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Full text of "Violations of State Department regulations and pro-Castro propaganda activities in the United States. Hearings"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



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GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



I 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT TRAVEL REGULA- 
TIONS AND PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES 
IN THE UNITED STATES 

PART. 3 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIYITIE8 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 12 AND 13, 1903 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of tlie 
Committee ou Un-American Activities 



f.'ARV,"':^ COLLEGE L!? ;■ ^ " 

DEPOSITED m THE 
UNITK) STATES GOVERNMENT 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
98 76.1 WASHINGTON : 1963 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of REPKESENTATrvES 

EDWIN B. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST B. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

GEORGE F. SENNER, JB., Arizona JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Oeneral Counael 

Alfred M. Nittlb, Counsel 

n 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 651 

September 12, 1963: Testimony of— 

Barry Hoffman 664 

Afternoon session : 

Public session 702 

Executive session: 

Levi Lee Laub 704 

Phillip Abbott Luce 705 

Catherine Jo Prensky 706 

Larry Wilford Phelps 708 

Wen'die Suzuko Nakashima Rosen 709 

Public session resumed: 

Levi Lee Laub 711 

September 13, 1963: Testimony of— 

Phillip Abbott Luce 738 

Afternoon session: 

Wendie Suzuko Nakashima Rosen 758 

Catherine Jo Prensky 773 

Larry Wilford Phelps 780 

Index i 

xn 



Public Laav 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United l^tates 
of America in Congress assemhled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American ActiA^ties, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any 
necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 88TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 9, 19(53 
* * * * m m 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There sball be elected by tbe House, at tbe commencement of eacb Congress, 
******* 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) Tlie Committee on Un-American Activities, as a wliole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the dilfusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attaelvs the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) tlie results of any siieh investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

V 



SYNOPSIS 

The committee's hearings on viohitions of State Department regula- 
tions banning travel to Cuba Avithout specially validated passports 
were continued in AVashington, D.C, on September 12 and 13, 1963. 
On these dates the subcommittee heard 6 of the 58 U.S. students and 
youths who spent nearly 2 months in Cuba during the summer of 1963 
despite specific and repeated State Department warnings that their 
unauthorized trip could result in fines and imprisonment. 

The first witness was Barry Hofl'man, a 26-year-old realtor of Brook- 
line, Mass. Hoffman testified he had made the trip as an observer of 
the student group only after informing both the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency of the purpose of 
his participation. 

Following is a summary of Mr. Hoffman's testimony : 

In December 1962 Hoffman read articles in several Boston news- 
papers about a group of so-called U.S. students who planned to travel 
to Cuba. He telephoned Anatol Schlosser in New York City and ex- 
pressed an interest in the trip. Schlosser had been described by the 
newspapers as a spokesman for the student group's organizing com- 
mittee. 

Hoffman received a letter, dated December 14, 1962, from Schlosser, 
who said he had just been notified by the State Department that willful 
violation of the travel ban was punishable by a $5.0(10 fine and/or im- 
prisonment of not more than 5 years. Schlosser added, however, that 
this was not going to deter the group from making the trip and he 
hoped Ploffman would join them. 

After receiving Schlosser's letter, Hoffman contacted representa- 
tives of the FBI and the CIA and notified them of tlie purpose of his 
association with the student group. He also oifered to cooperate in 
any way he could with these agencies. 

The trip to Cuba, scheduled for December 1962, was postponed when 
the Canadian Government refused to allow the U.S. "students" to carry 
out their plan to be picked up in Canada by a Cuban airplane. 

Hoffman exchanged several more telephone calls with Schlosser 
before receiving a letter from him dated May 15, 1063, in which it was 
stated the trip had been rescheduled for July. Enclosed with the letter 
were an application blank and a memorandum explaining possible 
legal difficulties which might result for those making the trip. The 
letter also informed Hoffman that a representative of the Permanent 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba (the organizational name of 
the group) would be in Boston soon. 

Hoffman returned his completed application to the student commit- 
tee along with the requested $10 deposit. 

In a letter dated June 15, 1963, Levi Laub of tlie Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba notified Hoffman that arrangements for 
the latter's taking part in the trip had been made. Laul:* said Hoffman 
should be in New York City by "the 24th" and asked that he get in 

651 



652 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

touch with the PSCTC immediately at telephone number GR 7-8396, 
New York City. 

Ploffman was away from home at the time Laub's letter arrived and 
did not see it until some days later. lie had not replied to it when, 
on the morning of June 24, he received a telephone call from Laub, 
who said Hotfman would have to be in Xew York that afternoon if he 
were going on the trip to Cuba. 

Hotlman flew to New York on tlie afternoon of June 24 and tele- 
phoned the PSCTC office. He was instructed to go to the apartment 
of Miss Ellen Shallit. There he was introduced to Salvatore Cucchi- 
ari, who, he was told, would be his group leader during the trip. At 
this time, Hoffman also paid the $90 balance due on the total $100 cost 
of his participation in the trip. He subsequently learned that some of 
those who went to Cuba did not pay anything. 

The next morning, as histructed, Hoffman returned to Miss Shallit's 
apartment, where he was informed by Cucchiari the trip would begin 
that afternoon. Hoffman was also told, along with others who met at 
Miss Shallit's apartment on June 25, to proceed to the East Side Ter- 
minal in New York City to receive flight tickets and further informa- 
tion. Younger persons were advised to dress in older style clothes so 
that they would not look like students when they arrived at the airport. 
The people who met at Miss Shallit's apartment were instructed to 
leave the building in small groups so as not to attract undue attention. 

At the East Side Terminal, Hoffman was surprised to receive flight 
rickets to London and Paris. He had assumed that the trip would 
somehow be made to Cuba through Caiiada. 

Hoffman and the ''students" he joined at the air])ort departed for 
London on a BOAC plane. 

When Hoffman left New York, he and, as far as he knew, all of the 
others in his group possessed U.S. passports, but none of them was 
validated for travel to Cuba. At London the plane was met by an 
American official, who warned the passengers of possible prosecution 
for traveling to Cuba without proper authorization. 

In Paris. Hoffman's group was joined bj^ another group which had 
flown there from New York on a KLM plane by way of Amsterdam. 

Although the so-called students were split into three separate groups 
and stayed overnight in three different hotels in Paris, they had din- 
ner together. They Avere inforn^sed at this time by Levi Laub that 
they would go to Czechoslovakia, which they did the day after their 
arrival in Paris. 

L^pon arrival at Prague on a Czech plane, the American passengers 
were once again greeted by an American official, who repeated the 
warning issued at the London stop. On this occasion, many of the 
students rudely walked away from the official while he was addressing 
them. 

Czech visas were given Hoffman and the other students at Prague, 
although Hoffman had not applied for one anywhere en route. Czech 
officials examined the passports of the U.S. students, but made no en- 
tries in them. 

From Prague, the American travelers were taken on a 4-hour bus 
ride to Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia, where they stayed for 2 days at the 
Grand Hotel Moscow. Several group meetings were held, during 
which plans for the stay in Cuba were discussed. At one such meeting, 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 053 

the students were addressed and conoratnlated on havin<>' defied their 
(Tovernnient by the Cuhan Ambassador to Czechosh)vakia. 

A\'hile in Czechosk)vakia, tlie students were instructed by Levi Laub 
not to sliow their passports to any Cuban official when they arrived 
in Cuba. IloH'nian believed this instruction was given in the hope 
tJiat if the passports were technically ''not used" in Cuba, the students 
might be protected against charges of improper use of their passports. 

In Czechoslovakia, the students were joined by Vickie Ortiz, who 
iiad apparently arrived in Prague ahead of the main group. Miss 
Ortiz possessed both a U.S. and Mexican passport. It was agreed, 
therefore, that she would be the tirst to leave the plane at stopovere 
during the balance of the trip to Cuba. If any authorities lifted either 
of her passports, she would still have another one and, meanwhile, 
the other students would have been alerted to try to protect their 
passports. 

Before the students departed from Czechoslovakia, they were issued 
"'slip visas" (pieces of paper wdth entry visas stamped on them) by the 
Cuban consulate in Prague for their entry into Cuba. Again, no entry 
was made in their passports. 

From Czechoslovakia the Americans were flown on a Cuban airplane 
to Ireland, Newfoundland, and thence to Havana, Cuba, where they 
arrived on June 30. There each student surrendered his "slip visa" 
and tilled out a "landing card," requesting such general information 
as name, address, occupation, and passport number. The students 
supplied their passport numbers, as requested, but were careful not 
to show their passports to Cuban officials. 

They were interview^ed and j^hotographed by a large contingent 
of the Cuban press at the Havana airport. Then they were quartered 
at the Hotel Riviera in the Cuban capital. 

Their first evening in Cuba, the students were greeted by representa- 
tives of the Cuban Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples, the 
group in charge of them tliroughout their stay. The next day they 
met members of the Cuban Federation of University Students, which 
was supposedly paying their expenses. Mr. Hoffman had serious 
doubts that the Cuban student organization was paying these expenses 
because of the high cost of the air travel alone. His guess was that 
the cost of the entire trip had to have been underwritten by the Cuban 
Government. 

About the third day the Americans were in Cuba, Fidel Castro 
appeared at a resort hotel they were visiting. He played ping-pong 
with some of the students for nearly 3 hours. After the ping-pong 
games Avere over, the students gathered around Cnstro and began ask- 
ing him questions about Cuba. He brushed them off by saying that 
he had to return to the affairs of State. 

Also, early in the visit to Cuba, Castro went skin diving with Levi 
Laub and two other members of the American student group. 

Day after day during their stay in Cuba, the students were taken on 
"organized" and "guided" tours from one end of the island to the 
other. They visited apartment projects, factories, schools, beaclies, etc. 
The tours were not compulsory, however, and, as members of a very 
privileged group, those students who wished to remain behind and roam 
around Havana were fre« to do so. 

Although the students, through the guided tours, did travel exten- 
sively across Cuba, they still were able to see only what their hosts 



654 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

wanted them to see. Hoffman, for instance, repeatedly asked to be 
shown the La Cabana Prison in Havana and the Isle of Pines, where 
political prisoners are kept. Each time he reqviested permission to 
visit these places, his Cuban hosts would indicate that approval was 
forthcoming, but it never came. 

One day Hoffman walked up to a prison in Havana and asked if 
he might talk to counterrevolutionaries detained there. He caused 
quite a bit of commotion among the guards, but could not gain 
entrance. 

Hoffman asked to visit Soviet military bases. "Sure, sure," was the 
reply from Cuban officials, but that is where his request ended. 

Hoffman observed many Russians in Cuba. Often they were seen 
riding in Soviet- or Czech-made military vehicles. They were sim- 
ilarly dressed, altliough never seen in militaiy uniforms. There 
was no doubt in Hoffman's mind, however, about their being military 
personnel. 

On one occasion, Hoffman saw a dozen uniformed Chinese military 
officers, but he did not see any Chinese being moved about in truck 
convoys. 

Diplomats and other representatives of foreign Communist coun- 
tries and interests in Cuba went all out to woo and indoctrinate the 
visiting U.S. students. In fact, the students received a far greater 
volume of Communist books, pamphlets, and other propaganda ma- 
terial than they could ever have hoped to bring home with them. 
They were told by Cuban officials just to put the material in boxes 
marked with their names and addresses and it would be sent to their 
homes. 

The students were in contact with other Americans in Cuba. The 
group was addressed on a number of occasions by Eobert Williams (a 
fugitive from a kidnapping charge involved in a racial mcident in 
North Carolina several years ago) . 

The students met members of a group of Americans called the 
North American Friends of Cuba. Most of them worked for the 
Cuban Government. At least one of them also admitted being a 
member of the Cuban militia. 

Despite the students' public declarations that the purpose of their 
trip was to see for themselves what was going on in Cuba, Levi Laub 
indicated otherwise when he addressed the group at one time in Cuba. 
Laub said that the real purpose of the trip was to "break" the travel 
ban. 

Before the students wound up their visit in Cuba, a continuation 
committee was formed to plan future trips to that country. The day 
before the students left Cuba, a Cuban official told the continuation 
committee members that their trip to Cuba had been very important 
to Cuba and Cuban foreign policy. He expressed the opinion and the 
hope that, if the students succeeded in breaking the U.S. travel ban, 
it would be difficult for other countries to impose one against Cuba. 

The same Cuban official encouraged the returning U.S. students 
to send other Americans to Cuba. Earlier, Fidel Castro had sug- 
gested to Levi Laub that, if the U.S. Government attempted to prose- 
cute the students when they returned home, additional students should 
be sent to Cuba while the first group was being prosecuted. 

Also prior to their departure from Cuba, the students were briefed 
by their own leaders on how to deal with U.S. customs and immigration 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 655 

officers, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Committee on 
Un-American Activities. 

One of tlie leaders, Pliillip Luce, an employee of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee,^ informed the students that upon returning 
liome they could obtain legal advice from the ECLC, the American 
Civil Liberties Union, and the National Committee To Abolish the 
Un-American Activities Committer.. Luce also said members of the 
ECLC would represent the students "without fee" if they were prose- 
cuted, but that there would be expenses of about $6,000 that would 
have to be raised by defense committees organized to help the students. 

Hoffman learned the Cuban Government had made a film of the 
students' visit to Cuba and that the film was going to be smuggled 
into the LTnited States at a later date. In the United States the 
students were to combine showings of the film with lectures on Cuba 
to raise money for their defense. 

The U.S. students departed by air from Cubii on August 26, 1963, 
for the return trip home by way of Madrid, Spain. Wlien the plane 
made a refueling stop at Bermuda, however, Hoffman left the group 
and flew directly to New Yoi-k at his own expense. 

At the subcommittee's hearings on September 12, Hoffman was 
asked to identify those students who had traveled to Cuba and who 
were also members of the Progressive Labor Movement, an ultrarevolu- 
tionary Commimist splinter group. At an earlier hearing the subcom- 
mittee had learned that members of Progressive Labor had played a 
leading role in organizing the unauthorized trip to Cuba. According 
to Hoffman, the known Progressive Labor members who made the 
trip were Levi Laub, Salvatore Cucchiari, Vickie Ortiz, Ellen 
Shallit, Rhoden Smith, Wendie Nakashima, John Salter, Larry 
Phelps, Stefan ]Martinot, Eleanor Goldstein, Catherine Prenslcy, and 
Mark Tishman. Tifniman, according to Hoffman, said he joined the 
Progressive Laboi- IMovement only to be able to make the trip to Cuba 
and that he subse(inently resigned. 

Asked by the subcommittee to name the leaders of tlie students 
with whom he traveled to Cuba, Hofl'man named Levi Laub as the 
unquestioned head of the group, inasmuch as Anatol Schlosser had 
not made the trip. Hofl'man said Laub informed the other students 
during the trip that he had been in Cuba the previous February or 
March making arrangements for their visit. 

Hoffman said that another leader was Phillip Luce, who headed the 
students' press committee. "^^Hiile in Cuba, Luce kept in contact with 
Clark Foreman, the director of the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee, about reaction to the trip in the United States. 

Other leaders in the group were Ellen Shallit, Salvatore Cucchiari, 
Stefan Martinot, Larry Phelps, and Wendie Nakashima. 

INIr. Hoffman concluded that the trip of the U.S. students to Cuba, 
which received tremendous play in the Cuban press, had been a great 
propao^anda victory for the Castro regime. 

Hoffman also emphatically emphasized his conclusion that the per- 
sons with whom he had traveled to Cuba were not typical American 
students. Their ages ranged from 18 to .3.S, he told the subcommittee, 
and some of them were not students at all. Most of them had made 



1 This organization was cited as a Communist front by both the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities and the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee In 19.58 and lO.'jS, 
respectively. 



656 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

up their minds favorably about Communist Cuba long before they 
arrived there, tlie witness said. 

He described for the subcommittee an occasion in Cuba when a Com- 
munist group from Vietnam showed the U.S. "students" a film of mili- 
tary operations in that Asian country. When a scene appeared in 
which an American airplane was shot down, a great cheer went up 
from the "students.'' 

Hoffman again emphasized that they were not typical American 
students. 

The next witness heard in public session on September 12 w^as 
Levi Lee Laub of New York City. Laub was unemployed at the 
time of his testimony, he said, and still considered himself a college 
student, inasmuch as he planned to return to Cohunbia College to com- 
plete two examinations required for his bachelor of arts degree. 

The subconunittee's counsel introduced a photostatic copy of a pass- 
port application which Laub had filed with the State Department's 
New York City office on Januaiy 29, 1963, in which he had stated 
that he intended to depart for a vacation in Mexico on February 1, 
1963. 

Laub testified he was issued a passport after filing this applica- 
tion, but invoked the fifth amendment when asked if he had 
truthfully reflected his travel plans in the application. He admitted, 
however, that he had not at any time after receiving the passport ap- 
plied for s]')ecific endorsement of it for travel to Cuba. He declined 
on constitutioiial grounds to say whether in Febniaiy and March 1963, 
or at any time after January 29, 1963, he had traveled to Cuba through 
Mexico. 

The witness freely acknowledged he had arrived in Cuba with the 
group of U.S. students on June 30, 1963, and remained there until 
August 25. Asked if on the occasion of this trip his passport had con- 
tained a notation authorizing travel to Cuba in accordance with ex- 
isting travel laws and regulations, Laub claimed no such laws or regu- 
lations existed. He claimed the requirement for specific passport en- 
dorsement for travel to Cuba was a matter of State Department 
policy, not a matter of law or regulation. 

The chairman read to the witness the following portion of a State 
Department docTunent published December 13, 1962, more than 6 
mouths before the student group departed for Cuba : 

The Department warns all concerned that travel to Cuba by a United States 
citizen without a passport specifically validated by the Department of State for 
that purpose constitutes a violation of the Travel Control Law and Regulations. 
(Title S TT. S. Code Sec. 118.5: Title 22 Code of Federal Resulations, Sec. .5,S..3). 
A wilful violation of the law is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. 

T^vi Laub admitted having been one of the leaders of the meeting 
in New York City on October 14, 1962, at which the Ad Hoc Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba was organized. He invoked the fifth 
amendment and other reasons, however, for refusing to say whether 
he, Stefan Martinot, and Anatol Schlosser had been appointed by 
Milton Rosen and Mortimer Scheer, leaders of the Progressive Labor 
Movement, to form tlie Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba. 

The witness also admitted having attended another meeting in 
New York in December 1962, when tlie Permanent Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba was created. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. ()57 

Laiib testified that, as a represent a( ive of tlie Permanent Committee, 
he had visited the University of California, San Francisco State Col- 
lege, Stanford University, the Univeisity of Chicago, tlie University of 
Wisconsin, the University of JMichigan, Brooklyn College, City Col- 
lege of New York, and Columbia College to promote the trip to 
Cuba and recruit students to take part in it. He said his travel 
expenses were paid from funds raised primarily at benefit parties held 
in New York City by the Permanent Committee. He said he knew of 
no financial contributions made to the Permanent Committee by any 
outside organization. 

The witness, who willingly testified tliat the student trip had been 
made to Cuba, repeatedly invoked the fifth amendment and other 
reasons for refusing to answer questions about certain preparatory 
activities in which he had engaged. He accordingly declined to 
confirm or deny the committee's information that he had negotiated 
with both the British Overseas Airways Corporation and the KLM 
Royal Dutch Airlines for flying two groups of students from New York 
to Paris. Laub declined to discuss the committee's information that it 
was he who had reserved and picked up tlie tickets for the students 
from these two airlines. He also declined to explain why, as the com- 
mittee's investigation revealed, he had given several different personal 
New York addresses during his dealings with BOAC and KLM. 

The witness continued to invoke the fifth amendment and other 
reasons in refusing to say by whom the payments for the BOAC and 
KLM tickets had been made. Although the tickets were reserved and 
picked up in New York, the connnittee's investigation disclosed that 
the money for them was actually ])aid at the BOAC and KLINI offices 
in Ottawa, Canada, by "Mr. J. Jacobs" and "Mr. Jacob," respectively. 
On June 10 and 11, 1963, the investigation revealed, Jacobs, or a person 
using that name, had made deposits totaling $22,739.20 in U.S. currency 
with BOAC's Ottawa office, and on the latter date the same individual 
had deposited $13,436.80 in U.S. currency with KLM's office in Ottawa. 

Laub declined to tell the subcommittee if he knew Jacobs, if he knew 
Jacobs to be an American citizen, and if he knew why Jacobs had thus 
far failed to collect in excess of $6,700 in refunds from KLM and 
BOAC for deposits over and above the cost of the tickets actually 
used for the trip to Cuba. 

The witness insisted that all of tlie expenses connected with the 
students' visit to Cuba were paid by the Cuban Federation of Univer- 
sity Students, but he supplied no other details on the matter. 

Laub admitted that during the latter part of the visit to Cuba there 
came a time when some of the group wished to remain longer and 
others did not. In this connection, he acknowledged he had urged the 
students to do whatever they decided to do together, so tliey would re- 
turn to the United States as a group. In this way, he had contended, 
the group would have a greater impact upon the possible breaking of 
the State Department ban on travel to Cuba. 

The witness testified that he was, and had been for ff months, a 
member of the Progressive Labor Movement. 

Laub reluctantly admitted that on April 28, 1961, he had demon- 
strated against, and refused to take part in, a civil defense shelter drill 
in New York City, which resulted in his being convicted and fined 
for violation of the New York civil defense law. 



658 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The witness was then excused, and the subcommittee recessed until 
the following morning. 

The first witness on September 13, 1963, was Phillip Abbott Luce, 26, 
the holder of a master's degree in political science from Ohio State 
University and an associate editor of Rights, an organ published by 
the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee of New York City. Luce 
was one of the leaders of the group of U.S. ""students'- who made the 
unauthorized trip to Cuba during the summer of 1963. 

In response to a series of questions about some of his activities prior 
to the formation of the American group which visited Cuba, Luce 
testified as follows : 

As an employee of the ECLC, he had spoken to student groups on 
numerous college campuses. 

He had written book reviews for the National Guardian newspaper 
and the Communist Party's magazine, Mainstream. He told the sub- 
committee he hadn't known the latter was a Communist Party pub- 
lication. 

He spoke at a community forum in New York at which Benjamin 
Davis was also a speaker, but claimed he didn't know Davis was the 
national secretary of the Communist Party. 

The witness said he did not attend either of the meetings at which 
the Ad Hoc Committee and the Permanent Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba were formed. 

Luce testified that he did not know who "J. Jacobs" was. He said 
that prior to the subcommittee's hearings he had had no knowledge of 
any arrangement whereby the students' flight tickets had been pur- 
chased by a "J. Jacobs." Neither, he told the subcommittee, had he 
made any arrangements with Levi Laub by which Luce's name would 
be given the British Overseas Airways Corporation as a person who 
could be contacted about the trip to Cuba in Laub's absence. 

The witness stated that he had not been instructed by the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee to assume a leadership role within the 
group which traveled to Cuba. During his participation in that trip, 
Luce said, he had been on leave without pay from his ECLC position. 

Luce acknowledged that in the spring of 1963 he had requested and 
received a U.S. passport from the State Department. He admitted 
he had the Cuba trip in mind at the time he filed his passport applica- 
tion, even though he had said in that application only that he intended 
to visit France, England, and "other countries." He also confirmed 
the subcommittee's information that he had not subsequently requested 
the Department of State to endorse his passport for travel to Cuba. 

Luce testified that he had not discussed the purposes of the trip with 
either Leonard Boudin or Victor Eabinowitz prior to the group's 
departure. Lawyers Boudin and Eabinowitz are prominent members 
of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, who have identified 
themselves in litigation before U.S. courts as representing the legal 
interests of Fidel Castro in the United States. 

The witness told the subcommittee that near the end of his stay in 
Cuba, at the request of the "students," he had cabled the director of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, asking the aid of ECLC in 
any legal matters concerning criminal actions or passports in which 
the students might become involved. 

Luce insisted that he had broken no law when he traveled to Cuba. 
He claimed the only prohibition against traveling to Cuba without 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 659 

specific passport endorsement to do so exists in the form of a State 
Department public notice, not a law. He said further, however, that 
even if there ^s'ero such a law, he would consider it his duty to break it. 

The subcommittee's final three witnesses on September 18 were heard 
dui-ino- a public session in the afternoon. The first of these was 
Wendie Suzuko Nakashima Rosen, a student on leave of absence from 
the City College of New York and the wife of Jacob Rosen. 

Inasmuch as the witness had used her maiden name during her Cuban 
travel and expressed no preference for either name in her interrogation, 
she was addressed both in her maiden and married names. 

INIiss Nakashima acknowledged the correctness of the following 
background information about her which had been obtained by the 
committee's investigation : 

On May 3, 1060, while a member of the Students for a Sane Nuclear 
Policy at CCNY, she refused to take part in a civil defense air raid 
drill. Later in I960, prior to the existence of restrictions on travel to 
Cuba, Miss Nakashima visited Cuba for about 3 months, during which 
time she worked in the Sierra Maestra Mountain area. A "couple 
of years ago," in the words of the witness, she was a member of Ad- 
vance, an organization described as a Communist front by the U.S. 
Attorney General in a petition to the Subversive Activities Control 
Board on January 10, 1963. On June 5, 1962, she filed a passport 
application, in which she stated it was her intention to travel to Eng- 
land, Finance, and Italy^ — then in July and August 1962, she used the 
passport to traAcl to the Communist-run Eighth World Youth Festival 
at Helsinki, Finland. 

Miss Nakashima told the subcommittee she had not listed Helsinki, 
Finland, on her passport application because she felt there might be 
an attempt to delay or prevent her from going thei'e. 

The witness said that she had been in attendance at the meeting 
during which the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba was 
organized in the fall of 1962, but invoked the fifth amendment when 
asked if eitlier IMilton Rosen or Mortimer Scheer, expelled Commu- 
nist Party members who organized the Progressive Labor IMovement, 
had been present on that occasion. 

Miss Nakashima acknowledged she had not at any time subsequent 
to receipt of her passport in June 1962 requested the State Department 
to validate it specifically for travel to Cuba. She claimed there was no 
law in existence requiring such validation. 

She did not contest the subcommittee's information that she had 
departed from New York on June 25, 1963, and traveled to Cuba on 
BOAC and Cubana airlines via London, Paris, and Prague. She 
testified that she had participated in many press interviews during her 
stay in Cuba. 

In reply to questions about the use of her passport, she testified only 
that she had exhibited it to foreign immigi'ation officials in London and 
Paris on the way to Cuba and to U.S. immigration officials when she 
returned to the United States. 

During her testimony, Miss Nakashima said that she was no longer 
a member of Advance and had at no time been a member of the Com- 
Uiunist Party. 

The next witness was Catherine Jo Prensky, 20, formerly a student 
at the University of Wisconsin, but enrolled in the City College of 
New York at the time of her appearance before the subcommittee. 



660 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

According to information obtained throuoli a preliminary investiga- 
tion, Miss Prenslcy applied for a U.S. passport at the State Depart- 
ment's office in New York City on April 24, 1062, setting forth a plan 
to travel as a tourist to England, France, Switzerland, Italy, and Fin- 
land. She acknowledged to the subcommittee that she had used the 
passport to attend the Eighth World Youth Festival at Helsinki, 
Finland, from July 20 through August 6, 1062. 

Miss Prensky admitted that, without having requested validation of 
her passport for travel to Cuba, she nevertheless had traveled to Cuba 
in June 1063 by way of New York, Amsteidam, Paris, and Prague. 
She told the subcommittee her passport had been lifted temporarily 
by a Dutch official in Amsterdam and was not returned until after an 
official from the U.S. Embassy in Holland liad spoken to her. 

She recalled having exhibited her passport in Paris, but said she 
could not remember whether, in Prague, she had received a Cuban visa 
l)earing her passport number. 

Miss Prensky affirmed that she belonged to a Progressive Labor 
Student Club. 

The day's final witness was Larry Wilford Phelps, an unemployed 
1063 graduate of the University of Noi-th Carolina. He was another 
of the so-called students who made the unauthorized trip to Cuba dur- 
ing the summer of 1063. 

Phelps testified that he had been one of the organizers of the Pro- 
gressive Labor Club at the University of North Carolina in July or 
August 1962. He admitted having participated in an all-day confer- 
ence of the Progressive Labor JSIovement on July 1, 1962, at the Hotel 
Diplomat in Nbav York City, which was attended by more than 50 
delegates from widely scattered Progressive Labor groups throughout 
the country. He invoked the self-incrimination clause of the fifth 
amendment, however, when asked if he had had prior discussion about 
the formation of a Progressive Labor Club at the University of North 
Carolina with Jacob Rosen, an identified Communist who had been a 
frequent visitor to the university's campus. 

Phelps testified that, in a passport application filed with the Depart- 
ment of State on December 7, 1062, he had said he intended to visit 
"England and maybe France." He strongly implied to the subcom- 
mittee that, at the time he filed the a]:)])lication, he had intended to 
travel to Cuba, but that he deliberately did not state this because he 
knew he would be refused permission if he did. 

The witness affinned the subcommittee's information that he had 
at no time, after receiving his passport in December 1962, requested 
that it be validated for travel to Cuba. 

Phelps told the subcommitee he had no knowledge of how payment 
was made to IvLM and BOAC airlines for the flight tickets used by 
the students on their unauthorized trip to Cuba in June 1963. He 
stated further he did not know the identity of "J. Jacobs." 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT TRAVEL REGU 
LATIONS AND PRO (ASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVI 
TIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1963 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.C. 
public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office 
Building, Washington, D.C., Honorable Edwin E. Willis (chairman) 
presiding. 

Subcommittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Louisi- 
ana ; William M. Tuck, of Virginia ; and August E. Johansen, of Mich- 
igan. 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Johansen. 

Committee members also present: Representatives Joe R. Pool, of 
Texas; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri; George F. Senner, Jr., of 
Arizona; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; Henry C. Schadeberg, of 
Wisconsin ; and John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio. ( Appearances as noted. ) 

Staff members present: Francis J. jSIcNamara, director; Alfred M. 
Nittle, counsel; and Donald T. Appell, chief investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

The subcommittee is convened to continue hearings, begun here in 
Washington on May 6 of this year, on certain matters and for the 
legislative purposes set forth in a committee resolution adopted April 
24, 1963. I will read the text of that resolution for the record. 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties or a subcommittee tliereof, be held in Washington, D.C, or at such other 
place or places as the Chairman may determine, on such date or dates as the 
Chairman may designate, relating to (a) Communist propaganda activities in 
the United States conducted in support of the Communist regime in Cuba, or for 
the purpose of advancing the policies and objectives of the world Communist 
movement in Latin America generally, (b) the activities of United States citi- 
zens acting on behalf of, or in the interest of, foreign Communist principals, and 
(c) foreign travel undertaken by United States citizens in connection with such 
activities and in violation of State Department travel regulations, for the fol- 
lowing legislative purposes : 

1. To provide factual information to aid Congress in the disposition of pres- 
ently pending legislation (including, but not limited to Sections 709 and 712 of 
H.R. 9.58), or in the proposal of remedial legislation, in fulfillment of the direc- 
tions contained in the mandate to the Committee by House Resolution 5 of Jan- 
uary 9. 1963. and Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress. 

661 
98-765— 63— pt. 3 2 



662 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

2. The execution, by the administrative agencies concerned, of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 1938, travel control laws (particularly Title 8 U.S.C. 
1185), and regulations issued pursuant thereto, to assist the House in appraising 
the administration of such laws and regulations. 

3. Consideration of the advisability of amending Title 22 U.S.C. 611, by ex- 
tending the definition of the terms "foreign principal" and "agent of a foreign 
principal" so as to remove any doubt as to the true test of the agency relation- 
ship or its application to activities within the intent of Congress as expressed in 
the Act. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the hearings may include any other mat- 
ter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

At the opening of the hearings in Washington, D.C., I read a verj^ 
com])lete statement concerning the purposes and subject matter of 
these hearings. I will now summarize that statement : 

Over 12 years ago, on December 16, 1050, the President of the United 
States proclaimed the existence of a national emergency. That proc- 
lamation has not been altered or repealed by succeeding Presidents. 
The emergency continues. Today we must be concerned not only about 
communism in Korea and other distant countries, but in Cuba — just 
90 miles from our shores. 

Fidel Castro has converted Cuba into an advance Communist base 
in this hemisphere. It is supplying inspiration, propaganda, train- 
ing, communications, and technical assistance to Communist and revo- 
lutionary groups in the whole of Latin America. It is also serving 
as an outpost of the Soviet Union from which that country is directing 
certain activities against the United States. 

Central Intelligence Agency Director John McCone, in an appear- 
ance before the Plouse Committee on Foreign Ailairs on February 19, 
stated : 

The Cuban effort at present is far more serious than the hastily organized 
and ill-conceived raids that the bearded veterans of the Sierra Maestra led into 
such Central American countries as Panama. Haiti. Nicaragua, and the Domini- 
can Republic during the first 8 or 9 months Castro was in power. 

Today, the Cuban effort is far more sophisticated, more covert, and more 
deadly. In its professional trade craft, it shows guidance and training by 
experienced Communist advisers from the Soviet bloc, including veteran Spanish 
Communists. 

Mr. McCone also pointed out that approximately 1,500 persons went 
to Cuba during the vear 1962 from other Latin American countries to 
receive ideological indoctrination and guerrilla warfare training. He 
said that some of the courses given in Cuba last as long as a year and 
include intensive training in sabotage, espionage, and psychological 
warfare and that the so-called visitors to Cuba also serve as couriers 
for Soviet communications and the financing of Communist subversion 
in various countries. 

United States citizens, too, have been involved in these activities. 
In an effort to prevent such activity by citizens of this country — and 
because, following the severance of diplomatic relations, it could not 
protect U.S. nationals in Cuba — the Department of State issued regu- 
lations, effective January 16, 1961, prohibiting travel to Cuba by 
citizens of the United States unless they possessed specially validated 
passports (22 CFR pt. 53.3, as amended). These regulaitions are 
based on the security provisions of the Immigration and Nationality 
Act of 1952, regulating travel of citizens and aliens during war or 
national emergency, and empowering the President to impose re- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 663 

strictions and ]n-ohibitions, in addition to those provided by the 
applicable section of the Act (8 U.S.C. 1185). 

Present reo-ulations generally require no passport for travel in 
North, Central, or South America. However, when a U.S. citizen 
travels to Cuba, he is then required to have a passport for travel in 
other nations of North, Central, or South America through which 
he may pass in traveling to or from Cuba. 

Despite the ban on travel to Cuba unless a specially validated pass- 
port is obtained, committee investigation has determined that over 
1 00 American citizens have traveled to Cuba without validation. Com- 
mittee investigation has also revealed that U.S. citizens who had 
traveled to Cuba, some with and some without validation, have been 
rendering propaganda assistance to the Communist Cuban regime 
after their return to this country. 

On January 9, 1963, the late chairman of tliis committee intro- 
duced H.R. 958, which was referred to the Committee on Un-American 
Activities. Sections 709 and 7l2 of that bill, dealing with passport 
security and travel control and restrictions on the issuance and use 
of passports, are directed particularly toward the travel of persons 
associated with subversive organizations and with subversive objec- 
tives or aims. 

Other bills have been introduced in the House in an effort to resolve 
these difficulties and have been referred to the Committee on the 
Judiciary. The Committee on Un-American Activities has under- 
taken this investigation and hearings pursuant to its mandate to con- 
duct investigations that will aid the Congress in disposition of pend- 
ing legislation. 

I w411 now read for the record the order of appointment of the 
subcommittee conducting these hearings : 

July 11, 1963. 
TO : Mr. Francis J. McNamara, 
Director, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Honorable William M. Tuck and Honorable August E. Johansen, 
as associate members, and myself, as Chairman, to conduct a hearing in Wash- 
ington, D.C., Monday, August 5, 1963, at 10 A.M., on subjects under investigation 
by the Committee and take such testimony on said day or succeeding days, 
as It may deem necessary. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any Member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 11th day of July, 1963. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis 
Edwin E. Willis, 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Comisel, call vour first w^itness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Barry Hoffman please come forward? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 



664 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF BARRY HOFFMAN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hoffman, will you please state your full name and 
residence for the record ? 

Mr. Hoffman. My name is Barry Hoffman, 48 William Street, 
Brookline, Massachusetts. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hoffman, it is noted for the record that you are 
not represented Iby counsel. However, from the prior conference 
with you, it is the understanding of the committee that you do not 
desire to be accompanied by counsel in the giving of your testimony. 
Is that not correct ? 

Mr. Hoffman. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please? 

Mr. Hoffman. November 17, 1936, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and any degrees you received ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I graduated from the Roxbury Memorial High 
School in 1953 and I gi'aduated from the Massachusetts College of 
Pharmacy in 1958 witli a bachelor of science degree in pharmacy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I am in the real estate business. I am a member 
of the Boston Real Estate Board. 

Mr. NiTTLE. '^\niat other occupations have you had since graduation 
from college? 

Mr. Hoffman. I have been in the appliance business. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hoffman, we know that you were one of the group 
of 50-odd students, or persons described as students, who traveled to 
Cuba this June, although the plans for travel were originally made 
for the Christmas holidays in 1962. Would you please tell tlie com- 
mittee the purpose of your travel there and tlie circumstances under 
which you decided to make this trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Late last fall, around December, a small item ap- 
peared in the Boston newspapers mentioning the plan of a group of 
students to travel to Cuba. For some time I have been watching the 
newspapers and clipping items like this for Gordon Hall. Gordon 
Hall is a close friend of mine from Boston and Mr. Hall, as you may 
know, is a nationally known autliority on the activities of domestic 
Communists, Facists", Nazis, and other political fringe and extremist 
groups. 

Recognizing that a group of students planning to travel to Com- 
munist Cuba would probably turn out to be pro-Communist oriented, 
we decided that this matter required further investigation. Knowing 
that Gordon Hall was a target of the Communists and known to them, 
it was decided that it would be wiser for me to contact Anatol Schlos- 
ser, who was listed in the clipping as a spokesman for the committee. 
I telephoned Schlosser in New York, expressing an interest in the trip, 
and I next received a letter from Mr. Schlosser dated December 14, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have a copy of the letter dated December 14, 
1962, which you received from a person named Anatol Schlosser? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes, I have that letter with me here. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 665 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may we mark that letter an exhibit for 
identification? "We de^sire to offer it in evidence. 

The Chairman. Let the letter be so marked and incorporated in the 
record. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hoffman, I note that the letter is fairly brief. 
Would you please read the letter into the record for the benefit of the 
connnittee? 

Mr. IIoFFMAN. Yes. 

42 St. Marks PI. NYC 3, 

December 14, 1962. 
Dear Mr. Hoffman : 

The State Department has just notified me that a willful violation of the 
travel ban is punishable by a fine of not more than $5,000 and/or imprisonment 
of not more than five years. This however is not going to deter us from our 
objectives to exercise our rights as citizens and students to travel and to see 
and evaluate for ourselves. 

Please contact Don Alper, Myles Standish Hall, Bay State Road at BU room 
321 for complete details. 

I sincerely hope that you will be able to join us. 

Very truly yours, 

Anatol Schlosser. 

Tt is signed Anatol Schlosser. 

(Document marked "Hoffman Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTL^. Your initial contact with Anatol Schlosser was for 
the purpose of travel to Cuba, which was announced by that group as 
being planned for the Christmas holidays of 1962. Did you take any 
action that was suggested in the letter of December 14, 1962? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I might continue, though — finishing the an- 
swer to the previous question — that after I received the letter dated 
December 14, which I just read, and at Gordon's suggestion and so 
that there would be no misunderstanding of my motives, we visited 
security agencies of the United States Government, inasmuch as this 
investigation did involve national security. 

The Chairman. What agencies did you visit ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I visited the FBI, the Central Intelligence Agency. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

]\Ir. PToffman. Would you repeat the next question? 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Further pursuing the question of the chairman, did you 
offer your cooperation to these agencies of Government? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. 

The Chairman. You told them that you intended to make the trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes, Mr. Willis. I also notified them of the fact 
tliat the trip was taking place. 

The Chairman. And they were aware that you would make the 
trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Having received this letter of December 14, 1962, sug- 
gesting that you contact Don Alper, what did you do? 

Mr. Hoffman. In the interest of clarity, I should mention that the 
trip that was mentioned in the letter of December 14 never took place. 
I never understood, or never laiew, the real details of why this trip 
didn't take place, but I understood that the Canadian Government was 
not going to allow the Cuban airplane to pick up the students in Can- 
ada and bring them to Cuba. So that trip never took place. 



666 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. We are aware of that and we examined some of the 
leaders in May of this year, I think in this very room. We know that 
the trip did not materialize — that it was frustrated by action of the 
Canadian Government, However, on the stand, one or two of the 
leaders said that knowing it would be a violation of the law, they 
nevertheless intended to make the trip this year. Apparently, they 
did just that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following your notification that the plans for the De- 
cember 1962 visit were canceled, did you subsequently make or re- 
ceive any contact with the student committee? 

Mr. Hoffman. During this time, I exchanged several telephone 
calls with Mr. Schlosser and, after a lapse of approximately 5 months, 
I received a letter from Mr. Schlosser, stating that the trip was on 
again for July. This time the letter enclosed an application blank 
for the July trip, a three-pa^e memorandum explaining the legal 
difficulties that we might run into on the trip, and a mimeographed 
form letter outlining the actual details of tlie trip, such as the cost 
of the trip and information on what applicants that were interested in 
making the trip would have to supply. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understand you are referring to a letter received from 
whom ? 

Mr. Hoffman. This was a letter dated May 1.5, also from Anatol 
Schlosser. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think the letter is sufficiently brief. Perhaps you 
could read that into the record. 

Mr. Hoffman. The letter is dated IMay 15, 1963. 

Dear Mr. Hoflfman : 

We understand that you are interested in our .Tuly trip to Cuba. We are send- 
ing you an application and a brief statement outlining the possible consequences 
of the trip. A representative of our committee is planning to be in the Boston 
area soon. If you are interested in making the trip, please get in touch with us 
immediately and let us know what would be a convenient time for you to meet 
our representative. Or, if you have no questions, please return the completed 
application immediately ! 

Sincerely Yours, 
/s/ Anatol Schlosser 
Anatol Schlosseb 
Spokesman 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may we mark the letter of May 15, 
1963, for identification as "Hoffman Exhibit No. 2," and mark the 
application submitted with it, bearing the title "Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba, Application for Summer 1963 Trip," 
as "Hoffman Exhibit No. 2-A" ? 

The Chairman. Yes. Let the two documents be incorporated in 
the record and so identified. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Together, if the Chairman pleases, with the legal state- 
ment issued by the Permanent Student Committee which was for- 
warded to Mr. Hoffman as an enclosure of the letter, which we have 
marked for identification as "Hoffman Exhibit No. 2-B," and a third 
enclosure referred to by Mr. Hoffman, w^hich is a form letter dated 
April 20, 1963, marked as "Hoffman Exhibit No. 2-C." 

The Chairman. Those documents will be received also. 

(Documents marked "Hoffman Exhibits Nos. 2 through 2-C," re- 
spectively. Exhibit No. 2 retained in committee files. Exhibits 2-A, 
2-B, and 2-C follow.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 667 

Hoffman Exhibit No. 2-A 

FomMcifr srjOQir cosiittce fcs txavel to cum 

APPLICATION FOR SlMCR 1963 TRIP 

1« Name (ple&se print) Aa» _^____ 

2. Home address 



3. School kddreM Mejor field of stu^ 



•♦. If not a studsnt:: 

a. Current occupation 



b. When snd whers did you lisst attend school 



5, Why do you want to vl«it Cuba? 



6. What would you like to see In Cuba? 



7* Whom would you like, to ovet and speak with? 



3. Please write a short statement outlining your understanding of the 
possible legal consequences of the trip. 

9. Please enclose $10. OC deposit and three passport size photographs 
for the visa. (The deposit will be refunded if your application is 
not accepted) . 

bdU^ached at: 

Tel: OR 3-7369 

Office hours: Monday 6-9 PM 

Thursday 6-9 m 

Saturday 10 Af: - 5 PM 

Pl£sse call during these hours and arrange an appointnent wltii s rcrpre* 
sentatl'/e of the conrnittee. 

DEADLE^: June 1. 1963. PLEASE APPLY IhMEOIATELYl 



668 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Hoffman Exhibit No. 2-B 

The Pcrri'Tn-nt St^-n^cnt Co;r.'..ittee for Vravcl to Cuba 
has often .Ji?ae cxc.r it.'j .sixiur: r-".- ■.rdin^; the so-cilled 
travel ban. V/e consi'lcr it to bo .on ^.rbitrary ruline; of the 
St'^.to Depn.rtr.ent, Ip.ckins in Congressional authority, and 
an obvious infring^-.ment of the citizon's right to trrtvel, 
a liberty g-^rranteed by the Constitution and upheld by our 
courts. Nonetheless, since it is our nrimary purpose to see 
and evaluate Cubn for ourselves, it is nocess-^'.ry for those 
malcing the tri;) .is "cll as for thoie vho suoport our interrtion 
to do so to be fully acquainted with the laws and rules 
which regialato travel. 

Travel to Cuba has been restricted since January 19 » 1961, 
On that d?i.y, the State Department announced (Public Notice 179) 
that "all U.S. passports are hereby declared to be invalid 
for travel to Cuba" because unrestricted travel to or in 
Cuba 7/ou d bo "inimical to the nr.tional interest." 
Ley Hender3on, Deputy Under Secretary for Administration, 
speaking for the State Department, declared IJiat the authority 
for the restriction wa^ contained in Sections 114 and 126 
of Lxecutive Order 7356 (March 31, 1938) and in the Act of 
July 3» 1926. The July 3, 1926 law gives the Secretary of 
State the power to "gr.ant '-nd issue passports. . .under such 
rules as the president may designate." President Roosevelt 
or'lered such rulG.=; on March 31, 1938, and Sections 1?4 and 126 
of the President's ruLeo, which Mr. Henderson quotes, 
authorize the Secret ry of State to use his discretion in 
the issuance of pasi?--.orts and in restricting their use to 
certain countric:. Neither the Act of July 3, 1926, nor 
the Lxecutive Order of 1938, make mention of any criminal 
provisions for dealing ;/ith violations of the law or executive 
rules. In fact, the only relevant sanction is found ii^. 
Title 18 of the U.S. Code (Section 1544, part b); "Wlioever 
uses any passoort in violation of the conditions or 
restrictions therein. .. shall be fined not more than 35,000 
or imprisoned not more than five years or both." However, 
"a citizen who has lawfully departed from this country can 
hardly violate this section in any country to which he may 
be be admitted without "using** his passport. He eould, for 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 669 

Hoffman Exhuut No. 2-B — Coutiuued 

o 

example, leave the United States by entaring a Western 
I!emlsph«r« mtlon, for irhlch United St-'xc-i l«-» does n-^t 
require a passport, or by entering some other country for 
which he holds a valid passport." (Freedom to Travel, 
Report of the Special Committee to Study Passport Procedures 
of the Association of the Var of the City af New York: 1958, 
pg. 70) 

Tho MacCarran-Walter Act of 1952 also rcgTalates travel 
by re.-^iiiring that during a time of war or n.-^.tional emergency, 
"it shall be unla vful to leave or ent-^r the United States 
v/ithout a valid p".ssport, suoject to such limita tions as 
the president niay authorize .^nd subncribs." This nrovision 
of th* Act is in force, for we have been in a state of 
national er.i'^r-^vLicy since December 16, 1950. The Act provides 
for fine, ol '»5,000 ajid imprisonment u t to fives years or 
both "Tor \^ny violation, but it i!3 cle r th-.t any citizen 
who poGsens'd a v.^lid passport vould not be subject to these 
sanctions . 

In siiort, the laws and regulations presently in effect 
cannot prohibit the travel of a citizen, anxious to exercise 
his rights, nor c:,n they subject him to Duiiishment. This 
is as it should be .nd the St, te Department itself has 
been forced to acicnowledge it. On May 1, 1952, the State 
Department declared: "...the procedure of travel control 
through passport restrictions in no way forbids American 
travel to those are;.-s," Thus in 1958, the Special Committee 
of the N.Y. Bar Association reported: "The committee has 
not discovered any statute wliich clearly provides- a penalty 
for viol-tion of area restrctions, and this seems to br a 
gla.ring omission if the United States is seriously interested 
in the establislim'^nt ind enforcement of travel controls. 
Knowing violation of valid restrictions should certainly 
be subject to an effective sanction, which is not now the case .,. 

This then is the legal situation. We have carefully 
studi d tht;sc rules and laws and we are confident that our 
projected trip to Cuba is not a violation of law, but the 
proper pursuit of our rights. There have not been siny 



670 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Hoffman Exhibit No. 2-B— Gontinued 

— 3 — 

reported proaecutions of American citizens for travel to or 
in restricted areas and we do not anticipate any indictments 
in our case. Of course, this is not a guarantee. There 
is also the possibility that the State Department would 
try to revoke our passports when we returned to the 
United States. We feel that this would be an arbitrary 
denial of a constitutional right and are prepared to face 
.'Uid fight that risk. 

We hope we have your support. 



PERMANENT STUDENT COMMITTEE 
FOR TRAVEL TO CUBA 
42 SAINT MARKS PLACE 
NEW YORK 3, H. Y. OR 37369 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 671 

Hoffman Exiiiuit No. 2-C 

April 20, 1963 



Dear Applicant, 

The Permanent Student Connlttee for Travel to Cuba has re- 
ceived a cable from the Federation of University Students in Havana, 
inviting American students to spend the month of July '63 in Cuba. 
We have ■ccepted the invitation and are now raaking errangenrant* to 
leave for Cuba during tJie last weekend in June. Tiie Federation of 
University Students will pay the round trip air transportation from 
Canada as well as all expenses (hotels, rneals, etc.) in Cuba. 

The estimated cost oi the trip is $100.00, The money will ba 
u*ed to cover round trip transportation to and from Canada, as v«;ll 
as the operating expenses. Group transportation to Canada and back 
will be arranged from central points in Nev; York, California and 
possibly from a third liscation in the Midwsst. The $100.00 fee 
la payable at the time and plaoa of depajrtare for Canada and docs 
not include the $10,00 deposit vhlch should be submitted along witJi 
the application. The deadline for sulanission of the application 
iB June 1, however, since there are many applicants already, effort 
should be made to get th* eppllcetion in as soon as possible. (A 
full account of all of the conmittae's operating and travel expen«»« 
will be kept and all surplus funds will be refunded at the end of 
the trip). 

We would like to remind all applicants that they must have a 
U.S. passport, a birth certificate, and an international smallpcwc 
vaccination certificate. VJe recomrcnd that you get these docunents 
inrrediately in order to avoid last minute delays and dise^pointments. 

Our puriwse remains tc cse and evaluate Cuba for ourselves. 



Permanent Student Comnciittee for Travel to Cuba 

Anatol Schlosser, Spokesman 
U2 St. liai-ks Place 
New York, New Yortt 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you continue? 

Mr. Hoffman. I again consulted with Gordon Hall and we both 
agreed on the importance of my making the trip. Accordingly, we 
again consulted with the various and appropriate security agencies 
relative to the trip, suggesting our cooperation on my return. 

The Chairman. So you contacted the FBI and the CIA for the 
second time? 

Mr. Hoffman. That is correct. 

The Chairman. That is in connection with the July trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I also sent back the application to the Perma- 
nent Committee for Student Travel to Cuba, Avhich was mentioned in 
one of the sheets enclosed with the May 15 letter. On June 15, Levi 
Laub \ATote me a letter addressed to my home in Brookline. I wasn't 
at my home for several days and I didn't receive the letter imme- 
diately. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you subsequently receive the letter in your pos- 
session ? 

Mr. Hoffman.: Yes. 



672 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may we mark the letter referred to, as 
"Hoffman Exhibit No. 3"" ? We offer that letter in evidence. 

The Chairman. The letter will be received in evidence. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps we should, at this point, read that letter into 
the record for the inf onnation of the connnittee. 

Mr. Hoffman. The letter is dated June 15, 1963, addressed to "48 
Williams Street, Brookline, Massachusetts." 

Deiar Mr. Hoffman : 

We haven't heard fi'om you in awhile but we've made all the arrangements 
necessary for you to make the trip with us. We'd like you to be in N.Y. by the 
24th — we will be leaving sometime during that week. 

Please get in touch with us immediately. 

with "immediately" underlined — 

GR 7-8396 

Hope to see you soon. 

Levi Laub 
PSCTC 

The Chairman. What does "PSCTC" stand for ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe that is the Permanent Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba. 

(Document marked "Hoffman Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this the first contact you had with Mr. Laub? 

Mr. PIoFFMAN. Yes. This letter was the first that I heard from 
Mr. Laub. Before I had a chance to reply to this letter, Levi Laub 
telephoned me on the mornincr of June 24, a Monday, and said that if 
I was interested in making the trip, I would have to be in New York 
that afternoon, Monday, June 24. 

There was kind of a problem there, inasmuch as that particular day 
I was supposed to receive my commission in the Air Force Reserve, 
and this was something which could not be delayed as it had to be done 
before the end of the fiscal year in July. I was able to get around 
this problem by chartering a plane, flying to where I was to be sworn 
in, in Massachusetts, being sworn in as a second lieutenant, flying back 
to Boston, and catching the shuttle to New York City. 

Then I went to the New York contact point, which I recall was 102 
East Eighth Street. 

Mr. NiTTLE. From whom did you receive information as to the place 
or specific address you should go to in New York ? 

INIr. Hoffman. AA^ien I arrived in New York 

INIr. NiTTLE. I say from whom did you receive the information ? 

Mr. Hoffman. From whom did I receive the information on the 
telephone ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe either Levi Laub or Ellen Shallit. I got 
this information on the telephone in New York when I arrived and was 
told to come to that address. This was the apartment of Ellen Shallit. 
Her name was listed on the bell downstairs. I entered the apartment 
and was introduced to Salvatore Cucchiari, who I was told would be 
my group leader during the trip to Cuba. Apparently, all of the 
students had been divided into small groups with a group leader, and 
Mr. Cucchiari was going to be my group leader. At this time, I still 
did not know the route that would be taken and I was told to return to 
the apartment the next day for further information and to meet with 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 673 

Mr. Ciicc'liiari at 9 oVlock in the moi-nino-. Tliis I did, and on Tuesday 
at 9 o'clock I again went to IMiss iShallit'y apartment. 

I was tokl by Mr. Cuccliiari that tlie trip woukl take place that day 
and that I was to meet at the East Side Terminal in New York City, 
where I would receive my tickets and further information on the trip. 
This I did, and at the East Side Terminal that afternoon I was handed 
my ticket. 

I was told not to be shocked when I opened up the envelope con- 
taining the ticket. I was shocked, because the ticket mentioned that 
the flight, instead of going through Canada — which I had suspected 
and I believe it had been mentioned in previous correspondence — • 
instead of that, it mentioned that it would be a BOAC flight to London, 
then to Paris, and then a i-eturn flight was mentioned on the ticket 
back to London from Paris and then back to New York. We left that 
afternoon on the BOAC flight to London and we changed planes at 
London for Paris. 

I later learned that there was anothei- group that had gone by way 
of KLM, also to Paris by way of Amsterdam instead of by way of 
London. At London, a State Department official was present when 
we embarked from the aircraft and mentioned that he had informa- 
tion that we were part of the student delegation that was going to 
Cuba, and he warned us of possible penalties and of the fact that 
American citizens could not travel to Cuba without a validated 
passport. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. May I interrupt a moment? Prior to your going to 
the airport in New York, were you given any instructions relating to 
security by any members of this alleged student group ? 

Mr. Hoffman. When you say "security," do you mean insofar as 
behavior was concerned and things like that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I can remember some of the younger members 
of the group were told to dress older, not to give the impression of 
being part of a student group. I believe that they believed that the 
FBI was watching the apartment, that their phone was tapped, and 
that they were under surveillance and, as such, in order to avoid detec- 
tion, people should attempt not to appear as students. Also, people 
were told to leave the apartment individually rather than in large 
groups. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Was there any preparation made, prior to your leaving 
New York on June 25, for contacting the press and issuing releases 
about the purposes of this trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. On Tuesday morning, the day that we left, 
a press statement was read to me by Salvatore Cucchiari, and we were 
told if we would like to sign this statement that we could. It was a 
statement of fact mentioning that the trip was going to take place. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. I hand vou a copy of a statement entitled "PRESS 
RELEASE" dated June 26, 1963, and ask whether that is the press 
release which was prepared by Salvatore Cucchiari or members of 
your group. 

Mr. Hoffman. I didn't know at that time who prepared the press 
release. 

The Chairman. Wlien was this press release released, do you know ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I don't know. But it is dated 26 June 1963. This 
is the one that was read to me on Tuesday morning, June 25. 



674 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the airport ? 
Mr. Chairman, may we mark this as an exhibit ? 
The CHAiRivrAN. It was before you left on Jmie 25 ? 
Mr. Hoffman. Yes. That would be Tuesday. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, mav we mark this "Hoffman Exhibit 
No. 4" and offer it in evidence ? 

The Chairman. It will be so marked and received in evidence. 
(Document marked "Hoffman Exhibit No. 4" follows.) 

Hoffman Exhibit No. 4 

26 June 1963 

PRESS RELEASE 

Sixty-four American students and recent graduates from 
colleges and universities across the nation. Including Columbia 
U., N.y.U., CC.N.Y., Harvard, Wesleyan, U. of Indiana, U. of 
Michigan, U. of North Carolina, U. of California, San Francisco 
State College, Oakland City College, and others, left yesterday 
for a one month study-tour, in Cuba. 

Accepting an all-expense paid invitation frcm the Cuban 
Federation of University Students in Havana to visit and meet 
with the Cuban people and students, to discuss student life and 
the Cuban Revolution, the students declare that their purpose 
in making the trip was to see and evaluate Cuba for themselves. 

Despite the U.S. State Department's so-called "ban" on 
travel to Cuba, the representatives for the group said that 
they felt they were not violating any law in making the trip 
- and said that freedom to travel was a basic American right, 

"We do not see why the U.S. Government should attempt to 
prohibit U.S. citizens, especially students, from seeing Cuba." 

The trip is non-political and was open to any student de- 
siring to go. The students expect to spend two weeks in Havana, 
two weeks touring the country, and to meet and to interview Fidel 
Castro, other leaders, and Robert Williams. Each student is free 
to speak for himself and to give his own reactions and views on 
the trip. 

(a statement outlining the alms and purposes of the trip 
in greater detail accompanies this release.) 

The group representatives include the following: 

John Coatsworth - Wesleyan 

Wayne Combash - Oakland City College 

Sal Cucchiari - City College of New York 

Levi Laub - Columbia 

John Milton - San Francisco State 

Larry Phelps - North Carolina (University of) 

Ellen Shallit - City College of New York 

Todd Stuart - Harvard 

John Thomas - Oakland City College 

Phillip Abbott Luce - for the Press Committee 

Mr. NiiTLE. Would you proceed to relate the sequence of events? 

Mr. Hoffman. The group stayed in Paris for 1 day. I believe it 
was split up into three groups, with each group staying at a different 
hotel. I stayed at the Grand Hotel myself, another group stayed at 
the Hotel Bellaire, and I forget where the third group stayed. The 
next day we boarded a Czechoslovakian aircraft for Prague, Czecho- 
slovakia. This was the CSA airliner, which I believe is the official 
government airline. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 675 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just a moment. I wanted to ask you a few questions 
about Paris. When you arrived at Paris, did you have occasion to 
utilize, or did any members of your group have occasion to utilize, 
their United States passports, if they possessed any ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. Before entry into France, the passport had to 
be produced. I believe also that at Shannon, Ireland, which was a 
refueling stop, the passport had to be produced in order to get a land- 
ing pass. But in France 

The Chairman". At this point, I think. Counsel, and I don't want 
to anticipate your examination, I think you should establish right 
now, since he is talking about passports, whether they all had pass- 
ports and whether they were specifically validated in accordance with 
law permitting them to go to Cuba. Can you develop that point at 
this time ? That is, unless you want to develop it later on. 

Mr. Nrm.,E. Yes, Mr. Chairman. 

Did you have in your possession a United States passport ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you made application for validation of this pass- 
port for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Hoffman. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there some reason for that ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Why I did not request validation of this passport ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Hoffman. In consultation with the State Department about 
my making the trip, it was pointed out to me tliat the validation 
stamp was large and its imprint would be so noticeable in my passport 
that there would be the danger of its being seen by the Cuban authori- 
ties as well as the students. Since I w^ould have the only validated 
passport, this would betray my midercover role. 

The Chairman. Was it the pattern of the others not to apply for a 
validation, or don't you know ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you adopting the pattern of the other members 
of this group in not having a specific endorsement noted on your 
passport for this travel ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Of course I did not see all of the other passports. 
However, later on in the trip in Cuba, I heard that two members of 
the delegation had requested validation previously, and had been 
turned down. I believe it was Stefan Martinot and Anatol Schlosser, 
who had requested State Department validation. As far as I know, 
nobody had a valid passport. 

The Chairman. Did Schlosser make the trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. No, Anatol Schlosser was not present on the trip. 

Mr. Pool. Mr. Chairman ? I would like to ask what day he arrived 
in Paris. I don't think we established the date there. 

The Chairman. The 25th or 26th, I believe. 

Mr. Hoffman. It was either the 25th or the 26th. I believe it was 
late June 25, to be exact. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have to utilize your passports on arrival at 
Prague, Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Will you explain what use was made of the passport 
on arrival there ? 



676 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. HoFFMAKT. The passports were examined by Czech officials, I 
believe. I also noticed at Pragvie that there was a group visa for all 
of the students. I had never previously made application for a visa 
for Czechoslovakia. 

The Chairman. Did you know when you left Paris, or had you been 
told before leaving Paris, or before or at the time you left the United 
States, that you would travel through Prague ? 

Mr. Hoffman. It had never been mentioned in an official way until 
we had reached Paris and had a meeting of the delegation. It was 
mentioned that that would be our route, by way of Czechoslovakia. 

The Chairman. I suppose counsel has his questions framed in a 
chronological order so we will not interrupt too much. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't recollect whether you told the committee about 
the meeting in Paris at which this explanation was made to you. 
Would you tell us the circumstances under which that meeting was 
held? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. In Paris the whole American group had din- 
ner together, and at this dinner it was mentioned that we would be 
going by way of Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who mentioned that ? 

Mr. Hoffman. That was mentioned by the group leader, Levi 
Laub. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any entry made in Prague upon your passport with 
respect to your arrival there? Was the time of arrival stamped in it? 

Mr. Hoffman. No, there was nothing marked by the Czechoslo- 
vakian authorities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any visa stamped or noted upon your passport in 
Prague ? 

Mr. Hoffman. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know whether it was stamped upon the pass- 
ports of any other persons in this group ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I would have no way of knowing, although I imag- 
ine that my passport was not treated uniquely. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was anything said during the course of the trip as to 
how you should use your passport in the course of this travel ? 

Mr. Hoffman. In Czechoslovakia it was mentioned that we were not 
to show our passports to any Cuban official when we arrived in Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio mentioned that fact ? 

Mr. Hoffman. This was mentioned also by Levi Laub. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any explanation given at the time as to why you 
should not exhibit or show your passport to a Cuban official ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe there was thought of a legal technicality. 
If the passport was not shown to a Cuban official, perhaps it could be 
shown that the passport was not used, as it was not required by Cuban 
officials, and perhaps it was thought that this might be a loophole. 
Cuba did not require a passport, so the passport w^as not used. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What happened in Prague after your arrival ? 

Mr. Hoffman. In Prague, after we disembarked from the aircraft, 
we were again met by an official from, I believe, the American Embassy 
or the State Department. I never knew just which department he 
represented. He also attempted to read a statement that mentioned 
that travel to Cuba was not possible for American citizens without a 
valid passport and the possible penalties. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 677 

After the arrival in Prague, we were driven by bus to Carlsbad, in 
Czechoslovakia, which is very close to the lilast German border. 
This was a 4-hour bus ride. In Czechoslovakia Ave stayed at the Grand 
Hotel Moscow and we stayed there for approximately 2 days. During 
our stay at the Grand Hotel Moscow, there were several meetings of 
the delegation discussing the plans for the trip to Cuba. 

During one of these meetings, the Cuban Ambassador to Czechoslo- 
vakia showed up along with the Cuban consul in Prague. The Cuban 
Ambassador informally addressed the group, congratulated them on 
having defied their government. 

The Chairjman. For having done what ? 

Mr. Hoffman. On having defied their government. And congratu- 
lated them on wanting to see for themselves conditions in Cuba. 

The Chairman. You said awhile ago, or you started to say and we 
interrupted you, something about visas mentioned in Czechoslovakia. 

Mr. Hoffman. I thinli: I mentioned the fact that I had never ap- 
plied for a visa for Czechoslovakia. However, there was a visa wait- 
ing for me when I got off the airplane. 

We left Czechoslovakia on Saturday, and at the airport while we 
were waiting for the airplane we were handed slip visas for Cuba. 
This was a visa on a small piece of paper, which I noticed had been 
issued at the Cuban consulate in Prague, and we were told that this 
was to be the only document that we would show in Cuba. We were not 
to show our passports. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, could I go back for one point? 

You said on your arrival in Prague that the American official at- 
tempted to read this statement or give this warning to the group. Do 
you mean that he was not able to do so, in saying that he attempted 
to do it? 

Mr. Hoffman. Well, it was, of course, not mandatory in Czechoslo- 
vakia to stand by and listen to the American official. So, many of the 
students merely ignored him and walked away. I believe he was quite 
embarrassed as his own nationals would not pay much attention to him. 

He did stand there, though, and read the statement. I believe he 
also had copies of the statement and would have passed them out to 
anyone who wanted one. I believe it was the same statement that had 
been read in London. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To clarify the passport situation, when you arrived in 
Prague, you stated you exhibited your passports. To whom did you 
exhibit these passports on arrival ? 

Mr. Hoffman. This was done to the Czechoslovakian officials. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Then subsequently, you received from a Cuban official 
a slip visa permitting your entry into Cuba? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I don't remember if this was given to us by a 
Czech official, a Cuban official, or a member of the delegation, but we 
were handed slip visas. I believe that is what they call them, "slip 
visas." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have the visa in your possession now? 

Mr. Hoffman. No. The slip visas were taken from us when we 
landed in Havana, Cuba. 

The Chairman. By Cuban officials ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. They asked for the slip visa. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you required to execute any document in making 
application for a slip visa ? 

98-765— 63— pt. 3 3 



678 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

Mr. Hoffman. No. I never made application for a Cuban visa. 

Mr. Tuck. Do you know who organized this trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I am sorry. Would you repeat the question? 

Mr. Tuck. I said, "Do you know who organized or sponsored this 
trip?" 

Mr. Hoffman. Well, it was a very, very complicated trip, and there 
were no leaders, as such, with titles, such as director or president of 
the trip. Plowever, there were certain students or members of the 
delegation who did assmne certain responsibilities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By what means did you travel from Prague to Cuba ? 

Mr. Hoffman. The airplane was a Cubana airliner which, I believe, 
is the official Cuban Government airline. The route was from Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, to Shannon, Ireland. From there to ( iander, Canada, 
and then to Havana, where we landed Sunday morning. 

The Chairman. That would be June what ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe that would be June 30. I would have to 
check it. 

The Chaikmax. You left on June 25. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On arrival in Cuba, tell us just what you did with 
respect to this visa you had in your possession. 

Mr. Hoffman. When vre landed in Havana, the visas were taken 
from us and we had to fill out a landing card, which was a card which 
requested general information, such as name, address, and occupation. 
It also requested a passport number which hud to be filled in on that 
card, although, as I mentioned before, the American passport was 
never shown in Cuba, but merely the passport number was entered on 
that line. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you continue on. relating what happened after 
that? 

Mr. Hoffman. We were met at the airport by the Cuban press, who 
took many photographs and who took some interviews. We were then 
taken by bus to the Hotel Eiviera in Havana, which I understand is 
one of their best hotels. That night in Havana we were also greeted 
officially by the Cuban Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples, 
which we found out was responsible for taking charge of our group 
while we were in Cuba. They would arrange the tours, they would 
arrange the buses, the hotels, and the guides. On Monday, we had a 
formal meeting with the Cuban Federation of Students, who were to 
be our official hosts and who were supposed to be paying all the bills. 

This is the organization of all Cuban university students; I believe 
it is mandatory that they join, so it does include all of the university 
students in Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This organization was allegedly paying the bills of your 
group for your stay, or were they merely the host ? 

Mr. Hoffman. The letter that I mentioned, previously mentioned 
that they were the ones who had invited us and who would be paying 
the bills. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliere did they get the money to pay this extensive 
sum ? Are you aware that this Federation maintained any treasury ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I would have no way of knowing this, although I 
would suspect, as a businessman, that the money probably came from 
the Cuban Government, inasmuch as it seemed like a very, very ex- 
pensive trip. I believe the tickets for the round-trip flights from 
New York to Paris were approximately $500. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 679 

Mr. NiTTLE. Per person ? 

Mr. IIoFFurAN. Yes. And if yon nmltiply that for ()0 stndents, you 
have $30,000. And you take the fliaht from there to Czechoslovakia 
and you take the flight from Czechoslovakia to Havana, which was 15 
hours, and I believe you come up with a considerable amount of dollars. 
Dollars are quite scarce in Cuba, quite scarce. So I don't believe that 
the treasury of the Federation of University Students included that 
many dollaVs. It had to come from the Cuban Government in my 
opinion. 

Well, durinir the next few weeks, the student group visited apart- 
ment projects, factories, beaches, people's farms, shipyards, schools, 
on organized tours throughout the island. There were tours in all of 
the provinces from one end of Cuba to the other end. These were 
organized tours. 

The tours lasted until August 26, and the delegation left Cuba on 
August 26 to return to New York by way of Madrid, Spain. On 
this flight back from Cuba, I learned that it would be an Iberian air- 
liner, and I knew that the airplane had to land at I^ermuda for re- 
fueling. All during the tri]-), I had been in telephone contact with 
Gordon Hall by prearranged signals, and he suggested to me that I 
try to get off the airplane in Bermuda instead of continuing on to 
Madricl, Spain. 

From Bermuda, I took an airplane back to New York at my own 
expense. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hoffman, from its investigations into this matter, 
the committee has determined that certain persons active in the plan- 
ning and arrangements for recr\iiting of persons and students for 
travel to Cuba were members of, or affiliated with, the Progressive La- 
bor ^Movement. During the course of your association with this group, 
did you have occasion to identify certain members of this group who 
traveled to Cuba with 3' on as members of Progressive Labor ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. Members of Progressive Labor did not attempt 
to hide their affiliation, either in private conversation with these indi- 
viduals or during one of the meetings of the delegation, when Pro- 
gressive Labor members were asked to stand. I was able to determiiie 
which people in the delegation Avere members of the Progressive Labor 
group or organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Progressive Labor organization has already l)een 
identified in the record of the heai'ings as an ultrarevolutionary Com- 
munist splinter group which was formed on or about January 1062 by 
INfilton Rosen and Mortimer Scheer, formerly functionaries in the New 
York District of the Communist Party who were expelled from the 
Communist Party as neo-Trotskyites. 

[Disturbance in hearing room.] 

The CiiAiEMAN (to audience). Let the Chair state that nobody is 
kidding anybody in this room, and we are going to have order. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. The charge and order of expulsion announced by the 
Communist Partv recited the fact that thev were expelled as "neo- 
Trotskyites." 

The investigation of the committee indicates that Progressive Labor 
played a prominent or leading role in the creation of this project for 
travel to Cuba. The committee is endeavoring to ascertain the extent 
of Communist involvement in, this travel. It is thei"efore import ;ui! to 



680 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

determine whether you have had occasion to identify persons in your 
group as members of Progressive Labor. 

Would you tell the committee, please, what persons in the travel 
group you were able to identify as members of Progressive Labor? 

Mr. Hoffman. The members of Progressive Labor were Levi Laub, 
Salvatore Cucchiari, Vickie Ortiz, Ellen Shallit, Rhoden Smith, 
Wendie Nakashima, John Salter, Larry Phelps, Stefan Martinet, 
Eleanor Goldstein, Catherine Prensky, and Mark Tishman, who stated 
that he joined Progressive Labor only to be able to take part in the 
trip, and he mentioned that he had resigned. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Vickie Ortiz, whom you have identified as a member 
of Progressive Labor, was not on the passenger list of BOAC or 
KLM, according to the committee's investigation, at the time of de- 
parture of your group from New York for Cuba. Will you tell the 
committee the circumstances under which Vickie Ortiz, whom, you 
have mentioned, joined your group ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I first saw Vickie Ortiz at the airport in Prague, 
Czechoslovakia. Apparently, she liad arrived in Czechoslovakia be- 
fore tlie rest of the group and she had been waiting there for the 
group. 

Mr. Kittle. ^Yhat role did Vickie Ortiz plav in this travel to 
Cuba? 

Mr. Hoffman. I do not know what actual role she played, although 
I knew that she was a member of Progressive Labor. I really had no 
way of actually knowing what role she did play although, as I say, 
she was in Czechoslovakia before the rest of the group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know whether or not she possessed an Amer- 
ican passport? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. Miss Ortiz, I believe, travels on two passports. 
On the trip from Prague, Czechoslovakia, to Havana, there was dis- 
cussion of a possibility that the LT.S. Government would attempt to 
stop the airliner on the way, perhaps at Ireland or perhaj^s in Canada. 
So, for this reason, Miss Ortiz, who carried two passports, as I say, 
Mexican and the United States, always left the airplane first, so in 
case one of her passports was taken, she would always have another 
passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you identify those persons who, in the course 
of the journey, appeared to assume a position of leadership? 

]\Ir. Hoffman. As I stated previously, there were no official titles 
as far as leadership was concerned, so these people are only those that 
assumed responsibilities. As this trip was quite complicated, with 
the different airliners, the different hotels, and the different arrange- 
ments, I presume that there was a lot of prior work on this trip. 
Those people that did assume leadership responsibility included Levi 
Laub, who was the acknowledged leader and responsible man for the 
group in Cuba and who stated later in the trip that he had been to 
Cuba previously in Febniary or March, making arrangements for 
the trip. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In February and IMarch of 1963 ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Well, it would be the last February and March. 

The Chairman. May I inquire at this point : I understood you to 
say awhile ago, and I think you hinted at it again, but if I am wrong, 
correct me, that there were certam leaders among the students, that 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 681 

you were imder tlie leadership of a named individual. Did I under- 
stand you to say that ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes, Mr. Willis. 

The Chairman. Describe that a little bit. 

Mr. Hoffman. All right. The members of the delegation were 
broken up into small groups of approximately four or five. Each 
group would have a group leader. What the group leadere' duties 
were, were that in the event of any problem on the way to Cuba you 
could always ask the group leader what to do next. He would be the 
one from which, I believe, the chain of command would follow through. 
Also in Cuba, it was felt that the small group should stick together 
rather than roaming all around Cuba, and you would always tell your 
group leader what you would be doing. 

The Chairman. Did you have a group leader ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. 

The Chairman. Wlio was he ? 

]Mr. Hoffman. Salvatore Cucchiari. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Hoffman. I think I was talking about those who exercised 
responsibility and leadership. 

The Chairman. Is that what you meant in saying, two or three 
times, that there were certain people with responsibility? Were you 
referring to these group leaders more specifically, or weren't you? 

Mr. Hoffman. I would call the group leaders of a secondary echelon 
of leadership. These people are the ones that I believe exercised more 
responsibility and possibly were involved in the actual planning of 
the trip. 

The Chairman. But the general leadership, if it is within your 
knowledge, in Cuba was Laub 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. Pie was the acknowledged leader. 

The Chairman. The spokesman, 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. 

The Chairman. Did you refer to a letter by him some time ago 
which he signed as spokesman ? 

Mr. Hoffman. He didn't sign it actually as spokesman. He merely 
signed the letter with the 

The Chairman. The word "spokesman" appeared near his 
signature ? 

Mr. Hoffman. No. It merely says "Levi Laub, PSCTC^.-' 

Anatol Schlosser did not make the trip, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Before passing from Levi Laub, we would like you to 
tell us a little more about what he did in Cuba. Did he, to your 
loiowledge, establish any contact with the Castro regime or Castro 
personally ? 

Mr, Hoffman. Yes. Very early in the trip, along with two other 
members of the delegation, Levi Laub went skin diving with Fidel 
Castro. As a matter of fact, it was very well written up in the Cuban 
press. 

The Chairman. What was written up? 

Mr. Hoffman. The skin diving trip of Fidel Castro and Levi Laub. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Castro also plays ping-pong, doesn't he ? 

]Mr. Hoffman. Yes. That was a very amusing incident when Fidel 
Castro visited the students very early in the trip. 

The Chairman. Fidel Castro visited the group ? 



682 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. 

The Chairman. And what happened? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe this was probably the second or third day, 
or perhaps the fourth day, that we were in Cuba, and we were staying 
at a very nice resort hotel. I believe it was the Hotel International, 
Veradero Beach. During lunch — all the students were having lunch 
together — it was mentioned that Fidel Castro had come. I suspected 
that perhaps Fidel had come to address the group or perhaps welcome 
the group to Cuba, because this was the first time I would have seen 
Fidel and also the first time that the student group would have seen 
Fidel. 

I waited perhaps 5 or 6 minutes, and Fidel never came into the 
dining room, but I noticed that a lot of the students were getting up 
and going to the back of the hotel. I also did this, and there was Fidel 
Castro with about six of his bodj^guards around a ping-pong table, 
and he indicated that he would like to play ping-pong with members 
of the delegation from the United States. I thought this was "hu- 
mility," and the ping-pong game proceeded. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Humility f Or was he attempting to adjust his conduct 
in accordance with the maturity of the group or its intellectual level ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Well, if you hear the rest of the story, I believe it 
will answer your question. 

The Chairman. Just give the facts and not conclusions. 

[Demonstration in hearing room.] 

The Chairman (to audience). We are not going to have this dem- 
onstration here. You might as well make up your minds on that. You 
can tempt the chairman so much, but I am not going to take the bait. 

Mr. HoFFM^vN. There was a big mob around the ping-pong table, 
and Fidel proceeded to play with one of the members of the delega- 
tion. I thought, again, that he would play maybe a short game of 5 
or 11, but this wasn't the case. Apparently, he wanted to play for 
21, which is a very, very long game. As a matter of fact, he kept 
score. This game took about a half hour, and I thought, "Well, all 
right, he played his ping-pong game and now he will address the 
students." This wasn't the case. He wanted to play another game of 
ping-pong. This continued for about four or five games of ping-pong, 
during which time Fidel became very much interested in this game, 
so much so, that he took his hat off and took his shirt off; and, by the 
way, he was dressed in the fatigue uniform, the dark green shirt and 
pants and conibat boots. 

He then proceeded to remove his combat boots. He was all set for 
a good ping-pong match. I believe it was approximately seven or 
eight games. Again, he was deeply interested in this game of ping- 
pon(^. Finally, one of the members of the delegation came very close 
to winning one of the ping-pong games. I think the score was 21 to 21 
or 22 to 23, and this kept going on and on. Finally he won the game, 
but he wanted to play again with that individual. This went on for 
21/^ hours. Mind you, this was in the very, very hot sim in Veradero. 
Finally the game finished, and I believe it was 21/0 to 3 hours. 

The Chairman. At this point, about how many of the students 
participated ? 

Mr. Hoffman. IMaybe four or five students that were playfully 
playing ping-pong with him. But at the end of the ping-pong game 
when the students gathered around him to ask questions about Cuba 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 683 

and the Cuban economy and items of interest like that, Fidel said. 
"I am sorry, I can't. I have to cet back to the affairs of State." Here 
he had been playini^ pino;-pono: for almost 3 hours. 

Well, Fidel Castro left and Fidel Castro never addressed the stu- 
dents after that. I believe tliat is some indication of how his mind 
works. 

The CiiATRMAN. Let me ask you: Was that the only occasion when 
he came in contact with the students while you were there? Do you 
know whether he had further personal contacts with the student body 
as distino-nished, perhaps, from some leaders? 

Mr. Hoffman. I know specificall}^ of one meetino-, which I men- 
tioned before, the fishing trip, with Levi Laub and two other members 
of the delegation. 

The Chairman. Fidel went on a fishing trip with Laub and who 
else? 

Mr. Hoffman. Well, it was a skin diving trip with Marcus Gordon 
and Richard Velez. As I say, it was veiy well covered in the Cuban 
press, Fidel skin diving. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In dealing with the position of Levi Laub, in what 
way did the Cuban press refer to him ? 

Mr. Hoffman. To T^evi Laub ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. HoFFiNiAN. I believe he was merely described as the leader of 
the American delegation. There was much publicity in the Cuban 
press on the Cuban trip. 

The Chairman. T am sure we will 2:0 into that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the course of the visit in Cuba, was there any 
difference of opinion or any controversy arising as to the time for 
leaving Cuba? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes, the trip was originally slated for 30 days, and 
an extension was given — T believe it was a 10-day extension — which 
would put it into around August 10. But there were delays after that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did Levi Laub resolve this question of extending 
the stay in Cuba ? 

Mr. HoFF:i\rAN. Toward the end of the trip, there vrere manj?^ meet- 
ings of the delegation ; and at one of these meetings somebody brought 
up the fact that some of the members did not want to return directly 
with the entire group, but, instead, wanted to perhaps stay in Cuba to 
do som.e writing, to stay longer, or to stay in Europe on our way home. 
This was brought up at the meeting, and Levi Laub mentioned that 
]iermission for doing this would have to come from the Cuban Institute 
for Friendship Among the Peoples or the Foreign Ministry of Cuba. 

Tlie person that made the initial statement did ask Levi if he would 
please make the request. When this was mentioned. Levi got up and 
mentioned very, very emphatically that he does not talk to the Foreign 
IVrinistry. He only talks to the Federation of University Students or 
the Cuban Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples. I believe 
he wanted to make it very, very clear that he did not talk directly to 
the Foreign Ministry of Cuba. 

The Chairman. He talked to Fidel directly ? 

Mr. Hoffman. No. no, I believe he just did not want to give the im- 
pression that he would have the power to go to the Foreign Ministry. 
I believe the skin diving trip with Fidel was perhaps for fun. Fid^l 



684 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

wanted to make an impression on the leader of the American delega- 
tion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe you stated Levi Laub told your group, or 
members of the group — you being present — that he had been in Cuba 
in February and March 19G3 making arrangements for this trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. He stated that lie had been in Cuba during 
February and ]\Iarch. 

JNIr. NiTTLE. You have mentioned Levi Laub as one of the principal 
leaders. Are there any others in this group you would identify as 
such ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I would state Anatol Schlosser, although he did not 
come on the trip, inasmuch as my initial correspondence was with him 
and I believe he was one of the initial spokesmen for the trip. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Did j^ou have occasion to learn during the course of the 
trip, from any of the persons in the group, as to why Schlosser did not 
go on this particular trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I believe tliat it was mentioned that Schlosser 
was scared and that his prior appearance before the House Committee 
frightened him. This came about in conversation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. From whom did you hear that ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I don't remember. 

(At this point Mr. Tuck left the hearing room.) 

The Chair:man. It should be indicated that Mr. Schlosser was ex- 
amined by this committee at tlie opening of these hearings back in 
May. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were there any other persons that played a principal 
leadership role during the course of this trip ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. Phillip Luce assumed responsibilities and ad- 
dressed the students on many occasions. Phillip Luce was an employee 
of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, and this was loiown in 
Cuba. I believe he is the editor of Rights magazine, which is an 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee publication. He assumed the 
cliairmanship of the press committee and was responsible for handling 
the press and dealing with the press while in Cuba. Also during the 
trip he made ■ 

Mr. NiTTLE. Before you pass on, you stated he assumed the posi- 
tion of chairman of the press committee. I note in Exhibit 4, the 
press release of June 26, 1963, that it is noted thereon that Phillip 
Abbott Luce was acting for the press committee. Are you aware 
how he assumed that particular position prior to the travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Hoffman. That seemed kind of strange to me also, because 
T received a copy of that press release in Cuba and it was stated at the 
bottom of the statement that he was "for the Press Committee." 
There was a selection or election of members of the press committee in 
Cuba, and he assumed the chairmanship of that, although again it 
seemed kind of strange that lie was on the press committee even before 
it was elected. It was mentioned that Phillip Luce had a lot of expe- 
rience with handling tlie press and could do the job very well. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. I state for the record, Mr. Chairman, that the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee has been cited by this committee as 
a Communist-front organization. 

The Chairman. Yes, I am aware of that. 

Mr. Hoffman. I might mention also that, during the trip, Phillip 
Luce mentioned that he had been in contact with New York, with a 



PRO-CASTKO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. G85 

Mr. Foreman, and I believe Mr. Foreman was reading to him press 
releases and information on how the trip was being received in the 
United States. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. How do you have knowledge that he was in commimi- 
cation with Mr. Foreman, whose name, I believe is Clark Foreman, 
director of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

]\Ir. IIoFFiMAX. This came up during dinner, or during lunch, when 
it was mentioned. Actually, it was mentioned several times. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Was this mentioned by Luce himself ? 

Mr. HoFF3iAX. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what he said about this ? 

jSIr. Hoffman. Well, he mentioned that he had been in a telephone 
conversation with Mr. Foreman in New York and, for example, the 
Neiii York Times had a very favorable editorial on the student trip. 

(At this point JNIr. Tuck entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. And Mr. Luce noted that fact ? 

IVIr. Hoffman. Yes. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Do I understand you to say that he attributed this fact 
to the publicity efforts of Clark Foreman? 

Mr. Hoffman. It was never mentioned. I imagine the New Yorh 
Times took it as a constitutional issue. 

]\Ir, NiTTLE. Were there any other individuals who assumed a 
principal position of leadership during the trip? 

Mr. Hoffman. I would say Ellen Shallit, inasmuch as her apart- 
ment was used for the rendezvous; also Salvatore Cucchiari who, in 
addition to being a group leader, I later found out, arranged trans- 
portation for the California members of the delegation. He arranged 
their transportation from California to New York, I believe, by way 
of car pools and other methods of transportation. In addition, 
Stefan Martinot often addressed the group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What other position did Stefan Martinot hold on group 
committees, if any, that may have been formed? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe he was also on the press committee. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Where there any other persons that you would place 
in this category of leadership ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe that the leadership would include these 
and I am sure that there are others that I was not able to find out 
about. As I say, it was a very complicated trip, one that was not 
hastily organized. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have mentioned Larry Wilf ord Phelps and Wendie 
Nakashima as members of the Progressive Labor group. Did you 
observe their actvities in connection with assisting or directing activi- 
ties of the group ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. There was one incident which I can mention, 
which seemed quite strange to me at the time. After about the third 
week of July, certain members of the delegation became bored with 
seeing so many schools and so many factories. I believe that the im- 
pression was that they had visited every school in Cuba. 

So there was a meeting to decide whether or not the group might 
split, perhaps into two groups, with one group returning to Havana 
and the other group staying on the tour. 

There was a meeting, as I say, and two of the most outspoken in- 
dividuals against the split were Miss Nakashima and Mr, Phelps. 



686 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

They felt that the group should stick together and it should not split. 
Those in favor of the split, naturally, got up and defended their posi- 
tion. As it was, the vote was carried that, I believe, 14 or 15 left the 
tour and returned to Havana the next day. It was very strange that 
on this bus returning to Havana were Miss Nakashima and Mr. Phelps. 
I believe they had been sent back as chaperones to watch the balance 
of the group. 

That was getting close to July 26, and there was a possibility that 
some of the students that would be returning to Havana might run 
into newsmen. I believe, rather than let them do this, they were sent 
back with Mr. Phelps and with Miss Nakashima as chaperones. Mr. 
Phelps did assume certain leadership on the trip back. For example, 
he attempted to find out what the interests were of that group and 
he attempted to arrange for tours. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any effort made by the leadership to control the 
statements that were anticipated would be made by members of the 
group who were traveling to Cuba ? 

Mr. HoFFMAx. Yes. Early in the trip, Stefan Martinot brought 
up the point that there should be a press committee; individuals 
should not be able to speak to members of the press, as whatever indi- 
viduals would say would be taken as coming from the whole group. 
He suggested that a press committee be formed. 

As a result of this, a press committee was formed, and their duty 
was to handle press statements for members of the press. These peo- 
ple did come up with press statements, which were read to the balance 
of the delegation; and the balance of the delegation would vote on 
the press release. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he make any statement as to the composition of 
the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. HoFFMAX. Yes. I think he wanted to make it clear during 
this same meeting that everybody on that trip constituted the Perma- 
nent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. I believe he did that to 
give the impression of everybody should stick together and "You are 
all members of the group." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the press committee establish contact with the 
Cuban press and radio ? 

Mr. Hoff:hax. Wlien you say "contact," I presume, perhaps, you 
mean through press conferences ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. There was a press conference held July 29. 
In addition to the Cuban press, there were American press and mem- 
bers of the international press. A press release was issued and read 
to the press. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have here, marked for identification as "Hoffman 
Exhibit No. 5," a press release of the delegation from the United 
States, dated July 29, 1963. I want to ask you whether you can identi- 
fy that as one of the press releases issued by the press committee. 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. This is the press release that I believe was 
read at the July 29 press conference. 

Mr. NiTTLE."^ Mr. Chairman, I offer that exhibit in evidence. 

The Chairman. Do you offer the exhibit ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Let it be incorporated into the record. 

(Document marked "Hoffman Exhibit No. 5" follows.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 687 

Hoffman Exhibit No. 5 
Press Release of Student Delegation Fkom United States 

Having spout nearly a month in Cuba as the guests of the Cuban Federation 
of University Students, all 5S of us Americans have oome to certain definite 
conclusions regarding our trip to Cuba. 

All of us are now more convinced, than when we originally left the United 
States, of the absurdity of our Stale Department's public notices attempting 
to limit travel to those countries it considers •"safe". Our trip to Cuba has 
shown daily that American citizens are as safe to travel and/or visit in Cuba as 
they are to walk the streets of New York City — if not more so. Believing that 
the right to travel is an inherent right of all American citizens we are now 
forced to come to the unhappy conclusion that the American State Department 
disapproves of our travel to Cuba (or China, Albania, North Korea or North 
Viet Nam) not because of its stated, public rationalities, but rather because it 
is afraid that if we visit these countries we will discover what is really taking 
place therein. Certainly if the United States State Department believes in the 
principles of democracy, as all of us were taught them in grade and high-school, 
then it should admit that only an informed public can actively participate in a 
democratic society. Unfortunately, there is now little question in our minds 
that regarding conditions in Cuba the American public, largely as a result of 
the State Department "ban" on travel to that island, is uninformed and misin- 
formed and has little concept of what conditions actually are today in Cuba. If 
this is true of Cuba our conclusion is that it may also be equally true therefore 
of Albania, China, North Korea and North Viet Nam. 

Any of the conclusions that members of our group have drawn of the actual 
conditions of Cuba were drawn after extensive travel throughout the island and 
conversations with students, farmers, workers, and people jailed for counter 
revolutionary activity, as well as the leaders of the Cuban government. The 
Cubans have allowed us the maximum freedom to travel throughout the island, 
and the city of Havana. We have gone throughout the countryside as a group 
but were still given ample time to meet with the Cuban people and to see the 
places that we wanted to see on our own. From our first arrival in Havana 
until our departure, the Cuban government was insistent that we see for our- 
selves the failures as well as the accomplishments of the Cuban revolution. 
Even those of us who are critical of certain aspects of the revolution admit that 
we have had freedom to see for ourselves what is really liappeniug in Cuba. 

"When we left the United States for this visit to Cuba we stressed that every 
individual on this trip would be free to express his own i)oliticaI views regarding 
the Cuban revolution. This policy is still in effect — all of the students on this 
trip are free agents regarding their political opinions of Cuba. There are, how- 
ever, certain aspects of today's Cuba on which we all agree. Regardless of press 
and counter-revolutionary reportage emanating from the United States we 
have discovered that the vast majority of Cubans support the socialist govern- 
ment of Fidel Castro. Although the major itj' of the Cubans we have met support 
the socialist revolution many of us have also met people who oppose the revolu- 
tion. Most people have met with us openly and have shown no fear to publically 
[sic] express their dissent. We do not intend to get into percentages of support 
as none of us has the background of a George Gallup nor can any of us help but 
recall the misadventures that American poll gatherers have suffered in the 
past — e.g. the 1948 American Presidential election. 

We have discovered that the educational system in Cuba is far more ad- 
vanced and progressive than w^e had been led to believe before this visit. Il- 
literacy has now been wiped out in Cuba. We have all discovered that if 
Cuba is a "police state" then it is indeed the most unique "police state" that 
has ever existed. Here people of both sexes and of every age carry guns and 
are capable of either assassinating the government leaders or overthrowing 
the government if the discontent were as universal as certain American sources 
would have us believe. Everywhere we have traveled we have been treated 
with courtesy and friendship. The Cuban people have shown concern that 
peaceful relations be reinstituted between the Cuban and American People. 

The advances of the Cuban Revolution have been remarkable in housing, 
development of diverse manufacturing and farming. Although numerous dif- 
ficulties are evident throughout the economic structure of the country, there 



688 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

is no doubt in our minds that the Cuban revolution is today a secure revolu- 
tion. We believe that the socialist revolution is so secure in Cuba, whether we 
as Americans like it or not, that only through a calamatous war of incredible 
proportions could the revolution be destroyed. 

There is no doul)t that the American sponsored and operated "embargo"' on 
goods destined for Cuba has had a dilatory but not disastrous effect on that 
Island. We have all felt an embarrassment at knowing that our government 
is responsible for many of the needless hardships that the Cuban people today 
suffer. 

While our trip to Cuba has been extremely informative for all of us, we 
have been shocked by the unfortunate death of one of our members, Hector 
Warren Hill. Not only has his death been a blow to all of us, but the fact 
that certain United States sources have attempted to misrepresent this accident 
is appalling to all of us. There is no question but that Mr. Hill's death was 
an accident and any person or agency that contends otherwise is delving into 
the worst kind of slander and libelous reporting. 

Upon our arrival in the United States we are preparte [sic] for harassment [sic] 
and possible legal procecution [sic]. We came to Cuba knowing full well that we 
were defying a State Dpt. public notice, but we deny any accusation that 
our trip violated the precepts of our American Constitution or of our democratic 
heritage. Today we are no more the tools of the Cuban government than we 
are the tools of our own State Department. 

We are encouraged by the extent of the publicity we have received in the 
United States and today are more confident than ever that the vast majority 
of Americans support our position of freedom to travel where we like and 
when we like. No amount of persecution or prosecution can change our original 
proposition that our trip to Cuba violates no law and is in the best interest 
of all Americans. 

July 29, 1963. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Do you have copies of any of the press articles dis- 
seminated by the Cuban press within Cuba ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I clipped the Cuban newspapers, and here 
I have a pile of newspapers that mentions the student trip. This is 
not complete and these are only single tear sheets. But the Cuban 
press made a big play of the trip practically every day, what anyone 
did on the trip being reported in the press, visits to the factories, visits 
to the schools. I believe it was great propaganda for the Cuban 
Government within Cuba. I think if you will look through them 

The Chairman. Let me ask you this general question and don't go 
beyond the facts that you know: Was the group authorized to go 
anywhere they wanted and choose what they wanted to see, or were 
the tours more or less guided ? 

jNIr. Hoffman. This delegation was treated quite royally. They 
were a privileged group in Cuba. It was not mandatory to go on any 
tour. Any individual who merely wanted to stay at the Hotel Riviera 
and use the swimming pool certainly could do that. If other members 
of the delegation cared to roam around Havana, they could also do 
this ; but remember now, this was a privileged group and every attempt 
was made 

The Chairman. What I meant was, you mentioned seeing schools 
and factories and so on. Was that at the suggestion of the group that 
asked what they wanted to see, or did you get the impression that 
what they saw was a guided trip on what the Cubans wanted to show 
them? That is the general burden of my question. 

Mr. Hoffman. It was basically a guided tour. For example, I 
made numerous requests to visit La Cabana Prison, the infamous 
prison in Havana, and also if I could visit the Isle of Pines, which 
was also a place I understood political prisoners were kept. I made 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 689 

this request several times and each time I was told, "Certainly, cer- 
tainly, we will get you permission." But this permission never came. 

As a matter of fact, one day I went up to one of the prisons, which 
I believe was Principe, and merely knocked on the door and asked 
if I might please come and visit some of the counterrevolutionaries, 
people that I heard had been held without trial in Cuba. This greatly 
shook up the guards at the prison, and there was much commotion. 
I never got in. They told me to go to the Minister of Interior, who 
had the responsibility for the prison. I suggested that perhaps we 
telephone this individual from the prison, but this w^as not done. I 
got the point tliat they were not going to show us things like these 
prisons. 

The Chairjian. Let me ask you this question, limited to the knowl- 
edge that you personally possess: Was the group guided to military 
bases as part of a general "See all you w^ant of what is going on 
policy," or what ? 

Mr. Hoffman. No, military bases were not part of the guided tour. 
As a matter of fact, people asked me, "Did you see rockets in Cuba?" 
Well, they don't keep rockets on the main highways. I heard much 
talk about rockets in Cuba, but I was never able to confirm their 
existence. I did make one individual visit to an airfield, but this was 
not an airfield where there were many aircraft, military aircraft, 
present. There were training planes. When I asked where tlie mili- 
tary aircraft were kept, I was told they were underground and I 
couldn't see them. But they weren't going to open up the bases where 
the military aircraft were kept. As a matter of fact, I also made a 
request to visit some of the Soviet bases that I had lieard existed in 
Cuba. 

The Chairman. How was your request trea^ted ? 

Mr. Hoffman. They merely wrote it clown and said, "Sure, sure." 

The Chairman. But it didn't come about? 

Mr. Hoffman. It never came through. I saw many Russians in 
Cuba and I asked, "AVliere are they going?" 

Tlie Chairman. You did see Russians in Cuba ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. There are many, many Russians in Cuba. I 
even photographed a truckload of them riding through Havana. It 
isn't imusual to see convoys of Soviet or Czech trucks with 10 or 15 
Russians in the back of the truck. These men were obviously enlisted 
men. They were very, very young. They were, also, obviously 
soldiers. 

The Chairman. Did you see any Chinese nationals? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe there were a number of tourists from China 
at the Hotel Riviera. Did you say "Nationalists"? "Communists" 
or "Nationalists" ? 

The Chairman. You said that you saw Russian convoys and Rus- 
sian troops, here and there, and trucks and so on. Did you see 
Chinese people along the same lines ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes, I did see Chinese. I believe there were some 
tourists at the Hotel Riviera. 

The Chairman. How about military? 

Mr. Hoffman. I did see approximately a dozen very high-ranking 
Chinese officers at the July 26 celebration in Havana. As I say, they 
were obviously high-ranking because of their uniforms and gold braid. 
I did not see any other Chinese militaiy personnel. 



690 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. Such as in trucks or convoys? 

Mr. Hoffman. No. I never noticed the Chinese, although as I say 
I noticed many, many Kussians. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Were the Eussians that you saw both in and out of 
uniform ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I never saw the Russians in uniform. But, actually, 
the way they were dressed it appeared like a uniform. Everybody 
had a sport shirt. 

The Chairman. In other words, they were uniformly dressed ? 

Mr. HoFFsiAN. Yes, it was very, very clear that they were uniformly 
dressed. These were not ordinary Russian tourists riding on the back 
of these military trucks, and they were not officers inasmuch as they 
were so young. Again, I did not ask to see an identification card, but 
it was apparent that these were not just the instructors, in my opinion. 

Mr. NiTTLE. May we mark the photographs you have taken of the 
Russian vehicles as an exhibit? The committee may receive them 
in evidence. I would like to pass these to the chairman and the 
members of the committee. 

The Chairman. The photographs will be received in evidence. 

Proceed. 

(Photographs marked "Hoffman Exhibit Xo. 6" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were any efforts made to indoctrinate your group with 
respect to the policies and interests of Communist governments, 
whether Cuban, Chinese, or others ? 

Mr. Hoffman. First, let me again say that, as Gordon Hall told 
me before I inade this trip, this would not be a group of ordinary 
American students. Ordinary American students do not defy their 
Government, do not travel to Cuba in defiance of law. 

[Laughter.] 

The Chairman (to audience). This is certainly no joke and it is 
certainly truthful. We are not going to have any laughing over it. 

Mr. Hoffman. I don't see it as a joke either. I believe there was 
a definite pro-Communist orientation on these students and I believe 
they did great harm to our country in going to Cuba. 

Again, these were not ordinary American students that you might 
take from the American campuses, for example, a 4— H member or a 
member of the Republican or Democratic Party. These were not 
typical American students. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Do you know how many were students at all, or 
how many were not students ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I can't give the exact number, but there was a 
number who were not students. As a matter of fact, the ages went 
from 18 to 33, and a lot of them were not students. 'V^'lien I say "stu- 
dent," I presume you mean enrolled in a university or college. 

A lot were not students. But with respect to indoctrination, as 
Gordon Hall told me before, most of these students made up their 
minds long before they came to Cuba as to what they would see. I 
was in Cuba also, and some of the things that I saw were not v^hat 
they saw. I really believe that if this student trip had been to the 
Soviet Union or Communist China or North Korea, the results would 
have been the same. 

As a matter of fact, if you will read the press statement, it states 
that since they have been to Cuba and there have been so many lies, 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 691 

perhaps the same is true of North Korea, North Vietnam, and I be- 
lieve it mentions other countries. 

Ao-ain, tliese were not typical American students. With respect to 
indoctrination, the embassies from the other Communist countries 
tried to fret in on the bandwao-on. For example, the Chinese Commu- 
nist Embassy in Havana scheduled several movies for the students. 

Affain I sav students, but you Icnow tlie context in Avhich I use that. 
There were Communist propao^anda films shown several times at the 
Chinese Embassy and, in addition, propaganda material was handed 
out quito freelv, not only at these different embassies but also at the 
hotel. 

For example, liere is some of the material that was freely given out. 
It is from all over — North Korea, the South Vietnam National Libera- 
tion Front, which I believe is now in conflict with American soldiers. 

The CiiATR3iAx. This material you say was handed to this group, 
students and nonstudents? 

Mr. HoFFMAX. Yes, some was handed to them at the hotel. For ex- 
ample, the South Vietnamese National Liberation Front material, 
such as "Genocide Crime in South Viet Nam," "Under the Yoke of the 
U.S. — Doom in South Viet Nam." There was material from the Vene- 
zuelan FALN, which I believe is a Communist organization in Vene- 
zuela. 

I might add it was kind of strange that one morning there was a 
film shown by the South Vietnamese National Liberation Front. 

The CiiATRMAN". Shown to whom ? 

INIr. HoFFMAx. ShoAvn to the American delegation. This film por- 
trayed military operations in South Vietnam by the South Vietnamese 
National Liberation Front involving x\merican soldiers. During the 
course of this film, an American plane was shot down and there was 
great clieerin<i from tlie students. 

Ae:ain, this is not a tvi^ical group of American students. 

]\rr. JoiiANSEN". "Was that a Chinese or Russian film ? 

Mr. HoFFMAX. I don't know wlio made the film. I believe it was the 
South Vietnamese National Liberation Front that made the film. In 
addition, there were also some shots of Mao Tse-tung during the course 
of this film. Again, Am.erican students do not cheer Mao Tse-tung. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Where was that film shown ? 

Mr. HoFFZMAX. That was shown at the Hotel Eiviera in the Inter- 
national Salon. The South Vietnamese Liberation Front was invited 
bv the Cuban Government to take part in the July 26 celebration. 
They were also staying at the hotel. They distributed much literature 
to the students. 

Mr. JoiiANSEX. Was it a South Vietnam representative who showed 
the film? 

Mr. HoFFMAX. Yes. Again, the South Vietnamese Liberation 
Front is the Communist organization trying to take over Vietnam. 

Mr. .ToTiANSEx. You spoke of two Chinese films being shown. Were 
those Chinese-produced from China ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. These were actually Chinese films. 

Mr. JoTTANSEX. And the locale was in China ? 

Mr. Hoffman. The locale of one film was the border between China 
and India. I believe these films were shown to give the impression 
that it was India that invaded China, not China that invaded India. 
These were propaganda films showing the Chinese point of view. 



692 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Did I understand you correctly? Did you indicate 
that the one fihn was to show that the Chinese had invaded India, 
or was it the reverse i 

Mr. Hoffman. I understand your question. No, these tiluis were 
shown by the Chinese and, as such, they showed tlie Chinese Com- 
munist point of view throughout, the fact that China was invaded by 
India and that the Chinese frontier guards were valiantly throwing 
back the Indians. It was interesting because it showed many scenes 
of the Chinese Army. 

They always called them frontier guards, and it gave me the im- 
pression there were two million frontier guards of the Chinese. 

Mr. JoHANSEX. What was the subject matter, if you recall it, of the 
other film? 

Mr. Hoffman. Well, it was a 21/2 -hour film about a young Chinese 
girl that was trying to get into the Communist Party, and it took 
her £1/2 hours on the film. 

These were propaganda films. They were not for entertainment, as 
we go to movies here. I have the program for 2 typical days. I took 
it from the bulletin board of the Hotel Kiviera. If I can find it, I 
will show you what would happen during the course of the 2 typical 
days. 

The Chairman. Among the literature, the films, and everything 
else, was there any of it that you would regard as pro- American or 
pro- Western ? 

Mr. Hoffman. During my whole 2 months in Cuba, I don't think 
I saw anything that was pro-American with respect to the Cuban 
Government, the Cuban officials, or any of these embassies. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On the other hand, did you see anything indicating 
Cuban and Soviet friendship ? I believe you have a pennant that you 
exhibited to us. 

Mr. HoFF^iAN. The Cubans don't "try" to show their friendship 
with the Soviet Union. It is quite apparent everywhere. I have a 
typical banner which I took from there. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Would you describe it for the record? 

Mr. Hoffman. It is a banner approximately 20 inches by 6 inches 
wide, I would guess, with Fidel Castro clasping hands with Nikita 
Khrushchev, showing the friendship between the two governments. 
In addition to this one, there was another one about the same size that 
I wasn't able to take. It showed Khrushchev and Fidel Castro clasp- 
ing hands. 

This is not hidden. When you go to Cuba, these things are evident. 
For example, here is a photograph that I took in Havar.a of a picture 
of Mao Tse-tung, and underneath it says, "Amigo de Cuba," which 
translates as "friend of Cuba." 

The Chairman. Do you understand Spanish? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I can understand "Amigo de Cuba." I can 
show you this if you like. 

(Banner handed to committee.) 

The Chairman. These exhibits can be retained for our files. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Hoffman. I can probably spend hours showing you some of 
the things that do point up this great friendship between the Russians 
and the Cubans. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 693 

JSIr. JoiiAXSEN. Did any of the material relate to the last October 
incident? 

Mr. Hoffman. Do you mean the invasion? You mean the crisis, 
tlie blockade? 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. Yes. 

Mr. IIoFFMAX. I believe Fidel is using this as "Here is the reason 
why we are in such bad straits, because of the American blockade, 
the' American embargo."' This is mentioned. Every speech that is 
given mentions this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You talked of the program of a typical day in the 
course of your travel in Cuba. 

I believe you have a copy of the program that you are referring 
to? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. This is the itinerary for Monday, July 29, and 
also Wednesday, August 7, which I took from the Hotel Kiviera bul- 
letin board. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is the actual notice published there, is it? 

Mr. Hoffman. This is the notice of the itinerary for Monday, 
July 20, and August 7, Wednesday. For example, Monday — at 5 
o'clock, there is a visit to the Embassy of Vietnam, wdiich, of course, 
is North Vietnam. A visit like that would produce much interesting 
literature. 

At 8 o'clock, a movie at the Chinese Embassy, which would, of 
course, be the Chinese Communist Embassy. Tuesday, July 30, it is 
also on this sheet, and at 10 a.m. there is a meeting with the Venezuelan 
delegation. That would be the delegation of FLN and FALN, which 
is the Communist delegation of Venezuela. 

Mr. JonANSEN. Did your visits include the Soviet Embassy ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I don't remember any official visit to the Soviet Em- 
bassy. That is probably because most of the individuals in Progres- 
sive Labor on the trip were pro-Chinese, as opposed to pro-Russian. 

I am sure, though, that several students did visit the Russian Em- 
bassy because some of tliem came back with the two-volume set of 
books by Nikita Khrushchev. But this was not an official tour. Only 
the Chinese Embassy and the Vietnamese Embassy were official. 

As a matter of fact, during the visit to the Chinese Embassy, they 
unofficially extended an invitation for members of the delegation to 
visit Communist China in 6 months. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your group joined by other Americans who had 
not gone with you to Cuba ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. There was a reception by the American resi- 
dents in Cuba. They have an organization I believe called the North 
American Friends of Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you describe the nature of that organization ? 

Mr. HoFFJiAN. It is an organization of Americans that work for the 
Cuban Government or work in Cuba. I imagine anyone working in 
Cuba would be working for the government, because the government 
owns most everything. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How do you know that fact ? 

Mr. Hoffman. That they work for the government ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Hoffman. They told me. For example, tliere was Harold 
Spencer, wdio worked for the Cuban radio station on propaganda 

98-765— 63— pt. 3. 4 



694 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

broadcasts. He was a member of the North American Friends of 
Cuba. In addition, Robert Williams 

[Applause within audience.] 

The CiTAiRMA?^. Officers, I hope you will keep your eyes on the 
leaders of this demonstration. 

Mr. Hoffman. As I say. Robert Williams addressed the group many 
times and also was around the hotel. He also gave out copies of his 
Tlie Cnisader^ the monthly newsletter which characterizes the United 
States as Facist government. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Do you have a copy of that ? 

INIr. Hoffman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may we mark it for identification and 
receive it in evidence ? 

The Chairman. Yes. It will be received and marked. 

(Document marked "Hoffman Exhibit No. 7" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Harold Spencer serve the Cuban Government in 
any military capacity ? 

Mr. HoFFMAX. In conversation with Harold Spencer, I learned 
that he was a member of the Cuban militia, the Peoples' Army. 
Harold Spencer was in uniform at one time. I was told that many of 
the Americans in Cuba are also in the militia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of course, we are aware that the student leadership 
publicly stated that the purpose of going to Cuba was to see for them- 
selves. However, during the course of the trip, was there anything 
said by one or more of this leadership that indicated to you that their 
purpose was something else ? 

Mr. HoFFiiAN. Yes. The purpose of the trip as stated by Levi Laub 
during one meeting was to "break" the United States travel ban. 

The Chairman. Where was that meeting ? 

Mr. Hoffman. This wns at the Hotel Riviera. I believe it was at 
the August 2 meeting. I can check my notes later to give you the 
exact date. This was when some members of the delegation did not 
want to return to the United States directly. Laub was reminding 
them of their responsibilities. He very emphatically stated the pur- 
pose of this trip was to "break" the United States traA^el ban and not 
to see and evaluate Cuba. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Not to what ? 

Mr. Hoffman. He didn't say not to see it, but that was the implica- 
tion. 

The Chairman. He said the purpose of the trip was to "break" 
the American ban against travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. He phrased it to "break" the U.S. travel ban. 

The Chairman. To "break" the U.S. travel ban ? 

Mr. HoFF]\rAN. It is the travel ban on U.S. citizens going to Cuba 
without a valid passport, which I believe is part of onr foreign policy. 

Tlie Cttatr^man. Yet in the press release of June 26, which has been 
marked Exhibit No. 4, 1 read this : 

Accepting an all-expense paid invitation from the Cuban Federation of Uni- 
versity Students in Havana to visit and meet with the Cuban people and stu- 
dents, to discuss student life and the Cuban Revolution, the students declare 
that their purpose in making the trip vpas to see and evaluate Cuba for them- 
selves. 

That is the release. But that was not the purpose ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 695 

Mr. HoFFMAX. I think a member of the deleiration mi<i:ht have had 
several reasons, but the most important, as stated by Levi Laub, was to 
"break'' the U.S. ti'avel ban. I couldn't say that some members of 
the delefjation did not go to see Cuba. 

The CiiATinrAx. But from the point of view of the leadership, the, 
planned purpose was as has been stated from the lips of Mr. Laub? 

Mr. HoFFTviAN. Yes. I think you could also add that any member 
of the delegation that thought ho had been hoodwinked could have 
gotten up and said, "]\Ir. Laub. I came here to see and evaluate Cuba, 
not to break t he T^.S. travel ban." 

The CiiAiR:\rAx. Nobody stood up and repudiated Laub's purpose? 

Mr. HoFFMAx. There was only one individual that did do that, 
Wavne Conibasli, who got up and said, "I didn't even know about the 
U.S. travel bun."' 

The CiiAiinrAX. Yet so far as you know, and I assume the pattern 
was the same, they liad each been given a document well in advance of 
tlie travel. You received it by mail. It was a document saying that 
each one must realize that there is a ban, the violation of which could 
result in fine or imprisonment. So far as you know, every student 
had that warning : is that true ? 

Mr. HoFFMAX. As far as I know. 

The Chairman-. You say, "As far as I know." That is correct. 
But the evidence in the record indicates it is so. 

Mr. Hoffmax. And the application clearly states it. 

The CiiAiRMAx. They were well aware of the violation of law, and 
the leadership had been given a written notice to that effect by the 
State Department. Yet they revealed under oath here on the witness 
stand in May that they fciew about that and, so far as they were con- 
cerned, the}" were going to travel just the same, in the name of "freedom 
of travel," despite what the law may say when a nation breaks diplo- 
matic relations with another. They just took that position right on 
the stand here. Obviously, this corroborates your own testimony 
under oath. 

Mr. JoiiAxsEX. And wasn't it clear that there was set forth in cor- 
respondence to the prospective members of this trip that this violation 
was involved and that there were risks involved incident to the viola- 
tion ? 

Mr. Hoffmax. Yes, it was very clearly stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any Cuban official present during a discussion on 
the purpose of this travel that would confirm the statement of Levi 
Laub? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I think it was the day before the delegation 
left to return to the United States that a meeting was held with Gerald 
Mazzola, the director of the Cuban Institute for Friendship Among 
the Peoples. It is a very large and very powerful organization. 

Mr. Mazzola was holding a meeting with members of the continua- 
tion committee, which was a committee that was set up in order to 
bring more students down to Cuba after this trip. This meeting was to 
discuss plans for future trips by Americans to Cuba. Mr. Mazzola, 
at tli5 beginning of his talk, mentioned that this trip was veiy impor- 
tant to Cuba and to Cuban foreign policy, because if they could "break" 
the American travel ban then it would be very difficult for other 
countries to hnpose a travel ban on Cuba. He was very emphatic 
about that. 



696 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN TJ.S. 

The Chairman. Who made that statement ? 

Mr, Hoffman. This was made by Gerald Mazzola. 

The Chairman. A Cuban general ? 

Mr. Hoffman. He was not a general, but he was the leader or the 
director. 

The Chairman. His name was Gerald ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Gerald. 

The Chairman. He said that breaking this ban would have a very 
important effect on our foreign policy with reference to travel 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. 

The Chairman. — and our attempt to have the other South and 
Central American countries join our policy of isolation or quarantining 
or blocking or preventing travel to Cuba? That came from the lips 
of a Cuban ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. 

The Chairman. Wliat was the occasion; when was it and where? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe it was the day after the delegation left to 
return to the United States, and it was at the offices of the Cuban 
Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples. It was in Mr. Mazzola's 
quarters there. 

The Chairman. That statement was made to and in the presence of 
this traveling group ? 

]\Ir. Hoffman. No, it was just made in the presence of what was 
known as the continuation committee. This was a committee that was 
set up to plan future trips to Cuba by Americans. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. How specific was the discussion of plans for future 
trips? 

Mr. HoFFBiAN. Well, I can tell you what they were. "Wlien you say 
"specific," do you mean exact dates and who to contact? 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I mean was it just general, that "This is some- 
thing we are going to repeat," or did it get down to cases ? 

Mr. Hoffman. They are going to repeat these trips. As a matter of 
fact, on the skin diving trip between I^vi Laub and Fidel Castro, Fidel 
Castro mentioned tliat in the event the United States Government 
should attempt to prosecute these students, it would be a good idea to 
bring down a couple hundred more while the prosecution was going on. 

Mr. Mazzola was asked how many more Americans could he handle 
and when, on a future trip. Mr. Mazzola said that he could handle 
several thousand and they need not just be students. They could be 
workers. "Bring them all down," he said, and he could handle these 
by January 1, the date that he gave. 

This didn't seem to please members of the student continuation com- 
mittee, and they suggested that there might be new laws coming up 
soon. 

The Chairman. By the way, that is exactly part of the purpose of 
these hearings. 

Mr. Hoffman. And that in the event more of these laws were to come 
which might make future trips more difficult, it might be good to have 
another trip in a couple of weeks. 

The Chairman. Perhaps he guessed right. 

Mr. Hoffman. Mr. Mazzola mentioned that "Yes," he could take 
perhaps 50 or 60 within the next few weeks. He also made an inter- 
esting point. He said it might look better if perhaps the future 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 697 

delegations would pay tlieir own way. It just didn't look good for the 
Cuban Government to be footing the bills. 

The CiiAiKMAN, By the way, I don't know whether it has been 
established, but how nuich money did you have to put up personally, 
if anything? I have no idea what the answer is, but I want it for the 
record. 

Mr. Hoffman. $100. That was the entire cost of this trip. 

The CiLViRMAN. As far as you know, that was the contribution made 
by each student ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I don't know if every student made that contribution. 

The CiiATRiNrAN. I had understood from a witness in May that the 
contribution was much smaller. The figure of $10 comes to my mind. 

Does anybody on the committee remember w^iether that was the 
estimate at that time, in May ? Do you know whether your contribu- 
tion of $100 was the same as that of the others ? 

i\Ir. Hoffman. I can explain the $10. There was a $10 deposit that 
was returned wdth application. 

The Chairman. It looks like the price went up. 

Mr. Hoffman. No, it was the deposit. And then $90 more was paid 
later at Miss Shall it's apartment, and that constituted the total of 
$100. Some students, I understand, did not have the $100 and they 
weren't required to pay anything. 

Mr. NiTiLE. You talked about the continuation committee which 
had been formed to plan future visits to Cuba. Would you tell us who 
composed, or who were appointed to, the continuation committee? 

Mr. Hoffman. There was no appointment as such. These people 
volunteered for this job. Tliey would keep in contact with each other 
by mail. They were selected — not selected, but they came from all 
over the United States. The continuation committee included Levi 
Laub from New York, Ehoden Smith and Christian Raisner from 
California, Ellen Shallit from New York, Luria Castell from Califor- 
nia, Eric Johnson from California, Michael Brown from Detroit, and 
Martin Nicolaus, who was to handle Boston. 

I believe I was on the continuation committee, but I don't think I 
am any more, meaning that I attended the two meetings. I am sure I 
am no longer a member. 

The Chairman. You wouldnt' be an ex officio member now ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I don't expect any correspondence from them. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Was Stefan Martinot appointed to any position on the 
continuation committee ? 

Mr. HoFFMx\N. Not as far as I know. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Was he on the press committee ? 

Mr. HoFFiMAN. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't recollect whether you stated for the record who 
were the members of the press committee, although I believe you stated 
that Phillip Luce was the chairman of the press committee. 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. Do you mean the members of the press 
committee? 

Mr. NiTTi.E. That were selected in Cuba. 

Mr. HotTMAN. Elected in Cuba. Stephen Driggs, James Lacy, 
Stefan Martinot. and John Milton, Phillip Luce. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to your leaving Ctiba, were discussions conducted 
with respect to possible prosecution on the return of your group and 



698 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

possible contact with the group by FBI agents and by the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. There \Yas much mention of the House Com- 
mittee, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and legal defense. 
The Chairman. Not too laudatory, i suppose. 

Mr. Hoffman. No, the House Committee did not come in for any 
laudatory remarks. As a matter of fact, it was mentioned — I will give 
you quotes on this. It was mentioned that the House Committee 
should not be underestimated. ''They may be the scum of Congress, 
but don't underestimate them." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who made that statement ? 
Mr. Hoffman. That was made by Mr. Luce of the ECLC. 
Mr. NiTTLE. Was there a meeting called to hold a discussion on these 
subjects? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes, there were several meetings, actually, several 

meetings at which this was discussed. I believe 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were the main speakers at these meetings ? 
]Mr. Hoffman. I can read my notes on one of the meetings. I was 
able to take notes openly in this meeting. Other students were also 
taking notes at the meetings to learn how to handle these things when 
they returned. 

For example, on August 2 there was a lecture by Phil Luce and Levi 
Laub and Stefan Martinot, and the first part concerned the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, and the following remarks were made as 

suggestions 

Mr. NiTTLE. AVlio spoke first on this subject of the FBI ? 
Mr. Hoffman. I don't know whether it was Luce or Levi Laub. 
It was one or the other. By the way, they were very careful to 
qualify these things by saying they were only suggestions "and you 
need not do any of these things" that were mentioned. With respect 
to the FBI : "People are under no compulsion to speak to them. No 
arrests can be made without a Avarrant. There is no such thing as an 
off-the-record talk with the FBI. If you decide to speak to the FBI, 
be sure to take notes and get names. Have the FBI write questions 
down. If you are a woman on the street, scream if you want to get 
rid of them. Under no circumstances touch the FBI." 

These instructions continue : "You need not let the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation into your house without a warrant and you can re- 
quest they return when your lawyer is present." 

Again, these are all very carefully qualified as being merely sug- 
gestions. 

The next speaker was Stefan Martinot, who gave his experience be- 
fore the House Committee when he appeared here, I believe, on May 23. 
His discussion began with the purpose of the House Committee, 
which is "to intimidate individuals," and that the House Committee is 
made up of a bunch of "hacks." It is very interesting that Members 
of Congress are treated in this way, but it is our Government. 

Well, all right, to continue: "You are a captive before the House 
Committee. They try to make you feel guilty. It is a free-for-all ; 
afterwards, the testimony can be taken to your boss and neighbors. 
It can be used to fire you. The House Committee wants information 
on other individuals so they can also be harassed. However, you 
can take up to a half hour to answer questions." An explanation was 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 699 

made of the lif th amendment and also mention was made of Paul llobe- 
son and the way he handled the House Committee. 

When he was asked the question, it was explained, he would reply 
with a lecture on the United States foreign policy. I might mention 
that Stefan Martinet also said that he wanted to be quite open during 
his testimony before the House Committee, as he felt that the House 
Committee did have a legitimate legislative interest in that May 23 
hearing. 

With respect to the legal defense, legal matters, Phillip Luce also 
had a lecture, during which time he mentioned the House Committee, 
and he made the statement that they should not be underestimated, 
although "they may be the scum of Congress." 

He brought up the fact that when the group returned they could 
seek legal advice from the ACLU, the ECLC, or the National Com- 
mittee To xlbolish the House Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The National Committee I'o Abolish the Un-American 
Activities Committee? 

]\Ir. Hoffman. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And the ECLC — the initials you just gave — what or- 
ganization does that stand for ? 

Mr. HoFFMAx. The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, the em- 
ployer of Mr. Luce. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And the ACLU ? 

Mr. Hoffman. The American Civil Liberties Union, which, I be- 
lieve, is a legitimate civil rights organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You indicated that this discussion did take place with 
respect to the representation and defense of students who may be 
prosecuted on return. Did Luce mention any specific attorneys that 
would be emploj-ed for that defense or what the cost of the defense 
might be or what probable expenses the group would be involved 
with? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. This was brought up a lot later, perhaps a 
week before departure, and it was mentioned one morning that very 
conveniently the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee had sent a 
telegram to the student delegation in Cuba, asking if the student dele- 
gation would be interested, perhaps, in having ECLC represent them. 

I think Mr. Laub or Mr. Luce asked whether or not they could at 
least answer the telegram for the students interested, and a discussion 
would be held on the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee several 
days later. 

A telegram was sent back, I believe, and then on Wednesday, near 
the end of the trip, Mr. Luce explained the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee. I might add he was vei-y careful to mention that the 
ACLU, the American Civil Liberties Union, probably wouldn't take 
the case, because they only took cases on appeal, and — well, let us have 
an explanation of what ECLC is. 

]Mind you, Mr. Luce is an employee of that group on this trip. He 
mentioned that ECLC was an organization tliat was not very v\^ell 
liked by the House Committee and that they would be willing to take 
the case without charge. I think he phrased it "without fee." How- 
ever, there would be certain expenses, and he thought they would come 
to about $6,000. This would l3e made up from the students, and de- 
fense committees would be set up later on to raise the money. 



700 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

After his portrayal of the ECLC, the student delegation voted to 
have the ECLC represent them. I haven't yet heard from my ECLC 
attorney and I don't think I will. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You indicate that there was a contact with the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee by Luce prior to leaving Cuba, is 
that correct? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. I believe he had been in contact with Mr. Fore- 
man, and also telegrams had been exchanged. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Upon arrival in New York City from Cuba, were there 
present representatives of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee? 

]\Ir. Hoffman. I did not arrive in New York with the student dele- 
gation so I do not know, 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mentioned a telegram while in Cuba from the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. Did you see that telegram 
yourself, or was it mentioned to you by a member of the group? 

Mr. Hoffman. It was merely mentioned by a member of the group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Phillip Luce mention to you any particular attor- 
ney or attorneys that would be willing to handle the defense of the 
group on behalf of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. It was mentioned that Mr, Boudin would 
probably be the counsel that would be handling the case for ECLC. 
He also mentioned that Mr, Boudin also represents the Cuban Govern- 
ment in the LTnited States. But he didn't believe that that would 
prejudice the case in any way. He thought that Mr. Boudin would 
do very well in handling the case. I might also mention that a film 
was made of this trip by the Cuban Government, a complete film made 
by newsreel cameramen, I believe, and this film will be smuggled into 
the United States at a later date. 

It will be shown at different universities and different college cam- 
puses and funds would be raised by the showing of the film, and 
that would make it easier for raising the $6,000 that ECLC would 
get, at the minimum. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The intention was expressed that ECLC would then 
have a field day on campuses of colleges and universities throughout 
the United States, with an opportunity to talk about Cuba and in 
favor of Cuba, with the understanding that they were raising funds 
to defend the students ? 

Mr. Hoffman. I don't know if ECLC would be doing it, but the 
students would be doing it. And defense committees would also be 
organized to help raise money to defend the students. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it stated to you that the students would now have 
an opportunity to speak on Cuba to other students, while ostensibly 
raising funds for their defense ? Was anything specifically said with 
respect to that? 

Mr. Hoffman. I believe that would be correct, that they would be 
showing films on Cuba as well as raising money, so I think there would 
be two objectives on these thiiigs. They would come back and say 
they have seen the truth about Cuba, and it is not the way the Ameri- 
can press portrays it. "I was there also." 

Mr. NiTTLE. You talked about the smuggling of a film into the 
United States. Was there any discussion with the group, or offer 
made, in some way to forward Communist propaganda into the United 
States ? Were packages being offered to the students for that purpose ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 701 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. There Mas also a problem about the literature 
that the students were receiving. There was so much of it that some 
of the students couldn't hope to carry it back to the United States. 
Also, a lot of it included nuiterial published in China as well as in 
Cuba, and there might be the possibility of this material being taken 
by the United States customs, perhaps confiscated as material coming 
from these two countries. 

So the Cuban Government said, "All you have to do is put your 
literature, your books and your material, in a box; mark where you 
want the box sent; and we will see to it that you receive this box of 
literature in your home." 

I presume that they were going to somehow or other smuggle it 
into the United States, or perhaps through Canada. I don't know the 
exact route, but they are going to smuggle all of this literature into 
the United States. 

]Mr. XiTTLE. On your return to New York, had you been given any 
directions relating to conduct on debarkation ? 

Mr. Hoffman. Yes. There was a meeting devoted to that, how^ to 
handle the press and also possible demonstrations if the United States 
State Department attempted to invalidate or take away passports. 

I believe the group was to be divided into groups of eight indi- 
viduals, or seven individuals, with a group leader, and then there 
would also be another group of four or five led by Phil Luce's group 
that would go through customs and immigration first, because, after 
all, Phil had to get out first and meet the press. 

In the event their passports were attempted to be taken from these 
students, then the others would stop and hold a demonstration and 
not pass through until they were given the assurance that their pass- 
]:)orts would not be bothered. There was also discussion of the fact 
that, "Don't worry, lawyers will be waiting. Don't submit to a per- 
sonal search. A cheering crowd will be waiting so as to make the 
customs men more nervous in case they tiy to stop or search some- 
body very thoroughly." 

I believe this all came true, though I wasn't there in New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you give in summary form, Mr. Hoffman, the 
conclusions you reached upon completion of the trip, as to the purpose 
of the trip undertaken by the student leadership, what effect you 
think this trip has had, and wh.ether any l)enefits were received by 
Cuba? 

]Mr. Hoffman. This would be my own opinion. Again, let me state 
that in my opinion these were not typical American students. The 
benefits to Cuba as well as the students would be, one, that this would 
be an attempt to break the travel ban and thus begin the long-range 
break of the isolation of Cuba by the United States. 

I think that would be number one. Number two, it was also used 
to embarrass the United States at home and in Latin America. The 
impression was given that a typical group of American students, at 
odds with their Government, were coming to see the truth and, wlien 
they came back, they would have glowing speeches about Castro and 
communism in Cuba ; and this would be used by the Cubans all over 
Latin America, that, "Here the American Government is lying to 
you, Cuban communism is wonderful. Here are 59 students who came 
and saw the truth." 



702 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

These people would also serve as mouthpieces for Cuban propa- 
ganda on their return, by showing the film and holding lectures at 
college campuses. In addition, I suspect this was done for adver- 
tising and publicity for the extreme leftist organization, Progressive 
Labor. 

After all, they pulled it off, and this might mean great publicity for 
Progressive Labor as an organization that really does something. 
In addition, it also might give stature to the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee. It would also provide new fund-raising approaches with 
defense committees for these different groups. 

I think this is also another blow aimed at the legitimate channels of 
anticommunism in the United States, such as the State Department, 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and congressional committees. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions from the members of the 
committee? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hoffman, it is hard to tell what motivates 
a man to undertake a venture such as you did, but I would say 
this, that in net result, in my opinion, you have made a contribution 
to tnis committee and ultimately, therefore, to your country. Your 
examination has been carefully gone into. Counsel veiy wisely and 
deliberately, under our suggestion, did not seelv to bring out from you 
anything beyond your own knowledge. 

You have been under oath. You have testified freely, obviously 
bringing out the facts as you honestly know them. For all of these 
reasons, personally, I want to extent my thanks to you. 

Mr. Hoffman. Mr. "Willis, I think a great deal of credit for this 
should also go to Gordon Hall, who spends his life fighting totalitarian 
movements in the United States, both on the right wing and the left 
wing. Here is a man that really is an anti-Communist and an anti- 
Fascist. 

The Chairman. The witness will be excused. The committee will 
stand in recess until 2 :15 this afternoon. 

("\Miereupon, at 12 :20 p.m., Thursday, September 12, 1963, the sub- 
committee recessed, to reconvene at 2:15 p.m. the same day.) 

(IMembers present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and Johansen of 
the subcommittee, and also Representatives Pool, Bruce, Schadeberg, 
and Ashbrook.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1963 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2:15 p.m.. Honorable Edwin E. 
AVillis, chairman, presiding.) 

(Members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and Johansen of 
the subcommittee, and also Representatives Pool, Ichord, Senner, 
Bruce, and Schadeberg.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Certain witnesses who have been summoned to testify in these hear- 
ings have asked that the hearings be postponed or held in executive 
session. Their requests were based on a claim that a pending grand 
jury proceeding, which it now seems is definitely underway in the U.S. 
District Court for the Eastern District of New York, apparently, as 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 703 

they expressed it, involves the same genercal subject matter which is 
under consideiation by the committee in these hearings. 

These witnesses have not disclosed whether or not tliey have been 
summoned before the grand jury. The committee does not know 
whether or not they have been sunmioned to appear before it. The 
grand jury proceeding, according to present accounts, began just 
yesterday, over a week after the v/itnesses were subpenaed to appear 
at this hearing. 

Congress, through its committees, is not prohibited from requiring 
pertinent disclosures in aid of its constitutional powers because the 
information sought to be elicited may relate to a subject matter as- 
sumed to be under consideration by a grand jury or some otlier branch 
of the Government. Any such conclusion, in the opinion of the sub- 
cominittee, would constitute a recognition that the mere possibility of 
some future grand jury consideration of a related subject matter would 
constitute a self-operating restraint on congressional inquires. 

In this connection, the history of this congressional inquiry should 
be set forth. The investigation was initiated in the summer of 1962. 
This fact was made known by the late chairman of the committee. 
Representative Francis E. "Walter, in a press release dated March 14, 
1963. 

The first public hearing in this inquiry was held on May 6, over 4 
months ago. The committee has since held 5 additional days of hear- 
ings on the matter. It is still investigating in the area, and additional 
hearings are contemplated. 

The fact that the committee has the power and right to proceed 
with this inquiry in open session at this time does not mean that it 
must do so. In the exercise of its discretion, it has decided to hear 
the other witnesses in executive session. 

The witnesses summoned for this hearing who have not as yet been 
heard are directed to rejjort to committee room 226 within the next 
30 minutes. 

The committee Avill recess for 30 minutes. 

(Wliereupon, at 2:35 p.m., Thursday, September 12, 1963, the sub- 
committee recessed to reconvene at 3 :05 p.m., the same day in execu- 
tive session.) 

(Members present: Eepresentatives Willis, Tuck, and Johansen 
of the subcommittee, and also Representatives Pool, Bruce, and 
Schadeberg.) 

EXECUTIVE SESSION ^—THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1963 

(The subcommittee reconvened in executive session at 3:10 p.m., in 
Room 219, Cannon House OiFice Building, Washington, D.C., Honor- 
able Edwin E. Willis, chairman, presiding.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
William M. Tuck, and August E. Johansen. 

Committee members also present: Representatives Joe R. Pool 
Richard H. Ichord, George F. Senner, Jr., Donald C. Bruce, Henry 
C. Schadeberg, and John M. Aslibrook. 

Staff members present : Francis J. McXamara, director ; Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel ; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; and Donald 
T. Appell, chief investigator. 

^ Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 



704 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. All right, let us proceed. 

Please raise your right hand, Mr. Laub. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Laub. I affirm. 

Mr. Rein. Mr. Chairman, I would like at this time to indicate on 
behalf of ni}^ w^itness that Mr. Laub did not request that the session be 
held in executive session, although he did request a continuance. 

The Chairman. Give your name, please. 

Mr. Rein. I am sorry. My name is David Rein, R-e-i-n, and I am 
attorney for the witness, Mr. Levi Laub. 

TESTIMONY OF LEVI LEE LAUB, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID EEIN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would the witness state his name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Laub. Mv name is Levi Laub. I now live at 217 Haven Avenue, 
New^ York 33, New^ York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, I am. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Would you state who your counsel is ? 

Mr. Laub. David Rein. 

Mr. Rein. I am sorry. On behalf of Mr. Laub, I would like to indi- 
cate that — and I am sure that the committee has a record of the wire 
which I sent, requesting the continuance on behalf of Mr. Laub — that 
in that request there was no request for an executive session and that 
not only did we not request it but that ]\[r. Laub protests about the 
hearing being held in executive session, and I think he would like to 
make a statement w^ith respect to his position. 

The Chairman. Xo. Let me ask j^ou this question : Do you want 
to be heard in public hearing, Mr. Laub ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, sir. 

The CiL4iRMAN. Are you aw^are that, according to the i:>ress accounts, 
there is a grand jury proceeding involving matters relating to the sub- 
ject of this hearing ? 

Mr. Laub. I am aware of that. 

The Chaieman. And with that knowdedge, you w^ant to be heard in 
public session ? 

Mr. Laub. Absolutely. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have him step aside until you consider what decision 
you will reach. 

The Chairman. Yes. Would you ? 

(Witness and counsel left the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. Call the next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are sending out for Mr. Luce, Mr. Chairman. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 705 

STATEMENT OF PHILLIP ABBOTT LUCE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL B. STANDARD 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand, Mr. Luce. 

Mr. Luce. My. Chairman, before we proceed I would like to clarify, 
if I may, for the record, wliat has and has not been presented with 
regard to request for executive session. 

The CiLviRMAN. "Well, we will consider that. We just handled a 
similar request and I believe this is a better way. 

Mr. SxAXDArvD. I believe Mr. Luce's position — and he will correct 
mc if I am wrong — is that he would like either for himself or for myself 
to clarify the situation before he is sworn. 

The Chairman. I think we had better have the witness' statement 
before that. 

Please raise your right hand. 

Mr. Luce. I refuse to be sworn before this committe in executive 

Mr. Luce. I refuse to be sworn before this committee in executive 
requested an executive session. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to affirm ? 

Mr. Luce. 1 refuse to appear before this committee in executive 
session. I will appear before this committee in open session at any 
time it calls on me. 

The Chairman. Now, will you state your name ? At least we have 
to have that for the record. 

Mr. Luce. Phillip Luce. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what is your address or residence ? 

Mr. Luce. 504 West 55th Street, New York 19, New York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Standard. Mr. Nittle, if this is the prelude to the beginning of 
an interrogation 

Mr. Nittle. No, we just want to identify the witness. And you will 
be given an opportunity to make whatsoever motions you desire to 
make. 

Mr. Luce. Yes, I am represented by counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the name of your counsel? 

Mr. Luce. The name of my counsel is Michael Standard, 
S-t-a-n-d-a-r-d. 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Standard, do you want to make a 
motion ? 

Mr. Standard. Mr. Willis, first, before making a motion, I would 
like to clarify the position in regard to the request for a continuance 
of the hearings because of the pendency of the grand jury proceedings 
and the request or, rather, lack of it on behalf of Mr. Luce for an 
executive session. 

On Friday or Saturday of last week, I believe, I sent a telegram to 
this committee — more particularly to you — and in that telegram, on 
behalf of Mr. Luce, first, I did request a continuance, because I had 
learned of the pendency of a grand jury proceeding. 

It was my position that the House tin-American Activities Com- 
mittee subpena, which was returnable today, represented an attempt to 
involve itself in an ancillary proceeding, one ancillary to the grand 



706 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

jury proceedings now pending.^ I therefore asked for a continuance. 

Now, at that time, I also sent you another telegram because at that 
time I represented Miss Cathy Prensky, who has also, as I understand, 
been subpenaed for a session today. 

Miss Prensky was a minor, and it is true that while I represented 
her — I don't any more — I made a request for executive session on her 
bahalf and similarly I asked for a continuance of the hearings because 
of the pendency of the grand jury proceedings. 

Now, at this time, I would like to move the Chair and the committee 
at large for a continuance of the hearings in public session. 

The Chairman. You are now moving that he be heard in public 
session ? 

Mr. Standard. That is correct, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Now, are you and he both aware — obviously, you 
are, as you just indicated — of the fact that there is a grand jury 
proceeding on matters related to the subject matter of this hearing? 

JSIr. Standard. I am av/are that that is allegedly the subject matter 
under inquiry. I assume the witness will answer for himself. 

The Chairman. Well, a^ou related it yourself in your telegram, and 
we are acting on the basis of the press reports. 

Now, are j^ou aware of that fact, sir? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And having that information, namely, pendency of 
the grand jury proceeding, you now ask to be heard not in closed ses- 
sion but in publ ic session. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Luce. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Is that correct ? 

ATr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. We will rule on it. Will you step aside 
for a moment? 

(AYitness and counsel left the hearing room.) 

STATEMENT OF CATHEr.INE JO PRENSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, CONEAD J. LYNN 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand, Miss Prensky. 

Mr. T^YNN. The witness 

The Chair]man. We want to get the preliminaries before you get 
to your motion. 

]Mr. Lynn. The witness does not want to swear in, because she 
thinks that may be committing her to a closed hearing. 

The Chairman. No, it will not. 

Mr. Lynn. With that assurance. 

The Chairman. It will not influence my decision one way or the 
other. 

Miss Prensky. I would prefer to make the motion first. 

The Chairman. I think we have to identify you and identify your 
counsel. 



^ The committee decided to subpena Mr. Luce and other witnesses heard in these hearings 
while the group was still in Cuba. The subpenas for Mr. Luce and the other witnesses 
were issued on August 26 and served on them on August 29, the day they arrived at Inter- 
national Airport, New York City, on their return from Cuba. The first indications that 
a Federal grand .iury was looking into the matter of the students' trip to Cuba appeared 
in the press on September 10. several weeks after the committee had determined to hold 
this hearing. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 707 

Miss Prensky. Well, I think you know who I am. You just called 
me in. And I would prefer to make the motion first. 

The Chairman. "Would you raise your ri o;ht hand, please ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lyxn. She feels that she might prejudice her position against 
n closed hearing. 

The Chairman. And she is doing that contrary to your advice ? 

]Mr. Lynn. Well, I won't say that. I think that she has the right 
to make that position clear, because her former counsel received a 
telegram from this connnittee saying flatly that it would be an open 
liearing and it would not be in executive session. 

The Chairman. All right. We will come to that. 

Now at least we want your name for the record and the name of 
your counsel, the full name and address. 

]Miss Prensky. My name is Catherine Prensky. I live at 92 Glen- 
wood Avenue, New Rochelle. 

The Chairman. And you are represented by a lawyer ? 

Miss Prensky. Yes. 

The Chairman. Counsel, please state your name. 

Mr. Lynn. Conrad J. Lynn, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

The Chairman. Now, I will entertain your motion. 

]Mr. Lynn. The motion of this witness is that this connnittee hear 
lier in open session, as this hearing commenced this morning. Her 
former counsel received a telegram from this committee denying an 
executive session and notifying her that it would be an open session. 

This session having begun this morning with a witness against this 
witness — who named this witness and gave testimony against her in 
open session — she thinks it is elementary fairness that she be given 
an equal opportunity to testify in public, answering the accusations 
of that first witness. 

The Chairman. Now, I understand. 

The reply we gave to her former counsel, announcing that it would 
be an open session, was substantially based on the fact that the tele- 
gram itself did not actually say a grand jury was in session. We are 
unaware, officially, that one is in session. Normally, such proceedings 
are secret. Through the press we have been informed only this mom- 
ing and by last evening's press — I only read it this morning myself — 
that a grand jury is in session. That is the reason why, based on now 
accurate knowledge, apparently, that the grand jury is in session, we 
decided to hear these Avitnesses in closed session. 

I now understand that you are now moving that she be heard in 
open session and not in closed session. 

Mr. Lynn. I do so move. 

The Chairman. All right. If you will step aside for a moment. 

One moment — I did not ask this question that I asked of the other 
witnesses and, to be consistent, I wish to ask it. 

You are aware, of course, since you have been talking about it, that 
there is now a grand jury proceeding going on, involving matters re- 
lated to the general subject of this hearing and, having that knowl- 
edge, you have made the motion to be heard not in executive session, 
but in open session ? 

Mr. Lynn. That motion was made with that knowledge, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 



708 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Pool. And she wants the same thing? 

Mr. IcHORD. Well, Mr. Chairman, for the record, being a member 
of the full committee but not a member of the subcommittee, I want 
to understand the procedure that occurred on all of these witnesses. 

Am I right in thinking that, at the time the subcommittee passed 
upon the request for an executive hearing, the committee had not been 
apprised by the newspapers of any alleged 

The Chairman. That is right. The hearings were set up and the 
witnesses were summoned before we were aware of the grand jury 
proceeding. 

Mr. IcHORD. And having since learned of those proceedings in the 
newspapers, according to the newspaper reports, you have ruled that 
they would be heard in closed session? 

The Chairiman. As a matter of the exercise of our discretion, which 
I made plain yesterday. 

Mr. Pool. Is that your will also ? 

The Chairman. That you be heard in open session ? 

Miss Prenskt. Yes. I want an open session, because you heard in 
public this morning a witness against me, and I want to give the truth 
to the public. 

Mr. Pool. All right. 

The Chairman. All right. 

(At this point, witness and counsel left the hearing room.) 

]\Ir. NnixE. Call Larry W. Phelps. 

The Chairman. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

STATEMENT OF LAEEY WILFORD PHELPS, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, CONEAD J. LYNN 

The Chair]\ian. Please raise your right hand, Mr. Phelps. 

Mr. Phelps. No. 

The Chairman. Please give your full name and address. 

Mr. Phelps. Larry Wilford Phelps. 

The Chairman. Your address ? 

Mr. Phelps. Oh, 2114 Wiggins Street, Burlington, North Carolina. 

The Chairman. And are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Phelps. Yes. 

The Chairman. Will counsel please give his name and address ? 

Mr. Lynn. Conrad J. Lynn, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

The Chairman. Now, I understand you have a motion to make. 
Counsel ? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes, the witness requests that this session be held as an 
open session, not an executive session, since it began as an open session. 

The Chairman. Are you and the witness aware of the fact that 
there is a grand jury proceeding involving matters related to the sub- 
j ect matter of this hearing ? 

Mr. Phelps. Yes. 

The Chairman. And with that knowledge you now move that you 
be heard in open session and not in executive session ? 

Mr. Phelps. That is correct. 

The Chairman. All right. We will excuse you for a minute. 

(At this point the witness left the hearing room, and Miss Naka- 
shima was called in.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 709 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, please, Miss Nakashima. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Miss Nakashima. I so affirm. 

TESTIMOF? OF WEISTOIE (OR WENDY) SUZUKO NAKASHIMA ROSEN, 
ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, CONRAD J. LYNN 

The Chairman. What is your full name and address? 

Miss Nakashima. Before we go into that I w ould lilie to request- 



The Chairman. We will reach a motion. This is preliminary. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman. Your lawyer will tell you this is all right. 

Mr. Lynn. This has to do with her name. 

The Chairman. Oh, I see. 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, I find it not only embarrassing that the 
Congressmen in my country can be as careless as to misspell my name, 
all three names, when they issue a subpena, and rather insulting, and 
I Avould like to give you the correct name and the correct spelling. 

The Chairman. Please. 

Miss Nakashima. The name is Wendie, W-e-n-d-i-e; Suzuko, 
S-u-z-u-k-o ; Nakashima, N-a-k-a-s-h-i-m-a. 

The Chairman. And wdiat is your address? Would you give it? 

Miss Nakashima. Pardon ? 

The Chairman. Your address, please ? 

Miss Nakashima. My legal address is 622 West 14:1st Street, New 
York. 

The Chairman. You are represented by a lawyer, counsel, today ? 

Miss Nakashima. I am. 

The Chairman. Counsel, please identify yourself and give your 
address for the record. 

Mr. Lynn. Conrad J. Lynn, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

The Chairman. I understand, Counsel, that you now have a motion 
to make? 

Mr. Lynn. Yes. This witness wishes to be heard in open session 
since she had expected it to be an open session, since the committee had 
announced that it would be. 

The Chairman. Are you and the witness both aware of the fact 
that there is a grand jury proceeding involving matters relating to 
the subject matter of this particular hearing? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Lynn. We are. 

The Chairman. And with that knowledge, you move to be heard 
in public session and not in closed session ? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, that is right. 

The Chairman. All right. Please step aside. 

(Witness and counsel left the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. Is that the last ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Tuck. I move that the motion made by the witnesses through 
counsel for open session be granted. 

98-765— 63— pt. 3 5 



710 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I second the motion. 

The Chairman. Well, I favor the motion myself, so the subcom- 
mittee is unanimous on that, it seems. 

Incidentally, we have the full committee in attendance, so I will p^ir- 
mit all of the full committee members who have heard the motions 
made by these witnesses to express their Ayishes by their vote. 

Mr. Bruce, Aye. 

]\Ir. ScHADEBERG. Aye. 

Mr. Pool. Aye. 

Mr. IciioRD. Aye. 

Mr, Senner. Aye. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. Aye. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee and the full committee have 
unanimously voted to act favorably on the motion of the witnesses to 
be heard in open session. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, if I may, one further suggestion. 

(Discussion off the record,) 

The Chairman, Call the three counsel back. 

Let it be noted that the Messrs, Conrad J, Lynn, Michael Standard, 
and David Rein were recalled before the committee and the Chair now 
wishes to state to counsel for the witnesses that the respective motions 
that you have made to be heard, for their clients to be heard, in public 
session rather than in executive session have been unanimously acted 
upon favorably by the subcommittee and, incidentally, by the mem- 
bers of the full committee in attendance, and that we will conduct the 
open sessions in the Caucus Room in the next 10 minutes. 

Mr, Rein, Thank you, 

Mr, Standapj), Thank you. 

Mr, Lynn, Thank you, Mr, Chairman, 

(Whereupon, at 3 :25 p.m. Thursday, September 12, 1963, the sub- 
committee concluded its executive session and reconvened in public 
session in the Caucus Room,) 

PUBLIC AFTERNOON SESSION, SEPTEMBER 12, 1963— Resumed 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

At approximately 2 :15 this afternoon, for the reasons stated in the 
record, the subcommittee decided to hear the balance of the witnesses 
in closed hearing. We retired to another room, and all the witnesses 
accompanied by their counsel made a motion asking that they be 
heard in public session, and not in executive session. I asked them 
specifically whether they were making their motion with full knowl- 
edge of the fact that there was a grand jury proceeding pending, in- 
volving, apparently, matters related to this hearing. And answering 
they were aware of that fact, they persisted in their respective mo- 
tions to be heard in public hearings. 

The subconnnittee thereupon went into executive session and — inci- 
dentally in the presence of the full connnittee — the subcommittee and 
the full committee unanimously voted to hear them in public session. 

Counsel, please call your first witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Levi Lee Laub. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 711 

Mr. Laub. I so affirm. 
The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Rein. I wonder if we can have the picture-taking dispensed 
with while the testimony is going on ? 
The Chairman. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF LEVI LEE LAUB, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

DAVID BEIN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Laub. My name is Levi Laub. I live at 217 Haven Avenue, 
Xew York 33, New York. 

j\Ir. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Laub. I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, R-e-i-n, at 7ll-14th Street, Northwest, 
Washington, D.C. 

If I may have just one moment, Mr. Chairman, I would like to 
make clear on the record — and I think the committee does have in its 
record a telegram from me requesting the continuance of this hearing, 
because of the grand jury proceeding, and that it was after the com- 
mittee said that this request was denied — the chairman was quite cor- 
rect in stating that Mr. Laub had indicated that if he had to appear 
before the committee and that request was denied, he preferred it to 
be in public rather than in private. 

Mr. Laub. Mr. Chairman, I would like to give my reasons as to why 
I demanded a public hearing. 

The Chairman. Well, now, no. That is enough. We have ruled on 
that three times already. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Laub, have you ever used or been known by any 
name other than Levi Lee Laub ? 

Mr. Laub. The name is pronounced Liivi, and as far as I know, I 
have always been called by that name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please? 

Mr. Laub. December 23, 1938, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and any degrees you may have received ? 

Mr. Laub. I attended the High School of Music and Art in New 
York City and graduated there in 1955. I also attended Yeshiva He- 
brew Teachers Institute in New York City. I completed 3 years of a 
teachers' training course, but I did not finish that course, and' I am now 
at Columbia College. I have completed my course work for the bache- 
lor of arts degree, but I have yet to take two examinations in order to 
graduate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that you are presently enrolled in Columbia College. 
Is that correct ? 

Mr. Laub. I am not enrolled in classes. I am registered to take two 
examinations to complete my degree. 



-^to' 



712 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. l^^iat is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Laub. Well, I would characterize myself as a student. I was 
in class until January of this year, and I was not able to take any 
exams at that time because of illness, so until I finish those exams, I 
consider myself a student, and I probably will go on to graduate 
school when I get my degree. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you held any gainful employment ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state what that is ? 

Mr. Laub. You mean throughout the last 5 years, or what ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Since your attendance at the Teachers Institute. 

Mr. Laub. Well, I have had all kinds of jobs. I Avorked as a truck- 
driver for Coca-Cola Co., I have worked as a cabdriver, 1 worked 
as a chemical technician and for Lamont Geological Observatory. I 
worked as a chemical technician and at the Columbia Medical School. 
I have done surveys for Madison Avenue advertising companies 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you presently have any gainful employment ? 

Mr. Laub. No, I do not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been trained as an oceanographer ? 

Mr. Laub. Well, I got my training as a chemical oceanographic 
technician on board a ship, on board an oceanographic research vessel 
known as the Vema, but I took courses in college in chemistry. That 
was the backgroimd for that job. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When were you employed aboard the MS Vemu'^. 

Mr. Laub. I think it was during the year 1960. I am not sure of 
that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you then employed by the Lamont laboratories, 
which I believe is an affiliate of Columbia University ? Is that correct ? 

Mr. Laub. Correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what capacity did you serve the Lamont labora- 
tories? 

Mr. Laub. As a research technician. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, it may be of interest to note that it is 
our information that Lamont laboratories has performed classified 
work under contract with the Department of Defense and other 
agencies of Government. As a matter of fact, Lamont laboratories 
has recently been engaged in assisting the United States Navy in its 
efforts to locate the sunken submarine Threshe?\ 

Mr. Laub, as you undoubtedly know and have been advised in state- 
ments of the chairman, the committee is investigating Communist 
propaganda activities in the United States, conducted in support of 
the Communist regime of Cuba, and foreign travel undertaken by 
United States citizens in connection with such activities. The com- 
mittee's investigation indicates that you, Anatol Isaac Schlosser, and 
Stefan Martinet are ringleaders of a group of students who were re- 
cruited and organized for travel to Cuba in June, in defiance of regula- 
tions of the Department of State prohibiting such travel without 
passports specifically endorsed for such travel. 

The conunittee's investigation further indicates that there was Com- 
munist involvement in the recruitment and organization of a group 
of 50-odd so-called students for such travel. The committee on May 
23, 1963, received the testimony of Stefan Martinot and Anatol I. 
Schlosser. The committee has also subpenaed you to appear here to- 
day because it believes that you, as one of the leaders of the group, can 
assist the committee in its investigation. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 713 

I now hand you a photostatic copy of a passport application marked 
for identilication as "Laub PLxhibit No. 1," dated Januai-y 29, 1963, 
and tiled on that date with the agent of the Department of State at 
New York City, signed by Levi — as a matter of fact, it appears to be 
signed Lee Levi Laub. Is that your signature to the application ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have that signed with the first name of Lee 
rather than Levi? 

Mr. Laub. I think that is how^ my name appears on the birth certifi- 
cate, but I have alwaj's used Levi as the first name. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I direct your attention to page 2 of the application, 
where, in response to questions relating to your proposed travel plans, 
you state that the country you intended to visit was Mexico; that you 
intended to depart on February 1, 1963 ; and that the purpose of the 
trip was vacation and visit. 

At the time you filed this application, did you truthfully set forth 
your proposed travel plans? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr, Laub. Mr. Chairman, I am going to have to refuse that ques- 
tion because, first of all, I don't see how that question is pertinent to 
the subject under inquiry here. It seems to me that that question is 
a question designed not to protect my right to travel, but to interfere 
with my right to travel, and I don't see how my answering that ques- 
tion can in any way help you frame or def rame legislation on the sub- 
ject of travel, and I believe it is my own affair as to where I travel or 
when I travel or if I travel, because the right to travel is a liberty 
guaranteed by the Constitution, and the Supreme Court has upheld 
that right as a liberty that can't be revoked without due process of 
law. 

The Chairman. Is that your reason for refusing to answer ? 

Mr. Laub. That is correct. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr, Laub. I again refuse to answer that question for the reasons I 
have already stated and also for the reason that I can't be compelled 
to be a witness against myself, a right guaranteed to me by the Con- 
stitution. 

The Chairman. That invocation of the fifth amendment is ac- 
cepted. Go on. 

(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you traveled to ]\Iexico at any time since January 
29, 1963? 

i\Ir. Laub. Again, I object to that question, because I feel that it 
is not a question that is pertinent to the subject under inquiry here, 
which is legislation having to do with travel. It is a question that 
could only be pertinent to an attempt to interfere with my right to 
travel, and I refuse to answer the question for all the grounds that 
I refused to answer the first one, which was the same one, in effect. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, after January 29, 1963, at any time, travel to 
Cuba through Mexico? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question again, for the grounds 
that I have just stated for refusing to answer the last two. 



714 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at the hearing this morning 
when Barry Hoffman testified that you had stated in Cuba, during 
the course of the June visit there, tliat you had been in Cuba in Feb- 
ruary and March of 1963 to make arrangements for this June travel 
of the student group ? Do you deny or affirm the testimony of Barry 
Hoffman with respect to this statement you allegedly made ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. I have to refuse to answer that question as well, for all 
the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. You don't "have to." You may, but you don't 
have to. 

Mr. Latjb. Well, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Pursuant to your application of January 29, 1963, did 
you not receive a United States passport, numbered DO 14611 ? 

Mr. Laub. I don't know what the number is, but I did receive a 
United States passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then, or at any time thereafter, make applica- 
tion for or receive from the Department of State a specific endorsement 
of your passport for travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Laub. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact, Mr. Laub, that you arrived in Cuba 
with a group of students on or about June 30, 1963, and remained 
there until August 25, 1963 ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, it is a fact. 

The Chairman. And you did not have a validated passport with 
an endorsement on it permitting you so to travel, as I understand 
your answer to the last question. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Laub. I had a valid United States passport. 

The Chairman. Did you have a notation on it in acordance with 
existing law and regulations, an endorsement on it permitting you to 
travel ? 

Mr. Laub. I would like to ask you a question on that, Mr. Chairman. 
What existing law and regulation are you referring to ? 

The Chairman. The statute that I read from the statement this 
morning. I can cite it to you specifically: Regulation of the State 
Department in effect since on or about January 16, 1961, requiring 
people wanting to go to Cuba to have a validated passport, a passport 
with an endorsement permitting travel to Cuba, 

Did you have such endorsement in your passport? You said you 
had a passport. 

Mr. Laub. As I understand it, that was a public notice of the State 
Department. That was Public Notice 179 of the State Department. 
I was not aware that that was a statute or law as you refer to it. 

The Chairman, Did you have an endorsement on your passport in- 
dicating the granting of permission by your Government to travel to 
Cuba? 

Mr. Laub. Well, since I saw no law, regulation, or rule that would 
prohibit me from traveling to Cuba in the way I saw fit, I did not 
think it necessary to get such a stamp in my passport, and I did not 
have one and I do not have one. 

The Chairman. As a matter of fact, were you not aware of a letter 
sent by the State Department to this traveling group, and probably to 
you yourself, indicating that such an endorsement was necessary? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 715 

Mr. Laltb. I Avas aware of the fact that the State Department had 
sent such a letter, but I was also aware of the fact that what the State 
Department was outlining in that letter was a matter of policy and 
not, as far as I am concerned, a matter of law, regulation, or require- 
ments and I have asked the State Department official when we re- 
turned to the United States 2 weeks ago and I have asked immigra- 
tion officials, I have asked the press, I have asked everybody I have 
met in the last 8 months who told me that it was illegal to travel to 
Cuba and that it was prohibited by law or by regulation, to show me 
what law or what regulation prohibited me from traveling to Cuba. 
As of yet, I have not had one positive response on that question. 

The Chairman. Well, I indicated what it was. 

[Demonstration in hearing room.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Laub, you stated that you had received or seen a 
copy of the Department of State press release. 

The Chairman (to police officials). Keep an eye on the leaders 
of this demonstration. 

Let the Chair state again that I suppose what you have in mind, 
some of you, is to goad the Chair into taking measures to stop these 
demonstrations. I warn you there is a limit to the patience of a con- 
gressional committee. You must realize that vou are the guests of 
this committee, and this committee will proceed with decorum and 
these demonstrations will not be tolerated. 

I show you a document dated December 13, 1962, No. 729 from the 
Department of State, which was in the nature of a press release. I ask 
you if you have seen that document or its counterpart or one like it ? I 
think that is the one you said you were aware of. In fact, you referred 
to it by number; didn't you ? You knew it by heart. 

Mr. Laub. No, that was Public Notice 179. That was January 16, 
1961. 

The Chairman. Well, have you seen this one, or one like it ? 

Mr. Laub. Well, I never actually saw this press release, but it was 
reported in the press, and I heard about it on the radio. 

The Chairman. All right, let me read this passage to you, and 
then we won't be quibbling about this. 

This press release from the State Department, which was supple- 
mented many times by letters and everything else, states: 

The Department warns all concerned that travel to Cuba by a United States 
citizen without a passport specifically validated by the Department of State for 
that purpose constitutes a violation of the Travel Control Law and Regula- 
tions. (Title 8 U. S. Code, Sec. 11S5 : Title 22 Code of Federal Regulations, Sec. 
53.3) . A wilful violation of the law is punishable by fine and/or imprisonment. 

Continue, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. i\Ir. Laub, I hand you a photostatic copy of an Asso- 
ciated Press report, datelined Havana, published in the Los Angeles 
Times of July 1, 1963, marked for identification as "Laub Exhibit 
No. 2." The report states : 

A group of 59 American students arrived here Sunday on a self-styled fact- 
finding visit to Cuba. They came in defiance of a warning of possible prosecution 
on return to the United States. 

"We came to Cuba to see for ourselves whether or not we like what is happen- 
ing here," said Levi Laub, 27, of New York, spokesman for the group. 

Laub, who said he was a student at Columbia University, said U.S. authorities 
had refused permission for the trip. Consequently they traveled to Havana by 
way of Prague, Czechoslovakia. 



716 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

"They (U.S. authorities) menaced us with prison or fines," said Laub. "Well, 
they are afraid we will learn what papers say on Cuba is lies." 

Is there any inaccuracy in the account of the Associated Press which 
I have read to you ? 

Mr. Laub. In general, the English of these three paragraphs is 
probably consistent with the intellectual level of the Associated Press 
correspondent in Havana, but I don't think it is consistent with my 
own. However, I did say that we came to Cuba to see for ourselves 
what is happening. I did not say whether we liked it or not. I did say 
that the United States State Department had refused to validate the 
passports of some people in the group who had applied for validation. 
I did say that they— referring to the State Department — in this public 
notice that you just showed me did threaten us with prisons or fines — 
prison or fines, and I don't recall saying that, "Well, they are afraid 
that we will learn what the papers say on Cuba is lies," but I just 
might as well have said it anyway. 

(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 2" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, Mr. Laub, apparently you said something quite 
similar in Havana to the Cuban newspaper reporter of Revolucion. I 
have an extract from a copy of the Cuban newspaper Revolucion of 
July 1, 1963, page 1, column 1. They report there that you said : 

"We came here to see and hear directly what is happening in this country, 
only 90 miles from Florida, where the Socialist revolution has succeeded, and 
also in order to know the truth, discuss and learn with the students, laborers, 
farmers and leaders of the revolution. We are tired of reading and listening 
to prefabricated reports, wrong impressions, lots of talking without saying any- 
thing, half-truths and lies. That is why we are here." 

Did the Revolucion reporter correctly report your interview? 

Mr. LxYUB. I think he did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you satisfied with his use of grammar ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, much better. 

Mr. Chairman, I wonder, since you brought up this question, you 
brought up this press release of the State Department. 

The Chairman. We will conduct the hearing, question by question. 

Goon. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Laub, in the appearance of Stefan Martinot 
before this committee on May 23, 1963, he testified that a group of 
approximately 30 to 35 persons met in New York City on October 
14, 1962, to form an organization titled "The Ad Hoc Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba." Were you in attendance at this organiz- 
in.of meeting of the Ad Hoc Student Committee on October 14 at New 
York? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know on whose advice and counsel this group 
was formed ? 

Mr. Laub. I don't understand that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who conceived the idea of forming an Ad Hoc Student 
Committee for this purpose ? 

Mr. Laub. As I remember, the idea was conceived at that meeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Whose idea was it to assemble this group in New York 
on that date ? 

Mr. Laub. Well, I was one of the persons who had that idea. 
Frankly, I don't remember who the other people were who had the 
idea along with me or who I discussed it with. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 717 

Mr. XiTTLE. Did you by any chance discuss this idea with Milton 
Rosen or Mortimer Scheer, wlio are the acknowledged leaders of the 
Progressive Labor organization? 

Mr. Laub. I consider that to be a very offensive question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why do you consider it to be a very offensive question ? 

INIr. Laub. Because I don't think it has any pertinency to the subject 
matter under inquiry; and furthermore, if you are asking me to 
identify names and talk about people in the same manner that this rat 
did over here this morning, I refuse to do that. 

[Applause.] 

The Chairman. Policemen, I order you to escort those who con- 
tinued clapping — if you can identify them, or such of those as you can 
identify — since I got u[) to demand order; escort them out of the room. 

[Demonstration in liearing room. Demonstrators ejected from 
hearing room.] 

The Chairman (to audience). Now, everybody will be seated. 
Everybody will be seated. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I am asking the reporter to read the last 
outstanding question which this witness has not answered. I would 
desire to pose that question to him again. 

(Question was read by reporter as follows :) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you by any chance discuss this idea with Milton Rosen or 
Mortimer Scheer, who are the acknowledged leaders of the Progressive Labor 
organization? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me repeat the question to you in this form. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Mr. Laub. I started to say that I consider that an outrageous ques- 
tion. And I consider what happened here just now to be outrageous, 
just as outrageous as these hearings are. 

The Chairman. I now order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Laub. This is a witchhunt. There were Nazis sitting over here 
this morning; they were not kicked out ! 

The Chairman. Mr. Counsel, proceed with your next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you and Stefan Martinot and Anatol I. Schlosser 
api^ointed by Milton Rosen or Mortimer Scheer to form this orga- 
nization, the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. I have never been appointed by anybody to do what I 
consider is my right to do and my duty to do, but I am not going to 
answer that question, because I think that question — the people who 
asked me that question want me to be an informer, and I am not going 
to be an informer and I am not going to violate my conscience, nor am 
I in any way going to abrogate my rights under the first amendment, 
my rights of associating with whom I please, when I please, and wdiy I 
please, and I also will not answer that question because I don't see what 
that question has to do with the subject of travel. And I also will not 
answer that question because I refuse to be a witness against myself. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Mr. Martinot also testified, in his appearance before 
us in May, that plans made by the student committee to lead a group of 
students to Cuba during the Christmas holidays of 1963 were frus- 
trated because of the refusal of the Canadian authorities to allow the 
group to board the Cuban airlines for travel to Cuba. The first an- 



718 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

niversary issue of the publication, Progressive Labor^ dated January 
1963, stated that spokesmen for the stuclent committee then announced 
that the trip was not canceled, but only postponed until summer. They 
were reported as saying, "We will go via another route." 

Mr. Martinot, named as one of the spokesmen in the article, testified 
to the correctness of this account. He also stated that in the latter part 
of December, the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 
was formed in New York City. 

Were you in attendance at the December 1962 meeting in New York 
City, during which the Permanent Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba was formed ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. I already said tliat I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The prior question related to the October 14, 1962, 
meeting 

Mr. Laub. I beg your pardon. I was at that meeting, too. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — at which the Ad Hoc Student Committee was formed. 
You state now you were also in attendance at the December 1962 meet- 
ing of the Permanent Student Committee ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Laub, I hand you a copy of the Golden Gater^ 
a student publication of the San Francisco State College, dated May 3, 
1963, marked for identification as "Laub Exhibit No. 3." 

This article is titled "Summer Cuba trip costs $100 — not in travel 
folders." 

The item records in part : 

The $100 fee is for transportation to and from the point of embarkation, which 
is expected to be somewhere in Canada, according to Levi Laub, Permanent 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba representative. 

Laub, who is traveling around the US promoting the travel venture, spoke to a 
jammed classroom yesterday about the trip, which includes two weeks in Havana 
and two weeks touring the country. 

Does that report correctly identify you as a representative of the 
Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, it does. 

(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 3" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

ISIr. NiTTLE. How many universities and colleges did you visit in 
organizing and recruiting students for this particular tour ? 

Mr. Laub. Do you want me to name them ? 

Mr. N1TT1.E. Yes. 

Mr. Lau-b. I visited the University of California at Berkeley, I 
visited San Francisco State College in San Francisco, I visited Stan- 
ford University in Palo Alto. I visited the University of Chicago, 
the University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan. I was at 
Brooklyn College, City College, Columbia College. 

As far as I remember, that's it- 
Mr. NiTTLE. By whom where your expenses of travel assumed ? 

Mr. Laub. The expenses for this trip, as all expenses of the Per- 
manent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, which included such 
things as expenses I am talking about, putting out press statements, 
renting hotel rooms to have press conferences, buying paper to print 
our press statements on, all these expenses were assumed by ourselves. 
We raised funds ourselves to pay for these expenses. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 719 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what way did you raise these funds ? 

Mr. Laub. Generally speaking, through parties that we had in New 
York City, which were advertised in newspapers. They were open 
ail'airs, they were open to the general public. Everybody was invited 
to attend. They were listed as parties held by the Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba, and this was in our accord of going 
about our entire work in an open fashion, in reaching as many students 
as possible on what we think, what we thought, and what we will 
continue to think is a vital issue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any financial contributions from any 
organization ? 

Mr. Laub. No, we did not. I should say, not to my knowledge, 
anyway. As far as I know, we didn't. Nor did we ever solicit any 
contributions from organizations. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a copy of an Associated Press dispatch, 
datelined Shannon, Ireland, which appeared in the Zo,<? Angeles Times 
of June 30, 1963, marked for identification as "Laub Exhibit No. 3-A.'' 

I should like to read a portion of the report into the record, and 
then inquire of you whether the matters contained therein are accu 
rately reported. 

Fifty-nine American students flew to Cuba Saturday night in defiance of a 
warning of prosecution when they returned home. 
"We don't care," said their spokesman. 

* « * * 4: * * 

Levi Laub, 27, the spokesman, said he was a student at Columbia University 
in New York but refused to give his address. He said the group had been in- 
vited by the Cuban Student Federation which was paying all expenses, including 
air fares. 

"Last Tuesday we organized two groups so as not to attract attention," he 
told a newsman. "The first, a group of 30, flew to London. The second group 
of 29 went to Amsterdam and we all joined up in Paris. Later we went on to 
Prague to catch a plane for Cuba." 

Are you accurately and grammatically reported in this dispatch? 

Mr. Laub. Not precisely. I would like to explain what I meant by 
saying — first of all, I don't remember saying we organized so as not 
to attract attention. Wliat I did explain 

(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 3-A" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, let me ask you the question at this point. 

Mr. Laub. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there any attempt on the part of your group to 
avoid attracting attention at the time of your departure? 

Mr. Laub. There was an attempt, and a successful attempt, on our 
part to avoid attracting the interference of the State Department or 
the FBI or any other organization to stop us from exercising our 
rights to travel. 

The Chairman. But outside of that effort to avoid detection or de- 
tention or any other word you want to use, you made no effort; to stop 
any publicity about it, as I understand, to hide the fact that this move- 
ment or this trip had been organized and that you were going ? 

Mr. Laub. That is correct, and in fact we had issued press state- 
ments. We have issued quite a few press statements, long before we 
went to Cuba. We had public parties in New York City. We spoke 
openly on the campus. You notice that article that you just ])resented 
me from the California Golden Gater. There are also articles at the 



720 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

same time in the San FrancUco Chronicle and in the San Francisco 
Examiner^ and I might add that back in December of 1962 there were 
not only articles about our projected trip in many newspapers, but 
that members of our group appeared on television programs, radio 
programs, and there was absolutely no attempt made to conceal the 
fact that we were going to go to Cuba, 

The Chairman. The reason why I asked that is because it was 
suggested, I think, somewhere down the line, that this committee might 
lend notoriety to this thing that might be prejudicial to you. I want 
to set the record straight. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you were detailing the alleged inaccuracies in 
that report. T>o you see any other inaccuracy? 

Mr. Latjb. Yes, there is an inaccuracy here. It is quoted twice, as 
saying that tlieir spokesman said, "We don't care." 

Nothing could be more inaccurate. At tlie moment, this whole issue 
of the travel ban is something which I — there are very few things 
which I care more about, because I have been involved in exposing this 
travel ban 

Mr. NiTTLE. We don't want a statement, we just want an answer. 

Mr. Laub. Exposing it as a fraud for the last 8 or 9 months, and 
I care veiy much about it and I care very much, also, about the kind 
of threats and the kind of harassment that the State Department or 
this committee or any other group like it wants to make against us. 
That is very inaccurate, to say that I don't care. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. However, it was correctly reported that 
you did state that two groups were organized and that the first, a group 
of 30, flew to London, and the second group of 29 went to Amsterdam; 
that you all joined up in Paris ; and that you later went on to Prague 
to catch a plane for Cuba. That is correctly stated, is it not? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, I think so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Now, it is the committee's information that one group to which you 
referred traveled to Paris via BOAC, British Overseas Airways Cor- 
poration, and that the other group to which jow referred traveled 
there via KLM Royal Dutch Airlines. Did you not actively partici- 
pate in the arrangements for such travel ? 

Mr. Latjb. In answer to that question, I would like to make clear 
something about what it says here — that it was public knowledge, right 
from the beginning, that this was an all-expense-paid trip, that the 
Cuban Federation of University Students paid our fares; to whatever 
point we would have had to go to, they would have paid our fare to 
that point and back. They paid our fare and they paid all our ex- 
penses in Cuba, which included room and board at the hotel. 

As far as the 

Mr. NiTTLE. You do not deny — 

ISIr. Laub. — the substance of that question- 



Mr. NiTTLE. — that you participated in making the arrangements 
for this trip, do you ? 

Mr. Laub. I participated in the work of this committee. However, 
I am going to have to refuse to answer that question, because I do not 
think that that question of how the arrangements were made for this 
trip is pertinent to the subject under inquiry. I think that that 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 721 

question is an attempt to interfere with our right to traveL We have 
sliown this summer that we have a right to travel and that tlie State 
Department is not in a position to interfere with our right to travel, 
and we will go on continuing to protect tliat right to travel and to fight 
for it, and I also refuse to answer that question because I think it 
violates my rights under the first amendment, and also under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Laub, did you not visit the BOAC office in New 
York in the latter part of JNIay 1963 to inquire about flights for Paris 
and then, a few days later, call and make reservations for several 
students ? 

Mr. Laub. I want to refuse to answer that question again for the 
same grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time, did you not give your own address as 
217 

The Chairman. "On the grounds previously given," so that we may 
proceed in order, includes an mvocation of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Laub. The privilege against self-incrimmation, as well as all 
the other grounds I mentioned. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time of your visits in May to the BOAC office, 
did you not give as your address, what you have previously given in 
the hearing today, 217 Haven Avenue, New York, which you later re- 
quested BOAC to disregard, as you would be out of town, and you gave 
the airline as contacts Mr. Anatole Anton, 243 West 107th Street, and 
Mr. Phillip Luce, phone : CO-5-1013 ? 

Mr. Laub. I have already told the committee, Mr. Chairman, that 
I am not going to answer questions about anybody else but myself. I 
don't want to be an informer and I have stated my reasons for that. 

The Chairman. I understand, but nevertheless we have to develop 
the questions according to our plan for the records. You ma}^ invoke 
the constitutional provisions, of course, but we must proceed in that 
order. 

Mr. Laub. Well, I would just like to make clear again that I object 
to this question for all the same grounds that I have objected to the 
other questions, and am refusing to answer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After visiting BOAC offices, did you not also, follow- 
ing that, make arrangements with KLM Airlines for reservations 
for the other group of students ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not then on June 22, 1963, appear at the offices 
of BOAC in New York and pick up the tickets for the group traveling 
by BOAC? 

Mr. Laub. Again, I refuse to answer that question as well for the 
ground previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Laub, I hand you a copy of the receipt to 
BOAC, dated June 22, 1963, marked for identification as "Laub Ex- 
hibit No. 4," by which you acknowledge receipt of the tickets therein 
set forth on behalf of the student group. That is your signature ap- 
pended to the receipt, is it not ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. I have to refuse to answer that question for the same 
grounds that I have already stated. 



722 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 4 in evidence. 

Tlie Chairman. Let the exhibit be incorporated in the record. 

(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 4" follows.) 

Laub Exhibit No. 4 

fhia t» to eUt* t^t I aa la S'^celpt of the fcIlovl»g 
tltksta iB bskalf of tiM 8tc4«Bt Qr^cii sad paid for 
13 OiiidH^ CsaAda bj Rr. J. Jaeoba. 



0624 3^78 9$a 06114 3^79 HS) 023 

O6II4 3k79 ^78 taS 

279 026 

280 027 

281 028 

282 030 

283 031 
28I1 032 
Jf^ 033 

031* 

06ik 3li79 001 03$ 

002 036 

005 037 

006 038 

007 OJiO 

009 titt 

010 Oli2 
012 352 
018 353 
01> 36r 
020 




NAK3 



IDINTIFICATIOH I, ^ , ^ 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then on June 24, two days later, visit the 
offices in New York of the KLM Royal Dutch Airlines and pick up 
the tickets for students traveling by KLM ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds I have 
already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you, Mr. Laub, a jjhotostatic copy of the receipt 
to IQjM for those tickets dated June 24, 1963, marked for identifica- 
tion as "Laub Exhibit No. 5." 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



723 



That is your signature appended to the receipt, is it not? 
Mr. Laur. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 5 in evidence. 
The Chairman. Let the exliibit be made part of the record. 
(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 5" follows.) 



Lauu Exhibit No. 5 



J«M 24, 1963 



UN BoT^I D«tob Alrllnss 
609 rurth ATKia* 
lav lork 17, I. T. 



Dmt Sirs I 

I tMravlth ooaflTB haTlng reealTod from KM Baj*l Doteh lir- 
lln«s tb* follovlDC tlckttBi 

07U/2056839 Mr. Albert »feh«r 

21U5^0 MIbs Hftb«l Vmj 

21U541 Mr. Bob«rt Drt!* 

20^9211 Mr. lob«rt EaTfk* 

2049212 Mr. Blch&rd Klenann 

2ai9215 MlB« Catberln* Prtatkj 

2049216 Mr. John Hilton 

2049217 Mr. Cliston J«nok» 
20A9219 Mr. f»U Karaaa 

2056520 Mr. Iric John»on 

2056521 Klas Lurla Castall 

2056522 Mr. Chrlatian Balener 
2056527 Mr. Don EjiIjumui 
2056530 Mr. Qjarlsa Buchaa*a 

2056532 Mr. Joc« hfeiriji Uaa 

2056533 Mr. Jawa Uej 

2056538 Mr. J&sea Starec Bannett— ' 

2056540 Ml«s Clara Da« Schalbarger Jenoks 

2056832 Mr. Hactor Hill 

2056833 C*rjl 2at«T»» 
2056835 Hlos Isn Villlaas 
2056856 Mr. Arthvsr Zelaaa. 
2114345 Mr. Todd 3t«wart 

vera p&id for oa J«aa 11th to Ha Ottow 



Tbasa tloiiata 
by Mr. J&eob. 




Hr. Uob 



sf- 






W'y UJ' /^/ ~ ^- ^^ 



Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Laub, I call your attention to the address which 
you gave following your signature on Exhibit 5, the receipt to the 
Royal Dutch Airlines. You gave your address then as 414 West 121st 
Street, Apartment 58. Is that not the address of Stefan Martinot? 

Mr. Laub. As long as you continue to ask questions about other 



724 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

people, you know tliat I am not going to answer them, so I think you 
would save time if you did not ask me these questions. 

The Chairman. What is your answer to it ? 

Mr. Laub. That I refuse to answer because I will not be an informer 
and because I think that the question is not pertinent to the subject 
matter under inquiry, because I think that this question has no rele- 
vance to the issue of free travel or to any legislation that might be 
pending, because I think the question violates my rights under the first 
and fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Laub, were you living at 414 West 121st Street, 
Apartment 58, on June 24, 1963 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lattb. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated and I would like to point out that, when you ask me a 
question about an address other than the one which I have identified 
to be my own, putting an address in the record would identify perhaps 
an individual who lived at that address, and it would in effect make an 
informer out of me again, so I have to refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I respectfully request the witness be directed to answer 
the question, Mr. Chairman. 

Tlie CiiAiRMAisr. I think he said he refused to answer it on the 
grounds previously stated. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Lattb. Correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your receipt to the BOAC airlines. Exhibit 4, you 
.Tave your address on June 22, two days before, as 148 West 72d 
Street, New York, which is not the address you stated to be your 
residence in response to my questions at the commencement of this 
interrogation, nor was it the address which you gave 2 days later 
to KLIM. Why did you give a different address ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. 148 West 72d Street, in this instance ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Laub, I would like you to tell us, please, in 
what manner and by whom the actual payment for these tickets was 
made to BOAC and to KLM Airlines? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I direct your attention for the moment 

Mr. Laub. But I would like to make clear that I have said already 
that it has been public knowledge right from the beginning and it still 
is today, anybody who wants to pick up any newspaper on the subject, 
that we never attempted to hide or conceal the fact 

Tlie Chairman. That is not the point. 

Mr. Laub. — that the Federation of University Students in Cuba 
paid for this trip. 

The Chairman. The point is whether you handled the matter. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were these expenses actually paid by the Cuban 
Student Federation ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. Since that M^as what they said they were doing and their 
invitation — they invited us as their expense-paid guests — I assume that 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 725 

these expenses were paid by the Federation of University Students of 
Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now you are reportino; what was said. Do you have 
knowledoje whether or not the Cuban Student Federation actually paid 
these exjienses? 

Mr. Laub. Not being a member of tliat Student Federation or an 
officor of it or having anything to do with it except having been there 
as their guest, I am in no position to know that for a fact. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, you are the individual who made the arrange- 
ments with BOAC. The Cuban Federation didn't make them. You 
are the individual who made the arrangements with KLM. The 
Cuban Federation didn't do that. You inquired about the tickets, 
you picked them up. 

Now where did the money come from to pay for these? 

Mr. Laub. I never said any such thing. You have said it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Didn't you go to BOAC to make arrangements for 
these tickets? 

INIr. Laub. I have already refused to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Yes, he has refused to answer that. Proceed. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Do you know to whom the funds were transmitted to 
pay for these tickets, if the Cuban Federation did pay for them? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for all the grounds 
previously stated. 

INIr. NiTTLE. Now Mr. Laub, although the tickets were reserved at 
the New York offices of BOAC and KLM and picked up there by 
you, the committee's investigation discloses that the tickets were paid 
for at the offices of BOAC and KLM in Ottawa, Canada. Do you 
know this to be a fact ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for all the grounds 
previously stated. 

I might suggest that if there are some questions that you would like 
me to answer, you might ask me some questions about the legislation 
that has to do with travel. I have done a lot of reading on this legisla- 
tion. I am prepared to talk a long time about it. I have a lot of 
ideas about it. 

The Chairman. We will handle that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will note that the KLM receipt which you signed 
in New York bears the notation that the tickets were paid for in 
Ottawa, Canada, by a "Mr. Jacob." On the other hand, the BOAC 
receipt identifies him as "Mr. J. Jacobs." Have you ever met "J. 
Jacobs"? 

Mr. Laub. I have already made clear why I have absolutely refused 
to answer any questions of that sort, and I refuse to answer this one 
for all the reasons that I have already given you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would 3^ou even refuse to answer questions about an 
agent of a foreign country who is conspiring to violate the laws of 
the United States and to endanger its security ? 

Mr. Laub. Well, I would have to be familiar with the question 
before I could tell you whether I would refuse to answer it or not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you refuse to "inform" on that type of person ? 

Mr. Laub. Again, the answer is the same. 

Tlie Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. Now do you know if J. Jacobs is a U.S. citizen? 

[])emonstration in hearing room.] 

98-765 — 63— pt. 3 



726 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman (to audience). I am afraid some of you people are 
headed for the same route that others followed awhile ago. I mean 
it. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for all the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hoffman testified that in Cuba a film was shown 
at which students in your group clapped and applauded when the 
film displayed the shooting down of an American airman in South 
Korea. Did you applaud that event ? 

Mr. Rein. South Vietnam, I believe. 

Mr. NiTTLE. South Vietnam, I beg your pardon. Did you applaud 
that occurrence? 

Mr. Laub. I was not at that film showing, although I wish I were, 
because I understand it was a very interesting film. 

The Chairman. 'Wliere were you on that date ? 

Mr. Laub. I don't remember. 

The Chairman. Were you in Cuba ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know who J, Jacobs is ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know any person who, to your knowledge, has 
used the name "Jacobs" for this purpose, although Jacobs is not his 
real name? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

IVfr. NiTTLE. Now the committee's investigation reveals that a per- 
son using the name of "J. Jacobs" deposited the sum of $22,739.20 in 
American currency with the BOAC office in Ottawa, Canada, on June 
10 and 11 of 1963, for the purpose of purchasing tickets for a group 
of 42 persons who were to leave the United States on June 25. 1963. for 
London and Paris. 

On June 11, 1963, the same individual deposited $13,436.80 in Amer- 
ican currency with the KLM Airlines office in Ottawa. 

Had you met this person who calls himself J. Jacobs to discuss "^he 
arrangements beins made for the delivery of the funds to the offices 
of BOAC and KLM in Ottawa ? 

Mr. Laltb. Mr. Nittlf., I refuse to answer that question for the 
grounds I have already stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee has reason to believe, Mr. Laub, that 
you do know who J. Jacobs is, because our investigation indicates that 
you participated in the negotiations for the reservation of tickets at 
the offices of KL]\I at New York and that you advised that office that 
J. Jacobs was residing at the Hotel Beacon, while in Ottawa, and at 
the New Weston Hotel while in New York. 

Did you advise any official or employee of KLM to that effect ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

jNIr. NiTTLE. How did you obtain that information ? 

Mr. Laub. I haven't admitted obtaining any kind of information 
that you are talking about, Mr. Nittle, and I refuse to answer that 
question for the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you met with J. Jacobs at the New Weston Hotel 
in New York City ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 727 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

JNir. NiTTLE. It is also the committee's information that you told 
BOAC another story, and that was that J. Jacobs was then residing at 
tlie St. George Hotel in Brooklyn. Was this true ? 

Mv. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the course of its investigation, the committee en- 
deavored to ascertain whether a J. Jacobs occupied rooms at the New 
Weston Hotel and/or at the St. George Hotel in New York City dur- 
ing the period in question, but no record was found of any person regis- 
tered by that name. Do you have any explanation to otfer ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to* answer that question for the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Laub, the committee imderstands that 26 tickets 
for round-trip transportation between New York and Paris via Ams- 
terdam were purchased by Mr. Jacobs from KLM, but that only 23 of 
these tickets were issued and of the 23 only 21 were used. There is ap- 
parently a refund of $2,584 due to Mr. Jacobs from KLM. 

Likewise, with respect to BOAC airlines, 40 tickets were purchased, 
but only 36 persons traveled, and a refund of $4,134 awaits the claim of 
Mr. Jacobs at the offices of BOAC airlines. 

Can you tell us why JNIr. Jacobs has not called for the refund, total- 
ing over $6,700 due him from KLM and BOAC airlines ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer that question for the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On July 7, 1963, Cuban radio broadcast in Spanish 

Mr. Laub. What date was that ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. July 7, 1963. The Cuban radio broadcast in Spanish to 
the Americas a reported interview of you in Havana. The broadcast 
recorded your voice, which from time to time was faded out, and a 
paraphrasing of your statements was interjected by the Cuban radio. 

Do you recollect granting this interview to the Cuban radio for 
broadcast to the Americas in Spanish ? 

Mr. Laub. Frankly, I am not sure. I had many interviews while I 
was in Cuba, and so did many other members of the group, and I don't 
really remember whether I actually ever granted an interview to the 
Cuban radio. I don't know what you mean by Cuban radio. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Cuban broadcast made it clear that your alleged 
purpose in going to Cuba was, and I now quote — 

to see what was really happening in Cuba and did not want to have to rely on 
secondhand information or on a press which, generally speaking, is much opposed 
to the government headed by Premier Fidel Castro. 

Now actually, Mr. Laub, your purpose in going to Cuba was not 
simply to see what was happening there ; was it ? 

Mr. Laub. Well, we had right from the beginning 

Mr. NiTTLE. Answer that "Yes" or "No," please. 

Mr. Laub. I would like to answer it in my own way. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it your purpose in going to Cuba to see what was 
happening there ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes. That was one of our purposes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right. Was it not in fact your principal purpose 
to conduct propaganda in support of the Communist regime in Cuba, 



728 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

to "break" the ban on travel to Cuba, and also to lend support to 
Communist revolutionary efforts not only in Cuba, but in Latin Amer- 
ica generally ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. Well, if you want to say that 59 students or 58 
students 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am asking you what your purpose was. 

Mr. Laub. Well, I am answering that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You can answer that question "Yes" or "No." Was 
it your purpose to conduct propaganda in support of the Communist 
regime in Cuba, to "break" the ban on travel to Cuba, and to lend sup- 
port to Communist revolutionary efforts in Latin America generally ? 
Was that your purpose or wasn't it ? 

Mr. Laub. I can't answer that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why do you hesitate to answer that, if your purpose 
was otherwise ? 

Mr. Laub. Because, first of all, I think it is very clear that the whole 
meaning of the word "propaganda" is at best vague and, in the sense 
that you use it, I certainly don't think that that was our purpose. 

I am perfectly willing to tell you at length what our purpose was 
and I would like to have a chance to tell you what our purpose was, 
if you would give me that chance. 

The Chairman. I think you have stated it pretty well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now Mr. Laub, is it not a fact that, toward the end of 
your visit to Cuba, a mild controversy arose because some members of 
your group desired to remain in Cuba, or to go to Europe for a longer 
period rather than returning directly to the United States at that 
time ? 

Mr. Laub. Would you repeat that question, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did not a mild controversy develop within your group, 
some wishing to remain in Cuba for a longer time than was planned 
and some desiring to go to Europe for a stay ? 

Mr. Laub. No, I wouldn't call it a controversy. It was a difference 
of opinion, or it was a difference of wish or desires. Some people felt 
that after a month's stay in Cuba that they had not been able to 
acquaint themselves in detail with the particular items of interest. 

For example, there were some people who were particularly inter- 
ested in spending more time at the libraries of Ethnological Institute 
in Havana. There were other people who wanted to go out and spend 
some time at farms and do some work, so that they could have a very 
close contact with Cuban farmers and peasants. 

There were people who had all kinds of differing reasons for want- 
ing to prolong their visit; and generally speaking, toward the end 
of July, I would say that it was a consensus of opinion that the trip 
should be prolonged at least somewhat, because all of us, including 
myself, felt that there were still many interesting things about Cuba 
and about the Cuban revolution and about the Socialist Government 
in Cuba that we wanted to see that we hadn't a full chance to investi- 
gate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not, in fact, during the course of this contro- 
versy^ — if we may call it that — state to the group that staying in Cuba 
would be a question of Cuban foreign policy ; that, if the group were 
broken up, this would have less impact on the people in the United 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 729 

States, since the main purpose of this visit to Cuba was to "break" 
the travel ban? 

Did you not say that to this group, or words to that effect? 

Mr. Laub. Well, I will tell you exactly what words 1 did say. It 
was — first of all, I would like to point out that so far as the group, 
that this group at all times operated in a democratic fashion, that 
any question that came up before this group was not decided 

^Ir. XiTTLE. The question is. Did you or did you not 

The Chairman. Let him answer. I think he will give it. 

Mr. Laub. — that any question that came up before this group as 
to where we would go or what we would see or how we would spend 
our time or wdiether people would stay behind or we all should leave 
together, that these questions were decided by having a group discus- 
sion in which everybody was free and did get up and express his or 
her opinion and that, generally speaking, we did not rush into a vote, 
because we did not want to have a situation in which, for example, 
30 people might want to go here and the others did not want to go. 

We did not want to impose the will of 30 upon the other 20 or 25 
or whatever the number might be; and in this case, as a member of 
the group, I expressed my opinion, and it is still my opinion and was 
my opinion then, that it would be more effective in terms of presenting 
the issues raised by our trip to the xlmerican public in the most effec- 
tive way, with the greatest impact, if we should all return to the 
United States at the same time. 

The Chairman. Now did you 

Mr. Laub. And as to members of the group who wanted to stay, 
I did not tell them that this was a question of Cuban foreign policy, 
because I don't run Cuban foreign policy. I told them that, as far as 
I knew, any requests to stay in Cuba, since we had come as a group, 
and I think the organization which — the tourist organization which 
actually arranged our accommodations, and so forth, usually brings 
in groups as a delegation. 

The Chairman. At this point, it looks like counsel was wiser than 
I. I thought you would come to the answer. 

Mr. Laub. I am coming to the answer. 

The Chairman. Well, I think you traveled far enough. 

Mr. Laub. I am getting right to the answer. 

The Chairman. The point is this: Did you say anything about 
the impact on the "breaking" of the travel ban, as being more effective 
if they stuck together ? Now that is the real question. 

Mr. Laub. I put that to the group as my opinion, and there was a 
group discussion. 

The Chairman. What did you put as your opinion ? 

Mr. Laub. It was my opinion that all 58 of us should return to the 
United States together. 

The Chairman. That is still not the point. Did you say that it 
would be a more effective way of bringing about repeal of the ban 
against travel if they stuck together vis-a-vis the effect on the ban? 
That is what this question is about. 

Mr. Laub. Certainly. The answer to that is I think it is 
obviously 

The Chairman. "Certainly," you said that ? 



730 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Laub. I said that if we all go back together, we will have a 
much greater impact on the press and on the public. 

The Chairman. That is not what we are talking about. 

Mr. Laub. Well, what are we talking about? 

The Chairman. We are only talking about one thing. Did you say 
that if the group stuck together, it would be more effective in "break- 
ing the travel ban." That is the only question. 

Mr. Laub. Well, you could construe it that way. That is not what 
I said, but that is all right. It is within the meaning of what I said. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And didn't you also say it was a matter of Cuban for- 
eign policy and that would have to be a decision of the Foreign Min- 
istry in Cuba, and after you said that 

Mr. Laub. No, I didn't say that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — did not Richard Thorne, one of your group, then ask 
you to talk to the Foreign Ministry of Cuba? Did Richard Thorne, 
or did he not, ask you to talk to the Foreign Ministry of Cuba? 

jMr. Rein. I suggest he ought to give the witness a chance to answer 
some of these questions. 

The Chairman. What is the question? Rephrase it. 

Mr. Laub. You asked me two questions there. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Did you not state in the course of this discussion that 
your staying together was a question of Cuban foreign policy, that 
that was a matter for the 

Mr. Laub. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — Foreign Ministry of Cuba, and thereupon did not 
Richard Thorne, one of your group, say to you, "Then talk to tlie 
Foreign Ministry of Cuba for permission to stay" ? 

Mr. Laub. Is that three questions or four questions? How many 
are you asking, Mr. Nittle ? 

The Chairman. It is only one question. I so rule. It is explain- 
ing a very plain question. Proceed with your next question. 

Mr. Nittle. j\Ir. Laub, are you not a member of an organization 
which calls itself Progressive Labor? You do not deny that. Is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Laub. Are you asking me if I am a member, or whether I deny 
it? 

Mr. Nittle. Are you not a member of Progressive Labor ? 

Mr. Laub. I am a member of Progressive Labor and I have been a 
member of Progressive Labor for about 11 months, and this is public 
knowledge. My name has appeared on Progressive Labor's students 
pamphlets put out at Columbia University and at the City College 
of New York. 

The fact that I am a member of Progressive Labor has been known 
to everybody who went on this trip. I have never attempted to conceal 
it and I wouldn't attempt to conceal it, because I am damn proud of it. 

Mr. Nittle. Stefan ^lartinot openly acknowledged his membership 
in Progressive Labor, as well, during his appearance before the com- 
mittee. 

Now, Mr. Laub, I hand you a copy of the December 1962 issue of the 
publication Progressive Lahor^ which contains a reprint of an item 
in the Columhia Spectator of November 14, 1962. The document is 
marked for identification as "Laub Exhibit No. 6." 

The item reprinted from the CoJumhla Spectator is titled "Marxist- 
Leninist Organization Formed by Columbia Students" and appears 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 731 

Oil page 12 of the exhibit. I shall read part of this item into the 
record : 

"We consider ourselves Marxists-Leninists. Whatever name yon want to call 
us — communists, socialists — if it fits, we'll wear it. We defend the communist 
party's right to exist in the United States, and we're opposed to the sustained 
campaign against it." 

These were statements made yesterday by organizers of the Columbia Progres- 
sive Labor Student Club, which held its tirst organizational meeting Monday 
night. 

The club plans to file a registration petition with the university in order to 
be recognized as an official student club. Its goal is "work toward establishment 
of a revolutionary socialist party in the U.S." 

"The aim would be for the working class, people who don't have a stake in 
ownership or management, to seize political control of the state," say the orga- 
nizers, Levi Laub '63 and Steve Martinot, a graduate mathematics student. 

Does the article correctly report you as an organizer of the Columbia 
Progressive Labor Student Club ? 

Mr, Laub, I will answer this question, but I would just like to say, 
because I think this is very important, that although I am willing to 
answer, and I will answer these questions about my beliefs, I really 
don't think that the committee should be asking me these questions, 
because I don't think they are pertinent to the subject under inquiry. 

Also, what I consider even more important is the fact that many of 
the students, most of the students who went on this trip to Cuba this 
summer, come from all parts of the United States, they represent 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well now — 

The Chairman. That is all right. 

Mr. Laub. They represent diverse political opinions, they have their 
own political views. Some of them I would characterize even as 
apolitical. Some of them work for the FBI. Now I just want to make 
clear that I don't want anything that I am going to say about my 
political beliefs here to reflect in any way upon the political beliefs or 
feelings or ideas 

The Chairman. I understand your position. 

Mr. Laub. — of any of the students that went on that trip. 

The Chairman. I understand your position, and no such implica- 
tions will be drawn by me, I assure you. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. We are not asking you about your beliefs, Mr. Laub. 
The question was directed to your organizational activities. 

Mr. Laub. Yes, well, I would be involved in organizational activi- 
ties that concern my beliefs. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot, in his testimony, testified to the sub- 
stantial correctness of this item in the Colwnbia Sjjectator. The ques- 
tion to you is whether you were an organizer of the Columbia Pro- 
gressive Labor Student Club. 

Mr. Laub. Yes, I was. 

(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 6" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Martinot also described the Columbia Progressive 
Labor Student Club as an affiliate of Progressive Labor. Do you agree 
with this? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, I would say we were an affiliate, we are an affiliate 
of the Progressive Labor Movement, but actually our relationship to 
the Progressive Labor Movement has never been closely defined. 

We operated in the beginning as a citj^wide student organization 
and we were an autonomous organization in the sense that we called 



732 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

our own meetings, made our own policies, decided what we were going 
to discuss. It was only students who participated in those activities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, but you as an organizer of this club were also a 
member of a parent organization, Progressive Labor, were you not'^ 

Mr. Laub. Yes. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Is not Progressive Labor a group which may be de- 
scribed as an ultrarevolutionary, Communist splinter group, formed 
on or about January 1962 by Milton Rosen and Mortimer Scheer, who 
are also editors of the organization's publication titled Frogresswe 
Labor? 

Mr. Laub. Well, Mr. Nittle, you might call it ultra, but 

Mr. Nittle. Xo, I am not. That is what the Communist Party of 
the United States calls your group, but if you wish me to eliminate 
that from the question and put it in this way 

Mr. Laub. I don't care who calls it "ultra," or whatever they call it. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not a Communist splinter group formed on or 
about January 1962 by Milton Rosen and Mortimer Scheer? 

Mr. Laub. Could you explain to me what you mean by a "splinter 
group" ? 

Mr. Nittle. Let me even eliminate that. Is it not a Communist 
organization that was formed in January 1962 by Milton Rosen and 
Mortimer Scheer ? 

Mr. Laub. I refuse to answer a question that would in any way put 
me in the position of having to identify any individuals; but if you 
would ask me the question. Was the Progressive Labor Movement 
formed in January 1962, 1 would be glad to ansAver that question. 

The CiiAiRiiAX. Was it about the date ? You said you had been a 
member for 11 months. So does that make it about right ? 

Mr. Laub. The Progressive Labor IMovement was formed around 
January 1962. 

The CiiAiRMAX. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I state for the record that Milton Rosen 
was the former labor secretary of the New York State Communist 
Party, while INIortimer Scheer was formerly the Erie County, New 
York State, chairman of the Communist Party. Both were defeated 
candidates for the Communist Party's National Committee at its 
December 1959 convention. 

Are 3^ou aware, Mr. Laub, of tlie fact that in the fall of 1961 Rosen 
and Scheer were expelled from the Communist Party as "neo-Trot- 
skyites" who refused to accept the present united-front tactics of the 
Communist Party and denounced it as "revisionist" ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. In the order of expulsion, did not the Communist 
Party refer to Rosen and Scheer as members of the "Albanian" 
movement ? 

Mr. Laub. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make something clear 
here. I will be perfectly glad to talk about the Progressive Labor 
Movement, as I am a member of it, and I am proud to be a member 
of it, but I am not going to talk about any other individuals. 

The Chairmax. All right. 

You refuse to answer the question on that ground, that it might 
involve third parties. Is that it, for the reasons previously stated ? 

Counsel, now proceed with your next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not a fact, Mr. Laub, that Progressive Labor, like 
the Communist Party — and despite its tactical disagreements with 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 733 

the Communist Party — is committed to an all-out defense of the 
Castro regime? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. I tliink tliat it would be easier to answer that question if 
it were made a little more simple. If you were to ask me simply what 
is the Progressive Labor Movement's position on the Castro regime, 
without all the prefaces you just considered completely — ■ — 

Mr. Nn^LE. All right, let me put it this way, then. Is not the 
Progressive Labor organization committed to an all-out defense of 
the Castro Communist regime? Now you can answer that "Yes" or 
"No." 

Mr. Laub. Well, I don't think you are serious. That is a very com- 
plicated question. There is a lot to talk about, and I refuse to answer 
it "Yes" or "No." 

The Chairman. Proceed with your next question, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Perhaps this will clarify it. I hand you a copy of the 
November 1062 issue of Progressive Labor, marked for identification 
as "Laub Exhibit No. 7.'' At page 4 of the publication appears a 
reprint from the Cohimhia Daily Spectator of October 26, 1962, titled 
"Socialist Labor Group Rallies; Action Plans Protest Today." 

The article, reprinted from the Columhla Daily Spectator^ reports 
as follows: 

Members of Progressive Labor, a socialist-oriented peace group, demonstrated 
against the United States quarantine of Cuba at 116th St. and Broadway yester- 
day at noon. 

Before an estimated crowd of 100 students and passers-by, Levi Laub, a Senior 
in Columbia College, and a member of the group, spoke against President Ken- 
nedy's order. "We feel that the actions of President Kennedy, and his statement 
that Cuba would be invaded if the quarantine is not successful, is a threat to 
the existence of mankind," Mr. Laub said. 

JNIr. Laub, does the Columhia Spectator correctly report your 
statement ? 

Mr. Laub. Yes, I believe I said that, but I would like to point out, 
because I am somewhat immodest, they say 100 students; I say the 
number was closer to 400. 

(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 7" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Now I hand you a copy of the March 1963 issue of Pro- 
gressive Lahor^ marked for identification as "Laub Exhibit No. 8." 

I direct your attention to an editorial therein reprinted, which is the 
text of a broadcast by Milton Rosen, editor of Progressive Lahor and 
chairman of the Progressive Labor Movement, rendered on Station 
WBAI, March 4. 

Now he said, in part, at page 15 of the exhibit : 

Attempts to destroy the revolution in Cuba are doomed. As a matter of fact 
an attempt on the part of the United States to crush the Cuban i-evolution may 
very well be its last try anywhere. Cuba is not alone. One billion people live 
under Socialism today. The socialist world will defend the Cuban revolution. 

Is it not a fact that vou as a member of Progressive Labor take the 
same position with respect to Cuba as does Milton Rosen, your leader? 

Mr. Laub. Mr. Nittle, I would be very glad to answer that question, 
because I have a lot to say on that question. I would prefer, of course, 
if you didn't always insist upon dragging in the cat, and talking about 
isn't it true that this is — that my views are exactly identical to some- 
body else's views. 



734 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

I don't think my views are exactly identical to anybody else's views. 
However, on that question, from what I saw in Cuba this summer, 
from what I have seen of the successes of the Cuban revolution, the 
brilliant successes of the Cuban revolution 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Laub, we are not referring to what you saw or 
didn't see. 

Mr. Laub. I am answering your question. I would like to answer 
the question in my own way. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you, as a member of Progressive Labor, follow 

Mr. Laub. You want me to answer the question in some pre-set form. 
Now I have to answer the question in my own words, and not yours. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me ask you this one simple question. Are you under 
the discipline of the Progressive Labor party ? 

Mr. Laub. I am a member of the Progressive Labor Movement. 

(Document marked "Laub Exhibit No. 8" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right, we will pass on to the next question. 

Mr. Laub. You are not interested, then, in what I have to say about 
this previous question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think you have answered it. 

Mr. Laub. I don't think I have answered it. You haven't given me 
a chance to answer that question. I would like an opportunity. 
There was a man up here this morning that had an opportunity to 
speak at length about what he thought about Cuba. How about 
letting me say something? 

[Applause.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Laub, it is the committee's information that 
on April 28, 1961, you were arrested at City Hall Park, New York 
City, for refusal to take shelter during an air raid alert, in connection 
with a protest sponsored by tlie Civil Defense Protest Committee. 

Were you not convicted of a violation of the New York civil defense 
law because of your action and fined $15 on May 8, 1961 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. I would like to know what that has to do with the subje^.t 
under inquiry. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The relevance of that question is that past conduct 
of a nature similar to that under present inquiry is relevant to show 
knowledge, disposition, and purpose of the witness. 

Mr. Laub. Is this an inquisition or a legislative inquiry, Mr. Nittle? 
Are you investigating me in a court ? 

Mr. Nittle. The Congress is trying to determine 

The Chairman. Mr. Laub, answer the question. 

Mr. Laub. The answer is that I did participate in that demonstration 
because I thought those laws were ridiculous and I still do think they 
are absolutely ridiculous, and 

The Chairman. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you not in this instance, as in the instance of your 
travel to Cuba in violation of law, engaged in agitational tactics to 
advance the cause of communism ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Laub. I have never admitted, nor will I ever admit until the 
Supreme Court tells me to, tliat I have traveled to Cuba in violation of 
law; and if you insist upon phrasing the question in that way, I can't 
answer it. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 735 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it not your purpose in that instance to conduct 
agitation as a Communist to impede the defense preparations of the 
United States? 

JNIr. Laub. It was my purpose, in that instance, to bring to the 
attention of the public what 1 thought to be a ridiculous law, and I 
was participating in a demonstration against that law in a very old 
American tradition of civil disobedience, and there are plenty of people 
in this country today who are participating in that same tradition and 
carrying on a veiy brave fight against the same kind of racists that are 
sitting up here in front of me right now. 

[Applause.] 

5lr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of this 
witness. 

The Chairman. Any questions? 

Mr. Tuck. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. The witness will be excused, and we will reconvene 
tomorrow at 10 o'clock in this room. 

("Wliereupon, at 5 :20 p.m. Thursday, September 12, 1963, the sub- 
committee recessed to reconvene at 10 a.m. Friday, September 13, 
1963.) 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPART3IENT TRAVEL REGU- 
LATIONS AND PRO (ASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVI- 
TIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 3 



FEIDAY, SEPTEMBER 13, 1963 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington^ D.O. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 10 :30 a.m. in the Caucus Room, Cannon 
House Office Building, Washington, D.C., Honorable Edwin E. Willis 
(chairman) presiding. 

Subcommittee members: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of 
Louisiana; William M. Tuck, of Virginia; and August E. Johansen, 
of Michigan. 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Willis, Tuck, and 
Johansen. 

Committee members also present: Representatives Joe R. Pool, 
of Texas ; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri ; George F. Senner, Jr., of 
A^rizona; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; and Henry C. Schadeberg, of 
Wisconsin. (Appearances as noted.) 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred 
M. Nittle, counsel; and Donald T. Appell, chief investigator. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order and will re- 
main in order. Demonstrations of the type that took place yesterday 
will not be tolerated. We are glad to have people here. It is an open 
hearing. This is part of a traditional congressional practice. Every- 
one must realize, however, that he is a ffuest of the committee in connec- 
tion with these hearings. There will be no postponing of action. 

The first demonstration that occurs will be handled appropriately. 

I know there are a lot of people here who feel as I do. I hope they 
are in the majority. This warning applies to everyone. It applies 
to those who might be associated with Progressive Labor; it applies 
to friends and foe, if any, of the student travelers; it applies to Mr. 
Rockwell and his associates; it applies to everyone. 

There will be order and order will be maintained. I plead with 
you to respect the order I am now giving. I plead with you, who al- 
ways express deep admiration for our constitutional process, to respect 
that. 

737 



738 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle, call your first witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Phillip Abbott Luce, come forward please. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. You do solemnly 
swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Luce. I do so affinn. 

TESTIMONY OF PHILLIP ABBOTT LUCE, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

MICHAEL B. STANDARD 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your name and residence for the rec- 
ord, please ? 

Mr. Luce. Before I do that, sir, I would very much like to strongly 
object to the fact that this is not an open hearing. In fact, you have 
refused to allow one of the witnesses that was subpenaed here to come 
into this room. He appeared yesterday. He was in no way involved 
in any kind of action that took place. 

But you allowed this creep, this fink, to appear. It is absolutely 
despicable that any hearing should be run in this manner, sir. 

The Chatrmaist. Now you will answer the question. I order you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Luce. What was the question ? 

Mr. Nittle. Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Luce. My name is Phillip Abbott Luce — Luce as in Henry and 
Clare Boothe. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I am. 

Mr. Nittle, Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Standard. INIichael B. Standard, 30 East 42d Street, New York. 

J\[r. Nittle. Mr. Luce, I do not believe you stated your residence for 
the record. Would you do so ? 

Mr. Luce. My residence is 504 West 55th Street, New York City. 

]\Ir. Nittle. Mr. Luce, have you ever used or been known by any 
name other than Phillip Abbott Luce ? 

Mr. Luce. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth ? 

Mr. Luce. October 18, 1936, Lancaster, Ohio. 

]Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and any degrees you may have received ? 

Mr. Luce. I graduated from Springfield Public High School in 
Springfield, Ohio, in the year 1954. I attended Miami University in 
Oxford, Ohio, for 2 years. I attended Mississippi State University, 
where I received a bachelor of arts degi'ee in 1958. I attended Ohio 
State University where I received a master's degree in political science 
in the year 1960, 1 believe. 

]Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Luce. My present occupation is associate editor of the publica- 
tion Rights, of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. 

Mr. Nittle. That organization has its offices at 421 Seventh Avenue, 
New York ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Luce. I believe so. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 739 

Mr. NiTTLE. What other employments have you held since gradua- 
tion from college? 

Mr. Luce. That is the only one. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Pursuant to a passport application filed INIay 20, 1963, 
were you not issued a United States passport on May 23, 1963, bearing 
number D 396677? 

Mr. Luce. I received a passport. I am not certain of the date nor 
am I certain of the number. 

Mr. XiiTLE. Was it in the spring of 1963 that you made application 
for it and received it ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time thereafter, or at the time of making- 
application for this passport, request of the Department of State a 
specific indorsement of your passport for travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir. 

The Chairmax. The answer is "No, sir" ? 

Mr. Luce. The answer is "No, sir." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you aware that on or about May 28, Levi Lee Laub 
visited the office of British Overseas Airways Corporation at 530 Fifth 
Avenue, New York, to negotiate reservations for a group of students 
for travel aboard that airline, and made arrangements for BOAC to 
contact either you or Anatole Anton in the event of his absence? 

Mr. Luce. If I am not mistaken, Mr. Nittle, not being a lawyer, I 
think that is a negative question. 

Mr. Nittle. You certainly understand the question, don't you? 

Mr. Luce. It is not a question. It must be four questions at least. 

The Chairman. Are you aware of that fact ? 

Mr. Luce. What fact'? 

Mr, Nittle. Are you aware of the fact that Levi Lee Laub visited 
the office of BOAC on or about May 28 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. First of all, I don't think that question has any relevancy 
or pertinence to this hearing. But above and beyond that, in no way, 
shape, or form do I intend to be an informer on anybody. 

IMr. Nittle. Including "J. Jacobs" ? 

Mr. Luce. I don't know who "J. Jacobs" is. 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. One question at a time. Do you 
refuse to answer the question and, if so, on what grounds? 

Mr. Luce. I refuse to be an informer, first of all, on anyone, and 
the second is I don't have any idea. 

The Chairman. Do you mean you are not aware of that ? 

]\Ir. Luce. No, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

jSIr. Nittle. Were you ever contacted by BOAC with respect to the 
reservations made by Levi Laub for travel to Cuba by a student group ? 

Mr. Luce. As far as I know, I was never contacted by BOAC con- 
cerning anything that Mr, Laul) did. I will, however, state that I 
received a phone call one evening from some lady, who made some 
comments about British Overseas Airlines, whatever it is called. 
However, lier questions were of such a nature that I believed it 
might be either the FBI or a member of the House Un-American 
Acti\i^^ies Committee, one of their investigators calling me. Therefore, 
I was completely unresponsive to the call. 



740 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any arrangement with Levi Laiib with 
respect to the arrangements made for travel to Cuba and the purchase 
of tickets from BOAC? 

Mr. Luce. As I stated before, sir, I refuse to be an informer con- 
cerning any other person. I had, to the best of my knowledge, a 
working relationship with the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 
and this did not include the relationship of the buying of tickets or 
any such thing like that. 

The Chairman. I believe the question mentioned Mr. Laub. Will 
you rephrase the question so I can refresh my mind on what the ques- 
tion was ? I don't think he answered it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you any understanding with Mr. Laub with re- 
spect to the fact that he would visit BOAC to j)rocure tickets for 
the student travelers and that he would give your name as a contact 
in the event of his absence? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr, Luce. It seems to me, sir, that is a proper question to have 
asked Mr. Laub, first of all, about the arrangements with BOAC. I 
made no arrangements with Mr. Laub, 

The Chairman. You did not answer the question. 

Mr. Luce. I did. 

The Chairman. You had no arrangements with Laub? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Had Mr. Laub made it known to you that funds for the 
student travel to Europe were being supplied by "J. Jacobs"? 

Mr. Luce. These are questions that should be asked of Mr. Laub. 
Mr. Laub in no way related this information to me; and if he did, I 
wouldn't tell the committee. 

The Chairman. But he did not? Is that your answer? 

Mr. Luce. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had this fact come to your attention from some other 
source ? 

Mr. Luce. I didn't know anything about any arrangements such 
as this until yesterday, when I came here and heard you mention it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time meet "J. Jacobs," or a person 
known by that name? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. I have never met anyone by the name of "J. Jacobs," to 
the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Numerous press reports describe you as one of the 
leaders of the student group. Were you directed to assume this re- 
sponsibility by your employer, the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Luce. Absolutely no shape or function. I have been on leave 
of absence from the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, and it has 
had no function with either the fonnation of this trip or any of its 
running. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you on the payroll of the Emergency Civil Lib- 
erties Committee during the course of your trip ? 

Mr. Luce. I stated the fact that I was on a leave of absence. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I asked you if you were on the payroll ? 

Mr. Luce. If I was on a leave of absence, it must mean that 1 was 
not on the payroll. 

The Chairman. Not necessarily. You could be on a leave of ab- 
sence and still receive pay. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 741 

Mr. Luce. I was not receiving pay. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attonclance at the organization meeting 
of the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, which Mr. 
Stefan Martinot advised us tooiv phice in New York on October 14, 
1962? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. "Wliat was that name again, sir ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Ad Hoc 

Mr. Luce. No ; the name of the gentleman. 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Stefan Martinot. 

Mr. Luce. I have never heard of anyone named Stefan Martinot. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By what name has he been identified to you ? 

Mr. Luce. I am not exactly certain whom you mean. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to tell the committee you do not know 
Stefan Martinot, S-t-e-f-a-n M-a-r-t-i-n-o-t? 



k. 



Mr. Luce. I have heard of someone named "Martina." I have never 
heard of anyone named Stefan. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now would you tell the committee, please, whether the 
person whose name is pronounced by you as Stefan "Martina" 

Mr. Luce. "Steven Martina." 

Mr. NiTTLE. — was known to you ? 

Mr. Luce. That is not the original question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am aslving that question now. 

Mr. Luce. Then you have to repeat it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer the question. 

The Chairman. We will proceed in order, so we will accommodate 
him. Ask him again. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at the organization meeting 
of the Ad Hoc Student Committee which took place in New York 
City on October 14, 1962 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at a subsequent meeting of 
this group in December 1962, at which time it was organized into the 
Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Luce. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware that the meeting took place or was 
to take place ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Stefan Martinot, or "Martina" as you 
call him, to be a member of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Luce. Not being a member of the Progressive Labor, the FBI, 
or the House Un-American Activities Committee, I would have no 
idea as to the membership of anyone in Progressive Labor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Luce, I hand you a photostatic copy of an item 
appearing at page 4 of the August 12, 1963, issue of the Baltimore 
Sim, which contains an article entitled '"CASH USED UP BY STUDENTS." 
It is datelined Havana, August 11, 1063. It is marked for identi- 
fication as "Luce Exhibit No. 1." I quote from that article: 

Phillip Luce, a former student at Ohio State University and one of the group 
leaders, said the students decided last week to create a permanent committee, 
to be based in New York, to organize more student trips to Cuba. 

98-76&— 63— pt. 3 7 



742 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Were you among the students who made that decision while in 
Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. It was a group decision, and I was one of the gi-oup. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 1" and retained in commit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did Stefan Martinot and Levi Lee Laub participate in 
that decision with you ? 

Mr. Luce. As far as I can remember, all 58 students who were on 
the trip participated in all decisions made by the group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Wendie Suzuko Nakashima a party to that 
decision? 

Mr. Luce. As I said before, sir, I refuse to discuss individuals. 
All 58 members decided on every press release; all 58 members of the 
group decided on such things as this. The witness yesterday told 
you that one. 

Mr. NiTTLE. A press release was issued by the student group prior 
to leaving New York on June 25, 1963. It was a press release dated 
June 26, 1963. You are identified on that as acting for the press 
committee. 

Did the 50-odd students vote on your appointment or select you 
for that position at that time? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir; they did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who appointed you ? 

Mr. Luce. No one appointed me. It was simply the fact that at 
that time it was very obvious that a press release would have to be 
written, and 

INIr. Standard. There is some question about the date. Did you 
indicate an August date, or would you mind repeating the date if it 
wasn't an August date ? 

]Mr. NiTTLE. I think the witness understood the date. 

The CiiAiRMAX. Tell the date to counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The date of the press release was June 26, 1963. By 
whom were you appointed to the press committee ? 

Mr. Luce. I was not appointed to the press committee. 

The Chairman. Were you a member of the press committee? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you directed to assume that position by the Emer- 
gency Civil Liberties Committee? 

Mr. Luce. Absolutelj' not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following your arrival in Cuba, Radio Havana con- 
ducted a press conference on July 30, 1963, which was recorded and 
then broadcast in English to Europe on August 7, 1963. Did yon, as 
chairman of the group's press committee, arrange this press confer- 
ence ? 

]Mr. Luce. What was the date on that ? 

The Chairman. August 7, 1963. 

Mr, NiTTLE. The press conference actually took place, Mr. Chair- 
man, on July 30, 1963. It was recorded at the time it took place and 
was then subsequently broadcast in English to Europe on August 
7, 1963. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 743 

I^Ir. Luce. The date confuses me. If this was a press conference 
held approximately at the end of our trip, then it might have more 
bearing. I truly don't recall the date. 

Mr. NiTTLF. "Perhaps 1 can refresh your memory. In the course of 
the press conference, the Cuban mediator announced that he would 
pass the microphone to you and that you were selected to read the 
statement of the students. Did you deliver a statement reportedly on 
behalf of all the students at or about that time ? 

Mr. Luce. Not "reportedly on behalf of all the students," on behalf 
of all the students, including Mr. Hoffman, who agreed to the press 
statements. 

]\fr. NiTTLE. Who prepared the statement? 

INIr. Luce. It was prepared by the press committee with the ap- 
proval of all 58 of the students. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But I am interested in knowing who prepared the 
statement for presentation to the students. Now, will you tell us who 
participated in the writing of the press statement? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. I will say that I had something to do with the press 
statement, but I will refuse to name anyone else who helped me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you prepare the initial draft of the statement? 

Mr. Luce. A portion of the initial draft. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The statement of July 30, 1963, contained the follow- 
ing words : 

Upon our arrival in the United States we are prepared for harassment and 
possible legal prosecution. We came to Cuba knowing full well that we were 
defying the State Department's public notice * * *. No amount of persecution 
or prosecution can change our original proposition that our trip to Cuba violates 
no law, and that it is in the best interests of all Americans. 

In asserting that your trip violated no law, did you derive that legal 
opinion from any of Castro's lawyers? I do not say that facetiously, 
Mr. Lucfr — — 

Mr. Luce. You must. 

INIr. NiTTLE. — because in an inteiwiew reported in the Daily Tar 
Heel of October 26, 1962, a publication of the University of North 
Carolina, Larry Phelps, one of the student group identified by Mr. 
Hoffman as a member of Progressive Labor, stated that the "New 
York coordinators" had been in contact with Castro's lawyer before 
the trip was made. 

Have you at any time conferred with a person known to you to rep- 
resent Castro's interests in the United States? 

Mr. Luce. In the first place, I don't think it is a proper question 
to ask me, since I am not Mr, Phelps nor the Daily Tar Heel. 

The Chairman. We are asking for your knowledge, that is all. 

Mr. Luce. I don't know who Castro's lawyers are. That is a very 
vague phrase. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you personally confer with any person known to 
you to be Castro's lawyer ? 

Mr. Luce. As I said before, I don't know what the phrase "Castro's 
lawyer" means. 

The Chairman. But you did not ]:)ersonally confer with anyone 
known to you to be such an idividual, is that your answer? 

Mr. Luce. The way the question is framed, No, sir, I don't know 
what "Castro's lawyer" is, or who "Castro's lawyer" is. 



744 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me be specific. 

Mr. Luce. Please do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you confer with Leonard Boudin in New York 
City? 

Mr. Luce. I happen to know Leonard Boudin very well. He is a 
personal friend of mine. 

Mr. NiTTLE. He happens to be the general counsel of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee also, isn't he ? 

Mr. Luce. That is very true. That is no crime. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And his partner, Mr. Victor Kabinowitz, is on the 
executive committee of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee; is 
that true ? 

Mr. Luce. As far as I know, he is a member of the national council, 
but not on the executive committee of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me a letterhead of the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee which, as you say, sets forth members of the 
national council, but which identifies Victor Rabinowitz as on the 
executive committee of the national council. Is that not correct ? 

Mr. Luce. First of all, this has absolutely no pertinence to the hear- 
ings whatsoever, in any shape or form, and it does not, sir, mention 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is certainly pertinent to the question I asked you. 

Mr. Luce. It may be pertinent to the question, but it is not pertinent 
to the hearing. 

The Chairman. There will be no argument. "Wliat is the question? 

Mr. Luce. I don't think Mr. Nittle knows. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you at any time confer with Leonard Boudin 

Mr. Luce. I thought the question was whether or not Victor Ra- 
binowitz was on the executive council, and I have tried to explain 
to you; if you can read, you will note it says, "National Council" and 
then "Executive Committee" and then there is a break and then the 
names begin in alphabetical order again. 

The executive committee included those people before the break 
who are listed in alphabetical order prior to the second group that are 
listed in alphabetical order. 

The Chairman. The document will speak for itself, but let it be 
made part of the record. 

Mr. Nittle. I ask that it be marked for identification. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 2" and retained in coimnit- 
tee files.) 

Mr. Luce. Only so long, sir, as Mr. Rabinowitz is not included in 
the executive committee of the committee, which he is not. 

Mr. Nittle. He is identified on the letterhead as general counsel. 

Mr. Luce. Victor Rabinowitz is not identified as general counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. I beg your pardon. Leonard Boudin is identified as 
such. 

Mr. Luce. Perhaps I better give this back to you, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Nittle. The question is. Did you confer with Leonard Boudin 
or Victor Rabinowitz in New York City? 

Mr. Luce. As I stated before, sir, that has absolutely no pertinence 
whatsoever to this hearing. Secondly, is the fact that it is totally 
outside of the jurisdiction of this committee to inquire upon who I 
speak to in New York City. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 745 

The Chairman. The Chair rules the question is pertinent, and you 
will answer the question. 

Mr. Luce. Permanent or pertinent? 

The Chairman. Pertinent. 

Mr. Luce. Thank you. As I stated before, sir, Mr. Boudin is a 
personal friend of mine; and to say that I have never spoken to him 
would certainly be an untruth, because I have. 

The Chairman, That is a proper answer. Next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I state for the record that Mr. Boudin 
and Mr. Rabinowitz have been identified as representing the legal in- 
terests of Fidel Castro m the United States, and have been so identified 
in litigation instituted by them in the courts of the United States. 

The Chairman. I think the pertinent observation is whether, as 
coimsel, they are really, in fact, agents as defined by the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act and whether they have registered. 

The Chair asks this very simple question, if you know: Do you 
know M'hether these two gentlemen have registered as the foreign 
agent of the Castro regime in the United States ? This is part of the 
subject matter of these hearings. 

You see, we have a lobbying act, which requires all people — labor, 
management, business, everyone — undertaking to influence legislation 
in Congress to register as such. 

"We also have an act called the Foreign Agents Registration Act, 
which requires people representing foreign governments in the United 
States, as defined in that act, to register. With that premise, I simply 
ask you whether you know for a fact, ]Dersonally, whether these two 
gentlemen have registered as agents of the Castro regime. 

I might say there would be nothing derogatory in registering. That 
is what the law requires. The law requires it of all agents, including 
those of the governments of England, France, many other countries, 
who very proudly register. I am simply pointing out the pertinence 
of the question, 

Mr. Luge, I don't think it is pertinent to the hearing, first of all. 

The Chairman. I ruled it is. I am asking you whether you know, 

Mr, Luce. I have no idea. 

The Chairman. You have no idea ? 

Mr, Luce, No, 

The CiiAiRiMAN. Next question, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you discuss arrangements for the trip to Cuba 
with Mr. Boudin or Mr. Rabinowitz ? 

Mr. Luce. I don't recall having mentioned it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AYliat is your answer ? 

Mr, Luce. I don't recall having mentioned arrangements for the 
trip to anyone concerning the fact. I didn't know anything about the 
arrangements. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you discuss any matter pertaining to this Cuban 
visit with Mr, Boudin or Mr. Rabinowitz prior to travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Luce. It is m-uch too vague, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be directed to 
answer tlie question. 

The Chairman. Yes, I think that is an appropriate request. You 
are ordered to answer that question. 

Mr. Luce. Could I have it repeated ? 

The Chairman . Surely. Repeat the question. 



746 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please read the question ? 

(Question was read by reporter.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. You are going to have to be more specific as to a time 
and place, because I may have at one time or another very casually 
mentioned the fact that some people were going to Cuba. I don't 
know. So I would like to loiow when. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to say you have mentioned tliis mat- 
ter ■ 

Mr. Luce. I do not mean that at all. 

The Chairman. He said he may have casually mentioned the sub- 
ject of a trip. 

Mr. Luce. Mr. Nittle is obviously after something specific. 

The Chairman. Mr. Nittle, we will have him testify regularly. Is 
that your answer, that you may have discussed the matter with them 
casually ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you recall any i:)articular discussion involving 
any particular phase of the trip, such as time of departure, time of re- 
turn, the purpose of the trip ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. To the best of my knowledge, I did not speak to them con- 
cerning the purposes of the trip. 

Mr. Nittle. There was disseminated to various applicants for travel 
to Cuba with your group, prior to leaving New York, copies of a legal 
opinion which was identified in the course of Mr. Hoffman's testi- 
mony.^ Could you tell us whether or not that legal opinion was pre- 
pared by the law firm of Rabinowitz and Boudin ? 

[Demonstration in hearing room.] 

The Chairman. There will be no demonstrations. Except for those 
that have a purpose, such as the press, I suggest that everybody re- 
main seated. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. ^Ir. Luce, the outstanding question related to whether 
or not a legal opinion disseminated to members of the student group 
prior to travel, which purported to advise them of their legal rights, 
was prepared by the law firm of Boudin and Rabinowitz. 

Mr. Luce. I do not only not know if it was prepared by Boudin and 
Rabinowitz, but I have never seen the legal statement. 

The Chairman. You do not know of such an opinion having been 
prepared ? 

IMr. Luce. I have never seen it, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you know whether it was prepared? That is a 
matter within your knowledge. You either know or you don't. You 
are under oath. That is how simple it is. It is a pertinent question. 

Mr. Luce. Would it be possible for me to see it? If I could see it, 
then I would know. To the best of my knowledge, I don't recall having 
seen a legal statement prepared specifically for this trip. 

The Chairman. Do you know whether such an opinion was pre- 
pared for the benefit of those who cared to see it ? 

Mr. Luce. As far as I know, sir, the trip took place in June, and no 
such legal document was prepared. 

1 See "Hoffman Exhibit No. 2-B," pp. 668-670. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 747 

The CiiATKMAN. Proceed, 

i\Ir. XiriLE. Immediately after your arrival at New York from 
Cuba, via Madrid, on August 29, 1968, were you not received by rep- 
resentatives of the Emergency Civil Liberties Connnittee? 

Mr. Luce. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you engaged in any prior arrangements with rep- 
lesentatives of the Emergencv Civil Liberties Committee for that 
reception? 

Mr. Luce. In Cuba, the group of American students, 58 of them, 
decided to request the aid of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 
regarding any legal matters that may come up in regard to passports 
or criminal actions taken by any source. 

At that time, the group requested that I cable the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee requesting their aid. This I did. 

The Chairman. About when was that ? Was it toward the begm- 
ning or the middle or the last part of the trip ? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir, it was within the last 10 days of the trip. 

The CiiAiRMAN. Whom did you contact? 

Mr. Luce. I contacted the director of the Emergency Civil Liberties 
Committee. 

The Chairman. Who is he ? 

Mr. Luce. Dr. Clark Foreman. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not this contact initiated at your suggestion to 
the student group? 

The Chairman. He so stated that, at their request, he made the 
contact. Is that not your statement ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the FBI, in his book 
Masters of Deceit, stated that the Emergency Civil Liberties Commit- 
tee, after its formation in 1959, took over the work of the old Civil 
Rights Congress, the latter being described by the Subversive Activi- 
ties Control Board as the "legal defense arm" of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Luce, are you aware of any plans made by your employer, the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, to assist in the defense of stu- 
dents who may be prosecuted that were developed or discussed prior 
to your visits to Cuba ? 

Mr. Luce. Mr. Nittle, in the first place, you made a statement and 
then you asked a question. In regard to your statement, allow me to 
say you either don't read very well or Mr. Hoover doesn't do his 
research very well, because the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 
was not founded in 1959. 

Mr. Nittle. I didn't say 1959, as I recollect. 

Mr. Luce. You did, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. It was fonned in 1951. 

The Chairman. "Wliat was the date? 

Mr. Luce. 1951. 

The Chairjvian. Well, he said so before you did, so we now know it. 

Mr. Luce. As I said before, he made a statement. 

The Chairman. That is the statement. Now, the question is pend- 
ing. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you aware of any plans made by your employer, 
the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, to assist in the defense of 



748 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

the students who may be prosecuted that were developed or discussed 
prior to your visit to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. If tliis question relates to conversations between my em- 
ployer and myself, then under no conditions would I reveal any of the 
conversations to either you or the committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the question. 

The Chairman. This is not a question of attempted violation or 
intrusion into matters between employer and employee; and even if 
it were, it would still be pertinent. It is a simple question of fact. 

The identity of your employer is known. It is part of our inquiry. 
We are not leading into employer-employee or agent or attorney-client 
relationships. This strikes at a matter having to do with pending 
congressional legislation in the general subject matter over which this 
committee has jurisdiction. 

Therefore, I direct you to answer the question particularly since, 
unless I missed it, there was no mention of your employer, or I don't 
thmk so. I think is was a general question. Or was it, Mr. Nittle ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, we had established, Mr. Chairman, that his em- 
ployer was the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee. 

The CiiAiRMAX. All right, you are ordered to answer the question. 

Mr. Luce. I don't recall the question as it stands. Could I have it 
repeated, please ? 

The Chairman. Repeat the question. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you aware of any plans having been made, with 
or by the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, to assist in the defense 
of these students who may be prosecuted that were developed or dis- 
cussed prior to the visit to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. To the best of my knowledge, the answer to the question 
is "No." The Emergency Civil Liberties Committee is so created 
and so functions so that the only way they can accept a case, or truly 
discuss a case, is when a written request is sent to them; and it is then 
discussed by the executive committee. And this was not done prior 
to the trip. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you requested by your employer to take this trip 
to Cuba 

Mr. Luce. No. 

Mr. Nittle. ■ — in order to advance the interests of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Luce. No, no, no ; in no way, shape, or form. 

The Chairman. He answered the question. Nest question. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you discussed with your employer any plans for 
the defense of these students since your return ? 

Mr. Luce. Certainly. Since the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee will defend them, it is only proper that I asked Clark Foreman. 

Mr. Nittle. It is only an incidental fact that you are employed by 
them, is that correct? 

The Chairman. Let us get his answer correct. I think you are try- 
ing to say you did not discuss the matter of employment and had no 
knowledge of such discussion, and you think no such discussion could 
have taken place because they don't discuss these things in advance, 
but that you did discuss the matter with your employer since you have 
returned. Is that correct ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 749 

Mr. Luce. That is true, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of page 3 of the official 
(^ommunist Party ])ublication The WorJi'('i\ dated September 18, 19()2, 
marked for ideiitiiicatioii as "Luce Exhibit No. 3." 

I direct your attention to tlie article titled "Civil Liberty Workshop 
All During "Week." The article states that Phillip Abbott Luce is in 
charge of the ''student division" of the Emergency Civil Liberties Com- 
mittee. 

Do you have a special function within the Emergency Civil Liber- 
ties Commitee, as described in The Worker exhibit, namely, that of 
being in charge of the "student division" of the Emergency Civil 
Liberties Committee? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. Not being responsible for the reportage of The Worker, 
as far as I know of I did not make any such statement. I am associate 
editor of their publication Bights. I have done student work for the 
committee. There is no special student division of the Emergency 
Civil Liberties Committee. I have admitted working for ECLC; 1 
am very proud for an organization that stands for civil liberties. But 
giving me a copy of The Worker is obvious, Mr. Nittle, what you are 
attempting to do. 

The Chairman. Not at all. 

Mr. Luce. I responded, sir. 

The Chairman. You were asked to comment on tlie article and you 
disassociate yourself from the statement in the article, is that about it ? 

Mr. Luce. I said that my — Mr. Nittle asked me what my job was, 
and I have admitted being associate editor. I have also admitted 
that I have done work with the students. 

The Chairman. But the article is inaccurate in that respect? 

Mr. Luce. In regard to stating that there is a student division ; yes, 
sir. 

The Chairman. And in saying that you are the head of that 
division ? 

Mr. Luce. I couldn't possibly be head of it if there wasn't one. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 3 in evidence. 

The Chairman. Let the document be marked in evidence. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Was it not your function in associating yourself with 
student work in the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee to visit 
college campuses and to enlist student support for the objectives 
of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Luce. It was my purpose to work with students to teach them 
about the Bill of Rights and the defense of civil liberties in the 
United States. 

Mr. Nittle. Pursuant to your duties in charge of, or assisting in, 
the student M'ork of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, did 
you not secure an invitation to speak at a "civil rights rally" at the 
Ohio State University for April 25, 1062, sponsored by a student 
organization called Students for Libei'al Action ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. That has absolutely no pertinence whatsoever to the 
hearing. It is a liearing on foreign agents registration and pass- 



750 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

ports. "Wliether I spoke at Ohio State or any other campus has no 
relationship whatsoever to this hearing. 

The Chairman. The objectives, purposes, of this hearing encom- 
pass that, and you are ordered to answer tlie question. 
Mr. Luce. Encompass what ? His question ? 

The Chairman. Yes. It is part of the general objectives of these 
hearings. The simple question is — and never mind his capacity, Mr. 
Nittle, but state the question — did he make a talk. Is that it? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he appear at the Ohio State University on April 

25, 19G2, pursuant to an invitation to speak at a "civil rights rally" 

given by a student organization called Students for Liberal Action? 

Mr. Luce. Again, I must insist, sir, that you explain to me the 

relevance. 

The Chairman. I have ordered you to answer. You have con- 
sulted with your counsel and you persist in your refusal. 

Proceed with the next question. Let the record speak for itself. 
^ Mr. Luce. I have not insisted upon a refusal, sir. "VAHiat I would 
like to request is that it be explained to me, what relevance it has. 
You said it is encompassed within the hearing. But I don't under- 
stand why. 

Mr. Nittle. ]Mr. Luce, the pertinence of the question, I am sure, is 
understood by you, but for the purpose of the record I would like to 
repeat that the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee has been found 
by the Subversive Activities Control Board to be the legal defense 

arm of the Communist 

Mr. Luce. That is a lie, Mr. Nittle. The Subversive Activities 
Control Board has never considered our case. 

Mr. Nittle. I inadvertently stated that the ECLC was found to 
be such by the SACB. It has been cited by this committee as orga- 
nized for the legal defense of Communists. 
Mr. Luce. That is no crime. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee has reason to believe this organization 
is a Communist organization. 

Mr. Luce. Then the committee is mistaken, sir, and you are mis- 
taken. Tliis is diatribe, Mr. Nittle. This has absolutely nothing to do 
with the question you originally asked me. I would like to know 
what |:)ertinence it has to this hearing as to whether or not I spoke at 
Ohio State. 
The Chairman. Proceed with your next question. 
[Demonstration in hearing room.] 

The Chairman (to audience). You people in the audience don't 
understand the significance of this. This may lead to contempt. 
There is nothing funny about it. Proceed with your next question. 

Mr. Luce. Excuse me, sir. I don't understand what may lead to 
contempt. 
The Chairman. You refused to answer the question. 
]Mr. Luce. I am not refusing to answer the question. I said that 
four tinies. I will answer the question, but I have requested that it 
be explained to me what is the relevancy. 
The Chairman. It has been explained. 
^ Mr. Luce. It has not been explained. You made a statement say- 
nig that it was encompassed. 

The Chairman. It is a question of whether I am right or not. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 751 

l^lr. Luce. It is not a question of whether you are right or wrong. 
It is a question of whether you want to keep me in the dark and cite 
nie for contempt. 

The Chairman. This has been cited by J. Edgar Hoover. 

lilr. Luce. I don't care what J. Edgar Hoover or you have said. I 
will answer the question. 

[Demonstration in hearing room.] 

The Chairman (to police officials.) On the next demonstration I 
want the leaders who can be identified removed from the room. 

Mr. Luce. I said, sir, that I will answer the question, and I will 
answer the question. But I would like to know, first of all, what rele- 
vance it has and, secondly, I don't see how you can tell Mr. Nittle to 
go on and ask me another question. 

The Chaiiuvian. He has been trying to explain. You called it a lie 
in the middle of his sentence. 

Mr. Luce. That is right because he said a lie. 

The Chairman. I have explained it, and you wouldn't accept it. 
That is the way the record stands. 

Mr. Luce. Read me the question, and I will answer it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will the reporter read the question. 

I will rephrase the question. Were you on the campus of the Ohio 
State University on April 25, 1962, at the invitation of a student 
organization called Students for Liberal Action to speak at a "civil 
rights rally" on the campus of that university ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now would you tell the committee how many college 
campuses you have visited with the intention of making similar ad- 
dresses as an employee of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee ? 

Mr. Luce. As many as I could. 

The Chairman. Would you name some of them? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr, Luce. Columbia University, Harvard University, Sarah Law- 
rence University, Bryn Mawr, Antioch, Brooklyn College, and others. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luce, I hand you a photostatic copy of the 1961- 
1962 bulletin issued by The New York School for Marxist Studies, 853 
Broadway, New York 3, New York, marked for identification as "Luce 
Exhibit No. 4." This bulletin is described as being issued by the 
"General Studies Division, Youth Division— SCOPE (Student Com- 
mittee on Progressive Education)" and sets forth the courses for the 
fall term of 1961 and the winter and spring terms commencing on 
January 1962. I direct your attention to the back cover page of the 
bulletin where Phillip A. Luce is described as giving a course entitled 
"THE threat of THE RIGHT." Are you not the Phillip A. Luce 
named as giving that course ? 

Mr. Luce. No, 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 4" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Were you an instructor at The New York School for 
Marxist Studies? 

Mr. Luce, No. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you ever employed by The New York School for 
Marxist Studies? 
Mr. Luce. No. 



752 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you kiiow who the person is, identified as Phillip A. 
Luce, giving the course entitled "THE threat OF the RIGHT"? 

Mr. Luce. It is probably me, but I never gave a course. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware that you were named as being an in- 
structor for this course ? 

Mr. Luce. Not until after I saw the bulletin. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you had any discussions with respect to being an 
instructor at The New York School for Marxist Studies ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Mr. Luce. Yes, I did have discussions, but I decided not to do it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have those discussions with Dr. Herbert Ap- 
theker, its director ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. As I have said before, sir, I will not testify concerning 
anj'One else. I am more than willing to give my own personal views 
and testify about myself. 

The Chairman. You have said that two or three times. You have 
been quite frank in your statements ; but, you see, there comes a time 
when, if a person simply says that "I will talk, but I am not going to 
say anything about people," that means, in a criminal prosecution, you 
can say you witnessed an event, or you witnessed an automobile acci- 
dent, and you would be willing to say all you know, but you don't want 
to say anything about what happened. That is not proper. It has 
never been regarded as proper by this committee. It can't possibly 
be, or we would bog down. 

Therefore, I order you to answer that question. 

Mr. Luce. This is not a criminal prosecution, and although your 
treatise may be correct 

The Chairman. You are one of the few people who don't imply that 
this is a court proceeding. We are not. You are right. But I am 
telling you about the rules of the committee and my impression of the 
decisions of the courts. Therefore, I direct you to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. I did speak to Mr. Aptheker concerning this ; 
but if this is going to be the beginning of questions regarding personal 
views, then I will tell you right now I am not going to answer any 
more. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. We will face that as the questions develop. I don't 
know what they are likely to be. 

Mr. Luce. That is probably very true. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not know Di-. Herbert Aptheker at the time of 
these discussions to be a longtime Communist Party functionary? 

Mr. Luce. Not being a member of the Communist Party, the FBI, 
nor the CIA, nor the House Un-American Activities Committee, I 
would have no idea whether Mr. Aptheker is a member of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him, by reason of your employment with 
the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Luce. That is not only irrelevant, but it is impertinent. 

The Chairman. I think he encompassed that in the first question. 
Proceed with the next one. He said he did not know whether the 
gentleman you named was a member of the Communist Party. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 753 

Mr. NrrTLE. I band yon a photostatic copy of page 8 of the National 
Guardian^ of August 13, 1962, marked for identification as "Luce 
Exhibit No. 5." 

I direct your attention to a book review entitled "New book by 
Aptheker," written by Phillip Abbott Luce. Are you not the Phillip 
Abbott Luce, the author of that book review ? 

]\lr. Luce. I am. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 5'' and retained in committee 
files.) 

IMr. NiTTLE. You have also contributed to the Communist Party 
publication Mainstream^ have you not ? 

Mr. Luce. First of all, I didn't know it was Communist Party. 
Second, my writings are public writings. I will write whatever I 
want to. That is under the first amendment of the Constitution. I 
do not see where this has any relevance at all to either passports or 
foreign registration. 

I cannot understand the relevance of my writings. All of our writ- 
ings are public. They have been published in publications, which I 
am certain the committee is aware of. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, we are. 

Mr. Luce. Good. 

The Chairman. The Chair will rule on that. You have a right to 
write, there is no question about that. Nobody is stopping that. But 
this is a question about this particular publication and whether you 
contributed tliat article to it. 

Mr. Luce. I don't know what article, but I will admit to writing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of the February 1963 
issue of Mainstream^ marked for identification as "Luce Exhibit No. 
6." I direct your attention to an article entitled "NEGROES AND GUNS : 
AN EXCHANGE," which bears your name, Phillip Abbott Luce at the 
conclusion of the article. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. In this article, you are reviewing a book. Did you 
write that review ? 

Mr. Luce. I not only wrote, but I am veiy proud to have written 
it, sir. It deals with Robert Williams' book and calls for Negroes' 
defense. 

(Document marked "Luce Exhibit No. 6" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not also appear as a principal speaker, along 
with Benjamin J. Davis, national secretaiy of the Communist Party, 
U.S.A., at a meeting on June 25, 1962, which was held at the Allerton 
Community Forum, 683 Allerton Avenue, Bronx, New York, under 
the banner "Stop the McCarranism and Demand Freedom for its 
Victims" ? 

Mr. Luce. First of all, I don't know if Mr. Davis is what you char- 
acterize him. Secondly, I have a perfect riglit to speak where I want 
and when I want. That is the subject, and tliat topic happened to 
deal with civil liberties. It dealt with the McCarran Act, w^hich hap- 
pens to be the one act that this committee passed in its long history, or 
at least I consider it to be the most infamous. 

The Ciiair:max. You disagree with Congress ? 

Mr. Luce. That is my privilege as an American citizen, as you 
certainly would recognize 



754 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. Yes, certainly. 

Mr. Luce. And I will speak where I want to and when I want to 
on civil liberties. 

The Chairman. The question is, Did you make that talk? 

Mr. Luce. I have admitted it. This whole question is absolutely 
stupid, irrelevant, and irreverent. To be questioned about speaking 
on civil liberties by this committee I find absolutely obnoxious. 

The Chairman. Mr. Nittle, proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luce, you have asked to review the particular legal 
document about which you were questioned awhile ago. During the 
course of the interrogation I asked you whether this was prepared, 
to your knowledge, by the law firm of Rabinowitz and Boudin. 

Mr. Luce. And at that time I said I didn't know what document. 

Mr. Nittle. This legal opinion was offered in evidence in the course 
of the interrogation of Barry Hoffman, marked as "Hoffman Exhibit 
No. 2-B." I now exhibit that legal opinion to you and ask you 
whether, to your knowledge, that was prepared by Boudin and 
Rabinowitz ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. I have absolutely no way of knowing who that was pre- 
pared by. I do recall now that I did see it, but I have not read it 
until and including that date. 

Mr. Nittle. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. When did you depart for Cuba ? Was it June 25 ? 

Mr. Luce. I am very bad on dates. It was around that date, yes. 

The Chairman. And you said initially, as I remember, that you 
did have a passport. 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. But when was that passport issued ? 

Mr. Luce. In the spring of this year. 

The Chairman. In the spring of this year ? 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you disclose in that passport, as you should, 
where you intended to travel with it? Do w^e have the passport? 

Mr. Luce. It is in the application, not the passport. At that time, 
I said, sir, that I was going to go to England, France, and other 
countries. 

The Chairman. England, France, and other countries ? 

Mr. Luce. And other countries. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. When you obtained this passport, did you have in 
mind going to Cuba, among these other countries ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. Yes. 

The Chairman. Did you, besides going to France and England, 
like some others, go to or through Prague ? 

]Mr. Luce. Yes. 

The Chairman. Did you apply to the appropriate Government 
agency — the State Department, the Passport Division, or any other 
agency for validation of that passport for specific permission to go 
to Cuba? I think you answered that already, but I want to be sure? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir, I did not. because I didn't think that it was 
illegal to travel to Cuba. 

The Chairman. Were you aware, when you applied for this pass- 
port and when it was issued to you, of the fact that in order to travel 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 755 

to Cuba your passport had to be validated and that you had to be given 
specific permission to travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Luce. I did not Iniow that then and I don't know that now, 
because so far as I know there is no law requiring that that be done. 
There is a public notice requesting that that be done, but there is no 
law on the books stating that you have to have a validated passport 
to travel to Cuba. 

The CiiAiRMAisr. Yet, according to my notes, one of the statements 
purportedly made by you in Cuba, as I understand, was that you said 
you had made this trip knowing that it was in defiance of law, 

Mr. Luce. No, sir. Knowing that it was in defiance of a public 
notice, and public notices are not law. There is no law keeping us 
from traveling to Cuba or any place else. 

The Chairman. Let me call your attention to the specific law. 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman. According to the State Department 

Mr. Luce. Sir, it is obvious that, as of today, no one knows of any 
law. You can't even find it. 

The Chairman. Wait a minute. According to the State Depart- 
ment — 

travel to Cuba by a United States citizen without a passport specifically vali- 
dated by the Department of State for that purpose constitutes a violation of 
the Travel Control Law and Regulations. (Title 8 U. S. Code Sec. 1185; Title 
22 Code of Federal Regulations, Sec. 53.3) . 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I was quite aware of that. That is a public 
notice, not a law; 1185(b) deals with the McCarran-Walter Act, 
which deals with entry and leaving the United States without a valid 
passport. 

I had a valid passport. So far as I am concerned, the LTnited States 
Constitution is very clear on this issue. While not being explicit, 
it is implicit in the guarantees of freedom of travel. I will travel 
where I want when I want, because I did not know there was any law, 
and you have quoted nothing to me stating a law. That is a public 
notice, and public notices are not law to my knowledge. 

The Chairman. This public notice quotes the law, and you don't 
recognize the law. 

Mr. Luce. That does not quote the law; 1185(b), as you should 
certainly know, as it was instituted by your predecessor, Mr. Walter, 
the Walter-McCarran Act, 1185(b) cleals with a person entering or 
leaving the United States without a valid passport. We left the 
United States with a valid passport. We reentered the United States 
with a valid passport. We have broken no law whatsoever to my 
knowledge and I assume to yours, sir. 

The Chairman. Here is a letter which has been offered in evidence, 
addressed to Mr. Hoffman by Anatol Schlosser, dated December 14, 
1962, from which I quote: "The State Department" — and this is 
Schlosser. 

IMr. Luce. I am not Schlosser. 

The Chah^man. Wait a minute. I ha^-e not asked my question. It 
will be a question. I am not going to play "ring aromid the rosie." 

Mr. Luce. Please don't. 

The Chairman. Here is what Mr. Schlosser says, to this prospective 
traveler : 

The State Department has just notified me that a willful violation of the 
travel ban is punishable by a fine of not more than $5,000 and/or imprisonment 



756 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

of not more than five years. This however is not going to deter us from our 
objectives to exercise our rights as citizens and students to travel and to see 
and evaluate for ourselves. 

The question is : Did you receive a similar letter ? 

Mr. Luce. No, sir. That is Mr. Schlosser's opinion and certainly 
not mine. I made my feeling very ^Yell known in a document that 
was read earlier, which is the statement that I wrote before we left on 
this trip, which gives the very reasons, or a portion of the reasons, why 
we considered there should be no law. 

The Chairman. Did you have knowledge of the State Department 
rulings that this trip or any other trip without validation of pass- 
port constituted a violation of the law and regulation I just quoted 
awhile ago, whether you agreed with them or not? Did you have 
knowledge of that ruling by the State Department ? 

Mr. Luce. I would be very lax in my homework if I did not, sir; 
but again, it is no law. It is Public Notice 179. 

The Chairman. You disagree with the ruling of the State Depart- 
ment? 

Mr. Luce. I not only disagree witli it, it is absolutely and totally 
unconstitutional. 

The Chairman. Are j^ou an attorney ? 

]Mr. Luce. I am not an attorney, but obviously I have as much 
knowledge of this as you since you cannot find what the law is. 

The Chairman. I quoted it to you. 

Mr. Luce. You did not quote it to me. You quoted a public no- 
tice. Public notices do not have the effect of law. And don't come 
on to me about that 1185(b), because that is the Walter-McCarran 
Act. 

The Chairman. Are you familiar with the Title 8 of the United 
States Code, 1185, and 'Title 22 of the Federal Regulations, section 
53.3? 

Are you familiar with those? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Luce. Yes, sir, I knew about it, but that states the State De- 
partment's view and is not a law. 

The Chairman. And you don't agree with the law^ ? 

Mr. Luce. It is not a law. It is a public notice. I do not agree 
with the public notice because I consider it unconstitutional. I would 
also like to say this to you, sir 

The Chairman. Now, we are getting down to it. In other words, 
you take the position that this law and this regulation are uncon- 
stitutional ? 

Mr. Luce. Sir, it is not a law. It is a public notice. Even if there 
was a law, however, even if there was a law^, which there is not, I be- 
lieve along with Thoreau, Emerson, and other people throughout 
American history that certain rules and regulations must be broken. 

Now, we did not break a law. We broke a public notice. I want 
to make that very clear. 

The Chairman. But if in your opinion there was a law, you would 
say 

Mr. Luce. I Avould consider it my duty to break that law as much 
as the Negro voters in the State of Louisiana and Danville, Virginia, 
Mr. Tuck, consider the breaking of the State laws when they try to 
vote. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 757 

[Domonsl ration in hearing room.] 

Tlie Chairman. Get them out. 

Mr. Luce. "Get them out." Throwino: them out for clappini^. This 
may be something you can get away with in Louisiana or Virginia, 
but I can't understand it here. 

The Chairman. There will be order. As I understand your posi- 
tion, it is this: Assuming that there was a law as contended by the 
State Department — and I think you broadened it to mean that assum- 
ing that there might be Laws on other subjects — you have the right, 
you insist upon the right, to break that law before it might be tested 
in the courts. Is that your position? 

Mr. Luce. "With this confusion, I missed the first part of it. But 
what I said is, I don't believe there is a hxw now, but if there were a 
law concerning freedom of travel, I would not only consider it my 
right but my duty to defy that law, to bring it to public attention, and 
to get Congress or the appropriate authority to either repeal it or not. 

I take this position in the true tradition of Henry David Thoreau 
and Emerson, who took the same position, that one cannot allow these 
regulations to go on. 

The Chairman. That is what Mr. Laub said yesterday, that he had 
peculiar feelings, and he assumed that everybody else had peculiar 
feelings, about laws and therefore, as I understand yours and his 
philosophy, everyone who disagrees with the law has a right to break 
it, to take the law into his own hands. 

Mr. Luce. I don't know about 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Luce. That wasn't a question. That was a statement. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess until 1 :30. 

(V/hereupon, at 11 :55 a.m. Friday, September 13, 1963, the hearings 
were recessed, to reconvene at 1 :30 p.m. the same day.) 

(Members present: Representatives Willis and Johansen of the 
subcommittee, and also Representatives Pool, Ichord, Senner, Bruce, 
and Schadeberg.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 1.3, 1963 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1 :30 p.m., Honorable Edwin E. 
Willis, chairman, presiding.) 

(Members present: Representatives Willis, Tuck, and Johansen of 
the subcommittee and also Representatives Pool, Bruce, and 
Ashbrook.) 

The Chairman. Tlie subcommittee will come to order. 

As I said this morning, we will remain in order. 

The injunctions and suggestions that were made this morning are 
fully effective for this aftei-noon's session. The Chair wishes to say 
this because of information which has just come to him. No one has 
been barred from this room because he or she was a student. 

Yesterday, in order to preserve order, I directed the police to eject 
from the room those known by them to haA^e been disorderly, and that 
was done. This morning I took the responsibility to tell them that 
those who yesterday, because of their disorder, had been ejected should 
not be readmitted. That is exactly w^hat happened. 

Now the police have a better notion of identity as to who you are 
than I have, but I want to say it is ridiculous for anyone to say that 
anybody has been barred from this room because he or she is a student, 

98-765— 63— pt. 3 8 



758 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

whether a university student or a student who participated in this 
travel to Cuba. 

The meeting has been and is open, to as many as the room can ac- 
commodate, of those who remain orderly. 

Let it be known that the orders issued this morning will remain in 
effect. 

I am very sure that there are a lot of people here who are interested 
in these proceedings and have no intention of being disorderly. Those 
who are, for one reason or other, will bring upon themselves the neces- 
sity for ejection and will not be readmitted. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Will Wendie Suzuko Nakashima please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole tnith, and nothing but the truth ? 

Miss Nakashima. I so affirm. 

TESTIMONY OF WENDIE (OR WENDY) SUZUKO NAKASHIMA ROSEN, 
ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, CONRAD J. LYNN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your full name and address for the 
record, please? 

Miss Nakashima. Before I do that, I would like to make sure that 
the record is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what respect ? 

Miss Nakashima. In respect to my name. As I said yesterday, I 
don't know if it is on the official record or not, but I find it rather em- 
barrassing that so many Congressmen can sign a subpena to me that 
has all three of my names incorrectly spelled. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What do you state to be your full name ? 

The Chairman. Give your regular name. You say you have three 
names. Let us have them all. 

Miss Nakashima. My name is Wendie, W-e-n-d-i-e ; Suzuko, S-u- 
z-u-k-o; Nakashima, N-a-k-a-s-h-i-m-a. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Nakashima, it is true that you advised us of 
the spelling of your name. However, I hand you a copy of a passport 
application filed by j^ou on June 5, 1962, with the New York agent of 
the State Department wherein appears a signature purportedly exe- 
cuted by you. 

The Chairman. At this point, before we go into that, I think you 
had better have counsel identify himself. 

Mr. Lynn. Conrad J. Lynn, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you the passport application to which I have 
referred, marked as "Nakashima Exhibit No. 1," and ask you to 
examine the signature appearing thereon. 

Is that your signature ? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, it is. 

(Document marked "Nakashima Exhibit No. 1" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. How do you spell your first name on that passport 
application ? 

Miss Nakashima. On this passport application, it is W-e-n-d-y. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Correct. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 759 

Is that the way we spelled it on the subpena ? 

Miss Nakasiiima. Yes, that is the way you spelled it on the subpena. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, you state today you spell your lirst name 
W-e-n-d-i-e? 

Miss Nakashima. "Well, I had nothing to do with my giving the 
name. My mother irave me that name. 

The Chairman. What was your maiden name ? 

Miss Nakashima. On the birth certificate— we are discussing the 
name ''Wendie,'' right? On the birth certificate, my birth certificate, 
a copy of which I have, after I applied for this passport, my birth 
certificate sa^'s W-e-n-d-i-e. 

The Chairman. So, you see, let us put it this w^ay : There was no 
deliberate intention of misspelling your name. Don't you see ? Ap- 
parently you didn't know it until you received the birth certificate. 

Miss Nakashima. If it was not deliberate, the other two names were 
very carelessly done. 

The Chairman. Let us get it all straight. Your true name is 
Wendie Suzuko — 

Miss Nakashima. S-u-z-u-k-o. 

The Chairman. — N-a-k-a-s-h-i-m-e? 

Miss Nakashima. "a." 

The Chairman, "a." 

Now, have you ever been known by any other name? 

Miss Nakashima. By my married name. 

The Chairman. What is your married name? 

Miss Nab:ashima. Rosen, R-o-s-e-n. 

The Chairman. What is the name of your husband, full name, I 
mean. 

Miss Nakashima. Mr. Jacob Rosen. Shall I spell that? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is there some reason why you did not state your name 
to be Wendie Suzuko Rosen at the time you were asked to state your 
full name today? 

Miss Nakashima. That is the name that was on the subj^ena. That 
is the name that I answered to you; it was given to me by my parents. 
I am not ashamed of that name. 

The Chairman. There is no reason for you to be, Madam. 

Miss Nakashima. I hope not. 

The Chairman. The record should show your true name, and that 
is the only thing we are interested in. 

Now, have you or have you not, so that we will have it straight once 
and for all, been known by any other name except Wendie — I don't 
want to mispronounce your name. 

Miss NakjVShima. Suzuko. 

The Chairman. — Suzuko Nakashima or Mrs. Jacob Rosen? 

Have you ever been known by any other name besides those two, 
never mind how they are spelled. 

Miss Nakashima. No, I have not. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Nakashima, will you state the date and place of 
your marriage? 

I ask you to do that because in the course of this interrogation we 
may have occasion to refer to Jacob Rosen, and we do not wish to pose 
any questions to you that will require you to testify against your 
husband. But in order to establish that privilege, which you may 



760 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

claim, it must first appear that you are, in fact, married to Jacob 
Rosen. 

Now, will you tell the committee, please, where and when you were 
married to Jacob Rosen? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. I find it shameful that a congressional commit- 
tee can't take my word or my lawyer's word that I am married legally, 
but I will tell you where and when I was married. 

I was married in New York, City Hall, February 1, 1963, to Mr. 
Jacob Rosen. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "V^Hiere does your husband reside ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. With me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, when I asked you that question, Miss Nakashima, 
I had in mind an article which appeared in the Charlotte Ohserver of 
September4, 1963, this September. 

At page 2 of the Charlotte Observer^ appears an article entitled 
"Monroe School's Boycott Appears To Be Weakening," under the 
by-line of Don Gray. 

Mr. Gray quotes an interview with Mr. Jacob Rosen, in which Rosen 
is reported to have said that he and his Japanese wife, "Wendy," have 
been in Monroe for the past 4 months. 

Have you resided in Monroe, North Carolina, for the past 4 months ? 

Mr. Lynn. May I point out for counsel and to the witness that that 
question is ambiguous, in that a person who is on a trip may still have a 
residence in another place, so that this witness is being tricked by that 
kind of question. 

The Chairman. I assure you, sir, that is not the purpose. 

Let us say, Was she visiting there or was she there during the 4 
months ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The article says, Mr. Chairman, that Mr. Rosen said 
he and his Japanese wife, "Wendy," have been in Monroe for the past 
4 months. 

Now, you gave your residence as New York City ? 

Miss Nakashima. You did not ask me my residence. 

The Chairman. The counsel explained that. Let us put it this 
way : You have given your residence as New York. Is that right ? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That is your legal residence ? 

Miss Nakashiima. I didn't give it at this hearing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have given it at another hearing, have you not ? 

Miss Nakashima. This is what counts, isn't it ? 

The Chairiman. Where do you live ? What is your legal residence ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman. What is your legal residence ? 

Miss Nakashima. 6i22 West 141st Street, New York 31. 

The Chairman. Does this article truthfully reflect the fact that you 
have been in INIonroe, North Carolina, with your husband for the past 
4 months, on a visit or any other way you want to call it ? 

]\Iiss Nakashima. Are you asking me where I was in the last 4 
months ? 

The Chairman. Were you in Monroe, North Carolina, as tliis article 
indicates ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 761 

Miss NAKASimiA. Because of the fact that there is such outrageous 
racial discrimination existing in Monroe and throughout the South 
and because of the fact that there are discriminatory practices in 
Monroe against the Negro people, against colored peoples throughout 
the South, the Monroe'Student Action Committee in North Carolina, 
Monroe, invited myself and my husband down to participate in their 
activity and to help them in any way we could. 

The Chairman. We are not going into that. The question is : Were 
you there the last 4 months ? 

Miss Nakashima. That presupposes I was there. 

The Chairman. Well, were you ? 

Miss Nakashima. Of course I w^as there. Any time anyone wants 
me to help in fighting racial discrimination, I am ready to. 

The Chairman. Ask your next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As a matter of fact, weren't you in Cuba from June 30 
to August 25, 1963, and not in Monroe, North Carolina, during that 
period or for 4 months preceding September 4, 1963, as your husband 
said in the Charlotte Observer report ? 

Mr. Lynn. That is why counsel made the point that the question 
was designed to trick because the question of a visit does not change 
the residence. 

The Chairman. He is talking about physical presence and not 
residence. 

Mr. Lynn. The first question he asked had to do with residence; 
the first question he asked had to do w^ith residence. 

The Chairman. Or domicile. It is a proper question. 

The point is this : You said you were in Monroe the last 4 months- 
let us establish when those 4 months were. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mr. Chairman, the date of the article is September 4, 
1963. 

The Chairman. So that would be September, August, July, June. 
So it appears that the article states, and you corroborated, that you 
were in Monroe, North Carolina, from June to September. 

Now he asked you, Is that true or were you, in fact, instead in Cuba 
during all or part of that time ? 

That is the question, is it not ? 

Miss Nakashima. I did not say I was in Monroe for the last 4 
months. I said that I was there, that I was invited by the Monroe 
Student Action Conmiittee to help them. 

The Chairman. How long were you in Monroe? You have a right 
to tell the truth. That is all we want. 

Miss Nakashima. I am telling you what I said before. 

The Chairman. How long were you in Monroe ? 

Miss Nakashima. I don't remember. 

The Chairman. Ask the next question. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Miss Nakashima, will you state the date and place of 
your birth, please ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. The place of my birth is in question in my mind. 
Although I was born right outside Los Angeles, California, I was 
very shortly after that thrown into these concentration camps with my 
parents and the rest of the yellow people and the Japanese people in 
California, so that, exactly were I was born and I spent the first 2 
years of my life, I don't know the location. 



762 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. It was in California ? 

Miss Nakashima. It was in California. 

The Chairman. Near what city ? 

Miss Nakashima. Near Los Angeles. 

The Chairman. All right. That is enough. Goon. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't recollect whether you gave me the reputed date 
of your birth. 

Miss Nakashima. June 18, 1940. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, have you, at any time, resided in Atlanta, Georgia ? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, of course. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state the period of your residence there? 

Miss Nakashima. Since I was married. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have resided in Atlanta, Georgia, since the time 
of your marriage on February 1, 1963 ? 

I thought you stated you were a resident of New York City ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. I was there in Atlanta for a period of time after 
I was married. 

The Chairman. About how long? 

Miss Nakashima. Well, from the time I was married until the time 
I was invited to Monroe, North Carolina. 

The Chairman. Then when did you establish your residence in 
New York? 

Miss Nakashima. With my parents. 

The Chairman. When ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. "When my parents first moved to New York. I 
don't remember when that was — several years ago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you residing in Atlanta, Georgia, on June 25, 
1963? 

Miss Nakashima. No. By that date I was determined to go to Cuba 
to see the truth about Cuba, to see why there was 

INIr. NiTTLE. That is not the question. 

The question is : Were you residing in Atlanta, Georgia, on June 25, 
1963, which is the date, I believe, student travel commenced? 

Miss Nakashima. I still had the address as Atlanta, Georgia. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You still had Atlanta, Georgia, as an address ? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Will you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and any degrees received therefrom ? 

Miss Nakashima. I received a diploma from the High School of 
IMusic and Art in June 1958 in New York City. I attended the Bud- 
dhist Temple school for Japanese folk culture, which I studied for 8 
or 9 years, the arts of karate and jujitsu as well as bon odori dancing. 
I went to City College. I am still enrolled at City College of New 
York. 

Mr, NiTTT.E. Will you give the date of commencement of your en- 
rollment and attendance at City College, New York ? 

Miss Nakashima. I enrolled there September 1958. I am still en- 
rolled at City College. I am on a leave of absence. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Miss Nakashima. I am a housewife and a student presently en- 
rolled in the City College of New York. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 763 

Mr. Nrrri.E. You are not liviiiij: at City Colle<i;e of New York with 
your husband ? 

Miss Nakasiiima. No one is allowed to live at City College. It is a 
city school. 

Mr. NriTLE. Have you liad any employment since completing high 
school ? 

Miss Nakasiiima. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What employment have you had ? 

Miss Nakasiiima. I was a dental assistant, I was a dance instructor, 
and I don't remember if I had other jobs. I modeled. 

j\Ir. NiTTLE. Now, pursuant to the application for passport applied 
for by you on June 5, 1962, was not a passport issued to you on June 
14, 1062, numbered C-496958? 

Miss Nakashima. I don't remember. I don't remember the date or 
the number of the passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive a passport on June 14, 1962 ? 

Miss Nakashima. That is what it says here on this photostatic copy. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not subsequently, in June 1963, utilize this 
passport to travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Nakashima, No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time make application to the Depart- 
ment of State for validation of that passport for travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Nakashima. I believe that it is every citizen's right to travel 
where they want 

The Chairjvian. That is not the question. Answer the question and 
then you can say the basis of w4iy you did not. 

Miss Nakashima. I was asked here to answer questions. I wish to 
answer them in my own way. I will not be stopped. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your answer must be responsive to the question. 

Miss Nakashima. I will answer the question. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Miss Nakashima. Will you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make application to the Department of State 
for validation of the passport which you received in June 1962 for 
travel to Cuba? 

Miss Nakashima. I feel it is every citizen's right and duty to go 
and see what is happening in the rest of the world. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are not asking you about that. 

Miss Nakashima. I wish to answer the question in my ow^n way. 
This is not a kangaroo court. Or is it? 

I believe that it is every citizen's right and duty and obligation to 
see what is going on in the rest of the w^orld, and I felt that it was my 
right by the Constitution of the United States to travel wdiere I will, 
when I will, and how I will. 

The Chairman. That being your belief, as a matter of fact, did you 
apply to have your passport validated, meaning to bear an endorse- 
ment on it specifically permitting you to go to Cuba? Did you 
apply? 

Miss Nakashima. Since there was no law requiring me to apply 
for validation, I did not apply for validation. 

The Chairman. Of course there is such a law, and we are not going 
to quibble over it. You seem to be taking the position of the others, 
who do not know what a law book is. I cited a law book. 



764 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Nakashima. There is no law. I thought it was clear to every- 
one this morning, there is no such law. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Nakashima, the records and information in the 
possession of the committee indicate that you were a passenger aboard 
BOAC Flight 652, with a gi'oup of alleged students who departed 
Idlewild Airport at New York on June 25, 1963 ; that you then traveled 
to London, Paris, Prague, and via Cubana airlines arrived in Cuba 
on June 30, 1963. 

Do you have any corrections to make to that statement ? 

Miss Nakashima. There is no reason why I should correct your 
statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have occasion to exhibit your United States 
passport to any of the officials at Prague, Czechoslovakia? 

Miss Nakashima. To which officials? Czechoslovakian officials? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Miss Nakashima. I don't remember. It was very confusing at the 
Czechoslovakian airport. There was an American official down from, 
I don't know, I guess the embassy there. He was busy talking to us, 
and 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you exhibit your passport to any official in Prague, 
Czechoslovakia ? 

Miss Nakashima. Not that I can recall. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you in Prague, Czechoslovakia, receive from the 
Cuban consul or Ambassador or any Cuban official there, a slip visa 
authorizing your entry into Cuba after leaving Prague? 

Miss Nakashima. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you exhibit your passport in London or Paris in 
the course of this travel? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where did you exhibit it? 

Miss Nakashima. To the immigration officials at the London Inter- 
national Airport and to immigration officials in Paris, as I did to the 
United States immigration officials when they asked to see my passport 
when I reentered the United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did your group, which had traveled to Europe by 
BOAC, join up in Paris with the group which traveled there by IvLM ? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, I met some students there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Rosen — or do you prefer that I call you 
Nakashima ? 

]Miss Nakashima. You specified that choice when you wrote on my 
subpena "Wendy Nakashima." 

I will answer to either one. I am very proud of both, 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mrs, Rosen, the committee s investigation discloses 
that Stefan Martinot, a leader and spokesman for the group of 59 
students, departed from Paris for New York on June 23, two days 
before you left Idlewild Airport at New York for London, Did you 
see him in Paris? 

]\Iiss Nakashima. Mr, Nittle, I will not be forced to be a stool 
pigeon, a rat, or a fink or an informer on anyone. It is against my 
conscience. 

Mr. Nittle. That is also the attitude of members of the Mafia. 

Miss Nakashima. I don't care whose attitude it is. It happens to 
be mine. I will not be forced into that position. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 765 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge, did Stefan Martinet travel to 
Paris to make advance preparation for tlie arrival of the two groups 
there and for their further travel by Czecli airlines to Prague? 

Miss Nakashima. I doubt — I challenge the authority for you to 
ask that question because I don't believe that that question is pertinent 
or relevant to my inquiry or to my person or to my beliefs. 

Mr. XirrLE. We have had testnnony relating to that. I think we 
understand the situation. 

Were you in attendance at the organizational meeting of the Ad 
Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba which took place in 
New York City, according to the testimony of Stefan Martinot, on 
October 14, 1962? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

(At this point Mr. Ichord entered the hearing room.) 

Miss Nakasiii3ia. What was the date of that meeting ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. October 14, 1962. 

Miss Nakashima. I don't remember what I did on that exact date, 
but I did take part in an organizational meeting which set up the 
committee, the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at the meeting of the Perma- 
nent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba which formed in De- 
cember 1962? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. That is 31 days in the month of December. I 
mean— I could possibly have been. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Stefan Martinot testified that the Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba met in the latter part of Deceml^er 
1962. He did not recollect the date either, but he did recollect that 
the meeting took place. 

Miss Nakashima. So what? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect the meeting taking place? Were you 
in attendance there? 

Miss Nakashima. I was at several meetings which took place in 
which students of many different political beliefs and students from 
different parts of the country met to discuss why they wanted to go 
to Cuba, why such a travel ban exists preventing honest truth-seeking 
students to go to Cuba, and why and what there was in Cuba that 
we wished to see and bring back to the United States citizens; and 
this is what we discussed at several meetings which I attended. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mrs. Rosen, the committee is endeavoring to deter- 
mine whether or not Vincent Theodore Lee, national director of the 
Fair Play for Cuba Committee, was in attendance at the organizational 
meeting of the Student Committee in the latter part of 1962. 

We have made inquiry of Vincent Theodore Lee himself as to 
whether he was in attendance at this meeting, but he invoked his 
constitutional privilege against self-incrimination. 

We tried to determine this fact from Stefan Martinot, who was in 
attendance at this meeting. 

Will you tell us whether you have any knowledge as to the attend- 
ance of Vincent Theodore Lee at the meeting in October 1962? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. Even if I did know that this man was at a meet- 
ing which I attended, I would not cooperate and I would not be an 
infoiTner on anyone. 



766 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

I will not cooperate with tlie committee that collaborates with self- 
confessed Nazis and that has been, that uses people, informers who 
have been proven to frame people by lying. 

The Chairman. Were you there when he was in attendance ? 

You said even if he were there, you would not say. 

Now, what do you say ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman. Was he there or was he not ? 

Miss Nakashima. I don't know if he was there. I never inquire 
into anyone's name, like other people do. I am not interested. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were either Milton Eosen or Mortimer Scheer, identi- 
fied in the course of the hearings as expelled Communist Party func- 
tionaries who organized the Progressive Labor Movement, in attend- 
ance at the October 14, 1962, meeting of the Ad Hoc Student Com- 
mittee ? 

Miss Nakashima. I told you before I am not paid to memorize 
names and faces like people, people like this scum that sits over there, 
and so on. I am not an informer for the House Un-American Activi- 
ties Committee or member of the FBI. I wouldn't know. I am not 
going to answer that question. 

The Chairman. Actually, you don't know whether those two people 
were there; is that your answer? 

Miss NAitASHiMA. At which meeting ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the October 14, 1962, organizational meeting of the 
Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba which, according to 
the testimony of Stefan Martinot, a member of the group, took place 
in New York City. 

Miss Nak^vshima. I told you I don't remember every minute of 
every day of my life where I was, and I am not going to inform on 
these people. If they were, I would not tell you. If they weren't, I 
would not tell you. 

The Chairman. Now you force me to order you to answer that 
question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman. You are ordered to answer the question. It is a 
pertinent question. 

Miss Naivashima. Since this committee seems to disregard the fact 
that I claim the first amendment, I don't want to be an informer. Since 
they hold these amendments to the Constitution so lightly, I feel that 
I am forced to use the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amend- 
ment and I sincerely feel that this committee, if I didn't use that 
amendment, that clause, that I might be incriminated. 

The Chairman. Your invocation of the fifth amendment is proper 
and it is accepted. 

The next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Rosen, it is the committee's information that you 
were in attendance at the Moscow-staged Eighth World Youth Festi- 
val at Helsinki, Finland, which was held July 29 through August 6, 
1962. Did you attend that festival? 

Mr. Lynn. In what way is that question pertinent to this inquiry ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]Mr. Lynn, the Eighth World Youth Festival held in 
Helsinki was, according to the investigations and hearings of this 
committee, a Communist-controlled affair, organized for the express 
purpose of conducting propaganda against the United States and the 
non-Communist world. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 767 

Many persons attendiniv this festival, many young people, were 
found to be Communists and pro-Communists. A few others in at- 
tendance were patriotic American citizens who went to the festival 
for the purpose of defending the interests and prestige of the United 
States. 

Now the committee has information which leads it to l>elieve that 
Mrs. Rosen is a Comnumist and, therefore, her past activities of a na- 
ture similar to that under inquiry today are relevant to show her 
knowledge, her disposition, and her purpose in traveling to Cuba. 

Miss Nakashima. Will you repeat that question ? 

Mr. NirrLE. The question is: Did you attend the Eighth World 
Youth Festival at Helsinki, Finland, which was held July 29 to August 
6,1962? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. The Eighth World Youth Festival in Helsinki, 
Finland, took place in the summer of 1962 to bring together young 
people from all over the world to discuss and exchange political ideas, 
to discover Avhat M-as happening in those countries like Cuba, which no 
one here in America seems to know the truth about, to discover what 
other countries Avere doing and what these young people were doing 
to eliminate such things as Birmingham and Danville. 

Of course I went there to find out what was going on. 

j\Ir. NiiT^LE. Did you go to the festival for the purpose of defending 
tlie interests and prestige of the United States, or for the purpose of 
lending assistance to the objectives of Communist propaganda in de- 
faming the United States ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. I went to Helsinki, Finland, as did thousands of 
other young people, to seek the truth, to find out what was going on 
in South Vietnam that the United States Government did not want 
to tell, what they were doing to my people in Asia. I Avent there to 
find out from peo]Dle from all over the world, to exchange ideas with 
them, people of different political convictions, to seek the truth, to 
bring it back to the United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think you have made your position clear. 

Miss Nakashima. Fine. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now I want to direct your attention to your passport 
application of June 5, 1962, identified as Exhibit 1, which you have 
before you. 

You will note at page 2 of the application, in response to questions 
relating to your proposed travel plans, you represented to the De- 
])artment of State that you intended to visit London, England, France, 
and Italy, only; that the purpose of your trip was described as "gen- 
eral" : that you intended to depart from New York on or about June 
17, 1962, for a proposed length of stay abroad of about 3 months. 

Why did you not set forth that among the countries that you in- 
tended to visit was Finland ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. I visited London, England ; France ; Italy ; as 
you said. I went to those countries. I went to many other countries, 
as well as Helsinki. I did not put down Helsinki, Finland, because I 
felt that the United States in its efforts to hide the truth from the 
American citizens, as it has shown by calling us before such illegally 



768 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

constituted committees like this, with Congressmen who are voted in 
by 5 percent of their population of their cong;ressional districts, by- 
Congressmen who do nothing to make reparations for my people, by 
Congressmen who make no laws enforcing the fourteenth, fifteenth, 
thirteenth, and nineteenth amendments of our country, and by such 
people like this — I felt that if I had honestly written down "Helsinki, 
Finland," that I might not be able to go or that they would in some 
way try to delay me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that, under oath, you subscribed to a misrepresen- 
tation of fact to the State Department. Is that correct ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. You need not answer that question. 

Now, Miss Nakashima, on January 10, 1963, the Attorney General 
announced that he had petitioned the Subversive Activities Control 
Board to require the registration of an organization, called Advance, 
as a Communist front. He said that Advance had been formed in 
1960 by the Communist Party, was directed and financed by the Com- 
munist Party since that time, and maintained headquarters at 80 
Clinton Street, New York City. 

The committee has information that you are a member of Advance. 
Is this information correct? 

Miss Nakashima. I believe in every man's right under the Consti- 
tution of the United States to believe what he wants, to associate with 
whom he pleases, to speak freely, to go where he pleases 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

The Chairman. Now will you please answer the question? 

Miss Nakashima. And I believe that organizations that exist to 
eliminate unemployment in the United States, organizations that 
exist to defend the Negro in the South 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are not answering that question. 

Will you answer the question ? 

Miss Nakashima. I will be heard. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully request that the witness 
be directed to answer that question. 

Miss Nakashima. I am answering that question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You either are, or are not, a member of Advance. Are 
you, or are you not ? 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. I have given 
you a lot of latitude. I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Nakashima. No, I am not a member of Advance. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been a member of Advance ? 

Miss Nakashima. "\\niat does that mean ? 

The Chairimax. Have you ever been? You say you are not now. 
Have you ever been a member of Advance ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, at one time I was a member of Advance. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell the committee, please, when you with- 
drew from, or terminated your membership in, that organization? 

Miss Nakashima. I don't remember exactly, a couple of years ago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee is informed that on June 30, 1960, 
you were in attendance at a rally conducted by Advance held at Union 
Square, New York City, to protest the United States-Japanese secu- 
rity pact. 

Miss Nakashima. That could very well be. I would protest it still. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 769 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect being in attendance as a member of 
Advance at that time ? 

Miss Nakasiiima. When was this ? 

Mr. NiiTLE. In June 1960. 

Miss Xakashima. I have no recollection of it now but if it were 
to take place tomorrow, I would go. 

Mr. XiTixE. AVere you a member of Advance in June 1960, at the 
time of your possible attendance there ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. I don't remember which date I was a member of 
Advance. A few years ago, several years ago I was a member of 
Advance. 

I am no longer a member of Advance, and stop trying to associate 
my political beliefs with any subversive activity in this country be- 
cause I don't think I am subversive. If anybody is subversive, it is 
those Nazis sitting back there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am sure this committee likes neither the Nazis nor the 
Communists. 

Now, Miss Nakashima, it is the committee's information that you 
attended the August 1961 student Communist Party caucus held in 
New York City. Did you attend that caucus ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. I know nothing about that caucus that I can 
recall. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the caucus ? 

Miss Nakashima. Well, if I don't know about the caucus, how could 
I have attended ? 

The Chairman. That is all right. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Perhaps you remember whetlier or not you were a Com- 
munist Party member in August 1961 ? 

Miss Nakashima. No, I was not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at any time a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Nakashima. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, did you not, while a member of the Students for 
a Sane Nuclear Policy at the City College of New York, refuse to take 
shelter during a civil defense air raid drill held May 3, 1960 ? 

Miss Nakashima. What does a question of "peace" have to do with 
Communist subversive activities ? 

The Chairman. The question of "peace at any price," madam. 

Answer the question. 

Miss Nakashima. The question of peace. I never paid for peace. 
I want it, that is all. 

The Chairman. Answer the question. 

Miss Nakashima. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Wliile a member of the Students for a Sane Nuclear 
Policy, a group organized at the City College of New York, did you 
refuse to take shelter during the civil defense air raid drill of Mav 3, 
1960? ^ ' 

Miss Nakashima. Of course. This has been proven, that fallout 
shelters do no good in case of an atomic bomb.^ Why should I? 

The Chairman. You take the position of the preceding witness, that 
that was a silly law ? That is the way he expressed it. 

^ Defense Department studies Indicate that even In a devastating, all-out nuclear war, 
fallout shelters would save from 25 to 65 million lives. 



770 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Nakashima. Wliat ? 

The Chairman. Do you take the position that that is a silly law and 
regulation ? That is the way he put it, the witness who preceded you. 

Miss Nakashima. It is nonsensical. 

The Chairman. Therefore you have a right not to obey it ? 

Miss Nakashima. Yes, absolutely. I didn't know that it was a law. 

The Chairman. That is the way you feel about travel to Cuba. 

Miss Nakashima. You know, many of my people were killed in 
Japan with an atomic bomb. 

The Chairman. The question is this. There seems to be a pattern 
from your lips, Mr. Laub, Mr. Luce, that if any particular individual 
does not believe in the validity of the law — you mentioned two specif- 
ically here, this travel ban to Cuba and regulations with regard to 
shelter drills, and so on — that each individual has a right to judge 
whether, in his opinion, the law is good or bad and that each individual 
has a right to disobey the law. 

Now, is that your position ? 

Miss Nakashima. I broke no law. Anyway, if you want an answer 
to that question, Thomas Jefferson did it. Read the Declaration of 
Independence. People have a right to believe in those righteous 
things they want to. 

The Chairman. It seems to be a fad these days. It used to be 

Miss Nakashima. It is not a fad. 

The Chairman. — that one's grievances were taken to the courts. 
Now they are taken to the street. 

Miss Nakashima. That is what Thomas Jefferson did. 

The Chairman. It might be anarchy after a while. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not, in Cuba, take part in a press interview on 
July 11, 1963? 

Miss Nakashima. Have you finished? 

Mr. NiTTLE. This was apparently an interview conducted of you. 

Miss Nakashima. Repeat the question, please. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you take part in a press interview w^ith the Havana 
radio on July 11, 1963? 

Miss Nakashima. I took part in many press interviews while I 
was in Cuba, because I was determined that even the news and the 
press and the newspapermen should be allowed to come to Cuba. So 
I discussed many times when AP reporters were present, when Havana 
radio was present, when the Cuban newspapers were present, my be- 
liefs and my thoughts on what I saw in Cuba, the fact that I saw in 
Cuba they were doing everything possible to eliminate racial dis- 
crimination, the fact that I saw that the medicine was free to every 
poor person, the fact that no one was allowed to be unemployed or 
no one is allowed to starve. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your press interview of July 11, did you not state 
on the Cuban radio, which was beamed in English to Europe, that you 
were in Cuba at that time because you wanted to know what was 
happening in Cuba and desired to go there to see for yourself? 

Did you not say that in the course of the interview? 

Miss Nakashima. Is that a quote ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is a paraphrasing of your statement. 

Miss Nakashima. Let me see that statement. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 771 

JNIr. NiTTLE. This is a verbatim report of a broadcast by Havana 
radio in English to Europe which took place at 2020 hours, Green- 
Avich mean time, on July 11, 10G3. 

The announcer of the broadcast stated : 

"Our Youth" program is playing host today to Miss Wendy Nakashima, one 
of the 59 American students who are touring Cuba at the invitation of the 
Cuban [University] Students Federation. 

(Miss Nakashima, 22, says she is from Atlanta, Georgia, studied Far East 
history, and has been to Cuba once before — [Ed.]). 

In the course of the interview, the announcer asked you: "How 
did you come to join this trip?" 
You are quoted as replying : 

Well, a group of us in New York last October during the Cuban crisis decided 
that, why — you know — why should we fight and why should we discuss Cuba 
when we don't really know what is happening in Cuba. A lot of us would just 
have to go see Cuba. How do we know that we should fight against it? It may 
be a good thing, see? [And] not only that but to spread the word, when we 
get back, [of] what we saw and how we felt about it. * * * 

Miss Nakashima. May I see that statement, and what is wrong with 
that ? 

The Chaikmax. Well, you said it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recall making the statement ? 

Mr. Lynn. She wants to see the document. You were reading from 
the document. She has a right to know whether the reading was 
accurate. 

Miss Nakashima. You did not swear in ; I did. 

Let me see that. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

]\Iiss Nakashima. Why didn't you read the rest of the statement? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, will you answer the question about the part I 
am directing your attention to ? 

Miss Nakashima. I will answer the question to the entire state- 
ment, not to some sentences taken out of context. 

If you want to know what my beliefs are, then you read the entire 
thing. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you make the statement that was just read to you? 

ISIiss Nakashima. The half of the statement that was read? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I read it in full. 

Miss Nakashi^ia. You want to know how I felt about this and 
whether I said this. I will only say "Yes" to the entire statement. 
I refuse to hide anything that I say. 

The Chaikman. All right. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question is really this. Miss Nakashima, or ]\Irs. 
Rosen: You are indicating to the public that you were in Cuba at 
this time because you wanted to go there to see for yourself and in- 
dicating that you did not know what was happening in Cuba. As a 
matter of fact, you had been in Cuba previously, had you not, in 
the course of the Castro regime? Had you not spent several 
months 

Mr. Lynn. In order to determine whether that question is pertinent 
to this inquirv, will you specify the date of the so-called previous 
visit? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, the latter part of the year 1960. 

Mr. Lynn. Then there was no so-called travel ban in effect at that 
time. 



772 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The Chairman. That is all right. It is a question of familiarity 
with the conditions in Cuba. This hearing has to do, very much to 
do, with the goings on there. It is a proper question. 

Mr. Lynn. The pertinency of the inquiry has to do with violation 
of the travel ban. 

The Chairman. Not only that. I read that in my opening state- 
ment. It has to do, and this could or could not apply in this instance, 
it has to do with foreign agents' registration. It has to do with mi- 
lawful travel to Cuba and, although I do not have it here — you may 
look at my original statement — it has to do with propaganda gen- 
erally and other matters within the jurisdiction of this committee. 
The question is a proper question. 

Were you in Cuba at any time prior to your travel there with these 
students ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakasiiima. The time when I visited Cuba was a time when 
I did not need a passpoit to travel to that country. It is oidy 90 miles 
away. It was very convenient during the sunnner, when I wasn't 
going to school for a few weeks, to go to Cuba, when I Iniew that I 
didn't have to travel 16,000 miles, whatever it is, to go there. Yes, 
I went there in 1960. 

The Chairman. She went there in 1960. 

Now the next question. 

Mr. NiTTiJs. How long vrere you in Cuba during the year 1960? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. For a few months. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you obtain any idea what was going on in Cuba 
during that 3 months' stay ? 

Miss Nakashima. I tried my best. 

Mr. NiiTLE. As a matter of fact, were you not working in the Sierra 
Maestra Mountains with the Cuban Communists? 

Miss Nakashima. You know, I am not 

The Chairman. That is a perfectly proper question. 

Now you answer that question. I order you to answer that question 
"Yes" or "No." 

Miss Nakashima. I am answering that question. 

The Chairman. I am ordering you to. 

Miss Nakashima. You don't have to order me. I have not refused 
to answer it. 

The Chairman. All right. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Nakashima. I would like to know what you mean by working 
there with Communists. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I presume during tlie 3 months you were in Cuba 
you learned that they had in existence there a Communist dictator- 
ship ? 

Miss Nakashima. You don't want me to answer the previous ques- 
tion ? 

The Chairman. What is the question and what is the answer? 
Let us have the question answered. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you working in the Sierra Maestra Mountains 
with the Cuban Communists during that period in 1960 while you were 
there? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 773 

Miss Nakashima. What does "Avorking with Communists" mean? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr, Cliainuan, I ask that you direct llie witness to 
answer tlie question. 

The Chairman. Were you in lliat area in (he presence of, or witli 
people known to you to be, Conniuniists for any purpose ? 

Miss Nakashiima. I don't inquire into whether a person belongs to 
any political organization. 

The Chairman. I know you do not, but it is part of our juris- 
diction. 

I direct you to answer the question. You are directed to answer 
my question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

INIiss Nakasiiiima. When I was in the Sierra Maestra in Cuba, the 
Cubans at that time were building a school building to house thou- 
sands of orphaned children that were killed — whose parents were 
killed by Batista's men, by Batista's government, and those children 
had never been to school before in their entire lives. 

I was working — I lived there for a while — but I did not ask any- 
one to which organization they belonged to. Therefore, if I didn't 
ask, I don't know how I would know. 

The Chairman. You were simply working with them ? 

Miss Nakashima. I was not working with them. 

The Chairman. You said you were working. 

Miss Nakashima. I don't know who they were, which organizations 
they belonged to. I was working with Cuban people, and that is all. 

The Chairman. I think that is enough for us too. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There are no further staff questions, Mv. Chairman. 

The Chair^ian. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Larry Wilford Phelps please come forward? 

(Mr. Phelps was reported as temporarily absent.) 

Will Catherine Jo Prensky please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Please rise and raise your right hand. Do you 
solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Prensky. I so aflirm. 

TESTIMONY OF CATHERINE JO PRENSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, CONRAD J. LYNN 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you state your full name and address for the 
record, please? 

Miss Prensky. I object to answering any questions while people 
who have come to this public hearing have been forcibly ejected from 
the room, barred from entering the room from downstairs, beaten 
brutally by the police because they were Negroes, some of them — 
people who came today who weren't here yesterday disturbing the 
liearing — because the committee does not like them but they like 
Nazis • 

The Chairman, I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Prensky. My name is Catherine Prensky. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is your fidl name C-a-t-h-e-r-i-n-e Jo Prensky, 
P-r-e-n-s-k-y ? 

98-765— 63— pt. 3 9 



774 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Prensky. Will you spell it slower, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. C-a-t-h-e-r-i-n-e J-o P-r-e-n-s-k-y ? 

Miss Prensky. Yes. 

Mr. NiTixE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Miss Prensky. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
statinc: his name and office address ? 

Mr. Lynn. Conrad J. Lynn, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Miss Prensky, are you also known as Kathy 
Prensky ? 

Miss Prensky. I am. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please ? 

Miss Prensky. I also want to make one more objection. I 
object 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Prensky. Could you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you born June 1, 1943, in New York City? 

Miss Prensky. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and an}' degrees you may have received therefrom ? 

Miss Prensky. I attended Albert Leonard Junior Higli School in 
New Rochelle. I attended New Rochelle High School. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "\^Tiat years? 

Miss Prensky. 1958 to 1960. 

The Chairman. You were about to relate some other institution 
you attended. 

Miss Prensky. I did not graduate from high school. I was ac- 
cepted on earlier admission to the University of Wisconsin. I went 
there from 1060 to 1962. At present, I am enrolled for this year at 
City College. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that the City College of New York? 

Miss Prensky. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. "Wliat is your present occupation ? 

Miss Prensky. I just told you that I am enrolled at City College. 

Mr. Nittle. "Wliat other employment have you held during the 
course of the year 1963 ? 

Miss Prensky. I worked as a clerk-typist and secretary. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you, in February of 1963, employed as a secretary 
for the American Language Institute at New York University, New 
York City? 

Miss Prensky. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you still thus employed ? 

Miss Prensky. No. 

Mr. Nittle. How long were you employed at the American Lan- 
guage Institute? 

Miss Prensky. I don't remember. 

The Chairman. Approximately, in terms of months. 

Miss Prensky. Less than a year. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Prensky, I hand you a photostatic copy of a pass- 
port application filed April 24, 1962', with the agent of the Depart- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 775 

ment of State at New York City, subscribed by Catherine J. Prensky, 
and marked for identification as "Prensky Exhibit No. 1." 

Is that not your signature appended to the application? 

Miss Prensky. It looks like my signature. 

(Document marked "Prensky Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. You will observe that there is a notation upon the 
application to the etiect that a passport numbered C-269419 was issued 
to you on April 25, 1962. 

Were you at that time issued a United States passport ? 

Miss Prensky. I don't remember what date it was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it in the spring of 1962 ? 

Miss Prensky. Yes. 

(At this point, Mr. Johansen left the hearing room.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I direct your attention to the fact that, in response to 
questions relating to your proposed travel plans, you set forth in 
the application that you proposed to depart from the United States 
about June 1962 to travel as a tourist to England, France, Switzer- 
land, Italy, and Finland. 

Was it your principal purpose in making this application for pass- 
port to facilitate travel to Finland to attend the Moscow-staged 
Eighth World Youth Festival at Helsinki, Finland, July 29 through 
August 6, 1962? 

Miss Prensky. Wliat is the exact question ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the Eighth World Youth Festival 
at Helsinki, Finland, July 29 through August 6, 1962? 

Miss Prensky. Yes, I attended the festival. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you subsequently in June 1963 utilize this passport 
to travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Prensky. No, I did not use my passport. 

Mr. NiTTLE, But you did travel to Cuba in June 1963 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Prensky. I decided to go to Cuba because I wanted to see the 
truth about what was happening there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I did not ask you for that. I just asked whether you 
went to Cuba. 

Miss Prensky. Yes, I went to Cuba. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, our information indicates you went aboard the 
Eoyal Dutch Airlines, departing New^ York June 25, 1963, traveling 
to Amsterdam and Paris. At Paris, you boarded the Czech Airlines 
for Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

Did you have occasion to exhibit your passport in Amsterdam, 
Holland? 

Miss Prensky. As a matter of fact, when I exhibited my passport, 
it was taken away from me and I was told I would not get it back until 
I had talked to a man from, I think he was from the United States 
Embassy, and before that point I did not know that the United States 
could interfere in that way with the sovereignty of another country. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where was this passport taken from you ? 

Miss Prensky. By the immigration officials. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where? 

Miss Prensky. In Amsterdam. 



776 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you mean to say you traveled to Paris without your 
American passport? 

Miss Prensky. It was given back to me after I spoke to a man from 
the American consulate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you exhibit your passport to any of the Dutch of- 
ficials in Holland ? 

Miss Prensky. I just told you I did 

Mr. NiTTLE. I said Dutch officials, not American cfficials. 

I was under the impression you had your passport removed from 
your possession for a spell by an American official. 

Miss Prensky. It was removed by a Dutch official, but I was told 
that I would get it back after I spoke to the American official. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, did you exhibit your American passport in 
Paris? 

Miss Prensky. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you subsequently in Prague, Czechoslovakia, re- 
ceive a Cuban visa bearing your passport number ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

]\Iiss Prensky. I don't remember. 

The Chairman. Now, that is an important question. There is 
evidence already that apparentl}' some have received what has been de- 
scribed as a slip visa, which they did not ask for but which was simply 
handed to them in Prague. 

You say you do not remember. I want you to think about that again 
and give us 3'our best recollection. 

Miss Prensky. I had a number of papers at that time and I feel that 
it is important that I tell the truth to this committee and to all the 
people who are here and, since I don't remember exactly, that is all I 
can say. 

The Chairman. Do you know whether others received slip visas 
from Prague ? 

Miss Prensky. I don't loiow anything about other people. I don't 
inquire into the privacy of other people the way this committee does. 

The Chairman. All right. 

You said you wanted to tell the truth, and that is exactly what you 
should do and that is fine. You are also under oath. I am going to 
ask you this question : Was the subject of having received slip visas in 
Prague discussed by you with anyone at any time on the trip, going 
or coming ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Prensky. Wliat kind of visas ? 

The Chairman. What has been described as a slip visa or a visa 
written on a piece of paper with your passport number on it. 

Miss Prensky. "\Yliat was the question ? 

The Chairman. The question was : Was the question of some or all 
having received slip visas handed to them in Prague to go to Cuba 
the subject of discussion by you with anyone at any time, in Prague, on 
the way to Cuba, in Cuba, or on the way back to the United States? 

JNIiss Prensky. I don't remember. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at any time make application to the Depart- 
ment of State for a validation of your passport for travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Prensky. "\'Miy should I make application to the Department 
of State? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 777 

The Chairman. The question is, Did you ? I'll tell you why. Be- 
cause from our point of x'lew — and I suspect there arc awfully good 
la^vyers in the State Department and, with due humility, on this com- 
mittee — under Federal law, first under a proclamation by President 
Truman of declaration of emeri^ency, under Section 1185 of Title 8, 
the United States Code, which is a law on the books, and under Sec- 
tion 53.3, entitled "Travel Control of Citizens and Nationals in Time 
of "War or Emergency," a validation is now required, and since on or 
about January 16, 1961, has been required, before traveling to Cuba. 
A person must have a stamp or a notation on his or her passport 
specifically granting permission of the Government to go to Cuba. 

You may agree or not agree that the law exists. You may agree 
or not agree that it is meaningful or makes any sense or any other 
feelings you have on the subject, but that is the law of the land; that 
is our appreciation of the law. 

The question is pertinent. Did you, prior to going to Cuba, make 
application for validation of that passport, which you had received not 
too long before, granting you pennission to go to Cuba? 

Miss Prensky. I still don't understand what you mean by the law, 
because the law under the Walter-McCarran Act only requires you to 
have a passport to leave and enter the ITnited States. 

What you were referring to was a public notice, it is not a law. 

Also, that is the first time. 

The Chairman. Young lady, I will not quarrel with you. You 
are parroting what has been said before. That is not my question at 
all . The question is : Did you make application ? 

Miss Prensky. No. 

The Chairman. You did not. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Prenslcy, at whose invitation did you join in this 
project for travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Prensky. I think you already know that the group was in- 
vited by a Federation of University Students. 

The Chairman. No, at whose invitation in the United States did 
you decide to accept the invitation, as you put it, of the student group 
in Cuba ? At whose invitation did you decide to accept the invitation 
of the student group in Cuba ? 

(At this point Mr. Johansen entered the hearing room.) 

The Chairman. Let us put it this way. There is no trick about this. 

Miss Prensky. At my own invitation. 

The Chairman. How did you know about it ? How did you know 
about the trip ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Prensky. Some of my friends told me about the proposed 
trip. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Prensky, I have before me a copy of the 
May 1963 issue of the publication entitled Progressive Lahor. At 
page 12 thereof appears a copy of a "Dear Friend" letter titled "PL 
[Progressive Labor] Students Call Conference: AN INVITATION" 



778 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTrVITIES IN TJ.S. 

I hand you a photostatic copy of that page of Progressive Labor^ 
marked for identification as "Prensky Exhibit No. 2." This letter 
is indicated to be signed "Fraternally, Steve Martinot, Ellen Shel- 
lett"— spelled S-h-e-l-l-e-t-t^"Kathy Prenskj\ For the Progressive 
Labor Student Club." 

Are you not the Kathy Prensky who joined in the publication of the 
"Dear Friend" letter? 

Miss Prensky. Yes. 

(Document marked "Prensky Exhibit No. 2" follows.) 

Prensky Exhibit No. 2 
{Progressive Labor, vol. II, No. 5, May 1963, p. 12) 

PL Students Call Conference 

A i: I H V I T A T I N 

Dear Friend : 

In I'exico recently the newly-formed Student Socialist Party (PES) von 
7% of the votes in the student elections in the Political Science Fac- 
ulty of the University of llexico. This was only their second year of 
existence - the first year they had won a bare majority of the votes. 
'.'e are not trying to say that the same situation exists in the U.S. as 
in I'exico or that it would be just as easy to win a majority of U.S. 
students to vote for a socialist group. V/e know any radical group in 
this country faces a long and very hard up-hill struggle. Put v.e be- 
lieve that the road docs go u£ hill. V.'e cite the PES in Mexico sinply 
as an exanple of the many new, militant, revolutionary student movements 
which are growing up around the world. 

In keeping with our goal of building a revolutionary novement for social- 
ism in the United States, the PROGRESSIVE LABOR iiCVEIIElIT and thra PROGRES- 
SIVE LABOR NEV; YORK STUDEMT CLUB are calling a Ifational Student Confer- 
ence on August 31 - September 1, 1965, in I.'ev; York City. 

The problems facing radical students in the U.S. today - their isolation 
from v.'orking men and women, the constant bombard:-ent wi th the "loyal op- 
position" philosophy of liberalism; and the general comfort-corner './ay 
of Life -- have tainted even a discussion of a revolutionary movement 
here with the label "dogmatist", or "sectarian". V.'e do not believe form- 
ing such a movement will be easy — but this doesn't mean it will be im- 
possible, "e do not believe we have all the ans;.-ers to the difficult 
questions involved — but this doesn't mean lliere are no answers. 

Precisely for that reason we are sending out these invitations early. V/e 
need and w.^nt your sugi];estions, criticiijms, ideas, questions a'nd roneral 
reactions to this proposed conference. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



779 



"Prensky Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

The nain goals of the conference an v.'e envision it now are the dcivelop- 
nent of a revolutionary ctucent procram and socialist student organiza- 
tion - incluiiinf; such questions as ir.nediate action projects, comjiunica- 
tion, student press, etc. An arenda is now being prepared, and work is 
also underway on sorr.e proposals for a Student Pror;ram . Tliose will be 
sent out to all thoGC who express an interest in nttendintj the confer- 
ence (see below) ns soon as they are completed, ''e hope by tliat time to 
have received and incorporated at least so-,e of the criticisms and sug- 
gestions v;hich you will send us. 

We are hopeful that a representative of the !;e>:ican PES will be permitted 
to attend our conference, as well as fraternal guests fron other ir,roups 
... as well as you . 

Fraternally 



oteve r.artinot, Ellen Shellett, Kathy Prensky 
For the Progressive Labor Student Club 



P.S, 



Naturally, we will have a :!evolutionary Party on Saturday night, 
August 31st. 



To PROGRESSIVE LABOR STUDEIJT CLUE 
ox 808, GPO, Brooklyn 1, V. .Y . 

I will definitely attend the conference 



_/hop9 to /cannot_ 



RENMIN RI BAG 



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full text of editorial in Januiry issue of 
PlCd.tcijlVr. L^B^ .-i. 

Page one neadline says: "U.o. 'Pro- 
gressive Labor' rtefutes Aj.1 „-irts of Absurd- 
ities That Jistort the Issue in the Gino-lndian 
Border Dispute." 



.-^d vertisenent 



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Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Prensky, I note that in Exhibit 2, the surname of 
Ellen Shallit, S-h-a-1-l-i-t, is spelled incorrectly as S-h-e-1-l-e-t-t. 

In the passport application which Ellen Shallit filed with the 
Department of State on December 12, 1962, her signature clearly 
showed that she spells her name S-h-a-1-l-i-t. 

Do you have any explanation for the fact that the name is spelled 
S-h-e-1-l-e-t-t? 

Miss Prensky. How would I know ? It is none of my business. 

The Chairman. All right. She does not know. The next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you a member of the ProgressiA^e Labor Student 
Club? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Prensky. Yes. One of the reasons is that I believe that so- 
cialism is the way to end racism, and under socialism we could have 
Congressmen and Representatives that are truly representative of the 
people and that are not voted in because Negroes are barred from 
voting in their congressional districts. 

[Disturbance in hearing room.] 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman, 



780 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Prenskt. And under socialism we can prevent this kind of 
Fascist tyranny. 

[Disturbance continued.] 

The Chairman (to audience) . The people will sit down. The people 
will sit down and the witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Larry Wilford Phelps. 

The Chairman. Please raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Phelps. I do so affirm. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer the incident — I wanted to 
excuse myself for not appearing before, because I went outside to go 
to the bathroom. I tried to get back in, and the policemen would not 
let me back in. 

TESTIMONY OF LARRY WILFORD PHELPS, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, CONRAD J. LYNN 

Mr. NiTTLE. "Will you state your full name and residence for the 
record ? 

Mr, Phelps. Larry Wilford Phelps, 2114 Wiggins Street, Burling- 
ton, North Carolina. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Phelps. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Will counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Lynn. Conrad J. Lynn, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Phelps, will you state the date and place of your 
birth? 

Mr. Phelps. The date and place? May 13, 1941. Hurdle Mills, 
North Carolina. 

Mr. Nittle. Is that Hurdle — H-u-r-d-1-e M-i-1-l-s ? 

Mr, Phelps. H-u-r-d-1-e M-i-1-l-s. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you relate the extent of your formal education, 
setting forth the dates and places of attendance at educational insti- 
tutions and any degrees you may have received ? 

Mr. Phelps. I started the first grade at Hurdle Mills grammar 
school, Hurdle Mills, North Carolina. I went there for 5 years. 
Then continued my grammar school education in Christiansburg, 
North Carolina, for 2 years, moved back to Burlington, North Caro- 
lina. I had from the Tth grade to the 12th grade an education there. 

I graduated from high school, Walt M. Williams High School, in 
Burlington, North Carolina, 

Mr. Nittle. What year ? 

Mr. Phelps. 1959. From there I went to the University of North 
Carolina and graduated with a bachelor of arts in history this past 
June, 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Phelps. I suppose you would call it a former student. 

Mr. Nittle. You are unemployed ? 

Mr. Phelps. Well, I am at the committee now. You keep me busy. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you unemployed? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 781 

Mr. PjTELrs. That is what I said; 1 am at the cormnittee, I don't 
have a job now. 

Mr. NiiTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of a passport applica- 
tion dated December 7, 1962— 

Mr. Phelps. It is one of my better pictures. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — filed with the U.S. Department of State and sub- 
scribed by a Larry W. Phelps, marked for identification as "Phelps 
Exhibit No. 1." 

Is that not your signature subscribed to in the application ? 

Mr. Phelps. Yes. 

jNIr. NrriLE. Pursuant to that application, were you not issued a 
United States passport numbered C-777987, on December 11, 1062? 

Mr. Phelps. Yes. 

(Document marked "Phelps Exhibit No. 1" and retained in conunit- 
lee files.) 

Mr. NiiTLE. At the time you were issued this passport, were you not 
then enrolled in the University of North Carolina ? 

INIr. Phelps. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I direct your attention to page 2 of the application 
where, in response to questions relating to your proposed travel plans, 
you stated that you intended to visit "England and maybe France" 
for the purpose of a Christmas vacation trip. 

Did you not, in fact, intend to visit Cuba via Canada at the time 
you made application for this passport on December 7, 1962 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Phelps. Well, for the first thing, because I didn't go on any 
vacation, Christmas vacation, because of efforts by the United States 
State Department to prohibit us from going. But in applying for the 
passport. I knew — and knew from the facts — ^that the United States 
Government would refuse it on gi'omids which I would not accept 
because it is my right, it is my right as an individual and more so my 
right as a student, to visit any place I damn well pleased, and I will 
do it, ]io matter what. 

For that reason, I knew duplicity was necessary. 

When I feel I have to use duplicity in order to exercise the rights 
that I feel as an individual I deserve, I will continue to do so. 

The Chairman. The next question. 

Mr. NirPLE. ]Mr. Phelps, I hand you a photostatic copy of ])age 1 of 
the October 26, 1962, issue of the Daily Tar Heel., a student publication 
of the University of North Carolina at Chai^el Hill, marked for iden- 
tification as "Phelps Exhibit No. 2." 

I direct your attention to an article titled "Cuba Trip Planned By 
PLC [Progressive Labor Club] Members." 

The item reports an interview with you and states : 

As to why he planned to go with or without the State Department's permission, 
Phelps said that he did not feel that the department had the right to restrict the 
travel of an American citizen, and that he would be willing to test their authority 
on this matter. 

Were you correctly reported in the Daily Tar Heel? 

Mr. Phelps. This particular statement was absolutely correct, as 
I said earlier, that I would go to Cuba because I felt it was my right 
as an individual, and more so as a student, to find out the truth and 
that I would test this, just as the people of Louisiana and Mississippi 
are testing the laws there. 

98-765— 63— pt. 3 10 



782 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

(Document marked "Phelps Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The item in the Daily Tar Heel — Exhibit 2, which you 
have before you — also reports you as saying that: "The arrange- 
ments" for travel to Cuba over the Christmas vacation "are being 
worked out by three students in New York City," and that "the New 
York coordinators * * * have been in contact with Castro's lawyer 
in that city * * *." 

In what manner did you acquire knowledge that the New York 
coordinators were in contact with Castro's lawyer? 

Mr. Phelps. Well, as far as this particular part of the interview, 
there is a misquote, because I said that a group of students centered 
aromid New York City were going, were planning a trip for Christ- 
mas to Cuba, and they were in contact with Cuban Government of- 
ficials. 

But later on, I found out they were not in contact with Cuban 
Goverimient officials, but were in contact with the Student Federation 
of Cuba, and was corrected because of this misstatement. 

The Chairman. I wonder how they can go so far off? Your ex- 
planation which you just gave contains the words "Cuban Govern- 
ment." That was never mentioned in the interview ? 

Mr. Phelps. Don't ask me. Talk to the guy who wrote the article. 

The Chairman. O.K. The next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have any knowledge as to how the student trip 
to Cuba was financed with respect to the payment of the tickets ac- 
quired from KLM and BOAC ? 

Mr. Phelps. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know who "J. Jacobs" is ? 

Mr. Phelps. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Exhibit 2, the Daily Tar Heel of October 26, 
1962, which you have before you, identifies you as a member of the 
local Progressive Labor Club at Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

Were you then a member of the Progressive Labor Club at Chapel 
Hill, North Carolina? 

Mr. Phelps. Well, as I said earlier, I had lived in Hurdle Mills. 
I lived in Christiansburg and I lived in Burlington, North Carolina ; 
and in each of these areas my father had a different profession. He 
had been a farmer, had been a worker, and had been a merchant. In 
each of these situations, I learned more about the life of the working 
people, and especially the working people that I knew, and the prob- 
lems they faced. And when I went to college, I, through my studies, 
leaiTied more about not only what is happening in this country but 
what is happening throughout the world, especially in South Vietnam, 
especially in Cuba, and other areas, Algeria, et cetera. 

From these experiences, I felt that a radically new solution had to 
be offered to the American people, a radical solution which could solve 
the basic problems which confront them — not only racism, which is 
extremely important; not only unemployment, which is extremely 
important; but not that abolition of such committees as this is ex- 
tremely important ; but, most of all, the creation of a society in wliich 
man will live with man in harmony and peace. 

I felt that this could only be achieved if we created a socialist 
society. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 783 

Taking this initial position, I looked, I thought about organizations 
and groups of people which could best achieve this goal. 

From this investigation and from this looking, I discovered Pro- 
gressive Labor. Progressive Labor's policy is this: that in order to 
alleviate the war danger, a war danger which is basically caused by 
an economic system which nuist constantly increase its military budget 
in order just to employ people, a system which must constantly pit 
man against man; and because of this I felt that Progressive Labor 
would best serve these ends and, therefore, I joined. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us the approximate date, or the exact 
date if you remember, w^ien you became a member of Progressive 
Labor ? 

Mr. Phelps. I don't know the exact date. 

Mr. Nii^LE. The conmiittee's investigation discloses that a Pro- 
gressive Labor Club was formed at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, on 
or about August 1962 and that you and John Frederick Salter, a 
student at the LTniversity of North Carolina who also made the trip 
to Cuba, were the principal organizers of the Progressive Labor 
Club at Chapel Hill. Is that true ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Phelps. I will testify about my participation, and my par- 
ticipation was as one of the organizers of the Progressive Labor Club 
at the University of North Carolina. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]\Ir. Phelps, I have before me a copy of the official 
publication of the Progressive Labor Movement, entitled Progressive 
Labor^ Volume I, No. 7, of July-August 1962, and marked for identi- 
fication as "Phelps Exhibit No. 2-A." 

At page 5 an editorial, captioned "PL Conference," states in part : 

A new nation-wide organization aimed at the eventual launching of a Marxist- 
Leninist party in the United States was formed July 1 at an all-day conference 
called by Progressive Labor. 

More than 50 delegates from Progressive Labor groups in 11 cities attended 
the conference, held at the Hotel Diplomat in New York City. 

Delegates from New York, Pennsylvania, New England, North Carolina, and 
Georgia, were among those joining in the discussion. 

Do you know how many North Carolina delegates attended this 
conference ? 

(Witness confeiTed with counsel.) 

]\Ir. PiiELPS. No. I don't know. 

(Document marked "Phelps Exhibit No. 2-A" follows.) 



784 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Phelps Exhibit No. 2-A 
(Progressive Labor, vol. I, No. 7, July- August 1962, p. 5) 

PL CONFERNCE 

a step to secure the future 



A new natlon-widp organization aimed at the eventual Leninist Party can be formed: The development of a rev - 
launching of a Marxist-Leninist party in the United States olutlonary program; organization and development o'. n«w 
«••• termed ^ly 1 at an all-day conference called by Pro- forces capable - among other things — of bringing Proflres- 
OlftlliXfi. Lahv sive Labor activities into the public spotlight; and the de - 

More than iO delegates from Progressive Labor groups In velopment of a c^rps of leaders "capable of guiding all as- 
11 cities atter.ded the conference, held at the Hotel Dipio- pects of political development." 

mat In New Ycrk City. The conference elected Rosen chairman of a 14-member 

By a vote of 48 to 2 the delegates approved the main re- national coordinating c >mmittee to guide the new organlza- 
port by PL editor Milton^osen, after several hours of tion's work. Mort Scheer of Buffalo, the other editor of PL, 
heated discussion which included the adoption of several was elected vice-chairman, 
amendments. A special resolution was passed calling for the election 

The final report, as amended, cited two major tasks for of a second vice chairman to represent the south, 
the new organization In the Immediate future: 1. "To de- Delegates from New York, Pennsylvania, New England , 

velop as far as possible a significant Marxist-Lenlnlst North Carolina, and Georgia, were among those joining In 

p.-ogram foe the new party;" and 2. To organizea collective the discussion. Many speakers told of conditions in their 
organization of leaders and members." part of the country which led them to form PL clubs and to 

Rosen declared, "The new world relationship of forces, support the preparations for a national revolutionary party, 
favoring socialum, national and colonial liberation, and Persuasion and flexibility are the organizational princl- 

p«acc, has not fundamentally altered the basic character- pies under which the new group will function, according to 
Utics of U.S. imperialism." the adopted report. 

Referring to the Kennedy administration, the report called "The socialist revolution in the U.S. will be born from 

it "the most dangerous clique that the ruling class has in- the union of a revolutionary program and dedicated revo- 
stalted In government to date. Kennedy has shown himself lutionary groups, " the report declared. "Each— program 
wili,ng to use every form of political ruthlessness to serve and psrsonnel — is essential to the marriage if a revo- 
monopoly capital." lutionary family Is to grow. The program is a tool — of the 

Warning that "we will not be stampeded into the parly organizer. Without a prt^gran it will be Impossible to ap- 
•tage (of organization)," Rosen listed three fundar'ertai proach, win, and h^tld new people. On the other hand, 
pre-requisites which must be achieved before a M-i.xi^t- without new revolutionary people it will be Impossible to 
larry out the program, or even to furmuUte it luUy. "Therefore. " the report lontiiiufd. "even as we walk on one 
leg of program - even as we begin miw lu draft the program for our new parly - we niuiststep off on the leg of 
organization. " 

The report urged the or(;aiiizatiQn ul Profjressive Labor Clubs. Marxist study circles, and class-conscious 
■ mgle- issue organizations, as the most miportanl levels of organization within (he coming period. 

Cautioning agarnat rushing into a new parly loo last, Rosen declared, "We set luitime limits, except to say accel- 
erate the process by doing the necessary work. " 

ftit he added. "On the other hand, we retreat not an inch in our goal of establishing a party in the U.S. Let UB 
be clear to ourselves, let us be forthright to those around us. let us lie recognized by our perspective. " 

The conference hailed the coming publication of the new Marxist- Leninist Quarterly, scheduled to appear this 
tall, aa a major aid to the devel onment of a rivulutionary party m the United States. 

The Chairman. Were you in attendance at the conference ? 

Mr. Phelps. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Phelps, I also have before me a copy of the Char- 
lotte Observer^ P^ge 1, August 2, 1962, marked for identification as 
"Phelps Exhibit No. 2-B." It carries an article entitled "UNC [Uni- 
versity of North Carolina] Students Form Labor Club Along Marx- 
ist Lines." 

The article reports that a small group of University of North 
Carolina students is organizing a Progressive Labor Club along Marx- 
ist-Leninist lines. It also states that the Progressive Labor group 
has sent a six-man delegation to a recent national Progressive Labor 
meeting in New York — referring obviously to this July 1 conference. 

Was there a six-man delegation sent from the Progi-essive Labor 
Club at North Carolina to the New York meeting which you state you 
have attended? 

Mr. Phelps. Your reading facility seems to have improved aver the 
last conmiittee men who were here. 

That is what it says. That is the article. 

(Documeiit marked "Phelps Exhibit No. 2-B"' follows.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



785 



I 



Phelps Exhibit No. 2-B 
{Charlotte Observer, Aug. 2, 19G2, p. 1) 

'WE ARE ABOVE BOARD' 

UNC Students Form Labor 
Club Alouff Marxist Lines 



By GARRY BLAN€HARD 

Special to The Observer 

CHAPEL HILL — A small 
group of Univer|ity jof rinrtb 
Pa rnlina sludents is organizing a 
'Ttogressjve Labor CIub'\ aimed 
at 'developing a "truly revolu- 
tionary national party based on 
improving the condition of the 
workers along Marxist-Leninist 
lines." ' ... I 

Originally planned as purely a 
student organization, the group 
has decided to enter the integra- 
tion and labor union movement 
in the state. 

Tentative plans for the form- 
ation of integrated "worker's 
councils" have been discussed, 
and the group now is working' 
on a platform aimed at im- 
proving labor conditions in the 
atatc. 

.The group is one of several 
admittedly Marxist groups or- 
ganized around a monthly New 
York magazine called "progres- 
sive labor." The groups disclaim 
any connection with the C o m- 
munist Party. • 

This group and one in Atlanta 
are the only two in the South. 
It has no formal organization 
at present, although spokesmen 
have been designated. ;••■■■ 
• One is Dennis King, 2i', h uni- 
versity senior majoring in his- 
tory. His father, Dr. A..^ Kin^! 
is head of the university's sum"; 
mer school. ' • • ' I 



Another mertrbcr is Nick Bal£- 
soHj 26, /a graduate student in 
psychology from Oxford, E n g- 
land. Bateson".'5 father is Eng- 
lish literary ca-i(ic F. W. Bate- 
son. an Oxford instructor who is 
now a visitjidg professor . at 
Penn State. 

King says that there are 
about a dozen people in the 
group, most of them UNC 
students. He declined to ident- 
ify the other members without 
(heir permission. 

' "We are completely open and 
above board," Bateson said. "We 
will not and are not engaging in 
any conspiratorial activities." 

Student newspaper ■ reporter 
Bill Hobbs, a junior from Wash- 
ington, D. C, covered the 
group's last meeting. He reports 
that "The group feels existing 
socialist and Marxist groups in 
the country, including the Com- 
munist Parly, are not presenting 
a 'unified vanguard to further 
socialist objectives.' 

"They plan to publicize their 
activities and hold open meet- 
ings," Hobbs said. He added 
that the group plans to expand 
in size and scope of activities 
this fall. 

"They ■ feel that the tendency 
of many other 'leftist' groups to 
go underground 'has just fed 
propaganda to their enemies,' " 
Hobbs said. 



Most bt tlie members, who ' 
began meeting in June, are for- 
mer members of the New Lefi 
Club, a discussion group "for" 
anyone left of Kennedy." (It 
disbanded in May but may be 
reorganized this fall.) 

The group sent a six-man dele- 
gation to a recent national Pro- 
gressive Labor meeting in New 
York. Delegates reportedly dis- 
cussed organizing a political par; 
ty but decided to wait a year 
before doing so. , . 

Neither UNO President Wil- 
liam C. Friday or Dean of Stu- 
dent Affairs Charles Henderson 
were aware of the group when 
asked if they had any comment 
on it. ■; 

Henderson said that the group 
does not represent the univer- 
sity, but noted, "We've had 
many instances in the past where 
students have used excellent 
judgment in situations like this 



\ 



The Chairman. Do you have any knowledge of it, personally ? 

]Mr. Phelps. I already te.stified that I wasn't sure of the number 
who attended. This article says six. Maybe there were six. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information, Mr. Phelps, that 
prior to the formation of the Progressive Labor Club at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, Jacob Rosen, identified here as the husband 
of Wendie Xakasliima and identified in testimony before this com- 
mittee on February 3, 1960, as a member of the Communist Party, 



786 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

was a frequent visitor on the campus of the University of North 
Carolina. 

Did you have any discussion with Jacob Rosen with respect to the 
formation of a Progressive Labor Chib at the University ? 

(Witness conferred with counseL) 

Mr. Phelps. "Well, I have listened to the hearings for almost 2 days 
now and I have heard names, names, and again I have heard names. 

It is my right as an individual to see whoever I please, whenever I 
please; and as such and because of this, I do not have to tell anybody 
at any time, at any place, who I see, where I see them, and when I see 
them. 

The Chairman". All right 

Mr. Phelps. Just wait a minute, will you ? 

And because of this and especially if these individuals, I respect 
their opinions and I think that the things they do are just, I will 
not inform on them. 

Yes, I may have information on crooks and racists and I will con- 
tinue to infomi on them, but I will not inform on the people I think 
are right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By that, you mean Communists? 

The Chairman. "Wait a minute. 

Following the requirements of the decisions of the Supreme Court 
entitling you to be warned and to be instructed because of the con- 
sequences of your failure or refusal to answer, I now direct you to 
answer the question. 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Phelps. As I said, I refuse imder the first amendment; and 
because of the tactics of the committee, which is obvious to everyone 
and they have achieved their purpose, and hooray for them, hip, hip, 
cheerio, good-bye, I have to take the section of the fifth amendment on 
incrimination against one's self. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Now, the article of August 2, 1962, contained in the 
Charloft OhHPrrei\ identified as Phelps Exhibit 2-B, in relating the 
foiTnation of the Progi-essive Labor Club at the University of North 
Carolina, states as follows : 

Most of the members, who began meeting in .June, are former members of 
the New Left Club, a discussion group "for anyone left of Kennedy." (It dis- 
banded in May but may be reorganized this fall.) 

"It" referring to the New Left Club. 

Did tlie meetings of the Progressive Labor Club begin on or about 
June 1962, as stated in the Charlotte Ohserver? 

Mr. Phelps. "What meetings ? "Wliere? 

Mr. NiTTLE. "When did you first meet with a group of students as 
the Progressive Labor Club at Chapel Hill ? 

Mr. Phelps. As far as my personal attendance, I am not sure of the 
exact meeting. It was some time in July or August of that year, I am 
not sure. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were most of the members of the Progressive Labor 
Club, as reported, formerly members of a group called the New Left 
Club? 

Mr. Phelps. I don't Imow about the membership, former member- 
ship of the individuals that made up this group. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 787 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had Jacob Rosen been active in the organization of 
the New Left Club prior to the formation of the Progressive Labor 
Club? 

Mr. PiiELrs. Well, here we go again. I cannot in all conscience 
discuss the activities of another individual. As I said, especially 
if I agree with those individuals and feel that the things they are 
doing are right and feel, because they are doing these things, other 
people who are not doing what is right are trying to hinder them, not 
only tiying to hinder them but to actually prosecute them and harm 
f heni in other ways; and because of this, I feel that it is my right under 
the first amendment to associate with whom I please. 

The Chairman. Now I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Phelps. Also, I must take the section of the fifth amendment, 
incrimination against myself. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Did not Jacob Rosen appear on the campus at the 
University of North Carolina to attend the meetings of the New Left 
Club? 

Mr. Phelps. You see, I was a member at one time in the New Left 
Club in Carolina; and this organization, as the thing correctly re- 
ports, was for "people left of Kennedy." To our misfortune, it takes 
in everything, because, as we all know, Kennedy is quite far to the 
right by his action in Vietnam and CuhsL and also in this country. 

We can see in the labor dispute that we have just had that he is 
willing to sacrifice the jobs of 65,000 workers. 

We see in the ca,se of Birmingham and also in a recent case of 
Alabama that he will use troops, as I said, as a face-saving measure, 
a measure in which he can let the Wallaces and et cetera look up and 
say we follow the Constitution, well enough. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Phelps. I do not in all conscience and cannot in all conscience 
talk about individuals who I respect and who I feel will be harmed 
by my actions. It is my right under the Constitution to take this posi- 
tion; as well as we all know, if I testify or if I testify about this 
individual, we know from the history of this committee tJirough its 
web of involvement that incrimination will come against myself 
eventually. 

The Chairman. And so? 

Mr. Phelps. I will take the self-incrimination clause. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you at any time make application to the Depart- 
ment of State for validation of your passport for travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Phelps. No. 

Mr. Nittle. No further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

This is the last witness in connection with this particular hearing. 

But, before adjourning, I think it is appropriate on behalf of my- 
self and the committee to express to the members of the District Police 
and Capitol Police our appreciation for their best efforts and, success- 
fully I think, doing the best they could under the difficult circum- 
stances to preserve order. 

With that, I declare this particular hearing adjourned. 

("Whereupon, at 3:45 p.m. Friday, September 13, 1963, the sub- 
committee adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Individuals 

A Page 

Alper, Don 665 

Anton, Anatole 721, 739 

Aptheker, Herbert 752 

B 

Bateson, F. W 785 

Bateson, Nicholas 785 

Batista y Zaldivar Nicholas (Fnlgencio) 773 

Bennett, James Steven 723 

Blanchard, Garry 785 

Boudin, Leonard 658, 700. 744-746, 754 

Brown, Michael 697 

Buchanan, Charles 723 

O 

Castell, Luria 697, 728 

Castro, Fidel— 653, 654, 658, 662, 681-683, 687, 692, 693, 696, 701, 727, 743, 745, 782 

Coatsworth, John 674 

Combash, Wayne 674 

Cucchiari, Salvatore 652, 655, 672-674, 680, 681, 685 

D 

Davis, Benjamin, J.. Jr 658, 753 

Davis, Robert 723 

Driggs, Stephen 697 

E 
Estevos, Caryl 723 

F 

Foreman, Clark 655, 685, 700, 747, 748 

Friday, William C 785 

G 

Gallup, George 687 

Goldstein, Eleanor 655, 680 

Gordon, Marcus 683 

Gray, Don 760 

H 
Hall, Gordon 664, 671, 690, 702 

Henderson, Charles 785 

Henderson, Loy 668 

Hill, Hector Warren 688,723 

Hobbs, Bill 785 

Hoffman, Barry-— 651-656,663,664-702 ( testimony ), 714, 726, 743, 746, 754, 755 
Hoover, J. Edgar (John Edgar) 747,751 

J 

Jacobs (or Jacob), J. (or Jay) 657,658,660,722,723,725-727,739,740,782 

Jencks, Clara Dee Echelbarger 723 

Jencks, Clinton 723 

Johnson, Eric 723 

i 



ii INDEX 

K Page 

Kaffke, Robert 723 

Karman, Pete 728 

Kennedy (John F.) 733, 784-787 

Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich 692, 693 

King, A. K 785 

King, Dennis 78o 

L 

Lacy, James 697. 723 

Laub, Lee Levi. (See Laub, Levi Lee.) 

Laub, Levi Lee (born Lee Levi Laub) 651-658, 671, 672, 674, 

676, 680, 681, 683, 684, 694-699, 704 (testimony), 710, 711-735 (testi- 
mony), 742, 757, 770. 

Lee, Vincent Theodore 765 

Lima, Jose Maria 723 

Luce, Phillip Abbott 655, 658, 674, 684, 685, 697-701, 

704, 705-706 (statement), 721, 738-757 (testimony), 770 

Lynn, Conrad J 706, 708-710, 758, 773, 780 

M 

Maher, Albert 723 

Mao Tse-tung 691, 692 

Martinot, Stefan (Steve) 655, 656, 675. 680, 685, 686, 697- 

699, 712, 716-718, 723, 730, 731, 741, 742, 765, 766, 778, 779 

May, Mabel 723 

Mazzola, Gerald 695, 696 

McCkjne, John 662 

Milton, John 674, 697, 723 

N 

Nakashima, Wendie (Wendy) Suzuko. (See Rosen, Wendie (Wendy) 

Suzuko Nakashima.) 
Nicolaus, Martin 697 

O 
Ortiz, Vickie (Victoria) 65.3, 655, 680 

P 

Phelps, Larry Wilford 655, 

660, 674, 680, 685, 686, 708 (statement), 743 773, 780-787 (testimony) 

Prensky, Catherine Jo (Kathy) 655, 

659, 660, 680, 706-708 ( statement ), 723, 773-780 (testimony) 
Prensky, Kathy. (See Prensky, Catherine Jo.) 

R 

Rabinowitz, Victor 658, 744-746, 754 

Rainman, Don 723 

Raisner, Christian 697, 723 

Rein, David 704, 710, 711 

Riemann, Richard 723 

Robeson, Paul 699 

Rockwell, George Lincoln 737 

Rosen, Jacob 659, 660, 759, 760, 785-787 

Rosen, Milton 656, 659, 679, 717, 732, 733, 766, 784 

Rosen, Wendie (Wendy) Suzuko Nakashima (Mrs. Jacob Rosen) 655, 

659, 680, 685, 686, 708, 709 (testimony), 742, 758-773 (testimony), 785 

S 

Salter. John Frederick 655, 680, 783 

Scheer, Mortimer 6.56, 659, 679, 717, 732, 766, 784 

Schlosser, Anatol Isaac 651, 655, 656, 66'^666, 671, 675, 684, 712, 717, 755, 756 

Shallit. Ellen 652, 655, 672, 674, 680, 685, 697, 778, 779 

Shellett, Ellen. (See Shallit, Ellen.) 



INDEX lii 

Page 

Smith, Rhoden 655, 680, 697 

Spencer. Harold 693, 694 

Standard, Michael B 705, 710, 738 

Stuart, Todd 674. 723* 

T 

Thoraas, John 674 

Thorne, Richard 730 

Tishman, Mark 655,680 

Truman (Harry S.) 777 

V 
Veloz, Richard 683 

W 

Williams, Ann 723 

Williams, Robert F 654, 694, 753 

Z 
Zehnan, Arthur 723 

Organizations 

A 

Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba {see also Permanent Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba) 656, 658, 659. 716-718, 741, 765, 766 

Advance 659, 768, 769 

Allerton Community Forum (Bronx, N.Y.) 753 

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 655,699 

Antioch College (Yellow Springs, Ohio) 751 

Armed Forces National Liberation Front (Venezuela). {See FALN.) 

B 

Boston University (Boston, Mass.) 665 

Brooklyn College (Brooklyn, N.Y.) 657,718,751 

Bryn Mawr College (Bryn Ma^AT, Pa.) 751 

C 

China Books and Periodicals 779 

City College of the City of New York (CCNY) 657, 674, 718, 730 

Civil Defense Protest Committee 734 

Civil Rights Congress 747 

Columbia Progressive Labor Student Club. (See entry under Progressive 
Labor Movement.) 

Columbia University (New York, N.Y.) 657,674,712,718,730,751 

Columbia Progressive Labor Student Club. {See entry under Progres- 
sive Labor Movement.) 
Communist Party of the United States of America : 

National Conventions and Conferences, Seventeenth Convention, 

December 10-13, New York City 732 

States and Territories : 

New York State 679, 732 

Erie District 732 

Cuban Federation of University Students 653, 657, 671, 674, 678, 

679, 683, 6S7, 694, 719, 720, 724, 725, 771, 777, 782 
Cuban Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples 653, 678. 683, 695, 696 

E 

Eighth World Youth Festival. (See entry under World Youth Festivals.) 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee (ECLC) 655,658,684,685,698-700, 

702, 738, 740, 742, 744, 747-749, 751, 752 

1 Mispelled Stewart in this reference. 



iv INDEX 

F 

Page 

P"'ALN (Armed Forces National Liberation, Venezuela) 691 

FLN (National Liberation Front. Sonth Vietnam) 691 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC) 765 

H 

Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass.) 674,751 

L 

Lamont Geological Observatory 712 

M 

Monroe Student Action Committee (Monroe, N.C.) 761 

N 

National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (SANE), Students for a 

Sane Nuclear Policy (City College of the City of New York) 659, 760 

National Committee To Abolish the Un-American Activities Committee 

(NCAUAC) 655, 699 

National Liberation Front ( South Vietnam ) . ( *S'ee FLN. ) 

New Left Club (University of North Carolina) 7S5-7KT 

New York School for Marxist Studies, The 751, 752 

General Studies Division 751 

SCOPE (Student Committee on Progressive Education) 751 

New York University (New York City) 674 

North American Friends of Cuba 6-54,693,694 

O 

Oakland City College (Oakland. Calif.) 674 

Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio) 749-751 

P 

Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba (.see also Ad Hoc Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba) 651. 

652, 656-6.58, 666-668, 670-672, 681, 686, 718, 719, 740, 741, 765 
Progressive Labor Club (University of North Carolina). {See entry 
under Progressive Labor Movement.) 

Progressive Labor Movement (>55-657, 659, 660. 679, 

680, 685, 693, 702, 717, 7-30-734, 737, 741, 743, 766, 777, 778, 783, 784 

Columbia Progressive Labor Student Club (Columbia University) 731 

National Student Conference, August 31-September 1, 1963, New 

York City 778 

Progressive Labor Club (University of North Carolina) (>60, 781-787 

Progressive Labor New York Student Club 660, 778, 779 

Progressive Labor New York Student Club. {See entry under Progres- 
sive Labor Movement.) 

R 

Rabinowitz and Boudin (law firm) 746,754 

Radio Havana 742, 771 

S 

SCOPE. {See Student Committee on Progressive Education.) 

San Francisco State College (San Francisco, Calif.) 657, 674, 718 

Sarah Lawrence Collese (Bronxville, N.Y.) 751 

Stanford University (Palo Alto, Calif.) 657,718 

Student Committee on Progressive Education (SCOPE) 751 

Students for a Sane Nuclear Policy (City College of the City of New 
York). {See entry under National Committee for a Sane Nuclear 
Policy. ) 

Students for Liberal Action (Ohio State University) 749-751 



INDEX V 

U 

Page 

United States Government: State Department (JHC?. 715, 755 

University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) 657,674,718 

University of Chicago (Chicago, 111.) 657,718 

University of Indiana (Bloomington, Ind.) 674 

University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, IMich.) 657,674,718 

University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill, N.C.) 674, 786, 787 

Progressive Labor Club. {See entry under Progressive Labor Move- 
ment. ) 
University of Wisconsin (Madison, Wis.) 657,718 

W 

WBAI-FM (radio station) (New York City) 733 

Wesleyan 674 

World Youth Festivals: Eighth Youth Festival, July 29-August 6, 1962, 

Helsinki, Finland 659, 660, 766, 767, 775 

Publications 

Crusader, The 694 

"Genocide Crime in South Vietnam" 691 

Marxist-Leninist Quarterly 784 

Masters of Deceit (book) 747 

Progressive Labor 732 

Revolucion 716 

Rights 658,684 

"Under the Yoke of the U.S.— Doom in South Vietnam" 691 

O 



us- .7f/ 



ERRATA SHEET FOR "VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPART- 
MENT TRAVEL REGULATIONS AND PRO-CASTRO 
PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 
PART 3" 

Page 70i2, 28th line from top, "extent" should read "extend". 
Page 70^), delete lines 13, l-i, and 15 below heading and substitute 
therefor: 

"Mr. Luce. I refuse to be swoni before this committee in executive 
session. .Vnything I have to say can be made in open session. I never 
requested an executive session." 

Page 717, last line on page, "Cuban airlines" should read "Cubana 
airlines". 

o 



jAN 30 1964 



98-T68 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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