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Full text of "Violations of State Department regulations and pro-Castro propaganda activities in the United States. Hearings"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT TRAVEL REGULA- 
TIONS AND PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES 

IN THE UNITED STATES 

5 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 3, 4, AND 28, 1964 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY I 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

MAR 23 1965 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
40-013 WASHINGTON : 1964 



COMMITTEE OX UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 
WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

RICHARD H. ICHORD, Missouri HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

GEORGE F. SENNER, Jr., Arizona JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 
Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., General Counsel 
Alfred M. Nittle, Counsel 
William Hitz, Counsel 

n 



CONTENTS 



Faea 

Synopsis 1975 

September 3, 1964: Testimony of — 

George Luke 1994 

Alexander Lewin 2001 

Yvonne Marie Bond 2006 

Afternoon session: 

Yvonne Marie Bond (resumed) 2020 

Morton B. Slater 2050 

September 4, 1964: Testimony of — 

Edward Lemansky 2055 

Afternoon session: 

Edward Lemansky (resumed) 2083 

Albert Lasater Maher 2119 

September 28, 1964: Testimony of — 

Morton B. Slater (resumed) 2158 

Appendix 21 86 

Index i 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946] ; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

******* 

17. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 



(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Consti- 
tution, and (iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to 
the Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such 
investigation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, 
and to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued 
under the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or 
by any member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any 
person designated by any such chairman or member. 



Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem 
necessary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the 
administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which 
is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for that purpose, shall study 
all pertinent reports and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the 
executive branch of the Government. 

IV 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 8STH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 5, January 9, 1963 
******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 
******* 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in 
any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such inves- 
tigation, together with such recommenations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of 
such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 



27. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the 
subject matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee ; and, for 
that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House 
bv the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 



SYNOPSIS 

In May 1963 the Committee on Un-American Activities held its in- 
itial hearings on violations of State Department regulations which 
ban travel to Cuba except for those possessing specially validated 
passports. 

These hearings, in which a total of 42 witnesses testified, were held 
in Washington, D.C., on May 6, 7, and 23, August 5, September 12 and 
13, October 1G, and November 18, 1963, and in Los Angeles, Calif., on 
July 1 and 2, 1963. 

The legislative purposes of the hearings were to determine the need 

(1) for tightening laws regulating foreign travel of U.S. citizens and 

(2) for broadening the definition of persons required to register with 
the Attorney General under the Foreign Agents Registration Act of 
1938. 

Hearings on this subject were continued on September 3, 4, and 28, 
1964, when the committee received testimony from six additional wit- 
nesses. Three of the witnesses were in the group organized by the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, with headquarters in New 
York City, which visited Cuba in the summer of 1964 at the invita- 
tion and expense of the Cuban Federation of University Students; 
a fourth had made the trip in 1963. 

The subcommittee chairman pointed out that, in conformity with 
the resolution authorizing the hearings, our attention will — 

be directed to Communist propaganda activities in behalf, or 
in the interest, of foreign Communist principals, and also to 
foreign travel undertaken in connection therewith, in viola- 
tion of State Department regulations adopted pursuant to 
statute. Our inquiry will be particularly related to the cir- 
cumstances surrounding the travel to Cuba, in the summers of 
1963 and 1964, of persons or groups known as the Permanent 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, or simply, the Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba, and propaganda activities un- 
dertaken by such persons and groups in aid of foreign Com- 
munist governments. 

***** 

In its Annual Report for 1963. this committee has already 
made one legislative recommendation to the Congress arising 
out of its investigations on the subjects of inquiry set forth in 
the committee resolution of April 24, 1963, which I have 
just read. This recommendation relates to a proposed amend- 
ment of section 215 of the Immigration and Nationality Act 
of 195-'. which is section 1185 of Title 8 of the United States 
Code. Several bills on this subject have been offered in the 
House, including H.R. 9045, introduced on November 6, 1963, 
by the chairman of this committee, our chairman, Mr. Willis, 
whom I am very happy to see with the subcommittee today. 
These bills have not yet been reported out of committees to 

1975 



1976 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

which they have been assigned. There are many problems 
remaining in this area of legislation, and we continue today 
our efforts to develop additional factual information to aid 
the Congress and its committees in the disposition of such 
bills, and for the proposal of any necessary remedial 
legislation. 

That the Congress may legislate — and thus inquire — on this 
subject is unquestioned. Section 215 of the Immigration and 
Nationality Act of 1952, authorizes the President to impose 
restrictions upon the travel of United States citizens during 
time of war or national emergency and, subject to such lim- 
itations and exceptions as the President may authorize, to 
forbid the departure of citizens from the United States during 
such periods unless such citizens bear valid passports. 

***** 

Recently, Fidel Castro invited a number of United States 
correspondents to visit Cuba, promising to bear all the ex- 
penses of their travel. The Department of State validated 
the passports of 20-odd correspondents for travel to Cuba, 
but, on advice from the Department of Justice, cautioned 
the correspondents that if they accepted expense payments 
from the Cuban Government they might subject themselves 
to the requirements and penalties of the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act of 1938. The correspondents, with one ex- 
ception, namely, Richard Hudson, editor of a magazine called 
War and Peace Report, announced that the}' would travel to 
Cuba at their own expense. 

On the other hand, since the severance of diplomatic re- 
lations with Cuba on January 3, 1961, a substantial number of 
United States citizens not registered under the act have trav- 
eled to Cuba with all or part of their expenses paid by the 
Cuban Government or its agencies and, upon their return 
to the United States, have engaged in propaganda activities 
in aid of the Castro regime, yet not one of those persons has 
been prosecuted under the penal sanctions of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act to date. As will be brought out in 
these hearings, members of the student group which went to 
Cuba this summer not only had all their expenses paid by 
the Castro government, but were also given an extra $10 per 
week for spending money. 

Certain questions arise. Is the act effective as presently 
written ? Is it being duly enforced ? What, if any, are the 
deficiencies in the act? In answer to these and other ques- 
tions, the committee is attempting to ascertain the circum- 
stances surrounding the travel and propaganda activities in 
which the travelers to Cuba have been engaged, so that it may 
be in a position to resolve the issues presented. 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act provides, in brief, for 
the registration of persons and organizations which act as 
agents of foreign principals, includins: agents of friendly for- 
eign powers, as well as those of the Soviet and Chinese bloc 
countries, and requires the labeling of any "political propa- 
ganda" transmitted in the United States mails, or by any 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1977 

means, in interstate or foreign commerce. By the terms of 
the act, it is clear that the mere fact of registration does not 
imply that activities of such agents are, by sole fact of regis- 
tration, deemed harmful, or that any political propaganda 
disseminated by such agents is necessarily untruthful or in- 
imical to the welfare of the United States. 

SEPTEMBER 3 HEARINGS 

On September 3 the subcommittee received testimony from George 
Luke and Alexander Lewin, representatives of two New York City 
travel agencies which had made reservations for travel from the U.S. 
to Europe for the great majority of the group that went to Cuba 
in the summer of 1964. Yvonne Bond and Morton Slater, two mem- 
bers of the student group which traveled to Cuba, were also called to 
testify on this date. 

Mr. Luke testified that Yvonne Bond and Morton Slater had visited 
his agency, Travel Associates, Inc., and made airline reservations for 
28 persons to travel from San Francisco to Paris. According to the 
witness, Miss Bond had deposited with him "47 brand new $100 bills, 
three $10 bills and three l ? s and 30 cents, and it was paid in cash * * *." 
He later received a cashier's check for $12,450 from Miss Bond to cover 
the balance due for the reservations. According to the witness, a 
refund for seven unused tickets from San Francisco to New York was 
later sent to Miss Bond by American Airlines. A refund of $2,225.12 
for eight unused tickets from New York to Paris was being held by 
Travel Associates. It had not been claimed as of the date of the hear- 
ing. 

Mr. Lewin testified that Morton Slater had made arrangements with 
his agency, Foreign Tours, Inc., for airline reservations for a group of 
persons from New York to Paris. Slater first identified the goup to 
Mr. Lewin as the Manhattan Art Club, but later stated that he did not 
want the art club mentioned because they were not going "as an affinity 
group." He testified that Mr. Slater had paid for the tickets with 
"crisp" new $100 bills and that at not time did Slater advise him that 
the group intended to travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Lewin also testified that, wdien Slater visited his office on May 
20, he was accompanied by a young woman who identified herself as 
Katsko Itakava. He was told by Slater to contact the young woman 
concerning the reservations, should the need arise. Asked if the per- 
son known to him as Katsko Itakava was in the hearing room, the 
witness pointed her out. The person known to Mr. Lewin as Miss 
Itakava was Wendie Suzuko Nakashima Rosen. She had been a wit- 
ness before the committee in September 1963 and was one of the group 
of students who traveled to Cuba in the summer of 1963 in violation 
of State Department travel regulations. 

In addition to testimony received from Witnesses Luke and Lewin, 
information developed through committee investigation also indicated 
that Miss Bond and Mr. Slater had been two of the principals in- 
volved in arranging transportation for the "students" who traveled to 
Cuba during the summer of 1964 under the sponsorship of the Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba. 

On May 19, 1964, Yvonne M. Bond had made arrangements with 
Trans World Airlines in Oakland, Calif., for transportation from 



1978 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

California to Paris for herself and 29 others. She paid $12,468 for the 
tickets in new bills of $100 denomination. These reservations were 
subsequently canceled and a refund issued to Miss Bond by TWA. 

On May 22. Miss Bond registered at the Gramercy Hotel in Xew 
York City. The following day she contacted Lee Coe in Berkeley, 
Calif., by telephone and visited the offices of Travel Associates in New 
York City. 

Lee Coe is West Coast editor of the Progressive Labor Movement's 
official publication, Progressive Labor. For over 20 years prior to his 
association with the Progressive Labor Movement, Coe had been as- 
sociated with the Communist Party of the United States and was 
labor editor of its West Coast newspaper, People's World. He had 
been identified as a member of the Communist Party in both executive 
and public hearings of this committee. 

On her visit to Travel Associates on May 23, 1004. Miss Bond was 
accompanied by Morton Slater. They obtained information on trans- 
portation rates for a group of students to travel from San Francisco 
to Paris. 

On Monday. May 25, Miss Bond and Mr. Slater returned to Travel 
Associates and gave Mr. Luke 47 new $100 bills as a deposit on airline 
reservations to Paris, via Air France, for 28 students from the San 
Francisco Bay Area. These new $100 bills have been traced by the 
committee to the Central Bank of Mexico in Mexico City. [The bills, 
bearing the following serial numbers— K 3735411-13, K 3735431, 
K 3735442-48, K 3735605-31, and K 3735033-41— were shipped to 
the San Antonio branch of the Federal Reserve Bank in July 1062. 
They were held there until April 20, 1004, when they were issued to 
the Frost National Bank of San Antonio. On that same day, they 
were included in a shipment of one million dollars made to the Banco 
de Mexico in Mexico City by the Frost National Bank.] 

They also visited the offices of Pan American World Airways on 
May 25, 1904. The transaction with Pan Am was handled by Mr. 
Slater. Reservations from Chicago to Paris were made for a group 
of 25 "students." Mr. Slater paid $10,420 for them, also with new bills 
of $100 denomination. 

Appearing under subpena. Miss Bond was questioned about the 
arangements she had made with the travel agencies, how she acquired 
the money to pay for the tickets, and her acquaintance with Lee Coe. 
She declined to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment and other 
reasons. 

Invoking the same constitutional protection, Miss Bond refused to 
tell the committee if the transportation for the group between Paris 
and Prague had been paid for by either the Czechoslovakian or Cuban 
Governments: if she had received a slip visa from the Cuban consulate 
at Prague: if she had exhibited her passport to any representatives of 
the Cuban consultate or to any French or Czechoslovakian official 
prior to her arrival in Prague; or if she had received <4ie equivalent of 
$10 a week spending money during the time she was in Cuba. 

It was pointed out to the witness that, subsequent to the arrival of 
the group in Cuba. Havana domestic television reported that some 
of the American students had donated blood to the Cuban blood bank. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1979 

The report on the incident attributed the following statement to 
Yvonne Bond : 

To me, this represents my biggest anti-imperialist act. 
There is my blood, to be used by some Cuban who is wounded 
fighting against some possible United Stales attack. 

The witness responded to questions about this statement by de- 
claring that she did not recall if (he report had used her "exact words 
or not." She also stated that she had been found to be anemic and 
was unable to donate blood as a number of others did. Miss Bond 
praised Fidel Castro and the Communist regime in Cuba. She said 
she regarded the United States "in certain respects" as "an imperialist 
nation." 

Miss Bond acknowledged that she is a member of the Progressive 
Labor Movement, that in a press interview following her trip to Cuba 
she "proudly proclaimed that she was a Communist," and that on 
August 15 she had taken part in a demonstration sponsored by the 
May 2 Committee which was held to protest U.S. aid to the anti- 
( Yimmunist forces in South Vietnam. 

The witness invoked constitutional protection and declined to 
answer when asked to whom she had submitted her application for 
membership in the Progressive Labor Movement, if she had been as- 
signed to a cell or club, if she knew certain individuals as members 
of the Progressive Labor Movement, or if the New York unit of the 
May 2 Committee was controlled by the Progressive Labor Movement. 

Morton B. Slater was the next witness called to testify. Shortly 
after the commencement of his interrogation, the hearing was dis- 
rupted when Lon L. Dunaway. a member of the American Nazi Party, 
bolted up the aisle, leaped over the witness, and landed on the table al 
which Slater, his counsel, and the committee counsel were seated. 
Dunaway was immediately subdued by police and placed under arrest. 
The interrogation of Slater was halted at this point, and he was con- 
tinued under subpena to appear at a later date. 1 

SEPTEMBER L' s HEARING 

Morton Slater subsequently testified in executive session on Septem- 
ber 28, 1 96 ! . This hearing record was later made public. 

He was questioned about his participation in arrangements for reser- 
vations with Foreign Tours, Travel Associates, and Pan American 
Airways. He was also questioned about certain other travel arrange- 
ments he had made with the McPherson Travel Bureau in New York 
City to purchase 25 tickets to Paris. 

An affadavit from Mr. Harry Colin, president and general manager 
of the McPherson Travel Bureau, attested to the following facts : 

On May 20 Mr. Slater had contacted Mr. Colin and arranged to 
purchase 25 tickets to Paris. On May 24 he deposited with Mr. Colin 
$8,000 in new bills of $100 denomination. The number of reserva- 
tions was subsequently reduced to nine, and a refund was issued to 
Mr. Slater by the McPherson agency. Mr. Colin also stated that Slater 
way accompanied on one of his visits by a young woman who gave her 



1 An examination of Slater by the House physician revealed that lie had received a minor 
injury as a result of Dunaway's leap onto the table. On September 21. 19R4, Dunaway 
was convicted in the District of Columbia Court of General Sessions on charges of assault 
and disorderly conduct and was sentenced to ISO days in prison. 



1980 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

name as Katsuko Itkawa, and was listed as second airline contact. 
Slater said that the group was going to Paris to study art, and "at no 
time" did he inform Mr. Cohn that the journey would extend beyond 
Paris to Cuba. 

Mr. Slater refused to affirm or deny statements concerning him 
given in testimony by Mr. Luke and Mr. Lewin. Basing his refusal 
on the fifth and other amendments to the Constitution, he also declined 
to answer questions pertaining to arrangements he had made with Pan 
American Airways or the McPherson travel agency, where he had 
obtained the money to purchase the tickets, or to state if Wendie Naka- 
shima Kosen, the young woman who had identified herself to Mr. 
Lewin as Katsko Itakava, was the same young woman who had iden- 
tified herself to Mr. Cohn as Katusko Itkawa. 

Mr. Slater also invoked constitutional protection when asked if the 
cost of the trip from Paris to Prague had been paid by the Cuban or 
Czechoslovakian Governments, if he had received a slip visa from 
the Cuban consulate in Prague, or if he had exhibited his passport to 
French or Czechoslovakian officials or to any representatives of the 
Cuban Government in Prague. 

The witness testified that lie was aware of State Department regula- 
tions regarding travel to Cuba, but he made no request to have his 
passport validated for such travel. Asked if he had intended to travel 
to Cuba when he applied for a passport, Mr. Slater invoked constitu- 
tional protection. 

Although Mr. Slater denied that he had any kind of assignment 
in making the trip, he invoked constitutional protection when asked 
if he had intended to serve the interests of the Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba. The witness acknowledged that he is a member of the 
Progressive Labor Movement, but declined to answer questions relating 
to the time he became a member of that organization, whether he was 
a member at the time he went to Cuba, or if the Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba was created by the Progressive Labor Movement. 

SEPTEMBER 4 HEARINGS 

On Friday, September 4, 1964, testimony was received from Edward 
Lemansky and Albert Maher. 

Mr. Lemansky is a graduate of Antioch College, Yellow Springs, 
Ohio. He had been employed as a research assistant at the Popula- 
tion Study Center of the University of Michigan and as a personnel 
trainee at the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Brooklyn, N.Y. 

The witness acknowledged under oath that he is a Communist; a 
member of, and organizer for, the Progessive Labor Movement, which 
he described as a "Communist organization, a Communist move- 
ment." He denied past or present membership in the orthodox 
Communist Party, the CPUS A. 

In February 1964, Mr. Lemansky had his passport renewed in 
preparation for the summer trip to Cuba sponsored by the Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba. He stated that he "absolutely" had 
it in mind to go to Cuba at the time he applied for passport re- 
newal, but that he had made no request to have his passport validated 
for travel to that Communist country, despite the fact that he was 
aware of State Department regulations which require such validation. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1981 

The witness testified that he was lender of the group which, at the 
invitation and expense of the Cuban Federation of University Stu- 
dents, traveled to Cuba by way of Paris and Prague. He said that, 
to the best of his knowledge, each member of the group had received 
a slip visa from the Cuban consulate in Prague for entry into Cuba. 
Asked it the group had been instructed by Cuban authorities not to 
exhibit their passports, Lemansky replied: 

I advised people to keep their passports in their pockets; 
they were not needed, no reason to show it to anybody. Why 
give the American Government additional "evidence" in this 
fabricated trial? 

He denied that the group had ever received any instructions from 
the Cuban Government not to exhibit their passports. 

When questioned about the obvious relationship between the 
Progressive Labor Movement and the Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba, Witness Lemansky stated that to the best of his knowledge 
the Student Committee was "formed independently." He added : 

It happens to be a true purpose of the Progressive Labor 
Movement to eradicate and destroy the lies and falsehoods 
that have been told to the American people about Cuba and 
about the United States, the lies that are told about the num- 
ber of unemployed, the lies that are told about the racism 
in this country, the lie that we are eliminating it when, in 
fact, the race system is on the upswing. That is the true 
purpose of the Progressive Labor Movement. 

He also stated : 

The Student Committee for Travel to Cuba has as its 
stated purpose to get people to Cuba to see what is happen- 
ing there and to come back to the United States and tell the 
American people what we have seen. 

Mr. Lemansky declined to answer, on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment and other constitutional provisions, when committee counsel 
asked if he had been selected by any member of the Progressive Labor 
Movement to serve as leader of the group which visited Cuba and 
if his purpose in preceding his group to Paris on June 2 was to 
arrange transportation to Prague, or to state where he obtained 
money to purchase tickets for travel f rom Paris to Prague. 

According to Mr. Lemansky, "the Cuban revolution is a good thing, 
not only for the people of Cuba, but for the people of the United 
States." He also asserted that Fidel Castro should have so-called 
defensive weapons because he "needs to defend himself against the 
unjustified attacks by the United States Government." 

Lemansky was questioned about a newsletter published by the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba in July 1964. It reported on 
the activities of the student travelers and quoted statements by 
Lemansky and others in the group which commended Castro and 
the revolution and viciously criticized the United States. The news- 
letter also contained the text of a statement signed by 61 students in 
which they denounced United States Government policy in South 
Vietnam as "Imperialist oppression." (Lemansky Exhibit No. 6, 
pp. 2087-2000.) 



1982 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

The witness acknowledged having participated in the drafting of 
the statement on Vietnam and conceded that, during a visit with the 
Havana delegation of the (Communist) South Vietnamese National 
Liberation Front, the group discussed the war in Vietnam and 
viewed films. He said: "We saw a film which showed what was 
referred to as an American plane being shot down." 

Asked if he had applauded this, Lemansky finally admitted: "I 
cheered." 

Committee counsel exhibited a copy of a statement made by Phillip 
Abbott Luce, chairman of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, 
at a press conference on August 14, 11)04. Luce had declared : 

We are now preparing and making plans to send delega- 
tions to all of the so-called forbidden countries: Albania, 
North Korea, North Vietnam, and especially China, and that 
we very strongly hope to send a group not only to Cuba but 
certainly hopefully to China, and North Vietnam, and if 
possible, North Korea and Albania, all in one year. 

Asked if he had any discussions regarding such plans with repre- 
sentatives of the Communist Chinese Embassy in Havana, Le- 
mansky denied having participated in "formal discussion," but ac- 
knowledged that there was "some talk of the possibility of young 
Americans visiting China." 

On June 23, 1964, a report on American students in Cuba was 
broadcast from Communist North Vietnam. According to the Radio 
Hanoi broadcast, a group called the Afro-American Students Or- 
ganization was being accompanied by Robert Williams 1 during its 
tour of Cuba. The report also stated that on June 17 the group had 
presented the following statement to the South Vietnamese National 
Liberation Front: 

As we live in the heart of U.S. imperialism and colonial- 
ism, and racism, we have clearly seen U.S. democracy is 
the greatest deception in history. That is why we support 
the national liberation movements of our brothers in Asia, 
Africa, and Latin America. We support all that U.S. im- 
perialism opposes, and oppose all that it supports. It is 
necessary to thoroughly and completely annihilate U.S. im- 
perialism. 

Responding to questions about the report, Lemansky stated that he 
knew of no organization titled "Afro-American Students Organiza- 
tion." Afro-American students were in his group, he said, and the 
phrase "Association of Afro-American Students" was often used in 
referring to them. 2 According to the witness, Robert Williams visited 



1 Robert Williams is a fugitive from justice. He was indicted on August 2S, 1061, on 
two charges of kidnaping during racial disturbances in Monroe, N.C. When he could not be 
located, the Federal Bureau of Investigation issued a warrant for his arrest on charges of 
unlawful flight to avoid prosecution. A "Wanted by FBI" notice dated August 31, 1961, 
cautions that Williams "has previously been diagnosed as schizophrenic and has advocated 
and threatened violence. Williams should be considered extremely dangerous." 

The National Guardian of October 9, 1961, reported that Williams had arrived in Cuba 
in September and had asked political asylum of the Cuban Government. 

Williams regularly broadcasts propaganda from Havana to the United States through 
his radio program "Radio Free Dixie." He also publishes a monthly pamphlet called 
The Crusader, calling on Negroes in the United States to revolt against the Government. 
The pamphlet is distributed to readers in the United States by persons residing in 
Toronto, Canada. 

2 Committee information indicates that there were no U.S. students in Cuba at the time, 
other than those in the Lemansky-led group. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1983 

the group on a number of occasions in Havana, hut had not traveled 
with them throughout the island. Williams, he said, "has a lot of 
very good tilings to say about this country, a lot of very accurate 
and correct things." 

Committee counsel then read some of the "things" Williams had said 
about the United States in his article "U.S.A. — Revolution Without 
Violence?" The article had been published in the March 1964 issue 
of Revolution, a magazine recognized as the voice of the extremely 
revolutionary and violent Communists of the world, the voice of 
Peking, as contrasted with that of Moscow. 

According to Williams' article — 

the old method of guerrilla warfare, as carried out from the hills and country- 
side, would be ineffective in a powerful country like the U.S.A. * * * The new 
concept is to huddle as close to the enemy as possible so as to neutralize his 
modern and fierce weapons. * * * During- the hours of the day sporadic rioting 
takes place and massive sniping. Night brings all-out warfare, organized fight- 
ing, and unlimited terror against the oppressor and his forces. Such a campaign 
will bring about an end to oppression and social injustice in the U.S.A. in less 
than 90 days * * *. 

Mr. Lemansky was asked if lie subscribed to such a concept of revo- 
lutionary tactics with respect to the United States. The witness did 
not give a direct answer, but made the following statements as he 
attempted to circumvent questions put to him by members of the 
committee: "I support the use of violent defense when violently 
attacked." "Robert Williams is a man with much experience, having 
had violence directed against him * * *." 

Lemansky defended Williams. He stated that he had lived in 
Williams* home town, Monroe, N.C., for a year. He had testified 
earlier that he had gone to Monroe in June 1963 at the invitation of 
the Monroe Youth Action Committee and that, during his stay in that 
city, had worked with a group which was "involved in fighting the 
vicious race riots in that State.'' He invoked the fifth amendment and 
other constitutional amendments, however, when asked if he had been 
employed by the Progressive Labor Movement at the time he went 
to Monroe. 

Finally, in answer to questions concerning his concept for the tim- 
ing of violent revolution, Lemansky stated that — 

when the times are ripe, meaning that when the government 
engages in violent repression against people exercising their 
rights, just as the Government does throughout this coun- 
try, then they have every — the people of this country have 
every right to defend themselves. They have every right to 
defend themselves with the use of violence. 

Witness Albert Maher, a former Harvard student, denied that 
he had applied for renewal of his passport in March 1963 with the 
intention of using it for travel to Cuba. He acknowledged that he 
was aware of regulations which prohibit travel to Cuba by a U.S. 
citizen unless he bears a passport validated by the Secretary of State 
for travel to that country. He testified that he made no request to 
have his passport validated for such travel and that he recruited 
himself to accompany the group which traveled to Cuba in the sum- 
mer of 1963 in defiance of regulations forbidding such travel. 



1984 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

When questioned about the financial aspects of the trip, Mr. Maher 
conceded that expenses for the trip were assumed by the Cuban 
Federation of University Students and that each applicant was re- 
quired to deposit $10 with his application for travel with the group. 
Upon acceptance, an additional deposit of $100 was required. Mr. 
Maher acknowledged that he paid the required $110 but invoked 
the fifth amendment and other reasons as a basis for refusing to state 
whether or not he had assumed payment of application expenses for 
others in the group. 

The witness vehemently denied that the student group was ex- 
pected by the Cuban Government to disseminate in the United States 
propaganda favorable to the Communist regime in Cuba and Com- 
munist regimes in other countries, in return for favors extended to 
them by Communist Cuba. He conceded, however, that "through- 
out the entire year" since his return from Cuba he had been giving 
speeches and lectures favorable to the Castro regime and had inter- 
viewed students and urged them to make the trip to Cuba. 

In response to questions, Mr. Maher denied being present at the 
meeting at which the film produced by the South Vietnam National 
Liberation Front, showing an American plane being shot down, was 
"cheered" by the American students. He also denied bringing the 
film to the United States, as the Harvard Crimson of November 22, 
1963, reported he had. He acknowledged, however, that he had "done 
everything possible to get this film shown in college campuses and 
in labor union halls and small civic organizations throughout the 
country * * *." When asked how he obtained possession of the 
film and if he finances its distribution, Mr. Maher declined to testify 
on the basis of the fifth and other constitutional amendments. 

In response to questions pertaining to the Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba, Mr. Maher acknowledged that he is a member of its 
executive board, that he is aware that certain other board members 
are members of the Progressive Labor Movement, and that the tele- 
phone number listed by the Student Committee is in fact his per- 
sonal telephone number. The organization, he said, received appli- 
cations for the 1961 trip from more than 1,000 students and, of that 
number, more than 400 were interviewed. 

Although the witness protested that the trip was organized openly 
and publicly, he invoked constitutional protection when asked how 
the Cuban Federation of University Students contacted his commit- 
tee, how the tickets were purchased, or what arrangements had been 
made with the various airlines for the group's travel to Cuba. 

Committee investigation revealed that Maher and Salvatore Cuc- 
chiari, another member of the Student Committee, had engaged in 
what appeared to be decoy arrangements, designed to conceal the 
actual time and means of departure of the student group. In April 
1961, each had made reservations with British Overseas Airways 
Corp. (BOAC) for a group to travel to Georgetown, British Guiana, 
via Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. Maher made reservations for 30 
passengers on a July 1 flight. These arrangements were permitted 
to lapse, however, and of the 30 individuals listed for this BOAC 
flight, 6 traveled to Cuba on an earlier date by a different route and a 
different airline. Cucchiari sought reservations for 16 persons to 
travel to British Guiana on May 30. The departure date was later 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1985 

postponed to June 27, but the arrangements were never concluded 
and none of the persons listed by Cucchiari made the trip to Cuba. 

Mr. Malier declined to testify when asked if the arrangements 
with BOAC were a decoy operation, or if he and other members of 
the executive board of the Student Committee had conferred regard- 
ing decoy reservations. 

The witness was also questioned about his participation in the 
activities of the May 2 Committee, an organization formed in March 
1964 at a conference at Yale University sponsored by the Yale So- 
cialist Union. It was attended by representatives from various 
radical and left-liberal groups, including the Communist Party, the 
Socialist Workers Party, and the Progressive Labor Movement. 

Asked if the New York group of the May 2 Committee is con- 
trolled by the Progressive Labor Movement (whose members have 
been active in its disorderly demonstrations), Maher replied that 
the May 2 Committee was formed at the conference at Yale "to 
stage demonstrations around the country protesting the war in 
Vietnam * * *." He conceded that he is a member of the May 2 
Committee; that the telephone number of the organization is his 
personal telephone number ; that he participated in the August 8 and 
15 demonstrations in New York City sponsored by the organization ; 
and that he was arrested for disorderly conduct during the August 8 
demonstration. He also testified that Bill Epton, one of the speakers 
at the demonstration in New York City on May 2, 1964, is chairman 
of the Progressive Labor Movement in Harlem and the same Bill 
Epton who has been indicted for criminal anarchy because of his 
activities during the riots which rocked Harlem in the summer of 
1964 and that he, Maher, posted the $10,000 bail required for Epton's 
release following the PLM leader's arrest at the time of the riots. 

Albert Maher was described in a New York Times article of August 
10, 1964, as the "son of a millionaire Houston industrialist," who 
spoke about "the imperialism of the ruling classes of the United 
States." Asked by the Times reporter "whether he would attach an 
ideological label to his position, he said: 'I don't mind being called 
a Communist, but to me there's a big difference between a Socialist 
and a Communist- — a Socialist is not necessarily involved in an active 
struggle.' 

"Then which was he? 

" 'A little bit of both, I guess,' he replied." 

It was also reported that "Mr. Maher said that his money came 
from a trust fund * * *. He acknowledged that he had made heavy 
contributions to radical groups here!''' [Emphasis added.] 

Mr. Maher declined to affirm or deny the accuracy of the state- 
ments regarding financial contributions attributed to him by the 
Times reporter. He also declined to testify when asked if he con- 
tributed financially to the Progressive Labor Movement or the Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba. 

Although Maher admitted having told the Times reporter that he 
didn't mind being called a Communist, he denied under oath that 
he is a member of either the Communist Party or the Progressive 
Labor Movement. 



40-013— 65— ,pt. 5 2 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT TRAVEL REGU- 
LATIONS AND PRO (ASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIV- 
ITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 5 



THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1964 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
public hearings 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Cannon House Office 
Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Richard H. Ichord (chairman of 
the subcommittee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Richard H. Ichord, of 
Missouri; George F. Senner, Jr., of Arizona; and August E. Johan- 
sen, of Michigan.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Ichord, Senner, 
and Johansen. 

Committee members also present : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana: Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; 
Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin; and John M. Ashbrook, of 
Ohio. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald T. 
Appell, chief investigator; Louis J. Russell and Philip R. Manuel, 
investigators. 

Mr. Ichord. The meeting will come to order. 

Will members of the audience please be seated? To comply with 
the rules of the House and the rules of this committee it is necessary 
for the Chair to make the following statement. 

This subcommittee is convened to conduct hearings upon the sub- 
jects of inquiry and for the legislative purposes set forth in the com- 
mittee resolution adopted April 24, 1963. I offer this resolution for 
the record. It reads as follows : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that hearings by the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties or a subcommittee thereof, be held in Washington, D.C, or at .such other 
place or places as the Chairman may determine, on such date or dates as the 
Chairman may designate, relating to (a) Communist propaganda activities in 
the United States conducted in support of the Comunist regime in Cuba, or for 
the purpose of advancing the policies and objectives of the world Communist 
movement in Latin America generally, (b) the activities of United States citi- 
zens acting on behalf of, or in the interest of, foreign Communist principals, and 

1987 



1988 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

(c) foreign travel undertaken by United States citizens in connection with such 
activities and in violation of State Department travel regulations, for the fol- 
lowing legislative purposes : 

1. To provide factual information to aid Congress in the disposition of pres- 
ently pending legislation (including, but not limited to Sections 709 and 712 of 
H.R. 95S), or in the proposal of remedial legislation, in fulfillment of the direc- 
tions contained in the mandate to the Committee by House Resolution 5 of Jan- 
uary 9, 1963, and Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress. 

2. The execution, by the administrative agencies concerned, of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act of 193S, travel control laws (particularly Title S, U.S.C. 
1185), and regulations issued pursuant thereto, to assist the House in appraising 
the administration of such laws and regulations. 

3. Consideration of the advisability of amending Title 22 U.S.C. 611, by ex- 
tending the definition of the terms "foreign principal" and "agent of a foreign 
principal" so as to remove any doubt as to the true test of the agency relation- 
ship or its application to activities within the intent of Congress as expressed in 
the Act. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the hearings may include any other mat- 
ter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

That completes the reading of the resolution adopted by the full 
committee. 

The committee held a series of hearings based on this resolution in 
1963. 

In conformity with this resolution, our attention in this hearing will 
be directed to Communist propaganda activities in behalf, or in the 
interest, of foreign Communist principals, and also to foreign travel 
undertaken in connection therewith, in violation of State Department 
regulations adopted pursuant to statute. Our inquiry will be par- 
ticularly related to the circumstances surrounding the travel to Cuba, 
in the summers of 1963 and 1964, of persons or groups known as the 
Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, or simply, the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, and propaganda activities 
undertaken by such persons and groups in aid of foreign Communist 
governments. 

This specific inquiry is pursuant to the mandate of the Congress 
directed to the House Committee on Un-American Activities by House 
Resolution 5, 88th Congress, and by statute as well — the Legislative 
Reorganization Act of 1946. The House resolution and statute afore- 
said have authorized this committee to investigate the extent, charac- 
ter, and objects of subversive and un-American propaganda activi- 
ties in the United States which attack the principle of the form of 
government guaranteed by our Constitution, and all other questions 
in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary remedial 
legislation. By the same mandate this committee has been directed 
to make reports to the House of any such investigation, together with 
its recommendations. 

In its Annual Report for 1963, this committee has already made one 
legislative recommendation to the Congress arising out of its inves- 
tigations on the subjects of inquiry set forth in the committee resolu- 
tion of April 24, 1963, which I have just read. This recommenda- 
tion relates to a proposed amendment of section 215 of the Immigra- 
tion and Nationality Act of 1952, which is section 1185 of Title 8 of the 
United States Code. Several bills on this subject have been offered in 
the House, including H.R. 9045, introduced on November 6, 1963, by the 
chairman of this committee, our chairman, Mr. Willis, whom I am 
very happy to see with the subcommittee today. These bills have not 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1989 

yet been reported out of committees to which they have been assigned. 
There are many problems remaining in this area of legislal ion, and we 
continue today our efforts to develop additional factual information 
to aid the Congress and its committees in the disposition of such bills, 
and for the proposal of any necessary remedial legislation. 

That the Congress may legislate — and thus inquire — on this subject 
is unquestioned. Section 215 of the Immigration and Nationality Act 
of 195:2 authorizes the President to impose restrictions upon the travel 
of United States citizens during time of war or national emergency 
and, subject to such limitations and exceptions as the President may 
authorize, to forbid the departure of citizens from the United States 
during such periods unless such citizens bear valid passports. 

In three noteworthy cases, decided recently by the United States 
Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, the Federal 
judiciary has had occasion to pass upon the constitutionality of the 
exercise of power by the President to levy area restraints on travel. 
They have upheld the exercise of such power as an inherent power of 
the executive in the conduct of foreign affairs of the United States 
and for the defense of the country, and also pursuant to statute, in- 
cluding the mentioned section of the Immigration and Nationality Act 
of 1952 and the Passport Act of July 3, 1926 (22 U.S.C. 211a). In 
these cases — Worthy v. Herter, 270 F. 2d 905, decided June 9, 1959 ; 
Frank v. Herter, 269 F. 2d 245, decided July 6, 1959 ; and Porter v. 
Herter, 278 F. 2d 280, decided April 28, 1960— the exercise of this 
Presidential power has been upheld, and in all three cases certiorari was 
denied by the United States Supreme Court (361 U.S. 918). 

Likewise of importance to the committee is its concern oyer the 
operation and administration of the Foreign Agents Registration Act 
of 1938 (Title 22, U.S. Code, section 611, et seq.) in relation to the 
application of the act to persons and organizations conducting propa- 
ganda activities in the interests of foreign Communist principals. 
Court decisions indicate some differences of opinion as to the true 
test of the agency relationship as intended by the act. 

Recently, Fidel Castro invited a number of United States corre- 
spondents to visit Cuba, promising to bear all the expenses of their 
travel. The Department of State validated the passports of 20-odd 
correspondents for travel to Cuba, but, on advice from the Department 
of Justice, cautioned the correspondents that if they accepted expense 
payments from the Cuban Government they might subject themselves 
to the requirements and penalties of the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act of 193S. The correspondents, with one exception, namely, Richard 
Hudson, editor of a magazine called War and Peace Report, an- 
nounced that they would travel to Cuba at their own expense. 

On the other hand, since the severance of diplomatic relations with 
Cuba on January 3, 1961, a substantial number of United States citizens 
not registered under the act have traveled to Cuba with all or part of 
their expenses paid by the Cuban Government or its agencies and, 
upon their return to the United States, have engaged in propaganda 
activities in aid of the Castro regime, yet not one of those persons 
has been prosecuted under the penal sanctions of the Foreign Agents 
Registration Act to date. As will be brought out in these hearings, 
members of the student group which went to Cuba this summer not only 
had all their expenses paid by the Castro government, but were also 
given an extra $10 per week for spending money. 



1990 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN "U.S. 

Certain questions arise. Is the act effective as presently written? 
Is it. being duly enforced? What, if any, are the deficiencies in the 
act? In answer to these, and other questions, the committee is at- 
tempting to ascertain the circumstances surrounding the travel and 
propaganda activities in which the travelers to Cuba have been en- 
gaged, so that it may be in a position to resolve the issues presented. 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act provides, in brief, for the 
registration of persons and organizations which act as agents of 
foreign principals, including agents of friendly foreign powers, as 
well as those of the Soviet and Chinese bloc countries, and requires 
the labeling of any "political propaganda" transmitted in the United 
States mails, or bv any means, in interstate or foreign commerce. Bv 
the terms of the act, it is clear that the mere fact of registration does 
not imply that activities of such agents are, by sole fact of registra- 
tion, deemed harmful, or that any political propaganda disseminated 
by such agents is necessarily untruthful or inimical to the welfare 
of the United States. 

The Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938 was adopted by the 
Congress expressly to carry out a recommendation made in 1935 by 
the House Special Committee to Investigate Un-American Activities, 
the cochairman of which was the present Speaker of the House, the 
Honorable John McCormack. Since the passage of this act. the pres- 
ent Committee on Un-American Activities has made certain legis- 
lative recommendations for its amendment, some of which have been 
adopted by the Congress. 

The policy and purposes of the Foreign Agents Registration Act 
of 1038 are set forth in the act as folloAvs : 

It is hereby declared to be the policy and purpose of this Act to protect the 
national defense, internal security, and foreign relations of the United States 
by requirimr public disclosure by persons engaging in propaganda activities and 
other activities for or on behalf of foreign governments, foreign political parties, 
and other foreign principals so that the Government and the people of the 
United States may be informed of the identify of such persons and may appraise 
their statements and actions in the light of their associations and activities. 

The United States Supreme Court has had occasion to consider the 
act in Viereck v. United States, 318 U.S. 236. As Justice Black then 
pointed out : 

What emerged from extended Congressional investigations, hearings and 
deliberations was this Act. intended to provide an appropriate method to obtain 
information essential for the proper evaluation of political propaganda emanat- 
ing from hired agents of foreign countries. As the House and Senate Commit- 
tees considering the Bill said, it "does not in any way impair the right of free- 
dom of speech, or of a free press, or other constitutional rights." Resting on 
the fundamental constitutional principle that our people, adequately informed, 
may be trusted to distinguish between the true and the false, the bill is intended 
to label information of foreign origin so that hearers and readers may not he 
deceived by the belief that the information comes from a disinterested source. 
Such legislation implements rather than detracts from the prized freedoms 
guaranteed by the First Amendment. No strained interpretation should frus- 
trate its essential purpose ( p. 2.">0f ) . 

It is thus clear that it is neither the purpose of the act. nor the 
purpose of this committee in endeavoring to strengthen it, to obstruct 
the interchange of ideas or information, but rather to preserve the 
integrity of free speech and communication. 

Section 1 of the act defines the term "foreign principal" as includ- 
ing the government of a foreign country, a foreign political party, any 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1991 

individual affiliated or associated with, or supervised, directed, con- 
! rolled, financed, or subsidized, in whole or in part, by any such foreign 
country or foreign political party, and, with certain exceptions, any 
person outside of the United States. An "agent of a foreign principal" 

is defined in the act as including, inter alia, any person who acts or 
agrees to act, within the United States, as a public-relations counsel, 
publicity agent, information-service employee, servant, agent, repre- 
sent al ive, or attorney for a foreign principal — regardless whether such 
relationship exists pursuant to contract. 

These terms are further defined in the act. A "public-relations 
counsel" is defined as including — 

any person who engages directly or indirectly in informing, advising, or in any 
way representing a principal in any matter pertaining to political or public 
interests, policies, or relations. 

The term "publicity agent," is defined as including — 

any person who engages directly or indirectly in the publication or dissemination 
of oral, visual, graphic, written, or pictorial information or matter of any kind, 
including publication by means of advertising, books, periodicals, newspapers, 
lectures, broadcasts, motion pictures, or otherwise. 

And an "information-service employee" is defined as including — 

any person who is engaged in furnishing, disseminating, or publishing accounts, 
descriptions, information, or data with respect to the political, industrial, employ- 
ment, economic, social, cultural, or other benefits, advantages, facts, or con- 
ditions of any country other than the United States * * *. 

Of interest, likewise, is the definition of the term "political propa- 
ganda" as including oral or written communication by any person — 

(1) which is reasonably adapted to, or which the person disseminating the same 
believes will, or which he intends to, prevail upon, indoctrinate, convert, induce, 
or in any other way influence a recipient or any section of the public within the 
United States with reference to the political or public interests, policies, or 
relations of a government of a foreign country or a foreign political party or with 
reference to the foreign policies of the United States or promote in the United 
States racial, religious, or social dissensions, or (2) which advocates, advises, 
instigates, or promotes any racial, social, political, or religious disorder, civil 
riot, or other conflict involving the use of force or violence in any other Ameri- 
can republic or the overthrow of any government or political subdivision of 
any other American republic by any means involving the use of force or 
violence. * * * 

The committee would be derelict in its duty if it did not devote its 
attention to persons and organizations which engage in deception or 
fraud with a view toward influencing the public and Government of 
the United States in the interest of foreign Communist regimes, and 
that, seek to promote racial, religious, or social dissension involving the 
use of force and violence and which have as their ultimate objective 
the overthrow of the Government of the United States. 

This is particularly true of persons or organizations winch are 
generally described as Communist and whose activities fall within 
the mandate of this committee. As this committee said in 1961 in its 
report on H.R. 5751, Report 309, Part 2, 87th Congress : 

Marxism-Leninism adopts the corrupt principle that the end — which is the 
establishment of Communist totalitarian dictatorship in countries throughout 
the world — justifies any means for the accomplishment of that end, and expressly 
repudiates the spiritual and moral compulsion for truth and decency to which 
the United States and other free societies in principle adhere. Marxism-Leninism 
expressly in doctrine and practice subordinates morality to the interest of its 



1992 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

revolutionary movement, and deliberately employs the instrumentality of propa- 
ganda in such interest without regard to the truth or falsity of its propaganda. 
The objective of Communist propaganda, confirmed by the theoretical writings 
and practices of the world Communist movement, is to advance the policies and 
goal of the world Communist movement. Such propaganda is conceived and 
fabricated to create within non-Communist societies such a degree of social 
fission and confusion as will accelerate the seizure of political power by Com- 
munist revolutionaries acting within and without such societies. 

The democratic processes of our free form of government must be 
protected so that the liberties of our pepole and their welfare shall 
be preserved in the course of an orderly evolution of our society. 
Justice Harlan speaking for the Supreme Court in Barenblatt v. 
United Stares. 360 U.S. 109, at page 127, which was a decision involv- 
ing this committee, said : 

That Congress has wide power to legislate in the field of Communist activity 
in this Country, and to conduct appropriate investigations in aid thereof, is 
hardly debatable. The existence of such power has never been questioned by 
this Court, and it is sufficient to say, without particularization, that Congress 
has enacted or considered in this field a wide range of legislative measures, 
not a few of which have stemmed from recommendations of the very Committee 
whose actions have been drawn in question here. In the last analysis this power 
r-'sts on the right of self-preservation, "the ultimate value of any society," Den- 
nis v. United States, 341 U.S. 494, 509. * * * 

I now offer for the record the order of appointment of this sub- 
committee as follows : 

August 10, 1904 
To : Mr. Francis J. McNamara 
Director. Committee on Un-American Activities 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I 
hereby appoint, a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
consisting of Honorable Richard Ichord, as Chairman, and Honorable George F. 
Senner. Jr., and Honorable August E. Johansen, as associate members, to con- 
duct hearings in Washington, D.C., commencing on or about Thursday, Septem- 
ber 3, 1964, and at such other time or times thereafter and at such place or places 
as said subcommittee shall determine, as contemplated by the resolution adopted 
by the Committee on the twenty-fourth day of April, 1963, authorizing hearings 
relating to Communist propaganda activities conducted in support of the Com- 
munist regime in Cuba, foreign travel undertaken by United States citizens in 
connection with such activities and in violation of State Department travel 
regulations, and other matters referred to in said resolution. 

Please make this action a matter of Committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 

Given under my hand this 10th day of August, 1964. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis 
Edwin E. Willis, 
Chairman, Committee on Tin- American Activities. 

That statement complies with the record. The Chair is very happy 
to have with us the chairman of the full committee, the Honorable 
Ed Willis, and I would like to call upon the chairman at this time. 
I think it would be helpful, Mr. Chairman, if you would explain to 
the witnesses and the audience the rules, procedures, and practices of 
this committee. 

Mr. Willis. I, as chairman of the committee, designated the sub- 
committee with Mr. Ichord as chairman to conduct these hearings, so 
I am only here as an interested member of the committee. The com- 
mittee is in very good hands and I know the hearings will be conducted 
with propriety and decorum. 

I don't want to say any more except to indicate, as the chairman 
himself will do later on, I am sure> that the people in this hearing room 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1993 

arc guests of this committee. This is an. open hearing. We not only 
are glad to have you, but we welcome the presence of all who are here. 
This is part of the operation of our Government, through the legis- 
lative branch. 

Everyone must realize, and I now admonish all, that there will be 
order in the hearing room and boisterous, disorderly, untoward 
conduct will not be tolerated. I am glad to be here. Mr. Ichord, you 
are in full charge. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. In order to further comply 
with the rules of procedure I might say to the members of the audience 
that this committee consists of a subcommittee of three: Mr. Johan- 
sen of Michigan, on my right, a Republican, and Mr. Senner from Ari- 
zona, on my left, a member of the Democratic Party. 

I understand that four of the witnesses who are under subpena were 
observed to enter the hearing room soon after the reading of the open- 
ing statement was underway. I believe these witnesses were given 
copies of the statement. They' were given copies of the statement? 

Mr. Nittle. They were. 

Mr. Ichord. And you are directed to read it before taking the wit- 
ness stand because it does advise you of committee procedures. I might 
further add that the power to investigate, as held by the United States 
Supreme Court, is essential to the very existence of the Congress. 

This is an investigation, not a trial. None of the witnesses called 
before this committee are being tried. They do have constitutional 
rights and, as a lawyer and as a Member of the Congress sworn to 
uphold and defend the Constitution of the United States, I intend, in 
presiding over this committee, to protect the rights of the witness as 
defined by the Constitution, the rules of this committee, rules of the 
House, and the court decisions interpreting the constitutional rights 
of the citizen. 

It was brought to my attention that, prior to this hearing, a state- 
ment was made about it by one of the leaders of a group concerned 
with travel to Cuba. I got. this statement verbatim from the news 
media and I want to quote it : "This year there will be bloody heads, 
but the heads that will be bloody will not be ours." 

I hope that in conducting these hearings today, I will be able to 
have order by merely appealing to your sense of decorum, to your 
sense of propriety. This is an open hearing. The business of Con- 
gress is the people's business, and I trust that with that statement 
we will be able to maintain order in this hearing room today. 

The committee also has with it other members of the full com- 
mittee : the Honorable Joe Pool from Texas, on my extreme left, the 
Honorable Don Bruce from Indiana, the Honorable Henry Schade- 
berg from Wisconsin, and the Honorable John Ashbrook from Ohio. 
We are very happy to have you with us. 

The committee counsel has a list of witnesses and questions which 
he desires to propound to the witnesses. Mr. Counsel, you will call 
your first witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would George Luke please come forward ? 

Mr. Ichord. Under the rides of the committee the photographers 
will have to retire. Will the witness first stand and be sworn ? Do 
you solemnly promise and swear that the testimony that you are about 
to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 



1994 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGAXDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Luke. I do. 

Mr. Ici-iord. The witness may be seated. Proceed with the question- 
ing, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE LUKE 

Mr. Xittle. Would you state your full name for the record, please ? 

Mr. Like. George Luke. 

Mr. Xittle. What is your occupation and by whom are you em- 
ployed ? 

Mr. Luke. I am a travel agent from Xew York City with Travel 
Associates. 

Mr. Xittle. Where are your offices maintained ? 

Mr. Luke. 50 East 42d Si reel. 

Mr. Xittle. How long have you been employed as travel agent for 
Travel Associates, Incorporated \ 

Mr. Luke. I have been managing director of the agency for 3y 2 
years. 

Mr. Xittle. During the course of your employment, Air. Luke, did 
you have occasion to come in contact with a person who identified 
herself to you as Miss Yvonne Bond ? 

Mr. Luke. I did. 

Mr. Xittle. Where and when did this take place '. 

Mr. Lfke. Saturday. May 23, 1964, in my office. 

Air. Xittle. Mr. Luke, have you had occasion to identify anyone 
in the Caucus Room here today as the person who identified herself 
to you as Yvonne Bond ? 

Air. Luke. Yes. I did. 

Mr. Xittle. Could you rise please and go to her and point her out? 

Mr. Luke. Risrht over here, the woman with classes, with the gray 
dress. 

Mr. Xittle. For the purposes of the record, could you describe her 
position in the Caucus Room as to row and seat? 

Mr. Luke. The eighth seat in the first row [from the left]. 

Air. Xittle. Would that individual who has just been pointed out 
rise, please ? 

Mr. I< iiord. That won't be necessary, Mr. Counsel. Proceed to 
questioning the witness. 

Mr. Xittle. How many visits did Miss Bond in total make to your 
office during this year? 

Mr. Luke. Two. one on Saturday and one the following Monday. 

Air. Xittle. One visit on Saturday, May 23, 1964 ? 

Mr. Luke. Yes. 

Mr. Xittle. And one the following Monday, is that correct ? 

Mr. Luke. Yes. 

Mr. Xittle. And that would be May 25, 1964 ? 

Air. Luke. Yes. 

Mr. Xittle. Was Miss Bond accompanied by any person on the occa- 
sion of those visits ? 

Mr. Luke. On both visits she was accompanied by one young man 
wearing a beard. 

Air Xittle. Did this man identify himself or was he identified to 
you by Miss Bond ? 

Mr Luke. Xo, at no time. I never was able to get his name. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1995 

Mr. Xittle. Can you identify anyone in this Caucus Room today as 
the person who accompanied Miss Bond to your office? 

Mr. Luke. I can identify someone who looks like him, but he doesn't 
have the beard today. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you point out that person who looks like him? 

Mr. Like. The second gentleman from Miss Bond. The sixth seat 
over [from the left]. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Luke, are you positive of that identification '. 

Mr. Luke. As much as anyone can be. If he put a beard on I would 
know him for sure. He looks exactly like the man without a beard. 

Mr. Senner. But today, as a witness, are you positive of his identi- 
fication ? 

Mr. Like. I can't be that positive, but I can say he looks extremely 
very much like the man. 

Mr. Iciiord. The chairman asks the committee counsel : Has the 
individual just pointed out been subpenaed by this committee as a 
witness? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir; he has been subpenaed as Morton B. Slater 
by investigators of this committee. 

Mr. Ichord. I am sure we can determine that by questions when 
the witness comes before the committee. Proceed with your ques- 
tioning of this witness. 

Mr. Senner. I wouldn't be too sure of that. 

Mr. Xittle. Mr. Luke, I hand you a copy of the passport applica- 
tion of one Morton B. Slater filed with the Department of State on 
April 29, 1964, which contains a photograph of the applicant, Morton 
B. Slater. The photograph shows a young man with a beard. Can 
you identify the person whose likeness appears thereon ? 

Mr. Luke. This is the gentleman that came into my office, excepting 
in this picture he has a mustache, which he doesn't have this time. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. In this case there isn't the slightest 
question in your mind as to the identity of the picture and the person 
involved ? 

Mr. Luke. Xo, I would say definitely that was the man who came 
into my office. 

Mr. Iciiord. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luke, you stated that Miss Bond visited you on 
two occasions; namely, May 23 and May 25, 1964. Will you tell us, 
please, first, what happened on the occasion of her visit of May 23, 
1964? 

Mr. Luke. Well, when they first came in on Saturday, the two of 
them, she started the conversation by asking what was the fare from 
San Francisco to Paris and, after asking her several questions as to 
who the people were and where they were from, ascertaining whether 
they were all one college — because she said they were all college stu- 
dents from the San Francisco area — I gave her the fares we worked 
out. 

1 gave her the round-trip fares and determined that, according to 
what she told me, that they were going to go for 3 weeks, which would 
have qualified them for an excursion fare. I subsequently made ar- 
rangements to book them to Europe with the return trip within 21 
days. 

Mr. Nittle. How many persons did you make arrangements for? 

Mr. Luke. Well, we booked 28 altogether. 



1996 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. And will you tell us where the flight was to depart 
from and what the destination was, together with the date of de- 
parture? 

Mr. Luke. Well, originally, according to Miss Bond, they had had 
reservations directly from San Francisco to Paris, but through subse- 
quent arrangements on my part we booked them on American Airlines 
coming from San Francisco to New York, making a direct connection 
onto Air France from New York to Paris, with open return tickets. 

Mr. Nittle. Had you had any discussion with Miss Bond respect- 
ing any prior arrangements she may have made with some airline to 
travel? 

Mr. Luke. It was my understanding that they had already had one- 
way reservations and tickets on TWA, or not actually tickets but a de- 
posit for one-way tickets with TWA. 

Mr. Nittle. Did the person who accompanied Miss Bond engage 
in any discussion with you with respect to these arrangements? 

Mr. Luke. Not with respect to the arrangements, because Miss Bond 
did all the conversation on that. 

Mr. Nittle. Did Miss Bond then return to your office on May 25, 
1964? 

Mr. Luke. Yes ; about 6 :30, quarter to seven in the evening. 

Mr. Nittle. Had you asked her to return at that time ? 

Mr. Luke. Well, yes, because what I had done was — I couldn't see 
her until arrangements had been made with the airline, with the res- 
ervations, et cetera, and when she called on Monday, I told her that 
everything would be fairly well settled b}' that evening, and she said 
that thev would be coming in at 6 o'clock because she had to go back to 
San Francisco that evening, so she came in about a quarter to seven 
actually. 

Mr. Nittle. Just going back a moment, do you recollect the time 
that Miss Bond visited you on the preceding Saturday ? 

Mr. Luke. Well, in the neighborhood of 11 to 12 o'clock in the 
forenoon. 

Mr. Nittle. What happened on the occasion of her second visit? 

Mr. Luke. Well, she was supposed to come in at 6 o'clock and she 
wasn't in by 6 :15, 6 :30, so I called the hotel where they were staying 
at, the Gramercy Park, to ascertain if she was still registered and 
she hadn't checked out — because I wanted to make sure that she was 
coming in — and she subsequently came in about quarter to seven and 
I told her that everything was in order and she made a deposit for the 
balance of the amount due, less the amount that was supposed to be on 
deposit with TWA in San Francisco. 

Mr. Nittle. What amount did she deposit with you on May 25? 

Mr. Luke. $4,733.30. 

Mr. Nittle. And what was the balance owing on the reservation ? 

Mr. Luke. $12,500. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you describe the manner in which the deposit 
was made ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1997 

Mr. Luke. Well, there, were 47 brand new $100 bills, three $10 
bills and three Ts and 30 cents, and it was paid in cash, and I was 
a little bit startled when she took the money out and I said, "My 
God, what are you doing with all that money, running around with 
it?" 

She said, "Who would expect me to be carrying that?" 

Mr. Xittle. Beg your pardon? 

Mr. Luke. She said, "Who would expect me to be carrying this 
much money?" 

Mr. Nittle. Was any further comment made ? 

Mr. Luke. No, not with regard to the carrying of the money. 

Mr. Nittle. What reservations did you finally make for this de- 
posit ? 

Mr. Luke. Well, they were booked on American Airlines on the 
evening of, I believe, June the ninth, leaving San Francisco at 10 
o'clock, getting into New York about 6, and then booked the next 
morning on the Air France Flight 010 to Paris, leaving at, I believe, 
10 a.m. 

Mr. Nittle. Having received this money in new $100 bills, the 
small balance in three 10's and l's, and 30 cents in cash, what did 
you do ? 

Mr. Luke. Well, quite frankly, we made a record of the serial 
numbers when we made the deposit on the following day. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you at any subsequent time receive from Miss 
Bond, or any other person, the balance owing on the reservations, 
which I believe you stated was in the amount of $12,500 ? 

Mr. Luke. Yes, we received a cashier's check, oh, approximately 
June the third, about a week and a half later. 

Mr. Nittle. In what way did you receive it ? 

Mr. Luke. Well, it came by mail in an envelope from Miss Bond. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you note the place from which it was posted? 

Mr. Luke. Well, it was posted from Oakland. We didn't make 
a note of it. We didn't check. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a photostatic copy of a cashier's check 
numbered 17948684, drawn on the United California Bank, San Fran- 
cisco, California, dated June 2, 1964, and made payable to the order 
of Travel Associates, Inc., in the sum of $12,450. 

I have marked the item as "Luke Exhibit No. 1." Can you identify 
that exhibit ? 

Mr. Luke. Yes. This is the check that we received and subse- 
quently deposited. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit No. 1 in evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. The counsel offers Exhibit No. 1 in evidence ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Iciiord. Let the Chair look at it. If there be no objection, 
the Exhibit No. 1 will be admitted in evidence. 

(Document marked "Luke Exhibit No. 1" follows :) 



1998 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN L\S. 



m 



i 



r 



Luke Exiiirit No. 1 



" »»»■— " ■.■ ■ * .., 



-? * ¥ * ¥#& *£$. I 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 1999 

Mr. Nittle. By the way, Mr. Luke, in what name did you book 
t his group for reservations '( 

Mr. Luke. Well, I concocted a name because they weren't from 
one school and they were all students and so 1 iust gave them the 
"May Area Student Tour to Europe." 

Mr. Senner. Is that "Students to Europe" % 

.Mr. Like. "To France" actually, because that's where they were 
going, the "Bay Area Student Tour to France." 

Mr. Senner. Did you make this notation on the tickets, "Students 
to France" \ 

Mr. Luke. No, no ; on tickets you don't do this. On the ticket you 
just put their names. 

Mr. Skxner. Just the names ? 

Mr. Luke. That's right. 

Mr. Johansen. On what did you base the designation of "students" \ 
The information given you by Miss Bond that it was a student group '? 

Mr. Luke. Yes. She had told me that they were all students. 
This is what I tried to find out — if they were all from one college 
and she said "no," they were from various colleges around San 
Francisco and Oakland, so I just give it a name for my own record's 
sake and riling purposes. 

Mr. Skxner. And that name was "Students to France" ? 

Mr. Luke. "Bay Area Student Tour to France," because as far 
as we knew this is the only place they were going, to France. 

Mr. Nettle. Had you at any time offered to take publicity photos 
of the group she had booked ? 

Mr. Luke. Yes, actually I had arranged with the American Air- 
lines that when they checked in at the airport — for a group picture on 
boarding, which is customary when you have a group of people travel- 
ing together. But then I found out the day after they left — the FBI 
called me and asked me if I had made any arrangements for a group 
of people to Europe and I told them u yes," so they were interested if 
I had any pictures or any information, so I had my man at American 
Airlines call their office in San Francisco and subsequently learned 
that when they checked in they refused to have the picture taken. 

Mr. Nittle. Did Miss Bond, or the person who accompanied her, 
ever advise you that the group intended to travel to Cuba % 

Mr. Luke. No, as far as I knew they were only going to be traveling 
around Europe for 3 weeks. 

Mr. Nittle. Was any refund subsequently due to Miss Bond on 
account of any change in reservations ? 

Mr. Luke. 'Well, I learned actually on the day that they left that 
seven people didn't go, and I subsequently found that American Air- 
lines had sent two checks to Miss Bond's home address for the portion 
from San Francisco to New York, and my office, has been refunded the 
balance of the eight tickets from New York to Paris; and I have been 
waiting since the refund came in for someone to come in and collect 
it, but no one has yet. 

Mr. Nittle. What address were you given by Miss Bond ? 

Mr. Luke. 5225 Miles Avenue, in Oakland, California. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, before we pursue that, what is the 
amount of the unclaimed refund for the unused tickets that you have 
on hand ? 



2000 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Luke. $2,225.12. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Do you have any knowledge as to whether there is 
an unclaimed amount in the hands of the airlines? 

Mr. Luke. No, no. 

Mr. Joiiaxsex. For the trip from California to New York? 

Mr. Luke. Well, no, because that has already been sent by Ameri- 
can Airlines to Miss Bond at her home address in two particular 
checks, which I have copy of the amounts that were sent to her by 
American here in my files. 

Mr. Sexxer. Excuse me for interrupting. Mr. Witness, was the 
American Airlines refund sent to the same address that Miss Bond 
gave you in regard to the reservations ? 

Mr. Luke. Yes, because I had contacted Mr. Dunham, the Security 
and Accounts Department of American Airlines, and he subsequently 
told me that these two checks had been mailed to her at her home 
address. 

Mr. Ichord. What was the city in France that was the destination 
of the flight? 

Mr. Luke. Just Paris. 

Mr. Iciiord. And you have not been contacted by Miss Bond, or 
anyone, in regard to a refimd of the amount of money still in your 
hands? 

Mr. Luke. Not yet. This is by prior arrangements. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Johansex. I didn't catch the last part of your statement: You 
said "not yet** \ 

Mr. Luke. Well I have been holding the money in the office until 
I was contacted. 

Mr. Joiiaxsex. But you made some statement I thought about 
"prior arrangements." 

Mr. Luke. By "prior arrangements," yes, with the FBI. They had 
asked me not to send it out and to hold it until someone claimed it. 

Mr. Senner. What was the address Miss Bond gave you? 

Air. Luke. Her home address ? 

Air. Sexxer. Yes. 

Mr. Luke. 5225 Miles Avenue, Oakland, California. 

Mr. Nittle. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Iciiord. The witness then will be excused and I would ask, Mr. 
Luke, that you please remain in the area. You may be called at a 
later time. 

Mr. Luke. Fine. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much. 

Call your next witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Alexander Lewin please come forward? 

Mr. Ichord. Does the witness object to any pictures being taken? 

Mr. Lewtx. No, if it is the normal procedure. 

Mr. Ichord. Will the witness rise and be sworn please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lewix. I do. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness may be seated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2001 

TESTIMONY OF ALEXANDER LEWIN 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and spell it for the 
record please? 

Mr. Lewin. Alexander Lewin, L-e-w-i-n. 

Mr. Xittle. What is your occupation and by whom are you 
employed ? 

Mr. Lewin. I am a travel agent and I am employed by Foreign 
Tours of New York. 

Mr. Nittle. Where does your employer, Foreign Tours, Incorpo- 
rated, have its office ? 

Mr. Lewin. 11 West 42d Street, New York City. 

Mr. Xittle. How long have you been employed in that capacity by 
Foreign Tours? 

Mr. Lewin. Three years. 

Mr. Nittle. While thus employed did you have occasion to come in 
contact with a person who identified himself to you as Morton Slater, 
S-1-a-t-e-r? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Xittle. Would you be able to tell us when and where this took 
place ? 

Mr. Lewin. On May 10, in our office. 

Mr. Xtttle. Mr. Lewin, I hand you the passport application of 
Morton B. Slater filed with the Department of State. There is a 
photograph on it and I ask you whether you can identify the person 
whose photograph appears thereon ? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, this is Morton Slater. 

Mr. Xtttle. And that is the man who appeared at your office on 
May 10, 1961? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Xtttle. Have you had occasion to identify any person in the 
Caucus Room today who is the person whom you name as Morton 
Slater? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, but he has no beard today. 

Mr. Nittle. Could you point him out in the audience, describing 
his position in the audience? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes. He is sitting in the first row, 6th seat. 

Mr. Xtttle. Thank you. 

Mr. Willis. Six seats from the left ? 

Mr. Lewin. From the left, yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. And that person you pointed out is the same person 
that the previous witness pointed to a while ago, is that correct ? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, sir. 

Air. Xtttle. How many visits did Mr. Slater make to your office? 

Mr. Lewin. All together, five. 

Mr. Xittle. Could you tell us the dates or the approximate dates 
of those visits? 

Mr. Lewin. May 10, the first time, May 12 or 13, the second time — 
I'm not sure — May 26, June 2, June 8. 

Mr. X t ittle. Was he accompanied by anyone in the course of any 
of those visits? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, once ; on May 26. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you had occasion to observe anyone in the au- 
dience today who is the person whom you identify as accompanying 
Morton Slater on May 26? " to 

40-013—65 — pt. 5 3 



2002 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, I did. She looks like her. She has — I am not sure 
if she had at the visit in our office glasses or not — I don't remember — 
but today she has glasses. 

Mr. Nittle. Did that person who accompanied Mr. Slater on the 
visit of May 26 identify herself to you by name? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. What was the name she gave to you ? 

Mr. Lewin. Miss Katsko Itakava. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you please spell that for the record ? 

Mr. Lewin. K-a-t-s-k-o I-t-a-k-a-v-a. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lewin, I hand you a photograph appended to a 
document containing a photograph of a young lady. Can you 
identify the likeness of the person who appears thereon ? 

Mr. Lewin. Not from this picture, not from this picture. May I 
explain formally that it is very hard from a picture, from a photo- 
graph picture, to identify somebody, especially — I am sorry for this — 
if you belong to a certain ethnic group. 

Mr. Willis. Will you talk a little louder ? 

Mr. Lewin. I cannot identify from this picture Miss Katsko 
Itakava. 

Mr. Willis. The photograph of the young lady appearing on that 
does not show her wearing glasses. 

Mr. Lewin. It doesn't show her wearing glasses, no. There is a 
similarity, yes, but I wouldn't make a definite identification. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, may I ask one question ? 

When the young lady appeared, did she make any point about spell- 
ing her name correctly or pronouncing it correctly, utilizing it cor- 
rectly ? 

Mr. Lewin. No, because it is a Japanese name and it doesn't have 
to be spelled to me. I usually am good in spelling foreign names. 

Mr. Senner. Thank you. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, the document I handed the witness 
was in fact the passport application of "Wendy," W-e-n-d-y, Suzuko, 
S-u-z-u-k-o, Nakashima, N-a-k-a-s-h-i-m-a. 

Mr. Senner. Counsel, would you have the witness point out Wendy 
Nakashima or whatever her name is ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. I was proposing to do that. Mr. Lewin, are you 
able to point out in the Caucus Room the person who identified herself 
to you as Katsko Itakava ? Would you go to her please ? 

Mr. Lewin. She looks like her very much. 

Mr. Iciiord. It is the understanding, Mr. Counsel, that the indi- 
vidual pointed out was a witness before the committee at the hearings 
last year? 

Mr. Nittle. That is correct, Mr. Chairman. The person pointed out 
by Mr. Lewin, I desire to state for the record, is the person who ap- 
peared before this committee on Friday, September 13, 1963, giving 
her testimony before the committee in response to a subpena in con- 
nection with hearings involving this subject. 

She identified herself as Wendie Suzuko Nakashima and stated in 
the course of her testimony that she was married to Jacob Rosen. 

Mr. Ichord. Is she subpenaed as a witness today ? 

Mr. Nittle. No, sir. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with the questioning. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2003 

Mr. Nittle. Pursuing the subject of identification of the person 
who accompanied Morton Slater, 1 want to ask whether you were 
given any further identification by either Morton Slater, or the per- 
son who accompanied him and identified herself as Katsko Itakava? 

Mr. Leavix. I am very sorry. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you given any address to contact by either of 
these persons? 

Mr. Leavix. Yes, in case of need I should contact Miss Katsko Ita- 
kava at a telephone number in New York City, FO-8-7299. 

Mr. Nittle. You were told by Miss Katsko Itakava that she could 
be contacted at FO 8-7299 ? 

Mr. Leavix. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. You are positive of that? 

Mr. Lewix. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I state for the record that investigation 
of the telephone number revealed that it was listed in the name of 
Mary Hamanaka, H-a-m-a-n-a-k-a, of 622 West 141st Street, New 
York City, and it thus appears in the New York City telephone direc- 
tory. Mary Hamanaka is the mother of Wendie Suzuko Nakashima 
Rosen who, you will recall, was a member of the group that traveled 
to Cuba last summer and testified before us last September. 

In the course of the hearing last September a witness, Mr. Barry 
Hoffman, identified Wendie Rosen as a member of the Progressive 
Labor Movement. Mrs. Rosen was further identified as the wife of 
Jacob Rosen, who in turn is the brother of Milton Rosen, cochairman 
of the Progressive Labor Movement. 

During the course of her testimony before this committee. Mrs. 
Rosen's passport application was introduced in evidence, and that is 
the application which I just exhibited to the witness. I call your 
attention to the fact that in the application of "Wendy" Suzuko Naka- 
shima she named her mother, Mary Hamanaka, of 622 West 141st 
Street, New York City, as the person to be notified in the event of her 
death or accident. 

Now, Mr. Lewin, I want to bring you to the occasion of the first 
visit of Morton Slater to your office on May 10. Would you tell us 
what happened then ? 

Mr. Lewix. Mr. Morton Slater came to my office May 10, as stated 
before, and came to me first May 10 to make arrangements for a group 
of people, 27, going to Paris, and he asked me what dates were avail- 
able because at that time it was the peak period of traveling and no 
space was available. 

In fact, I made two arrangements, one with Air France and one 
with El Al Israel Airlines, one for June 10, morning flight, with Air 
France, and June 10, the evening flight, with El Al Israel Airlines, 
and we finally decided that they are going to travel on El Al Israel to 
Paris instead of Air France in the morning. 

We discussed the matter of rate of the ticket, excursion, 21 days, to 
Paris at the rate of $341.80. At the same occasion we discussed free 
conductor's ticket, which is customary giving for every airline for a 
group going to Europe over 15 participants, and that was the end of 
the first meeting. 

Mr. Nittle. What occurred upon the second meeting of May 12 
or 13? 



2004 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lewin. On the second meeting, Mr. Morton Slater came to my 
office. I confirmed for him the seats on El Al and he gave me a 
deposit of $1,000. 

Mr. Willis. How much ? 

Mr. Lewin. $1,000. 

Mr. Willis. Cash, or by check ? 

Mr. Lewin . It was cash. 

Mr. Nittle. In what denominations? 

Mr. Lewin. $100 bills. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you observe whether they were new or used $100 
bills? 

Mr. Lewin. New. 

Mr. Sennek. When you say the word "new," you mean "crisp" ? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. What happened on the occasion, then, of this third visit 
of May 26, at which time you have testified he was accompanied by a 
young lady identifying herself as Katsko Itakava ? 

Mr. Lewin. By that time we had finalized the names finally, and 
Mr. Slater paid me the balance of the account, which came to $9,254. 

Mr. Nittle. And how was this money paid? 

Mr. Lewin. It was paid in brand new, like Mr. Senner said, in 
"crisp" $100 bills. 

Mr. Nittle. Was anything said at this time by Katsko Itakava? 

Mr. Lewin. No, sir, not that I can recall. 

Mr. Nittle. Did Mr. Slater appear again on June 2 ? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. What happened at that time ? 

Mr. Lewin. At June 2, we added three more passengers to the list 
and Mr. Slater paid me the balance for the three passengers, which 
amounted to $1,025.40. 

Mr. Nittle. And how was that amount paid ? 

Mr. Lewin. In cash, $100 bills. 

Mr. Willis. Was that also crisp money ? 

Mr. Lewin. Mr. Chairman, I don't remember that money. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you tell us what happened on the occasion of the 
fifth and last visit by Mr. Slater on June 8 ? 

Mr. Lewin. By June 8, we had added a child to the group, and Mr. 
Slater picked up his ticket and paid me $170.90 for a child's ticket. 

Mr. Nittle. And in what denominations was that paid, if you 
remember ? 

Mr. Lewin. No, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. You do not remember? 

Mr. Lewin. I don't remember. 

Mr. Willis. Did you say for a child's ticket ? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Senner. That would be under the age of 12 ? 

Mr. Lewin. Under the age of 12. 

Mr. Nittle. In making arrangements for this group, did Mr. Slater 
at any time identify it to you ? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, we were talking about the group as an organiza- 
tion and during the discussion I asked him a couple of times what is 
the name of the group. I presumed he is an artist because he had 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2005 

a beard, and we came up with a name during the discussion, "Man- 
hattan Art Club." 

Mr. Nittle. He suggested that, or did you? 

Mr. Lewin. No; he said so, yes. It is an art club, Manhattan Art 
Club. 

Mr. Nittle. He identified the group traveling as the Manhattan 
Art Club? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, but then later, the second time, I remember he said 
he doesn't want to mention the art group club because they aren't going 
as an affinity group and there is no sense mentioning the Manhattan 
Art. Club any place. 

Mr. Nittle. Did he at any time tell you that he and the group in- 
tended to travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lewin. No, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. What were the final arrangements that you made for 
this group? 

Mr. Lewin. I am sorry, I domt understand. 

Mr. Nittle. What was the final booking for the group and date of 
departure and the means of departure? 

Mr. Lewin. The date of departure was June 10, flight number 242, 
El Al Israel Airlines, to Paris at 9 p.m. 

Mr. Nittle. And how many persons traveling aboard? 

Air. Lewin. Aboard, paying, 42 ; but the members of the group, 32. 

Air. Senner, Where was the destination for this group? 

Mr. Lewin. Of the airplane? 

Air. Senner. No; for the students that were buying tickets? 

Mr. Lewin. Sir, Paris, Paris. 

Air. Nittle. Was any refund due to Mr. Slater on any alterations in 
the number of passengers actually traveling? 

Air. Lewin. Not that I know of. 

Air. Nittle. Did you have occasion to see Mr. Slater at any time 
following his fifth visit to your office? 

Air. Lewin. No, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you make any arrangements with Mr. Slater for 
the taking of photos on the departure of the group? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes ; I suggested to make a picture as is customary for 
agencies to make for every large group going over as an entity to 
Europe. He said, "It is not necessary." 

Air. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further question of this 
witness. 

Air. Ichord. Mr. Counsel, do you anticipate a need for further 
recalling the witness ? 

Mr. Nittle. No, sir. 

Air. Ichord. Then the witness may be excused permanently if he 
desires to leave. 

Mr. Senner. I have one question. 

As I understand your statement, all the monev with the exception of 
small 10's and 20's were in $100 bills, is that fight? 

Mr. Lewin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ichord. Any further questions of Mr. Lewin ? 

Thank you very much, Mr. Lewin, for your testimony. You will 
be excused. 

Mr. Lewin. Thank you. 



2006 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. Call your next witness, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Yvonne Bond please come forward ? 

Mr. Ichord. Will you please rise and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Bond. Yes. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will be seated and the photographers will 
please retire. 

Miss Bond. May I please have a drink of water ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, surely. 

Mr. Ichord. Is the witness represented by counsel ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Ichord. Would the counsel please identify himself? I believe 
you have been before the committee before, representing witnesses? 

Mr. Gollobin. Ira Gollobin, G-o-l-l-o-b-i-n, from New York City. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF YVONNE MARIE BOND, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, IRA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name for the record please? 

Miss Bond. My name is Yvonne Marie Bond, Y-v-o-n-n-e, Marie, 
Bond, B-o-n-d, and before I say anything else 

Mr. Ichord. I am sorry, Miss Bond. The acoustics in this room are 
very poor and I would ask that you speak loud and please use the mike. 
Proceed. 

Miss Bond. Yes. 

Mr. Gollobin. We both have a cold, I might say. 

Miss Bond. I object to answering any questions of this committee 
on the ground that Public Law No. 601, 79th Congress, 60 Statute 812 ; 
Part 2, Rule XI, authorizing the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties to make investigations of the extent, character, and objects of un- 
American propaganda activities in the U.S., that this violates the Con- 
stitution in that, firstly, the statute is vague 

Mr. Senner. Counsel, have you instructed the witness to read this, 
and if so we would appreciate it if you would read it because I cannot 
understand what the witness is reading. 

Mr. Gollobin. I would be glad to read it. 

Miss Bond. I would be glad to explain it myself because I under- 
stand what it is all about. It just consists of a few parts, mainly that 
the term "un-American" is never precisely defined. 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, under the rules of the committee you are 
entitled by the practice of the committee to make a preliminary state- 
ment confined to jurisdiction, the legislative purpose and subject of 
the hearing, its compliance with the rules, and the validity of the 
subpena. 

I understand you have a written statement there. You will be per- 
mitted to proceed, but I ask that you restrict yourself to those matters 
enumerated and do not get into argument. 

Proceed with your reading. 

Miss Bond. Well, I will continue with this. The statute is vague, 
the term "un-American propaganda activities" meaning being no- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2007 

where, upon being in fact incapable of precise definition and, secondly, 
the statute on its face as construed and applied by the House Un- 
American Activities Committee during (he past 18 years is repugnant 
to freedom of speech, assembly, and other freedoms guaranteed to the 
people, which the Bill of Rights expressly forbids the Federal Gov- 
ernment from abridging, and therefore I maintain I do not waive this 
objection to all questions asked me, that this committee is illegally 
constituted. 

Air. Johansex. Mr. Chairman, these objections have been dealt 
with by the courts before and dismissed. I suggest we proceed with 
the questioning. If the witness has constitutional grounds for not 
answering the question that is a different matter. 

Mr. Ichord. How long is the statement of the witness ? 

Miss Boxd. I have finished reading my statement. 

Mr. Willis. May I ask a question ? 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Willis. I understand what you rely on as justifying you not to 
answer questions, if I heard your statement as read, is grounded on 
the first amendment, but that you do not rely on the fifth amendment? 

Miss Box t d. I object to stating whether or not I will use the fifth 
amendment until I have stated my other objections. 

Mr. Willis. Then all this business, Mr. Chairman, is directly con- 
trary to the jurisprudence. She said exactly nothing, legally. 

Mr. Ichord. Yes, Miss Bond. The Chair will have to rule, under 
the cases of the courts deciding the right of this committee to investi- 
gate and propound certain questions to you, that your objections will 
have to be overruled, so, Mr. Counsel, proceed with the questioning of 
the witness. 

Miss Box'D. I have another objection, legal objection, to this com- 
mittee, which is the committee is illegally constituted in that two of its 
members, Mr. Willis and Mr. Tuck 

Mr. Ichord. We have had that before. 

Miss Box*D. — have come for districts in which 

Mr. Ichord. The objection is jurisdiction. 

Miss Bond. — in wdiich the Negro people and the poor whites have 
not been allowed to vote. 

Mr. Johansen. I suggest the witness be directed to cease and desist 
and that the counsel proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with the questioning, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Xittle. Miss Bond, would you state your residence for the 
record, please ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Box t d. Well, my present address, as one of the travel agents 
told you, is 5225 Miles Avenue, Oakland, California, but I object to 
having been cut short in reading my legal objection to the two members 
who are sitting on this committee. They were not legally 

Air. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Chairman, may I make a statement? 

Air. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Willis. I have heard this so many times that I have refrained 
from dignifying such things with a comment. I am not addressing 
myself to the witness. I am making this statement. 



2008 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

My district is composed of, in round figures, 400,000 people. As to 
people over 21 years of age of the white race who therefore would be 
qualified to register if they desired, of those, 72 percent are registered. 
I am sorry the other 2S percent have seen fit not to. Of people of the 
colored race, 52 percent of those 21 years of age and over have regis- 
tered and do vote. I am sorry the other 48 percent don't. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with the questioning, Mr. Counsel. 

Miss Bond. We wonder why they do not vote. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will please come to order. 

Miss Bond, I hope that you can cooperate with the committee and 
I am sure you have your attorney with you; you can call upon him 
for advice at any time. We do have a number of questions to pro- 
pound to you and I hope that you will be courteous and responsive 
to the counsel — and proceed, Mr. Counsel, with your questioning. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, how long have you resided at the address 
you gave ? 

Miss Bond. I have been residing at that address for approximately, 
let's see, about 6 months, and I would just like to say about Oakland, 
California, that one of the foremost early Socialists of the United 
States came from Oakland. His name was Jack London. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will come to order. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. In a passport application filed with the Department of 
State, you give your permanent residence as 100 Fifth Avenue, #4, 
San Francisco, California, while requesting that your passport be 
mailed to your present address, 5225 Miles Avenue, Oakland, 
California. 

Is this a temporary residence? 

Miss Bond. The reason for that is that my parents live at 100 Fifth 
Avenue, whereas I live in Oakland at 5225 Miles Avenue. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us please whose residence that is? 

Miss Bond. Which residence ? 

Mr. Nittle. At 5225 Miles Avenue, Oakland. 

Miss Bond. That is my residence. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth ? 

Miss Bond. I was born on the 10th of October, which is, well, the 
10th of October, 1940, at San Diego, California. 

Mr. Nittle. And as to your marital status, you are single? 

Miss Bond. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and any degrees you may have received ? 

Miss Bond. Well, my education has been very widely varied through- 
out the United States because my father was in the U.S. Marines and 
he was in the Marine Corps for 30 years. 

Therefore, we traveled around very extensively all throughout the 
United States and also to Hawaii. I was born in San Diego, which is 
the Naval Marine Corps base. My father's family for many genera- 
tions 

Mr. Ichord. I think you have answered the question, Miss Bond. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have a high school degree ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Nittle. From what high school did } t ou obtain it ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2009 

Miss Bond. From Saint John's High School for girls. 

Mr. Xittle. Saint Joan's ? 

Miss Bond. Saint John's, which is a Catholic high school in San 
Francisco, California. 

Mr. Xittle. Did you attend college after high school ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Xittle. And where did you go to college ? 

Miss Bond. Oh, I went to a very excellent university called the 
University of California at Berkeley. 

Mr. Xittle. Let me ask, When did you receive your high school de- 
gree ? Wh at year ? 

Miss Bond. In 1958. 

Mr. Xittle. And when did you attend the University of California 
at Berkeley ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I started going there after I had spent summer at 
national parks and looking around the United States. 

Mr. Xittle. I am not interested in that. I am interested in dates. 

Miss Bond. I started going there in the fall of 1958. 

Mr. Xittle. And how long did you remain in attendance at the 
university ? 

Miss Bond. I remained in attendance there studying many things, 
including anthropology and sociology 

Mr. Xittle. I am not interested in what you studied. I want to 
know how long you were there. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will please be responsive to the question. 

Miss Bond. I am trying to answer them as fully and completely as 
possible. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I ask that counsel direct the witness 
to limit her answers to those which are responsive to the question. 
There is no excuse for these side excursions. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will please cooperate with the committee. 

Miss Bond. I am just trying to give you some background. 

Mr. Ichord. And be courteous enough to answer the question. Pro- 
ceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Xittle. How long did you remain at the University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley ? 

Miss Bond. Well, all together at one stretch for, let's see, five 
semesters. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you. 

Mr. Xittle. Have you left the university ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Xittle. What year did you last attend there ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I last attended there just last semester. 

Mr. Senner. What year was that ? 

Miss Bond. What year was when I last attended ? 

Mr. Senner. Your last semester ? 

Miss Bond. That was 1964. 

Mr. Xittle. June of 1964 ? 

Miss Bond. Yes. 

Mr. Xittle. And did you receive any degree from this university ? 

Miss Bond. Xo, I did not. 

Mr. Xittle. What is your present occupation ? 



2010 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

Miss Bond. I presently have no job, having just returned to this 
country a little while ago. 

Mr. Senner. Counsel, would you bring out her occupation while 
she went to school last and during high school ? 

Mr. Nittle. Have you held any employment during the period you 
were in high school and subsequently while in college? 

Miss Bond. Oh, yes. I have had many jobs. During high school 
I had clerical work for a record company, for the credit department of 
a department store, and I worked as an actress on television. I worked 
as a clerk-typist in the journalism department at the University of 
California, the registrar's office of the University of California, and 
I have been a movie extra. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond 

Miss Bond. I worked in a legal office. 

Mr. Senner. That is a rather extensive background. During this 
extensive period of time how much were you able to save ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I was of course, as anyone else who has a low pay- 
ing job at the bottom of the wage scale, I was able to save a pittance 
from my earnings, in order to do what I wanted with that. 

Mr. Senner. You weren't able to save 47 new $100 bills, were you ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is conferring with her counsel. She has 
a right to do that. The question is, Were vou able to save 47 new $100 
bills? 

Miss Bond. First of all I would like to say this exhibit 

Mr. Senner. Answer my question and then you can expand on your 
remarks any way you want to. Will vou please answer my question? 

Were you able to save 47 $100 bills ? " 

Miss Bond. I refuse to until the committee has heard my objections. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair heard your objections, Miss Bond, and over- 
ruled them. I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. Well, I still have my other objections to be said, my 
legal objections to this. 

Mr. Ichord. State your objections. 

Miss Bond. Well, first of all, this committee is infringing on the 
functions of the judicial branch of the Government as specified in 
the division of powers put down by the Constitution of the United 
States, and I object to the question on the grounds of the first amend- 
ment also and the provision that this amendment makes for the freedom 
of speech. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not sufficient. The objection is overruled. 

Miss Bond. I have some more. I also object to this question on the 
grounds of the sixth amendment which states all criminal prosecutions, 
the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an 
impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have 
been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained 
by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation ; 
to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory 
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to have the assistance 
of counsel for his defense. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2011 

I also object to this question on the grounds of the 14th amendment, 
section 2, which slates that all — '"Representatives shall be apportioned 
among the several Slates according to their respective numbers, count- 
ing the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not 
taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of 
electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Repre- 
sent at ives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, 
or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male 
inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens 
of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation 
in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be 
reduced in proportion which the sum in such male citizens shall bear 
to the whole number of male citizens, twenty-one years of age in such 
State." 

Mr. Senner. That is real fine. Did I understand you to invoke the 
fifth amendment of the United States Constitution? Yes or no? 

Miss Bond. What is your ruling on my other objections ? 

Mr. Senner. Did you or did you not 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will rule on the objection stated by the wit- 
ness. Miss Bond, I will have to rule, and I think your counsel will 
advise you, in accordance with the prior rulings of this committee, 
that such grounds are not sufficient reason to refuse to answer. There- 
fore the Chair directs you to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel. ) 

Miss Bond. Well, I have my rights under all those amendments 
and parts of the Constitution which I just stated and I also have rights 
under the fifth amendment, which reads as follows : 

No person shall be held for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a 
presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land 
or naval forces or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public 
danger ; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in 
jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a 
witness against himself ; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will rule that is a sufficient invocation of the 
fifth. 

Miss Bond. "Without due process of law ; nor shall private property 
be taken for public use, without just compensation." 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has invoked the fifth amendment. Pro- 
ceed with your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Miss Bond. This amendment does not 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is not required to answer further. 

Miss Bond. Were you going to say the witness is not entitled ? 

Mr. Johansen. The witness knows better than that. 

Mr. Willis. May I make a suggestion, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Willis. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, as I understand it, she invoked the 
fifth amendment with respect to the question regarding the 47 $100 
bills. 

Mr. Ichord. That is correct, and the Chair has ruled. 

Proceed with your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Kittle. Miss Bond, I hand you a photostatic copy of a pass- 
port application marked for identification as "Bond Exhibit No. 1." 
It is subscribed by an Yvonne Marie Bond and was filed with the agent 
of the Department of State at San Francisco, California, on May 14, 
1964. 



2012 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Are you the person who executed and subscribed her name to this 
application ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Bond. Yes, I would like to say it is true I am the person who 
filled out this application for a passport and that, in regard to the pass- 
port regulation, I consider passports to be a privilege of the American 
people, a right that is reserved to them by the Constitution, a duty on 
their part to 

(Document marked "Bond Exhibit No. 1" and retained in committee 
files.) 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. As a result of filing that application, were you issued 
a United States passport on May 15, 1964 ? 

Miss Bond. I do not recall the exact date, but I think that is so. 

Mr. Nittle. I want to direct your attention to page 2 of the applica- 
tion where, in response to the directions contained in the form, namely, 
to list each country to be visited, you responded by writing "France," 
and placed two question marks under the name of that country. The 
question I should like to ask you, Miss Bond, is: At the time of the 
filing of this application had you not then already formed the inten- 
tion of visiting Cuba? 

Miss Bond. Well, that question is not relevant to my application 
for a passport because in the first place a passport is only needed to 
leave from and reenter into the United States, and the Cuban Govern- 
ment does not require any passports, United States passports, from 
citizens of the U.S. who visit there. 

Mr. Nittle. Nevertheless, you saw fit to enter the name of the coun- 
try as "France" in response to the question. 

Now, did you fail to state your intention of visiting Cuba because 
you knew at that time if you had done so you would not have received 
your passport? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Bond. Well, in answering the application I simply stated the 
country which I would need to have a passport to visit, namely, France, 
and that is what I understood the application called for. 

Mr. Ichord. I believe, Miss Bond, that is not responsive to the 
question. The Chair will ask you the question. 

Did you intend to visit Cuba at the time you made application for 
this nassDort ? 

Miss Bond. The appliction has nothing to do with that, and I fail 
to 9.p-e how it is relevant to any legislative purpose. 

Mr. Ichord. It is relevant to the hearing, and I will explain to the 
witness whv it is a pertinent question. The President of the United 
States has issued a proclamation that it is not in the interest of your 
country for American citizens to visit Cuba, under the authoritv of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act. That proclamation has been 
made by the President of the United States. 

Now. there may be some loopholes in the law. Personally, I do not 
think there are. If there are, that is the purpose of this hearing, to 
assist the Congress in stopping those loopholes. So the question 
asked you is pertinent. At the time you applied for this passport, 
and were able to visit France, the country to which you made applica- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2013 

lion for the passport, did yon intend at the time yon made the applica- 
tion for the passport to visit the country of Cuba? I direct you to 
answer that question. 

Miss Bond. I would just, like to say it again, that legally a U.S. 
passport is only necessary for leaving the United States. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct you to answer t fie question. 

Mr. Willis. She has been directed. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that 
counsel proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Iciiord. You have to proceed. She fails to answer, Mr. Coun- 
sel. Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Bond, following your application for this pass- 
port, did you at any time apply for, or receive from, the Department 
of State a specific endorsement of your passport for travel to Cuba \ 

Miss Bond. Just in regard to this I would like to say that in the 
District Court for the Eastern District of New York, in other words, 
Brooklyn, in September of 1963, a number of students who had gone 
to Cuba last year were indicted and the suit against them is presently 
pending. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I object to this. I submit that she is 
not responding to the question. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive, Miss Bond, to the question. I 
want you to cooperate with the committee. Mr. Counsel, state your 
question again and let's give the witness an opportunity to answer. 

Listen carefully, Miss Bond, please, and I hope you will cooperate 
with the committee. 

I might say that the cases decided that the President has the right 
to make this proclamation without doubt, and it has been made. We 
are inquiring as to whether there may be some possible loopholes, but 
I would cite another case to you, that even with respect to a Member 
of Congress who made application to visit a country where the proc- 
lamation prohibited him from visiting, the court decided there he 
did not have the right to visit. That applies to me. That applies 
to you. That applies to everyone in this room. We must abide by 
the laws that are made through our democratic form of government. 

Now, Mr. Counsel, proceed to ask the question again and let's see if 
she will cooperate with the committee. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you, Miss Bond, at any time following the making 
of your application for a passport apply for, or receive from, the 
Department of State a specific endorsement of your passport for travel 
to Cuba? 

Miss Bond. I would like to finish reading my statement, if I may, 
about the 

Mr. Ichord. I direct you to answer the question. The question is 
clear, Miss Bond. I direct you to answer it. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Bond. Would you please repeat the question ? 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I ask that this witness be directed to 
answer the question. I think it is obvious that she is attempting to ob- 
struct the inquiry. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has been directed to answer. I hear no 
answer from the witness. Proceed with your next question. 

Mr. Nittle. I ask that she be advised, Mr. Chairman, that, if she 
fails to respond to the question or to assert a legal reason for not reply- 
ing, this may constitute a contempt of this committee. 



2014 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has with her counsel who has appeared 
representing witnesses before this committee many times. I am sure 
that her counsel has advised her that there would be a possibility of her 
being in contempt of Congress for refusal to answer the question. 

The witness is so advised, and I direct you for the final time to an- 
swer the question. 

Mr. Gollobin. I ask in the witness' behalf that her request to have 
it read be complied with. 

Mr. Ichord. That will be complied with. Will the reporter read 
the question to the witness as propounded by the counsel ? 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Did you, Miss Bond, at any time following the making of your application for 
a passport apply for, or receive from, the Department of State a specific en- 
dorsement of your passport for travel to Cuba? 

Miss Bond. No, I did not. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much. We could have done that 5 
minutes ago. 

Miss Bond. I would like to say that this committee is infringing on 
the powers of the judicial 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, the Chair is very much aware of the Con- 
stitution of the United States and decisions governing the right of 
this committee and the Congress to ask certain questions of you. I 
am sure that your counsel has advised you of your rights, and the Chair 
will endeavor to be very zealous in protecting your rights. 

You have certain information, the committee believes, which will 
aid this committee in carrying out its duties in Congress, and I hope 
that you will be courteous enough to reply to the questions, and not 
go on any side excursions, and be responsive to the questions. 

Now, Mr. Counsel, let's start again and see if we can't finish with 
Miss Bond and let her take her seat as quickly as possible. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nettle. Nevertheless, Miss Bond, you did travel to Cuba in 
June of this year; did you not? 

Miss Bond. Yes, we did. 

Mr. Nittle. Our investigation reflects that your itinerary was as 
follows : You departed from San Francisco, California, together with 
members of a group organized by the Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba, and arrived in New York City via American Airlines. 

Then with a larger group formed by the Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba, you departed from the Kennedy International Airport 
at New York City on June 10 for Paris, France, via Air France, 
Flight 010. Following your arrival in Paris, together with other mem- 
bers of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, you flew to Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, on June 11, 1964, via Czech Airline, Flight 508. 

You then departed from Prague, Czechoslovakia, on June 11, via 
Cubana airlines, arriving in Havana on June 12. You remained in 
Cuba until August 12, 1964. You left Cuba on August 12 and returned 
to the United States, arriving at the Kennedy International Airport 
in New York City on August 14, 1964. via Prague and Paris. 

Is this a correct statement of your itinerary ? 

Miss Bond. Well, as far as I can recall it is, but I would just like 
to add that I wonder why, if you have such detailed information, 
such a great amount of it, why you 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2015 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will be in order. Proceed with the ques- 
tioning. You have sufficiently answered. Thank you very much, 
Miss Bond. 

Mr. Xittle. Now, as has been noted, your passport application was 
made on May 14, at San Francisco. Would you tell us, please, when 
you first became interested in undertaking the travel to Cuba with the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba? 

Miss Bond. Well, I read a number of things about Cuba, both in 
the popular press, the San Francisco Chronicle* and the San Fran- 
cisco papers, the Berkeley papers, and also in other publications such 
as the National Guardian, and had read a number of books on Cuba, 
Red Star Over Cuba, [and books] by C. Wright Mills, by J. P. Mor- 
ray, and others telling about the way things were in Cuba after the 
revolution, and I found myself awakening to these things as a very 
excellent way of life and I wanted to see these things for myself in 
reality, how they actually functioned, how the people lived, and how 
they were reacting to the new system that they had themselves 
developed. 

Mr. Xittle. I am not interested in knowing when you first became 
interested in the group that was organized by the Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba. When were you first placed in contact with the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba? 

Miss Bond. Well, that would be very difficult to say because, as I 
say, in this process of awakening, I really don't remember. 

Mr. Xittle. I am not interested in your process of awakening. I 
want to know when you awoke to the fact that there was an organi- 
zation known as the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. When 
did you wake up to that fact? 

Mr. Gollobin. I submit the witness has answered. She doesn't 
remember. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair did not hear that. Do I understand it is 
the response of the witness that she does not remember ? 

Miss Bond. That is correct. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Xittle. Could you tell us whether it was during the year 196-4 
or during the year 1963 or during the year 1962 ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Bond. As I said before, it actually began sometime before 
that, as soon as I began reading and studying about the Cuban 
revolution. 

Mr. Xittle. I am not interested in when you began to study about 
the Cuban revolution. I want to know when you were first placed 
in contact with a group known as the Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba. 

Miss Bond. Well, I again repeat that I do not recall. 

Mr. Ichord. That is sufficient answer. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Senner. Just a moment. I think, Mr. Chairman, if I may, 
he asked you if it was in the year 1962, 1963, or 1964. Thinking back 
and reflecting on this thing, can't you come up with the year, not an 
exact date? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Bond. As I say, it is very difficult for me to recall because 
of the circumstances just stated. 



2016 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Willis. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question ? 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Willis. 

Mr. Willis. Are you aware of the existence of such a group ? 

Miss Bond. Of which group ? 

Mr. Willis. Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. Are you 
aware of the existence of such a group ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Senner. When did you become aware? 1963, 1962, or 1961? 

Miss Bond. I do not recall. 

Mr. Willis. Do you know approximately the number of people 
belonging to that group ? 

Miss Bond. I object to answering that question on the groimds 
that I have previously stated, all of the amendments that I have 
stated 

Mr. Willis. Including the invocation of the fifth amendment 
against testifying against yourself, giving evidence against yourself ? 

Miss Bond. Including the 

Mr. Willis. Does it include that? All the others have been ruled 
unacceptable. 

Miss Bond. All the others are to my mind quite valid actually. 

Mr. Willis. I understand, but it happens that we do the ruling 
here. 

Miss Bond. But the fifth amendment is really a very important 
amendment because originally, you may recall 

Mr. Willis. I respect it. That is why I am asking you. 

Miss Bond. — originally you may recall that it was designed to pro- 
tect innocent people against 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, I will have to direct you to answer the 
question. 

Miss Bond. Yes. I wish to protect myself against false accusations 
under the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Ichord. That is sufficient. The witness does not have to answer. 

Mr. Willis. Pardon me, Mr. Chairman. May I question \ 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Willis. 

Mr. Willis. You mentioned awhile ago, as one of the reasons for 
failure to answer, that you are not confronted with your accusers. 
Now you say you want to protect yourself against false accusations. 
Is Mr. George Luke still in the room ? 

Mr. Luke. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Willis. Will you come forward, please ? 

Mr. George Luke is now before you. He just left the witness stand. 
He is under the pains and penalties of perjury just as you are. He 
is under oath and he is the one who said that vou had handed him 
this $4,700. 

Now that vou are facing him and you are confronting him, did he 
tell the truth? 

Miss Bond. I would like to object to answering this on the ground 
that you are trying to turn this hearing into a court of law without 
giving me any of my rights in a court of law. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not a sufficient answer. I direct you to answer 
the question, Miss Bond. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Bond. Would you please repeat the question ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2017 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Reporter, will you read the question bad-: ? 
Mr. Johansen. May he do it with the understanding it is being re- 
peated once and once only i 

Mr. Ichord. I am sure that we all know what is going on. 
Proceed to read the question back to the witness, Mr. Reporter. 
(The question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Mr. George Luke is now before you. He just left the witness stand. He is 
under the pains and penalties of perjury just like you are. He is under oath 
and he is the one who said that you had handed him this $4,700. 

Now that you are facing him and you are confronting him, did he tell the 
truth? 

Air. Ichord. I direct you to answer the question, Miss Bond. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Bond. I would like to repeat that I refuse to answer this ques- 
tion on the grounds of all the amendments that I have stated before, 
including the fifth amendment of the United States, but I would just 
like to point out that I am being also ■ 

Mr. Ichord. That is sufficient refusal to answer. 

Air. Willis. Ask counsel to ask his next question. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Counsel, with the next question. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, before the counsel proceeds, the 
witness stated earlier that she was invoking the protections of the fifth 
amendment against false accusations. The protection of the fifth 
amendment is against being required to testify under conditions that 
might tend to incriminate her. It has no relation to falsity or truth 
of any accusations, and I trust the chairman's ruling in accepting the 
invocation of the fifth is not based on that premise, but on the con- 
stitutional premises of the fifth. 

Air. Ichord. Yes. The witness is not on trial here. She has 
certain information undoubtedly and has been identified by the pre- 
ceding witness which will aid the committee, but she has made a suffi- 
cient invocation of the fifth amendment and the Chair has ruled that 
she is not required to answer. 

Now, proceed. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, may I ask this question ? 

Is the fifth amendment that you are invoking also the part that any 
evidence that you might give would tend to incriminate you? Is that 
part of the fifth that you are invoking, or is it just because you want to 
face your accuser? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Miss Bond. I am invoking all of the fifth amendment and what you 
say about "facing my accusers" is included in the sixth amendment. 

Mr. Senner. All of the fifth. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Luke, you will be dismissed, unless there are further questions 
of Mr. Luke. 

Mr. Luke. Thank you. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Willis. I suggest that he stay around. 

Mr. Ichord. Yes. He is not permanently dismissed. We would 
like to have him for the remainder of the day. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, when you were interviewed by the press at 
the Kennedy International Airport following your return from Cuba 

40-013— '65— pt. 5 4 



2018 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

on August 14, 1964, you stated that you took part in helping all these 
people get to Cuba to see the "Socialist" revolution. 

Would you tell us, please, who enlisted your assistance for this 
purpose ? 

Miss Bond. I do not like to answer that question because I don't 
want to be a rat or fink on any of my friends and I consider it is very 
important. 

Sir. Ichord. The fact that you do not want to be a "rat or a fink" is 
not a sufficient refusal to answer. The Chair so rules. I direct you to 
answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question, Mr. Counsel. 
I direct you to answer the question, Miss Bond. 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer that question, invoking my consti- 
tutional rights about the division of powers, in the first place, that 
this committee is impeaching 

Mr. Ichord. That is not sufficient grounds for refusal to answer. 
The Chair so rules. 

Mr. Senner. Miss Bond, I might suggest this, if I may. We know 
the amendments, 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and all the way 
up to the 22d. If you will just name the amendment that you are 
going to invoke I think you could help us a little bit. 

Miss Bond. I will, but first I would like to say that speaking of these 
amendments and this chance I have here 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, I would ask you to be responsive to the 
question. I again direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. I invoke all my constitutional rights, including the 
fifth amendment, and I would just like to say 

Mr. Ichord. Which includes the self-incrimination clause of the 
fifth amendment? 

Miss Bond. And protection against false accusation, and I am also 
trying to bring up these amendments 

Mr. Johansen. I ask that the witness suspend and answer the ques- 
tion as to whether her invocation of the fifth amendment relates to 
and includes the self-incrimination clause, "yes" or "no" ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, it includes the entire 

Mr. Willis. Ask counsel to proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Ichord. I think at that point, Mr. Willis, the bells have sounded 
for a quorum call. It is now 12 :15. 

Mr. Willis. May I make a comment. 

Mr. Ichord. Yes, Mr. Willis. 

Mr. Willis. The refusal of this witness is in not wanting to name 
friends and making an implication that we engage in actions that are 
not justified. Let's take a look at that, and I am done. With respect 
to an investigation or any other procedure such as — including particu- 
larly a proceeding in court, if a witness to a crime or to an incident 
would willy-nilly, with good or bad faith, invoke the fifth amendment 
to the extent that she didn't want to name witnesses or occurrences, 
why, then it would mean that we would never have the administration 
of law for 5 minutes in these United States. 

Mr. Ichord. There have been hundreds of cases decided by the 
Supreme Court defining the rights of the witnesses before this com- 
mittee and similar committees of the Congress. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2019 

The committee will be in recess until 1 :30 p.m. 
The witnesses will return. 

("Whereupon, at 12:15 p.m., Thursday, September 3, 1964, the sub- 
committee recessed to reconvene at 1 :30 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1964 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1:40 p.m., Hon. Richard H. 
Ichord, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

( Members present: Representatives Ichord, Senner, and Johansen, 
of the subcommittee, and also Representatives Pool, Bruce, Schacle- 
berg, and Ashbrook.) 

Mr. Ichord. The committee will please come to order. Miss Bond, 
will you please resume your seat in the witness chair ? 

Air. Lynn. Mr. Chairman, Miss Bond and her counsel are not here 
at the moment. I will see if I can get them. 

Mr. Ichord. It is now 1 :40. If you will, please try to ascertain the 
whereabouts of Miss Bond. Thank you. 

Mr. Lynn. Mr. Chairman, the counsel has become ill. 

Mr. Ichord. Please identify yourself. 

Mr. Lynn. I am Conrad J. Lynn. I am one of the attorneys for the 
four. 

Mr. Ichord. Yes ; I remember you from previous hearings whereby 
you represented witnesses. 

Mr. Lynn. We know that he went to lunch with Miss Bond and he 
became ill. Xow we have some people trying to check on where she 
went, because she may have gone with him. 

Mr. Ichord. Have you seen him within the last few minutes? 

Mr. Lynn. I have not. I have not seen him since this morning. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much, Mr. Lynn. 

Mr. Lynn. If you call another witness, we might get him. 

Mr. Ichord. The committee will be in recess for 10 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken. ) 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will resume the chair. 

The photographers will retire. 

Miss Bond, your counsel has advised me that there was no intention 
of delaying the committee, that you were detained for other reasons. 

I may state that, rightly or wrongly, it is the feeling of the Chair 
that you might be trying to delay the committee by many side excur- 
sions in answer to the questions. I would ask that we proceed and get 
to the answers as quickly as we can. 

It is the intention of the Chair to conclude these hearings tomorrow, 
and we do have three additional witnesses. I don't know how long it 
will take to propound the questions to those witnesses, but if we are 
not able to finish it tomorrow, depending on how fast we proceed today, 
we may have to adjourn over until this evening because I definitely 
want to finish the hearings tomorrow, Friday. I hope that it is not 
necessary to have an evening meeting. 

I would remind you that you are under oath. The counsel will pro- 
ceed with the questioning. 



2020 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF YVONNE MARIE BOND— Resumed 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, at the time the committee recessed, I had 
asked you whether, when you were interviewed by the press at the Ken- 
nedy international Airport following your return from Cuba on 
August 14, you stated that you took part in helping all these people 
get to Cuba to see the Socialist revolution. 

I then asked whether you would tell us who enlisted your assistance 
for this purpose. I think the record shows that you refused to respond 
to that inquiry. 

Let me ask you, Miss Bond, whether it was in fact Mr. Lee Coe who 
interested you in this activity. 

Miss Bond. Well, there again I state on the grounds that I stated be- 
fore that I refused to be an informer on anyone and I cite the amend- 
ments and parts of the Constitution that I had previously stated. 

The separation of powers of the first amendment, freedom of speech, 
and the sixth amendment guarantees me a speedy and prompt trial, 
and also the entire fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed to your next question, Counsel. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Xow, Miss Bond, Mr. Lee Coe, whose first name is 
spelled L-e-e and surname C-o-e, has been identified in recent issues of 
the publication of the Progressive Labor Movement as its West Coast 
editor. 

Mr. Coe for over 20 years past has been associated with the Com- 
munist Party of the United States, and prior to his association with the 
Progressive Labor Movement was identified both in executive and 
public sessions before this committee as a member of the Communist 
Party. 

He was formerly the labor editor of the People's World, the Com- 
munist Party's West Coast publication, and a member of the Legisla- 
tive Committee of the East Bay Division, Local 6, International Long- 
shoreman's and Warehousemen's Union. This union headed by Harry 
Bridges, often identified as a Communist Party member, was expelled 
from the CIO in 1950 as Communist-dominated. 

Now, did you have occasion to consult with Mr. Coe with respect 
to vour activities on behalf of the Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba? 

Miss Bond. Well, first of all, I would like to say that the speech 
that you just made has nothing to do with the relevant legislation 
which this hearing is supposedly about. Also, the drawing in of 
Harry Bridges and the longshoremen, I think, is entirely unjustified 
in this matter because it is very irrelevant. It seems to me just an 
attempt to smear this man and the organization. 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, that is not responsive to the question asked. 

I would ask again that you expedite the hearings and be responsive 
to the committee counsel's question. The statement that he made was 
merely introducing the question to give you background to enable you 
to answer it. 

Now, I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. Well, again I refuse to answer, citing the grounds I have 
already mentioned, the separation of powers guaranteed by the 
Constitution 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt and say in the in- 
terest of saving time and fully protecting the constitutional rights of 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2021 

this witness, if the witness would be willing to indicate that she de- 
clines to answer for the previous stated grounds including the self- 
incrimination clause of the fifth amendment, if she is interested in 
cooperating with the committee, her rights are thereby fully pro- 
i ed ed and we can get on with the business. 

Mr. Iciiord. Well, there are questions which possibly could fall 
within the purview of the first amendment, and the Chair will rule 
as the question presents itself. 

However, I think the witness seems to be very well informed of her 
rights before the committee and I think she knows how to invoke 
the right to refuse to answer. 

I would ask the witness to cooperate a little more and get to the 
answers more quickly. 

Proceed with your answer now, Miss Bond. 

Mr. Nittle. The facts I stated relating to Mr. Coe were 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute. 

Let her finish ; answer the question. 

Miss Bond. Sir, would you please repeat the question — the ques- 
t ion, not the statement ? 

Mr. Iciiord. Madame Reporter, would you read the question back 
to the witness. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Ichord. I think that can be answered simply and to the point. 

Miss Bond. I think I was in the middle of my grounds for objecting 
to answer, including the fact that the Constitution guarantees separa- 
tion of powers, freedom of speech 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, I ask you to instruct the witness to 
answer "yes" or ""no," or invoke the fifth amendment. I don't want 
to hear about the 1st or 2d or 14th or any other. 

Mr. Ichord. I advise the witness that the Supreme Court lias de- 
cided, time and time again, that in the case of such question being 
asked that it is not valid grounds to refuse to answer on both the first 
amendment and the other amendments which the witness has repeat- 
edly invoked. 

Proceed. 

Let's see if we can get the witness to cooperate a little more and speed 
these hearings up so we won't have to have any meeting tonight. 

Let her finish answering the question. She started off again. I 
think she is going to cooperate with us. 

Miss Bond. And finally I referred to the fifth amendment which 
guarantees me freedom from incriminating myself and from also the 
false accusations. I just would like to add one thing that you men- 
tioned in that background 

Mr. Ichord. That is a sufficient refusal to answer. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel, with the next question. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I hate to contribute to delay but I 
object to the Chair accepting as a reason for not answering this allega- 
tion of false testimony. Now, the fifth amendment says nothing 
about that. 

If she persists in it, I am going to object every time she does it. 

Mr. Ichord. We have that happen quite often before this commit- 
tee. It happened the last time when we had the Cuban travel 
hearings. 



2022 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

That objection will be sustained. The ruling is only on the self- 
incrimination clause. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Senner. Has she answered the question ? 

Mr. Ichord. Yes; she invoked the fifth amendment clause of the 
Constitution. 

Miss Bond. I invoke the entire fifth amendment along with many 
others. 

Mr. Ichord. That is sufficient. I so rule. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Kittle. Miss Bond, the facts I stated relating to Mr. Coe were 
for the purpose of identifying him so that there will be no question 
in your mind as to the person to whom I am referring. 

Pursuing that matter further, I want to ask you whether, prior to 
the date on which you made application for your passport, had you 
been at any time contacted by Mr. Coe while you were a student at 
the University of California at Berkeley ? 

Miss Bond. Well, may I say that if you have the chance to state 
the background material where it is relevant, I also have certain causes 
where I would like to present background material of my own. I 
feel that 

Mr. Kittle. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the witness be instructed 

Mr. Ichord. Again, you have to cooperate. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss. Bond. Well, I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Go ahead. 

Mr. Kittle. Did you contact Mr. Coe at any time between the date 
you made application for the passport, namely, May 14, 1964, and 
June 10, 1964, at which time you departed from the airport at New 
York City enroute to Cuba ? 

Miss Bond. Here again, I want to resist being an informer on any- 
one, to resist bringing anyone else's names into these hearings. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not an answer to the question, Miss Bond. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer the question on all the grounds I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Kittle. Would you tell us, please, what course of action you took 
in helping these people get to Cuba following the receipt of vour pass- 
port on May 14, 1964 ? 

Mr. Gollobin. Could I have that question read ? 

Mr. Ichord. Rephrase the question, Counsel. 

Mr. Kittle. Following the application for your passport on May 14, 
1964, what did you do to help get these people to Cuba? 

Miss Bond. Well, I decline to answer this question on all the grounds 
that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Kittle. Miss Bond, we are advised by Trans World Airlines, 
Inc., that on May 19 following, you applied to the Trans World Air- 
lines ticket counter at the Oakland Airport, Oakland, California, and 
in the company of a young man made payment for reservations for 
yourself and 29 others for the following flights: TWA Flight 111-R 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2023 

for 11 June 1961, Oakland to Los Angeles : a Flight 58-K for June 12, 
1964, Los Angeles to New York; and Flight 802- YH for departing 12 
June 1961, New York to Paris, France. 

This is true, is it not ? 

Miss Bond. I fail to see how this mass of facts and details has any 
relevance to legislation 

Mr. Ichord. I ask again that you be responsive to the question, Miss 
Bond. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer the question on all the grounds that 
I previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. By whom were you accompanied on your visit to Trans 
World Airlines ticket office in Oakland on May 19 ? 

Miss Bond. Here again you are trying to drag in others 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, I again direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question also on the grounds that 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, although the tickets were not at that time issued 
to you by Trans World Airlines, you did, however, deposit the sum of 
$12,468 in payment of the reservations and received from TWA a 
"Miscellaneous Charges Order" as evidence of the payment; did you 
not?_ 

Miss Bond. Here is another mass of facts and details which again 
has no relation to legislation. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair rules that it is pertinent. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us, please, from whom you acquired 
this sum for the purchase of the reservations ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer that question also on the grounds 
that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee's investigation reveals that you made 
payment of this sum to TWA in Oakland, California, on that date in 
new $100 bills. 

You do not deny this fact ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer anything about this fact at all on 
grounds previouslv stated. 

Mr. Nittle. TWA noted that, in addition to the $12,468 paid by 
you to them on May 19, 1964, you had with you at that time a con- 
siderable number of $100 bills estimated to be in the amount of at least 
$10,000. Is this true? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer that question, the grounds that I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you at the time of your visit to TWA on May 19, 
have in your possession a sum in excess of $22,000 in cash, principally 
in $100 bills? 

Miss Bond. This is not a point of law and all these questions 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. The ques- 
tion is pertinent. It is the belief of the committee that the money 



2024 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

came directly from the Communist regime of Cuba. It is a pertinent 
question. 

I direct you to answer. 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds that I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee is informed that at the time you made 
your purchase from TWA in Oakland, California, on May 19, you 
explained to the ticket agent that this money belonged to students a't> 
the University of California. 

Was this money delivered to you by students at the University of 
California? 

Miss Bond. I also refuse to answer this question not only because it 
could possibly be informing on people, but also because I choose to 
have my rights as guaranteed me by the Constitution, including the 
entire fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you receive the money from Lee Coe ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds that I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Following the making of the deposit with TWA on 
May 19 at Oakland, California, did you then travel to New York City ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I also refuse to answer this question on the 
grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you directed to deliver to New York the remain- 
ing bills in vour possession after making pavment to TWA in Oak- 
land? 

Miss Bond. I also refuse to answer this question on the grounds I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you receive such directions from Lee Coe? 

Miss Bond. I ref use to answer this question. 

Mr. Nittle. From whom did you receive this instruction? 

Miss Bond. Well, I refuse to be an informer, I think, on anyone 
and I refuse to answer this question, invoking my rights under the 
Constitution, including the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, an investigation conducted by this commit- 
tee reveals that on May 22, 1964, you in fact traveled to New York 
City and registered on that date at the Gramercy Park Hotel in 
New York City, giving your address as 5225 Miles Avenue, Oakland, 
California. 

Did you register at the Gramercy Park Hotel on May 22 ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question, invoking all the 
grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Was May 22 the date of your arrival in New York ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question, also. 

Mr. Nittle. What was the date of your arrival in New York? 

Miss Bond. Well, I refused to answer all those other questions. I 
refuse to answer this one, too, citing the grounds I have previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you accompanied by anyone in your travel to New 
York ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds I have 
previously stated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2025 

Mr. Nettle. After registering- at the Gramercy Park Hotel on 
May 22, did you make contact with any member of the Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba in New York City ? 

Miss Bond. I would just like to say that I think you are slightly 
prejudging me here by reading all these statements and without grant- 
ing me the privilege of a trial in a court, 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, you have the opportunity to answer the 
questions, if you so desire, 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. I would like to decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. That is your right. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, our investigation reveals that on the fol- 
lowing day, May 23, 1964, you checked out of the Gramercy Park 
Hotel but, after doing so, you returned shortly thereafter on the same 
day and again registered at the same hotel. 

Do you recall this circumstance ? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question on the grounds that 
I have previously stated. I don't especially like 

Mr. Ichord. I again am going to ask that you answer the question. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. After registering at the Gramercy Park Hotel on 
May 23, our investigation reveals that you then contacted Lee Coe 
in Berkeley, California, by telephone, 

Do you recall making this contact with him ? 

Miss Bond. Well, here again I refuse to be an informer on anyone 
and I decline to answer this question, citing the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you receive any instructions from Mr. Coe in that 
telephone conversation, concerning what course you should pursue in 
New York on behalf of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba? 

Miss Bond. Here again I decline to answer this question. I decline 
to be an informer on anyone and I cite the grounds I have previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you present this morning during the giving of 
testimony by Mr. George Luke, managing director of Travel Associ- 
ates. Inc. ? 

Miss Bond. Yes; I was present, 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luke testified that you visited his office on that 
date, May 23, 1964, and there made arrangements for the travel of 28 
persons to Paris, France, departing June 15 by Air France. 

This is correct, is it not ? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question, invoking all the rights 
previously granted me by the Constitution, on the grounds I have pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. On the first occassion you spoke to Mr. Luke, namely, 
May 23, 1964, you made no deposit with him. However, Mr. Luke 
testified this morning that again on May 25, 1964, you appeared at his 
offices at which time you made a deposit of $4,733.30 in cash, consist- 
ing principally of $100 bills. As a matter of fact, his testimony was 
to the effect that you produced 47 new $100 bills, 3 one dollar bills, and 
30 cents in change. And three 10's, I am advised by my associate. 



2026 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Now, this deposit was to be applied on account and as part payment 
of the cost of transportation of the so-called Bay Area Student Tour 
to France. The balance owing, in the sum of $12,450 was not paid by 
you at that time or while you were in New York on this errand. 

You do not deny these facts, do you ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I just simply refuse to answer, citing the grounds 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nettle. Now, Miss Bond, the new $100 bills deposited by you 
with TWA at Oakland, California, on May 19, and with Travel Associ- 
ates at New York on May 25, have been traced to their source at the 
Central Bank of Mexico in Mexico City which came into possession 
of this money on or about April 20, 1964. 

Would you tell us, please, how you came into possession of this 
money following its receipt at the Central Bank of Mexico on April 20 ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I refuse to answer this question, citing the grounds 
that I have previously stated, the separation of powers of the Con- 
stitution 

Mr. Nittle. Now, you have stated the same grounds. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you travel to Mexico at any time during the months 
of April and May 1964 ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds that I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have knowledge whether any other person af- 
filiated with the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba or the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement traveled to Mexico at or about that time? 

Miss Bond. Mexico is a very beautiful country and one of the main 
drawbacks that they have is that so many people there are still poor 
and undernourished. Considering all the wealth at the present — of 
the United States 

Mr. Ichord. Are you going to answer the question, Miss Bond ? 

Miss Bond. I should think 

Mr. Ichord. Are you going to answer the question or refuse to 
answer the question on grounds that you previously stated? 

If you are going to answer the question, I would ask you to go 
ahead. 

Miss Bond. I was simply stating something that I thought might 
be relevant to the American people, working people. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will have to come to order. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Senner. You started talking about poor people in Mexico. 

Can you tell me how many of these poor people in Mexico can go 
down there and pick up $20,000 in $100 bills in United States cur- 
rency, so-called poor people? 

Miss Bond. Well, these poor people might have a 

Mr. Senner. You are talking about poor people. 

Miss Bond. — very decent life if so many of their resources were not 
being exploited by the monopolies in the West. 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. You can proceed with the next question, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have knowledge whether Lee Coe visited Mex- 
ico during those months ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2027 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question also on the grounds that 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. Xittle. Now, if you did not have such knowledge, how could 
that possibly incriminate you? 

Miss Boxd. I stand on my right, my privilege to be able to decline 
to answer, citing the fifth amendment and the entire fifth amendment 
of the Constitution. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Xittle. Miss Bond, Mr. Luke testified this morning that on the 
occasion of both your visits to his office you were accompanied by 
Morton Slater. We are informed that Mr. Slater is a resident of 
New York. 

Were you accompanied to the office of Mr. Luke on both visits by 
Morton Slater? 

Miss Bond. Here again, I would never be an informer on anyone and 
I decline to answer this question, stating the grounds I have previously 
cited. 

Mr. Nittle. How long have you known him? 

Miss Boxd. I decline to answer this question also on the grounds I 
previously stated. I think you are 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. By whom were you placed in contact with him ? 

Miss Boxd. Well, here again, I would be dragging the others into 
these proceedings if I spoke about anyone. 

I refuse to speak about anyone and I also decline to answer this 
question on the grounds I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. You refuse to speak about anyone and also to speak 
about yourself. 

Now, were you directed by Mr. Lee Coe to contact him, that is, to 
contact Mr. Slater, upon your arrival in New York ? 

Miss Boxd. I don't really see how this is relevant to the legislation 
you are considering here. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair rules it is pertinent and I direct you to an- 
swer the question, Miss Bond. 

Miss Boxd. I decline to answer on the grounds I have previously 
stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Miss Bond, in addition to your dealings with 
Travel Associates, the committee is informed that while in New York 
you in turn accompanied Morton Slater to the offices of Pan American 
Airways in New York City, at which time you made arrangements for 
travel to Paris by certain numbers of the Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba. 

For what purpose did you accompany Morton Slater to Pan Am ? 

Miss Boxd. I decline to answer this question on the grounds I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. We are informed by Pan American Airwavs that on 
May 25, 1964. Mr. Slater paid to the office of Pan Am at 600 Fifth Ave- 
nue, New York City, the amount of $10,420 in new bills of $100 
denomination, representing the cost of 25 tickets for transportation 
from Chicago to Philadelphia to Paris, and New York to Chicago. 

Did you deliver this sum, $10,420, or any part of it, to Mr. Slater for 
this purpose? 

Miss Boxd. I still fail to see how this is relevant to the legislative 
proceedings. I also decline to answer this question not only citing the 



2028 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

entire fifth amendment and the freedom from unjust accusation that 
it presents me with, but also of the others that I have previously stated 
about the separation of powers 

Mr. Ichord. That invocation is sufficient. 

Now, Mr. Counsel, how many more questions do you have? 

Mr. Nittle. I don't think it will be more than 15 or 20 minutes. 

Mr. Ichord. I believe, then, that we should recess until 3 o'clock. 
The bells have soimded ; it is a roll call vote. 

So, Miss Bond, you will be excused until 3 o'clock, and I would ask 
that you return to the witness chair at that time. 

The committee will be in recess. 

("Whereupon, at 2 :30 p.m., a recess was taken until 3 p.m.) 

Mr. Ichord. The committee will come to order. 

Let us proceed with the questioning, counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Miss Bond, at the time of the recess we had dealt with the last visit 
by you with Mr. Luke on May 25 and then a visit to Pan American 
Airways. 

Now, following your transaction with Pan American World Air- 
ways and Travel Associates, Inc., on May 25, 1964, did you on the 
very next day return to California ? 

Miss Boxd. I refuse to answer this question, citing the grounds that 
I have previously stated and I ■ 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is not answering. Proceed with your next 
question. Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luke, in testimony this morning, testified that when 
you visited with him in the late afternoon of May 25 you informed 
him that vou were going to leave that evening for San Francisco. 
Did Mr. Luke correctly recollect the circumstances? 

Miss Box t d. I should think that if the members of this committee 
were rightly representing their constituents, many of whom are boys 
who are fighting in Vietnam 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Miss Bond, the Chair has been very patient with you and perhaps 
you can understand what is at issue here. 

Miss Bond. There are many things at issue. 

Mr. Ichord. You will have to be a little more cooperative. The 
issue is this : The President of the United States has issued a proclama- 
tion banning travel to Cuba unless you have a passport that has been 
validated. I realize there are several, many, people in the United 
States who believe that they have a constitutional right to travel, 
honestly believe that this may not be constitutional. That, of course, 
is not borne out by the decisions of the courts. 

It is definitely within the power of the President to do that in order 
to protect the security of your country. Now if you honestly felt that, 
Miss Bond, I would be even more patient with you, but your testimony 
before this committee and the facts that are before the committee 
indicate that the students who have traveled, at least a great number 
of them, were not traveling to exercise any sincerely believed constitu- 
tional right but to aid and abet the Communist propaganda efforts of 
Castro. 

Now I would ask you again to cooperate with the committee and 
quit trying to make a speech when you are not answering the ques- 
tions. We want to get on with the business of the committee. You 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2029 

have the opportunity to answer the questions, and the Chair will pro- 
tect your constitutional rights. Now let's try again. 

Miss Boxd. I think there are many things that I will need to 
bring up. 

Mr. Iciiord. If you will answer the questions, we will hear your 
remarks. You do not answer the questions and then you want to make 
siilo remarks on side issues. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Xittle. Miss Bond, in any event, the TWA offices at Oakland, 
California, advise us that you did appear at the TWA ticket counter 
in Oakland, California, on May 26, 1964, and requested a refund of 
12,000-odd dollars which you had deposited with them on May 19; 
that you explained the reason you were canceling the reservation with 
TWA was because that airline could not provide the group with the 
itinerary desired and they were going to obtain the tickets from Air 
France. 

Does this statement accord with your recollection of the facts? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question on the grounds that I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. Xittle. Upon the request for refund to TWA, TWA did in fact 
oblige you and give you that refund ; did it not? 

Miss Boxd. I decline to answer this question on the grounds that I 
have stated. 

Mr. Xittle. Xow, Miss Bond, I hand you a photostatic copy of Mis- 
cellaneous Charges Order numbered 015060045925, dated May 19, 1964, 
issued by the Oakland, California, office of the Trans World Airlines 
acknowledging the payment of $12,468 for Miss Yvonne Bond and 
29 others. It is marked for identification as "Bond Exhibit Xo. 2." 

Is this a true copy of the receipt given you by Trans World Air- 
lines upon your deposit with them on May 19, and the same amount 
being refunded to you on May 26, 1964 ? 

Miss Boxd. I decline to answer this question on the grounds that I 
have previously stated. I should think that this committee, without 
spending so much time chasing down these things 

Mr. Ichord. You refuse to answer. That is sufficient. 

Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Xittle. Xow, Miss Bond, I hand you a photostatic copy of a 
check, "Bond Exhibit Xo. 3." This check is drawn on Trans World 
Airlines, numbered M033203, dated May 26, 1964, and made payable to 
the order of Miss Yvonne Bond, 5225 Miles Avenue, Oakland, Cali- 
fornia, payable to your order, in the sum of $12,468. 

This check, together with the endorsements appearing on the back 
thereof, is marked for identification. Is this a true copy of the check 
of Trans World Airlines received by you in payment of the refund ? 

Miss Boxd. Well, I also refuse to answer this question on the 
grounds that I have previously stated and I think it is some investiga- 
tion in Vietnam 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has refused to answer. 

Proceed with the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Xittle. I offer "Bond Exhibits Xos. 2 and 3" in evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. Is there objection to admission of Exhibits 2 and 3 
in evidence from any members of the committee? If not, the exhibits 
will be admitted. 

(Documents marked "Bond Exhibits Xos. 2 and 3," respectively, 
follow:) 



2030 



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2032 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, having received this refund on May 26 at the 
offices of TWA, did you then on May 28, 1964, negotiate the check at 
the United California Bank in Oakland, California? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds that I 
previously stated. Again I wonder why more investigations are not 
being done in the situation in Vietnam. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you, Miss Bond, utilize this refund by purchasing 
a cashier's check at the United California Bank of San Francisco for 
t he purpose of making payment to Travel Associates, Inc., New York 
City, of the balance owing on the reservations of tickets of the Bay 
Area Student Tour to France that had been arranged on May 23 ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I decline to answer this question on the grounds 
that I previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much. You have declined to answer. 

Miss Bond. Representing us or whether we are here to 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a photostatic copy of a cashier's check 
dated June 2, 1964, drawn on the United California Bank of San 
Francisco, California, marked for identification as "Bond Exhibit 
No. 4." As you will note on the face of the check it is made payable to 
the Travel Associates, Inc., in the sum of $12,450 and bears the nota- 
tion in the lower left-hand corner "From : Yvonne M. Bond." 

Do you recall mailing this check from California to Travel Asso- 
ciates in New York as the balance on the purchase of 28 round-trip 
tickets from San Francisco, California, to Paris, France? 

Miss Bond. Well, I fail to see what relevance this has to any legis- 
lation 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair rules that it is pertinent, that the informa- 
tion of the committee indicates that the money came from the Commu- 
nist regime headed by Fidel Castro in Cuba for the purpose of spon- 
soring the trip. It is a pertinent question and the Chair so rules and 
directs you, Miss Bond, to answer. 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question on the grounds I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit No. 4 in evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. Let me see the exhibit. If there be no objection, 
Exhibit No. 4 will be admitted in evidence. 

(Document marked "Bond Exhibit No. 4" follows :) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2033 

Bond Exhibit No. 4 



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Mr. Xittle. Now, of course, pursuant to the arrangements made 
with Travel Associates, you departed for France from San Francisco 
on June 9, 1964, via American Airlines enroute to Cuba via New York, 
Paris, and Prague ; did you not ? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question citing all the rights 
that I have and privileges under the Constitution of the United States 
guaranteeing that there shall be separation of powers and guaranteed 
freedom of speech. 

Mr. Ichord. The chairman rules that is not sufficient reason to re- 
fuse to answer. 

Miss Boxd. And the grounds I have previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. That is sufficient. Proceed with the next question, 
Counsel. 

Mr. Nettle. Now, Miss Bond, the transportation for which you 
paid would carry your group to Paris, France, and I should like to 
ask whether you participated in the financial arrangements made for 
the travel of the group from Paris to Prague ? 

Miss Bond. I also decline to answer this question on the grounds that 
I have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Can you tell us whether the transportation between 
Paris and Prague was paid for by either the Czechoslovakian or Cuban 
Governments ? 

40-013— 65— pt. 5 5 



2034 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Bond. These governments, their transactions have nothing to 
do with the legislation that is being considered here. I also decline 
to answer this question on the grounds I have previously stated. 

Mr. Johansen. Just for the record, Mr. Chairman, let me say the 
question whether these governments did in any way finance these trips 
has everything to do with these hearings. I am not arguing with the 
witness, I want the record to be very clear on that point. 

Miss Bond. Well 

Mr. Ichord. That is definitely one of the purposes of the hearings 
and it is within the purview of the resolution and within the rights of 
Congress to so inquire as determined by the courts, and I might add, 
free courts, of this land. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel, with the next question. 

Mr. Nettle. Miss Bond, testimony was received in the September 
hearings to the effect that upon the arrival in Prague of the group 
which traveled to Cuba in the spring of 1963, slip visas were issued 
by the Cuban consulate in Prague for the admission of students to 
Cuba and that express instructions were given to the group not to ex- 
hibit their passports upon arrival or while in Cuba. 

Did you receive a slip visa from the Cuban consulate at Prague, 
Czechoslovakia ? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question on the grounds that I 
previously stated. It seems to me that the line of this questioning 
would tend to say that the gist of this activity came from outside the 
United States, that it was intrusion, intervention, something foreign 
and alien, but the people who were making this trip were all Americans, 
every one of us, all — you know, bom and raised in this country and 
with historical background in this country and part of this country. 
We made this trip as Americans. 

Mr. Nittle. We thought maybe you had forgotten that you were 
Americans. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you exhibit your passport to any official or repre- 
sentative of the Cuban consulate there ? 

Miss Boxd. I decline to answer that question on the grounds I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Had yon exhibited your passport to any French or 
Czechoslovakian official prior to your arrival in Prague? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer that question on the grounds I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, following your arrival in Cuba, the Havana 
domestic television on June 18, 1964, in reporting a donation of blood 
by the student travelers or some of the group to the Cuban blood bank, 
stated : 

Yvonne Bond, one of the students who make up the group of students and who 
is a resident of San Francisco, California, said : "To me, this represents my big- 
gest anti-imperialist act. There is my blood, to be used by some Cuban who is 
wounded fighting against some possible United States attack." 

Did you in fact make a contribution to the Cuban blood bank? 

Miss Bond. Well, a number of us in Havana offered to donate blood. 

Mr. Ichord. The question is, Did you donate blood? 

Miss Bond. I myself did not donate blood. I volunteered, but I was 
found to be anemic. A number of others did. I made a statement 
which 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2035 

Mr. Nettle. Did you make the statement attributed to you by the 
Havana domestic television? 

Mr. Gollobin. I object to the counsel interrupting the witness. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. I believe we are going to get an answer 
to at least one question here in maybe a second. 

Miss Bond. In the blood bank there is a sign that says: "In socialist 
countries it is a crime to buy or sell blood so that we donate it by our 
free will.'' 

And this statement is not quite accurate. What I said is that 
I would have been very glad to donate blood and that this blood could 
possibly be used in the case of another attack by the United States, 
which Mas possible at any time, or also for many other purposes in 
case of illness or accident or any other way in which blood can be 
used to help a person. 

Mr. Ichord. You say the statement is not quite accurate. Can you 
give the committee to the best of your memory the statement that you 
did make? 

Mr. Gollobin. Mr. Chairman, may I say that the witness has just 
stated to her best recollection what she understood she said. 

Mr. Ichord. Well, I don't think she was making a verbatim state- 
ment. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. I think, Miss Bond, in what you said, you have stated 
that the statement is not really complete but that much which has 
been reported by the Cuban wireless was correct. Is that correct, 
with the exception they didn't say all you said ? 

Miss Bond. I do not recall exactly what I said. I tried to the best 
of my knowledge to repeat. I don't recall my exact words. 

Mr. Nittle. Let me ask you this. Did you say at any time : "To me 
this represents my biggest anti-imperialist act." ? 

Did you use that remark ? 

Miss Bond. You are trying to put words in my mouth. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you or did you not ? 

Miss Bond. I don't recall. 

Mr. Nittle. You did make the statement ? 

Miss Bond. I don't recall. 

Mr. Ichord. She does not recall whether she made the statement 
or not. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you say : "There is my blood, to be used by some 
Cuban who is wounded fighting against some possible United States 
attack." ? 

Miss Bond. I do not recall if those were my exact words or not. 

Mr. Nittle. What words did you use with respect to that statement ? 

Miss Bond. I have already told you to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Nittle. What was that ? Would you repeat it, please ? 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, may we ask instead that the re- 
porter repeat what she said here on the witness stand with regard to 
her statement relative to the possible use of blood if she had been able 
to donate it ? 

Mr. Ichord. Yes, I think that is an excellent suggestion both for 
the benefit of the witness and for the benefit of the chairman and 
members of the committee. There was so much being said that I did 
not understand that the witness properly replied to the question. 



2036 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Madame Reporter, would you please get her answer where she says — 
that she stated — what she did say, and read it back to the committee. 

(The record was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Ichord. Pick up your question from there, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. I think, Mr. Chairman, if the Chair pleases I will pass 
on to another matter. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Mr. Chairman, I would like to pursue a question 
or two. 

Mr. Iciiord. The gentleman from Michigan is recognized. 

Mr. Johaxsex. What were you referring to in this statement when 
you spoke in the case of another attack by the United States ? 

Miss Boxd. Well, I was referring to the attack that was made on the 
Bay of Pigs invasion where a number of Cubans were killed and 
wounded and I think also on several other incidents which are not 
quite so widely known to the United States. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Would you regard giving blood or being willing to 
give blood under such circumstances as giving aid and comfort to an 
enemy of the United States ? 

Miss Bond. No, I do not. I have stated that I also said that this 
blood could be used in many, many other ways. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Now, I know you said it could be used in other ways, 
but giving blood to be used in case of another attack by the United 
States, would vou regard that as giving aid and comfort to an enemy 
of the United States? 

Miss Bond. In the first place I think that this attack which was 
made by the United States upon Cuba was internationally recognized 
to be an illegal and unjust thing since Cuba had made no attack on the 
United States. I do not consider my possibly giving of blood to be 
giving aid or comfort to the enemy. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Do you recall whether in your statement you used 
the term "imperialist" or "imperialist nation" ? 

Miss Boxd. I do not recall. 

Mr. Joiiaxsex. Do you so regard the United States ? 

Miss Boxd. Yes, in certain respects I do regard the United States 
as an imperialist nation. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Thank you. 

Miss Boxd. Especially in regard to countries such as Cuba which 
have made no attack upon the United States, which are trying to build 
their economy peacefully, in countries such as Vietnam and many 
other countries which are definitely being used by the United States 
in detriment of the people in those countries and also to the detriment 
of American workers. 

Mr. Sexxer. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, how old are you ? 

Miss Boxd. I have stated before 

Mr. Ichord. I don't remember. Would you tell the Chair? 

Miss Boxd. I am 23. 

Mr. Ichord. Do you have a question, Mr. Senner ? 

Mr. Sexxer. Yes. Do you feel that the refugees or the exiles from 
Cuba have a right to go back and take over their island and restore 
a new government if they feel that Fidel Castro's government does 
not represent the principles for which they stand ? 

Miss Boxd. For which who stands ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2037 

Air. Senner. I beg you pardon? 

Miss Bond. The principles for which who stands? 

Mr. Senner. The refugees or the exiles. 

Miss Boxd. Well, in the first place the refugees and exiles- 



Mr. Senner. In other words, we are talking about democracy versus 
communism, and the refugees, as I understand it, and the exiles want 
to set up a democratic form of government, free elections, the right of 
people to rule themselves rather than dictatorship. Now do you think 
that they have a right to recapture that island, "yes" or "no" ? 

Miss Bond. The refugees want to go back, to be assured of the fact 
that they will be having the income that they had before. If you had 
a popular election in Cuba now, the people who are at the head of the 
government would elect Fidel Castro overwhelmingly. 

Mr. Sexxer. How do you know without election? How do you 
know this? 

Miss Boxd. Well, having talked to many, many people, 

Mr. Sexxer. Who did you talk to? Did you talk with Fidel 
Castro ? 

Miss Boxd. Yes. 

Mr. Sexxer. Is he the one that told you this ? 

[Laughter.] 

Miss Boxd. There were several hundred others who told me before 
I ever met Fidel Castro. 

Mr. Sexxer. Then why don't they hold a free election if he is so 
sure of this — secret ballot ? 

Miss Boxd. Elections are not the only way to secure democracy. 
For instance 

Mr. Sexxer. How do you secure it any other way ? 

Miss Boxd. Well, by 

Mr. Sexxer. By what? 

Miss Boxd. Not by guaranteeing the Americans the freedoms that 
they have in the Constitution. 

Mr. Sexxer. We are going to have an election, I think it is Novem- 
ber 3, isn't it; and the people are going to decide here who is going to 
lead us. Now why doesn't Fidel Castro, down in Cuba, hold an elec- 
tion to decide who is going to lead them ? 

Mr. Johaxsex. As he promised them he would, I believe. As he 
promised he would. 

Mr. Ichord. Well, let's proceed, Mr. Counsel, with the line of 
questioning. 

Miss Boxd. He would be elected overwhelming-ly. 

Mr. Sexxer. Who told you this? 

Miss Boxd. Nobody has to tell you, you talk to people and they are 
for Fidel because Fidel is for them. These people are learning how 
to run their own lives, how to control their own lives 

Mr. Sexxer. Why are they risking their lives leaving the island, 
young lady? 

Miss Boxd. — elect their representatives. 

Mr. Sexxer. Why are they leaving the island and risking their lives 
and going to prison, opposing Fidel Castro ? 

Miss Boxd. It is the minority and they are leaving the island mostly 
because they are wealthy people in the upper classes, to protect their 
financial interests. 



2038 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Senner. Would you classify your political philosophy as a 
minority in the United States ? 

Miss Bond. Well, certainly 

Mr. Senner. Yes or no, or you don't know ? 

Miss Bond. That is not the question at stake here. 

Mr. Senner. And even if you are a minority, you still have a right 
of a secret ballot in this country. Do you know that ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, but to elect 

Mr. Senner. Why don't they in Cuba ? 

Miss Bond. To elect someone who I think will do a good job, no, 
I don't think so. I don't think I know of anyone who is running 
that will do the job that I expect. I think in saying these things I 
am saying I represent or am trying to state the interests of the Ameri- 
can people. 

Mr. Senner. How do you have a democracy other than a popular 
majority vote, people speaking, people controlling, people ruling? 
Tell me. I just don't understand your thinking. 

Miss Bond. You have people working in certain places, say in fac- 
tories, and these people know the people that they work with, they 
work with them 8 hours a day and they know their personalities, they 
know about them. They select the person who is the most respon- 
sible and they elect him, they select him for an important post. 

Mr. Ichord. I doubt that very many people understand your phil- 
osophy in the United States. I think we should get back on the track. 

Miss Bond. The workers in the United States understand what 
their interests are and they understand very often things are not 
happening to their best interests; for instance, the war in Vietnam. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Miss Bond. Which is taking a billion dollars a week or some fan- 
tastic sum. 

Mr. Bruce. Because of communism. 

Mr. Ichord. Let's get back on the track. 

Mr. Counsel, proceed with your next question. 

Mr. Xittle. Miss Bond, I have before me a copy of the New York 
Times of August 19, 1964, marked for identification as "Bond Ex- 
hibit Xo. 5." An article entitled "U.S. Youths, Back From Cuba, 
Laud Life There" reports an interview with five of the alleged stu- 
dent travelers who are reported as saying their expenses were paid 
and they received the equivalent of about $10 a week spending money. 

Were such payments made to you ? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer that question on the 

(Document marked "Bond Exhibit No. 5" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Senner. One more question while counsel are talking. Miss 
Bond, I would like to ask you this question. What would happen if 
students in Cuba illegally traveled from that island without Fidel 
Castro's con sent % What would happen to them ? 

Mr. Ichord. I don't think the witness, Mr. Senner, is qualified to 
answer that. She apparently has talked with Fidel Castro. It would 
be purely a statement of opinion. 

Mr. Senner. I would like to have it if she has such an opinion. 

Miss Bond. Well, it is true that what we came to know when we 
were in Cuba, that the government arranges for the peaceful trans- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2039 

portation of any Cubans who want to leave Cuba to go to the United 
St ates or elsewhere. 

Mr. Senner. Are you saying we can send a ship down there and 
pick up the people that want to leave that island, that Fidel Castro 
would let them come to the United States? 

Miss Bond. It is possible that a ship could come peacefully without 
overtures of war. 

Mr. Ichord. It is possible. 

Mr. Senner. Possible. 

Mr. Ichord. Now where are we, Mr. Counsel, with your question ? 

Mr. Nittle. I inquired whether the witness, while in Cuba, received 
$10 a week in payment of expenses. 

Mr. Ichord. Yes, that is a pertinent question, Miss Bond. I direct 
you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. Well, I decline to answer this question on the grounds 
that I have previously stated, but I just would like to add that 

Mr. Ichord. You have refused to answer the question, you are not 
permitted to add anything. 

Miss Bond. — this is reported in the 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is out of order. I am sorry. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, upon the return of the group from Cuba 
on August 14, your group held a press conference at the Kennedy 
International Airport at which Phillip Abbott Luce presided as chair- 
man. He introduced Edward Lemansky as the spokesman for the 
group returning from Cuba. 

Upon being introduced, Mr. Lemansky identified himself as an orga- 
nizer for the Progressive Labor Movement. It was announced that 
questions from the press would be permissible following statements 
rendered by various persons who traveled with him to Cuba. 

You were in attendance at that press conference, were you not ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Nittle. I beg your pardon ? 

Miss Bond. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Nittle. During the interview conducted of you, you stated that 
you were also a member of the Progressive Labor Movement and 
proudly proclaimed that you were a Communist ; did you not ? 

Miss Bond. Well, in answer to this question I would like to say the 
following: That through my experiences in traveling among the 
United States while I was young with my parents, my father was in 
the service 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, I am sorry, that is not responsive to the 
question. I direct you to answer the question of counsel. 

Miss Bond. I am trying to give some background here as you have 
been giving background to these questions. 

Mr. Ichord. Are you sure you are not refusing to answer and then 
giving background ? 

Mr. Nittle. May I say, Mr. Chairman 

Miss Bond. No, I have not. 

Mr. Nittle. We are giving her an opportunity to state more facts 
with respect to her activities in that organization, following her 
response to the question. I think she should be required and directed 
to answer the question addressed to her. Did she state in a press 
interview that she was also a member of the Progressive Labor Move- 



2040 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

ment and proudly proclaimed that she was a Communist on that oc- 
casion ? 

Mr. Ichord. I think that question can be answered "yes" or "no," 
Miss Bond, and I direct you to answer the question. 

Miss Bond. I have known for a long time that socialism is the- — 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, she is not responding to the question. 

Miss Bond. I have never denied it or 

Mr. Ichord. I am sorry, Miss Bond. You are out of order. That 
is not responsive to the question. 

Miss Bond. I have never denied that I was a member of the Pro- 
gressive Labor Movement. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you say that you were a member of the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement and that you proudly proclaimed that you were 
a Communist? 

Miss Bond. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Senner. Thank you. 

Mr. Nittle. "Would you tell us where and under what circumstances 
you were recruited into the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Miss Bond. Well, as with everyone, my reasons for choosing my 
ideological outlook was rooted in my upbringing, my youth in 
America. 

Mr. Senner. Would you speak up so I can hear because I do want 
to hear this very, very much. Tell me. 

Miss Bond. My becoming a member of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment is rooted in my youth in America, traveling throughout the 
country with my parents, my father, who was in the service in the 
Marine Corps and my family 

Mr. Senner. I am an ex-marine and I kind of resent that, but go 
ahead. Go ahead. 

Miss Bond. There are many progressive traditions within the 
Marine Corps [laughter], more than any other accepted method of 
life. 

My father's family has been in this country since the 1600 ? s and 
lived in the South and in Georgia and misguidedly fought in the Civil 
War on the side of the South, and 

Mr. Senner. Was your father in the Marine Corps during the Civil 
War? 

Miss Bond. No. 

Mr. Senner. Well 

Miss Bond. My grandfather was a sheriff in Oklahoma, so my roots 
in this country go back very, very deeply. 

As I say, I traveled throughout North Carolina and Oklahoma, 
California, seeing the different parts of the country and how people 
lived and witnessing both poor people and rich people. 

I was also very affected by the fact that poor people, there seemed 
to be no way out for them, that they seemed to be sort of permanently 
cast to this lot and I also wondered why. 

I went to college; I started studying anthropology, sociology, at the 
University of California, literature; and I learned a number of rea- 
sons for the causes of these things, why people are poor, and why some 
people are so rich and how this country 

Mr. Senner. May I interrupt, Miss Bond ? 

Would you not say a young woman with $23,000 in cash is pretty 
rich in this country ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2041 

Miss Bond. This country has monopolies rather than the free enter- 
prise that it is so highly touted to be. I pondered on the solution for 
these problems for a long time and I was cynical because I thought it 
had to do with the nature of man that things should always be thus. 
Then I discovered socialism and found that things don't always have 
to be. 

Mr. Senner. When you use the word "socialism," are you talking 
about communism ? Are you not talking about communism when you 
say socialism ? There is a difference, and you know it. 

Miss Bond. Socialism is that stage of economic development before 
communism. 

Mr. Senner. There is a difference, isn't there? 

Miss Bond. Yes ; there is a difference. 

Mr. Senner. All right. 

Are you talking about socialism or communism ? 

Miss Bond. I am talking about socialism right now because social- 
ism has to come first. 

Mr. Senner. I thought a minute ago that you were proud to be a 
Communist. 

Miss Bond. Communism is an ideology; it implies that you study 
Marxism-Leninism and the laws of historical development. 

Mr. Senner. Go ahead with your statement. 

Miss Bond. I found out about socialism and the fact that man is 
able to change his environment and his economic and social structure. 

I started reading about countries which were Socialist, such as 
Cuba, the Soviet Union, and China and other Socialist countries. 
Cuba especially impressed me because it was such a small place and 
because they seemed to have made such rapid development in alleviat- 
ing malnutrition and poverty in such a short time. 

In recalling all the poor people and the Negro people and the highly 
taxed workers and even middle-class people 

Mr. Senner. Miss Bond, I think this 88th Congress has done more 
for education, civil rights, and everything else to move this country in 
the direction of equal opportunities for all. 

If you will study history correctly, you will find that more million- 
aires have been made since World War II in this country than 
ever before in its history. 

Miss Bond. While others remain poor. That is just a cure for the 
symptoms, not the disease. 

Mr. Senner. I want to ask you this question : What would happen 
to you if you would oppose Fidel Castro in the manner that you 
are opposing the United States Government now? What would 
happen to you ? 

Miss Bond. That is a silly question because I would not oppose 
Fidel Castro simply to oppose him. It is not a matter of opposition 
for opposition's sake; it pertains to reality, to concrete things. 

Mr. Ichord. Fidel is obviously a great hero of yours. 

Miss Bond. It pertains to reality, to concrete things, to gains you 
can see the people making. The people themselves in Cuba can 
see these gains being made, so obviously they support Fidel. 

Mr. Senner. Do you think you would get a public hearing ? 

Miss Bond. Of course. Of course, you would. On any street corner 
you choose, you can hear a person who is opposed to the govern- 



2042 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

ment saying that in loud and clear words, and nobody shoots him 
down. 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Bond, you keep bringing up the fact that you 
are on trial here. You are not on trial here. We ary trying to pass 
legislation to protect this great country of ours that we believe in, 
a great majority of us. We have an open ballot, as we pointed out, 
free election; this other man does not. How can you buy this 
philosophy ? 

Miss Bond. As I said before, the ballot is not the prime means 
of guaranteeing a democracy. There are many other ways of guar- 
anteeing a democracy which I consider more important and more truly 
beneficial to the people. 

Mr. Senner. Like Red China and Russia, Yugoslavia ? 

Mr. Ichord. Let us proceed with the questioning, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, having told us that much, Miss Bond, perhaps 
you would be willing to tell us by whom you were recruited into 
the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Miss Bond. Yes; I would be glad to answer that question. I was 
recruited by myself. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you recruited by any member of the Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Bond. As I said, I have answered the question. 

Mr. Nittle. I say: Were you recruited by any member of the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Miss Bond. I have answered the question. 

Mr. Senner. I don't remember the answer. 

Would you have her answer again ? 

Mr. Ichord. Read the answer. 

I believe she said she recruited herself, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Who received your membership application, if any was 
made? 

Miss Bond. Here again, I refuse to name anyone and I decline to 
answer, citing the grounds I have already stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, were you assigned to any cell or club of 
the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question on the grounds that I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us whether you were assigned to a club 
or cell on the West Coast ? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer that question, also. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us whether you were assigned to a cell 
or a club of the Progressive Labor Movement at the University of 
California in Berkeley ? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question. 

I wonder why the Congressmen are assigned to this committee 

Mr. Ichord. You decline to answer. 

Miss Bond. The Congressmen assigned to the committee 

Mr. Ichord. I thought you declined to answer, Miss Bond. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, last fall, we inquired into the financing of 
the student group which traveled to Cuba in the summer of 1963. 
Our investigation revealed that Levi Laub, admittedly a member of 
the Progressive Labor Movement, and posing as J. Jacobs, deposited 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2043 

the sum of $22,739.20 in American currency with the BOAC office in 
Ottawa, Canada, on June 10 and 11, 1963, for 40-odd reservations for 
transportation to London and Paris, and $13,436.80 of this American 
currency with the KLM office in Ottawa, Canada, for 26 reservations 
for t ia asportation to Paris via Amsterdam. 

Now, have you at any time discussed with Levi Laub, a member of 
the executive board of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, 
his experiences while serving as a courier for the payment of trans- 
portation involved in the travel of the Paris group? 

Miss Bond. I decline to answer this question. I refuse to inform 
on anyone and I cite the grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. The investigation also revealed that one Arnold In- 
denbaum, likewise posing as J. Jacobs, applied for and received from 
the offices of BOAC and KLM in New York City refunds in excess 
of $6,000 for unused reservations, which had been paid for in the 
Canada offices of those airlines by Levi Laub, also posing there as 
J. Jacobs. 

Did you discuss your experiences as a courier for the summer travel 
of 1964 with Arnold Indenbaum ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to discuss the private conversations I may have 
had and I decline to answer this question on the grounds that I have 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know both Levi Laub and Arnold Indenbaum 
to be members of the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Miss. Bond. I decline to answer this question also on the grounds I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Miss Bond, the committee is informed that on August 
15, 1964, which is the day following your arrival in the United States 
from your Cuban visit, approximately 200 persons assembled in the 
area of Times Square, New York City, under the auspices of the "May 
2 Committee" and there conducted a demonstration under the leader- 
ship of Phillip Abbott Luce, chairman of the May 2 Committee. 

Were you in attendance at this demonstration of August 15 ? 

Miss Bond. Not only was I in attendance at this demonstration, 
there were approximately 200 or 300 others that were protesting the 
current outrageous war that the> U.S. is carrying on in Vietnam with 
the loss of American lives and the great expenditures of money that 
would be used so well for other things. 

Mr. Ichord. You do not think very much of your present type of 
government ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I believe in many cases, as in the case of Mr. Willis 
and Mr. Tuck, that I have previously stated that often these repre- 
sentatives are not really elected and do not truly represent the people 
and 

Mr. Johansen. Why are you so greatly concerned with whether they 
are freely elected when in Cuba elections don't even matter ? 

Miss Bond. As I have said, elections are not the crux of democracy. 
The crux is whether the wishes of the people are truly represented or 
not. These so-called free elected representatives can be as much of a 
shame as the king and queen and a court. 

Mr. Ichord. Who determines all of this? Do you go back to the 
teachings of Karl Marx where the answers are ? 



2044 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Miss Bond. I determine these from my own experiences in the 
things I have read and learned and seen. 

I would try to determine what the wishes of the people were and try 
to carry out those wishes; whether or not they truly wished a war in 
Vietnam, whether or not they truly knew what was happening in 
Vietnam, or whether or not they truly knew what was happening in 
Cuba. 

Mr. Senner. What about Red China's intervention, invasion into 
India ? What is your attitude on that ? 

Miss Bond. Well, there is a dispute as to who actually attacked 
who, in this case. 

Mr. Senner. I take it that is all right. 

Miss Bond. It has been said that India attacked China first, and 
General Taylor said this too. 1 

Mr. Ichord. Let's proceed with the questioning, Counsel. 

Mr. Nettle. Miss Bond, was the New York unit of the May 2 Com- 
mittee to your knowledge controlled by the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds that I 
have previously stated. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nettle. Now it is reported, Miss Bond, that a skirmish broke 
out during the course of the August 15 demonstration after the police 
ordered the demonstrators to keep moving, and several assaults were 
made on police officers. 

The question I should like to pose to you is: Was it the strategy of 
the Progressive Labor Movement to resist police orders with the objec- 
tive of provoking violence ? 

Miss Bond. Well, I just would like to say that the violence was 
invoked entirely by the police officers. I myself was in a group of 
people who were forced to fall down, fall over one another because 
policemen charged into us and we had no where to move except against 
a wall. I still have bruises if you would like to see them. 

Mr. Johansen. Had you previously been ordered to move ? 

Miss Bond. No; not a word was said to — we were simply charged 
and people were arrested. I saw a number of them being arrested, 
and they would be either knocked down and clubbed by a police officer 
and grabbed around the neck and held against a tree and then they 
would be picked up and they said, "You are under arrest." 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 



1 General Maxwell D. Taylor, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, pave an off-the-record 
briefing to the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Department of Defense Appropria- 
tions on February 14, 1963. When the subcommittee later released portions of General 
Taylor's testimony, the press publicized the following exchange between a member of the 
subcommittee and General Taylor : 

"Mr. Sikes. Let me talk about Red China and the Indian operation. Did the Indians 
actually start this military operation? 

"General Taylor. They were edging forward in the disputed area ; yes, sir." 

The Department of Defense immediately issued the following: statement to the press to 
"clarify" impressions created by published excerpts from General Taylor's executive 
testimony. The statement, dated April 19, 1963. read in part : 

"General Taylor's full testimony did not imply in any way that the Indians started, or 
might have been responsible for starting, the hostilities. Unfortunately. General Taylor's 
full statement to the Committee could not be released for security reasons. This state- 
ment made clear that the Sino-Indian conflict arose from a long pattern of Chinese 
Communist actions both in earlier years, going back to 1959 at least, and in 1962. More- 
over the small scale Indian patrols described by General Taylor were operating on their 
own territory in the Northeast Frontier Agency, and were no justification whatever for 
the ensuing large scale Chinese Communist attacks. There is no question that the Chinese 
Communists were the aggressors." 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2045 

Mr. Nittle. In any event, several of the demonstrators were arrested 
as a result of the disorder, among them being nine of the persons who 
had returned with you from Cuba on August 14, the day before; 
namely. Tie; it Clark, William Sumner, Carolyn McFadden, Max 
Beagarie, Hubert Faulkner, Anthony Murad, Eric Schutz, Judith 
Warden, and Edward Lemansky. 

At a. court hearing following, you were in attendance were you not? 

Miss Bond. Which court are you referring to ? 

Mr. Nittle. Following the arrest. 

Miss Bond. I was in attendance at some of the court proceedings 
and not at the others. 

Mr. Nittle. Involving these persons ? 

Miss Bond. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, were not also Albert Maher, Robert Apter, 
Wendie Suzuko Nakashima, Stephen Martinot, and Arnold Inden- 
baum in attendance at police court during your attendance there? 

Miss Bond. Well, here I refuse to answer this question on the 
grounds that, well, first of all, it really has nothing to do with the 
legislation of the question and that I don't want to involve other people 
in this and refuse to answer on the grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, perhaps its relevance will appear in this inquiry. 
Do you know them all as members of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment ? 

Miss Bond. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds I have 
previously stated and I saw a number of cases of this in night court 
avIio were all poor people, Negro people. 

Mr. Ichord. You have answered the question. 

Miss Bond. Which was really not their fault but the fault of society. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is out of order. 

Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. One final question, Mr. Chairman. 

Did you participate in the program of student travel undertaken 
by the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, and the demonstration 
of August 15 following your return, for the purpose of giving as- 
sistance to foreign Communist governments ? 

Miss Bond. You are referring to the demonstration ? 

Mr. Nittle. I am referring both to your participation in the stu- 
dents' travel and j^our participation in the demonstration of August 15, 
and I am asking whether your activities are for the purpose of giving 
assistance to foreign Communist governments ? 

Miss Bond. I participated in the trip to Cuba along with 83 others. 
I participated in the demonstration against the Avar in Vietnam along 
with some 200 or 300 others. Certainly we were not doing this for 
the interests of a foreign power, we are doing it because we are Ameri- 
cans. This is not an external thing that is being intruded in to our 
country, it is something that we are doing as Americans because 
we want to better our country, because we want to change our country, 
because we want to see progress in our country. 

Mr. Ichord. You are not under an indictment at the present time, 
are you Miss Bond ? 

Miss Bond. No, I am not. 

Mr. Ichord. That concludes the questioning by the counsel. 

The Chair will recognize Mr. Bruce, a member of the full com- 
mittee. 



2046 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Bruce. In relationship to the last answer you gave, would it 
be correct then to say that you participated in what you felt was part 
of a "liberation" movement for the people of the United States? 

Miss Bond. As part of a movement to recognize the true wishes, 
the true needs of the people of America. 

Mr. Bruce. Do you feel that they need to be "liberated" from 
oppression ? 

Miss Bond. I feel that they need to develop a system in this coun- 
try which will be more suited to the needs of their own lives, which 
will not leave any strata of people such as the Negro people, the 
agriculture workers in California, at the bottom of the strata; the 
surplus labor to be used for the giant farm monopolies, for instance, 
in California who have this pool of people like slaves waiting to do 
their work. 

Mr. Bruce. You have answered my question satisfactorily. What 
you are saying is that you have a dedicated Marxist-Leninist outlook 
on society, is that correct ? 

Miss Bond. I have said I am an American, and along with many 
other Americans I would like to see true progress come in this 
country. 

Mr. Bruce. But you do consider yourself a Marxist-Leninist, do 
you not ? 

Miss Bond. Yes. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Pool. 

Mr. Pool. In connection with that last answer, you subscribe, then, 
to the theory that there can be no "peaceful coexistence" between the 
Communist countries and the democratic countries; is that correct? 

Miss Bond. It seems to me that you got some of the information 
backwards here because there are many, many forces in monopolies 
and some within the United States who are acting in a way to prevent 
a decline of peaceful coexistence between countries, especially in 
keeping with so many of the countries and many of the segments 
within the United States — the workers of the United States, keeping 
them on a bare subsistence level of living, and this creates certain 
dangers. 

It makes people want to better their lives, it makes them want to 
struggle to better their lives, and this it seems to me is the mam thing 
preventing coexistence. 

Mr. Pool. Let me ask you this. Do you think Red China is correct 
or Russia is correct in the argument they are having at the current 
time, the so-called arguments ? 

Miss Bond. I think this is entirely irrelevant to matters being 
considered. 

Mr. Pool. But you opened it up by your answer awhile ago. I just 
want to get you typed and find out which side you are on, but you won't 
answer. 

Miss Bond. Who is on the side of the American people is what I 
want to know. 

Mr. Pool. Definitely you are not. Don't look at me. 

Mr. Ichord. Has the gentleman from Texas concluded ? 

Mr. Pool. Yes. 

Mr. Ichord. The gentleman from Indiana. 

Mr. Bruce. I have one very brief question I want to ask. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2047 

You have said you are a Marxist-Leninist. Now the question, of 
course, was raised here, is it not correct that, from the Marxist-Leninist 
viewpoint, that "coexistence'' is necessary until the time comes when 
the Communist powers are strong enough to achieve the total conquest 
of the world? Is that not the Marxist-Leninist definition of co- 
existence ? 

Miss Bond. As I said before, at this point the main forces against 
coexistence in the world are coming from the countries such as the 
United States. 

Mr. Bruce. Answer my question. You say you are a Marxist-Len- 
inist. Is this not your definition of coexistence ? 

Mr. Ichord. Well, now, the counsel, of course, can advise the witness 
of her rights. Of course he is familiar with the rules of the committee 
not to put words in the mouth of the witness. I am sure he is not 
doing that. 

Mr. Gollobin. I have refrained from suggesting that the questioner 
is insisting on the answer that he wants rather than letting the witness 
answer in her own words. I am afraid he is saying that. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is testifying very freely of her political 
philosophy. 

Mr. Bruce. Very freely. 

Mr. Ichord. Not too freely about the travel to Cuba. The Chair 
has been very lenient in permitting the committee to ask questions 
along the lines of the political philosophy of the witness. 

Proceed with the question, Mr. Bruce. 

Mr. Bruce. I am still waiting for the answer as to whether the 
definition I gave is not the accurate Marxist-Leninist definition of 
"coexistence" from their viewpoint or your viewpoint? 

Miss Bond. It depends on what conditions arise in the world. 

Mr. Bruce. That is exactly what I said. 

Miss Bond. Certainly a majority of the sane people in the world 
do not like to have war, do not like to see bloodshed, it is a terrible 
thing. I watched my friends being clubbed down by policemen in 
New York and watched the blood flowing from their heads and that 
was something I will never forget. It is a terrible thing. 

Mr. Bruce. That is a nice diversion but you have not answered the 
question. 

Miss Bond. It is a terrible thing. 

Mr. Bruce. I have no further questions. 

Miss Bond. I think that a majority of sane people would prefer to 
see a transition that is as peaceful as possible. 

Mr. Ichord. Does the chairman of the full committee have any 
questions ? 

Mr. Willis. No. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Senner ? 

Mr. Senner. I just have two. 

Miss Bond, why was it necessary for Fidel Castro to put the money 
up for this group to get the students down ? 

Miss Bond. Why is it necessary for America to put up a million 
dollars a week for useless war in Vietnam and spraying harmful chem- 
icals on their crops and their cows, and so on ? 

Mr. Senner. Will you answer my question, please ? 

Miss Bond. Would you repeat the question ? 



2048 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Senner. Why was it necessary for Fidel Castro to put up the 
money for the students to make the trip to Cuba ? If you are such 
a dedicated Communist, why was it necessary for him to put the money 
up? 

Miss Bond. As I said before, I have already declined to answer this 
question ; you are trying to tag it onto the end again. 

Mr. Senner. One last question, Miss Bond. We have heard from 
you your philosophy, and of course there are a few in these United 
States that agree with you. 

Miss Bond. More than a few. 

Mr. Senner. Just a few, I think. But you talk about the sick, the 
poor, and the hungry and oppressed and wretched. Would it not have 
been better to have taken that ^22,000 and sent it to the hungry and the 
poor and the sick in CARE packages? Would that not be better than 
to take that indoctrination trip for a month and a half '. 

Miss Bond. Would it not be better to take that million-a-week-or- 
month or whatever it is and put it 

Mr. Senner. We are talking about your philosophy now. 

Miss Bond. — American workers instead of war machine. 

Mr. Senner. We are talking about your philosophy now. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair is not inquiring into political philosophy. 
She has answered many questions on it, but she obviously does not want 
to answer this question. 

Mr. Senner. We are spending billions of dollars helping the poor 
and sick of this Nation. I am asking 3-011 one question. Would it not 
have been better, if you were really sincere in your belief, that you 
would have taken this $22,000 and instead of making that trip to Cuba 
to have spent it on CARE packages for the sick and the poor and the 
hungry that you are talking about in this world ? 

Miss Bond. Give them a pittance, give them medicine for the symp- 
toms of their disease. 

Mr. Senner. Throw medicine in. Would it not have been better? 

Miss Bond. That was not the kind of medicine I was talking about. 

Mr. Ichord. The gentleman from Michigan. 

Mr. Johansen. I have just one question. When the requirements 
of the laws of the United States, whether it relates to travel to Cuba, 
whether it relates to the draft or any other matters, run counter to 
your Marxist-Leninist views, do you regard it as a superior obligation 
to adhere to your Marxist -Leninist views or do you obey the laws of 
the United States ? 

Miss Bond. Well, in answer to this question not only Marxist-Len- 
inist but also many other good Americans obey laws that they feel are 
just, but when they feel that a law is tyrannical or unjust, they seek 
some way to change it. For instance in the Civil War many people 
were 

Mr. Johansen. Just a minute. The witness is not responding. I 
didn't ask the witness if she believed that when those laws were wrong 
she should seek to change them. Of course that is the right of an 
American. I asked you simply whether in such a situation you would 
regard it as your duty to follow your Marxist-Leninist principles to 
the point of violation of the existing law ? 

Miss Bond. There are not really any Marxist -Leninist principles 
at work here. Among most Americans, at least, for them it is simply 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2049 

a question of how to be a good American. If they see laws are tyran- 
nical and unjust, even they who uphold the law, even when the Gov- 
ernment breaks it, they are better Americans. 

Mr. Johansen. If I understood your answer, I don't think it is re- 
sponsive. Do you believe that you are justified in violating the law 
if it runs contrary to your commitments as a Communist? 

Miss Bond. Well, I believe that the American people have certain 
rights reserved to them by the Constitution. I believe in respecting 
these rights and respecting all the rights of the American people 
and 

Mr. Johansen. What about the laws ? I am not talking about the 
rights. 

Miss Bond. — the wishes of the American. 

Mr. Johansen. I am not talking about the rights, I am asking you 
about the laws that are on the statute books. 

Miss Bond. Well, I believe in upholding the basic law of the land 
which is the Constitution, and I believe that the travel ban which 
these hearings is evidently all about is unconstitutional. 

Mr. Johansen. And therefore you believe that it was your right to 
violate it because in your judgment it is unconstitutional. 

Miss Bond. I believe it is the right of the American people to vio- 
late or try to bring to light the fact that any law that is unconstitu- 
tional is unconstitutional, which this law clearly is. 

Mr. Johansen. I direct your attention to the fact that the Consti- 
tution requires adherence to the supreme law of the land which in- 
cludes the Constitution and the laws made pursuant thereof until they 
are declared unconstitutional and therefore null and void, declared so 
by the properly constituted authorities. 

I just have this observation, that your action speaks louder than 
any explanation that you can offer. The law was clear with regard to 
Cuban travel, and you elected deliberately to violate it and to encour- 
age and abet others in doing it. 

That is all I have. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will be excused. Thank you very much, 
Miss Bond. 

The Chair will declare a recess for 10 minutes. Who is the next 
witness, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Nittle. Morton Bruce Slater. 

Mr. Ichord. Then Morton Slater will be the next witness. 

We will recess the hearing for 10 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Ichord. The committee will come to order. Are you Mr. 
Morton B. Slater? 

Mr. Slater. Yes. 

Mr. Ichord. Will you raise your hand and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Slater. I do. 

Mr. Ichord. You may be seated. 

The photographers will retire, please. 

The Chair notes that this witness has the same counsel as the pre- 
ceding witness. 

Proceed with the questioning Mr. Counsel. 

40-013— 65— pt. 5 6 



2050 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF MORTON B. SLATER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

IRA GOLLOBLN 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Slater. Morton B. Slater, 106 Avenue B, New York. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you resided at 500 East 74th Street, New York 
City? 

Mr. Slater. No, I have never resided at that address. 

Mr. Ichord. Will the witness speak into the mike. The acoustics 
are poor in the room. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth ? 

Mr. Slater. April 3, 1943, New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and any degrees received ? 

Mr. Slater. In the first place I would like to say that I object to 
being questioned by this committee, firstly, for many of the reasons 
that Yvonne Bond just gave, the summary of which is that this com- 
mittee does not serve a legislative purpose and is a farce. I won't 
repeat the technical reasons that she gave because this committee said 
they were already aware of these charges and facts. 

In the second place, I would like to object to the statement of pur- 
pose, that was handed to me and the three other defendants at the 
opening of these hearings. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I don't want the record to stand 
unchallenged. The witness is referring to himself as a defendant. 
He may have inadvertently misspoken, but the record should be very 
clear he is not in that category or role as a witness before this 
committee. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is represented by competent counsel, and 
I think he has been advised by counsel that he is not a defendant. 

(At this point the hearing was disrupted. ) 

Mr. Ichord. The hearing will be in order. Will the people in the 
audience please take their seats. Let order prevail. 

Now the Chair has been advised that the individual who came for- 
ward, and I might say that it appeared to me to be about as phony an 
attack as I have ever witnessed in this committee room — the Chair is 
advised that that individual was one of Rockwell's 1 associates. At 
this time I want to apologize to the witness, I thought we had suf- 
ficient security. 

Now this is a public hearing room, we are carrying out the mandate 
of the Congress of the United States. I want to recess for just 5 min- 
utes and confer with the police to see if there are any other of these 
rightwing extremists in the room who might possibly attempt the 
same thing. 

Mr. Marshal, would you come forward please ? 

(A brief recess was taken. ) 

Mr. Ichord. Let us be seated. The Chair wishes to keep this a 
public meeting. If there is anyone in the room who is going to at- 



1 George Lincoln Rockwell, head of the American Nazi Party. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2051 

tempt to do anything like that, and I understand the security officers 
do have some inside who possibly would so attempt, I must ask the offi- 
cers to keep close surveillance and not let anything like that happen 
again. 

Is the witness unhurt ? 

Mr. Gollobin. The witness has been hurt and asks for a recess. 

Mr. Ichord. What is the nature of the injuries? 

Mr. Slater. He stepped on these three lingers and he punched me 
in the back of the neck. 

Mr. Ichord. I believe that under the circumstances, Mr. Counsel, 
and at the request of the witness that we will comply with the request 
of the witness and ask him to return tomorrow at 10 o'clock. 

Xow do you have another witness, Mr. Counsel ? The witness will 
be excused and counsel will be excused. 

Would the witness please come forward again ? I am going to call 
the House physician. Would you care to be examined by him for 
any injuries that you might have? 

Mr. Slater. Yes. 

Mr. Ichord. That will be done. Mr. Counsel, will you see that the 
aides of the committee escort him to the House physician where 
he can be attended to for any medical services that he might desire ? 

It is now 7 minutes until 5. I believe under the circumstances I 
will declare the meeting in adjournment until 10 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

The hearings are adjourned. 

(Whereupon at 4:53 p.m., Thursday, September 3, 1964, the hear- 
ing recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., Friday, September 4, 1964.) 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT TRAVEL REGU- 
LATIONS AND PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIV- 
ITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 5 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 1964 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee ox Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
public hearings 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in the Caucus Room, Camion House 
Office Building, Washington, D.C, Hon. Richard H. Ichorcl (chair- 
man of the subcommittee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Richard H. Ichord, of 
Missouri : George F. Senner, Jr., of Arizona ; and August E. Johansen, 
of Michigan.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Ichord, Senner, 
and Johansen. 

Committee members also present: Representatives Edwin E. Willis, 
of Louisiana; Joe R. Pool, of Texas; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; 
Henry C. Schadeberg, of Wisconsin; and John M. Ashbrook, of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S. 
Tavenner. Jr., general counsel; Alfred M. Nittle, counsel; Donald 
T. Appell, chief investigator; Louis J. Russell and Philip R. Manuel, 
investigators. 

Mr. Ichord. The meeting will come to order. 

At the beginning of yesterday's hearings the Chair read into the 
record the required opening statements. Before we continue with 
the hearings today I have a brief statement to make in regard to the 
incident yesterday. 

I deplore the attack upon the witness, and precautions have been 
taken by the committee to preclude such an incident happening. 
There was only one way that it could happen and those means were 
taken. The Chair will state again that this committee will not tol- 
erate disruptions or assaults in this committee hearing room by any 
Nazi, by any Communist, or any other extremist. There will be 
steps taken in the House later on that will take care of such problems 
as this. 

Before holding these hearings I had considered holding the hearings 
open only to the press, people whom the committee knew would be 
orderly. However, it is very difficult for the Chair or the committee, 

2053 



2054 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

for the police officers, to screen everyone who might wish to come into 
this hearing room and determine whether or not they are going to be 
law-abiding and orderly. 

The business of Congress is the people's business. Members of 
Congress are freely elected by the people from their districts. We 
want to have these hearings open to the public. I ask each and every 
person in the audience to comply with the request of the Chair and 
maintain order in this hearing room. And I ask the officers to be par- 
ticularly on guard against any disruption, against any such incident 
as yesterday, and be certain that it does not go as far as it did 
yesterday. 

The witness, Morton Slater, has been continued ; he will appear at a 
later date. With that statement, I will recognize the gentleman from 
Michigan. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I associate myself completely with 
the distinguished chairman. I want to add that in my judgment the 
incident yesterday, like numerous other incidents in the past, consti- 
tutes contempt of Congress per se. It is my intention, at the earliest 
opportunity, to make a statement on the floor of the House regarding 
the incident yesterday and to recommend certain steps to be taken by 
the House of Representatives to deal not onry with the occurrence of 
yesterday, but to deal with the problem of maintaining the order, the 
dignity, and the authority of the Congress. 

I think, Mr. Chairman, that is all I will say at this point. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Counsel, call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Edward Lemansky please come forward. 

Mr. Ichord. Will the witness be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lemansky. That is what I am here for. I am here to tell the 
truth. 

Mr. Ichord. Do you swear to tell the truth ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I affirm to tell the truth. 

Mr. Ichord. The record will show that the witness affirms. 

The witness will be seated. 

Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes, I am. And 

Mr. Ichord. Will the witness please take his chair. 

Let the photography desist. Will the photographers please retire. 

Will the counsel for the witness identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Gollobin. Mr. Chairman, may I make a brief statement in con- 
nection with my representation of the witness who is not here today, 
Morton Slater. I understand he has been continued. He is pres- 
ently in Washington Center Hospital under the care of a neuro- 
surgeon, Dr. Norman Horowitz, at the recommendation of another 
physician, Dr. Warren Brill, who was secured through the Capitol 
physician, Dr. Peter Evans, who examined him yesterday and found 
that he needed further medical care. 

Mr. Ichord. Since we have another witness, the Chair will discuss 
those problems with you at a later time, Mr. Counsel. Will you iden- 
tify yourself for the record as counsel for this witness ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 2055 

Mr. Gollobin. May I make one request, Mr. Chairman ? I am in- 
formed that there is present in the hearing room today three gentle- 
men, their names being George Lincoln Rockwell, Robert Lloyd, and 
Donald 

Mr. Ichord. Now, Mr. Counsel, don't attempt to start any trouble. 
The Chair has also been informed that there are Communists in the 
room today. I have no truck with Nazis or Communists. Let us con- 
tinue with the hearing and maintain law and order. 

Will counsel identify himself as counsel for the witness ? 

Mr. Gollobin. Ira Gollobin, G-o-l-l-o-b-i-n, 1441 Broadwav, New 
York. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWARD LEMANSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

IRA GOLLOBIN 

Mr. Nettle. Would you state your full name and residence for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. Lemansky. You gentlemen have checked on me quite a bit. 
I am sure you should know my name and address. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. It is Edward Lemansky, L-e-m-a-n-s-k-y, 414 West 
121st Street, New York. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, in applying for a passport renewal on 
January 22, 1964, you listed your permanent residence at the address 
you just gave, but you requested that the passport be mailed to Post 
Office Box 84, Monroe, North Carolina. Were you actually residing 
in Monroe, North Carolina, on the date of your application ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I had been living in Monroe for, or staying in 
Monroe for, some months preceding that application, working with 
a group involved in fighting the vicious race riots in that State. 

Mr. Nittle. I am not asking you about that. 

Mr. Ichord. The answer oi the witness is not responsive. I direct 
the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I said I had been living there prior to applying 
for the renewal of my passport. I was in the process of answering it, 
and you don't seem to want to hear the answer. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that the Chair direct this 
witness right now, at the outset, that these asides that have no relation- 
ship to the question or the answer be terminated, and that there be 
an understanding at the outset that the committee is not going to 
tolerate this sort of behavior. 

Mr. Ichord. Let the record show that the witness is exhibiting the 
indications noted by the gentleman from Michigan. 

Now, Mr. Counsel, ask your question again. I ask the witness to 
at least be courteous and act like a gentleman before this committee. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell the committee, please, what was the 
actual period of your residence in Monroe, North Carolina ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I had been invited to Monroe some time in 
February of 1963, 1 believe, February or March, by a group called the 
Monroe Youth Action Committee. 

Mr. Nittle. I am not interested in the circumstances. 



2056 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lemansky. I know you are not interested. I understand you 
are not interested. 

Mr. Nettle. We will probably go into that at a later point. How- 
ever, I want to know how long you resided there. 

Mr. Lemansky. I went to Monroe in June of that year and, except 
for a few brief stays on chain gang and in jail, I was in Monroe until 
sometime in May of 1964. I have a number of objections I would 
like to make to these questions. 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute. Does the witness wish to make a brief 
statement? 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes, I would like to make a statement. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will instruct the witness at this time to 
restrict his statement to objections as to the jurisdiction and legisla- 
tive purpose of the hearing, and don't get into any haranguing against 
any members of this committee or your Government, the Congress of 
the United States, or any other group. 

The Chair recognizes the witness for that purpose at this time. 
Proceed, sir. 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, of course, you start from the premise that- — - 

Mr. Ichord. I warned the witness that he is possibly being in con- 
tempt of his Government. Now proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have not even made a full and complete sentence 
before you cut me off. 

Mr. Ichord. Show your Government some courtesy and proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. I wish my Government would show its citizens some 
courtesy. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, sir. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now', first of all, the Public Law No. 601 of the 79th 
Congress, 60 Statutes 812, Part 2, Eule XI, which authorizes the 
Committee on Un-American Activities to make investigations of "the 
extent, character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities 
in the United States" — I believe that such a committee stands in viola- 
tion of the Constitution for the following reasons: First, there is no 
definition of what constitutes un-American activities and you gentle- 
men seem to have taken the premise, and the Government takes the 
premise, that socialism and communism are un-American, whereas 
fascism and nazism are home grown and therefore not to be 
investigated. 

In fact, former Chairman John Rankin from the State of Mississippi, 
I believe 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Lemansky, Mr. Rankin is deceased. Proceed with 
your objections. 

Mr. Lemansky. He was the chairman of this committee, and the 
committee lives on. His statement of principle has never been re- 
pudiated and his definition of what constitutes un-American activities 
is relevant here. He stated when asked why didn't he investigate the 
Klan that they were home grown, they were in need of American 
institutions. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not within the jurisdiction of the committee. 
Proceed with your statement. 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, it is fairly obvious from this performance 
that the kind of definition of un-American is one which is highly re- 
pugnant to any notion of what is democratic, and has been defined in 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2057 

that way by the commit too throughout its history, and defined by the 
Congress in that way, and that this definition of un-American aotivi- 
t ies violates all of the freedoms that are guaranteed to us under the 
Constitution and under the amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will say that your objection does not go to 
the proper jurisdiction of the committee. 

Mr. Lemansky. I know you feel that way. 

Mr. Ichord. The courts have held time and time again that the 
power of the Congress to investigate is essential to the very existence 
of the Congress. Now it is true that you may not want the Congress 
to exist, but the overwhelming majority of the people in the United 
States do. 

Now proceed with your statement. 

Mr. Lemansky. In addition, this committee is illegally constituted 
on the ground that some of its members, including its chairman and 
vice chairman, have been elected from States where there is a system- 
atic denial of the right to vote to Negro citizens. 

Now the Constitution, according to article XIV, section 2, states 
very clearly that, in any State where adult citizens are denied the 
right to vote, that State is to have its representation reduced pro- 
portionately to the number of citizens denied the right to vote, their 
representation is to be reduced in Congress. This has never happened. 
This has not been done. Therefore, Chairman Willis and Vice Chair- 
man Tuck sit in Congress along with many, many other Congressmen 
who have been illegally elected. 

Therefore, I do not recognize the authority of this committee, and 
any questions asked of me I feel that I have the right throughout this 
hearing — in spite of the fact that you have said yesterday that this is 
a hearing, not a trial, it is quite obvious that it is a trial. 

Mr. Ichord. In regard to what we said, the Chair overrules your 
point. Proceed with the next point. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have not finished my point. It is again obvious 
that you are not interested in hearing the point, as you so eloquently 
showed yesterday. 

Now these gentlemen sit in Congress illegally, and I notice that 
neither of them are here today, they don't want to hear this. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to cease the attack upon the Mem- 
bers of Congress. Proceed with your questioning. The gentleman 
obviously is not making any jurisdictional objection. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have not finished my statement. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to continue with the statement and 
make points of pertinence and cease from making any attacks upon 
any members of this committee or your Government or the Congress. 
Proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now, yesterday, the chairman of this subcommittee 
read a statement of some five pages, in which he set forth the alleged 
purposes of this hearing. That statement was handed to us as we 
came into the room. Now I believe the rules of this committee require 
that any witness who has been subpenaed, if he wishes to read a state- 
ment into the record, must submit that to the committee either 24 or 48 
hours in advance, I don't recall the exact amount of time. It is quite 



2058 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

obvious, though, that the committee does not feel bound by the same 
requirements that it puts on the witness in this and in other matters. 

Therefore, I feel that since this statement was handed to us at the 
beginning of the hearings without proper time to study it, that due 
process of law has been abridged here and there has not been any 
proper statement of the purposes according to law. These objections 
that I have raised I hold throughout this hearing, having to do with 
every question that is asked me and I do not waive this objection to 
all questions. 

Now in this statement that was made, there are statements about 
how those of us who traveled to Cuba violated the law and that this 
committee wishes to check on that. Now, as you all know, the people 
who traveled to Cuba last year, as a result of that trip four people 
were indicted in the Eastern District of New York Federal Court 
in Brooklyn. Now the matter of trips to Cuba is under judicial in- 
vestigation and, although the Government appears to have been afraid 
to hold that trial and has put it off, this still is a matter in the courts. 

Mr. Ichord. That does not go to the jurisdiction of this committee. 

Mr. Lemansky. But this committee has taken it upon itself to 
carry on judicial investigation. 

Mr. Ichord. I ask you to cease. I direct the witness to cease. The 
witness is out of order. 

Proceed with your point dealing with jurisdiction, legislative pur- 
pose, subject to 

Mr. Lemansky. I am talking about jurisdiction. 

Mr. Ichord. — in accordance with the rules. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am talking about jurisdiction, sir. 

Now, the whole history of this committee is one which shows 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, 

Mr. Lemansky. I am making a statement. 

Mr. Johansen. I think the gentleman should be warned to give 
valid reasons for any refusals to answer questions that he may offer. 
I am not interested in a narration by him of his interpretation of the 
history of the committee. I ask that he be so directed. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is so directed. Mr. Lemansky, I want to 
treat you like a gentleman. 

Mr. Lemansky. I wish you would. 

Mr. Ichord. I am endeavoring to, sir, and I ask that you conduct 
yourself like a gentleman and like an American citizen. I make that 
request of you, sir, because you are an American. 

Mr. Lemansky. That is right. 

Mr. Ichord. And you should be proud to be an American. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am absolutely proud. I may not be proud of you. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now, the Constitution states very clearly and very 
explicitly that the Congress shall have the power to legislate — I don't 
want to bore you gentlemen with reading the Constitution to you since 
it seemed to disturb you yesterday, but in that Constitution it 
states 

Mr. Ichord. I don't think that is a proper statement going to the 
statement of the jurisdiction of this committee. 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes, because if you do not feel that the Constitu- 
tion is important, then certainly it goes to the jurisdiction of this 
committee. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2059 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness for the last and final time to con- 
fine his remarks, going to the purposes that I stated, under possible 
penalties of contempt of your Congress. 

Proceed, sir. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now, in the Constitution, the first three articles 
thereof, it states that the Congress shall have the power to legislate; 
that is article I; and that the judicial functions shall be assigned to 
the courts and that the executive functions assigned to the President. 

This committee in the hearings yesterday and in the past has acted 
very obviously in a way which shows that it is attempting to carry on 
a judicial investigation, not a legislative hearing, but an investigation 
as to possible violations of law even, whereas in the case of the ban on 
travel to Cuba, no such law exists. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will have to overrule that objection. 

M r. Lezniaxsky. I have not finished. 

Mr. Ichord. You are not on trial before this committee. Perhaps, 
Mr. Lemansky, there is no meeting of the minds as to what this in- 
vestigation is about. 

The evidence has come before the committee that you have traveled 
to Cuba in violation of a proclamation of the President of the United 
States banning travel to Cuba unless you have a validated passport. 

Now, I realize that there are many Americans, many loyal and good 
Americans, who believe that they have a right to travel any place in 
the world. That, however, is not upheld by what the courts say. 
The courts hold that the President does have the power to restrict 
travel to any given area if he feels that it is in the interest of this 
Nation. 

Now, we also have evidence that would lead the committee to believe 
that you and others have traveled to Cuba not for the purpose of 
exercising any right which you sincerely think you have, but for the 
purpose of aiding and abetting a foreign Communist power, namely, 
Fidel Castro, on the island of Cuba. That is definitely within the 
legislative jurisdiction of this committee to investigate. 

Now, in regard to your point that you were not here when I read 
the opening statement, you were given a notice that the meeting would 
be held at 10 o'clock. 

Mr. Le3Iaxsky. I didn't say I was not here. I said it was given to 
us as we came in. 

Mr. Ichord. You should have been in the room when the meeting 
convened. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. The statement should have been before us before 
the hearing began. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will not argue with the witness. The point 
is overruled. 

Now. do you have another point to make? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Since the Chairman stated both now and in the 
statement that the purpose of the hearing is to determine, I assume it 
is to determine and does not start from the premise that I traveled to 
Cuba to aid and abet 

Mr. Ichord. I did not say that you had traveled to Cuba; I said 
the committee had information that you had traveled to Cuba. 

Now, you can tell the committee about that later. 

Mr. Lemansky. I would be glad to tell the committee about that. 



2060 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with your points of pertinence. 

Mr. Lemanskt. Now, in your statement, you say that the ^commit- 
tee has information." 

Mr. Ichord. Any statement that I make does not have any bearing 
on your being given the opportunity to make a statement objecting to 
jurisdiction of this committee. 

Mr. Lemansky. You can make a statement, but I cannot respond. 
All right, then. I will stop. 

Mr. Ichord. Are you ready ? 

The Chair overrules each and every one of your so-called objections. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Nettle. Would you state the date and place of your birth, Mr. 
Lemansky ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I was born on the 5th of July, 1940, in New York 
City, I believe on the island of Manhattan. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I had a rather varied education. 

In 1945, 1 believe, I entered kindergarten in Public School 161. 

Mr. Nittee. Just a moment, please. 

Let me ask you this : Did you graduate from high school and, if so, 
where ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Are you now no longer interested in the rest of my 
education ? 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I suggest the witness be directed 

Mr. Lemansky. I have a right to ask that question, don't I, or I 
have no rights? 

Mr. Johansen. I suggest, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Lemansky, that is a very contemptuous answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. It was a question. 

Mr. Ichord. Ask the question again, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you graduate from high school and, if so, tell us 
where and when ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I graduated from the Erasmus Hall High School 
in Brooklyn in 1957. 

Do you wish the address of the high school or do you have it in your 
records ? 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I suggest this witness cease and de- 
sist this sort of contemptuous behavior. 

Mr. Lemansky. I wish you would cease being so contemptuous of 
me. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Following your graduation from high school, did you 
attend college and, if so, where and during what period and did you 
receive a degree from it ? 

Mr. Lemansky. In the fall of 1957. I entered Antioch College in 
Yellow Springs, Ohio. Now, as you know, Antioch has a program 
of 

Mr. Nittle. We are not interested in any program at Antioch Col- 
lege. We are interested in whether you attended there and for what 
period and whether you received a degree from it. 

Now, will you please confine yourself to the question ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I believe I was saying that I had entered in 1957, 
the fall. Antioch has a 5-year work and study program, and I fin- 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2061 

ished niv a< ademic work by the end of June 1962. The reason I said 
that there was a work and study program was to explain the 
fact 

Mr. N i r n e. We are not interested in that. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am trying to tell you when I got my degree. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you recei ve a degree? 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. When? 

Mr. Lemansky. I received my degree in 1963, although I had com- 
pleted my academic work in Antioch in 1962. 

Then, in the fall of 1963, prior to receiving a degree from Antioch, 
which was a bachelor of arts in sociology, study of sociology, in- 
cluded the study of misuse of power by governments. 

Mr. Nittle. Including the misuse of power by Communist govern- 
ments '. 

Mr. Lemansky. No ; the misuse by powers such as this one. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. He asked me. 

The gentleman asked me the question. I thought that you wanted 
me to respond. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to cease. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I ask the counsel for the witness, 
if he has not done so, to instruct the witness on proper behavior be- 
fore this committee. Counsel well knows that is not proper. 

Mr. Ichord. I think, Counsel, that perhaps would be a good sug- 
gestion in representing your witness before this committee. 

Mr. Gollobin. When the witness will consult me, I am glad to ad- 
vise him. He has not yet. 

As you yourself admonished me yesterday, interpreting my effort 
to consult with him and putting on a rather different version, I have 
refrained and I shall continue to refrain. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest that, in view of the fact 
that Mr. Gollobin has identified himself as counsel for the witness, 
that he be directed as a member of the bar and in accordance with the 
ethics of his profession, to now advise his client of the proper behavior 
before this committee? 

Mr. Lemansky. Not only do you intimidate witnesses, but now you 
are trying to intimidate lawyers, as well. 

I believe you are a lawyer, Mr. Ichord. Would you accept that kind 
of thing ? 

Mr. Ichord. I think the counsel is well aware of his duties as a 
member of the bar. 

Let us proceed with the questioning. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, what employments have you had ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I don't think I have finished describing my edu- 
cation. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you attend any other universities ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. What universities did you attend ? 

Mr. Lemansky. In the fall of 1962, I entered the graduate school 
at the University of Michigan, in the Department of Sociology. I 



2062 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

remained there as a student for approximately 3 months, I don't re- 
call the exact amount of time, and at that point I withdrew from school 
since I discovered that there were many other ways to learn about the 
misuse of power; one did not just have to study sociology from an 
academic field. 

Mr. Iciiord. That is not responsive to the question. 

The Chair directs the witness to be responsive to the question pro- 
pounded by counsel. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. I went to another school. 

Mr. Ichord. Go ahead, if you attended another school. 

Mr. Lemansky. While at Antioch College, during my 4th year 
there, I took part in the Antioch Education Abroad Program which 
involved, in my case, 6 months' study at Euskin College in Oxford, 
England. Buskin College is a trade union school where most of my 
fellow students were people who had been officials in trade unions, 
members of county councils. There I had the opportunity to discuss 
many issues such as British imperialism, which reminded me quite a 
bit of American imperialism, and I felt that, of course, this was a very 
important part of my education, and I spent 6 months there. 

I discovered that there was a lot of opposition in England to the 
forcing of the British to have bases for American nuclear submarines. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Witness, that is not responsive to the question. 
We are not interested in your political views at all. 

Mr. Lemansky. I know you are not interested. That is very ob- 
vious. You are only interested in distorting my views. 

Mr. Iciiord. Under the rules of the committee and under the rules 
of Congress, we have certain questions which we have the right to ask 
you. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have certain answers which I have the right to 
give you, do I not ? 

Mr. Ichord. I hope you do answer them. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. We shall see if you answer them. 

Mr. Xittle. Now, following your attendance at the University of 
Michigan, what employment have you held? That would extend for 
the period from May 1962 to date. 

Mr. Lemansky. May 1962. I was in Michigan until November or 
December, but in June of 1962, or July, rather, I began work as a re- 
search assistant and course assistant to a professor of sociology at 
Antioch College. I worked there for 2 months. The job involved 
meeting with students in the freshman sociology course. 

Mr. Nittle. You have sufficiently described that. 

Now pass on to your next employment. 

Mr. Lemansky. As part of my work at the University of Michigan, 
I had received a research assistanceship there, so even while I was 
formally enrolled as a student, I was working as a research assistant 
in the Population Study Center, which provided me with my tuition 
and $1,500 a year and expenses. 

After withdrawal from school as a student, I continued working at 
the Population Study Center on a full-time basis doing research. In 
fact, I believe, to the best of my recollection, the research was on 
monopoly control of industry in this country. 

Mr. Nittle. How long were you there ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2063 

Mr. Lemansky. I stayed there until the end of January 1963, at 
which time I returned to New York City and moved into an apart- 
ment at the address which I have given yon. 

Then, I believe March 11 was the date, of that year, I began work- 
ing as a personnel trainee for the Veterans' Administration at the 
Veterans' Administration Hospital in Brooklyn. I believe the address 
is 800 Polly Place. My function was to administer tests and weed out 
all sorts of bad types who wanted to work for the Government, like 
myself, and particularly working with 

Mr. Nittle. Where did you say you were then employed? 

Mr. Lemansky. You don't want to hear that ? 

Mr. Xittle. You were employed then at the Veterans' Administra- 
tion Plospital in Brooklyn from on or about January or at the end of 
February ? 

Mr. Lemansky. No; from March 11. 

Mr. Nittle. Oh, from March 11, 1963? 

Mr. Lemansky. That is right. 

Mr. Nittle. Until when ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Until some time in May. I don't recall the exact 
date. I believe it was the end of May of the same year, at which time 
I resigned and a week or so later went to Monroe, North Carolina, to 
work with the Monroe Youth Action Committee to fight against the 
vicious and ■ 



Mr. Nittle. I am not interested in what you went there for 

Mr. Lemansky. I know you are not. 

Mr. Nittle. — at this point. 

Mr. Lemansky. At this point. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, maybe we will get to it later. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, when you went to Monroe, North Carolina, were 
you employed by anyone to do so, and do I understand you to say that 
you went there for employment of some kind ? 

Mr. Lemansky. No; I didn't say I went there for employment. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you employed by anyone ? 

Mr. Lemansky. From the time I left the Veterans' Administration, 
I have not been employed. 

Mr. Nittle. May I ask whether you were employed by, or on the 
payroll of, the Progressive Labor Movement at the time that you went 
to Monroe, North Carolina? 

Mr. Lemansky. As I have already stated, and I wouldn't bore you 
gentlemen with a complete recitation, I regard this committee as 
illegally constituted on the basis that the term un-American is not 
and has not been defined properly and on the basis that some of its 
members are illegally in the House. 

I have certain other objections which I wish to make in connection 
with the questions of this committee, which also include the obvious 
failure to provide for a separation of powers. This question is an in- 
quiry into my political beliefs, my association, and 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Witness, are you raising the first amendment now ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Sir, if you don't mind, I would like to make my 
objections in my own words, and I would appreciate it if you would 
show me the respect of allowing me to do so, if that is not too much to 
ask. 



2064 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Iciiord. I think we are very, very patient with you, Mr. 
Le man sky. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. I appreciate that. 

Now, these inquiries into political beliefs and associations, which 
has been a function of the committee ever since its existence, violates 
certainly the provisions of the first amendment, guaranteeing to all 
citizens the right of freedom of speech, freedom of assembly. 

The Constitution says very clearly that, "Congress shall make no 
law" — no law — "respecting the establishment of religion" 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I ask the witness to suspend. 

I point out to the Chair that the courts have held that the invocation 
of the first amendment is not valid grounds for refusal to testify. I 
ask the Chair to rule that this is not valid grounds and that the witness 
be instructed to proceed either to answer the questions, or to present 
the valid grounds, which he knows will be accepted by the committee, 
in order that we may get on our way. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair would advise the witness, in accordance 
with the views suggested by the gentleman from Michigan, that the 
Supreme Court has held time and time again that the first amendment 
does not give the witness the right to refuse to answer any question 
before this committee. There is no need, and I am sure the witness 
heard me yesterday, time and time again, overrule that objection. 

Now proceed with your next objection, Mr. Witness. 

I direct the witness to proceed with his objection. 

I thought he said a while ago that he was going to answer the 
question. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am trying to state the objections that I have to 
this committee, in general, and to the questions that are asked. It is 
fairly obvious that you do not want me to do that, but I am going to 
in any event. 

Mr. Ichord. You have stated your objection. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now, just because the committee does not accept 
this objection does not necessarily mean that in a particular case the 
courts will overrule it. It is my right to have the objection in the 
record. Now, if you prevent me 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is definitely out of order. The witness 
will desist. You have stated your objection under the first amend- 
ment and the Chair has ruled on it. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am on freedom of religion. 

Mr. Johansen. I ask the Chair to direct the witness to answer and, 
failing to answer or to invoke the provisions of the fifth amendment, 
that counsel be instructed to ask the next question. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

For the record, Madam Reporter, it has been so long ago that the 
question was asked, would you 

Mr. Lemansky. I was asked if I was on the payroll. 

Mr. Ichord. Will you read the question for the witness so he will 
have the opportunity to answer the question ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Obviously read for you. I know what the question 
was. 

Mr. Ichord. Definitely out of order. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2065 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

May I ask whether you were employed by, or ou the payroll of, the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement at the time that you went to Monroe, North Carolina 1 

Mr. Iciiord. Now, the question is very simple, Mr. Witness, and I 
direct you to answer the same. 

Mr. 'Lemansky. As I was saying, I object to that question on the 
basis that article I, or, rather, the first amendment to the Constitution 
says that "Congress shall make no law," and I will skip the point that 
I have already read. 

Mr. Ichord. You have stated the objection. 

I again direct, for the final time, for the witness to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Lemansky. And the further objection is that the ninth amend- 
ment of the Constitution states that, in addition to the 

Mr. Iciiord. The witness is invoking the ninth amendment. 

The cases have also held that the ninth amendment to our great 
Constitution does not give him the right to refuse to answer. 

I again direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. Both the 9th and the 10th amendment protect citi- 
zens of the United States and their freedom to 

Mr. Ichord. The same holds true to the 10th amendment. 

The Chair so rules in that regard. 

I again direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. If I might, I would like to have in the record that 
the Chair has not allowed me to fully and completely state my objec- 
tion, and I wish this to be so noted. 

Mr. Ichord. The record will show what is taking place, Mr. Wit- 
ness. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now, in the Eastern District of New York, there is 
a criminal prosecution taking place in relation to travel to Cuba, which 
this hearing is about. 

Now, article VI, or the sixth amendment, states that in all criminal 
prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy trial, by an 
impartial jury and confrontation of the witnesses and to be informed of 
the nature and cause of the accusation against them. 

Now, a question of this sort that was just asked me is a matter of 
evidence, which is something proper for the jurisdiction of a court. 
Now, if that question is proper here in this hearing, as you have stated 
it is, rather than a trial, if that question is proper, then surely I have 
the rights that I would be granted in a court of law, since that question 
is only proper in a court of law and has nothing to do with legislation. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness raises the sixth amendment. The Chair 
will have to rule on the sixth amendment. 

_ I would ask the witness : Is the witness under indictment at this 
time? 

Mr. Lemansky. No, but I fully — I expect that 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair advises the witness that the sixth amend- 
ment does not give him the right to refuse to answer the question. 
This is not a trial ; this is an investigation. 

I direct you again, sir, to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now, the study of American history shows that at 
the time that the Bill of Eights was adopted, there was great con- 

40-013— G5— pt. 5 7 



2066 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

cern in this country over the question of illegal imprisonment on the 
basis of false accusation against citizens. For that reason, the fram- 
ers of the Bill of Rights included the fifth amendment, which had 
a variety of provisions designed to protect the individual against 
the misuses of power by the Government around the issue of being 
falsely accused of crimes. 

A study of the clauses of the fifth amendment show very clearly that 
that is what it is there for. 

Now, you gentlemen and many others have construed the fifth 
amendment to be a protection that the guilty use to protect them- 
selves. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, 

Mr. Lemansky. I am raising an objection. 

Mr. Ichord. For the third time, I direct the witness to answer the 
question and, if not, Mr. Counsel, proceed on to the next question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am raising the objection. I am making an objec- 
tion based on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ichord. You are not a defendant and not being falsely accused 
by this committee. You are not on trial here. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I understand the witness, by the 
statement just made, has invoked the protection of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Ichord. It is my understanding that the witness only invoked 
the false accusation clause of the fifth amendment, and the Chair 
overruled that objection. 

Mr. Johansen. The Chair is right. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. "Well, there is no specific clause about false accusa- 
tion. You should read the amendment. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is out of order. 

Mr. Lemansky. I invoke the rights of the fifth amendment which 
protect me against false accusation in ni3 T refusal to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. You invoke all the provisions of the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I invoke all the provisions of the fifth amendment. 
I invoke all the provisions of the fifth amendment which protect 
me against false accusation. 

Mr. Ichord. The right of the witness is recognized. You do not 
have to answer the question. I thought, though, that you said you 
were going to answer the questions of the counsel. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel, with the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, I hand you a photostatic copy of a pass- 
port application dated December 12, 1960, marked for identification as 
"Lemansky Exhibit No. 1," together with a photostatic copy of an 
amendment thereto marked for identification as "Lemansky Exhibit 
No. 1-A," both subscribed by Edward Lemansky and filed with the 
Department of State. 

As is noted upon the passport application, there is a notation by the 
Department of State that you on December 16, 1960, received a United 
States Passport numbered'2521439. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2067 

I now hand you a photostatic copy of an application for renewal of 
that passport, marked for identification as "Lemansky Exhibit No. 
2," under the signature of Edward Lemansky, and filed with the De- 
partment of State on February 17, 1964. 

Mr. Lemansky, was your passport renewed pursuant to the applica- 
tion of February 17, 1964, and did you have that passport in j^our 
possession ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, of course, I don't remember the number, but 
I believe this was the application that I filed and that I did receive my 
passport; you know, renewed for 2 or 3 years, whatever the period of 
renewal is. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, did you at any time apply to the Department of 
State for a validation or endorsement of your passport for travel to 
Cuba? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, friends of mine who wanted to go to Cuba 
before had applied and had been turned down, although, of course, it 
is questionable whether the Government had the right to do that. On 
that basis, I chose not to apply for such validation, knowing full well 
that the Government would refuse me, since the right to travel is only 
granted by the State Department to businessmen and newspaper re- 
porters. 

Not having business interests in Cuba, not being a newspaper report- 
er, I felt that the Government would not issue me any special valida- 
tion since I am not a special citizen. 

Mr. Nittle. Do I understand you to say that at the time you filed 
this application for renewal on February 17, 1964, you intended to 
travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemansky. No ; you didn't understand me to say that. 

You asked me if I filed also for a validation, and I explained to you 
why I did not. It had nothing to do with my passport application. 

Mr. Nittle. All right. Let me ask you this : At the time you filed 
vour application on February 17, 1964, did you then intend to travel 
to Cuba? 

Mr. Lemansky. First of all, I object to this question on the ground 
that this is the matter of evidence proper for a court and not for a 
legislative inquiry. 

But since you are so interested, Mr. Chairman, in my answers, I 
would be glad to say that I absolutely had it in my mind to go to Cuba 
at the time I applied for a renewal of my passport. I wanted to go 
and see if what you have to say about Cuba is the truth, and I think I 
went there and found that you are lying. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has answered. He stated that he intended 
to go to Cuba. 

Proceed with the next question, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. And you were aware at the time of filing the applica- 
tion that if you went to Cuba without applying for a validation or 
endorsement of your passport, you would be going contrary to law 
and regulations? 

Mr. Lemansky. No ; I didn't understand that at all. 

Now, you know as well as I, you have never yet when you were asked 
this question been able to cite the law. There is no law. 

Mr. Ichord. Let us proceed with the next question, Counsel. 



2068 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Lemansky, committee investigation reveals 
that on June 12, 1964, 73 students, including yourself, arrived in Cuba 
and that on subsequent flights in June and July an additional 11 were 
added to the group. Is this correct ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, the committee investigation is wrong. 

On June 12, 75 — not 73 — people arrived in Cuba to see and examine 
what has been happening on that island since January 1, 1959, since 
the regime headed by Fidel Castro took power. 

It was our intention to put to a test all of the assertions of the Gov- 
ernment and of the American press and to see whether, in fact, these 
assertions were true. 

Such assertions, the fact that the Cuban people are starving, you 
know, we discovered is just garbage. 

Mr. Nittle. The question is Mr. Lemansky, whether 73 students 
including yourself 

Mr. Lemansky. Seventy-five, that is what I said. 

Mr. Nittle. — arrived in Cuba on that date. 

Mr. Lemansky. I corrected you to say 75. There was myself plus 
71 others. Then there were 9 others who came, not 11. We were a 
very diverse group. "We were made up of Communists and non- 
Communists and also pro-Americans and Mexican- Americans. 

Mr. Nittle. You will be given an opportunity to respond to the 
question. 

Mr. Ichord. Let's get some order. 

Air. Nittle. I think, Mr. Chairman, the witness ought to be warned 
that if, in the totality of his conduct here, he continues to abuse the 
committee he may subject himself to a prosecution for contempt of 
Congress. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair has warned the witness repeatedly. 

Now let's start all over again, Mr. Counsel. Ask your question and 
let's see if the witness will answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Lemansky, I hand you a pamphlet marked 
for identification as "Lemansky Exhibit No. 3." At page 3 appears 
an item captioned "Statement by the Students Who Visited Cuba." 
This lists you and 82 others who traveled to Cuba this summer as the 
signers of the statement. 

This pamphlet is an official publication of the Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba, is it not ? 

Mr. Lemansky. This four-page leaflet — you missed the first page 
with a picture of a girl being attacked by the police — this is an official 
publication of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba and it 
explains why we thought that 

Mr. Nittle. I am not asking you for an explanation, I asked you 
whether that was an official statement of the committee and you have 
answered yes. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have answered, yes. I have answered in the 
affirmative. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Chairman, I want to offer "Lemansky Ex- 
hibits Nos. 1, 1-A, 2, and 3" into evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will receive the exhibits. 

(Documents marked "Lemansky Exhibits Nos. 1, 1-A, 2, and 3," 
respectively. Exhibits Nos. 1, 1-A, and 2 retained in committee files. 
Exhibit No. 3 follows:) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



2069 



I.i'maxsky Exhibit No. 3 









is- -, 



■•'. 



■ 















fee 6 






2070 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lemansky Exhibit No. 3 — Continued 

VV HAT CAN BE DONE? 

STUDENTS, WE MUST UNITE! 

FIGHT BACK! 

STOP THE INQUISITION! 

Students are under attack from the congress, the police and the federal 
government. The political rights of students are threatened because students 
are organizing to oppose the shameful policy of the government in 
Vietnam and the illegal travel ban. The government is attempting to 
throttle opposition by attacking student organizations. 

♦Attend the HUAC hearings in Washington, D.C. on Thursday, Sept. 3. 

♦Attend a student meeting, Thursday evening Sept. 3, in Washington 
and organize to: 

♦Demand that the government stop its attack against the radical student 
movement! 



♦Defend the right to travel! 

* Demand an end to police interference with peaceful demonstrations! 




The Naiiu.n 

Buses to Washington leaving from New York, Philadelphia and Boston on September 3 
For information call: 
New York - CA8-1U9 
Philadelphia - WA4-4707 
Williamsport, Pa. - 323-2028 
Boston (Peter Lenz) - 282-1933 
San Francisco - 415-MI7-9668 

Money is needed to help bring people to Washington to attend the hearings. Send contributions to: 

Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 

G.P.O. Box 2178 

New York 1, N.Y. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



2071 



Lemansky Exhibit No. 3 — Continued 
- I VTEMENT m I II K STUDENTS WHO VISITED CUBA 



Last ycai :: . se i n -Amei k -hi Ai ti\ ities ( "ommillcc ( I II \\( ' (subpoenaed certain members of the group which visited 

t uba. Willi one exception, all those subpoenaed were members of the Progressive Labor Movement. We fully expect a 
similar performance on the part of the government this year. We realize that the government has used and will continue 
to use [!h lid red bailing and name-calling tactics to split the group and attack us individually. We have no intention 
ill allow ing I ■ u| pen. 

We the undersigned, for all our political differences, are united on the following issues: 

1. 1 hat the 1 S h> vernmcnl has no right to prohibit or interfere in any way with the travel of I'.S. citizens to Cuba. 
'2. 1 hat the ^ fforts of the I'.S- government to destroy the Cuban devolution must cease. 

We full} •. the government and the pies:, will attempt to present our trip to the American people as "communist 

dominated. Ihcj will say th.it those of us who are not communists are dupes." We hereby state that we who arc not 
communists .lie not afraid to stand with communists in proclaiming what we believe, and we intend to do so in a united 
fashion. 

We challenge the government to hear all of us. We demand that if any of our number are subpoenaed by any govern - 
menl agemv , that we all be subpoenaed. Wedo not intend to allow the government to say that the only people who oppose 
their policy on Cuba are communists. 'The opposition to the I'.S. government's policy on Cuba is wide-spread, because 
such a policy is wrong. That is why the government is afraid to tell the truth to the North American people, and why it 
is afraid of those who have visited the island to determine the truth for ourselves. 



'1'ania Moorse 
Scott Wilson 
Willard Chastain 
Charles Iterrard 
Klizabcth (.eismar 
Anthony Murad 
I.uis Miguel Valdez 
Arlene Cohen 
Steve Seltzer 
(.erald long 
<\lan 1\ l.owe 
Mary M. Maher 
Anne G. Kramer 
Virginia Weinberg 
Suze Kotolo 
Sharon I . Krebs 
A. Krebs 
l.arry Seigle 
Kric Schutz 
Stefan I hsc 
Kdward 1. Kosen/eld 
John Kerr 
Yvonne Bond 
• ludith Chessman 
Steven Newman 
Kichard l.ptsein 
Jerry Hubin 
-fane Wittman 



C. K. Hargreaves 
I'icter If. ( lark 
William Sumner 
Sarah Fulton 
l.uke Tripp 
1,'alph W. Spinney 
Manuel Colon 
K. 1'arilla Torres 
Marcia Stehr 
Kdward Clark 
Ira I'erllson 
l'ete l.enz 
Kuth l.enz 
J. II Wilson 
Itobert Collier 
Ceneral liakcr .Jr. 
Staccy Seigle 
Carolyn McFadden 
Iton liedford 
Max Beagaric 
Hubert Kaulkner 
Avra Matsoukas. 
K. dThrepaulezz 
Donald S. Yost 
Nanci Yost 
William M. Sacks 
Karen Sacks 
Jeff l.ustig 



Jeffrey Coldstein 
It nest Allen 
Charles Johnson 
Dan Clival 
Charles Simmons 
Judith W arden 
l-'rancie MacLeod 
Kdward Lemansky 
Hobert J. Abts 
Catherine M. Coldfrank 
Koberto Kubalcava 
Kobert K. Machover 
I'aul Jasper 
Albert Spanfelner 
Joel Agcv 
Mary Kerr 
Charlotte Spanfelner 
Jerry Weinberg 
Carole I'ina 
H. {}. Foreman 
Jose Carlos Colon 
Shirley Stoute 
Morton slater 
Vincent Lynch 
Martine L. Allgire 
Frances Sears 
Kobert Mates 



2072 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Lemassky Exhibit No. 3 — Continued 






'. 






»:■% 




■ 



Mr. Lemansky. By the way for the record, I will say — — 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. There is no question. 

Proceed with your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. At the time you departed this country for Cuba, did 
you intend at that time to travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I have already stated that it was my full 
intention for some time to go and to see the island which has been 
invaded by troops supported by the United States and which may be 
invaded b} T American troops. 

Mr. Nittle. I asked you if you intended to go. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2073 

Mr. Lemansky. I would like to know what it is I am fighting 
against and what I am fighting for. I wonder what you are lighting 
for. 

Mr. Nittle. I ask you to answer the question. 

Mr. Iciiord. We know your feelings toward the Cuban Government. 
That was not responsive to the question, Mr. Lemansky. 

Air. Lemansky. I answered the question. Yesterday you took the 
stand on the remarks 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair orders the witness to cease and show some 
gentlemanty courtesy to your Congress and to your Government, Mr. 
Lemansky, please. I ask you as a fellow American to do that. 

Now proceed, Mr. Counsel, and let's see if the witness can be just a 
little more courteous. I beg you to do that, sir. 

Mr. Lemansky. May I make a request of my fellow Americans 
who sit in the Congress ? 

Mr. Iciiord. The witness will cease. There is no question before 
you. 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, there was a request. 

Mr. Iciiord. Proceed. You can comply with that or not. I rather 
doubt that you will. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, I now hand you a copy of a leaflet en- 
titled '"Special Announcement" issued in July of 1964 by the New 
York office of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, GPO Box 
2178, New York. It is marked for identification as "Lemansky Ex- 
hibit No. 4." Now t this leaflet contains, among other articles, a re- 
print of a report appearing in the New York Post Sunday, June 14, 
19G4, titled "73 Americans Defy U.S. Ban To Visit Cuba" and is date- 
lined Havana, June 13. 

Referring to the 73 Americans who arrived in Cuba on June 12, 
the article stated: 

A New Yorker, Ed Lemansky, 23, identified himself as group leader and a 
Communist. 

Now were you the group leader and did you identify yourself as a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Lemansky. This is the same article that you are talking about 
which says that we oppose the Government 

Mr. Nittle. I am not asking you to do that. The article is before 
vou ; it is an official release of the Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba and a reprint of an article from the New York Post. I quoted 
that portion. 

Mr. Lemansky. The portion which you wished to quote. 

Mr. Nittle. I am asking you 

Mr. Ichord. You are arguing with the counsel. 

Counsel, rephrase your question. Mr. Witness, again I ask you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you the group leader of the alleged students who 
traveled to Cuba in June and July of 1964 ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I was the leader of a group of students and young 
workers who went to Cuba. Now, on this thing, I have never seen 
this 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive. I direct the witness to be 
responsive. 



2074 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Now, propound your next question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am being asked about something I have never 
seen before. I just wish to have that in the record, that is all. 

Mr. Nettle. Were you the leader of the entire group of alleged stu- 
dents, 84 in number, I believe, or 83 in number, who traveled to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemanskt. Well, there were 84 people, one of whom was 5% 
years old; that is right. I was the leader, as I have already stated, of 
the group of students and young workers who visited Cuba this past 
summer. 

Mr. Nittle. All right. Now you described them as young workers. 
I thought they are described as students. The press announcement 
describes them as students, and you describe them as nonstudents 
and workers? 

Mr. Lemansky. I describe them as students and young workers. 
The non workers are sitting in front of you. 

Mr. Nittle. How many were students and how many were work- 
ers? 

Mr. Lemansky. I don't really know the exact proportions. 

Mr. Nittle. Was it about half ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I don't know. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness stated he didn't know. Proceed, Counsel, 
with the next question. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Did you identify yourself in Cuba as "a Communist," 
which is reported by the article as disseminated by the Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemansky. A long time ago I was able to see that there were 
many things in this country which I felt were not good, such as the 
fantastic 

Mr. Nittle. I am not asking you that. 

Mr. Lemansky. — wars which this Government tries to drive us 
into. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not being responsive. 

Mr. Lemansky. You wanted to know about me being a Communist. 
I am trying to tell you why I am a Communist. You are not interested 
in that. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, the witness has answered the ques- 
tion. He was asked whether he was a Communist and he was stating 
why he was a Communist. Now that, I think, answers the question. 

Mr. Nittle. I think that is a sufficient answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. It is not sufficient from my point of view ; it may 
be from yours. 

Mr. Ichord. Order. The question was, Did you identify yourself 
as a Communist in Cuba ? I think that question can be answered very 
simply. Did you or did you not ? 
Mr. Lemansky. I identified myself as a member of the Progressive 
Labor Movement, which is a Communist organization, a Communist 
movement. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit No. 4 in evidence. 

Mr. Lemansky. It is in the record that I have never seen that. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. 

Without objection "Lemansky Exhibit No. 4" will be admitted. 
(Document marked "Lemansky Exhibit No. 4" follows:) 




PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2075 

Lemansky Exhibit No. 4 

JUL 2 319S4 

-7 Special ilnnekneemenk 

ALL IS WELL] 

For the 3eoond yaar the Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba has shown that no viable "travel 
ban' to Cuba exists. 80 Young fcner-lcana are 
now in Cuba . 

RETURN DATE - sometime in August. 

BEGIN NOW TO PREPARE FOR THEIR 
RETURN 



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S.C.T.C. - G.P.O. Box 2178 - N.Y., N.Y. 10001 
NEW YORK POST. SUNDAY, JUNE 14, I9M 

73 Americans 

I S. Ban 



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Havana, June 13-— Destruction of the U. S. govern- 
ment is advocated by four students among a group of 73 
Americans who are visiting Cuba in defiance of U. S. State 
Dept. restrictions. o 

A statement denouncing the 
"North American racist govern- 
ment" was issued by the lour 



It added, "We realize the US 
government is the biggest farce 
In history and mait be de- 
stroyed." 

Six others among the. 73 men. 
women and children who arrived 
yesterday by way of Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, are Negroes. 

A New Yorker, Ed L* man sky. 
23, identified himself as group 
leader and a Communist. 

mtateirta Identified 

He handed out a statement de- 
claring: "We have different rea- 
sons for coming to Cuba, but 
we are united l.i oar opposition 
to our government's efforts to 
prevent U. S. citizens from trav- 
elling to Cuba" 

The four students, who are 
Negroes, identified themselves 
as Ernest Allen. 21, Oakland, 
Cal., a student at the Unlvcersl- 
ty of California at Berkeley; 
Luke Tripp, 23, Detroit, stu 
dent at Wayne State; Charles 
Berrard, 24, Los Angeles, stu 
dent at Los Angeles City Col- 
lege; and Ron Bedford.fl 26, St. 
Louis architectural draftsman 

The 73 circumvented U. S. 
restrictions on Cuban travel by 
obtaining passports to Europe, 
flying to Paris and then to 
Prague before Dying to Ha- 
vana. 

Pis* z Montk Stay 
Lemansky said the group 



members were from various expenses. 



parts of mainland U. S. and 
Puerto Rico. "We hold many 
different beliefs and beiong to 
amny different oraniza lions," 
he sakl. 

The Americans, 49 men and 
24 women planned a two-month 
stay in Cuba. Tikis would have 
them on hand for the celegratlon 
of the July 26 Movement— the 
Castro. 

Lemansky said a complete 
list of names of group members 
would be released. "We are 
not trying to hide anything," 
he said. "We are doing this 
openly and publicity." 

In Washington the State 
Dept. said only that it learned 
the group was en route to Cuba 
and notified U. S. embassies In 
Paris and Prague. But the word 
was too late /or the embassies to 
reach ftm students and warn 
them of the consequences of a 
visit to Cuba. 

Get Official Welcome 

A w*rm greeting was staged 
for the Americana by officials 
from the Cuban foreign minis- 
try and student Communist 
leaders 

Lemansky told reporters the 
trip was arranged by the student 
committee for Travel to Cuba, 
the organization that sponsored 
a trip to Cuba last year by 59 
American students. He said the 
Cuban Federation of University 
Students was paying the group's 



(OVER) 



2076 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



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PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2077 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, I now hand you a copy of an article 
appearing in the New York Times, titled "U.S. Group in Cuba Varies 
in Motive," datelined at Havana, June 14, and marked for identifica- 
tion as "Lemansky Exhibit No. 5." This article includes the report 
of an interview with Edward Lemansky, described as the leader of a 
group of 75 Americans who arrived in Cuba on June 12. 

The article says in part, and I quote : 

Some, according to the group's leader, Edward Lemansky, are Communists. 
Some belong to the Communist party and others, including Mr. Lemansky, are 
members of the Progressive Labor Movement. 

Did you make such a statement or description of your group to the 
reporter who reports your interview ? 

Air. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. Did the 
witness hear the question ? 

Air. Lemansky. Yes, I heard it. I would like to give you a good 
answer, a complete answer. If you don't want it, then 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. The question is simply, Did you make that observation 
to the reporter? 

Mr. Lemansky. Now as to this article, the one that you referred to, 
entitled "U.S. Group in Cuba Varies in Motive," there appeared a few 
days later in the New York Times a correction on that article — I am 
surprised you don't have it — which correction stated that I had not 
said anything to the effect that there were members of the Communist 
Party in the group. I said that many of us were Communists who 
believed that a Socialist system in this country would deal with the 
problems of unemployment, could eliminate racism in this country the 
way it has been eliminated 

Mr. Nittle. We just want you to answer. 

Mr. Ichord. I think the witness is saying what he said there. Let 
him finish. 

Mr. Nittle. All right. 

Mr. Lemansky. And I stated that the U.S. Government had taken 
a warlike attitude toward the Cuban regime and that instead of 
spending money on eliminating unemployment 

Mr. Nittle. Let me say that 

Mr. Lemansky. — they were spending money for armaments. 

Mr. Nittle. I think the witness' reply should be confined to the 
subject matter of the alleged article. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Counsel, he is correcting the statement that he did 
make. You asked him if he made that statement. He is saying that 
he made a statement similar to that, as I understand the witness. 

Proceed, Mr. Witness. 

Mr. Lemansky. I pointed out to Mr. Eder, who wrote the article, 
that my experiences in Monroe, North Carolina, where I have been 
for the previous year, showed me that the policies both of the city 
government of Monroe, the county government, the State government, 
and the Federal Government were all designed to perpetuate the 
vicious and brutal exploitation of the Negro people of this country, 
people who had been dragged from Africa unwillingly and had been 
forced into slavery for hundreds of years, and it was no longer 
possible 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman 



2078 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. Are you still repeating what you said down there ? 

Mr. Lemanskt. These are things I reported to Mr. Eder, most of 
which he felt were not newsworthy. As a matter of fact, he printed a 
number of things I did not say. 

Mr. Ichord. I think the witness is out of order. The question is 
whether you made that statement. I thought you were correcting it. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am correcting a statement, that is right. It also 
happens that Eder did not put the whole thing in. 

(Document marked "Lemansky Exhibit No. 5" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. We must have order. Pro- 
ceed with your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nettle. Now, Mr. Lemansky, you are a member of the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement, as distinguished from the orthodox Communist 
Party ; are you not ? 

Mr. Lemansky. In joining the Progressive Labor Movement, I felt 
that in that way I could best go about the business of attempting to 
rectify many of the evils that exist in our society, perpetuated by the 
Congress, by this committee, by the President, by the entire 

Mr. Ichord. We will have order. That is not responsive. 

Mr. Lemansky. I just told him that I had joined the Progressive 
Labor Movement. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. I answered. I joined. I must be a member. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair directs the witness to answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have answered. 

Mr. Ichord. Going off in a discourse about your Government is not 
in answer to the question, Mr. Lemansky. 

Mr. Lemansky. But it is an explanation of why I am in the Pro- 
gressive Labor Movement. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the witness: Are you a 
member of the Communist Party, U.S.A. ? 

Mr. Lemansky. No 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much. 

Now, proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Nettle. Now, in the light of the fact, Mr. Lemansky, that we 
understand the Progressive Labor Movement was formed largely by 
expelled Communists, expelled members of the Communist Party, 
U.S.A., I think it fair to pursue the inquiry of Mr. Johansen and ask if 
you had ever been a member of the Commimist Party ? 

Mr. Ichord. The question is, Have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party, U.S.A. ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes, I understand the question. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, would you be able to tell us what per- 
centage of the entire group that has been to Cuba were Communists, 
irrespective of party affiliation ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, as far as I know, there was a small proportion 
of Communists on the trip. I believe that is an answer to the question, 
is it not ? 

Mr. Nittle. Would you be able to state the approximate per- 
centage? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2079 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, somewhat above 10 percent, I believe. I am 
not, yon know, very good at arithmetic. My education was not all that 
good. I learned about the misuses of power, but how to add it up, 
it hat was something else. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will come to order. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you tell us, please, whether the Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba is a front for the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Lemansky. Would you tell me, please, what you mean by "a 
front"? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. That is the assumption by an organization of a 
name in order to disguise the true purposes and the organizations 
actually creating it and promoting it. 

Is the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba an organization that 
was created by the Progressive Labor Movement and is controlled by 
the latter organization ? 

Mr. Lemansky. In your statement, you said something about a 
front group is one which is set up, one organization sets up another to 
disguise the true purposes; is that right? I mean is that what you 
said? 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Witness, I believe the counsel 

Mr. Lemansky. I am trying to 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will come to order. I direct the witness 
to cease. 

Counsel will rephrase his question. The question was: Was the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba created and controlled by the 
Progressive Labor Movement? I believe the witness can answer that 
question. 

Mr. Lemansky. The Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, which 
has the purpose of getting people to Cuba to see the truth for them- 
selves and to evaluate what is happening in Cuba, was formed inde- 
pendently. 

To the best of my knowledge, it is an independent organization 
with the purpose of opposing the U.S. Government's attempts to 
restrict our freedom of movement and our freedom of inquiry, to 
oppose the U.S. Government's trying to make war and send us off to 
fight and die without even knowing what it is we are fighting and 
dying about. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Witness, you have made statements, time and time 
again, against your American Government. I do not recognize you 
for that purpose. It is not responsive to the question. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. By whom were you selected or asked to serve as leader 
of this group which traveled to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Do any of you gentlemen speak Yiddish? There 
is a word in Yiddish, huspah 

Mr. Nittle. Just a minute. I must object to this, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am raising a certain objection that I think that 
the committee, in trying to force me to give them the names of other 
people, has a lot of huspah, nerve. You have no right to try and 
turn 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Chairman, I don't think the- 



Mr. Ichord. Objection. The Chair overrules that objection. For 
the final time, I direct you to answer the question. 



2080 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lemansky. I further object to that question on the basis that 
the very law authorizing this committee is unconstitutional; that it 
does not provide, and cannot provide in any way, a definition of what 
is un-American, what is un-American propaganda. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is merely delaying the committee. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am not trying to delay you, in the sense that I 
want to teach you about the Constitution. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Counsel, to ask the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you selected or asked to serve as leader of this 
group by persons or a person who are members of the Progressive 
Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I wish the record to show that I did not refuse to 
answer that previous question. 

Mr. Ichord. There will be order in the hearing room. Just a minute. 
The witness will cease. The audience will remain seated. 

It is the understanding of the Chair that the second floor of the 
Press Building has collapsed and the press are going out for that. 
There is no demonstration, I understand, outside. So the audience 
can remain seated. You won't be able to see anything. 

Mr. Lemansky. The only demonstration of course is the 

Mr. Ichord. What is the question pending before the witness } . 

Mr. Nittle. Were you selected or asked to serve as leader of this 
group by a person or persons known to you to be a member or members 
of the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, as I was stating in my effort to deal with 
previous question, which I was never given an opportunity to 
finish 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair gave you a great deal of opportunity. 

Mr. Lemansky. Before I ever answered it you told the counsel to 
pass on to the next question. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness continues to harangue the committee and, 
let the record show, with a snarl on his face, Mr. Lemansky. 

Mr. Lemansky. Really. 

Mr. Ichord. That is right, 

Mr. Lemansky. I am laughing now. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Mr. Lemansky. As I started to say, I don't intend to answer any 
questions having to do with any other individuals. If you want to 
talk to me about any political beliefs 

Mr. Nittle. He is not responding to the question. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question for the 
final time. 

Mr. Lemansky. In addition, I decline to answer this question on the 
ground that the chairman of the committee and its vice chairman 
at the very least, I don't know about you other gentlemen, are sitting 
in Congress illegally. 

Air. Ichord. The witness has stated that objection and he knows 
that the Chair is going to overrule it repeatedly, it is not a proper 
objection. 

Air. Lemansky. I wish this objection to be in the record for the 
courts to rule if you gentlemen are so foolish as to cite me for con- 
tempt of Congress. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2081 

Mr. Iciiord. The Chair knows the feeling of the witness toward the 
Government, toward this committee, and apparently toward all Ameri- 
cans. 

Now proceed. 

Air. Lemansky. Why can you harangue me ? 

Mr. Ichord. I direct you to answer the question. Mr. Lemansky, I 
have been extremely patient with you, extremely. I direct you for the 
final time to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. In addition, I decline to answer this question on 
the ground that such a question, if at all proper, is a matter for the 
courts. Certainly to know the names of individuals can be in no way 
of help to the Congress in framing legislation. It may be of help in 
framing individuals but not to frame legislation. 

[Laughter.] 

Mr. Lemansky. In addition 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute. The witness will cease. 

The Chair will have to advise some of the people in the audience that 
there must be order maintained in this rooom. In view of what hap- 
pened last year when these hearings were held, in view of what hap- 
pened yesterday, the Chair must be very cautious to maintain order. 
I ask the audience to cooperate with me. I am desirous of permitting 
you to be in the room, but I ask that you do not interfere with the 
questioning of the witness or with his replies. 

Now proceed with your objections. 

Mr. Lemansky. I wish you had said that to the Nazi who put 
Morty Slater in the hospital yesterday. 

Mr. Ichord. Go on to the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have not finished my objection. Do you accept 
my grounds for refusal to answer ? 

Mr. Ichord. I do not accept your grounds for refusal to answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. Then let me state them. 

Mr. Ichord. You made remarks about the Chair, about the commit- 
tee, and about matters that happened yesterday. 

I direct the counsel to ask the next question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I wish to have my objections in the record. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, although the transportation to France 
of the initial group of alleged students was provided principally by 
Air France and El Al, on nights departing from New York on June 9 
and 10, and Pan American, departing Philadelphia on June 10, our 
investigation indicates that you departed for France prior to this 
group, arriving in Paris by Air France on June 2, 1964. 

The question I should like to ask you is whether you preceded your 
group to France on June 2 for the purpose of supervising their trans- 
portation to Prague, Czechoslovakia, and from thence to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemansky. On all of my constitutional rights I object to the 
previous question. My objections were cut short. I wanted in the 
record that I had declined to answer the previous question on the 
basis of all of the rights guaranteed to me under the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you include the fifth amendment, the self-incrimi- 
nation clause thereof? 

Mr. Lemansky. I include all of the fifth amendment which guaran- 
tees protection. 

Air. Nittle. You don't need to cite that, we know what it is. 

40-013— 65— pt. 5 S 



2082 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lemansky. You don't seem to. 

Mr. Nittle. Now let me ask you to respond. You invoke the fifth 
amendment in refusing to respond to the last question I asked you ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Sixth, ninth, tenth, fourteenth amendments, ar- 
ticles I, II, III. 

Mr. Ichord. That is sufficient invocation of the fifth amendment. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel, with the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Now would you tell us whether any members of your 
group obtained slip visas from the Cuban consulate in Prague, 
Czechoslovakia ? 

Mr. Lemansky. As far as I know, every member of the group that 
went through Prague on the way to Havana in June, early June this 
year, received slip visas. Of course, I am not in a position to say 
with any certainty about others, but those who went through on about 
the 10th or 11th of June did receive what you refer to as a "slip visa" 
which permitted us entry into Cuba for the purpose of seeing what 
was happening there and making a determination of whether or not 
the revolution had succeeded. 

Mr. Nittle. I asked you simply whether you received slip visas 
and your answer is, you did. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. The next question I would like to ask you is whether 
you received instructions or advice from the Cuban authorities in 
Prague not to exhibit your American passports at any time in Cuba? 

Mr. Lemansky. You are asking me about whether I personally was 
given any such instructions, is that correct ? 

Mr. Nittle. No, whether your group was so advised to your knowl- 
edge ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, to my knowledge 

Mr. Nittle. I quite understand that you were well informed on the 
subject but I am interested in your group. 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes, I am informed about the nonexistence of any 
laws either. Now, as far as I know none of us were given such in- 
structions by the Cubans in this matter, since passports are not re- 
quired to go to Cuba. Since the Government is making such a hulla- 
baloo about it, I advised people to keep their passports in their pockets ; 
they were not needed, no reason to show it to anybody. Why give 
the American Government additional "evidence" in this fabricated 
trial? 

Mr. Nittle. Did you exhibit your passports to any French or 
Czechoslovakian official enroute to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, now, I was in Czechoslovakia — could you 
repeat the question ? I am not clear on all the details of it. 

Mr. Ichord. Madame Reporter, please read the question. 

(The record was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Lemansky. I exhibited my passport to French officials, but 
enroute to Cuba via Prague neither I nor anyone else, to the best of 
my knowledge, exhibited passports to Czech officials. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

It is now 2 minutes after 12. Ask one more question, Mr. Counsel, 
and then we will recess for lunch. 

Mr. Nittle. We understand that your group traveled from Paris 
via Czech Air Line Flight 508 to Prague. Could you tell us whether 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 20S3 

any part of the expenses for this travel between France and Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, by Czech Airline was assumed by the Czechoslovak! an 
Government \ 

Mr. Lemansky. I have no certain knowledge about who assumed 
the costs of that flight. 

Mr. Iciiord. The Chair declares a recess until 1 :30 p.m. The wit- 
ness will return and the other witnesses at that time. 

(Whereupon, at 12 :04 p.m., Friday, September 4, 1964, the subcom- 
mittee recessed, to reconvene at 1 :30 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 4, 1964 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 1 :30 p.m., Hon. Richard H. 
Ichord, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.) 

(Members present: Representatives Ichord, Senner, and Johansen, 
of the subcommittee, and also Representatives Schadeberg and 
Bruce.) 

Mr. Ichord. The meeting will come to order. 

The witness will please resume the witness chair. 

Let there be order. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWAKD LEMANSKY— Eesumed 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Lemansky. 

Mr. Lemansky. Mr. Chairman, 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute, Mr. Witness. 

Is counsel ready to begin the questioning ? 

Mr. Nettle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

What did the witness have ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I have in my hand a statement of Mr. Johansen 
in which he accuses us of creating violence on the attack of the Nazi 
on Morton Slater yesterday, and I want to object to this most vigor- 
ously and most strenuously. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is out of order. 

I direct the witness to cease. 

Mr. Lemansky. I believe that Mr. Johansen was out of order, par- 
ticularly in distributing this thing in the room. You have distributed 
a number of attacks against us and have not given me a chance to 
respond to them. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky 

Mr. Ichord. Let the record show that the witness is continuing to 
talk in violation of the direction of the Chair. 

Cease talking. 

Mr. Lemansky. I thought you wanted to hear me. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Counsel, with your question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, it is the committee's information that the 
Progressive Labor Movement, a Communist splinter group, was formed 
on or about January 1962 by Milton Rosen, formerly labor secretary of 
the New York State Communist Party, now chairman of the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement, and Mortimer Scheer, formerly Erie County 
chairman of the Communist Party in New York State, now vice chair- 
man of the Progressive Labor Movement. Both Rosen and Scheer 
were expelled from the Communist Party because they advocated a 



2084 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

more revolutionary line than what the Communist Party wishes 
openly to proclaim today. 

I want to direct your attention to a statement, or declaration of 
Milton Kosen 

Mr. Lemansky. Is he- 



Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease the interruptions. 

Mr. Nittle. — writing in the Marxist-Leninist Quarterly, an of- 
ficial publication of the Progressive Labor Movement, Volume 1, Num- 
ber 2, 1963, at page 65. Milton Rosen, founder and chairman of the 
Progressive Labor Movement, declared : 

The emergence of the Progressive Labor Movement is an important sign that 
U.S. imperialism was and is unable to destroy the drive for a revolutionary social- 
ist movement in this country. * * * We intend to find out how to elevate every 
daily struggle of the people into revolutionary will. It is our intent to help 
build a mass revolutionary party. It is our belief that the objective conditions 
exist in our country and on a world scene for such a development. We will 
encourage every revolutionary or militant tendency among the people. * * * 

Now, I should like to ask you, Mr. Lemansky, did you serve as leader 
of the Cuban travelers to lend support to this objective and program 
of the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, now, you got a lot in there. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you or did you not ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I would like to respond to the statement that you 
made. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question "yes" or 
"no" ; and you can explain it. 

Mr. Lemansky. Thank you. 

Mr. Senner. Start with the "yes" or "no" first. 

Mr. Lemansky. If you want to give the answers, you can do that 
and I can leave. You don't need me here for that. 

Mr. Ichord. I do not intend to put words in the witness" mouth. 

Mr. Lemansky. Mr. Senner seems to think so. 

Mr. Ichord. I am protecting your constitutional rights, but you 
make it exceedingly difficult for me to do so. Each time you start to 
answer a question, you embark upon an attack upon either your Gov- 
ernment, the Congress, or this committee. It makes it exceedingly 
difficult for me to preside fairly in protecting your rights before this 
committee. 

Now, proceed to answer. I ask that you be courteous and answer 
the question of the counsel. 

Mr. Lemansky. I went to Cuba, acting in the interests of the Amer- 
ican people, to find out what was happening there, to determine if the 
statements of our Government and much of the American press about 
what is happening in Cuba is really the truth. 

Now, before I went, I was highly skeptical. I knew the kinds of 
lies that our Government is guilty of; admitted, for example, by the 
investigator of the Defense Department where he said the Government 
had the right to lie to the people. Now, he stated that. Of course, 
there are many other instances of lying to the American people. 

In the New York Times of last month, I think August 30, there is a 
long article about the secret training; of Nationalist Chinese- 



Mr. Nittle. I am sorry, Mr. Chairman. I must address the Chair 
and request that the witness be directed to respond to the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. You wanted to know why I went to Cuba ; I am 
telling you. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2085 

M v. N rrri.E. That is not the question. 

The question is whether you served as the leader of the Cuban 
travelers to lend support to the program and objective of the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement as stated to you in the pronouncement of Milton 
Rosen, the founder and chairman of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Now, you can answer that "yes" or "no." You either did or you did 
not. 

Mr. Lemansky. As I started to say, before I was so rudely inter- 
rupted, I went to Cuba to serve the interests of the American people. 

Mr. Nettle. I asked you whether you went there 

Mr. Lemansky. That is why I went there. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you, or did you not, serve as leader of the Cuban 
travelers to lend support to the program and objective of the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement as expressed in the statement of its founder, 
Milton Rosen ? You either did or you did not. 

Mr. Lemansky. The reasons I have outlined to the extent that they 
are in line with that statement that you read, then of course. 

Mr. Iciiord. Thank you, Mr. Witness. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Air. Lemansky. Thank you. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Lemansky. By the way, you can ask Mil Rosen what he be- 
lieves, if you want. You could subpena him instead of reading to me 
and the people here. Why don't you ask him ? 

Air. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. 

Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. In addition to the Marxist-Leninist Quarterly, the 
Progressive Labor Movement publishes an official publication called 
Progressive Labor. Its July-August 1962 issue carried a report of a 
nationwide organizational meeting held July 1, 1962, at the Hotel 
Diplomat in New York City. 

The report delivered by Milton Rosen, and approved by the mem- 
bers, urged the organization of Progressive Labor clubs, Marxist study 
circles, and "class-conscious single-issue organizations" as the most 
important levels of organization within the coming period. 

The question I want to ask you, Mr. Lemansky is : Do you, as an 
organizer of the Progressive Labor Movement, understand the Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba to be appropriately described as a 
"class-conscious single-issue organization" formed in pursuance of 
the program of the Progressive Labor Movement as expressed in the 
report delivered by Milton Rosen ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Now we are back to this whole business of front 
groups, which you raised and then avoided this morning when I began 
answering it — I hope I will have a chance to answer it now. 

You stated that a front group is when one organization organizes 
another to disguise its true purpose. It happens to be a true purpose 
of the Progressive Labor Movement to eradicate and destroy the lies 
and falsehoods that have been told to the American people about Cuba 
and about the United States, the lies that are told about the number of 
unemployed, the lies that are told about the racism in this country, 
the lie that we are eliminating it when, in fact, the race system is on 
the upswing. That is the true purpose of the Progressive Labor 
Movement. 



2086 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES EST U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, the question is- 



Mr. Ichord. Let the witness answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. The Student Committee for Travel to Cuba has 
as its stated purpose to get people to Cuba to see what is happening 
there and to come back to the United States and tell the American 
people what we have seen. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Lemansky. Oh, you don't want to hear it ? 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. There is no question pending. 

Mr. Nettle. I hand you a copy of a press release titled "News- 
letter," issued in the early part of July 1964 by the New York 
Office 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, I stated I handed you a copy of a press release, 
titled "Newsletter," issued by the New York office of the Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba, marked for identification as "Leman- 
sky Exhibit Number 6." 

This newsletter release says your group is going to Cuba and con- 
cludes on page 4 with the statement, to which I direct your attention 
and which I quote in part as follows : 

Their trip to Cuba is a marker on the long road to the development of a new, 
radical and fighting spirit among our young countrymen. * * * 

Were you acting in support of that program in assuming leadership 
of the group that traveled to Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I believe that a new, radical fighting spirit among 
your young countrymen is developing. I believe that it has developed 
around an opposition to racism; it has developed an opposition to 
criminal wars, aggression waged by the United States in Vietnam," in 
the Congo, in Cuba. It has grown around the issues of large-scale un- 
employment, particularly among young people. 

The percentages of unemployment are extraordinarily high, ranging 
as high as 25 percent among Negro youth. There have been reactions 
by American young people against the miseducation we receive in this 
country. 

Now, this radical, new, fighting spirit is exactly what we need to 
eliminate the vicious and criminal activities that are presently taking 
place in this country. We need that to wipe out the cause for the de- 
velopment of fascism here. 

(Document marked "Lemansky Exhibit No. 6" follows:) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2087 

Lemansky Exhibit No. 6 

newsletter 

A year ago we takled some about "testing" the State Dept. ban on 
travel to Cuba, by going there. This summer we have left this illegal 
paper barricade in shreds by sending 80 young Americans to learn the 
truth about the Cuban Revolution and to absorb Socialism first hand. 

The students, led by Eddie Lemansky, a graduate of Antioch College 
and a member of the Progressive Labor Movement, hail from California, 
Oregon, Texas, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, 
Kentucky, Georgia, Virginia, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, New York, 
Massachusetts and the territory of Puerto Rice; including such schools 
as the University of California, Harvard, Univ. of Iowa, Univ. of 
Wisconsin, Chicago Univ., City College of New York, Brooklyn College, 
New York University, Columbia, Wayne State Univ. (Ohio), San Francisco 
State College, Stanford University, and Oakland City College (Calif.). 

The bulk of this year's group left on June 9th and 10th and 
arrived, via Prague, at Habana's Jose Marti Airport on June 12th. 
They were greeted by 500 cheering Cuban students who regaled them with 
flowers and songs. The first off the plane was Roberto Rubalcava of 
San Joee State College, California, who was asked by a Prenaa Latina 
reporter about his beard and remarked, "I let it grow to let people 
I'm not satisfied with things as they are at home". Mary Kerr of 
Portland State College, Oregon, exclaimed "I'm the happiest girl in 
the world',' and Willard Chastain of Annandale, Virginia presented the 
Cuban Students with parphlets of his poems. 

Among the activities of the group during their first few days in 
Cuba was a visit to the Museum of the Revolution in Habana. There they 
saw photographs of the crimes committed against the Cuban people 
during the regime of the dictator Batista, and the documentary film 
about the diaa8trou8 invasion of Playa Giron, the first defeat in 
Aaerica of Northamerican Imperialism. The students decided then and 
there to donate their own blood as a gesture of sympathy to the Cuban 
peopla and their Revolution. "I wanted to be first , said 16 year 
old Scott Wilson of San Francisco, who was rejected because he la a 
itiaor. Others like the Univ. of California student Yvonna Bond, Bade 
it clear that they intended their blood to express more than sympathy. 
She declared, "This for me is my biggest anti-imperialist act. Here 
is my blood to be used by a Cuban who may be wounded fighting soae 
possible attack by the United States". 

Before leaving for a four day tour of Finar del Rio, Eddie 
Lemansky, in an interview with Alberto Perez of Prensa Latina, stated, 
"We condemn the illegal espionage flights and Northamerican eggreaslons 
against Cuba". He went on to say that in his judgment the Cuban people 
have the obvious right to take the defensive measures they deem neces- 
sary to deal with theimperialist threat. "The repeated piratical 
attacks by counterrevolutionary Cubans at the service of the CIA anger 
many sections of theAmerican people, and many of us promise to fight 
against that state of affairs". Referring to the official Northameri- 
can opposition to the Student's trip to Cuba, Lemansky said, "The 
United States Government is unhappy with the idea that its citizens 
may visit Cuba; it doesn't want them to see what Socailism really is, 
it is afraid of Socialism and Socialist ideas; it is afraid that if we 
see what is really happening in Cuba we might discover that much of 
what the Northamerican Press says is a lie cr a half truth. Washington 
also fears that on our return we may speak to the people and convince 
them thet Socialism is the solution to themany problems we face there". 

Lemansky was certain that many students in hi6 country sympathized 
with the Cuban Revolution or doubted that the Northamerican Press tells 
the truth. He based this on the 500 applications received from many 
Northamerican Universities, sent by studerts who wanted to make the 
trip sponsored by the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. He said 
that he wanted to get an idea of how Socialism functions in practice: 
"You can read and re-read all you want, but that is never enough. For 
Lenin that was, but now that we have examples of Socialism in many 
parts of the world, now that millions of people live under Socialism 
we who support that doctrine do not have to be satisfied with merely 



2088 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Lemansky Exhibit No. 6 — Continued 

2. 



reading about it and nothing more". 

The young Northamerican indicated as his greatest impression, 
so 'far during his short stay in Cuba, "the massive support the Cuban 
people give the Socialist Revolution . 

"Believe me", he said in conclusion,, "these will be the six 
happiest weeks of my life". 

The group visited a thermoelectric plant in Mariel, Pinar del 
Rio end many Granjas del Pueblo (State Farms). "What do you understand 
by Communism?", Ginger Weinberg of the City College of N.Y. asked a 
young worker there. "Communism is work for the collective with the 
certainty that each day that passes we will be better. The future 
belongs to U6". Visibly moved, she said, "Each hour that passes I 
hear the most beautiful things that give me a sense of the stature 
of the men of this country". 

Back .in Habana, the students met with a touring Chinese gymnas- 
tics team. In the name oi' the Chinese students, Shi Yu Long, a 
student of Spanish s.t the Ur.iv. of Habana, exchaged a warm werome 
with Charles Simeons oi' Detroit, a former student at Wayne State Univ. 
who acted as spokesman for the Americans. The difference in languages 
was no barrier because the Chinese students spoke Spanish, and so did 
many of the American.'.'., /or the first "tine in their lives the North- 
american students :a.v f. ilms on the social, cultural, political and 
economic progress in China. "It has been a day of great revelations 
for all of us", said Roberto Rubalcava. 

The next day. June 27, the students presented a declaration de- 
manding that the U.S. Govt, recognize the right of self-determination 
of the people of South Vietnam. The declaration, signed by 61 of the 
75 students- began, "We. the undersigned, young Northamericms visi- 
ting Cub*, effer these r.titemc-tF of support for thepeople of South 
Vietnam in their juet fight for liberation from the Imperialist oppres- 
sion directed by our government. Today our government is unleashing 
one of the most brutal and criminal wars in history. In this war 
Northamerican poison gaser. a.:e ruining Vietnamese crops, exterminating 
its crops, killing and mutilating the Vietnamese people". It went on 
to explain that all over the world, in Spain and Portugal, in South 
Africa, in Latin America, the United States supports racist and reac- 
tionary regimes which oppress the people, and that theintransigende 
of U-s. Imperialism forces the people to take up arn>6 in order to 
gain end defend their liberty. "Inside our country opposition to 
those wars and struggles .is also taking form. Many people have openly 
denounced the war against South Vietnam, and, as part of the Student 
Anti-Imperialist Hay 2nd L!ovajent,- hundreds of young men have signed 
a petition refusing to fight against the South Vietnamese people. 
When we examine the facts we see that we have no difference with 
them. Our government is working fiverishly to disorient us about 
the nature Of the war in that country and the fights for liberation 
taking place in other parts of the world. We understand that we must 
begin a relentless battle against those wars. If we fail in this 
responsibility, misery, destruction and death will continue reigning 
over the world. If v-e triumph, people will begin to control their 
own lives and will o°i n hands to put an end to the barbarity of the 
past and the present". 

With the group beginning its island-wide tour, in Matanzas 
province, the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba once again defied 
the State Dept. - openly - and sent five more students to Cuba on 
June 30. Susan Rotolo of New York, Robert Collier of Boston, Alan 
Lowe of SanDiego, Calif, Steve Newman ol New York and Jeff Goldstein 
of New York, publicly announced their intention to go to Cuba at a 
pres6 conference in tha New York International Airport. Suean, a 
H.Y. artist, and Steve, a graduate physics student at Columbia, refused 
to submit their passports co a State Dept. stooge in London, and three 
hours later. Alan,. Bob and Jeff joined them in that stand and the five 
continued en to Prague. " Great joy prevailed as they joined the 75 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 20S9 

Lemansky Exhibit No. 6 — Continued 

3. 



at the International Hotel in Varadero, M8tanzas, and with that the 
80 Kortbamoricans proceeded on to Santa Clara, Las Villas. 

The Cuban weekly magazine Bohemia, carried a four page spread on 
tha group: caricatures of individuals with their respective comments 
on their experiences for captions. 

Eddie Lemansky 23, Graduate of Antioch College, Yellow Springs, 
Ohio, an organizer for the Progressive Labor Movement, and leader of 
the student trip: "Many people in the U.S. don't sympathize with the 
Cuban Revolution for lack of honest news. With our visit we era defy- 
ing the efforts of the Northamerican Government to destroy the Cuban 
Revolution". 

Tony Uurad 21, etudent of photography at they Art Center School t 
Los Angeles, California: "The attacks against Cuba are demonstrations 
of the injustice of the U.S. Govt, and of the fear the iiaperiaiista 
have of Socialism. There is happiness in Cuba because the peopla are 
free. 2 came to show the Cubans and the Latin Americans that there 
are also revolutionaries in the U.S'.' 

Mary Kaher, 19, Student of Dance, Harvard University: "Whit is 
happening in Cuba is what we need there in the United States, aod 
that's why I came to S3e the Revolution". 

Stefan Uhse, 18, student of philosophy, Univ. of Wisconsin: "We 
tha Korthamerican etudents, also protest the aggressions against Cuba. 
In epit^a of tha distance and dishonesty of the reports in the U.S; 
press about Cube, I have the highest opinion of Fidel Castro and his 
work". 

Vincent Lynch, 39. reporter for the Sun-Reporter, San Fr«nel*co, 
California: "Fidel represents the new life for Cuba and Letia-«*erica. 
Racial integration in Cuba has greatly impressed me. White aad clack 
are with the Revolution". 

Charles Simmons, 22, student of journalism, Wayne State Univ., 
Detroit, Michigan: "The naval base at Caimanera (Gusntanaso) sust go. 
The war policy of imperialism endangers the world. The people of Cubs, 
South Vietnam and the Afro-Americans are suffering under Yank** Taper 
ialism. Fidel is not only the leader of the liberation aoyeB-jnt of 
Cuba, but also of many other countries. He is th« greatest lseder of 
ths moment and has fullfilled ell he promised in "Hie'sory Bill Absolve 
Me". Cuba is a paradise compared with the injustices and atrocities 
that are committed in the United St&tes". 

Jo3e Carlos Colon, 19, student, Mayaguez, Puerto Rj.cc: "Intole- 
rable are 'theNorthamerican aggressions against Cuba. If we couldj 
it would be but a while before we kick the Yankees out of Puerto -i:o. 
'The Cuban Revolution pleases me even more since it took a Social 
character" . 

Ginger Weinberg, 25, student, City College of N.Y.: "The aggres- 
sions against Cuba owe to the corruption of the rulers of the United 
States and the capitalist opposition to things that advents firmly. 
If you Cuban people ere enslaved, I wish that all ay pec-pis wer*; also 
eiaves like you". 

Luis Miguel Yaldez, 24, student of drama, San Jose 8tate Collage, 
San Jose, Calif: "The Cuban Revolution has given birth to a great, 
hop© for the future". 

Karen Sacks, 22, student of Anthropology, Harvard University, BoS- 
ton, Massachusetts: "What has impressed mc most in Cuba is the ei r.u- 
siasm the people f et 1 for the Revolution". 

Robert Abts, 22, student of International Relations, Univ. ■ 
Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin: "The aggressions against Cuba are : — - 
gal end I see them as if they were against my own self. I a^ree with 
the ©ciic'^- of the Cuban Revolution. I have seen no raciel diB*Oriaina- 
tl on* here*. 



2090 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Lemansky Exhibit No. 6 — Continued 



Manuel "Plto" Colon, 33, sociologist, San Juan, Puerto Rico: "I 
have two reasons for visiting Cuba. First, because I want to oee with 
esy own evea what Is happening here, the reality of the Cuban Revolution, 
and at the same time to defy the ban on travel to Cuba Imposed by the 
State Department." 

• Joel Agee, 24, student, City College of New York: "The aggressive 
policy of the United States against Cuba is criminal and a danger to 
world peace. It is necessary for the Northamerlcan people to protest 
strongly against that policy. From the moment I got off the plane I 
could appreciate the freedom that exists In Cuba and the feeling of 
friendship the Cuban people have for the Northaraerican. " 

Shirley Stoute, 22, veri-typlst, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: "Inhuman, 
vnjuat orlmes against the people, the Northamerlcan aggressions. Pidel 
has the obvious support of the people. I came to Cuba to study the 
Revolution and Its problems. This interests us because the United States 
needs a Revolution. 

Glno Foreman, 23, Musician, New York: "The aggressions agalnat 
Cuba are a result of the sickness that the United States suffers. Fidel 
Castro is the Intellectual leader of America. The defeat of Imperialism 
will come sooner than moat people think." 



The students, who have already encountered a Cuba very different 
from the one depicted In the American press, will wind up their Island- 
wide tour in Santiago, the capltol city of Orlente province, where 
Pidel Ceetro will make his annual 26th of July speech. After the 26th 
they will heed back to Havana for another two week stay before returning 
to the Stctea . 

Their trip to Cuba is a marker on the long road to the development 
of a new, rcdical and fighting spirit am org our young countrymen. Pully 
aware of the dangers Involved, (fineB and Jail sentences, FBI harraasment, 
congressional Inquisitions, loss of Jobs, etc.), they are setting a nee- 
ded example of courage and principle in defying the reactionary and un- 
constitutional travel-ban policy of the State Dept. They are winning the 
respeot of many fellow citizens, also outraged by the State Dept'a attempt 
to destroy the right to travel. They will be heard by tens of thouoenda 
of Students throughout the country when they return to the campuses this 
fall. Far from being Isolated themselves by their actions and atatementa 
they are doing a great service by insisting that the truth oannot oontlnue 
to be Isolated as our government and press would like It to be. 

Fraternally, 

The Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba 

P. 3. "The press here has virtually blacked out all news of the trip. So 
It Is up to us to get the news across. 

1, We are organizing a welcome home celebration. We want to meet 
•nd greet the students at New York's international airport when they 
return. Busses will be chartered - all those anxious to be on hand when 
they arrive are urged to contact us immediately - CA 8-1119, weekdays from 
5-8 p.m. Welcoming committees will be set up around the country. Write 
us for -Information. S.C.T.C., Box 2178, QPO, N.Y. 1, N.Y. 10001. 

2. Anyone who is interested in setting up meetings, rallies or 
speaking engagements for the returning students - please contact us. 
These are crucial, and were very successful last year. 

3i» Please acknowledge receipt of this newsletter. Write us at the 
above address, or call. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2091 

Mr. Ichokd. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

I think that sufficiently answers the question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, I direct your attention to page 1 of 
the Newsletter, which reports that in an interview with a representa- 
tive of Prensa Latina while in Cuba you stated : 

"We condemn the illegal espionage flights and Northamerican aggressions 
against Cuba." 

Now, with that example, I should like to ask whether prior to your 
I ravel to Cuba, was it understood that you would grant such inter- 
views for publication in Cuba and in the United States ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I most certainly do condemn the illegal 
espionage flights and aggression in Cuba. We are continually flying 
U-2 planes. 

Mr. Nittle. No 

Mr. Lemansky. You raised it. Americans have died flying over 
Cuba. 

Mr. Ichord. Let there be order. 

Mr. Nittle. I am asking you whether you understood that you 
would grant such interviews for publication in Cuba, prior to the time 
you went there. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now, any reasonable person is fully aware of the 
fact that when he exposes fraud and stupidity on the part of his Gov- 
ernment, newspapermen, radio and television interviewers, and all 
sorts of other people are going to want to interview him. 

Now, I certainly expected that all sorts of people would ask me 
questions, just as I figured you would. 

Now, I certainly didn't go to Cuba for the purpose of being inter- 
rogated, but I knew it would happen before I ever left because I know 
the way this committee operates. Whenever anybody tries to stand 
up and defend the rights of the American people, you gentlemen are 
one of the first on the scene to try and question and intimidate him and 
frighten others from standing up. 

Mr. Ichord. You are not being responsive now. 

Mr. Senner. May I ask a question at this point ? 

Mr. Ichord. The gentleman from Arizona. 

Mr. Senner. Do you believe Fidel Castro and Cuba should have the 
right to have offensive weapons to attack this Nation ? 

Mr. Lemansky. The United States has an armed base on the island 
of Cuba, not Cuba which has a base in the United States. 

That question is awfully silly, if you will pardon me saying it. 

Mr. Senner. I think the United States also freed Cuba and gave it 
to the Cubans. 

Mr. Lemansky. When was that? When was that, 1898 or 1903 
when the Piatt Amendment was signed when we forced it down the 
Cubans' throat? Did we free Cuba by giving Batista planes and 
guns with which to kill 20,000 Cubans, murders committed by Batista 
during his regime ? Was that how the United States freed Cuba ? 

Mr. Ichord. The witness time and time again has shown contempt 
for his Government. 

Mr. Lemansky. You have shown contempt for the truth. 

Mr. Senner. I would like to ask a question. 

Do you believe Fidel Castro should have "offensive" weapons to 
attack this Nation? 



2092 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lemansky. I believe Fidel Castro needs to defend himself 
against the unjustified attacks by the United States Government. 

Mr. Ichord. Counsel, next question. 

Mr. Senner. Just for your information, my father fought in that 
Spanish- American War. 

Mr. Lemansky. Oh, that is right; your father was in the Marine 
Corps. 

As Yvonne said yesterday, there were progressive traditions in the 
Marine Corps. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, the newsletter at page 2 further advises 
that the students who traveled with you presented a declaration signed 
by 61 of the 75 students demanding, and I borrow the language of the 
newsletter — 

that the U.S. Govt, recognize the right of self-determination of the people of 
South Vietnam. 

The declaration is further reported as beginning : 

"We, the undersigned, young Northamericans visiting Cuba, offer these state- 
ments of support for the people of South Vietnam in their just fight for liberation 
from the Imperialist oppression directed by our government. Today our govern- 
ment is unleashing one of the most brutal and criminal wars in history. * 

Mr. Lemansky. True. 

Air. Nittle. You say that is true ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, I go on. 

The newsletter further states that this declaration — 

went on to explain that all over the world, in Spain and Portugal, in South Africa, 
in Latin America, the United States supports racist and reactionary rcuimes 
which oppress the people, and that the intransigence of U.S. Imperialism forces 
the people to take up arms in order to gain and defend their liberty. 

Now, Mr. Lemansk}' , were you one of the Gl who signed the decla- 
ration? 

Mr. Lemansky. In reading that, you left out the part which said 
in this war that poisonous gases are ruining the crops, killing and 
mutilating the Vietnamese people. It is also true that the U.S. Gov- 
ernment now has on the order of 30,000 troops in Vietnam, people of 
my age, trying to get us to go there and light and die to protect the 
profits of the American businessman. 

Now, I certainly did sign that statement because I believe that the 
U.S. Government has absolutely no right to be in Vietnam or in the 
Congo or anywhere else, particularly when they have to take people, 
drag them away from their jobs, their homes, and their families, and 
put them into a miserable, disgusting war. 

Now, if you gentlemen support that, it seems to me that you are 
supporting criminal activities by our Government which are in abso- 
lute contravention to all the canons of international law and which go 
directly against the interest of American people. 

It is a historical principle of capitalism, by the way, that the owners 
of property always get working people to go out and fight and die in 
their wars and then to return home and come back into oppression. 

Mr. Ichord. Answer the question, Mr. Witness. 

The question was : Did you sign it? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2093 

Mr. Lemansky. I said I signed it. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. 

Thank you. 

Air. Nutle. Your eloquence leads me to ask the further question. 
Did you participate in the drafting of this declaration? 

Mr. Lemanskt. We issued a number of statements. 

Mr. Nittle. I asked whether you participated in the drafting of 
that particular declaration. 

Air. Lemansky. I am trying to recall. We issued a number of state- 
ments and I participated in drafting some of them. Now I am trying 
to recollect whether or not I participated in this one. 

Mr. Nittle. All right. Now let me ask you 

Air. Lemansky. You don't want my answer ? 

]\Ir. Nittle. I understand you don't recollect. 

Mr. Lemansky. No, no, I am trying to recollect. My recollection 
is that. I did, because I think that the U.S. Government has no business 
there, as I have already said, and that you are just trying to 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has answered the question. That is not 
responsive to the question. 

Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Now Mr. Lemansky, did you receive any suggestions 
for the initiating of such a declaration, or as to its contents, from the 
representative of any Communist country maintaining an embassy in 
Cuba ? 

Air. Lemansky. While I was in Cuba I talked with a lot of people. 
I talked with Americans like Robert Williams, who was driven into 
exile by the American Government. I talked with people from many 
different embassies, Africa, Asia, Latin America. I learned a good 
bit about the way the United States has moved into these countries, 
dominated and controlled the economy of these countries, and forced 
the people of those countries to live in dismal poverty and starvation, 
living without education. 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute, Mr. Witness, if you will please. 

Mr. Senner. Excuse me. Mr. Lemansky, I really don't want to 
interrupt you and I will let you proceed on. Did you talk to any 
prisoners in Castro's prisons ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Now which question should I answer first? 

Mr. Senner. You said you talked to a lot of people. Did you talk 
also to prisoners who have been fighting Castro and are detained and 
locked up in the prisons there? 

Mr. Lemansky. I personally did not. 

Mr. Senner. Did you talk to any of the priests or hierarchy of the 
Catholic Church in Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, on a couple of occasions I made efforts to 
talk with priests. I was interested in what they had to say but I never 
talked with any. 

I did talk with a number of people who made serious criticisms in 
the revolution. In fact, these people approached me all the time, 
always wanting to tell me their story, quite often in very loud tones 
in public places, telling me that if they would open their mouth and 
make any kind of criticism to the government they would be in jail 
and there they were on the streets or in the bars shouting at the tops 
of their lungs. 

Mr. Senner. The priests were in bars ? 



2094 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lemanskt. Well, I don't know if any of the priests were in 
the bars. I said I didn't talk with any priests, but I did talk with 
many people who had serious and sharp criticism of the revolution, 
many of whom are against the revolution. 

Mr. Senner. Let me ask you this. Do you think there is true free- 
dom of religion in Cuba under Fidel Castro ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I would say that there is no freedom to deny 
the rights of Cuban working people. That freedom they don't have. 
They used to have it under Batista. They do not have the freedom, 
they do not have the cloak of religion to hide activities which are 
detrimental to the interests of the Cuban workers. Thev certainly 
don't have that freedom. 

The freedom to worship God, the freedom to go to church or syna- 
gogue 

Mr. Senner. Something like they have in Russia with regard to re- 
ligion ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I have not been to Russia. Have you been to 
Russia ? 

Mr. Senner. No. 

Mr. Lemansky. Have you been to Cuba ? 

Mr. Ichord. Let us get back. 

Mr. Lemansky. You should go. I would support your right to 
travel. I think you should go and see what is being done there. It 
is quite obvious you don't know. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Counsel, I think you will have to rephrase your 
question. I do not believe the witness ever answered your question. 

Mr. Nittle. The question was whether he received any suggestions 
for the initiating of such a declaration, or as to the contents of it, 
from the representative of any Communist country maintaining an 
embassy in Cuba. 

Mr. Lemansky. As I recall, the idea to issue such a statement was 
either mine or some other member of the group which traveled to 
Cuba because, you know, we were going to meet with representatives of 
the South Vietnamese National Liberation Front, where they showed 
us films and where we held a discussion on the war in Vietnam. It 
was my feeling and the feeling of more than 61 — by the way, there 
were more than 61 people signed that statement as far as I remember, 
but it was our feeling that it was necessary to extend to the people 
of South Vietnam our feeling that they had the right to self-determina- 
tion and that the U.S. Government was wasting American lives and 
American money. 

In addition, the U.S. Government was isolating the people of the 
United States from all people all over the world through its rotten 
practices in this war, not only in waging the war, but in waging it in 
an extraordinarily vicious way by the use of capital poisons, by the 
use of gases. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is not being responsive to the question 
asked by counsel. Let us proceed. Let us proceed to the next ques- 
tion. You are up on the soapbox again. 

Mr. Johansen. Was the answer "yes" or "no" to the question ? 

Mr. Lemansky. The answer was that this statement was written 
at the initiation of members of our own group because we condemn 
what the United States is doing in Vietnam. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2095 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed to the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Lemansky, you made reference to the viewing 

of a film on a visit to the delegation in Cuba described as the South 
Vietnamese National Liberation Front. 

That was in fact an agency of the Communist North Vietnamese, 
was it not ? 

Mr. Lemansky. What proof do you have of that? I think it was 
an agency of the people of South Vietnam. I would say that almost 
all of the people of South Vietnam are supporters of that movement, 
and I would be glad to accompany any Congressman to South Viet- 
nam to check that out, and also to North Vietnam. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will please cease. Let's have some order 
in these hearings. 

Propound your question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. There was testimony last year before us that the student 
group was invited to view a film shown under the sponsorship of the 
bouth Vietnamese National Liberation Front. The film included 
scenes showing an American pilot shot down. 

Mr. Lemansky. Well 

Mr. Nittle. Just a moment. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Hoffman, a witness before this committee, testified 
that at this point the student travelers cheered. Now was your group 
shown the same film in the course of your visit this summer ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, we didn't see any American pilot being 
shot down. We saw a film which showed what was referred to as an 
American plane being shot down, but it might have been a Cuban 
counterrevolutionary flight again as they fly planes for the United 
States in South Vietnam and the Congo. 

Mr. Nittle. The question is, Did you cheer when the American 
plane was shot down ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Me or somebody else? You want to know if I 
cheered ? 

Mr. Ichord. The question is, Did you cheer ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, "you" can be singular or plural. Do you 
mean did I cheer or did others cheer ? 

Mr. Ichord. The question is, Did you cheer ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I oppose the United States' participation in 
the war in Cuba because 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. — because it means that Americans are dying. 

Mr. Ichord. I ask you to answer the question. 

Ask the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am answering it. I cheered. 

Air. Ichord. All right. Proceed. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Lemansky, prior to your travel to Cuba in 
the summer of this year, could you tell us whether you saw the same 
film in the United States? 

Mr. Lemansky. Had I seen that same film prior to going to Cuba ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. 

Mr. Lemansky. This is the film that 

Mr. Nittle. Showing the American plane shot down. 



2096 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Lemansky. And the burning of Vietnamese villages, is that the 
one? 

Mr. Nittle. I think we have described the film as showing an Amer- 
ican plane shot down. 

Mr. Lemansky. I said before I saw a film. The one we saw in Cuba 
went on for maybe a half hour, 45 minutes. I want to make sure that 
is the right one. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. 

Mr. Lemansky. I saw the film before I went to Cuba. I saw a film 
before I 

Mr. Ichord. Ask the next question. 

Mr. Lemansky. Do you wish me not to answer this one? You 
asked it. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is not trying to answer the question, I 
think that is evident. 

Proceed with the next question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I object to that and I want it in the record that I 
am attempting to answer the question. 

Mr. Ichord. The reporter is taking down every word. 

Proceed with the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Now it is our information that this film which was 
shown to the student group in the summer of 1963 was returned to the 
United States by a member of the Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba and shown here in the United States at various places. Do you 
have any knowledge of that fact? 

Mr. Lemansky. I heard that alleged fact before. Now if we are 
talking about the same film, then I do not know who brought the 
film in. That is all. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. In the course of the hearings on the subject pf Cuban 
travel, we received testimony that the first group of student travelers 
recruited by the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba 
in the summer of 1963, as a part of their official tour of Cuba, were 
invited to visit and did visit the Red Chinese Embassy, at which an 
invitation was extended for members of the student group to visit 
Communist China. 

Did your group likewise visit the Chinese Embassy as a part of its 
official tour ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Now you asked me two questions. 

Mr. Ichord. Now, Mr. Witness, that is a very clear question. 

Mr. Lemansky. He asked me two questions. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Gollobin. I object. He had not said one word when you in- 
terrupted him. 

Mr. Ichord. He started over on the usual harangue. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2097 

M r. Lemansky. I ask the record to be read back. 

Mr. Ichord. Read the question to the witness again, Madame Re- 
porter. 

Mr. Lemansky. And my attempted answer. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Joiiaxsex. I suggest the question is what the chairman in- 
structed the reporter to read and that is all. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. We visited the Chinese Embassy in Havana. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has answered the question. Proceed with 
the next question, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Following your return from Cuba and upon arrival at 
the Kennedy International Airport on August 14, a press conference 
was held by the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba under the 
chairmanship of Phillip Abbott Luce who, having previously intro- 
duced you as the spokesman for the group returning from Cuba, de- 
clared : 

We are bow preparing and making plans to send delegations to all of the 
so-called forbidden countries: Albania, North Korea, North Vietnam, and espe- 
cially China, and that we very strongly hone to send a group not only to Ciiba 
but certainly hopefully to China, and North Vietnam and, if possible, North 
Korea and Albania, all in one year. 

Now, the question I would like to ask in the light of this situation 
is: Did you have occasion while in Cuba to have any discussion with 
representatives of the Chinese Embassy regarding such plans ? 

Mr. Lemansky. The statement that you quoted, was that me or 
Phillip you are quoting ? 

Air. Nittle. The statement by Phillip Luce in your presence. 

Air. Lemansky. Now as to this question, I took part in no formal 
discussion with representatives of the Chinese Government in Cuba. 
Now as I recall while we were at the Embassy, while our group was 
there, there were all of us and the Chinese basketball team and the 
Embassy staff. There was some talk of the possibility of young 
Americans visiting China. That talk always comes up, because it is 
absolutely in the interest of the American people to know what is 
happening in China just as it is in the interest of the American people 
to know what is happening in Cuba, Albania, North Vietnam, and 
North Korea. 

These countries are forbidden to us, according to the State Depart- 
ment and according to you gentlemen. 

Mr. Nittle. The question is : Did you have any discussion with the 
Chinese Embassy regarding such plans for travel in the countries of 
Albania, North Korea, North Vietnam? 

Air. Lemansky. I would not talk with the Chinese about traveling 
to Albania. 



40-013— 65— pt. 5- 



2098 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you ? 

Mr. Lemansky. They don't ever want Albania. 

Mr. Ichord. Did the witness talk to them or not ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I am sorry, I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Ichord. Did you talk to them or not ? 

I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I said there was some discussion. 

Mr. Nittle. Now the next question I would like to ask you is 
whether the representatives of the Chinese Embassy made any offer 
to assume travel expenses of students who desired to go there? 

Mr. Lemansky. They never made any such offer to me. You 
know 

Mr. Xittle. That is the answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. You are here trying to make out 

Mr. Ichord. That is a sufficient answer. 

Proceed with the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Xittle. Mr. Lemansky, I hand you a copy of a statement cap- 
tioned "We the undersigned" marked for identification as "Lemansky 
Exhibit No. 7." This appeared on May 28, 1964, as a large paid ad- 
vertisement in the New York Herald Tribune. 

The statement reads in part as follows : 

We the undersigned * * * object to being asked to support the war in South 
Vietnam. 

Believing that the United States participation in that war is for the suppres- 
sion of the Vietnamese struggle for national independence, we see no justifica- 
tion for our involvement. * * * 

Believing that we Should Not be asked to fight against the people of Vietnam, 
we herewith state our refusal to do so. 

Among the 150 signers of the statement appears that of "Edward 
Lemansky — N. Carolina." Are you the Edward Lemansky who ap- 
pears as one of the signers of this statement ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I guess Senator Wayne Morse does not count for 
much here, but he is quoted in that statement that you just read as say- 
ing we should never have gone in, we should never have gone in. I 
absolutely did sign that because I agree with it. 

(Document marked "Lemansky Exhibit No. 7" follows:) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



2099 



Lemansky Exhibit No. 7 



[New York Herald Tribune, May 28, 1964, p. 23] 




;:: v 



ndersigned 



&! YOUNG AMERICANS OF D£A*T AGE. We understand our obligations to de- 
fend <xir country end to serve in the arroe'd forces but we ob|ect to being asked 

to support the war in South Vietnam. 

ILifVrMu that United States participation in that war is for the suppression of 
the Vietnamese struggle for notional independence, ws see no justification for 

our involvement. We agree with Senator Wayne Morse, who soid on the floor of the 

Senate on March 4, 1964, regarding South Vietnom, that "We should n«v9r hove 

gooe in. Ws should never hove stayed in. We should get out." 

BELIEVING THAT WE SKOUL3 HOT Si ASKED TO FiGHT A&A6NST THE 
PEOPLE OF VIETNAM, Wl HEREWITH STATE OU* REFUSAL TO DO SO. 



K!m AK«n— Man. 
Vktor Alonao— V V 
Rofeart ApUr— N. Y. 
ReOert Aultr- Maaa 
Join R. kS. Austin — Conn 
Btrry 3afba — Oregon 
PeUr Barnett— Pm. 
L*e Basanoall— N. Y. 
Barnard Barman— Pa. 
Jaeab BarssBein— Maaa. 
Daca S. Billiar— Calif. 
Fi»g4. Blaehly— Pa. 
Harvay £!*s»a — N. Y. 
tlayfc-— i Boahne— Pa. 
Safari Bott— Pa. 
Jeff trigs*— Pa. 
Fraak Brcdhaad — Conn 
Larry Br^wnstain — Conn. 
Latosd BrueL — Gragon 
Casrlea Sachanan — N. J. 
Jefsce Boady— Pa. 
Rd-sard Campbell— Conn 
B. CauJiaotto— N. Y. 
Tacmat Christy— P». 
Etfxrart) "arlsty— Pa. 
Edwfrd Clark— Ky. 
Kewarta Hour!— Pa. 
J<rtn CoeUwer'.h — Wise. 
X. Covtan— N. Y 
Sarratere Cuechiori — N Y 
P»*tr Gamming*— N Y. 
fcirsrt D'Amato — Maaa. 
Berts ESavla— Pa. 
Janes Drlr.khaJl— Caiif. 
jtcmr Xaton — Pa. 
Rcsan Eiatalerg — Ps. 
J«ao K»»ll — Conn. 
Jaa Eyar— Pa. 
Da>id French Feingold— III 
Deugia* Ferguson — Calif 
Shannon Ferguson — Corn 
H. Quin Foreman — N. Y. 
PaUr H. Freeman— N. Y. 
Rohert Gallwoy — Fs 
Jama* Gzrahan— Pa 
Jsramtah Gellae— N. Y. 
Frank Ghlgo— Pa 
Aedrrw Goodmtn — N Y 
Marcus Gojdon — N". Y. 

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Alfred Hopfcine— N Y. 

Chns'-orber Horton — III 

Robert Hume — Pa 

Doofiaj irsle.:id — N. Y. 

l-Mice Jsckaen — Pa. 

John Jsroa — N. Y. 

DaTid Jetta— N. Y 

Jemea Johnaon — N. Y. 

Dan Kslb— N. Y. 

Harvey Kahn — Mass 

Martin Kannar— N Y. 

Clark Kissingar — Wise. 

Robert Klein — Pa. 

Richard Klir>g— 111. 

David Kotoen — Pa 

Levi Lk Laub— N. Y. 

f. Daniel Larkin— Pa. 

Carl Law* — -Maine 

Kdward Lemansky — N. Carolina 

Donald Leslie — Oregon 

William Levy — 111. 

■lamas Lewark. Jr. — Louisiana 

Virior Lippit— Conn. 

Kric Lob — Pa. 

Phillip Abfcott Loco— N. Y 

Sbeibournc Lyman — N. Y. 

Andrs* MacEmen — III. 

Albert Mtaar— Taxaa 

William lialandre — Pa 

David B. Martin — Calif 

Richard Mi". : n — Mass. 

Paul MattrcV, Jr.— Pa. 

Malvyn Maurer— N. Y. 

Robert V. Maxw.il— N. Y. 

Don McKelvey— N. Y. 

John Meeks — Pa. 

Alvin Mayer — N. J. 

Gerald Meyar— N. J. 

Paul Millar— Pa. 

Charlaa Milla-Pa 

Gaorja Mitchell — 111. 

James D. Moue — Wue. 

H D. Muller— N. Y. 

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David W. Piper— Pm. 
Robert A. P9t**r—Ky. 
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R M. Raoada— N. Y. 
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rharlaii Roaen— M. T. 
Jacob R^eas — Gaeecia 
Anthony Roanar — Pa. 
Jiffrey Rovan — N. Y. 
Ralph Sacka— Wlae. 
Michael Saabarf— H. Y. 
V.TK SchuU— N. Y. 
Larry Seigle^ — Minn 
Jeffrey Shero — Texaa 
Joel A. Snufio— III 
Charles M Smlta— TaxM 
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WilllgK Tabb— Wise. 
Rogar Taua— N. Y. 
John i. Tho33«oa — M. Y. 
Frank T a—p a — Orasjrjn 
Mark Ttikmum— N. Y. 
Jack Traarpattar— N. Y. 
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Richard Van Brunt — Pa- 
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<'harl»s Weinataln — Maaa. 
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21 P roDK 



2100 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. I direct the witness to cease. 

Mr. Lemansky. Doesn't Wayne Morse have any rights here either? 
This is what he said on the floor of Congress. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Lemansky. He is right, we never should have gone in. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Lemansky Exhibit No. 7 in 
evidence. 

Mr. Lemansky. You forgot this one. It is a critical part of the 
evidence. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Thank you. 

And likewise Lemansky Exhibit No. 6. 

Mr. Ichord. Without objection they will be admitted into evidence. 

Mr. Ntttle. Now Mr. Lemansky, did you participate in the prepara- 
tion or circulation of the statement in Exhibit 7 which appeared in the 
New York Herald Tribune? 

Mr. Lemansky. I circulated this statement on many instances, at- 
tempting to get as many people as possible to sign it, because I feel that 
a very large number of American people are against this war and that 
fact is not known. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. You gentlemen and the Government of the United 
States want to make out as if it is a crackpot minority group that is 
opposed to war, whereas this war is against the interest of all of us. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Exhibit 7, the statement just exhibited to you, requests 
contributions to help defray the costs of the ad and states that all 
checks should be made payable to Phillip Abbott Luce, who is noted as 
treasurer of the Ad Hoc Committee. 

Mr. Lemansky. On war in Vietnam. 

Mr. Nittle. Just a moment please. Also included in the list of 
signers are Charles Buchanan, John Coatsworth, Salvatore Cucchiari, 
Levi Lee Laub, Albert Maher, Martin Nicolaus, Theodore A. Ostrow, 
Roger Tans, and Mark Tishman, all of whom made the trip to Cuba 
in the summer of 19615 in defiance of the regulations restricting travel 
to Cuba. 

Also included among the signers are Anthony Murad, who traveled to 
Cuba this summer with your group, and Jacob Rosen, who is a member 
of the Progressive Labor Movement and the brother of Milton Rosen, 
its chairman, and including Hugh Foreman. 

Now would you tell us, please, whether the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment participated in the creation of the "Ad Hoc Committee," which 
circulated this statement and of which Phillip Luce is the treasurer? 

Mr. Ichord. Does the witness understand the question ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes. Well, as far as I know, other members of the 
Progressive Labor Movement did circulate the petition, as did many 
many other people, because we are against the war, we think it is a 
waste of American money, waste of American lives, that in fact this 
war is being 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Lemansky. The problems that confront them as to housing- 



Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, do you have knowledge whether the 
Ad Hoc Committee also received support from the orthodox Com- 
munist Party in the preparation, dissemination, or financing of this 
statement for publication ? 



tPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2101 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, 1 have no such knowledge. 

Mr. Ntttle. Now, Air. Lemansky, the North Vietnam radio [Radio 
Hanoi] in English, on -Juno 23, 1964 — a broadcast from Hanoi — 
slated that a group of students called the Afro-American Students 
Organization, who were visiting Cuba, issued a statement which was 
handed to the permanent delegation of the South Vietnam National 
Liberal ion Front in the Cuban capital on June 17. 

According to the Hanoi, North Vietnam, report, this statement 
handed by the student group to the South Vietnam delegation said: 

As we live in the heart of U.S. imperialism and colonialism, and racism, we 
have clearly seen that U.S. democracy is the greatest deception in history. That 
is why we support the national liberation movements of our brothers in Asia, 
Africa, and Latin America. We support all that U.S. imperialism opposes, and 
oppose all that it supports. It is necessary to thoroughly and completely annihi- 
late U.S. imperialism. 

This so-called Afro-American Students Organization was actually 
composed of members of the 80-odd students who visited Cuba, of 
which you were the leader ; is that not true ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lemansky. Could you repeat that harangue of a question ? 

Mr. Ichord. Will the reporter read the question back to the witness? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lemansky. That statement that you read condemns American 
racism and imperialism and colonialism. 

Mr. Nittle. I will ask you 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Witness, the statement speaks for itself. I direct 
you to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I never saw that statement. Therefore, it is 
a little bit difficult for me to say 

Mr. Nittle. Now, the question is 

Mr. Lemansky. — who wrote it. 

Mr. Nittle. The question is whether a group known as the Afro- 
American Students Organization were members of your group of 
travelers ? 

Mr. Lemansky. There were Afro-Americans on the trip. I am not 
one, but — and the phrase "Association of Afro-American Students" 
was often used, but, to my knowledge, there was no such organization 
with that title. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you aware of a statement being presented by mem- 
bers of your group to the South Vietnam National Liberation Front 
on June 17? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, you have to tell me — is that this same state- 
ment? 

Mr. Nittle. That's right, 

Mr. Lemansky. Oh, as I said, I have never seen that statement, and 
I don't know when it was presented, or if it was presented. 

Now, you might ask other members of the group if — you seem to 
have some idea about who wrote it — and I would suggest that you ask 
them. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. 

Next question, Mr. Counsel. 



2102 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. Radio Hanoi further reported that Robert Williams 
was touring Cuba, together with the said students, referring to the 
Afro-American Students Organization. 

Now, did Robert Williams accompany your student group, or any 
part of it, in a tour of Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Robert Williams lives in Havana, and he visited 
the group on a number of occasions in Havana. As far as I know, he 
never traveled with the group, and he certainly was not part of the 
official delegation, although I would say that many members of our 
group believed that Williams was absolutely correct when he said that 
because of the policies of the American 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. They absolutely must defend themselves against 
these attacks. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Counsel. 

Air. Xittle. Mr. Lemansky, prior to 3 T our travel to Cuba, were you 
aware that arrangements had been made for contact between Robert 
Williams and your group? 

Mr. Lemansky. Could you repeat that, please ? 

Mr. Xittle. Prior to your travel to Cuba, were you aware that 
arangements had been made for contact between Robert Williams and 
your group on arrival in Cuba ? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. What sort of arrangement is necessary? He got 
in his car, and he drove over to the hotel. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

That is not responsive. 

Mr. Lemansky. I was not aware of any particular arrangements 
that were being made, although I was convinced that we would have 
the opportunity to meet and discuss issues with Mr. Williams. He 
has a lot of very good things to say about this country, a lot of very 
accurate and correct things. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I have before me a copy of the March 1964 
issue of a monthly publication printed in Switzerland, titled Revolu- 
tion* preceded by the description Africa Latin America Asia. I hand 
you a copy of that issue. 

Are you familiar with that publication? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lemaxsky. What date did you say that was ? 

Mr. Nittle. March. 

Mr. Ichord. The question was: Are you familiar with the publica- 
tion, Mr. Lemansky? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I am looking at it. 

Air. Nittle. I am asking you generally whether you are familiar 
with a publication called Revolution? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Oh, yes. I have seen it many times, in many places. 
It has an awful lot of very valuable information on the way the 
United States is arming the Portuguese and repressing the revolution- 
ary movements in Angola, and those who 

Mr. Ichord. Answer the question, please. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. They are fighting for their rights. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I desire to mark the cover page and 
the inside cover page of this March 1964 issue of Revolution as "Le- 
mansky Exhibit 8," and offer it in evidence. 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



2103 



Mr. Lemansky. That is the one that says "End of Empire" on it ; 
right ? 

Mr. I( - 1 1 ord. Let there be order. 

Mr. Nittle. May I also state. Mr. Chairman, that this magazine, 
Revolution, is recognized as the voice of the extremely revolutionary 
and violent Communists of the world, the voice of Peking, as con- 
trasted with that of Moscow. 

Mr. Ichord. Without objection, the exhibit will be admitted into 
evidence. 

(Document marked "Lemansky Exhibit No. 8" follows:) 

Lemansky Exhibit No. S 
sumwtr 




V| 



■Wl 



: 



The En 




of onpire 




A#*e« s g shiiilftg 



2104 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Lemansky Exhibit No. 8 — Continued 




Incorporating "African Revolution" 



DIRECTOR : 

J. M. Verges 



EDITORIAL BOARD : 

A. R. Mohammed Babu (Zanzibar) Richard Gibson (U.S.A.) 

Maulana A. H. K. Bhashani (Pakistan) Nguyen Kien (Vietnam) 

Amilcar Cabrera (Venezuela) Hassan Riad (U.A.R.) 

Demba Diallo (Mali) Castro da Silva (Angola) 

Martin Valdes (Spain) 

BUREAUX : 

Brazil - Jurema Finamour, Avenida Vieira Souto 86, Ipanema, 

Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara 
Britain - 4, Leigh Street, London, W.C. 1 ; tel. : EUS 9163 
China - A. M. Kheir, 9 Tai Chi Chang, Peking; distribution: Guozi Shudian, 

P.O. Box 399, Peking (37) 
Cuba - Generai Suarez entre Ayestaran y Caizada de Rancho Boyeros, 

Havana; tei. : 70-5591, 92 & 93 
Maii - B.P. 367, Bamako 

Nigeria - F.E.I. Imokhai, 309 Awolowo Hall, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 
Tanganyika - Jweli Mgogo, P.O. Box 9221, Dar-es-Salaam 
U.S.A. - Room 603A, 1 Union Square, New York, N.Y., 10003 
Zanzibar - P.O. Bex 1146, Zanzibar 

All enquiries concerning REVOLUTION, subscriptions, distribution and advertising 
should be addressed to : 

REVOLUTION: 

40, rue Francois ler 
Paris 8e, France 

Tel. : ELY 66-44 

Subscriptions (12 issues per year) : 

Africa : 24 shillings - Europe : 40 shillings or 26 francs - North America : S6 
See subscription blank en page 144 

PHOTOS CREDITS : The majority of photos accompanying "The End of Empire", pp. 5-19 are taken from 
he film Sucre Amer, photography by Yan Masson Paul Poppar Ltd pp. 25, 27 ; Henri Cartior-Bresson 
(Magnum) p. 41 ; Magnum p. 52; John Taylor pp. 111, 116; Holmes p. 123. Drawings by Sine and Strelkoff 

Cover Photo : Demonstration in Reunion (frcm the film "Sucre Amer" 

© 1964 Nourelles Editions Internationales 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Xittle. Now, Mr. Lemansky, in this March 1961 issue of Revo- 
lution. Robert F. Williams contributed an article commencing at page 
109, titled ''U.S.A. : Revolution Without Violence C 

Mr. Lemansky. That is a good question. 

Mr. Xittle. And it will be interesting to see what he says in this 
article. Mr. Williams emphasizes what he describes as the new con- 
cept of revolution. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2105 

Mt.Lemansky. What pageareyou reading? 
Mr. Nittle. The article commences al page L09. 
Mr. Lemansky. Where is that quote? 
Mr. Nittle. 1 think it is marked with a clip. 

Mr. Lemansky. There is something that says "A cancerous sore re- 
quires a serious physical operation." 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute, and we will try to get the question. 
Mr. Nittle. I now quote from the article. 
Mr. Lemansky. It is in bold face, on page 115. 
Mr. Nittle [reading] : 

The new concepl of revolution defies military science and tactics. The new 
concept is lightning campaigns conducted in highly sensitive urban communities 
with the paralysis reaching the small communities and spreading to the farm 
areas. The old method of guerrilla warfare, as carried out from the hills and 
countryside, would he ineffective in a powerful country like the U.S.A. Any 
such force would be wiped out in an hour. The new concept is to huddle as 
close to the enemy as possible so as to neutralize his modern and fierce weapons. 
The new concept creates conditions that involve the total community, whether 
they want to be involved or not. It sustains a state of confusion and destruction 
of property. It dislocates the organs of harmony and order and reduces central 
power to the level of a helpless, sprawling, octopus. During the hours of day 
sporadic rioting takes place and massive sniping. Night brings all-out warfare, 
organized fighting and unlimited terror against the oppressor and his forces. 
Such a campaign will bring about an end to oppression and social injustice in 
the U.S.A. in less than 00 days * * *. 

Now, Mr. Lemansky, the question I want to pose to you is : To your 
knowledge, does the Progressive Labor Movement subscribe to this 
concept of revolutionary tactics? 

Mr. Lemansky. You left out that it says — 

and create the basis for the implementation of the U.S. Constitution with justice 
and equality for all people. 

Now, that is marked here. That is in bold face. Did you just forget 
it. or is it not important? 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Nittee. With that inclusion, and taking the statement in toto, 
does the Progressive Labor Movement subscribe to this concept of 
revolutionary tactics? 

Mr. Lemansky. I can't answer the question like that. 

If you want to know about what Robert Williams has to say, that's 
one thing; but you are asking me about the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment. 

Mr. Xittle. About the Progressive Labor Movement. 

Mr. Lemansky. And you could, if you wanted, quote to me from 
our publications, but I can't answer a question based on somebody 
else's writings. Robert Williams is speaking for himself. 

Mr. Ichord. I think we had better proceed to the next question, Mr. 
Counsel. It is very difficult for a witness to answer a question such 
as that, views expressed 

Mr. Lemansky. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. — views expressed by another writer. 

Mr. Joiiansen. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask the witness 
whether he subscribes to such a concept of revolutionary tactics with 
respect to the United States? 

Mr. Ichord. I think that is a proper question, Mr. Lemansky, and 
I would direct you to answer it. 



2106 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 

Mr. Lemansky. Throughout this article and in that statement, 
there are a number of points made. 

You want me to answer a question — remember, this statement comes 
right at the end of the article, and it is premised on many things, 
such as the violent repression which is 

Mr. Ichord. Does the witness say he agrees with some parts of it 
and disagrees with other parts of it? 

Mr. Lemansky. The witness is tiying to say that he has to have 
an opportunity to evaluate what is in here. If you gentlemen would 
like, I will sit here and read this article, and study it. Then maybe 
we can discuss it, but if you want me to discuss something that I 
haven't had a chance to really examine 

Mr. Ichord. I think, Mr. Counsel, that the witness should have an 
opportunity to examine a statement such as that. 

Mr. Lemansky. I want to read the whole article. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair has ruled that the witness does not have to 
answer the question, and at this time the Chair will declare a 10- 
minute recess. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Ichord. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Let there be order in the committee room. 

Proceed with the questioning, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. The gentleman from Michigan. 

Mr. Johansen. I should like to ask the witness with respect to the 
philosophy and the tactics that were described in the paragraph read 
just before the recess, whether he accepts them and regards them as 
justified, if he is convinced they serve the objectives to which he has 
indicated his commitment. 

Mr. Lemansky. Could you repeat the question slowly, so I can get 
the whole thing ? 

I think this is a very critical issue here. 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Reporter, read the question back to the witness. 

Mr. Lemansky. Slowly, if possible. 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. The gentleman from Michigan. 

Mr. Johansen. In response to that question, I ask for and insist 
upon a "yes-or-no" answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. Can I have the article? 

Air. Ichord. Does the witness wish to look at the paragraph ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I would like to see the article : yes. 

Air. Ichord. I think the witness should be entitled to look at the 
paragraph that was read by counsel to him. 

Air. Lemansky. Now, this is just a repeat of the question previously 
asked me, before the recess. As I said then, I haven't had a chance 
to look at the article carefully. 

Air. Johansen. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Lemansky. You want me 

Mr. Ichord. Let the Chair ask the witness. 

The Chair permitted the witness not to answer the question. It is 
my belief that it is a proper question. However, I don't think it is 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2107 

properly framed and, in the interest of expediting hearings, I did ski}) 
over the question. 

Have you had an opportunity now to read it and can you prop- 
erly 

Mr. Lemansky. I have 



Mr. Iciiord. Not to put words in the mouth of the witness. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have not had an opportunity to read the whole 
article just now. I would be very happy to go into these questions at 
length and in detail, but the asinine notion that such a question can be 
answered "yes" or "no" 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I ask for regular order. 

Mr. Ichord. Let's refrain from casting aspersions. 

Mr. Johansen. I state to the witness that there is here a specific de- 
scription of tactics. I have asked the question with respect to those 
tactics, and I insist on a "yes-or-no" answer. 

Mr. Lemansky. I think Mr. Johansen ought to be well aware that 
tactics derive from strategy and objectives, and to discuss tactics, one 
must first talk about objectives, such as the objective of eliminating 
poverty in this country. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will ask the witness : Do you subscribe to a 
part of it, and not subscribe to other parts of it ? 

Do you have difficulty in answering the question in any way ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I would need time to read the article. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Lemansky. If you want me to do that, I will sit here and study 
it and when I have satisfied myself that I understand the article, I 
will then answer your question. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Lemansky. If you would like me to get into a discussion of 
the sorts of tactics and strategies that I feel are necessary in this coun- 
try to establish real democracy, I would be glad to do that. There is 
no need to refer to this article. I would be glad to tell you 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Lemansky. 

Mr. Lemansky. — that unless the working people of this country 
unite and organize, that they will not eliminate unemployment, that 
they will not eliminate poverty, they will not eliminate the wretched 
housing conditions under which many of them live. 

Mr. Ichord. That is definitely not responsive to the question. 

Mr. Lemansky, have you read the article previously ? 

Mr. Senner. "Yes" or "no." 

Mr. Ichord. That can be answered, I think, "yes" or "no." 

Mr. Lemansky. No; I don't believe I have read this article previ- 
ously. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, the portion of the paragraph that 
was read to the witness, he has had an opportunity to reread, involves 
the use of methods of violence, of actual combat, and of infiltration. 

My question, as I phrased it, was whether or not to obtain whatever 
the objectives the witness is committed to, he accepts and would em- 
brace such tactics, such methods, and such principles, and that can be 
answered "} T es" or "no." 



2108 |PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Iciiord. I think that the witness would have to embrace all of 
them to answer "yes" or "no."' 

Mr. Johaxsex. All right, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. As I understand notions of violence and the use of 
violence, we have a whole history in this country where working people 
have been violently attacked, and have violently defended themselves. 

I support the use of violent defense when violently attacked. 

Now, if you want me to get into a discussion about specific tactics, 
and you want me to interpret Mr. Williams' views, I would want the 
opportunity to read them completely. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Let me, Mr. Chairman, ask now a completely dif- 
ferent question. 

Since the Avitness has indicated that he is willing to use what he 
describes as defensive violence to meet violence, I will ask the wit- 
ness whether he advocates, and is willing to use, violence as the means, 
if necessary, to establish the objectives and purposes to which he is 
committed. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will have to rule that that is a proper ques- 
tion, and I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. When violence is used to deprive people of life, 
liberty, the pursuit of happiness, when violence is used to maintain 
people in a state of degradation, when violence is used to exploit peo- 
ple, as it is in this country, when the police of this country seem to 
feel that any Negro on any street in any city in any State of this coun- 
try are fair game, when the police are used to break strikes, violently, 
in the interest of 

Mr. Sexxer. Excuse me, Mr. Witness. I am going to interrupt 
you for a minute. 

Now, are you including Miami, Arizona ? Are you including every 
town, every city, in this country ? Are you including my home town ? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. What's your home town ? 

Mr. Sexxer. Miami, Arizona. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Miami, Arizona. 

Mr. Sexxer. Yes. 

Now, you just made a statement, every town, every city in this 
country. 

Now, I am asking you about my home town, where I was born and 
raised. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I can tell you about my home town, if you would 
like to hear about Harlem or Bedford-Stuy vesant. 

Mr. Sexxer. Mr. Witness, you don't mean all home towns, do you ? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I don't know all of the rottenness and corruption 
that exists in the United States, so I don't know how much of it exists 
in your home town. 

Mr. Sexxer. You just made the statement that the police use bru- 
tality and violence in my home town, and I resent it. And I want to 
know if you have any proof of that statement when you include my 
home town. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Well, you are really picking at nits. 

Mr. Sexxer. No. I am just trying to tell you that you don't know 
what you are saying when you are telling these people here, when you 
use all home towns and cities and claim corruption and violence and 
brutality, and so forth. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2109 

Mr. Lemaxsky. "Would you like me to come to Miami, Arizona, and 
examine the books and records in that town ? 

Mr. Senner. No. 

Mr. Lkmaxsky. No: you don't want me to. I am aware of that. 
But I would like the opportunity to study Miami, Arizona, just as I 
have studied Cuba. 

Mr. [chord. The record will stand as made. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Now, Mr. Chairman, the witness, before my col- 
league raised the question — and a very proper question it was — the 
witness was saying- that when various and other alleged things occur, 
involving the use of force, and he didn't quite finish the sentence. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I was interrupted. 

Mr. Johaxsex. I said the gentleman was interrupted. 

Now, what is the conclusion of that sentence \ 

Mr. Lemaxsky. That when tyranny reigns, it is the right of people 
everywhere to defend themselves, and I believe that the founders of 
this Government were united in that belief. Now, if you wish to re- 
ject that, that's all right. But then if you do, you will have exposed 
yourself as not at all representative either of the American people or 
the best traditions of this country. 

Mr. Iciiord. The witness is out of order. 

Do you have another question? The gentleman from Michigan. 

Mr. Johaxsex. I have one other question, Mr. Chairman. 

Did you bring the students who visited Cuba, or where they to your 
knowledge brought, in contact with Williams in Cuba for the purpose 
of indoctrination in the use of force and violence, either under the 
circumstances you have attempted to describe or any other similar 
circumstances? I am referring to force and violence used or pro- 
posed to be used in the United States. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Robert Williams is a man against whom a good 
deal of force and violence was used. In fact, I lived in Robert Wil- 
liams' home town for a year, where I had described to me by numerous 
individuals, not only Negroes, with whom I was living, but even 
whites, who told me that the police of that city and of that State were 
coining into the Negro community of Monroe on August 27, 1961, with 
the express purpose of killing Robert Williams, shooting him down in 
his home or on the street. 

Now, Robert Williams is a man with much experience, having had 
violence directed against him, and, of course, he is not the only person 
in this country with that experience. I have been bitten myself by 
the Capitol Police, and I am fully aware of how many other people 
have experienced this in the past. 

Now, vou want to know about violence. Let me tell you a little bit 
about violence. Are you 

(At this point, Mr. Ichord left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Sexxer (presiding) . Will the witness suspend? 

There is a question. 

Mr. Johaxsex. I asked the witness to respond to the question. I 
didn't ask for a lecture. 

Mr. Sexxer. Now respond to the question, or we are going to the 
next question now, Mr. Witness. You can either 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I have no knowledge 

Mr. Sexxer. You can either answer the question 



2110 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I am answering. 

Mr. Sexxer. No, you are not. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. When I said I had no knowledge, that is my 
answer. 

Mr. Sexxer. Either answer the question or we will go to the next 
one. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I have no knowledge of any of the sorts of things 
that Mr. Johansen is talking about. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Mr. Chairman, I think that answers the question. 

I have one observation to make and that is, from the testimony of 
the witness on the record, it is clear that he believes that in circum- 
stances which are determined by him and by his organization, the use 
of force and violence to obtain their objectives is justified. 

That is all I have. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. It is your organization which uses violence, and, 
to the extent that my organization would ever use it, it would be used 
in defense against that organization that you are a member of. 

And I want it — it should be perfectly well understood that neither 
I — that I do not advocate the use of violence simply for its own sake. 
I abhor violence. The whole point of socialism, in fact, is to provide 
the basis for wiping out violence. Violence stems from the fact that 
people who own property absolutely must protect themselves against 
those who may exploit, and that they use violence to protect them- 
selves against those whom they have exploited. 

So, don't talk to me about the use of violence. Look in your own 
house. Judge yourself. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Sexxer. Yes. The Chair will recognize the Honorable Mr. 
Bruce from Indiana. 

Mr. Bruce. I would request that at this point the committee be 
permitted to insert into the record from the actual Marxist-Leninist 
writings, the Marxist-Leninist definition of violence. 

Mr. Sexxer. Let the record show 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Define it, please ; you seem to know so much about it. 

Mr. Sexxer. You be quiet. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Sorry. 

Mr. Sexxer. Let the record show that unless there is an objection 
from this committee, it will be received in evidence and made a part 
of the record. 1 

Mr. Lemaxsky. What is that evidence that you were just inserting 
in the record that I have no knowledge of ? What is this principle of 
violence that you refer to ? 

Mr. Sexxer. You will suspend, Mr. Witness, and I am going to 
admonish you that unless you do, and you start following the 
rules of procedure and orderly conduct here, that there can be some 
ramifications and repercussions that will flow. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Yes; for you. You were inserting into the record 
things of which I have no knowledge. I object to that very vigorously. 

Mr. Sexxer. I ask you to suspend. I ask you to suspend. 



1 Because of the length of the material compiled by the committee staff in compliance 
with Mr. Bruce's request, he subsequently agreed to its being published as a separate 
document. 



iPKO-CASTKO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2111 

Do you believe, when the time is right, and in the communistic 
theory, in the violent overthrow of this Government? "Yes" or "no"? 

(At this point Mr. Ichord returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Ichord. Does the witness understand the quest ion '. 

Mr. Lemansky. Abraham Lincoln once said that when the Amer- 
ican people grow weary of their form of government, they have a 
right to change it. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, in view of the fact that this does not 
answer my question, I want 

Mr. 1 chord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. You refer to "when the time is right"? Is that 
correct \ 

Mr. Senner. You know what that means, too, don't you ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Yes; and I want to explain to you what it means. 

Mr. Senner. I don't need the explanation. I just want an answer 
to my question. 

Air. Ichord. I direct the witness for the last time to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Lemansky. "When the times are ripe — that is, when the heavy- 
handed repression of the tyrannical Government grows so great that 
the American people are no longer free to exercise their rights and 
freedoms guaranteed to them under the Constitution, when violence 
is used against them, they have every right in the world to respond 
with violence. 

Mr. Ichord. You think that time is ripe, now ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I have been beaten up. Not you. Morton Slater 
was 1 >eaten up yesterday, not you. No member of the Government 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, if he doesn't answer my question, I 
want to go to the next one. 

Mr. Lemansky. I answered it. 

Mr. Senner. You did not. Then the answer is "yes"? Is the 
answer "yes" ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Would you like me to repeat the answer, or would 
you have the reporter repeat it ? I answered it. 

Mr. Senner. What was your answer, "yes" or "no" ? 

Mr. Lemansky. I answered that when the times are ripe, meaning 
that when the government engages in violent repression against people 
exercising their rights, just as the Government does throughout this 
country, then they have every — the people of this country have every 
right to defend themselves. They have every right to defend them- 
selves with the use of violence. 

Air. Ichord. Mr. Lemansky, you have testified that you thought 
your Government was oppressive many times today. Do you think 
that the time is ripe now? 

Mr. Lemansky. I already answered. 

Mr. Ichord. All right, proceed with the next question, then. 

Mr. Lemansky. I said that it is not you or anybody else in the 
committee who is being abused and beaten up. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. Do you have any further 
questions ? 

Air. Nittle. Mr. Lemansky, spokesmen for the Student Commit- 
tee for Travel to Cuba have repeatedly stated that your group traveled 
to Cuba upon an invitation extended by the Cuban Federation of 



2112 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

University Students, and that they would pay all the bills. Were the 
expenses paid by the Cuban Federation of University Students? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lemansky. To the best of my knowledge, these expenses were 
paid by the Federation of University Students of Cuba, because they 
felt on that it was important that we see what was happening in 
Cuba. 

Air. Nettle. I am not asking- for the reason at this time. Simply, 
were they paid 

Mr. Lemansky. I answered that. 

Mr. Nittle. ■ — by that organization ? 

Mr. Lemansky. To the best of my knowledge, the expenses were 
met by the Federation of University Students of Cuba. 

Mr. Nittle. Was the Cuban Federation of University Students 
an agency of the Cuban Government ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, it is an agency of the Cuban people, and the 
Cuban Government and the Cuban people are very closely united. 
Much more so than in this country, where the Government separates 
itself from the people and is divorced from the people. This Gov- 
ernment represents those who are wealthy, those who have a great 
deal of property. 

Mr. Iciiord. That is not responsive to the question. The witness 
will cease. 

Mr. Lemansky. Now as far as the official formal relation, I do not 
know exactly what the relationship of the 

Mr. Iciiord. That is the last time. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am answering. 



'.— • 



Mr. Iciiord. It is not an answer to the question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I do not know exactly what the relationship of the 
Federation of University Students is to the Cuban Government. 

Mr. Iciiord. Thank you. 

Mr. Lemansky. That is, to the ministries which carry out the 
policies of building housing for the Cuban people and providing de- 
cent jobs for them. 

Mr. Ichord. That is a sufficient answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Lemansky, the committee's investigation 
revealed that a sum in excess of $46,000, in denominations of new $100 
bills, passed through the Central Bank of Mexico and was even- 
tually placed in the hands of Miss Yvonne Bond and Morton B. Slater 
to purchase tickets for a number of students who left New York City 
for Paris. Do you know who delivered the money to Miss Bond and 
Morton B. Slater? 

Mr. Lemansky. I do not know that the money was delivered 
to Morton B. Slater or Yvonne Bond. You have asserted that. 

Air. Ichord. That is a sufficient answer. The witness doesn't know. 
Proceed to the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Air. Nittle. From what source did you receive funds to purchase 
your ticket for travel to Paris and thence to Prague ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Now, first of all, I am not going to answer that 
question, for the following reasons. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I ask the chairman to direct the 
witness to answer. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 



(PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2113 

Mr. Lemansky. I am raising objections to the question as grounds 
for refusal to answer. 

Mr. Ichord. State your objections. 

Mr. Lemansky. As I was about to raise these objections, raise these 
grounds, I was interrupted again. Xow 

Mr. Senner. State them by amendments, the numbers. We under- 
stand them, son. 

Mr. Lemansky. Son \ 

Mr. Senner. We understand them. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr Lemansky. Let me see. There's the first amendment, which 
says 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Lemansky. I think I have a right to state my ground for re- 
fusal to answer a question in my own words. I do not think the com- 
mittee has the right to put words into my mouth as they have been try- 
ing to do all day. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness may state sufficient grounds. 

Mr. Johansen. No one has put words in the witness 1 mouth, as he 
well knows. 

A Ir. Ichord. Proceed, Mr. Witness. 

Mr. Lemansky. Xow to get back where I was. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness for the last time to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Lemansky. I am now stating my ground for refusal to answer 
that question. First, I refuse to answer that question on the ground 
that Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress, 60 Statutes 812, Part 2, Rule 
XI, which authorizes this committee to make investigations of "un- 
American propaganda activities" 

Mr. Ichord. That objection is overruled. State your next. 

Mr. Lemansky. I have not even made the objection. I did not even 
complete a sentence. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, at the beginning, this witness asked 
that all his grounds would go to every question that he raised those 
grounds. Each and every one of them. Xow we know about the 
1st amendment, the 2d, and the 10th, and so forth and so on. Xow if 
you want to get to the fifth one, state it . 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Senner. All your grounds are there. We have granted you 
that. 

Mr. Lemansky. Okay, then you grant the first and sixth, and so 
on ; is that right ? 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair would advise the witness that he believes 
that the witness is just endeavoring to delay these proceedings. 

Air. Lemansky. You are delaying me. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair would advise the witness, if he is going to 
repeat objections, the 1st, 2d and 3d and 9th and 10th and all the 
other amendments that he cited — I believe two times before — the Chair 
would have to overrule those objections. The Supreme Court has 
held many times that those amendments are not sufficient grounds for 
the witness to refuse to answer a question propounded by this com- 
mittee. I direct the witness to answer the question for a final time. 

40-013— 65— pt. 5 10 



2114 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 

Mr. Lkmaxsky. Now as I have stated before, the provisions, clauses 
of the fifth amendment are designed to protect one against false 
accusation. Invoking my right to be protected from being falsely 
accused, I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Ichord. Objection is overruled, and I direct the witness to 
answer the question. You did not state the self-incrimination clause 
of the fifth amendment, If you want to state that, it will be a suffi- 
cient refusal to answer. I am not asking you to raise that objection, 
but you did not properly invoke the fifth amendment. 

All right. Proceed, Mr. Counsel, to the next question. 

Mr. Xittle. Mr. Chairman, that will conclude the staff interrogation 
of this witness. 

Mi-. Tciiord. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Bruce. I would like to ask a question. 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute, Mr. Witness, there is one more question 
to be propounded. 

Mr. Bruce, from Indiana, member of the full committee. 

Mr. Bkuce. I have just a couple of questions I would like to ask 
von. Mr. Lemanskv. While you were in Cuba, did you meet with 
Fidel Castro? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lemansky. Fidel Castro is an amazing man. 

Mr. Bruce. I am sure he is. Did you meet with him ? 

Mi-. Lemansky. I met with him, as well as lots of others of us. 
In fact 



Mr. Bri'Ce. That's enough. 

Mi-. Lemansky. We played a game of baseball with Fidel, because, 
you know, Fidel spends a lot of time with the Cuban people and with 
the ffuys, 

Mr. Ichord. Don't go off on side excursions. That answers the 
question sufficiently. Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Brfce. As I have listened to vour testimony this morning and 
this afternoon, I have gained the distinct impression that you sin- 
cerely feel that the Castro-led revolution in Cuba was a good thins:. 
Ts that correct ? That doesn't call for a speech. Just do you really 
feel that way ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lemansky. I think the Cuban revolution is a good thing, not 
only for the people of Cuba, but for the people of the United States, 
because they have shown us a way in which rotten housing, racism, 
war, can be eliminated, and these are things that are on 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. The question 
has been answered. 

Mr. Bruce. I thank you for the answer. You did answer the 
question. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. Xow in these discussions with Fidel Castro and/or 
other representatives of the Cuban Government, believing as I have 
understood you to say in the need for some revolutionary changes in 
certain areas of the world, including the United States, did you feel 
that your meeting with him as an American citizen, in conjunction 
with other American citizens, would serve to give him encouragement 
to continue in the avenue of the revolution? 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2115 

Mr. Lemanskt. Well, I don't really think that Fidel Castro needs 
encouragement from us. The Cuban people certainly give him plenty 
of encouragement, and he in turn gives them plenty of encourage- 
ment, to finally have a government which really represents them, it is 
the most encouraging thing in the world, it is something we could 
use in this country. 

M r. I Jruce. Well, on that point, in your meeting with them, did you 
not feel that being part of a revolutionary movement — as you have 
slated. I believe, that you are — that having a group of American citi- 
zens go to Cuba and see for themselves, would serve a salutary pur- 
pose as far as the Cuban revolution was concerned? 

Mr. Lemansky. You know, we pay very high taxes in this country, 
and I am sure the tax money could be better spent in this way. 

Xow, as to the question of whether or not this encouraged or had a 
salutary effect on the revolutionary Government of Cuba, the truth 
always has a salutary effect on the righteous. Always. Everywhere. 

Mr. Bruce. All right, let's take that answer. You believe that 
Castro, in this case, is the righteous one. Is that correct? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I believe that what is righteous is the cause of the 
American people knowing the truth about what is happening in Cuba 
and about what the American Government is doing relative to what is 
happening in Cuba. That's what is righteous. 

Mr. Bruce. And this 

Mr. Lemax*sky. And since the Cuban Government, in its 514 years 
of existence, has developed methods for the elimination of many of 
the evils that exist in this country, such as vicious racist practices on 
the part of the Government, such as driving the American people into 
wars, using their tax money to bomb and destroy people all over the 
world, only in the interests of the wealthy, since the Cuban Govern- 
ment has developed, begun to develop a system to eliminate that kind 
of garbage, for the American people to know about it will have a 
salutary effect on the American people, that, we will know that it is 
possible to live, and not lead this alienated existence that 3^011 are at- 
tempting to force on us. 

Mr. Bruce. As I interpreted or listened to your testimony regarding 
your feelings toward speaking to the Cuban people and in your con- 
versations with Fidel Castro. Is that correct ? You were expressing 
this viewpoint? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I am not sure I follow the question. 

Mr. Bruce. In your conversation with Fidel Castro 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Well, I didn't actually talk with him. It was a 
baseball game. 

Mr. Bruce. You didn't talk with him at all ? 

Mr. Lemansky. No. 

Mr. Bruce. Did you talk to "Che" Guevara ? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Our group had a meeting with "Che." I believe 
I asked some questions. 

Mr. Bruce. In the course of the meeting with "Che" Guevara, did 
you express your sentiments of the correctness of their position in this 
world struggle? 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Did I ? 

Mr. Bruce. Yes. 

Mr. Lemanskt. I don't honestly recall just what I said. 



2116 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Bruce. Did the group ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Now it happens to be a fact that I believe there is 
a great deal the American people can learn about the Cuban revolution 
that is of benefit to them. 

Mr. Bruce. Mr. Chairman, that is not answering the question. In 
your conversations with "Che" Guevara, in the question-and-answer 
session, as it were, was the expression of the group, you included, that 
you favored the Cuban policy? 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I don't recall if I said it there, but I am per- 
fectly willing to tell you right here that I feel 

Mr. Bruce. I am asking you. 

Mr. Lemansky. I don't recall what I said there, but if you are 
interested in what I think about the Cuban revolution, I am prepared 
to tell you. 

Mr. Ichord. I think you told us that many, many times today, Mr. 
Lemansky. 

Mr. Bruce. I asked 

Mr. Lkmansky. He wants to know if I expressed that opinion there. 
I said I don't recall, but surely the main interest is in what I believe 
right now, this minute ? 

Mr. Bruce. Well, in all of these statements that have been inserted 
into the record of articles, including statements made by you and 
other members of the group that traveled to Cuba, you were flowing 
in your praise of the so-called Cuban revolution. 

Mr. Lemansky. Any honest person would be. 

Mr. Bruce. All right. All I am simply asking you is : While you 
were there, did you express your admiration to the Cuban Govern- 
ment I 

Air. Lemansky. During the 2 months that I was in Cuba, you 
mean ? . Or during the meeting with k 'Che"? 

Mr. Bruce. To representatives of the Cuban Government. That 
is simple enough. 

Mr. Lemansky. Oh, I am sure that on numerous occasions I ex- 
pressed the opinion to all kinds of people, and I am sure that included 
members of the government. That the ending of the American-backed 
tyranny of Cuba was a tremendously beneficial thing for the people 
of Cuba, and that the beginning 

Mr. Bruce. I 

Mr. Lemansky. — of the construction of socialism, whereby the 
evils which the United States Government had perpetrated in Cuba 
would be eliminated, that this positive 

Mr. Bruce. In other words 

Air. Lemansky. — and I further expressed the thought that, in the 
United States, what is needed to maintain the interests of the over- 
whelming majority of the people is a government which really repre- 
sents the American workers, which instead of passing laws and using 
the courts, for example, to enable railroad bosses to lay off thousands 
of railroad workers 

Mr. Bruce. Let me interrupt just a second. 

Mr. Lemansky. — that the jobs of railroad workers are protected, 
and that men who are trying to earn an honest living actually be al- 
lowed to do that, rather than being thrown in the streets. 

Mr. Bruce. Now this is what you expressed to the Cubans, includ- 
ing members of the government ? 



.PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2117 

Mr. Li.manskv. Sure. 1 am expressing it now to (lie members of 
i lie American Government. 

Mr. Bruce. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman, but 1 would 
like to have inserted into the record the Logan Act, 18 U.S.C. 953, 
which I shall read. 

Any citizen of the United Stales, wherever lie may lie, who. without authority 
Of the United States, directly or indirectly commences or carries on any corre- 
spondence or intercourse with any foreign government or any officer or agent 
thereof, with intent to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign govern- 
ment or of any officer or agent thereof, in relation to any disputes or con- 
troversies with (he United States. ::: * * shall lie lined not more than $5,000 or 
imprisoned not more than three years, or both. 

I have no further questions. 

Mr. Lemansky. And this, of course, is a hearing, not a trial. 

Mr. IcnoRD. That is not a matter for this 

Mr. Lemansky. For my comments. 

Mr. Iciiord. That is a matter for the courts. Do you have any fur- 
ther questions, sir '. 

Mr. Sexxer. Yes, I have just a couple. As I understand it, you 
terminated your employment in the Veterans' Administration in April 
or May of 1963 ? 

Mr. Lemansky. Did you say "terminated" ? 

Mr. Sexxer. "Terminated." 

Mr. Lem axsky. It was in May. 

Mr. Sexxer. And I think you further told the committee that you 
have not been employed since. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. I believe that's what I said. 

Mr. Sexxer. Now, I am going to ask you this question. Where did 
you get your sources of income for your rather extensive travel, your 
subsistence, maintenance, both in Monroe, Jackson, and 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Monroe, what ? 

Mr. Sexxer. I mean, Monroe, Mississippi. 

Mr. Lemaxsky. No, no; you have got it very confused. It is Mon- 
roe, North Carolina. I know that they are all alike, but 

Mr. Sexxer. Pardon me. And your further travel to Cuba. Where 
do you get your sources of income and expenses, money for that ? 

( Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lemaxsky. Now I have stated a variety of reasons for — a va- 
riety of grounds for declining to answer. Surely such a question ob- 
viously has no legislative purpose. If you could tell me what that 
purpose is, I would be interested, but I can't see any. 

Mr. Sexxer. To know whether or not you are getting money from 
foreign governments, that's what I would like to know, and particu- 
larly if it is a Communist foreign government. 

Air. Lemaxsky. Now, that's something for the courts, not for you, 
is it; or are you a judge now? You have been already prosecutor 

Mr. Johaxsex. I suggest that the witness suspend. 

Mr. Ir ii< >rd. The witness is out of order. 

Are there any further questions of the witness? I think the witness 
has admitted receiving money from the Cuban Government for the 
purpose of making this trip. Now, are you asking the question as to 
where ? 



2118 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Senner. I asked him what were the sources of income for the 
rather extensive travel, his living, and subsistence, and so forth and so 
on, while he was making various visits in various States and countries. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has held employment, has he not ? 

Mr. Senner. He just testified he hasn't been employed for 2 years. 
I would like to know where he got 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, May 1963 is not 2 years ago. 

Mr. Senner. Well, 1 year. A year and a half. I want an answer to 
that question. 

Mr. Lemansky. Well, I have tried to state the objections that I 
raised to that question. The grounds for refusal to answer. Now I 
don't want to bore you gentlemen by reciting these again. Let it stand 
at the 1st, 6th, 9th, 10th, 14th, and finally, since this is the only one 
that — the only part of the Constitution that seems to have any meaning 
to you, I invoke all of my privileges under the 5th amendment, which 
protect me from being falsely accused. 

Mr. Ichord. That is sufficient refusal to answer. 

Mr. Senner. I have one more question. While in Cuba, as head of 
this student travel group, were you able to travel freely and visit any 
and all places that your group desired to do so, or were you conducted 
on a tour? 

Mr. Lemansky. Good Lord, we went everywhere. People went to 
the prisons — I didn't myself, but others did, I believe. We went to 
schools, to factories, to farms, to new housing projects. We went out 
in the streets, and we just talked to people on the streets. We went 
to bars and movies, we went to television studios, we went to govern- 
ment offices. We went everywhere that we wanted to go, with only 
one exception, and that exception was military installations. And 
surely, you recognize the right of the Cuban Government to defend 
itself against spying activities that are carried on in Cuba by the 
American Government. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. It is not responsive to the 
question. 

Mr. Senner. Then I take it that the only place they wouldn't let 
you go is to military installations ? Is that right ? 

Mr. Lemansky. That is right, but we went everywhere else, and 
talked with anybody we wanted to talk with. 

Mr. Senner. Did 3 T ou make a request to go see these military in- 
stallations? 

Mr. Lemansky. I did not. I am not a spy for 

Mr. Senner. Did anybody in the group make a request to see the 
military installations? 

Mr. Lemansky. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Ichord. Does the gentleman from Michigan have a question? 

Mr. Johansen. No, I have no question, but I wish to state for the 
record that, at the appropriate time, I shall ask the subcommittee 
and the full committee to transmit, or I shall recommend that they 
transmit, the transcript of this witness' testimony to the Department 
of Justice for a careful review to determine whether there is evidence 
in this testimony of violation of any Federal statutes. 

Mr. Lemansky. That, of course, is what you are about here. You 
are trying to develop information that belongs in the judicial branch 
of the Government 



dPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2119 

Air. Iciiokd. The witness will suspend. 

Mr. Lemansky. — and that was precisely the objection I raised 
here. You try to get people up here and then you attempt to gel 
from them information that belong properly to the judiciary. 

Air. Ichord. Let the record show that the witness fails to suspend. 
Those proceedings will be taken up by the committee for its con- 
sideration at a later date. 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Lemansky. Would you like to sit on the jury, too ? 

Mr. Iciiord. The witness is excused. 

All right, who is your next witness, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, may I at this point ask the chairman's 
permission to include in the record a number of statements made by 
the so-called student travelers? We do not desire to prolong the 
hearing unduly. We ask permission to insert these statements in the 
record at the convenience of the committee. 

Mr. Iciiord. If there be no objection x 

Mr. Lemansky. Will the witnesses see those statements ? 

Air. Ichord. The witness is excused. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. We will ask the witness to retire from the witness 
stand, please. 

Mr. Lemansky. May I deal with this business ? 

Mr. Bruce. Not here. 

Mr. Lemansky. Oh, somewhere else. All right, you don't want 
me here. I am hurt. 

Mr. Ichord. I believe the reporter would appreciate a brief recess. 
The Chair will declare a 5-minute recess. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Ichord. The meeting will come to order. 

The audience will please take their seats. 

Counsel, will you call your next witness ? 

Mr. Nettle. Would Albert Lasater Maher come forward, please ? 

Mr. Ichord. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God '. 

Mr. Maher. I swear I will tell the truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help me God. 

First, I would like to tell the counsel- 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute. The witness will be given an oppor- 
tunity to make a statement if he desires, but, first, let the counsel be 
identified. Mr. Counsel, will you identify yourself for the record ? 

Air. Lynn. Conrad J. Lynn, 401 Broadway, New York City. 

Mr. Ichord. Now let's identify the witness, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF ALBERT LASATER MAHER, ACCOMPANIED BY 

COUNSEL, CONRAD J. LYNN 

Air. Nittle. Would you state 3 T our full name and residence for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Maher. Is it appropriate that I read my statement now or 
after? 

1 For Committee Exhibits Xos. 1-A-5-A, see appendix, pp. 21S6-2189. 



2120 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. This is for a matter of identification. If you wish to 
make a statement to the committee, under the practice of the commit- 
tee, you will be given the opportunity to do so. I would prefer the 
witness identify himself for the record, and then he will be permitted 
to make a statement for the record. 

Mr. Maher. My name is Albert Lasater Maher; I live at 153 Ave- 
nue C, Xew York City. 

Mr. Ichord. Now I understand the witness wishes to make a state- 
ment ? The ( liair recognizes him for that purpose. I would ask that 
you confine yourself to statements concerning the jurisdiction of the 
committee and the legislative purpose and the various rules governing 
the operation of the committee. 

Mr. Maher. I object to answering any questions of this committee 
on the ground that Public Law No. 601, 79th Congress, GO Statutes 812, 
Part 2, Rules, authorizing a Committee on Un-American Activities to 
make investigations of "the extent, character, and objects of un-Ameri- 
can propaganda activities in the United States," violates the Constitu- 
tion in that, firstly, the statute is vague, the term "un-American 
propaganda activities" being nowhere precisely defined and being, in 
fact, incapable of precise definition and. secondly, the statute on its face 
as is construed and applied by the House Un-American Activities 
Committee during the past 18 years is repugnant to the freedom of 
speech, assembly, and other freedoms guaranteed to the people by the 
Bill of Rights expressly forbids the Federal Government from abridg- 
ing, and therefore, I maintain and do not waive this objection to all 
questions asked me that this committee is illegally constituted. 

I decline to answer on the ground that this committee is at present 
illegally constituted, in that two of its members. Congressman Edwin 
E. Willis and William M. Tuck, were elected in States, namely, Lou- 
isiana and Virginia, which have denied the right to vote to a consid- 
erable number of Negro and poor white citizens of these States, but 
whose representation has not been proportionately reduced as required 
by the second section of the 14th amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will overrule those two objections, as the 
Chair has done. 

Mr. Maher. Well, I would like to continue with, my statement. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed with your next subject. 

Mr. Maher. I decline to answer on the ground that the question 
violates the constitutional division of powers provided by articles I, 
II, and III of the Constitution, and that the question inquires into 
matters within the sphere of the executive and judicial branches of 
Government, is unrelated to legislative power or competence, and, 
therefore, not pertinent to assisting Congress to legislate. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will take that under consideration and over- 
rule it at this time. I believe that has been raised as an objection by 
a previous witness, and the Chair stated the reasons for overruling the 
objection. I will not consume the time in stating the reasons at this 
time. The objection is overruled. 

Does the witness have a further objection ? 

Mr. Maher. One last objection that, on arrival here yesterday morn- 
ing. I was at that time presented with the area of inquiry to be dis- 
cussed by this committee and at this hearing. I feel that to be notified 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2121 

of the matter under invesl igaf ion at such a later time is a vioiat ion of 
my rights as it is a violation of due process «>{' law. I also fee] that 
there are, sir, a number of serious allegations involved in this state- 
ment which you read which impugned my character and the character 
of other witnesses who have appeared before you and which I feel are 
slanderous to the point which I feel they should be discussed by this 
committee right now as we commence this hearing. 

Mr. Ichord. The objection of the witness is overruled. The witness 
is not on trial, and as I have stated previously today this is a legisla- 
tive investigation and the Chair will confine the counsel to questions 
that are proper, properly within the bounds of the resolution authoriz- 
ing this investigation and the rules of the House and the rules of this 
committee and the Constitution of the United States. 

Xow proceed, Mr. Counsel, to ask your questions. 

Mr. Lynx. If the chairman please, at the conclusion of the last 
testimony, the Congressmen, two Congressmen here, cited two acts 
which are criminal acts. Xow I am asking the chairman: Is it the 
purpose of this inquiry — as I understand it, your committee is em- 
powered to inquire of witnesses for the purpose of helping Congress 
to legislate, not for the purpose of seeking means to prosecute. 

Mr. Ichord. Of course, the counsel is familiar with the rules of the 
committee. He has appeared many times before this committee, repre- 
senting various witnesses who have been subpenaed by the committee. 
The Chair will inform the counsel, although it is not the purpose of 
the committee to question the counsel, the Chair will inform the counsel 
that that is not the purpose of these hearings. Again, and I believe 
I have stated this before, the purpose of the hearings is described in 
the statement that I gave, and I will again repeat one of the specific 
purposes, and that is that the President of the United States has issued 
a proclamation which, in effect, bans travel to Cuba without a pass- 
port validated — specifically validated — for travel to Cuba. It is the 
information of the committee that your client, this witness, did travel 
to Cuba in violation of that ban, and we are here to ask the witness 
certain questions regarding his alleged travel. 

Xow, Mr. Counsel, proceed with your questions. 

Mr. Xittle. Mr. Maher, you have stated that your present resi- 
dence is 153 Avenue C, New York. Would you tell us, please, how 
long you have resided at that address? 

Mr. Maher. I have resided at that address since April of this year. 

Mr. Xittle. Prior to that, where did you reside? 

Mr. Maher. Well, as this committee no doubt knows, as the ex- 
tensive network of FBI agents 

Mr. Ichord. This is not responsive to the question, Mr. Maher. 

Mr. Maher. I am answering the question. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Maher. I am in the process of answering the question, and will 
answer it in my own way. 

Mr. Ichord. Let's refrain from any side excursions and we will get 
out of here quite quickly. 

Mr. Maher. This is very pertinent. As I was about to say, before 
that, I was living in Puerto Rico, where, as you know, this Govern- 
ment maintains an intelligence network, although it is another country. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much. Mr. Counsel ? 



2122 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us where you resided during the months 
of October, November, and December, 1962 ? 

Mr. Maher. During the months of October, November, and Decem- 
ber of 19G2, 1 was traveling quite a bit and living with various friends. 
It would be quite an extensive list, and it Avould be very difficult for 
me to recall the number of people with whom I stayed during that 3- 
month period, but if you would care, I would take some time to recall. 

Mr. Johansen. Was that within the United States? 

Mr. Maher. That was all within the United States. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. During the months of October, November, and Decem- 
ber of 1962, were you in New York City ? 

Mr. Maher. I was at times in New York City, and Boston, Chicago, 
and San Francisco. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, I believe you stated that, prior to April 1964, you 
resided in Puerto Rico. 

Mr. Maher. Yes. In February and March. 

Mr. Nittle. February and March of 1964. 

Now where did you reside prior to February and March 1964? 

Mr. Maher. As I described, I was traveling inside the United 
States, to many places, talking on campuses throughout the country 
about the illegality of the State Department's actions in banning 
travel to Cuba and also telling them of my experiences in Cuba. The 
things I saw in Cuba which directly contradicts the reports which 
we have read here in the United States press. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth, 
please? 

Mr. Maher. I was born in Houston, Texas, on March 10, 1942. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion, giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institu- 
tions and any degrees received therefrom? 

Mr. Maher. I began my education, I think, in Houston, Texas, in 
1945. I don't remember the name of the institution, because I was 
quite young. I then proceeded to go to St. John the Divine, which 
is a school in Houston, Texas, from the first grade until the ninth 
grade, at which time I left Houston and went to Massachusetts to go 
to school to a school called dishing Academy. I received a high 
school degree. 

Mr. Nittle. During what vears were vou at Cushing Academy? 

Mr. Maher. 1956 to 1959. 

Mr. Nittle. And thereafter, what educational institution did you 
attend? 

Mr. Maher. Thereafter I went to Harvard College for a semester, 
and then I traveled and worked at various places around the United 
States, finally I got — finally got back to Harvard in July of 1961, and 
I left the following June of 1962, which I imagine vou would consider 
the extent of my formal education. 

Mr. Nittle. Now what employment, if any, have you held since 
June 1962, at which time you left Harvard College ? 

Mr. Maher. The only employment I have had since June of 1962, 
was from January 1963 until April of '63. I was working on a ranch 
in south Texas. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2123 

Mr. Senner. Working on a ranch where? 

Mr. Maher. Ranch work involves 

Mr. Senner. No, where ? 

Mr. Maher. In south Texas. 

Mr. Sen nter. I know what ranch work involves. 

Mr. Maher. I thought you might — or might not. 

Mr. Nittle. Was your permanent residence at one time at 3 West 
Lane, Houston, Texas ? 

Mr. Maher. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, it appears from a passport application 
filed by you with an agent of the Department of State at Houston, 
Texas, that on April 18, 1960, a United States passport numbered 
2019920, was issued to you for travel in Europe. This application 
we have marked for identification as "Maher Exhibit No. 1." 

It further appears from a copy of a passport renewal application 
that I have before me dated March 5, 1963, marked for identification 
as "Maher Exhibit No. 1-A," that you on that date made application 
to the agent of the Department of State at New Orleans for renewal 
of the passport that had been issued to you in 1960, and you requested 
that your passport be mailed at that time to No. 3 West Lane, Hous- 
ton 19, Texas. 

I hand you Exhibits 1 and 1-A and ask whether your passport 
was renewed pursuant to the applications? 

(Witness conferred with counsel) 

Mr. Maher. In reference to all your questions, my name is pro- 
nounced Mayer, not Mauher. 

Mr. Nittle. Thank you for correcting me. 

Mr. Maher. These do appear to be the forms which I filled out 
and, as I recall, I did get my passport. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Maher Exhibits 1 and 1-A in 
evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. Without objection, the exhibits will be admitted. 

(Documents marked "Maher Exhibits Nos. 1 and 1-A," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, I want to direct your attention to page 1 
of your renewal application of March 5, 1963. I note that you failed 
to answer questions relating to the purpose of your trip and the coun- 
tries to be visited. Is there any explanation for this ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. Well, at the time I got it I really hadn't made up my 
mind to travel anywhere, but I knew that having a passport would be 
of service to me if I did decide to travel. 

Mr. Nittle. As a matter of fact, Mr. Maher, was it not your in- 
tention at the time you filed that renewal application to do so to obtain 
a passport which you would use for travel to Cuba in June of 1963 ? 

Mr. Maher. Now if you had read your own evidence, you would 
note that this is a renewal form, and this is a lot of senseless bother 
and taking up everybody's time, Congress' as well as my own. This is 
ridiculous. Let's talk about the issues, the travel ban 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Maher, I am sorry 

Mr. Maher. The right of this committee to exist. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. I direct you 
to answer the questions propounded by counsel. 



2124 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Maher. What was the question? 

Mr. Ichord. Read the question for him, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. I asked whether, at the time he filed the renewal appli- 
cation, which was March 5, 1963, he intended then to renew his pass- 
port for use in travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Maher. As I clearly stated before, at the time that I applied 
for renewal of my passport, I had no idea to what countries I would 
be traveling to. This is why I left it blank. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Had you at the time you filed your application for pass- 
port either become a member of, or associated with, an organization in 
New York titled the "Permanent Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba"? 

Mr. Maher. Are you saying at the time I got my passport \ 

Mr. Nittle. At the time you filed your renewal application. 

(At this point, Mr. Schadeberg left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Maher. It seems to me self-evident that if I applied for my 
passport not knowing where I was going, that I would not have been 
a member of the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. 
The answer to that question is clearly "no." 

Mr. Nittle. My question also raised the inquiry as to whether you 
were then associated with, in any way, the Permanent Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Maher. You were then inquiring of my political associations. 
Is that correct? 

Mr. Nittle. No, I am not. I am inquiring into your activities in 
relation to the subject matter under inquiry. Now will you please 
answer the question? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lynn. Mr. Chairman, I object to that question of whether he 
was associated with anyone on the Permanent Student Committee, as 
too vague. 

Mr. Ichord. Rephrase your question. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you then affiliated with the Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba '. 

Mr. Maher. No, I was not affiliated with the Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you at that time aware of the efforts of Stefan 
Martinot and Levi Laub to organize a group for travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Maher. I was aware by reading the newspapers and looking at 
the television set that there had been a trip to Cuba attempted in 
December of 1962. 

Mr. Nittle. I am not talking about December. I am talking 

Mr. Maher. I was not aware of the individuals behind it. 

]\lr. Nittle. Did you on March 5, 1963, know a person named 
Stefan, S-t-e-f-a-n, Martinot, M-a-r-t-i-n-o-t? 

Mr. Maher. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Did vou on March 5, 1963, know Levi Laub, L-e-v-i 
L-a-u-b? 

Mr. Maher. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you on that date know Anatol Schlosser, A-n-a- 
t-o-1 S-c-h-1-o-s-s-e-r? 



[PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2125 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 
Mr. Maher. No. 

Mr. Nittle. In any event, Mr. Maher, you did travel to Cuba, de- 
parting from New York on June 25, 1963; is that not true? 

Mr. Maher. Yes, that is correct. 

I traveled wit h 58 other young Americans to visit the Cuban revolu- 
tion, in order to bring to the attention of the American people the 
actual existence that the State Department 

Mr. Iciiord. The questions as to the purpose may come later on. 

Mr. Maher. The Un-American Activities Committee had conducted 
no investigation of the State Department to find out who were the 
un-Americans who had proposed this order. 

Mr. Johansen. I move the witness suspend. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, on June 25, 1963, you departed from New York 
City aboard KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, arriving in Cuba about June 
30, 1963, via Amsterdam, Paris, and Prague and remained in Cuba 
until or about August 25, 1963. Is this true % 

Mr. Maher. I was in Cuba during that period and I visited through- 
out the Island, walking freely and traveling freely on buses 

Mr. Nittle. I am not asking for any details. I am asking you 
simply whether you traveled in the manner the inquiries stated? 

Mr. Iciiord. I think the witness answered the question. Proceed 
to the next question. 

Mr. Xittle. Now, did you at any time apply for, or receive from, the 
Department of State a specific validation or endorsement of your 
passport for travel to Cuba \ 

Mr. Maker. Xo. 

Mr. J< >hansen. Did you apply for that ? 

Mr. Maher. Xo, I made no application for any such permission. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you, at the time of your departure from the United 
States, know that travel to Cuba was illegal without such a validation ? 

Mr. Maher. That is a lie. There is no law which violates — which 
says that travel to Cuba is a violation of any law. Name the law or 
cite the statute. 

Mr. Iciiord. Not responsive to the question. Proceed to your next 
question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a member of the Permanent Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba, which sponsored the travel to Cuba in the 
summer of 1963 ? 

Mr. Maker. At what time are you referring to ? 

Mr. Xittle. Well, let me ask you this : Were you at any time a mem- 
ber of the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba and, 
if so, state the time. 

Mr. Maker. Certainly, I was, from the time I recruited myself to 
go until this day and this moment and this instant right now, I am a 
member. 

Mr. Xittle. Well, when were you recruited to go ? 

Mr. Maker. As I said, I recruited myself to go, on hearing of the 
trip. 

Mr. Xittle. Did you make an application for travel with this 
group ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



2126 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Maher. I decline to answer that question for a number of rea- 
sons. I will now state my ground for refusal. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I suggest that in stating the reason 
for declining he limit himself or that he not repeat those alleged rea- 
sons which have been ruled not acceptable by the Chair. 

Mr. Ichord. Well, as yet the witness has not exhibited any intent 
to delay the proceedings. Go ahead, state your objections. 

Mr. Maher. As at the end of the last witness, it was commended 
that certain evidence, certain testimony taken by this committee be 
forwarded to the Justice Department, I think that the reason for re- 
fusal I am about to give is very valid. In the District Court for the 
Eastern District of New York, in September 19G3, a number of students 
who had gone to Cuba last year were indicted, and a suit against them is 
presently pending. In connection with this committee's hearings to- 
day, this committee in its public announcements as to and otherwise 
has made clear that the focus of the inquiry is the trip this year of 
students to Cuba. In view of all the circumstances and the fact that 
the question asked me is calculated to elicit evidence possibly useful in 
the prosecution and is unrelated to any proper legislative purpose, I 
decline to answer. 

Mr. Ichord. I have to overrule the objection of the witness. As I 
stated before, this is not a trial; this is a hearing in pursuance of a 
valid legislative purpose. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. I object to answering this question of this committee 
on the ground that Public Law 601, 79th Congress, 60 Statutes 812. 
Part 2, Rules, authorizing a Committee on Un-American Activities to 
make investigations of "the extent, character, and objects of un-Ameri- 
can propaganda activities in the United States," violates the Constitu- 
tion in that, firstly, the statute is vague, the term "un-American propa- 
ganda activities" being nowhere defined and being, in fact, incapable 
of precise definition and, secondly, the statute on its face and as con- 
strued and applied by the House Un-American Activities Committee 
during the past 18 years is repugnant to freedom of speech, assembly, 
and other freedoms guaranteed to the people which the Bill of Rights 
expressly forbids the Federal Government from abridging. There- 
fore, I maintain this objection. 

Mr. Ichord. You are reading that objection from the same card 
used by the preceding witness? 

Mr. Maher. These are mine, my own cards. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will have to overrule that objection. It was 
raised by the previous witness. 

Mr. Maher. I decline to answer on the ground that this committee 
is at present illegally constituted in that two of its members, Congress- 
man Edwin Willis and William M. Tuck, were elected in States, 
namely, Louisiana and Virginia, which denied the right to vote to a 
considerable number of Negro and poor white citizens of these States, 
but whose representation has not been proportionately reduced as re- 
quired by section 2 of the 14th amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the witness whether these 
be reasons that he previously stated? My memory is at fault. 

Mr. Ichord. He hasn't stated those. 



.PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2127 

Mr. Johansen. Thank you. 

Mr. Iohord. That objection is overruled, Mr. Maher. 

Mr. Maiiek. I decline to answer on the ground that the question 
violates the constitutional division of powers provided by articles I, 
II, and III of the Constitution and that the question inquires into mat- 
ters within the sphere of the executive and judicial branches of Gov- 
ernment, is unrelated to legislative power and competence, and, there- 
fore, not pertinent to assist Congress to legislate. 

Mr. Iciiord. For reasons which I have stated heretofore in the hear- 
ings, and which I believe the witness heard, the Chair overrules the 
objection. 

Mr. Maher. I decline to answer on the ground that the right to 
travel is guaranteed by the sixth and the ninth amendments, and has 
no right to be investigated by this committee. The ninth and tenth 
amendments, excuse me. That the sixth amendment guarantees jury 
trial and that the fifth amendment guarantees protection of all per- 
sons from false accusation. 

Mr. Iciiord. False accusation is not a ground under the fifth amend- 
ment, sufficient ground for refusal to answer, nor is the sixth amend- 
ment a sufficient reason. 

Mr. Maher. Then I invoke the entire fifth amendment. 

Mr. Iciiord. The witness invokes the fifth amendment. That is suf- 
ficient ground. 

Proceed to your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, did you attend the October 1962 meeting 
in New York City at which the Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba was formed? 

Mr. Maher. Although I was not present at that meeting, I did read 
that the New York Bar Association published in 1958 a statement 
which reads : "Whenever American citizens" 

Mr. Nittle. This is not responsive. 

Mr. Maher. "Whenever American citizens, including members of 
the press, are denied freedom of" ■ 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will cease. Rephrase your question, Coun- 
sel. 

Mr. Nettle. I think he has answered the question, Mr. Chairman. 
I pass on to another. 

Mr. Ichord. He said he wasn't there, as I understood. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the December 1962 meeting in New 
York City at which the Permanent Student Committee for Travel to 
Cuba was formed ? 

Mr. Maher. No, I was not present at that meeting. 

Mr. Nittle. Now in your travel to Cuba, by whom w T ere your ex- 
penses of travel and maintenance paid ? 

Mr. Maher. As has been widely publicized throughout the United 
States and the mass media, the trip expenses were paid for by the 
Cuban Student Federation. 

Mr. Nittle. And your expenses of travel were paid by the Cuban 
Federation ? 

Mr. Maher. I was part of that group. 

Mr. Nittle. I have asked you whether your expenses were paid, or 
did you assume the financial costs of the trip ? 

Mr. Maher. No, I did not. 



2128 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, now, we were informed that applicants who 
traveled to Cuba with your group were required to make a deposit 
of $10 at the time of filing an application for travel with it and, upon 
acceptance, an additional $100. Did you make payment of that sum 
as a part of your application and acceptance for travel? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. The aforementioned deposits were made and paid for 
by everyone on the trip. 

Mr. Nittle. Including yourself ? 

Mr. Maher. That's correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Now may I ask you this question : Did you assume the 
payment of the application expenses, $10 and $100, for any of the other 
travelers in your group? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. I object to answering this question on the ground that 
Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

Mr. Nettle. May I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that if he relies on 
the 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will rule that the question is a pertinent 
question, one which the counsel is justified in asking. 

Mr. Maher. In that case, I will decline to answer on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Ichord. All right ; that will hurry matters along. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel, with your next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, at the time you decided to undertake travel 
to Cuba in 1963 with the group organized by the Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba, were you aware that the leaders and 
spokesmen of this organization were members of the Progressive Labor 
Movement ? 

Mr. Matter. I was well aware that the State Department and the 
President had usurped 

Mr. Nittle. I am asking you whether you were aware that 

Mr. Matter. — the right to travel from the United States. 

Mr. Nittle. — the leaders of this organization were members of the 
Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Matter. I was aware that members of many organizations par- 
ticipated in the trip. 

Mr. Johaxsex. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that is not responsive to 
the question. 

Mr. Ichord. I have to direct the witness to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ichord. I think you should rephrase your question, Mr. Counsel. 
Make sure the witness understands it. 

Mr. Nittle. Self-admitted spokesmen for the Permanent Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba were Stefan Martinot and Levi Laub, 
both of whom have testified before this committee and openly acknowl- 
edged their membership in the Progressive Labor Movement. Were 
you aware at the time you traveled in 1963 that Stefan Martinot and 
Levi Laub were members of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Maher. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Ichord. Next ouestion. 

Mr. Nittle. Now Mr. Hoffman — Barry Hoffman — acting with the 
knowledge of Government security agencies, who made the trip with 



[PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2129 

you in 1963, testified that at a meeting of the continuation committee 
in Cuba, Gerald Mazzola, a director of the Cuban Institute for 
Friendship Among the Peoples, addressed the student group and em- 
phasized that the trip was very important to Cuba and to Cuban 
foreign policy, because if the Cubans could break the American travel 
ban, then it would be very difficult for other countries to impose a 
t ravel ban on Cuba. 

Were you in attendance at that meeting, with Gerald Mazzola? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. I was at a number of meetings at the Cuban Institute 
for Friendship Among the Peoples, but I think it is important to note 
that the trips to Cuba are important for the American people, not 
nearly so much as for the Cuban people. 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question, if I understood 
the witness properly. Did you hear Gerald Mazzola make such a 
statement \ 

Mr. Maher. Xo, I never heard him make such a statement. 

Mr. Iciiord. Xext question. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you informed of the views of Gerald Mazzola by 
anyone who attended the meeting? 

Mr. Maher. You are assuming that your witness, Barry Hoffman, 
correctly cited to you what Gerald Mazzola said at that meeting. I 
think that's incorrect. 

Mr. Xittle. Do you have knowledge of the views that were expressed 
by Gerald Mazzola at the meeting so that you could make that kind 
of statement ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Lynn. Will the counsel specify what meeting he is talking 
about ? 

Mr. Xittle. I think I have identified it sufficiently. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has testified that he was not present at a 
meeting in which any such statement was made by Mr. Mazzola. 

Mr. Xittle. And then I inquired whether he was informed of the 
A'iews expressed by Gerald Mazzola at the meeting. 

Mr. Iciiord. By whom, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Xittle. By anyone of the group of the Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba or by any Cuban official or by anyone in Cuba. 

Mr. Maher. I never heard of Gerald Mazzola making any such 
statement, so obviously, I never heard. 

Mr. Ichord. Sufficient answer. Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Xittle. All right. 

Xow, Mr. Maher, testimony was also received from Mr. Barry 
Hoffman that, during the course of your visit in Cuba, your group as a 
part of its official tour visited the Chinese and Vietnam Embassies in 
Cuba, as well as the delegation of the South Vietnam National Libera- 
tion Front. He testified that, during the course of these visits, propa- 
ganda material was distributed among the students and that two 
Chinese-produced films were exhibited. 

I want to inquire at this point whether you were in attendance on 
the occasions related by Mr. Hoffman? 

Mr. Mailer. I think the occasions related by Mr. Hoffman at the 
Chinese Embassy would be very interesting for all the American 
people to have been there. 

40-013— 65— pt. 5 11 



2130 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. You were there, then ? 

Mr. Maher. There were films shown, documented the history of the 
Chinese revolution, the struggles of their people to build socialism. 

Mr. Johansen. Were you there ? 

Mr. Nittle. Were you there ? 

Air. Maher. Yes, I was there, very glad to have been there. 

Mr. Nittle. And you also visited the Vietnam Embassy and the 
delegation of the South Vietnam Liberation Front. Is that correct? 

Mr. Maher. Those as well as the National Liberation Fronts of 
Angola, many other countries from Africa, Asia. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Hoffman testified that a film was shown by the 
South Vietnam National Liberation Front at the Hotel Riviera in the 
International Salon. During the course of this film an American 
plane was shot down. Mr. Hoffman testified that at that point there 
was cheering, great cheering from the students. Were you in attend- 
ance at the showing of this film ? 

Mr. Maher. I was not in attendance at that showing, but I do know 
of the film to which you refer. I have seen it many times, and I feel 
that the American people have been systematically denied correct 
information regarding the war in Southeast Asia, that the United 
States is unilaterally 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Maher, you have stated that you were familiar with 
the film, but you did not see it at that showing. 

Proceed to your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, was it expected that in return for the favors 
extended to you and the group with which you traveled, extended by 
the Cuban Government, that you would return to the United States 
and disseminate propaganda favorable to the Communist regime in 
Cuba and Communist regimes elsewhere ? 

Mr. Maher. There was never any such agreement. We were to go 
to Cuba to analyze and evaluate for ourselves as individual Americans 
and also as part of a group. Anyone who has gone to Cuba in the last 
2 years has the right to say what they want, what they feel about what 
they saw in Cuba, and report that to the American people in public 
platforms and on radio stations throughout the country, wherever 
they could get a platform, and that they have tried to do. 

Mr. Nittle. All right. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Now in any event, Mr. Maher, following your return 
to the United States, did you have in your possession the very same 
film to which I referred a moment ago, produced by the South Vietnam 
Liberation Front, which included the scene showing the shooting down 
of an American plane in South Vietnam ? 

Mr. Maher. I might add that that film also showed American guns 
and American tanks 

Mr. Nittle. I'm asking you simply whether you had that film in 
your possession upon return to the United States. 

Mr. Maher. No, I did not have that film in my possession on my 
return to the United States. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, I have before me a copy of the Harvard 
Crimson dated Friday, November 22, 1963. This, as you well know, 
is a student publication of Harvard University. I have marked this 
issue as "Maher Exhibit No. 2." At page 1, it carries an article en- 
titled "Cambridge ADA Gives Screening Of Vietnam Film." 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2131 

I hand this exhibit to you. You will observe that the article states 
that a film was shown by the Cambridge, Massachusetts, ADA to a 
crowd of nearly 200 in the Faculty Club the prior evening and that 
it was the first public showing in the United States of a film made by 
the South Vietnam Liberation Front as a "document" of the "heroic 
struggle of the Vietnamese people against the American imperialists 
and their lackey Diem." 

Now the article states, and I quote again : 

The film, which won the prize for the best documentary at the Moscow film 
festival last June, was Lent to the ADA by Albert Maher '63, who brought it 
back from Cuba this summer. Maher was one of the fifty-nine American students 
who visited Cuba in defiance of State Department regulations. 

Mr. Maher, is there any error in the account contained in this 
article? 

(Witness confererd with counsel) 

Mr. Maher. You mean the entire account? Because there are a 
number of things there which are quite correct. 

Mr. Senner. The account relative 

Mr. Ichord. The account relative to your turning over to that or- 
ganization the film. 

Mr. Senner. Bringing it back. 

(Witness conferred with counsel) 

Mr. Maher. Well, as you might know, there are a number of things 
in the press which have nothing to do with reality. No, I did not 
bring it back. 

(Document marked "Maher Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Senner. That doesn't answer the question. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Maher. The question about whether I brought it back? I 
have already said, many questions ago, I did not bring it back. 

Mr. Senner. So there is an error? 

Mr. Nittle. He said he did not bring it back. Did you tell the 
reporter for the Harvard Crimson that you brought it back, however, 
whether that was a true statement or a false one ? 

Mr. Maher. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in attendance at the showing of that film at 
the Faculty Club? 

Mr. Maher. No, I was unable to be there, but I hear it was quite 
well received, that many people felt that it was very educational, and 
since then they have decided to do whatever is in their power to bring 
an end to American 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. 
_ Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Witness, just one further ques- 
tion. Did you — and I am going to ask you for the second time, under 
oath — did you bring that film back ? 

Mr. Maher. That is not the second time, it is the third time, and I 
will repeat I did not bring the film back. 

Mr. Senner. And you did not tell the reporter that you brought the 
film back? 

Mr. Maher. That is correct, for the second time. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you at any time have that film in your possession 
while in the United States ? 



2132 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Maker. My possession ? 

Mr. Nittle. Did you ever have it in your hands ? 

Mr. Maher. My hands ? 

One at a time. One hand. I held it. 

Mr. Nittle. Now would you tell us the circumstances under which 
you obtained possession of the film ? 

Mr. Maher. No, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Tchord. Next question. 

Mr. Xittle. How many copies of that film have you had in your 
possession at any time? 

Mr. Maher. One. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, have you made this film available to other groups 
in the United States? 

Mr. Maher. I have done everything possible to get this film shown 
in college campuses and in labor union halls and small civic organiza- 
tions throughout the country in order to educate the people about what 
this war is costing us and what it is costing the people of Vietnam. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you make any charge to viewers for showing the 
film? 

Mr. Maher. No. 

Mr. Nittle. Are there any collections taken at those meetings where 
the film is shown ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. No, I have no part in any collections. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you yourself finance the expense involved in the 
distribution and dissemination of the film ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. Questions of my finances are private between myself 
and the Internal Revenue Service, and I would like to keep them that 
way. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will rule that is a proper question. I direct 
you to answer the question, Mr. Maher. 

Mr. Maker. In that case, I will refuse to answer on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Now Mr. Maher, I hand you a copy of page 2 of The 
Militant, dated October 21, 1963. The Militant carries an article at 
the lower right-hand corner entitled "200 at New York Forum Hear 
Students on Cuba." The article reports that : 

More than 200 people jammed into the Militant Labor Forum Oct. 11 to 
hear Phillip A. Luce and Albert Maher, students who had defied the State De- 
partment ban on travel to Cuba. 

You are reported as describing "the development of art and culture 
in Cuba since the revolution." 

Did you address this group as reported ? 

Air. Maher. Yes, I addressed this group not only on art and culture, 
but also on the state of the economy and the fact that they had ended 
unemployment in Cuba, and the policies that the United States was 
carrying out on the Cuban Government based on false information, and 
were spreading to the American people. 

(Document marked "Maher Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 



iPRO-CASTKO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2133 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. ( Jhairman. 

Mr. Iciiord. You are not responsive to the question, Mr. Maher. 
Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. May 1 inquire whether the film was shown at that 
meeting? 

Mr. Maker. No, it wasn't. 

Mr. Nittle. However, a collection was taken; was it not? 

Mr. Maher. It says here the collection was taken, but 1 don't recall. 

Mr. Nittle. The article states, and I quote : 

The meeting, comprised mainly of young people, contributed nearly $100 to the 
defense of the indicted students. 

Did you receive any of t hat money ? 

Mr. Maher. No, I received none of that money, but I think it would 
be far more pertinent if we were to try and consider what is the law 
on which you base this investigation, what law that authorizes the 
travel ban. 

Mr. Nittle. Now 

Air. Maher. There are a number of serious allegations in this state- 
ment which opened these hearings, involving being an agent of a for- 
eign government. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, I could tell you the law upon which it is based. 
It is found in Title 8, United States Code, section 1185. 

Mr. Maher. (b), right? And that reads — in time of war or na- 
tional emergency, all United States citizens must have a valid pass- 
port to leave or enter the country. 

Mr. Ichord. Let there be order. That w-ill be a question for the 
courts to decide. I can assure the witness that this committee will use 
its influence in Congress, if it so happens that there is no sufficient law 
to prosecute travel to Cuba in violation of your President's proclama- 
tion, to revise the law, but I feel quite sure that the proclamation is 
valid, but proceed, Mr. Counsel, to the next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, were you aware that the address at which 
you were speaking, namely, 116 University Place, New Y^ork, is the 
headquarters of the Socialist Workers Party and its youth group, the 
Young Socialist Alliance? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ichord. What was your question there again ? 

Mr. Maher. It is quite common knowledge, in the newspaper 

Mr. Ichord. Just a minute. Would you rephrase your question. 
Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Nittle. Was the witness aware at the time he spoke at the 
address, 116 University Place, New Y r ork, that it was the headquarters 
of the Socialist Workers Party, the Trotsky ite- Communist organiza- 
tion in the United States, and its youth group, the Y^oung Socialist 
Alliance? 

Mr. Maher. As I said, that is public knowledge. Certainly I was 
aware of it. 

Mr. Nittle. At the time you delivered this address, did you do so as 
a result of arrangements made by members of the Progressive Labor 
Movement ? 

Mr. Maher. I made this arrangement myself. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you aware that a collection was going to be 
taken up on this occasion ? 



2134 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Maher. No, I wasn't ; but I am glad it was, because we do need 
money for defense. In all frame-ups by the Government, it is neces- 
sary to try and collect money from the public at large, as many people 
as will contribute. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, I have before me a letterhead of the Student 
Committee for Travel to Cuba, dated June 1, 1964, marked for identi- 
fication as "Maher Exhibit No. 3-A," which lists the executive board 
members of this organization as being Levi Laub, Phillip Abbott Luce, 
Albert Maher, Roger Taus, and Ellen Shallit. 

Now, would you tell us, please, when and in what manner you were 
selected or asked to serve as a member of the executive board of the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Maher. As in many activities of this kind, it is up to an indi- 
vidual to recruit himself to initiate activity and to continue work for 
certain goals, certain objectives. I wanted to continue the work of 
trips to Cuba. I also plan to continue it on from this moment. 

(Document marked "Maher Exhibit No. 3-A" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Were you aware that you were doing so in association 
with identified and acknowledged members of the Progressive Labor 
Movement ? 

Mr. Maher. Of course. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, was any effort made to conceal the specific 
dates and means of departure of the student group that traveled to 
Cuba in June of this year ? 

Mr. Maher. Were any efforts made to what ? 

Mr. Nittle. To conceal the dates and means of departure of the 
Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. As you know, from reading the report from the press 
and interviews on the television, this trip was organized openly and 
publicly. There was never any attempt to conceal the fact that we were 
organizing this trip. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Witness, I will interrupt and I will let you answer, 
but weren't there a great many reservations made at one airline, or 
through one travel agent, reservations canceled and then made 
through another, and so forth and so on, and breaking them down? 
This is the point that we are trying to get across. Do you know any- 
thing about this? 

Mr. Maher. Define your question in more exact terms, please. 

Mr. Senner. Counsel, you will, you will get into it, right ? So that 
you understand it clearly. 

Mr. Ichord. Counsel, would you rephrase the question ? 

Mr. Nittle. I had asked the witness whether any effort was made 
to conceal the dates and means of departure of the student group, the 
specific date and means. And I believe he responded to the question 
by saying that everything was done openly, and there was no effort 
to do so. 

Is that right? 

Mr. Maher. I said the organization, recruiting for the trip, was 
done openly ; that is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Now the question is whether there was any effort made 
to conceal a specific date and means of departure of the student group 
traveling to Cuba in June of this year. 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2135 

Mr. Ichord. I believe, Mr. Maher, that is a proper question. You 
testified that 3-011 were a member of the committee and it' those efforts 
were made, you should have knowledge of same. The Chair would 
rule that it is a proper question. 

Mr. Maher. There were no attempts to conceal the reservations. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, Radio Havana, on June 13, 1964, reported 
an interview with Roberto Rubalcava, R-u-b-a-1-c-a-v-a, one of the 
members of this year's student group who traveled to Cuba. He 
said, as reported by Havana radio : 

The American Government was very opposed to this trip. * * * 
The U.S. Government said that it could send us to prison for 5 years and 

fine us up to 5,000 dollars for having come. 

Everything was planned in secret. We prepared very well. We made our 

move and caught them by surprise. We came very fast. The trip was very 

well organized. * * * 

Now are you prepared to deny this statement of Roberto Rubalcava? 

Mr. Maher. I am in no position to tell you what Mr. Rubalcava 
had said. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you deny the facts asserted by Roberto Rubalcava, 
whether he spoke the truth or not, in the interview over Havana 
radio ? 

Mr. Maher. I believe that's a matter of opinion. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, what do you mean? What is a matter of 
opinion ? 

Mr. Maher. Well, it is certainly true that the United States Gov- 
ernment was- — to prevent this trip from arriving in Cuba. 

Mr. Nittle. I am talking about the secrecy with which the arrange- 
ments were made. Were the arrangements secretly planned ? 

Mr. Lynn. I object to that question, because nothing was read 
which said that the trip was secretly planned. The witness should 
have a copy of any statement that is being read. 

Mr. Ichord. Let's rephrase your question there, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt a minute? 

Let me ask you this question, Mr. Maher. Do you have any knowl- 
edge of how the tickets were purchased, what arrangements were made 
with the airlines, reservations, cancellations, change in agencies, and 
so forth ? Do you have any knowledge of that ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously cited. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has stated special grounds for refusal to 
answer. 

Mr. Senner. A minute ago, you said that this was all publicly 
planned, and now in response to my question, you refuse to answer 
it on the grounds previously stated. 

Is that right ? 

Mr. Maher. That is what you heard. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Our investigation reveals that in April 1964, prior to 
the June departure of your group, you visited the offices of British 
Overseas Airways and made reservations for 30 passengers to travel to 
Georgetown, British Guiana, via Port-of-Spain, with date of depar- 
ture given as July 1, 1964. This arrangement was permitted to lapse, 



2136 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 

and we find that of the 30 persons listed by you for travel, only 6 
actually traveled to Cuba at other dates, and under different arrange- 
ments. 

Was this a subterfuge for concealing the actual time and means of 
departure ? Was it a decoy operation ? 

Air. Maher. I decline to answer that question on the ground as 
previously cited, and as you might recall there are trials going on in 
the Eastern District of New York right now. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has declined and that is sufficient. Pro- 
ceed with your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, likewise in April 1964, Salvatore Cuc- 
chiari of 1948 Black Rock Avenue, Bronx, New York, applied to 
British Overseas Airways to arrange reservations for travel of 16 
persons to flv to Georgetown, British Guiana, date of departure Mav 
30, 1964. Mr. Cucchiari later advised the offices of BOAC that the 
arrangement for May 30 was postponed to June 27. This arrange- 
ment likewise was never concluded, and of the 16 persons supplied by 
Mr. Cucchiari for travel, not one of the persons named lias thus far 
made the trip to Cuba. 

Did you have knowledge of the arrangement made by Salvatore 
Cucchiari ? 

Mr. Maher. It seems to me we could much better spend our time 
suggesting other areas of investigation for this committee, such as 
the American Nazi Party, the White Citizens Councils 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair rules that that is a proper question and 1 
direct the witness to answer the same. 

Mr. Maher. In that case, I will refuse to answer on grounds previ- 
ously cited. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you. as a member of the executive board, confer 
with other members of the executive board regarding any decoy 
reservations ? 

Mr. Maher. I would decline to answer that question as well, on 
the grounds previously cited. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Salvatore Cucchiari has been identified as a 
member of the Progressive Labor Movement. Was he known to you 
to be a member of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. I think it is quite repugnant that this committee re- 
peatedly asks people to inform on the activities and political beliefs 
and the associations of other people in this society. 

Mr. Nittle. We are only talking about Communists, Mr. Maher, 
and their activities, not about beliefs. 

Mr. Maher. I don't believe 

Mr. Ichord. Let's be in order. 

Mr. Maher. What do you want to do with Communists ? Gas them ? 

Mr. Johansen. I suggest the witness suspend. 

Mr. Ichord. Let's be in order. 

Mr. Johansen. When the Chair directs him to. 

Mr. Ichord. The attention of the Chair was diverted. Would you 
read the question back to the witness, Miss Reporter ? 

Mr. Nittle. I will repeat it again to save time, Mr. Chairman. 

Did you know Salvatore Cucchiari to be a member of the Progressive 
Labor Movement? 



IPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2137 

Mr. Maher. I refuse to inform on other people. I have already 
said that. 

Mr. Iciiord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Ma i eer. Then I will refuse to answer the question on all grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Nittle. Salvatore Cucchiari was among the group of travelers 
with you last summer. You knew him at that time, did you not? 

Mr. Maher. As I told you, I am not going to talk about other people. 
If you know he was on the other trip, you know he was on the other 
trip. But you have the evidence. You have the information. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. It is a 
proper question, within the bounds of this inquiry. 

Mr. Maiier. I will refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Iciiord. Next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, on May 20, 1964, a meeting and press con- 
ference of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba was held in Room 
1621 at the Statler Hilton Hotel in New York City. You chaired 
this meeting, did you not ? 

Mr. Maher. That's correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Press reports quoted you as saying at this conference 
that the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba had received applica- 
tions for travel to Cuba from more than 1,000 students and that, of 
this number, more than 400 applicants were actually interviewed by 
the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. Did you make that 
statement ? 

Mr. Maher. I made that statement. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you yourself participate in conducting these 
interviews, in regard to your position as a member of the executive 
board ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. Yes, I carried on interviews and lectures throughout 
the country, throughout the entire year. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Witness, at that time, in these lectures that you 
carried on, did you invite or solicit or urge students in the audience to 
apply for such a trip, or to consider the possibility of such a trip ? 

Mr. Maher. I felt that all people who felt like asserting the right 
to travel should travel to Cuba, travel to any other forbidden country. 

Mr. Johansen. That is not the answer to my question. 

My question was, Did you solicit the applications or invite them? 

Mr. Maher. Certainly. I was going around, asking the people to 
join on the trip to Cuba. 

Mr. Johansen. That is all I wanted to know. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, there was finally a notice given to each of 
the applicants who were rejected ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Were all of those rejections notified on the same date, 
namely, June 1, 1964? 

Mr. Maher. I don't recall the date, but that sounds in the area of 
the date of rejection. 

Mr. Nittle. And you would say that all action was taken on rejec- 
tions at that time, that is, the final notice ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes. 



2138 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. I have already placed in your hands Maher Exhibit 
No. 3-A, which listed the executive board of the Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba, and is, in fact, a "Dear Friend" letter dated June 
1, 1964. 

I want to ask whether you can identify that as a form letter pre- 
pared by the executive board of the Student Committee for the purpose 
of giving notice to those applicants whose travel had been rejected? 

Mr. Maher. This is the letter. It is im fortunate that wo could not 
have included a larger number of students on this year's trip. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, in notifying the applicant of his rejection, your 
form letter states : 

We were not able to make a final list earlier as we were waiting for the 
number of candidates from the area representatives around the country. Fre- 
quently we were forced to conform to regional quotas, age, and other impersonal 
factors in making our decisions. * * * 

Mr. Maher, in addition to seeking a geographic distribution as a 
basis for selection, would you tell us, please, what other criteria were 
adopted in determining the suitability of the applicant for acceptance 
among your student group ? 

Mr. Maher. Integrity and honesty and a good deal of guts. Be- 
cause^ 

Mr. Senner. A good deal of what? 

Mr. Maher. — because it is very difficult to put yourself on the line, 
facing years of imprisonment, perhaps. 

Mr. Johansen. In that connection, may I ask the witness, did you 
inform the applicants who were accepted of the possibility of prosecu- 
tion, if they made the trip ? 

Mr. Maher. That is correct. Everyone was informed of the risks 
they were taking. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, was it required, was it a criterion and a 
means of forming a basis for acceptance in your mind, that the appli- 
cant give some evidence in his application of having advocated, or 
participated in, causes favorable to Cuba, in particular, and Commu- 
nist regimes in general ? 

Mr. Maher. The main basis for selection was whether or not people 
were truly interested in the affairs and interest of the American 
people, whether or not they were willing to do this, to take this act 
upon themselves in order that they might uphold the right to travel, 
in spite of the fierce Government opposition to it. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt for a question here? 

Mr. Ichord. Surely. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Maher, you started off on the premise that the aim 
of the trip was to inform the American people, and you ask that they 
be biased and prejudiced before they go. How can you justify the 
answer you just gave ? And I would like to have the reporter read it 
back to you. 

Mr. Maher. That allegation is not true, because the people who 
went were not biased before they went. 

Mr. Senner. Read the question and answer back to this witness. 
And then my question to you is, How can you justify that answer? 

Mr. Ichord. Do you request that it be read back ? 

All right, Miss Reporter, read the question back to the witness. 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2139 

(The reporter read the question and answer.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ichord. Do you have a question, Mr. Senner? 

Mr. Senner. Yes. Didn't you start off with a biased group, a 
prejudiced group? 

Didn't you pick a group that 

Mr. Maker. How do you define a prejudiced group? A group of 
people who have the guts to do what they feel is correct and right and 
honest? 

Mr. Senner. No, a group that is pro- Communist, pro-Castro, to 
help the American people understand ? 

Mr. Mviier. That is a flat lie. These people went down as indi- 
viduals to evaluate for themselves. 

Mr. Senner. You heard the question and the answer. 

Mr. Maher. These people believed in one thing: the right to travel 
and that the Cuban revolution ought to be able to be visited by U.S. 
citizens. 

Mr. Senner. Who was the one member that went down on behalf of 
the FBI and came back here and testified that he didn't like what he 
saw down there, and testified as to the members that made that first 
trip, and some of the so-called members that are speaking up for the 
great American public, carrying this great cause, calling him a fink 
and a rat and a no good so-and-so ? 

Air. M\iier. Well, look at the organization he works for, the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation, which has negated its duties entirely 
throughout the country and the South. 

Mr. Senner. That organization is bad, too ? That organization is 
bad? 

Mr. Ichord. The record will stand as made. 

Proceed with the next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Let us continue with the questioning. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, at the press conference at May 20, 1964, at 
the Statler Hilton Hotel, it is the committee's information that the 
rental of the room, 1621, was made by Anthony Murad, M-u-r-a-d, who 
was among the group who traveled to Cuba in June 1964. Did you 
accompany Mr. Murad at the time registration and rental was 
accomplished ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes, I was around the hotel. 

Mr. Nittle. You were with him at the time he registered ? 

Mr. Maher. I don't recall. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, perhaps this may refresh your recollection. I 
hand you the actual registration form executed by Anthony Murad, 
marked for identification as "Maher Exhibit No. 4." 

You will note that the registration card is in the hand of Anthony 
Murad, who gives his firm as "Student Travel Committee" and lists 
the street and number as your address, 153 Avenue C, New York 9, 
New York. 

Now does that refresh your recollection as to whether or not you 
accompanied him at the time the registration of that room was 
accomplished? 

Mr. Maher. As I recall, I don't believe I was there when the regis- 
tration and rental was accomplished, but I was in that hotel on that 
particular day. 



2140 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you the person who actually paid the room rental ? 

Mr. Mahek. I decline to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously cited. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee's investigation reveals that you are in 
fact the person who paid the rental, Mr. Maher. 

Mr. Maher. How does the committee's investigation come up with 
such lies ? This is an allegation. Come out with the truth, Mr. Prose- 
cutor. 

Mr. Ichord. Counsel has not asked a question yet. 

Mr. Nittle. Whose funds were utilized for this purpose ? Were they 
yours, or were they the funds of someone else or some other govern- 
ment ? 

Mr. Maher. I will decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Maher Exhibit No. 4 in evi- 
dence. 

Mr. Iciioed. Without objection, the exhibit will be admitted in 
evidence. 

(Document marked "Maher Exhibit No. 4" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Air. Nittle. May I inquire whether Anthony Murad resides at 153 
Avenue C. New York 9, New York ? 

Mr. Maher. I told you I decline to talk about the residence or 
the activities or the political beliefs or the whereabouts of other 
people. 

Mr. Ichord. Since the individual was a member of the Student 
Travel Committee and is so identified before this committee, I will 
have to direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Maher. Then I will refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. While the executive board is listed as containing five 
persons upon the letterhead of June 1, 1964, can you tell us whether 
that is the complete listing of the executive group of the Student 
Committee ? 

Mr. Maher. As it says on the letterhead, this is the executive board 
of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. That is correct. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have additional members ? 

Was Anthony Murad also a member of the executive board? 

Mr. Maher. Again, I decline to answer questions about other people. 

Mr. Nittle. Were there other people, in addition to these named 
on the letterhead, members of the executive board ? 

Air. Maher. No, the executive board is as it stands on the letter- 
head. 

Mr. Nittle. Did the executive board meet separately, or does it meet 
with others as well ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. The executive board is the executive board of the Stu- 
dent Committee for Travel to Cuba. It meets as that group. 

Mr. Nittle. Had Anthony Murad and Salvatore Cucchiari been 
in attendance at any meetings of the executive board ? 

Mr. ISLaher. Again, you are asking me about other people. I refuse 
to answer questions about other people. 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2141 

Air. Nittle. Well, let me put it this way. Were there other persons, 
besides the executive board named there on the exhibit, in attendance 
at any meetings of the executive board? 

Air. Maher. To my best recollection, there were not. 

Mr. Nittle. Also, Mr. Maher, your telephone number at the ad- 
dress 153 Avenue C, to wit, CAnal 8—1119, is also the telephone number 
of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba ; is it not ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes ; it is the home-oflice type arrangement. 

Mr. Nittle. And when was this phone installed ? 

Mr. Maher. I believe } r ou could check with the telephone company. 
I don't recall. 

Air. Nittle. Would March 1964 be about right ? 

Mr. Maher. If that's what they told you, that is the exact date. 

JNIr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, on Saturday, August 8, 1964, about 6 
days prior to the return of your group from Cuba, approximately 200 
persons assembled at Dully Square, New York, at a rally sponsored 
by the May 2 Committee. The master of ceremonies was Levi Laub, 
who described the rally as a protest against "Johnsons war in Viet- 
Nam." He stated that another meeting of the May 2 Committee would 
be held in Times Square on Saturday, August 15, 1961, and he urged 
persons interested to call CA. 8-1119, which is your number, and that 
of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. 

Is your phone also the telephone number of the so-called May 2 
Committee? 

Mr. Maher. That is correct. We were organizing those demonstra- 
tions in order to bring to the attention of the American people the 
realities of the war that the Government is carrying out there. You 
are asking me these very irrelevant and impertinent questions. People 
are dying in Southeast Asia which shows your 

Mr. Ichord. That is not responsive to the question. Let's maintain 
order. Proceed with your next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in attendance at the August 8 and August 
15, 1964, May 2 Committee demonstrations ? 

Mr. Maher. I was in attendance at both those demonstrations, 
which were violently attacked and set upon by police officers for no 
reason at all, although they were peaceful assemblies of people peti- 
tioning the Government to change its policies regarding Southeast 
Asia. 

Mr. Nittle. Air. Maher, at the August 8 demonstration, it is the 
committee's information that you were a leader of the demonstration, 
and that as a result of demonstrators' refusing to obey orders of the 
police assigned to maintain order — upon the refusal of your group to 
disperse on the orders of the police to do so — one of the demonstrators 
struck a mounted police horse several times with a rolled-up picket 
sign causing the horse to bolt into the crowd. The demonstrator was 
arrested for his conduct. That demonstrator is you, is it not? 

Mr. Maher. That is a lie. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in attendance at the demonstrations? 

Mr. Maher. Yes, I was in attendance at the demonstrations and 
yes, I did move a police horse, but not into the crowd. I moved the 
police horse off of certain people who were underneath its feet. 

Air. Nittle. All right. Nevertheless, I mean to say, you are the 
person arrested under that charge ; are you not ? 



2142 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Maher. That's right. That this being the land of doublefink, 
it was me who drove the horse into the crowd, not the police officer 
who was guiding it. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Witness, have you ever seen a "spooked" horse ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Senner. Did you hit the horse in any way ? 

Mr. Maher. I certainly did. 

Mr. Senner. With one of these picket posts or so forth ? 

Mr. Maher. No, I hit the horse with my hand, as a matter of fact. 

Mr. Senner. What reaction did you think the horse would take 
when you hit it ? 

Mr. Maher. The horse stopped. 

Mr. Senner. A spirited horse? 

What reaction would happen when you would hit it with your hand ? 

Mr. Maher. If you hit them hard enough in the nose, they stop. 

]\Ir. Senner. Where did you hit the horse ? 

Mr. Maher. In the nose. 

Mr. Senner. Did you ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes. 

Mr. Ichord. Let's proceed to the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is also a fact, is it not, Mr. Maher, that at that dem- 
onstration, the demonstration of August 15 which was held one day 
following the return of the student travelers, nine of the student travel- 
ers who were in attendance were arrested on disorderly conduct, as- 
sault, and similar charges; is it not? 

Mr. Maher. That appears to be correct. 

They, along with some 400 other people who were out there showing 
their opposition to that Government policy. 

Mr. Nittle. Can you tell us by whom the travelers were informed 
of the demonstration organized by a so-called May 2 Committee? 

Mr. Maher. Yes ; the travelers and anyone else in the general public 
interested was informed of that demonstration, and it is really a sad 
comment on our body politic that only two members of the entire 
Senate had the guts enough to say anything half honest on the war in 
Vietnam, Senators Morse and Gruening. 

Mr. Nittle. Did the executive board of the Committee for Student 
Travel to Cuba, or any member of it, notify the returning students 
that this August 15 demonstration would take place the following 
day? 

Mr. Maher. That information was made available to them, and 
many other people. 

Mr. Nettle. By the Student Committee executive board ? 

Mr. Maher. I don't know if it was formally made by the executive 
board. It was made publicly. I am sure they were able to get that 
information quite easily. 

Mr. Nittle. Now could you tell us whether the May 2 Committee — ■ 
the New York group of the May 2 Committee — is controlled by per- 
sons known by you to be members of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment ? 

Mr. Maher. I know that the May 2 Committee is generally a group 
of students that was formed independently, a conference on socialism 
at Yale in March of this year, to stage demonstrations around the 
country protesting the war in Vietnam, and trying to bring to the 



,PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2143 

attention of the American people the deceit that the Government is 

carrying forward 

Mr. Nittle. I am aware 



Mr. Maher. — in this area, as to the realities of that war. The 
first demonstration was held on May 2. 

Mr. Nittle. I am referring to the New York group of the May 2 
Committee. We are aware that at a meeting in March — I think, 
March 14, 1964 — sponsored by the Yale Socialist Union at Yale Uni- 
versity, various radical groups, including the Socialist Workers Party, 
the Communist Party, and the Progressive Labor Movement, met 
there with other groups, and out of that general conference a deci- 
sion was made by some in attendance to create an organization or to 
engage in activity in opposition to United States aid to South Viet- 
nam, out of which 

Air. Maher. Certainly, you don't mean the Government of South 
Vietnam. 

Mr. Nittle. ■ — was formed the New York group of the May 2 
Committee. All these organizations participated in setting up 
groups, it is true, and we understand that representatives of the 
Progressive Labor Movement in New York were at this conference. 

Now, my question is whether the Progressive Labor Movement con- 
trols the New York group of the May 2 Committee ? 

Mr. Maher. As you might or might not know, the demand of the 
May 2 movement regarding Vietnam is as follows : We should never 
have gone in, we should never have stayed in, we should get out. That 
is according to Senator Morse 

Mr. Nittle. I am not asking you your views on the Vietnam war. 
I am asking you simply a question with respect to the participation of 
the Progressive Labor Movement in a front called the May 2 Com- 
mittee, and with respect to its involvement in the Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Maher. This question of fronts is a false allegation. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, the National Guardian of May 9, 1964, a 
copy of which I have before me, marked for identification as "Maher 
Exhibit No. 5," in commenting on the major New York May 2 Com- 
mittee demonstration held on May 2 of this year, reports that more 
than 1,000 persons marched from 110th Street through Times Square 
to the United Nations. It also reports that one of the speakers at the 
New York May 2 demonstration was Bill Epton from Progressive 
Labor. 

Now this is the same Bill Epton, chairman of the Progressive 
Labor Movement in Harlem, who has been indicted for criminal 
anarchy, because of his activities during the recent Harlem riots. 

Mr. Maher, it is a fact, is it not, that you posted the $10,000 bail 
required for Epton's release following his arrest upon the charge 
of criminal anarchy ? 

Mr. Maher. This is the same Bill Epton who is being framed up 
at this time by the New York District Attorney's office in conjunction 
with, I am sure, the House Un-American Activities Committee, the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, and other various Government agen- 
cies which are trying to discredit and slander many groups who are 
organizing the people 



2144 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 



Mr. Ichord. The Chair will rule that is not in response to the ques- 
tion, Mr. Maher. Did you post his $10,000 bond ? 

Mr. Maher. I don't see how that question is pertinent at all or 
revelant to legislation you might have under consideration or even 
hi the back of your minds. 

Mr. Ichord. The question comes within the broad purview of this 
investigation, and in view of your actions here and testimony taken 
before, your testimony, the testimony of other witnesses, the Chair 
will direct you to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. If you have watched j'our television sets or read your 
newspaper, you would know that to be the truth. 

Mr. Johansen". We are not asking what the newspapers report. 
We are asking you if it is the truth. 

Mr. Maher. Yes, that is the truth. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. aSTiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I ask that the May 9, 1964, issue of the 
National Guardian, which is Exhibit 5, be received hi evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. That will be done. 

(Document marked "Maher Exhibit No. 5" follows.) 

Maher Exhibit No. 5 
[National Guardian, May 9, 1964] 



1,000 MARCH iN N.Y. 

Withdrawal 
from Vietnam 
urged at rallies 

|ypGRE THAN 1,000 persons, most of 
■ »* them young, heard speakers de- 
nounce U.S. intervention In the South 
Vietnamese war May 2 in New York, and 
then marched from 110th St. through 
Times Square to the United Nations, it 
was the largest of the several May 2 
demonstrations, which took place simul- 
taneously in U.S. cities. 

In New York eight speakers, including 
GUARDIAN general manager Russ 
Nixon, Conrad Lynn of the Freedom Now 
party, Helen Lamb Lament, Bill Epton 
from Progressive Labor, Benjamin Ortiz, 
president of the Pro-Independence Uni- 
versity Students of Puerto Rico, and May 
2 Committee chairman Russell Stetler, 
sooke at the rally. Afterward most of 
the audience followed the speakers In a 
march that stretched five blocks through 
Manhattan streets. Posters and chants 
demanding withdrawal of U.S. troops 



from Vietn:m sparked the demonstra-. 
tion, which was blacked out in the daily 
press. 

Large and curious crowds watched the 
march as it passed through the Puerto 
Rican and Negro slums and housing pro- 
jects of the upper West Side, and in 
Times Square spectators stood ten deep 
along the curbs. 

In San Francisco, about 600 attended 
a Vietnam protest rally at which actor 
Sterling Hayden, Vincent Hallinan, Dr. 
Tom Brewer, Mike Meyerson and Van Luy 
were the scheduled speakers. After the 
rally, the group marched to the gates 
of the Presidio, a nearby army base and 
headquarters at the U.S. 6th Army. Al- 
though the base is normally open to the 
public, large groups of armed military 
police prevented the demonstrators from 
entering. John Thomas was chairman. 

In Madison, Wiser more than 100 uni- 
versity students and others marched 
around the state capitol and held a rally 
on its steps. Other May 2 rallies had been 
scheduled for Minneapolis, Boston and 
Miami. 

The May 2 Committee, composed of 
students from 13 colleges and other 
young people, announced after the rallies 
that it would continue its campaign 
against U.S. intervention in Vietnam. 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2145 

Mr. NrrrLE. Mr. Maher, I have before me, marked for identification 
as "Maher Exhibit No. G," an article entitled "Wealthy Leftist Scores 
I '.S. Policy," which appeared in the August 10, 1964, issue of the New 
York Times. The author, describing you as the son of a millionaire 
Houston industrialist, reports that you acknowledge that you had 
made heavy contributions to radical groups in New York and that 
your money came from a trust fund over which you had control of 
the way in which it was spent. 

Are you correctly reported ? 

Mr. Maher. I decline to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously cited. 

Air. Nittle. Mr. Maher, have you made heavy contributions to the 
activities of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba? 

Air. Maher. Again, my finances are my personal preoccupation, and 
not to be the affairs of this committee or of the Congress of the United 
States to legislate on my financial status, or any other U.S. citizen's. 

Mr. Ichord. It is very important for the Congress to know how the 
Communist Party and this committee is being financed in the United 
States. It is a proper question. I direct you to answer the question, 
Mr. Maher. 

Mr. Maher. And I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously cited, and I might add that people in this country who will 
support political organizations 

Air. Ichord. The witness refused to answer. Proceed with the next 
question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you made such heavy contributions to the Pro- 
gressive Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Maher. Just as in Mississippi, the Government wants to get 
the names of the donors of the NAACP, this committee would like to 
get the names of the donors of all unpopular political organizations. 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Air. Maher. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously cited. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Air. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit No. 6 in evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. So admitted. 

(Document marked "Maher Exhibit No. 6" follows :) 



40-013— 65— pt. 5 12 



2146 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Maheb Exhibit No. 6 
[N.Y. Times, Aug. 10, 1964] 




Sen of MHHon&ire, Hrfssttd; 1 
it Rally, dives Viaws 



"Site son or & *nmionai*e Hous- 
ton SnfctriaUs iotis park! 
ber.eh on the Lower Sisist 
yester&s? aftermam and «poK> 
m « soft drawl about what he 
called "the imperialism el tfc 
«u»$r classes of the Unit? 




!UMxt.s son, Alb 
{22-; some*: 




I disease r 
a tnldto 
! role of 

| The p 

.are, 

5 fh 



: Ffe 



tmunist charge*.! J 

>ewas 

EVOLVED IN FEOf Ei> 
. ,';j Albert M&ber* tiif> H0H &f 

M, ss fee appears! Safer* j 
■ okms $&y at Put ly Sipar® $£f*io»» 
JSf^S^f-.? 106 ?! ***»»» agn« isvol*»» : 



irri 



s@at of U,$* la Vfeteus 



' inn r 11i111111.11.1i.11.il 11.1 



&'*v^?*m&^-^ez^..r&H* « v *tuj# 



[about Ms parssta, 

b®y*«f try 



m m» 







¥aS*<3£T IS *§»*«** Bin a**. a^ays n- 

production of tos>!« for the pe-l dividual'* 
troleuta i^dustiy. The senior Mr J Omvlstious he sal$ cars 
Maher travels 'in circles tfe&tf^ a ^£& the ^ E%S ._ 

! :n&toyp»» to th& spring of i; I 
has a? "A* much as I t$m&** fee saM, 
atiojs as a liberal Is jyetotfag to Ms studies o? Marx, 
spoilt hp- 

| When he Is — »b<mt hfsb 
I SOT3' FMhft*. *»««*.< 

his oWa mind. 
And the son. jS ** 



_, **J $tt2 function verr esti| 

r repHesfp&iea : iaaVt have tho ini 

know IsStectnal .Cn^^e^/ork ' ; • "$®i 

f#©;pM to maiee a S9 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



2147 



Maiier Exhibit No. 6 — Continued 



alysis of United States imperial- 
ism." 

"But you don't have to be a 
Marxist," he continued, "to see 
the contradiction between what 
our Government does and what 
it says It's doing — on the streets 
here and in Tonkin Bay." 

Asked whether he would 
attach an ideological label to 
his position, he said: "I don't 
mind being called a Communist, 
but to me there's a big dif- 
ference between a Socialist and 
a Communist — a Socialist is not 
necessarily involved in an active 
struggle." 

Then which was he ? 

"A little bit of both, I guess," 
he replied. 

And how did a rich man's 
son reach this point? 

"People who don't have to 
worry about their next meal or 
paying the rent have a lot 
more time to observe," he sajd. 

His political enlightenment be- 
gan, he said, at the age of 15, 
when a friend gave him a Span- 



ish edition of Fidel Castro's 
speech "History Will Absolve 
Me." After he entered Harvard 
as a freshman in 1959, he at- 
tended several peace rallies. 

He left Harvard after six 
months, only to return and 
jleave again. His class graduated 
in 1963. Next month he plans to 
return as a junior. 

His career as a political ac- 
tivist began when he went to 
Cuba last summer with a stu- 
dent group in defiance of the 
State Department ban. He de- 
voted much of last winter to 
organizing a student tour to 
Cuba for this summer. His sister 
Mary, 19, joined the group. 

Mr. Maher said that his 
money came from a trust fund 
and that he controlled the ways 
in which it was spent. He ac- 

jknowledged that he had made 

Iheavy contributions to radical 

igrcups here. 

"I use my resources," he said, 

•"to help the causes that I think 
are correct." 



Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, I have before me a copy of an advertise- 
ment published, in the New York Herald Tribune on May 28, 1964. 
This has already been offered in evidence as Lemansky Exhibit No. 
7. ( See p. 2099. ) It is the statement of 150 persons who declared that 
United States participation in support of South Vietnam is for the 
purpose of suppressing the Vietnamese struggle for national inde- 
pendence and that, while the signers of the statement are of draft age, 
they announced their refusal to serve in the United States Armed 
Forces for any such purpose. Among the signers of the statement 
appears the name of "Albert Maher — Texas." You are the Albert 
Maher whose name appears ? 

Mr. Maiier. Sure. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you the Albert Maher whose name appears as the 
party to the statement ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes, I am very proud to have been on that statement. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you living in Texas in May of 1964 ? 

Mr. Maher. I wasn't residing in Texas at the time, no. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you give the information as to your residence to 
any person responsible for the advertisement? 

Mr. Maher. I don't recall. 

Mr. Nittle. Now in the advertisement, a request for contributions 
is made to help defray the cost of the advertisement, and it is requested 
that all collections be made payable to Phillip Abbott Luce, as treas- 
urer of the Ad Hoc Committee. 



2148 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 

This is the same Phillip Abbott Luce who is serving as a member 
of the executive board to the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, 
is it not ? 

Mr. Maher. If you know, you know. 

Mr. Nettle. Do you know ? 

Mr. Maher. I wouldn't be talking about other people. That is for 
people like yourself. 

Mr. Nittle. I ask that the witness be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair directs the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Maher. I will refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you made any financial contribution toward the 
publication of this statement in the New York Herald Tribune? 

Mr. Maher. Well, you Congressmen and you people are spending 
the people's money 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is out of order. 

Mr. Maher. — here on this irrelevant investigation of travel to 
Cuba. 

People in this country are unemployed. There is an 

Mr. Ichord. I direct the witness to answer the question. 

Mr. Maher. There is in this country a ruling class. I decline to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Joiiaxsex. I ask that the counsel ask the next question. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed to the next question. 

Mr. Maher. I will decline to answer the question on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher. could you tell us in what way the Cuban 
Federation of University Students contacted the Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba? 

Mr. Maiier. I will decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Nittle. "Were you involved in the financial arrangements made 
for the travel to Cuba this summer ? 

Air. Maher. I didn't get your question. 

Air. Nettle. Were you involved in the financial arrangements made 
for the student travel this summer? 

Mr. Maher. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously cited. 

Mr. Nettle. Do you have knowledge of the means by which Yvonne 
Bond and Morton B. Slater came into possession of a sum in excess of 
$46,000? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Maher. I refuse to talk about other people. I have made that 
very clear in this testimony earlier. 

Air. Ichord. It is a proper question, and the Chair directs you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Maher. I will refuse to answer the question on all grounds pre- 
viously cited, whatever it takes. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, the New York Times article of August 10, 
1964, Exhibit 6, to which I have already referred, in response to a 
question as to what ideological label you would attach to your position, 
reports you as saying : 

I don't mind being called a Communist, but to me there's a big difference 
between a Socialist and a Communist — a Socialist is not necessarily involved in 
an active struggle. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2149 

Upon being asked which you were, that is, whether a Communist or 
Socialist, you were quoted as replying: 

A little bit of both, I guess. 

Are you correctly reported by the reporter who interviewed you? 

Mr. Maiier. No, I am not. 

Mr. Nittle. What did you say with respect — did you tell him thai 
you did not "mind being called a Communist'' ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes, I made it quite clear that Red-baiting was not 
something that could affect me in any way. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you tell him that you did not "mind being called 
a Communist'' in the language of the quote? 

Mr. Maher. In the language of the quote, it sounds roughly like 
my language, so it well could be. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes. Now, when he asked you whether you were a 
Socialist or a Communist, did 3^011 reply "A little bit of both, I guess"? 

Mr. Maiier. I think it is relevant here to bring out this part where 
he wrote that there is a big difference between a Socialist and a Com- 
munist. 

Mr. Nittle. I know, you are confusing the issue now. Will you 
tell us 

Mr. Maiier. I am not confusing the issue. I just think it is perti- 
nent at this point. 

Mr. Nittle. Let me put it to you directly, then. Are you in fact 
a member of any Communist organization or party ? 

Mr. Maher. No, I am not. Even though I do think you have no 
right to inquire into my political associations or beliefs 

Mr. Ichord. The witness lias answered. 

Mr. Maher. — and in doing so, you are trampling on the first 
amendment. 

Mr. Ntttle. May I ask a further question. 

Are you affiliated with the Progressive Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Maher. Again, I might cite the first amendment of the United 
States Constitution guarantees freedom of association in political 
belief. You have no right to inquire into my beliefs. And in answer 
to your question. I will say no. 

Mr. Ichord. A proper question, in view of the testimony by the 
preceding witness as to the makeup of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Maher. I have said I am not a member of the Progressive 
Labor Movement. 

Mr. Ichord. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Nittle. Now 

Mr. Bruce. The question was, Is he affiliated? 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Maher, so that there is no misunderstanding as to 
the meaning of "affiliated," I want to quote to you the meaning in 
which I was using it, as set forth in a decision of the United States 
Supreme Court. 

In the case of John Joseph Killian v. United States, decided De- 
cember 11, 1961, and reported at 368 U.S. Reports 231— the Court 
in that case approved a charge defining affiliation as meaning — 

a relationship short of and less than membership * * * but more than that of 
mere sympathy * * *. 



2150 iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

A person may be found to be affiliated with an organization, even though not 
a member, when there is shown to be a close working alliance or association 
between him and the organization, together with a mutual understanding or 
recognition that the organization can rely and depend upon him to cooperate 
with it, and to work for its benefit, for an indefinite future period upon a fairly 
permanent basis. 

Now does this definition not describe the relationship existing be- 
tween you and the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, the Progres- 
sive Labor Movement, and the May 2 Committee ? 

Mr. Maiier. I am a member of the Student Committee for Travel 
to Cuba. This question of affiliation has no relevance here. I am a 
member of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, and I am a 
member of the May 2 movement. 

Mr. Nittle. And I am asking you whether — all right, very well — 
whether you are affiliated with the Progressive Labor Movement. 

Mr. Senner. Pursuant to this? 

Mr. Nittle. In accordance with the definition of affiliation given, 
which I have read. 

Mr. Maher. You are making a definition, and I am sure you could 
prove the allegation, if you had the time and money, which you do 
have. Apparently you have lots of time and lots of money to spend 
for such things, but I am not affiliated with the Progressive Labor 
Movement. 

Mr. Ichord. The record will stand, as the witness has made it. 

Mr. Nittle. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Senner? 

Mr. Senner. Yes, I have one. 

Mr. Maher, have you contributed any money to any groups to carry 
on street riots after the passage of the Civil Eights Act of 1964? 

Mr. Maiier. I think it is very significant that you would bring up 
the subject of street riots, because throughout the United States, in 
black ghettos, the major cities, the police are closing in, being very 
heavy. The larger the police force, you will note, the bigger the riot. 
That is becoming a pattern throughout the United States. It is 
caused by conditions — conditions which are created by the economics 
of this society. These are conditions which have to be attacked, con- 
ditions which have to be done away with and eradicated. 

Mr. Ichord. The question is, Mr. Maher : Have you contributed any 
money going toward the inciting of any of these riots ? 

Mr. Maher. That is a ridiculous question. It is like this committee. 

Mr. Ichord. Have you or have you not ? 

Mr. Maher. Go ahead and state your question. 

Mr. Senner. My question, Mr. Maher, Have you contributed any 
money to any group to carry on street riots since the passage of the 
1964 Civil Eights Act? 

Mr. Maher. No, I haven't, and I think that there is an insinuation 
in that question which is very insulting. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness has answered the question. 

The gentleman from Michigan. Do you have a question ? 

Mr. Johansen. Yes. I want to ask the witness in connection with 
the recruiting of students for these trips to Cuba, did you secure data 
as to the age of the applicant? Was that a part of the information 
you secured ? 

Mr. Maher. Yes, it was. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2151 

Mr. Johansen. Could you tell me, from recollection, what the 
youngest ago was, either permitted or actually was, of the group that 
you have knowledge of, that went to Cuba ? 

Mr. Maker. I believe the rule was 18. 

Mr. Johansen. Thank you. 

Mr. Ichord. Any members of the full committee have any ques- 
tions? 

Mr. Bruce. No questions at all. 

Mr. Schadeberg. I have one, sir. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Schadeberg. 

Mr. Schadeberg. I should like to ask the witness if you made any 
other contributions to William Epton's activities before his arrest, or 
any contribution to any organization or any individuals which, to your 
knowledge, in whole or in part, went to him after your arrest, excepting 
the $10,000 bail? 

Mr. Maher. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously cited. 

Mr. Ichord. If there are no further questions 

Mr. Senner. Just one further question. 

I ask the question, Did you make any direct contribution; have 
you done it directly or indirectly? The same question I originally 
asked. 

Mr. Maher. Well, that is the question I believe the other gentle- 
man has asked and I said 

Mr. Senner. The answer is "no" ? 

Mr. Maher. — said that I would decline to answer that. 

Mr. Ichord. He gave sufficient grounds for refusal to answer. 

Mr. Senner. When we used the word "indirectly" you refused to 
answer, but when I used the question as "directly," you have stated 
"no." Is that right? 

Mr. Maher. 1 believe if you check on the record, you will find that 
is not right, that both directly and indirectly when you are talking 
about my giving money, I said I will refuse to answer on grounds 
previously cited. 

Mr. Senner. So "directly" or "indirectly," on the contribution of 
money to these groups, you have declined to answer on the grounds 
as previously cited ? 

Mr. Maher. Not on the question of whether or not I gave money 
to incite riots. I gave a very clear answer, which was "no." 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Senner. Let me rephrase my question, Mr. Maher. Have you 
contributed any money to any groups to carry on demonstrations 
in the streets, after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? 

Mr. Maher. Any money that I might have given has not been given 
for any illegal activity, if that is the implication of this question, by 
"in the streets," but the right to assemble in the streets is guaranteed 
by the Constitution and is legal. 

Mr. Senner. What I am talking about is the "mob rule," the break- 
ing in of stores, and so forth and so on. That has been going on in 
some of our cities. Have you directly or indirectly contributed to 
any group that would help bring about these demonstrations in our 
cities? 

Mr. Maher. The answer to that question is "no," because what 
brings about this activity is conditions created by large monopolies 



2152 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

that control society, the body politic, and press, and all the other agen- 
cies of the Government that are involved here today, including this 
House Un-American Activities Committee. 

Mr. Sinner. So — what I take to be your answer is that you have 
not directly or indirectly contributed any money to any group to carry 
on demonstrations in the streets that would result in riots or break- 
ing in, mob rule, and so on. 

Mr. Maher. That is correct. 

Mr. Johansen. I have one further question. 

Mr. Ichord. The gentleman from Michigan. 

Mr. Johansen. It is my information that, among those making the 
last trip to Cuba, was a youth 16 years of age and also a child 5y 2 
years of age. Do you have any knowledge of that ? 

Mr. Maher. Now that you bring that up, I do. But as I said, we 
have a rule, and as I recall, it was 18. 

Mr. Johansen. Since 3*011 had that rule, how does it happen that 
minors of these ages were included in the trip ? 

Mr. Maher. I believe in the question of minors we required permis- 
sion, authorization from parents. 

Mr. Johansen. And it is your understanding that this was with 
permission of the parents and authorization of the parents, too? 

Mr. Maher. It would be my understanding that it is correct. 

Mr. Johansen. Thank you. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Maher, it is the information of the Chair that one 
Mary Miller Maher made the trip to Cuba this year. Is she your 
sister ? 

Mr. ^Lvher. That's right. Yes. 

Mr. Ichord. There being no further questions of the witness, the 
witness will be excused. 

Mr. Nittee. Mr. Chairman, before the meeting is adjourned, may I 
offer in evidence a compilation of those who traveled to Cuba under 
the sponsorship of the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba, showing 
dates of departure and means of travel to and from Cuba ? We offer 
that as Committee Exhibit No. 2 and, likewise, we offer for the record 
Committee Exhibit No. 3, which is the passport applications of the 
travelers to Cuba. We request from the Chair permission to in- 
clude in the printed record only certain pertinent extracts of data 
contained therein, as set forth in the applications. 

Mr. Ichord. There being no objection, the request will be granted. 

(For Committee Exhibits Nos. 2 and 3, see appendix pp. 2190- 
2208.) 

Mr. Ichord. The witness is excused. 

Before adjourning the meeting, the Chair, in summing up the re- 
sults of this hearing, wishes to state that I believe this hearing has em- 
phasized again that totalitarianism of both the Communist and Nazi 
brands is the enemy of free, democratic government and hostile to 
the legislative process. In the hearings yesterday, a Nazi attacked a 
witness who was testifying before the committee, and Communist wit- 
nesses before this committee clearly demonstrated by their words, their 
attitudes, and actions that they hold the legislative process, the laws, 
the opinions of the court, and the Constitution of the United States in 
complete contempt. They have demonstrated their allegiance, I 
believe, to foreign, Red totalitarian powers, which have consistently 
and flagrantly demonstrated their enmity to the United States. 



.PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 2153 

Other than the disruption by the Xazi, the hearings this year have 
been orderly, and I thank the members of the audience for thai 
courtesy. 

In the hearings last year on the students who traveled to Cuba, 
there were numerous disruptive outbreaks. There was planned and 
coordinated refusal to obey orders of the chairman of the full com- 
mittee and the police assigned to this committee room to maintain 
order. There was use of force and violence. All this took place be- 
muse, as the chairman of the full committee stated on the floor of the 
House prior to the hearings, Communist leaders had ordered their 
adherents in the room to utilize such tactics. 

I might state that I had expected similar disruptions this year in 
view of the "bloody heads" statement that I referred to in my opening 
statement. 

I have been advised that orders to be orderly were later given by 
leaders of those who would have otherwise disrupted the hearing. 

Most important from the legislative viewpoint, I believe, the hear- 
ings have revealed generally the type of persons who have been en- 
gaging in violating the Presidential ban on travel to Cuba and in- 
ducing others to do the same. I think by the conduct of some of the 
witnesses before this committee, they have themselves exploded their 
phoney claim that they traveled to Cuba to help preserve and main- 
lain the American citizen's constitutional right to travel and to end 
what they claim, contrary to our court opinions, is an unconstitutional 
limitation upon that right. 

Clearly, the United States Constitution means nothing to many of 
these people, any more than court opinions do, or directives issued by 
the President of the United States, based on his inherent constitu- 
tional powers and, I might add, on specific statutes which have been 
enacted by the Congress. 

The hearings, I believe all will agree, make it apparent that planned, 
massive, and flagrant violations of our laws are being carried out by 
Communist elements in this country as a part of their efforts to sub- 
vert this Nation and to promote a world Communist dictatorship. 

There is, I believe, a need to tighten our travel laws to make possi- 
ble the effective prosecution of all those defying Presidential decisions 
and directives which have been made in the interest of our country. 

Of course, it is not the purpose of this committee to try anyone. It 
is not the purpose of this committee to convict anyone. The Congress, 
I feel certain, will perceive this need even more clearly as a result of 
these hearings, and it is my hope and conviction that it will take, the 
Congress will take, appropriate action to close any gaps, if there are 
any, in existing legislation. 

The gentleman from Michigan. 

Mr. Johansen. Mr. Chairman, I want to associate myself with the 
chairman's statement and I ask permission at this time that a state- 
ment which I made on the floor of the House today with respect to 
yesterday's incident and related matters, be included in the record of 
the hearing at an appropriate point. 

Mr. Ichord. There being no objection from any member of the com- 
mittee, that will be done. 

(Mr. Johansen's remarks follow :) 



2154 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Remarks by Congressman August E. Johansen in the House of Representa- 
tives, September 4, 1964 

Mr. Speaker, as ranking minority member of the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities I wish to make a statement to the House regarding the in- 
cident which occurred on yesterday afternoon during the subcommittee hearings 
on illegal travel to Cuba. 

The essential and deplorable fact regarding this incident is that a witness 
under lawful subpena of this committee, already under oath, on the witness 
stand, and actually testifying before the committee, was assaulted by a 
spectator at the public hearings. 

In my judgment, neither the disreputable affiliations of the witness or of his 
attacker, nor the low opinion which I, and my colleagues on the subcommittee, 
hold regarding either man or his associations, has any bearing on the gravity of 
the offense committed by the attacker. 

In my judgment, this incident was a brazen and intolerable affront to the 
committee and to the Congress of the United States. 

In my judgment, this act constituted contempt of Congress of a character 
and degree second only in gravity to a possible physical attack upon a member 
of the committee. 

I am today writing the Parliamentarian of the House requesting a ruling as 
to whether the person, Lon L. Dunaway, may not properly be cited by the House 
for contempt. 

If the ruling of the Parliamentarian confirms my judgment that this person, 
Dunaway, is subject to such proceedings, I shall urge the full Committee on 
Un-American Activities to act forthwith to recommend such proceedings to 
the House of Representatives. 

Whether or not such proceedings are ruled to be in order, I also direct the 
attention of the House to legislation first introduced in the House on May 24, 
1960, in the 86th Congress as H.R. 12366, providing that misbehavior in the 
presence of, or so near as to obstruct the business of, either House of Congress or 
a committee thereof, shall constitute a misdemeanor and shall be punishable in 
the manner now prescribed for the refusal of a witness to answer any question 
pertinent to the matter under inquiry. 

Also, I shall introduce in the House a revised version of the bill H.R. 12366 — 
86th Congress — providing added penalties for any attack on a witness under 
subpena of this or any other committee. 

I wish to offer one further observation. This person, Dunaway, has been 
identified by police authorities as a member of the George Lincoln Rockwell 
American Nazi Party. 

I remind the committee and the House, however, that misbehavior in the 
presence of the committee and systematic and well planned attempts to dis- 
rupt the proceedings of the House Committee on Un-American Activities and 
subcommittees thereof have long been indulged by members of the Communist 
Party U.S.A., the Progressive Labor group, and other Communist and left- 
wing sympathizers. 

Having sown the whirlwind in San Francisco in May 1960, an identified 
member of one of these Communist groups yesterday reaped the wind. 

The fact that the witness, Morton B. Slater, escaped more serious injury is 
due solely to the prompt and effective intervention of Capitol and Metropolitan 
Police and other security officers assigned to this hearing. 

These are the same police authorities who are repeatedly accused by Com- 
munists and their sympathizers of brutality and other abuses. 

I take this occasion to commend the Capitol and Metropolitan Police and other 
security officers for their action. 

I suggest that it will come with particularly bad grace for any Communist or 
Communist sympathizer witnesses to repeat the disparaging remarks regarding 
law officers which were made before the committee by another witness yesterday. 

I again remind the committee and the House, however, that the crucial 
issue raised by yesterday's incident is the obligation of the House to support the 
Committee on Un-American Activities and all other committees of the House 
in the performance of their duties mandated by the House, to provide the full- 
est possible protection for witnesses under subpena of the committee and to 
provide proper penalties for lawless persons, regardless of their affiliations, who 
interfere with, or attempt to interfere with, the proceedings of such a committee. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2155 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Senner \ 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, I have nothing further to add to your 
remarks other than to say that I would like to associate myself with 
them, and to thank and give our appreciation to the Capitol Police, 
the United States marshals, and the Metropolitan Police force. 

Mr. Ichord. I definitely want to, on behalf of the entire committee, 
extend our appreciation to the Capitol Police, the U.S. marshals, and 
also the Metropolitan Police for assisting the committee in maintain- 
ing order at this hearing. 

The meeting will be adjourned until further call of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at G p.m., Friday, September 4, 1964, the subcom- 
mittee adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



VIOLATIONS OF STATE DEPARTMENT TRAVEL REGU- 
LATIONS AND PRO (ASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVI- 
TIES IN THE UNITED STATES 

Part 5 



MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 28, 1964 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D.C. 
executive session 1 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 2 :15 p.m., in Room 219, Cannon House Office Build- 
ing, Washington, D.C, Hon. Richard H. Ichord (chairman of the 
subcommittee) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members: Representatives Richard H. Ichord, of 
Missouri : George F. Seimer, Jr., of Arizona ; and August E. Johansen, 
of Michigan.) 

Subcommittee members present : Representatives Ichord, Senner, 
and Johansen. 

Committee member also present : Representative Donald C. Bruce, 
of Indiana. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Frank S. 
Tavenner, Jr., general counsel; William Hitz and Alfred M. Nittle, 
counsel: Donald T. Appell, chief investigator; and Louis J. Russell 
and Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

Mr. Ichord. The subcommittee will come to order. 

I believe, first of all, we have some business which must be con- 
cluded in executive session. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Ichord. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The witness will rise and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Slater. I do. 

Mr. Ichord. The witness will be seated. 

Mr. Counsel, proceed with your questions. 



1 Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

2157 



2158 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

TESTIMONY OF MORTON B. SLATER, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

IRA GOLLOBIN— Resumed 

Mr. Nittle. Would the witness state his full name for the record, 
please? 

Mr. Slater. Morton B. Slater. 

Mr. Nittle. And you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Slater. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Would counsel please identify himself for the purposes 
of the record ? 

Mr. Gollobin. Ira Gollobin, G-o-l-l-o-b-i-n, from New York City. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Slater, you understand that you are today 
resuming testimony which you commenced on September 3, 1964. 

You are also aware that you are being called to resume that testi- 
mony upon the same subjects of inquiry, and for the same purposes, 
as were set forth in the chairman's opening statement of September 3, 
1964? 

Mr. Slater. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Slater 

Mr. Ichord. Did the witness reply "Yes"? 

Mr. Slater. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. At the hearing of September 3, 1964, we had asked 
you several questions, several preliminary questions, to which you 
responded until we reached a question which I posed to you, to wit: 
Would you relate the extent of your formal education, giving the 
dates and places of attendance at educational institutions, and any 
degrees received? 

You did not respond to that question. I desire to pose that ques- 
tion to you now. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Just one thing before I answer that question. 

I would like to point out that the reason for not answering that 
question was because I was attacked in the committee room and, as a 
result of this attack, I incurred certain hospital and doctor bills, and 
I was wondering if the committee was going to assume the cost of 
these bills. 

Mr. Ichord. Well, the Chair will advise the witness that that is 
not responsive to the question. 

The Chair has had a conversation with your attorney in regard to 
that. I understand your counsel is going to send the medical bill to 
the Chair and that will be taken up by the committee at the conclusion 
of these hearings. 

Now, state your question again, Mr. Counsel, and the witness is 
directed to answer. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and any degrees you may have received ? 

Mr. Slater. Beginning with high school ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, starting with high school. 

Mr. Slater. Attended the Bronx High School of Science from, 
I think, September 1956 to June 1959, at which point I began at City 
College in September of 1959. That's the City College of New York. 

I attended City College of New York until June of 1962, at which 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2159 

point I left, without a degree, for graduate studies in mat hematics 
at California Institute of Technology, where I was also a teaching 
assistant. 

Mr. Nittle. What is your present occupation? 

Air. Slater. Currently, I am unemployed. 

Air. Nittle. Would you give us the dates and places of employment 
since y our graduation from high school in June 1959 ? 

Air. Slater. Yes. I worked as an instructor of mathematics, teach- 
ing first-year college mathematics, which is calculus, while I was 
attending California Institute of Technology. This was from Sep- 
tember of 1962 until January of 1963. 

Either from January or February of 1963 until February of 1964, 
I worked for John Hancock Life Insurance Company, in Boston. 

Mr. Nittle. And you have held no employment since February, 
1964? 

Mr. Slater. That's correct. 

Mr. Nittle. What was the nature of your employment with the 
John Hancock Life Insurance Company ? 

Mr. Slater. Well, I was employed as an actuarial assistant. In 
connection with this work, I did actuarial work, computer program- 
ing, and operations research analysis for them. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Slater, I hand you a photostatic copy of a 
passport application, marked for identification as "Slater Exhibit No. 
1," subscribed by Morton B. Slater and filed with an agent of the 
Department of State at New York City on April 29, 1964. 

Are you the person who executed and filed this application? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Nittle. You will note it appears on the stamp upon your appli- 
cation that you were on April 30, 1964, issued United States passport 
No. E250739 pursuant to that application. 

Did you receive that passport in your possession ? 

Mr. Slater. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Chairman, I offer Slater Exhibit No. 1 in 
evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. Without objection, Slater Exhibit No. 1 will be ad- 
mitted in evidence. 

(Document marked "Slater Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Slater, I direct your attention to page 2 of the 
application, where, in response to directions contained in the form 
to give your approximate date of departure and proposed length of 
stay in each country to be visited, you stated that you intended to 
depart approximately on June 1, that the purpose of your trip was 
"vacation," and as to the countries to be visited, you listed France only. 

At the time you filed this application, you intended to visit Cuba, 
did you not ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer this question on the following 
grounds : On the ground the question does not elicit information perti- 
nent to legislative inquiry, but relates to matters of an evidentiary 
nature presently being considered by the United States District Court 
for the Eastern District of New York. 



2160 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will overrule the objection of the witness 
and direct him to answer the question. 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer the question on the ground that 
the question inquires into my political beliefs and associations, in 
violation of the guarantee of freedom of speech and assembly pro- 
vided by the first amendment to the Constitution. 

This committee can't inquire as to matters on which Congress can't 
legislate. 

Mr. Ichord. Cases of the Supreme Court have held, time and time 
again, that the ground advanced by the witness is not sufficient ground 
for refusal to answer. 

The Chair must direct the witness to answer the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ichord. I overrule the objection. 

Mr. Slater. Decline to answer this question on the grounds given to 
me by the 9th and 10th amendments of the Constitution, which in my 
opinion reserves travel, the right to travel, as a right guaranteed to the 
citizen, and not under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government. 

This is not a right specifically delegated to the Federal Govern- 
ment. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair again will have to overrule the objection 
of the witness. That is not sufficient ground for the refusal to reply 
to the question. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer under the grounds of the fifth 
amendment, which protects all persons from false accusation. 

Air. Ichord. The Chair will ask the witness: Are you invoking all 
of the fifth amendment, including the self-incrimination clause of the 
fifth amendment? 

Mr. Slater. Yes. 

Mr. Ichord. The objection will be sustained. The witness is not 
required to answer. 

Proceed with your next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. In any event, Mr. Slater, did you not on June 10, 1964, 
together with a group of alleged student travelers, depart from the 
United States aboard Air France for travel to Cuba by way of France 
and Czechoslovakia, arriving in Havana, Cuba, on June 12, 1964, at 
which place you remained until August 12, thereafter returning to the 
United States on August 14 via Czechoslovakia ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nettle. Had you at any time applied for, or received from, the 
Department of State a specific endorsement of your passport for travel 
to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you then aware that to validate your travel to 
Cuba, it was necessary to obtain such an endorsement ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I didn't — I don't think that I consider that it is neces- 
sary to have such an endorsement to travel to Cuba. 

Mr. Johansex. Mr. Chairman, of course that answer is not re- 
sponsive to the question. 



l 3 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2161 

Mr. Ichord. I understand the question was, "Were you aware of 
a requirement to have the passport specially validated for travel to 
Cuba \ 

The reply of the witness was that he did not understand there was 
such a requirement. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. What I said was I didn't consider that this require- 
ment was a valid one. I am aware that there is some, you know, con- 
troversy over the subject of travel. 

Mr. Ichord. "Well, the Chair then would have to rule that the 
answer of the witness is not responsive to the question and direct 
you to answer it. 

("Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. "Well, I suppose 

Mr. Ichord. Rephrase your question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, were you aware that the State Department took 
the position that, in order to authorize and make lawful your travel 
to Cuba, it was required by regulation and by statute that you have 
such a specific endorsement of your passport ? 

Mr. Slater. Yes, I was aware of the State Department's position. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question. 

Mr. Johansen. Well, you were aware, then, that there was a State 
Department requirement. Whether you thought that was necessary 
or proper, or anything else aside, you were aware. That is what you 
were testifying. You were aware that there was that requirement? 

Mr. Slater. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, further referring to your passport application, 
did you there correctly state that the purpose of your trip was for 
vacation purposes? 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in fact intending to travel to serve the in- 
terests of a group or organization of which you were a member, titled 
"Student Committee for Travel to Cuba" ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Slater, you were present, were you not, dur- 
ing the testimony of Mr. George Luke, managing director of Travel 
Associates, Incorporated, who testified before this committee on Sep- 
tember 3, 1964? 

Mr. Slater. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luke testified that you accompanied Miss Yvonne 
Bond to his office on May 23, 1964, at which time she made arrange- 
ments for the purchase of tickets for a group of 28 persons for 
travel to Paris aboard Air France. 

Did you accompany Miss Bond under the circumstances related 
by Mr. Luke? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Again, I feel this question does not elicit information 
pertinent to legislative inquiry, but relates to matters of an eviden- 
tiary nature, presently being considered by the United States District 
Court for the Eastern District of New York. 

40-013— 65— pt. 5 13 



2162 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair will rule that the question is relevant and 
is within the purview of the inquiry. The ground stated by the wit- 
ness is not sufficient for a refusal to answer. 

The Chair will direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Slater. Decline to answer the question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Luke testified that Miss Bond, accompanied by 
you, visited his offices on two occasions, namely, May 23, 1964, at 
which time the initial arrangements were made, and again on May 
25, 1964, at which time she deposited $4,733.30 in cash, consisting 
principally of 47 new $100 bills, to be applied on account, and in part 
payment, of the cost of transportation for the so-called Bay Area 
Student Tour to France. 

Did you accompany Miss Bond on both visits to Mr. Luke's office ? 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. How long have you known Miss Bond ? 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. By whom were you assigned to accompany her ? 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not a fact that as a result of this transaction with 
Travel Associates, Incorporated, 20-odd persons flew to Paris, France, 
on June 10, 1964, aboard Air France Flight 010 ? 

Mr. Slater. I missed the first few words. I didn't get the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Nittle. I say, was it not a fact that as a result of this transac- 
tion, with Travel Associates 

Mr. Slater. O.K. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Slater, committee investigation discloses that the 
balance owing on this flight, in the sum of $12,450, was paid to Travel 
Associates, Incorporated, by check dated June 2, 1964, following Miss 
Bond's return to California; that this sum was obtained by her as a 
refund from Trans World Airlines for a booking with Trans World 
Airlines made by her in Oakland, California, and paid for with new 
$100 bills. 

Do you have knowledge of the source of the funds with which Miss 
Bond made the deposits, both with Trans World Airlines and with 
Travel Associates, Incorporated, or either of them? 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Our investigation has traced these bills to the Central 
Bank of Mexico. Did you participate in the forwarding of this 
money from Mexico to the United States ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination as before. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you in Mexico at any time during the months 
of April and May 1964 ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination as before. 

Mr. Nittle. To your knowledge, has anyone who is associated with 
the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba or the Progressive Labor 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2163 

Movement traveled to Mexico for the purpose of arranging the deliv- 
ery of these funds to the United States ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Slater, we are advised by Pan Am World Airways 
that on May 25, 1964, you visited its 600 5th Avenue office, New York 
City, at which you made arrangements for a group of 25 persons to 
travel to Paris via Pan American airlines and that you deposited 
with the office of Pan Am the sum of $10,420 in new $100 bills. 

Did you do so ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Did Miss Bond accompany you to the offices of Pan 
Am? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. From whom did you receive this sum in new $100 bills ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Was this given to you by Miss Bond ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, while the initial arrangement with Pan Am was 
for the travel of 25 persons, it is the committee's information that you 
later modified this to 18 persons, and finally to 14 persons, who in fact 
departed from the United States at Philadelphia for Paris on June 
10, 1964, aboard Pan Am Flight 116. 

These are the facts, are they not ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

(At this point Mr. Bruce left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Nittle. As a result of the reduction in the number of travel- 
ers, did you not receive two refunds from Pan Am by two checks, pay- 
able to your order, one dated June 3, 1964, numbered 162063, in the 
sum of $1,250.40, which I have marked for identification as "Slater 
Exhibit No. 2," the second dated June 8, 1964, numbered 162097, in 
the sum of $1,667.20, marked for identification as "Slater Exhibit No. 
2- A"? 

I hand you photostatic copies of Exhibits Nos. 2 and 2-A, and 
ask whether these are not the drafts by which you received such 
ref unds ? 

Mr. Slater. I decline on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you endorse and cash these drafts at Bankers 
Trust Company in New York on the respective dates issued ? 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Slater Exhibits Nos. 2 and 2-A 
into evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. Without objection, the exhibits will be admitted into 
evidence. 

So admitted. 

(Documents marked "Slater Exhibits Nos. 2 and 2-A," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Slater, would you tell us what disposition you made 
of the refund received from Pan Am ? 



2164 IPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. I have before me affidavits of officials and employees of 
Pan American World Airways relating to your contacts with its 
office at 600 5th Avenue, New York. The first affidavit is that of 
Phillip N. Addabbo, district manager, Groups and Tours, marked 
for identification as "Slater Exhibit No. 3." 

The second is that of Aldo Ferrero, marked for identification as 
"Slater Exhibit No. 3-A," and the third is that of Merrily Ann 
Cramer, marked for identification as "Slater Exhibit No. 3-B." 

(Documents handed to witness.) 

Mr. Nittle. All of these persons I have named are employees of 
Pan Am. The questions I have previously asked you have been prin- 
cipally based on information contained in these affidavits so far as 
the questions have related to your activities at Pan Am. 

I ask you to review these affidavits, and to tell us whether you have 
any correction or other comment to make upon them. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gollobin. What was that on the record ? "Do you have any 
comment" ? 

(The reporter read from the record as requested.) 

Mr. Slater. I have no comment to make on them. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have any correction to make ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to make any corrections, on the previous 
grounds stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer in evidence Slater Exhibits Nos. 
3, 3-A, and 3-B. 

Mr. Ichord. Without objection, these exhibits, consisting of affidav- 
its, will be admitted. 

(Documents marked "Slater Exhibits Nos. 3, 3-A, and 3-B," respec- 
tively, follow : ) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2165 



Slater Exhibit No. 3 
fwcnt alviericaiv world airways 



I, Phillip N. Addabbo, Manager of Groups and Tours for the New York District do hereby 
certify as follows: 

On May 20, 196li a Mr. Slater called at our office at Vanderbilt Avenue and li5th 
Street and requested reservation for a group of 18 persons from Chicago to Phila- 
delphia and from Philadelphia to Paris for travel on June 10. 

The request was submitted to our Group Desk for handling listing Mr. Slater's 
telephone as BU 8-k309 and contact in care of Cyril Simon, 500 East 7i*th Street, 
New York, 

The reservation was actioned with TWA for the Chicago/Philadelphia segment and 
confirmed on May 21. The Philadelphia/Paris segment was confirmed by our Pan Am 
Space Control on May 20. Both of these were on the basis of 25 persons . 

The full names of the participants were promised to us by May 25. 

On May 25 we received the names of the 25 participants from Mr. Slater and these 
were listed as per copy of card attached. (Photo Copy l) 

On May 25, Mr. Slater, paid to our office at 600 Fifth Avenue an amount of $10,^20.00 
representing cost of 25 tickets at $Ul6.80 each for transportation from Chicago to 
Philadelphia to Paris^to New York to Chicago. Payment was made in cash and in bills 
of $100 denomination. 

On May 27 the tickets were picked up by Mr. Slater at 600 Fifth Avenue. 

On May 29 we were asked to cancel E. Clark and R. Sink bringing the group down to 
23, and to change the names of: K. Hauptell, Tas Birchfield, E. Seel to Seltzer, 
Agee, and Mears. 

On June 3 we were asked to cancel the names of G. Kemp and to change the names of 
Williams, McKark and Watson to Horlick, Ciesielski and Johnson. The group now 
numbered 22. 

Refund Check No. 162063 in the amount of &I250.I4O representing refund of 3 tickets 
was given to Mr. Slater on June 3, 196Iu 

On June 8 we were requested to cancel Slater, Swinson, Horlick and Blackledpe 
reducing the group to 18. 

Pefund Check No. 162097 in the amount of $1667.20 representing refund of four 
tickets at $hl6.80 was given to Mr. Slater on June 8. 

The above is true and correct to the best of my -knowledge. 

PNA:GH^7/€k Jky thf yUt&LOH, l'*Y District Manager Groups & Tours 

Lj-Q 1 N G NEW YORK. NEW VQRK 10017 




2166 /PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



Slater Exhibit No. 3-A 

I Aldo Ferrero reside at 97-28 57th Ave., Rego Park, N. Y. and I am 
employed by Pan American World Airways at the 600 5th Ave Ticket Counter 
as Supervisor Counter Sale6. 

On May 25, 1964 $10420.00 was deposited with our office in cash 
to cover the cost of 25 passengers traveling on a Chicago to Paris 
21 day excursion fare of 416.80 each. 

The total amount was presented in new bills of $100.00 denomin- 
ations. Cashier Mr. Dick Lambert took one bill to a neighboring bank 
to check its validity since all bills were in numerical sequence. 
Verifying the bill was legal U. S. currency MC0 number 026001424242 
was given to Mr. Morton Slater by way of a receipt. 

Arrangements were made at that time to pick up the tickets at a 
later date. 



The above statement is true and, correct to the best of my knowledge. 

Aldo ferrero 



ftLrt 



— "v 1 Wa r—r J' 



KOTARY PUBLIC. sW^( Ne%/ Vort 
NoM.2tyrfx> (J 

Qualified in "New York County 
Commission expires March 20, 1965 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



2167 



Slater Exhibit No. 3-B 



I Merrily Ann Cramer reside at 96-10 57th Ave. 
I am employed by Pan American World Airways at the 
Counter as a Sales Agent on the Commercial Desk. 



, Rego Park, N. Y. and 
600 5th Ave Ticket 



On May 28, 1964 Derrick Meyer of the Pan American Group Desk notified 
me that I would be receiving teletickets for a group of 25 passengers for 
the following itinerary: 

TW 180 R 10 Jun CHI PHL 

PA 116 Y 10 JUN PHL PAR 

PA OPEN Y PAR NYC 

AA/UA OPEN R NYC CHI 

Each ticket was valued at 416.80, a 21 day excursion fare valid until 
July 01, 1964. The total value of the tickets was 10420.00. On receipt of all 
25 tickets I was to notify Mr. Derrick Meyer so that he could arrange an 
appointment with Kr. Morton Slater to have the tickets picked up. 

On May 29, 1964 I received the following passengers tickets: 

1. P. Clark 

2. Gen. Baker 

3. E. Swinson 

4. S. Siegle 

5. L. Siegle 

6. P. Bluestone 

7. A. Cohen 

8. R. Mates 

9. M. Algire 

10. L. Tripp 

11. C. Simmons 

12. J. Grisson 

13. H. Blackledge 

In the following days Mr. Morton Slater cancelled passengers 17-25 as 
listed above and rebooked the following passengers in their place: 



14. 


R. Abts 


15. 


F. Sears 


16. 


M. Slater 


17. 


E Clark 


18, 


J. Williams 


19. 


K. Hauptlii 


20. 


J. McKart 


21. 


J. Birchfield 


22. 


E Sell 


23. 


J. K. Watson 


24. 


R. Sink 


25. 


G. Kemp 



R. Mears 
L. Seltzer 



J. Agee 
A. Horlick 



D. Ciesielski 
C. Johnson 



This brought the total value of 22 passengers tickets to $9169.60. 

During this time several attempts to make appointments with Mr. Slater 
were made but due to the difficulty in reaching him at the telephone number he 
gave us, he did not pick up the tickets from me until June 03, 1964. 

I released the 22 tickets to Mr. Slater in exchange for MCO number 
026001424242 which had been purchased for cash on May 25, 1964 at the ticket 
counter at 600 Fifth Avenue. Since the MCO valued $10420.00 a difference of 
$1250.40 was given to Mr. Slater in the form of a refund check. 

The above statement is true and correct to the best of my knowledge. 



/ 



31 




srrilyJ&in Cramer 



MAKY J. LYONS 
Kt^ASY PUBLIC. SsJifyf N 

(/ /<. — -Wrf^eWiK^eei • 

Qualified in VmL Yoi-J County / 
Commission exji/es M^ch 30, 1965 ' I 



^CllLA.CA+J.> C jb/ 




2168 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Mr. Slater, you were also present and heard the testi- 
mony of Mr. Alexander Lewin, L-e-w-i-n, an employee of Foreign 
Tours, Incorporated, who testified on September 3, 1964; were you 
not? 

Mr. Slater. That is correct. 
(At this point Mr. Johansen left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lewin testified that you visited with him at the 
offices of Foreign Tours at 11 West 42d Street, New York City, on 
five occasions, namely, on May 10, on May 12 or 13, May 26, June 2, 
and June 8, 1964, and made arrangements for the travel of 32 persons 
to Paris aboard El Al, a group you described to him as the Manhattan 
Art Club, and deposited with his office a sum in excess of $11,000 
for this purpose, the bulk of which was in new $100 bills. 

Did you make the arrangements and payment as described ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us from whom you received this sum? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Lewin further testified that on the occasion of your 
May 26 visit, you were accompanied to his office by a woman identified 
to him as Katsko, K-a-t-s-k-o, Itakava, I-t-a-k-a-v-a. 

Mr. Lewin testified that the person identified to him as Katsko 
Itakava appeared to be the same person as Wendie Suzuko Nakashima 
Rosen, whom he pointed out in the hearing room on September 3, 
1964. 

The committee would like to determine whether Katsko Itakava was 
in fact Wendie Nakashima Rosen. Would you tell us, please, whether 
Katsko Itakava was in fact Wendie Nakashima Rosen ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

(Mr. Johansen returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us for what purpose you were accom- 
panied by this person ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not a fact that as a result of your transactions 
with Foreign Tours, Inc., a group of 30-odd persons traveled to Paris, 
France, on June 10, 1964, aboard El Al Flight 242 ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. The committee's investigation further reveals that you 
made contact also with Mr. Harry Colin, C-o-h-n, president and gen- 
eral manager of the Macpherson Travel Bureau, 41 East 42d Street, 
New York City, on May 20, 1964, for the purchase of 25 tickets to 
Paris aboard Air France, and that on May 24, 1964, you deposited 
$8,000 with Mr. Cohn in new $100 bills for that purpose. 

Did you make the arrangements and deposit the said sum with the 
McPherson Travel Bureau ? 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2169 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. It is the committee's information that in your dealings 
with the Macpherson Travel Bureau, you were also accompanied on at 
least one occasion by the person whose name was given by Mr. Lewin 
as Katsko Itakava, or as Mr. Cohn recalls, the person who gave her 
name as Miss Katsuko, K-a-t-s-u-k-o, Itkawa, I-t-k-a-w-a. 

In your dealings with the Macpherson Travel Bureau, were you 
accompanied by a young lady who gave her name to Mr. Cohn as Miss 
Katsuko Itkawa? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, the person who accompanied you, named by Mr. 
Lewin as Katsko Itakava, and by Mr. Colin as Katusko Itkawa, was 
in fact none other than Wendie Rosen. Is that not correct ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Kittle. Mr. Lewin advised us, as did Mr. Luke, that this person, 
following the giving of her name, gave her telephone number as 
FO-8-7299, which is in fact listed to Mary Hamanaka, the mother of 
Wendie Rosen. 

Do you recollect being present on this occasion when the person who 
identified herself to Mr. Lewin gave this telephone number? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Colin has informed the committee that there were 
several changes made by you as to persons who would travel and that, 
finally, only nine persons were definitely scheduled to make the 
trip. 

You were then given two refunds in the amount of $4,240.20 and 
$683.60, which you immediately cashed on receipt at the Manufac- 
turers Hanover Trust Company, 42d and Maclison Avenue, New 
York City. 

Is this not correct ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Slater, I hand you photostatic copies of two 
drafts, drawn on the Macpherson Travel Bureau, Incorporated, both 
payable to the order of Mr. Morton Slater, dated respectively June 
8 and June 0, 1964, and numbered 23816 and 23814, payable in the sums 
of $4,240.20 and $683.60, marked for identification as "Slater Exhbits 
Nos. 4 and 4-A." 

Are these not true copies of the refund checks made payable to you 
by the Macpherson Travel Bureau, Inc., and to which I have referred ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Slater Exhibits Nos. 4 and 4-A 
into evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. There being no objection, the Exhibits Nos. 4 and 4-A 
will be admitted. 



2170 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

(Documents marked "Slater Exhibits Nos. 4 and 4-A," respectively, 
and retained in committee files.) 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Slater, will you tell the committee what you did 
with the refund you received in this instance ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. I have before me an affidavit executed by Mr. Harry 
Colm, the president and general manager of the Macpherson Travel 
Bureau, Incorporated, marked for identification as "Slater Exhibit 
No. 4— B," relating to your contact with him at that agency. 

The questions I have asked you concerning your contacts with the 
Macpherson Travel Bureau have been based principally upon informa- 
tion contained in Mr. Cohn's affidavit. 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Mr. Nittle. I ask you to examine this exhibit which has been 
handed to you and tell us, please, whether you have any correction or 
comment upon it. 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I offer Slater Exhibit No. 4-B in 
evidence. 

Mr. Ichord. Is there any objection? 

The exhibit is admitted. 

(Document marked "Slater Exhibit No. 4— B," follows :) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2171 

Slater Exhibit No. 4-B 



, Harry Cohn, residing at 8800 Boulevard East, North Bergen, Hew Jersey hereby 
deposes and sayst 

That I am the President and General Manager of the Macpherson Travel Bureau, Inc 
of 11 East 12nd Street, New York, New York and have been connected with this 
company in a managerial position for the past nine years. 

fhat on or about May 20th, 1964 a slight young man with a goatee who identified 
limself as Morton B. Slater entered our office and inquired about transportation 
for a group of 25 people from New York to Paris on a flight on or about June 9th 
rfith an air fare based on the 14-21 day excursion. I received an allotment of 
seats from Air France on their flight #020 scheduled to leave New York on 
June 9th. Mr. Slater informed us that he resided at 500 East 74th Street, New 
fork City and gave a contact telephone of BU 8-4309. 

■ie returned to our office on May 24th with a deposit of $8,000.00 comprised of 
80 new $100.00 bills. I immediately took this money to the Manufacturers Hanover 
Bank at 42nd Street and Madis6n Avenue and deposited it. 

On June 8th he informed us that there would be only 11 persons in his party and 
requested a refund of the difference. Accordingly we issued our check #23816 for 
thi6 refund and I accompanied Mr. Slater to our bank, identified him and he 
cashed the check which was for $4,240.20. He gave us a sheet of paper which was 
turned over to Mr. Manuel, Investigator for the House Committee on UnAmerican 
Activities on which the original list of passengers were given and with 
amendments shown on another sheet of paper which is also now in his possession. 
These in toto consisted of the following: 

Paul Jasper John Thompson Daniel Barker Efraim Torres 

tathony Murad Henry A. Winchesterkim Chappell Sarah Fulton 

Juan O'Neill Harry T. Collins ' Hubert Faulkner 

rfm. He Rae Frances Kissling Manuel Colon 

Phyllis Martin Victor Hernandez Figuera Jose Carlos Colon 

rliguel Hernandez Harry Uier Judith Chessman 

Horace Fincher Lawrence Seltzer Willard Chastain 

Jilfredo Nunez Sameel Aviles Mary Maher 

Morton Slater 

3n June 9th he telephoned us with a revised list of passengers that were 
actually going and these are listed above in the column starting with Efraim 
Torres . That same day he came into our office and picked up these tickets 
together with a check for the balance of the refund due which he again took 
to our bank to cash accompanied by Mr. Norman Meyers , an employee of this 
firm. This was check #23814 in the amount of $683.60. 

Dn one of the above days he was accompanied by an Oriental woman who gave us the 
lame of Miss Katsuko Itkawa, who was listed as second airline contact. She gave 
the telephone number of FO 8-7299. 

The tickets sold were for reservations from New York to Paris on Air France fligbjt 
020 leaving New York on June 9th, 1964 with the return flight open. Mr. Slater 
said that his group was going to Paris to study art and at,, no time did Mr. Slater 
say or intimate anything about any journey beyond Paris^.to Cuba 

[ have read the above and swear that it is true . — - — *V <* -g-^-y 

Harry Cohn / 

5worn to and subscribed before me this 26th day of AugustVl964 in the City of 
lew York, county of New York, State of New York. 




t 



'• -No. 2'^4iSS2JS 



u 



•fcmnilssiojj Expires \textzAZ', ~:y 



2172 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Slater, by whom were you selected to contact the 
travel agencies to which we have referred ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, as a result of your transactions with Macpherson 
Travel Bureau, is it not a fact that nine persons, including yourself, 
traveled to Paris on June 9, 1964, aboard Air France Flight 020 ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Is it not a fact that all the persons who traveled to 
Paris aboard the nights for which you made arrangements met in 
Pairs and then traveled in one body aboard Czechoslovakian airlines 
Flight 508 to Prague, and then aboard Cubana airlines Flight 477 
from Prague to Havana, Cuba ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have knowledge of the manner in which pay- 
ment was made for the flight from Paris to Prague ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Did the Czechoslovakian Government require payment 
for this transportation? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Was the transportation, to your knowledge, paid by 
the Cuban Government, or any of its agencies, for the flight from 
Paris to Prague ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Upon your arrival in Prague, Czechoslovakia, did you 
apply for or receive a slip visa from the Cuban consulate for admis- 
sion to Cuba ? 

Mr. Slater. I was wondering when this committee is going to 
undertake an investigation of the American Nazi Party. It seems 
to me that this group is an avowed group out to overthrow the 
democratic processes of the United States, and this group has con- 
tinued to go along free from investigation by this committee. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, now, Mr. Slater, we cannot entertain that di- 
version at this time. 

Will you please answer the question asked you ? 

Mr. Ichord. It is not responsive to the question, Mr. Slater. The 
Chair will direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Slater. This was a question about 

Mr. Nittle. Upon your arrival in Prague, Czechoslovakia, did you 
apply for or receive a slip visa from the Cuban consulate for later 
admission to Cuba? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you exhibit your American passport to French or 
Czechoslovakian officials, or both, during the course of your travel 
to Cuba? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you exhibit your passport to any representative 
of the Cuban Government in Prague? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gollobix. Could we have that question read back ? 

Mr. Nittle. Did you exhibit your passport to any representative 
of the Cuban Government in Prague ? 
(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. No, I didn't exhibit my passport to any Cuban of- 
ficial. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2173 

Mr. Nittle. Were you instructed not to exhibit your American 
passport to any Cuban official en route to Cuba ? 

Mr. Slater. No Cuban official ever asked to examine my pass- 
port. 

Mr. Nittle. I say, Were you instructed by any person not to ex- 
hibit your American passport to any Cuban official while en route 
to Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. It has been publicly announced by representatives of 
the Student Committee for Travel to Cuba that the expenses of travel 
to Cuba were being assumed by the Cuban Federation of University 
Students. 

Mr. Slater, do you have knowledge whether the costs of the entire 
trip were financed by the Cuban Government or any of its agencies ? 

A tr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Could you tell us the amount, actual or estimated, that 
this student visit in Cuba cost the Cuban Government ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. An article in the New York Times, at page C-3 of 
August 19, 1964, in reporting an interview with five Americans who 
recently returned from the Cuban travel with you, declared that 
all their expenses in Cuba were paid and that they received the 
equivalent of about $10 a week in spending money. 

Did you receive and accept the equivalent of $10 a week in spending 
money from Cuban sources I 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Decline for the reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. In return for the remuneration just noted, was it ex- 
pected that both in Cuba and on your return to the United States, 
you would disseminate accounts and descriptions or furnish informa- 
tion favorable to the Communist regime in Cuba and Communist re- 
gimes elsewhere ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I went to Cuba to find out what the truth was about 
Cuba, to see it for myself, to see whatever I had to see there, go wherever 
I chose to go, and I had no assignment of any kind. 

I went to Cuba to find out what was going on in Cuba, as far as 
my visit there and coming back here. 

Mr. Nittle. I do not think you have answered my question. I 
said: Was it expected that in return for the remuneration received 
that you would, on your return to the United States and while in 
Cuba, disseminate accounts and descriptions or furnish information 
favorable to the Communist regime in Cuba or Communist regimes 
elsewhere ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I went to Cuba without an agreement with anyone, and 
I went there to find out what was going on in Cuba and to see what 
actually was the situation in Cuba, and what I saw was overwhelm- 
mg support for the government by the people, full employment 

Mr. Ichord. Well, now, the Chair would have to rule, Mr. Witness, 
that that is not responsive to the question. 



2174 [PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

I direct you to answer the question. 

Just a minute. 

Do you wish to intervene ? 

Mr. Johansen. Well, I would like to. The witness said he went 
without any agreement or miderstanding with anyone. Now, certainly 
the witness had some kind of an understanding or agreement or ar- 
rangement as to who was providing the money to pay the expenses, 
did he not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. My response was to his question, which was did I have 
any agreeement to disseminate certain information about the Cuban — 
you know 

Mr. Johansen. Well, the response was that there was no agreeement 
with anybody about anything, as I understood it. 

Mr. Slater. Well, I was just 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Ichord. The Chair 

Mr. Gollobin. May I be heard ? 

Mr. Ichord. I think perhaps we should read back the question, and 
then we will get to the question of Mr. Johansen. 

Will the reporter read back the question of Mr. Nittle for the 
witness ? 

And then we will dispose of the question of Mr. Johansen. Let's get 
that out of the way, first. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter, as follows :) 

I do not think you have answered my question. I said : Was it expected that in 
return for the remuneration received that you would, on your return to the 
United States and while in Cuba, disseminate accounts and descriptions or fur- 
nish information favorable to the Communist regime in Cuba or Communist re- 
gimes elsewhere? 

Mr. Ichord. I think that question relates back to a previous question 
you asked, Mr. Counsel. Perhaps you should rephrase your question 
and put it to the witness. 

Mr. Nettle. Let me phrase it this way. 

Mr. Senner. Excuse me, Counsel, if I may interrupt. 

Did he not take the fifth when you asked about these funds and so 
on ? All these questions ? 

Mr. Nittle. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Slater. Yes. 

Mr. Senner. So right now, the only question that is pending is did 
he have an agreement ? 

What was your answer, Witness ? 

Mr. Slater. Well, again, I answered his question as to whether 
there was an agreement about disseminating, you know, some Com- 
munist 

Mr. Senner. You said there was no agreement ? 

Mr. Slater. — non-Communist propaganda, and in answer to his 
question, I said I hadn't. 

Mr. Ichord. There was no such agreement ? 

Mr. Slater. No. 

Mr. Ichord. Now, Mr. Johansen. 

Mr. Johansen. Now, my question goes to whether there was any 
agreement on your part with any parties, or any understanding with 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2175 

any parties, as to who was to provide the expenses and the money for 
your expenses for this trip, and during your stay in Cuba. 

(Witness con ferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Same declination as I have before. 

Mr. Joiiansen. Well, I simply want to observe, Mr. Chairman, that 
this is quite a self-serving selection of declinations. He likes to be 
responsive when one question is asked about agreements and under- 
standings, and then declines with respect to the other. 

Mr. Ichord. Next question, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Johaxsen. You did receive some money to finance your own trip 
to Cuba, did you not? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us in what way your willingness to 
cooperate with the Cuban Government in making financial arrange- 
ments and providing transportation for this trip was made known to 
the Cuban authorities ? 

Mr. Slater. Could you repeat that ? 

Mr. Nittle. Would you read the question ? 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Slater, are you a member of the Progressive Labor 
Movement ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Yes, I am a member of the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you hold any official position in that organization ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. No, I don't. 

Mr. Nittle. To what cell or group of the Progressive Labor 
Movement have you been assigned ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us when you became a member of the 
Progressive Labor Movement ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Ichord. Mr. Slater, do you know how many members the 
Progressive Labor Movement has ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Johansen. Well, now, Mr. Chairman, I am just a little baffled 
here. Maybe this is not an important point, but I cannot understand 
how the witness can claim that he has a right to invoke the self- 
incrimination provision under the fifth amendment with respect to 
when he became a member, after he has responded to the question as 
to whether he was a member. 

He evidently judged that it did not tend to incriminate him to 
admit membership, then when he is asked as to when he became a 
member, this suddenly becomes self-incriminating, according to his 
claim. 

I think on that matter of the question of "when," he should be 
directed to answer. 

Mr. Ichord. Does the witness honestly feel that an answer to the 
question would incriminate the witness? 



2176 (PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. It might tend to. 

Mr. Ichord. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Slater. It might tend to. 

Mr. Johansen. But the fact of your acknowledgement of member- 
ship, you definitely concluded, I judge, would not tend to incriminate 
you, since you answered. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, pursuing Mr. Johansen's thought, I 
would suggest to the Chair that the witness has, in effect, waived his 
privilege 

Mr. Johansen. Precisely. 

Mr. Nittle. — with respect to the further questions relating to the 
time of his membership. 

Mr. Ichord. It is rather difficult for the Chair to understand how 
the witness could admit membership in the Progressive Labor Move- 
ment, and then say that the time of becoming a member would tend to 
incriminate. 

There could be circumstances surrounding his gaining membership 
in the Progressive Labor Movement that would incriminate. 

The Chair will have to rule that the witness has not waived the 
right to invoke the fifth amendment. 

Proceed with your next question. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Slater, did you make the arrangements for travel 
that you made, and make them on behalf of the Student Committee 
for Travel to Cuba ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you make the arrangements in your capacity as a 
representative or member of the Progressive Labor Movement? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Nittle. To your knowledge, was the Student Committee for 
Travel to Cuba organized, created, and controlled by the Progressive 
Labor Movement ? 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Was it your purpose, in participating in the arrange- 
ments for the travel of your group, to do so to assist in the dissemi- 
nation of propaganda and to conduct agitation favorable to the 
Communist regime in Cuba ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Gollobin. Mr. Nittle, could we have the question read back ? 

Mr. Ichord. Miss Reporter, will you read the question back for 
the witness ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Same declination. 

Mr. Johansen. Now, Mr. Chairman, may I interject right there, 
and ask this question ? 

In view of the statement, if memory serves me right, of the witness 
that there was no understanding with respect to this sort of activity — - 
and I believe he so stated that there was no commitment made dur- 
ing your stay in Cuba — was there at any time any discussion by you, 
either with those who shared the trip with you or those who were 
your hosts or whom you met in Cuba, as to what you would say or 
intended to say or to do upon your return to the United States with 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2177 

regard to setting forth, quote, "the facts" or the "truth" about what 
was happening in Cuba? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Students who visited Cuba, as far as I know, went 
there to find out what was going on in Cuba. 

Mr. Johansen. No, I am not asking you about students generally. 
I am asking you about you yourself, as to whether you had any 
discussion with your so-called fellow students or with any of your 
hosts, official or otherwise, in Cuba, as to what you intended to say 
or do with regard to the presentation of the case for the revolution 
in Cuba, when you returned to the United States. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I had no such discussions or agreements, or whatever 
you call that, with anybody, as far as coming back to the United 
States and disseminating whatever you refer to in your question. 

I saw many things in Cuba, new housing for workers, full employ- 
ment, workers' control of factories, many things like this, but 

Mr. Johansen. Now, since your return, have you been telling of 
what you observed down there, and giving reports indicating your 
favorable impression of the results of the revolution in Cuba \ 

(Witness conferred w T ith counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. So far, I have given no talks. 

Mr. Johansen. Well, of course, the witness has indicated his con- 
clusions to the committee. 

Do I understand the witness to say that he has not indicated, 
whether in formal speeches or presentations, to his fellow Americans, 
since his return, the conclusions that he reached as a result of this 
visit? 

Mr. Gollobin. Could I ask counsel to be clear as to Mr. Johansen's 
meaning ? 

When you said, "in formal talks," did you mean in some formal 
public address? Not private conversation, I would take the ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Johansen. I am speaking primarily, of course, of speeches or 
talks. In other words, do you feel that you have — I do not want to 
lapse into slang, but do you have the feeling that as a result of this 
trip you are in a position and should enlighten the people of 
this country as to your conclusions regarding the benefits alleged of 
the Cuban revolution? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Well, I feel that the American people, through the 
newspapers in this country, are greatly misinformed as to what is 
going on in Cuba. 

Mr. Johansen. I am not asking you about the newspapers. I am 
asking you about what you feel is your responsibility, now, to the 
American people as a result of this trip. 

Mr. Slater. I certainly feel that it would be in the interest of the 
American people to find out and know what the real situation is in 
Cuba. 

Mr. Johansen. Do you feel that it is your obligation to tell the 
American people on the basis of what you observed down there? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I feel that I have an obligation to the American people 
to tell them what the situation is. 

40-013— 65— pt. 5 14 



2178 IPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Well, are you doing that ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I haven't as yet. I hope to have the opportunity in the 
future, because I feel this would bring about friendly relations be- 
tween the United States and Cuba, which is in the interests of the 
American people. 

Mr. Johaxsen. Did you have that purpose in mind when you ac- 
cepted the money to go down there ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Jotiaxsex. I just wondered whether somebody accepted money 
under false pretenses and whether the Cuban Government, or what- 
ever Cuban agency it was put this money up, is getting their money's 
worth. 

The whole purpose, one of the legislative purposes of this hearing 
is to determine whether in practical effect the American citizens who 
accept money from the Cuban Government or from Cuban agencies 
that exist at the will and intent of the Cuban Government — whether 
those persons are in effect acting as agents for that government and 
for those agencies, and it seems to me that the witness has admitted 
that he hopes to be in that role, because he has indicated that, as a re- 
sult of the trip which was financed in that fashion, he hopes and ex- 
pects to spread the word. 

Mr. Sexxer. Are you through ? 

Air. Ichord. Mr. Senner. 

Mr. Sexxer. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Slater, were you a member of the Progressive Labor Movement 
more than 1 year, prior to this? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Sexxer. Is it not a fact that the Progressive Labor Movement 
has been pro-Fidel Castro for more than 1 year prior to this date? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. As far as I know, from publications of the Progressive 
Labor Movement, they have always been, you know, in favor of the 
situation that was going on in Cuba. 

As I said before, we went to Cuba, or I went to Cuba, with an open 
mind, to see what was there. We saw things which were, you know, 
unbelievable, and to talk to people down there and get their experi- 
ences, the fact that nobody is starving down there, and the people all 
have shoes, and they are all working, you know, for this country, to 
build it up, this is a tremendous experience for any American to see 
in an underdeveloped country. 

Mr. Sexxer. Now, to get back to my question, were you at the time 
you made the trip to Cuba a Progressive Labor Movement member? 

Mr. Gollobix. Could I have the question ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I decline to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2179 

Mr. Senner. You stated that when you were able to go to Cuba and 
see for yourself all these wonderful things that are happening down 
there, and so on, that you had free movement. I am going to ask you, 
Mr. Slater, were you given the right to see the weapons that they have 
in Cuba, the missile weapons? Were you given that right, as a 
Student for Travel to Cuba Committee ? 

The other witnesses, I might add, have all answered "no," they did 
not have that right. 

"What is your answer ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. What I saw was a very happy people down there, who 
wanted friendship with the American people. 

Mr. Senner. Well, answer my question, and then I will let you ex- 
pound on it. 

Did you, did Fidel Castro permit you to see the missiles, the defense 
weapons in Cuba ? 

It is either "yes" or "no." He did or he did not. 

Mr. Slater. Military installations were off limits 

Mr. Senner. So you could not 

Mr. Slater — to our group. We did go — there were historic caves, 
throughout the — you know, like this cave or that cave, and we certainly 
saw no missiles in these caves. I know I had read stories here that in 
all these caves, there were missiles 

Air. Senner. Well, it is nice that you got to see caves, but the point 
is that you were not able to see the military might of Cuba during 
your visitation there as Students for Cuba Travel Committee, in 
which you were going down to see for yourself what was happening 
in Cuba, so you could tell the American public exactly what was tak- 
ing place on that island. 

Mr. Slater. This military stuff is not a threat to the American 
people, since the Cubans seek friendship with the American people. 
Cubans are very friendly disposed to the Americans. 

Mr. Senner. I asked Witness Lemansky, and I think positively Miss 
Bond, when they were on the stand, in essence, the following question : 
Did they believe that it was all right for Fidel Castro to have offensive 
missile weapons directed against this country, and their response, I 
believe, was in the affirmative. 

What is your attitude in regard to the right of Fidel Castro to have 
offensive missile weapons directed against the American people and 
this Nation? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I think the record is very clear, of United States 
harassments from Guantanamo Base. There is a "United States naval 
base right on this land of Cuba. We also, you know, took part in 
this 

Mr. Johansen. What harassments are you speaking of ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Johansen. Now, the witness has a right to ask counsel for 
advice as to his rights, and I trust the witness is limiting himself to 
that inquiry. 

What harassments from Guantanamo? 

Mr. Slater. Well, the fact is that just its mere presence is a harass- 
ment to the Cuban people. 



2180 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Johansen. What other harassments did you have in mind? 

Mr. Sennek. I think when they cut our water off, or something like 
that. 

Mr. Johansen. That was a reverse harassment. 

Mr. Senner. But getting back to my question, I want an answer, 
now. 

Mr. Slater. What was the question ? What was the question ? 

Mr. Senner. Miss Reporter, would you please read it ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Ichord. I believe he answered that the military bases were 
off limits. 

Mr. Senner. Yes, but I asked him the question specifically, if he 
agreed with Miss Bond and Lemansky that it would be all right for 
Fidel Castro to have offensive missile weapons directed against the 
people of the United States on the island of Cuba. 

Now, either you agree that this is right, or you do not agree. 

Mr. Slater. Well, I hate to think of any country as having the 
right to direct missile weapons against any other country, but if any 
country does, for example, the United States, I understand, has offen- 
sive missile weapons in it, so, you know, and in light of the United 
States' record of attacks, like, for instance, the Bay of Pigs, which 
supposedly, from what we understand from our own press, the CIA 
was heavily involved in, and the presence of Guantanamo Naval Base, 
I suppose within this context, he might have the right, if there is such 
a thing as the right of these things. 

Mr. Senner. Well, do you believe that they have a right to have 
offensive missile weapons directed against the people of the United 
States '? Yes or no ? 

And in view of all the great knowledge that you possess, now, after 
being a member of the Progressive Labor Movement, and making this 
great, sweeping trip down there, of 2 months, to see for yourself 
conditions in Cuba, do you think that they have a right to have 
offensive missile weapons directed against the people of this country 
and against the United States of America? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Senner. We will throw Guantanamo Bay in there, too, the 
naval base. 

Mr. Slater. Every country has the right to defend itself, just as 
the United States has, takes on itself the right to have these weapons. 
Every country has the right to defend itself. 

Mr. Senner. Then if you are talking about this right, would you 
explain to me why Fidel Castro would want to be infiltrating peaceful 
nations that do not have these offensive missile bases and to overthrow 
their governments and to preach communism, Progressive Labor 
Movement theory, and so forth and so on? Is this not invasion of 
the various Latin American countries ? 

Mr. Slater. Well, I don't know why you couldn't assume that these 
movements or whatever you call them in South America are external. 
Look at the conditions of South America. Look at all the things 
that the people don't have. Any of these people who could have had 
the opportunity from South America to travel to Cuba and see that 
all the people in Cuba are eating and are working, and so many 
students are studying in Cuba, and you have such, you know, such 
wonderful countries as there is in Cuba. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2181 

I don't see how you can assume that this would come from an exter- 
nal source. 

Mr. Senner. Let me ask you, in this great, wonderful land of Cuba 
that vou have just come back from, did you get the chance to talk 
to Fidel Castro? 

Mr. Slater. He played baseball with us one afternoon. I person- 
ally do not speak Spanish, and he does. 

Mr. Senner. With the other group he played ping-pong, and with 
your group he played baseball ? 

Mr. Slater. Well, he is quite an all-around man, Fidel. 

Mr. Senner. Did you ask him, or did anybody that was an inter- 
preter ask him, why there was no free election in Cuba, as he promised 
the people when he took over power in that government ? 

( Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. First, I would like to point out that in the United 
States after the revolution, which ended in 1783, 1 think there weren't 
elections until 1789. This is the first point, and the second point, in 
traveling around Cuba, we visited state farms and factories, and in 
the factories, you see, all the workers have a vote in the various, you 
know, things that relate to their factory and their community, and 
they elect representatives. 

They elect the party members in their factories, and it is these 
people who control, you know, the policies of the country, as, you 
know, as I saw it, and this would be like, for example 

Mr. Senner. And they really only control, maybe, a grievance com- 
mittee in a factory. 

Now, did you ask him why he did not hold free elections, if every- 
thing is as lovey-dovey as you contend it is ? 

Mr. Slater. I don't agree that they are only a grievance committee. 
These are people who work. These representatives are people who 
work with these very same people, day after day, and know all their 
problems, whereas I have asked a number of people in this country 
when is the last time they saw their Congressman or had personal 
contact with their Congressman, and most people that I found, you 
know, rarely if ever see their Congressman, so in this country, we lack 
this personal contact with the people that represent us. 

Mr. Senner. Where do you live ? 

Mr. Slater. I live in New York. 

Mr. Senner. And you mean to tell me that you cannot write to your 
Congressman and get a reply back ? 

Mr. Slater. Certainly, but my Congressman is — I don't know, off- 
hand. 

Mr. Senner. You do not even know his name. Have you ever made 
an attempt to ascertain his name and go by his office and talk to him? 

Mr. Slater. Well, you see, what do you call it, for many years, 
before I went to California and then worked in Boston, Massachusetts, 
and while I was living at home, my Congressman was Paul Fino, and 
that I know, but I haven't, you know, been in touch with the 

Mr. Senner. Let me ask you this question. You do not believe in 
democracy, do you ? 

Mr. Slater. I certainly do. Democracy is where the people control 
their own fate. 



2182 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Senner. How do you have democracy without having secret, 
free elections ? 

Mr. Johansen. At stated periods. 

Mr. Slater. Well, I don't — first of all, I don't think that free elec- 
tions guarantee a democracy, to begin with. I think that, as I re- 
member 

Mr. Senner. Democracy is majority rule, is it not? And whoever 
would take the time to go cast a secret ballot where nobody is peeking 
over his shoulder, to cast it into a box that is locked, and have it truth- 
fully and honestly counted? Is that not democracy working at its 
fullest? 

Mr. Slater. Well, in the first place, there is a question as to who 

Mr. Senner. Is it, or is it not ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Well, that's certainly a factor in a democratic society, 
but another important factor is who picks the candidates and who 
finances the candidates, and what is the candidates' obligation to these 
people who finance their campaigns. 

Mr. Johansen. Will the gentleman yield ? 

Mr. Senner. Yes. 

Mr. Johansen. Let me just say, first of all, I am interested in the 
reference to obligation in connection with the financing of candidates. 
I have been very curious about the obligations of the witness who ac- 
cepted the financing of his trip. 

Now, may I ask the witness this question : What does the Cuban 
Government under Fidel Castro have that is the equivalent of our 
Bill of Eights? In other words, spelled out limitations on the power 
of government ? 

( Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. Like President Roosevelt did, he has given the people 
an economic bill of rights. 

Mr. Senner. Which one ? 

Mr. Slater. Franklin Roosevelt. 

Sorry. 

Mr. Johansen. My question: Is there under the regime of Fidel 
Castro an equivalent, in writing, guaranteed Bill of Rights for the 
citizens which limits the government with respect to what the gov- 
ernment may do to the citizen ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Johansen. I do not care what Mr. Roosevelt — either one of 
them — did, at this point. 

Mr. Senner. I would suggest to my colleague that this gentleman 
is having a hard time finding an answer. 

Mr. Slater. No. I believe that they do, and not only that, but 
if I am not mistaken — I am not positive of this, now — but you see, 
the constitution, I don't think you know, in many ways, is radically 
different from the way it was under Batista, where it did guarantee 
people certain rights, and they didn't receive any of these rights, 
you see, so a constitution 

Mr. Johansen. You mean Cuba is operating under Castro under the 
Batista constitution? 

Mr. Slater. I say that I am not sure of this, but I am just point- 
ing out 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2183 

Mr. Joiiansex. Well, may I say to the witness that before he 
starts yielding dividends for the investment that was made in his 
trip to Cuba, that he be very sure that as to precisely what he can 
document with regard to the enforced and enforceable guarantees 
of rights of the citizen in written form, equivalent to our Bill of 
Eights. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. It isn't what's guaranteed in writing, it is what's 
guaranteed in practice. 

Mr. Johaxsext. I said enforced and enforceable. I used both. 

Of course, what's guaranteed in writing does not amount to a hoot 
unless it is enforced, and what can the witness say as to what extent 
a bill of rights is enforced under the Castro regime? Is there a 
right of jury trial? Is there a right of freedom from search and 
seizure? Is there a fifth amendment? Are witnesses that are ar- 
rested under the Castro regime afforded the protection that we 
scrupulously afford, and are required to afford and should be re- 
quired to afford, witnesses before this committee ? 

Mr. Senner. The right to bear arms in one's home ? 

Mr. Joiiaxsex. The right to possess and bear arms in one's own 
home ? 

Mr. Slater. Do they have slum lords in Cuba, where they over- 
charge people for living in rat-infested buildings? 

Mr. Joiiax t sex. The witness is not responding to the question at all. 
The witness has tacitly admitted he does not know the answer, but 
Cuba and the revolution are gorgeous. 

That is all I have. 

Mr. Sexxer. I just have this one question: Why, and for what 
reason, Mr. Castro failed to live up to his promise to have free elec- 
tions, secret ballots ? 

You believe in a democracy? You do not know whether you do 
or do not ? 

Could you answer ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I asked you the same question of George Washington 
after the Revolutionary War, and I also pointed out the tremendous 
amount of workers' representation through the factories and the 
farms. 

Mr. Johaxsex\ There were elections after the end of the Revolu- 
tion within the separate colonies, within what became the separate 
states, but which were governments of their own, and they had their 
own elective bodies over here in Virginia, elected by regular elections. 

Mr. Senxer. Some 6 years- ■ 

Mr. Johaxsex t . The reason the national elections were not held was 
because the National Government had not been established, because 
the Constitution had not been adopted. 

Mr. Slater. Well, the Cuban workers, as I pointed out, elect their 
representatives at the factory. These representatives take part 

Mr. Johaxsex. That is not the government of Cuba at all. 

Mr. Slater — take part in the provincial and in the city functions, 
you know, so Fidel is not elected nationwide. There is no question 
that he would poll 90 to 95 percent of the vote in anybody's mind on 
the island. 



2184 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mr. Sexxer. Then why does he not hold it, if he can do it? 

Mr. Slater. There is no sense in holding a farce at this time. 

Mr. Johansex. Well, any election held would be a farce. 

Mr. Slater. Why take the time and the money from the people at 
this time to hold an election, when it is absolutely clear what the 
situation is, and the country is still in a developing state, as was 

Mr. Sexxer. Militia is one third of the workers down there. Does 
he not maintain a militia that is equivalent to one third of the land, I 
mean, of the total population ? 

Mr. Slater. Well, I have — I really don't have exact information, 
you know. Assuming your figure, I know that a good number of 
people participate in the militia down there. Now, the militia 

Mr. Sexxer. What is the purpose of that ? 

Mr. Slater. The militia, I think, have two purposes. One is, they 
do 

Mr. Senner. To keep him in power ? 

Mr. Slater. They do things like 

Mr. Senner. Like what? 

Mr. Slater. Well, they are out in the street all the time, and being, 
you know, in case, every four, five blocks, there are no police in Cuba, 
you see. There are no city police forces. The people are their own 
police force. I mean, there is not any agency imposed by the govern- 
ment on the people. 

Mr. Senner. In other words, a local group could not decide whether 
or not they were going to have their own police force. 

Mr. Slater. This is their police force, the people themselves. The 
militia is open to all of them, and these are the people who are the 
police force. 

Mr. Johaxsex. Does the militia have to have a search warrant down 
there before they enter a private home? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Slater. I don't know. I really have no 

Mr. Sexxer. Just one last question, and I will let you go. 

Are you telling me the standard of living is higher now under Fidel 
Castro than it was per capita under Batista? Per capita, now. 

Mr. Slater. Wait. I don't have the exact facts, now, but if you 
mean per capita, we know that there were many big millionaires in 
Cuba, so you know these millions and millions of dollars that this 
small group collected might put the per capita average substantially 
above where it is now. I don't have the exact facts 

Mr. Sexxer. Let me ask you this question. 

Mr. Slater. — but there is no question 

Mr. Sexxer. Since Fidel Castro got into Cuba, is it not a fact that 
he needs a million dollars a day from Russia to support him and main- 
tain his economy? You know that is a fact, do you not? You are 
sitting there, expounding on Fidel Castro and his regime — that they 
are pumping in from Red China and Russia over a million dollars 
a day to sustain him ? 

And I went back to my original question, and I will go back again, 
for about the fifth time : Why does he not hold free elections, if he 
has nothing to be afraid of ? 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2185 

Mr. Ichord. Now, we have had very informal discussions as to 
political philosophy and beliefs. The witness is conferring with his 
counsel. I am not going to require the witness to answer that question. 

Mr. Slater. Well, I intend to answer this question. 

Mr. Ichord. Because it does call for a conclusion, if he is consulting 
with his attorney for that purpose. 

Mr. Slater. Well, the fact about Russian assistance or trade with 
Cuba, I think derives from the United States' attempt to starve out 
Cuba, to isolate this country, to cut off all the trade. I mean, most of 
Cuban trade was conducted with the United States before the revolu- 
tion, and the country's economy was very dependent on external prod- 
ucts. They don't have great supplies of national resources, such as oil. 

Mr. Senner. The figure as to the $1 million subsidy does not come 
from the United States or from the American press. It comes from 
Russia, from their newspapers. Now, that is a fact. I assume that 
you can believe that one. Or are you attacking the Russian newspaper 
press and media as putting out false information ? 

Now, it is coming in at the rate of $1 million a day, but the question 
that I asked you was : Why is not Fidel Castro — and I assume that you 
would be interested in this, if you are interested in a democracy — 
holding free elections in Cuba, as he promised ? 

Mr. Slater. Well 

Mr. Senner. Do you know why he is, or is not ? 

If you do not know, just tell us you do not know. 

(Witness conferred with counsel.) 

Mr. Senner. If you are going to tell the people back here how great 
it is, maybe that would be one of the questions you would want to 
ascertain when you were down there. 

Mr. Slater. Fidel Castro's acting in the interest of the Cuban peo- 
ple. They are 

Mr. Senner. Why has he not held an election, a free election ? 

Mr. Slater. The people of Cuba are interested in the solution by the 
government of certain issues. As far as which men they want at the 
top of their government, I think it is very clear. There isn't any 
question of that. 

Mr. Senner. He promised the people a free election. Now, why 
has he not kept his promise with the people ? Do you know ? 

Mr. Slater. The people don't want an election. They honestly do 
not care to have an election on the national level at this time. 

Mr. Ichord. Proceed. Let's get back to the facts, Mr. Counsel. 

Do you have anything further ? 

Mr. Nittle. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Ichord. There being no further questions, then, the witness will 
be excused, and the Chair will adjourn this meeting, subject to further 
call by the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 4 p.m., Monday, September 28, 1964, the subcom- 
mittee adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair.) 



2186 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 



APPENDIX 

Committee Exhibit No. 1-A 
[New York Sunday News, June 14, 1964] 



4 Yanks 





Havana, June 13 (AP) — Des- 
truction of the U.S. government 
is advocated by four negro stu- 
dents among a group of 7S 
Americans who are visiting Cuba 
in defiance of U.S. State Depart- 
ment restrictions. 

Denouncing the "North Amer- 
ican racist government," the ne- 
groes said in a statement: "we 
realize the United States govern- 
ment is the biggest farce in his- 
tory and must be destroyed." 

Six others among the 73 men 
and women who arrived yester- 
day by way of Prague, Czecho- 
slovakia, are negroes. 

A New York, Ed Lemansky. 
23, identified himself as group 
leader and a Communist. 

He handed out a statement 
declaring: "we have different 



reasons for coming to Cuba, but 
we are united in our opposition 
to our government's efforts to 
prevent United States citizens 
frm travelling to Cuba." 

The four . Negroes identified 
themselves as Ernest Allen, 21, 
Oakland, Calif., a student at the 
University of California at Berk- 
eley; Luke Tripp, 23, Detroit, a 
student at Wayne State; Charles 
Rpwai'd, 24, Los Angeles, a stu- 
dent at Los Angeles City Col- 
lege; and Ro n Bedford. 26, a St. 
Louis architectural draftsman. 

The Americans, 49 men and 
24 women, plan a two-month 
stay in Cuba. 



^h/\rVyVVV^y 



Committee Exhibit No. 2-A 
Carole Pina Interview, Havana Radio, June 12, 1964 

The microphones of CMQ news are at Jose Marti Airport. We have with us a 
young North American girl. She is Carole Pina. 

Announcer : How did your efforts to come to Cuba go? 

Carole Pina : Well, the stops in America were very difficult because, as you 
know, American Government does not want us to go to Cuba, although it is 
constitutional. So we had to get passports for Europe and detour about 5,000 
miles via Paris, Prague, and Canada. If it had not been for the Cuban embassies 
in Paris and Prague, we would still be flying. 

Announcer : What made you come to visit our country? 

Carole Pina : Oh, I have been wanting to come here for a long time to visit 
socialist Cuba [and see — ?] how it was carrying out the revolution, but since 
we broke off relations in 1961, it became impossible to come here. 

Announcer : What do you do in the United States? 

Carole Pina : I am an anthropologist and a sociologist, and I work with the 
Puerto Ricans in New York, who are in a situation similar to that of the Cuban 
peasant during the Batista era, exploited. 

Announcer : Thank you. 



Committee Exhibit No. 3-A 
Roberto Rubalcava Interview, Havana Radio, June 13, 1964 

My name is Roberto Rubalcava. I am from California. I am Mexican- 
American. 

I am very interested in Latin American problems. Cuba is the first country to 
make a legitimate social .revolution, an experiment in how to solve Latin Ameri- 
can problems. I came to ascertain the truth. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2187 

The trip started when we heard that we would have an opportunity to come to 
Cuba to sco what was happening. We tilled out some applications and students 
were selected for the trip. The American Government was very opposed to this 
trip. But we said, let us go anyway. We are students and we want to know 
the truth. 

The U.S. Government said that it could send us to prison for 5 years and fine 
us up to 5,000 dollars for having come. 

Everything was planned in secret. We prepared very well. We made our 
move and caught them by surprise. We came very fast. The trip was very well 
organized. They didn't interfere because we caught it by surprise. However, 
when we return, it will be another story. They will be waiting for us. Then, we 
are prepared. I am prepared to light for what I think is right. 

I am very impressed to see so many youths so full of life here. I see that the 
people are very good. They gave us a very impressive welcome. 

While here, I would like to learn the people's sentiments. What interests 
me the most is how the people are, how they feel, are they happy, is their morale 
high, so that we can return and say what we have found in Cuba. 

All Americans have to read the newspapers given them, listen to the radio 
news given and the propaganda we hear is against Cuba. Many haven't studied 
Latin American problems. They don't know what a revolution is or what com- 
munism means. They don't know what capitalism is. However, when one 
studies these problems and sees the history lived by Latin America in relation 
to the United States and the capitalists, then one knows that one wants to find 
out what is going on. In school we learn many things which we pursue outside 
of the classroom. We know more or less what is going on. That is why we 
have come ourselves to observe. 

Question : We would like your opinion of the illegal flights over Cuba. 

Rubalcava : This is a very bad thing. I have opposed it since the beginning 
because the Cubans have their own nation and this is an aspect of imperialism, 
to take photos in this manner. 

Question : What about the pirate attacks? 

Rubalcava : Likewise, I don't think anyone should help them to come to 
Cuba to attack it. This is a very bad measure of force. I have opposed this 
since the beginning. 



Committee Exhibit No. 4-A 
Edwabd Lemansky Interview, Havana Radio, June 18, 1964 

Announcer : Last week, a group made up of 75 students from the United States 
arrived in Havana via Prague. In so doing, they challenged as unconstitutional 
the U.S. Government's ban on travel to Cuba. In spite of the warnings, threats, 
and pressures exerted on them by the Government of the United States — their own 
government — to prevent their coming to Cuba, the 75 students stood firm and 
today are touring Cuba ; learning by themselves the truth about Cuba, seeing 
by themselves what is really going on in our country, and getting to know better 
our socialist revolution and its achievements as well as its errors. To tell us 
what made them come to Cuba, facing the risk of prosecution when they return 
home, we are happy to offer our listeners today— in the regular space of our 
youth program — an interview with Ed Lemansky, head of the group of Ameri- 
can students. Let's listen to what he told a reporter from Radio Havana, Cuba 
(recording) : 

Reporter : We are here at Havana's international airport and with a group of 
American students who have just arrived in our country, invited by the Cuban 
Revolutionary Government. And we have with us, responsible for the group — 
what's your name? 

American : Edward Lemansky. 

Reporter: Lemansky, what university are you from? 

Lemansky : I graduated from Antioch College, Ohio, two years ago. Since 
then — well, for the last year, I have been working as a full-time organizer for 
the Progressive Labor Movement in the United States. 

Reporter : How did you gather all these students in the group? 

Lemansky : Many of the people who came to Cuba last summer, plus a number 
of us who were interested in coming to Cuba this summer, went to different, parts 
of the country, to college campuses, and other public meeting places, and gave 
talks and showed movies, and spoke to people about coming to Cuba for the 
summer. And in that way we reached hundreds of thousands of people with 



2188 iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

the message that there was going to be a trip. And about 400 or 500 people sent 
in applications for the trip, but many of the people who applied for one reason 
or another were not able to come. We finally had a group of 75, which is made 
up of people from almost all over the country plus some from Puerto Rico. 

Reporter : Tell me something — how come you had to go all the way through 
Europe? 

Lemansky : Well, the American Government, the North American Government, 
is not too pleased at the idea that people from the United States are visiting Cuba. 
They do not want us to see what socialism is really like. They are afraid of so- 
cialism and socialist ideas. They are afraid that if we see how things really are 
in Cuba, we may discover that much of what they are saying in the press are lies 
or half-truths, and that we might come back to the United States to try to talk 
to people and convince people that socialism is the solution to many of the prob- 
lems that we face in the United States. And if we did that and we succeeded in 
organizing a movement, then this would destroy their power and destroy the 
wealth that they have built up. In that way, Cuba really does represent a threat 
to the United States ; that is true. On that, I speak only for myself and not as the 
representative of the group. We made a public statement which listed some of 
the things that we agreed on as a group. On things of this sort, I can speak only 
for myself, but not for the group. 

Reporter: You have been around on the campuses in the United States, and 
of course students are normally included among the most progressive groups. 
What is the general opinion among U.S. students on Cuba and its revolution? 

Lemansky : Well, I really could not say. As I said, I have been out — I finished 
college two years ago and I have had contact with only a few campuses — but I 
think that (there are?) many students who are either favorable to the present 
regime in Cuba or who at least are not convinced by what the American press 
says. More than that I really cannot say, because I just don't know. 

Reporter : Of course, there's something else I wanted to get your opinion on. 
You know, recently the U.S. Government has claimed that it has a right to fly 
over Cuba — spy missions. What is your opinion on that? 

Lemansky : Absolutely not, this is Cuban territory, and I think that if Cubans 
were to fly planes, not over the United States but anywhere near it, there would 
be a howl set up from Washington that would be heard around the world. And 
that would be used as a method to attack Cuba even more than the U.S. Govern- 
ment is attacking it now. For the American Government to think that it has 
the right to send planes over any other country — Cuba, or Laos, or the Soviet 
Union, or China, or anywhere — is absolutely wrong, and many of us are com- 
mitted to fighting against things of that sort. 

Reporter : Something else — while you are in Cuba, do you have any special 
subjects into which you want to investigate especially, or would you like to 
see everything? 

Lemansky : Well, of course I want to see everything, but some of the things 
that interest me most include such things as party organizations, and the methods 
by which people are involved in making decisions about how the country is run, 
and the whole method of political activity in Cuba. I am a communist, and I 
want to get an idea of how it works in practice. We read and (discuss this — ?). 
Still, you can read all you want but this is never enough. For Lenin it had 
to be enough but there is no reason why, now that we have examples of socialism 
in many parts of the world — now that a billion people live under socialism — 
those of us who are committed should take every opportunity to study how 
socialist societies are run. so that we are better prepared to bring socialism 
about in our country, and so that we can profit from the correct things that 
were done here, and from the mistakes. I am sure that there were plenty of 
mistakes. 

Reporter : Well, we hope that you have a nice stay here in this country. Thank 
you very much. 



Committee Exhibit No. 5-A 

Text of Hanoi Radio English-Language Beoadcast, June 23, 1964 

Hanoi. 23 June — A group of students of the Afro-American Students Organi- 
zation who were visiting Cuba have issued a statement strongly condemning the 
U.S. imperialists for waging an aggressive war against the South Vietnamese 
people. They declared that, together with other freedom-loving and peace-loving 
people the world over, they resolutely oppose that war. 



>PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2189 

According to a Liberation Press Agency correspondent in Havana, the state- 
ment was handed on 17 June to the permanent delegation of the South Vietnam 
National Liberation Front in the Cuban capital. The statement said : "As we live 
in the heart of U.S. imperialism and colonialism, and racism, we have clearly 
seen that U.S. democracy is the greatest deception in history. That is why we 
support the national liberation movements of our brothers in Asia, Africa, and 
Latin America. We support all that U.S. imperialism opposes, and oppose all 
that it supports. It is necessary to thoroughly and completely annihilate U.S. 
imperialism." 

Robert Williams, a renowned leader of the American Negro movement who 
was touring Cuba together with the said students, stated : "We are going hand 
in hand with the brother South Vietnamese people in the struggle against our 
common enemy — U.S. imperialism and racism. We hope that the South Viet- 
namese people will soon win complete victory in their struggle for liberation." 

The U.S. students expressed their deep gratitude to the South Vietnam Libera- 
tion Students Union for its unreserved support for the struggle waged by the 
Negro students. 

On behalf of the National Liberation Front and people of South Vietnam, 
Vo Dong Giang, head of the front's permanent delegation in Cuba, thanked the 
U.S. students delegation, the Afro-American Students Organization, and the 
U.S. students and people for having opposed the aggressive war of the U.S. 
imperialists and supported the just struggle of the South Vietnamese people. 



Committee Exhibit No. 2 



A. LIST OF THOSE PERSONS KNOWN TO HAVE TRAVELED TO CUBA, IN THE 
SUMMER OF 19 6 4, INCLUDING AIRLINE USED, FLIGHT NUMBER, DATE OF 
DEPARTURE, AND DESTINATION 

Air France — Flight 700 — June 2, 1964, Neio York to Paris 
1. Lemansky, Edward 

Air France — Flight 020 — June 9, 1964, New York to Paris 

1. Chastain, Willard Leaford 

2. Chesman, Judith Ellen 

3. Colon, Manuel 

4. Colon-Ortiz, Jose Carlos 

5. Faulkner, Hubert 

6. Fulton, Sarah Fay 

7. Maher, Mary Miller 

8. Parrilla Torres, Efrain 

9. Slater, Morton Bruce 

Air France — Flight 010 — June 10, 1964, New York to Paris 



1. Allen, Ernest Anthony, Jr. 11. 

2. Beagarie, Max Thomas 12. 

3. Berrard, Clarence Charles, Jr. 13. 

4. Bond, Yvonne Marie 14, 

5. Epstein, Richard Arthur 15. 

6. Jasper, Nancv Lane [Mrs. 16. 

Donald S. Yost] 17. 

7. Kerr, John Wilemen 18. 

8. Kerr, Mary Lennox 19. 

9. Kramer, Anne Gladstone 20. 
10. Long, Gerald William 21. 



Lustig, Richard Jeffrey 
Lynch, Vincent Bartholemew 
MacLeod, Frances 
McFadden, Carolyn 
Rubalcava, Robert 
Rubin, Jerry Clyde 
Sumner, William Lippincott 
Valdez, Louis Miguel 
Wilson, James Roy 
Wilson, Scott 
Yost, Donald Steepleton 



El Al Airlines— Flight 242— June 10, 196k, New York to Paris 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 



Bedford, Roland Frank 
Chval, Rudolph Daniel 
dThrepaulezz, Francine 

Virginia 
Foreman, Hugh Quin 
Goldf rank, Catherine Merrill 
Hargreaves, Carl Edwin 
Jasper, Paul 
Krebs, Allen Martin 
Krebs, Sharon Louise A. 
Krebs, Thorsten Louis 
Lenz, Peter Andrew 
Lenz, Ruth Bowden Cargen 
Machover, Robert Karl 
Matsoukas, Avra 
Moorse, Hania Hope 

2190 



16. Murad, Anthony 

17. Perelson, Ira Alan 

18. Pina, Carole 

19. Sacks, Karen Helen Brodkin 

20. Sacks, William Michael 

21. Schutz,Eric 

22. Spanfelner, Albert John 

23. Spanfelner, Charlotte Maxine 
Spinney, Ralph William 
Stehr, Marcia Gayle 
Stoute, Shirley Enid 
Uhse, Stefan 
Weinberg, Jerome Harold 
Weinberg, Virginia Aileen 

(Hobbs) 



24. 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 



(PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2191 

El Al— Flight 232— June 9, 1964, New York to Paris 
1. Clark, Edward Hughes, Jr. 
Pan American — Flight 116 — June 10, 1964, Philadelphia to Paris 

1. Abts, Robert John 9. Sears, Frances Ann 

2. Agee, Joel 10. Seigle, Larry 

3. Allgire, Martha Louise 11. Seigle, Stacey Joslin 

4. Baker, General Gordon, Jr. 12. Seltzer, Lawrence Steven 

5. Clark, Pieter Romayn 13. Simmons, Charles Edward 

6. Cohen, Arlene III 

7. Johnson, Charles August 14. Tripp, Luke Samuel 

8. Mates, Robert David 

Pan American — Flight 102 — June SO, 1964, New York to London 

1. Collier, Robert Steele 3. Lowe, Alan Finch 

2. Goldstein, Jeff rey 

Pan American — Flight 114 — July 20, 1964, New York to Paris 

1. Geismar, Elizabeth 3. Warden, Judith Amie 

2. Rosenfeld, Edward Jerry 4. Wittman, Jane 

BO AC— Flight 500— June 30, 1964, Neiv York to London 
1. Newman, Steven Solomon 2. Rotolo, Susan, Justine E. 

B. LIST OF PERSONS KNOWN TO HAVE TRAVELED FROM CUBA TO THE UNITED 
STATES, INCLUDING AIRLINE USED, FLIGHT NUMBER, DATE OF DEPARTURE, 
AND POINT OF DEPARTURE 

Pan American Airways — Flight 119 — August 14, 1964, Paris to New 

York 

1. Allgire, Martha Louise 

2. Beagarie, Max Thomas 

3. Clival, Rudolph Daniel 

4. Chesman, Judith Ellen 

5. Colon, Manuel 

6. Clark, Edward Hughes, Jr. 

7. Clark, Pieter Romayn 

8. Cohen, Arlene 

9. Faulkner, Hubert 

10. Hargreaves, Carl Edwin 

11. Kramer, Anne Gladstone 

12. Lustig, Richard Jeffrey 

13. Lemansky, Edward 

14. MacLeod, Frances 

15. Murad, Anthony 

16. Newman, Steven Solomon 

17. Rotolo, Susan Justine E. 

18. Seigle, Larry 

19. Schutz, Eric 



2192 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

20. Weinberg, Jerome Harold 

21. Weinberg, Virginia Aileen (Hobbs) 

22. Warden, Judith. Anne 

23. Yost, Donald Steepleton 

24. Yost, Nancy Lane Jasper 

Air France — Flight Oil — August 14, 1964, Paris to New York 

1. Abts, Robert John 

2. Agee, Joel 

3. Allen, Ernest Anthony, Jr. 

4. Baker, General Gordon, Jr. 

5. Bedford, Roland Frank 

6. Bond, Yvonne Marie 

7. Berrard, Clarence Charles, Jr. 

8. Chastain, Willard Leaf ord 

9. Colon-Ortiz, Jose Carlos 

10. Collier, Robert Steele 

11. d'Phrepaulezz, Francine Virginia 

12. Epstein, Richard Arthur 

13. Fulton, Sarah Fay 

14. Foreman, Hugh Quin 

15. Geismar. Elizabeth 

16. Goldfrank, Catherine Merrill 

17. Goldstein, Jeffrey 

18. Jasper, Paul 

19. Johnson, Charles August 

20. Kerr, John Wilemen 

21. Kerr, Mary Lennox 

22. Krebs, Sharon Louise A. 

23. Krebs, Allen Martin 

24. Krebs, Thorsten Louis 

25. Lenz, Peter Andrew 

26. Lenz, Ruth Bowden Cargen 

27. Lowe, Alan Finch 

28. Long, Gerald William 

29. Lynch, Vincent Bartholemew 

30. McFadden, Carolyn 

31. Machover, Robert Karl 

32. Mates, Robert David 

33. Matsoukas, Avra 

34. Maher, Mary Miller 

35. Moorse, Tania Hope 

36. Parrilla Torres, Ef rain 

37. Pina, Carole 

38. Perelson, Ira Alan 

39. Rubalcava, Robert 

40. Rubin. Jerry Clyde 

41. Rosenfeld, Edward Jerry 

42. Spanf elner, Albert John 

43. Spanfelner, Charlotte Maxine 

44. Sacks, Karen Helen Brodkin 

45. Sacks^ William Michael 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2193 

L6. Seigle, Stacey Joslin 

17. Stoute, Shirley Enid 

Is. Stehr, Marcia ( irayle 

('.». Seltzer, Lawrence Steven 

50. Slater. .Morion Bruce 

51. Simmons, Charles Edward III 
~r2. Sumner, William Lippincott 
53. Sears, Frances Ann 

5 1 . Spinney, Ralph William 

55. Tripp, Luke Samuel 

56. Uhse, Stefan 

57. Valdez, Louis Miguel 

58. Witt man, Jane 

59. Wilson, James Roy 

60. Wilson, Scott 



40-013— 65— pt. 5 15 



Committee Exhibit No. 3 

extracts of data from passport applications, or applications for re- 
newal thereof, of persons who traveled to cuba in the summer 
of 196 4 with the so-called student group 

Robert John Abts, 13 North Main Street, Janesville, Wis. 

Date of passport application : May 13, 1964. 

Birth : July 10, 1941, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Father's name : John M. Abts. 

Mother's maiden name : Jean K. Zeilinger. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : 374317, issued May 22, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Europe, mainly England. 

Stated purpose of travel : Student travel and contact University 
of London. 
Joel Agee, 123 West 93d Street, New York, N.Y. 

Date of passport renewal application : August 7, 1963. 

Birth : March 20, 1940, New York, N.Y. 

Father's name : James Agee. 

Mother's name : Alma Mailman Uhse. 

Occupation : None (at time of 1960 application) . 

Passport: 306892, issued March 28, 1960; renewed August 8, 
1963. 

Stated places of travel : France, Germany, and Italy. 

Stated purpose of travel : Travel. 
Ernest Anthony Allen, Jr., 650 B 66th Street, Oakland, Calif. 

Date of passport application : June 3, 1964. 

Birth : October 9, 1942, Oakland, Calif. 

Father's name : Ernest Allen, Sr. 

Mother's maiden name : Maybelle Reid. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 400697, issued June 4, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France, England, and Spain. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
Martha Louise Allgire, 269 Southlawn, Birmingham, Mich. 

Date of passport application : August 20, 1962. 

Birth : September 24, 1942, Owosso, Mich. 

Father's name : Richard Edison Allgire. 

Mother's maiden name : Maiy Louise Allgire. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : C 572136, issued August 20, 1962. 

Stated places of travel : France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Switzer- 
land, Holland, and Germany. 

Stated purpose of travel : To study for a year in Paris. 
General Gordon Baker, Jr., 3360 South Ethel, Detroit, Mich. 

Date of passport application : December 6, 1963. 

Birth : September 9, 1941, Detroit, Mich. 
2194 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2195 

Father's name : General Gordon Baker. 
Mother's maiden name : Clara Virginia Dixon. 
Occupation: Student. 

Passport: D 612729, issued December 11, 1963. 
Stated places of travel : France, England, and West Germany. 
Stated purpose of travel : Leisure trip. 
Max Thomas Beagarie, 404 Marin Ave., Mill Valley, Calif. 
Date of passport application : April 3, 1964. 
Birth : May 24, 1945, San Francisco, Calif. 
Father's name : Max L. Beagarie. 
Mother's maiden name : Claudia Slifer. 
Occupation : Messenger. 
Passport : E 070361, issued April 6, 1964. 
Stated places of travel : Western Europe. 
Stated purpose of travel : To travel. 
Roland Frank Bedford, 724 Dartmouth Street, Boston 16, Mass. 
Date of passport application : June 10, 1964. 
Birth : February 8, 1938, St. Louis, Mo. 
Fathers name : Sam Frank Bedford. 
Mother's maiden name : Mae Wilkins. 
Occupation: Student (draftsman). 
Passport : E 395527, issued June 10, 1964. 
Stated places of travel : England and France. 
Stated purpose of travel : Tourist. 
Clarence Charles Berrard, Jr., 4457 Lexington Avenue, Los Angeles, 
Calif. 

Date of passport application : April 16, 1962. 
Birth : February 12, 1940, Houston, Tex. 

Father's name : Clarence Charles Berrard. 
Mother's maiden name : Fannie M. Berrard. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport. : C 203040, issued April 17, 1962. 

Stated places of travel : Finland, France, and Germany. 

Stated purpose of travel : Touring. 
Yvonne Marie Bond, 100 Fifth Avenue, No. 4, San Francisco, Calif. 

Date of passport application : May 14, 1964. 

Birth : October 10, 1940, San Diego, Calif. 

Father's name : Harland W. Bond. 

Mother's maiden name : Violette R. Martin. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport: E 362505, issued May 15, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Sightsee. 
Ruth Bowden Cargen [Mrs. Peter Andrew Lenz], 2739 Parker Street, 
Berkeley 4, Calif. 

Date of passport application : April 11, 1963. 

Birth : December 2, 1941, Tarry town, N.Y. 

Father's name : John Warren Bowden. 

Mother's maiden name : Mary Sharpies. 

Occupation : None. 

Passport: D 177695, issued April 12, 1963. 

Stated places of travel: England (British Isles), Belgium, 
France, Germany, and Switzerland. 

Stated purpose of travel : Travel and study. 



2196 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Willard Leaford Chastain, R.F.D. Xo. 5, Louisa, Va. 
Date of passport application : May 19, 1964. 
Birth: April 17, 1933, Willard, Mo. 
Father's name: Leaford Marion Chastain. 
Mother's maiden name : Viola Marie Coble. 
Occupation: Artist-poet. 
Passport : E 523833$ issued May 25, 1964. 
Stated places of travel : England, France, and Spain. 
Stated purpose of travel : Broaden knowledge of other peoples 
and cultures. 
Judith Ellen Chesman, 158 West 81st Street, New York, NY. 
Date of passport application : May 6, 1961. 
Birth : February 1, 1911, New York, N.Y. 
Father's name : Leon Chesman. 
Mother's maiden name: Miriam Ostrowsky. 
Occupation : Waitress. 
Passport: E 256211, issued May 8, 1961. 
Stated places of travel : France, Italy, and Greece. 
Stated purpose of travel : Tourism. 
Rudolph Daniel Clival, 25 Brailly Lane, Hazlet, X.J. 

Date of passport renewal application : June 24, 1963. 
Birth : April 2, 1940, Long Branch, X.J. 
Father's name : Rudolph Joseph Clival. 
Mother's name : Rose Boxer Clival. 
Occupation : Student ( at time of 1960 application) . 
Passport: 2160628, issued May 24, 1960; renewed June 25;, 1963. 
Stated places of travel : France and England. 
Stated purpose of travel: Tourist. 
Edward Hughes Clark, Jr., 1312 South Floyd Street, Louisville, Ky. 
Date of passport application : June 2, 1964. 
Birth: March 1, 1942, Louisville, Ky. 

Father's name: Edward H. Clark, Sr. 

Mother's maiden name : Julia Wright. 

Occupation: Student. 

Passport : E 388828, issued June 3, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: France, England, Holland, West Ger- 
many, and Denmark. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
Pieter Romayn Clark, 853 West Lill Avenue, Chicago 14, 111. 

Date of passport application : April 22, 1964. 

Birth : December 29, 1939, St. Louis, Mo. 

Father's name : James Clark. 

Mother's maiden name: Grace D. Klinejon. 

Occupation : Apprentice printer. 

Passport: E 296932, issued April 23, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Mexico and Latin America. 

Stated purpose of travel : Tourist. 
Arlene Cohen, 1621 Carroll Street, Brooklyn 13, X.Y. 

Date of passport renewal application : June 2, 1964. 

Birth : October 1, 1940, Brooklyn, X.Y. 

Father's name: William Cohen. 

Mother's name: Mildred Cohen. 

Occupation : Student (at time of 1960 application) . 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2197 

Passport : 2121524, issued May 4, L960; renewed June 3, 1964. 

Staled places of travel : Other than France, not sure. 

Stated purpose of travel : Touring. 
Robert Steele Collier, 92] Parker Street, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

I >ate of passport applicat ion : June 15, 196 1. 

Birth: January 27, L937, Boston, Mass. 

Father's name: George F. Collier. 

Mother's maiden name: Elizabeth E. Randolph. 

Occupation : Electronic technician. 

Passport : E 489459, issued June 15, 1964. 

State places of travel: England. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation to seo friends. 
Manuel Colon, LC-19 Caparra Terrace, Puerto Rico. 

Date of passport application : January 2, 196-_'. 

Birth : April 27, 1931, New York City. 

Father's name : Manuel Colon. 

Mother's maiden name: Rosa Sancho-Bonet. 

Occupation : Organizer, labor unions. 

Passport: Z-115,725, issued January 4, 1962. 

Stated places of travel : France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Visit sister. 
Jose Carlos Colon-Ortiz, Margarita Vilella No. 259, Mayaguez, 
Puerto Rico. 

Date of passport application : June 9, 1964. 

Birth : April 18, 1945, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. 

Father's name: Juan Colon. 

Mother's maiden name : Santa Ortiz. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 547840, issued June 9, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Join sister living in Paris. 
Francine Virginia d'Phrepaulezz, 390 East 10th Street, New York 9, 
N.Y. 

Date of passport application : Mav 28, 1964. 

Birth : July 31, 1942, Hackensack," N. J. 

Father's name : Edward Callan. 

Mother's maiden name : Virginia Berg. 

Occupation : Tvpist. 

Passport: E 387379, issued June 2, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Richard Arthur Epstein. 2008 Howard Avenue, San Carlos, Calif. 

Date of passport application : May 22, 1964. 

Birth : October 30, 1941, Oakland', Calif. 

Father's name : Abe Epstein. 

Mother's maiden name : Helen Barnett. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 398069, issued Mav 25, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: France and possibly other European 
countries. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
Hubert Faulkner, 407 Henin Street, Monroe, N.C. 

Date of passport application : June 8, 1964. 



2198 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGAXDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Birth : August 2, 1946, Monroe, N.C. 

Father's name : Henry Faulkner. 

Mother's maiden name : Ruby Robinson. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 392855, issued June 8, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France, England, Spain, and others. 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Hugh Quin Foreman, 250 Riverside Drive, New York City, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : September 3, 1963. 

Birth : May 29, 1941, Washington, D.C. 

Father's name : Clark H. Foreman. 

Mother's name : Mairi Foreman. 

Occupation : Composer. 

Passport : Z 275797, issued September 4, 1963. 

Stated places of travel : United States (from Italy) . 

Stated purpose of travel : Return to United States. 
Sarah Fay Fulton, 309 Park Avenue, Lindale, Ga. 

Date of passport application : Mav 7, 1964. 

Birth: July 22, 1942, Floyd County, Ga. 

Father's name : Franklin Fulton. 

Mother's maiden name : Mary Roberson. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 305595, issued May 13, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : British Isles. 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Elizabeth Geismar, Winfield Avenue, Harrison, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : Mav 25, 1962. 

Birth : April 27. 1942, New York City. 

Father's name : Maxwell Geismar. 

Mother's maiden name : Anne Rosenberg. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : C 404299, issued May 28, 1962. 

Stated places of travel: France, Italy, England, and Switzer- 
land. 

Stated purpose of travel : To study. 
Catherine Merrill Goldfrank, 26 Lynwood Road, Scarsdale, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : July 2, 1962. 

Birth: April 25, 1943, Chicago, 111. 

Father's name : Charles Edward Merrill. 

Mother's maiden name : Mary White Klohr. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport: C 536395, issued July 11, 1962. 

Stated places of travel: Holland, Belgium, France, and Spain. 

Stated purpose of travel : Study. 
Jeffrey Goldstein, 190 Waverly Place, Apartment 3D, New York 
City, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : June 28, 1963. 

Birth : August 29, 1941, New York, N.Y. 

Father's name : Murray Goldstein. 

Mother's maiden name : Celia Polansky. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport: D 536979, issued July 3, 1963. 

Stated places of travel : Not listed. 

Stated purpose of travel: Passport necessary to obtain employ- 
ment on Scandinavian ship. 



iPRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2199 

Carl Edwin Hargreaves, 627 East 11th Street, Apartment 23, New 
York City 9, N.Y. 

I >ate of passport application : June 1, 1964. 

Birth: December 15, 1940, East Liverpool, Ohio. 

Father's name: Edwin Earl Hargreaves. 

Mother's maiden name: Ona Thompson. 

Occupation : Painter. 

Passport: E 392471, issued June 8, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : United Kingdom, Western Europe, and 
possibly Egypt (UAR). 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Nancv Lane Jasper [Mrs. Donald S. Yost], 1224 Waverly, Palo Alto, 
Calif. 

Date of passport application: May 19, 1964. 

Birth: February 10, 1943, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Father's name: Lane Jasper. 

Mother's maiden name : Lily McCullough. 

Occupation : Unemployed. 

Passport : E 397051, issued May 21, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Spain, France, and Germany. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
Paul Jasper, 8416 21st Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : June 1, 1964. 

Birth : June 5, 1944, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Father's name: Philip Jasper. 

Mother's maiden name : Irene Passe. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 392346, issued June 8, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : England and France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Sightseeing. 
Charles Johnson, 3666 Field, Detroit, Mich. 

Date of passport application : June 1, 1964. 

Birth : August 13, 1941, Crystal Springs, Miss. 

Father's name : Charles Johnson. 

Mother's maiden name : Cornelia Watson. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 443133, issued June 2, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Britain and France. 

Stated purpose of travel : To study. 
John Wilemen Kerr, 031 SW. Caruthers, Portland 1, Oreg. 

Date of passport application : May 12, 1964. 

Birth : March 2, 1941, Iron Mountain, Mich. 

Father's name : Lorin Edgar Kerr. 

Mother's maiden name : Maurine Lalonde. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 341798, issued May 19, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France, England, and Italy. 

Stated purpose of travel : Broaden education. 
Mary Lennox Kerr (Mrs. John Wilemen Kerr), 031 SW. Caruthers, 
Portland 1, Oreg. 

Date of passport application : May 12, 1964. 

Birth : June 5, 1944, Oakland, Calif. 

Father's name : Robert B. Lennox. 



2200 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Mother's maiden name : Elizabeth Lowry. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 341799, issued May 19, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France, England, and Italy. 

Stated purpose of travel : Broaden education. 
Anne Gladstone Kramer, 5332 La Mirada Avenue, Hollywood 29, 
Calif. 

Date of passport application : April 2, 1964. 

Birth : May 8, 1942, New York City. 

Father's name : Charles Kramer. 

Mother's maiden name : Mamie Mildred Gladstone. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport: E 199185, issued April 3, 1904. 

Stated places of travel : France, England, Spain, Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark, and possibly India. 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Allen Martin Krebs, 150 East 69th Street, New York City 21, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : July 5, 1962. 

Birth : February 3, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Father's name : Charles M. Krebs. 

Mother's name: Thea Alkon Krebs. 

Occupation: College professor. 

1 >assport : Z 127131, issued July 5, 1962. 

Stated places of travel : United States (from Beirut) . 

Stated purpose of travel : Return to United States. 

Persons included in passport: Sharon Louise A. Krebs (wife) 
and Thorsten Louis Krebs (son). 
Edward Lemanskv, 414 West 121st Street, Apartment 58, New York 
27, N.Y. 

Date of passport renewal application : January 22, 1964. 

Birth : July 5, 1940, New York City. 

Father's name : Julius Lemanskv. 

Mother's name: Hannah Lemanskv. 

Occupation: Student (at time of 1960 application). 

Passport: 2521439, issued December 16, 1960; renewed February 
^ 17, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : England, France ( ?). 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Peter Andrew Lenz, Hancock Place, Irvington, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : June 2, 1964. 

Birth : December 16, 1937, Rockford, 111. 

Father's name : Andrew Charles Lenz. 

Mother's maiden name : Lillian Nilson. 

Occupation : Musician. 

Passport : E 435756, issued June 5, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Europe and South or Latin America. 

Stated purpose of travel : Tourist. 
Gerald William Long, 5722 West Eastwood Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Date of passport application : April 20, 1964. 

Birth: September 22, 1936, Chicago, 111. 

Father's name : Gerald G. Long. 

Mother's maiden name : Matilda Duss. 

Occupation: Student. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2201 

Passport : E 073957, issued April 21, L964. 

Stated places of travel: Western Europe— Germany, France, 
Italy, England, etc. 

Stated purpose of travel : Language study. 
Alan Finch Lowe, 4765 Boxwood Drive, San Diego, Calif. 

1 >ate of passport application : June 16, L964. 

Birth: August 5, L937, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Father's name: Floyd P. Lowe. 

Mother's maiden name: Adonna F. Finch. 

( Occupation : Writer. 

Passport : E 5033 10, issued June 17, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: England, France, Spain, Italy, Sweden, 
Norway, Denmark, West Germany, Austria, Greece, Turkey. 
Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, Jordan, Israel, India. Flong Kong, 
Formosa, Japan, Venezuela, etc. 

Stated purpose of travel : Cultural enrichment. 
Richard Jeffrey Lustig, 3541 Hugo Street, San Diego, Calif. 

Date of passport application : June 2, 1964. 

Birth : May 6, 1943, San Diego, Calif. 

Father's name : Richard Frank Lustig. 

Mother's maiden name: Jane Freedlander. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport: E 400376, issued June 3, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: Tentatively: Germany, France, and 
England. 

Stated purpose of travel : Travel. 
Vincent Bartholemew Lynch, 1462 Ilaight Street, San Francisco, 
Calif. 

Date of passport renewal application: March 27, 1964. 

Birth : March 4, 1925, Seattle, Wash. 

Father's name : Joseph Lynch, Sr. 

Mother's name : Sarah Lynch. 

Occupation : Newspaperman ( at time of 1960 application) . 

Passport: 2345196, issued August 11, 1960; renewed March 27, 
1964. 

Stated places of travel : Africa, Nigeria, and Ghana. 

Stated purpose of travel : Business. 
Robert Karl Machover, 200 Fenimore Street, Brooklyn 25, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : May 19, 1964. 

Birth : May 13, 1937, New York City. 

Father's name : Solomon Machover. 

Mother's maiden name : Karen Alper. 

Occupation : Film editor. 

Passport : E 379746, issued May 21, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : England — possibly others (Spain, etc.) . 

Stated purpose of travel : Tourism. 
Frances MacLeod, 7624 Leviston Avenue, El Cerrito, Calif. 

Date of passport application : February 28, 1964. 

Birth: October 3, 1942. Oakland, Calif 

Father's name : Donald Blair MacLeod. 

Mother's maiden name: Janice Elizabeth Billings. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport: E 061917, issued February 28, 1964. 



2202 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

State places of travel : France, Spain, Britain, Italy, and Greece. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
Mary Miller Maker, 3 West Lane, Houston, Tex. 

Date of passport renewal application : March 19, 1963. 

Birth : January 17, 1945, Houston, Tex. 

Father's name : John F. Maher. 

Mother's name : Lois Lasater Maher. 

Occupation : Student (at time of 1960 application) . 

Passport: 2187180, issued June 21, 1960; renewed March 22, 1963. 

Stated places of travel: England, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, 
Greece, Hungary, Austria, and Germany. 

Stated purpose of travel : Tourist student. 
Robert David Mates, 13233 Monica, Detroit, Mich. 

Date of passport application : June 11, 1962. 

Birth : March 31, 1939, Chicago, 111. 

Father's name : David Mates. 

Mother's maiden name : Lydia Oken. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : C 141768, issued June 12, 1962. 

Stated places of travel : Brazil, Chile, xVrgentina. and Peru. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
Avra Matsoukas, 27 West 86th Street, New York City. 

Date of passport application : Mav 28, 1964. 

Birth : May 11, 1944, Port Chester, N.Y. 

Father's name: Nick John Matsoukas. 

Mother's maiden name : Frances Vera Slavinskv. 

Occupation : Tvpist. 

Passport: E 386762, issued June 1, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France, Greece, Italy, and Spain. 

Stated purpose of travel : To travel. 
Carolyn McFadden, 4407 SW. Marigold Street, Portland, Oreg. 

Date of passport application : March 26, 1964. 

Birth : June 3, 1945, Washington, Pa. 

Father's name : Irwin Cambell McFadden. 

Mother's maiden name : Dora Marie Posa. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 090011, issued March 31, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: England, France, Germany, Czechoslo- 
vakia, Italy. 

Stated purpose of travel : Sightseeing. 
Tania Hope Moorse, 145 Beach 149th St., Eockaway Park 94, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : February 25, 1964. 

Birth : April 25, 1938, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Father's name : Samuel Perelson. 

Mother's maiden name : Sylvia Marcus. 

Occupation : Not designated. 

Passport : E 028921, issued February 27, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: (Tentative) Peru or Ecuador or other 
Latin American countries. 

Stated purpose of travel : Improve knowledge of Spanish ; acquire 
Indian handicrafts. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2203 

Anthony Murad, Residencia Facultad E-ll UPR, Rio Piedras, 
Puerto Pico. 

Date of passport application : May 21, 1964. 

Birth : August 12, 1912, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Father's name : Anatol Murad. 

Mother's maiden name : Orlene Wettengel. 

Occupation : Freelance photographer. 

Passport : E 381219, issued May 22, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France, Italy, Spain, and Austria. 

Stated purpose of travel : Travel and visit relatives. 
Steven Solomon Newman, 190 Claremont Avenue, New York City, 
N.Y. 

Date of passport application : June 29, 1964. 

Birth : July 22, 1935, London, England. 

Father's name: Randolph H. Newman. 

Mother's maiden name : Eva Feilchenfeld. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport: E 512390, issued June 29, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : England. 

Stated purpose of travel : Visit relatives. 
Efrain Parrilla Torres, No. 73, Betances Street, Caguas, Puerto 
Rico. 

Date of passport application : May 13, 1964. 

Birth : March 11, 1946, Caguas, Puerto Rico. 

Father's name: Efrain Parrilla Pagan. 

Mother's maiden name : Lolita Torres. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : Z 273416, issued May 15, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Spain and France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Cultural. 
Ira Alan Perelson, 145 Beach 149th Street, New York, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : March 2, 1964. 

Birth : April 18, 1946, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Father's name : Samuel Perelson. 

Mother's maiden name : Sylvia Marcus. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport, : E 164538, issued March 23, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: Latin America — Argentina. Brazil, 
Colombia (tentative). 

Stated purpose of travel : Sightseeing, general curiosity. 
Carole Pina, 175 Ludlow Street, New York City, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : August 2, 1963. 

Birth : August 21, 1934, New York City, N.Y. 

Father's name: Harry Appel. 

Mother's maiden name : Sally Sterman. 

Occupation : Sociologist. 

Passport : D 622873, issued August 5, 1963. 

Stated places of travel : Holland, Spam, and France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Edward Jerry Rosenfeld, 2678 Buena Vista Way, Berkeley 8, Calif. 

Date of passport application : April 2, 1964. 

Birth : August 24, 1936, Chicago, 111. 

Father's name : Alec Rosenfeld. 

Mother's maiden name : Carolyn Rosenfeld. 

Occupation: Student. 



2204 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IX U.S. 

Passport : E 069843, issued April 3, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Israel. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation and study. 
Susan Justine Elisabeth Rotolo, 106 Avenue B, New York City, N.Y. 

I )ate of passport renewal application : June 16, 1964. 

Birth : November 20, 1913, New York City, N.Y. 

Father's name : Joachim Rotolo. 

Mother's name : Mary Rotolo. 

Occupation: Student (at time of 1961 application). 

Passport: B 135413, issued February 14, 1961; renewed June I i. 
1964. 

Stated places of travel : Italy. 

Si ated purpose of travel : Tourist . 
Robert Rubalcava, 503 South Sixth Street, San Jose 12, Calif. 

I >ate of passport application : June 1, 1964. 

Birth: September 28, 1936, Arlington, Calif. 

Father's name: Ruben O. Rubalcava. 

Mother's maiden name: Nuemi Granados. 

( )ccupation : Student. 

Passport : E 400348, issued June 3, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France and ( Germany. 

Stated purpose of travel : Tourist. 
Jerry Clyde Rubin, 2535 Hillegass, Berkeley, Calif. 

Date of passport renewal application : March 23, 1964. 

Birth: July 14, 1938, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Father's name: Robert Rubin. 

Mother's name: Esther Katz Rubin. 

Occupation: Student (at time of 1961 application). 

Passport: B 314529, issued April 18, 1961; renewed March 24, 
1964. 

Stated places of travel : Israel. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
"William Michael Sacks, 71 Martin Street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Date of passport application : May 28, 1964. 

Birth: January 6, L939, New York City. 

Father's name : David Sacks. 

Mother's maiden name: Bernice Fried. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 433574, issued June 2, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Western Europe, ARA. 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 

Persons included in passport : Karen Helen Brodkin Sacks 
(wife). 
Eric Schutz, 845 West End Avenue, New York City, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : April 29, 1964. 

Birth : December 15, 1944. New York City, N.Y. 

Father's name : Herbert Schutz. 

Mother's maiden name: Beatrice Gorkin. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport :E 251046, issued April 30, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Italy, France, British Isles, and other 
European countries (not definite). 

Stated purpose of travel : Education. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2205 

Frances Ann Sears. 415 East Washington, Apartment 2, Iowa City, 
Iowa. 
I >ate of passporl applical ion : May 14, 19C> t. 
Birth: August 29, L938, Geneseo, 111. 
Father's name: Abram F. Sears. 
Mother's maiden name: Hazel Dorothy Clifford. 
Occupation: Office clerk. 
Passporl : E 371898, issued May 18, 1964. 

Stated place- of travel; Undecided — France, Spain, and Greece. 
Stated purpose of travel : Sightseeing. 
Larry Seigle, 70!) Medary Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Date of passport application : March 23, 1964. 
Birth: March 20, 1945, Phila. 
Father's name: Daniel [Seigle]. 
Mother's maiden name: Joslin. 
( )ccupation : Student. 
Passport : E 223700, issued March 25, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: England, France, Italy, and Czechoslo- 
vakia. 
Stated purpose of travel : Vacation and study. 
Stacey Joslin Seigle, 709 Medary Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Date of passport application: May 8, 1963. 
Birth : October 7, 1943, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Father's name : Daniel Seigle. 
Mother's name : Phoebe Joslin Dorfman. 
Occupation : Student. 
Passport : D 378224, issued May 14, 1963. 
Stated places of travel : England, Ireland, France, Italy, and 

Spain ( ?). 
Stated purpose of travel : Travel. 
Lawrence Steven Seltzer, 91 East Third Street, New York City, X.Y. 
Date of passport application : December 18, 1962. 
Birth : June 20. 1930, Brooklyn, X.Y. 
Father's name : Isadore Seltzer. 
Mother's maiden name : Sally TVeisz. 
( )ccupation : Taxi driver. 
Passport : C702322, issued December 19, 1962. 

Stated places of travel: Free Germany, perhaps France, Eng- 
land. 
Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Charles Edward Simmons III, 6179 Wabash Street, Detroit, Mich. 
Date of passport application : December 13, 1902. 
Birth : December 20, 1941, River Rouge, Mich. 
Father's name: Charles E. Simmons, Jr. (deceased). 
Mother's maiden name : Katherine Lucado. 
Occupation: Student. 

Passport : C 779454, issued December 18, 1962. 
Stated places of travel : France, England, Sweden, Switzerland, 

Germany, Nigeria, Liberia, and Italy. 
Stat ed i >u ri >ose of travel : Student . 
Morton Bruce Slater, 513 East 12th Street, New York, X".Y. 
Date of passport application : April 29, 1964. 
Birth : April 3, 1943, New York City, X T .Y. 



2206 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Father's name : Sol [Slater]. 

Mother's maiden name : Frieda Schwartz. 

Occupation : Actuary. 

Passport. : E 250739, issued April 30, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
Albert John Spanfelner, 530 West 163d Street, New York 32, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : June 9, 1964. 

Birth : November 30, 1936, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Father's name : Albert George Spanfelner. 

Mother's maiden name : Helen Geraghty. 

Occupation : Machinist. 

Passport : E 393796, issued June 9, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : England, France, and Italy. 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Charlotte Maxine Spanfelner (Mrs. Albert John Spanfelner), 530 
West 163d Street, New York 32, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : June 3, 1964. 

Birth : November 18, 1940, Baltimore, Md. 

Father's name : Morton J. Zinser. 

Mother's maiden name : Anita Freidman. 

Occupation: Clerk. 

Passport : E 392265, issued June 8, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : England, France, and Italy. 

Stated purpose of travel : Pleasure. 
Ralph William Spinney, 273 Edgewood Avenue, Williamsport, Pa. 

Date of passport renewal application : April 10, 1964. 

Birth : July 14, 1941, Williamsport, Pa. 

Father's name : Russell L. Spinney. 

Mother's maiden name : Annette Kocher. 

Occupation: Merchant seaman (at time of 1961 application). 

Passport: B 558436, issued July 31, 1961 ; renewed April 10, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Not listed. 

Stated purpose of travel : Merchant seaman. 
Marcia Gayle Stehr, 166 Avenue C, New York 9, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : April 6, 1964. 

Birth: September 28, 1938, San Diego, Calif. 

Father's name : Leo Nyle Stehr. 

Mother's maiden name : Evelyn Gertrude Roy. 

Occupation : Artist. 

Passport : E 175593, issued April 7, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France, Italy, England, and Spain. 

Stated purpose of travel : Visit sister. 
Shirley Enid Stoute, 3701 Powelton Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Date of passport application : Mav 7, 1964. 

Birth : August 26, 1941, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Father's name : Reginald Stoute. 

Mother's maiden name : Dottin. 

Occupation : Varitypist. 

Passport : E 428756, issued May 12, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : England. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 



PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 2207 

William Lippincott Sunnier, 114 Selby Lane, Atherton, Calif. 

Date of passport application : June 19, 1962. 

Birth : .November 13, 1910, Mineola, N.Y. 

Father's name : Alfred It. Sumner. 

Mother's maiden name : Margaret Lippincott. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : C 143062, issued June 19, 1962. 

Stated places of travel: Iceland, Great Britain, Eire, Spain, 
Portugal, Andorra, and France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Not shown. 
Luke Samuel Tripp, 9363 Eichter, Detroit 11, Mich. 

Date of passport application: January 9, 1964. 

Birth : February 6, 1941, Atora, Tenn. 

Father's name : Luke L. Tripp, Sr. 

Mother's maiden name : Dorothy M. Watson. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 003658, issued January 17, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France and Britain. 

Stated purpose of travel : Study. 
Stefan Uhse, 123 West 93d Street, New York, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : June 13, 1962. 

Birth : May 7, 1946, Mexico. 

Father's name : Bodo Uhse. 

Mother's maiden name : Alma Mailman. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : C 499775, issued June 19, 1962. 

Stated places of travel : Not listed. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 
Louis Miguel Valdez, 224 South 20th, San Jose, Calif. 

Date of passport application : June 4, 1964. 

Birth : June 26, 1940, Delano, Calif. 

Father's name : Frank L. Valdez. 

Mother's maiden name : Armida Montano. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 401174, issued June 8, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France, Spain, Germany, and Denmark. 

Stated purpose of travel : Tourist. 
Judith Anne Warden, 5145 North 38th Street, Arlington, Va. 

Date of passport application : July 16, 1964. 

Birth : December 24, 1943, Washington, D.C. 

Father's name : Charles Browne Warden. 

Mother's maiden name : Margaretta Weymouth Weed. 

Occupation : Student. 

Passport : E 556505, issued July 17, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Europe. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation and pleasure. 
Jerome Harold Weinberg, 412 West End Avenue, New York 24, N.Y. 

Date of passport application : June 1, 1964. 

Birth : March 6, 1939, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Father's name : Edward Weinberg. 

Mother's maiden name : Ruth Frances Shurin. 

Occupation : Writer. 

Passport : E 388733, issued June 3, 1964. 



2208 PRO-CASTRO PROPAGANDA ACTIVITIES IN U.S. 

Stated places of travel : France, Italy, etc. 

Stated purpose of travel : Sightseeing. 

Person included in passport: Virginia Aileen (Hobbs) Weinberg 
(wife). 
James Roy Wilson, 5125 SW. 173d Street, Aloha, Oreg. 

Date of passport application : May 27, 1964. 

Birth : November 10, 1943, Stirling, Scotland. 

Father's name : James Barnes Wilson. 

Mother's maiden name : Ruth Rogerson. 

Occupation: Student. 

Passport : E 843953, issued June 4, 1964. 

Stated places of travel: England, France, Italy, Spain, Germany, 
and Greece. 

Stated purpose of travel : Y isit relatives and sightseeing. 
Scott Wilson, 480 18th Avenue, San Francisco, ( 'alif . 

Date of passport application : June 1, 1964. 

Birth : January 25, 1948, San Francisco, Calif. 

Father's name : Dow Wilson. 

Mother's maiden name: Barbara Gould. 

Occupation: Student. 

Passport : E 399978, issued June 2, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : France. 

Stated purpose of travel : Tour and study. 
Jane Wittman, East 42 Century Road, Paramus, X.J. 

Date of passport application : May 8, 1964. 

Birth: August 25, 1941, Haokensack, N. J. 

Father's name : Walter Thurston Wittman. 

Mother's maiden name : Jeanp.ette Freeman. 

Occupation: Student. 

Passport : E 454052^ issued May 20, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : England. 

Stated purpose of travel : Travel. 
Donald Steepleton Yost, &30 Picaacho Drive, La Habra, Calif. 

Date of passport renewal application: May 19, 1964. 

Birth : October 31, 1942, Long Beach, Calif. 

Father's name: Hugh Ward Yost, 

Mother's name: Wyllys Steepleton Yost. 

Occupation: Student (at time of 1960 application). 

Passport: 2041040, issued April 15, 1960; renewed May 21, 1964. 

Stated places of travel : Spain, France, and Germany. 

Stated purpose of travel : Vacation. 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Page 

Abts, Robert John 2071, 2089, 2167, 2191, 2192, 2194 

Addabbo, Phillip N 2164, 2165 

Agee, Joel 2071, 2090, 2165, 2167, 2191, 2192, 2194 

Allen, Ernest Anthony, Jr 2071, 2075, 2186, 2190, 2192, 2194 

Allen, Kim 2099 

Allgire, Martha Louise 2071, 1 2167, 2 2191, 2194 

Alonso, Victor 2099 

Apter, Robert 2045, 2099 

Ault, Robert 2099 

Austin, John H. M 2099 

Aviles, Samuel 2171 

B 

Babu, A. R. Mohammed (See Mohammed, A. (Abdullah) R. (Babu).) 

Baker, General Gordon, Jr 2071, 2167, 2191, 2192, 2194 

Barenblatt (Lloyd L.) 1992 

Barker, Daniel 2171 

Barlow, Barry 2099 

Barnett, Peter 2099 

Batista y Zladivar (Fulgencio) 2087, 2091, 2094, 2184, 2186 

Baxandall, Lee 2099 

Beagarie, Max Thomas 2045, 2071, 2190, 2191, 2195 

Bedford, Roland Frank (Ron) 2071, 2075, 2186, 2190, 2192, 2195 

Bennett, R 2031 

Berman, Bernard 2099 

Bernstein, Jacob 2099 

Berrard, Clarence Charles, Jr 2071, 

2075, 2186, 2190, 2192, 2195 

Bhashani, Maulana A. H. K 2104 

Billing, Dean R 2099 

Birchfield, J 2167 

Birchfield, Tas 2165 

Blachly Hugh ... 2099 

Black (Hugo L.) 1990 

Blackledge, H 2165,2167 

Bluestone, P 2167 

Blume, Harvey 2099 

Bond, Yvonne Marie 1977-1979, 

1994-2000, 2006-2049 (testimonv), 2050, 2071, 2087, 2112, 2148, 

2161-2163, 2179, 2180, 2190, 2192, 2195. 

Bonime, Stephen 2099 

Bott, Robert 2099 

Brewer, Tom 2144 

Bridges, Harry 2020 

Briggs, Jeff 2099 

Brill, Warren 2054 

Brodhead, Frank 2099 

Brownstein, Larry 2099 

Bruch, Leland 2099 

Buchanan, Charles 2099, 2100 

Bundy, James.. 2099 

1 Misspelled Martine. 

2 Misspelled Algire. 



40-013— 65— pt. 5—16 



ii INDEX 

C 

Page 

Cabrera, Amilcar 21 04 

Campbell, Edward 2099 

Cargen, Ruth Bowden. (See Lenz, Ruth Bowden Cargen.) 

Castro, Fidel 1976, 

1979, 1981, 1984, 1989, 2032, 2036-2039, 2041, 2047, 2048, 2059, 

2089-2094, 2114, 2115, 2147, 2178-2185. 

Catalinotto, B 2099 

Chappell, Kim 2171 

Chastain, Willard Leaford 2071, 2087, 2171, 2190, 2192, 2196 

Chesman, Judith Ellen 2071 1 , 2171 1 , 2190, 2191, 2196 

Christy, Edward 2099 

Christy, Thomas 2099 

Chval, Dan. (See Chval, Rudolph Daniel.) 

Chval, Rudolph Daniel (Dan) 2071, 2190, 2191, 2196 

Ciesielski, D 2165, 2167 

Clark, Edward 2099 

Clark, Edward Hughes, Jr 2071, 2165, 2167, 2191, 2196 

Clark, Pieter Romayn 2045, 2071, 2167, 2191, 2196 

Clouse, Kenneth 2099 

Coatsworth, John 2099, 2100 

Coe, Lee 1978, 2020-2022, 2024-2027 

Cohen, Arlene .._ 2071,2167,2191,2196 

Cohn, Harry 1979, 1980,2108-2171 

Collier, Robert Steele 2071, 2076, 2088, 2191, 2192, 2197 

Collins, Harrv T . 2171 

Colon, Manuel 2071,2090,2171,2190,2191,2197 

Colon-Ortiz, Jose Carlos 2071, 2 2089, 2 2190, 2192, 2197 

Covian, M 2099 

Cramer, Merrilv Ann 2164, 2167 

Cucchiari, Salvatore 1984, 2099, 2100,2136, 2137, 2140 

Cummings, Peter 2099 

D 

D'Arnato, Robert 2099 

Da Silva, Castro 2104 

Davis, Doyle 2099 

Diallo, Demba 2104 

d'Phrepaulezz, Francine Virginia 2071, 2190, 2192, 2197 

Drinkhall, James 2099 

Dunaway, Lon L 1979, 2154 

Dunham 2000 

E 

Eastwood, R. H 1998, 2033 

Eaton, Roger 2099 

Eder 2077, 2078 

Eisenberg, Robert 2099 

Engels, Friedrich (Frederick) 2146 

Epstein, Richard Arthur 2071 3 , 2190, 2192, 2197 

Epton, William (Bill) 1985, 2143, 2144, 2146, 2151 

Evans, Peter 2054 

Ewell, John 2099 

Eyer, Joe 2099 

F 

Faulkner, Hubert 2045, 2071, 2171, 2190, 2191, 2197 

Feingold, David French 2099 

Ferguson, Douglas 2099 

Ferguson, Shannon 2099 

Ferrero, Aldo . 2164, 2166 

Figuera, Victor Hernandez 2171 

Fincher, Horace 2171 

Fino, Paul (A.) 2181 

Foreman, Gino 2090 

1 Incorrectly spelled Chessman in this reference. 
8 Appears as Jose Carlos Colon. 
8 Incorrectly spelled Eptsein. 



INDEX iii 

Page 

Foreman, Hugh Quin 2071, 2099, 2100, 2190, 2192, 2198 

Frank (Waldo) 1989 

Freeman, Peter H_ 2099 

Fulton, Sarah Fay 2071, 2171, 2190, 2192, 2198 

G 

Gallway, Robert 2099 

Garshan, James 2099 

Geismar, Elizabeth 2071,2191,2192,2198 

Gelles, Jeremiah 2099 

Ghigo, Frank 2099 

Gibson, Richard 2104 

Goldfrank, Catherine Merrill 2071,2190,2192,2198 

Goldstein, Jeffrey 2071, 2076, 2088, 2191, 2192, 2198 

Goldwater, Barry 2146 

Gollobin, Ira 2006, 2050, 2055, 2158 

Goodman, Andrew 2099 

Gordon, Marcus 2099 

Graham, Marc 2099 

Grisson, J 2167 

Gruening (Ernest) 2142 

Guevara, Ernesto "Che" '---- 2115, 2116 

H 

Hallinan, Vincent 2144 

Hamanaka, Mary 2003, 2169 

Hargreaves, Carl Edwin 2071, 2190, 2191, 2199 

Harlan (John M.) 1992 

Hauptell, K 2165 

Hauptlii, K 2167 

Hayden, Sterling 2144 

Hazzard, Edmund 2099 

Hedgepeth, Michael 2099 

Hernandez, Miguel 2171 

Herter (Christian) 1989 

Hill, Harold 2099 

Hoffman, Barry 2003, 2128-2130 

Holmes, Oliver 2099 

Hopkins, Alfred 2099 

Horlick, J 2165, 2167 

Horowitz, Norman 2054 

Horton, Christopher 2099 

Hudson, Richard 1976, 1989 

Hume, Robert 2099 



Indenbaum, Arnold (Arnie) (see also Jacobs, J.) 2043,2045 

Ireland, Douglas 2099 

Itakava, Katsko. (See Rosen, Wendie (Wendy) Suzuko Nakashima.) 
Itkawa, Katsuko. (See Rosen, Wendie (Wendy) Suzuko Nakashima.) 

J 

Jackson, Lance 2099 

Jacobs, J. (see also Indenbaum, Arnold and Laub, Levi Lee) 2042, 2043 

Jaros, John 2099 

Jasper, Nancy Lane. (See Yost, Nancy Lane Jasper.) 

Jasper, Paul 2071,2171,2190,2192,2199 

Jette David 2099 

Johnson," Charles August _"_" I III" '.Ill Ill" I "2^7^2161^216^2191^2192, 2199 
Johnson, James 2099 

K 

Kahn, Harvey 2099 

Kalb, Dan 2099 

Kanner, Martin 2099 



iv INDEX 

Page 
Kemp, G 2165,2167 

Kerr, John Wilemen 2071,2190,2192,2199 

Kerr, Mary Lennox (Mrs. John Wilemen Kerr) 2071, 2087, 2190, 2192, 2199 

Kien, Nguyen 2104 

Killian, John Joseph 2149 

Kissinger, Clark 2099 

Kissling, Frances 2171 

Klein, Robert 2099 

Kling, Richard 2099 

Koteen, David 2099 

Kramer, Anne Gladstone 2071, 2090, 2091, 2200 

Krebs, Allen Martin 2071, 2190, 2192, 2200 

Krebs, Sharon Louise A. (Mrs. Allen Martin Krebs) 2071, 2190, 2192, 2200 

Krebs, Thorsten Louis 2190, 2192, 2200 

L 

Lambert, Dick 2166 

Lamont, Helen Lamb 2144 

Larkin, E. Daniel 2099 

Laub, Levi Lee (born Lee Levi Laub) (see also Jacobs, J.) 2042, 

2043, 2075, 2099, 2100, 2128, 2134, 2141 

Laws, Carl ■ 2099 

Lely veld, Joseph 21 46 

Lemansky, Edward 1980-1983, 2039, 2045, 2054, 

2055-2119 (testimony), 2179, 2180, 2186, 2187, 2190, 2191, 2200 

Lenin, V. I " 2146 

Lenz, Peter Andrew (Pete) 2070, 2071, 2190, 2192, 2195, 2200 

Lenz, Ruth Bowden Cargen (Mrs. Peter Andrew Lenz)_ 2071, 2190, 2192, 2195 

Leslie, Donald 2099 

Levy, William 2099 

Lewark, James, Jr 2099 

Lewin, Alexander 1977, 1980, 2000, 2001-2005 (testimony), 2168, 2169 

Lippit, Victor 2099 

Llovd, Robert 2055 

Lob, Eric 2099 

London, Jack 2008 

Long, Gerald William 2071, 2190, 2192, 2200 

Lowe, Alan Finch 2071, 2076, 2088, 2191, 2192, 2200 

Luce, Phillip Abbott. _ 1982, 2039, 2075, 2097, 2099, 2100, 2132, 2134, 2147, 2148 
Luke, George 1977, 1978, 1980, 1993, 

1994-2000 (testimony), 2016, 2017, 2025, 2027, 2028, 2161, 2162 
Lustig, Jeff. (See Lustig. Richard Jeffrey.) 

Lustig, Richard Jeffrey (Jeff) 2071, 2190, 2191, 2201 

Luy, Van 2144 

Lvman, Shelbourne 2099 

Lvnch, Vincent Bartholemew 2071, 2089, 2190, 2192, 2201 

Lvnn, Conrad J 2019, 2119, 2144 

Lyons, Mary J 2166, 2167 

M 

MacEwan, Andrew 2099 

Machover, Robert Karl 2071, 2190, 2192, 2201 

MacLeod, Frances (Francie) 2071, 2190, 2191, 2201 

Maher, Albert Lasater 1980, 

1983-1985, 2045, 2075, 2099, 2100, 2119-2152 (testimony) 

Maher, John F 2146 

Maher, Mary Miller 2071, 2089, 2147, 2152, 2171, 2190, 2192, 2202 

Malandre, William 2099 

Mao Tse-tung 2146 

Martin, David B 2099 

Martin, Phyllis 2171 

Martin, Richard 2099 

Martinot, Stefan (Steve) 2045, 2124, 2128 

Marx, Karl. 2043,2146 

Mates, Robert David 2071, 2167,2191, 2192, 2202 

Matsoukas, Avra 2071, 2190, 2192, 2202 



INDEX v 

Page 

Mattick, Paul, Jr 2099 

Maurer, Melvvn 2099 

Maxwell, Robert V 2099 

Mazzola, Gerald 2129 

McFadden, Carolyn 2045, 2071, 2190, 2192, 2202 

McKark 2165 

McKart, J 2167 

McKelvev, Don 2099 

McRae, William 2171 

Mears, R 2165, 2167 

Meeks, John 2099 

Meyer, Alvin 2099 

Meyer, Derrick 21 67 

Meyer, Gerald 2099 

Meyers, Norma n 2171 

Meyerson, Mike 2144 

Miller, Paul 2099 

Mills, C. Wright 2015 

Mills, Charles.. 2099 

Mitchell, George 2099 

Mohammed, A. (Abdullah) R. (Babu) 2104 

Monroe, A. H 2031 

Monroe, Arlond H 2031 

Moorse, Tania Hope 2071, 2190, 2192, 2202 

Morrav, J. P 2015 

Morsel Wayne 2098,2099,2142,2143 

Moue, James D 2099 

Muller, H. D 2099 

Murad, Anthony (Tonv) 2045, 

2071, 2089, 2099, 2139, 2140, 2171, 2190, 2191, 2203 

N 

Nakashima, Wendie (Wendy) Suzuko. (See Rosen, Wendie (Wendy) 
Suzuko Nakashima.) 

Newman, Steven Solomon 2071,2076,2088,2191,2203 

Nicolaus, Martin 2099, 2100 

Nier, Harrv 2171 

Nixon , Russ 2144 

Nunez, Wilfredo 2171 

O 

O'Neill, Juan 2171 

Ortiz, Benjamin 2144 

Ostrow, Theodore A 2099, 2100 

Owins, Peter 2099 

P 

Pardum, Robert 2099 

Parham, William 2099 

Parrilla Torres, Efrain (see also Torres, Efraim) 2071, ' 2190, 2192, 2203 

Pavne, Ronald 2099 

Perelson, Ira Alan 2071, 2 2190, 2192, 2203 

Perez, Alberto 2087 

Pina, Carole 2071,2186,2190,2192,2203 

Piper, David W 2099 

Porter (Charles O.) 1989 

Potter, Robert A 2099 

R 

Rabov, David 2099 

Raskin, David 2099 

Redfield, Frank 2099 

Reisberg, Martin 2099 

Rhoads, R. M 2099 

1 Incorrectly spelled Parilla. 

2 Incorrectly spelled Perllson. 



vi INDEX 

Page 

Riad, Hassan 2104 

Riley, Nathan 2099 

Rockwell, George Lincoln 2050, 2055, 2154 

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano 2182 

Rosen, Charles 2099 

Rosen, Jacob 2002, 2099, 2100 

Rosen, Milton 2003, 2083-2085, 2100 

Rosen, Wendie (Wendy) Suzuko Nakashima (Mrs. Jacob Rosen) (alias: 

Katsko Itakava; Katsuko Itkawa) 1977, 

1980, 2002-2004, 2045, 2168, 2169, 2171 

Rosenfeld, Edward Jerry 2071, 2191, 2192, 2203 

Rosner, Anthonv 2099 

Rotolo, Susan Justine Elisabeth (Suze) 2071, 2076, 2088, 2191, 2204 

Roven Jeffrev 2099 

Rubalcava, Robert "(Robertoj r267r,~2687,~2688,~2i35,2186,~2187,~2196,~2192, 2204 
Rubin, Jerry Clyde 2071, 2190, 2192, 2204 



Sacks, Karen Helen Brodkin (Mrs. William Michael Sacks) 2071, 

2089, 2190, 2192, 2204 

Sacks, Ralph 2099 

Sacks, William Michael 2071,2190,2192,2204 

Samberg, Michael 2099 

Scheer, Mortimer 2083 

Schlosser, Anatol (Isaac) _ 2124 

Schutz, Eric 2045,2071,2099,2190,2191,2204 

Sears, Frances Ann 2071,2167,2191,2193,2205 

Seel, E 2165 

Seigle, Larry ._ 2071, 2099, 2167, 1 2191, 2205 

Seigle, Stacev Joslin. 2071, 2167, 2 2191, 2193, 2205 

Sell, E 2167 

Seltzer, Lawrence Steven (Steve) 2071, 2165, 2167, 2171, 2191, 2193, 2205 

Seltzer, Steve. (See Seltzer, Lawrence Steven.) 

Shallit, Ellen 2075,2134 

Shero, Jeffrev 2099 

Shi Yu Long 2088 

Shufio, Joel A 2099 

Sikos (Robert L. F.) 2044 

Simmons, Charles Edward, III 2071,2088,2089,2167,2191,2193,2205 

Simon, Cvril 2165 

Sink, R_: 2165,2167 

Slater, Morton Bruce 1977-1980, 

1995, 2001-2005, 2027, 2049, 2050-2051 (testimony), 2054, 2071, 
2081, 2083, 2111, 2112, 2148, 2154, 2158-2185 (testimony), 2190, 
2193, 2205. 

Smith, Charles M 2099 

Snider, Peter 2099 

Spanfelner, Albert John 2071, 2190, 2192, 2206 

Spanfelner, Charlotte Maxine (Mrs. Albert John Spanfelner) 2071, 

2190, 2192, 2206 

Spinnev, Ralph William 2071, 2190, 2193, 2206 

Stackler, Ben 2099 

Stehr, Marcia Gayle 2071, 2190, 2193, 2206 

Stetler, Russell 2144 

Stetler, Russell, Jr 2099 

Stoute, Shirlev Enid 2071, 2090, 2190, 2193, 2206 

Strasburger, Allen 2099 

Straus, Eugene 2099 

Straus, Reed 2099 

Sumner, William Lippincott 2045, 2071, 2190, 2193, 2207 

Swinson, E 21d5, 2167 

1 Incorrectly spelled Siegle. 

2 Incorrectly spelled Siegle. 



INDEX vii 

T p M« 

Tabb, William 2099 

Taus, Roger 2075, 2099, 2100, 2134 

Tavlor, Maxwell D 2044 

Thomas, John 2144 

Thompson, Frank 2099 

Thompson, John 2171 

Thomson, John J 2099 

Tishman, Mark 2099, 2100 

Torres, Efraim (see also Parilla Torres, Efrain) 2171 

Torres, Efrain Parrilla. (See Parrilla Torres, Efrain.) 

Tripp, Luke Samuel 2071, 2075, 2167, 2186, 2191, 2193, 2207 

Trompetter, Jack 2099 

Tulloch, Bruce 2099 

U 
Uhse, Stefan.. _ 2071, 2089, 2190, 2193, 2207 

V 

Valdez, Louis Miguel 2071, 1 2089, 1 2190, 2193, 2207 

Valen, Kent A 2099 

Van Berg, Richard 2099 

Van Brunt, Richard _ 2099 

Verges, J. M 2104 

Viereck (George Sylvester) 1990 

Vo Dong Giang 2189 

W 

Wagner, Doug 2099 

Walter, Robert J 2165 

Warden, Judith Anne 2045, 2071, 2191, 2192, 2207 

Watson, J. K 2165, 2167 

Watts, David __ 2099 

Wax, R 2099 

Weinberg, Ginger. (See Weinberg, Virginia Aileen Hobbs.) 

Weinberg, Jerome Harold 2071, 2099, 2190, 2192, 2207 

Weinberg, Virginia Aileen Hobbs (Mrs. Jerome Harold Weinberg — also 

referred to as Ginger Weinberg) 2071, 2088, 2089, 2190, 2192, 2208 

Weinstein, Charles 2099 

Weinstein, Jennie 2171 

Williams, J._ 2165, 2167 

Williams, Jim 2099 

Williams, Robert F 1982, 

19S3, 2093, 2102, 2104, 2105, 2108, 2109, 2189 

Williamson, Allan 2099 

Wilson, James Roy 2071, 2190, 2193, 2208 

Wilson, Scott 2071, 2087, 2190, 2193, 2208 

Winchester, Henrv A 2171 

Wittman, Jane 2071, 2191, 2193, 2208 

Worthy (William, Jr.) 1989 

Wright, Robert 2099 

Y 
Yale, David R 2099 

Yost, Donald Steepleton 2071, 2190, 2192, 2199, 2208 

Yost, Nancy Lane Jasper (Mrs. Donald Steepleton Yost) (nee Jasper) 2071 2 , 

2190, 2192, 2199 
Z 
Zaret, Philip . 2099 

1 Appears as Luis in this reference. 

2 Appears as Nanci. 



viii INDEX 

ORGANIZATIONS 



Pag» 



ADA. (See Americans for Democratic Action, Cambridge, Mass.) 

Ad Hoc Committee 2099, 2100, 2147 

Ad Hoc Student Committee for Travel to Cuba (see also Student Committee 

for Travel to Cuba) 2127 

Afro-American Students Organization 1982, 2101, 2102, 2188, 2189 

American Airlines 1977, 1999, 2000 

American Nazi Party 1979, 2050, 2136, 2154, 2172 

Americans for Democratic Action, Cambridge, Mass 2130, 2131 

Antioch College (Yellow Springs, Ohio) 2089 

Art Center School (Los Angeles, Calif.) 2089 

B 

BOAC. (See British Overseas Airways Corp.) 

British Overseas Airways Corp. (BOAC) 2043,2135,2136 

Brooklyn College (New York) 1984, 1985, 2087 



CIO. (<See Congress of Industrial Organizations.) 

City College of the City of New York 2087-2090 

Columbia University (New York, N.Y.) 2087 

Communist Party of the United States of America: 
States and territories: 

New York State 2083 

Erie County 2083 

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) 2020 

Cuban Federation of University Students 1975, 

1981, 1984, 2075, 2076, 2111, 2112, 2148, 2173 
Cuban Institute for Friendship Among the Peoples 2129 

F 

Foreign Tours, Inc. (New York City) 1977,2168 

Freedom Now Party 2144 

H 
Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass.) 2087, 2089 

K 

KLM Roval Dutch Airline 2043 

Ku Klux Klan 2056 

L 

Liberation Press Agency 2189 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International: 

Local 6 (San Francisco) 2020 

Los Angeles City College (Los Angeles, Calif.) 2186 

M 

Macpherson Travel Bureau (New York City) 1979,2168,2169,2171 

Manhattan Art Club 1977, 2005, 2168 

May 2" Committee 1979, 1985, 2043, 2072, 2088, 2141-2144, 2150 

New York 1979, 2044, 2142, 2143 

Militant Labor Forum 2132 

Monroe Youth Action Committee 1983, 2063 

N 

NAACP. (See National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

People) . 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). 2145 

National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam 1982, 

1984, 2094, 2095, 2101, 2129-2131, 2189 

National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) 2130 

New York University (New York City) 2087 



INDEX ix 



Page 

Oakland City College (Oakland, Calif.)-- - - - 2087 



Pan American World Airways 1978, 2027, 2028, 2163, 2165-2167 

Permanent Student Committee for Travel to Cuba. {See Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba.) 

Portland State College (Oregon) 2087 

Prensa Latina 2087, 2091 

Progressive Labor Movement 1978- 

1981, 1983-1985, 2003, 2020, 2026, 2039, 2040, 2042-2045, 2063, 
2065, 2071, 2074, 2075, 2077-2080, 2083-2085, 2087, 2089, 2100, 
2105, 2128, 2133, 2134, 2136, 2142-2145, 2149, 2150, 2154, 2162, 
2163, 2175, 2176, 2178, 2180, 2187. 

University of California (Berkeley) 2042 

Pro-Independence University Students of Puerto Rico 2144 

R 
Radio Free Dixie 1982 

S 

San Francisco State College (San Francisco, Calif.) 2087 

San Jose State College (San Jose, Calif.) 2087, 2089 

Socialist Workers Party 1985, 2133 

South Vietnam Liberation Students Union 2189 

Stanford University (Stanford Calif.) 2087 

State University of Iowa (Iowa City, Iowa) 2087 

Student Committee for Travel to Cuba {see also Ad Hoc Student Com- 
mittee for Travel to Cuba) 1975, 

1980-1982, 1984, 1985, 1988, 2014-2016, 2020, 2025-2027, 2042, 
2043, 2045, 2068, *0<0, 2073-2076, 2079, 20S5, 2088, 2090, 2090, 
2097, 2111, 2124, 2125, 2127-2129, 2134, 2136-2143, 2145, 2148, 
2150, 2161, 2162, 2173, 2176, 2179. 

T 

Trans World Airlines, Inc 1977, 1978, 1996, 2022-2024, 2029-2032, 2162 

Travel Associates, Inc. (New York City) 1977, 

1978, 1997, 1998, 2025, 2026, 2028, 2032, 2162 

U 
U.S. Government: 

Justice Department: 

Federal Bureau of Investigat ion 1 982 

Supreme Court 1990, 1992 

University of California 2024, 2087 

University of California (Berkeley) 2042, 2186 

University of Chicago (Chicago, 111.) 2087 

University of Habana 2088 

University of Wisconsin (Madison, Wis.) 2087, 2089 

W 

Wayne State University (Detroit, Mich.) 2088, 2089, 2186 

Wayne State University (Ohio [sic]) 2087 

Y 
Yale University: 

Yale Socialist Union 1985.2143 

Young Socialist Alliance 2133 

PUBLICATIONS 

B 
Bohemia (Cuban magazine) 2089 

C 
Crusader, The (pamphlet) 1982 



X INDEX 

H Page 

Harvard Crimson 1984, 2130, 2131 

M 
Marxist-Leninist Quarterly 20S4, 2085 

P 

People's World _.. - 1978, 2020 

Progressive Labor 1978 

R 

Red Star Over Cuba (Nathaniel Wevl) 2015 

Revolution -- 1983, 2103, 2104 

W 
War and Peace Report (magazine) 1976, 1989 

o 



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