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Full text of "The violin"

00 









LIFE OF MOZART 



BY OTTO JAHN. 



TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN BY PAULINE D. TOWNSEND 

WITH FIVE PORTRAITS, AND PREFACE BY GEORGE GROVE, D.C.L. 

Three Volumes, Cloth, Price i us. 6d. 

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. 

THE TIMES. 

" Mr*Grove, in his brief and able preface, calls the publication in an English dress of Otto Jahn's famous 
biography of Mozart ' an event in our musical history,' and his statement cannot be considered an exaggeration. . . . 
The English public is to be congratulated upon a translation of his monumental effort which may without exaggeration 
be called excellent. Miss Townsend has done "i r v O rk with skill and conscientiousness, and we doubt whether a 
much more careful comparison with the original '.:. : have thought it necessarv to undertake would discover many, 
or any, serious blunders." 

PAIL 

" He (Jahn) has made adm ';;, ' of Nissen, with his laborious compilation, and of all other authorities, and 

he has succeeded in producing a - complete without being confusing through excess of detail, and in 

which the interest of the narrati\j> V undue reference to other writers who, treating of the same points, 

have treated them differently andfe . 'Hie work has been well trsrsKted, and it is prefaced by a 

brief but interesting introduction 3 . Trove." 



" It is with great pleasure ' 
Miss Townsend has acquitted hr 
present it is almost inevitable thj 
but mostly of slight importance. , 
works in the whole domain of i 
it within reasonable bounds. W, 
and need only add that the pr 
the reputation of the firm which 



JOHANl 



His Work 2 



TRANSLATED FROM 1 



se of the manner in which 

hi so voluminous a work as the 

noted are not only extremely rare, 

rs icw to one of the most important 

:<: impossibility of dealing fully with 

to all who are interested in music, 

worthy alike of their contents and of 



IAN BACH 

'?i.Tiany, 1685-1750. 
'A. 

\ A. FULLER-MAITLAND. 



" Of the translation we can V"! ' * compared it, very faithful to 

the original, but it is thoroughl no oh we find in Jahn; he brings 

together an enormous mass of . e ar; - of composition. Nevertheless 

his book is a sterling work whi ':'< the shelves of every muoi^ia.. 4 we congratulate the translator? 

and the publishers on having successfully :. eted the arduous task of presenting it in an English dress." 

SL , JAY TIMES. 

" The enterprise of Messrs. Novello & Co. in placing these valuable transla' .John's Moxart and Sputa's Bach) 
before the public cannot be too highly appreciated ; indeed, it can only be prop-.' ;.: ated by those who are familiar 

with the original works, and are acquainted with the extent to which they ha- .iced contemporary students of 

German musical literature. It may fairly be said that no one had the smallest u ; ! : on of what there was to be told 
in connection with Mozart's life and artistic career until Jahn's great book saw the light. . . . But if this be true with 
regard to Jahn's Mozart, how much more palpably must it apply to Spitta's Bach. . . . Criticism on such a stupendous 
effort would be impertinent unless far more comprehensive than that which could be bestowed in the space at my 
disposal. It must suffice, therefore, to say that the work of translation has, so far, been accomplished by Miss Clara Bell 
and Mr. Fuller-Maitland in a manner that commands the highest praise, and that the volume is brought out in the 
handsome and faultless style for which Messrs. Novello's publications are deservedly famous." 

DAILY CHRONICLE. 

" Herr Spitta dwells with the most minute and loving interest upon every point that can by any possibility help 
the full understanding of Bach's character. His parents, his home, and his contemporaries are studied, and the 
musical works of the latter analysed so as to show their influence upon the mind of his pupil. . . . The work is ably 
translated." 

LONDON & NEW YORK: NOVELLO, EWER & CO. 



DEMY OCTAVO, WITH THIRTY-FIVE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



RESEARCHES INTO THE EARLY HISTORY 



OF THE 



VIOLIN FAMILY 

BY 

CARL ENGEL 



PRICE SEVEN SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. 



Reference 

MUSICAL 

Library. 




" THE publication of this important book makes manifest to us the full measure of the loss"we~~nave 
sustained by the death of the author who, by common consent, was placed first among those who devote 
themselves to the study of musical instruments. In no work from his pen have we had such ripe fruit, in 
a province now recognised as a foundation of a general and philosophical systemisation of the art, as in 
this masterpiece of erudition and sound judgment. With the deductions suggested by what is at present 
known as the scientific basis of music Engel had little or nothing to do. He spent his valuable life in 
continual observation and much reading, the outcome of which we may some day expect to gain in the four 
large volumes left by him in manuscript, with complete illustrations of all the known musical instruments 
in the world. When this magnum opus appears, the present view of the subject by which all Eastern and 
the so-called ethnological music is bro~ .ght into relation with our major and minor scales will be exhaus- 
tively satisfied. The dawn of another view of tl.e subject affecting our conception of it may be imminent, 



but Carl Engel's descriptions and c 
on the origin of bowed instrument; 
notice in this essay all the deep *< 
reasoning identified with Engel's y. 
once attacks the root of the arg' 1 .. 
believe was gradually developed i 
twanged their lyres. By this h; 
perfected bow. . . . Among the * 
and Japanese bowed instrumeLf 
one exception called Sarangi ' 
Museum at South Kensington, 
describes as the rule and th; 
The Indian Museum instrurru- 
bowing have four. They ha r 
' Viola d' Amore ' was also synij. ' 
fixed tension, so that they are ve 
Japanese 'Kokiu,' of which the 



elusions will be always indispensable to the inquirer, as this volume 
to i ! tV>se who concern themselves with the violin family. We 
irch/'l earness of expression, calm judgment, and ingenuity of 
~r. i.jrts with a chapter on available evidences, and then at 

L cc ,g the origin of the fiddle-bow, which he is inclined to 

hi rum with which the Greeks and other ancient peoples 

3 -.otion of a feather is the rudimentary idea of the modern 

i '.4 aons contained in the book are woodcuts of both Chinese 
c e Indian. The Hindu Sarinda figured on page 17 is with 

i I specimens, eleven in number, in the cases of the Indian 
.y ., the upper part of the sound-body open a peculiarity Engel 
a ( rent form to the others, and to the illustration given by him. 
-or 4ete sound membranes of skin, and instead of three strings for 
..yrr thetic wires, not indicated in the woodcut. Our Western 
al. unished with thin untouched strings. Ancient bows have 
: r Cations of our violin bow ; however, the remarkable bow of the 
I has a fine specimen, is capable of adjusted tension, by a cord 

attached to the lower end of the horsehair used for the friction. Our bow was only perfected by Tourte, at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. Engel's problem is to show how, in European countries, the bow 
became gradually used for certain instruments the strings of which had previously been twanged. This 
is the real interest to the reader of a very ingenious disquisition. Engel first treats of the Welsh Crwth 
separately from the English Crowd, the Medieval Rotte, Rote and Chrotta. The Crwth is 

A fair coffer with a bow, a girdle, 

A finger-board, and a bridge ; its value is a pound. 

We refer the reader to page 67 for an ingenious hypothesis of the origin of these names. Yet more 
important is the noteworthy argument which deduces these forms of partially bowed instruments from the 
old Greek lyre. Engel's quotations from poets and other old authors are a mine of wealth to the curious 
in such matters. . . . The later medieval bowed instruments are introduced by a chapter on the Rebec, 
followed by the Geige, the Fiddle, the Vielle, and the Viols. . . . After the Viols, when arrived at the 
Violin, the lamented author terminated his inquiry, considering he had landed his reader on the terra firma 
of what is well known to musicians. We will, however, refer to the curious illustration on page 
which represents, from a sarcophagus found in Sicily and probably dating 250 years before our era, two 
stringed instruments alike, which had the late Dante Rossetti seen he might have depicted in one of 
ideally pictorial conceptions. Engel saw in this an instrument the strings of which could be stopped t 
produce notes of different pitch, as the violin or guitar are stopped. This expedient, older in Egypt th 
the Pyramids, is connected with Greece and Rome almost by this one example ! A brief retrospect 
that the violin family attained its highest degree of perfection about the year 1700, which proves that 
there is finality to improvements even in musical instruments. The index is copious anc 
Musical Review, April 21, 1883. 



LONDON AND NEW YORK: NOVELLO, EWER AND CO. 



MUSIC FOR VIOLIN AND PIANO. 



ALL THE PRICES ARE NET. 



Romance. 
A Short Tale. 



BACH. Chaconne, with Variations. Pianoforte accompani- 
ment by Mendelssohn . . . . . . 

Aria for the Fourth String 

BECKER,]. Romance 

BOHLMANN, G. C. Four Lyrics each 

No. i. Wherefore. I No. 3. 

2. Hunting Song. 4. 

BOOTH, OTTO. Sonata in A minor 

BOVET, F. Souvenirs de Suisse. Fantasia, Op. 4 . . 

CORELLI, A. Twelve Sonatas, Op. 5. Edited by Arnold 
Dolmetsch. (Nos. n & 12 of Novello, Ewer & Co.'s 
Albums for Violin and Piano.) Two vols. .. each 

DAVID, F. Barcarolle .. each 

- Lullaby . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, 

Romance . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, 

ERSFELD, CH. Impromptu, Op. 14 

FLIEGE, H. Oberlandler 

GOUNOD. Ten Transcriptions from " Mors et Vita," by 

Berthold Tours (No. 4 of Novello, Ewer and Co.'s 

Albums for Violin and Piano) 
No. i. Introit et Kyrie. ' No. 6. Pie Jesu. 

2. Quid sum, miser. 

3. Felix Culpa. 

4. Ingemisco tanquam reus. 

5. Inter oves locum praesta. 

GUNGL, J. Oberlandler 

HAUSE, CARL. Barcarolle, No. 2, in D 

Barcarolle, No. 3, in G 

Landler 

HAUSER, M. Chanson de Berceau .. 

Chanson du Soir 

Chant Villageois 
Preghiera 

HAYDN. Serenade 



s. d. 



3 9 



6 o 



3 6 

i o 

i o 

I O 

i 6 

I O 




each 



H AYNES, BATTISON. Twelve Sketches (No. 5 of Novello, 

Ewer and Co.'s Albums for Violin and Piano) 

No. i. Thoughts. No. 7. Moto perpetuo. 

2. Schcrzino. 8. Rustic Dance. 

3. March. 9. Idyll. 

4. Cradle Song. 10. Polonaise. 

5. Song without words. n. Arioso. 

6. Mazurka. 12. intermezzo. 



No. 5. 
6. 



, each 
Mazurka. 
March. 



No. i. Canzonetta. 

2. Berceuse. 

3. Tarantelle. 

4. Romance. 

5. Air de Ballet. 

6. Barcarolle. 



No. 7. Mazurka. 
Legende. 
Saltarello. 



Nocturne. 

Melodic. 

A 1'Espagnole. 

LANGE, G. Two Hungarian Dances, Op. 266 

No. i. G minor, Isteni Csardas 

2. D, Rozsabokar Csardas 

MACFARREN, W. First Sonata 

Second Sonata . . . . . . . . . . 

MACKENZIE, A. C. Concerto 

Full Score, 2t/- ; Orchestral Parts, 2i/- 
Six Pieces, Op. 37, complete 



Gavotte. 
Berceuse. 
Benedictus. 
Benedictus from ditto, singly 



HOFFMANN, J. C. M. Six Dances .. 
No. i. Polonaise. I No. 3. Polka. 
2. Landler. | 4. Waltz. 

HOFMANN, H. Adagio, Op. 31 

Silhouettes from Hungary . . 

Lento from ditto 

New Hungarian^ Dances, arranged by J. Lauterbach 
Romanze, Op. '4f^\ 

Prairie PictureAwfThree pieces on original Russian 

melodies, Op. j5V. . .. .. .. 

No. i. Vivace, in A minor .. i 6 

2. Romance, in A .. .. .. .. .. i o 

3. Allegro, in D .. .. .. .. .. i 6 

Italian Love Tale, Op. 19 

JACOBY, S. Eight Hungarian Dances (No. 6 of Novello, 
Ewer and Co.'s Albums for Violin and Piano). . 

National Melodies (No. 13 of Novello, Ewer & Co.'s 

Albums for Violin and Piano) 

Home, sweet home. There is no luck. 

Garry Owen. Come, lasses and lads. 

Charlie is my darling. Jenny Jones. 

Farewell. Rule, Britannia. 

KING, OLIVER. Twelve Pieces, Op. 25 (No. 8 of Novello, 
Ewer and Co.'s Albums for Violin and Piano). . 



Zingaresca. 

Saltarello. 

Tema con Variazioni. 



2 6 



6. It is enough. 

7. O rest in the Lord. 

8. For the mountains shall depart. 

9. Then shall the righteous. 
10. O come every one. 



MENDELSSOHN. Ten Transcriptions from Elijah by 
Berthold Tours (No. 3 of Novello, Ewer and Co.'s 
Albums for Violin and Piano) . . . . . . . . 2 

1. If with all your hearts. 

2. Lord God of Abraham. 

3. Cast thy burden. 

4. Woe unto them. 

5. Hear ye, Israel. 

Four Marches, arranged by Berthold Tour's (No. i ot 

Novello, Ewer and Co.'s Albums for Violin and Piano) 2 
No. i. Wedding March. I No. 3. Cornelius March. 

2. War March, Athalie. | 4. Funeral March. 

Canzonette, in G minor . . . . . . . . . . i 

Violin Concerto, Op. 64 . . . . . . . . . . 6 

Sonata, F minor, Op. 4 . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Sonata in B flat, Op. 45, arranged . . . . . . . . 3 

Sonata in D, Op. 58 4 

Variations Concertantes in D, Op. 17 .. .. .-3 

MOLIQUE, C. Melody on an Exercise by F. Sor . . . . i 

MORET, V. Une Fleur du Passe, Andante from a Sonata by 

Leclair . . . . . . . . . . . . i 

MORLEY, C. Emperor Gavotte ' Cornflowers " .. .. i 

MOZART. Sonatas. Volume 6 of the Pianoforte Works, 



s. d. 



edited by Cipriani Potter . . 



2. Sonata, in B flat 

4. Sonata, in E flat 

5. Sonata, in G 
;. Sonata, in A 

Sonata, in E flat 



27. Sonata, in F 

44. Sonata, in E minor 

45. Sonata, in F 

54. Sonata, in E flat 



cloth 17 O 



Sonatas. Volume 7 of the Pianoforte Works, by Cipriani 

Potter . . . . . . . . . . . . cloth 17 



64. Sonata, in C 

68. Sonata, in A a 

74. Sonata, in B 3 



55. Sonata, in C 26 

58. Sonata, in D 40 

63. Sonata, in G 20... 

12. Allegro, in B flat (Posthumous) 20 

13 Sonata, in C (Posthumous) 23 

1 Part i, Tema, in G minor x 6 

3 \ 2, La Pastorale Silvana, in G 19 

RAFF, J. Six Morceaux de Salon, Op. 85 (No. 9 of Novello, 

Ewer & Co.'s Albums for Violin and Piano) complete. . 2 6 
Marcia. I Cavatina. I Canzona. 

Pastorale. Scherzino. Tarantella. 

Cavatina from ditto, singly .. .. .. .. i o 

RIES, F. Schlummerlied i 6 

"Album Blatter" Selections 



No. 

1. PERGOLESI. Siciliano 

2. DURANTB. Aria 

3. RIBS, F. Romance .. 

4. RAMEAU. Gavotte .. 

5. HASSE. Aria .. 

6. RAMEAU. Menuet and Passe 

picds . . 

7. TARTINI. Larghetto.. 

8. BACH. Air and Gavotte 

9. LULLY. Gavotte and Rondo 
10. MARTINI. Gavotte .. 



from ancient masters. 
No. 

11. LECLAIR. Sarabande and 

Tambourin 

12. GLUCK. Ballet d'Orpheus 
6 13. PARADIBS. Canzonetta 

6 14. DUPORT. Romanza .. 

15. TENAGLIA, A. F. Aria 

16. MEHUL, E. H. Minuet 

17. GLUCK. Largo 

6 18. HAYDN. Serenade .. 
6 19. HASSE, J. A. P. Canzona 
6 20. GLUCK. Ballet and Gavotte 



RAGGHIANTI, IPPOLITO. Nine Morceaux de Salon (No. 7 
of Novello, Ewer and Co.'s Albums for Violin and Piano) 



No. i. Regrets. 

2. Souvenirs melancoliques. 

3. Inquietude. 

4. Serenatella. 

5. Intermezzo. 

SAMSON, L. Five Morceaux Caracte"ristiques, Op. 34 each 



Scherzino. 
Pensee Fugitive. 
Chanson Bergeronnette. 
lire Mazurka. 



No. 4. Vision. 

5. Perpetuum Mobile. 



No. i. Conte d' Amour. 

2. Historiette. 

3. Jour de Bonheur. 

SCHERZ, ERNST. Humorous Meditations on the German 
Air " Kommt a Vogerl geflogen," in the style of 
various masters 

SCHUBERT, F. Allegretto Agitato each 

Cantabile . . . . . . . . . ,, 

Chant Plaintif , 

Impromptu . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 

Le Desir . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, 

Romanza Espressiva.. .. .. .. .. 

Tyrolienne . . . . . . . . . . . . ,, 

SCHUMANN, R. Abendlied 

SELBY, B. LUARD. Sonata in B minor, Op. 21 .. 

SIMON, A. Berceuse 

STANFORD, C. V. Three Intermezzi, Op. 13 

THORNE, E. H. Cavatina 

TOURS, B. Thirty Melodies. Expressly written to be used 

in connection with the Author's Violin Primer (No. 2 of 
Novello, Ewer and Co.'s Albums for Violin and Piano) 

WOHLERS, H. Le Dahlia, Romance 

ZIMMERMANN, A. Sonata, D minor, Op. 16 

Second Sonata, A minor, Op. 21 .. 

Third Sonata, G minor, Op. 23 

ZOELLER, C. Andante Lugubre, Melody 

El Gitano, Hungarian Fantasia 



2 6 



i 6 



o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

6 o 
i o 
4 o 
i 6 



2 6 

i 6 

7 J 

7 6 

7 & 

1 6 

2 O 



LONDON AND NEW YORK: NOVELLO, EWER AND CO. 



SEVENTY-FOURTH THOUSAND. 



NOVELLO, EWER AND CO.'S MUSIC PRIMERS. 

EDITED BY DR. STAINER. 



THE VIOLIN 



BY 



BERTHOLD TOURS. - 



PRICE TWO SHILLINGS. 

In Paper Boards, Two Shillings and Sixpence. 



Reference 

MUSICAL 

Library 




LONDON & NEW YORK 

NOVELLO, EWER AND CO. 



(, 



LONDON : 

NOVELLO, EWER AND CO., 
PRINTERS. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 



I. 


PAGE 

Description of the separate parts 


XI. 


Duration of notes and rests . 


PAoB 

10 


II. 


of the violin . 
The bow . . 


5 


XII. 

xr T T T 


Table of time signatuies 


12 


III. 

IV. 


The strings 
On holding the violin . 


7 
7 


XIII. 
XIV. 


Exercises on the open strings 

Explanation of signs used for the 
fingers . . . . 


13 
13 


V. 


Position of the left hand 


7 


XV. 


Exercises on different intervals 


16 


VI. 


On holding the bow 


7 


XVI. 


Melodious exercises 


18 


VII. 


On bowing 


9 


XVII. 


Exercise in different ways of bowing 


29 


VIII. 


Explanation of signs used for bowing 9 


XVIII. 


Sharps, flats, etc 


30 


IX. 


The attitude of the performer 


9 


XIX. 


The diatonic scales, major and minor 


3 


X. 


Clef, lines, spaces, and notes 


10 


XX. 


The chromatic scale 


33 






PART II. 






XXI. 


The different gradations of tone 


. 34 XXV. 


Exercises in expression, style, ttc. . 


45 


XXII. 


Exercises in different keys . 


35 


XXVI. 


The appoggiatura and the turn 


53 


XXIII. 


Extension of the fourth finger 


*i 


XXVII. 


The shake and the mordent . 


57 


XXIV. 


The major, and their relative minor 






*// 




scales in all the keys 


. 42 












PART III. 






DIFFERENT WAYS OF BOWING. 


XXVIII. 


The legato .... 


. 61 


XXXII. 


The tremolo ..... 


7' 


XXIX. 


The martele" 


63 


XXXIII. 


Double stops 


72 


XXX. 


The sautille" . 


. 64 


XXXIV. 


Arpeggio 


74 


XXXI. 


The staccato . . . 


. 68 


XXXV. 


Pizzicato . 


77 






APPENDIX. 






XXXVI. 


The higher positions . 


. 78 


XLI. 


The sixth position . 


94 


XXXVII. 


The second position 


79 


XLII. 


The seventh position 


94 


XXXVIII. 


The third position 


. 81 


XLIII. 


Exercises in octaves 


95 


XXXIX. 


The fourth position 


. 86 


XLIV. 


Natural and artificial harmonics 


98 


XL. 


The fifth position 


. 8q 


XLV. 


Exercise in different positions 


IOO 




Vocabulary of technical 


terms and expressions . . . 104 


List of studies, etc., recommended to advanced pupils . . 106 



THE VIOLIN. 



PART I. 



I. DESCRIPTION OF THE SEPARATE PARTS OF THE VIOLIN, 




B 



A, the Head or Scroll. B, the Pegs. C, the Neck. D, the Finger-board. E, the Nut. F, the 
Bridge. G, the f or sound-holes. H, the Tail-piece. I, the Belly. K, the Ribs. L, the Button. The 
lower part is called the Back. In the interior of the violin, for the support of the Bridge and immediately 
behind its right foot is a small round piece of wood called the Sound-post, and under the left foot a piece of 
wood called the bar or bass bar is glued on lengthways underneath the Belly. 



II. THE BOW. 



B 

A, the Stick. B, the Hair. C, the Nut. D, the Screw. E, the Head, or point. 



FIG. i. 



FIG. 2. 




FIG. 3. 



FIG. 4. 



FIG. 5. 



III. THE STRINGS 

There are four Strings on the violin. The lowest, which is spun with silver or copper wire, is called 
the G, or fourth String : the next is called the D, or third String : then the A, or second : and the E, or first 
String. It will therefore be seen that the strings are tuned in fifths ; which is the case with most stringed 
instruments 

4tn 3rd 2nd ist 






IV. ON HOLDING THE VIOLIN. 

The violin should be placed on the left collar-bone, and in this position it must be held by the chin 
whicl) rests on the instrument close to the left of the tail-piece, the performer's head being inclined slightly 
to the left. 

The position of the violin must be horizontal, and its neck should be at right angles with the centre 
of the left shoulder. The elbow should be held immediately under the middle of the instrument, but must 
not touch the body. (See Figs, i and 2.) 

Hold the neck of the violin between the thumb and the first finger of the left hand, taking care not 
to let that part of the hand situated between the thumb and the finger, touch the neck, but always leaving 
a space between. (See Fig. 3.) 

V. POSITION OF THE LEFT HAND. 

Place the first finger on the first string close to the nut of the violin, and the other fingers on 
the second, third, and fourth strings respectively, in their natural positions (see Fig. 4, page 6); they 
will then be prepared to produce the following notes : 



The first finger 



the second finger 



the third finger 



and the fourth finger 



The wrist must not be bent, and the palm of the hand should never touch the neck of the violin. 
the fingers gently, but keep them over the strings, and the hand will be in the right position. 



Lift 



VI. ON HOLDING THE BOW. 

Place the four fingers of the right hand, as far as the first joint, on the stick of the Bow, and the 
thumb, slightly bent, close to the nut, so that the thumb is opposite to the first and second finger. The 
fingers on the top of the stick should be close to each other, and the hand slightly rounded or arched, so as 
to rise above the Bow. (See Fig. 5.) 




FIG. 6. 



FIG. 8. 



FIG. 7. 



9 



VII. ON BOWING. 

The Bow must be placed across the Strings between the finger-board and the bridge, and should 
be moved at right angles to the instrument. The wrist should be loose and bent towards the face of the 
player, care being taken not to turn it too much upwards when playing near the nut. The bowing as 
shown in Fig. 9 is absolutely bad, and must be avoided by the pupil. 




VIII, 



-EXPLANATION OF SIGNS USED FOR BOWING. 

n down-bow. 
V up-bow. 
P near the point. 
M near the middle. 
N near the nut. 



WB 

UH 



with the whole bow. 

upper half. 

,, lower half, 
firm stroke of the bow. 
light stroke of the bow. 
the bow not to leave the string. 

Purified and prepared resin is rubbed over the hair of the bow, to make it rough and enable it to grip 
the strings. After playing, the violin must be carefully wiped with a dry cloth to prevent the accumulation 
of dust and resin on the belly. 

IX. THE ATTITUDE OF THE PERFORMER. 

The body should be erect and easy, the chest expanded, and the shoulders drawn back. Face the 
music-desk, standing a little to the left, as otherwise the violin would hide the music. The principal weight 
of the body must rest on the left foot (see Figs. 6 and 7), which should point straight towards the desk, the 
right foot being a little apart from the left, and pointed outward. (Set Fig. 8.) 



10 



X. CLEF, LINES, SPACES, AND NOTES. 

dt 

The treble or G clef BE on the second line of the stave is used for violin music 



LINES. 



SPACES. 



_2nd- 



-3rd- 



-4th- 



-1st, 



4th 



_lgt_ 



2nd 



NOTES ON THE LINES. 



E G B D 



NOTES IN THE SPACES. 



NOTES BELOW THE LINES. 



E 



' & - -*y 
D C B 



A G 

B C 



NOTES ABOVE THE LINES. 



XL DURATION OF NOTES AND RESTS. 
TABLE OF NOTES. 



Whole note 
Half note 



Quarter note ... __. 
Eighth note ... 



J- 



J. 



J- 



note 



16 s 



__.Semibreve. 

Minim. 

_Crotchet. 



Quaver. 

Semi- 
.quaver . 



Thirty-second 




Demi-semi- 



II 



TABLE OF RESTS. 



r " 


_ 


- r or 1 





a 


a 


r 






_1 


9 


B 



Semibreve. Minim. Crotchet. Quaver. Semiquaver. Demi-semi- 
quaver. 

When several bars rest occur they are marked thus: 

2348 30 



J 


I " 



























&c. 



A dot placed after a note lengthens its value by one-half. 

O is equal to o O 

I J 
. is equal to G* 



S is equal to 

JTu 



j% 

v* 10 equal to 
When two dots are placed after a note, the second dot adds one-half of the value of the 

O . is equal to Q o 

! J J J* 

GJ! is equal to G* 

\ I J* ft 

is equal to 

h I s & 

is equal \xy 

Dots placed after rests lengthen their value in the same proportion. 

" is equal to ~"~ j^ 
j*_ is equal to __ | 

j . is equal to *1 

1 is equal to *| q 

Sj is equal to ^ ^ 
"" is equal to ~"~ j*. jl 
... . . is equal to ^. | *i 

| * is equal to $ *| 3 

1 is equal to *1 ^ 3 



previous dot. 



ff 



Pause on 
a note. 



Pause on 
a rest. 



12 



XII.- TABLE OF TIME SIGNATURES.* 



SIMPLE. 


COMPOUND. 




2 


1 j 


6 


I , 




(P or g 


G) 


4 


, 


1 


2 

4 


J J 


6 

8 


J. J: 




2 

8 


-r -r 


6 
16 


^ j^ 

^ j. 




3 
2 


1 ! I 
G' G' G* 


9 
4 


j ' j 

C* G" O 


I 


3 
4 


J J J 


9 


J. J- J. 




3 
8 


J* J* / 


9 
16 


/. -r. J". 




eor| 


JJJJ 


12 
4 


J J 1 J 

G** C** G** Cf* 


| 


Cor| 


JJJJ 


12 
8 


J. J. J. J. 


o> 




(^ IV Si Ki 




\ \ \ s 


4 


j J J J^ 


12 


J J J J^ 




8 




16 





Further and more detailed information respecting these elementary paragraphs (X., XI., and XII.) 
will be founu in the " Rudiments of Music " Primer, by W. H. Cummings. 



* By permission of the Rev. J. Troutbeck. 



n V 

XIII. EXERCISES ON THE OPEN STRINGS. 
WBll V 



No. i. 



m 










-n- 


CJ 


\ " \ 


\ ^ 


1 ^ \ 


\ ' \ 


-n- 


n 











we n 



No. 2. ttff 



n 



No. 3. El 



I 



XIV. EXPLANATION OF SIGNS USED FOR THE FINGERS. 

1 ... first finger. 

2 ... second ,, 

3 ... third 

4 ... fourth 

o . . . open string. 



:} Keep the finger down. 



i i is used when a note is followed by a Semitone; the fingers must then be close together. In 
ascending notes the fingers must remain stationary in the order in which they are put down ; in descending 
scales, they are to be lifted one after the other. The fingers should always be pressed firmly on the 
strings ; otherwise a full and clear tone cannot be attained. 



Open String and 1st Finger. 
WBfl 



No. 



y-^ 


rj 


. ^ 


1 c> 1 


u 
























H 


tH 


o 


i 










L >- 




o 


1 e-> ' 
o 


U^J 


U^J 


o 


-0- 







H 





1st and 2nd Finger. 

wen 



No. 5. 





P 1 




I ^ J 






n r . 














\ \ 




dfb? 

y o 




a 


o 





. 


a 





o 




a 


1 c-> ' 

n 




1 

-f^- ^ 


^ i 



14 



1st, 2nd, and 3rd Finger. 
WBH, ,_ 



No. 6. 



3 O 



8 w^ 3 

1 1= O l 1= 



WBH 



No. 7. 







1 *- 



I - 



,wsn 



No. 8. |E 




















-^ 


f~J 






r~^j 


~~ 




















^v 


^ 










2? 


f^j 



/( 


___ 


_ 




























IfU 







^^ 














(^^ 


-^ 










vu 




C^J 


C-*^ 




r~^j 


, *-* 





















i ?: 



3 



WBfl 



No. 9. 



35=3 
















Ifn /i 

















O 2 j 3_ 



n 







1 " 1 




1 ?- 1 

















(^jt 




^3^ 


^"j 






U 




NO. IO. jm~4 


i^j 
















C^J 



O 2 3_ 



n 



No. ii. 



3 



o 2 i - 



No. 12. 



a i L 



15 

EXERCISE ON THE FOUR STRINGS. 

Draw the bow gently from one string to another, and on no account lift it before proceeding to the 
next string. 



WBfl 



No. 13. 



CJ> 



o 



a 



O 3 2 1 O 3 2 



1 O 



3 2 



In the preceding Exercises the ist, 2nd, and 3rd fingers only have been used. By placing the 4th 
finger next to the 3rd it will be seen that the same note is produced as the next open string the notes 



No. 14. 



No. 15. 



No. 16. 



can therefore be played in two ways. 



WB PI 



-e^ 



Jr ' 




















^E 




*=3 


r^ 


\ o 


7TJ 


& 


a 


\ I 





No. 17. 



10 



XV. EXERCISES ON DIFFERENT INTERVALS. 
To be played first slowly with WB, afterwards quicker with M. 
SECONDS. 



f\ 












; 1 












<d 


/^~> ^j 


r ^ 


zs* 




&* 




ffiW 












1 










rJ 


rJ S 


r^ 














vL/^ 


I i 




- 




^~ 


e^ 


r^LJ ^~^ 




















V- -&- 0, - - 40' 



y 


''^ 














1 








" 


3 




^P 


TJ 




rj -- i 


/A 








1 














1 


1 














s 


ftu 






1 ' 
























r 



O 4 



jfl 


' ^J 




''J -^ 


_^^^ 


















i i 










-_ 


<HM 






f 

1 


H 2 ^ 




^-- 


^5 


-- 


-G 


D 




..i-< 


^= 




*= 


- 









H 



THIRDS. 



M Jr ^ 
















-r 


r=> 


1 ( 






| 


1 " 


- 


/ 


~~\ ^ ^ i j 








^ 




? 


^ 


-T2 




^ 


G. ^J Q 


^? 












_pj 14 3 


^^ 




^S' 






























i * 




















1 




































<~-\ 


fO ,0 








^ r 




> 




n Y^3 








r . 


| 




f^> 






/O p* 




^^ 


r 


3 ' 






,^-> 


y in r^ 




1 


"^ 


















3J 




f~ ^j 






**D r^ 


/I " 




















1 














5 r^ 


lfl> 1 * 


































i 


VL> 1 




























I 






' - ' 


/ 


































A 



No. 20. 



A H- 
























a 




c=* 


2 






r^ 




tfn 1 






1 ^3 






C 














<rJ 














vp 4- 


r^j 








- j^- 






rj 




















. 




t/ ^s 






cJ 

n 




i 


4 






i 













i 


4 






i 



O 



O 2- 



O 



A major fifth is played with the same finger on two strings, except when the open string is used. Where 
minor fifths occur the sign has been placed ; the finger must then move a semitone lower or higher. 



FIFTHS. 



Nft 2T ^5k -} 










s~ 















p- 






t& 






M- 


1^. 


^_ 


-, _ 


**" * A ffl)-^ 
*y 


' r\ 


\ & 




n 


\ 

4 


UsJ 


1 


1 (J 




2 


L^ 






o 


4 


L| 


1 


t 



dt: 


*^ 


I r; r i 


r~ 


^n 






rH 


r-^ 


1 


I 


^^I 1 




P 1 






& 




f^ 




o 




o 




8 












cJ 

4 O 






9- 





-jjr. rj~ 




fi 












m 


n 


4 


1 


4 


O 

1 






-6 
3 


^* CJ -- 


^ ^ - 


SIXTHS. 

n .1 







- . i ^j 


No. 22. 
















j*D I ^* 










i 


a 






r^i 




t^ 






fj 












*-J r^^ 










1 




_f 













L * ^ 




i- 






_ JO 


\ 


" 








' ' 


--r- ^ - 


















rs 




^ ^^ 










s-^ 




f^i 


.--, 
















^^ 


ten i 












s 




r^ 






^^, 








vu 












1 






^^ 






r^ 


> ' O Q - , , ' . 1 .... A 9 



f\ r^ 






,.._.,. . 














i 




f(v\ i 




r^ 


rJ 




_r- 












i 


, 




"F ' <^ 




I ! 






- c? 




I^*J 




.^^ 




1 1 




*/ i 


1 C> 

^ 


_^_ 




"cJ ^^ -iS 


^ -+ <^ f r^ 

-^4- 4 - 4- 


" 


A "L^ 



SEVENTHS. 



No. 23. 



"Tl 


[ 'n 

a 


=q 1 


i r-* 




^ 1 






^ 


f J '1 


H--I 


1 t 


i 


C-LJ 




^9 n 


f^ 


-& 


& 


-^ 




bH 

o 






a 


-e 






L v-^ 




rj 




O 




~TrJ~ 

1 



f- f ,n 

1 "^ - 



18 



No. 24. 



if / 




^^^ 


rj 


















1 


A! 


r^i 






























TMJ^ 


1 




















f~\ 




rJ 


s 


' 








*=i 






f -> 









n i^ ^^ ^ - 


V 














p^l 




r^i 


-^ 




yL /-J 


. 
























r^i 


ffn 






















[ 



























XVI. MELODIOUS EXERCISES. 



THB PupiU 

No. 25. 
THB MASTER. 



Andante. Count Four Crotchets. 
WB fl 



j L I cJ:=3 

^ g^ ' ^J 1 c< 



^v 



fe 



XI ^ J 






r~ j 






<^^ 


^2 


KM 




f~^j 




.* ) 














vl/ 






















/ 




4 










i 












Yl 




y 














] 
















1 
































fen r ^ 






















-j 




^p-_ 






^Q 






vL' ,*-J 


r~j 






.^ r 





















^B 


^-^ 






/ C-*' _ 




-** 




\ 


5^ 


,^^ 



Andante. Count Four Crotchets 
WBfl 



No. 26. 



-J^U/ 














^5 






fttw 


--. 








f^^J 








QJ 


i^^j 


vtr 1 ^ 


f--i^ 




















t/ 

o 





































ir / 














I 
















/u 


































ffl^^ 


















^^_J 






^r- 




f3 




j* 




i 




i 


1 *~2 




TLT"^ 






^^ WL- 




x": 






& 




UTJ' 



2B S 


















ifl^ 


















EH 














y 8 


4 






\^ 


A I 




1 


J? 3 




?^T 












i T 




H 


rfh ^ ;= 




- 






~B 1 









t 


H i 1 






H 


v|y 2 










\JT^ 










^_ ... 1 _.J 


1 ^ 




IJ 


/ 








fcj 


^ , 1 -- ,._ Je- 


-4- 



Andante. Count Four Crotchets 
WB D 



No. 27. 



f\ 




S 


\ " 1 


\ ' 1 


-f^- 


Q 


1 " 


1 1 


IF 








4 












4 
























I/ y 




























^5 


__ 






















f ^j 


^ * . 


r~\ 






uV\ ^ 






1 


1 1 








r- 






^ i 






_C__^_ 


_[ gH 






7/ J^j 


--H 


h \- -e. 


& 










^1 LH ' G ^~> 



/r. 






' 


n 




' 














ft) 
o 







1 














4 


^ 


-^ 


y 


























>5 


























ffT\ 












i 


| 








I 




15 J r^ 


_ 






I 












1 


1 






*-^ 




eJ 


*~- 




Aei 


fjJ 




_ , 


U ._ 


33: 





Andante. Count Four Crotchets. 
.WBFl 



No. 28. 



-V-? 














-i 1 


1 i 








F 

'; 




^ 


^ 








j,^ 




<^? 

j r 




r^ 


: 


! ^ 


^jld 


-G 


-^ 




lfal 




f> 




U 


s 










-t- 












LT- 


1 










^ 




1- 




















r 













-^- 


-h 




t T 










w>-^ 

/ 




-<*-: 




-^ 


- -_ 


bt 


J 


-i<=3 


4 


r 






/ 


i-^ 
s 










1 


~* 


'J? *$* 


- 




t* 


"^ II 1 



\ 



^ 



'j:V J -K^^'"' ^^^ 



20 



Count Four Crotchets. The whole bow should be used for the minims as well as for the semibreves 
Larghetto. 
.WB PI V 19- 



No. 29. 






g 



m 



SH 



3F 







rVrir r Ni j ; 



ITT-* ! 




~ -p~2 




2i 


L^. 


- 






' 


1 




H 


!P 

\ 


4 


'o lr r 




4 


4 


L^! c- 






J-^u 

4 






Jf 


j 


i 






Ij 






I 








yf J 


| ^_ 




I 




1 








. 














frn 


Jt 






i 










1 




i 










llU 






1 * 


3EZ2= 


1 tt^. 


^ 


^ 


=t 


i.. t3cn 


-^ 


rr \- 


U 


1 


L 





Moderate, ma risoluto. Count Two Minims. 
, WBfl 



No. 30. 



XI ^? j 








J J 


x"> 




n\\ Sy rJ r^ 








rJ 




rJ rJ 


vy 














*J O 
A 


4 


4 


_K *> 














/T ft h 






B 






i 


f* 




i 




r^ *j 1 . 






1 


2 






4fd 






1 



^ 



5 



^ 



5 



s 



m 



f~2 



*v\ 


















^ 1 


V U 






^~~J ^*. 




II 


rf 






4 






n 






1 


v 
















n 








. PL_ _j_ 


J2-. HI - 






P r^-J 


' -. ,. 4- 


J u 



21 



No. 31. 




Andante. Count Four Crotchets. 
WBFI 



!/?~ ~~^~^\ 




7 1 






) ^- 


I 




=y 




& 






& 




-t 1 


r f 


7 


2 . - - 


U 

4 








1- 
























4 


^5 i 


1 
























I 










Jr 


























, 






i 




A J 


J 























k 


| 






, 


I 


d) 




























^ 




1 ' #4 


i 




I 


I 




* 


1 M 










f 











& 




J 



XL r j 




^ 








j 






ffn r 


rJ 
















"K 










^ r^^ 


^*^ 




r~^j 







C. 


7 






4 
















, 












































xj 1 




















I 


- ^ 






| 


I J 






\v w -^ 


I 


J ^ 








* 






*^ ^^ 


"^ J: 


9 

[7^ 


9 
^^ 




^^bJ- Jt -f*- 


bw~ ~^-^ 




-+- 



Moderate. Count Three Crotchets 
WBfl 



No. 32. 





m 



C_ULS 



22 



/u 


r~^j 






rJ . 




1-3 












i 
















&te i 


















^, 







rJ 






j 






C2 * 




ef ' 






























L_CJ 








1 








































~CT 


fl 




-^ 




^^ 




.- 


-^ 









JP^-- 




- 






^- 






/ ^ ) 











Jr, i 


9 














y 




9 




! i 




^ 


i 


yr_ 

























; - J 







c 






j* * 




<4> 








1 




-L i ' 


















i 






d p_ M 


l * 


t7 






















i ] 


1 i 












1 1 L_J 


L p2 1 



m i 


-i 




^ 






















t 










- 


"K 




























1 












t/ -fz 


_ 




i 






















dJ 




.^ 















CJ 




i--i 









cJ 












































C- 


; 
















! 






I 












I 












- 


L_ 








y J 


\ 




























j 










XL ^ 






J 


i 










^ 


| 








B 


J 


r ^ 




r^ 





Ctc: 


..-* 




T 




dv 









T * 


i 







i 


I 


zS 


in- 









Andante. Count Four Crotchets. 

, weH UH WB LH 



WB 



No. 33. 



/^ 














! 




| 








^B 


r * 




c 


- 














i * 


\- + 








^3 




2 




_i ' 


t> 4 
n 


i i 


CJ v -' 



^J^ 1 






p 

3 






/ ^^ 




i i 








1 






m \ * 


A 


J - 


















H 


\ 


VT7 


' W 
















1 


^ 






1 * i 




1 


* - 






i 




2 


^ 






7 . ^ - - ^= 


4 - 






i 



WB LH WB 



UH WB LH WB 



'i i* *" /*n r"-^ ^ j 


1 


in^ r^ " i^-r^ f r*^-' 




"K <r^ * ^ i * 


ca <^d 


J ? ' 4 4 *L 






^ . 


w 1 




XL ( 1 i i 


i p * 


ifn r * * * u_i '!.. 


i r 


vy | 9 ^ i , ^ J* J t|* * J ' J * 


1 ' 




* I . 


OH ^B LH WB 




y r-> i* i* r^ 


J 


XL r^ i i " ( ' r^ 


fj 


rfi^ I I r^ 




\>b ' ' 




t/ O 4 




V iii 








a~3P ^ K ^1 < 




J * ^' *^ * 


r . 



Moderato. Count Four Crotchets. 

n 



No. 34. 



1 


^ 











1 1 


rj 






F= 


~ 




J 1 




1 





*- 


p : 


r ' * T < 1 


s 


izi 


h J. J 


* 





* 




o 





_ 


^ 

o 




















o 


1 1 

4 






n O 






















3 






















































2 






































1 


t 


5 


-o- 






fc 


fe= 







ZE 


^ 












^ 


7 


^ 




H-r j J^l 



A 




















M 


i ! ' 




P 


"^ 


Ifn 


P M 


_ 










i i 






r 


^ ~0_ ^ 











|P 


2 






i 








i ^ 


f 




r 


4 t 


-^ r 


-J- -^- 






4 


o 

















1 _i 


















/ f* 














vU 




^-.. 


^ ^ 


r i 














1 




4 * 


1 


i i 




^ 




_ J 1 






* r 





~~H 






^ 1 


-^- 


^ 


^= 










hf f , ' 


\=\ 


\ \ 




- m l 




ty 


' i 

4 






-f- 














4 




rr r r : 




~0_ ! !^- 

3 ' 








(\ 




J 








-,. 


























V 






" ' 
























I 






t 


x 




J 






















i 




' 








Cn") 






jj^F 


W.^~- 



















j JT 




















JjpC-^ 






_J- 












* 5* 




'^ ^ 






r? 1 



Andante. Count Four Crotchets. 
WB PI UH , WB LH 



WB 



No. 35. 





_ 









i 

-jm 














^ 




f 










! 1 


flh i 


- jpr * 




rJ 


.. ^ 


*- 




i 








1 












\ f * 


1 * 




f-J 




3 







h 





















4 




' C 






o 


















































































A 
















































































Wf-^ 


t-.r....-., .| J 




-f 


J- 


t 




















2 







** fa J f J 


i 
^ 


=j 


* 1 1~~ 



WB LH 






























i i 


= 


~rt- 


-r- 


f= 


-^ 


r= 




t-& 


' C 


J= 


o 


I- 




1 1 1 
i 




~w~ ~*~ 
i 














C 




3 








-9- 




i 














^-] 


r i 






r ^ j_ 


ty r \ 


i | 





* 


-^ 


^ " 




4 


^ 


^ 


NN 


*- 




1 * 




_W_B 



WB LH . WB 



-^-^ 



5 



^ Jl ^J'tf 



^ 



24 



Allegro. Count Two Minims. 
WB H LH 



WB 



LH 



No. 36. 



XL Z r^ 




r . 








r ^j 


M 






2. - 


fen r5 




r m 
' 




^tii 






r 
* 






r* 


"y 2! 





















^ ~ 


^ . 




1 











4 







-^ 3 4 1 


3 




















a 
























A 




















^_^__ 
























^T yj 










B 


m 








B 


ff\\ 3 




. 1 




L 


i 




^= 






Z 1 



rfr- 1 ^ W 


^B 






















L 


rf 1 - 


f 


wn (" r^ I" 


U 


i 


r~^> 






-fs 


> 


-^ 






: - 2 




1 


- J- 


" 1 J | 1 I 


1 




























t/ 4 













1 












O 


4 


o 


3 






























2 






























$ r * ^ 






























fl> ! r r ^ 


3* 


J 


J 


9 


i ' 


^ 


1 ! 


l=t 


i : 

i 








1 ._]_ : 

. j- 


<ie 



LH 



WB 



n 


-^-\ 


r^ 








r~n 


h- 




p 




ar 











' 1 




n 


^T ^~~ 




'f^ 




a 




P=] 


- 














1 - 














i 



















4 










1- 


-& 




































r^J 












































-fl- 
































\ dn 






^ d ^~ 





I 1 




r. 






- 


















^ 







*.> ** 




4 3 














* 




-s 














-&- 



When several notes are to be played in one bow, a sign 
a slur. 

Moderate. Count Four Crotchets. 

n 



No. 37. 



is placed above or under those notes, called 



|E 


: - 






h- 




r 


pj . 




IP J J 


1 /> [> 1 


\5 ]y - 





j^ 




! 


4 T 


p 


^ 






"'I ' 


n 


S- 


f 





1 


O~l 








i' yf 








P" 1 


Xl T" 








i 


J 


vi) 4- 












i 


* _ 








1 




...1 


1 1 i 


^ff* 1 


/ /^j- -*: 


_J ^= 


. "^^^ ^5- ^ "_ 



^ r rr if r r"^ 



i 



^ 




^-^ 



3 


E=2 






















j ^"~ r 




pF^ 


- 




^ 




V 






t> 


3 ^ 


4 


i 




4 


^3 




^2 4 







L* 


r 

2- 




15 











4 






-t 


^ 










1 
1 







1 - 












4 





| 












^ 


^ y 


" 3 


r^ 


J 


^ 








J 

r 




o 


J _tf* 

L-d 




L^_ 






* 




* 




^ ^=U 








x -* 










^F 






-<& 


<- ^* 




ID- 






E 


7 









Andante. Count Four Crotchets. 
WB H 



No. 38. 







^4^M^^J JUjJJ'J ^ ^ 





X 


<=*- 


" \ 




N= 


















1 






I 


=t=*=\ 


w 




N 1- 


-^ 






_^ ^"-^ 

4 






L^ 1 


' ^^g 









r. 






-Jr-J- 


* 

1 






















v 


















Q 










> 




























y 
























































, 




















BE 










-. 








i ; 












i 








VJU 






mm 













1 












1 ' 


1 1 







t^ 


9 


^ V f 












-^ _ 


-* 




* -J 4 


-^^ 






^ 




9 


4 V 


4 


* 
^ 


p 































s, 




__^ 












? Y 


) 


-^ 


! h 


* 






* 




z 




9 


__ 




- 










s 





> 






-F r-p- 


Bu 








1 






















^ i* ^ 


















1 r 


Efi i 


























1 




ill 














































1 






















4 ' 




















































?f ' 








s . 


: 






, 


x 


- 







r 




^ 









-] 1 






_^_ 






(*V * 


t=l-i 


M 




1 ^^ 


h: 


* 

















a 


i j 




iSE: 


^ 


1 1 








J 


^ 





"j r ..j.-- 



1^1 



1 



r^ J 1 JJrJ 



H I h 



J j J i 

* 0* 



n 



Andantino. Count Three Crotchets. 

WB n_ 



26 



No. 39. 



A ? 


^ 


2 i 


2 




__. 










J 




















f(\\ A. 


r 








^ 






& 

























V?U H- 






















J 


2 


s 








* 




- 


9J O 4 


1 

i 


4 












>* 


^* 
















i^^ 






rt 


1 | 






































y *i 


J 








I 






























/L / r j 


4! J 






































ffh ^ 




rJ 






-* ^ 


I 1 
















- 


^ 








1 i 




Allegretto. Count Four Crotchets. 
Ml"! ^-^ 



No. 40. 



/,. <-- fj r * M 


* 




|0 






^^> ^_. 




r j ^ 


^ ^ 


^ 


ffn ' t ^ j r 


i J 


J 








^^ 






^ , 


i * 2 


vL' ! i I ! 


L. _ 9 * 


^ * 


c 










t L 


,^ ^ J 


2 


*) 

f\ 












' I 








4 4 


V -A. 












1 1 




i 




1 


/T T- 


4 




J 






1 




i 






r m /L J -4 . 


. 1 - 


-4. 


KM 






J 1 Ju- 





a 




. , 



simile. 










O _ * ' . 4 

1 2 1- 



^-t-i r 



=i: 



** 



-+- 



5 



^=^^J 



^^p 

j- -&- 



Andantino. Count Six Quavers. 

WBPI 



No. 41. 




m+- 



rf^Fp 



n 



t= 



r~?-^ 



-u ' \ i 



i 



fe*^= 




i t 




iF 



zrzjz: 



_ - 




* '^-*-J-^ 



4 



28 



The whole bow must be used for the crotchet * on the 4th beat of the bar, in order to give the necessary 
length of bow to the next dotted minim. 

Maestoso. Count Four Crotchets. 
, WB fl # 



No. 42. 











J 






















lfY\ ' 














r 


P i 


p 4 










J 


vp i 








^ 





Bp 


2 






^ 




1 


. 


^ 1 




-- 









c* 







1 






cJ 










^ 












-j 












- 1 i 


































(\ 














. 
















Jr ' 










2 




i* i* 


_ 




^ 


i 


.5 


"^ Ik 




/r *- 


1* 






"-> 


11 




P i 

1 


P i 


> ^ 


<&f 


^ J 




B 


r~^J 


ftu. / 


1 


4 








2! > 










* 




P * 





Jt- 1 j~ 




p jij 


^ 


*- 


r^ M 









- ???- 


VM) r J . 
















1 t h 


,/ 







P 


o 


i 












4 


P" 
















JT 1 








p 






p 


. 


i 








/[ P 














r 


P 5 














Ifl'i 














^ 


I 


i 


* 




i 










BE 



















_J 




i i 




2 



3 



P3P 



^ I 



^ 



fet 



5 



P 



5^ 



zi: 



^t 



* ^ ' 4 ^ ^ j. 



p^ 



i i 

ggFF 



^ p P- 



^ 



i 



^B 



E 



J^ Ite 



^$+ 



> 

^f 2 



29 

XVII. 

The following Exercise is intended to make the pupil acquainted with different ways of bowing. 
No. 43- Tempo moderate. .. 

M H V 



:ig=qi^=gj!= i T * 

9 J * * I * 1 ' i + 

i ^ 14 O 



, , 



* I- 




12. 



3 

XVIII. SHARPS, FLATS, ETC. 

$ (sharp) raises the note before which it is placed one semitone 
J (flat) lowers the note before which it is placed one semitone. 
x (double sharp) raises the note one whole tone. 
bb (double flat) lowers the note one whole tone, 
t) (natural) restores the note to its original pitch. 

XIX. THE DIATONIC SCALES * CONSISTING OF TONES AND SEMITONES 



No. 44. Andante. 
WB 



MAJOR (ONE OCTAVE). 



C MAJOR. 



G MAJOR. 




1 



m 



CT- 



i 



a 4 1 a 



c 



D MAJOR. 



1 


F 


I 






r~| 






i 1 




rn 






1 













JP- 




fg M 


_^_^ 


p 2 G*- 


rJ gJ 










1 ~ 




^-~ 


f< 




^*^ 


i 


1 




1 




^2 










c/ eJ cJ - 


, ' 




o> 







A MAJOR. 



ZC-3F-2 








I 




















~ 


ff/lA T 




i 1 












rJ rJ 


-_ [ 








\ , 




vjy 


1 1 


1 ! 




^-\ 


n 














! 1 


j 


F ^:^: -d-^ % ' 

1 .. i 




- ^ -^-^ ^. 





E MAJOR. 




&-G> 



-TTJ- 



J Jlr^Pl J f j lfr^l J 

C2 1 _. 1_ ( 



o i- 



sets: 



B MAJOR. 



S\ S3C2 








1 






g-J g-j ' 














^ 


f(T) 5 U / 












j 


j**^ fl^ 






^"J ,^^-H 
















VU *M 


- 


1 




t 




rJ 


^jr 






r^, 












CJ *-** *-^ CJ 3 


-& 



10 



P# M XU-B ^Jr T 










2 r^ 
















^ 


^^J ^i 






I ^ 


rS MAJOR./m^J? 






^^J ^"J 












1 








p 


D er- 




<^J 


J VSU * StEi ?^; 






1 


















A * ^~ 






o 4 


9 






' 1 












4 1- 



* The teacher must exercise his judgment as to how many of these scales should be learnt by the pupil, but it has been 
thought advisable to print the whole of them here. 



F MAJOR. 

















- 


^7- 




S 1 


rv 




t=^_ 


\^ 




M , 


s- 




jr^ _^_^ 








1 _ : 


4 4 r] 

t^ 2- 


f^ 




3- 


o 




t 


1 






3 


o 1 










^ 






, 1 1 
1 


U 
4 


^ 




LriJLH 



B^ MAJOR.J 



^ 



2 



1 



Eb MAJOR.} 



A!? MAJOR. 



Aj. ~*3~ 



3 



ss 



1 






PS 



Gb MAJOR. 



Cb MAJOR.S 



fe 



MINOR (ONE OCTAVE). 

In ascending the 6th and yth notes are raised one semitone. 

Andante. 
No. 45- _ 

A MINOR. 2E 







E MINOR. 



~W"1 


F 1 




-f=V- 















M i 


n ~l 


i 


Rf-^ 


n 






=H 






1 


^ 


1 ^ 


i _ 


S3 




bzd 


b^ 




^- 








4 












4 


t- - 


n 




U 





B MINOR. 



- i i- 



_l | I I 

? HSJ- -J 



F MINOR. 










l^ I | | lilray 



^ 



Cjl MINOR. 




3 



4 1- 



4 1- 



1 



GJf MlNOR.Hte 



4 1 






=8 









D MINOR. 



3 



O 1 



&--H =H 1 

=^g ' f J ^^| 



G MINOR. 



3 



O 1 O 1 1 



J 'I I 
-^- 



C MINOR. 



g^^^ 



g"-^- 



o i 



F MINOR. 



Vl I"! i "^ 












^ ^ 


w=*~ 


*ir 








r ~ t^ 


^P 


f ' -^ i~~3 








_ 


ff\\ fr / 


i 


~e^ 


r'. 




P 1 
















f i^ 


n <3 








vu : r 


- rJ rj 




I 1 














1 _i . _. 




G 


*^ 2 




1 


O 






i 


A- 







BE? MINOR. 




O 1- 



tt 



J-i^M 



^ 



^ r J 



Mr4- 

s 



^ r^ 



i= 



XX. THE CHROMATIC SCALE, CONSISTING OF SEMITONES ONLY. 



In ascending the fingers must be kept as much as possible on the strings, and shift firmly when the 
same finger is used for two succeeding notes. Generally the ist, 2nd, and 3rd fingers are used twice, and 
the 4th finger only once. 

Andante assai. 
WB 



No. 46. 



^ 



rJttrJ 



3-3 



3 _ 3 4 1 ' 2 

1 -- 



1 1 



frj P $&= 



2 3 3_ 4 1 2233 4 8 3 221 4 8 8 



2 2 1 4 3 _3_ "2 '2 



22 



When the open strings are used, the 3rd and 4th fingers may be employed, instead of the third 
finger twice. 

\- 






1 



2 2 3 4 O 1 2 

_^, . . . . I . 



I 1 




i r 



2 34 O 1 2 2_ 



43221 1 O 43 






11 Q 4 32 



1 1 O 4 



939 



1 1 



34 



XXI. THE DIFFERENT GRADATIONS OF TONE. 
p, piano means soft. 



PP, pianissimo . . , 
/, forte . . . . , 
ff, fortissimo. . . , 
mf, mezzo forte . . , 
fp, forte-piano . . , 
fz, sf or >, sforzando 
crescendo , ores, or 
decrescendo, decres. or 



very soft. 

loud. 

very loud. 

half or moderately loud. 

loud and immediately soft again. 

sharply accented. 

increasing in loudness. 

decreasing in loudness. 



The various shades of tone are produced by the degree of pressure which is given to the bow. When 
playing piano the bow must be drawn a little nearer the fingerboard ; when forte nearer the bridge, and the 
first finger and thumb must press the bow more firmly. The crescendo is produced best by moving the bow 
gradually quicker and with increasing pressure over the strings. The decrescendo is produced in exactly the 
opposite way. The following Exercises give an opportunity of studying the various gradations of tone. They 
must be practised very slowly, and with the full length of the bow. 

The following Exercise should be practised thus : 

ist time pp 

2nd p 

3rd mf 

4th / 

5th ff 



Largo. 
WB fl 



No. 47. 











r^ 




rj 








f^f 


^\ 




rj 








I(V\ y 






.--j 




r^> 














x^a 




/r> 







Exercise to produce a crescendo and decrescendo : 



N^ Aft. A 












e=y 


^^ 


r~j 


INC. 45. Ah, , 


\- 






ri 


f^j 










S\ 




ta 












wen 






f^J 


.S^l 









mf 



P 



35 

XXII. EXERCISES IN DIFFERENT KEYS. 

Andante cantabile. Count Four Crotchets. 
.WBH s~. ' 

I : I -*- 



No. 49. 



WB P WB N W 










36 

During the rest the bow must be moved upwards, to enable the performer to recommence with a down - 
Allegro moderato. Count Two Minims. 

M H 



No- 50. 

A MINOR. 




This Exercise (No. 50) must also be practised with the different bowing, marked a, b, c, d. 
a u H * b 



37 
Andante tranquillo. Count I 4 our Crotchets. 

V p- WB LH 



No. 51. 
G MAJOR. 



^-= -^ ' \ W^F3 




38 
Allegro con spirito. Count Three Crotchets. 



No. 52 
E MINOR. 



21 > 


a 




- * 

1 


El 


. 




89 




^ 


rfn - m 


f^ 




r r 




r 


r r 




, 




" K ^ 


r 








1 


t 






i 








1 4 | 




r 


1 1 




























A (ff 




















y* *> 








i 












XI ) 


r r 










i 


P 


"" i 




/rh .// 


r i 




^-> 








r 







HfcS j 


9- 5 1 


1 


p 






1 1 J 1 




p 


2 




XL 


1 










J 




m \ * 






ifY) ' 













m 




r f 




^ 


v J 










^ ^^ ^ 


T P 




-I- '-. |- . 




I 


^ 


1 










3 




i 4 




1 
























n *f 


x~"" " 


v 1 


















l/4f u 


j 


~jf^ 


if 


^^j 














XT w 


rJ 




8 


2 





1* f* 










(O) 






u 


i 




r r 




<^~ * 


C^^ 






'"i-^ * 






r^ 








^^ 






J 






-i 


^ 










^H 





Jr ^ 1* P 






+ k - 




rJ 7 




_ s^_ 






1 1 

4 






r | 1 


j~l 


J 3 


i_ 




' 1- 








= ^ 


3 








^^ 


J 


"' 




















j 


3 J 










-fHJ 1 




























crescendo 


xi r r 






1 














jT-^ 








I 


in^ ' ' i 






2| 


































f^ 







1 




^* J 






*=. 


] 


r 

*J ^~ 


* 




* 




-G> 


_ * 








*y-J 






7* % 


t 



-y*p-< 



poco a 



f 







t 



F 



T r*-~-r 






39 

The notes (*) which commence on the 2nd and 4th beat of the bar, and are continued over the 3rd and 
ist are called Syncopations. The ist and 3rd beats of the bar, although they are on the strong accent, must 
not be accented. 

Allegro Moderate. Count Four Crotchets. 

WB * * : - s 



n 


ZTTH 5 


1 r- 


_j ... 




r 






f ^ 




P 


1 1* r r E^ 


No. 53. J 
D MAJOR. ^ 


_/ P 
/ 


^3 = 

^ 


.^ 


1 : 




4 












I 


J?tftf 4 






















f 


(fo * 7 


i 1 


i 






^ 


\ 


^^_ 






1 I.. 


I 


BE _^ 


j 


.. ..j _ 


1 








^J 






r-, 



XI "U- ' ' 








1 






p^ 


4) 


< W J h 


-a^ 




If n ' r 


E 








4J[ 








c 


^ 




EC 






2 


^ 










' 






Jr 

11 . 


1 




,^- 


^/ 












1 
























'YJ dolc& 




0tt.H- 1 




















_ 




/\ if 1 J 


















J h 


,^^ ^ 


TJ2 


if n <^ 


J^~ 
















fi* 




Q' 


S j*, 


J^C^ 




U. 










1 




> - 





/B ft 


_i P2 w l * 


1(1^ ' 


* ' 


EE 












f IT Lfc 


~ (^ "* - ~ 


yrT TL ^-v 


^ ^^^ ' & ^P ^^ 


tf\\ ' .^--j 2_ 


rJ rjc-^ r^ i* n JutzEZZp 


F r * * 


v r^- 1 rj ^ i ^ 'i i | 


O T? -* 


H '' m 

WB ^ 

~*- i i ~- i 


y^jj 


/*D " i 




A J i _i -^ P r-> 


ff\\ ^ 


^ r- * * S ' S r m 


\* ]/ 1 


*- -M ^ 1 


V ~ ' 


4 * v ^ 

rfo. ^ 




,*= 


vT H i 


t* 1 1* " _l 1 


f m * "" * u J 




Ep J - R - J 


'' ^ *** _ ^ 


L/ '* 


^3 & -^3- 




* ^ -p ^. ^-J_^- 


^?Ttf N "P" ^ A 


f^ 


jf ft u- P < 


' v ro ii 


y\ s r ' 


m + -^ _i i r 


if h 


"r ' r " J J ^ 


vu i 


G J 






O-tt 1 


1 III 


JOGS 1 _.' j 


n i L- J i^) ' \ 


/r ff _i w 


fA fA \jf-\ * r 




ca pa .^ 



No. 54. 
A MAJOR. 



Allegro vivace. Count Two Crotchets. 
jtM-*^^-*- _ _ ^ _ 4 

I*TT 




leggiero 
P 




1 M 



M- 



3f 




vr ii m *i 


^ *i 






% 1 




3X 1 




31 *1 




3s *1 


/m * m 3 , 


i 


J 




1 




c i 




J ' 


tf 




"y r * 






A 




2 


2 










tr b^ 


TT T^- C 



g i r _! 

^-~ "^~ ~W 

^_ arco. f* 




-^ ^ \ *l - N *1 N *| -fa 

^-*-L-q= ^ 3^ 

_J~ arro. 









m 



11 O 3 

mf 



ff* 



ff*- 



XXIII. EXTENSION OF THE FOURTH FINGER. 



The hand must remain in the usual position, and only the 4th finger should be placed a semitone higher. 
Each division must be repeated four or eight times. 



No. 55. 



Andante'. 




The dots placed by the side of a double bar indicate that a movement, or part of a movement is to 
be repeated. 



XXIV. THE MAJOR AND THEIR RELATIVE MINOR SCALES IN 

ALL THE KEYS. 

To be practised first with detached bows as indicated in Ex. a, and afterwards with the slurs as 
indicated in Ex. b. 

Ex. a. 




No. 56. 

Allegro moderate. 
C MAJOR. 




A MINOR. 




F MAJOR. 




D MINOR. 




4 O 







G Ml NOB. 




43 



E{> MAJOR. 

-* ~ f 



rrlrrrr J Jj 



C MINOR. 







O 



4 4 



A!? MAJOR. 



F MINOR. 




^ & 



Bl? MINOR. 




B MAJOR. 




GJJ MINOR. 




j ' 1 3 1 i 1 

The following fingering is also used for this scale, and is called the half-position. 



34 1234123 2 O 4 




12 



44 



MAJOR. 




Cfi MINOR. 




A MAJOR. 

Jt 





4 4 



D MAJOR. 




B MINOR. 




G MAJOR. 




E MINOR. 




C MAJOR. 



* 4 4 






45 

XXV. EXERCISES IN EXPRESSION, STYLE, &c. 
EXERCISE IN TRIPLETS. 

Triplet is the name given to a group of three notes, which are performed in the time of two. The triplet 
is generally indicated by a small slur and the figure 3. 

Allegro moderate. 



No. 57. 




This Exercise (No. 57) must also be practised with the different bowing marked a, b, c. 
,(<*) 



&c. 




&c. 



Andantino grazioso. 



No. 58. 





m 



J 



. 




1 

-J 



-^ 




47 

During the rest let the bow remain firmly on the string so that the semiquaver can be produced with 
the same amount of tone as the preceding quaver. 



A ndante maestoso. 
WB 



x 1 - *- 



No 58A. 




The preceding Exercise should also be practised with the following bowing : 

v nv 



&c. 




4 8 



Allegro con fuoco. 

.WB n 



No. 59. 



Lento con esbressiont. 
WBf| 



49 



No. 60. 




- When several down-bows occur in succession, the bow must be moved upwards during the rests, to be 
in its position again for the next note. 
Allegro ma non troppo. 

N n n n rwen NPI n n 



No. 61. 



_. 

WB -" - 



simile 



N.Q n n n w ^i 



=^F^ I-*- 5 




,N n n n 



n 



ten. 



N n n 



n n 






ten. 
WB H 



j i * i 



3 



a poco cres - - cen 



do. 




Iro 


* 


C-3C2 







w r* 


^ F" 






r P 


^Si 


! J ^^ 










-^J 1 J * 






L L 


iij^U- -^^^ ^.-^^ j 

pjfebtf. 

n 




: 






r 











m 





















legato. 



r^-r TOP r f 







g* 



n n wen 



n n n 



n 



n M 

^ 1 ^ L 



3^ 



t> 



poco ri 
dimin. 




/7s 



dando. 



f 



The bars marked i wa vo/to (ist time) are only played once, being replaced by those marked 2** volta 
(2nd time) when the section is repeated. 



A llegrcito scherzando. 
M 



No. 62. 






1 1 O 4 3 2 






3 .3 . 2 2 1 1 ' 

diminuendo. 




53 




^WBV 



^j-a tempo. ^ . . 



I 



3H 



rallentando. 



/Ts 



i 






s 



B 



a^a: 



XXVI. THE APPOGGIATURA OR GRACE-NOTE, AND THE TURN. 

The Appoggiatura is a small note placed before its principal. If written J or * it is long, and takes up 
half the time-value of the note it precedes and also takes the accent. If crossed by a line Jt it is very short. 
and the accent falls on the principal note. 
LONG APPOGGIATURA : 



Written : 



Played : 




P 



n 



M 



l/ffi 


^i* 


P 


F^ 2 ^ 1 




r "^ i 


\ j^l 


^r^ H 


! 


g r 




> 

|T r- | 




r "- r i 


. 


^ H 

> ' 

* "^ n 

p .. - - m i 


Ifila 


g r 


?^rd 






L p d 


=^ 1 


\ D 



Written : 



Played : 






fc 














54 
If a group of small notes occur, the accent also falls on the principal note. 

x 

S*. JkA 

m 



Written : 



Played : 



ir & 




Andante cantabile. 



No. 63. 



WB UH r ^ WE 


5 LH _ W B ^ 


I/ yf _ / 


^ ^23^ 1 






k. 






.--. 


vr Ti 




E P 


v^ ** 












r ' 


1* J 


(fj} ^ 






vr 


# 


i 








J - w * r 


_ ^ 











9 m . 




1 ^ 


* * V * 


._ ^- I 


e/ 1 4 




VJT ^ " ^4 




J 



T' r 



WB 



r r 



* -*-^*i J ' - ^ J ' N ^ 

fl i If ^ * ^ J i -^ 

ij* v f vP <P t^ -.jj^. 



u " iQtiriJ^^ -WB: 



i 



es? 



s 



EE 




^ 



ij i j [j |=a= -^-i-^^=tt= n^ 

it-it-itJ: ^J: ^^J:*-j:j^'^ 



>T^-rP^ 5^ 






H a> ^ 


r- 






=-" I- 






\^^ 


^ r I r r 




* m \. 


^^ & 


1 


^ ^ =H 






UJ* J 


t 








A 4f 






: 











v*^ , - 














I 1 1 


/L It 














i r 1 


rm * ... 








M(^ 


M ^~- 




* 


Sat; rJ tir^ 






^ 


ir^** 






=m * * ^ ' l- 



The Turn is an ornament consisting of a group of notes, formed by taking the adjoining notes above 
and below the principal note, according to its position in the diatonic scale. It is indicated by the sign ^ 
and is used in different ways. 



If placed above the note 



It is played : in 



If between two notes 
It is played : 



-if 


r^j 


=E=H 


'- ~ ^-=^ 


/m 






ff 


M 



: ^ 







If after a dotted note 



It is played : 



If it is desired to 
above or below the <^. 





rs 






r j 


ffn 1 ^ 











SEE 


.. --^ m 





v.^ ^ ^ > 



sharpen or flatten either of the two unwritten notes of the turn, a Jf or b is placed 



Jf below: j= 






Played: () 



-pffH r 

^ i \' >* w- 
w *&4* '^-^ f - 




above and Jf below : 



gfr=^ 



Played : 




Adagio. 



WB ^ 



No. 64. 



pm 




^sq^ 




* * 




H=^; 


L- J i f B^ 


-qcz^^e=^i- 


P sostenuto. 




1 


I =*g 1 


1 1 1^\ _ 

^-f 


Epi 


1 


^^ 


4* 


TT3 


F 


---W= 





fe 



I W 

* 



fd 



2 



^^ 



^ 



a. 

dim. 



D/ 

XXVIL THE SHAKE AND THE MORDENT. 

The Shake is an ornament produced by the rapid and regular alternations of two notes, either a tone, or 
a semitone apart, and is indicated by the letters tr (a contraction of the Italian trillo) above the chief note, 
the alternate note being the one above it. 

SHAKE A TONE APART : SHAKE A SEMITONE APART : 

s tr_ 

Written: ^4 o_ 



Played 



or, 




Frequently the shake ends with a turn : 
tr 



Written : 



Played : 



~s\ - 


- r^i r , 




f 


1 






; 


Jill / 


1 E_J 1 


1 M 












1 




Without a turn : 



Written : 



Played : 2 
e 
If it is necessary to sharpen or flatten the alternate notes of the shake, a J or b is placed above the tr. 

_fr tr 




Written : 



Played : 



If it is intended that the shake should begin with the alternate note a short appoggiatura is placed 
before the principal note. 
tr 

-0-*-4 

Written 



Played : 



A perfect shake can only be acquired by practising very slowly. The finger must be placed firmly on 
the principal note, and the next finger should be lifted high and strike the string again with great force and 
elasticity, being again raised immediately afterwards. The difference between a shake with a tone, or with 
a semitone must also be carefully observed. 

* ^ is a sign used when the same group of notes has to be repeated. 




Moderate. 

we ^ 



No. 65 



F^Trf r r rT r r r 












i i i i i i i i 




/ 9 














^ * 


w/ 
n 
















y ' 














| 


/L 












, 


{ 


^ / . m 




-m 

















59 



Andante assai. 

n 



No. 66. 







tr 



ir 



e 



p 



-(=t 



^g 



-3 



f 



5 



^: 



5 



5 




rf 



tr 



tr 



/I ' ' 


M Jh* 


SS i* 


~~~~ r 




i* i* 


Ifn 


r 


i rj 


I 


TJ 


* 2 


"r 


L 1 


..L_ . .. y_ 






L. 


*J 
dtf 




> 






i 


itS 








, 




i 


/f 


' J 


J 




! , 





i 


RM 


K 


W. 




J * 


i r i* 








M 




m J 





rJ j*J 



r - 



tr 




^='<J j^-U^^Fr^ 



The Mordent is a short shake consisting of two notes, and is indicated by the sign w. 



Written : 



Played : 



t=i 



^ ^~ 



^w 






5o 



No. 67. 



Allegro con brio. 

PIH 
-w 




|4=-p ^ 



S 



i r 



^= 



^f rnj-ff^f r^Tri'* ?M fm rfrp f ^-flr *i*rrF*(*i^ 

_ 7 7 i i i i ! / ;- i * s R n i | r [j LJ *-*-' f 



\v 






- W 8 - 



^J^ 




+ F 



^-(^(* 



^=p: 



^ 








PART III. 



XXVIII. DIFFERENT WAYS OF BOWING. 
THE LEGATO. 

Legato (bound together, connected). The bow must pass evenly and smoothly from one string to 
another with a free action of the wrist only, and the notes should be played equally in time, without being 
hurried. 



A llegro comodo. 



No. 68. 





crescendo. 



52 




cm - cen - do. 






63 

XXIX. THE MARTELE (HAMMERED). 

This bowing consists of sharp decided strokes with the upper part of the bow, and after every note the 
bow must rest for an instant on the string. 



Written : 




Played: 



I 1 

Molto moderate, ma marcato. 



No. 69. 



X *# ' 









W ' 


j i .j 


id 


"3- 




i* i 


E3 


. 

" 


1 *^- 


* 


sb #- 




T J 






r * 








2 ,' 


ff 




11 




ffn ' 




1 ** 






1 l 






il 


* 




2 




2 


KB 










i i m 






r 


i r i 


1 


r 






) T ' 

fsempre. 


n n 


W MMM . H . ^^BB 

I 






HH^OT 
































B 




r 




i* 




jH 


r 




* 


^ 


i* 




ifn / 


9 


1 




* r 




r 






r 








r 


































ffj W 


* 


p - 

-P 


-^ 


-i 






7f*lM J 1 1 1 i | 


Y 




i l 









_ 




UJ- 


,4-1 1 tf | i | j- 


1 












{ \0\ 
i _j i i 


r^ H 


fe- * j J J J 


2 




^ 


: 






^ 







i ' r <T 1 








0. 




* f ' 


' H 


** * *-J J i 

C^ I * -J- 


. * 






h-* 


: 





1 


I 
















K j L 
I 4 




i "9 






1 






c 
























Off f 




/ 

-f 


^- 
_ 


N 

4P 




t 








n 


T 




p- 


I 


! 


n 


^ 


y ffu. 

















' 





















/L if 




1 




y 








^ 




A 








B 




> r 


r - 


in^ i 




















^ ^ 








I 




i 


L 


v-u 




















. T * 


















6 4 

XXX. THE SAUTILLE (SPRINGING Bow). 

Use the middle of the bow, keeping the wrist as loose as possible, and let the stick vibrate strongly. 
The bow must not leave the string altogether. This bowing should be practised first on the open strings only. 







Allegro moderate 



No. 70. 















66 



The following Exercise gives an example of the "Springing Bow" (SautilU ntodere), as used for more 
moderate or slower movements. In this case the bow leaves the string for an instant after every note, and 
is held more firmly with the fingers. The middle of the bow is mostly used. 



Written : 



Played : 



PD 



No. 71. 



Andante tranquillo 

n 




* . . i if! . . . 





ores - cen 










68 



XXXI. THE STACCATO. 

The Staccato consists of short and detached notes in one bow. 

It must be practised slowly, with a loose wrist and steady arm. It is generally played with the up-bow 
near the point, but can also be performed with the down-bow near the nut, which is, however, the most 
difficult way. In the latter case the hair may be turned away from the player. 



No. 72. 



Maestoso. 

WB n PV 

-3 



WB n 



PV 



simile. 











wen 



m 



h *Lfr 



i r r 



6g 







?1 




i 







This Exercise should be repeated, and the staccato notes played with the down-bow. 



70 

In the following Exercise the elastic or springing staccato is introduced. The bow should be lifted high 
from the string during the rests, so that in falling back on the string it rebounds often enough to play several 
notes in the same bow. 

The springing staccato should also be practised with the up-bow as well as the down-bow. 



No. 73. 



Andantino tranquillo, ma grazioso. 
M H V H V simile. 







P 

molto leggiero. 



p 



ff [1 j- 1 n 









h .^. M .--f 
J^==^==?>-^ 





XXXII. THE TREMOLO. 

The tremolo is played about the middle of the bow, the notes being repeated with great rapidity, so as 
to produce a quavering effect. The arm must be steady and the wrist free. In writing it is mostly 
abbreviated, thus : 

I^KI ^^SSSS I I n *B$- 




instead of 



^ instead of 



No ' 74- M Allegretto. 





-==- 

~^r ^^*- 



^ 




ritardando. 



IH8 



72 

The tremolo is also produced by playing two notes with a down-bow and two with an up-bow, and by 
keeping the bow in a springing condition. The upper half of the bow must be used, and this bowing should 
be practised on an open string first. 
No. 74A. p 




XXXIII. DOUBLE-STOPS. 

The bow must remain with equal pressure on both strings, and the points of the fingers should be 
carefully placed on the stopped notes, in order to avoid touching the next strings. 

DOUBLE-STOPS WITH ONE OPEN STRING AND ONE NOTE STOPPED : 
Andante. 

WB 



No. 75.' 




* Z3 cJ ^S 

3 '<? r ^ ^ 



**- 



P 




4-*-* 



5 




ii 



f 



P 



-s> 
<fo. 







^ 



o 

/ 

l*^ 



diminuendo, 



? 



SI 

^^ 



m 



No. 76. 



DOUBLE-STOPS WITH TWO NOTES STOPPED : 



~j- 


- 


I 












, 


/ 




r- 




- 




: 


=s r^ 




^ 


j 








sn 


ff\\ J, 






^^ 




-- 






l" J 










C* 




<^j 






{ s- 




<*^ 


) 






vu 3 


- 




^ ^ 




~^' 


^LJ 




r5 
















|* ,* 














rJ o 1 






I - 


o 




-S 


^ 






cJ 




cJ 




cJ 






M 








4 
R 








' 


.) 








_ 











































~2 


2 




I 




















4 


















7??" 




_ 


Q 




-J 


~i ^*^ 




~f^ 
































I6j) 3 






-_ 


r^ 


rT^ 


C3 




^^ 


<^ 




^ 




1 *-* 




1 rJ 


' ^itJ 




9 


uJ 


in 






Ml Jr* 


r 
































. *> 




\ 


n 


ir 


fci 




TFj*_ -it 



4^ 



dim. 






^ 



Tempo di Menuetto. 



73 



77 < 



/U M 


v m 


E 





m m 


J J 


2H 


IS 






ifn J_ 




c 




9 9 


41 




_P 




1 * lr~ ^3 












994 


2 


Jt ^ 




_1 ^ ^ jf 















2 


* -S 


u 


.. 


wy 


mar cat o. 
i 






--^ 




^- 


^v 




V 


y *> 










p-^ 











/L > 


* 







* 










^ ' 


<SM- 


-H- 


* 




ul 


=i: 3= 


H i 


J 




--**-i r 



/* N 4^ X 


^ 


**" 


~> " N 





1 J J "~ 




\ \ 


1 ^ 




1 J - 




\ 


I 


j*" "* 


f\ 1' ^ ^ M m J "" "^ ^ 


M 


J J 


BUI 


ttai ' 'P 


ffn J4-*J 


* * - 


9 a 


p s 


25 *3~"" 


vy J ^ . J *>3 








*^-j 9 i 


' crescendo. f ^~ 


1* 


-f) T 




o ' 


^ix -^* 








- 


jL . . ^^^ 




=aa "! r 






^fn !** 


1 1 tD 


_=3 


-j j 


1- 


1 


syZ ii m 


J 









\ m 


*J -J--J- J. 

O ^ m ^ 


^V Jj.-J.J.-^j. ^' 


^^ nj 

^/ 


JTt 


9 
H > 


i* 5 


^ -r- ^"^ lfe _- 1 --^ 


=i > 




^^ * ^ ^r \***\ 


fcp 


' 




J r 


JrT' 


n * r 7 ^ H F 




. i 


r i 


4 h 


/jn\ 


1 !_/ "" 1 j 


r^ r 


B 




n E 


V \) 


1 . Ir 1 




r 


^F 


J ! II 


vl f 


1 


1 

: 


= / 


' 


Jf [ 












AU Hi* m _i 


* J 1 









E, 


T r ^ 




s 




. 





As it is impossible for the bow to remain with equal pressure on more than two strings, it is necessary 
in chords of three or four notes to sustain only the two highest notes, and play the chord in arpeggio 
style. In the following Exercise the notes are written as played. 

n w 

Maestoso.* ' 



No. 78. 







3 



m 



^ 



= 410 




m 



TJTJ 



\ 



r, 






.x> 



r: 



n 



n 



5* 



r* 



decres. P f 



ff ff* 





-^*L 



w 



^rr^ '.~& 



^r 



74 
XXXIV. ARPEGGIO. 



Arpeggio is the term used for taking the notes of a chord in rapid succession as in harp playing. The 
middle of the bow is generally used, and the stick must be placed in such a position that all the hairs touch 
the strings. The body should remain perfectly quiet, and the management of the bow must proceed only 
from the wrist and arm. 



ARPEGGIOS OVER THREE STRINGS : 
Moderate, 



No. 79. 







K 





(ft F" 




~m ^ 








^ ^ 






"d n~- 


r-M "- 


i 


ta 


^K 1 










P 









V 9 






^ C-U ^Lf 

*frwi 


liJ LL i* 

nuendo. .... 


r r 


p 
^ 


'==* 


i* 


N 




m 






75 






-*qn : 



^ : 



m 



P 



morendo. 



5r 











=: 



ARPEGGIOS OVER FOUR STRINGS 
Allegro moderate*. 



No. 80. 






1 









J J 



K : 



^ * 









i 




i 



*==* 



dim. 




^ 



tic 



pp 



3 



^ 



7 6 









-*=t 



This Exercise (No. 80) should be practised with the following bowing : 

STACCATO : 
Allegro moderate. 







A. 



SPRINGING STACCATO : 
Allegro vivace. 










B.: 



77 



XXXV. PIZZICATO. 

Instead of using the bow, the string is pulled with the ist finger of the right hand, the thumb being 
placed against the fingerboard for support. Care must be taken not to touch the string with the nail. 

EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 
Pizz. .... pizzicato. 



Arco or colV arco . . again with the bow. 



Allegretto scherzando. 



No. 81. 









n 



7 



& 



f 



fin 



^=^ 



^^ 



arco.' 



78 



APPENDIX. 



XXXVI. THE HIGHER POSITIONS. 



IN all the foregoing Exercises the highest note used has been 




and 



as an extension. 



The violin has, however, a compass of nine or even more notes higher. 



8va. ... 



^t The last four 
^ -ZZ" ~ ~ ~ are rarely 

used. 



sat 



DEFGABCDEPGAB, 



(in the octave) is generally written above the higher notes, as the ledger lines are difficult to read ; 
it indicates that these notes must be played one octave higher than written. If they are again to be played in 
their proper position, it is indicated by the word loco, or often only by the discontinuance of the dotted line. 



loco. 




or 



79 



XXXVII. THE SECOND POSITION. 

In the higher positions it will be found necessary to indicate on which string the note has to be played. 
The following numbers will therefore be used : 

I. . . E string. 

II. . . A 

III. . . D 

IV. . . G 

In the second position the hand is placed one tone or semitone higher than in che first. 
IV. III. II. I. 



*J bJ- or T^ 7 
i *l 



or 



* flr 







SCALE 

OF 
C MAJOR, 



The position of the hand is the same as before, the palm of the hand not touching the violin. 
M 





31413 



2 4 -& 
2 



IST EXERCISE IN THE SECOND POSITION : 

Allegro moderate. 

wen 



No. 82. 




8o 



2ND EXERCISE IN THE SECOND POSITION : 
Andante tranquillo. 

wen 



3344 




8i 



XXXVIII. THIRD POSITION. 

In the third position the hand is placed one tone or semitone higher than in the second ; and the palm 
of the hand now touches the hollow of the neck. 



IV. 




III. 



TT 



T 



1 1 i 



1 '1 1 



SCALE OF D MAJOR 
WB 





IST EXERCISE IN THE THIRD POSITION : 
Moderate ma marcato. 



84. 



jgFJR 


L 1 m 












-f 


ii _ 




-=f- 








^j 








J-^~ 




\\ ly *- 


' * 


^ 










m \ 


ff 




l 




















c? 


' ^ -; 


- 




2 







A * 


J L 


1 




1 






4 


^ 


9 




1 4 


3 214123 




2 1 
/ 

i 


4 


3 




1 




3 


2 1 


4 3 


2 




















kffi 4 


M- 






=1 






' ^ -ti* 


J- 


' * 




* 


~* 




=1= 




* 


-J 


^ 


tL* JitJ J H ' 



f: 



^^ 



i 



4 323241 2 14 



^ 4 



32435" 4 3 



^ 



$*- 



82 



2ND EXERCISE IN THE THIRD POSITION :- 
Allegro ma non troppo. 



simile. 



No. 85. 




SRD EXERCISE IN THE THIRD POSITION : 
Allegro vivace. 



No. 86. 




3 2 







5 



M 



decrescendo. 



& 



sa 




* ^ 




ife 



WBIT; 



& 



a tempo. 



P 






^ 




^ 







* Extension of 4th finger, the O indicates that the finger must touch the string without pressing it down. 



8 4 



EXERCISE IN WHICH THE FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD POSITIONS ARE COMBINED : 

A llegretto piacevole. 
WB 



No. 87. 









2nd Pos. 1st Pos mf 3rd Pos. - 




WB 



mf 
3rd Pos. 



P 



2nd Pos.. 





, 



3rd Pos. 
sempre morendo. 




86 



XXXIX. FOURTH POSITION. 

In this position the hand is placed one tone or semitone higher than in the third. 

IV. III. II. 

-frpror-W 



^j3 



v i 17 li i i i i 

The hand must now be raised a little more than before over the edge of the belly to enable the fingers 
to reach the fourth string. In the higher positions this raising of the hand is still increased. 

SCALE OF E MAJOR : 




T 2 



41 234123 4 3214321 432143 




IST EXERCISE IN THE FOURTH POSITION : 
Poco lento. (Tempo di Mazurka.) 

. iv H ^ -r-T""^ WB 

fe ' 



WB 



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No. 88. 




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88 



2ND EXERCISE IN THE FOURTH POSITION : 
U U [^ A llegro deciso. 

. 



,^ v | r^ L^>, INI 

. V J: V'- V ^ V 




The hand is now placed thus : 
IV. 



SCALE OF F MAJOR : 
WBfl 



IV. 2 1 2 3 fl 



89 
XL. FIFTH POSITION. 

III. 



1111 




IST EXERCISE IN THE FIFTH POSITION : 
Poco maestoso. 



n 



-WB 



No. go. 




13 a 4 



4 2 



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go 

2ND EXERCISE IN THE FIFTH POSITION : 
Allegro brillante, ma moderate. 



No. QI. 



N WB 2493 




EXERCISE IN WHICH THE FIRST, THIRD, AND FIFTH POSITIONS ARE COMBINED: 

Allegro moderate. ' xa 



No. 92. 



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n 






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* 1st and 4th finger extended. 



93 



WB 




5th Pos. 

ff con forza. 

trem. ^^ ^ 

-J&5- 



Srd Pos. 1st Pos. 



molto dim. 



J 1JTP- 



tr, 




P 



sempre dim. 



m 



94 



SthPos.... . lstPos.3rdPos.5thPos.... 







XLL SIXTH POSITION. 



Place the hand thus : 

IV. III. II. 



.or. 



:orl 



*J i i 11 

SCALE OF G MAJOR : 
Lento. 



No. 93- 




2312 4213 

XLIL SEVENTH POSITION. 



Place the hand thus : 



IV. 



:or: 






III. 

=^=or:| 



bf- or \tf- 
II Work-. I. 









1 



1 1 

SCALE OF A MAJOR : 
Lento. 



i i 



95 



XLIII. EXERCISES IN OCTAVES. 

The difficulty in Octave passages is to produce the octaves in tune ; as with each new stop the position 
of the hand changes, and on approaching the bridge the distance between the ist and 4th fingers gets 
gradually less. These two fingers must be pressed firmly on the strings, and moved together from one 
octave to another without lifting them up. A free action of the wrist is necessary to move the bow from one 
string to another. 

Lento assai. 



4 



No. 95. 



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No. 96. 



A llegro grazioso. 
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stacc. 




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poco ritardando. .... 



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. . 98 

XLIV. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL HARMONICS. 

Natural Harmonics are produced by touching the string without pressing the finger down. .Starting 
from the middle of the string some Harmonics are to be found upwards to the bridge, and some downwards 
to the nut. The sign ^ generally marks the note which should be played, while the small note indicates 
the actual sound produced. 



i>ULC 

produced. 

Note 
played. 

Note 

produced. 

Note 
played. 

Note 
produced. 

Note 
played. 

Note 


/\ 








KM 










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3 

ON THE G STRING. 

From the middle upwards. . jfe_ From the middle downwards. 








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ON THE D STRING. * 

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produced. 

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played. 




















1 


ON THE E STRING. 

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99 



Artificial Harmonics arc produced by pressing down one finger firmly and another lightly on the same 
string. If the ist finger is pressed down and the 4th finger placed lightly a perfect fourth higher, the sound 
of the note taken with the first finger is produced a double octave higher. The usual note indicates the one 
pressed down ; the sign ^, the lightly placed finger, and the small note above, the actual sound produced. 

The 4th finger may also be placed lightly a perfect fifth higher, then the sound produced is the fifth above 
the octave of the note taken with the ist finger. 

The 4th finger placed a fourth higher : u u k^. b_ ^ ti 



Note 


F^H 


[ f 


i 





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produced. 
No. 97. 


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IV 




















III. 






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1 1 L 1 , 1 1 
, A L . Uw U * 


played. 


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1 





The4t 

Note 
produced. 

No. 98. 

Note 
played. 


i finger placed a fifth higher : 


, tf- fe- i- fep- ftp. r t 


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IOO 



Note 
produced, (ffi ^ = 

No. gg. 

Note 
played. 





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For more detailed information about Artificial Harmonics see " Paganini's Art of Playing the Violin," 
by Carl Guhr (Novello, Ewer and Co.) 



No. IOO. 



XLV. EXERCISE IN DIFFERENT POSITIONS. 

A llegro brillante e con spirito. 

UH 




101 




102 



13411341134 




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11... I. 



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III. II. 



I. 









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III. II... I. 



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r r r 



VOCABULARY 



OF 



TECHNICAL TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS 



CONNECTED WITH THE 



VIOLIN. 



The following abbreviation? are used : Fr. (French), Ger. (German),//. (Italian), Lat. (Latin). 



A caprice io (It.) At will ; according to individual fancy. 
Accelerando (It.) Gradually increasing the speed of the movement. 
Adagio (It.) A slow movement. 
Adagio assai 



Ad libitum (Lat.) At will ; not in strict time. 

Affettuoso (It.) Lovingly. 

Agitato (It.) With agitation. 

Alia breve (It.) A direction that there should be two beats in a bar, 

one to each minim ; it is indicated at the signature by (. 
marcia (It.) In the style of a march. 

polacca (It.) In the style of a polonaise. 

tedesca (It.) In the style of a German valse. 

Allegretto (It.) Lively, but slower than allegro. 
Allegro (It.) Joyful, quick, lively. 

Allegro con brio. (It.) Quick and brilliant. 
con fuoco (//.) Quick, with fire. 

con spirito (It.) Quick, with spirit. 

ma non troppo (It.) Lively, but not too fast. 

moderato. (It.) Moderately quick. 

molto (It.) Very quick. 

vivace (It.) Quick and lively. 

Allemande (Fr.) A German dance movement in common time. 

(See Bach's Sonatas.) 
Al segno (It.) To the sign, 
Andante (It.) A slow, peaceful, but not dragging movement. 

cantabile (It.) Slow, in a singing style. 

grazioso (It.) Slow and graceful. 

maestoso (It.) Slow, with majesty. 

ma non troppo (It.) Slow, but not too much so. 

Andantino (It.) Somewhat quicker than Andante. 

Animate (It.) With animation. ^ 

A piacere (It.) At pleasure. 

Appassionato (It.) With passion and intense expression. 

Arco (It.) The bow ; coll'arco, with the bow. 



Arpeggio (It.) In the style of a harp. (See page 74.) 

Assai (It.) Very. (See Adagio assai.) 

A tempo (It.) In time. Generally used after Ritardando or 

Accelerando. 

Attacca (It.) | Commence the following at once, without a 

Attacca subito (It.)) pause. 

Bourree (Fr.) A French dance in common time, beginning with 

the fourth crotchet. (See Bach's Sonatas.) 
Brillante (It., Fr.) In a brilliant manner. 
Brio, con (It.) With spirit and vigour. 

Cadenza (//.) A brilliant passage introduced towards the close 
of a piece in a movement. (See Cadenzas written for 
Beethoven's Concerto by Leonard, Vieuxtemps, David, 
Molique, Joachim, etc. 

Calando (It.) Gradually softer and slower. 

Calmato (//.) With a calm, tranquil expression. 

Cantabile (It.) In a singing style. 

Cantilena (It.) A melody. An oft-repeated old song. 

Canzonetta (It.) A short song. (See Mendelssohn's Quartett in 
E flat, Op. 12.) 

Capriccio (//.) A composition irregular in form. 

Cavatina (It.) A melody of a simple form. (See Raffs Six 
Morceaux de Salon, Op. 85, No. 3.) 

Chaconne (Fr.) A slow dance movement in * time, generally 
combined with variations. (See Bach's Sonatas.) 

Chevalet (Fr.) The bridge. 

Coda (71.) A supplement at the end of a movement. 

Colla parte (It.) Following the principal part. 

Colophane (Fr.) ) 

. Y Resin. 

Colophomum (Lat.) ) 

Comodo (It.) Easy, without haste. 

Concertino (It.) A short concerto. 



Concerto (7r.) A composition in which a solo instrument takes a 
prominent part, generally with orchestral accompaniment. 

Courante (Fr.) An old dance movement in | time. (See Bach's 
Sonatas.) 

Crescendo (It.) Increasing the force of sound. 

Da capo (It.) Repeat from the beginning. 

al fine (It.) Repeat from the beginning to the sign Fine. 

al segno (It.) Repeat from the sign .. 

Decrescendo (It.) Decreasing the force of sound. 

Deciso (It.) With decision. 

Delicatezza, con (It.) With delicacy. 

Diminuendo (It.) Diminishing the power of sound. 

Dolce (It.) Softly, sweetly. 

Dolcezza, con (It.) With softness and sweetness. 

Dolore, con (It.) In a plaintive, sorrowful style. 

Doloroso (It.) With sadness. 

Double (Fr.) An old term for a variation. (See Bach's Sonatas.) 

Duet. A composition for two instruments. 

Eleganza, con (It.) With elegance of style. 

Elegie (Fr.) A composition of a mournful character. (See Ernst's 

E16gie, Op. 10.) 
Energico (It.) With energy. 

Espressione, con (It.)) _ 

With expression. 
Espressivo (It.) } 

Facilite (Fr.) An easy arrangement of a difficult passage. 

Fermata (It.) A pause. 

Fermo (It.) With firmness. 

Fieramente (It.) Boldly, fiercely. 

Finale (It.) The last movement of a sonata or symphony. 

Fine (It.) The end. 

Forza, con (It.) With force. 

Forzando, Sforzando (It.) (Abbreviation, sf or fz.) Strongly 

marked. 

Frosch (Ger.) The nut of the bow ; Am Frosch, near the nut. 
Fuoco, con (It.) With fire and spirit. * > 

Furioso (It.) With fury. 

Gavotte (Fr.) A dance movement in common time, beginning with 

the half bar. (S** Bach, Corelli, and Rameau.) 
Geige (Ger.) A violin. 

Giga (It.) } A jig; a lively dance movement in 8 time. (See 
Gigue (Fr.) ] Bach and Corelli.) 

Grandioso (It.) With grandeur. 
Grave (It.) Slow and solemn. 
Grazioso (It.) With grace and elegance. 

Imitando (It.) Imitating. (Imitando la voce, imitating the voice 

part.) 

Impetuoso (It.) Impetuously. 
Indeciso (It.) In an undecided manner. 

Lamentando (//.) Mournfully, plaintively. 

Langsam (Ger.) Slowly. 

Larghetto (It.) At a slow pace, but not so slow as Largo. 



Largo (It.) Very slow, and broadly. 

Lebhaft (Ger.) With vivacity. 

Legato (It.) Connected; bound together (See page 61.) 

Leggieramento (It.) Lightly, gracefully. 

Leggiero (It.) Light, easy. 

Lentando (It.) Becoming slower by degrees 

Lento (It.) Slow. 

Lunga pausa (It.) A long pause. 

Maestoso (It.) With majesty, dignity. 

Maggiore (It.) ) _. 

' I The major key. 
Majeur (Fr.) ) 

Marcato (It.) Marked. 

Martele (Fr.) Hammered (See page 63.) 

Meno (It.) Less; as, meno mosso, less quick. 



Mmeur (Fr.)) 

/ [ The minor key. 
Minore (It.) ) 



Minuetto (It.) A graceful dance movement in g or 4 time. (Set 

Page 73-) 

Moderate (ft.) In moderate time. 
Molto ,It.) Much, very; as, molto allegro, very quick; molto 

sostenuto, much sustained. 
Morendo (If.) Dying away. 
Mosso (It.) Moved ; as, piu mosso, faster. 
Moto, con (It.) With spirited movement, rather fast. 

Passionate > 

V (It.) In an impassioned manner. 
Passione, con J 

Pastorale (It.) In a pastoral style. 

Pausa (It.) A rest, a pause. 

Pausa generale (It.) Also G. P. A pause for all the perfumers. 

Perdendosi (It.) Decreasing in power and time. 

Pesante (It.) Impressively, heavily. 

Piacevole (It.) In a playful style. 

Pizzicato (It.) (See page 77.) 

Poco (It.) A little ; poco animato, rather animated. 

Poco a poco (It.) Little by little. 

Ponticello (It.) Sul ponticello, near the bridge. 

Pousse (Fr.) Up-bow. 

Preludio (It.) 

Preludium (Lat. 

Prestissimo (It.) Very fast. 

Presto (It.) Fast. 

Prima vista (It.) At first sight. 



I A prelude, or introductk 
t.) ) 



Quartett (Ger.) ) A compos i t i on f or f our instruments. 
Quatuor (Fr.) ) 

compos ition for five instruments. 



Quatuor (Fr.) 
yum e ( er. 
Quintuor (Fr.) 



Rallentando (It.) Getting gradually slower. 
Rapidamente (It.) With rapidity. 
Recitando (It.*) In the manner of a Recitative. 
Religiose (It.) In a religious devotional manner. 
Ripieno (It.) A part in an orchestra which is only occasionally 
required for the purpose of adding to the force of a Tutti. 



io6 



Risoluto (//.) 
Ritardando) 
Ritenuto J 



With resolution. 



Gradually diminishing the speed of a movement,** ' 




Sarabanda (It.) A slow and dignified old dance movement in 

3 time. 
Sautille (Fr.) Springing bow. (See page 64.) 

Scherzando) 

} (It.) In a playful, humorous manner. 
Scherzo ) v S 

Schnell (Ger.) Quick. 

Sec (Fr.) Dry ; indicates a short quick bow. / 

Segue (It.) Follows ; comes after. 

Semplice (It.) In a simple, unaffected manner. 

Sempre (It.) Always. 

Senza (//.) Without; as, Senza Sordini, without mutes. 

Septetto (It.)) 

. \ A composition for seven instruments. 
Septuor (Fr.) } 

Sextett (Ger.) ) 

' } A composition for six instruments. 
Sextuor (Fr.) } 

Simile (It.) In the same manner. 

Smorzando (It.) Dying away. 

Solo (It.) Alone. 

Sonore (Fr.) Sonorous, with a full and rich tone. 

Sordini, con (It.) With mutes. 

Sostenuto (It.) Sustained. 

Staccato, (It.) Detached ; taken off. (See page 68.) 

Stringifodo (It.) Accelerating the time. 



Tacet (La*.) Silence. 

Tastiera (It.) Sulla tastier a over the finger-boaid. 

Teneramente (It.) ) , 

_ ' . \ Tenderly, delicately. 

Tenerezza, con (It.)) 

Tenuto or Ten. (It.) Sustained, held down. 
Tire (Fr.) Down-bow. 
Tranquillo (It.) Tranquilly, calmly. 

Tremolo (It.) A note bowed with great rapidity so as to produce a 
quivering effect. (See page 71.) 

TT*I!IA / J7v \ \ 

' '. \ The shake. (Set Tartini's Trillo del Diavolo.) 
Tnllo (It.) j 

Trio (It.) A composition for three instruments. 
Tutta forza, con (It.) With the greatest force. 
Tutti (It.) All. Every performer to take part in the execution of 
a passage or movement. 



Una corda (It.) On one string. 

Variazioni (It.) Variations. 

Vigoroso (It.) Vigorously, boldly. 

Vivace (It.) Lively, quickly. 

Vivo (It.) Animated, brisk. 

Volti subito, or V.S. (It.) Turn over quickly. 



Wolf. Some particular note often found on a violin, the intonation 
of which is not true. 



LIST OF STUDIES, CONCERTOS, AND OTHER COMPOSITIONS FOR THE VIOLIN 

RECOMMENDED TO ADVANCED PUPILS. 



B. CAMPAONOLI 
R. KREUTZER . 
F. FIORELLO . 
P. RODE . 
J. TARTINI 
H. LEONARD . 

H. LEONARD . 
H. KAYSER 

F. DAVID 
F. DAVID 
F. DAVID 
F. DAVID 

H. SCHRADIECK 
H. WlENIAWSKI 

N. PAOANINI . 

L. SPOHR . 
J. S. BACH 

J. B. VIOTTI . 



20 Studies 3 

40 Studies 

36 Caprices ....... 

24 Caprices 

L'Art de 1'Archet (The Art of Bowing) 
La Gymnastique du Violoniste 

2 Books, each 3/6. 
Etudes Classiques, Op. 21 .... 

2 Books, each 3/6. 

36 Studies, Op. 20 

3 Books, each 2/6. 

Zur Violinschule, Op. 44. 2 Books . each 
Zur Violinschule, Op. 45. 2 Books . 
Dur und Moll, Op. 39. 2 Books . . 

6 Caprices, Op. 20 

Technical Violin School. 3 Books, 3/6, 2/- & 

L'Ecole Moderne, Op. 10 . 

24 Caprices ....... 



Duets for two Violins. 7 Books . . each 
6 Sonatas 



Concertos, No. 22, A minor, 1/6; No. 23, 
G major 



5. 


d. 


3 


6 


I 


o 


I 


o 


1 


4 


2 


6 


6 


o 


I 


o 


6 


o 


3 


6 


3 


o 


3 


o 


3 


6 


2 


6 


3 


o 


I 


4 


I 


6 


I 


6 


i 


6 



s. d. 
P. RODE . . Concertos, No. 4, A major, 1/6; No. 7, 

A minor . . . . . . .16 

R. KREUTZER . Concertos, No. 13, 1/6; No. 19 . . .16 
L. SPOHR . No. 7, 2/-; No. 9, 2/-; No. n . 2 o 

B. MOLIQUE . No. 3, 6/- ; No. 5 . . .60 
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Roberto il Diavolo. Grand opera in 5 acts, in 2 vols. 50 o 

PACINI, G. 
Inno a Guido d' Arezzo 8 o 



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Violin Quartets, complete, in 6 vols., i8mo.. 
Quartet, in D minor. Op. 76.. .. .. ... 

HUMMEL. 

Grand Septet, in D minor. Op. 74 .. 
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MENDELSSOHN. 

String Quartets and Quintets, complete in i vol., 
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Ten Violin Quartets and Fugue, i8mo .. .. 
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Clarinet Quintet, Op. 108 ; iSmo .. i 

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Quartet, in D minor . . . . . . . . 5 

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Three Quartets, Op. 41 i 

SPOHR. 
Double Quartet, in D minor, Op. 65 .. . . 3 

WEBER. 
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PAISIELLO, G. 
II Barbiere di Siviglia. Opera buffa . . 

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Guglielmo Tell. Grand opera in 4 acts, in 2 vols. 50 o 
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C.-OVERTURES, &c. 



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Saul .. 
King Lear 



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Overtures, complete, 3 vols each 4 o 

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Coriolan . . . . . . . . . . . . ..46 

Prometheus. Overture . . . . . . ..46 

Dkto. Adagio and Andante . . . . ..46 

Ruins of Athens .. .. .. .. ..46 

Fidelio. No. i . . .. .. .. .. ..46 

Leonora. 2 4 each 4 6 

CHERUBINI. 
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Le Pre aux Clercs 46 

Zampa . . . . . . . . . . . . ..46 

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Midsummer Night's Dream 

Scherzo. Ditto 

Hebrides 



Athalie 
Melusine . 
Calm Sea 



4 6 
4 6 
6 

4 6 
4 6 
4 6 



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Zauberflote . . . . . . . . . . ..46 

Le Nozze di Figaro . . . . . . . . ..46 

Turkish March 46 

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Sinfonia-Dante . . . . . . . . . . ..60 

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Guglielmo Tell Go 

Semiramide . . . . . . . . . . ..60 

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La Vestale .. .. .. ' .. 

Fernando Cortez 
Olimpia 

WEBER. 
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Oberon .. .. .. .. .. .. 4 

Preciosa 

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Euryanthe 



4 


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