in Tolvyo, 
Japan; and whether he had told the Conference in Japan that he 
was opposed to the stationing of U.S. troops in any foreign country. 

The next witness on July 1 was Mr. Randolph's wife, Valeda 
Bryant Kaiulolph. 

Mrs. Kandolph was asked questions similar to those put to her 
husband, and she proved to be equally uncooperative in her responses. 
She invoked the lifth amendment and other reasons for refusing 
to conlirm or deny that she had been issued U.S. passport No. B- 
094577 on January 9, 19G1, and, without passport validation for such 
travel, had g(jne to Cuba on March lo, 19G1, as a guest of the Cuban 
Government. Mrs. Randolph declined to say if there had been any 
agreement between her and representatives of the Cuban Govern- 
ment to the effect that, in exchange for her privileged treatment in 
Cuba, she would return to the United States and engage in activ- 
ities to influence the American public on matters of interest to the 
Connnunist regime in Cuba. 

The witness refused, on the previously specified grounds, to say 
if, uj)on her return to the U.S., she had delivered a series of talks 
on Cuba, including five in California within a 48-hour period in 
May 19G1. 

Mrs. Randolph also invoked the fifth amendment and other rea- 
sons for declining to respond when asked if she had received 
compensation from the Fair Play for Cuba Committee or any 
political party, group, or person associated with any foreign interest. 
She also declined to say whether she belonged to the Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee; whether she had been a member of the Communist 
Party on October 7, 1950, when she entertained at a rally for the Cali- 
fornia Labor School, a Federally-cited Communist institution; and 
whether she was then, at the time of the hearing, a member of the 
Communist Party. 

George Waegell of Elk Grove, Calif., was also questioned by the 
subcommittee at its public session in Los Angeles on the morning of 
July 1, 19G3. In 1951, Mr. Waegell was convicted and sentenced to 
prison for failure to comply with Selective Service regulations. 

Mr. Waegell invoked a number of reasons, including the fifth 
amendment, for refusing to respond to questions pertaining to 
committee information that, without possession of a U.S. passport, he 
had entered Mexico in early March 19G1; had applied at the Cuban 
consulate in Mexico for a visa to Cuba, which was issued after a 
3-week delay; had entered Cuba, where he was jailed for a short 
period and then released; and had attended, as a U.S. delegate, a 
conference of the Communist-controlled International Union of 



434 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Students (lUS) at Havana in late May and early June 1961. He 
also declined to tell the subcommittee wlietlier he was present at those 
sessions of the conference when delegates, according to a dispatch by 
the Soviet news agency Tass, unanimously passed a resolution of sup- 
port for a proposal to set up an international students brigade to light 
any "aggression" against Cuba and when, according to Pekuig radio, 
they passed a resolution condemning U.S. "imperialism against 
Cuba." He further declined to say whether he would be willing to 
light for Cuba. 

The witness continued to invoke the fifth amendment, among other 
reasons, when asked if he had returned to the U.S. from Cuba in 
July 1961 and displayed colored slides and talked on the subject of 
Cuba early in 1962 in California at an affair sponsored by a student 
Fair Play for Cuba group, 

Joseph Abram Shapiro of Fairfax, Calif., a University of Califor- 
nia student, also appeared before the subcommittee on July 1. 

According to the committee's investigation, Mr. Shapiro applied for 
a U.S. passport at San Francisco on March 28, 1961, for the alleged 
purpose of taking a 2-month trip to Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, 
and other Latin and Central American countries, beginning about 
July 1, 1961. Passport No. B-U65(J57, bearing no endorsement for 
travel to Cuba, was issued to Mr. Shapiro on March 29, 1961. On 
September 1, 1961, Mr. Shapiro flew from Mexico City to Cuba on 
Cubana Airlines flight No. 465. He invoked the firet and fifth amend- 
ments in refusing to confirm or deny the above information when 
it was presented by the subcommittee counsel. 

Mr. Shapiro also invoked the first and fifth amendments when 
asked if he had intended to visit Cuba at the time he applied for 
his passpoi-t and if, at the time of application, he had known that 
specific passport endorsement for travel to Cuba was required. 

He also declined to confirm or deny committee information that 
he had attended the Communist-dominated Eighth World Youth 
Festival at Plelsinki, Fiidand, in the summer of 1962. 

The next witness was Jon Joseph Read, a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of California. He had been subpenaed after the committee's 
investigation disclosed the following : 

Jon Eead was issued U.S. passport No. 681992 at San Francisco on 
December 12, 1957, for an alleged 1-year visit to Australia. This 
passport had not been renewed or endorsed specifically for travel to 
Cuba when, on May 14, 1962, Mr, Read departed from Mexico City 
on Cubana Airlines flight 465 to Havana. He returned to Mexico 
City from Cuba via Cubana Airlines flight 464 on June 18, 1962. 

On August 22, 1962, Mr. Read applied for another U.S. passport, 
declaring an intention of touring Western Europe. On August 23, 
1962, he Avas issued passport No. C-607458, which was not endorsed 
for travel to Cuba. 

llie Worker of September 11, 1962, announced that on Septem- 
ber 17, 1962, Jon Read, "just back from Havana," would speak at 
Adelphi Hall in New York City. 

On April 15, 1963, Mr. Read was elected to the executive board of 
the Bay Area Fair Play for Cuba Committee. And, according to 
a flier distributed by the Militant Labor Forum of Oakland, Calif., 
an organization affilinted with the Trotskyist Socialist Workers Party, 
Read delivered a "Cuba-Eyewitness Report," including the showing 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 435 

of folor slides, on "his visit— summer 19G2" at a meeting sponsored by 
tlie Foriini on April J 9, liioa. 

Mr. Jvejid uivoked I he first and fifth amendments in refusing to 
ans\>er any sul)Commiltee quesi ions coiiceruhig the activities de- 
scribed in llie preceding four paragraphs. 

Ciliiig tJie same reasons, Read declined to answer when aslced if 
he had actually inlended to ^o to Cuba at the time he ai)t)lied for a 
passport on August 22, 1962; if the "just back from Havana'' reference 
to him in The Worker of September 11, 1902, had referred to his visit 
there in May and June 1902, or whether it referred to another trip 
to Cuba subsequent to liis receipt of a new passport on August 23, 
]9G2; if arrangements for his speech at Adelplii Hall had been made 
by anyone known or believed by him to be a Communist Party mem- 
ber or by representatives of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee; and 
if tlie expenses for his May-June 1902 visit to Cuba had been assumed 
by persons other than himself. 

x\fter Mr. Read completed his testimony, the subcommittee called 
Mrs. Irene Paull to testify. She informed the chairman that she had 
had to change counsel and had not had an opportunity to discuss 
her case with the new one. She requested that her appearance be 
postponed until the second day of the hearings. The chairman 
granted her request. 

The next witness was Karl Vladimer Weichinger of Los Angeles. 
Mr. Weichinger, a preliminary investigation revealed, attended the 
University of Chicago for a 3-year period ending in January 1952. 
While there, he had been a member of the Communist Party. Later 
he became active in the Los Angeles area chapter of the previously 
mentioned Labor Youth League, until that organization folded in 
1957. The witness cited the first and fifth amendments in refusing 
to answer questions by the subcommittee about the above information. 

Mr. Weichinger also declined to confirm or deny the committee's 
information that, without a passport specifically endorsed for such 
travel, he had gone to Cuba with his wife in December 1961 and re- 
turned to the U.S. on January 22, 1902. He further declined to say 
if, at the time of his testimony before the subcommittee, he was a 
member of the Communist Party. 

The last witness questioned by the subcommittee on July 1 was 
Mrs. Jovita Lopez Weichinger, wife of the preceding witness. She 
likewise invoked the first and fifth amendments rather than confirm 
or deny that, without a passport validated for travel to Cuba, she had 
in fact traveled to Cuba in December 1901. She also declined to 
say whether, at the time of her trip to Cuba, she was aware that such 
a trip, without specific passport validation for it, was contrary to the 
laws of the United States. 

Mrs. Jean Kidwell Pestana and Frank S. Pestana, respectively, 
were the first witnesses called when the subcommittee met at 9:30 a.m. 
on July 2, but failed to respond to their names. 

]\Irs. Irene Paull of San Francisco, a longtime writer for Com- 
munist publications, was called next by the subcommittee. Accord- 
ing to information possessed by the comniittee, Mrs. Paull had been 
the organizer of the Young Communist League in Minnesota in the 
late thirties and chairman of the Communist Party in Dulutli, 
Minn., in the forties. 



436 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Preliminary committee investigation also revealed that on Octo- 
ber 27, 19G0, Mrs. Paull applied for renewal of U.S. passport No. 
1728249, which had been issued to her by the State Dei)artment 
in 1959. In the renewal application, she said she intended to 
travel to Italy, Egypt, Israel, France, and England, beginnhig the 
trip on approximately December 1, 1960. 

On January 8, 19()1, Mrs. Paull departed from New York City 
on a British Overseas AirAvays flight to Jamaica. She entered Cuba 
on January 18, 1961, and remained there until March 6 of that year. 

Pro-Communist articles on Cuba appeared under Mrs. Paull's name 
in the Communist People's World of January 28 and February 25, 
1961. 

On April 23, 1961, according to an announcement which appeared 
in the People's World of the day before, she was one of three 
speakers "recently returned from Cuba" who addressed a meeting 
sponsored by the Unitarian Action for Social Justice in San Fran- 
cisco. Also, the name "Irene Paull" api^eared in the Palo Alto 
Times of April 25, 1961, as a signer of a Student Ad Hoc Committee 
Against U.S. Intervention in Cuba and Palo Alto Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee petition to President Kennedy protesting U.S. policies 
toward Cuba. 

Mrs. Paull cited the fifth amendment and numerous other reasons 
for refusing to affirm or deny the above facts as they were presented 
to her by the subcommittee's counsel. 

She also declined to tell the subcommittee whether, prior to her 
entry into Cuba, she had known the United States had broken diplo- 
matic relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961, and the State 
Department had adopted a regulation on January 16, 1961, requiring 
specific passport endorsement for travel by Americans to that 
country. She declined to affii-m or deny that, as reported in the 
People's World of September 29, 1962, she had attended the World 
Conference Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs held in Tokyo, 
Japan, in August 1962. 

Mrs. Paull refused for the same reasons to say whether, at the time 
of her testimony before the subcommittee on July 2, 1963, she was a 
member of the Communist Party. 

At the conclusion of Mrs. Paull's testimony, the subcommittee again 
called Mr. and Mrs. Pestana. They claimed that their attorney was 
unable to appear at that time and that they were, therefore, not repre- 
sented by counsel as they were entitled to be. The chairman excused 
them with instructions that they were to try to obtain counsel and 
return to the hearing with a report on their progress after the noon 
recess. 

The next witness was John Allen Johnson, also known as Allen 
Johnson, of San Anselmo, Calif. Mr. Johnson repeatedly invoked the 
first and fifth amendments, rather than affirm or contest the follow- 
ing information about him compiled by the Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities: 

^ On April 17, 1951, Mr. Johnson made application at San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., for a U.S. passport, supposedly for the purpose of 
making a 1-month tour of England and Fi-ance. He revealed no 
plan to visit the U.S.S.R. Passport No. 27712 was issued to him 
the next day. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 437 

On June 5, 1952, accordin<>- to an announcement in the People's 
World of June 4, 105-2, Allen Johnson spoke at the previously 
mentioned California Labor School about his firsthand impressions 
of the Soviet Union, based on a visit he had made there the year 
before. 

Also, in 1952, Mr. Johnson was expelled from the AFL Carpenters 
Union because of alle^-ed membership in the Communist Party. 

AVhen Charles Daxid Blodgett appeared before the Committee 
on Un-American Activities on December o, 195?>, he testified that he 
liad been a member of the Communist Party in Alameda County, 
Calif., from 1910 until 1950. Mr. Blodgett said that_ during 
this period he had attended meetings of the political affairs com- 
mittee of the Alameda County Communist Party which were also 
attended by Allen Johnson, then employed by the AFL Carpenters 
Union. 

On November 14, 1900, Mr. Johnson applied for a U.S. passport 
at San Fi-anc;sco, su])i)osedVv for a 1-vear visit, beginning a]-)pi'oxi- 
mately February 1. 1901, to Fngland, France, and Sweden. Passport 
No. 242r)r!0.T was issued to him on November 17, 1960. It was never 
validated for travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Johnson and his wife, Margaret Frances, entered Mexico on 
February 18, 19G1. With expenses paid by the Cuban Government, 
they departed by ship on April 7, 1901, for a trip to Havana. On 
April 28, 1901, 'Mr. and Mrs. Johnson established a residence at 
No. 41-15 Avenida la Puntillo, Havana, Cuba. 

In the People^<^ World of December 30, 1901, there appeared an 
item under the title of "A Letter From Havana — Invasion Threat 
Shadows a Banner Year." The letter was printed over the name 
of Allen Johnson. The People''^ World commented that Johnson 
at that timo was working in Cuba and circulating a newsletter. 

In addition to invoking the first and fifth amendments when 
questioned about the activities described above, ]\Ir. Johnson declined 
for the same reasons to say if, at any time after January 10, 1901, 
he had sought passport validation for travel to Cuba; if he had 
remained in Cuba from April 1901 until the spring of 1963; how- he 
had supported himself while in Cuba; whether he had received 
financial assistance from the Cuban Government while he was in 
Cuba; and whether he was, at the time of his testimony, or had 
been in the past, a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Margaret Frances Johnson, wife of Allen Johnson, was the 
final witness before the subcommittee during the morning session on 
July 2, 1903. 

According to the committee's information, Mrs. Johnson was a 
member of the Communist Party in the El Cerrito area of California 
as early as 1943. On October 29, 1950, the Oakland Trlhune reported 
that Mrs. Johnson, who had been a school teacher for 3i/'o years, 
announced that she would neither sign a State-required loyalty oath 
nor resign from her teaching position. She reportedly said she 
hoped to challenge the constitutionality of the loyalty oath law 
in the courts. 

In 1951, according to the March 23 issue of the People'' s World 
of that year, INIrs. Johnson was a candidate for director on the 
Oakland board of education. 



438 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

On November 17, 1960, INIrs. Johnson received a passport as a 
result of an application filed 3 days earlier, similar to the one filed 
by her husband. In 1961, without having her passport validated for 
travel to Cuba, Mrs. Johnson accompanied her husband on a trip 
there, where she evidently remained until the spring of 1963. 

Mrs. Johnson invoked the first and fifth amendments to all sub- 
committee queries about the above-described activities. Slie likewise 
declined to answer questions about past and present membership in 
the Communist Party. 

When the subcommittee convened for the afternoon session on 
July 2, Mr. and Mrs. Pestana again claimed not to have been 
able to engage counsel. Chairman Willis informed them that 
their subpenas were being continued and instructed them to appear 
before the subcommittee in the Caucus Room of the Old House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C., at 10 a.m. on July 10, 1963. 

The subcommittee's final witness on July 2 was Miss Harriett 
Buhai, a Los Angeles attorney. 

On January 14, 1960, Miss Buhai applied for a passport at the 
Los Angeles Passport Agency of the State Department, indicating 
a plan to take a pleasure trip to Denmark, Switzerland, France, 
England, and Italy for a period of 3 or 4 months, with a tentative 
departure date of February 15, 1960. Passport No. 1845770 was 
issued to Miss Buhai on January 15, 1960. 

On December 26, 1962, she applied for renewal of the passport for a 
combination business and pleasure trip to Brazil and other countries, 
beginning approximately January 7, 1963. 

According to information obtained in a preliminary committee 
investigation, Miss Buhai traveled from INIexico to Cuba on or 
about August 31, 1962, in the company of Helen Travis, Nestor Otto 
Bravo, and Eustasia Sokolowski Madrigal. Miss Buhai's passport 
had not been validated for travel to Cuba. 

On October 26, 1957, the PeopWs World reported that Miss Buhai 
had stated before the State Bar Examiners of California in 1955 that 
she had been a member of the Communist Party 11 years earlier, but 
had resigned. 

The January 9, 1960, People's World published an account of an 
election held by the Hollywood- Beverly Hills Chapter of the National 
Lawyers Guild at which Miss Buhai was elected to the chapter's 
executive board. Of the 15 persons named as having been elected to 
chapter offices in that account, 7 have been identified as members of 
the Communist Party in testimony before this committee. 

Miss Buhai invoked the fifth amendment and other reasons for 
refusing to answer subcommittee questions about the above matters. 
She also declined to affirm or deny Avhether she had organized the Los 
Angeles chapter of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, of which 
Helen Travis became secretary. Miss Buhai continued her declina- 
tions when asked if she knew Miss Travis to be, or to have been, a 
Communist Party member; if she had organized the Los Angeles 
Medical Aid to Cuba group as a result of instructions from Dr. Louis 
Miller, medical director for the national MACC; whether she knew 
Dr. Miller, who, according to testimony before this committee in 1951, 
had attended enlarged meetings of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party m the 1940's; if funds had been raised and for- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 439 

warded to tlie New York Medical Aid group by the Los Angeles 
group; if she and fellow attorney, Jean Kidwell Pestana, as reported 
by the Da'/hj News of Whittier,"Calif., on June 21, 19G3, had shown 
slides and lectured on the subject of Cuba at a meeting sponsored by 
the AVomen Strike for Peace at the Unitarian Center in Whittier; 
and if she, at the time of her testimony or in the past, had been a mem- 
ber of the Comnumist Party. 

AUGUST 5, 19G3, HEARINGS 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Pestana testified at public hearings held by 
the committee in "Washington, D.C., on August 5, 1963, after having 
been granted two continuances by the committee on their claim of 
unavailability of counsel and a heavy calendar of legal work to 
which they were committed during the month of July. These con- 
tinuances were in addition to those granted in Los Angeles. Joseph 
North, a correspondent for The Worker and other Communist publi- 
cations, also testified on the same day. 

Mrs. Jean Kidwell Pestana, who in 1952 had been identified in 
testimony before this committee as having been a member of a 
lawyers' group within the Communist Party in the late forties, was 
the first witness. She repeatedly invoked the fifth amendment and 
other reasons for refusing to ansAver questions concerning the follow- 
ing information obtained by the committee through a preliminary 
investigation: 

On January 15, 19G0, Mrs. Pestana applied for a U.S. passport at 
Los Angeles, stating her intention of taking a 3- or 4-month pleasure 
trip to Sweden, Norway, England, Denmark, France, and Italy. 
She was issued passport No. 1899805 on January 28, 19G0. 

Without having had that passport validated for travel to Cuba by 
the State Department, Mrs. Pestana, in the company of Mrs. Rose 
Rosenberg, flew via Cubana Airlines from Mexico to Cuba in early 
April 1962. She returned to the United States the following 
month. 

According to announcements in the Peoj)le^8 World of June 2, 1962, 
and the National Guardian of June 4, 1962, Mrs. Pestana and Mrs. 
Rosenberg gave a report on their 1-month visit to Cuba at a meet- 
ing of the Los Angeles Committee for Medical Aid to Cuba on 
June 6, 1962. 

On March 10, 1963, Mrs. Pestana and her husband appeared at 
the Long Beach Unitarian Church and showed slides purporting to 
demonstrate conditions in Cuba prior to and after Castro's coming 
to power. At this meeting (although she declined to expound upon 
it for the subcommittee) Mrs. Pestana allegedly said : "I have been in 
many socialist countries, but the fastest progress has been in Cuba." 
Also, in answer to a question from the audience, she admitted having 
been in Cuba in May 1962 as a irnest of the Cuban Government. 

A flier circulated in Los Angeles in the spring of 1963 advertised 
a special event, "Be An Eye Witness in Cuba," scheduled for 
April 21, 1963, at the First Unitarian Church. According to the 
flier, Frank Pestana and Jean Kidv/ell (her maiden and professional 
name) Pestana were to present "Cul)a Today in Pictures" at the 
church's College Center for an audience of college-age persons only. 

On June 21, 1963, as reported in the next day's Dally Neics of 



440 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Wliittier, Calif., Mrs. Pestana lectured on Cuba during an appear- 
ance with Miss Harriett Buliai, who operated a slide projector, before 
a Women Strike for Peace meeting in "Wliittier. On that occasion, 
Mrs. Pestana said that during her tour of Cuba in 1902 she had been 
accompanied by a friend and an official Cuban interpreter. She de- 
clined to tell the subcommittee whether that friend had been Rose 
Rosenberg and whether she Imew either Mrs. Rosenberg or Miss 
Buhai to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. Pestana told the subcommittee she had not received com- 
pensation in any manner from the Cuban Government, yet slie in- 
voked the fifth amendment, among other reasons, for declining to 
answer Avhen asked if she had understood, while receiving benefits 
as the guest of the Cuban Governm.ent during her visit to Cuba, that 
she was to lecture favorably about the Castro regime upon her return 
to the United States. 

She admitted slie had not registered with the Department of Justice 
as a foreign agent, and denied being one. She denied participating 
in pro-Castro activities while under the discipline of the Com- 
munist Party with a view toward carrying out party objectives. 

She invoked the fifth amendment and otlier reasons for refusing to 
say whether she was presently a member of the Communist Party. 

Frank S. Pestana, husband of the previous witness and also an 
attorney with offices in Los Angeles, was next to testify before the 
subcommittee on August 5. A native of Portugal, iVIr. Pestana 
became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1937. At hearings conducted 
by the Committee on Un-American Activities in 1952, three witnesses 
identified him as a member of a lawyers' cell within the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Pestana invoked the fifth amendment and other reasons for 
refusing to say before the subcommittee on August 5 whether he 
had been a Communist Party member as so identified in 1952 and if 
he had continued to be a member of the party since that time. 

Committee investigation conducted prior to Mr. Pestana's being 
subpenaed to testify in these hearings revealed that on April 20. 1959, 
he applied for renewal of a U.S. passport issued him in 1956. In his 
application for renewal, he said he intended to travel to Portugal, 
Spain, and Italy over a period of about 3 weeks for the purposes of 
business and visiting relatives. He listed April 27, 1959, as the ap- 
proximate date of departure. On April 24, 1959, he received renewal 
of passport No. 134222. 

Mr. Pestana invoked the fifth amendment and other reasons in 
declining to tell the subcommittee if he had actually departed 
on a trip to Portugal, Spain, or Italy on or about April 27, 1959. 
He continued to decline to answer when asked questions about the 
following information developed by the committee's investigation: 

Mr. Pestana served as an American delegate at the 10th anniversary 
session of the Soviet-staged Workl Peace Council held in Stockholm, 
Sweden, on May 8-13,1959. On December 20, 1959, at the First 
Unitarian Church of Los Angeles, he was given a reception by the 
Reverend and Mrs. Stephen H. Fritchman, who had been fellow 
delegates to the World Peace Council meeting in Stockholm. Accord- 
ing to the church's newsletter announcement of the reception, Mr. 
Pestana lectured and showed slides on the subject of China. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 441 

On ^I:iy 4, 19G1, according to a preceding flier announcement, Mr. 
Pestana i)rescnted an illustrated talk, entitled "Six Weeks in Com- 
munist China," at a meeting sponsored by the Santa liarbara [Calif.] 
Friends of KPFK. The flier contained the additional information 
that he had traveled 10,000 miles over the Chinese mainland as the 
guest of a Chinese classmate at the University of California. 

Mr. Pestana invoked his previous reasons in declining to tell 
the subcommittee if, when he applied for renewal of his passport 
in April 1959 for an alleged trip to Italy, Spain, and Portugal, 
he had actually intended to travel to the World Peace Council 
session at Stockholm and then to visit Red China. 

He declined to say whether, as announced in a flier circulated in 
Los Angeles in the spring of 19G3, he had participated in a "Be 
an Eye Witness in Cuba" program at the First Unitarian Church on 
April 21, 19G-3. He declined also to say if the flier had been correct 
in stating that he had taken an extensive tour of Cuba in May 1962, 

Neither would the Avitness confirm or deny the subcommittee's 
information tliat he had addressed a meeting at the Long Beach 
Unitarian Chni'cli on March 10, 19Go, at which time he stated (1) he 
had gone to Cuba in 19G1 with 40 other couples and (2) he had 
been in Communist China recently. He cited his previous reasons 
for refusing to say whether he at any time had possessed a passport 
validated for travel to Red China; whether he had received any 
direct or indirect compensation from the Cuban or Chinese Govern- 
ments for his lecturing activities; and whether, on his talks on Com- 
munist Cuba and Red China, his purpose had been to influence 
the U.S. public with respect to the policies of the governments of 
those forei<>-n countries. 

The final witness at the subcommittee's hearings on August 5 was 
Joseph North, a correspondent for The Worker and a writer for 
many other Conununist })nl)lications in this country for more than 
a quarter of a century. He has been identified as a member of the 
Comnumist Party on a number of occasions by witnesses before the 
Committee on Un-Amorican Activities. 

On Jaiuiary 27, 19G0, Mr. North filed an application for a U.S. 
passpoi't, stating his intention to vis't Britain, Italy, Czechoslovakia, 
Soviet Russia, and France over a period of about 3 months, beginning 
approximately March 19G0. Passport No. 1871124 was issued on 
February 1, 19G0. 

Mr. North subsequently traveled to France, Itah^, the Soviet 
Union, and Czechoslovakia, returning to the U.S. v.-itli his passport 
apparently in good order on September 15, 1960. 

On December \^), 19G0, according to an entr}' made on his passport 
by Cuban authorities, he arrived in Cuba. 

The witness invoked the fifth amendment and other reasons in 
refusing to tell the subcommittee if he had known that on January 16, 
19GI, the State Department issued a regulation banning travel to 
Cuba unless the tmveler was in possession of a passport specifically 
endorsed by the Department foi' such a trip. 

Dui-ing the months of Januai-y, March, April. May, and Au^ist, 
1961, The Worker published articles by-lined by Mr. North and date- 
lined Havana. 

98-765— 63— pt. 2 2 



442 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN TJ.S. 

An exit visa on his passport showed that Mr. North departed from 
Cuba on August 12, 1961, although he declined to tell the subcom- 
mittee whether he had returned to the U.S. or traveled elsewhere at 
that time. In any event, The Worker of August 27, 19G1, carried 
another article from Cuba by Mr. North, indicating that he had 
returned to Cuba by that date. Additional North articles datelined 
Plavana appeared in The Worker in the months of September, Novem- 
ber, and December 1961 and in every month of 1962 except March 
and July. 

North's passport contained an entry of his arrival in Czechoslovakia 
on December 14, 1962, and an entry of departure from that Iron 
Curtain country on January 31, 1963, the same date on wliich his 
arrival in the U.S. was noted. 

Upon arrival from Czechoslovakia at the New York International 
Airport, his passport was lifted by representatives of the U.S. 
Immigration and Naturalization Service. This resulted from a 
request for such action at the first opportunity made by the State 
Department's Passport Office in Washington on ISIay 4, 1962, 
based on information that INIr. North had traveled to and from Cuba 
since January 16, 1961, without proper passport validation to do so. 

Mr. North invoked the fifth amendment and his other previously 
cited reasons for refusing to tell the subcommittee whether, at any 
time after the significant date of January 16, 1961, he had applied for 
or received passport validation for travel to Cuba; if at any time 
during 1961 or 1962 he had delivered any message or communica- 
tion from anyone in the United States known to him to be a Communist 
to persons in Cuba associated with the Castro government ; and if 
he had delivered any message or communication from any person in 
Cuba known to him to be a Communist to anyone in the United States 
known to him to be a Communist. 

At the conclusion of the August 5 hearings. Chairman "Willis 
instructed the committee staff to forward a record of the day's pro- 
ceedings to the Department of Justice for possible prosecution of 
the three witnesses for violation of passport requirements relating 
to travel to Cuba. 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS 

AND FRO CASTRO RRORAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

Part 2 



MONDAY, JULY 1, 1963 



United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-Amekican Activities, 

Los Angeles^ Califoimia. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 :30 a.m., in Room 518, U.S. Post OIHce Building, 
Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairman) presiding. _ _ 

Subcommittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Louisi- 
ana; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. Johansen, of 
Michigan. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Johansen. 

Connnittee member also present : Representative Jolin M. Ashbrook, 
of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel ; and William A. Wheeler, investigator. 

The Chairman. This subcommittee will please come to order. 

The subcommittee is convened to continue hearings begun in Wash- 
ington on May 6 of this year on certain matters and for the legisla- 
tive purposes set forth in the committee's resolution adopted on April 
24 of this year. I will read the text of that resolution for the record: 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C., or at such other 
place or places as the Chairman may determine, on such date or dates as the 
Chairman may designate, relating to (a) Communist propaganda activities in 
the United States conducted in support of the Communist regime in Cuba, or for 
the purpose of advancing the policies and objectives of the world Communist 
movement in Latin America generally, (b) the activities of United States citi- 
zens acting on behalf of, or in the interest of, foreign Communist principals, and 
(c) foreign travel undertaken by United States citizens in connection with such 
activities and in violation of State Department travel regulations, for the fol- 
lowing legislative purposes: 

1. To provide factual information to aid Congress in the disposition of pres- 
ently pending legislation (including, but not limited to Sections 709 and 712 of 
H.R. sins), or in the proposal of remedial legislation, in fulfillment of the direc- 
tions contained in the mandate to the Committee by House Resolution 5 of Jan- 
uary 9, 1963, and Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress. 

443 



444 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

2. The execution, by the administrative agencies concerned, of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938, travel control laws (particularly Title 8 U.S.C. 
1185), and regulations issued pursuant thereto, to assist the House in apprais- 
ing the administration of such laws and regulations. 

3. Consideration of the advisability of amending Title 22 U.S.C. Gil, by ex- 
tending the definition of the terms "foreign i)rincipal" and '"agent of a foreign 
principal" so as to remove any d(jubt as to ihe true test of the agency relation- 
ship or its application to activities within the intent of Congress as expressed in 
the Act. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the hearings may include any other mat- 
ter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

At the opening of the hearings in Washington, D.C., I read a very 
complete statement concerning the purposes and subject matter of 
these hearings. I will now summarize that statement : 

Over 12 years ago, on December IG, 1950, the President of the United 
States proclaimed the existence of a national emei-gency. That 
proclamation has not been altered or rej^ealed by succeeding Presi- 
dents. The emergency continues. Today we must be concerned not 
only about conmtunism in Korea and other distant coimtries, but in 
Cuba — just 90 miles from our shores. 

Fidel Castro has converted Cuba into an advance Communist base 
in this hemisphere. It is supplying inspiration, propaganda, train- 
ing, communications, and technical assistance to Communist and revo- 
lutionary groups in the whole of Latin America. It is also serving 
as an outpost of the Soviet Union from which that country is directing 
certain activities against the United States. 

Central Intelligence Agency Dii-ector John INfcCone, in an appear- 
ance before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs on February 19, 
stated : 

The Cuban effort at present is far more serious than the hastily organized 
and ill-conceived raids that the bearded veterans of the Sierra Maestra led into 
such Central American countries as I'anama, Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Domini- 
can Republic during the first 8 or 9 months Castro was in power. 

Today, the Cuban effort is far more sophisticated, more covert, and more 
deadly. In its professional trade craft, it shows guidance and training by 
experienced Communist advisers from the Soviet bloc, including veteran Spanish 
Communists. 

Mr. McCone also pointed out that approximately 1,500 persons went 
to Cuba during the year 1962 from otlier Latin American countries to 
receive ideological indoctrination and guerrilla warfare training. He 
said that some of the courses given in Cuba last as long as a year and 
include intensive training in sabotage, espionage, and psychological 
warfare and that the so-called visitors to Cuba also serve as couriers 
for Soviet communications and the financing of Commimist subversion 
in various countries. 

United States citizens, too, have been involved in these activities. 
In an effort to prevent such activities by citizens of this country — and 
because, following the severance of diplomatic relations, it could not 
protect U.S. nationals in Cuba — the Department of State issued regu- 
lations, effective January 16, 1961, prohibiting travel to Cuba by 
citizens of the United States unless they possessed specially validated 
passports [22 CFR Pt. 5P>.o, as amended]. These regulations are 
based on the security provisions of the Immigration and Nationality 
Act of 1952, regulating travel of citizens and aliens during war or 
national emergency, and empowering the President to impose re- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 445 

strictions and prohibitions, in addition to those provided by the 
applicable section of the Act [8 U.S.C. 1185]. 

Present reaubitions <ienei-ally require no passport for travel in 
Noith, Central, or Sou(h Anieiica. However, Avhen a U.S. citizen 
travels lo Cuba, he is then re(|uired to have a passport for travel in 
otlier nalions of North, Central, or South America through which 
he may j^ass in traveling to or from Cuba. 

Despite the ban on travel to Cuba unless a specially validated pass- 
port is obtained, committee investigation has determined that over 
100 American citizens have traveled to Cuba without validation. Com- 
mittee investigation has also revealed that U.S. citizens who had 
ti'aveled to Cuba, some with and some without validation, have been 
rendering propaganda assistance to the Communist Cuban regime 
after their return to tliis country. 

On January 9, 19G3, the late chairman of this committee — my 
former good and great and fine friend. Congressman Walter — intro- 
duced IT.R. 958, wliich was referred to the Committee on Un-American 
Activities. Sections 709 and 712 of that bill, dealing with passport 
secui'ity and travel control and restrictions on the issuance and use 
of passpoi'ts, are dit-ected particularly toward tlie travel of persons 
associated with subversive organizations and with subversive objec- 
tives or aims. 

Other bills have been introduced in the House in an effort to resolve 
these difficulties and have been referred to the Committee on the 
Judiciary. The Com.mittee on Un-American Activities has under- 
taken this investigation and hearings pursuant to its mandate to con- 
duct investigations that will aid the Congress in disposition of 
pending legislation. 

The unfortunate and untimely death of my friend, Tad Walter, late 
chaii'man of this committee, has made it necessary for me to issue a new 
order of appointment of the su.bcommittee conducting these hearings. 
I will now read that order for the record : 

June 21, 1963. 

To : Mr. Frnnris T. IMrXnmnra. 

Director. Cuiiimittee on I'li-Ainerican Activities. 

Pursuant to tlie provisions of the law aiul the Rules of thi.s Committee, I 
lierel),v apjioitit a snl)roinnrittee of the Coniiiiittee on rn-Aineric-an Activities, con- 
sisting of Honorable William M. TncU and Honorable Auuust E. Johansen as 
associate nienil)ei-s. and ni.vsclf as Cliairman. to conduct a hearing in Los Angeles, 
Califorjiia, Monday. .TnJ.v 1, liXi.S. at 10 :00 A.M., on sub.jects under investi,gation by 
the Committee and take such testimony on said day or succeeding days, as it may 
deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicnies his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 21st day of June, l!)l)3. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis 
IOdwin E. Willis, 
Chnirman, Commitfrc on Uv-Atnnican Activities. 

We have with us, happily, also a member of the full committee, 
though not a member of this subcommittee, and we are so glad to have 
him. Congi'essman Ashbrook of Oliio. 

Now, with this e.xf)lanation of the purposes of the hearing, Mr. 
Counsel, please call your first witness. 

Mr. JoiiANSKN. Mi-. Chairman, before you proceed, since the chair- 
man has mentioned our good friend, Coiigressmaji Walter, whose pass- 



446 PR0-CA8TR0 PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

ing we lampnt, T shmild like to mnke note on the record that this is 
t]ie firsl lienrliiij: held liore in California since the dealli of our good 
friend, Con^^rcssnian Doyle, from I he Sln(e of California, and to ex- 
press (ny regret over his passitig and absence from amongst us today. 

'J'he (''riAmMAN. Thank jou very much. 

]\Ir. Nil lie? 

Mr. Nrrn.R. Afrs. TTelen Travis, yon may eome forward, please. 

Mrs. Travis, you are not being sworn as a witness. You s[)oke to me 
this morning, and 1 understand that you desire to speak to the corn- 
mil tee, concerning a motion you liave to make or that you have in 
mind. 

STATEMENT OF HELEN TEAVIS 

Mr. Ntttt.e. For the record, would you state your name and give 
your residence to the reporter, please? 

Mrs. Travis. My name is Helen Travis. My address is 6324 Prim- 
rose Avenue, Los Angeles. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Arp you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Travis. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you desire to be heard by yourself and counsel? 

ISIrs. Travis. lie would like to make the motion in my behalf. 

The Chairman. Well, what is he leading to ? Would you give your 
name for the record ? 

Mr. McTernan. My name is John T. McTernan. My offices are 
3175 West 6th Street, Los Angeles 5, California. 

The Chairman. Sir, we, as you know, received a copy of your 
motion. 

Mr. McTernan. T am glad to hear that. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Travis, the committee has received from ;70u, 
through your attorney, Mr, John T. JSIcTernan, a motion for with- 
drawal of the subpena dated June 12, 1963, and served on you on June 
19, 1963, requiring j-ou to appear and testify before the committee 
today. 

In this petition you stated that the grand jury for the United States 
District Court for the Southern District of California has Indicted you 
on two counts for violating the laws of the United States, specifically 
section 1185(b) of Title 8 of United States Code. 

I personally learned of 3'our indictment on June 26, the day it was 
handed down, and 19 days after I had authorized the service of a 
subpena on you so that the committee could question you on evidence 
it had obtained concerning travel to Cuba on your part on two occa- 
sions in 1962. 

I immediately conferred with the staff director of the committee, 
Mr. Francis INIcNamara, who is here today, and concluded that your 
subpena should be withdrawn. This was 4 days before I learned of 
the motion formally submitted to the committee in your name. 

The submission of this motion, however, necessitated consideration 
of the matter by the subcommittee, and the subcommittee did pass on 
it. The committee in the past has rejected many motions of somewhat 
similar nature, primarily because they have been propaganda docu- 
ments lacking any foundation in law, in fact, or under the Constitu- 
tion. Your motion, however — for reasons I considered before I knew 
of its existence — has a solid legal foundation. It is for this reason that 
the subcommittee acted favorably on it. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 447 

The subcommittee met tliis morning, considered, and acted favor- 
ably on your motion. It is granted. 

The committee is always read}' to act favorably on such petitions 
based on good grounds. There is no need for you to be sworn. Your 
subpena is quashed. You are excused. 

Mrs. Tkavis. Thank you. 

The Chairman. The next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Mrs. liose Schorr Rosenberg please come 
forward ? 

The Chairman". Are you ready, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Please rise and raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I do. 

Mr. Marshall. Will the chairman wait a moment until the photog- 
raphers are through ? 

The Chairman. Do you object to it ? 

Mr. Marshall. Well, it interrupts the witness. I think they are 
about finished. 

TESTIMONY OF EOSE SCHOEE ROSENBERG, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, DANIEL G. MARSHALL 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. My name is Rose S. Rosenberg; and before pro- 
ceeding, Mr. ChaiiTnan, I would like to present a motion. I would 
like to present it orally. It is a brief motion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Rosenberg, we will certainly give you the oppor- 
tunity to present your motion, but you should first be identified. 

The Chairman. Let's get the witness identified. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I have identified myself by name. 

The Chairman. Well, we have to have the identity of your counsel. 
Just withhold one second. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have not stated your residence, I believe. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I refuse to give my residence. I will, however, 
give the address of my office where I was served and where this body 
knows I can be reached. 

My reason for refusing to give my residence, Mr. ChairiTian, is 
that I will be subjected to harassment, to obscene phone calls, and to 
the burning of signs at my home. I see no relevancy to any legislative 
purpose of this committee to require a witness to disclose this private 
fact, the place where he lives. I have identified myself. 

I will stipulate that I am the person who was subpenaed, and my 
office address is 1741 North Ivar Avenue. 

The Chairman. Well, we won't quarrel with your residence since 
you gave some address, anyway. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of course, you are a resident of the City of Los Angeles, 
are you not ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I believe there is a motion or a request to present 
a motion to the Chair. May I have a ruling sir, on that before we 
proceed with the questions ? 



448 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

The Chairman. Well, let's not — proceed. I want to identify your 
counsel. That is the rule of the committee. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Very well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel, "Shs. Rosenberg? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. 1 am proud to be represented by a foremost coun- 
sel in this community. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr.' IVLvRSiiALL. Daniel G. Marshall, 258 — Sir, did you say some- 
thing ? 

Mr. Nittle. No. 

Mr. INIarsiiall. 258 Marlton Building, 4041 Marlton Avenue, Los 
Angeles 8. 

The Chairman. Now, you want to present a motion ? 

lilrs. Rosenberg. I would be pleased to do so, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Well, I hope you will get to the meat of it. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I will. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. A motion is hereby made to vquash my subpena 
and to terminate forthwith all the proceedings herein on the follow- 
ing, among other, grounds : 

My first request is that this hearing be held in executive session 
pursuant to the rules of this committee. I believe the rule is (m) — 
subsection (m) of Rule XI. In the event that the chairman grants 
this request, there will be no necessity for proceeding with my mo- 
tion. May I, therefore, request a ruling on that demand ^ 

The Chairman. Prior to coming to Los Angeles, the full committee 
acted on similar motions, but your name did not appear. Your name 
was not among the six who made application for quashing on the basis 
of the rule you indicated. 

Furthermore, the committee authorized the subcommittee to act on 
similar motions that might be made while we were liere. The sub- 
committee considered your name and others subpenaed this morning 
and the general background of the indicated testimony that we 
thought you can supply, and here is the ruling made by the full 
committee, which applies in your instance. 

The Committee on Un-American xVctivities has considered and re- 
jected requests that subpenas be quashed or, should they not be 
quashed, that the witnesses be heard in executive session. I think it 
is only fair to tell you why the committee arrived at this decision. 

First, you stated here in your request that the committee's inquiry — 
well, I don't think you have reached beyond the point, I think you 
only base your request now on the basis of the rules of the House on 
executive session ; is that right ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. That is true. And this is my first request, Mr. 
Chairman, so that you could not have considered or ruled on it here- 
tofore. 

The Chairman. Pardon ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. This is my initial request, Mr. Chairman, so that 
your prior ruling with regard to others would have no effect on mine. 

The Chairman. Well, this applies to you and this ruling; I am 
now ruling on your application for the reasons indicated. 

The full committee considered similar requests, and this subcom- 
mittee considered requests made by you now, and we find there is no 
foundation for it. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 449 

Now, as a general proposition, the rules of Congress contemplate 
that all hearings be public except in certain circumstances where 
executive sessions are necessary or advisable. The business of the 
Congress is the business of the American people. The people, when- 
ever it is at all possible, should be able to see just what Congress and 
its committees are doing and how they are doing it. The committee 
in this hearing is dealing with matters of public interest, the laws of 
tlie United States, which are the laws of the people, their administra- 
tion, and whether or not there is need for revision of them. 

Under the circumstances and because there is no compelling reason 
for executive or secret session with respect to yourself, we believe 
that these hearings should be held in public. 

Now, you base your request for a hearing in executive session on 
section 26 (m) of Rule XI of the House of Representatives, and the 
Rules of the House of Representatives are binding on all committees 
of the House. 

Apparently you, however, or your counsel or whoever advised you 
misunderstands and misreads that rule. This rule of the House, and 
1 have obtained a personal ruling on it by the House Parliamen- 
tarian, who is regarded as the finest parliamentarian on the face of 
God's earth 

[Laughter.] 

The Chairman. — and tiie House Parliamentarian — now, I am not 
going to stand for that. This is serious business. 

The rule of the House, as interpreted by our counsel and by myself 
and the House Parliamentarian, applies to third parties who might be 
named by a witness called before a committee of the House, rather 
than to a witness, such as you, who has been summoned to give testi- 
mony on a matter of public interest. The committee, through investi- 
gation and research, has developed certain information, as I indicated 
a while ago, about your activities; and we believe that you possess 
information, if you will give it, which will be helpful in connection 
with the subject matter of this hearing, which we think can well result 
in legislation amending both the travel laws of the United States and 
the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Therefore, your request — 
your motion is denied. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Rosenberg, would you state the date and place 
of your birth, please? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Just a moment. I am consulting with counsel. 

May I observe, Mr. Chairman, just to keep the record straight, that 
as I read the rule, the rule says, "any person." It does not set out 
which person. 

The Chairman. Well, that is argumentative, and I have ruled. If 
you are dissatisfied, your lawyer knows what to do. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. May I at this time — I am proceeding now with 
my motion to quash. Perhaps the Chair will rule favorably on this 
motion then. And I am proceeding to make this request on the fol- 
lowing, among other, grounds : 

First, the hearing — this hearing is in violation of tlie first amend- 
ment of the Constitution of the IJnited States, which provides that 
"Congress shall make no law * * * abridging the freedom of speech, 
or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and 
to petition the Government for a redress of grievances," and where 
Congress camiot legislate this committee mav not interrogate, as the 



450 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

only purpose for which this committee was empowered was to make 
inquiries regarding possible legislation, and since the Congress is ex- 
pressly prohibited from legislating in first amendment areas, this 
committee ma}^ not interrogate on ideas, beliefs, associations. 

All investigations of this or any committee of the Congress are sub- 
ject to the command that the Congress is limited in its lawmaking and 
investigations are permissible solely as an adjunct to the legislative 
power. 

Further, this congressional resolution empowering the committee 
to function is itself an affront to the first amendment. The only func- 
tion, I call to the attention of this body 

The Chairman. Well, now, frankly, you are reading a brief. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Mr. Chairman, I am giving my legal reasons. 

The Chairman. You are reading a brief rather than a motion now. 
Your counsel will tell you that. I understand the substance of your 
motion. Now you are debating it and 3^ou are going into an analysis 
of a brief. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Not at all. If I may say so, Mr. Chairman, I am 
setting out the resolution which is the basis of this committee's sittmg 
here 

The Chairman. I suggest that 



fete"- 



Mrs. Rosenberg. — the empowering resolution. 

The Chairman. I suggest that you come to the point because on 
that, on what 3'Ou have said thus far, we have made too many rulings 
on that, so many court decisions that I am afraid we are just consum- 



mg time 



Mrs. Rosenberg. Well, T am hopeful constantly that this committee 
and others will see the light and be rational and reasonable and 
constitutional. 

The Chairman. Is there 

Mrs. Rosenberg. For example, Mr. Willis- 



The Chairman. Do you have any other points? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Yes, I have. I have several other points. 

The Chairman. Well, come to it. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I ask to be heard on it. This motion to 
quash is an affront to the first amendment. 

The Chairman. Well, that is on the first amendment. Do you have 
anything else? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Yes. I wouldn't dismiss the first amendment so 
lightly, Mr. Chairman. 

[Laughter and applause.] 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I am very serious, IMr. ChaiiTnan. I do not take 
this lightly at all. I have given much thought to this. 

The Chairman. Well, I don't either. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. No. And I am glad we have found one area of 
agreement. I am doubtful if we Avill find any others on which we do 
agree. But this is a serious matter. 

The Chairman. Well, present your motion. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Well, I will. We could probably save time, sir 

The Chairman. How long is it ? 

]\f rs. Rosenberg. There are just two more points. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. That the propaganda activities which this com- 
mittee may, by its empowering statute or empowering resolution, deal 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 451 

with, deals itself with debates and books and all media of communi- 
cation which comes under the first amendment. 

And under the nintli amendment, Mr. Chairman, tliis committee 
should quash this subpena because ours is a government of delegated 
powers. Tliere are no powers delegated for this purpose. 

The motion to quash is made on the further ground that other 
agencies of our Government, if any, are the approf)riate bodies to 
function in the very stated areas of this inquiry. For example, you 
have mentioned travel, passports, foreign affairs. This is properly 
a function of the State Department and the Judiciary. 

You have talked about violations of law. I take it you do not 
presume to call this a court of law nor a judiciary committee. 

In the enforcement of laws, this is the task of the executive and for 
law enforcement agencies; and there are, therefore, other committees 
which should be hearing any information which witnesses want to 
give. 

And T believe, further, if the motion to quash should be granted on 
the ground that the purpose of this committee is, in fact, not to gather 
information looking to possible future legislation, but to examine 
for exposure's sake and to smear for smear's sake, or it would have 
in fact granted the request for an executive session, where it could 
easily have gotten the information — whatever information it can get — 
and I want to assure this committee, in passing, that it will get no 
information from me and should, therefore, dismiss me forthwith. 

[Laughter.] 

Mrs. EosENBERG. This committee does not look to legislation, but 
rather to limitation, to limitation of vigorous opposition to some gov- 
ernmental policies, emasculating sound public debate and reducing it to 
compliance or indifference or cynicism. And all of this is in violation 
of the Supreme Court decision of the United States v. Watkins. 

The Chairman. I thought you were going to come to the point and 
malce your motion. Now, this is an argument. "VVe are not going to 
stand for it. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I will proceed now, jNfr. Chairman, to my final 
motion to quash, which is made on the basis of section 2 of Article 
XIV to the United States Constitution — I am sure, INIr. Willis, you 
are particularly aware of it — which provides that Representatives 
shall be apportioned among the several states according to their re- 
spective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each 
state. But Aviien the right to vote at any election for President, Vice 
President, or Representatives of the Congress, of which this body is 
a part, is denied to any citizens of 21 years, or in any way abridged, the 
basis of representation shall be reduced in the proportion which the 
number of such citizens shall bear to the whole number of citizens of 21 
years in such state. 

At least one of the members of this committee, and I believe, Mr. 
Chairman, you are from Louisiana, comes from a state where voting 
to many of its citizens is denied. And I am sure you are also aAvare 
there is presently pending in the Federal courts an action brought by 
the National Association of Colored People to enforce the section. 
_ And I move that this committee, at the very least, suspend its opera- 
tion until there lias been a judicial determination of that issue. 

And, finally, ]VIr. Chairman 



452 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. I thought you said the last was your last point. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. That was penultimate. This is the ultimate. 

[Laughter.] 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I advance, soberly and seriously and with all the 
vigor and passion of which I am capable, that the quashing of this 
subpena should be granted because this committee threatens tlie very 
existence of the liberty of the American people, and I would like to 
submit in support 

The Chairman. Well, that is enough. You have filed your motion. 
The balance would be argumentative. 

All the points you have raised have been urged upon us on many 
occasions. They are frivolous, ungrounded, contrary to decisions on 
the subject. Your motion is denied. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I thought you may be interested, Mr. Chair- 
man 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, the last question, Mrs. Rosenberg, which was 
posed to you was to have you state the date and place of your birth. 

We ask these questions for tlie purpose of identification. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Well, I will stipulate that I am the person whom 
you have subpenaed, sir. I see no relevancy to giving certain facts 
that I think are private. 

The Chairman. I think it is relevant. I direct vou to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Nittle. We are not merely concerned, Mrs. Rosenberg, with 
whether or not 

The Chairman. That's all right. That's all right. She has been 
directed. 

Mrs, Rosenberg. I am prepared to answer that question, but 

The Chairman. Well, answer it. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. But may the 

The Chairman. Just answer it. It's a very simple question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Yes. I understand it. It is a very simple ques- 
tion. Being here is not a simple matter. 

The Chairman. I know. It's not a pleasure for us either. 

Will you ansAver the question ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Yes. I would like to make a statement. 

The Chairman. Ask the next question, Mr. Nittle. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Well, I was born 

Mr. NnTLE. Well, iNIrs. 

The Chairman. All right, wait. She was answering it. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I was born, obviously, and the date of my birth, as 
I recollect it, is September 10, 1905. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. And would you state the place of your birth ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. The place of my birth is Hodmezovasarhely, 
Hungary. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us by what process you acquired citi- 
zenship? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I would like to know, sir, what relevancy that 
question has to these proceedings. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 453 

The Chairman. It does have because, one- 



Mrs. Rosenberg. Well, Avoiild the Chair explain it to me? 

The Chairman. There are various ways of acquiring citizenship — 
by birth, by naturalization, and so on. It's a perfectly proper ques- 
tion. It's a preliminary question. 

Mrs. RosENUEr.o. lUi( that is my private affair, I believe, Mr. Chair- 
man, and I have recited I am a citizen. Will you tell me what the 
relevancy is? 

Mr. NiTTLE. We have certain information from the official records 
of the State Department that a Mrs. Louis Rosenberg made an appli- 
cation for a United States passport. We will, in the course of the 
interrogation, question you about your passport application in relation 
to the subject of inquiry of this hearing. 

In view of the fact that the law of the United States requires 
that a passport be issued only to a citizen or a person owing allegiance 
to the United States, it is important to ask, and relevant to the inquiry 
to know, whether you are, in fact, a United States citizen. 

The Chairman. She said she w^as. The question is whether it's by 
derivation, birth, or what. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I will decline to answer that question on the basis, 
first, fifth, ninth, tenth amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please relate the extent of your formal 
education, giving the dates and places of attendance at educational 
institutions and any certificates or degrees received therefrom ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I think, Mr. Chairman, all of these questions are 
in violation of my privacy and I will refuse to answer the question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand that among the grounds you have stated 
is the fifth amendment, is that correct ? 

The Chairman. Yes. Tliat is in the record. She has invoked the 
fifth amendment, among others, so let's go. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, do you believe 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I think that I am testifying in this matter. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you believe that to tell the committee background 
information relating to your education would subject you to a criminal 
prosecution? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Considering — considering the questions and the 
purposes as stated here, I will rely on the answer previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I am proud to be a member of the bar of the State 
of California and I practice here, as you well know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you practiced law in the State of 
California? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I think the records will show, and it is my best 
recollection, that I was admitted to the bar in approximately 1948. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you resided in the State of California? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Mr. Chairman, may I request that I be apprised 
of the pertinency of that question? I have given all the identifica- 
tion questions now, (he answers to those. I think this is an unlawful 
invasion of my privacy. 



454 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVmBS IN U.S. 

The Chairman. Well, I don't see any invasion, and it's a question 
of- 



Mrs. RosENnERG. Do you see any pertinency, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman. Well, sure. It could be — we are here engaged — 
and I am glad you are a lawyer — in a hearin<2: involving travel, which 
necessarily involves citizenship, place of residence, and movement, and 
so on. So, I think it is pertinent and I 

Mrs. Rosenberg. But, Mr. Chairman, you are here only for infor- 
mation regarding possible legislation. Now, what possible legislation 
could one — could this body or my Congress have in mind in determin- 
ing how long I have practiced law in the State of California. I 
don't 

Tlie Cttatrman. That is not the question. 

]\Irs. Rosenberg. I don't see the pertinency. 

The Chairman. That is not the question, 

Mrs. Rosenberg. What is tlie quest ion before the House ? 

The Chairman. What is the question? 

Mr. Ntttle. How long has she resided in the State of California? 

The Ctiatrman. How long have you resided in California ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. T take it, Mr. Chairman, that is the same thing. 

The Chairman. All right. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. What is the question precisely? 

Mr. Nittle. How long liave you resided in the State of California? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. INIy recollection is that I have resided here since 
approximately 1946. 

I am surprised that you don't have this information, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Rosenberg, the Department of State's records in- 
dicate that you first made application from your residence at Greens- 
burg, Pennsylvania, for a United States passport on September 20, 
1988, to visit for educational purposes, as you stated, the countries of 
China, Japan, India, Palestine. Hungary, France, Russia, Italy, and 
England. Pursuant to that application a passport was issued to you 
on October 7, 1988. 

Your last application for renewal of passport was made by you on 
January 28, 1960, at your residence, 933 Foster Drive, Los Angeles 48, 
California. 

[Boos from audience.] 

Mr. Nittle. In that application you stated that you planned to 
visit Denmark, Sweden, England, France, Italy, and Israel for a 
period of approximately 2 years. Your passport, No. 1289787, was re- 
newed pursuant to that application on January 28, 1960. 

Are you presently in possession of that passport? 

INIrs. Rosenberg. Would you be good enough to read the question, 
please? 

Mr. Nttti.e. The question is, Are you presently in possession of a 
passport for which you applied on January 28, i960 

The Chairman (to spectators). That is enough. 

Mr. Nittle. — and which the official records indicate you received 
from the United States Government on January 28, 1960? 

INIrs. Rosenberg. Is the suggestion made, Mr. Nittle, that a citizen 
of the United State? may not travel freely ? 

The Chairman. The question is absolutely 

Mrs. Rosenberg. To find out what 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 455 

The CnAiRMAN-. The question is absolutely proper, and I direct you 
to answer it. 

Mrs. RosENRERG. I am going to refuse to answer that question, and 
I am going to refuse to answer that and any question like it for the 
following reasons : In the first place 

Mr. NrriLE. Now, Mrs. Rosenberg, I don't think you need- 



Mrs. RosENRERG. I am giving my legal reasons in refusing to answer 
and I am entitled to be heard and I mean to be heard. I will not ca- 
pitulate to this or any committee whose sole purpose is to abuse the 
riglits of citizens. 

The Chairman". "VYell, now, nor are we going to stand for this kind 
of 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Well, I shouldn't be interrupted when I am giving 
my legal reasons. 

The Chairman'. You are not now giving reasons. And I wish 
you'd summarize them. You are not going to be permitted to expound 
a brief, if that is your intention. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Mr. Chairman, I was subpenaed here as I am. 
You take the risk of having people who speak nothing at all or speak 
at length. That is the risk you take. 

The Chairman. I wish you would speak at length and answer ques- 
tions. Now you are giving reasons, and we are Avilling to have 
them 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I have the right to give legal reasons, which I am 
prepared to do. 

The Chairman. Please state them. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. For my rejection and refusal, the rejection of the 
question and the refusal to answer. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I state the following, among other legal 
grounds, for my declination to answer that question: And the first 
ground is the first amendment, and the first amendment speaks in un- 
equivocal terms. It admits of no exceptions. And it declares with re- 
spect to many matters, including travel or political beliefs 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. — or political discussions or political advocacy that 
"the citizens," of which I am one, are sovereign and Congress is merely 
its agent. 

You, indeed, gentlemen, are servants to the public. 

The CHAiKaLiiN. That is an argument, and I don't care for you 
to go 

Mrs. Rosenberg. These are my legal reasons, Mr. Chairman. They 
may not 

The Chairman. All right. You invoked the privilege of the first 
amendment. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. You may not be kindly disposed to hearing my 
rationale, but the courts have uniformly held that the legal reasons 
for declination to answer are significant and must be heard, and I ask 
not for your indulgence but for my right. 

"It is against," said the Federalist Paper No. 71, "It is against the 
enterprising ambition of the legislature that the people ought to in- 
dulge their jealousy and exercise all their" — "When men govern 
themselves, it is they and no one else who may pass judgment upon 
public policies." And that means 



456 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTrVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mr. Chairman, I do ask that the witness not be per- 
mitted to argue. 

The Chairman. Now you, as a witness, have no right to go into a 
question with lengthy legal argument. It happens that we are law- 
yers. You are a lawyer. You can invoke, in substance, the provi- 
sions of law upon which you rely as a basis for refusal. That is 
perfectly proper. You have invoked the provisions of the first amend- 
ment. Now, you have invoked 

Mrs. Rosenberg. But there are very many parts to the first amend- 
ment, and I think this body and any court should know in what 
respects I invoke the first amendment. 

The Chairman. "Well, I now reject your invocation of the first 
amendment and order you to answer the question right now at this 
point. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I am answering it, Mr. Chairman, and I am 
answering it, sir, in a way in which I have a right to do, which is my 
way. I will not adopt your methods. I am not required to do so, A 
question was asked of me, and I mean to answer it. 

The Chairman. Yes. The question was asked of you about your 
travels, and you refuse to talk about them. You want to cloud the 
issue with side argument. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I am telling you why you do not have the 
right. I am making a record here, if not for this committee, perhaps 
for a higher body. And I intend not to be found 

The Chairman. Proceed, but state your reasons. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I am stating them 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. — as clearly as I know how. 

There is another great concern — and, gentlemen, you ought to be as 
interested in it as I — of the first amendment, upon which I decline to 
answer the question. The right to speak and to assemble is only a 
part of it, but the need to hear what others say, particularly to hear the 
unorthodox and dissident view is, as Walter Lippmann, a great person 
in this countrj'^, has put it: "It is an indispensable opposition and 
it is," he said, and I am quoting him — 

not evidently self-righteous when we argue as if the right of our opponent to 
speak was something we protect because we are magnanimous or noble. We 
must hear what the opposition has to say because freedom of discussion clarifies 
our opinions. So it is that the liberties of other men become our own vital 
necessity, and when I plead for this, I plead for the basic concerns of our 
country, that people may speak and people may hear in order properly to 
operate as part of an electorate. 

The Chairman. Now, again, I reject your invocation of the first 
amendment as the basis for refusal to answer your question. 

And I now ask you, Do you invoke the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I decline to answer that question on this further 
ground. 

The Chairman. Then I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Very well. I decline to answer that question, in- 
deed, on the basis of the fourth and the fifth amendments, and there 
is a very close unity, Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. All right. Your invocation on the basis of the 
fifth amendment is sustained. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 457 

Ask the next question. 

;Mr. iS'iTTLE. Now, JNIrs. Roseiibcrn;- 



Mrs. Rosenberg. You are not aware, Mr. Chairman, of what section 
of the fifth amendment I am relying on. I want no mistake. 

The CiiAiKMAN. Ask the next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I want no mistake and I challenge this committee 
on that point — that imless I have an opportunity to spell out my rea- 
sons on the basis of the fifth, I may well put my liberty in jeopardy. 

The Chairman. Well, w411 you state it ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I must state in absolute clarity 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. — what portion of the fifth amendment I seek to 
invoke. 

The Chairman. Well, all right. Now, state it clearly. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I am saying that the very origin of the 
privilege of the fifth amendment is not to be compelled to be a witness 
against oneself and has a long and honorable history, gentlemen, 
dating back to the time of Jesus. May I 

The Chairman. Now 

Mrs. Rosenberg. May I tell you the story of Jesus ? 

The Chairman. Now, I have sustained your invocation of your right 
to invoke the fifth amendment, and that ends it, and now I wdll 
not permit any further discussion on it. 

Ask the next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I think it is immoderate, Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. I rule in your favor, and you still want to debate. 
Now, we don't need that. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. No, Mr. Chairman, and I want the people of the 
United States to know how honorable the fifth amendment is. 

The Chairivian. Ask your next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And why I invoke it with honor. 

The Chairman. x\sk your next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Marshall, as counsel for Mrs. Rosenberg, may I 
request that you caution her and control your client? 

The Chairman. She is a lawyer herself. 

Now, I am telling you, ask the next question. 

[Applause.] 

The Chairman. Now, wait, you people back there. I am not going 
to stand for that emotionalism on either side. 

Mr. Marshall. Replying to committee counsel's request of me, may 
I say that I find no grounds for cautioning the witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Rosenberg, the conunittee's investigation has in- 
dicated 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I'm sorry, I didn't hear that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation indicates that you trav- 
eled from Mexico to Cuba by Cubana Airlines on April 6, 1962, and 
that you returned to the United States from Cuba in May 1962. 

Did you visit Cuba at that time ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. You know, INIr, Nittle, today, when the farthest 
neighbor of ours is less than a day's journev away 

Mr. Nittle. No, without argument. Now, just a minute. Without 
argument, Mrs. Rosenberg, will you at least tell us whether you will 
answer the question? 

98-765 — 63 — pt. 2 8 



458 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mrs. RosEisTBERG. I am answering the question. You must be pa- 
tient with me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Will you answer it then, please ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I have been very patient with this committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After you have answered the question, we will hear 
3^our arirument. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I have been subpenaed before this committee twice 
already, as you well know. I have been 

The Chairman. That is an argmnent. Xow answer the question, 
please. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I think that is the right of every citizen, nay the 
duty of every citizen, to travel and to learn the truth. 

The Chairman. You are not answering the question. I direct you 
to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I will answer. And I will answer it by saying that 
it is no proper concern of this committee when a citizen, any citizen, 
goes anywhere, Cuba included, to find the truth. 

Mr. Willis, now I say this 

The Chairman. Now I don't want any argmnent. You are refus- 
ing to answer the question ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I am refusing to answer it and I will give my 
reasons. 

The Chairman. Will you state them ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Yes. But, Mr. Willis, you know as well as I do 
that the newspapers very often do not give accurate reports. For 
example, that I meant 

The Chairman. That has nothing to do with the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I want part of the electorate 

The Chairman. She has not answered the question, and I have 
directed her to do it. Ask the next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I intend to answer it, and I will invoke all of the 
privileges of the Constitution afforded to me in refusing to answer 
that question, including the first and the fifth and the ninth and the 
tenth. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that you visited Cuba 
at that time in the company of Jean Kidwell Pestana, an attorney in 
the Los Angeles area. 

Did you travel to Cuba in April and May of 1962 in the company 
of Jean Kidwell Pestana ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I told you at the beginning that you were after 
finding out with whom I associate and where I go and what I think, 
and this is not properly the province of your inquiry. 

The Chairinian. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I intend to answer it in the way I under- 
stand it should be answered. 

The Chairman. Ask the nest question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I decline to answer that question 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's further information 

The Chairman. Wait. She's declining. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I decline to answer it because, as Bernard 
DeVoto, a great man, said, "It is none of anyone's damn business 
with whom I speak, with whom I have cocktails," and if he were 
alive today would say, "Where I travel" ; and I concur in that opinion. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 459 

The Chairman. All right. She has not invoked the fifth 
amendment. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I have invoked both the first and the fifth. If 
you were listening you would have heard that. 

[Laughter.] 

The Chairman. Ask the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information, based largely upon 
an examination of the official records of the State Department, that 
at the time of your travel to Cuba you did not then possess a U.S. 
passport specifically endorsed for travel to Cuba, as required by law. 

If this information is not correct, or should you have any explana- 
tion to offer, the committee would be pleased to have it. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I think there are explanations to offer, and the 
explanation I have to offer is that when there are serious considera- 
tions of peace that are involved, the people should get the facts. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And people should go wherever those facts are 
revealed. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I w411 decline to answer the question, as I indi- 
cated earlier I would decline to answer any question relating to my 
private 

The Chairman. For the reasons previously stated, is that the idea ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Do you want to take the stand, sir, and testify 
in my place? 

The Chairman. I want to proceed with the hearing and that 1 
intend to do. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Well, I take umbrage to the method in which this 
chairman is conducting this hearing and not permitting the witness 
to invoke the constitutional privileges in a way that this witness sees 
fit, which I do now invoke. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I do it with honor and with pride in order 
to preserve those 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Someday you may need to invoke these constitu- 
tional privileges 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. — and obtain sanctuary. 

The Chairman. Proceed. Ask the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Rosenberg, I hand you a copy of a report titled, 
"2 Cuba visitors to report on trip," marked for identification as 
"Rosenberg Exhibit No. 1," which appeared at page 3 of the West 
Coast Communist publication, People's World, on June 2, 1962. 

That exhibit reads as follows : 

Los Angeles — The Los Angeles Committee for Medical Aid to Cuba will hold 
its first public meeting on Wednesday, June 6, 8 p.m. at Channing Hall, 2936 
West 8th street. 

Feature of the evening will be a report by Attorneys Jean Kidwell Pestana 
and Rose Rosenberg on their one-month visit to Cuba during April and May 
of this year. * * * 

I also hand you a copy of a notice, marked for identification as 
"Rosenberg Exhibit No. 2," which appeared on page 11 of the pro- 
Communist National Guardian of June 4, 1962. Under the heading. 



460 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

"CALENDAR," subheading, ^^los angeles," the notice as follows 
appeared : 

MEDICAL AID TO CUBA L.A. Committee, invites you to its first meeting. 
Wed., June 6, at 8 p.m., Channing Hall, 2936 W. 8th. Attorneys Rose Rosen- 
berg and Jean Kidwell Pestana report with slides on their April-May visit to 
Cuba. Don. $1. 

Are you not the Rose Rosenberg to whom reference is made in Ex- 
hibits land 2? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. It's interesting that my good money and my good 
time is spent by this committee in quoting newspaper articles about 
people. 

As I initially said 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. All those items protected by the first amend- 
ment 

Mr. Tuck. Just wait one moment. 

Mr. Chairman, we have been subjected to stump speeches here all 
morning. I respectfully request you to direct the witness to answer 
the question and submit any legal ground she may have for not an- 
swering, but to desist from making these stump speeches. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer tlie question. It's a simple 
question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Mr. Chairman, I come from a long line of people 
who are enured to suffering and 

The Chairman. Ask the next question and [to reporter] take the 
question down. Listen to him. 

^Irs. Rosenberg. — and I decline to answer all the questions put 
to me with regard to all 

Mr. Nittle. ]Mrs. Rosenberg 

Mrs. Rosenberg. — due to the rights preserved to me under the first 
amendment and the fifth amendment, and I invoke those here. 

(Documents marked "Rosenberg Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," respec- 
tively, and retained in committee files.) 

The Chairman. Proceed. Next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. As my people have been required to do through 
their long and tragic history. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee's investigation 

The Chairman (to reporter) . Take his question. 

Mr. Nittle. — discloses that you and Jean Kidwell Pestana, in 
fact, appeared in person at the scheduled meeting of the Los Angeles 
Committee for Medical Aid to Cuba on June 6 at 8 p.m. in the Sever- 
ance Room of the First Unitarian Church at 2936 West 8th Street, 
Los Angeles; that a report on your Cuban trip was delivered there; 
and that there was a showing of slides illustrating Cuban events. 

Although the initial advertisement in Exhibits 1 and 2 indicated 
you would speak at Channing Hall, Channing Hall is, in fact, on the 
premises of the First L^nitarian Church ; is it not ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I think you have all the information and you 
don't need it from me, and I'm going to refuse to answer any questions 
propounded on the basis of this inquiry or this subject or any other 
before this body, and I — and I properly and proudly invoke the con- 
stitutional amendments, including the first and the fifth and the ninth 
and the tenth. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 461 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Well, we are interested in determining whether the 
information we have is correct. 

Now, you said we had the in format ion. Is this information correct? 

Mrs. EosENBEKG. Same question, same answer. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTi-LE. We understand that there were approximately 200 peo- 
ple in attendance at the meeting in the First Unitarian Church and 
(hat an admission fee of $1 per person was charged. 

Did you personally receive the proceeds from that collection ? 

Mrs. KosENBERG. If there were 200 people there who learned a little 
bit about Cuba, you should be happy they did so. And I refuse to 
answer that question on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know what disposition was made of the money 
collected at the meeting? 

]\Irs. Rosenberg. I refuse to answer that question as well as all 
others like it, but I certainly hope that there is sufficient humanity 
left 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg, —to help people everywhere 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, the meeting 

Mrs. Rosenberg. — in their needs for medicine and food. 

Mr. NrriTJi:. — at which you spoke was apparently sponsored by 
the 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Under the first and fifth amendments, I refuse to 
answer that question. 

Now, is there a question before me ? 

The Chairman. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am about to propound one. 

Was not the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, under whose sponsor- 
ship you apparently spoke, understood by you to be a Communist 
created and controlled enterprise? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. You are asking for my opinion, and I will give it. 

Mr. Nitple. I am asking you for your knowledge. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I will give you knowledge that I have; and the 
knowledge that I have is that this committee and you, Mr. Nittle, 
would better serve the American public if you were to investigate 
really meaningful occurrences, things that are going on in the South 
and our chairman's community — -^ 

Mr. Nittle. I am sure that your going to Cuba was a meaningful 
occurrence. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And for that reason and others I invoke the first 
and fifth amendments, and I am proud to do so. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Did you visit in Cuba, and engage in sspeaking activities 
on its behalf, for the purpose of influencing the public within the 
United States with respect to the political interests or policies of the 
Cuban Communist regime ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Are you finished with your question, Mr. Nittle ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. You know there was a time, Mr. Nittle, when the 
word "Communist" thrown around by this committee would have 
frightened the w^its out of everyone, and that was during the McCarthy 



462 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

era, both of which — ^both McCarthy and the era — fortunately, are 
now past. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Rosenberg, you and I can't engage in a chat here. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And you are reactivating that concept of incul- 
cating the fear by throwing words. 

The CHAiRMAiSr. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I will refuse to answer that and every ques- 
tion and for the same honorable reasons. 

The Chairman. Proceed with the next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And some day you will understand the true 



meamng 



Mr. Nittle. Are you a member of the Los Angeles chapter of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I think fair play is in the good tradition of the 
United States. 

The Chairman. Are you a member of it ? 

Mr. Nittle. I take it you are a member there ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I refuse to answer that question and I so 

Mr. Nittle. For the same reason ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Do you want to know why, Mr. Chairman? I 
have a right to invoke it and I do on the grounds of the first and the 
honorable fifth, which people, because of their struggles 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. — have kept intact for us to use. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you a member of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. What is the question ? 

Mr. Nittle. Are you a member of Women Strike for Peace? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. Peace? I remember when I was out — passing 
out 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
respond directly to the question. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And if this committee had its way, it would still 
be so, and I decline to answer because I think "peace" is a wonderful 
word and we should all be exerting all our energies in advancing 
the cause of peace. 

The Chairman. All right. And I • 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I know you called the Women's Strike for 
Peace before you. ^"Sliy? Because they were working for peace. 
You are against peace and against 

The Chairman. You have been directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I have refused to do so on the grounds 
previously set forth. 

Mr. Nittle. All right. Did you travel to Cuba, then engage in 
speaking activities upon your return, and are you engaging in such 
activities as have been related in connection with the Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee and Women Strike for Peace, while under the disci- 
pline of the Communist Party ? 

The Chairman. Well, proceed with the next question. 

[Laugliter.] 

The Chairman. Now, I am not going to stand for this emotional 
outburst. I have said it twice, and I propose to enforce the rules of 
this committee. You are here as our guests. We are glad to have you, 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 463 

all of yon. But we are to conduct this hearing with dispatch and with 
as much dio-nity as the Lord has iji ven us. 

Now, 1 do not want, and will not tolerate, emotional outbursts, 
whether for or against any particular view or witness. I hope you 
don't make me enforce that rule, but, believe me, it will be enforced 
if abused, meaning that those who are guilty of that will have to 
be ejected from the room. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, jMrs. Rosenberg, engage in such activities as 
we have mentioned — ■ — ■ 

Mrs. RosEXBERG. I think that question is not clear. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — while under discipline of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. In the great tradition of HUAC, which is the 
House Un-American Activities Committee — that is the word we use, 
Mr. Chairman, among ourselves, those of us who seek to abolish this 
committee, and the sooner the better — this is the type of question that 
this committee flourishes with. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I will refuse to answer that question. 

The Chairman. All right, next question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I will refuse to answer it 

The Chairman. I understand the basis of your refusal. I am not 
being contentious. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I want the record to be clear, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairsi AN. All right. 

INIrs. Rosenberg. I am not trusting of this committee, frankly. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. The whole concept of this committee is rooted 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, in the year 1952. Mrs. Rosenberg 

Mrs. Rosenberg. The first and fifth are the amendments to the 
Constitution I here invoke. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — the committee received testimony relating to com- 
munism in Los Angeles professional groups. 

On January 24, 1952, the committee received the testimony of Mr. 
A. Marburg Yerkes, who testified that he was a practicing lawyer in 
the city of Los Angeles and became a member of the Communist 
Party in the early part of 1946, withdrawing from it in the winter of 
1948-49. He testified that he became a member of a group or cell of 
the Communist Party of the Los Angeles area which was limited to 
members of the legal profession and that, during the course of his 
memberehip in the professional grouj:) of the Communist Party, he 
was instructed to become active in the National Lawyers Guild. 

He testified further, as did other witnesses in the course of the 
hearings, that the Los Angeles Chapter of the National La^^'yers 
Guild included about 150 lawyers and, of this group, he knew approxi- 
mately 30 such members as Communist Party members, some of whom 
occupied leadership positions in the organization and controlled its 
activities. Among those whom he identified as in attendance with 
the Communist group was Rose Rosenberg. 

Were you correctly identified by Mr. Yerkes as a member of the 
Los Angeles professional unit of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. To answer that question, Mr. Chairman, would be 
to dishonor every tradition of my religion and of the deepest concepts 
of the religion ever 



464 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs, Rosenberg. I refuse to answer that question because to do so 
would, in my opinion, degrade me. To think tliat all this conunittee 
can do is to have stool pigeons- 



Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Los Angeles 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I invoke my privileges 

Mr. NmxE. — chapter 

Mrs. Rosenberg. — of the first and of the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

lilr. NiTrLE. Are you, Mrs. Rosenberg, a member of the Los Angeles 
Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild ? 

Mrs. Rosenberg. However honorable a body it is, I would not take 
the risk of exposing it to your machinations and, on that basis and 
upon other grounds previously stated, including the first and fifth, 
I will tell 3'ou nothing. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me the Fall 1957 issue of the Lawyers 
Guild Review^ a publication of the National Lawyers Guild. On page 
118 it appears that, on tlie occasion of certain recent United States 
Supreme Court decisions, the New York City Chapter of the Lawyers 
Guild announced a banquet in honor of tliose members who con- 
tributed in the courts "to the defense of the Bill of Rights." 

Among the guests of honor thus honored appears the name "Rose 
Rosenberg, California." 

I hand you a copy of tliat exhibit [marked for identification as 
"Rosenberg Exhibit No. 3"] and ask whether you are the Rose Rosen- 
berg whose name as a guest of honor appears in that exhibit? 

jVIrs. Rosenberg. ISIr. Chairman, I am proud to say that I have on 
many occasions, but not enough occasions, defended the Bill of Rights, 
And I do that in this room today. And you gentlemen should be 
down defending the Constitution in the South where there are beat- 
ings and lynchings. where there is death 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. And I will refuse to answer, as you well know, 
but I am here to tell you 

(Document marked "Rosenberg Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There are no further questions. 

The Chairman. No further questions. 

The witness is excused. 

Mrs. Rosenberg. I don't think, j\Ir. Chairman, I had the opportu- 
nity to invoke the privileges of the Constitution which I have defended, 
and will continue to defend, and particularly the first and fifth amend- 
ments in the great tradition of lawyers and participating citizens 
everywhere. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

("VVliereupon, at 11 :30 a.m., the subcommittee recessed until 11 :50 
a,m. of the same day.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

It was necessary during the short recess we took for the subcom- 
mittee to consider something in executive session, and I didn't realize 
that time was running so short on us. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 465 

It is now 5 minutes to 12, and I am told that we have an engagement 
at 12 o'clock, so I regret to have had you sit down. I didn't know it 
was that close to 12. And so the subcommittee will stand in recess 
until a quarter to 2, which means we probably will have to have a 
Ioniser session this afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :55 a.m., Monday, July 1, 1963, the subcommittee 
recessed, to reconvene at 1 :45 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— MONDAY, JULY 1, 1963 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1 :4:5 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding. ) 

Members present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and Johansen of 
the subcommittee, and also Representative Ashbrook. 

The Chaikman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

It's pretty difficult to accommodate everybody in a hearing of this 
kind. Mr. and ]Mrs. Randolph's lawyer said that they have two chil- 
dren with them here today from out of town. They had been sched- 
uled to appear tomorrow instead of today. I don't know them and 
I accept their lawyer's word. This may be inconveniencing somebody 
else. I hope not. But, anyway, I told them I'd do the best I can. 

So, Mr. Nittle, I wish you would call as your first witness this 
afternoon one or the other. I don't know in which order you want 
them, 

Mr. Nittle. Right, sir. 

Would Robert Eugene Randolph please come forward? 

The Chairman. Will you please raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Randolph. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OP EOBERT EUGENE RANDOLPH, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, HUGH R. MANES 

Mr, NiTTi.E. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Randolph. My name is Robert Eugene Randolph, and my 
residence is at 4086 Second Avenue, Sacramento. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Manes. Yes. My name is Hugh Manes. I am an attoiTiey 
and practicing at 1680 North Vine Street, Hollywood, California. 

Mr. Randolph. If I may, Mr. Counsel, I would like to make a 
request at this point, or should I address the question to the chair- 
man, Mr. Willis? 

JNIr. Nitti.e. Would you address it to the chaiiTnan, Mr. Willis. 

Mr. Randolph. May I ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Randolph. I would like to at this point ask for an executive 
session on the_ ground that the nature of the questioning is of a pri- 
vate sort, dealing with personal affairs, personal views, personal opin- 
ions, personal activities, which, in the large sense, leads most of all 



466 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

to a sort of public scorn, the kind of tendentious slander that is im- 
plied in so much of what is asked that public obloquy results, and 
I here again wish to request an executive session. 

In so requesting, may I bring to your attention, as an illustration 
of just what I mean, the fact that this morning the witness had iden- 
tified herself by name and by an address that was more than sufficient 
as to where she can be reached. However, Mr. Nittle, the counsel, 
gratuitously introduced into the record her personal address, in spite 
of the reservations and the protest that she had indicated in this 
regard. 

Also, one final thing, this request has been made by me before, both 
in writing and orally, and by Mr. Wirin on my behalf. 

The Chairman. Well, your application tor quashing the subpena 
and for being heard in executive session was received in Washington 
before we came here, and so the full committee had an opportunity 
to consider it, and we did consider the application of both you and 
your wife, and after full consideration it was rejected. 

Obviously, you base — you must base your motion on some point of 
law or rule, and the rule that you mentioned in your letter was rule 
26 — I mean subsection 26 (m) of Rule XI of the House. Rules of the 
House are binding on all committees and subcommittees. 

As I indicated this morning, someone is misinterpreting the rules 
of the House. That rule has no application to you as a witness. It 
would apply to a third party whom a witness on the stand might men- 
tion during the course of his testimony. 

You were here this morning, were you not, when I ruled on this same 
issue with reference to the lady whom you just named ? 

Mr. Randolph. Yes, I was. B at 

The Chahiman. Well, for the reason of the inapplicability of the 
rule you rely on and for the other reasons already in the record, which 
I need not repeat since you heard them, the motion is denied. 

Mr. Randolph. May I 

The Chaieman. Proceed. 

Mr. Randolph. May I make one final comment, Mr. Chairman, that 



the- 

Mr. Chahiman. Not unless you have another motion to make. If 
you want to argTie it, we have courts, you have lawyers, and all that. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Mr. Randolph, would y^ou state the place and date of 
your birth, please ? 

Mr. Randolph. "Wliat is the relevancy of the question ? 

Mr. Nittle. The official records indicate, Mr. Randolph, that a 
person bearing the name of Robert Eugene Randolph has made ap- 
plication for a passport. It is important in the committee's investi- 
gation to determine whether you are the Randolph who made that 
application. It would be a means of ascertaining your identifica- 
tion to know what your birth date was and your place of birth. 

The Chairman. And besides, it's a usual preliminary question of 
identification asked of witnesses before all committees and all courts. 

Mr. Randolph. My birth date was the 14th of October, 1920. 

Mr. Nittle. And would you state the place of your birth? 

Mr. Randolph. I was bom right here in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate to the committee the extent of your 
formal education, giving the dates and places of attendance at edu- 
cational institutions and any degrees or certificates received? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 467 

Mr. Randolph. Once again I must ask, What is tho relevancy of 
this question ? 

The Chairman. The question — the same answer applies here as to 
the other one. It's identification and for purposes of the record and 
the scope of the hearino-s. 

Mr. NiTiLE. May I also add, Mr. Chairman, for the benefit of the 
witness 

The Chairman. Oh, we are not going to lose time with things that 
way. 

I order you to answer the question. We have got to move and we 
will move, too. 

Mr. Randolph. I was educated in the public schools in the State of 
California. I hold a bachelor's degree and a master's degree. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what were the years of your attend- 
ance in the public schools and what public schools you attended? 

Mr. Randolph. I must have begun my public school education in 
about 1925 and completed high school in 1937. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where was the place of your attendance at school ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer this question on the following 
grounds — and I have prepared for myself, with the help of my at- 
torney, a memorandum so that I can stipulate to you the statements 
that t^he answer to this question — that I wish you to have : 

First, the mandate of this conmiittee, on its face and as applied, 
transgresses on the first amendment right of all citizens to freedom 
of expression, association, and press and to petition the Goverimient 
for a redress of grievances. 

Second, the mandate of this committee is so broad and vague that 
it does not provide adequate standards for determining the consti- 
tutional limits of its authority, with the result that it leaves the scope 
of its inquiry to the whim of its members, while depriving the citizen 
of fair notice of the relevancy or propriety of its inquiry. 

Third, the announced subject matter of this investigation impinges 
upon the people's freedom to travel and to become infonned and en- 
lightened in order to more effectively govern themselves. 

This investigation constitutionally arrogates to Government a right 
retained exclusively by citizens to go and see what, w4ien, and where 
they please and, most importantly, this investigation has the purpose 
and effect of abridging the rijrht of citizens to seek and discover for 
themselves the truth concerning conditions and events m other lands, 
and making their own choices as to what ideas or conditions found 
there, if any, will be useful in promoting their own destiny, a deter- 
mination which the Constitution vests in the people and not in the 
Government. 

Fourth, the question asked is not pertinent or relevant to the sub- 
ject under investigation nor to the purported authority of this com- 
mittee. 

Fifth, the publication of my name in advance of this hearing is in 
violation of Rule XVI of this committee and is a violation of my right 
of privacy as guaranteed by the first, fourth, and fifth amendments 
to the United States Constitution and deprives this committee of any 
jurisdiction to conduct further inquiries of me. 

Sixth, the failure and refusal of this committee to conduct this 
inquiry in executive session, as I have heretofore requested, both by 
letter and orally, violated Rule XI, section 26(m), of this committee's 



468 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

mandate in that, among other things, the questions asked, and to be 
asked of me, seek evidence and testimony which tend or may tend to 
defame me and because this public hearing has no legitimate legisla- 
tive purpose, but is designed and tends to expose nie to recrimination 
of various kinds and to hold witnesses and their ideas up to public 
obloquy, and further infringes upon the constitutional rights of 
privacy, all this in violation of the first, f oui-th, and fifth amendments 
to the Constitution. 

Seventh, this subcommittee is illegally constituted and without jur- 
isdiction to conduct these proceedings for lack of a quorum as re- 
quired by rule 26(h) , in that two of its members represent States w^iich 
deny to and abridge the franchise of its Negro inhabitants, which 
States have not been, and are not now, duly and lawfully apportioned 
in accordance with section 2 of the fourteenth amendment to the Fed- 
eral Constitution. 

Eighth, the question compels me to testify against myself in viola- 
tion of the fifth amendment of the United States Constitution. 

The Chairjiax. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NriTLE. The committee has information that you received your 
master's degree in economics from the University of California. Is 
that correct ? 

Mr. Randolph. Counsel asks this question knowing full well to 
the basis of the statement I have — the answer I have just completed, 
that I will decline to answer this on those same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The records in the file of the Department of State 
indicate tlixit on January 6, 19G1, at San Francisco, you applied for a 
United States passport stating that you desired to visit England, 
France, and Sweden for the purpose of pleasure and that you pro- 
posed to depart for those countries from New York or San Francisco 
about June 1961. 

The official records in the Department of State indicate that, pur- 
suant to that application, on the very same date a United States pass- 
port numbered B-094S90 was then issued to you. 

Are you presently in possession of that passport ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer this question on the grounds 
previously enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at the time of filing your application for a 
United States passport intend to travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer this question also on the grounds 
previously enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time since the receipt of your passport 
visited England, France, or Sweden, the countries set forth in your 
application as places you intended to visit ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
apply to the Department of State for a validation of your passport 
for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer this question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware in March 1961 that such an endorse- 
ment was required for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 469 

Mr. NriTi.E. It is (ho committee's information, Mr. Randolph, that 
you did not after Jannaiy IG, 1961, at any time apply to the Depart- 
ment of State for a validation of passport for travel to Cuba. Is that 
information correct? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTLK. Did you at any time after the receipt of your passport 
on January 6, 19G1, travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Mr. Randolph, I am having Mr. "VVlieeler pass to you a 
photostatic copy of page 3 of the official Communist publication, 
People's World, for April 29, 1961, which is marked for identification 
as "Robert. Randolph Exhibit No. 1." 

I direct your attention to an article appearing therein under the by- 
line of Nancy Scott, titled, "Rally in the rain against intervention." 
The article describes a protest meeting, or demonstration, in which 
600 persons gathered at the Civic Center plaza in San Francisco to 
hear speakers from the Fair Play for Cuba urging "Hands off Cuba" 
and "No intervention in Cuba!" You are noted as participating in 
the rally witli the reading of a poem and you are described as a "recent 
traveler to Cuba." 

Are you not the Bob Randolph to whom reference is made in that 
article? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

(Document marked "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]Mr. Randolph, it is the committee's information that 
you and your wife, Valeda Bryant Randolpli, left iMexico City on 
Marcli 13, 1961, to visit Cuba as guests of the Cuban Government. 

Did you personally visit Cuba and leave from Mexico City for that 
purpose on March 13, 1961 ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer this question on the grounds 
previously stated, plus the additional reason that I invoke the husband- 
and-wife privilege as guaranteed by Rule XII of the i-ules of the com- 
mittee, as well as by Federal statute. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Well, now, I haven't asked you 

The Chairman. "Wait a minute. There is no question asked you 
concerning your wife or in the sense indicated, and let me say that I 
know that rule and we respect it in all instances. There is no effort 
to violate that rule on your privilege, I assure you of that. And I 
don't think the question has any such import. 

jSIr. NiTTLE. No, sir. 

The Chairman. So proceed with it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is: Did you personally visit Cuba in 
March 1961 ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to ansv\-er on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the information of the committee that while in 
Mexico, prior to your visit to Cuba, you attended what has been re- 
ferred to as the Mexican Peace Conference ^ which took place in 
Mexico on March 5 to 8, inclusive. 



^ Latin American Conference for National Sovereignty, Economic Emancipation and 
Peace, Mexico City, March 5-8, 1961. 



470 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Did you attend the Mexican Peace Conference March 5 to 8, 1961 ? 

Mr. Eaxdolph. What is the pertinency of this question to the sub- 
ject, as the stated subject matter under inquiry ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is evidence which would corroborate your presence 
in Mexico at a time on or about your leaving there for a visit to Cuba. 
It is also relevant to show the purposes and circumstances of your 
visit to Cuba — to Mexico, and thereafter to Cuba. 

Mr. Randolph. Would you repeat the question? There is a bit 
of confusion at the end there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. Did joii, while in Mexico, attend the Mexican 
Peace Conference for the period March 5 to March 8, 1961, in Mexico? 

Mr. Randolph. You, in commenting on the relevancy of the ques- 
tion in your explanation, this is where the confusion lay. 

Would you be kind enough to repeat it, your responses to my question 
regarding the relevancy ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. I stated that it was the committee's information 
that you were present in Mexico in March 1961 and that on March 13, 
1961, you left Mexico for Cuba. 

Now, the pertinency relates to your presence in Cuba — in Mexico 
at that time. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Randolph. Would you start again, because again I don't know 
which you mean ? 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. You are 
pussyfooting. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Randolph. I don't think this is pussyfooting, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Well, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Randolph. I have been asked a question and I have asked for 
its relevancy, and counsel, on two occasions 

The Chairman. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Randolph. — has very confusing responses, and I invoke all 
the grounds for not responding that I previously enumerated. 

The Chairman. Let me say this : I didn't mean that 

Mr. Randolph. He says Mexico; he says Cuba. What does he 
mean? 

The Chairman. Well, for myself, personally, I regret I used that 
word because I never do. 

But let me say this : After all, we were mighty courteous to you and 
your wife and your children to call you here. Now, I am not saying 
you should cooperate with this committee. You have a right to 
invoke all your rights ; but if you say you are in a hurry to go back 
home, you can accommodate yourself by at least answering the ques- 
tions or refusing to answer them without delay. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. IVfr. Randolph, I now hand you a photostatic copy of 
page 11 of the Communist People's World dated May 13, 1961. It is 
marked for identification as "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 2." 

I direct your attention particularly to the column marked "^Yliat's 
On" and under the subheading "east bay" there appears an an- 
nouncement that Robert and Valeda Randolph of Berkeley will deliver 
an eyewitness report on Cuba and Latin America. It is stated in the 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 471 

course of this report that you will give details of the "great Latin 
American conference for peace and independence in Mexico City." 
Chairman for the evenino- is stated to be Paul Heide, H-e-i-d-e, of 
Warehouse Union Local 6, who is described as its business agent. 

It is set forth that that meeting will be held at the "United Nations 
Hall, 160 Grande xV venue," in Oakland, on Friday, May 19, 1961, under 
the auspices of the Supporters of National Guardian described as 
SONG, S-O-N-G, which are the initials of this group. 

Are you not the Robert Randolph of Berkeley to whom reference 
is made in this exhibit ? 

Mr. Randolph. ]May I say first that it is pronounced Berkeley ? 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Randolph. And next that I decline to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the Mexican Peace Conference understood by 
you to be a Communist-sponsored meeting ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 2" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. "Wlieeler will hand you now a photostatic copy of 
a flier or advertisement marked for identification as "Robert Ran- 
dolph Exhibit No. 3." 

This flier announces your scheduled appearance at the United Na- 
tions Hall, Oakland, on Friday, May 19, 1961, to which reference was 
made in the Peoples World, Exhibit No. 2 previously handed to you. 

Exhibit 3 likewise reports you as being in attendance at the Mexico 
City conference "for independence and peace" on March 5 through 8 
and also sets forth that you were present in Cuba from March 13 to 
April 3. 

Did you make this information available to those who prepared 
the flier? 

Mr. Randolph. I would like to say, first, to bring to your attention 
regarding this exhibit, Mr. Nittle, that nowhere on it does it show 
a year. It shows months and days, but nowhere on it does it show 
a year, whether it's 1960 or 1961 or 1955. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, let me ask you. Was it not, in fact, disseminated 
in the year 1961 and prior to May 19, 1961 ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated, 

(Document marked "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 3" follows.) 



472 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 3 




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PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 473 

Mr. ISTinxE. Was the chairman of the United Nations Hall meeting 
at which you were to appear, and did appear, Mr. Paul Heide? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
enumerated, plus the fact that this begins to smack of an inquiry 
of me regarding a whole matter of informing; and I think that our 
own heritage in this country, as well as the English heritage that our 
jurisprudence is derived from, plus the very source of things that 
we teach our children, that this is an odious sort of behavior. 

]\Iay I remind you again that I am invoking my privileges as previ- 
ously enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Did you appear there, or make your arrangements for 
an appearance there, to deliver this report in discussions with Mr. 
Paul Heide? 

Mv. RANDOLrii. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Paul Heide and his wife. Ruby Heide, were identified 
in hearings before this committee which were held on December 3, 
1953, in this area. 

At that time Charles David Blodgett testified that he, for the 
period 1943 to 1950, was a member of the Young Communist League 
and a member of the Communist Party in Minnesota and in Cali- 
fornia ; that he knew a Mr. Paul Heide of the Warehousemen's Union, 
Local 6, and his wife. Ruby Heide, to be members of the Communist 
Party in Alameda County. 

Do you know Paul Heide to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Randolph. I renew my answer on the grounds previously 
enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If you did not know Paul Heide to be a member of the 
Communist Party, how would that possibly incriminate you ? 

Mr. Randolph. I have given my reasons; and if you will recall 
them, they involve a great deal more than the protections of the fifth 
amendment. It's not just a question of the point that you raise. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also hand you, Mr. Randolph, a photostatic copy of 
an item marked for identification as "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 
4." It is titled "Bay Area readers form Committee to help Guardian," 
which appeared at page 10 of the Nat'tonal Guardian for May 15, 
1961. The article likewise announces your scheduled May 19, 1961, 
appearance at the LTnited Nations Hall in the International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's Union Building in Oakland. 

The article reports that : 

A GUARDIAN readers conference has organized an East Bay committee to get 
more readers for the paper in the San Francisco Bay Area. The new committee 
is called Supporters of National Guardian and is known by its initials — SONG. 

It appears therein also that the first public meeting of the new 
committee will be held on May 19 at the United Nations Hall and that 
the speakers will be Robert and Valeda Randolph, who are reported 
"recently returned from the Mexico Peace Conference and Cuba" 
and that "Paul Heide, ILWU business agent, will be cluiirman." 

Did you speak on that occasion, as it was announced tliat you would 
do? 



98-765— 63— pt. 2- 



474 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Eandolpii. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Kobert Kandolph Exhibit No. 4" and retained 
in committee liles.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation reveals that at the meet- 
ing at the United Nations Hall on May 19, 1961, during the course of 
your address you stated that you had been in Cuba from March 13 
to April 3, 1961. 

Did you make that statement to that group assembled at the United 
Nations Hall ? 

Mr. Randolph. This question is addressed to what I said and as 
such, I would contend, violates my privileges under the first amend- 
ment, wherein the right of free speech and the right of assembly is 
involved, and I feel it is a particular invasion of my first amendment 
privileges and I call this to your attention, but invoke all the grounds 
previously stated for declining to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the question-and-answer period following your ad- 
dress at the United Nations Hall, were you not asked the question, 
"Wliy did Castro state recently that there would be no election in 
Cuba ? " Did you not reply : 

This is another case of improiier newspaper reporting. What really happened 
was that Castro had asked the Cuban people if they wanted elections held under 
the old laws that prevailed under Batista and former Cuban leaders and the 
people had replied "No." So Castro had said no more elections until a new con- 
stitution and new laws could be put into effect. 

Was that question asked of you and w^as that answer made by you ? 

Mr. Randolph. Again, I want to remind you that you are dealing 
in the area of speech and the dissemination of opinions and views, and 
I decline to answer on all my constitutional grounds previously 
elicited. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In view of your remark, may I state briefly for the 
record, Mr. Chairman, that the Supreme Court in the Communist 
Party case has passed upon these first amendment claims. 

The Chairman. Oh, of course they have, and let's not lose time on 
quotations. He knows that. Get to the question. 

[Laughter and applause.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, we hand you a copy of the Pnlo Alto Times of 
May 24, 1961. Tlie article is entitled "Church sets Cuba program for 
Smiday." It is numbered for identification as "Robert Randolph Ex- 
hibit No_. 5." 

That item reports that the "world affairs committee of the Palo 
Alto Unitarian Church, 505 Charleston Road, will sponsor a color- 
slide talk on Cuba on Sunday at 8 p.m. in the church"; that Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert Randolph of Berkeley will give the talk, and states 
that they recently returned from a 3-week tour of five of the six 
Cuban provinces. It is also stated therein that Randolph's training 
in economics and experience in real estate assisted him in evaluating 
housing and property financing in present-day Cuba. 

Did you address the church group as set forth in the news account? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer — I decline to answer on grounds 
previously stated. 

(Document marked "Robert Randol]>h Exhibit No. 5" and retained 
in committee files.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 475 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you youi-self seek this engagement to speak to the 
Palo Alto Unitarian Church group ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Were these arrangements made for you on your behalf 
by the Fair Play for Cuba Committee or any of its representatives? 

Mr. Randolph. To say it is interesting is really an understatement 
that this committee concerns itself with who organized what meetings 
where. Somehow the holding of public meetings of any group is 
very consistent with the pursuit of the democratic processes, which 
more and more seem to be falling into disrepute in this country when 
vigorously exercised. 

I would say this and proceed to say that I decline to answer this 
question on my grounds as I have enumerated them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Bay Area Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee? 

Mr. Randolph. This is a further question that deals with my first 
amendment rights of association. I bring this to your attention and 
I decline to answer the question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Randolph, we are going to hand you a copy 
of the June 1961 issue of a magazine titled, The liberal democrat. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. At page 11 appears an article titled, "The Land They 
Invaded," under the by-line of Robert Randolph, and marked for 
identification as "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 6." 

May I ask you to inspect that and then return it to me for a ques- 
tion I propose to ask. 

Have you sufficiently examined that item so as to be able to identify 
it and to answer the question whether or not you are the Robert 
Randolph who contributed that article to The liberal democrat? 

Mr. Randolph. Pardon me, Mr. Nittle, would you repeat your 
question ? 

Mr. Nittle. I will ask the reporter to read it back to you. 

The Chairman. Are you the man who contributed that article as 
the by-line states you did ? That is all there is to it. Are you ? That 
is the only question, 

Mr. Randolph. On the matter of the preparation of an article, 
again we are dealing with words, whether spoken or written words. 
The preparation of an article by anyone is public information and 
is the preparation of vievrs in writing and is certainly the exercise 
of our first amendment privileges, but I might say responsibilities 
as well. 

And with regard to your question, I decline to answer on my 
grounds that I have previously enumerated. 

(Document marked "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 6'' and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. In this article do you not write : 

After the U.S. by its recriminntory policies has driven Cuba into close trade 
and technical aid ties with the Communist-bloc countries (literally for its eco- 
nomic survival), the U.S. then cries shrilly that Cuba has become a Soviet 
satellite and a Communist base of operations in this hemisphere. After a certain 
amount of this, even the sturdiest of liberals can begin to think that "where 
there's so much smoke there must be a little fire". * * * As one militiaman 
told, us, "We want to be friends with the United States, but tell your people 



476 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST tT.S, 

that if your government attacks us, it will find a Cuban behind every rock and 
behind every tree." 

Did you write this article ? 

The Chairman. He already refused to answer the question. Ask 
your next one. 

Mr. Randolph. I am conferring with counsel, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. I suofgested that he ask the next question. 

Mr. Randolph. Well, I need to respond to this question. I need 
to respond to questions one by one. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Randolph, I am conferring with counsel. It will just take 
us a moment. 

The Chairman. I thought I'd relieve you. 

Mr. Randolph. Again, I would emphasize the first amendment 
aspects of the constitutional protections that I have invoked, and I 
stand on that and all the others that I have enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you received any compensation, directly or indi- 
rectly, from the Cuban Government with the understanding that you 
would conduct such activities as have been described on behalf of the 
Cuban Government and in support of the Communist regime in Cuba ? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the record may be clear, and without implying 
that under existing laws you would or would not be required to resiis- 
ter, we should like to inquire whether you have made application for 
or registered with the Attorney General under the Foreign Agents; 
Eefristration Act of 1938? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Xow, Mr. Randolph, we hand you a copy of page 4 of 
the Communist People''s World of May 8, 1946, marked for identifica- 
tion as "Robert Randolph Exhibit No'. 7." 

I direct vour attention to the article titled, "A YD pickets Francois 
S.F. embassy Sat." 

The article reports the picketing of the Spanish Embassy and a 
petition campaisfn directed to the United Nations demanding that 
the ITnited Nations take action against Francisco Franco. The ar- 
ticle declares that this campaign was organized by the newly formed 
"\Tnprirnn Youth for Democracv Tnter-Colleofiate Council of North- 
(^vr\ C'll'fornia" oomposed of AYD members from the San Francisco 
S'^ntp Collojre. TTpi-<-prsitv of California at Berkeley, San Jose Junior 
CoHeo-p. Stnnford TTniversity, and San Francisco Junior College. A 
Bob Randolph is identified "as a University of California student and 
chairman of that council. 

Are you not the Bob Randolph who was at that time identified as^ 
chairman of the council ? 

Mr. Randolph. First amendment rights are being dealt with again.. 
The right of free and unimpaired association with others. And T 
decline to answer the question on the ground that I have previously- 
stated. 

(Document marked "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 7" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. Nittij:. This committee on March 29, 1944 — when I refer to 
"this committee," I am referring to the House Committee on Un- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 477 

American Activities— issued a report that the American Youth for 
Democracy was the successor of the Young Communist League. 

In 1948 Attorney General Tom Clark described the American Youth 
for Democracy as subversive and Communist. Likewise, on August 
JiO, 1950, Attorney General J. Howard McGrath declared the Ameri- 
can Youth for Democracy to have been a Communist organization. 

Were j'ou aware at the time you assumed the chairmanship of the 
American Youth for Democracy Intercollegiate Council of Northern 
California that the organization that you were serving was a Com- 
munist organization? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
■stated. 

Mr. NiTFLE. "Were you not also, as this committee's investigation 
indicates, a member of the Labor Youth League in the Bay Area for 
the period from 1950 until its dissolution in the year 1957? 

Mr. Randolph. Once again the question invades the whole area of 
the right of association, and I decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Labor Youth League was declared to be a Com- 
munist organization by Attorney General J. Howard McGrath in a 
report released on August 30, 1950. 

The Subversive Activities Control Board, after extensive hearings 
reported : 

The Labor Youth League is the principal means whereby a segment of Ameri- 
can youth is indoctrinated and trained for dedicated membership and future 
positions of leadership in the [Communist] Party. It is also the means whereby 
these individuals are put into active service in support and in aid of Communist 
Party policies and objectives. 

Would you care to tell the committee, Mr. Randolph, whether 
your experience in the Labor Youth League confirms this finding? 

Mr. Randolph. No, I would not care to tell the committee anything 
about those findings. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Randolph. And I — my declination is on the grounds, rather 
lengthy grounds, that I have previously enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation further reveals that 
you were in attendance in July 1962 at the Communist-staged World 
Peace Congress, which was held in Moscow. 

Did you attend the World Peace Congress as a delegate to it from 
the United States? 

Mr. Randolph. What is the relevancy, initially, of this question 
regarding the inquiry that the committee has announced? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The relevancy of the question is based upon a principle 
of the law of evidence, that past conduct of a nature similar to that 
under present inquiry is always relevant and material to show knowl- 
edge, disposition on the part of the witness. 

Mr. Randolph. I don't understand what you mean by "past con- 
duct." You are citing a 1962 date here. It seems that that follows 
1961. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I should have amended my statement of relevancy by 
saying both past and subsequent conduct of a nature similar to that 
under inquiry 

Mr. Randolph. I see. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — is relevant under a principle of the law of evidence. 



478 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Kandolph. First amendment rights are particularly involved 
here again, the right of association, the right to the acquisition of 
information and the development of ideas, and, most particularly, 
a certain onus is being suggested with regard to the most basic 
right to travel in connection with the right to gather one's informa- 
tion, which is what really underlies the right of free speech. There- 
fore, I decline to answer this question on this gromid and all the 
others that I have detailed previously. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Moscow radio on July 16 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. — 1962, broadcast a report of an interview with you 
by Russian correspondent Nina Alekseyev in Leningrad, relating to 
your impressions of the World Peace Congress. 

She reported you as saying, and I quote : 

Well, we came here with high hopes and we had some high hopes, a sense 
of having accomplished the purposes of the Congress very successfully during 
the 5 days that it was taking place. 

Did you make that statement to Nina Alekseyev as reported by 
Moscow radio ? 

Mr. Randolph. We are dealing with an area of communications 
between persons of the United States and persons of the Soviet Union, 
the two powers that must maintain peace between themselves if 
world peace is to be really maintained. x\nd in these days of great 
peril, unimaginable peril, wherein the — by the report of Seymour 
Melman, the Columbia University professor — the Soviets are capable 
of obliterating every American city of over 100,000 population 140 
times over and we, in turn, with our 40,000 nuclear bombs — that still 
somehow don't give us comfort — are able to obliterate the same sized 
Russian cities or over of 100,000 population or over 1250 times each, 
in view of this kind of dilemma that we all share — and the citizens 
of California and of Louisiana and Virginia and Wisconsin and 
everywhere across our land share the same fundamental human di- 
lemma — for which there is no easy solution by the struggle to com- 
municate, the struggle to relate to other members of the human 
familv 



Mr. NiTTLE. Now, we are not asking for 

The Chairman. Well, maybe he's trying to say that is why he 
went to Moscow. Come on. Go on. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you go to Moscow ? 

The Chairman. You mean you haven't answered the question yet ? 

Mr. Randolph. I know I haven't answered the question yet, and 
I don't intend to. 

[Lausfhter.] 

The Chairman. I thought so. 

Mr, Randolph. But I think this is something that is material, that 
has something to do with the proper political life of the American 
people, with the function of this committee in relation to the political 
life of the American people; and having said this, I then decline to 
answer your question on the grounds I have previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Was your attendance at the World Peace Congress for 
the purpose of giving support to the objectives of the Soviet Com- 
munist dictatorship? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 479 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following your attendance at the World Peace Con- 
gress at JSIoscow, did you not then proceed to Tokyo, for attendance 
at the Coinniunist-sponsored Eighth World Conference Against 
Atomic and Plydrogen Bombs and for Prevention of Nuclear War? 
That is the title of this conference, a rather lengthy one. 

Did you or did you not then proceed to Tokyo and attend that 
Communist-sponsored Eighth World Conference? 

Mr. Randolph. I want to answer this question. 

I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]Mr. Randolph, it may interest you to know that the 
Peking radio on August 1, 1902, in reporting on the conference, stated 
that the United States delegate, Robert Randolph, in his address, 
"opposed the stationing of IJ.S. troops in any foreign country and 
stood against intervention in the internal affairs of foreign countries. 
The American people want to exert their efforts in developing the 
peace movement." 

Did Peking radio correctly report statements allegedly made by 
you at the conference? 

Mr. Randolph. Well, I can't speak for Peking radio ; but with re- 
gard to myself, I decline to answer on the grounds that I have pre- 
viously enumerated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were your remarks at the conference in Tokyo uttered 
for the purpose of serving the propaganda objectives of the Commu- 
nist movement? 

Mr. Randolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Johansen. I have no questions. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will Valeda Bryant Randolph please come forward? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF VALEDA BEYANT EANDOLPH, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, HUGH R. MANES 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Randolph, would you state your full name and 
residence for the record, please? 

Mrs. Randolph. My name is Valeda Randolph. My residence is 
4086 Second Avenue, Sacramento. 

Mr. Nipple. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Randolph. Yes. 

At this point, before any 

Mr. Manes. For the record, my name is Hugh Manes. I am an 
attorney practicing at 1680 North Vine Street in Hollywood 28, 
California. 

Mrs. Randolph. At this point, before any further questions are 
asked of a private nature, I ask that, since this committee has shown 



480 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

its purpose to be one of slandering witnesses by implication, that I be 
granted an executive session, tiie right of which being stated in Rule 
XI, 26 (m), of this committee. 

The Chairman. You were here a moment ago when I passed on 
this on an identical request made by your husband ? 

Mrs. Randolph. 1 am repeating the request or the motion. 

The Chairman. AVell, I think, since you are familiar with it, I will 
just hurriedly state that this application that you present again was 
presented by letter by you and your husband and considered and dis- 
posed of by the full committee on June 26 for the reason indicated 
previously by me and, more cogently, for the reason that the rule to 
which you refer has no application in this case whatsoever. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the wife of Robert Eugene Randolph, the pre- 
ceding witness ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I believe there is a rule prohibiting 

The Chairman. Well, she just admitted that, and it's true. Go on 
with the next question. 

Mrs. Randolph. — and I would like to proceed with my answer. 

I decline to answer for the following reasons: First, the mandate 
of this committee impinges on the first amendment 

The Chairman. Hold it, please. You mean to say you are declining 
to answer whether you are the wife of a man on all these grounds — 
that you might be sent to jail and the first amendment, free speech? 
Is that what you are telling us ? 

Mrs. Randolph. M3' answer is as follows : First, the mandate of this 
committee impinges on the first amendment right of all citizens to free- 
dom of expression, association, press, and travel and to petition the 
Government for a redress of grievances. 

Second, the mandate of this committee is so broad and unclear that 
it fails to provide proper standards for determining the constitutional 
limits of its authority, thereby leaving the scope of its inquiry to the 
whim of its members, while depriving the citizens of fairness of the 
pertinence of its inquiry. 

Third, the announced subject matter of this investigation trans- 
gresses upon the people's freedom to travel and to become well in- 
formed in order to more effectively govern themselves. This investi- 
gation unconstitutionally arrogates to Government a right retained 
exclusively by citizens to go and see what, when, and where he pleases. 
And, above all, this investigation has the aim and effect of abridging 
the right of citizens to laiow firsthand conditions and events in other 
lands or, thus, to make their o^vn independent judgments based on 
only what they have seen. 

Such constitutional powers are not vested in a government but 
in the people of our country. 

Fourth, this question which has been asked is not pertinent or 
relevant to the matter under investigation nor to the purported author- 
ity of this committee. 

Fifth, the publication of my name in advance of this hearing is in 
violation of my right of privacy as guaranteed by the first, fourth, and 
fifth amendments to the Constitution of the TTnited States and de- 
prives this committee of any jurisdiction to conduct further inquiries 
of me. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 481 

Sixth, the faihire and refusal of this committee to conduct this in- 
quiry in executive session, as I liave heretofore requested by the letter 
and orally, violates Rule XI, section 26 (m), of this committee's man- 
date in that, among other thinofs, the questions asked and to be asked 
of me seek testimony which tends or may tend to defame, degrade, and 
incriminate me. And, furtlier, because this pu1)lic hearing has no 
legitimate legislative purpose, but is designed and intended to expose 
me to economic, social, and political recrimination and ostracism, 
and because it infringes on my constitutional right of privacy, all in 
violation of the first, fourth, and fifth amendments to the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Seventh, this subcommittee is illegally constituted and without jur- 
isdiction to conduct these proceedings for lack of a quorum as required 
by rule 20 (h), in that two of its members represent States which deny 
to and abridge the franchise of its Negro inhabitants, but which States 
have not been, and are not now, thereby duly and lawfully apportioned 
in accordance with section 2 of the fourteenth amendment to the 
Federal Constitution. 

Eighth, the question compels me to testify against myself in viola- 
tion of the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Ninth, I mvoke the husband-and-wife privileges as guaranteed by 
Rule XII of the rules of the committee, as well as by Federal statute. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Would you state the place and the date of your birth, 
please ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I decline to answer this and all further questions 
on. the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your maiden name Valeda Bryant? 

Mrs. Randolph. This is a private question of no concern to this 
committee, and I decline to answer it on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Randolph. I went to public schools in this country and to 
college. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend Stanford University and the University 
of Alaska ? 

Mrs. Randolph. This seems to be quite irrelevant to any worthwhile 
subject of discussion; and therefore, on this and other grounds previ- 
ously stated, I decline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You cannot include grounds of the fifth amendment 
because you claim the question is irrelevant. You can only claim 
the fifth amendment privilege because you believe that a truthful 
answer to the question may possibly incriminate j'OU. 

Now, do you refuse to answer this question because you claim it is 
irrelevant, or do you refuse to answer it because you claim fifth amend- 
ment privileges? 

Mrs. Randolph. I feel tliat the way you worded your statement 
is an abuse of the fifth amendment and an attempt to give it a different 
meaning than what it honorably and historically has; and therefore, 
for tliis reason and on other grounds previously stated, I decline to 
answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I am a housewife. And also I am a housewife 
anxious to get back to my two small children for whom we had much 
difficulty in making arrangements for their care. 



482 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Randolph, it is noted from the official records 
that you and your husband made simultaneous and identical applica- 
tions for United States passports on January 6, 1961, and pursuant 
to your individual application a passport was issued to you on Janu- 
ary 9, 1961, numbered 6-094577. 

bo you presently hold that passport ? 

Mrs. Randolph. This is a private question and, I feel, of no concern 
to this committee; and I therefore, for this reason and for other 
reasons previously stated, I decline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you filed this application on January 6, 
1961, were you aware that the United States had severed diplomatic 
relations with Cuba 

Mrs. Randolph. I have already stated that I will decline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — just 3 days prior to the filing of your application? 

Mrs. Randolpit. I have already stated that I will decline to answer 
this and all further questions of this nature on the grounds previ- 
ously stated, and therefore I do not understand your continuing 
questioning. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, travel 
to Cuba ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I didn't hear the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
travel to Cuba ? 

Mrs. Randolph. The fact that you continue to ask me such ques- 
tions after I have said that I will answer no more questions on the 
grounds previously stated indicates, as I have already stated, that the 
major — a major purpose of this committee is of exposure. I see no 
other reason for your continuing questions. 

The Chairman. Well, of course, that is not true. 

[Lauffhter,] 

The Chairman. Well, now, wait a minute. This is serious business. 
This Government and any government on earth has a right, when 
breaking diplomatic relationships with a country, to have regulations 
of the type that we are talking about. There is a Federal law on it. 
What we are looking into is the violation of that Federal law. If you 
don't like this pancake, you turn it around and see whether people 
from Cuba can travel at will. 

[Laughter.] 

The Chairman. You'll find out the purpose. 

Proceed with your question. 

Mrs. Randolph. If there is a violation, it belongs with other 
agencies. 

The Chairman. Yes. Well, lady, I don't want to argue with you. 
But I will have a iiiling on what is going to happen, later in the day. 
Go on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
make application to the Department of State for a validation of the 
passport which was issued to you on January 6, 1961, so that travel 
to Cuba would be validated ? 

Mrs. Randolph. As I have told you, I decline to answer on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation discloses that you left 
Mexico City for Cuba on March 13, 1961, as a guest of the Cuban 
Government. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 483 

Did you leave Mexico City for Cuba on March 13, 1961? 

Mrs. Eandolph. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you present in Cuba in March 1961 as a guest 
of the Cuban Government ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I decline to ansAver on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have already offered and submitted to Mr. Randolph 
various newspaper accounts, setting forth the fact that certain 
speeches and reports would be delivered by both you and him at the 
United Nations Hall on Friday, May 19, 1961. 

Although you were advertised to appear at the United Nations 
Hall on Friday, May 19, 1961, it is the committee's information that 
you did not, in fact, appear as a speaker, but that your husband was 
present. 

Mrs. Randolph. As this committee has already been told 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I have not finished my statement. 

It is the committee's information that your husband, Robert. Ran- 
dolph, apologized for your absence and explained that both you and 
he had made five talks in 48 hours, that two of these talks had been 
in Sacramento and one had been before a group of State Public 
Health employees. 

Mrs. Randolph. Excuse me. May I now ask you to be brief? 

INIr. NiTTLE. He declared that you were very tired and this was the 
explanation for your absence. 

Mrs. Randolph. Does this committee have 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question I am posing to you is not with respect 
to your husband's activities, nor is the question relating to confiden- 
tial communication between husband and wife, because this com- 
munication was made by your husband publicly 

]Mrs. Randolph. I believe I understand your question. May I pro- 
ceed ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is, Did you, in fact, deliver five talks 
about Cuba within 48 hours at that time ? 

Mrs. Randolph. As has already been pointed out to this committee, 
this seeming concentration on the subject of speaking engagements 
makes it even more evident that a major function this committee serves 
is to frighten people from speaking publicly. Therefore, on this 
ground and for other grounds previously stated, I decline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Palo Alto Times o'f May 24, 1961 [previously 
marked "Robert Randolph Exhibit No. 5"] reported that the "world 
affairs committee" of the Palo Alto Unitarian Church, .505 Charleston 
Road, was sponsoring a color-slide talk on Cuba by Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert Randolph of Berkeley, who had recently returned from a 
3-week tour of five of the six Cuban provinces. 

Did you appear at the Palo Alto Unitarian Church to deliver this 
talk? 

Mrs. Randolph. As I have said before, I feel no relevancy here to 
such personal questions and I feel that there is an implication here 
that there is something wrong with speaking, for any witness or any 
citizen to speak their opinion when it is brought up in this form of 
slander by implication. 



484 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

The Chairman. Well, the relevancy of the question, again, is that 
there is a Federal law on the books that applies to every citizen of 
America, the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

If a businessman wants to be a lobbyist or influence legislation, he 
has to register as a lobb^'ist. There is nothing wrong with that. And 
in various other areas, the people of our country, labor unions, every- 
body else, have to comply with certain registration laws. We have a 
law on the books that if anyone, instead of representing a concern or 
an individual here, is an agent of a foreign power, that person must 
register. I am not implying that you are an agent, but I am saying 
that these questions strike at the heart of a law, including foreign 
travel, which, it is our information, is behig widespreadly flouted; 
and our purpose is to review that, to make a report to Congress, and 
to recommend tightening up and strengthening both the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act and strengthening the law which prohibits 
travel to Cuba, Cliina, and elsewhere. Go on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a guest of the Cuban Government during 
your travel to Cuba ? 

Mrs. Randolph, I decline to answer this on the reasons previously 
given, and I would like to say that on this previous statement made 
by the chairman that if anyone 

The Chairman. That is a statement of pertinency. 

Next question, 

Mrs. Randolph. I would like to comment on that. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there any agreement 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Randolph, was there an understanding between 
you and the Cuban Government or any of its representatives that, in 
exchange for the benefits given you as a guest of the Cuban Govern- 
ment, you would return to the United States and engage in activities, 
speaking engagements particularly, to influence the public within the 
United States with respect to the policies and interests of the Com- 
munist regime in Cuba ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I would like to continue my comment to finish by 
saying that everyone who has a legal opinion would like to express it, 
and who is to decide which opinions may be expressed and which may 
not be ? Government edict ? 

In answer to your question, I decline to answer for reasons pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During your visit to Cuba or since that time, did ^ou 
receive compensation from any political party, group, or person wliich 
is affiliated or associated with any foreign political party or govern- 
ment ? 

Mrs, Randolph. The fact that such a question is often brought up 
at your hearings indicates that this is something you attempt to imply 
by the question. I object to the question and, for this reason, I de- 
cline to answer it and on other reasons previously stated. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. Do you object to this question because you believe that 
a truthful answer to it will subject you to a criminal prosecution? 

Mrs, Randolph. I object to the implication of any slanderous state- 
ments against any witness or citizen or noncitizen of the United States, 

Mr, NiTTLE, Mr. Chairman, that is not sufficient ground for plead- 
ing the legal privilege. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 485 

The Chairman. I know. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. Aiid I ask that the Avitness be directed to answer the 
question. 

Mrs. Randolph. And I also refuse on all of the grounds previously 
stated. 

The Chairman. That gets it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any compensation from the Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I decline to answer the question for reasons that 
were previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. IMrs. Randolph, have you been at any time associated 
with the California Labor School or a participant in its activities? 

Mrs. Randolph. Such a question appears to me to be another 
abridgment of our constitutional freedoms tlirough implication and 
association. I could never answer such a question aimed with this 
purpose in mind and, for this and other reasons previously stated, I 
decline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Randolph, I have before me, which I will exhibit 
to you in a moment, a copy of a flier issued by the California Labor 
School of 240 Golden Gate Avenue, marked for identification as 
"Valeda Randolph Exhibit No. 1." 

The flier indicates that there will be a party and rally for the fall 
opening of the California Labor School. A program is set forth 
indicating that you would, on October 7, 1950, perform a classical 
Spanish dance and would also perform an oriental Gypsy dance ■ 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. — evidently in aid of the program of the California 
Labor School. I will ask Mr. Wheeler to exhibit that to you, and 
I want to ask whether you are the Valeda Bryant who is mentioned 
in the program of the California Labor School. 

Mrs. Randolph. I must say that I fail to see the relevancy of my 
dancing career, of the particular kind of dances I once performed 
or where I performed them, to any worthwhile subject under investi- 
gation. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, I will proceed to show you the relevancy by the 
next question. 

Mrs. Randolph. If this were the case, that I performed in certain 
places, I fail to see the relevancy of questions about dancing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. These all appear 

Mrs. Randolph. And, therefore, I decline to answer on this ground 
and on other grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Valeda Randolph Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you don't refuse to reply on any ground of 
relevancy ? 

The Chairman. Ask the next question. Let's go. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The California Labor School was declared to be a 
subversive and Communist organization in letters of the Attorney 
General, now Mr. Justice Tom Clark, which were released on June i, 
1948, and September 21, 1948. 

Proceedings were later instituted against the California Labor 
School pursuant to the provisions of the Internal Security Act of 
1950. In its Report and Order of May 21, 1957, the Subversive Ac- 



486 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

tivities Control Board found the California Labor School to be a 
Communist-front organization and ordered it to register as such. In 
its findings, the Board reported that the California Labor School has 
continuously from the outset been under the domination and control 
of active Communist Party members and functionaries who occupy 
key positions on its administrative and teaching staffs. 

Were you not aware, in October 1950, when you performed these 
dances and assisted in the program of the California Labor School, 
that you were doing so in aid of the objectives of a Communist 
organization ? 

Mrs. Randolph. A question phrased in this way illustrates a pur- 
pose of this committee, which is to smear by association. And, there- 
fore, in good conscience I could never answer such a question no 
matter how simple the answer might be, and on this ground and on 
other grounds previously stated 

Mr. NiTTLE. Then I will give you a question that may be very simply 
answered. 

It is the committee's information that you, Valeda Bryant, were 
a member of the Communist Party in Berkeley, California, as early 
as the year 1945. We will give you an opportunity to answer a very 
simple question. 

Were you, or were you not, a member of the Communist Party at 
the time you danced for the California Labor School in 1950 ? 

[Laughter.] 

Mrs. Eandolpii. Such questions, which pry into one's private life, 
are not worthy of such a committee ; and on this ground I decline to 
answer it and on other grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, now, Mrs. Randolph, the Subversive Activities 
Control Board made certain findings with respect to the Communist 
Party, and these findings were upheld by the Supreme Court. This 
question, which you say affects your private life, also affects the pri- 
vate lives of every citizen in the United States, particularly in view 
of this finding of the Subversive Activities Control Board. 

Justice Douglas, although writing a dissenting opinion in the Com- 
munist Party case, nevertheless agreed with the other Justices when 
he stated : 

The Subversive Activities Control Board found, and the Court of Appeals 
sustained the finding, that petitioner, the Communist Party of the United States, 
is "a disciplined organization" operating in this Nation "under Soviet Union 
control" to install "a Soviet style dictatorship in the United States." Those 
findings are based, I thinlj, on facts ; and I vpould not disturb them. 

Did you reach the same conclusion as is reported in the findings of 
the Subversive Activities Control Board with respect to the Commu- 
nist Party of the United States ? 

Mrs. Randolph. Here I would like to say that a question of much 
greater import to the welfare of our country is the right to unre- 
stricted travel to any country whatsoever, and I believe this is the 
issue under discussion. Therefore, I decline to answer on this ground 
and on other grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will just ask you one or two concluding questions. 

I am going to ask Mr. "V^Hieeler to hand you a copy of a large adver- 
tisement which appeared in the Palo Alto Times on April 25, 1961. 
It is entitled, "Petition on our policy toward Cuba," under the auspices 
of the Student Ad Hoc Committee Against U.S. Intervention in Cuba 
and the Palo Alto Fair Play for Cuba Committee. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 487 

I want to ask you whether you are a member of the Palo Alto Fair 
Play for Cuba Committee ? 

]\Irs. Randolph. First, let me correct the pronmiciation. The town 
is Palo Alto. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Well, I am very new to your lovely area here and I 
appreciate j^our correction. 

The Chairman. All right. Let's go, let's go. 

Mrs. Randolph. You are welcome. 

The Chairman. "Wliat is the pending question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member 

]\Irs. Randolph. I am afraid I have lost track of the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee? 

Mrs. Randolph. My belief as an American is that everyone is en- 
titled to fair play. But, considering the intent of these questions, I 
decline to answer for this reason and other reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell the committee anything with respect 
to the formation of the organization titled, "Student Ad PIoc Com- 
mittee Against U.S. Intervention in Cuba" ? 

Mrs. Randolph. I do not like to answer questions which have im- 
plications in them that are not supported by evidence, implications 
which tend to cast a shadow of guilt over anyone who joins an or- 
ganization, who signs a petition. And so, therefore, for this reason 
and for other reasons previously stated, I clecline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Randolph, Can you prove it? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking you the question, 

_ Mrs, Randolph. I turned the question aromid, if I may have that 
right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would your answer depend upon my statement? 

Mrs. Randolph. Of course not. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr, NiTTLE. Well, then, let's answer the question. 

Mrs. Randolph. Statements which, as I said before, tend to slander 
by implication, I will have no part with whatsoever. The answer 
might be — therefore, I decline to answer on this ground and on other 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions. 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. No questions. 

The Chairman. Witness is excused. 

Out of consideration for the reporter, we will recess for 10 minutes, 

(Whereupon, at 3 :25 p,m., the committee recessed until 3 :55 p,m. 
of the same day.) 

The Chairman. This subcommittee will please come to order. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Nittle, 

Mr. Nittle. George Waegell, please come forward. 

The Chairman. Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Waegell. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 



488 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF GEOUGE WAEGELL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

HUGH R. MANES 

Mr, NiTTLE, Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, i^lease ? 

Mr. Waegell. My name is George "Waegell, and I would like to 
make a motion for executive session, on which if granted me 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will be given an opportunity to make your motion. 
Will you please first identify yourself ? 

Mr. Waegell. My name is George Waegell, as I stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And your residence ? 

Mr. Waegell. I don't wish to give my residence at this time. I 
would rather request an executive session. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Waegell. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Manes. Yes. My name is Plugh Manes. I practice law at 1680 
North Vine Street, HollyAvood 28. And, may I say, Mr. Chairman, 
that I think my client has already indicated previously by writing 
that he requested an executive session. 

He renews that request at this time and does so upon the ground, 
among other things, that he fears recrimination, he fears defamation, 
he fears that the evidence and the questions that will be asked of him 
will expose him to obloquy; and, therefore, grounded upon Rule XI, 
26, subsection (m), he respectfully invokes that particular rule to 
request executive session. 

The CiiAiRMAX. You were in the audience when I ruled, two or three 
or four other times, on a request for executive session similar to the one 
you are now making ; were you not ? 

Mr. Waegell. Yes, I was. 

The Chairmax. Well, then, without the necessity for repeating all 
the reasons I indicated, I now make them a part of the ruling in your 
case at this time. 

As a matter of fact, I see that you are one of a number who made 
application to us before we left Washington and that you are one of 
those on whose application the full committee acted unfavorably to 
your position. Therefore, for the reasons I have indicated, and par- 
ticularly addressed to the rule of the House involved, in view of the 
fact that that rule is inapplicable to you and for other reasons indi- 
cated, 5' our motion is denied. 

Mr. Waegell. I am also relying on the fourth and fifth amend- 
ments in support of that motion. 

Mr. Ma.xes. I believe, Mr. Chairman, he simply indicated that, in 
addition to the rule cited, that he is also relying in support of the 
motion on the fourth and fifth amendments. 

The Chairmax. And for the reasons I outlined, a rejection of the 
motion is required, including grounds now assigned. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Waegell, our information is that you live at Elk 
Grove, California. Is that true ? 

Mr. Waegell. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Mr. Waegell. '\Yliat is the relevancy of that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. For purposes of identification. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 489 

It is our infoniuition tli:it yon wore born Henri— spelled Il-e-n-r-i — 
George Wne<:ell, Aniznst '2V>, 11)2('), in Suci'aniento, California. 

Are you the Henri Georije Waegell whose birth was August 26, 
10-20, at Sacramento, California ? 

Mr. Waegeix. I was born August 2G, 1926, in Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mr. WaecxELL. I attended public schools In Elk Grove and in 
Berkeley. 

j\Ir. Nii'Fi.E. What were the years of your attendance in the public 
schools in Elk Grove? 

Mr. Waegell. What is the relevancy of that? 

]\Ir. Xittle. This is for background information which the Supreme 
Court has ruled as being relevant in any interrogation. 

Mr. Waegell. I atteaided Union Grammar and Elk Grove High 
in Elk Grove. 

Mr. XrrrLE. I wasn't able to hear whether you had some further 
education after finishing high school there. Did you ? 

INIr. Waegell. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What school did you attend following high school ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer it for the following reasons: 
First, the mandate of this committee, on its face and as applied, im- 
pinges on the first amendment rights of all citizens to freedom of 
expression, association, and press and to petition their Government for 
a redress of grievances. 

Second, the mandate of this committee is so broad and so vague that 
it fails to provide adequate standards for determining the constitu- 
tional limits of its authority, thereby leaving the scope of its inquiry 
to the whim or caprice of its members, while depriving the citizens of 
fair notice of the relevancy or propriety of its inquiry. 

Third, the announced subject matter of this investigation trans- 
gresses upon the people's freedom to travel and to become informed 
and enlightened in order to more elTectively govern themselves. This 
investigation unconstitutionally arrogates to Government a right re- 
tained exclusively by citizens to go and see what, when, and where he 
pleases and, most importantly, this investigation has the aim and effect 
of abridging the right of citizens to seek and discover for themselves 
the tiiith concerning conditions and events in other lands and making 
their own independent judgments as to what ideas found there, if any, 
will be useful in promoting their own destiny, a determination which 
the Constitution vests not in Government but in the people. 

Fourth, the request asked is not pertinent — the question asked is 
not pertinent or relevant to the subject matter under investigation nor 
to the purported authority of this committee. 

Fifth, the publication of my name in advance of this hearing is in 
violation of Rule XVI of this committee and is a violation of my right 
to privacy as guaranteed by the first, fourth, and fifth amendments of 
the United States Constitution and deprives this committee of any 
jurisdiction to conduct further inquiry of me. 

Sixth, the failure or refusal of this committee to conduct this inquiry 
in executive session, as I have heretofore requested by letter and orally, 
violates Rule XI, subsection 26 (m), of the committee's mandate, in 
that, among other things, the questions asked and to be asked of me 

08-765— 63— pt. 2 5 



490 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

seek evidence and testimony which tends or may tend to defame, de- 
grade, and incriminate me and, further, because this public hearing 
has no legitimate legislative purpose, but is designed and tends to ex- 
pose me to economic, social, and political recrimination and ostracism 
and to hold me and my ideas up to public obloquy and scorn, and in- 
fringes upon my constitutional right of privacy, all in violation of 
the first, fourth, and fifth amendments of the United States Con- 
stitution. 

Seventh, this subcommittee is illegally constituted and without 
jurisdiction to conduct these proceedings for lack of a quorum as pro- 
vided by rule 26(h), in that two of its members represent States which 
deny to and abridge the franchise of its Negro inhabitants, but which 
States have not been, and are not now, thereby duly and lawfully 
apportioned in accordance with section 2 of the fourteenth amendment 
to the Federal Constitution. 

Eighth, the question compels me to testify against myself in viola- 
tion of the fifth amendment of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What has been your principal employment since gradu- 
ation from high school i 

Mr. Waegell. Farmer. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you a student for a period after graduation from 
high school ? 

Mr. Waegell. A student i What is this, now ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a student attending universities following 
graduation from high school? 

Mr. Waegell. Yes. 

Mr. XiTTLE. What university did you attend 'i 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer for all the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Did you receive any degree from any university? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer for grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Have you, Mr. Waegell, visited Cuba at any time since 
January 16, 1961, when the passport regulation went into effect ban- 
ning travel to Cuba unless one is in possession of a United States pass- 
port specifically endorsed for such travel ? 

Mr. Waegell. A democracy functions onl}'' when people have the 
right to see both sides, and I think travel is being able to see both 
sides, and therefore I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, now, you can only assert the fifth amendment 
privilege, which you previously asserted, if you believe that a truthful 
answer to the question would subject you to criminal prosecution and 
not because you consider the question irrelevant, or for other reasons. 

INIr. Waegell. I don't believe I have to accept your interpi-etation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, let me ask you this question, whether you accept 
it or not: Do you invoke the self-incrimination clause of the fifth 
amendment in refusing to respond to the question ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer that question on the grounds as 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation of your passport rec- 
ord indicates that you at no time on or after January 16, 1961, 
possessed a United States passport. 

Were you at any time after January 16, 1961, in possession of a 
United States passport ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTWITIES IN U.S. 491 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on all of the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTL?:. The investigation of the committee also discloses that 
you departed from the United States and entered Mexico in the 
early part of March 1961 and, while in Mexico, you made applica- 
tion to the Cuban consulate for a visa to visit Cuba. 

Did you enter ^lexico and were you present there in March 1961 ? 

]\[r. IVaegell. I decline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you, while in Mexico, make application to the 
Cuban consulate, or any representative of the Cuban Government, or 
make any application for a visa to visit Cuba? 

Mr. "Waegell. I decline to answer that and the previous question 
on all of the grounds previously stated. 

]\Ir. XiTTLE. It is the committee's information that you did re- 
ceive a visa from the Cuban (xovernment after a wait of approxi- 
mately 3 weeks. 

Was any explanation offered to you by the Cuban authorities con- 
cerning the delay in issuing to you a Cuban visa ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer this question and any future 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After the receipt of the Cuban visa, did you not 
then enter Cuba and were you not present in Cuba during the 
Cuban invasion of April 17, 1961 ? 

Mr. Waegell. I think it would be rather important that an 
American would be in Cuba during the Bay of Pigs invasion. 
There were darned few people there, I believe, and how are we going 
to know what is going on in the world if we don't send news out 
of there or people don't go there ? 

The Chairman. Well, were you there? Were you there? 

Mr. Waegell. On that ground and all previously stated, I 
refuse to answer. 

Mr. Nittle. I will ask Mr. ^^Hieeler to hand you a copy of a 
flier which was issued in the early part of 1962, marked for identifi- 
cation as "Waegell Exhibit No. 1.'' 

The flier, as you v^ill see, advises that the Fair Play for Cuba 
Student Council Avill present, "Cuba As I Saw It, Color Slides," 
by George Waegell, farmer from Sacramento who spent 3 months 
in Cuba in 1961 traveling from one part of the island to the other, 
witnessing, among other things, the invasion of April 17, 1961. 

Are you not the George Waegell to whom reference is made in 
this exhibit ? 

Mr. Waegell. My name is Waegell, Mr. Diddle. 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. Thank you for the correction. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are also interested, Mr. Waegell, in determin- 
ing the facts relating to your travel to Cuba. Perhaps you will be 
as helpful there. 

Mr. Waegell. If this committee is interested in what goes on in 
Cuba, it could see my slides any time it wanted to. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us 

Mr. Waegell. I decline 

_Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us from Avhom you obtained these 
slides ? 



492 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. Oh, so you do have slides? Where did you get 
them? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

(Document marked "Waegell Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

The Chairman. You know, technically, you are not entitled to 
that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We understand that you, while in Cuba, took a num- 
ber of photographs with your camera. Is that the camera with 
which you took some of your photographs in Cuba ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Apparently your travel to Cuba was misapprehended 
initially by the Cuban officials. We understand that 3'ou were 
arrested and placed in jail and later released. Did that incident 
occur ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds that it will incrimi- 
nate me and also the first and fourth and fifth amendments and all 
other grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Will 3'ou tell us why tlie Cuban Government eventu- 
ally released you? 

^Ir. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were any representations made on your behalf to 
the Cuban Government by an organization in the United States? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were any representations made on your behalf by the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Was vour identity established to the satisfaction of 
the Cuban authorities by any representative of the Fair Play for 
Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Waegell. Will you repeat that question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your identity established in Cuba to the satis- 
faction of the Cuban autliorities by any member of the Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee, which resulted in your release? 

ISIr. Waegell. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would it be correct to say from your own experience 
that the Cuban authorities do not permit Americans there unless 
they come especially qualified in some way, or bearing a recommen- 
dation from some particular source, that would be acceptable 
to the Cuban Government ? 

]Mr. Waegell. You could ask the Cuban authorities who, why, 
and how they let people in. I decline to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. We prefer first-hand experience. 

Do ^'•ou refuse to respond? 

IVIr. Waegell. I have given my answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, now, Exhibit 1 is, of course, a flier, as I have said, 
issued by the Fair Play for Cuba Student Council. 

Are you a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Student Council ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on the gi'ounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What Iniowledge do you have of the objectives of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Student Council? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 493 

Mr. "Waegell. People liave the ri<>-lit to liave membership in any 
organization. It's guaranteed them under the Constitution, the free- 
dom of assembly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We recognize that people may belong to certain orga- 
nizations. That does not mean that Congress does not have the right 
to inquire into certain organizations. 

JMr. Waegell. T decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

INIr. Nrn^^E. Did you volunteer your services to the Fair Play for 
Cuba Student Council to make the address annomiced in the flier? 

Mr. Waegell. Are ^Ye afraid of ideas ? 

^Ir. N1TT1.E. We have some concern about Soviet missiles implanted 
in Cuba. Are you afraid that Soviet missiles ■ 

The Chairman. Now, wait. Answer the question. 

Mr. Waegell. I have some apprehension about troops in Vietnam, 
American troops in Vietnam. 

I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

IMr. NiiTLE. Are you concerned about Communist troops in North 
Korea ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

iSIr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation also discloses that while 
in Cuba you attended the conference of the International Union of 
Students, which was held in Havana in the latter part of May and 
the early part of June 1961. The committee has information that you 
attended the conference as a delegate from the United States. 

Did you attend that conference as a delegate from the United 
States? 

]\Ir. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the conference of the International 
Union of Students for the purpose of giving support to its objectives? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

INIr. Xittle. a report of the Committee on Un-American Artivities 
dated April 17, 1947, described the Inteniational Union of Students 
as a Communist-controlled, international front organization, created 
at a Moscow-directed meeting held in Prague on August 17 to 31 in 
the year 1946 under the sponsorship of the World Federation of 
Democratic Youth, another well-lvuown, international Communist- 
front organization. 

The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judi- 
ciary Committee in Senate Docket 117 issued April 23, 1956, has like- 
wise described the International Union of Students as an inteniational 
Communist front. 

Mr. Waegell. were you aware at the time of your attendance at the 
conference of the International Union of Students that it was oper- 
ating as a front organization to enlist youth in support of objectives 
of the world Communist movement ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If you did not attend that conference and truthfully 
said so, how could that possibly incriminate you ? 

]Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Xittle. The Soviet news agency, Tass, in a May 28, 1961, dis- 
patch about the International Union of Students meeting in Havana 
declared, and I now quote : 

"Students are willing to set up an international students brigade and fight 
shoulder to shoulder with the Cubans against any aggression against Cuba," 



494 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

said participants in a session of the Executive Committee of the International 
Union of Students, lUS, which met in Havana. 

Were you present at any session of the executive committee in which 
such views were presented or expressed ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NrrrLE. The Peking radio of Red China reported that the 
plenary session of the executive committee was attended by delegations 
from nearly 40 countries. 

"Would you tell us how many American students other than yourself 
were in attendance ? 

Mr. Waegell. Would you repeat that question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I advised you that the Peking radio of Communist Red 
China had reported that, at the plenary session of the executive com- 
mittee of the International Union of Students, there were in attendance 
delegates from over 40 countries. I want to ask you whether there 
were any American students known to you to be in attendance at the 
conference ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you one of the American delegates to the Inter- 
national Union of Students conference? 

Mr. Waegeix. I decline to answer on grounds pre\nously stated. 

I would like to say this : It seems to me that the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation might do well to hire some new Jack Armstrongs. The 
chapter and verse seem to be rather irrelevant and erroneous. 

And I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Let me ask you again, Were j^ou in attendance at the 
conference of the International Union of Students in Havana, Cuba? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you, while at the conference, express views similar 
to those that were reported by the Soviet news agency as being ex- 
pressed in the conference, namely, that students are willing to set up 
an international students brigade to fight for Cuba ? Did you or did 
you not express views similar to that to other students in the confer- 
ence ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Xittle. Would you fight for Cuba ? 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Nittle. Why do you hesitate in responding to that question, 
as an American citizen ? 

Mr. Waegell. If there is another war we are through. 

The Chairma^^ . Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Waegell. I don't care which side I am on, I am dead. 

Mv. Nittle. Well, you also refused to 

]\Ir. Waegell. And I decline to answer. 

Mr. Nittle. - — to comply with the Selective Service regulations 
during the Korean war, did you not ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. When you refused to comply with the Selective Service 
regulations and were sentenced on September 24, 1951, to 3 years in 
prison for your failure to do so, did you then entertain the same \Tiews 
with respect to war as you now clo ? 

Mr. Waegell. I think it would have been rather nice that the 
Nazis who marched into Poland had refused to serve in the army. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 495 

or the Japanese who had bombed Pear] Harbor liad refused to be 
drafted, and therefore 1 refuse to answer on the c:ronnds previously 
stated. 

[Applause.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Tass news agency further stated : 

The session uiianiiuonsly supported the proposal for setting up an international 
students brigade ready to fight against aggression on Cuba. 

Did you participate in the approval of this proposal? Moscow 
says it was unanimous. 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds jjreviously stated. 

j\Ir. NiTTLE. When this proposal was adopted, supporting the setting 
up of an international students brigade ''to fight against aggression 
on Cuba," was it clear to you at that time that, in fact, acts of Cuban 
or Soviet aggression might involve the United States in war with 
Cuba? 

INIr. Waegell. It seems to me back in October we came pretty close 
to having it, and a funny thing is that everyone acknowledges that 
Khrushchev is a complete maniac, and yet Mr. Kennedy turns over 
him — to him the decision on whether or not we will have war or 
peace. 

I decline to ansAver on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Was it not the objective of this proposal adopted at 
the International Union of Students conference to enlist student sup- 
port from this hemisphere and, indeed, throughout the world against 
the United States? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated 
many times before. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Tass Moscow broadcast further stated that the 
first plenary session of the executive committee of the International 
Union of Students was held May 26, 1961, and then a report was given 
by Pedro Alvarez ^ of Venezuela, who was the vice president of the 
International Union of Students. He analyzed the present situation 
in Latin America and, according to the Soviet news agency, which I 
now quote — 

the speaker pointed out that domination of Latin American countries by U.S. 
imperialism leads to the steady deterioration of the living standards of the people. 

Did you express similar views to any of the Latin American delegates 
in attendance at the conference? 

Mr. Waegell. My beliefs are my business, and on that ground I 
refuse to answer and all other grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to the broadcast to the world by the Soviet 
Tass agency, a Peking radio report, dated Havana, June 3, 1961, de- 
clared that the plenary meeting of the International Union of Students 
executive committee, attended by delegates of nearly 40 countries, 
ended that day, that is, on June 3, after 9 days' work, and that: 

Resolute support for the Cuban and other Latin American peoples struggle 
against U.S. imperialism was voiced in the general resolution on Latin 
America. * * * 

The resolution on Cuba condemned the aggressive actions of U.S. imperialism 
against Cuba, and its attempts to use the Organization of American States to 
achieve its purpose. 



^ Full name : Pedro Francisco Alvarez Ibarra, 



496 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Peking radio also quoted Venezuelan delegate Alvarez, vice 
president of the International Union of Students, as saying — 

the students movement has begun to expose the real nature of the new policies 
of U.S. imperialism, such as Kennedy's Peace Corps, the Alliance for Progress 
program, and Food for Peace Plan. All this is nothing but continuation of the 
old imperialist policy toward Latin America. 

Mr. "Waegell, were you in attendance when such reports were made at 
that conference ? 

Mr. Waegell, I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time, while such views were expressed, 
in any way indicate your opposition to that defamation and odious 
misrepresentation of American policy and objectives? 

Mr. Waegell. The counsel has no right in prying into political 
beliefs of the individual, and on that ground I declme to answer, as 
well as all other grounds. 

Mr. NirrLE. When did 3'ou return from Cuba ? 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation discloses that you re- 
turned from Cuba sometime in July 1961. Do you wish to correct that 
statement ? 

Mr. Waegell. No — I decline to answer on grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The investigation of the committee further reflects that 
you again visited Mexico in May of 19G3. 

Would you tell the committee whether you did so and, if so, for 
what purpose ? 

Mr. Waegell. Where people travel is their business, and I think 
it would be good if more people would travel through Latin America 
and see what goes on, and tlieref ore I decline to answer on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. It is the committee's information that you at no time 
on or after January 16, 1961, possessed a United States passport vali- 
dated for travel to Cuba. 

If this information is not correct, or should you have any explana- 
tion to offer, the committee would be pleased to receive it. 

Mr. Waegell. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Xo further questions, Mr. Willis. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

[Applause.] 

The Chairman. I caution you people that there are many people out- 
side who would like to be here and relieve you of your seats and take 
your place. I might well accommodate them. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]\Ir. Joseph Shapiro. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole tnith, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Shapiro. Yes. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 497 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH ABRAM SHAPIEO, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, ROBEKT H. SHTJTAN 

Mr. XiTTLE. Woiikl you shite your full name and residence for tlie 
record, please ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Joseph Abram Shapiro. My residence is 123 Scenic 
Eoad, Fairfax. 

Mr. Nm'LE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will counsel please identify himself ? 

Mr. Shutan. Robert H. Sliutan, S-h-u-t-a-n. I practice law at 315 
South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Shapiro, would you state the date and place of 
your birth ? 

Mr, Shapiro. October 29, 1942, San Francisco, California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion, giving the dates and places of attendance at educational insti- 
tutions and any degrees or certificates received ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I attended public schools in the State of California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At what place? 

Mr. Shapiro. I attended grammar school in Fairfax, California; 
high school in San Anselmo, California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We can't hear you here. We request that you speak up. 

Mr. Shapiro. I attended grammar school in Fairfax, California, 
and high school in San Anselmo, California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What years were you in attendance in high school 'i 

Mr. Shapiro. From September 1956 to Jime 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Until June, 1950 ? 

Mr. Shapiro. '60. 

Mr. NiTTLE. 1960? 

Mr. Shapiro. Yes. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Did you thereafter attend the University of California ? 

Mr. Shapiro. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us the dates when you were in attendance 
at the University of California ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I attended the University of California, Santa Bar- 
bara branch, from September 1960 and presently I am enrolled there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I beg your pardon. I can't hear you, 

Mr. Shapiro. I am presently enrolled in the University of Cali- 
fornia, Santa Barbara branch. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were enrolled in the University of California from 
September 1960? 

Mr. Shapiro. In Santa Barbara, September 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And hoAv long were you in attendance there? 

Mr. Shapiro. I am still registered. I am still enrolled there, 

Mr. NiTTLE, What ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I am still attending school there. 

Mr. N1TIT.E. I see. You have been in attendance at the University 
of California at Santa Barbara from September 1960 to the present 
time? 

Mr, Shapiro. No, I — no, I haven't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliat ? 

Mr. Shapiro. No, I haven't been in attendance. 



498 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There was a period when your education at the Uni- 
versity of California was interrupted ^ Is that what you mean to say ? 

Mr.' Shapiro. Yes. Exactly what 1 meant to say. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did that interruption take place during the fall 
term in 1961 ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I'd like to question the relevancy of that question, 

Mr. NiTi^LE. Yes. I was goino- to ask you whether the interruption 
occurred because you were visiting in Cuba at that time. 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the ground of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I couldn't get your answer. 

The Chairman". He invoked the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. XiTTi.E. Mr. Shapiro, the committee's investigation reveals that 
you, in fact, left Mexico City on September 1, 1961, on flight 465 of 
Cubana de Aviacion for Havana, Cuba. Is tliis true ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at any time, on or after January 16, 1961, 
in possession of a passport specifically validated or endorsed for travel 
to Cuba? 

JVIr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on tlie grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that on ]March 28, 
1961, at San Francisco, California, you made application for United 
States passport and, in the application, you stated that you desired 
to travel for approximately 2 months for educational purposes, if time 
and money permitted, to Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and other Latin 
American and Central American countries. The means of transporta- 
tion you proposed to utilize for that travel were set forth as "driving." 
You gave your approximate date of departure as July 1, 1961. 

Did you drive to Mexico in September ^ 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. At the time you made that application setting forth 
that you proposed to drive to certain specific countries, did you, in 
fact, intend to visit Cuba ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

jMr. NiTTLE. Were you aware at the time that you made applica- 
tion for passport that the regulations of the Department of State 
prohibited travel to Cuba unless you possessed a United States pass- 
port specificall V endorsed for such travel ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

^[r. NiTPLE. We are informed by the Department of State that 
on March 29, 1961, you were issued at San Francisco, California, a 
United States passport No. B-065057; that this passport bore no 
specific endorsement or validation for travel to Cuba. 

If this information is not correct, we would desire to have your cor- 
rection or explanation. 

Mr. Shapiro. Is that a question? Did you ask me a question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I said, if that information was not correct, we would 
desire to hnve youi" correction or explanation, if you wish to give 
one. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 499 

Mr. SiiAriRO. "Well, then there is no cjuestion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, is that information correct or isn't it ? 

Mr. SnArmo. I decline to answer on the ground previously stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Mr. Shapiro, it is the connnittee's information that 
you neither applied for nor received a validation of passport for travel 
to Cuba on or after January IG, 19G1, to the pi^esent time. Is this 
information correct ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's further information that you at- 
tended the Eighth World Youth Festival held in Helsinki, Finland, 
during the summer of 1962. 

AVere you in attendance at the festival at Helsinki ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NrrTLE. The International Preparatory Committee of the 
Eighth "World Youth Festival, as was the case with prior festivals 
held periodically, was Communist dominated and controlled. Our 
investigation revealed that, although the World Youth Festivals are 
ballyhooed as democratic forums for advancing the aspirations of 
young people everywhere, they have been, in reality, devised and used 
as a medium for disseminating Communist propaganda and have been 
traditionally the scene for vicious attacks upon the United States. 

"Were you aware at the time of your attendance at the festival that 
the festival was organized for the purpose of advancing the objectives 
of the world Communist movement ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it your purpose to support those objectives by your 
attendance at the festival ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Committee on Un-American Activities conducted 
an investigation and held hearings on the Eighth World Youth Festi- 
val at Helsinki, Finland, which were published and released by the 
committee on December 21, 1962. 

The committee said, in part : 

The USFC [United States Festival Committee] received help in recruiting dele- 
gates to Helsinki from a number of local Festival committees formed on college 
campuses in various cities throughout the country. Participants and leaders in 
some of these groups were either Communist Party members or openly favorable 
to Communist causes. The head of the San Francisco Festival Committee, for 
instance, was Patrick Hallinan, the son of Vincent Hallinan, candidate of the 
Communist-controlled Progressive Party for President of the United States in 
1952. 

Did you discuss the matter of your attendance at the Eighth World 
Youth "Festival with Patrick Hallinan ? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Let me also state that the committee was very careful 
to point out, however, that although there is no doubt that the Eighth 
World Youth Festival was a Communist-controlled affair and the 
leadership of the American delegation was pro-Communist, the com- 
mittee acknowledges, and its investigation disclosed, that by no means 
were all members of the American delegation either Communists or 
dupes of the Communists or pro-Commmiists. 



500 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

As will be clearly seen in the reported findings of the committee 
and the testimony of witnesses, some exceedingly patriotic young 
people knowingly journeyed to that Communist-dominated festival 
for the purpose of defending the interests and prestige of the United 
States. 

Did you travel to Helsinki for the purpose of defending the in- 
terests and prestige of the United States? 

Mr. Shapiro. I decline to answer on tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

[Applause.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. Jon Joseph Read. 

The Chairman. Will you please raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Read. Yes. 

The Chairman. Proceed with your questions. 

TESTIMONY OF JON JOSEPH EEAD. ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

PHILLIP CHRONIS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Read. Yes. Jon J. Read, 174314 Blake. That is in Berkeley 
3, California. 

The Chairman. Do you spell that R-e-a-d ? 

Mr. Read. R-e-a-d. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And your first name is spelled J-o-n, is that correct? 

Mr. Read. J-o-n is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Read. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittt.e. Would counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Chronis. Yes. I am Phillip Chronis, C-h-r-o-n-i-s. I am an 
attorney admitted to practice here in the State of California. My 
business address is 6331 Hollywood Boulevard, Hollywood 28, Cali- 
fornia. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Mr. Read, I ask you these questions for the purposes of 
identification. 

Have you ever been known by, or have you ever used, any name 
other than Jon Joseph Read ? 

Mr. Read. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Mr. Read. March 1, 1935, in Los Angeles County. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your fonnal educa- 
tion, giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institu- 
tions and any degrees or certificates received ? 

Mr. Read. I went to Daniel Freeman Elementary School, Ingle- 
wood Junior High School, Inglewood Hiffh School, Elk Grove Junior 
College, Covina Junior College, and University of California at 
Berkeley. I am not sure I can remember all the dates exactly. 

Do you wish me to approximate, or is that sufficient? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 501 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will YOU tell US when you were in attendance at the 
University of California at Berkeley 'i 

Mr. Read. I believe it was "56 I started, and January of '61 that I 
completed studies for a bachelor's degree. 

Mr. XiTTLE. What is your present occupation? 

Mr. Read. I prefer not to answer that question on the rights safe- 
guarded for me by the fii'st and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you in the employ of the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee? 

JNIr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously given. 

Mr.'^NiiTLE. You filed an application for a passport on August 22, 
1962. At that time it appears as though you described your occupa- 
tion as that of a "landscape designer." 

Were you thus employed in August 1962? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you refuse to do so because, or for the reason that, 
any statement you have made in your application might have been 
incorrect ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. The official records indicate that at San Francisco on 
December 12, 1957, you applied for and were issued a United States 
passport No. 681992. In your application of that date you listed 
your occupation as that of a student and stated that you intended 
to visit Australia for 1 year. 

How long did you remain in possession of passport No. 681992, 
which was issued to you in 1957 ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds as pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you carry that passport, that 1957 passport, in 
your possession for travel to Mexico and Cuba in the spring of 1962 ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Read, the committee's investigation discloses that 
you entered Mexico on March 3, 1962, and that you left Mexico City 
on May 14, 1962, for Havana, Cuba, by way of flight 465 of the 
Cubana Airlines. 

Would you tell the committee whether you did depart from Mexico 
City on or about May 14, 1962, and travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee's investigation further reveals that you 
returned to Mexico City from Cuba on June 18, 1962, on flight 464 of 
the Cubana Airlines. 

Did you return to Mexico City from Cuba on or about that date? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's further information that, during 
the course of your May and June 1962 visit to Mexico and Cuba, you 
carried in your possession a United States passport, No. 681992, which 
w^as issued to you in 1957 and was, of course, invalid for travel to Cuba 
at the time our information indicates you traveled there. 

However, did you have that expired passport in your possession in 
May and Jime 1962, in the course of your travel to Mexico and Cuba? 

Mr. RexU). I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 



502 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee how many times you 
have visited Cuba since January 16, 1961? Did you visit Cuba more 
than once? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds I previously stated. 

Mr. Nitttj:. Subsequent to the May and June events which we have 
just discussed, the records of the State Department reveal that on 
the following August 22, 1962, you made application for a United 
States passport. I hand you a photostatic copy of that August 22, 
1962, application subscribed and sworn to by one Jon J. Read, marked 
far identification as "Read Exhibit No. 1." 

Is that your signature apj^earing thereon ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Read Exhibit No. 1" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Nittle. You Avill observe that in the application you state your 
permanent residence to be 2415 West 81st Street, Inglewood 4, Cali- 
fornia. But you request in that application that the passport be 
mailed to "4913 78th Ave., West Lanham Hill, Maryland," in care 
of James Singer. 

Were you then residing in Maryland and, if so, would you state 
what your employment or business was at that time? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NrrrLE, In the application of August 22, 1962, you indicate 
that the purpose of j'our application was to tour Europe. In the 
column where you are requested to list each country to be visited you 
placed a question mark followed by the words "Western Europe." 

Would you tell the connnittee what countries you actually planned 
to A'isit at the time you filed that application ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nrm.E. In tlie cohnnn of the application requesting informa- 
tion as to your proposed port of departure, you have likewise placed 
a question mark. You also placed a question mark in the column 
which requested information as to your means of transportation and 
proposed length of stay alu-oad. 

Did you at the time of filing this application on August 22, 1962, 
actualh" have no plans in mind with respect to those matters ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds that I previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Based upon the official records in the State Department, 
it is indicated that a new passport bearing number C-607458 Avas 
issued to you the following day, namely, August 23, 1962. 

You received that passport No. C-607458, Mr. Read, did you not? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. At the time that you filed the application, on August 
22 ,1962, did you, in fact, plan to travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, did you at any time after receipt of your pass- 
port on August 23, 1962, travel to Europe ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 503 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of page 6 of the official 
Communist publication, The Worhev. dated September 11, 1002, 
marked for identification as "Read Exhibit No. 2." 

I direct your attention there to the column "What's On," where it 
appears that Jon Read will speak as an eyewitness on Cuba, and it is 
stated that he is — and I now quote — "just back from Havana." The 
announcement states that you will speak at the Adelphi Hall, 74 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. Contribution $1, students ."iO cents. 

Are you not the Jon Read to which reference is made in The 
Worker? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on tlie grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

(Document marked "Read Exhibit No. 2" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Read, when The Worker of September 11, 1962, 
reported tlie forthcoming eyewitness-in-Cuba lecture tliat was to be 
delivered by Jon Read, described as "just back from Havana," was 
reference made to a visit to Havana, Cuba, subsequent to August 23, 
1962, or was reference, in fact, being made to your May-June visit 
previously discussed ? 

Mr. Read. Yes, in addition to my refusal to answer the previous 
question on the grounds of the first and fifth amendments, I am adding 
that this question is unintelligible. 

Mr. NrriT^E. Well, did you deliver the eyewitness account at the time 
and place as advertised in 2'he Worker f 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the groiuids pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The notice in llie Worker does not indicate under 
whose auspices your report was to be delivered. 

Would you tell us who made arrangements for you to speak at the 
Adelphi Hall, Fifth Avenue, New York City? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously stated. 

jSIr. NiTTLE. Were tliese arrangements made by any person known 
to you as, or whom you had reason to believe was, a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were tliese arrangements made for you by any repre- 
sentatives of the Fair V\^y for Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that on tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that on tlie grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Com- 
mittee, are you not ? 

Mr. Read. I have answered that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And were .you not elected on April 15, 1963, to the posi- 
tion of executive board member of tlie Bay Area Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Is not the Bay Area Fair Play for Cuba Committee 
affiliated with the national organization titled "Fair Play for Cuba 



504 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Committee," of which the national director is presently Vincent Theo- 
dore Lee, a resident of New York, formerly of Tampa, Florida? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any discussion or correspondence with 
Vincent Theodore Lee with respect to the delivery of your address at 
the Adelphi Hall in New York ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer it on the gromids previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any compensation from Vincent Theo- 
dore Lee ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask whether any of the expenses of your visit 
to Cuba were assumed by others than yourself ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you exhibit color slides on Cuba at the Adelphi 
Hall in New York? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would you tell us whether you know from whom those 
slides were obtained ? 

JNIr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hold any employment at the time of your 
appearance at the Adelphi Hall in New York City? 

Mv. Read. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you delivered lectures on the subject of Cuba 
at other places in addition to your Adelphi Hall speech? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Read, will you tell us. Are you on a speaking tour 
in the employment of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Read, I now hand you a copy of a flier issued in 
the earlv part of this year by an organization titled "The Militant 
Labor Forum," 563 16th Street, Oalsiland, California, marked for 
identification as "Read Exhibit No. 3." 

It announces the presentation of an evewitness account on Cuba 
by Jon Read, entitled "Cuba-Eyewitness Report, color slides and com- 
mentaiy on his visit — summer 1962," to be given Friday, April 19, 
1963. The date given on the flier for the report is actually given as 
April 19, 1962. which is an obvious error. 

"Was vour trip to Cuba correctlv reported as occurring in the sum- 
mer of 1962? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you provide this information to the Militant La- 
bor Forum ? 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Read Exhibit No. 3" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTi.E, Is not the IMilitant Labor FoiTun conducted by mem- 
bers of the Socialist Workers Party, a Communist Trotskyist splinter 
group ? 

[Lauffhter.] 

Mr. Read. I refuse to answer on the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliatisthat? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 505 

Mr, Read. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Did you cause the advertisement of your speech at the 
Adelphi Hall to bo placed in the Communist publication, The 
Worker^: 

]Mr. Eead. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions. 

The CiiAiRMAx. The witness is excused. 

[Applause.] 

The Chairman. Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. INIrs. Irene Paull, please. 

Mrs. Paull. Sir, I have had to change counsel and I haven't had 
a chance to discuss the case with him yet, and I am asking if I could 
be seen tomorrow morning. Is that OK ? 

The Chairman. It certainly is. You are entitled to counsel. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Ni'iTLE. Karl AVeichinger, come forward, please. 

The Chairman. "Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so lielp you God ? 

Mr. Weichinger. Yes. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF KARL VLADIMER WEICHINGER, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, DANIEL N. EOX 

Mr. Xii'TLE. Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

IVIr. Weichinger. My name is Karl Vladimer Weichinger. My 
residence is 6221/2 North Chandler Avenue, Monterey Court. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Weichinger. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yv^ill counsel kindly identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Fox. I am Daniel N. Fox. I am an attorney with offices at 632 
North Park Avenue in Pomona, California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Weichinger, did you, from the period 10.52 to May 
1956, reside at 116 South Alexandria Avenue, Los Angeles, California ? 

]\Ir. Weichinger. What is the relevancy of this question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. For purposes of identification. 

jNIr. Weichinger. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to residins: in California, did you, for the period 
1948 to May 1952, reside in Sea View, State of Washington ? 

Mr. Weichinger. What is the relevancy of this question ? 

]Mr. NiiTLE. The same purpose. 

Mr. Weichinger. "^Yliat same purpose? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Purpose of identification. 

Mr. Weichinger. Yes, I did. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Where have you resided since May of 1956 ? 

Mr. Weichinger. What is the relevancy of this question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. For purposes of identification. 

Mr. Weichinger. In and around the Los Angeles area. 

Mr. NiTTLE, To the present time? 

Mr. Weichinger. Yes, sir. 

98-7G5 — G3 — pt. 2— — C 



506 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mr. Weichinger. March 25, 1932, Cleveland, Ohio. ^ 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the husband of Jo vita Lopez Weichinger? 

Mr. Weichinger. I don't understand the relevancy of this question, 
either. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The purpose of that is to determine whetlier you and 
Jovita Lopez Weichinger are husband and wife in fact. If we find 
you are husband and wife, I will be obliged to refrain from question- 
ing you with respect to her activities. 

Mr. Weichinger. Yes, we are husband and wife. 

Mr. Nittle. That fact has to be established prior to your receiving 
the benefit of that privilege. 

Would you relate the extent of your formal education, giving the 
dates and places of attendance at educational institutions and any 
degrees received ? 

Mr. Weichinger. I have attended public schools in the State of 
Illinois and Washington. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Were you graduated from the Ilwaco High School, 
Ilwaco, State of Washington, in the year 1948 ? 

Mr. Weichinger. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you thereafter attend the L'niversity of Chicago? 

Mr. Weichinger. I feel that the line of questioning that the counsel 
is taking is beginning to infringe upon my rights of free speech guar- 
anteed me under the first amendment of the Constitution and also my 
rights guaranteed to me under the fifth amendment of the Constitu- 
tion, and I respectfully refuse to answer this question or any further 
questions put to me by the committee. 

Mr. Nittle. j\Ir. Weichinger, it is the committee's information that 
you, in fact, attended the LTniversity of Chicago for a period of about 
3 years, that while there you majored in chemistry, and that you left 
the university in January of 1952. 

If we have made an}^ error, we desire to have any correction you 
may wish to offer. 

Mr. Weichinger. I respectfully decline to answer the question on 
the same grounds as I mentioned previously. 

Mr. Nittle. "Wliat is your present occupation ? 

Mr, Weichinger. I respectfully decline to ansAver the question, as 
I have mentioned, and any further questions, on the basis that I have 
previously stated, based upon my rights under the first and fifth 
amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTixE. Are you in possession of a LTnited States passport ? 

Mr. Weichinger. I decline to answer the question on the reasons 
stated previously. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information that you are not in 
possession of a United States passport, nor were you at any time on or 
after January 16, 1961, until the present time in possession of a pass- 
port, specifically endorsed or validated for travel to Cuba. 

Has any error been made in this statement ? 

Mr. Weichinger. Your statement or your question ? I didn't under- 
stand that. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, were you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
to the present time in possession of a passport specifically validated for 
travel to Cuba ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 507 

Mr. Weichixger. I decline to answer your question on the basis of 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The connnittee's investigation discloses that you de- 
parted for Cuba in December 1961 and, after visiting there, returned 
to the United States on or about January 22, 1962, 

Did you, in fact, visit Cuba in December of 1961 and return to the 
United States on January 22, 1962 ? 

Mr. Weichinger. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you visit Cuba in tlie company of any person or 
persons other than your wife? 

Mr. Weichinger. I decline to answer the question on the basis of 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NmxE. Mr. Weichinger, the committee has received informa- 
tion that you were a member of the Communist Party while in at- 
tendance at the University of Chicago. Therefore, we should like to 
inquire whether you were, in fact, a member of the Communist Party 
while in attendance at the University of Chicago'^ 

Mr. Weichinger. As I stated previously, I feel these questions and 
all of these questions are infringements upon my rights of free speech 
and free thought, and I decline to answer these questions and any 
similar question on the basis of the first and fifth amendments of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation also discloses that you 
have been an active member of the Labor Youth League, Los Angeles 
County, California. You have been in attendance at its meetings, 
particularly its Marxist Study Groups, so-called, for a period prior to 
and immediately preceding the alleged dissolution of that organiza- 
tion in 1957. 

Were you at any time prior to 1957 a member of the Labor Youth 
League ? 

Mr. Weichinger. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Labor Youth League formally came into being at 
a conference or convention held in Chicago, Illinois, on May 28 and 29, 
1949. Attorney General J. Howard McGrath, in a letter to the 
Loyalty Eeview Board, released as early as August 30, 1950, declared 
the Labor Youth League to be a Communist organization, a successor 
organization to earlier Connnunist gi'ou])s known as the Young Com- 
munist League and American Youth for Democracy. 

The Subversive Activities Control Board, after extensive hearings, 
entered its order on February 15, 1955, requiring the Labor Youth 
league to register as a Conniiunist-front organization. In its find- 
ings, the Board specifically found the Labor Youth League to have 
been created and controlled by the Communist Party and used to pro- 
mote and carry out important party objectives. 

Mr. Weichinger, tlie committee's investigation discloses that you 
continued your membership and attendance at said Labor Youth 
League meetings for a period after these findings were announced and 
until the year 1957. 

Were you not aware of the prior findings with respect to the Labor 
Youth League by the Attorney General and the Subversive Activities 
Control Board ? 



508 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Weichinger. I decline to answer the question on the basis of 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you not have personal knowledge that the Labor 
Youth League was a Communist organization? 

Mr. Weichinger. I decline to answer the question on the basis of 
the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I call your attention to a meeting celebrating May Day, 
sponsored by the United May Day Committee, which was held on 
Friday, May 4, 1956, at the Embassy Auditorium, Ninth and Grand 
Streets, in Los Angeles, here. Approximately 1,200 people were in 
attendance, including representation by the Labor Youth League. 

The committee's investigation disclosed that you were in attendance 
there as a member of the Labor Youth League. Were you in attend- 
ance at that meeting ? 

Mr. Weichinger. I decline to answer the question on the basis of 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. AVere you seated in the north balcony of the audi- 
torium ? 

Mr. Weichinger. I decline to answer that question on the basis of 
reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Frank xllexander appeared as the chairman of this 
meeting. He spoke on the subject of May Day and what it stood 
for — and I think you know what it stands for and most of us here 
know what it stands for. 

However, in the course of the meeting he said that the Communist 
Party was especially proud of "their own Labor Youth League" and 
that he wanted to welcome them to this May Day rally. Now, upon 
those remarks being made, the entire north balcony of the auditorium 
rose and cheered, whereupon Mr. Alexander introduced Harriet 
Wilson as the Los Angeles Count v chairman of the Labor Youth 
League, and again the north balcony arose singing a chant, "Harriet 
is our leader." 

Were you present and in attendance when the remarks were made 
bv the chairman, Frank Alexander, that the Labor Youth League was 
the 

iSIr. Weichinger. Besides considering the irrelevancy of all these 
types of questions, I see a slight smirk on your own face, and it is 
difficult to take some of these things seriously, the type of things you 
are saying. And, as I have indicated before, I feel the committee's 
interrogation of me is an infringement of my rights under the fifth 
amendment and the first amendment, guaranteeing to me my right 
to think and act and to speak. And, tlierefore, as I have indicated 
before, I respectfully decline to answer this question and any question 
similarly on the basis of those amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. One final question, Mr. Weichinger, and I won't smile 
when I ask this question. 

Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Weichinger. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the basis of the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Tlie Chairman. Witness is excused. 

[Applause.] 

Mr. Nittle. IMrs. Jovita Lopez Weichinger, please come forward. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 509 

The CiiAiRM.vx. Will you please raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore tins committee sliall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Weichinger. I do. 

The CiiAiRMAx, All right. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF JOVITA LOPEZ WEICHINGER, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, DANIEL N. FOX 

Mr NiTTLE. Would vou state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Weichinger. Jovita Weichinger. 

]\Ir. NrrTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Weichinger. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel identifj^ himself for the record, please ? 

Mr. Fox. Counsel is Daniel N. Fox, attorney, practicing at 632 North 
Park Avenue, Pomona, California. 

Both Mr. and jNlrs. Weichinger are re|-»resented also by co-counsel, 
Mr. Bennet Olan of Beverly Hills, California, who is unable to re- 
main this late in the day. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Weichinger, you are the wife of the preceding 
witness, Karl Vladimer Weichinger ; are you not ? 

Mrs. Weichinger. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please? 

Mrs. Weichinger. February 15, 1934, in San Antonio, Texas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was your reply as to the place? I'm sorry. I 
couldn't hear you. 

Mrs. Weichinger. February 15, 1934, San Antonio, Texas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion, please? 

Mrs. Weichinger. I attended grammar school in San Antonio, 
Texas, Unxj Crockett School, and then I went to my eighth grade in 
San Antonio. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee's investigation, Mrs. Weichinger, dis- 
closes that you, together with your husband, have visited Cuba in 
or about December 1901 and that you returned to the United States 
on or about January 22, 1962. I am not asking you to testify with 
respect to your husband's activities. I merely stated that informa- 
tion for the record. 

I wish to inquire whether you personally, in fact, visited Cuba dur- 
ing that period? 

Mrs. Weichinger. I decline to answer this question, basing myself 
on advice of my counsel, my individual advice, and privileges contained 
in the fifth amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information that you did not at 
any time on or after January 10, 1961, possess any United States pass- 
port and. of course, possessed no passport validated or endorsed for 
travel to Cuba. 
^ If this information is not correct, or should you have any explana- 
tion you desire to offer, the committee w^ould like to have it. 



510 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mrs. Weichinger. I decline to answer the question, basing myself 
on the advice of my counsel and the rights contained in the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Were you aware during the period of your travel to 
Cuba, or during the dates December 1961 and January 1962, that it 
was contrary to laws and regulations of the United States to travel 
to Cuba without a passport validated for such travel? 

Mrs. Weichinger. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairmax. Witness excused. 

[Applause.] 

The Chairmax. The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow 
morning at 9 :30, 

(Whereupon, at 5:35 p.m., Monday, July 1, 1963, the subcommittee 
recessed, to reconvene at 9:30 a.m., Tuesday, July 2, 1963.) 



-iv 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS 

AND PRO CASTRO PROPAGANDA A( TIVITIES IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

Part 2 



TUESDAY, JULY 2, 1963 



United Stai'es House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 

COMMIITEE ON Un-AmERICAN AcTRTTIES, 

Los Angel en ^ California. 

Public Hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to adjournment, at 9 :oO a.m., in Rooui 518, U.S. Post 
OfHce Buildino-, Los Angeles, Calif., Hon. Edwin PI Willis (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Lou- 
isiana; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. Johansen, of 
Michigan. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Johansen. 

Committee member also present: Representative John M. Ashbrook, 
of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel ; and William A. A\n[ieeler, investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Mr. AsiiBROOK. JMr. Chairman, could I be recognized for a moment? 

The Chairman. Yes. I am delighted to recognize the gentleman. 

Mr. Ashbrook. Mr. Chairman, as the only member of this commit- 
tee who is not officially a member of the subcommittee, first, I would 
like to comment on my first visit in the field with this committee. 

I want to commend the chairman for his tact and patience in han- 
dling the situation we have here. It's general public knowledge that 
there has been oppositioii to these hearings, but I would like the record 
to show, in addition, that there has also been widespread support of 
these hearings. 

I have been contacted by Mr. Tom L. Hoag of the Counter-Subver- 
sion Commission of the American Legion, Department of California, 
who has given to me Resolution G3-C68 commending both the chair- 
man, the purpose of this committee, and the conduct of these hearings. 

I would like to ask unanimous consent that tlie record show this 
resolution and that it be included in the hearings as we ha\'e had 
them. 

511 



512 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The CiiAiKMAx. Witliout objection, the resohition will be received. 
(Tlie resolution follows:) 

American Legion, Department of California, Resolution No. 63-G68. Subject : 
Commendation and Support of House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

"Whereas, the House Committee on Un-American Activities has for over twenty 
years performed an invaluable service to tlie people of the United States of 
America through hearings in connection with problems on National Security 
and international subversion, and 

Whereas, no other governmental agency has been subjected to more pro- 
longed abuse and unwarranted attack and harassment, and 

Whereas, the plane upon which matters have been conducted in the past has 
been in a most gentlemanly and exemplary manner. 

NOW, THP]REFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that The American Legion, De- 
partment of California, in convention assembled June 27-30, 1953, does com- 
mend, on the eve of the hearing to be held in Los Angeles on July 1 and 2, the said 
committee and pledge its full support and wish it Ood.speed in the orderly trans- 
action of their established and duly constituted legislative responsibilities, and 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that it is our belief that these hearings will 
safeguard and protect our National Security against those who give aid and 
comfort to the cause of Communism and Castro's Cuba. 

The Chairman. Call your first witness, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Mrs. Jean Kid well Pest ana please come for- 
ward ? 

Jean Kidwell Pestana. 

The Chairman. Call the next one. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Frank S. Pestana. Would Frank S. Pestana please 
come forward ? 

Would Frank S. Pestana please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Have these witnesses been summoned? Do we 
have a return on the subpenas ? 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Were they here yesterday, do you know ? 

Mr. Wheeler. No, I don't know. 

The Chairman. Well, they were notified to be here this morning? 

Mr. Wheeler. They were notified to be here yesterday. 

The Chairman. Yesterday and this morning. x\nd we have a 
return on the subpenas ? 

]V[r. Wheeler. Yes. 

The Chairman. We will defer hearing from them for a reasonable 
length of time before acting on the failure to respond to the subpenas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Irene Paull please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Will you please raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

IVIrs. Paull, I do. 

TESTIMONY OP IRENE PAULL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

HUGH E. MANES 

The Chairman. Would you state your full name and residence for 
the record, please ? 

Mrs. Paull. My name is Irene Paull. I live in San Francisco, 
but I want to ask you something. I am a single woman living alone, 
and I see no point in giving my address, making it public, when 
you already have it, because I know that I will be subjected to harass- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 513 

ment by crackpots and cranks, and think maybe even physical harm, 
and I have already been subjected to enouf^li anguish and harassment 
and invasion on my privacy, so why is it necessary to cause me more? 

The CiiAiRMAX. This is part of the usual identification evidence 
])roi)er in all hearings of this type. So, to come to the point, the 
Chair directs you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Pafll. I want to make a request to you for an executive ses- 
sion, then, to ])rotectmy riglits and, furthermore 

The Chairman'. I think the usual thing is for the record to show 
identification. I again direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Paull. My address is 20G3 28th Avenue, San Francisco. But, 
apparently, it's obvious 

The Chairman. Well, now, that is enough. You w^ill be permitted 
to present your motion. The next step is to be sure you are repre- 
sented by counsel. 

I say that because yesterday I granted you a continuance until you 
could obtain counsel. "We want to be sure that you are represented 
by counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Paull, is your name listed in the telephone direc- 
tory ? 

Mrs. Paull. Yes, it is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And your residence is given in that publicly ? 

Mrs. Paull. Yes. 

The Chairman. She has given her address. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see. Now, are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Paull. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Manes. Hugh Manes, ]M-a-n-e-s, 1080 North Vine Street, Holly- 
wood 28, California, Suite 700. I am an attorney, practicing law at 
that office. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, Mrs. 
Paull? 

Mrs. Paull. I was born in Duluth, Minnesota, in April 1908. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did vou continue to reside in Duluth, JMinne- 
sota ? 

Mrs. Paull. I resided there until the death of my husband in about 
1947. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mrs. Paull. I again here ask for an executive session pursuant to 
my former request. I don't see any relevancy to my education. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask for a direction, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You ask for an executive session on what basis? 
Is it on the basis of the requests that were made yesterday, based par- 
ticularly on Rule XI, subsection 26 (m) of the House ? 

Mrs. Paull. Yes. 

The Chairman. Well, 

Mrs. Paut.l. And also the fourth and fifth amendments of the 
Constitution. 

The Chairman. Well, you were here yesterday, and that is evident 
because you were granted a continuance until today, and you heard 
my ruling on similar requests. And without the necessity of repeti- 
tion of the reasons for denying your motion, I point out particularly 
that the rule of the House to which you refer and which forms the 
primary basis of your request is not applicable in this situation, and 



514 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

your other grounds are likewise not properly founded and, therefore, 
your request for an executive session is denied. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mrs. Paull. I have no occupation right now. I am unemployed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "V^Hien were you last employed ? 

Mrs. Paull. Just before I came down to the hearings. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate your principal employment during 
the past 20 years ? 

Mrs. Paull. What is the relevancy of that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is for purposes of background information. 

I^Irs. Paull. What kind of background information are you seek- 
ing? For what purpose and what is its relevancy? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked what were your principal employments during 
the past 20 years. 

Mrs. Paull. But I ask the same question. I mean, what is the pur- 
pose of that question? 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was your last employment? 

Mrs. Paull. I was a secretary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. xVt what other positions have you been employed during 
the past 20 years? 

Mrs. Paull. Mother, wife. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at any time employed by the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer for the following reasons: First, 
the mandate of this committee, on its face and as applied, impinges 
on the first amendment rights of all citizens to freedom of expression, 
association, and press and to petition the Government for a redress 
of grievances. 

Second, the mandate of this committee is so broad and so vague that 
it fails to provide adequate standards for determining the constitu- 
tional limits of its authority, thereby leaving the scope of its inquiry to 
the whim or caprice of its members, while depriving the citizens of fair 
notice of the relevance or propriety of this inquiry. 

Third, the announced subject matter of this investigation trans- 
gresses upon the people's freedom to travel and to become informed 
and enlightened in order to more effectively govern themselves. This 
investigation unconstitutionally arrogates to Government a right re- 
tained exclusively by citizens to go and see what, when, and where they 
please. And, most importantly, this investigation has the aim and 
effect of abridging the right of citizens to seek and discover for them- 
selves the truth concerning conditions and events in other lands and 
making their own independent judgment as to what ideas found tliere, 
if any, will be useful in promoting their own destiny, a determina- 
tion which the Constitution vests not in Government, but in the true 
rulers of this country, the people. 

Fourth, the question asked is not pertinent or relevant to the sub- 
ject matter under investigation nor to the purported authority of this 
committee. The failure and refusal of this committee to conduct 
this inquiiy in executive session violates Rule XI, 26 (m), of this com- 
mittee's mandate in that, among other things, the questions asked 
or to be asked of me seek evidence and testimony which tend or may 
tend to defame, degrade, and incriminate me. And further, because 
this public lifiaring has no legitimate legislative purpose, but is de- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 515 

signed and tends to expose me to economic, social, and political recrim- 
ination, ostracism, and to hold mc, and my ideas np to public obloquy 
and scorn, and infrinoes upon my constitutional rights of privacy, 
all in violation of the iirst, fourth, and liftli amendments to the 
United States Constitution. 

And, sixth, this subconnnittee is illegally constituted and without 
jurisdiction to conduct these proceedings for lack of a quorum as re- 
quired by rule 26 (li), in that two of its members represent States 
which deny to and abridge the franchise of Negro inhabitants, but 
Avhich States have not been, and are not now, duly and lawfully appor- 
tioned in accordance with section 2 of the fourteenth amendment to 
the Federal Constitution. 

And, eighth, the question compels me to testify against myself in 
violation of the fifth amendment to the United States Constitution. 

The Chair^iax. Well, of course, we have already ruled on the sug- 
gested grounds for failure to answer this and other questions. But let 
it be noted in the record that the power of Congress to legislate in 
the field of Communist activities has never been doubted. 

Here is a quotation from a passage of the United States Supreme 
Court decision by Justice Harlan. He said, in the Barenblatt case: 

That Congress has wide powers to legislate in the field of Communist activity 
in this Country and to conduct appropriate investigations in aid thereof is 
hardly debatable. The existence of such power has never been questioned by this 
Court * * *. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Paull, it is the committee's information that since 
July 21, 1959, yon held a United States Passport No. 1728249 ; that 
you last made application for a renewal of it on October 27, 1960. 
Based upon that application, your passport was renewed by the De- 
partment of State on November 7, 1960. 

Are you presently in possession of a United States passport issued 
to you in 1959 and which was renewed in 1960 ? 

Mrs. Paull. I cannot answer that question on the gi'ounds previ- 
ously stated. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Oh, yes, you can, if you wish to. Say you ''decline" 
or that you "refuse to." 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer that on the gi'ounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your application of October 27, 1960, for renewal 
of passport, you indicated that you planned to travel as a tourist to 
Italy, Egypt, Israel, France, and England for a period of about 8 
months and that j^our date of departure was approximately December 
1, 1960. 

Did you at any time after receipt of your passport renewal travel 
to Italj^, to Egypt, Israel, France, or England ? 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you filed your application on October 27, 
1960, did you plan to visit any countries other than those that you 
said you intended to visit ? 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at that time plan to visit Cuba ? 



516 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer tliat on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Did you, in fact, visit Cuba at any time after November 
7, 1960, the date of receipt of your passport 'i 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

]\Ir. XiT-rLE. The committee's investigation discloses that j^ou de- 
parted the United States at New York City on January 8, 1961, by 
British Overseas Airlines to Jamaica. 

Did you at that time and by that means travel to the island of 
Jamaica? 

Mrs. Paull. Sir, what is the relevancy of that question in view of 
the time that the passport — that the ban went into effect according 
to your statement yesterday? 

Air. X1TTI.E. You are aware, are you not, of the subjects of investi- 
gation today? 

Mrs. Paull. That is exactly why I am asking the question. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Have you received a copy of the chairman's opening 
statement? 

The CnAiRMAx. Well, she knows about it. She's asked the question, 
and you should really supply the answer. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Yes. "We are investigating Communist propaganda 
activities in support of the Communist regime in Cuba and other 
Latin American countries and foreign travel undertaken by United 
States citizens acting on behalf of, or in the interest of, foreign Com- 
munist principals. This relates to your foreign travel. 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. The committee's investigation further discloses that 
you did, in fact, enter Cuba from Jamaica on January 18, 1961 ; that 
you remained in Cuba until March 6, 1961. 

Did you visit Cuba during that period ? 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you aware at that time that the United States 
had severed diplomatic relations with Cuba on January 3, 1961, just 
prior to your entry into Cuba ? 

]\rrs. Paull. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you aware at the time of your entry into Cuba 
that the United States State Department had adopted regidations on 
JanuaiT 16, 1961, prohibiting travel to Cuba by United States citizens 
unless tliey possessed a passport specifically validated or endorsed for 
travel to Cuba? 

Mrs. Paull. How is that relevant, sir? According to your own 
question and according to the facts that I left on the — I ostensibly 
and allegedly loft on the 8th, and the travel ban was made on the 
6th — ^on the 16th, how was I to laiow on the 8th that the travel was 
to be 



Mr. XiTTLE. I aui not asking you how you were to know. I am 
asking you Avhether you knew in fact. 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Xiii'LE. Did you, while in Cuba, at any time make application 
to the Swiss Embassy there, which was then serving the interests of 
the United States, or did you communicate in any way with the De- 
partment of State to obtain a validation for j^our stay there? 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 517 

Mr. NiTTLE. You were aware that the Swiss Embassy was then 
servintr United States interests in Cuba after the breach in diplomatic 
relations? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will 3'ou tell us what your itinerary was after leaving 
Cuba on your return to the United States? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did you get back into the United States ? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nfttle. You are aware, in view of the circumstances and the 
change in regulations, the passport regulations required that to return 
to the United States from Cuba you were required to be in possession 
of a passport specifically validated for that travel ? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you travel directly from Cuba to the United States, 
or did you return to the United States via any country of North or 
Central America ? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer for purposes — on the reasons pre- 
viously stated. 

IMr.'NiTTLE. Prior to your visit to Cuba, had you made any arrange- 
ments with representatives of the Communist Party in the United 
States to serve as a correspondent there for any of the party's publi- 
cations and to contribute articles for Communist journals on the sub- 
ject of Cuba? 

j\Irs. Paull. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you agree to serve while in Cuba as a correspondent 
for the Communist Party publications, People^ s World and Main- 
stream ? 

Mrs. Paull. Am I supposed to accept your characterization of the 
People's World and Malnstream^ as Communist? It's like asking a 
man, "l^Hien did you stop beating your wife ?" 

Mr. NiTTLE. We think you would possess knowledge as to whether 
or not these are Communist publications. What is your knowledge 
on that subject? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now Mr. Wheeler will hand you a photostatic copy of 
page 5 of the Communist Party's West Coast publication, People'' s 
World, dated Saturday, January 28, 1961, marked for identification 
as "Paull Exhibit No. f." 

You will note the half -page article titled " 'Yanqui' woman 
marches with builders of nation," carrying the dateline, Havana, 
and signed simply, "Irene." 

Tlie first paragraph of the article states : 

Last night was one of the greatest experiences of my life. I saw 200,000 peo- 
ple in a demonstration of mass joy. 

The committee's investigation discloses that you, Irene Paull, are 
the Irene who wrote that article. Did you, in fact, contribute that 
article to PeopWs World while in Havana during the latter part of 
January 1961? 

Mrs. Paull. I find it a very interesting and moving article, sir, but 
I decline to answer on the basis of my grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Paul! Exhibit No. 1" and retained in connnit- 
tee files.) 



518 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Wlieeler will hand you a photostatic copy of page 
9 of the People's World, dated Saturday, February 25, 1961, marked 
for identification as "Paull Exhibit No. 2." 

You will note an article there in bold type titled ''Castro leads 
volunteers in harvesting sugar cane." This is also datelined Havana, 
and, in this instance, the name of the author appears at the end thereof 
in full as "irene paull." 

The authoi-, Irene Paull, writes in part, and I now quote from the 
article : 

It was midnight, Saturday. Every alarm clock was set for 3 :30 a.m., but 
nobody was asleep. Fidel was making a speech to the National Federation of 
Sugar Workers convention. He was having the time of his life and so were 
the sugar workers. From every open window on the patio came sustained 
echoes of shouts and laughter. 

Mrs. Paull. You read beautifully, Mr. Nittle. 
Mr. Nittle. And you write beautifully. 
The Chairman. Proceed. 
Mr. Nittle (quoting further :) 

"We understand unemployment is growing in the United States," Fidel was 
saying. "Well, let them come here ! We'll find work for them. Let them send 
us their generals, their admirals, their bankers. Let them even send us their 
FBI. We'll put them to work in the canebrakes !" 

said Fidel. 

Are you not the Irene Paull who was the author of that article ? 

Mrs. Paull, can't you identifj^ your writing? 

Mrs. Paull. I am examining it, sir, in order to identify it and an- 
swer your question. 

Mr. Nittle. You are examining it at considerable length. 

Mrs. Paull. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Nittle. I don't mean to rush you, but I do think you could be 
a little more prompt. 

Mrs. Paull. I understand, Mr. Nittle, that this is my right, so I am 
taking it. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you write that article, Mrs. Paull? I think you 
have had an opportunity to examine it. 

Mrs. Paull. I declme to answer, sir, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

(Document marked "Paull Exhibit No. 2" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in Cuba during the month of February 1961 
when that article appeared? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. "S^^ieeler will also hand you a copy of the March 
1962 issue of the Communist Party's cultural and literary magazine, 
titled Mainstream-, marked for identification as "Paull Exhibit No. 3." 

I direct your attention to an item on page 2 titled, "Among Our 
Contributors." It appears to be an editorial note as follows: 

Irene Paull lives in San Francisco, California. Her poems and stories have 
been published in this country and Cuba. The sketch in this issue is based on 
her trip to Cuba in 1961. 

The sketch to which that item refers was an article titled "Little 
Island of Megano," which appeared under your name in that issue 
of Mainstream-. 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 519 

( Document mnrked "Paul] Exliihit No. ;>"' and retained in conmiittee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Wheeler will liand yon a photostatic copy of page 3 
of the April 22, 19()1, issue of People's Worlds marked for identifica- 
tion as "Panll Exhibit Xo. 4,'' an item titled "uxitakiax cuba meet- 
ing SUNDAY." It's datelined in San Francisco and announces that 
the Unitarian Action for Social Justice will hold a Cuba meetinii;- at 
2:30 p.m., Sunday, 23. at YWCA, 1830 Sutter. It announces that: 
"Three speakers recently returned from Oiba will speak." Amono' 
those named is ''Irene Paull, San Francisco writer.'" 

Are you not the Irene Paull referred to in that item ? 

Mrs. Paule. The implication of your question, Mr. Nittle, is that 
anyone who reports at a meetin<2: — in this case the Unitarian meeting, 
ajjparently — on what he has seen and heard is someone, somehow guilty 
of a crime ; and for that reason and for all other reasons previously 
stated, I decline to answer. 

]\rr. Xittle. Were you correctly described as recently returning 
from Cuba ? 

Mrs. Paull. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Paull Exhibit No. 4" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Nii-TLE. Was it your purpose in visiting Cuba to obtain back- 
ground so that you might serve more effectively as a propagandist in 
support of the Communist regime in Cuba ? 

Mrs. Paull. The implication of your question, Mr. Nittle, is that 
anj'one who tries to seek truth is a propagandist of some kind for 
some special purpose or reason. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, ]\Irs. Paull 

Mrs. Paull. And for that reason and for all other reasons pre- 
viously stated, I must decline to answer your question. 

Mr. Nittle. Let me request permission of the Chair for one moment 
to state to you what Mr. Justice Frankfurter said in the Communist 
Party decision of June 5, 1961 : 

Where the mask of anouyinity which an organization's members wear serves 
the double purpose of protecting them from popular prejudice and of enabling 
them to cover over a foreign-directed conspiracy, infiltrate into other groups, 
and enlist the support of persons who would not, if the truth were revealed, lend 
their support, it would be a distortion of the First Amendment to hold that 
it prohibits Congress from removing the mask. 

Mrs. Paull. Mr. Nittle, are you propagandizing or are you asking 
a question ? 

The Chairman". Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you conducting your activities, sucli as have been 
related, in support of Cuba in response to Communist Party directives ? 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer on the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. As a matter of fact, Mrs. Paull, have you not for over 
25 years past been actively engaged in activities designed to suppoi*t 
the objectives of the world Communist movement ? 

Mrs. Paull. Sir, th3 opinions and the associations of people are pro- 
tected by the Constitution ; and on that ground and the grounds previ- 
ously stated, I refuse to answer your questions. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you not for over 25 years past been actively en- 
gaged as a correspondent in writing for such Conimnnist j^ublica- 
tions as the DnUy Wo)'7\'er? 



520 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mrs. Paull. Sir, I have always believed in the freedom of the press 
for anybody ^Yho wants to say anything that is — that truth leads him 
to, and for that reason and for any — and for the reasons previously 
stated, I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. XiTTLE. You have also traveled widely in support of the world 
Communist movement, have you not ? 

Mrs. Paui.l. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. One of your latest exploits in that respect was reported 
in the September 29, 1962, issue of the People's Wor-Jd at page 3, a 
copy of which Mr. Wheeler will hand you, marked for identification as 
"Paull Exhibit No. 5." 

An article is there titled "Two women report Oct. 6 on peace meets." 
That article reports that : 

Two Bay Area women who purticipatecl iu two peace conferences abroad 
this year will report on their experiences * * * at the Berkeley Finnish Hall, 
1819 Tenth street, Berkeley. 

It is there stated that : 

Mrs. Anne Ilelenius of San Francisco, who attended the World Peace Con- 
gress in Moscow in Jnne,* and Mrs. Irene Panll, also of San Francisco, who 
attended the AVorld anti A and H Bomb Conference in Tokio in August, will give 
their impressions of the two events. 

Now, tliat affair was being sponsored by the Jack London Club, 
described as a Finnish-American cultural group. An admission fee 
of 50 cents was charged. 

The article further indicates that Mrs. Paull was one of only two 
Americans who walked 170 miles in a 21-day Japanese peace march 
that saw a total 

[Applause.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. — that saw a total • 

The CiiAiRMAisr. May I say at this point that the Chair and the 
members of this committee are not unaware of the inspiration for 
these outbursts by certain ])eople in the audience, and they may as well 
be warned that these outbursts will not be tolerated. 

Go on. 

Mr. XiTTLE. It was pointed out that you are indicated as being one 
of two Americans who walked 170 miles in 21 days in a Japanese peace 
marcli that saw a total of 20,000 marchers converge on Tokyo from 
four directions. 

Are you the Irene Paull to whom reference is made in the article? 

j\Irs. Paull. Tlie implication of your question, Mr. Nittle, is that 
somehow it's dirty or subversive or criminal to be for peace and to 
willingly walk your legs off against the future A- and H-bombs being 
dropped on the human race ; and for that reason and for other reasons 
previously stated, I refuse to answer your question. 

(Document marked "Paull Exhibit Xo. 5," and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Was it the purpose of your engaging in that activity to 
accomplish Communist objectives ? 

^ This, npparentlv, refers to the World Congress for General Disarmament and Peace 
held in Moscow July 9-14, 1962. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 521 

Mrs. Pattll. I refuse to answer tluit question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLK. And was that oljjective the influencing of the public 
in non-Comnuuiist countries not to resist Communist aggression, 
whether it's in (^ul)a or South Vietnam or Korea ? 

ISIrs. Paull. Are you asking my opinion in terms of what people do 
and how they express themselves 'i 

Mt. Nittle. I think the question is quite clear. 

Mrs. Patjll. Then I 

Mr. Nittle. The question relates to Communist activities. 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer on the ground previously stated. 

]Mr. Nittle. Were you not, in the late thirties, the Minnesota orga- 
nizer of the Young Communist I^eague ? 

Mrs. Paull. What is the relevancy of that particular question ? 

The Chairman". That is part of the objectives of the hearing an- 
nounced in the opening statement. Go on. 

And the Chair directs you to answer the question. 

]\Irs. PxVULL. Well, what is the relevancy in terms of the date ? 

The Chairman. Well, there is obviously continuity of action, and 
the Chair again directs you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Paull. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Paull, will you tell the committee when you first 
joined the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Paull. It's obvious by this question, sir, that you have called 
me here merely for the purpose of harassing me and holding me up to 
ridicule and obloquy, and on that ground and on other grounds previ- 
ously stated, I refuse to answer your question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Paull, the committee has been reliably informed 
that you were formerly the Communist Party chairman in Duluth, 
iNIinnesota, during your residence there. 

Were you the Communist Party chairman in Duluth, Minnesota ? 

Mrs. Paull. I don't think that this committee has been properly 
informed because it isn't looking for the truth. It hasn't found the 
truth; it never will find the truth. And on that ground and all other 
grounds previously stated, I refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, now, Mrs. Paull, you have stated that the com- 
mittee has not been reliably informed about your Communist Party 
chairmanship in Duluth, Minnesota. The source of the committee's 
information, or one of the sources of the committee's information to 
the fact that you were Communist Party chairman in Duluth, Min- 
nesota, is no less an authority than that of Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, 
who is presently the national chairman of the Communist Party in the 
United States and has for many years been a leading Communist func- 
tionary. 

I will ask Mr. "^Vlieeler to hand you a photostatic copy of page 8 
of the Communist Daily Worker^ dated May 13, 1947, marked for 
identification as "Paull Exhibit No. 6." 

And I direct your attention to the article titled "Labor Loses a 
Staunch Defender," dated at Duluth, Minnesota, under the by-line 
of Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. 



98-765— 63— pt 2- 



522 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

In this 1947 article, she wrote as follows : 

Sunday afternoon Comrade Martin Mackie, chairman of the Communist Party 
and I spent the afternoon with the Faull family. Henry — 

that is your husband — 

asked about the Dennis case — 

and, incidentally, he was being prosecuted for conspiracy to advo- 
cate the violent overthrow of the Government of the United States 
and was convicted. I repeat : 

Henry asked about the Dennis case and the chances to defeat the Un-American 
Committee. He and his wife Irene, who is chairman of the local C.P. [Com 
munist Party] and who writes excellent short stories occasionally for The 
Worker and the New Masses, told us of the great joy they had in Paul Robeson's 
recent visit to Duluth. 

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn describes you, Irene Paull, as chairman 
of the local Communist Party. Were you then, as Mrs. Flynn wrote, 
the chairman of the Communist Party in Duluth, Minnesota ? 

]\Irs. Paull. The purpose of bringino- up this article, dated 1947, 
is simply to harass me, and for that reason and for other reasons 
previously stated, I refuse to answer this question. 

(Docimient marked "Paull Exhibit No. 6" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Paull, are you as of this moment a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mi-s. Paull. For reasons previously stated, I refuse to answer that 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I will show you one last exhibit. It is a very large 
advertisement that appeared in the Palo Alto Times of April 25, 
1961, which was caused to be inserted apparently under the sponsor- 
ship of the "Student Ad Hoc Committee Against U.S. Intervention 
in Cuba & Palo Alto Fair Play for Cuba Connnittee." The advertise- 
ment is titled "Petition on Our Policy Toward Cuba"' and is ad- 
dressed to President John F. Kennedy. You say there : 

As citizens of the United States, what can we feel but shame? As citizens 
still dedicated to democracy and national independence for all countries, we 
are compelled to petition you to change our national policy toward Cuba. Evi- 
dence of official Central Intelligence Agency complicity in organizing, financing, 
and equipping the counter-revolutionary invasion of Cuba is too overwhelming 
to be dismissed. We are appalled, dismayed, and ashamed by our country's 
role in the invasion of Cuba. Your re-evaluation of this policy of intervention 
is imperative. 

Among the petitionei's appears the name "Irene Paull," and I will 
ask ]VIr. Wheeler to refresh your recollection with respect to that 
item by handing you a copy of it. I desire to ask whether you are the 
Irene Paull whose name is referred to there ? 

Mrs. Paull. I thought that the first amendment protected the 
right of Americans to petition for redress of grievances. I remember 
from my American history that Thomas Jefferson even insisted that 
a citizen should insist on that right, and on that ground and for all 
other grotmds previously stated. I refuse to answer that question. 

(Document marked "Paull Exhibit No. 7 follows.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



523 




I !S»^ 



US 






■:. •£ 











524 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Communist Party of the United States at its last 
national convention, which was held in December 1959 in New York 
City, adopted a resolution, its main political resolution. It called 
for "Hands Off Cuba," and "No Intervention in the Affairs of Latin 
America." 

When you participated in the circulation of that petition, was it 
with the objective of giving support to that declaration of Commu- 
nist policy to continue the maintenance of a Commmiist regime in 
Cuba, regardless of whatever acts of aggression may be committed 
by it toward the United States or other Latin American countries, 
and regardless of the fact that it is being used as a missile base for the 
Soviet Union, despite the fact that it is being used as a base for the 
subversion or attempted subversion of Latin America? 

Mrs. Paull. The obvious implication of your question is to smear 
anyone who questions American policy in Cuba or in any other coun- 
try. And for that reason and on the grounds previously stated, I 
refuse to answer your question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the Communist Party case, Justice Douglas said : 

If lobbyists can be required to register, if political parties can be required 
to make disclosure of the sources of their funds, if the owners of newspapers 
and periodicals must disclose their afiiliates, so may a group operating under 
the control of a foreign power. 

Do you understand the Communist Party of the United States to 
be operating under the control of a foreign power? 

Mrs. Paull. Sir, since when does an American have to register 
his opinions ? Tell me that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking you a question. 

Mrs. Paull. Well, on the ground that I — are you asking for my 
opinion or asking a question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking you for your laiowledge. You appar- 
ently have had a great deal of experience in the Communist Party 
and its operations. You have closely associated with Elizabeth Gur- 
ley Flynn, Eugene Dennis, Paul Robeson, and other members of the 
international conspiracy. You have been a correspondent for the 
Daily WorJx:€r^ for Mainstremn^ Masses and Slainstream, and A^eio 
Masses. 

jSIrs. Paull. You have asked me tlie question — — 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think you are an expert on the subject. 

Mrs. Paull. — about registration. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it 3'our knowledge that the Communist Party 

Mrs. Paull. I don't think any American has — anyone has the right 
to ask any American, any citizen, to register his private opinions, and 
on that ground and on all other grounds previously stated, I refuse 
to answer such a question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Willis, may I respectfully request a 5-minute 
recess ? 

The Chairmax. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A^Tiereupon, at 10:30 a.m., the subcommittee recessed until 10:55 
a.m. of the same day.) 

The CiiAiRMAx. Please be seated. The committee will come to 
order. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 525 

You may call your next "witness, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. 'Would Mrs. Jean Kidwell Pestana please come 
forward ? 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I Avould like 

The Chaik3Ian. Please raise your right hand. 

Mrs. Pestana. At this time I would like to afiirm. 

The Ciiairiman. That's all right. 

Do you solemnly swear that the 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I would like to affirm. 

The CiiAiRMAX^. Well, do you solemnly swear or affirm that the 
testimony that you are about to give will be the truth, the wdiole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Pestaxa. Mr. Chairman, 1 think the witness has made it abun- 
dantly clear that she does not wish to swear. She wishes to affirm. 

I suggest that you giv^e her the proper oath. 

The CiiAiKMAX. Do you affirm that the testimony that you are about 
to give will be the truth, so help you God ? 

JMr. Pestaxa. Again, that is not an affirmation. You have thrown 
in the last phrase, which is again in violation of her right to affirm. 

The CiiAiRMAX'. Is the basis of her refusal the fact that she does 
not want the word "God" in the affirmation ? 

]Mr. Pestaxa. The basis of her refusal to all that is that she believes 
in the separation of state and church and that she wishes to have that 
separation maintained in accordance with the Constitution of the 
United States. 

The Chairmax. Do you affirm that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth and the whole truth and nothing but the truth ? 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JEAN ESTELLE KIDWELL PESTANA 

Mr. Pestax^a. At this time, Mr. Chairman, we would like to ask 

The Chair:\iax'. The committee 

Mr. Pestaxa. Just a moment. I am making a suggestion, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. The counsel will ask his usual preliminary ques- 
tions for identification before we hear from counsel or anybody else. 

Mr. Pestax^a. JNIy question is preliminary and it may result in 

Mr. AsiiBROOK. I suggest that counsel is out of order. 

Mr. Pestaxa. It is apparent 

The Chairmax. Counsel is out of order as has been suggested. We 
don't even know who he is yet. 

The witness is entitled to counsel, and we will not be deterred in 
following our usual procedure for identification before entertaining 
any motions or suggestions or ideas or filing of any statements. 
Therefore, Counsel, proceed. 

Mr. PestaxxV. Mr. Chairman, before we proceed, pictures are being 
taken here. 

Mr. AsHBROOK. Mr. Chairman, I insist on order. 

Mr. Pestaxa. And I would like to ask the Chair to rule that pictures 
may not be taken without the consent of this witness. 

The Chairmax. That is absolutely correct, and there will be no 
pictures taken. 



526 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Now, proceed. 

Mr. Pestana. Mr. Chairman, 



The Chairman. Now, proceed. I will not 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Pestana, would you 

Mrs. Pestana. At this time I would like to make a motion for a 
continuation on the grounds that I am not represented by counsel. 
I was represented and my counsel 

Mr. Pestana. Well, 

The Chairman. Well, who is the gentleman who has been making 
all the suggestions here? That is exactly what I said, that we didn't 
even know who he was. 

Mrs. Pestana. May I make my motion ? 

The Chairman. Now, since he is not the counsel, this gentleman 
is not your counsel 

Mrs. Pestana. I was represented by counsel. 

The Chairman. Is this gentleman your counsel ? Is this gentleman 
your counsel? 

Mrs. Pestana. He is serving temporarily as my counsel. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mrs. Pestana. For the purpose of this motion alone. If you will 
permit me to proceed. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. May we identif}' you first? 

The Chairman. Wait a minute, wait a minute. Is witness saying, 
and only saying, that she wants a continuance because she has no 
counsel ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I have no counsel. I was represented based upon 
representations of the counsel for this committee. My counsel was 
informed that it would be impossible for me to be called yesterday 

when he was in this city. He was also told it was Mr. Melvin Belli. 

Pie prepared me in connection with this committee's 

The Chairman. And you have no counsel ? 

Mrs. Pestana. And I have no counsel, and I would like a continu- 
ance for the purposes of obtaining such counsel. 

The Chairman. Can you obtain counsel for later in the day? 

Mrs. Pestana. I will try. It will be inadequate in terms of prepa- 
ration, but I will make such effort. 

The Chairman. I suggest, therefore, that you reappear after the 
recess. I don't know exactly when that will be, but it will be an- 
nounced about noon — that you return here promptly upon our re- 
convening after luncheon and inform the Chair and the committee 
whether vou have a counsel. And until that time, the witness is 
excused. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Mr. Frank Pestana please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Mr. Pestana. I wish to affirm. 

The Chairman. Do you affirm that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Pestana. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 527 

TESTIMONY OF PRANK SIMPLICIO PESTANA 
Mr. Pestana. At this time, Mr. Chairiiuin 



The CiiAiRMAx. Well, Ave will aiiain go through the question of 
identification. 

Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. i^ESTAXA. I am only temporarily represented by counsel. My 
position is exactly that of Mrs. Kidwell. I also have Melvin Belli 
as counsel. He prepared me for this hearing and was told that it 
would be impossible for him to come in yesterday, even though he 
talked to Mr. 

The Chairman". All right. 

Mr. Pestana. — Nittle about this matter. 

The Chairman. All right. The Chair makes the same ruling. You 
will return promptly upon reconvening after lunch and advise the 
Chair and the committee whether you have counsel, and then we will 
cross the next bridge vv'hen we come to it. 

You are excused until that time. 

Mr. Pestana. Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. John Allen Johnson. 

Mr. Johnson. I am going to ask the same privilege regarding the 
photographers. 

The Chairman. Well, you are not really under our jurisdiction un- 
til you have taken the oath. 

Will 3'ou raise your right hand ? 

Do you solenmly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole tnith, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Johnson. I do. 

The Chairman. Xow, you do object to the pictures ? 

Mr. Johnson. Yes. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN ALLEN JOHNSON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

EOEERT J. SCHMOELEITZ 

Mr. XiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. ScHMORLEiTz. You wish me to identify myself as counsel for 
the witness? 

The Chairman. No. He is addressing himself to the witness. I 
suppose you are, is that right ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. This is addressed to the witness. 

Mr. Johnson. My name is John Allen Johnson. My residence is 
179 Los Angeles Boulevard, San Anselmo, California. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr, Johnson. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Schmorleitz. My name is Robert J. Schmorleitz ; mv offices are 
at 11044 McCormick Street in North Hollywood. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Jolinson, you are known as John Allen Johnson 
and also as Allen Johnson, are you not ? 



528 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. JoiiNSOX. Yes. I have always gone by my middle name. In- 
formally, I am known as Allen Johnson. Legally, I was christened 
John Allen Johnson. 

Before I proceed, Mr. Chairman, I wish to renew my request to 
appear before an executive session — Mr. Chairman, I wish to renew 
my request to appear before an executive session of the committee. 

The CiiAni:\rAX. Has he been identified ? 

Mr, NiTTLE. Yes, sir, he has been. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. JoirxsoN. Xow, I realize tliat the committee ruled yesterday 
that the term "person-' as used in Rule XI, section 26 (m), does not 
apply to me as a direct witness. However, since references were made 
to third persons in the proceedings yesterday, I can only assume that 
similar references may be made in the proceedings aifecting me. For 
this reason, I renew my request to appear before an executive session 
of the committee. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Well, I am glad to hear the gentleman say that he 
was here yesterday and today and is aware of the ruling of the Chair 
on requests for an executive session. And, therefore, on the grounds 
previously stated, and now amply part of the record, the request is 
refused; and on the basis of the witness' reference to the fact that 
some of the witnesses lieretofore lieard or heard thus far have men- 
tioned third parties, I say that this is the proper application of the 
rule and if those third parties here referred to wish to be heard in 
executive session, they may make application and we will rule upon 
that. 

Proceed. 

INIr. NiTTLE. ]\Ir. Johnson, for purposes of identification, I would 
like to inquire whether you have ever used or been known by any name 
other than John Allen Johnson or Allen Johnson ? 

Mr. JoHNSOx. I decline to answer that question on the ground — on 
counsel's advice and on the grounds of my rights under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

The CiiAiRMAX, I tliink that is a proper question because we are 
dealing here Avith identification and tliere is no implication behind 
this question of any sort, I am sure. And this is a proper question, 
and I direct you to answer it. 

Mr. JoHxsox. On advice of counsel I decline to answer on the 
grounds of my rights under the first and fifth amendments and on the 
grounds that the question is not pertinent to the proceedings. 

The Chairmax. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please? 

Mr. JoHNSox. I was born in Oakland, California, on August 1, 
1913. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you married ? 

Mr. eloHxsox. Yes, I am married. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the full name of your wife, giving the 
date and place of your marriage? 

Mr. JoHxsox. i think this question is beginning to — I don't know 
what the relevancy of the question is. If it is relevant, then I decline 
to answer on the gromids of my rights under the first and fifth amend- 
ments. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 529 

The Chairman. T think it's a proper question, and there is no 
attempt here to infrinfje on tlie rule — if tliat could be in anyone's 
mind — involvin.2: tlie privilei^ed status of husband and wife. It's 
again in the area of identification for reasons, I am sure, that are 
competent, and therefore I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Johnson. Mr. Chairman, I tliink this is an invasion of privacy, 
but my wife's name is Frances W. Johnson. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me say, with respect to what you have said, that 
the committee proposes to call as a witness — and also your interroga- 
tion may involve questions relating to — a lady named JNIargaret 
Frances Evelyn Johnson. If she is your wife, then, of course, the 
committee realizes you may claim certain privileges with respect to 
testimony relating to her and we would not desire to infringe those 
privileges. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. However, before that privilege can be claimed, you 
must first prove or assert the marriage relationship. 

The Chairman. You are simply stating that for the record? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. And at this time I am trying to determine 
whether that is his wife. 

The Chairman. Well, he has answered it, so proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is the full name of your wife Alargaret Frances Eve- 
lyn Willard Johnson? 

Mr. Johnson. In view of the fact that you are — you said you were 
going to subpena her, going to call my wife, I think that she should 
answer that question. 

The Chairman. I think we have a close enough identification to 
know that he is married. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. "Would you relate the extent of your formal 
education, giving dates, educational institutions you have attended, 
and any degrees or certificates therefrom? 

Mr. Johnson. I attended schools in Oakland, California, until 
1930 and I have a degree, a bachelor's degree in geology, and a master's 
degree in economics. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A master's degree in what, did you say ? 

INIr. Johnson. In economics. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand that you attended the University of 
California, from which you obtained your bachelor's degree in geolo- 
gy, for the period August 10?>0 to June 10.34; is that correct? 

Mr. Johnson. If this question is pertinent to the hearing, then I 
must decline to answer on the grounds of my rights under the first 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did yon attend the University of California at 
Berkelev for a further period from August 1934 to January 1937? 

Mr. Johnson. The same answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is vour present em]ilovment? 

Mr. Johnson. Mr. Chairman, I don't believe that question is perti- 
nent to the hearing and, since I fear harassment as a result of an 
answer to that oiiestion, I decline to answer. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Would you state your employment during the period 
1961 to 1963? 

Mr. Johnson. The same gi'ounds, decline to answer on the grounds 
of my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 



530 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to 1961 were you last employed in the California 
public school system ? 

Mr. Johnson. Same answer, same grounds. 

Mr. N1TTI.E. Would you relate your principal employments since 
the conclusion of your educational training at the University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley in 1937 ? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds of my rights un- 
der the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you employed as a business agent of the Techni- 
cal Engineers, Architects and Draftsmen's Union in 1943 ? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer on tlie grounds of my rights un- 
der the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In 1948 were you employed by the Carpenters Union 
in any capacity? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds of my rights un- 
der the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, for the years 1950 to 1952, an employee or 
member of the East Bay Carpenters Union, Local 36, American Fed- 
eration of Labor? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds of my rights un- 
der the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time in your employment had occa- 
sion to use your college training in the specialized field of geology? 

Mr. Johnson. Could I ask what the relevancy of that question is? 

Mr. NiTTLE. This is for the purposes of background, which the Su- 
preme Court has ruled would be relevant to any investigation. 

Mr. Johnson. I believe I properly identified myself, Mr. Nittle, 
and I decline to 

Mr. Nittle. Do you believe that to tell this committee whether or 
not you have utilized your specialized skill and training in the field 
of geologj' would, if you gave a truthful answer to that question, 
incriminate you or subject you to a possible criminal prosecution? 

Mr. Johnson. I just can't see the relevancy of that question to the 
subject under inquiry here, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. I ask for a direction, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the gromids of 
my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

My pertinency is that if that has some relevancy to the purpose in- 
dicated, why, I decline. I decline on the grounds of my rights under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

]Mr. Nittle. The official records, j\Ir. Johnson, in the State Depart- 
ment of the United States disclose that on November 14, 1960, you 
made application for a United States passport at San Francisco, 
California, in which you stated that you were then occupied as a stu- 
dent and tliat you desired to visit for approximately 1 year Eng- 
land, France, and Sweden. Pursuant to that application a passport 
numbered 2426303 was issued to you on November 17, 1960. 

Did you at any time after receipt of that passport actually travel 
to England, France, or Sweden, as you stated you intended? 

Mr, Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. In your application for a passport of November 14, 
1960. you set forth that yon intended to depart from the United States 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 531 

at tlie port of Now York about Febriiaiy 1, 1961, by ship, although 
the name of the ship was not tlien known to you. 

At the time you stated in your passport application your intention 
to travel to Eno-land, France, and Sweden, did you actually plan to 
depart for Cuba ? 

Mr. JoHxsox. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, to 
the present time, make application to the Department of State for a 
validation of your passport for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. JoHNSox. The same answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time on or after that date receive a 
validation for travel to Cuba? 

Air. JoHNSox. Same answer on grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation discloses that you, to- 
gether with your wife, Margaret Frances Johnson, entered Mexico 
on February 18, 1961, and thereafter, on April 7, 1961, at Vera Cruz, 
you embarked ship for Havana, Cuba. 

Did you take a ship at Vera Cruz, Mexico, on that date for travel 
to Havana, Cuba ? 

Mr. JoHxsox. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Kittle. It is the committee's further information that the 
manifest of the ship declared that you and your wife were courtesy 
passengers with all expenses paid by the Cuban Government. 

Did you travel to Cuba in April 1961 at the expense of the Cuban 
Government ? 

Mr. JoHxsox^. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation discloses that on April 
28, 1961, you and your wife took up residence at No. 41-lA Avenida 
la Buntillo, Havana, Cuba. 

Were you residing at that address in April 1961 ? 

Mr. JoHxsox^. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you remain in Cuba ? 

Mr. JoHxsox^. Same question, same answer. I decline to answer on 
the grounds of my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that you returned to 
the Bay Area of California on April 20, 1963. 

Did you remain in Cuba from April 1961 until the spring of 1963 ? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By what means did you support yourself during that 
period ? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Johnson, Mr. ^^Hieeler will hand you a re- 
produced copy of an item marked for identification as "John Allen 
Johnson Exhibit No. 1," titled '"A Letter From Havana— Inva- 
sion Threat Shadows a Banner Year," which was published on page 
9 of the Peopled World, December 30, 1961. The article is dated at 
Havana, December 1961, and a letter over the name of Allen Johnson 
is recorded in that issue. 



532 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

You will also note an editorial comment inserted at the commence- 
ment of the fourth paragraph of the letter, which reads as follows: 

ALLEN JOHNSON, a long-time resident of the San Francisco Bay Area, is now 
working in Cuba. He has taken to circulating comprehensive "news letters" 
among his friends, and this is a slightly abridged reprint of one such letter. 

Are you the author of the letter published in the December 30, 1961, 
People's World? 

Mr. JoHNSox. I decline to answer on the ^-ounds previously stated, 
my rights under the first and fiftli amendments. 

(Document marked "John Allen Johnson Exhibit No. 1" and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. While in Cuba did you receive any financial assistance 
from the Cuban Government ? 

Mr. JoHNSox. I decline to answer under the grounds of my rights 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Wheeler will hand you a copy of page 7 of the 
People's 'World dated June 4, 1952, marked for identification as 
"John Allen Johnson Exhibit No. 2." 

I direct your attention to an article there titled, "Trade unionist 
to talk on USSR." The article is datelined at San Francisco and 
reads, in part, as follows : 

A Bay Area trade unionist and candidate for Congress reports on his visit 
to the Soviet Union on Thursday evening, June 5, at the California Labor School. 

Allen Johnson, member of a trade union delegation that visited the Soviet 
Union last year, discusses his impressions of Soviet factories and construction 
projects, workers' homes, working conditions and recreation facilities. 

This exhibit indicates that you visited the Soviet Union in the year 
1951. Did you? 

Mr. JoHNSox. I decline to answer on the gromids of my rights 
under the first and fifth amendments. 

(Document marked "John Allen Johnson Exhibit No. 2" and 
retained in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The official records of the State Department indicate 
that you made application on April 17, 1951, at San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, for a United States passport, in which you stated that you 
desired to depart by air from New York on April 23, 1951, for a one- 
month sightseeing tour of England and France. Pursuant to that 
application you were issued, on April 18, 1951, United States passport 
No. 27712. 

When you filed the application setting forth that you desired to 
visit England and France, did you not then plan to visit the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mr. Joiixsox. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated, 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why did you not set forth that fact in your application ? 

Mr. JoHxsox. The same answer, same grounds, on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you visit England and France 

Mr. JoHXSOx. I decline to answer 

Mr. NiTTLE. — in the year 1951 ? 

Mr. JoiTxsox. I decline to answer on the ground of my rights under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Johnson, have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 533 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
my rights under the lirst and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Nrn'LE. Cliarlcs David Blodgett testilied before this committee 
on December 3, 195o, that lie was a member of the Young Communist 
League and of the Comnmnist Darty, in Minnesota and in the State 
of California, during the period from 1943 to 1950. He testified that 
he came to California in 194G, where he became a member of a Com- 
munist Party club in Alameda County composed largely of persons 
working in the steel industry. 

He testified further that he served as chairman of that Communist 
Party group and became active in Communist Party work here, and 
that he met in meetings of the political afl'airs committee of the Com- 
munist Party of Alameda County with Allen Johnson who, he said, 
was then witli the A.F. of L. Carpenters Union. 

Are you not the Allen Johnson to whom Mr. Blodgett referred as 
being a member of the Political Affairs Committee of the Communist 
Party of Alameda County ? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer under my rights — on the grounds 
of my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mr. Blodgett testified tliat the Political Affairs Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party in Alameda County was organized 
to carry the Communist Party line into political activity. 

"Was the testimony of Mr. Blodgett in that respect correct ? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds of my rights under 
the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiT'i'LE. Were you not expelled from the Carpenters Union, 
American Federation of Labor, in 1952, because of your alleged mem- 
bership in tlie Communist Party, a fact which had come to the atten- 
tion of the leadership of the American Federation of Labor? 

Mr. Johnson. I will decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of my rights under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee when you first became a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds of my rights under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you, as of this moment, a member of the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Johnson. I decline to answer on the grounds of my rights under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions. 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

Mr. Johansen. I have no qu3stions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Margaret Frances Johnson, come forward, please. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help j^ou 
God? 

Mrs. Johnson. I affirm, and may I ask that the photographers, after 
it's done 

The Chairman. Well, it was done before you were sworn. 



534 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF MARGARET FRANCES EVELYN WILLARD JOHNSON, 
ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, ROBERT J. SCHMORLEITZ 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mrs. Johnson. Frances W. Johnson, 179 Los Angeles Boulevard, 
San Anselmo. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Johnson. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the pur- 
poses of the record ? 

Mr. ScHMORLEiTZ, My name is Kobert J. Schmorleitz. My offices 
are at 11044 McCormick Street, North Hollywood, California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Johnson, are you known variously as Margaret 
Frances Evelyn Johnson and as Frances Margaret Johnson ? 

Mrs. Johnson. My birth certificate states as follows: that my name 
is Margaret Frances Johnson. I didn't myself know that that was 
my name until I was a matured person, because my familj^ decided 
to call me Frances — excuse the correction. I wasn't married. My 
name is ]\Iargaret Frances Willard, but my parents called me Frances 
Evelyn Willard. It was not until I was a matured person that I 
learned that my name really, on the birth certificate, is Margaret 
Frances Willard. 

IMr. NiTTLE. It is not a serious thing. We attach no sinister im- 
portance to that, but it's a question of identification. 

Mrs. Johnson. If you wish to laiow the full story, I'd be glad to 
give it to you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. 

Mrs. Johnson. Then, I went through school as Frances Evelyn 
Willard. When I became married, I then — T signed my name 
"Frances W. Jolinson" or "Frances E. Johnson." That is the com- 
plete story. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. I actually asked the question because your name 
is 

The Chairman. Well, there is nothing unusual about that, and I 
know it's a proper question and you have a reason for it. Some 
people call me Ed; and some people call Edwin, Edward. There 
is nothing wrong about that. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Now, in the People's World of JMarch 23, 1951. an 
article appeared naming you as Mrs. Frances W. Johnson, and you are 
the Frances W. Johnson who was named in that issue, I presume? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the cfrounds that 
it is an invasion of my privacy and on the grounds of the first and fifth 
amendments guaranteed under the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Mrs. Johnson. August 7, 1910, Marysville, California. 

Mr, NiTTLE. You are the wife of the prior witness, John Allen John- 
son ; are you not ? 

Mrs. Johnson. Yes. I am married to the previous witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Johnson. I was educated in the schools of California. I have 
attended the University of California and received a bachelor of arts 
degree. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 535 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you attend the University of California? 

Mrs. JoiiNSox. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NriTLE. Would you relate your principal employments during 
the past 15 years? 

Mrs. Joiixsox. I decline to answer the question on the gTounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you formerly employed as a school teacher ? 

Mrs. JoHNSox. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Oakland Tribune of October 29, 1950, dated at 
Richmond, October 28, contains a news item, a copy of which Mr. 
Wheeler will hand to you, marked for identification as "Margaret 
Johnson Exhibit Xo. 1." 

The OaJdand Tv'ihune reports that: 

Mrs. Frances Willard Johnson, 40, teacher at the Harry Ellis Junior High 
School for the past three and a half years, announced today she would not sign 
the state loyalty oath, would not resign her teacliing position and hoped to 
challenge the constitutionality of the law in the courts. 

Mrs. Johnson, who lives at Gi'O East loth Street, Oakland, disclosed her inten- 
tions in a statement sent to newspapers. 

Are you the Frances Willard Johnson to whom reference is made in 
the Oakland Tribune article ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
that I have previously stated. 

(Document marked "Margaret Johnson Exhibit No. 1" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long were you employed in the public school sys- 
tem of California ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
which I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you issue or cause to be issued a public statement, 
which you intended to be published in the press, relating to your 
opposition to the loyalty oath? 

Sirs. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
which I have previously stated. 

]Mr. NiT'i'LE. Difl yon test the loyalty-oath law in the courts? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer that question as previously 
stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you instructed by any Communist Party func- 
tionary to do just that ? 

INIrs. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "WHiat other occupations have you had ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to ansAver j'our question on the previous- 
stated grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Johnson, I will hand you a copy of the People's 
World of March 23, 1951, marked for identification as "Margaret 
Johnson Exhibit No. 2." 



536 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

I direct your attention to the item titled, "Mrs. Johnson opens school 
board drive," appearing on page 2. Tlie article is dated at Oakland, 
March 22, 1951, and states that: 

Mrs. Frances Willard Johnson formally announced her candidacy for the post 
of school director No. 1, Oakland board of education, today, with campaign head- 
quarters at (329 E. 15th st, Oakland. 

A photograph appears in the People's World of that issue with a 
caption, "Mrs. Frances W. Johnson . . . peace^ understanding. '''' Mrs. 
Johnson, in that article, is described as being active in the AFL Fed- 
eration of Teachers, an officer and former delegate to the Central 
Labor Council, and one of the teachers challenging the legality of 
the Levering loyalty oath act in the courts. 

Are you Ihe Mrs. Frances W. Johnson whose portrait appears 
therein ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

(Document marked "Margaret Jolmson Exhibit No. 2" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you counseled or advised or directed by any Com- 
munist Party functionary to seek the office of school drector? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you successful in your campaign ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Did you use your campaign for the office of school di- 
rector also as a vehicle for the dissemination of messages which you 
believed would be desirable from the Communist Party standpoint? 

Mrs. Johnson. I decline to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the course of the interrogation of your husband, it 
was noted that he had made application for United States passport on 
November 14, 1960, setting forth the desire to visit for about 1 year 
in England, France, and Sweden. And he, pursuant to that applica- 
tion, received a passport on November 17, 19G0. 

Mrs. Johnson, on the same date, official records of the State Depart- 
ment disclose that you likewise made application for a United States 
passport, setting forth those identical facts, and that you received a 
passport on November 17, 1960, numbered 2426304. Is this not true? 

Mrs. Johnson. I give the same answer on the same grounds, under 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you made your application, did you then 
plan to travel to Cuba ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As I have already indicated in the interrogation of 
your husband, the committee's investigation disclosed that on Febru- 
ary 18, 1961, you entered Mexico, and on April 7, 1961, departed by 
ship from the port of Vera Cruz for Havana, Cuba. 

Did you depart by ship from the port of Vera Cruz for Havana, 
Cuba, at that time ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I really don't intend to answer any of your ques- 
tions, and I refuse to answer this question on the grounds of the first 
and the fifth amendments. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 537 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did yon, in April 1961,, reside at 41-lA Avenida la 
Buntillo in Havana, Cuba ? 

Mrs. Johnson. 1 refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Did you return to the United States on or about April 
20, 1963, to tlie Bay Area ? 

Mrs. Joiixsox. I decline to answer on tlie ground previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that you at no time 
on or after January 16, 1961, possessed a United States passport 
specifically endorsed or validated for travel to Cuba. It is the com- 
mittee's information tliat you at no time applied for such an endorse- 
ment or validation. 

If there is any error in this information or if you have any ex- 
planation to offer, it is important to the committee's investigation 
to know. 

The Chairman. Well, it's obvious she does not desire to answer 
what you asked. So proceed with your next question. 

Mrs. Johnson, Did you ask my opinion or did you ask a question? 
I didn't understand whether you asked a question. 

The Chairman. He desired, if you wish, to correct that informa- 
tion. That is what the question really was. 

Mrs. Johnson. I don't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Or to offer any explanation, and I take it that you do 
not desire to do so? 

The Chairman. Ask the question affirmatively. 

IMr. NiTTLE. Is there any error in the information that I have just 
stated? 

Mrs. Johnson. I refuse to answer for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you desire to offer any explanation ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I refuse to answer on the gTounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Johnson, it is the information of the committee 
that you have been a member of the Communist Party at least as 
early as 1943 and that you held membership in the Communist Party 
in the El Cerrito area. 

Have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in 1943 a member of the Communist Party 
in the El Cerrito area ? 

Mrs. Johnson, I refuse to answer the question on grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mv. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Johnson. I refuse to answer that question on grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Witness is excused. 

We are within 15 minutes of the lunch hour, and I think this is a 
good point to adjourn. AVe only have three witnesses left, as far as I 
know, anyway. 

So the committee will resume at a quarter of 2. We will stand in 
recess until that time. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :50 a.m., Tuesday, July 2, 1963, the subcommittee 
recessed, to reconvene at 1 :45 p.m., the same day.) 

98-765— 63— pt. 2 8 



538 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTWITIES IN U.S. 

AFTERNOON SESSION— TUESDAY, JULY 2, 1963 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1:50 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding.) 

Members present : Representatives Willis. Tuck, and Johansen of 
the subcommittee, and also Representative Ashbrook. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 
Counsel, call your first witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Frank S. Pestana please come forward? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Mr. Pestana. I prefer to have no pictures taken, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You haven't been sworn yet. But all right. [To 
photographers.] Xow, wait a minute. I ask you to defer that. 

Please raise your right hand. 

Mr. Pestana. I will affirm. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but tlije 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Pestana. I wish to affirm. 

The Chairman, Do you solemnly affirm that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Pestana. I refuse to swear. I am going to affirm, and the 
chairman knows that very well. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly affirm that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth? 

Mr. Pestana. I will refuse to swear or solemnly swear or solemnly 
affirm. I am simply affirming as I wish to enforce my rights to take 
judicial process with separation of the church and state in all of its 
ramifications. 

The Chairman. Including the right not to invoke the help of God 
in your telling the truth. 

]S"ow, ■ 

Mr. Pestana. Including the right not have you inject church into 
a matter of state and matters of justice. 

The Chairman. Do you affirm that the testimony that you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. Pestana. I do so affirm. 

TESTIMONY OF PRANK SIMPLICIO PESTANA— Eesumed 

Mr. Pestana. We were unable to make arrangements for an at- 
torney. I am not able to proceed at this time because we were unable 
to get counsel to come with us to this hearing. 

The CHAiR:srAN. Would you be prepared to have an attorney after 
we hear the next witness ? 

Mr. Pestana. I, perhaps, can elucidate that in the following man- 
ner. I contacted approximately seven counsel, and all of them refused 
at this late time to undertake the responsibility of preparing myself 
or Jean Kidwell for this hearing in the short time that remains to us 
today. For 

The Chairman. Well, in that event, although you have been served 
with a subpena for many, many days and should have anticipated the 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 539 

situation during the luncheon hour, anticipating that this might be 
your position, the subcommittee met and decided to continue you 
under the subpeiia now binding on you and to order you to appear in 
Washington, D.C., Wednesday [July 10, 1963] at 10 a.m., where you 
will be examined. 

Mr. Pestana. I don't know what the condition 

The Chairmax. You are excused. 

Mr. Pestaxa. I have my calendar, Mr. Chairman, but I will 

The Chairmax. You are excused, sir. 

Mr. Pestaxa. Thank you. 

The CiiAiR^iAX. And you are under that binding subpena and order. 

Mr. Pestaxa. I am acquainted with the nature of your subpena, 
Mr. Chaii-man. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Jean Kidwell Pestana. 

The Chairmax. And that hearing will be in the Caucus Room of the 
Old House Office Building, room what? In the Caucus Room of the 
Old House Office Building on the third floor. 

]\Ir. Pestaxa. I assume, Mr. Chairman, that transportation will be 
made available? 

The CnAiR3iAX. You will be bound by the usual rules of the com- 
mittee applicable to all witnesses. 

One of the reasons for holding these hearings here was to accom- 
modate the people and to face this very situation. You are an at- 
torney. Your wife is an attorney. You say you are not prepared, 
and you will be treated like any other witness. The rules of the 
House will prevail. 

Next witness. 

Mr. Pestaxa. Mr. Chairman, I take it you recall 

The Chairmax. I direct you to call the next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. I have called her as Mrs. Jean Kidwell Pestana. 

The Chairmax. Please raise your right hand. 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I will affirm. 

The Chairmax. Do you solemnly — do you affirm that the testi- 
mony that you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help yon God ? 

I take it you object to the use of the invocation of the help of God 
so, therefore — and I made an honest slip — therefore, I repeat that 
affirmation. 

Do you affirm that in giving your testimony you will tell the truth, 
the whole truth, and no^^hing but the truth ? 

Mrs. Pestaxa. The slip was made on several occasions. I think it 
was purposeful. 

I will affirm. 

TESTIMONY OF JEAN ESTELLE KIDWELL PESTANA— Resumed 

The Chairmax. Now, you have been in the courtroom — I mean in 
this hearing room these past several minutes. You were here before 
the luncheon hour. I now ask you. Did you secure the services of an 
attorney in the last 3 hours or so since you first appeared and, if not, 
would you be prepared to have an attorney to represent you after the 
next witness testifies ? 

I say that because that is our schedule, that is the way we planned it. 



540 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTWITIES IN U.S. 

The reason for the hearings here in Los Angeles was the accommo- 
dation and convenience of the witnesses as well as the committee. 

Now. will you answer the question as to whether or not you now 
have, or could have after the next witness, the services of an attorney ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I have made ell'orts to obtain counsel. The follow- 
ing attorneys were contacted, either personally or through their offices : 
Mr. Robert Kenny was unable to appear. We spoke to him personally. 

Mr. Stanley Fleishman was out of the city. 

Mr. John McTernan was engaged in deposition proceedings. 

Mr. Margolis was engaged in trial. 

Mr. Mortimer Vogel was also engaged, as was Mr. Maynard J. 
Omerberg here. 

I have had no adequate opportunity to obtain counsel. I wish to 
point out to the chairman that I was informed at 8 o'clock last evening 
that my counsel was unable to be here. I also wish to again inform the 
committee 

The CiiAiRMAx. You answer the question. I direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I am answering the question. 

I also wish to point out, for the record, that my attorney early Mon- 
day morning requested the counsel of the committee to appear on Mon- 
day, the day that I was subpenaed. The counsel for the committee 
said this was absolutely impossible. My counsel made every effort to 
arrange to be here today. Eight o'clock last evening he informed me 
it was absolutely impossible for him to appear today. 

The committee has made it impossible for me to obtain counsel of my 
choice, and I would like the record to so reflect. 

The Chairman. Well, the record will contain your statements and 
does contain your statement, which speaks for itself, but let the facts 
show that the opposite is true. This committee — how can they, this 
committee, obstruct your employment of counsel ? This is a peculiar 
situation, indeed. Here we come to Los Angeles for the accom- 
modation of the witnesses here and their convenience as well as the 
situation prevailing in our own shop, and we summon, as I recall, some 
16 witnesses. 

Plere are two witnesses, husband and wife, both attorneys, profes- 
sional people, of all people, who now take the position that we are 
at fault because they don't have an attorney. 

Therefore, I now order you to remain under the subpena under 
which you are now bound and to report in the city of Washington, 
D.C., at 10 in the morning on next Wednesday, July 10, in the Caucus 
Room, third floor of the Old House Office Building. 

You are excused. 

Mrs. Pestana. I wish to make a comment 

The Chairman. Proceed. Proceed. You will not comment. Pro- 
ceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Miss Hari'iett Buhai come forward, please? 

The Chairman. Who? 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Harriett Buhai, B-u-h-a-i. 

[Applause.] 

The Chairman. All right. You will not do that. 

Miss Buhai. I ask that photographs not be taken. 

The Chairman. All right. ^To photographers.] You will not do 
it. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 541 

Raise 3'oiir rijjlit hand. 
Miss BuiiAi. 1 Avisli to affirm. 

The Chairman. Do you affirm tliat the testimony you are about 
to frive will be the truth, the ^vho]e truth, and nothing but the truth? 
Miss BuHAi. I do. 
The Chairman. Proceed, CounseL 

TESTIMONY OF HAERIETT BUHAI, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

AKNETT HARTSFIELD 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Miss BuHAi. My name is Harriett Buhai. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you spell your last name for the benefit of the 
reporter, please ? 

Miss Buhai. My name is Harriett Buhai, B-u-h-a-i. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Miss Buhai. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. W^ould counsel please identify liimself for the record ? 

Mr. Hartsfield. My name is Arnett Hartsfield, H-a-r-t-s-f-i-e-1-d. 
]\Iy office is located at 2630 Crenshaw Boulevard, Los Angeles 16, 
California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Buhai, for purposes of identification, we should 
like to inquire whether you have ever used or been known by any 
name other than Harriett Buhai. 

Miss Buhai. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

]\Iiss Buhai. I'm sorry, Mr. Nuttle, is it? Wliat's your name, 
please, sir? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Nittle, N-i-t-t-1-e. 

Miss Buhai. And my name is pronounced Bu-hl, like bugle, if you 
will, please. 

Mr. Ntttle. You and I are apparently having difficulty with each 
other's names. 

Tlie Chairman. Oh, wait a minute, let's go on. 

Miss BuiiAi. I'm sorry, sir, but I would like to make a motion, if 
I may. 

Mr. Nittle. Address that to the chairman, please. 

The Chairman. Yes. They have both been identified; counsel, 
too? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

The Chairman. All right. You may present your motion. 

Miss BuHAi. I would like to make a motion to quash my subpena 
on two grounds. The first ground is that this committee is illegally 
constituted and does not constitute a quorum for the reason that two 
members of the committee, one from the State of Louisiana and one 
from the State of Virginia, are sitting in contravention of article — of 
section 2 of Article 14 of the Constitution of the United States, which 
provides that in those States where a proportion of the population is 
denied the right to vote or the right to vote is abridged, that the imm- 
ber of Representatives shall be reduced proportionately. 

In both the State of Virginia and the State of Ix)uisiana large num- 
bers of Negro people are prevented from voting and no reapportion- 



542 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

ment has been made. Therefore, it is my motion that the entire delega- 
tion of Congressmen from both of tliose States are illegally seated. 
Being so illegally seated, two Congressmen, one from each of those 
States, cannot sit legally on this committee. Therefore, there is not a 
quorum. They are sitting, of course, in the House of Representatives. 

My second reason is that I, by telegram, asked for executive ses- 
sion on the ground that these hearings tend to degrade and defame one. 
My request was denied. I have heard the chairman's reference to his 
interpretation of the House rules. 

I would respectfully call his attention to the fact that the House 
rules provide that if a public hearing would tend to degrade or de- 
fame any person — ''person"' includes v.dtness — then executive session 
shall be held. 

I would ask for a ruling on my motion. 

The Chairman. The motion is denied. I take it that the witness was 
in attendance when I ruled on similar applications; that is correct, 
is it not ? 

Miss BuHAi. I was in attendance and I would call your attention 
to the wording of section m on page 

The Chairman. That is all right. I have it right before me and I 
km prepared to rule. 

Miss BuiiAi. And, as you will see, it refers to any person. It does 
not use the word "witness." 

The Chairman. Well, it's a question of whether you are right and I 
am wrong — and I have been a lawyer 37 years, and the members here 
are attorneys — and whether the counsel and our general counsel and 
our staff director and the Parliamentarian of the House are right, or 
whether you are right. 

Now, the rule, in the first place, does not say what you said it did. 
It doesn't say that there must be an executive session. It says that 
"if" the committee determines, and so on. 

It does not apply to you, and for the reasons previously indicated, 
the motion is denied. 

Now, wait a second. The director calls my attention to the fact 
that your telegram was to ask for a continuance, as well, and the com- 
mittee acted on that, too ; and, therefore, both on the grounds of not 
having a riglit to an executive session and on the ground that a con- 
tinuance woidd be improper, your motion is denied. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the- 



Miss BuHAi. Just to get the record straight 

The Chairman. The record is as straight as it ever will be. 
Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would vou state the date and place of your birth, Miss 
Buhai? 

Miss Buhai. I was bom in Chicago, Illinois. I am an adult. 

FLaughter.] 

The Chairman. Now, let's not have that. We have been getting 
along pretty well in these hearing's. This is about the termination. I 
realize the sensitiveness of the inquiry, but we must proceed as we 
started. 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Miss Buhai. I am an attorney at law admitted to practice in the 
State of California. I have the requisite education to enable me to 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 543 

take the bar and pass the bar examinations and be admitted to practice 
in the State of California. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Buhai, the otlicial records of the State Department 
indicate that on January 14, 1960, you made application for a United 
States passport at the Los Angeles Passport Agency of the Depart- 
ment of State, in which you indicated that you proposed to depart 
approximately February 15, 11)60, from Los Angeles on a pleasure 
trip to Denmark, Switzerland, France, England, and Italy, for a pro- 
posed stay of 3 or 4 months. 

Pursuant to that application you were issued on January 15, 1960, 
a United States passport No. 1845770. The records further indicate 
that on December 26, 1962, you made application for renewal of that 
passport at the Los Angeles Agency of the Department of State, stat- 
ing that you proposed to depart from Los Angeles approximately 
January 7, 1963, for a business and pleasure trip to Brazil and coun- 
tries of which you stated you were uncertain. 

Was vour passport renewed in accordance with your application of 
December 26, 1962? 

Miss Buhai. I can't tell if counsel is testifying or making a state- 
ment. It is a compound question, and I will have to ask him to be more 
explicit. 

What is the nature of your question, please ? 

The Chairman. Ask the question directly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you file an application with the Department of 
State on December 26, 1962, seeking to renew a passport previously 
issued to you? 

Miss Buhai. ^^^lat is the relevance of that question ? 

The Chairman. The relevancy of the question was stated in my 
opening statement. This goes to the crux of it all, including, among 
other things, our study and taking of testimony in connection with 
unlawful travel to foreign countries. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Buhai. May I just sav that this committee 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Miss Buhai. Very well. I shall decline to answer that question or 
any similar question on several grounds. The first is that, in my 
opinion, this committee is illegally constituted and unlawfully sitting. 

My second ground is that this committee is asking questions which 
involve my right to travel, to associate, to think, to believe, and by so 
doing, they are violating my right under the first amendment to the 
Constitution. 

I further object and will not answer the question on the ground that 
this committee is acting in excess of its jurisdiction. It is neither a 
law enforcement nor a trial agency. It has no jurisdiction to issue or 
deny passports and. therefore, it is asking questions beyond its juris- 
diction when it inquires in this area. 

I further refuse to answer the question on the grounds that this 
question violates my rights under the fifth amendment to the Constitu- 
tion, that part of the fifth amendment which has been held by the 
courts to mean that no person may be compelled to answer any question 
which might be a lead to any possible chain of evidence which might in 
any way lead to a possible criminal, Federal prosecution. 



544 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

I further decline to answer the question on my grounds— on my 
rights under the due process section of the fifth amendment, in that 
my right to due process of law has been abrogated by this committee 
in that I was not granted a continuance in order to prepare for the 
hearing and to get counsel and enough time, and because my request 
for executive session was denied. 

I further refuse to answer the question on the grounds that this com- 
mittee is illegally constituted under section 2 of Article 14 of the 
Constitution. 

And, further, on the general constitutional basis inherent in that 
document, whether there were any Bill of Eights or not, that Congress 
has no power to legislate in the area of beliefs, ideas, association, and 
therefore it has no power to inquire. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Buhai, did you at any time after January 16, 
1962, make application to the Department of State or any of its 
agencies or representatives for a validation of your passport for travel 
to Cuba ? 

Miss Buhai. "V^Hiat was the date, sir ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. If I said the year 1962, that was an inadvertency. I 
will repeat the question. 

Did you. Miss Buhai, at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
make application to tlie State Department for validation of your 
passport for travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Buhai. I would like to enlighten counsel. The regulation of 
the Department of State to Avhich so mucli reference has been made 
here is dated January 16, 1961, and published in the Federal Register 
as Public Notice 179. After its preamble it states, relative to this 
subject, the followinof, and this is nil it states: "all United States 
passports are hereby declared to be invalid" 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, may I interrupt you. Miss Buhai ? 

Miss Buhai. No. I am answering the question as I see fit. 

The Chairman. No, you are not yet and I will just give you a very 
reasonable time to state your position. 

Miss Buhai. I am reading the regulations which the gentleman 
and you have alluded to, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I did not allude to any regulation in my question. 

Miss Buhai (continuing quote). 

all United States passports are hereby declared to be invalid for travel to or in 
Cuba except the passports of United States citizens now in Cuba. Upon de- 
parture of such citizens from Cuba their passports shall be subject to this 
order. 

Hereafter, United States passports shall not be valid to or in Cuba unless 
specifically endorsed for such travel under the authority of the Secretary of 
State or until this order is revoked. 

The Chairman. Exactly. And that is the question that was asked 
you. 

Now, you are directed to answer the question. That is the precise 
question that was asked of you. 

Miss Buhai. The question was asked 

The Chairman. Now, you are directed to answer the question. 

Miss Buhai. Inasmuch as the committee 

The Chair]\ian. You are directed to answer the question. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 545 

Miss BuiiAi. I am answering the question, sir. 

Tlie Chairman. Yon arc directed to answer the question. 

INIiss BuiiAi. Will you allow me to answer it or will you not? 

The Chairman. All rio-lit. Answer it. 

Miss BuiiAi. Inasmuch as this committee has no right to decline to 



issue- 



The Chairman-. Take the next question, Mr. Reporter. Take the 
next question. 

Mr. NirrLE. Miss Buhai 

Miss Buhai. I decline to answer the question on all the previous 
grounds stated. 

The Chairman. Well, she has declined properly. All right. 

Mr. NiTTKE. Did you at any time after January 16, 1961, travel 
to Cuba ? 

Miss Buhai. Matters of travel, matters of proceeding 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

INIiss Buhai. - — of information 

The Chairman. You have made your argument. We have passed 
on it. 

Miss Buhai. I decline to answer the question for each and every 
ground previously stated. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee's investigation discloses that you did, 
in fact, travel to Cuba from Mexico 

The Chairman. I'm sorry. Restate that. I did not get it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Strike the question, please. 

Miss Buhai, the committee's investigation discloses that you did, in 
fact, travel to Cuba from Mexico on or about August 31, 1962. Is 
this true ? 

Miss Buhai. As I have indicated, I will not answer any questions 
regarding my activities in protected areas, and I hereby decline to 
answer on all of these grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's further information that you, 
Helen Travis, Nestor Otto Bravo 

Miss Buhai. Are you making a statement or asking a question? 

;Mr, NiTTLE. — and Eustasia Sokolowski Madrigal 

Miss Buhai. Mr. Chairman, 

Mr. NiTTLE. — on or about August 31, 1962, departed from Mexico 
for travel to Cuba. 

If this information is not correct- • 

The Chairman. Just ask the question. Then you lead into a ques- 
tion and you ask the question. We may as well face it. 

Is that information correct? 

Miss Buhai. I believe I answered a similar question just previ- 
ously. 

The Chairman. It's not similar. You answer this one. 

Miss Buhai. I decline to answer this question 

The Chairman. All right. 

Miss Buhai. — and any similar questions on the grounds previously 
stated. 

The Chairman. Well, you are not going to control this committee 
by saying "similar questions" and refusing in advance to answer ques- 
tions that have not been posed. We will go our own way about it and 
we will develop a record. You answer each question as posed. 



546 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Nov/, do you know Helen Travis ? 

Miss BuHAi. As counsel, I am sure, knows, questions as to persons 
whom I know are not within the power of this committee to question. 

The Chairman. That is argumentative. Answer the question. 

Miss BuHAi. No. I am answering tlie question. 

The Chairman. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Miss BuHAi. And I decline to answer such a question on all of the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you on August 31, 1962, know Nestor Otto Bravo? 

Miss BuHAi. Same kind of question, same answer, same grounds. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you on that date know Eustasia Sokolowski Ma- 
drigal ? 

Miss BuHAi. Same question, asked for purposes which I understand, 
same answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Buhai, in the course of the committee's investiga- 
tions into the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee on November 14, 1962, 
we received testimony from Melitta del Villar, cliairman of the Med- 
ical Aid to Cuba Committee. It is our information that you assisted 
in the organization of a Los Angeles chapter of the Medical Aid to 
Cuba Committee, of which Helen Travis was the secretary. 

Miss Buhai. This is a compound question. I am lost already, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. The question is reasonable. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you participate in the organization of the Los 
Angeles chapter of the Medical xVid to Cuba Committee? 

Miss Buhai. Are you inquiring into my activities as an attorney? 

The Chairman. Of course not. Your activities as an individual, 
and you are directed to answer the question. 

Miss Buhai. Well, I will not have my attorney-client privileges in- 
vaded. For that reason, I decline to answer the question, as well as 
for all of the other grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Are you indicating that you were acting as at- 
torney for Miss Travis ? 

Miss Buhai. I made no such statement and I would request 

The Chairman. Well, how can you invoke a lawyer-client privilege 
if you will not say whether you were her lawyer? 

Miss Buhai. The question, as I tried to tell the chairman, was com- 
pound. If it had not been compound, he would not have this problem. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. It is our information that in the summer of 1962 you 
filed an application with the Los Angeles Department of Social Serv- 
ices, a request for license to solicit funds for the Los Angeles Medical 
Aid to Cuba Committee. 

In the application, I understand that you have named yourself as 
the organizer of this group. Were you the organizer of the Los An- 
geles Medical Aid to Cuba Committee as is indicated in your appli- 
cation ? 

Miss Buhai. May I see the application, please ? 

Mr. Nittle. I regi'et to say I don't have it before me. 

[Laughter.] 

Miss Buhai. Yes. I am not surprised that you do not have it be- 
fore you. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 547 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, nevertheless, has any error been made in my 
statement ? 

Miss BuiiAi. Because, again, yon arc a^ain invading the attorney- 
client privilege. And it is quite understandable that you do not have 
this applicaton before you. 

I decline to answer tlie question on all the grounds stated. 

The CiTAiR3tAX. Ask her the direct question whether she made the 
application. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did joii make that application as an individual ? 

Miss BuHAi. I cannot answer a question with regard to an applica- 
tion which you are unable to show me. 

The Chairman. Did you make any application with reference to 
the subject matter counsel asked a question about ? 

Miss BuHAi. I do not choose to discuss any attorney-client relation- 
ships, and I shall not. 

The Chairman. Therefore, you are claiming that you are the at- 
torney for the organizers ? 

Miss BuHAi. I am claiming a privilege based on attorney-client rela- 
tionship, and that is all I need to explain, and I further refuse to an- 
swer the question on all of the grounds previously stated. 

May the record show that this is one exhibit which, peculiarly, Mr. 
"Wheeler does not have. I think that is very interesting.^ 

The Chairman. Well, proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. IMiss Buliai, could you tell us from your own knowledge 
whether or not Miss Helen Travis is known to you to have been or to 
be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss BuHAi. You are again asking questions about individuals and 
associations, and I will refuse to answer the questions. 

You know very well under the Emspack case that these questions 
are constitutionally protected and you are asking them only to defame, 
degrade, and humiliate the witness and to act as a group which is 
constituted 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. This is 
argumentative. You are directed to answer the question. 

Miss BuHAi. I decline to answer this question, of course, on all of 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have knowledge of the existence and formation 
of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee, which had its main office in 
New York City ? 



^ The application form In question did not request, or provide space for, the name of the 
orjranlzer of the group filing it. Miss Bnhal's name dops not appear anywhere on the 
form, which was dated May 27, 1962. The key role she played in the Medical Aid to 
Cuba Committee, however, is indicated by the fact that although her name did not appear 
on the form, the reply to the application from the Los Angeles Department of Social 
Service was addressed to "Medical Aid to Cuba, Los Angeles Committee," % Miss Buhal, 
and read as follows : 

"Dear Mrs. [sic] Buhal: 

"This is to acknowledge receipt of your Notice of Intention to solicit cash contributions 
to send medical supplies to Cuba. 

"The Board of Social Service Commissioners has denied the Issuance of an Information 
Card to conduct the solicitation for cash contributions at your proposed public meeting 
of .June 6, 1962, based on the lack of compliance with Section 44.05 of the Los Ansreles 
Municipal Code, Ordinance No, 77,000, and the lack of time for proper investigation. 
Further, from the brief statements contained in the materials submitted, it Is Impossible 
to determine whether the applicant's organization and purpose bring it within the meaning 
of the term 'charitable' as used In Section 44.01 of the Los Angeles Municipal Code. 

"It would be necessary that a document be submitted from the Cuban government 
assuring this Department that the medical Items procured would go to needy persons unable 
to pay. 

"Any violation of these provisions are punishable as misdemeanor action." 



548 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss BuHAi. Interesting to me that any committee concerned with 
medical aid seems to be disapproved of by this committee. However, 
that is interesting. 

And I shall declme to answer the question on all of the gromids 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, Miss Buhai, receive any communication from 
Dr. Louis Miller, the national "medical director" of the Medical Aid 
to Cuba Committee, requesting you to organize the Medical Aid to 
Cuba Committee, Los Angeles branch ? 

Miss Buhai. That is a compound question again. Can you please 
clarify it, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive instructions or a request from Dr. Louis 
Miller to organize a Los Angeles branch of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee ? 

Miss Buhai. Again, it is compound. However, since counsel doesn't 
seem to bo able to present a question that isn't, I will endeavor to 
answer it. 

Li the first place, this committee has no right to inquire into 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Miss Buiiai. — and my communications ; and I shall, of course, de- 
cline to answer that question on all of the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Do you. Miss Buhai, know Dr. Louis Miller ? 

Miss Buiiai. AVliat is the relevancy of that question? 

Mr. N1TTIJ2. The testimonj^ taken in Wasliington with respect to the 
Medical Aid to Cuba Committee has indicated that Dr. Miller is the 
medical director of that committee and one of the organizers and 
fathers of it. In addition to that, the committee is in possession of 
information relating to the Communist Party membership of Dr. Louis 
Miller over a long period of time. He was identified as in attendance 
at meetings of the National Committee of the Communist Party by 
Louis Francis Budenz 

Miss Buhai. Are you testif^'ing? 

The Chairman. He is supplying the information that you yourself 
asked for. 

Proceed, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — by Louis Francis Budenz, formerly editor of the 
Daily Worker^ who testified in executive session before this commit- 
tee that Dr. Louis Miller had been a physician in metropolitan New 
York and attended enlarged meetings of the National Committee of 
the national Communist Party with Mr. Budenz. Mr. Budenz testi- 
fied that Dr. Miller liad been very active in organizing Communist 
physicians. 

Furthermore, on September 28, 1948, this committee, that is, the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities, filed with Congress its 
report entitled Report on Soviet Espionage Activities in Connection 
loith the Atomic Bowh. Dr. Louis JNIiller was reported to have been 
one of the principal contacts of a Soviet esi^ionage agent named Arthur 
Alexanclrovicli Adams, whose real name was unknown, and who oper- 
ated an espionage ring out of a jewelry shop in New York City man- 
aged by one Victoria Stone. He was active during the forties in 
attem]3ting to obtain information from the United States with respect 
to the development of nuclear fission. 

The Chairman. Well, that is sufficient to make the question emi- 
nently proper. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTR^'ITIES IN U.S. 549 

I direct you to answer the question, which is: Do you know Dr. 
Miller? 

]\Iiss BuiiAT. Was this information about Dr. Miller adduced at 
hearings of this committee ? 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Miss BuHAi. You are not going to answer my question ? 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Miss Buiiai. "Well, then, I shall have to decline on all of the grounds 
previously 

The Chairman. You don't "have to." You may. 

Miss Buiiai. I may and I have to. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Miss Buiiai. To decline on all of the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Can you tell us who effected the appointment of Helen 
Travis as the secretary of the Los Angeles branch of the Medical Aid 
to Cuba Committee? 

Miss BuHAi. I will not answer any questions concerning associa- 
tions of any kind. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are not asking you about associations, but about 
your activities in relation to the subject of inquiry of this hearing, 
which is, namely, an inquiry into Communist propaganda activities 
in support of the Communist regime in Cuba, foreign travel under- 
taken by United States citizens in connection with such activities, 
and the activities of United States citizens acting on behalf of, or in 
the interests of, foreign Communist principals. 

Miss BuHAi, Which of those objectives does this question apply to? 

The Chairman. You asked for it. You are directed to answer the 
question. 

Miss Buhai. I shall not answer this question and I decline to 
answer this question on all of the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the course of the testimony received in Washing- 
ton, Melitta del Villar testified that she received contributions from 
branch organizations of the Medical Aid to Cuba Committee. 

Did you forward to the New York office of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee any contributions collected in this area ? 

Miss Buiiai. Contributions, collecting contributions, charitable 
purposes, are not the function of this committee. I shall, therefore, 
decline to answer the question on that ground and on all other grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I'd like to state for the record that, with respect to the 
activities of Helen Travis, she had been formerly employed by the 
Daily 'Worker and a committee report 

Miss Buhai. I have told you I will not 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, just a minute, please. 

Miss Buiiai. I will not answer any questions about associations. 
Wliy do you persist 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, just a minnte. 

Miss Buhai. Wlio are you addressing it to ? 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am addressing myself 

Miss Buhai. Are you testifying, sir, or am I ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. A report of the House Committee dealing with the 
assassination of Leon Trotsky, the political rival of Joseph Stalin 

[Laughter.] 



550 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss BuHAi. Mr, Chairman, may I have your attention, please? 

Counsel was testifying. He is asking me questions about a person 
whom I have indicated I shall decline to ask — answer no questions. 
May 1 point out 

The Chairman. Wliat is the pending question ? 

Miss l^uHAi. — that in the Watkins case the Court said 



The Chairman. Are you making a statement as to the pertinency 
or is that a pending statement 

JMr. NiTTLE. Yes. That's what I was intending to do, to make a 
statement on pertinency. 

The Chairman. Well, proceed. 

Mr. NiT'n.E. You have raised a question about the question I have 
asked you relating to the contributions allegedly made by your Los 
xingeles group to the New York group of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee. 

Miss l^uHAi. I have raised no question. I have answered that ques- 
tion and I do not see 

The Chairman. What is the next question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge, have the funds which you have 
transmitted to the New York office of the Medical Aid to Cuba 
Committee been utilized for the purchase of medical supplies for 
Cuba? 

Miss Buhai. Tlie question assumes a fact not in evidence, and I 
would ask the chairman to direct counsel to rephrase it. 

T]ie Chairman. Quite to the contrary, I direct you to answer the 
question, Mhich is a proper one. 

Miss BuiiAi. There is no evidence that I have received any funds 
for the JNledical Aid Committee 

The Chairman. You are being asked the question. 

Miss BcjHAi. He said did the funds which you received, and there 
is no — this is a matter 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Miss Buhai. Very well. If I am directed to answer improperly 
framed questions, questions which assume facts not in evidence, then 
I, of course, shall decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Buhai, the Comnnmist Party West Coast publi- 
cation, the Daily People's World of October 26, 1957, carried an ac- 
count of 3^our efforts for admission to the California Bar at that time, 
and stated 

Miss Buhai. I will instruct the chairman to instruct counsel that 
any matters concerning my admission to the California Bar have been 
judicially determined by the Supreme Court of the State of Cali- 
fornia. I am a member of the bar and I instruct the chairman to in- 
struct counsel to refrain from asking any questions along this area. 

This is not a matter which is in the purview of this committee. 

The Chairman. All right. Now, you have made your motion. You 
are not going to instruct the Chair to do anything. 

Miss Buhai. I didn't instruct. I have asked. 

The Chairman. You said you instructed the Chair to instruct. 

Miss Buhai. I have asked you to instruct. 

The Chairman. What is the question? You must come to the 
question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Dailij PeopWs World made a report of your 
statements reportedly in testimony before a committee of the bar 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 551 

association who "vvere examining into your fitness to practice law, as 
to moral character. 

Xow, the Da'dy People's World reported 

Miss BuiiAi. That matter just 

Mr. NiT-rLE. Now, just a moment. Please. I will give you a ques- 
tion. 

The CiiAiiaiAX. Wait. We haven't reached the question. 

Miss BuHAi. No. We don't have to reach it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Daily People^s World, Mr. Chainnan, reported 
as follows : 

Former student at Southwestera University, Miss Buhai, stated before the 
State Bar Examiners during a hearing in 19.") that she had — 11 years before — 
been a member of the Communist party, but had re,signed. 

The Cpiairman. Now, ask the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that a correct report of your testimony ? 

oNliss Buhai. I will not answer any question which is not within 
the purview of this committee. 

All questions regarding my fitness to practice law have been re- 
solved by the Supreme Court of this State. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am not asking j'ou with respect to 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. The Chair will handle that. 

This question has nothing to do with your admission to the bar. 
You are directed to answer it. 

Miss BuHAi. I will not answer any such question and I decline to 
answer on all of the grounds previously stated, and I further 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Miss BuHAi. — state 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were vou a member 



The Chairman (to reporter). Take down his question. 

Miss BuHAi. — the Watkins case 

Mr. NiTTLE. — of the Communist Party in the year 1944? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chainnan, I make the point that the witness 
is entirely out of order, and I ask that the witness be ordered to 
suspend. 

The Chairman. Ask the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party in the 
year 1944 as is indicated by the Daily Feople's World report of your 
testimony ? 

Miss Buhai. All questions regarding political associations are not 
within the realm of this committee. I shall decline to answer on all 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Buhai. I have just indicated that I shall decline to answer all 
grounds relating to political associations — all questions relating to 
political associations on all of the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions. 

Perhaps, ]Mr. Chairman, I think that I would like to ask one or two 
more questions before we close. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Buhai, I have before me a copy of a report given 
by the Daily News of Whittier, California, carried in its June 22,1963, 
issue. The article reports that there was a meeting under the spon- 
sorship of the Women Strike for Peace group in Whittier, Califoniin, 



552 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

lield at the Unitarian Center, 201 South Bright Avenue. The article 
indicates that Harriett Buhai of Los Angeles appeared there, together 
with Jean Kidwell Pestana, attorneys of the Los Angeles area, who 
were attempting to answer written questions in the course or this 
meeting relating to Cuba ; that Miss Buhai ran a slide projector show- 
ing slides, while Mrs. Kidwell lectured. 

The newsr)aper account states 

Miss Buhai. Is this testimony, sir ? Are you giving testimonj^ ? 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Miss BuiiAi. Or is this a question ? I am lost. 

The Chairman. He is laying the foundation for a question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask, Were you in attendance there at the meet- 
ing at the Unitarian Center on June 21, 1963 ? 

Miss Buhai. What group did you say this was? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Women Strike for Peace. 

Miss Buhai. Oh, I see. Now, "peace" is a word which is not 
used 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, the 



The Chairman. What is the simple question ? 

INIr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance as a speaker or lecturer at the 
meeting at the Unitarian Center? 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer that question. 

Miss Buhai. I shall answer the question, of course. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Were you 

Miss Buhai. I shall answer the question if you will just wait a 
moment. I would like to say that 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer. 

Miss Buhai. — that my right to speak about peace, about domestic 
and foreign affairs, shall not be infringed upon by tliis committee. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer tlie question. 

Miss Buhai. Therefore, in view of the atmosphere of this commit- 
tee, in view of what this committee is trying to do to such noble words 
as "peace," "speech," "discussion," I shall decline to answer this ques- 
tion on all of the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the course of your appearance there, in answering 
questions, a newspaper account reports that a Lorenzo Pascillo, a Los 
Angeles tool and diemaker, who said he was a member of the Cuban 
Liberation Movement, stood up and declared 

Miss Buhai. Excuse me. Have you laid any foundation for that? 

The Chairisian. That is exactlv what he is doing. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He said : 

I was inside Cuba within the last 30 days. Your program showed the Com- 
munist side of Cuba. We were there malting raids. This is not the true Cuba. 
This is what the Communists want you to see. 

You've heard the expression of their side, and now we'd like to give you our 
side of the story. 

Later, you are reported as saying that "I'm a lawyer and I'm used 
to working with my mind. I'm not used to hooliganism," that you 
harl npA'PT- rnn up against anything like that. 

[Laughter.] 

Sliss Buhai. Are you going to let me read the article ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The way that was suggested by Mr. Pascillo, "the Com- 
munist side" 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 553 

Miss BuiiAi. Are you testiliying? Are you asking me one question, 
several questions ? I am not accustomed to being questioned or ques- 
tioning people in this manner. I am 

The Chairman. Ask tlie question. 

Miss BuHAi, I am accustomed to being in a court of hiw, where 
questions are properly propounded. I am not used to hearsay evidence. 
1 don't know how to function in such a proceeding as this. 

Mr. Nirri.E. Mr. Chairman, this is a tliree-coJunm article. I tliink it 
ought to be made an exhibit and inserted in full in the record. 

The Chairman. What was the occasion? ^^Hiat was the meeting? 

INIr. NiTi'LE. There was a meeting at the Unitarian Center, 201 South 
Bright Avenue. 

The Chaiiusian. On what date? 

Mr. NiTiLE. On June 21, 1963. 

The Chairman. Were you in attendance at that meeting as indi- 
cated in that article ? 

Miss Buhai. May I see the article ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Miss Buhai. Is it proper to allow a witness to look at an exhibit ? 

The Chairman. Oh, surely. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But let me first direct your attention to one thing 

The Chairman. That is the question that the Chair asked, Were you 
in attendance at that meeting ? 

Miss Buhai. I don't know which meeting he is referring to. If he 
is referring to a meeting and an exhibit which I have not seen, for 
which no foundation has been laid 

The Chairman. Here is the article. I direct you to answer that 
question that I asked. It's a simple question. 

Miss Buhai. "Wlien I read the article I will ask you to repeat it. 
I can't remember the questions after so much discussion. 

May I ask a question about this exhibit ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps Mr. Wheeler 

Miss Buhai. "Whittier, California, Saturday, June 22," is super- 
imposed on this article by Scotch tape. I have no way of knowing 
what the date of this article was because the article is not in one piece. 

I do not know^ who superimposed this on there. I do not know when 
it was done. This is not 

The Chairman. So yon decline to answer the question on the basis 
that you don't know anything about it, is that the idea ? 

Miss Buhai. I decline to answer a question based on an exhibit 
which is not properly authenticated, which does not allow me to ascer- 
tain whether or not this article was, in fact, printed in Whittier, Cali- 
fornia, Saturday, June 22, 1963, the Daily News. And I decline to 
answer on all of the other grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. All right. 

(Document marked "Buhai Exhibit No. 1" follows.) 



98-765— 63— pt. 2- 



554 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

BuHAi Exhibit No. 1 

WliiHier. C«lif, Sat., Jun. 22, I94J Th« DAILY NEWS 7 



OVER COMDmONS IN CUBA 




ares At Women's 



Peace Grou 




Peace was the objecl. but it Mis. Mary Ann Holser of La say how they obtained passports 
lost out at tlie meeting of tlie Habia. chaiiman of the meeting, to visit Cuba. 
Women Strike for Peace here Fn- tiicn reminded tiic audience tliat •••Jhe State Department doesn't 
day night. questions could be a.skcd by put- allow .'\mqricans to go (o Cuba. 

Hecklers in the audieiK-e hinted ling thorn in wriling: and she dye.s il.'" aiked a man in.llxe 
that some of the women present pleaded fur order audience. 

were sympathetic with the Com- Mrs. Holser said she hoped the -piiere was no answer from Lbc 
munist cause. And a woman at- meeting could continue in Ihe spi- ^o^e,, 
torney, Harriet B'lJiai of Los An- rit of democratic discussion , , . 

geles. who was attempting to ai. -We cam hei. as nu^c^ guests .n't' ncrAc'St 'c—S' 
swer WTitten ciue.tions, deplored to p. e.ent what we saw. said investigate persons 

what she- called -hoUiganism by Miss Buhai u iu> navplprf tn r.iba 

the hecklers. "Wliv should «e believe you and ^^''" ^'_f^^'^<^, ^° ^''^^ ,. ^ ^,. 

When someone in the audience not him iPascilioi?" a man in "l don t know, replied Miss 
vho was in sympathy with the the audience asked. Buhai. -Tm not a member 

Women Strike for Peace move- "Aw."' shouted another man in "We know that.'" the questioner 
ment threatened to enforc-e order, the audience, "why don't you hold said. "That's the reason they're 
there were cat calls from the your own meeiing somewhere investigating. They're investigat- 
hecklers and one ol them (luickly else'.'" ing people like you" 

remo\ed his jacket ".I'm a lawyer," continued Miss The slides included pictures of 

But there was no violence. Buhai. "and J ni used to working pleasani and modern looking hous- 

11 wasn't until aftei' Mrs. Jean with my mmd. I'm not used lo ing projects and schools in Cuba. 
Kidwell, a Los Angeles attorney hooliganism" When Ihe meeiing as well as substandard buildings 
who toured Cuba in May 1962. ended, she remarked: "I've never and slums. 

completed a lecture illustrated run up against anything like il Mrs. Kidwell said she was ac- 
with color slides about her Cuban before. I've run inio people I've companied on her lour of Cuba 
trip, that the commotion began. disagreed with, hul I've never by a friend and an oKicial Cuban 

Women were collecting written run up against hooliganism be- iniciprcter. 
questions from the audience of fore" Her Impressions 

about 100per..ons at Ihe Cnilarian "Vou don'l uant lo h.^len lo g^f^_.^ ^^j^^ ^^ ^^,. ,^^^.,,,3. 

Center. 201 S. Bright Ave . when him.' shouted someone in the ,j^,, j,,.^ j^,^^^g„ p^piamcd that 
Lorenzo Pascillo, a Los Angeles auuience _ .., ^^ ^^ aulhoritv" on Cuba, 

tool and die maker who said he "'V'ou re not an American, ^^^ ^^.^^ interested in "iving her 
was a member of the Cuban Ub- yelled someone else. impressions of the counivy to the 

cration Movement, stood up and '"ieah! ' chanted others, audience 

declai'ed: "yeah!" .pi,g Women Strike for Peace is 

Not True Cuba Miss Buhai ran the ^lide pro- ^ ■^^^^ organization consisting 

"I was inside Cuba within the Jff'o'" "*'!'« Mrs. KidweH lec-iureo^f ^^ estimated 500.000 women, 
last 30 days. Your program show- Afterwards, they answeied the ^,,g ^^.|„„.p,. ^.^^^^^^,. ^^^^ ^,„. 
ed the Communist side of Cuba. ^^"'len questions. gU^. into,.n,aiiy at a home, almost 

We were there making raids. This Two Trips monthly. 

is not the true Cuba. This is what Jliss Buhai said she also had Mrs Holser said many of Ihe 
the Communists want you to see. traveled to Communist ChIih. FTer written (lucstions coilecled Irom 

"You've heard the expression ol tirst trip, slie .said, was in 1961, the audience at Friday iiighls 
their side, and now wed like to the second in 1962 meeting were "oh.'^ccne, personal" 

give you our .side of the story." Neither of the women would ones. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 555 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Buhai, the People's World of January 9, 
19G0, carried an account of the election lield by the Lawyers Gnild for 
the Los Angeles-Hollywood-Beverly Hills Chapter of the National 
Lawyers Chiild. The article that 1 have before me, which we will 
exhibit to you, is titled, "Lawyers Guild elects officers," dated at Los 
Angeles, and 1 quote it in full in the record : 

Atty. Robert L. Brock will serve another year as president of Los Angeles 
and Hollywood-Beverly Hills Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild, as result 
of elections last week. 

Pauline Epstein was elected vice-president, Jean Kidwell, treasurer, Robert J. 
Schmorleitz, secretary, and Seymour Mandel, admini,strative secretary. 

Executive board members are: (Los Angeles) Robert W. Kenny, Ben Mar- 
golis, Daniel G. Marshall, Frank Munoz, A. L. Wirin and Mandel; (Hollywood- 
Beverly) Harriett Buhai, Aubrey I. Finn, David J. Sachs 



Miss BuHAi. Are you naming the other people for some 

Mr. NiiTLE. "Laurence R. Sperber and Jack Tenner." 

Miss Buhai. Do you have a question, now tliat you have testified ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you elected to the position as an executive board 
member of the Los Angeles-Hollywood-Beverly Hills Chapter of the 
National Lawyers Guild ?. 

Miss Buhai. Now, you are making inquiry into professional bar 
association 

The Chairman. The witness will answer the question. It is already 
in evidence, the citation and facts and 

Miss Buhai. Of what? The citation of what? 

The Chairman. Concerning the Guild referred to. The witness 



was 

Miss Buhai. There is nothing in evidence here. 

The Chairman. It's already in the record. 

Miss Buhai. I wish to state 

The Chairman. The witness is directed to answer that simple ques- 
tion. 

Miss Buhai. Very well. I shall tell you I am a member of the Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild. I have served on the executive board of the 
National Lawyers Guild. Tliis is a matter of public record with the 
State Bar of California. 

The Chairman. All right. 

(Document marked "Buhai Exhibit No. 2" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Miss Buhai. The committee did not have to spend my money to 
come out here and ask this question. 

The Chairman. We are glad to have you answer. 

Miss Buhai. They could have written a letter and found it out. 
This is merely an exposure for exposure's sake. 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Miss Buhai. For the aggrandizement of the committee. 

The Chairman (to reporter). Take down his question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Buhai, of the 15 persons whom I have 
named, and that includes yourself in that number 

Miss Buhai. Exposure for exposure's sake. Watkins says no. 

[Laughter.] 

Miss Buhai. Watkins says no. 

[Applause.] 

Mr. NiTTLE, Now, let me repeat the question to you. 



556 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss BuHAi. Mr. Chairman 



The Chairman. He has not asked a question. 
Miss BuHAi. I know what the question is. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have not 

Miss BuHAi. May I instruct- 



Mr. NiTTLE. Of the 15 persons I have named, the following have 
been identified in testimony received before the committee 

The Chairman. He is not asking a question. He is making a state- 
ment for tlie record. 

Miss BuHAi. He is testifying. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — as members of the Communist Party : Pauline Ep- 
stein, Jean Kidwell, Seymour Mandel, Ben Margolis, Aubrey I. Finn, 
Laurence R. Sperber, and Jack Tenner. 

Now, that is 7 of the 15 named persons. 

Now, as to the eighth individual, yourself, Harriett Buliai, you 
have yourself in testimony admitted former Communist Party mem- 
bership. 

Miss BuHAi. No testimony taken here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Testimony before the bar. 

Miss BuHAi. No testimony before the bar that is in evidence here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is: Did you know these seven persons I 
have named, identified in testimony before this committee, as members 
of the Communist Party ? 

Miss BuHAi. This question is clearly 

The Chairman. The question is very simple and it is, Did you 
know 

Miss BuHAi. Mr. Chairman, I am not sitting here and- 



The Chairman. On the contraiy, I am directing you to answer the 

question 

]VIiss BuHAi. Very well. May I ask- 



The Chairman. — which is a proper one, and it is whether you 
knew that the seven persons named and just read into the record to 
be or to have been members of the Communist Party? That is the 
pending question. I order you to answer it. 

Miss BuHAi. He said that they were named. Were they named at 
hearings of this committee ? 

The Chairman. You are ordered to answer the question as to your 
knowledge of the subject. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Miss BuHAi. I will answer it in protest since you haven't answered 
mine. 

You have not told me whether this committee 

The Chairman. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Miss BuHAi. — whether this committee made these people — if it 
was before this committee, then I feel I shall decline to answer the 
question on all grounds 

The Chairman. You are ordered to answer the question. 

Miss BuHAi. I have answered the question. 

The Chairman. Otherwise, the committee 

Miss BuHAi. I have answered the question. I have declined to 
answer it on the grounds previously stated, which I said veiy clearly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just one more question, and then we will conclude. 

During the course of the Los Angeles hearings into communism in 
professional groups conducted in 1952 by this committee 

Miss BuHAi. That is 11 years ago, sir. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 557 

Mr. NiTTLE. ■ — testimony was received 

Miss BuHAi. Eleven years ago. 



Mr. NiiTLE. — testimony was received from lawyers 

JSIiss BuiiAi. Is that 11 years ago? 

Mr. NmLE. — particularly A. Marberg Yerkes, in which he testi- 
fied that the Communist Party had instructed its lawyer members to 
be active in the National Lawyers Guild. 

And he testified further that, in fact, in the executive groups of the 
National Lawyers Guild, the Communist members succeeded in con- 
trolling the activities of the organization generally. 

He did testify that at that time about one third of the Los Angeles 
Lawyers Guild group were Communist Party members, about one 
third liberal and non-Communist, and about one third anti-Commu- 
nist. But he said that on the executive board, the one third Com- 
munist membership ordinarily had its way. 

Now, in this case here, as to the executive board of the Los Angeles 
group of the National Lawyers Guild, it appears that 7 members of a 
group of 15 have been identified in sworn testimony before this com- 
mittee. You are an eighth person who has previously testified to 
party membership and have not denied it now. 

Now, are you aware 

Miss BuiiAi. Mr. Chairman- 



Mr. NiTTLE. — of any effort by the Communist Party to dominate 
the National Lawyers Guild, and who the Communist Party members 
of the Lawyers Guild are that do dominate? 

Miss BuiiAi. This is a compound question. 

The Chairman. Ask a simple question, your first question. 

Miss BuHAi. Will vou ask me a simple question without testifying 
first? 

The Chairman. Ask a simple question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

To your knowledge, have I identified members of the Communist 
Party personally known to you to be members of the Communist 
Party controlling the Los Angeles Chapter of the National Lawyers 
Guild? 

Miss BuHAi. This is a question 

The Chairman. The question is one within your knowledge. Do 
you know that to be a fact ? 

Miss BuiiAi. This is a question — you do not know whether this 
is within my knowledge or not, do you ? 

The Chairman. Well, you are simply being asked whether it is 
within your knowledge, and you are directed to answer whether you 
have any knowledge. 

Miss BuHAi. Then wait until I say wdiether I do or do not, please. 

The Chairman. The question is, Do you have such knowledge your- 
self? 

Miss Buhai. My answer is that this again is a question of exposure 
for exposure's sake, going into associations 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. Have you 
finished ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Miss Buhai. — using a date of 1952 when I wasn't even a lawyer 
until 1953. 



558 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. You are directed to answer the question. 

Miss BuHAi. And I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Miss BuHAi. May the record show 

The Chairman. Is that all ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. That is all. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 10 minutes, 
and the witness is excused. 

[Applause.] 

(Whereupon, at 3 p.m., tlie subcommittee recessed, to reconvene 
at 3 :10 p.m., of the same day.) 

The Chairman. Please be seated. The subcommittee Avill please 
come to order. 

These hearings in Los Angeles today and yesterday liave demon- 
strated, I believe, as have the earlier hearings in Washington, that 
the laws of this country relating to travel to Cuba are being flouted 
by certain elements. 

The record also reveals in the subcommittee's view that the wit- 
nesses who have testified yesterday and today ; namely, Rose Rosen- 
berg, George Waegell, Joseph Shapiro, Jon Joseph Read, John Allen 
Johnson, Margaret Frances Johnson, Irene Paull, Robert Randolph, 
Valeda Randolph, Karl Weichinger, Jovita Weichinger, and Harriett 
Buhai, have traveled to Cuba without appropriately validated pass- 
ports since January 16, 1961, or, having gone there earlier, remained 
beyond that date without obtaining validation for return to the 
United States. 

It thus appears that these persons are in violation of section 1185 
of the Immigration and Nationality^ Act. Their cases will, there- 
fore, be referred to the Department of Justice for possible prose- 
cution. 

The committee's investigation of illegal Cuban travel will con- 
tinue, as will its inquiring into the propaganda activities of persons 
who are apparently serving as agents of foreign principals. 

On the basis of information developed to date in 5 days of hear- 
ings, including these two in Los Angeles, I believe that the committee 
will be in a position to make certain recommendations for amend- 
ments to existing legislation and also to bills pending in the Congress 
which relate to travel and propaganda activities and possible amend- 
ment of the Foreign Agents Registration Act. 

The committee wishes to express its appreciation and thanks to 
George O'Brien, the United States marshal, Mr. Peter Pitchess of 
the Sheriff's office, Mr. William B. Parker, chief of police of Los 
Angeles, Mr. Edward Still well, superintendent of Federal properties, 
for making these hearing facilities available to us. 

We wish, also, to express our appreciation to the press, the radio, 
and television for their cooperation. And, frankly, in the light of 
the nature of these hearings I think the people in attendance who have 
been our guests have been quite moderate, and we appreciate that, too. 

And so, this will conclude this phase of our hearings in the areas 
indicated, and the committee will stand adjourned. But, before that, 
I want to give an opportunity to members of the subcommittee and to 
our colleague from Ohio, who happens to have been here during these 
hearings, to offer any comments or statements they might wish to make. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 559 

Mr. Tuck. I have nolliing to say except that I wisli to associate 
myself with your remarks and to say that I am in full accord with 
the views that you have expressed. 

Mr. JoHAXSEN. I associate myself, also, with the statements of the 
chairman, which is the statement also of the committee, and express 
my respect and admiration for the manner in which the chairman 
has handled these hearings. 

The Chair3iax. We'd 1 ike to hear from you, sir. 

Mr. AsiiBROOK. I want to associate my comments with those which 
were made by the subconnnittee and reiterate my admiration for the 
fact of the perseverance and the ability of the chairman in presiding 
at this meeting. 

The CiiAiRMAx. The committee stands adjourned. 

(WHiereupon, at 3 :15 p.m., Tuesday, July 2, 1963, the subcommittee 
was adjourned subject to the call of the Chair.) 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT REGULATIONS 

AND PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

Part 2 



MONDAY, AUGUST 5, 1963 



United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 

PUBLIC hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 :15 a.m., in Room 304, Cannon House Office 
Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chairaian) 
presiding. 

Subcommittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Lou- 
isiana; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. Johansen, of 
Michigan. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Johansen. 

Committee members also present: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of 
Texas; George F. Senner, Jr., of Arizona; and Donald C. Bruce, of 
Indiana. ( Appearances as noted. ) 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred M 
Nittle, comisel ; and Neil E. Wetterman, investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The subcommittee is convened to continue hearings, begun here in 
Washington on May 6 of this year, on certain matters and for the 
legislative purposes set forth in a committee resolution adopted 
April 24, 1963. 

That resolution, I think, has twice been put in the record before; 
has it not ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. It will be made a part of this statement, and I 
shall not read it three times. 

* * * * * * * 1 



1 For resolution and summarization of chairman's opening statement of May 6, 1963, 
see pp. 443—445. 

.')G1 



562 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

I will now read for the record the order of appointment of the 
subcommittee conducting these hearings : 

July 11, 1963. 
TO: Me. Francis J. McNamaea, 
Director, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Honorable William M. Tuck and Honorable August E. Johansen 
as associate members, and myself, as Chairman, to conduct a hearing in Wash- 
ington, D.C., Monday, August 5, 1963, at 10 A.M., on subjects under investigation 
by the Committee and take such testimony on said day or succeeding days, 
as it may deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 11th day of July, 1963. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis 
Edwin E. Willis, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Mr. Nittle, call your first witness. 
Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Would Jean Estelle Ki dwell Pestana please come forward? 
The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 
Mrs. Pestana. I will affirm. 

The Chairman. Do you affirm that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 
Mrs. Pestana. I do. 
I would prefer no pictures. 
The Chairman. All right. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF JEAN ESTELLE KIDWELL PESTANA, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, DAVID REIN— Resumed 

INIr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mrs. Pestana. My professional name is Jean Kidwell. I practice 
law under that name. I am married to Frank Pestana. Therefore, I 
am also known as Jean Pestana. 

Mr. Nittle. You also have the middle name "Estelle." Is that 
correct ? 

Mrs. Pestana. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, R-e-i-n, 711 14th Street, Northwest, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Mr. Nittle. I believe you indicated that you are the wife of Frank 
S. Pestana. Is that correct ? 

Mrs. Pestana. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you married on February 8, 1942, to him ? 

Mrs. Pestana. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Mrs. Pestana. August 11, 1917, in San Francisco, California. 

Mr. Nittle. Now would you relate the extent of your formal edu- 
cation, giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institu- 
tions and any degrees you may have received ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 563 

Mrs. Pestana. Well, I have completed all the requirements and 
attended all the public schools in the State of California, completing 
all necessary requirements to be admitted to the bar in 1947, of the 
State of California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What high school did you attend? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. Polytechnic High School. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What college did you attend ? 

Mrs. Pestana. University of California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What degree did you receive there? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. Bachelor of arts, and later a bachelor of laws from 
the law school. 

Mr. Xittle. What university did you attend to study law? 

Mrs. Pestana. I attended the University of California at Berkeley 
for my first year, completing my education at the University of 
Southern California in Los Angeles. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive a bachelor of laws degree from the Uni- 
versity of California? 

Mrs. Pestana. No, from the University of Southern California. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I am an attorney. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been engaged in the practice of 
law? 

Mrs. Pestana. Well, after being admitted to the bar in 1947, 1 have 
practiced in between children. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where do you maintain your offices? 

Mrs. Pestana. In Hollywood. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I do not believe you gave me your residence for the 
purposes of the record. 

Mrs. Pestana. My — I was subpenaed at my office and would be 
happy to give jou that address. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your residence, please? 

Mrs. Pestana. 7279 Mulholland Drive, in Los Angeles. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The official records indicate that you last applied for 
a passport on January 16, 1960, in Los Angeles, California, stating 
your intention to travel for pleasure for about 3 or 4 months to 
Sweden, Norway, England, Denmark, France, and Italy. 

Pursuant to this application, a passport, No. 1899805, was issued to 
you on January 28, 1960. 

Are you presently in possession of that passport? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. I am going to refuse to answer your question for 
the following reasons : 

First, I do not believe that this committee has any authority to 
conduct this investigation, because the committee is improperly con- 
stituted. 

Section 2 of the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States provides, in effect, that the basis of representation of 
each State shall be reduced proportionately if eligible citizens of that 
State are illegally denied the right to vote. 

The Chairman and one other member of the committee come from 
States that deny substantial sections of the population the right to 
vote, solely on the basis of race. 



564 PEO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Secondly, this committee lias, during the course of its existence, 
systematically denied and sought to prevent the exercise of its citizens 
of their fundamental rights guaranteed by the first amendment of the 
Constitution, which provides, in part, that Congress shall make no 
law abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, religion, or the 
right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition their Govern- 
ment for redress of grievances. 

Thirdly, I will further decline to answer on the ground atforded me 
by the fifth amendment to the Constitution, in that a person can't be 
compelled to be a witness against himself. 

For those reasons, I will decline to answer your question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
applied to the Department of State for a validation of your passport 
for travel to Cuba ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I have refused to answer your previous question and 
I will similarly refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
received from the Department of State a validation of passport for 
travel to Cuba ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I believe that the right to travel freely is essential 
in the exercise of the first amendment rights and, therefore, I will re- 
fuse to answer that question and I will further refuse on the groimd 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
traveled to Cuba ? 

Mrs. Pestana. You have asked the same question, and I give you 
the same answer. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. The committee's investigation discloses that in the 
company of Rose Schorr Rosenberg you flew to Cuba from Mexico 
via Cubana Airlines on or about April 6, 1962, returning to the United 
States some time in May 1962. 

Did you visit Cuba at or about that time? 

Mrs. Pestana. You have asked the same question, and I 

The Chairman. No, he has not, and you are a lawyer, you know he 
did not. You won't answer, and therefore we will develop the record 
in our own way, and the purpose of it will become clear later on. And 
therefore I direct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. Pestana. I have refused to answer on the same grounds, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would j'^ou tell us the persons who accompanied you to 

Mrs. Pestana. I think your questions demonstrate the primary 
purpose of this committee. You are now asking me to name other 
persons and you wish, further, not only to deny me my rights 

The Chair]man. The question is a proper one. I direct you to 
answer it. 

Mrs. Pestana. — under the first amendment, but you further deny 
me the right of free association, and therefore I am refusing to answer 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you travel to Cuba in the company of Rose Schorr 
Rosenberg ? 

Mrs. Pestana. What was — that was the same question. 

Mr. Nittle. No, it isn't. 

Mrs. Pestana. With the same answer. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 565 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the information of tlie coinmittee that you at no 
time on or after January 16, 1961, applied for, or received from tlie 
Department of State, a passport or other travel document specifically 
endorsed for travel to Cuba. Is this information correct? 

Mi"s. Pestana. I am refusing to answer all questions with reference 
to such travel and, therefore, I also refuse to answer this question, 

JMr. NiTTLE. Now I liand you a report appearing at page 3 of the 
Communist publication People's World of Jime 2, 1962, entitled "2 
Cuba visitors to report on trip," marked for identification as "Jean 
Pestana Exhibit No. 1." 

I also hand you a notice appearing at page 11 of the pro-Communist 
National Guardian of June 4, 1962, and direct your attention to a 
notice appearing under the column titled "CALENDAR," subheading 
"los ANGELES," marked for identification as "Jean Pestana Exhibit 
No. 2." 

These exhibits have already been read into the record as Rosenberg 
exhibits numbered 1 and 2.^ 

These items advise of your appearance at a meeting of the Los 
Angeles Committee for Medical Aid to Cuba on June 6, 1962, at 
Channing Hall, 2936 West 8th Street, Los Angeles, together with 
Rose Rosenberg, to report on a 1-month visit to Cuba during April 
and May of 1962. 

Are you not the Jean Kidwell Pestana to whom reference is made 
in these exhibits ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I think we could speed this up greatly if you simply 
asked me the last portion of your question. 

These are — I will not identify these exhibits for you. 

Your question is really simply that whether I visited Cuba- 



Mr. NiTTLE. The question is a very simple one. Are you the 

Mrs. Pestana. — at this particular time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you the Jean Pestana to whom reference is made 
in those exhibits? 

Mrs. Pestana. I have identified myself properly, and you have 
exhibits which are completely unnecessary. It is a free press, I 
assume. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Pestana. I am answering the question. I think the question 
had absolutely no necessity for the prelude to the question. 

(Documents marked "Jean Pestana Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," re- 
spectively, and retained in committee files.) 

The Chairman. Proceed with the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mrs. Pestana. The question was simply whether I was there, and 
I have refused to answer that question on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mrs. Pestana, are the facts set forth in those exhibits 
relating to the period of your visit to Cuba correct ? 

Mrs. Pestana. Wliat facts are you referring to? Is that the same 
question, whether I visited Cuba in May of 1962 ? 

The Chairman. It is not. The former question was whether you 
are the person identified or referred to in those articles. This is a 
different question, and you may as well make up your mind we will 
develop the facts and put them on the record according to our own 
procedure and in our own good way. 



^ See testimony of Rose Schorr Rosenberg, pp. 459, 460. 



566 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Pestana. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

(Witness conferred Avith counseL) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, in fact, appear at the scheduled meeting at 
Channing Hall, which I believe is the address of the First Unitarian 
Church, on June G, 1962, and deliver a report of 3'our visit to Cuba? 

Mrs. Pestana. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now I also hand you a photostatic copy of a flier 
marked for identification as "Jean Pestana Exhibit No. 3," which 
was circulated in the spring of this year. It announces that the 
College Center of the First Unitarian Church would present a 
special event, open to college age only, on April 21, The special 
event was, "Be An Eye Witness in Cuoa," with Frank Pestana and 
Jean Kidwell, attorneys, who would present "Cuba Today in 
Pictures." 

Did you deliver the presentation as advertised at the First Uni- 
tarian Church on April 21 ? 

Mrs. Pestana. Your question, then, is whether I, on April 21, re- 
ported on the trip to Cuba ; and I am going to refuse to answer that 
question on the same ground. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 3 in evidence. 

The Chairman. It will be incorporated in the record. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The flier just exhibited to you bears the information 
that Frank Pestana and Jean Kidwell conducted an extensive tour of 
Cuba outside Havana in May 1962. 

Did you conduct an extensive tour of Cuba in May 1962, as stated ? 

Mrs. Pestana. That is the same question asked previously, and I 
answer in the same manner. I refuse to answer that question. 

The Chairman. On what grounds ? 

Mrs. Pestana. Am I directed to answer? 

I will refuse on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Jean Pestana Exhibit No. 3" follows.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



567 



Jean Pestana Exhibit No. 3 

COLLEGE CEN 




, , ^ r , 



I I I 



^^ (\\\i<l\>\ 



se Af\j EvevJ iTf\)^ss IN COEA^ 



0. Ami '21 a^ 12:4 s 



e 



An 






id.( OWG^L. 





-TODA-y irJ 

PRAKK PESTANA AND JEAN KIDWELL conducted an extensive tour of 
CUBA OUTSIDE javan a in May 1962. They made an Intensive survey 
of the medical facilities, agriculture, religious practices, \ 
industrialization, housing, and political activity of CUBA over 
the whole island. Thoy have a cc»pj?ehen8ive collection of slides ,! 
to illustrate and document their lecture. 



.J 






) 



OPe'f^ TO COLCEGB 46^ OA/Ly 



568 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It appears from Exhibit 3 that j^ou have been making 
an effort to influence college youth concerning Cuba. Is that not a 
fact? 

(Witness conferred with comisel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. Could I have that question clarified ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think the question is certainly clear enough, and 
should be to you. 

Mrs. Pestana. I think, from a lawyer's point of view, the word 
"influence" would not indicate what you refer to at all, but simply 
would be a conclusion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, or were you not, making an effort to influence 
college youth concerning Cuba? 

Mrs. Pestana. It is the same question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your answer to the question ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I can't answer your question. I don't even know 
what you mean by "influence." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I request that the witness be directed 
to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Well, phrase your question in the light of the For- 
eign Agents Registration Act, l^ecause that is the subject of the hear- 
ings this morning. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it your purpose to influence college youth or "to 
prevail upon, indoctrinate, convert" or "induce" them in any way, 
with respect to the public interests, policies, or relations of the Gov- 
ermnent of Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. Mhj I see that section, please, that you read from? 
Unless you prefer to read it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I was making an excerpt from the Foreign Agents 
Remstration Act of 1938, the section thereof defining the term "polit- 
ical propaganda." 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. I am not very well acquainted with the Foreign 
Registration Agents Act. I will answer your question in just a 
moment, and I do not understand your question, but if you are within 
the meaning of that act asking me whether I am a foreign agent, I 
am not a foreign agent. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question was whether you were, by your appear- 
ance at the First Unitarian Cliurch, addressing an audience which 
was restricted to those of college age, attempting to "prevail upon, in- 
doctrinate, convert or induce" them with respect to the political or 
public interests, policies, or relations of the Government of Cuba. 

Now, were you attempting to do just that? You are not being 
asked for a legal opinion. You are not being asked whether you are 
an agent of a foreign power. 

(At this point, Mr. Pool entered the hearing room.) 

Mrs. Pestana. Well, I am so confused at this point I do not know 
what you are asking me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I think the question is perfectly clear, 
even to the witness, and I respectfully request that you direct her to 
answer the question. 

The Chairman". The question comes within the purview of this 
hearing. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 569 

The resolution read twice, offered twice in the record before and 
again this morning:, which you heard, I know, in Los Angeles, deals 
with this very subject of our inquiry, and I quote : 

"1. To provide factual information to aid Congress in the disposi- 
tion of presently pending legislation * * * or in the proposal of re- 
medial legislation, in fulfillment of the directions contained in the 
mandate to the Committee" by the resolution creating it. 

"2. The execution, by the administrative agencies concerned, of the 
Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938, travel control laws," par- 
ticularly Title 8 of the Code, "and regulations issued pursuant thereto, 
to assist the House in appraising the administration of such laws and 
regulations," and 

"3. Consideration of the advisability of amending Title 22" of the 
Code "by extending the definition of the terms 'foreign principal' and 
'agent of a foreign principal' so as to remove any doubt as to the true 
test of the agency relationship or its application to activities within 
the intent of Congress as expressed in the Act." 

Accordingly, I direct you to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. I can only answer a question which I understand — 
I think you would agree to that — and I do not know what question is 
presently pending that you are requesting that I answer. 

Tlie Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We come back to the initial question, Mrs. Pestana, 
and that is whether or not you are making an effort to influence col- 
lege youth concerning Cuba. 

Mrs. Pestana. As I told you, I do not know what you mean by 
"influence." I have many opinions, I am sure you may agree with 
some and disagree with others, but simply asking me whether T wish 
to influence anyone — we all influence people in our immediate circles, 
we influence people every time we have a discussion, every time we 
meet in any kind of meeting among human beings, and your question 
just doesn't make any sense to me. 

ISIr. NiTTLE. Well, would you say that you influence college stu- 
dents ? 

Mrs, Pestana. I am sure that if you were in a group among college 
students, you probably would carry some influence with them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Then the answer to the question is that you were seek- 
ing to influence college students with respect to Cuba? 

Mrs. Pestana. I have not indicated 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Pestana. I don't know what you mean by "influence." 

The Chairman. Let me put the question. 

Mrs. Pestana. I would appreciate it. 

The Chairman. According to the previously asked questions and the 
exhibits in the record, it clearly appears that you did go to Cuba with- 
out proper travel papers and that, therefore, involves a violation of 
one law, and then from the exhibits in the record, it appears that you 
made certain appearances before groups to discuss your trip. 

The question is : In those discussions, were you seeking to influence 
the audience in favor of the Communist regime? I think you can 
answer that question. 

Now I ask you that. 

98-765— 63— pt. 2 10 



570 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mrs. Pestana. I know the question had a good deal of preliminaries, 
such as certain conclusions with reference to what evidence 

The Chairman. You asked for an explanation of the question. I 
have explained both. 

I now direct you to answer it. 

Mrs. Pestana. The question has indicated that there is evidence 
which — and a conclusion as to my conduct in legal effect thereof. 

The Chairman. Counsel, I direct you to ask your next question. 

Mrs. Pestana. And I will answer the question, but there have been 
a series of questions which have been really unintelligible, and I will 
answer the question, but I will not answer questions I don't think 
really we are in a position to engage. 

The Chairman. Proceed with the next question. I am according 
her the favor of invoking her privileges. If she does not want to, 
proceed with the other questions. 

Mrs. Pestana. Well, I incidentally do not feel that I have to invoke 
privileges as to my opinions. 

The Chairman. All right. Well, that is better. That is your 
answer then. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. You also appeared at a meeting of the Long Beach 
Unitarian Church on March 10, 19C3, as a speaker on the subject of 
Cuba, together with your husband, Frank Pestana. 

We are informed that your appearance was advertised in a Long 
Beach student newspaper. 

Did you not address a group, among whom were college students, 
at the Long Beach Unitarian Church on March 10, 1963 ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I will give the same answer as previously given. 
I will refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the connnittee's information that in your appear- 
ance at the Long Beach Unitarian Church you showed slides of Cuba 
purporting to demonstrate conditions there, both prior to Castro, 
and after Castro as of May 1962, during the period of your visit. 
Slides of Cuban classrooms were also shown with trappings of Marx 
and Lenin. 

Did you exhibit such slides in the course of your appearance there? 

Mrs. Pestana. It is my opinion that all these questions are simply 
directed to me in order to eliminate any person who dissents from the 
views of this committee or varies in any way from the conformity 
required, and I am going to refuse to cooperate with this committee, 
and I will refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Where and from whom did you obtain these slides 
which you exhibited in your talks ? 

Mrs. Pestana. We could speed this up very rapidly if you just put 
the information in the record for your own purposes, and not 

The Chairman. No, we won't do that. We will give you an oppor- 
tunity to answer. 

Mrs. Pestana. — direct these questions. I will not — I refuse to 
answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. It is reported that you stated during the course of your 
appearance, "I have been in many socialistic countries, but the fastest 
progress has been in Cuba." 

Now, would you tell us what "socialistic countries" you have visited? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 571 

Mrs. Pestana. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are furtlier informed that you were asked a ques- 
tion during the course of your lecture at the Long Beach Unitarian 
Church as to whether you were in Cuba in May 1962, to which you 
replied, "Yes." 

You likewise responded in the affirmative to the question whether 
you were at that time a guest of the Cuban Govermnent. 

Were you a guest of the Cuban Government in May 1962? 

Mrs. Pestana. I am sorry. I didn't hear the first part of the ques- 
tion. Were there two questions ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The preliminaiy statement was that our information 
indicated that you were asked whether you were in Cuba in May 1962 
and that you said you were ; that you also responded in the affirmative 
to the question whether you were at that time a guest of the Cuban 
Government. 

Now I am asking you whether you were a guest of the Cuban Gov- 
ernment in May 1962. 

Mrs. Pestana. I will refuse to answer the question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is also reported that you publicly stated to the au- 
dience at the Long Beach Unitarian Church that your itinerary to 
Cuba was from Mississippi through Mexico and then to Cuba via the 
Cubana Airlines. 

Is that the course you took in visiting Cuba in May 1962 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Daily News of Wliittier, California, in the edition 
of June 22, 1963,^ reports that you and Harriett Buhai, an attorney 
in the Los Angeles area, spoke on Cuba to a meeting of Women Strike 
for Peace at Wliittier on June 21, 1963. The article indicates that 
Miss Buhai ran the slide projector while you lectured. 

Is this report of your appearance there together with Miss Buhai 
correct ? 

(Witness conferred wdth counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. I will refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are further reported in the Daily Neios as touring 
Cuba in May 1962 and stating that you were accompanied on your 
tour by a friend and an official Cuban interpreter. 

Was the friend to whom you referred Rose Rosenberg? 

Mrs. Pestana. Once again I will refuse to answer on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were arrangements made to supply you with 
a Cuban interpreter ? 

Mrs. Pestana. This is the same question, and I will answer in the 
same manner. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By whom were arrangements made for your appear- 
ance at a meeting of Women Strike for Peace in AYhittier on that 
date?_ 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. I will refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 



1 See Buhai Exhibit No. 1, p. 554. 



572 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Could you tell the committee wlietlier, to your knowl- 
edge, Miss Harriett Buhai, an attorney in the Los Angeles area, is a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I will refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee whether, to your knowl- 
edge. Rose Rosenberg is known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. Pestana. The same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the purpose of your visit to Cuba to enable you 
more effectively to serve here as a sj^eaker in support of the Cuban 
Communist regime? 

Mrs. Pestaxa. Was the purpose — what was that again? 

Mr. NiTTT.E. Was the purpose of your visit to Cuba to enable you 
more effectively to serve as a speaker in the United States in support 
of the Cuban Communist regime ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. I will refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any compensation, directly or in- 
directly, from the Cuban Government for speaking on behalf of the 
Communist regime there? 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I earn my living practicing law. 

Mr. Nittle. I asked you whether you received any compensa- 
tion 

Mrs. Pestana. And my compensation- 



Mr. Nittle. — directly or indirectly from the Cuban Government 

for speaking on behalf of the Cuban regime ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I don't receive compensation from the Cuban Gov- 
ernment for any purpose. I don't receive compensation from them 
in any manner. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you ever received any compensation from them? 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I think we can eliminate a whole series of questions. 
My entire income is from my daily work as a practicing attorney in 
the State of California. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mrs, Pestana, from the accounts of your appear- 
ance at the Long Beach Unitarian Church, it appears that you ad- 
mittedly were a guest of the Cuban Government during your visit 
there. "Did you understand that in receiving these benefits it was 
expected of you to return to the United States and speak favorably 
on behalf of the present Cuban Government? 

Mrs. Pestaxa. I am going to refuse to answer your question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the information of this comm.ittee that you have 
not registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, 

Mrs. Pestaxa. That is correct. I am not a foreign agent. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have 

Mrs. Pestaxa. If you have any information of that kind, I would 
suggest that you make it available immediately to the Justice De- 
partment, a proper agency. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you engage in such activities as have been brought 
out in the interrogation, while under the discipline of the Communist 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 573 

Party, with a view toward executing the policies and cari*ying out 
Communist Party objectives^ 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mrs. Pestana. I haven't testified that I engaged in any activities 
and I did not conduct my activities under the discipline of any 
Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Pestana. I will refuse to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ni'rTLE. Mrs. Pestana, in my interrogation of Mrs. Rosen- 
berg at Los Angeles, I recalled that this committee in 1952 received 
a great deal of testimony relating to Communist activities among 
professional groups in the IjOS Angeles area and brought to her 
attention the fact that on Januai-y 24, 1952, Mr. A. Marburg Yerkes, 
who was a practicing attorney in the Los Angeles area, had tes- 
tihed to his own membership in the Communist Party for a period 
commencing in 1946 and terminating in the winter of 1948-49. He 
testified that he was a member of a j^rofessional cell or group of 
the Communist Party, Los Angeles area, and he identihed Rose 
Rosenberg as a member of that Communist Party unit. 

He also testified that Jean Pestana, wife of Frank Pestana, was 
a member of the Communist lawyers group of which he was a 
member. 

Was the testimony of Mr. Yerkes with respect to your Communist 
Party membership true? 

Mrs. Pestana. I will refuse to answer your question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Testimony was also received in the course of the 
1952 hearmgs that the Commmiist cell or group of professional 
members, to which I have previously referred, was called the Engels 
Club and was formed in the Los Angeles area, composed of about 
25 or 30 lawyers, which met periodically at the homes of the various 
members of that group. 

You were identifiecl as a member of the Communist Partv Engels 
Club. 

Were you correctly identified as a member of the Engels Club 
of the Coimnunist Party in the Los Angeles area? 

Mrs. Pestana. That is the same question, and I will refuse to 
answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you continued in your Communist Party mem- 
bership since that time to the present? 

Mrs. Pestana. I will refuse to answer that question on the gi'ounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There was further testimony to the effect, that infor- 
mation was communicated to the members of the professional cell 
that the National Lawyers Guild was to be made as much as pos- 
sible the legal arm of the Communist Party, and they were advised 
to become active in its membership. 

Were you counseled or advised by any Connnunist Party func- 
tionary to become a member of, and to remain active in, the National 
Lawyers Guild? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. ^Yhat was your answer to the question ? 

Mrs. Pestana. The answer is "No." 



574 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not elected a member of the National Execu- 
tive Board of the National Lawyers Guild at its July 1960 convention? 

Mrs. Pestana. I will not here testify to any of my associations, so 
I will refuse to answer on all the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Including the fifth amendment privilege ? 

Mrs. Pestaxa. On all the grounds previously stated, which was in- 
cluded among my grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Frank S. Pestana, come forward, please. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Mr. Pestana. I will affirm. 

The Chairman. Do you affinn that the testimony you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Pestana. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK SIMPLICIO PESTANA, ACCOMPANIED 
BY COUNSEL, DAVID EEIN— Resumed 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Pestana. Frank S. Pestana, and I have an office at 1741 North 
Ivar in the city of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Nittle.' 1741 North Ivar? I was mider the impression that is 
in Hollywood. 

Mr. Pestana. That is. Hollywood is part of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Nittle. I see. But the mailing address is Hollywood 28, Cali- 
fornia. 

Mr. Pestana. Or L.A. 28, California. 

Mr. Nittle. Would jou state your residence, please? 

Mr. Pestana. I reside with my wife, Jean, at 7279 Mulholland 
Drive, in the same city. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

]VIr. Pestana. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel please identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Eein. David Rein, and my office address is m the record. 

Mr. Nittle. You are the husband, as you have stated, of Jean 
Estelle Kidwell Pestana ? Is that right ? 

Mr. Pestana. That is correct. 

Mi\ Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Mr. Pestana. March 2, 1913, on the Island of Porto Santo, IMadeira 
Islands, Portugal. 

Mr. Nitti^e. When did you arrive in the United States for perma- 
nent residence after your birth in Portugal ? 

Mr. Pestana. I am reliably informed that that was about 1916. 

Mr. Nittle. And did you take up your residence in California, 
where you have remained since that time ? 

Mr. Pestana. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTiLE. Are you now a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. Pestana. I am. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 575 

Mr. NiTTLE. By what process, and when, did you acquire citizenship ? 

Mr. Pestana. By choice, naturalization, 1937. 

]\Ir. Nii^LE. Were you naturalized at Oakland, California, in the 
Superior Court of xVlameda County? 

Mr. Pestana. That is so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, would you relate the extent of your formal edu- 
cation, giving the dates and places of j^our attendance at educational 
institutions and any degrees you may have received? 

Mr. Pestana. I graduated the various preliminary schools in the 
County of Alameda, and graduated from the University of California 
and the School of Jurisprudence there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Pestana. I am an attorney. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And I believe you stated you maintained offices at 1741 
North Ivar Street? 

Mr. Pestana. Ivar, yes, 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you practiced law ? 

Mr. Pestana. Since 1940. With the exception of a period of serv- 
ice in the United States Army. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time on or after January 16, 1961, 
traveled to Cuba ? 

Mr. Pestana. I am going to refuse to answer that question, Mr. 
Chairman, for the following reasons : 

I have had occasion, as has been previously mentioned here, to be 
before this committee previously and have represented other people 
here before the committee and have read extensively its reports, and 
1 am of the opinion that this committee has no valid legislative pur- 
pose and that it is engaged in the process of denying to the citizens of 
the United States, attempting to deny to them, the right to dissent, 
to speak, to travel freely, so that the^^ may inform themselves of the 
vital issues of the day. That in this endeavor, the committee subpenas, 
and under compulsion of legal process, witnesses to attend here, 
subject themselves to a process of pillorying, of insinuation, accusation, 
having no valid legislative inquiry purpose. 

This process is violative of the Constitution of the United States of 
America. It is violative of the first amendment of the Constitution, 
Avhich again guarantees to every citizen the right to freedom of speech, 
freedom of press, freedom of association, of assembly, the right to pe- 
tition the Government for redress of grievances. That implies that 
everybody in the United States, every citizen of the United States, has 
the right to inform himself on all of the issues of the day, be they 
repugnant to the powers that be, be they incompatible with the desires 
or the current thinking, to discuss with anyone any idea, to subject that 
idea to analysis, to hear any idea, and the reportage of any indi- 
vidual 

The Chairman. Well, we are always perfectly willing to listen to 
grounds, but arguments, lengthy arguments 

Mr. Pestana. Mr. Chairman, I am here from Los Angeles mider 
compulsion of subpena process. 

The Chairman. Right. 

Mr. Pestana. I listened to your statement, Mr. Chairman. I know 
that you will accord me the right to speak without interrupting me 
when I am stating grounds in a very serious proceeding, where dial- 



576 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

lenges of basic constitutional rights of mine and of my fellow citizens 
are being made, and I will be brief, but I will state my grounds. 

I believe, Mr. Chairman, that whether or not you wish it, your 
process here in this committee frightens people. It makes suspect 
peace activities. It makes suspect travel. It makes suspect advocacies 
of ideas unpopular to you and persons like yourself. This is un- 
American. 

I believe, further, Mr. Chairman, that this committee is not properly 
constituted for reasons stated adequately by my wife, who preceded 
me on this stand. 

I believe that two of its members, including yourself, are not proper 
representatives to the United States Government, in that your State 
and the State from which Congressman Tuck comes deny a substantial 
segment of the population of those States their right to vote on the 
basis of their color and that Article XIV, section 2, provides that the 
representation of these States shall be diminished in proportion to the 
extent of the discrimination against the people. 

I further decline to answer this question on the ground that this 
committee does not afford the people who are subpenaed before it due 
process of law and that it is an inquisitorial form, violative of the 
fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States, and I as- 
sert the protections embodied in that amendment in support of my 
refusal to answer. 

For those reasons and other reasons which I may decide to marshal 
in this proceeding, I decline to answer the question. 

The Chairman. Well, your invocation of the last ground, anyway, is 
completely acceptable. You have that right. 

Now I fear, though, that much of your quarrel is not with us but 
with the courts. You say we have no legislative purpose. It just 
happens that this committee is responsible for placing on the books 
40 laws dealing with our internal security. Its actions have been ap- 
proved time and again, both investigative and legislative, by the 
Supreme Court of the United States. 

Serving on this committee and being its chairman is not the most 
pleasant job on earth but then, again, your quarrel is with Congress. 

Mr. Pestana. Now, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Now, wait a minute. 

Your quarrel is with Congress. We come up before Congress every 
year and make a report required by the statute creating us. Congress 
passes on it, and just this year the usual vociferous but so very small 
opposition to our committee came up first before the Rules Committee 
to have our jurisdiction vested in the Judiciary Committee. It was 
there rejected by 12 to 1. And then, on the floor of the House in an 
attack on our appropriation, which is usual, out of 435, I think there 
was a handful of votes in opposition. 

This is the first time I have undertaken to dignify any of these 
tirades with a statement, but I thought maybe it should be in the 
record. 

Mr. Pestana. Mr. Chairman, I respect your opinion 

The Chairman. Well 

Mr. Pestana. — but I don't consider what I said a tirade. It was 
certainly not intended to be that. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. Ask the question. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 577 

]\fr. Pestana. ConG:ress lias passed the laws- 



The Chairman. Ask your question, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nii^rLE. It is the committee's information, Mr. Pestana, that 
3'ou traveled to Cuba in the spring of 1962, during the months of April 
and May. "We would like to inquire whether you did in fact, then or 
at any time during that year, visit Cuba? 

Mr. Pestana. May I see that information that you have stating 
that I traveled in 1962 in Cuba? 

jNIr. Nittle. I hand you a photostatic copy of a flier disseminated 
in the spring of 1963, marked for identification as "Frank Pestana 
Exhibit No. 1." That is identical to Jean Pestana Exhibit 3.^ 

The flier announces that the College Center of the First Unitarian 
Church presents a special event, namely, "Be An Eye Witness in 
Cuba," and that Frank Pestana and Jean Kidwell, attorneys, will 
present "Cuba Today in Pictures," setting forth that both Frank 
Pestana and Jean Kidwell conducted an extensive tour in Cuba, out- 
side of Havana in May 1962. 

Will you tell us whether that information contained in the flier is 
correct ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Pestana. Of course, Mr. Chairman, this flier is somewhat less 
than you, as an attorney, would want to have presented as evidence 
against you in even the slightest cause. 

JNIr. Nittle. That was presented by church people, Mr. Pestana. 

Mr. Pestana. Well, church people also sin, Mr. Chairman. 

The CiiAiKMAN. The question is this : Is the information contained 
in that flier sheet, or whatever it is termed, correct or not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

]\Ir. Pestana. I am going to refuse to answer that question, Mr. 
Chairman, on the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Frank Pestana No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee file.) 

Mv. Nittle. Did you present "Cuba Today in Pictures" at the time 
and place as advertised in the exhibit? 

Mr. Pestana. Mr. Chairman, the right of the people to hear and 
to see slides or to hear talks is a right protected by the Constitution of 
the United States. This committee is trying to infringe on that 
right. I am not going to help this committee to do that and, for that 
reason, I am going to decline to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Pestana, your claims of invasion of first amend- 
ment rights were disposed of in the Communist Party case by the 
Supreme Court on June 5, 1961. The Supreme Court, with the ex- 
ception of Mr. Justice Black, was unanimous in its views with respect 
to the first amendment claims that were raised by the Communist 
Party. 

In fact, Mr. Justice Douglas, who wrote a dissenting opinion in the 
case, even agreed. He said : 

If lobbyists can be required to register, if political parties can be required to 
make disclosure of the sources of their funds, if the owners of newspapers and 
periodicals must disclose their affiliates, so may a group operating under the 
control of a foreign power. 



1 See p. 567. 



578 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVmES IN U.S. 

Even Mr. Justice Black, at an earlier date in the Yiereck case, 318 
U.S. 236, which involved the Foreign Ao;ents Registration Act, the 
very act which is the subject of inquiry here today, said : 

Resting on the fundamental constitTitional principle that our people, ade- 
quately informed, may be trusted to distinguish between the true and the false, 
the bill is intended to label information of foreign origin so that hearers and 
readers may not be deceived by the belief that the information comes from a dis- 
interested source. Such legislation implements rather than detracts from the 
prized freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment. No strained interpreta- 
tion should frustrate its essential purpose. 

Now, Mr. Pestana, in tlie interrogation of your wife, T called atten- 
tion to the committee's information that she addressed a meeting at 
the Long Beach Unitarian Church on March 10, 1963. It is the in- 
formation of the committee that you were also present on that occasion 
and that you, too, addressed the group. 

During the course of your appearance, you stated that on one 
occasion, in 1961, you went to Cuba with 40 other couples. 

Did you travel with 40 other couples to Cuba ? 

Mr. Pestaxa. INIr. Nittle, I lost you about 5 minutes ago. Would 
you repeat that question ? I don't remember all of the multif aceted 

Mr. Nittle. You are thinking about Mr. Justice Douglas and ISIr. 
Justice Black, I presimie. 

Now I will carry on again, and ask you whether you did not appear 
at Long Beach Unitarian Church on ISIarch 10, 19G3, and address that 
group ? 

]\Ir. Pestana. Have you abandoned the previous 5 minutes of that 
question ? 

Mr. Nittle. I will come to that. 

Mr. Pestana. Because if you want to take the time to engage in a 
discussion of constitutional law, I will be glad to do it. 

The Ciiairmax. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your answer to the question, please? 

Mr. Pestana. May I know what question you are asking? 

Mr. Nittle. The question is. Did vou address a meeting at the Long 
Beach Unitarian Church on March 10, 1963? 

Mr. Pestana. The people of this country have a right to address 
meetings. I have a right as a personal citizen of this country to 
address any meeting I please that will hear me. 

]Mr. Nittle. The committee is going to inquire about certain 
activities. 

The Chairman. The question is, Did you address 

Mv. Pestana. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. All right. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, did you, during the course of your appearance 
there, state before that audience that on one occasion in 1961 you went 
to Cuba with 40 other couples ? 

Mr. Pestana. I am confused on the dates. You said 1962 

Mr. Nittle. The date is March 10, 1963. 

Mr. Pestana. 1961—1963 ? 

Mr. Nittle. No. The question is in relation to a meeting you at- 
tended on March 10, 1963. The question is whether you did not state 
to an audience there assembled on March 10, 1963, that you had on one 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 579 

occasion in 19C1 visited Cnba with 40 other couples? Did you make 
that statement at that time and phice? 

Mr. Pestana. This, again, is another question invading the rights 
of the people, and of myself, to freedom of speech and travel. I 
decline to answer the question for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were these 40 couples United States citizens? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Pestana. Is there a question pending ? 

The Chairman. Yes. The question is. Were these 40 other couples 
United States citizens ? 

Mr. Pestana. This again is a question invading the rights of tlie 
people and of myself to first amendment rights, and I am going to 
refuse to answer that question. 

The Chairman. On the ground of the first amendment ? 

Mr. Pestana. On the grounds previously stated. On all of the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. During the course of your appearance at the Long 
Beach Unitarian Church, you were asked how Cubans adjusted to 
new facilities, and you are stated to have replied that you had been 
in China recently and had seen many Chinese who were moved into 
new quarters and taught new trades. 

Had you been in China recently ? 

Mr. Pestana. I am going to refuse to answer that question for the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you at any time possess a passport validated for 
travel to Red China ? 

Mr. Pestana. And I will refuse to answer that question for the 
same reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Pestana, the committee's investigation discloses 
that you last applied on April 20, 1959, for a renewal of a passport 
which had been issued to you July 11, 1956. You indicated in your 
renewal application that, for purj^oses of business and to visit relatives, 
you desired to travel to Portugal, Spain, and Italy for a period of 
about 3 weeks, setting forth your approximate date of departure as 
April 27, 1959. 

Pursuant to this application, you received a renewal of passport 
No. 134222 on April 24, 1959. 

Did you, as you said you intended to do, depart for Portugal, 
Spain, or Italy on or about April 27, 1959 ? 

(At this point, Mr. Johansen left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Pestana. I will refuse to answer that — grounds : for the reasons 
previously given. 

My travel, wherever it may have been to, was perfectly legal ; and 
I am not going to discuss it with this commission — with this com- 
mittee. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did you not, however, travel to Stockholm, Sweden, 
to attend the Soviet-staged AVorld Peace Council as an American 
delegate to its 10th anniversary session held May 8 to 13, 1959 ? 

Mr. Pestana. Peace, Mr. Nittle, is a subject very dear to my heart, 
and I know to the hearts of all people, all human beings. 

IMr. Nittle. They mean different things by "peace." 

Mr. Pestana. I just mean peace, not diilerent things. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, we want you to answer the question whether 
you 



580 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVmES IN U.S. 

Mr, Pestana. And I know that this committee is not favorable to 
peace activities and I am not going to aid this committee in its efforts 
to curb peace and peace activities, and I am going to refuse to answer 
that question for the reasons previously stated. 

The Chairman. Did I understand you to say a moment ago that 
all your travels abroad were legal travels, in the sense that you pos- 
sessed all of the necessary documents required by our law ? 

Mr. Pestana. You didn't hear my answer. I said that all my travels 
were within the law. And I am not going to discuss it any further 
with you. 

The Chairman. Well now, I wonder if the reporter could read that 
passage of his testimony ? 

(The reporter read the record as follows:) 

Mr. Pestana. I will refuse to answer that — grounds : for the reasons previ- 
ously given. 

My travel, wherever it may have been to, was perfectly legal ; and I am not 
going to discuss it with this commission — with this committee. 

The Chairman. Now, I want to offer you an opportunity to ex- 
plain that. Were you referring to the travel suggested by the ques- 
tion, or were you talking about all jonr travel abroad, wherever it may 
have been ? 

Mr. Pestana. I am going to refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Well, is it your contention, then, that your travel 
to Cuba was legal and not in violation of law ? 

Mr. Pestana. I will refuse to ansAver that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. Well, I am going to direct you to answer that ques- 
tion, because this is a very important thing. It strikes at the heart of 
what this is all about. So, therefore, I direct you to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Pestana. I have answered it. 

The Chairman. Well, not under direction. I am now directing 
you. 

Mr. Pestana. Same answer. 

The Chairman. And what is that answer? 

Mr. Pestana. I think the record will show it. 

The Chairman. You have not answered. 

Mr. Pestana. Refusal to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

(At this point, Mr. Johansen entered the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you not in attendance at the World Peace Council 
meeting in Stockholm, Sweden, in May 1059, with fellow delegates. 
Dr. Holland Roberts, an identified Communist and former director of 
the California Labor School, and the Reverend and Mrs. Stephen H. 
Fritcliman, pastor of the First Unitarian Church at Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Pestana. I refuse to answer that question for all of the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, we should recall that the first session 
of the World Peace Congress,^ held in 1949, heralded the Communist 
invasion of South Korea. 



1 Parent organization of the World Peace Council, the latter being formed at the 
Second World Peace Congress November 1950. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 581 

Now, Mr. Pestana 

Mr. Pestana. I don't know what that gratuitous statement was 
supposed to miply. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Tiiat was addressed to the chairman. 

Mr. Pestana. I wish that you would refrain from that in this pro- 
ceeding, because you violate the law when you do that and you know it. 
Because you are attempting to smear myself and other witnesses called 
here with just that kind of inflammatory remark. 

Air. NiTTLE. Let us see. Was not Sir. William DuBois, who re- 
centl}^ admitted his Communist Party membership, also in attendance 
with you as an American delegate to the World Peace Council in May 
1959? 

Mr. Pestana. Mr. DuBois is a citizen of the United States and one 
of the first citizens of this country, a man whom I respect highly, a 
historical figure, a man of worldwide renown. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you know him to be a member of the Conmiunist 
Party in May 1959?" 

Mr. Pestana. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Moscow radio on May 10, 1959, broadcast a statement 
by this gentleman, William DuBois, whom you describe as world re- 
nowned, a statement which he is reported to have delivered at the 
World Peace Council, in which he was quoted as saying: 

The one nation on earth whose dominant rulers evidently want war is the 
USA. They want war and prepare for war, because they believe that peace will 
interfere with their way of life. They therefore oppose all roads towards peace 
and frantically prepare for war on a scale which frightens the world. The 
WPC's [World Peace Council's] clear duty— as well as that of Americans who 
love their native land — is to make the fact clear that no matter how bad the 
evil is which they fear, war is not the answer. It is their duty to insist that 
communism is not a threat but a promise. 

Mr. Pestana. You take relish in his statement, ]Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Was your attendance at the World Peace Council for 
the purpose of carrying out the Communist propaganda line thus 
expressed in a statement attributed by Moscow radio to William 
DuBois? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Pestana. I am not familiar with the statement, did not hear 
it, also I am having trouble with your question, because it is rather 
lengthy, compound, non-lawyerlike, insinuative 

The Chairivian. Suppose you be lawyerlike and answer the 
question. 

Mr. Pestana. I am doing it now, if you will be lawyerlike and not 
interrupt me. 

It is insinuative and it is violative of basic constitutional rights, 
calls for my opinion, and I am not going to give it to you or aid you 
in any way in this purpose. 

Mr. Nittle. Is that you answer ? 

Mr. Pestana. It is. 

Mr. Nittle. Now I hand you a copy of the December 1959 news- 
letter of the First Unitarian Church of Los Angeles, marked for 
identification as "Frank Pestana Exhibit No. 1-A." 

On page 2 appears the announcement of a "reception for frank 
PESTANA, ATTORNEY, given by the Rev. and Mrs. Stephen H. 
Fritchman on Simday, December 20th * * * in the Severance Eoom." 



582 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVmES IN U.S. 

The newsletter states that you were a fellow-delegate with the Fritch- 
mans to the World Peace Council meeting in Stockholm May 8 to 13, 
1959. 

Were you in attendance at the reception given by the Fritclimans ? 

Mr. Pestana. For all of the reasons previously stated, I refuse to 
answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Reverend Stephen H. Fritcliman appeared before 
this committee and was questioned with respect to his Communist 
Party membership, to which he pleaded the fifth amendment in his 
refusal to testify. 

Do you have any knowledge with respect to the Reverend Stephen 
H, Fritclunan's Commmiist Party membership ? 

Mr. Pestana. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]\Ir. Chairman, I offer Frank Pestana Exhibit No. 
1-A in evidence, please. 

The Chairman. Let it be incorporated in the record. 

( Document marked "Frank Pestana Exhibit No. 1-A" and retained 
in committee files. ) 

ISIr. NiTTLE. Now, it is also stated in the newsletter that you 
would speak and show your pictures taken in China. 

Did you speak and show pictures taken in China? 

Mr. Pestana. For all of the reasons previously stated, I refuse 
to answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you visit China after your attendance at the 
May 1959 session of the World Peace Council at Stockliolm? 

Mr. Pestana. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not, Mr. Pestana, falsely represent to the 
passport authorities in your application of April 20, 1959, that 
your purpose in traveling abroad Avas to visit relatives? 

Mr. Pestana. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it not, in fact, your purpose to travel to the 
Communist-sponsored World Peace Council in Stockholm, Sweden, 
in May 1959, and thereafter to Red China? 

Mr. Pestana. If you have any evidence of illegal purpose, you 
present it to the appropriate authorities, and they will take care 
of it. 

I will decline to answer that question for the reasons previously 
given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Pestana, I hand you a photostatic copy of a 
leaflet announcement, marked for identification as "Frank Pestana 
Exhibit No. 2," in which it appears that the Santa Barbara Friends 
of IvPFK will present an illustrated lecture for the benefit of KPFK 
at the Lobero Theatre on May 4, 1961, entitled "Six Weeks in Commu- 
nist China" by Frank S. Pestana, Hollywood attorney. 

Are you not the Frank S. Pestana, Hollywood attorney, who is 
identified in that exhibit ? 

Mr. Pestana. I refuse to answer that question for the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Radio Station KPFK was recently the subject of 
inquiry by the Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 583 

Would you be able to tell the committee by whom you were solicited 
to deliver the address on "Six Weeks in Communist China"? 

Mr. Pestana. I will refuse to answer that question for the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. NirriJ3. Mr. Chairman, I oil'er Exhibit No. 2 in evidence. 

The Chairman. The exhibit will be received in evidence. 

(Document nuirked "'Frank Pestana Exhibit No. 2" and retamed in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The exhibit further states that you traveled 10,000 
miles on the Chinese mainland as a guest of a Chinese classmate of 
yours at the University of California at Berkeley. Was that true? 

Mr. Pestana. Berkeley ? 

Mr. NiT-rLE. At Berkeley. 

Mr. Pestana. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your talks on Cuba and China, was it your purpose 
to influence the public within the United States with respect to the 
jDolitical or public interests and policies of tlie Communist regime 
in those countries? 

Mr. Pestana. Mr. Nittle, the public of the United States is as 
competent to judge information as you, and perhaps much better. 
They have a right to listen, to judge, and they do not need you or 
this committee to tell them what they shall hear or what they shall 
not hear. 

Mr. Nittle. That is what Mr. Justice Black said, as I quoted. 

Mr. Pestana. You desire to curb their listening, and I am not going 
to aid you. For that reason, I refuse to answer on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

The Chairman. You know full well what the question is about. 
We are talking about Federal law un the books. He was paraphras- 
ing it. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you received, directly or indirectly, any com- 
pensation from the Cuban or Chinese Governments for speaking on 
these subjects? 

Mr. Pestana. I refuse to answer that question for the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. I have already referred in the 

Mr. Pestana. I might state that I earn my living as a lawyer and 
I have never earned a living in any other way except when I was going 
to school to learn, to earn my way through school. 

Mr. Nittle. I have also referred, in the interrogation of ]Mrs. Kose 
Kosenberg and in the interrogation of your wife today, to testimony 
received by the committee in its 1952 Los Angeles hearings, relating 
to Communist activities among professional groups in the Los An- 
geles area. 

Three witnesses testified in those hearings that they Imew you to be a 
member of the Communist Party, and of the lawyers cell of which 
they were members. 

Were you then a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pestana. I refuse to answer that question for the reasons 
previously stated, . . , ^ 

Mr. Nittle. Have you continued your membership m the Com- 
munist Party to the very present moment ? 



584 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Pestana. Same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that you are pres- 
ently chairman of the Commmiist Party lawyers club of Los Angeles 
County. Has any error been made in your identification as such? 

Mr. Pestana. May I see that identification, Mr. Chairman ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would that alter your response ? 

Mr. Pestana. I would like to see it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. First, respond to the question. 

Mr. Pestana. Show me the evidence if you have it, and I will re- 
spond to the question. That is a common courtesy given any witness. 
If you have any such evidence, produce it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I direct to the witness 

The Chairman. What is the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I advised the witness that the committee was in pos- 
session of information that he was presently chairman of the Com- 
munist Party lawyer's club of Los Angeles County, and I have asked 
him whether any error has been made in his identification as such. 

Mr. Pestana. And I have asked, Mr. Chairman, that he produce 
this evidence that he is alluding to here, a common courtesy granted 
any witness. 

Mr. NiiTLE. I respectfully request 

The Chairjvian. Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Well, I assure you, sir, that the statement that 
counsel made is correct with reference to information that we possess. 

Mr. Pestana. If I agree, Mr. Chairman, to answer the question, 
would you show me the evidence ? 

The Chairman. Oh, you won't answer the question. You just want 
to learn the identity of the committee's informant. Then j^ou would 
invoke the fifth amendment. I suggest that counsel ask another 
question. 

Mr. Pestana. Very revealing. 

The Chairman. We might come back to this one after a while. 

Sure, you say you w^ill answer. You will answer by refusing to 
answer. We don't fall for that. 

Mr. Nittle. I have no further questions of this witness. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

The committee will be in recess for 5 minutes. 

(At this point, Mr. Tuck left the hearing room.) 

(Short recess.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will be reconvened. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Joseph North. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. North. I do. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 585 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH NORTH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOSEPH FORER 

Mr. XiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for 
the record, please ? 

Mr. XoRTH. My name is Joseph North. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your residence, please? 

]Mr. North. I refuse to answer on the following grounds : 

First, I do not believe that the subject of this inquiry is within 
the authority of this committee; 

Second, I do not believe the question is pertinent to the subject 
under inquiry ; 

Third, I think that this committee is violating the Constitution, 
the first amendment, which guarantees the freedom of press and 
freedom of speech ; and 

Fourth, I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment not to 
be a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. Well, the question is purely a preliminary one 
and in that very area of questioning it has been ruled to be proper, 
so I direct you to answer that question. 

Mr. North. I must abide by my refusal for the same reasons, Mr. 
Willis. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. North. I am, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street, Northwest, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. North, in n passport application of January 27, 
1960, you then gave your address to the authorities as 281 East 
Broadway, New York City. Have you had any other residence since 
then? 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. For purposes of identification, we should like to in- 
quire whether you have been know-n by or used any name other than 
Joseph North ? 

Mr. North. Not since my professional career as writer and as a 
newspaperman. I am known as Joseph North, and I am known as 
Joseph North legally by the courts of the State of New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Since what date did you obtain the official 

Mr. North. I don't recall. It must be 20, 2.5 years back. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Officially deciding to use a different name? 

Mr. North. And I use the different name in the same sense that 
Mark Twain used a different name, as a writer; and many Americans 
have done the same, many writers throughout the world have done 
the same. 

The Chairman. I am sure that counsel is not suggesting there is 
any impropriety here. 

Mr. North. I am not so sure of that, Mr. Chaiimian. 



98-765— 63— pt. 2 11 



586 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. Well, I am, because, you see, we are dealing with 
passports — names, and changes of names for w^hatever purpose, bemg 
quite acutely important m some cases. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you stated that 25 or 30 years ago you had your 
name legally changed in the courts of New York. 

Mr. North. I didn't say 25 or 30 years ago. If I recall, I said 
about 20 years ago, but I don't recall the exact time, but it was in 
that general area. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth ? 

Mr. North. Yes, it was May 25, 1904, m the Republic of the 
Ukraine. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your passport application of January 27, 1960, filed 
with the Department of State, stated that your father was named 
Jesse Soifer, S-o-i-f-e-r, that your mother was named Bessie Soifer, 
and you gave their and j-our place of birth as Russia. 

Were you named at birth Jacob Soifer? 

Mr. North. So far as I know, I was, yes; but are you trying to 
involve my dead father and my mother in these proceedings? 

The Chairman. No, no. 

Mr. NiTTLE, No, we are trying to establish 

Mr. North. You know why I am here. You brought me here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are trying to establish the answer to a question 
which you have literally refused to answer, and that was whether 
you have used or been known by any name other than Joseph 
North. 

Mr. North. I have not refused to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you also been known by the name of Jacob 
Soifer? 

Mr. North. In my youth, I was ; yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And in your professional career as a writer? 

Mr. North. I may have in the earlier part, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a citizen of the United States ? 

Mr. North. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Would you tell me by what means your naturaliza- 
tion was accomplished ? 

Mr, North. By means of naturalization of my father, I was 
brought here when I was 9 years old, and my father's citizenship, 
I think, was in the year 1910. 

The Chairman. By derivation ? 

Mr. North. Yes, 

Mr. Nittle, During the Spanish Civil War, it is a fact, is it 
not, that you were a correspondent for the Communist Daily 'Worker 
and submitted articles for that publication under the name of 
Jacob Soifer? 

Mr, North, Yes. 

I would like to know what the pertinence of that question is to the 
subject under discussion. 

Mr. Nittle, We are seeking to identify your name 

Mr. Forer. He already said he used Jacob Soifer. 

Mr. Nittle. — and the times during which you utilized that name, 

Mr. North, I have already indicated to you these facts. 

Mr, Nittle, Would you tell us when and under what circum- 
stances you first assumed the name Joseph North ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 587 

Mr. North. You are still proceeding on the basis of identification. 
Is that it? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. North. Well, for the same reason that a man named Samuel 
Langhorne Clemens changed his name to Mark Twain. 

^Ir. NiTTLE. I am not asking you for the reason, I am asking 
you Avhen and under ^Yhat circumstances you first assumed the name 
of Joseph North ? 

Mr. North. Oh, I don't recall exactly. It must be 25, 30 years 
ago. 

JNIr. NiTTLE, Have you been known by any name or names other 
than Joseph North and Jacob Soifer? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. North. Well, I must refuse to answer that for the reasons 
given before. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer that for similar reasons. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Are you not employed as a correspondent for the 
official Communist publication, The Worker'^. 

Mr. North. Same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat has been your principal employment during 
the past 35 years ? 

IVIr, North. Same answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you not during that period been principally 
employed as a writer for official Communist Party publications, such 
as the Dally Worker, Neiv Masses, and 77ie Worker'^. 

Mr. North. Same answer, but I just want to point out how this 
bears upon the question of the first amendment and the right of a 
man to write what he feels is the truth. This is what I think is 
what you are undermining in the type of questions you are asking, 
sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, the Supreme Court has already disposed of that 
claim of the Communist Party. 

Mr. North. Of any American. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. North, the committee's investigation dis- 
closed that you have traveled extensively abroad over the years 
and that the last application which you made for a passport was that 
of January 27, 1960, at the New York office of the Department of 
State. 

I hand you a photostatic copy of that application, marked for iden- 
tification as "North Exhibit No. 1." 

Is that not a true copy of the application filed under your signa- 
ture on that date ? 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer that question for the same 
reasons. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer North Exhibit 1 in evidence. 

The Chairman. Let it be so marked and incorporated. 

(Document marked "North Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. In this application of January 27, 1960, you gave 
your occupation as that of a writer and journalist. You stated you 
]:)lanned to depart in March 1960 from New York to visit Britain, 
Italy, Czechoslovakia, Soviet Russia, and France, for a proposed 
stay of 3 months, giving the purpose of your trip as "journalism, 
material for a new book." 



588 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Based upon that application, a passport was issued to you on 
February 1, 1960, numbered 1871124. 

I hand you a photostatic copy of the passport issued to you on 
that date, marked for identification "North Exhibit No. 2." 

Is this not a true copy of the passport issued to you on February 
1, 1960, and as recovered from you by the United States Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service on January 31, 1963 ? 

(At this point Mr. Pool left the hearing room.) 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer that question for the grounds 
previously given. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 2 in evidence. 

The Chairman. Let the document be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "North Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. North, I now direct your attention to the visa 
permits stamped in your passport in the course of the travel for 
which you used it. 

The earliest entry is a visa obtained by you from the Soviet 
Embassy in Washington, D.C., on April 18, 1960, and valid to 
May 20, 1960, for travel to Moscow. Other visa stamps indicate that 
you were in Moscow 38 days later, on ISIay 26, but that you had 
visited France and Italy on the way. 

You arrived in Cherbourg, France, on April 25, and in Rome 
3 days later, on April 28. You apparently remained in Italy 18 
days, leaving that country from Turin on May 16. You arrived at 
Le Bourget Airfield in France on May 24 and in Moscow on 
May 26, two days later. You remained in the Soviet Union until 
August 23, 1960, receiving permission while there to visit Lenin- 
grad, Kiev, Tashkent, Samarkand, and Odessa. 

Arriving in Prague, Czechoslovakia, the same day you left the 
Soviet Union, August 23, 1960, you next spent a little over 2 
weeks in Czechoslovakia, departing tliere and arriving in France 
on September 12, and then in the Ignited States on September 15, 
1960. 

Now, to the best of your recollection, is that not an accurate 
time table of your travel abroad during the months of ISIay to 
September I960*? 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer that question on the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I notice the witness responds in 
every instance that he "must"' invoke the provisions of tlie fifth 
amendment. I assume the witness understands he is not under any 
compulsion from the committee, that he chooses or elects to invoke 
the fifth amendment. Is that right ? 

Mr. North. The fifth amendment and the first amendment and 
the other clauses which I gave earlier, sir. 

Mr. Johansex. But the point is, sir, I am referring to your use of 
the word "must" in every instance. It is an exercise of your choice, 
is it not, that you invoke them? 

Mr. North. Yes. 

The CHAre:\rAN". Well, I have understood it in that context. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The visa issued you by the Soviet Embassy in Wasli- 
ington, D.C., on April 18, 1960, was good only until May 20, but 
you did not arrive in Moscoav until ^lay 26. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 589 

Did your arrival after your visa expired cause you any trouble ? 
Mr. XoKTTi. I refuse to answer that (juestion for the grounds 
previously given. 

Mr. Nfttle. Could the average American citizen arrive in Moscow 
"without a valid entry visa without encountering difficult}'? 
Mr. XoKTir. Are you asking my opinion I 
Mr. NiTTLE. Xo, your knowledge of the facts. You have been a 

frequent and prolonged visitor 

]Nlr. XoRTH. You are an attornev of this committee. What do you 
think ^ 

Mr. XiTTLE. • — in Connnunist countries. 

The Chairman. We are questioning you on the basis of whatever 
knowledge you have, if any. 

Mr. XoRTii. I don't know. How could I answer that question? 
The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. XiTTLE. You had no trouble, however; is that correct? 
^Ir. XoRTH. I don't recall that, either. I don't recall every 
moment, anv more than von recall every moment of your travels. 

Mr. XiTTLE. X'^ow, Mr. Xorth. on ]>age 9 of your passport. Exhibit 
'i. which you Inwe before you, there is a stamp of Cuban authorities, 
indicating that you arrived in Cuba on December 16, 1960. Did you 
arrive in Cuba on that date? 

Mr. XoRTii. In the first place, I haven't stated this was my 
passport. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Well, I am asking. Did you arrive in Cuba on De- 
cember 16, I960, irrespective of the fact that such is set forth in your 
passport ? 

Mr. Xorth. And secondly, the question you are just raising, I must 
refuse to answer that on the same grounds that I have previously 
stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. How long did you remain in Cuba ? 
Mr. XoRTH. The same answer. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you aware that a month later, on January 16, 

1961, the State Dej>artment issued regulations barring travel to 

Cuba by American citizens without a specially validated passport? 

Mr. Xorth. Xo, I don't understand the purpose of that question. 

Mr. XiTiT.E. It goes to your knowledge 

Mr. Xorth. My knowledge ? 

Mr. XiTTLE. - — of the existence of a State Department regulation 
barring travel to Cuba on or after January 16, 1961. 
]Mr. FoRER. Was he aware when? 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you aware in the early part of 1961, January 
to be specific, that the State Department issued this regulation 
barring travel to Cuba unless the recipient was in possession of 
a specially validated passport for that travel ? 

Mr. Xorth. I refuse to answer that question on the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mr. Xorth, on July 31, 1961, the Czech Embassy 
in Cuba issued you a visa valid until July 31 for transit from Bel- 
gium to Prague. A notation written across this validation in Span- 
ish, however, apparently by a Cuban authority, canceled this exit 
visa which had been stamped in the Czechoslovakian language. 
Could you tell us the reason for the cancellation ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



590 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer the question on the previous 
grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You did leave Cuba, however, on August 12, 1961; 
did you not? An exit visa on page 8 of your passport indicates you 
did. 

Mr. North. Same response. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien you left Cuba on August 12, 1961, did you 
return to the United States or did you go to Europe? 

Mr. North. Same response. 

Mr. Nittle. On what day did you next return to Cuba? 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds as I previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. An item in The Worker of Sunday, August 27, 1961, 
under your by-line at Havana, indicates that you were back in Cuba 
at least by August 27, 1961. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell the committee 

Mr. North. Is it the subject of this article which you object to, 
that the man atIio offered his eye to Henry Winston, the blind 
Communist — is that what you are giving me this for? 

The Chairman. No. You know it is not. I say "No" and I 
suspect you know it is not. We are talldng about your travels. 

Mr. North. I have written thousands of articles, and I am not 
claiming that I wrote this one, but I am curious as to why you 
have given me an article about a Negro who went blind and a man 
offered his eye to help him. Why do you give me this at this par- 
ticular moment? 

The Chairman. At this particular moment to test your travels, 
and whether you went back to Cuba some time previous to August — 
some time between January 16, 1961 and August 27, 1961. 

The evidence shows — although you do not admit it — that you 
did go to Cuba and did come back, and now under a by-line or your by- 
line, this article points to the fact that you were again in Cuba. 

Now, that is the reason for the question, and I suspect you 
know it, but I am trying to help you out, if that is what you 
want. 

Mr. North. You mean it has no relation to the question of Win- 
ston and the fact that a Cuban offered to give his eye to him ? 

The Chairman. I have never read the article, but I am following 
what the comisel is after. 

Mr. North. I see, 

Mr. Nittle. Wliere were you, during the period from August 12, 
1961, when you left Cuba, until the time you returned 

The Chairman. I do not think he answered that question. 

Mr. Forer. He never got it out. 

The Chairman. Well, let's go back. 

Mr. North. "WHiich question are you referring to, Mr. Willis? 

The Chairman. This article which is before you indicates that 
you were in Cuba on August 27, 1961. Were you ? 

Mr. North. I have stated 

The Chairman. All right, we will carve it up with four or five 
questions. 

Mr. North. I have stated— I refused to answer this on the pre- 
vious grounds, and then I asked about this story here. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 591 

The Chairman. Did you go to Cuba between January 16, 1961, 
and August 27, 1961, with or without valid papers? Did you 
go ? That is my next question. 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer this question on the previous 
grounds. 

Tlie Chairman. Oh, no, you don't. 

Let me aslv you this question: Did you have valid travel papers, 
meaning a passport containing a permission on its very face author- 
izing you to go to Cuba between January 16, 1961, and August 27, 
1961? 

Mr. North. I must refuse to answer. 

The Chaikman. No, you don't have to, but you have a right to 
invoke voluntarily the protection, and I assume that is what you are 
doing. 

Mr. North. On the same grounds, Mr. Willis. 

The Chairman. Did you travel to Cuba at any time with or 
without validated travel papers between January 16, 1961, and 
today ? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

I want to remind you again what I said about the first amend- 
ment, and it is difficult upon people who try to write the truth as 
they see it. If you don't agree with it, or people in high places in the 
Govenmient don't agree with it — I want to remind you that I made 
that statement at the outset. 

The Chairman. Yes, but you did not impress me too much, but 
that's not what these hearings are about. It has nothing to do with 
your writing of articles. 

Mr. North. I did not expect to impress you too much on the 
record of this committee. 

The Chairman. These hearings have a dual purpose. We are 
dealing with law. We are dealing with legislation pending: one, 
having to do with present law banning travel to Cuba since the 
break of the diplomatic relationship with Cuba, and whether or 
not that law should be amended ; and, two, the Foreign Agents Reg- 
istration Act, as to whether that act is sufficient for the situation of 
today to encompass, include persons — and I am not referring to 
you — any person who might go to Cuba in violation of law, and 
then come back and carry on the mission of the regime in Cuba in a 
fashion which may presently be prohibited by the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act, or whether that act should be amended. That 
is what these hearings are about. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman. This is not a question. You are talking about the 
first amendment; I am accommodating you, tiying to explain. 

INIr. North. I believe you agree there is a first amendment, Mr. 
Willis, It is important to the life of our country, is it not ? 

The Chairman. I don't know who questions that. 

Mr. North. I am dubious about that. 

The Chairman. It is a question of how you apply it. You are on 
insubstantial ground on that. You are not really using that as 
your exclusive protection. You are using it as a propaganda reed to 
lean on. What you are really leanmg on is the fifth amendment. 

Proceed. 



592 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. North. Constitutional right, also. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. North, the committee has prepared a summary 
of articles appearing in the official Communist publication, The 
Worker^ under your name, datelined Havana, Cuba, during the years 
1961 and 1962. This summary is marked as "North Exhibit No. 3," a 
copy of which I just handed you. 

Would you examine that, please, and tell the committee whether 
that is not a correct account of articles appearing under your name 
in The Worker during those years ? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer that question on the previous 
grounds. I am curious as to what objection you have to my state- 
ment that I think you are violating the first amendment when you 
are producing here articles as a means to attack a writer, a news- 
paperman. Does that seem to you the proper thing? , 

(Document marked "North Exhibit No. 3-' and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now that isn't the purpose, Mr. Nortli, and you know 
it isn't. 

Mr. North. I don't know. 

The Chairman. Now^ proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did von in fact write these articles at Havana, 
Cuba? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The exhibit indicates that in the year 1961 

Mr. North. Will you say that I have — -if I had written them from 
Cuba that I have a right to write them under the first amendment ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No, I said. Did you write them from Cuba? 

The exhibit indicates that in the year 1961 you wrote 13 dispatches 
from Havana in tlie months of January, March, April, May, August, 
September, November, and December, and it indicates that during 
the year 1962 you wrote a total of 26 dispatches from Havana, cov- 
ering every month excepting March and July. 

Did you return to the United States via Mexico in March and 
July of 1962? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. Now, at page 20 of your passport, it is 

noted that you entered 

_ Mr. North. Pardon me. That previous question. Was that ques- 
tion asked in good faitli? I am just curious from your point of 
view. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to say by that, or to indicate, or to 
suggest, that you did not return to the United States 

Mr. North. I don't understand it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. —in March and July of 1962 ? 

Mr. North. I told you that I refuse to answer that question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. Then let us pass to the next question. 

At page 20 of your passport, it is noted that you entered Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, at the Ruzyn Airport on December 14, 1962, and 
that you departed from Prague on January 31, 1963. 

Were you in Czechoslovakia from December 14, 1962, until Janu- 
ary 31, 1963? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 593 

Mr. North. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. The liual entry on your passport notes your admit- 
tance to the United States on January ol, 1903. 

The question I should like to ask is whether it is not a fact that 
when you later returned to the United States from Czechoslovakia 
on January ;U, iDG:'), representatives of the United States Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service relieved you of your passport at the 
rnternational Airport in New York City? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee wdiy this was done? 

Mr. FoRER. He didn't say it was done. 

Mr. North. Why are you trying to entrap me? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you know it was done, and do you know why 
it was done ? 

Mr. North. You are saying that you are on the up-and-up on all 
these things, and that was a clear question endeavoring to trap a 
witness, wasn't it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. No. 

Was not your passport 

Mr. North. I gave you the answer. The answer was 

Mr. NiTTLE. — taken by the Immigration Service? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer on the grounds that I previously 
stated. 

Mr. Johansen. The answer was that you would not answer, Mr. 
Witness. The answer was that you declined to answer. 

Mr. North. I declined to answer on the previous grounds. 

Mr. Johansen. That is no answer. 

Mr. NiTTEE. Mr. Chairman, I state for the record that the pass- 
port of INIr. North was recovered by officers of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service, as I have just outlined, pursuant to a request 
of May 4, 1962, from the acting director of the Passport Office at 
Washington, addressed to Mr. Farrell, Commissioner of Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization. 

The letter of request is marked as "North Exhil)it No. 4," and sets 
forth, in part, that : 

Information has been received that Mr. North has been traveling in and out 
of Cuba since January, 1961, without proper validation from this Department. 
If he should return to the United States, it will be appreciated if his passport 
be withdrawn and forwarded to the Passport Office, Department of State. 

Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 4 in evidence. 

The Chairman. Let Exhibit 4 be made a part of the record. 

(Document marked "North Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. North, you have heard the statement of 
record to the effect that information had been received by the 
Department of State that you were traveling in and out of Cuba 
since January 1961 without a proper validation of your passport 
for such travel. 

Do you have any explanation or any correction to offer relative 
to the statement of the Department of State concerning your travel 
to Cuba? 

98-765— 63— pt. 2 12 



594 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. North. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time after January 16, 1961, apply 
to the Department of State at Washington or to the Swiss Embassy 
in Cuba, which was handling United States interests, for a valida- 
tion of your passport for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. North. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. NiTTLE, It is the committee's information that you have at 
no time received a validation of your United States passport for 
travel to Cuba after January 16, 1961, when this requirement became 
effective. Do you have any explanation you desire to offer or any 
correction to make ? 

Mr. North. My answer is the same as the previous. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. North, as indicated earlier, your passport 
record for your European travels in May-September 1960 was in 
order. Apparently, at least it was stamped with appropriate entry 
and exit visas for your visits to various foreign countries in that 
period. There are,' however, only two stamps indicating that you 
have been to Cuba, one for your entry there on December 16, 1960, 
and another indicating that you left that country on Augiist 12, 
1961. 

As previous exhibits have indicated, however, you wrote dis- 
patches from Havana subsequent to that period — in September, No- 
vember, and December, 1961, and in every month of 1962 except 
March and July. 

Could you tell the committee why Cuban Government officials, 
who want the recognition of the United States Government, did not 
stamp your passport to indicate your visits to Cuba 

Mr. North. Wliy don't you ask the Cuban officials that? 

Mr. NiTTLE. — which followed your leaving that country on 
August 12, 1961 ? 

Mr. North. I think you would do better if you could establish 
relations with Cuba and ask them the questions. I can't answer 
that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge as to why the Cuban Govern- 
ment ceased stamping your passport after August 12, 1961? 

Mr. FoRER. He never said it was his passport. He didn't say 
it in the first place. And, you see — earlier 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do have knowledge as to the reason why, do you 
not? 

Mr. North. Earlier, I said — I decline to answer that question on 
the reasons previously stated. 

The Chairman. Proceed with the next question. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. 

Now, Mr. North, the committee does not wish to review in detail 
the events of the past, but it does feel that in summary form they 
are of relevance to the present inquiry. This is based on a prin- 
ciple of the law of evidence which admits evidence of past conduct, 
when of a nature similar to that under present inq[uiry 

Mr. FoRER. Are we living up to the laws of evidence now ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. — as being relevant to show knowledge, disposition, 
and purpose. Such inquiry, we believe, will assist Congress 

Mr. North. Is this a trial? Am I on trial? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 595 

Mr. NiTTLE. — in appraising your present activities in relation to 
the subjects under investigation. 

Now, this is an explanation of pertinency, Mr. North, for the 
questions which will follow. 

Did you know Jacob N. Golos, G-o-l-o-s? 

Mr. NoRTPi. ]\Iy God ! You are bringing up questions which had 
no relevance 10 years ago, 15 years ago, and you are bringing them 
up today for what purpose? Only to smear, sir, only to smear. 

Now if there were any relevance in that time, do you think that 
the thing would have gone if it had, in relation to myself and 
others ? 

Mr. NiTTLE, I am sure its relevance will be apparent to everyone. 

Mr. North. It is a smear. I refuse to ansAver that question on 
the grounds stated. It is a smear, and you know it. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We shall see, and you shall see. 

Mr. FoRER. We will all see. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. North, testimony received by this committee indi- 
cates that Golos, for several years and until his death in 1943, was 
in charge of a Soviet espionage apparatus operating within the 
United States Government here in Washington. Golos was the 
manager of World Tourists, Incorporated, which had offices in New 
York City. On its face a travel agency. World Tourists was, in 
fact, a cover for Soviet espionage activities and was so character- 
ized in the report of this committee issued in 1951 entitled The 
/Shameful Years: Thirty Years of Soviet Espionage in the United 
States. 

INIoreover, World Tourists, Incorporated, was described by Louis 
Budenz, who was closely associated with you for a period as editor 
of the Daily Worker^ as one of the chief means by which the Soviet 
dictatorship moved its spies and other agents into this country, and 
out again, and that it was a false passport factory of no small 
dimensions. 

Now, Mr. North, with that background 

Mr. North. What relation has this got to the 

Mr. NiTTLE, ■ — I will read this document into the record. It is a 
photostatic copy of a letter marked for identification as "North 
Exhibit No. 5," dated August 18, 1937, addressed to Mr. Jacob 
Soifer, and signed "J. N. Golos, Manager, World Tourists, In- 
corporated." 

Mr. Jacob Soifer. 

Dear Mr. Soifer : 

Will you please take up with the Ministry of Propaganda or any other 
institution which is handling the tourists in Spain, the following : 

1. Permanent organization of tours to Spain. 

2. Secure authorization to organize a delegation to Spain sponsored by the 
Trade Unions, and organized by the North American Committee to Aid 
Spanish Democracy. 

3. Try to secure from the Spanish Government a sole monopoly, if possible, 
to handle tourist trade to Spain, under Government control. 

4. Inform the Spanish Government that the World Tourists will be willing 
to spend money per agreement on advertising and popularizing the tours to 
Spain, etc. 

I hand you a copy of Exhibit 5. 

Mr. North. I don't recall receiving that letter, sir. Wliat is it, 
1937 ? You ask me if I remember anything about it ? 



596 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. FoRER. He hasn't asked the question yet. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that not a true copy of a letter received by you 
under your real name, Jacob Soifer, from Jacob N. Golos, during 
the course of the Spanish Civil War ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. North. I don't remember if that is a letter, and I just want to 
point out that there is no signature on it. 

Mr, NiTTLE. I pointed out it was a photostatic copy. 

Mr. North. I don't remember any such letter. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Would you tell us whether, as requested, you took up 
for him with the Minister of Propaganda the matters referred to in 
the letter? 

Mr. North. I don't remember such letter, I don't remember the 
matter within the letter. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you take up any matter with the Minister of 
Propaganda in Spain during that year ? 

Mr. North. I don't recall any such question and I — that is all. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, do you have knowledge of why Jacob Golos 
was so anxious to obtain a monopoly of "tourism" in Spain at the 
time? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. North, I have no knowledge of that. I don't even have any 
knowledge of the authenticity of this letter. 

(Document marked "North Exhibit No. 5" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE, You knew Jacob N. Golos ? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer that question on the ground 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any other communication from 
liim while you were in Spain ? 

Mr. North, I don't recall any communication. 

Mr, NiTTLE. I will try to refresh your memory. I call to your 
"attention another exhibit marked for identification as "North 
Exhibit No. 6." 

This is a Western Union cablegram, received in that company's 
central office in New York at 11 :25 p.m. on March 9, 1938, and addressed 
to World Tours, the Golos agency previously mentioned, at 175 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. The text of the cable reads as follows : 

"Cable Soifer Amexco, details twenty seventh stop Reach me through 
Soifer stop Ask Willie whether Henry left stop Love to Helen. 



IMr. North. I don't- 



Jay. 



Mr. NiTTLE. I have handed to you that exhibit and ask you to 
examine it. 

And, Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 6 in evidence. 

Mr. North. "VYliat is your question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not the Soifer referred to in that cable? 

Mr, North, I don't know. That is a rather common name. 

Mr, NiTTLE, And who could be reached and who was to be reached 
by cable care of "Amexco" — American Export Lines ? 

Mr, North. I don't know. You asked me to say. I don't know 
what purpose that is. There are many Soifers in the phone book, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you stating under oath that you are not the 
Soifer to whom reference is made in Exhibit 6 ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 597 

Mr. North. I don't recall anything about that. That is what, 
1938 ? I don't recall. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not deny you are the Soil'er in that cable? 
You state you have no recollection of it. 

Mr. North. I have no recollection of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. T\lio was "Jay" ? 

Mr. North. I have no recollection, sir ; how can I tell you who was 
"Jay" ? I am not clairvoyant, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know the "Willie" and "Henry" referred to 
in the cable ? 

Mr. North. I don't know anything about that cable, so how do 
I know these people ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Irresj)ective of whether the names are contained 
in this cable, did you at that time know a Willie and Henry ? 

Mr. North. Now, w^ait a minute. How many Willies do you 
know ? 

Mr. Forer. Wait a minute. He can't answer a question. 

The Chairmax. Now, wait a minute. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am suggesting that these names must have had 
some significance to you. 

Tlie Chairman. He can answer it very simply, if he says he does 
not know or recall. 

Proceed with your next question. 

Mr. FoRER. He said that, Mr. Chairman. 

]Mr. North. All right, Mr. Willis. I don't know. I don't recall. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Can you shed any light upon the meaning of the 
handwritten notation at the bottom of this cable : 

Found J. K. twenty eiglith failed recover anything evidently other hands 
later he disappeared have traces but unable locate. 

Mr. North. I haven't got the faintest idea of what that's talking 
about. 

(Document marked "Nortli Exhibit No. 6" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. North, you do recollect being in Spain in March 
1938 

Mr. North. I refuse to answ^er that question. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. — ostensibly as correspondent for the Daily Worker? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect that ? 

Mr. North. I told you earlier. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. North, the recommended decision of the Sub- 
versive Activities Control Board in the case of the Veterans of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade- 



Mr. North. ^^Hiat decision ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Subversive Activities Control Board 

ISIr. North. You said — there was an adjective before this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Eecommended." 

Mr. North. I thought you said "regimented." I wasn't quite 
sure what you meant. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. — in the case of the Veterans of the Abraham Lin- 
coln Brigade, stated that you, during the civil war, were the Daily 
Worker representative in Spain who, and I now quote, "acted as 



598 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVmES IN U.S. 

a courier between the CPUSA [Communist Party of the United 
States] and the International Brigades Headquarters as well as 
liaison between the various Brigades." 

In your travels to Cuba, Mr. North, have you been playing the 
same role, acting as a courier between the United States Communist 
Party and the government of Fidel Castro ? 

Mr. North. In my lifetime, my professional career, I have been 
a newspaperman and I have been a writer of a number of books. I 
have tried to tell the truth as I saw it and I am very happy that 
some many thousands of people have read what I have written, be- 
cause always truth was my guide. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now will you answer the question ? 

Mr. North. You are trying to make it difficult for anybody who 
writes what you don't agree with by bringing up all kinds of 
charges, 25 years ago, 30 years ago, 20 years ago, against an indi- 
vidual — ^you know very well, as well as I do, that if these charges 
were valid back then there would have been action. 

You are not the only authority here. The Un-American Com- 
mittee is not the only — there was the FBI. There was the Depart- 
ment of Justice. There were all sorts of laws, and so on. 

Now you are only trying to prevent me and people like me from 
writing things that you don't agree with. Now, that is the basis 
of it. 

The Chairman. Those are your feelings. 

Now, will you answer the question? 

Mr. FoRER. What is the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a courier between the Communist Party and 
the government of Fidel Castro ? 

Mr. North. Now, because — because 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you answer that question ? 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. North. I will refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. All right. Ask the next question. 

Mr. North, "\\niatever the definition is that you want to apply 
to things, I don't know. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At any time in December 1960, or the years 1961 
and 1962, have you personally delivered, from anyone from the 
United States known to you to be a Communist, a communication, 
message, or other thing to persons in Cuba associated with the Castro 
government ? 

Mr. North. I must decline. I decline to answer that question 
on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you, during that same time, on any occasion 
personally delivered to anyone in the United States known to you 
to be a Communist, any communication, written or oral message,^ or 
any other thing which you brought with you from Cuba and which 
you received there from any person known to you as a Communist? 

Mr. North. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated, but when I entered their country through the front 
door at a certain time, what I brought in was known by the people 
there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. North, you have been repeatedly identified as_ a 
member of the Communist Party in the testimony of several wit- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 599 

nesses appearing before this committee. However, we shall give 
you an opportunity specilically to allinn or deny your membership 
in the Communist Party. 

Mr. NoKTn. I think that is very gracious of you. I think that 
is a tremendous boon that you oiler me, under this Constitution 
of our country, where you are allowed to have whatever ideas appear 
to you to be truthful and you are allowed the right of association, 
you give a person the right to answer that question under the Smith 
Act, the McCarran Act and 

Mr. FoRER. He didn't ask you any question yet. 

The Chairman. Yes, he did. 

Mr. FoRER. He didn't. He said he would "give you an oppor- 
tunity." 

He said he would not answer that for the reasons stated. 

The Chairman. Are you now, or have you ever been, a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. North. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

The Chairman. Are you satisfied, Mr. Forer ? 

Mr. FoRER. Satisfied with what? You mean with Mr. Nittle's 
questioning ? No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff interrogation is completed. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr.Nittle? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

The Chairman. This will conclude this present hearing, but there 
will be more hearings in the area we have covered today, as we 
go along. 

The Chair wishes to direct the counsel and direct this committee 
to refer the record of this morning's hearings to the Department of 
Justice for consideration of possible prosecution of the three 
witnesses under the law relating to unlawful travel to Cuba, w^ith- 
out validated passports. And the record, of course, will be studied 
in connection with all phases of the hearing. 

The committee will stand adjourned, 

(Wliereupon, at 12:40 p.m., August 5, 1963, the subcommittee 
adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Page 

Adams. Arthur Alexandrovicb 548 

Adler, Gertrude S 523 

Aitkeu. Elizabeth 523 

Alchermes, Sara 523 

Alekseyev, Nina 478 

Alexander, Frauk 508 

Alvarez Ibarra, Pedro Francisco 495,496 

Anderson, Elinor 523 

Anderson, J. T 523 

Atkinson, Allegra 523 

B 

Baran. Paul A 523 

Barenblatt (Lloyd) 523 

Batista v Zaldivar Fulgencio 474 

Belli, Melvin 526, 527 

Bennett, Daniel C 523 

Bennett, Dorothy M 523 

Bingham, Joseph Walter 523 

Black (Hugo L.) 577,578,583 

Blaisdell, Gus 523 

Blodgett, Charles David 437, 473, 533 

Bravo, Nestor Otto 438,545,546 

Brock. Robert L 555 

Bryant, Yaleda (Mrs. Robert Eugene Randolph). {See Randolph, Valeda 
Bryant. ) 

Bryant, Valeda J 523 

Budenz. Louis Francis 548, 595 

Buhai, Harriett 438, 440, 540, 541-558 (testimony), 571, 572, 574 

Burton, Jane 523 

C 

Caldwell, Lena 523 

Castro, Fidel 442, 444, 474, 518, 570, 598 

Chronis, Phillip 500 

Clark, Donald H 523 

Clark, Tom 477, 485 

Clucas, Lowell 523 

Collver, Robert J 523 

Colvin. Paul 523 

Crump, Martha 523 

D 

Davidson, Donald 523 

Davidson, Virginia 523 

Dawson, Doris 523 

del Villar, Melitta (Mrs. Louis Amster) 546,549 

Dennis, Eugene 522, 524 

DeVoto, Bernard 458 

Douglas (William O.) 486,524,577,578 

DuBois, William (E. B.) 581 



ij INDEX 

E Page 

Eisenberg, Elizabeth 523 

Eisenberg, Harold 523 

Emspak (Julius) 547 

Epstein, Pauline 555, 556 

F 

Farrell (Raymond F.) 593 

Finn, Aubrey I 555, 556 

Fleishman, Stanley 540 

Flemming, Bonnie 523 

Flemming, Harry L 523 

Flemming, Hilda G 523 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley 521, 522, 524 

Forer, Joseph 585 

Fox, Daniel N 505, 509 

Franco, Francisco 476 

Frankfurter (Felix) 519 

Fritchman (Frances Putnam) (Mrs. Stephen H. Fritchman) 440,580-582 

Fritchman, Stephen H 440, 580-582 

Frost, Jean S 523 

Frost, John G 523 

G 

Garcia, Bernardo 472, 523 

Ginsberg, Herbert 523 

Godfrey, Chandler D 523 

Golos, Jacob N 595,596 

Gould, Nancy C 523 

Gould, Richard G 523 

H 

Plaggland, Isabel 523 

Haley, J. Cliff 523 

Hallinan, Patrick 499 

Hallinan, Vincent 499 

Harer, Norris 523 

Hariu, W. A 523 

Harlan (John M.) 515 

Harrison, Craig R 523 

Hartsfield, Arnett 541 

Hawkins, G 523 

Heer, Nicholas 523 

Heide, Paul 432, 471-473 

Heide, Ruby (Mrs. Paul Heide) 473 

Helenius, Aune 520 

Hershey, Byron L 523 

Higgins, Carolyn 523 

Higgins, Raymond D 523 

Hildreth, Helen 523 

Hinich. Melvin J 523 

Hoag. Tom L 511 

Holleuffer, Keith 523 

Hosier, Mary Ann 554 

Howard, Jan , 523 

Howard John 523 

Howard, Norman 523 

Hurtel, Leo 523 

Hutchinson, Aileen 523 

Hutchinson, Robert 523 

I 

Ibarra, Pedro Francisco Alvarez. (See Alvarez Ibarra, Pedro Francisco.) 

Isaksen, Alan 523 

Isenberg, Arnold 523 



INDEX in 

J Page 

Jeffrey, Edith 523 

Jeffrey, Richard 523 

Jensky, Both 523 

Johnson, Dale L 523 

Johnson, John Allen im-iSl, 438, 527-533 (testimony), 534, 558 

Johnson, Margaret Frances Eyelyn Willard (Mrs. John Allen Johnson) 

437, 438, 529, 531, 533, 534-537 (testimony), 558 
Johnson, Nina 523 

K 

Kennedy John F 436,495,522,523 

Kenny, Robert W 540, 555 

Khrushchey, Nikita Sergeeyich 495 

Kidwell, Jean p]stelle (Mrs. Frank S. Pestana). {See Pestana, Jean 
Estelle Kidwell.) 

Kirschner, Eyenly 523 

Kneeland, Hildegarde 523 

Knudson, J. A 523 

Koeli, Howard, Jr 523 

Koch, Patricia 523 

Kuhn. Gary 523 

Kusnierczyk, S. J 523 

L 

Lee, Vincent Theodore 504 

Lenin (V.I.) 570 

Leyinson, Sandra 523 

Lewis, Laurin 523 

Lippmann, Walter 456 

M 
Mackie, Martin 522 

Madrigal, Eustasia Sokolowski 438, 545, .546 

Mandel, Seymour 555, 556 

Manes, Hugh R 465, 479, 488, 512 

Margolis, Ben 540, 555, 556 

Margolis, Harry 523 

Margolis, Sara 523 

Marshall, Daniel G 447, 555 

Marx (Karl) 570 

Mattingly, Robert 523 

Mayer, Henry 523 

Mayer, Oliye G 523 

Mayer, Tom 523 

McBain, Eyelyn 523 

McCarthy (Joseph R.) 461,462 

McCone, John 444 

McGrath, J. Howard 477, 507 

McNaughton, Ann 523 

McTernan, John T 446, 540 

Melman, Seymour 478 

MeuUer, Jan 523 

Miller, Louis 438, 548, 549 

Munoz, Frank 555 

N 

Niyison, Cornelia 523 

Niyison, Dayid 523 

North, Joseph (born Jacob Soifer) 439,441,442,584,585-599 (testimony) 

O 

O'Brien, George 558 

Olan, Bennet 509 

Omerberg, Maynard J 540 

Ornstein, D 523 

Osborne, Ruth Low 523 



IV INDEX 

P Page 

Parker, William B 558 

Pascillo, Lorenzo 552, 554 

Paull, Henry 522 

PauU, Irene (Mrs. Henry Paull) 436,505,512-524 (testimony), 558 

Pearson, James 523 

Pestana, Frank Simplicio 435, 

436, 438-441, 512, 526, 527 (testimony), 538, 539 (testimony), 540, 

562, 566, 567, 570, 573, 574-584 (testimony). 
Pestana, Jean Estelle Kidwell (Mrs. Frank Simplicio Pestana) 431, 

432, 435, 436, 438-440, 458--160. 512, 525-526 (testimony), 527. 538, 

539-540 (testimony), 552, 554-556, 562-574 (testimony), 577. 

Pitchess, Peter 558 

Pockman, Alice Ann 523 

Pockman, Leonard 523 

Pusser, Gordon 523 

Pusser, Portia L 523 

R 

Randolph, Robert Eugene 432, 465-479 (testimony), 480, 483, 558 

Randolph, Valeda Bryant (Mrs. Robert Eugene Randolph) 432, 

433, 469, 470, 472-473, 474, 479-487 (testimony) . .558 

Read, Jon Joseph 434, 435, 500-505 (testimony) , 558 

Reed, John A 523 

Rein, David 562, 574 

Richards, Alice 523 

Richards, Harvey 525 

Roberts, Holland 580 

Robeson, Paul 522, 524 

Rogers, Will F 523 

Rosenberg, Mrs. Louis. (See Rosenberg, Rose Schorr.) 

Rosenberg, Rose Schorr (Mrs. Louis Rosenberg) 431. 

432, 439, 440, 447-^64 (testimony), 558, 564, 565, 571, 573, 583 
Ryther, Thomas E 523 

S 

Sachs, David J n55 

Salmon, Margaret 523 

Sandperl, Ira J •'i23 

Sandperl, Merle M 523 

Schmorleitz, Robert J 527, 534, 555 

Scoledes, Anne 523 

Scoledes, Aristotle 523 

Scott, Nancy 469 

Shapiro, Joseph Abram 434,496,497-500 (testimony), 558 

Shinbrot, Marvin 523 

Shutan, Robert H 497 

Singer, James 502 

Soifer, Bessie 586 

Soifer, Jacob. {See North, Joseph.) 

Soifer, Jesse 586 

Sperber, Laurence R 555,556 

Stalin, Josef 549 

Stein, Charles M 523 

Stillwell. Edward 558 

Stone, Victoria 548 

Such, William R 523 

Summez, G. C 523 

Sweezy, Paul M 523 

T 

Tabia, Fernando 523 

Tait, W. W 523 

Temko, Philip 523 

Tenner, Jack 555, 556 



INDEX V 

Page 

Thalberg, Suzanne 523 

Thygeson. Sylvie G 523 

Travis, Helen (Mrs. Robert C. Travis) 431, 

438, 446-447 (statement), 545-547, 549 

Trotsky, Lev (Leon) 549 

Tucker, Allen B 523 

Tucker, Karen F 523 

V 

Veltfort, Leonore 523 

Veltfort, Theodore E 523 

Viereck (George Sylvester) 't~H 

Vogel, Mortimer 540 

W 

Waegell, George (born Henri George Waegell) 433, 

487, 488-496 (testimony), 558 
Waegell, Henri George. (See Waegell, George.) 

Watkins (.John T.) 451, 550, 551, 555 

Watson, Phyllis M 523 

Weichinger, Jovita Lopez (Mrs. Karl Vlaclimer Weichinger) 435, 

506, .508, 509-510 ( testimony ) , 558 

Weichinger, Karl Vladimer 435,505-509 (testimony), 558 

White. Geoffrey 523 

Wilson, Elliott 523 

Wilson, Harriet 508 

Wilson, Mary 523 

Winston, Henry 590 

Wirin, A. L 466,555 

Y 
Yerkes, A. Marburg 431, 463, 557, 573 

Z 

Zurcher, Karl 523 

ORGANIZATIONS 

A 

American Export Lines 596 

American Legion, Department of California 511,512 

American Youth for Democracy 432, 476, 477, 507 

Intercollegiate Council of Northern California 476,477 

B 

Bay Area Fair Play for Cuba Committee. (»S'ce entry under Fair Play 
for Cuba Committee. ) 

C 

California Labor School 433. 437, 485, 486, 532, 580 

Communist Party of the United States of America : 
National Conventions and Conferences : 

Seventeenth Convention, December 10-13, 1959, New York City__ 524 
Districts : 

Southern California District : 
Los Angeles County : 

Lawyers club 584 

States and Territories : 
California : 

Alameda County 437, 473, 533 

Political Affairs Committee 437,533 

Los Angeles : 

Engels Club 573 

Minnesota : 

Duluth 435, 521, 522 

Cuban Liberation Movement 552, 554 



VI INDEX 



E 



East Bay Supporters of National Guardian. {See Supporters of Na- 
tional Guardian.) 

Eighth World Conference Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs and for 
Prevention of Nuclear War. {See entry under World Congress Against 
Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs and for Prevention of Nuclear War.) 

Eighth World Youth Festival. {See entry under World Youth Festivals.) 

F Page 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee 432, 

433, 435, 462, 469, 475, 485, 487, 492, 501, 503, 504 

Bay Area Committee 433,434,475,503 

Greater Los Angeles Chapter 432,462 

Palo Alto Committee 436,486,487,522,523 

Student Council 434, 491^93 

First Unitarian Church (Los Angeles). {See Unitarian Church, First.) 

I 

International Brigades 598 

International Federation of Technical Engineers, Architects & Drafts- 
men, AFL 530 

International Union of Students (lUS). {see also World Youth Festi- 
vals.) 433, 434, 495, 496 

Executive Committee Meeting, May 23-June 2, 1961, Havana, Cuba 

433, 434, 493-495 
First World Student Congress, August 17-31, 1946, Prague 493 



Jack London Club 520 

K 
KPFK-FM (radio station, Los Angeles, Calif.) 582 

L 

Labor Youth League {see also National Organizing Conference for a Labor 

Youth Leape) 432, 477, 507, 508 

California : 

Los Angeles 435, 507 

Latin American Conference for National Sovereignty, Economic Emanci- 
pation and Peace, March 5-8, 1961, Mexico City 432, 469-473 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International 472 

Local 6 (San Francisco) 471,472 

Los Angeles Medical Aid to Cuba Committee {see also Medical Aid to 

Cuba Committee) 432, 438, 439, 459, 460, 546-550, 565 

M 

Medical Aid to Cuba Committee {see also Los Angeles Medical Aid to Cuba 

Committee and New York Medical Aid to Cuba Committee) 432, 

438, 461, 546-549 

Mexican Peace Conference. {See Latin American Conference for National 
Sovereignty, Economic Emancipation and Peace, March 5-8, 1961, 
Mexico City. ) 

Militant Labor Forum 434, 504 

N 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)— 451 

National Lawyers Guild 432, 463, 555, 557, 573 

National Executive Board 574 

Hollywood-Beverly Hills Chapter 438, 555 

Los Angeles Chapter 463,464,555,557 

New York City Chapter 464 



INDEX vn 

National Organizing Conference for a Labor Youth League, May 28-29, Pae« 
lt)4i>, Cluraso, 111. (*•((" also Labor Vuulh League) TjOT 

New York Medical Aid to Cuba Committee (see also Medical Aid to Cuba 

Committee 438, 439, 550 

North American Committee To Aid Spanish Democracy 595 



Palo Alto Fair Play for Cuba Committee. (See entry under Fair Play for 

Cuba Committee.) 
Progressive Party 499 



SOXG. (See Supporters of National Guardian.) 

San Francisco Festival Committee. (See entry under World Youth Festi- 
vals, Eighth Youth Festival. ) 

San Francisco Junior College 476 

San Francisco State College (San Francisco, Calif.) 476 

San Jose Junior College (San Jose, Calif.) 476 

Santa Barbara Friends of KPFK 441,582 

Socialist Workers Party 434,504 

Stanford University (Stanford, Calif.) 476 

Student Ad Hoc Committee Against U.S. Intervention in Cuba 436, 

486, 487, 522, 523 
Supporters of National Guardian (SONG) 471-473 

T 

Teachers, American Federation of, AFL 536 

Central Labor Council 536 

U 

Unitarian Action for Social Justice 436, 519 

Unitarian Church (Long Beach) 439,441,570-572,578,579 

Unitarian Church (Palo Alto) 432,475,483 

World Affairs Committee 474 

Unitarian Church, First (Los Angeles) 439-441,460,461,-566-568,580,581 

College Center 439, 566, .567, 577 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters & Joiners of America 437, 530, 533 

Local 36 (Oakland) 530 

United Labor and People's Committee for May Day (also known as United 

May Day Committee) 508 

United May Day Committee. (See United Labor and People's Committee 

for May Day. ) 
United States Festival Committee, Inc. ( See entry under World Youth 

Festivals, Eighth Youth Festival.) 
U.S. Government : 

Justice Department : 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 442 

Senate, United States, Internal Security Subcommittee of the Judi- 
ciary Committee 493 

State Department 444 

Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) 477 

University of California (Berkeley) 476,483 

V 

Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 597 

W 

Women Strike for Peace 432, 462, 5.54 

Whittier chapter 439, 440. 551, 552, 554, 571 

World Anti A and H Bomb Conference. (See entry under World Congress 
Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs and for Prevention of Nuclear 

War.) 



vni ESTDEX 

AVorld Congress Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs and for Prevention 

of Nuclear War, Eighth World Congress, August 1-6, 1962, Toljyo, ?»«• 

Japan 433, 436, 479, 520 

World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY) {see also AVorld Youth 

Festivals) 493 

World Peace Congress (also known as World Congress of Partisans of 
Peace and World Congress of Defenders of Peace) : 

First Congress, April 20-24, 1949, Paris, France 580 

Second Congress, November 13, 1950, Sheffield, England ; November 

16-22, 1950, Warsaw, Poland 580 

World Peace Congress, July 9-14, 1962, Moscow. (See World Peace 

Council, World Congress for General Disarmament and Peace.) 
World Peace Council : 

Tenth Anniversary Session, May 8-13, 1959, Stockholm, Sweden 440, 

441, 579-582 
World Congress for General Disarmament and Peace, July 9-14, 

1962, Moscow 433, 477, 478, 520 

World Tourists, Inc 595,596 

World Youth Festivals : 

Eighth Youth Festival, July 29-August 6, 1962, Helsinki, Finland— 434, 

499, 500 

International Preparatory Committee 499 

United States Festival Committee, Inc 499 

San Francisco Festival Committee 499 

See also: 

International Union of Students. 
World Federation of Democratic Y^outh. 



Young Communist League, USA 432,473,477,507,521,533 

Minnesota 435,521 

PUBLICATIONS 
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