Skip to main content

Full text of "Virginia Carolorum: the colony under the rule of Charles the First and Second, A. D. 1625-A"

See other formats

SUiUV ^mt^ ot ^I'ivjjuua lli.citovii. 

Virginia Carolorum : 

A. D. 1625— A. D. 1685, 


Manuscripts and Documents of the Period. 



ALBANY, N. Y. : 




The student of the EugUsh colonization of America has 
regretted that there has been so little published, upon the 
development of the Virginia Colony, durin^^ the Carolan 

With the hope, that it might lead to a more intelligent 
comprehension of the motives, and social surroundings, of 
the chief men of the era, this work has been prepared. 

The writer has had no political theory, nor religious party, 
nor provincial prejudice to sustain. As far as possible those 
who were prominent in shaping the destinies of the Colony, 
have been permitted to express their views, in their own 
words, as found in letters to their friends, or in communi- 
cations to the English Government. 

Their revelations conflict with some traditions, and ''old 
wives' fables," and may not be acceptable to those who dis- 

' ' Records, on a page. 
Whence many a pleasant tale is swept away." 


The duty of the historian is to be careful not to distort 
facts, nor to conceal that which is true. 

In the preparation of the volume, use has been made of 
some unpubhshed papers, in the British Museum, and Her 
Majesty's Public Record Office in London; and of the records 
in possession of the Virginia Historical Society, and the 
counties of Accomac, and Northampton, Rare . printed 
documents of the period have been freely cited, and the 
quotations, from the early laws, have been taken from 
Hening's Statutes. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the courtesies extended to 
me, by Secretary Brock of the Virginia Historical Society, 
Mr. Gi] more Ken.dall, Clerk of Northampton County Court, 
and Mr. W. H. B. Custis of the Accomac Court, while 
searching the records in their keeping. 
Saint Paul, Minnesota, 

Septembzr, 1886. 



From the abrogation of the London Company's Char- 

Principal events from A.D. 1628 to A.D. 1630 - 49-76 


Transactions from A.D. 1630 to A.D. 1634 - - 77-93 

Affairs from A.D, 1634 to A.D. 1638 - - - 98-137 

Occurrences from A.D. 1638 TO A.D. 1642 - - 138-166 


From the arrival of Governor Berkeley to the 




Affairs under the Commonwealth of England - 217-279 


From the Accession of Charles the Second to A.D. 

1671 280-338 


From A.D. 1671 to the death of Charles the Second 339-401 

Additional Notes 403-421 

Index and Errata - 423 

Ilirgittia tfiaiicrloninu 



Procla:\[ation of Charles the First. Governor and Council- 
lors A.D 1624-5. William Claiborne. Secretary Christo- 
pher Davison. John Martin suspended from the Council. 
Yeardlky visits England. Letters of Gov. Butler of Ber. 
MUDAS. Companion of Pocahontas Married. Mate and Cap- 
TA.IN of the May Flower. Introduction of Nicgroes. Fear of 
Spaniards. Death of Ex-Gov. Argall. Re-appointment of 
Gov. Yeardley. Doctor Pott. Capt. W. Tucker. Edward 
Blaney. William Ferrar. Claiborne ancestry. Ovid 
translated by Sandys. Arrival and Departure of Ships. 
Tobacco Monopoly. Death of Gov, Yeardley. 

MONG the earliest acts of Charles the First, after 
his coronation, was a proclamation concerning 
Virginia. Sir Thomas Smith, the enterprising 
East India merchant, and Alderman Robert John- 
son, the London grocer, with their associates, were entirely 
satisfied with the victory over the Earl of Southampton, 
Sir Edwin Sandys, and the large majority of the members 


of the London Company, resulting from the declaration of 
Chief Justice Ley (Leigh), in June, 1624:, that the Company's 
charter was null and void. Toward the colonists in Virginia 
they had no harsh feelings, but their influence was used 
with the King so to order the tobacco trade, that their friends 
in London might derive some profit. 

The ship which brought the news of the death of James 
the First, also conveyed the views of his successor, as to the 
Plantation. In a communication of the thirteenth day of 
May, A.D. 1625, from Whitehall, Charles alludes to the 
" Collonie of Virginia, planted by the hands of our most 
deere Father of blessed memorie, for the propagation of 
Christian religion, the increase of trade, and the enlarging 
of his Royal empire." He thought that it "had not hitherto 
prospered soe happilly as was hoped and desired for, that the 
government of that CoUonie was comytted to the Companie 
of Virginia, incorporated of a multitude of persons of sev- 
erall dispositions, amongst whome the affa-ires of greatest 
moment were and must be ruled by the greater number of 
votes and voyces, and therefore his late Majestic, out of his 
great wisedome and depth of judgment, did desire to resume 
til at popular government, and accordingly the letters pat- 
entes of that Incorporation were, by his Highnes' direction, 
in a legal course questioned, and therefore judicially repealed 
and adjudged to be voyd, wherein his Majestye's ayme was 
onlie to reduce that Government into such a right course as 
might best agree with that forme which was held in the rest 
of his Royal Monarchie, and was not intended by him to 
take awaie or ympeach the particular interest of anie pri- 


vate planter or adventurer, nor to alter the same otherwise 
than should be of necessitie for the good of the publique." 

He also declared : " Our full resolution is, that there male 
be one uniforme course of government in and through our 
whole Monarchie ; that the government of the Collonie of 
Virginia shall ymediately depend upon ourselfe, and not be 
commytted to anie Companie or Corporation to whom it 
maie be proper to trust matters of trade or commerce, but 
cannott be fit or safe to communicate the ordering of State 
affaires, be they of never so mean consequence : And that 
therefore we have determyned that our Commissioners* for 

' On the 15th of July, 1624, King James had appointed the following Commis- 
sioners for Virginia to receive the charters, seals, and letters of the Virginia 
Company, and attend to the affairs of the Colony: 

Henry, Viscount Mandeville, Ijord President of the Privy Council. 
/-^William, Lord Pagett. 

Arthur, Lord Chichester, Baron of Belfast. 
Sir Thomas Edwards, Knight. Treasurer. 
" John Suckling, " Comptroller. 

" George Calvert, " Secretary of State. 

" Edward Conway, " " " 

^ " Richard Weston, " Chancellor ot Exchequer. 

" Julius Ceesar, " Master of Rolls. 

" Humphrey May, " Chancellor of Lancaster. 

" Baptist Hickes, " and Baronet. 

/"' Thomas Smith, " 

Sir Henry Mildmay, Knight, Master of Jewels. 
" Thomas Coventry, " Attorney General. 
'* Robert Heath, " Solicitor General. 

" Ferdinand Gorges, " 
" Robert Killigrew, " 
" Charles Montague, " 
" Philip Cary, 
" Francis Gaston, " 

" Thomas Wroth, 



those affaires shall iDroceede accordinge to the tenor of our 
commissions directed unto them, until we shall declare our 
further pleasure therein ; nevertheless we doe hereby declare 
that we are resolved with as much convenyent expedition 
as our affaires of greater importance will give leeve, to estab- 
lish a Counsell consistinge of a few persons of understand- 
ing and quallitie, to whom wee will give trust for the yme- 
diate care of the affaires of that Uollonie, and whoe shall be 
answerable to us for their proceedings, and in matters of 
great moment shall be subordinate and attendant unto our 
Privie Counsell here; and that wee will alsoe establish an- 
other Counsell to be resident in Virginia, who shall be sub- 
ordinate to our Counsell here for that CoUonie, and that att 
our owne charge we will maynteyne those publique offi- 

" John Wolstenholme, " 
' " Nathaniel Rich, " 

" Samupl Argall, 

" Humplirey Ilaudford, " 
Matthew Sutcliffe, D.D., Dean of Exeter. 
Francis White, D.D., Dean of Carlisle. 
Tlionias Fanshaw, Clerk of the Crown. 
Robert Johnson, Alderman of London. 
James Campbell, " " 

Ralph Freeman, " " 

Maurice Abbot, Esquire, 
Nathaniel Butler, " 
George Wilmore, " 
Philip Jermayne, " 
Edward Johnson, " 
Thomas Gibbs, " 
tSamuel Wrote, " 
John Porey, " 

Michael Hawes, " 



In conclusion, he wrote that he wished to brin^ the 
tobacco trade into one hand, and exclude that raised in 
foreign lands, and to fix his own price upon that raised in 

After the charter of the Virginia Company had been dis- 
solved, James the First continued Sir Francis Wyatt^ as 

Edward Pallavacine, Esquire. 
Robert Bateman, Mercliant. 
Martin Bonde, " 

Thomas Styles, " 

Nicholas Leate, " 

Robert Bell, 
Abraham Cartwright, " 
Richard Edwards, " 
John Dyke, " 

Anthony Abdy, " 

William Palmer, " 
Edward Dicli field, Salter. 
George Mole, Merchant. 
Richard Morer, Grocer. 

Upon the recommendation of the Commissioners for Virginia, the following 
Tobacco Inspectors in London were appointed: Edward Dichfield, Salter; 
Richard Morer, Reuben Bourne, George Bromley, Grocers ; William Perkyns, 
Merchant Tailor; and Edward Bennet, Merchant. 

* The entire document is printed in Rymer's "Foedera," Vol. XVIII., pp. 72,73. 

■•^ Thomas Wyatt, of AUington Castle, Boxley Abbey, married Jane, daughter 
of Sir William Hawte. His estate was confiscated. 

George, his son, had the estate restored in 1570 by Queen EHzabeth. He 
married Oct. 8, 1583, Jane, daughter of Sir Thomas Finch, Kt., and he was 
buried about September lG25,at Boxley Abbey, and left five sons and two daugh- 

Francis, eldest son of George, in 1618 married Margaret, daughter of Sir Sam- 
uel Sandys, of Orabersley, Worcester. He w\is buried at Boxley Abbey August 
24, 1644, and his wife March 27, 1644-5. 

Hawte, brother of Francis, was inducted Rector of Boxley October 3, 1633. 
He died July 31, 1638. He was twice married, and some of his descendants are 


Governor. While he had confidence in the motives of those 
who had directed the affairs of the Company, Wyatt found 
that their plans were at times impracticable. In a letter to 
his father he alluded to the " antipathy " caused by the great 
demands of the Corporation, and the ' ' grumbling obedience " 
of the colonists, and he wished ' ' that little Mr. Farrar was 
in Virginia, that he might add zeal to knowledge." His 
wife, a daughter of Sir Samuel Sandys, who passed some 
time in Virginia, was a cheerful person, willing to accept 
the hardships of a new settlement. His deportment was 
correct, and a captious fellow could only write •} ' ' The old 
smoker, so good, so carefully mild, religious, just, honest, 
that I protest, I think God hath sent him, in mercy, for 
good to us." 

said to have settled in Virginia. There was a Ralph Wyatt who married the 
widow of Capt William Button, of Virginia, and Anthony Wyatt a member of 
an early legislature. 

Eleanor, sister of Franci?, was the first wife of Sir Thomas Finch, Speaker of 
House of Commons, 1627. 

Hotten in Lists of Emigrants gives 

The Muster op Sr Thomas Wyatt, Kt., taken in January, 1625. 

" Sr Francis Wyatt, Kt., Governo' &c., came in the Oeorge, 1621. 
[Wife had gone to England on a visit.] 

Christopher Cooke, age 25, in the Oeorge, 1621. 
George Hull, age 13, in the Supply, 1620. 
Jonathan Giles, 21, in the Triall, 1619, 
John Matheman, 19, in the Jonathan, 1619. 
Jane Davis, 24, in the Abigaile, 1622" 

1 Letter of William Capps, an old planter, in "Virginia Vetueta," p. 129; 
Muneell's Sons, Albany, N. Y., 1885. 


The Councillors, as their muster-rolls show, were chosen 
from among the more prosperous and influential. 

Francis West* preceded his brother, Lord Delaware, and 
in A.D. 1608 first arrived. In November, 1623, he was ap- 
pointed Admiral by the Council for New England, and sailed 
for Plymouth Harbor, but finding that the fishermen insisted 
that the fisheries should be opened to all, he returned to 

' Alexander Brown, in " Majr. of American History," 1883, p. 461, communi- 
cates the West Genealogy from the Bennet Roll. From this are gleaned the 
following facts : 
y Thomas 3rf Lord Delaware, second son of second Lord, " was born the 9th of 
July, between 2 and 3 o'clock in the afternoon, 1577." 
^ Francis West, fourth son, was born the 28th of October, 1586, between 
twelve and one o'clock noou. 
_^ .John West, fifth son, was born the 14th of December, 1590, between five and 
six o'clock in the afternoon. 

Nathaniel West, sixth son, was born November 8, 1592, between two and 
three o'clock in the morning. 

Doyle, in "History of the American Colonies," speaks of Francis, a nephew 
of Francis, who was drowned. 

In January, 1625, Captain Francis West was living on the Company's land 
at Elizabeth City. Tlie census-roll then taken, printed in Hotten, had the fol- 
lowing : 

"Captain Fkancis West, his Mustek. 
^ dipt. Francis Wes% Counseler, aged 36, in the Mary Ann Margaret, 1610. 
^^Mrs. Francis West, Widdowe, in the Supply, 1620. 
^Nathaniel West, born in Virginia. 

Joane Fairchild, aged 20, in the Oeorge, 1618. 
Benjamin Owin, aged 18, in ihe Sir an, 1623. 
William Parnell, atred 18, in the Stndham'pton, 1622. 
Walter Couper, aged 22, in the Neptune, 1618. 
Reinould Godwin, aged 30. in the Abigail, 1620. 
John Pedro, a Neger, aged 30, in the Swan, 1623." 


Sir George Yeardley' had always been recognized for his 
executive ability and business capacity. John Pory had 
written of him, in 1619, as "the Governor here, who at his 

1 " Muster of Sir George Yeardley, Kt. 
Sr George Yeardley, Kt., &c.. came in the Deliverance, 1609. 
Temperance, Lady. Yeardley, came in the Faulcon, 1608. 
Mr. Argall Yeardley, ap:ed 4 yeares, ^ 

Mr. Francis Yeardley, aged 1 yeare, t Children borne heare. 
M's. Elizabeth Yeardley, aged 6 years, ' 

Servants at James City. 
Richard Gregory, aged 40, "| 

Anthony Jones, 26, . , ,r. ^ont\ 

„, v^ V, ' y came in the Temperance, 1620. 

Thomas Dunn, 14, 

Thomas Phildust, 15, J 

Thomas Hatch, 17, in the Duty, 1619. 

Robert Peake, 32, in the Marc/rett & John, 1623. 

William Strange, 18, in the George, 1619. 

Roger Thompson, 40, London Merchant, 1620. 

Ann, his wife. 

Richard Arundell, in the Abigail, 1620. 

Georg Deverill, 18, in the Temperance, 1620. 

Thomas Barnett, 16, in the Elsabeth, 1620. 

Theophilus Bereston, in the Treasuror, 1614. 

Negro Men, 3. 

Negro Women, 5. 

Susan Hall, in the William & Thomas, 1608. 

Ann Willis, in the Temperance, 1620. 

Elizabeth Arundell, in the Abigail, 1620. 

Servants at Hog Island. 

Maximilliau Stone, aged 36, came in the Temperance, 1620. 
Elizabeth, his wife, in the same shipp. 
Maximilliau, his son, aged 9 months. 
Robert Guy, 22, in the Swann, 1619. 
Edward Yates, 18, in the Duty, 1619. 
Cesar Pugget, 20, in the Diana, 1619. 
William Strachey, 17, in the Temperance. 
Alexander Sanders, 24, in the True love, 1623. 
George Whitehand, 24, in the Temperance, 1620. 


first coming, besides a great deal of worth in his person, 
brought only his sword with him, was at his late being in 
London, together with his lady, out of his mere gettings 
here, able to disburse very near three thousand pounds to 
furnish him with the voyage." In another paragraph he is 
called "a soldier truly bred in the University of War in the 
Low Countries." 

George Sandys' had been a Colonial Treasurer, and as 
the brother of the head of the Virginia Company in London, 
at one time exercised a great influence. 

Heury Kiufr, 22. in the Jonathan, 1620. 
John Day, 34, in the London Merchant, 1620. 
The wife of John Day in the same Shipp." 

"'Muster of M's George Sand's, Esquire. 
Servant 8. 
Martin Turner, 1 

Georoe Bailife, 
John Sparks, 

John Dancy, I ^^^^ j^ ^j^^ George, 1621. 

John Edwards, 
Nicholas Tompson, 
Rosamus Carter, j 

John Stone, a boy, J 

Nichohis Comon, ) .^^ ^^^ g^^.^^^ jgg^^ 

Nicholas Eyres, a boy, ) 

David Mansfeild, ) • .i o at i • j 

[ in the Bona Nova, hired servants. 
John C'hixon, ) 

Thomas Swifte, j. j^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ freemen, 1623. 

John Bald wine, ' 

hired, Daniel Poole, a french man. 

hie wife, a youngr child of theires. 

Mustek op those that live in ye Trbasurors Plant. 
Robert Sheaperd, came in the George, 1621. 
James Chambers, in the Dutie, 1680. 


Captain Roger Smith^ had served twelve years in the 
wars of the Netherlands, and is supposed to have been the 

\ in the Marygold, 1619. 

John Parsons, "| 

William Benge, 

John Evans, 

Robert Edmunds, 

John Comes, 

John Tyos. J 

William Pilkington, \ 

Elias Longo, V in the Bona Nova, 1620. 

Thomas Hall, ) 

Margaret Pilkington,) 

^^ t weomen. 

Jane Long, ) 

M'Vinceucio, the Italian. 
M' Bernardo, 
his wife, 
A child." 

» '■ Muster of Capt. Roger Smith, 
Capt. Roger Smith, came in the AMgaile, 1620. 
M's Joane Smith, came in the Bleasinge, 
Elizabeth Salter, aged 7 yeai-es, came in the Seafloure. 
Elizabeth Rolfe, aged 4 yeares, i 
Sarah Macock, aged 2 yeares, \ ^^o™ '^ Virginia. 


Charles Waller, aged 23, came in the Abigails, 1620. 
Christopher Bankus, aged 19 yeares, in the Abigaiie, 1623. 
Henery Booth, aged 20, in tho Dutie. 
,Henery Lactou, aged 18 yeares, in the Hopwell, 1623. 

[Plantation over the water.] 

Francis Fowler, aged 23 yeres, 
Christopher Lawson. 
Alee, his wife. 

Christopher Redhead, aged 24. 
Stephen Webb, aged 25 yeres. 
John Butterfield, aged 23 yeres. 
William Baker, aged 24 yeres. 
Richard Alford, aged 26 yeres. 
Thomas Molton, aged 25 yeres." 


second son of John Smith, ^ of Nibley, in Gloucestershire. 
In January, 1625, there resided with him Ehzabeth Kolfe, 
whose widowed mother, Jane, appears to have been absent, 
perhaps with her father, Capt. Wilham Peirce, in England. 
In "Virginia Vetusta," published by the Munsells, of Al- 
bany, this child, by a slip of the pen, is called Jane. 

Ralph Hamor' is supposed to have been the son of Ralph 
Hamor, of London. In 1615 he published a Description of 

' Amongthe " Cholmondely Papers," are letters of Richard Berkeley and John 
Smith, of Nibley, on Virginia affairs. Yates' account of a voyage to Virginia 
in the Margarete, of Bristol, which left England on 16th of September, and on 
the 20th of November arrived at Point Comfort or Elizabeth City, is addressed 
to George Thorpe, of Wanswell, afterwards killed by the Indians, and John 
Smith, Esq., of Nibley. On December 19, 1620, George Smith, then in Virginia, 
writes to John Smith, at North Nibley, Gloucestershire, " is busy examining 
witnesses concerning Capt. Argall," and then recommends that he should send 
over his second son to the plantation. 

^ "Muster of Capt. Raph Hamok. 

Capt. Eaph Hamor. 

M's Elizabeth Hamor. 

Jeremy Clement, ) , , .,, 
_,,.•', ' y her children. 

Elizabeth Clement, ) 

John Lightfoote, in the Seaventure. 
Francis Gibbe, a boy, in the Seaflower. 
Ann Addams, a maid servant. 

At Hog Island. 

Jeffrey Hull, came in the George. 
Mordecay Knight, in the William & John. 
Thomas Doleman, in the Returne. 
Elkinton Ratliffe, in the Seafloure. 
Thomas Powell, in the Seafloure 
Thomas Cooper, in the Returne. 
John Davies, in the Quifte. 


Virginia. Returned with Argall from England in May, 
1617, and was described by Sandys as one whose extreme 
poverty forced him to "shifts," 

John Martin was one of the earHest settlers, supposed to 
have been the brother-in-law of Sir Julius Caesar,^ and was 
positive in his convictions, and generally in opposition to the 
majority. At the meeting of the first legislative assembly, 
in 1619, he insisted that by a special clause in his patent he 
was exempt from local authority, except in time of war. 
He returned from England in 1624 with an increased grant 
of land. Governor Wyatt and Council, on February 4, 1625, 
wrote to the Earl of Southampton, and the Company, of 
which he was the head, that while they could ' ' but praise 
the Company's charity in forgiving the many foul injuries 
of Captain Martin," they did not like his appointment as 

Samuel Mathews had not come to the colony until a.d. 
1622, in the ship " Southampton," but was destined to be- 

' The following manuscripts in the collection of Sir Julius Caesar, Judge of 
High Court of Admiralty, and Master of the Rolls, in the British Museum, are 
attributed to his brother-in-law, Thomas Martin, and evidently John is meant. 

" Proposals of Thomas Martin, respecting the question between the Virginia 
Company and himself," Dec. 9, 1633. 

" The manner howe Virginia may be used as a royall plantation," by Thomas 
■" Letter of Thomas Martin, in Virginia, to Sir Julius Caesar," March 8, 1636. 

2 " Muster of Capt. John Martin. 
Capt. John Martin. ^ 

Sackford Wetherill, j 

John Smith, aged 31, j^ in the Stoan, 1624." 

John Howard, aged 34, j 
John Anthonie, aged 33, j 


come a leader. He had influence in London. He married 
the daughter of Sir Thomas Hinton by his first wife. Hin- 
ton afterwards married the rich widow of Sir Sebastian 
Harvey, Lord Mayor of London. ' Her only daughter, Mary, 
the King wished to marry the brother of the Duke of Buck- 
ingham. A letter written on May 31, 1619, told a friend 
"The Lord Mayor is ill because the King wishes him to 
marry his only daughter, a child of fourteen, to Christopher 
Villiers, which he refuses." Harvey, in February, 1622, 
died, and Mary, his daughter, married John, son of Sir Fran- 
cis Popham.^ 

' The following marriage is entered on the Register of Stratford le Bowe 
Chnrcli, London, under date of October 1, 1622 : " Sir Tliomas Hynton of Cliil- 
ton Foliot, Kt., and the Lady Mary wife of Sir Sebastian Harvey." 

* " Muster op Capt. Samuel Mathews, James City. 
Capt. Samnell Mathews, came in the Southampton, 1622. 
M' David Sand's, Minister, came in the Bonaventura, 1620. 

Robert Mathews, aged 24, ^ 
Roger Williams, 20, I 

Samuell Davies, 18, ! 

Henery Jones, 25, [ came in the Southampton, 1622. 

Aaron Conaway, 20, j 

John Thomas, 18, ( 

Michaell Lapworth, 16, J 
William Lusam, 27, ^ 
William Feild, 23, [■ in the Charles, 1621. 
Peter Montecue, 21, J 

Robert Fernall, 31, in the London Merchant, 1619. 
Walter Coop[er], 33, in the Jonathan, 1619. 
William Walters, 27, in the Bona Nova. 
Nicholas Chapman, 31, in the Jonathan, 1619. 
Gregory Spicer, 22, in the Tnall, 1618. 


John Harvey, of Lyme Eegis, Dorsetshire, had been the 
Captain of a ship in the East Indies,^ and one of the Com- 
missioners of A.D. 1624, who reported upon the condition of 
the Colony to the King, and Admiral of New England after 
West and Argall. He was absent from Virginia, from the 
beginning of 1624, for several years. 

Abraham Persey, Merchant, also written Peirsey, was a 
merchant, and, in 1616, first arrived in the ship "Susan,"* 
and about 1628, died. His will is in the Appendix. 

Nicholas Peirse, 23, in the Falcon, 1619. 

Robert Penn, 22, in the Abigaile, 1620. 

William Dal by, 28, in the Furtherance, 1622. 

Thomas Hopson, 12, in the Bona Nova, 1618. 

Abraham Wood, 10, in the Margrett & John, 1620. 

William Kingsley, 24, in the Marmaduk, 1623. 

Thomas Bridges, 12, " " " " 

Arthur Goldsmith, 26, in the Diana, 1618." 
^ The East India Company ordered, in November, 1617, that "Security for 
2000i or 3000? be taken from Capt. Harvey, who is suspected to be about to sail 
to the East Indies with a ship well victualled and furnished with twenty pieces 
of ordnance," and on the 16th of January, 1617-18, they were informed that 
" Sir Thomas Bromley and Captain Harvye were making a voyage from Flush- 
ing to the East Indies in a great ship," and that they had been stayed. — Col- 
of State Papers, East Indies, 1617-1621. Upon giving security to the States 
General the vessel was released. John Chamberlain, in a letter to Dudley 
Carlton, describes Harvey as " somewhat choleric and impatient." 

= " Muster of M' Abraham Peirsey, Merchannt. 
M' Abraham Peirsey, came in the Susan, 1616. 
Elizabeth, his daughter, aged]15, ) ^^^^ j^ ^^^ Sonthampion, 1623. 
Marv. his daue^hter. aa-ed 11. ) 

Mary, his daughter, aged 11, 


Christopher Lee, aged 30 yeres, 

Richard Serieant, aged 86 yeres, 

Alice Chambers, ) . -, . 

' \ maid servants, 
Annis Shaw, ) 

in the Soiithampton, 1623. 



I Soutliampton, 1633. 

Isaac Madison, of Charles City, died in 162-i, before notice 
of his appointment arrived. His widow, Mary,^ who arrived 

At Pbirsby's Hundred. 
Thomas Lea, aged 50, 
Anthony Paggit, 35, 
Soloraou Jackman, 30, 
John Davies, 45, 
Clement Roper, 25, 
John Bates, 24, 
Thomas Abbe, 20, 
Thomas Brooks, 23, 
Nathan Jones, 23, 
Peter Jones, 24, 
Pierce Williams, 23, 
Robert Graues, 30, 
Edward Hubberstead, 26, 
John Lathrop, 25, 
Thomas Chambers, 24, 
Walter Jackson, 24, 
Henry Sanders, 20, 
William Allen, 22, 
Georg Daws(m, 24, 

John Upton, aged 26, in the Bona Nova, 1622. 

John Bamford, aged 23, in the James, 1622. 

William Garrett, aged 22, in the Oeoi'ge, 1619. 

Thomas Sawell, 26, " " 

Henery Rowinge, 25, " " Temperance, \Q21. 

Nathaniel Thomas, 23, " " " 

Richard Broadshaw, 20, " " " •'" 

Robert Okley, 19, in William & Thomas, 1618. 

Negroes, 4." 

' " Muster op M's Mary Maddison, Widdow. 
Went and Shirley Hundred. 

Mary Maddison, aged 30, in the Treasurer, 1618. 
Katherine Layden, aged 7. 

James Watson, aged 20 yeares, in the George, 1623. 
Roger Lewes, "19 " '* " Edwin, May, 1617." 


in the " Treasurer" in a.d. 1618, and was about thirty years 
of age, was hving. Madison was a brave man, and a street 
ballad was printed and sung in the streets of London, in 
1621, in which his attack upon the Indians was noted,— 

"And Captain Middisone likewise, 

with honor did proceed 
Who coming, toolce not all their corne, 

but likewise tooke their King 
And unto James his Citty, he 

did these rich trophies bring." 

William Claiborne,^ also written Clayborne, Oleyborne, 
Cleburne. The Virginia Company, in a letter dated July 
25, 1621, sent by the ship ''George," write, "It is our ex- 
presse will that the Tenants belonging to every office be 
fixed to his certaine place uppon the lands sett out for itt, 
for which M^^ Cleyburne is chosen to be our Surveyor, who 
att the Companies very great charge is sett out, as by his 
condition of agreement you may perceive."^ 

Too little has been written of Christopher Davison,^ the 
last Secretary of the Colony before the death of King James. 
His father was William Davison, of Stepney, Middlesex, 
Secretary of State under Queen Ehzabeth, and in whose 
service, for a time, was William Brewster, the leader of the 
Leyden Puritans, who had landed at Plymouth Rock but a 

1 So written in Rymer. 

= Neill's " Virginia Company," Joel Munsell, Albany, p. 225. 

3 The mother of the Secretary was Catherine Spelman, a relative of Sir Henry 
Spelman. He was born about A. d. 1577, and is said to have been a student 
of Gray's Inn. His younger brother, Walter, was also a poet. — Life of Dam- 
son, by Nicholas. 



few months before Christopher Davison arrived at James- 
town. In the will of Wilham Davison, made in a.d. 1608, 
Christopher is called his second son, and Francis, the poet, 
his eldest. 

At a meeting of the Virginia Company, held June 11, 
1621, as John Pory, Secretary under Yeardley, had not car- 
ried himself well, it was decided to choose a successor, and 
on the 13th, Mr. Parramore, Mr. Waterhouse, and Mr. Da- 
vison were balloted for the office, and *' choice was made of 
Mr. Davison, he having the major part of balls, who being 
called in to take notice that the Secretary's place was fallen 
upon him, did declare his thankful acknowledgment unto 
the Company." He arrived in October, 1621, at Jamestown, 
but did not have good health. In a letter of April 8, 1623, 
to Deputy Ferrar, of the Company, he alludes to his sick- 
ness and absence from business, and promises to send a list 
of inhabitants. He also mentions that his "brother," per- 
haps brother-in-law, Thomas Finch, had died soon after his 

When Pory and other Commissioners from England 
came, in 1624, Edward Sharpless was appointed clerk, in 
consequence of a vacancy in the Secretaryship, caused by 
Davison's death. Among the poems of Francis, the eldest 
brother, was published the following paraphrase of one of 
the Psalms by Christopher : 

"Lord, in thy house, who shall forever bide ? 

To whom sliall rest iu sacred mount betide ? 

Ev'n unto him tliat leads a life unstained, 

Doth good, and speaks the truth from heart unfeigned. 

Who with his tongue, deceit hath never used ; 

Nor neighbor hurt, nor slandered, nor accus'd ; 



Who loving good mcD, is from bad estranged, 

Who keeps his word, though to his loss, unchanged, 

To usury, who hath no money lent, 

Nor taken bribes against the innocent, 

Who in this course doth constantly persevere. 

In holy hill, unmoved, shall dwell for ever." 

The condition of the Colony was not prosperous, but it 
had been improved by the abrogation of the charter of the 
old Company. While there had been a disposition upon the 
part of its officers and stockholders to promote a Christian 
civilization, yet the people did not feel that they were a 
commonwealth, but, subject to the ordinances of those who 
were anxious to receive some pecuniary return from their 
investments. The first of January, a.d. 1(]25, found a pop- 
ulation of only about twelve hundred persons, one horse, 
one mare, five hundred hogs, and five hundred neat cattle 
in the valley of the James River, and on the eastern shore of 
the Chesapeake Bay. There was not a public inn, nor was 
there a church edifice, nor a residence of brick or stone at 

On the 15th of June, 1625, Governor Wyatt and Council 
notified the Privy Council in England, that they had been 
forced to suspend Captain John Martin from their body, and 
that the reason they had taken the Secretaryship from, and 
cut off the ears of Edward Sharpless, was, because he had 
violated his oath^ and "delivered papers, committed to his 
charge, which greatly concerned" them. 

' After Secretary Davison's death, in 1638-4, an oath was administered to 
Edward Sharpless, acting as Secretary, in these words : 

" You shall keep secret all matters committed unto you, with all things that 
shall be treated secretly at the Counsell table until such tyme as by the consent 
of his Maiestie's Gouernor and Captayn Generall and the full Councel of the 


The monopoly of the tobacco trade tended to produce 
stagnation in business and discontent, and Yeardley was 
appointed to visit England and secure, if possible, a modifi- 
cation of the pernicious contract. 

On the -ith of October, Yeardley was in England, and 
wrote to the King how utterly disheartened the Virginia 
planters were, by the enforced sale of their tobacco, and ask- 
ing that he might have a hearing before the Privy Council. 
When the opportunity offered, he asked for the liberty of 
holding a General Assembly for local legislation and the 
election of officers by the people, also that there should be 
no tax on staple commodities, and free trade in all things. 

Small vessels were constantly seen trading with the In- 
dians toward the Falls of tlie Potomac and the mouth of 
the Susquehanna River for corn and beaver-skins, and at 
Palmer's Island in chat stream, named after Edward Palmer, 
who had, in 1624, projected a University and School of Arts 
for Virginia.^ 

Intercourse had been established with the feeble settle- 
ments at Cape Cod and Bermudas. Fish was brought from 
the former and fruits from the latter.^ 

State llien resydent. or the niixior part of tbem, publication shall be made 

" And you shall most exactly and faithfully do your utmost, record all acts 
and matters to be recorded and kept from time to time vvhicli shall be resolued 
upon by the Gouernour and Connsell of State or the maiorpart of them and you 
shall not deliuer any thin^ concerninge the affayres of the Counsellto any other 
person to be copied out or engrossed without first making the Gouernour 
acquainted and pleasure obtained. So help you God and the contents of this 
Boke." — Virginia MS. Record!*, Library of Congress. 

1 Neill's "Virginia Vetusta," papes 183, 184. 

» The beginning of the trade in fruits was in a.d. 1621. In a treatise on the 


Some of the leading men longed to see the parish and 
town organization of England introduced, and lamented 

Bermudas written in 1623, it is supposed by Capt. Butler, edited by Lefroy, and 
published iu a.d. 1882, by Hakluyt Society, are the following letters : 
" To MY WORTHY FRIEND SiR Fbancis Wiatt, Gouernor of Virginia. 
" Sir : If your name deceaue me not we knowe one another. Howsoeuer 
your neigbbourlioode and affinitie of command, inuite me to well come you, and to 
wish you all happiness in this your onerous Honnour. 

" Our plantation commenceth a commerce vnlo you, for by this shipp 1 haue 
sent vnto you suche of our prime fruicts as I heare you haue not, but assure 
myself you would haue, nor is ther ought els with vs but (during my tearme 
here) you shall as brethren command it. And (although your own climate 
giues a beliefe you can haue noe badd aire) I cannot chuse but wish you the 
temperature and salubrilie of ours, the which I dare pronounce to be equall 
with the best of the world, and with it also communicated our bothe natural 
and artificial strength. 

" I doubt not but that you haue your good wishes for vs, likewise as a par- 
ticipation with you of a spatious continent, goodly pasture, fayre riuers, neces- 
sary yron mines, and perhaps some other secret hopes : We are glad and thank 
you for it, and let vs still iointly goe on to wish one another's good, and to act 
it, and God second our honest endeauors. 

" And thus (noble Sir) you haue hastily and heartily recommended the true 
and faithful affection of 

•' Your nssnrcd friend, 

" Nath. Butler. 
" Saint Georges, in the 
'' Summer Islands, 
*' December 3, 1631." 
A second chest of cedar, well filled, was sent 

" To MY WORTHY FRIEND SiR George Yardley, in Virginia, giue these. 
" Worthy Sir, — This bearer (who loues you well) assureth me chat you 
meant so well the last yeare, and that you sent out a ship of purpose to let vs 
knowe it, of which however we were deprived by the ignorance of the pilote, 
yet your noble ententiou ought to be esteemed as an act done to encresse my 
thancks. I haue now sent you some of our countrey's fruicts, and I wish they 
may multiplie with you, they are of our choice ones, and such as giue vs much 
content here, wher and cverywher els I shall by all means expresse myself 

" Your affectionate friend, 

'■ Nath. Butler. 
" St. Georges, in Summer Ids., 
"Dec. 3, 1621." 


that their plantations were scattered, and, from the lack of 
bridges over the many inlets, only accessible by boats on 

The fruits and plants were so acceptable that, in March, 1622, a bark came 
from Virginia to obtain another supply. While this vessel was in port, the 
writer of the manuscript about a.d. 1623, refers to the 

jMarriage op a Companion op Pocahontas. 

Sir Edwin Sandys, at a meeting of the London Company, on June 11, 1621, 
(O. S.), remarked tliat experience had tavip;ht that the Indians brought over by 
Sir Thomas Dale, was "far from the Christian work intended." Dale arrived 
with Pocahontas and her companions in England, early in June, 1616, but Lon- 
don life did not improve their health or morals. On the 6th of August, the dead 
body of a Virginian mimed Abraham was borne from the fai r house J ii Sir 
Tho^jnaa SrnU i. in PhjlgoJ Lane, Lang^-Q^ii^ 3^^'^' ^^^ buried at St. Dionis 
Church at the north-west corner of Lime street in the same ward. On the 18tli 
of October another native of Virginia died, and was taken from the same house 
to the same church, and on the 15th of November there was a third burial of an 
Indian. In May, 1620, one of the Indian girls was dying of consumption, who 
had been a servant with a mercer in Cheapside. The remaining maid in 
England was sent back. The words of the Ilakluyt Society narrative, are : " Her 
ladeinge was aqua vitoe, sack, oyle, and bricks, in exchange whereof she desired 
plants and herbs of all sortes, potatoes, duck, turkeys, and lime-stone ... In 
the interim cf this shyjis abode here the marriage of the Virginia mayde recom- 
mended vnto the Qouernour by the Virginian Company resident in London, the 
shypeinge before was consumated : she being there married to as fitt and agree- 
able an hut^band as the place would afford, and the weddinge feste kept in the 
Gouernour's newe house, and at his charge, whereto not only the master of the 
new come sliypp and some other strangers were inuited, but not fewer than one 
hundred persons wer made guests, and dined with all sortes of prouisions that 
the Islands could afford, in a very plentifull manner. 

" And it was thought to be done in a more fashionable and full manner that 
the strangers returned to Virginia might find reason to carry a good testimony 
with them of the wellfare and plenty of the plantation: as also, that the kin- 
dred and friends of tlie Virginian bride who were proud coinmandours, and not 
less than Viceroyes might receive a knowledge of the well being of their kinds 
woman [kinswoman], and by the good renpoct and kind vsage shewed vnto her 
among the English be encouraged both to continue and augment their former 
friendshyp, and to become Christians themselves, to which ende also, the Gouer- 
nour wrote of aduice to the Gouernour in Virginia, and cau.sed the mayde her- 
selfe likewise to doe as much to her brother, who by her father's late death had 
succeeded in all his roialties and commande." 

Powhatan died in 1018, and the Indian maiden appears to have been one of 
the sisters of Pocahontas. 


the James River, and that they were " bereft of friendly 
communion" as well as the "mutual Societie of one another 
in religious duties, the first fruit of civihty."^ 

During the year 1625, Giles Beaumont, a Frenchman, ar- 
rived with some colonists, authorized to claim the privileges 
of an English subject and establish a plantation. 

It is worthy of note that the Captain and Mate of the 
May Flower both died in the valley of the James River. 
John Clark, who piloted the Puritans of Ley den to the coast 
of Massachusetts, was a resident of Virginia as early as a.d. 
1612. One day, when Sir Thomas Dale was Deputy G-over- 
noi', a Spanish ship appeared off Point Comfort and asked 
for a pilot. Captain James Davies, the commander there, 
acceded to the request, and the Spaniard sailed away with 
him, leaving three of their company on shore, one of whom 
was discovered to be an English traitor who, in a.d. 1588, 
had piloted the Spanish Armada to the coasts of England 
and Ireland, and was subsequently hung by Dale.^ 

Clark was taken to Spain and confined for some time in 
the galleys, and after a long time released. 

Cushman writes to Pastor Robinson on June 20, 1620: 
"We have hired another pilote here, one Mr. Clarke, who 
went last year to Virginia with a ship of Kine." This pilot, 
John Clark, was the first to land upon the island in Ply- 
mouth Harbor, where the Puritans from Leyden, on Decem- 
ber 20 (N. S.), kept their first Christian Sabbath. Clark re- 
turned in the May Flower to England, and on February 13, 

' Commission to Yeardley to settle a colony, in " Virginia MS Records," 
Library of Congress. 

= Purcbas, IV. Part, p. 1713. 


1621-2 (0. S.), Deputy Ferrar acquainted the Virginia Com- 
pany^ "that one, Mr. Jo. Clarke, being taken from Virginia 
long since by a Spanish shippe that came to discouer that 
plantacon, that forasmuch as he hath since that time doun the 
Companie good service in many voidges to Virginia, and of 
late went into Ireland for the transportation of cattle to 
Virginia, he was an humble suitor to this Court that he 
might be admitted a free brother of the Companie, and have 
some shares of land bestowed upon him." In 1623 he 
was enii^loyed by Daniel Gookin to carry some cattle in the 
ship "Providence" to Virginia and there died. 

Captain Thomas Jones, in 1625, died, after an eventful if 
not honorable career. In 1617 he was sent out to the East 
Indies by Sir Robert Rich, afterwards Earl of Warwick, in 
command of a ship called the "Lion." Patrick Copland, 
Chaplain of the " Royal James," of which Martin Pring was 
the Captain, wrote to Sir Thomas Smith that " two English 
pirates had been taken in chasing a junk at Gogo." Sir 
Thomas Roe, Ambassador to the Great Mogul, sent a de- 
spatch ' ' that Sir Robert Rich and one Philip Bernardoe set 
out two ships to take pirates, which is generally a pretence 
for being pirates, and that near the end of the Red Sea they 
had chased the Queen Mother's junk." Early in 1619, Jones 
came home under arrest, and in the " Transactions of the 
East India Company," under date of January 31, 1619-20, 
is this entry : " Thomas Jones, a servant of Lord Warwick, 
arrested by the Company for hiring away their men, but 
now being employed to go to Virginia, with cattle, by his 
Lordship, who desires his release, order is given to set him 

' Neill's " Virp:inia Company," p. 132. 


at liberty, Lord Warwick engaging to answer for what 
shall be objected against him." 

On the 2d of February of the same year the Virginia Com- 
pany allowed a commission to Captain Jones, of the " Fal- 
con,", to go to Virginia with fifty-two kine, four mares, and 
thirty passengers. 

His voyage to the New England coast in the latter part of 
1620. as captain of the " May Flower," is well known. On 
the 21st of November, 1621 (0. S.), he was commissioned 
by the Virginia Company as master of the " Discovery," a 
vessel of sixty tons, to trade for furs in the Delaware and 
Hudson Rivers. Upon the 18th of April, 1622, he arrived 
at Jamestown. On the 17th of July, in the Virginia Com- 
pany of London, "a motion was made in the behalf e of 
Captaine Thomas Jones, Captaine of the 'Discovery,' nowe 
imployed in Virginia fur trade and ffishinge, that he might 
be admitted a ffreeman of this Companie." The Council 
of New England, in London, on December 22, complained 
to the Virginia Company that during the summer Captain 
Jones had robbed some Indians of furs, and taken others 
captives, who, however, escaped by the ship running 
aground. In August, Jones visited the Puritans, at Vly- 
mouth. Bradford, in his " History of the Plymouth Plan- 
tation," writes: "Behold another providence of God; a 
ship comes into y" harbor, one Captain Jones being cheefe 
therin. They were set out by some marchants to disco vere 
all y' harbors betweene Virginia and y" shoulds of Cape 
Cod, and to trade along ye coast wher they could. This 
ship had store of English beads, which were then good 
trade, and some knives, but would sell none but at dear 


rates, and also a good quantie togather. Yet they were 
glad of y' occasion, and faine to buy at any rate ; they were 
faine to give after y'' rate of cente per cente if not more, and 
yet pay away coat-beaver at 3s. per lb., which in a few yeares 
after yielded 20s. By this means they were fitted againe to 
trade for beaver & other things, and intended to buy what- 
ever they could. 

"But I will here take liberty to make a little digression. 
There was in this ship a gentleman by name Mr. John 
Poory ; he had been Secretarie in Virginia, and was now 
going home, passenger in this ship." 

Winslow wrote: Captain Jones "used us kindly, he made 
us pay largely for the things we had." 

The Governor and Council of Virginia, on the 2(»th of 
January, 1622-3 (0. S-), wrote^ to the London Company : 
" And as for the fur voiadge we cannott resolue you, Capt. 
Jhones being nott yett retorned." 

In 1625 he entered the Chesapeake Bay with a Spanish 
frigate, which he declared he had taken under a commission 
from the United Provinces, which had been given to Captain 
Powell. He brought with him a negro named Brass, and 
soon after died. The first question as to the legal status of 
the negro in North America arose in connection with Brass, 
and when there were not thirty persons of African descent 
in Virginia. Thomas Jefferson refers to the case in a small 
volume of reports published at Charlottesville, Va. The 
General Court in October, 1625, ordered that he should be- 
long to Sir Francis Wyatt, Governor, notwithstanding any 

Neill's " Virg-inia Company," p. 273. 



rule by Captain Jones, or any challenge by the ship's com- 

Manuscripts recently printed give additional particulars 
as to the landing of negroes in Virginia. 

The "Treasurer," Captain Daniel Elfrith, arrived at Ber- 
mudas just as the "Blessing" was leaving the harbor for 
England with Governor Daniel Tucker. In a " History of 
the Bermudas," printed from manuscript written about a.d. 
1623, by the Hakluyt Society in 1882, and edited by Lefroy, 
the following occurs concerning the "Treasurer:" "Sent 
out she was by Captaine Argoll from Virginia, where he 
was then Gouernor, under a pretence of tradeinge all alongst 
the coast for skinnes, and at the Virgin and Sauuage Hands 
for goates, but some of his people comeing abord the 
' Blessinge, ' by some speeches unaduisedly let falne, begett 
a suspicion in Captaine Tucker of a farther project than 
was openly pretended." 

The captain was kindly entertained by Kendall, Gover- 
nor Tucker's successor, remained six weeks, and received a 
large supply of corn. 

About the last of July, 1619, a frigate appeared at Ber- 
mudas, ' ' knowen to be a good fellowe, manned for the most 
part with English, who haueing played some slie partes in 
the West Indies, and so gotten some purchase, part whereof 
consisted of negroes, a welcome for a most necessary com- 
moditie for thes Hands, she offered to leaue and giue them 
to the Gouernour, so he would be pleased to admit her 


ingresse and egresse."^ Kendall received fourteen negroes 
for privileges granted.^ 

Fourteen days after another " handsome pinnace, manned 
for the most part with Dutch, and some two or three Eng- 
Hsh," entered the Bermudas harbor. Shortly after this, 
after the middle of August, 1619, the "Treasurer," for the 
second time, enters the harbor. 

The Hakluyt Society Publication also mentions "how the 
' Treasorour,' hauevinge bin upon the coast at Captain 
Tucker goeinge awaye, was admitted by Kendall, and so 
went to the West Indies, from whence she returned to Vir- 
ginia, when, not likeinge her entertainment, she conveyeth 
herself e awaye secretly, and shapeth her course for the Hands 
a second time, and arriveth extremely poore, hauing all her 
upper works so rotten as she was utterly unable " to go to 
sea again. 

The Dutch or Flemish frigate was at Jamestown during 
the month of September, 1619, and was recognized as the 
consort of the " Treasurer," both holding commissions from 
the Duke of Savoy, The first negroes were said to have 
been all landed from this vessel, although in the census of 
162-1—25, Angelo, a negro woman belonging to Captain Wil- 
liam Pierce or Peirce, the father-in-law of the late John 
Eolfe, is marked^ as having arrived in the " Treasurer." 

During the year 1625, before the Earl of Essex sailed for 
Cadiz, there was fear that sympathizers with Spain might be 

' Hakluyt Society Publications. 
" See " Virginia Vetusta," p. 113. 
3Hotten, p. 224. 


among the sailors who arrived in the James River. Upon 
January 11, 1634-5 (O. S.), the Governor and Council of 
Virginia^ wrote to England that Simon Tuchin, the Master 
of the ship " Due Returne," who had been banished out of 
Ireland because he was strongly affected to Popery, had been 
examined, and that they thought he would be dangerous to 
the Colony should he become a pilot to the foreign country, 
and they suspected he would go to the Spaniards in the West 
Indies. In England, in June, 1625, he declared to the Privy 
Council that he had not taken soundings of the rivers and 
harbors of Virginia as had been charged, and asked for 

In the fleet that appeared before Cadiz in November, 1625, 
were two captains who had been identified with the settle- 
ment of Virginia. John Harvey was captain of the "Friend- 
ship," of three hundred and eleven tons, with fifty-seven 
sailors and one hundred and sixty-four landsmen. Sir Sam- 
uel Argall, knighted in 1622, was captain of the " Swift 
Sure, " a large vessel of about nine hundred tons, and carry- 
ing two hundred and fifty men, with also the Earl of Essex 
on board.' The large fleet to which they belonged was un- 

» Sainsbury, -p. 72. 

" There liad always been a few arrivals from Ireland. As early as August 
1609, a proposition was made to the Earl of Salisbury by Sir Richard Moryson 
to send Irish pirates to Virgiuia. His words were : " Should his Lordship please 
to allow of them employed in the intended plantation of Virginia, which he has 
not yet motioned to them, he thinks good use might be made of them for the 
present there, both in defending them now in the beginning, and if they be dis- 
turbed in their first setling in relieving their wants from time to time." — Cal. 
State Papers. Ireland, 1608-1610. 

3 Qlanville's Cadiz, Camden Soc. Pub., 1883. 


successful, and on December 11, 1625, had returned to Kin- 
sale harbor, A letter written on January 28, 1626, has the 
following:' "The Master of the 'Swift Sure,' very back- 
ward and very cross, as the report goes, to his captain, Sir 
Samuel Argoll,* which broke his heart, and a few days since 
he died," 

The father of Governor Wyatt died in September, 1625, 
and he asked permission to return to England, which was 
granted. The commission of his successor, dated March 
4, 1625-6, uses this language:^ "Whereas our late royal 
Father upon information that George Wyatt, Esquire, the 
father of the said Sir Francis Wyatt, was then lately deceased 
in the realm of Ireland, whereof happily the said Sir Francis 
Wyatt might desire to return into England about his own 
private occasions, which our said Father, notwithstanding 
the great and weighty importance of his affairs in that 
country, was graciously inclined to yield unto, if himself 
should so desire, as occasions shall require." The commis- 
sion then continues, " Now know y* that We, Taking into 
our princely consideration the care and providence of om' 
late Eoyal Father having respect to the good of that Plan- 
tation so happily begun, which we conceive to be a business 
of that consequence which we ought to encourage, and by 
all good means to bring to perfection, we being forced by 
many other urgent occasions in respect of our late access 

' Cal. State Papere, Domestic. 

' His daughter Ann, married Samuel Perceval. On June 25, 1641, he and his 
wife complain to the House of Commons that they have been deprived by John 
Woodhall, of property in Virginia, left by the father, Sir Samuel Arfrall. 

3 Rymer, vol. xviii. The spelling modernized. 


unto the Crown to continue the same means that was for- 
merly thought fit for the maintenance of the Plantation, 
until we would find some more convenient means upon 
mature advice to give more ample directions for the same, 
and reposing assured trust and confidence in the under- 
standing, care, fidelity, experience, and circumspection of 
you, the said Sir Yardley [Yeardley], Francis West, John 
Harvey, George Sandys, John Pott, Roger Smith, Ralph 
Hamor, Samuel Matthews, Abraham Percy [Piersey], Wil- 
liam Clayborne, William Tucker, Jabez Whitacres, Edward 
Blaney, and William Ferrar, have nominated and assigned, 
and by these presents do nominate and assign you, the said 
Sir George Yardley, to be the present Governor, and you, 
the said John Harvey, and the rest before mentioned, to be 
the present Council of and for the said Colony and Planta- 
tion in Virginia, giving, and by these presents granting unto 
you, and the greater number of you respectively, full power 
and authority to perform and execute the places, powers, 
and authorities incident to a Governor and Council of Vir- 
gmia respectively, and to direct and govern, correct and 
punish our subjects now inhabiting, or which shall hereafter 
inhabit, or be in Virginia, . . . and to execute and perform 
all and ever3^thing concerning that Plantation as fully and 
amply as every Governor and Council resident there at any 
time within the space of five years now last past. And be- 
cause by the discovery of industrious and well-experienced 
men, the limits of the said Plantation may be augmented," 
they were authorized to grant commissions for discovery. 

Provision was also made in the document, that in the case 
of the death of Yeardley, John Harvey should be Governor, 


and if he should also die, that then Francis West and fel- 
low-councillors to choose one of their own number. 

Yeardley and Harvey, who had already taken the oaths 
before the Privy Council in England, were empowered to 
administer the same to Francis West, John Pott, William 
Tucker, Jabez Whitacre, Edward Blaney, and William Far- 
row, [Ferrar.] Pott, Tucker, Whitacre, Blaney, and Ferrar 
had never before been in the Council. 

Dr. John Pott was recommended to the London Com- 
pany by Theodore Gulston, the founder of the Gulstonian 
Lectureship of the London College of Physicians. In the 
minutes of the Virginia Company of July 16, lii21 (0. S.), 
is this entry : ' ' For so much as the Phisicons place to the 
Company was now become voyde by reason of the untimely 
death of Dr. Bohune, slaine in the fight with two Spanish 
Shipps of Warr the 19th of March last. Doctor Gulstone 
did now take occasion to recommend unto the Company for 
the said place one M' Potts, a M"" of Artes, well practised in 
Chirurgerie and Physique, and expert allso in distillinge of 

Upon his arrival in Virginia, he soon showed a great fond- 
ness for company and distilled waters, if George Sandys is 
to be credited } 

' "Muster op Doctor John Pott, James City. 

Doctor John Pott, ) ^^^.^^^^ -^^ ^^^ g^^g^ 
M'8 Elizabeth Pott, ) 


Bichard Townshend, aged 19, in the Abigaile, 1620. 

Thomas Wilson, " 27. " " 

Osmond Smith, " 17, " " Bona Xova, " 

Susan Blackwood, maide servant" " Abigaile, " 


William Tucker had represented Kiccowtan, afterwards 
Elizabeth City, in the Legislature of 1619, and in the winter 
of 1623 led an expedition against the Rappahannock In 

Edward Blaney came in 1621 as the factor of the London 
Company. He married the widow of Captain William 

Men in (he Maine. 

Thomas Leister, aged 33 yeares, ^ 

Roger Stanley, " 27, I 

Thomas Pritchard, " 28, j^ -^^ AUgaile, 1620. 

Henry Crocker, " 34, 

Thomas Crosse, " 22, 

John Trye, " 20, 

Randall Holt, " 18, in the George, 1620." 

' " Muster of Capt. William Tucker, Elizabeth Citt. 

Capt. William Tucker, aged 36, in Mary & Jamet, 1610. 
Mrs. Mary Tucker, aged 26, in the George, 1623. 
Elizabeth, borne in Virginia in August. 


George Tomson, 

aged 17, 

Paule Tomson, 

" 14, 

William Thomson, 

" 11, 

Pascoe Champion, 

" 23. 

Strenght Sheere, 

" 23, 

Thomas Evanda, 

" 23, 

Stephen Collowe, 

" 23, 

Robert Munday, 

" 18, 

in the George, 1623. 
in the Ellonor, 1621. 
in the George, 1623. 

Matthew Robinson, aged 24, in Greate Eopewell, 1623. 

Richard Appleton, " 19, in the James, 1622. 

John Morris, " 24," " Bona Nova, \Q\^. 

Mary Morris. " 22, " " George, 1623. 

William Hutchinson, " 21, " " Diana, 1618. 

Peeter Porter, " 20. " " Tyger, 1621 

William Crawshaw, an Indean, baptised. 

Antoney, Negro. 


William, theire child, baptised." 


Powell, who in 1619 represented James City in the Legis- 

William Ferrar, also written Farrar, was a brother of 
Nicholas, the Deputy Governor of Virginia Company, and 
resided near the plantation of Cecilia, the widow of Samuel 
Jordan, to whom he was attentive after the minister 
Greville Pooley had received, as he alleged, a promise of 
marriage. In the Company's "Trannactions," under the 
date of April 21, 1624 (0. S.), is the following : " Papers 
were read whereof one containing certain examinations 
touching a difference between Mr. Pooley and Mrs. Jordan, 
referred unto the Company for answer, and the Court en- 
treated Mr. Purchas^ to confer with some civilians and 
advise what answer was fit to be returned in such a case." 

' In the list puMislied by Hotton is 

" Tiiic Muster op M' Edward Blaney. 
M' Edw ard Blaney came in the Francis Bonaventure. 

Robert Bew, 


20, came in 

the Dutie. 

John Russell, 


19, " 

•' Bor. a Nova. 

Rice Watkins, 


30, " 

" Francis Bonaventure. 

Nathaniel Floid, 


24, " 

" Bona Nova. 

George Rogers, 

• < 

23, " 

II 11 (< 

John Shelley, 


23, " 

" " " 

Thomas Ottowell, 


40, " 

•• <{ •! 

Thomas Crouch, 


40, " 

«< « <l 

Robert Sheppeard, 


20, " 

" Hopwell. 

\Mlllam Sawier, 


18, " 

■< >i 11 

Robert Chauntrie, 


19, " 

" Qeorge. 

William Hartley, 


23, " 

" Charles. 

Lawley Damport, 


29, '• 

" Duty. 

William Ward, 


20, " 

" Jonathan, 

Jeremy White, 


20, " 

" Tyger. 

John Hacker, 


17, " 

" Hopwell. 

Robert Wliitmore, 


22, " 

" Duty. 

' Samuel PurcliRS, a learned London divine, called the English Ptolemy, the 
author of the ri'.yrimage and Pvrchas his Pilgrimes. 


A few months later the Governor of Virginia issued the 
following order concerning flirts: "Whereas, to the great 
contempt of the majesty of God and ill example to others, 
certain women within this Colony have, of late, contrary 
to the laws ecclesiastical of the realm of England, con- 
tracted themselves to two several men at one time, whereby 
much trouble doth grow between parties, and the Governor 
and Council of State much disquieted: To prevent the like 
offense to others, it is by the Governor and Council ordered 
in Court that every minister give notice in his church, to 
his parishioners, that what man or woman soever shall use 
any words or speech tending to the contract of marriage 
though not right and legal, yot may so entangle and breed 
struggle in their consciences, shall for the third offense 
undergo either corporal punishment, or the punishment by 
fine or otherwise according to the guilt of the persons so 

In Yeardley's commission was also this clause : ' ' And 
forasmuch as the affairs of the said Colony and Plantation 

Muster of M' William Ferrar, & M's Jordan, Jordans Jorney, 
Charles Cittie. 
William Ferrar, aged 31, in the Neptune, August, 1618. 
Sisley Jordan, " 24, " Swan, August, 1610. 
Mary Jordan, aged 3 years, \ 
Margrett Jordan, aged 1, (. borne heare. 
Temperance Baley, "7, * 

William Dawson, aged 25, in the Ducouery, March, 1621 [O. S.] 

Robert Turner, " 26 

John Hely, " 24, 

Robert Manuell, " 25, 

Roger Preston, " 21, 

Thomas Williams, " 24, 

Tryall, June, 1619. 
Charles, November, 1621. 
Charles, November, 1621. 
J)iscouerie, March, 1621. 
Duiie, May, i 618. 


may necessarily require some person of quality and trust to 
be employed as Secretary for the writing and answering of 
such letters as shall be from time to time directed or sent 
from the said Governor and Council of the Colony aforesaid, 
our will and pleasure is, and we do by these presents nomi- 
nate and assign you, the said William Clayborne,' to become 
Secretary of State, and for the said Colony and Plantation 
of Virginia, residing in those parts." 

Upon the 6th of April, 1626, Wyatt was still at James- 
town, and signed with his councillors, Francis West, Hamor, 
Roger Smith, Abraham Peirsey, and Clay borne (Claiborne), 
a communication to the Commissioners in England, in which 
a mention is made of the arrival of the ship ''Virgin" of 
Southampton, on the 23d of March, with letters of the 21:tli 
of OcEober. It also refers to the Colony in these words: 
'' Nothing hath bine longe more earnestly desired than the 
setling of the affaires of the Colony as well for the govern- 
ment as other wayes, neither could there haue bine a greater 
incouragement to the Planter than to understand it to be 
his Maiestie's gratious pleasure that no person of whom 
they have heretofore iustlie complayned should have any 
hand in the gouerment, either here or there. And wee 
humbly desire your Lordshipps to solicitt his Maiestie (if it 
bee not alreadie done) for the speedie accomplishment 

' Cleborne, Cleyborne, Clayborne, Claiborne. W^illiam, the 2d son of Edward 
Clyb'uirno, of Westmoreland, was born 1587, married Jane Buller, of London^ 
died 1670. Had three sons. William, of Homancock, Thomas, Leonard, died 
in the West Indies 1694, and a daughter, Mary. See O'Hart. 

Claiborne was the first Secretary in Virginia appointed by the King. Pory 
and Davison, his predecessors, had i)een elected by the London Company. On 
a brass memorial tablet in Cliburn Church, near Penrith, Westmorelandshire, 
is the loUowiug : "Insuper et in niemoriam Gulielini de Cleyborne seu Claiborne 
primi e Secretis Colonia) Virginiensis qui anno vixit MDCXXVII." 


thereof, the rather because the Gouerner's necessary occa- 
sions I'equire his present retourne. " 

The letter also expresses pleasure at the intelligence that 
every man will have his rights preserved and request was 
made for five hundred soldiers, with a year's provisions for 
discovery and protection. 

Instructions were issued to Yeardley, as the successor of 
Wyatt, to see that new-comers were properly entertained, 
that merchants were not to be forced to take tobacco at 3s. 
per pound for their goods, and that Indians were not 
allowed to enter planters' houses without license. 

It was not, however, until after the middle of May that 
Wyatt sailed for England.^ 

On the 24th of April, 1626, King Charles issued a conces- 
sion, in which he relates that "our trusty and well-beloved 
George Sandys, Esquier, hath with great care and industry 
translated into English verse the fifteen books of Ovid's 
Metamorphoses, which he hath to his great charge caused 
to be imprinted and made ready to be published in print, 
rather for the delight and profit of our living subjec'-s, than 
for the hope of any great benefit to be by him reaped there- 
by, and hath humbly besought us to vouchsafe him a privi- 
lege for the sole printing of the said work for such term of 
years as we should think fit and convenient, the better to 
encourage him and others to employ their labors and studies 
in good literature," and then grants him the privilege to 
print and sell the same for twenty- one years. 

' In August he was in England, and a warrant was ordered "to Sir Francis 
Wyat, lato (iovernor in Virginia, to import 10,000 weight of ti.bacco custom 
free." — Cal. StJate Papers, Bom., pp. 408, 409. 


Sandys had been engaged on this translation for several 
years. Drayton's poem to George Sandys, Treasurer of the 
Colony of Virginia, would seem to indicate that five books 
had been prepared before he went to Jamestown. 

" Go on with Ovid aa you have begun 
With the first five books ; let your numbers run 
Glib as the former, so shall it live louor, 
And do much honour to the English tongue. 
* * # -x- * * * 

If you vouchsafe rescriptiou, stuff your quill 
With natural bounties, and impart your skill 
In the description of the place, that I 
May become learned in the soil thereby : 
Of noble Wyat's health, let me hear 
The Governor ; and how our people there 
Increase and labour, and what supplies are sent, 
Which I confess shall give me much content ; 
But you may save your labour, if 3'()u please, 
To write to me aught of your savages, 
As savage slaves be in Great Britain here, 
As any one you can show me there. 
And though for this I'll say I do not thirst, 
Yet I should like it well to be the first, 
Whose numbers hence into Virginia flew, 
So, noble Sandys for this time, adieu." 

In a letter' to Samuel Wrote, Esq., of London, dated 
March 28, 1623, Sandys alludes to the completion of two 
more books of Ovid, in these words : '* If I could be proud, 
your censure had so made me, for that slothfull worke w""* 
I was ashamed to father, notwithstanding it begot a desire 
to proceed, but heare my own Author.* 

' necplura sinit tempns<iui- pudorque 

Dicere ; majus opus magni certamiiiis urget.' 

' Neill's " Virginia Vetusta," Muusell's, 1885, pp. 124, 125. 

• Ovid. Book VIII., lines 388, 389. 

" Neither time and glory allow more, 
A greater work of great importance impels." 



Yet amongst the roreing of these as, the rusthng of the 
shrowdes, and clamour of Saylers I translated two books, 
and will perhaps, when the sweltering heat of the day con- 
fines me to my Chamber, give a further essaye, for which if 
I be taxt I have noe other excuse but that it was the recrea- 
con of my idle bowers, and say with Alciat,— \ 

" Dum pueras inquilanas invenes dum tessera fallit, 
Desinet et seines chartula picta vires 
Hsec nos festivis embleraata adimus horis." 

In the fall of 1626, Capt. John Preen, in the ship " Peter 
and John," arrived with provisions and passengers, and also 
brought ten barrels of powder for defence of the plantation, 
sent over by the Commissioners. Among tlie passengers 
were Thomas Willoughby and John Pollington, old colo- 
nists returning from a visit to England. Willoughby, when 
a boy nine years old, in 1610, first arrived in Virginia, and 
Pollington had been a member of the first legislature, which, 
in 1619, met at Jamestown. The next year Preen made an- 
other voyage to Virginia. In 1627, the ship " Temperance," 
Capt. Marmaduke Rayner, sailed for England, with Samuel 
Sharpe, who had been in the colony since 1610, and twelve 
other passengers. A letter written in England, dated 
August 18th of this year, mentions that "there are many 
ships going to Virginia, and with them fourteen or fifteen 

' Andreas Alciati, born in Milan, a.d. 1492, died at Pavia, a.u. 1550, was tlie 
author of " Sacra Emblemata," publislied in Venice, in 1546, by the Sons of 
Aldus. Andrew Willet, a Puritan, was born in Ely, Cambridgeshire, a fellow 
of Cambridge, and chaplain to Prince Henry, died Dec. 4, 1621, aged 59 years, 
and was buried at Barley. He was the author of " Sacrorum Emblematum Cen- 
turia una," chiefly from Andrew Alciatus. To this Sandys refers. 


hundred children, w'ch they have gathered up in divers 

In April, 1627, Gov. Yeardley and Council * wrote to the 
Privy Council that the people are disheartened by the intel- 
ligence that a Mr, Anis has made a contract for their to- 
bacco, and " they earnestly entreat that free trade and the 
sole importation of tobacco may be continued, and Spanish 
tobacco excluded. They ask the Commissioners not to let 
them fall into the hands of avaricious and cruel men, whose 
exorbitant and wide consciences project and digest the ruin 
of the plantation for profit and gain to themselves." 

The King sent back by William Capps, an old planter, 
a letter in which he urged varied planting, and told them 
"that this plantation is wholly built upon smoke, tobacco 
being the only means it hath produced." 

On the 9th of August, 1627; Charles the First declared 
"his final resolution touching all sorts of tobacco." All 
plants in England, Wales, and Ireland were to be de- 
stroyed, and no tobacco imported from Spain. To prevent 
the planters of Virginia and Bermudas giving " themselves 
over to the planting of tobacco only to make a present 
return of profit, and neglect to apply themselves to solid 
commodities fit for the establishing of colonies will utterly 
destroy these colonies" the King ordered that no tobacco 
should be imported into England without a special license.^ 

In November, Governor Yeardley passed from earth. 
Although the hangers-on at Court were vexed at his promo- 

' Sauisbury, I. 84. 

» Rymer, Vol. XVIII. pp. 921, 922. 


tion, and called him " a mean fellow" because he had no 
title, and was the brother of Ralph the London Apothecary, 
he proved a good man, an enterprising citizen, and loyal 
subject. His will was made October 12, 1627 ; Abraham 
Peirsey, of the Council, William Claiborne, Secretary of 
the Colony, and Susanna Hall, a servant, being witnesses.^ 
To his wife, Temperance, he left his plate, linen, and all 
household stuff, and ordered his notes, debts, servants, and 
** negars " to be sold, and the moneys therefrom to be divided 
into three parts : one for the widow, one for elder son Ar- 
goll, and the third to be divided between his son Francis, 
and daughter Elizabeth. 

• N. E. Hist. Gen. Register, January, 1884. 


AFFAIRS FROM A. D., 1628 TO 1630. 

Death of Abraham Piersey. Rossingham, Yeardley's nephew. 
Francis West acting Governor. Capt. Henry Fleet, ex- 
plorer OF THE Potomac River. Immigrant ship wrecked. 
Ship Temperance. Legislature of A.D., 1628, Condition of 
White Servants. Arrival of Negroes. Narrative of Wil- 
liam Peirce. Lord Baltimore's visit. Virginia Council's 
letter about Lord Baltimore. Wife of Baltimore. James- 
town, in A.D., 1629. Indian hostilitt. Grant of Caro- 
lana to Sir. Robert Heath. 

jlBRAHAM Pievsey, also spelled Peirsey, of Pier- 
sey 's Hundred, councillor, who had signed Gov- 
ernor Yeardley's will as a witness, in a few 
months, also, departed from earth. He came 
to Virginia a widower, and in 1623, his two daughters 
came out from England. This year Nathaniel West, a 
brother of Lord Delaware, died at West and Shirley Hun- 
dred, leaving a widow Frances, and infant Nathaniel. 
After January, 1625, the widow West became the wife of 
Piersey. By his will, she became sole executrix, and his 
" well beloved friends Mr. Grevill Pooley Mynister, and Mr. 
Richard Kingsmill of James Citty Island gentellmen " were 


made overseers "to be as helpefuU and aydinge unto my exe- 
cutrix in all things to the uttermost of theire power." 

He directed that his body should be "decently buryed 
without any pompe or vayne glorie in the garden plote where 
my new frame doth stand. "^ 

Governor Yeardley in 1618, brought his nephew, Edmund 
Eossingham, to Virginia, and that year sent him to trade 
for corn, for three months with the Indians of Chesapeake 
Bay. He was accompanied by John Martin, and the voy- 
age was profitable. The next year, his uncle sent him to 
New Foundland, for fish, and in 1621, he was sent to Hol- 
land, to dispose of the Governor's tobacco, and in 1623, went 
again to that country, as factor for Governor Yeardley. 
After his uncle's death, he demanded that Ralph Yeardley, 
the brother of the Governor, residing in London, should pay 
him for certain of his cattle in Virginia which he alleged 
his uncle had used. The matter was referred, by the Privy 
Council of England, to Thomas Gibbs and Samuel Wrote. 
In their report they write that Ralph Yeardley "the 
Deft'e delyvered his answeare in writinge which he desired 
might be presented to yo' Lor':'"' and therefore wee have 
annexed the originale itself, wherein the Defte pretends him- 
selfe to be ignorante of any buisinesses the peticoner was 
ymployed in by Sir George Yardeley, or of any stock of 
cattle of the peticoners remayninge in Sir George Yardley's 
handes. Notwithstandinge it appeared by I'res under the 

1 A copy of the will, in 1634, was sent to England attested by, " Ben. Harry- 
son" Clerk of the Council. The will in fnll is printed in the Appendix. 


Deft'" owne handes directed to the peticoner in Zealande to 
dispatch Sir George Yardley's affayres there, and to come 
over to follow them there. And the Deft further alleadged 
that Sir George Yardley payde the Def" himselfe £ i j for a 
cowe of the peticoners before his last going over in 1626; 
and offered to make proof of it to us the Referrees, where- 
uppon wee gave him a new meetinge to produce his proofes, 
but before the tyme appointed hee came to us, and wayved 
his proofes, and sayde he would make us no other proofes, nor 
defences but what hee had formerly delyvered in writeinge. 
The Def"' and wee the Referees pressed the peticoner to ren- 
der a reason why hee did not legally question Sir George Yar- 
dley for a perfect accompte at his last beinge in Englande to 
which the peticoner answered : That Sir George Yardeley 
had no means then in Englande to make him satisfaccon, 
and further that he was protected by your Lor'pp' for one 
whole yeare before the end of which tyme he w^ent for Vir- 

The referees decided that the nephew could recover noth- 
ing under the law of England .' 

In the commission issued to Yeardle)'' it was provided 
that in case of his death, John Harvey, should be acting 
Governor, and after him, Francis West. Harvey, when 
the news of Yeardley's death was received in England, was 
in the naval service under the Duke of Buckingham, and 
therefore Francis West, a brother of the late Lord Dela- 
ware, became Governor. He had long been identified with 

' Colonial Papers, Public Record Office, London, Vol. V., No. 15. 


the Colony and by birth, education, and experience was 
adapted for the office/ 

During the year 1627, the London Merchants were sur- 
prised by the arrival of Henry Fleet from Virginia, who 
had been in captivity for several years among the Indians 
of the Potomac, the site of whose former dwelling place is 
not far from the monument of Washington, in the capital 
of the Eepublic. He was one of the expedition of twenty 
six men, who under Henry Spelman, early in 1623, went to 
trade for beaver and corn with the Anacostan and other 
Indian bands between Potomac Creek, and the Falls of the 
Potomac. The pinnance in which they sailed, belonged to 
John Pountis, a well known colonist. Spelman, Fleet, and 
twenty of their companions went ashore, presuming on the 

1 Henry Spelman ia his Relation of Virginia, a manuscript first published by- 
James F. Hunnewell at the Chiswick Press, London, in 1873, gives incidents of / 
West's early career in Virginia. He writes : " I was caried by Capt. Smith our 
Presidant to ye litell Powhatan where unknowne to me he sould me to him for 
a towne called Powhatan and leavinge me wth him, he made knowue to Capt. j 
Weste, how he had bought a toune for them to dwell in * * * desiringe [ 
that Captaine West would come & settle himself there, but Captaine Weste hauing 
bestowed cost to begine a toune in another place misliked it ; and imkiuduess 
thereuppon ariseing between them Capt. Smith at tliat time replied litell but 
afterward conspired wth the Powhatan to kill Capt. Weste, wch plott took 
but small effect, for in ye meantime Capt. Smith was aprehended, and send 
abord for England." 

Edward Winslow in a Relation published in 1624, in London, wrote : " Cap- 
tain Francis West ben in New England about the latter end of May past 
[1623], sailed from thence to Virginia, nd returned in August. In September, 
the same sbip and Company being discharged by him at Damarins Cove came 
to New Plymouth, whereup(>n our earnest inquiry after the state of Virginia 
since that bloody slaughter committed by the Indians upon our friends and 
countrymen, the whole ship's company agreed that, upon all occasion they 
chased the Indians to and fro, insomuch as they sued daily into the English for 
peace, who for the present would not admit of ^ny, that Sir George Early 
[Yeardley] was at that present employed upon service against them." 


friendship of the savages, and while absent, the vessel with 
only five on board, was surrounded by Indians in canoes, 
some of whom clambered on to the deck, to the surprise of 
the sailors, one of whom, at random, fired a cannon, which 
frightened the assailants, who jumped overboard and went 
ashore. The sailors then heard the noise of conflict, and 
soon saw a man's head roll down the bank when they 
weighed anchor and returned to Jamestown/ Spelman 
was among the slain, and Fleet was taken prisoner. 

Edward Hill of Elizabeth City on the 14th of April, 1623, 
wroteHo his brother John, a mercer of Lombard street, 
London,' that " more than 400 persons had perished in the 
first massacre [March, 1621], more than 20 in the second ; 
and a pinance, shallop, and a small boat, with twenty-six 
men had beon cut off on March 23, by the Indians, and that a 
great famine was imminent, for the colonists had not been 
" suffered to plant as much corn as they would," and were 
afraid " to step out of doors either for wood or water." 

Mede, the great scholar at Cambridge University, on the 
eighth of June, 1627, received a letter from London, with 
these words: "Here is one, whose name is Fleet, newly 
come from Virginia, who being lately ransomed from the 
Indians, with whom he hath long lived, till he hath left his 
own language, reputeth he hath often times been within 

• Smith's General History. 

' Eiglith Report Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts. Appendix, p. 

^ Richard Boyle of London married his sister. He was probably the Edward 
Hill of Elizabeth City, buried on May 15, 1624. 


sight of the South Sea; that he hath seen Indians besprin- 
kle their paintings with powder of gold; that he had like- 
wise seen rare precious stones among them, and plenty of 
black fox, which of all others is the richest fur." 

Quick witted, fond of trade, and adventure, Fleet's resi- 
dence among the savages for several years, made him use- 
ful to London merchants disposed to send goods to the 
Indian tribes, and valuable as an interpreter, to the colonists. 
William Cloberry and associates, were impressed by his 
description, and gave him in September, 1627, the command 
of the 'Paramour,' a vessel of one hundred tons. By his 
exertions, a trade was opened between the Massachusetts 
settlement and Potomac river. 

A ship containing some planters, and their servants, 
chiefly Irish, on their way to Virginia after a boisterous 
voyage in the beginning of winter, 1626-7, ran aground in 
Barnstable Bay. The principal persons were Fell and 
Sibsie or Silsby. 

The Governor of Plymouth Colony visited the wreck, pro- 
vided for the sufferers, and until they could make arrange- 
ments to go to Virginia, they were allowed land to cultivate 
for their benefit. Puritan sentiment was shocked when 
common rumour charged Fell with living with one of his ser- 
vants, and treating her as a concubine, and he to avoid arrest 
ran away with her, in a small boat to Cape Ann, and from 
thence to Massachusetts Bay. Toward the latter end of 
summer the whole party were carried in two barks to Vir- 
ginia, and, writes Bradford, "have acknowledged their 
thankfulness since." 


Private planters began to take their tobacco to England. 
The ship ' 'Temperance" probably built in Virginia and named 
in compliment to the wife of Governor Yeardley, com- 
manded by Marmaduke Rayner, who had piloted in 1619, 
to Jamestown, the Dutch vessel which brought the first 
negroes, in 1G28, arrived at Southampton, with the old 
planter Samuel Sharpe, who had come to Virginia in 1610, 
with Gates and Somers, and twelve other colonists. As 
they were unable to pay the duty on their tobacco, they 
begged, that it might be admitted free. 

King Charles made a kind response to the memorial of the 
Virginia authorities, in 1627, and by William Capps, an old 
settler, who had been on a visit to England, he sent over 
instructions allowing a General Assembly, and urging the 
cultivation of staple commodities, as heretofore they had 
depended too much "upon smoke." To Capps also was given 
the privilege of erecting salt works. He arrived in Vir- 
ginia on the 22d of February 1627-8 (O. S.), and on the 
26th of the next month, the colonial legislature met^ the first 
during the reign of Charles, and four or five days after, 
Governor West left, on a visit to England. 

During Governor Wests' term of oflfice the principal topic 
ot discussion was the tobacco trade. The legislature of 
1628, asked the king to take 500,000 pounds of tobacco, 
properly inspected, at 3s %d. per pound delivered in Virginia 
clear of freight and customs, or at four shillings delivered in 
England, the contract to continue for seven years, with the 
privilege of disposing of their surplus in New England, 
West Indies or Turkey, by paying the usual duty. 

' Thirty-one representatives were present. 


The Colony was supposed at that time to contain a popu- 
lation of three thousand, and it was estimated that every 
family could raise 200 pounds of tobacco, and each servant 
125 pounds, in the aggregate 412, 500 pounds. It is quite 
remarkable that the authorities should refer to the want of 
pitch and tar. While near one of the best pine forest dis- 
tricts in the world, they were without horses, had opened 
no roads, depending upon boats for intercourse with the 
plantations, and fearing to go far into the woods, lest they 
should be attacked by Indians. 

^' Henry the Fourth, Lord Delaware, was written to, asking 
his influence, as his deceased father's had been given, and 
the Earl of Dorset was thanked for the aid he had rendered 
in annulHng the contract of tobacco, and their friends in 
England induced the House of Commons to write a letter to 
the King^ dated June 25, 1628, in which he was informed 
that "by the patent granted by the late King the colonists 
were free of customs except taxes upon their commodities 
1£ per centum, but of late years these privileges had been 
disregarded and that now 3£ per centum was imposed." 

The demand for laborers in the tobacco fields continued to 
increase. Any person going to Virginia, at his own charges, 
and declared his intention to reside there, was entitled to 
fifty acres of land, and an additional fifty for each member 
of his family. If he brought other persons into the colony 
at his own cost, he was also entitled to fifty acres for each 
immigrant. He was liable to pay an annual quit rent of a 
shilling for every fifty acres, and required to plant thereon 
within three years from the date of the grant. Planters, 

« 4th Report Royal Historical Commission. 


under these conditions, brought over a large number of in- 
dentured white servajits, ' while some of these were treated 

' The following is a servant's indenture which was printed in the Riehmoiid 
Standard by R. A. Brock, Secretary of Virginia Historical Society, from a tran- 
script of the original, owned by W. Bushell of Philadelphia, Pa. 

" This writoing indented made the ffirst day of July Anno dora 1628 And in 
the yare of the regne of our sovmigne Lord Ciiarles by the grace of god King 
of England Scotland flfrance and Ireland defender of tlie faith Etc. Betweene 
John Logward of Bling in the County of Surry huabanduian of th one party 
And Edward hurd Cittizein and Ironmonger of London of the other party. 
WITNESSETH that the said John Logward hath hired himselfe and is become and 
by theis prste doth Covenant and agree and bind himselfe to be remayne and 
Continue the Obedient Servant of him the said Edward hurd his heires and 
assignes and to be by him or them sente transported unto to the Countrey and 
land of Virginia in the parts beyond the seas to be by him or them employde 
upon his plantation there for and dareing tiie space of Ifour yeares to begin 
from the day (.f the date of theis prste dureing ye said terme the said John Log- 
ward sliall and will iniely employ and endeavor himselfe to the uttermost by 
his power knowledge and skill to doe and pforme true and faithful service unto 
ye said Edward hurd his heires or essignea in for and conceiiteing all such 
Laboures and businesses at he or they shall think good to use and ymjdov him 
ye said John Logward in And shall and wilbe tractable and obedient and a good 
and a faithful servant onyst to be in ail such thinge at shall be Comanded him by 
the sai 1 Edward hurd his heires or assignes in Virginia aforesaid or elsewhere 
dureing the said service In consideracon wher'.of the said Edward hurd for him- 
selfe his heires exocutours and administrators and assignes and for anv of them 
doth Covenant p-mise and graunt To and for ye said John Logward his heires 
executours administrators and assignes by theis prste that he the said Edward 
hurd his heires executours administrators or assignes shall and will (att his end 
their one charge) transporte and furnishe to the said John Logward to and for 
Virginia aforesaid aud tlit^se find p-vide and aliowe unto him sustenance meate 
drink apparaell and other necess.iryes for his livelyhood and sustenance during 
the said service In VVitniisse whereof t!ie said pties to this writeing have in 
dented interchangeably have sett their handes and scales unto this bond above 

" Ye marke of X John Logward 

" Sealed and deliverede 
in ye prsnce of 

" Tbo. Thomnson servt 
and Jo Davies his servant " 


with kindness, others received no more consideration than 
"dumb, driven cattle."^ 

During the summer of 1619, the consort of the ship 
"Treasurer" landed about twenty "negars" in the lan- 
guage of a document of the period. When the census was 

'The sufferinffs of these white and occasionally intelligent servants were 
often intense. In the appendix to the Eighth Report of Royal Historical Com- 
mission is the following abstract of a letter from Martin's Hundred written in 
April, 1623, by Richard Frethorne to his parents, every word of which seems to 
weep. He wrote that since he landed he had eaten nothing "but pease and 
lobbolly" " and had to work both early and late for a mess of water gruel and a 
mouthful of bread and beef, a mouthful of bread, for a penny loaf must serve 
for four men." The people cried out day and night " Oh that they were in 
England without their limbs * * * * though they begged from door to 

"He had nothing at all, not a shirt to his back but two rugs, nor no clothes, but 
one poor suit, nor but one pair of shoes, but one pair of stockings, but one cap, 
but two bands." His rlo-ik liad been stolen by one of his fellows, he had not a 
penny to help him to " spice or sugar, or strong waters." He had '' eaten more 
in a day, at home" than was now allowed him for a week, and his parents had often 
given more than his present day's allowance, to a beggar at the door. Goodman 
Jackson had been very kind to him, and marvelled much that he had been sent "a 
servant to the Company." He begged his father to •' redeem " him, or at least 
send over provisions which might be sold at a profit especially cheese that might 
be bought for 2,^ or 2+ d If his father could not afford tills, he might " get a 
gathering, and entreat some good folks to lay out some little money " for the 
purpose. Unless the ship Sea Flower came shortly with provisions his masters' 
men would have but half a penny loaf each for a day's food and might be 
" Turned up to tlic land, and eat barks of the trees, or moulds of the ground. 
Oh I that you did see my daily and hourly sighs, groans, tears and thumps that 
I afford mine own breast, and rue and curse the time of my birth with holy Job. 
I thought no head had been able to hold so much water as hath, and doth daily 
flow from mine eyes" 

The Goodman Jackson was probably the John Jackson of Martin's Hundred 
who with his wife and infant arrived in 1621, in the ship "Warwick." A few 
months after this letter was written the unhappy writer died. In a list of 
persons who died at Martins Hundred between April, 1623, and February, 
1624, 1 pears the name 'f Richard Fethram evidently a misprint for Frethorne, 
Loblolly referred to in Frethorne's letter was a word in use among sailors for 
gruel, chowder, or spoon meat 


taken in Januaiy, lfi25, there were only twenty persons of 
the African race in Virginia, but during the government of 
West, there was a large increase. Captain Arthur Guy, in 
the ship " Fortune " of London, met and captured a slaver» 
from the Angola coast, and brought many negroes to Vir- 
ginia, and exchanged them for tobacco.^ 

y During the year 1629, Governor West and several promi- 
nent Virginians visited England, one of whom was the old 
planter and prominent colonist, William Pierce or Peirce, ^ 
whose daughter Jane, was the widow of the well known 
John Rolfe. 

Among the manuscripts of the Public Record office, in 
London, is "A relation in generall of the present state of 
his M *'" Colony in Virginia, by Capt. William Perse, an 
antient planter of twenty yeares standing there. " The re- 
lation is brief and in these words : " First for quantity ye 
people, men, women & children, there are to the number of 
between fower and five thousand English, being generally 
well housed in every plantation, most plantations being well 
stored w*** head cattle, as likewise w"* goates and swine in 
abundance, and great store of poultry, the land abounding 
all the year long w*'' Deer and wilde Turkeyes, and the rivers 

' Nicholas, Secretary of State, received a letter, dated May 13, lfi28, informing 
him, that there had arrived at Cowes, a frigate from the " West India," taken by 
Arthur Guy, of ■ Me Fortune " <>t London, with 900 or 1000 hides, 30 tons and 
upward of ebony, and some Indian wmx, and that tlie "Fortune" hath also 
taken an Angola man with many nejfroes, which tiie captain bartered in Vir- 
ginia for tobacco, which was sent home in a ship called the " Plantation." As 
Winthrop was leavin.ij England, on Easter Monday, March 29, 1630, over 
against Yarmouth, he " met with a ship, the "Plantation," newly come from Vir- 
ginia." — Savages Winthrop, Vol. 1., ]>. 8. 


in winter w**" many sortes of wilde fowle, and in summer 
w*^ great variety of wholesome fishe. And the soile is so 
fertile as by the industry of our people they may raise great 
crops of corne both Indian and English. Besides, all fruits, 
rootes, and herbes, out of England soe wonderfully prosper 
there. The Colony under the favor of God, and of his 
Ma^y hath bine raised to this heighth of people, and provi- 
sions especially by the means of Tobacco, by which also they 
must subsist for awhile untill by degrees they may fall 
upon more stable comodiies, as upon salte, fishe, hempe 
for cordage^ flaxe for linnen and others. And as touching 
timber for building of ships of all sortes, and mastes I have 
heard many good Masters and Shipwrights affirm there can 
not be found better in all the worlde, the Countrey affourding 
also great quantity of pine trees for making of pitche & 
tarre, and so may in short time abound with all materials 
for building & rigging of ships. For our defense against 
the natives every plantation is armed with convenient num- 
ber of muskettiers to the number of two thousand shott, 
and upwards, but against a forrein enemy there is no man- 
ner of fortification (w"*" is our greatest wante) wee of our- 
selves not beeing able to under take the chardge thereof. As 
for the natives Sasapen is the chief, over all those people in- 
habiting upon the rivers next unto us, who hath been the 
prime mower of all them, that since the massacre have 
made war upon us. But nowe this last Somer, by his great 
importunity for himselfe, and the neighbouring Indians hee 
hath obtained a truce for the present, from the Gov' and 
Councell of Virginia being forced to seeke it by our con- 

' Colonial papers. Vol. V, 634. 


tinuall incursions upon him, and them by yearley cutting 
downe, and spoihng their corne . 

''This being the summe of the present state of thinges in 
Virginia. " 

A letter writer of the period alludes to his wife in these 
words " Mistress Pearce, a honest and industrious woman 
hath been there near twenty years, and now returned, saith 
she hath a garden at Jamestown containing three or four 
acres, where in one year she hath gathered near a hundred 
bushels of excellent figs and that she can keep a better house^ 
in Virginia for three or four hundred pounds than in Lon- 
don, yet went there with Httle or nothing." 

After West's departure for England, Doctor John Pott 
was chosen temporary Governor. During this period the 
Virginians were surprised by the arrival of George Calvert 
the first Lord Baltimore, the proprietor of Avalon in New 
Foundland. Born in Yorkshire, of comparatively humble 
parentage, a graduate of Oxford, a good scholar, able writer, 
and of pleasant address, he entered upon a public career, as 
the private Secretary to Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards the 
Earl of Salisbury. His efficiency was recognized by his 
appointment as clerk of the Privy Council. In 161 ;i, he 
was associated with Sir Charles Cornwallis the grandfather 
of Thomas Cornwallis, one of the earliest Maryland coun- 
cillors, as a Commissioner to Ireland', to inquire into cer- 

' George Sandys when Treasurer of the Colony lived in Pierce's house and on 
April 8, 1623, wrote to John Ferrar of " his own chamber at Lieut. Peirce's, the 
fairest in Virginia." — Sainshury 

'August 34, 1613, Sir Humphrey Wynd, Kt., Sir RoKer Wilbraham, Kt, Sir C. 
Cornwallis, Kt, and George Calvert, Esq., were chosen Commissioners for 
Ireland to hear complaints. 


tain grievances, four years later he was knighted by King 
James, and after two years was commissioned as principal 
Secretary of State. 

By education and temperament he was fitted to be a cour- 
tier, and none of the sycophants of King James were more 
successful than he, in pandering to the tastes and prejudices 
of the coarse, and pedantic monarcl.^ He was a firm de- 
fender of the King's position, in the speech at the opening 
of a Parliament, "it is the king that makes laws, and ye are 
to advise him to make such as will be best for the common- 
wealth," and the active opponent of the people's party, 
which was yearly increasing. 

Confident that it would promote his advancement, he was 
enthusiastic in the advocacy of the marriage of Prince 
Charles with the Infanta of Spain, and to the displeasure 
of the House of Commons kept up an intimacy with Gon- 
domar, the Spanish ambassador; and then, with the Duchess, 
the mother of Buckingham, entered the church of Rome. 

Feb. 22, 1613-14, John Latham and William Peasley, servants of George 
Calvert, Esq., Commissioaer to Ireland, were given £50 by way of reward for 
" their travail and paius in engrossing all the business, using twenty-six quires 
of paper, besides vellum." 

Peasley subsequently married Anna, the daughter of Secretary Calvert, who 
was at the above period a girl of about seven years of age. 

' On Dec 4, 1621, he^writes to Buckingham " There are many pasquils abroad 
and seditious sermons are printed. An alarm has been given to Gondomar of 
an intended attack npon his family. A strong watch was appointed and his 
house has been guarded. It may be only a design to frighten him." 

His wife died in August 1622, and eight months later he was the life of the 
party at the king's festival at Windsor in honor of St. George. In a letter he is 
described as " very gay, and gallant, all in white, cap a pie even to his white hat 
and wlme feather 


After the match failed, he lost standing with Buckingham,^ 
his fortune, began to decline,^ and he retired from the Sec- 
retaryship, but, just before the king's death, was ennobled 
as Baron of Baltimore in the county of Longford, Ireland. 
While Charles, upon ascending the throne, retained his 
friendship for him, and would have kept him in the Privy 
Council, yet as he refused to take the required oath of office 
it was impossible. Retiring to Ireland, Calvert soon de- 
termined to visit Avalon, in New Foundland, a colony 
which he had planted some years before he left the church of 
England, not from any religious motive, but in the hope 
that it would yield pecuniary profit. In May, 1627, just 
before he sailed, he wrote to his old friend Wentworth, soon 
made the Earl of Strafford that he had, " rather be esteemed 
a fool, by some, for the hazard of one month's journey, than 
to prove myself one certainly, for six years by-past, if the 
business be now lost, for the want of a little pain's and 

In the autumn he returned from America, but the next 
spring, went again to Avalon, and made an effort to remain, 
but the climate, sickness, and opposition made him faint- 

' Buckingham, in 1624, wrote to King James : " I hope to liave the happiness 
to-moiTovv, to kiss your hands, therefore I will not send you the letter you 
wrote to the Pope, which I have got from Secretary Calvert. When he de- 
livered it to me, he made the request that your Majesty would as well trust 
him, in a letter, you were now to write, as you had heretofore in the former. I 
did, what I could, to dissemhle it. but when there was no means to do it, I 
though best to seem to trust him absolutely, thereby, the better to tie him to 
secrecy. If this be a lie, as I am sure it is, you may bear to think, that with 
little more stock he may cry quittance." — Hardvoick Papers. 

"Archbishop Abbott wrote about this time: "Secretary Calvert hath never 
looked merrily since the prince's coming out of Spain. It was thought he was 
much interested in the Spanish aflFair." 


hearted, and on the 19th of August, 1629, he wrote from 
his residence at Ferry land to King Charles: "I have 
had strong temptations, to leave all proceedings in plan- 
tations, and being much decayed in my strength, to 
retire myself to my former quiet, but my inclination 
carrying me naturally to these kind of works, and not 
knowing how better to employ the poor remainder of my 
days, than with other good subjects, to further the best I 
may, the enlarging your Majesty's Empire in this part of 
the world. I am determined to commit this place to fisher- 
men that are able to encounter storms and hard weather, and 
to remove myself, with some forty persons to your Majesty's 
dominion in Virginia, where, if your Majesty will please to 
grant me a precinct of land, with such privileges, as the 
King your father, my gracious Majesty was pleased to 
grant me here, I shall endeavour to the utmost of my power 
to deserve it." 

Without awaiting a reply, or notifying the authorities of 
Virginia of his intended visit, early in October, he appeared 
at Jamestown, and while they were disposed to treat him 
with kindness, they could not break the law which required 
the administration of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy 
to every person arriving in the colony. As he refused to 
obey the laws, he was requested to depart by the first ship, 
which he did, leaving there, for a time, his wife and ser- 

Capps left for England, without permission of the Gov- 
ernor and Council, about the last of October, and as he 
sailed probably in the first ship that departed after Balti- 


more was requested to leave, the latter may have been his 
fellow passenger. 

The communication of the Council in Virginia, to the 
Privy Council, in England, relative to their action is a calm, 
reasonable, and courteous paper, worthy of being preserved. 

It is dated November 30, 1629, and is as follows : " May 
it please yo' Lord'pps to understand that about the begin - 
ninge of October last, there arrived in this Colony, the Lord 
Baltimore from his plantation in New Foundland, w* an 
intention as we are informed rather to plant himself to the 
Southward, than settle here, although since, he hath seemed 
well affected to this place, and willing to make his residence 
therein w'*' his whole family. 

" We were read'ly inclined to render unto his lordship all 
those respects wh'ch were due unto the honor of his person 
or w'" might testifie w"" how much gladness we desired to 
receive and entertain him, as being of that eminence 
and degree, whose presence and affection might give 
greater advancements to this plantation. Whereupon, 
according to the instruction from y ' Lord'hipps, and the 
which course* held in this place, were tendered the oaths of 

•Governor Wyatt on tlie 24th of July, 1G31, Governor Yeardley on the 19th 
of April, 1626, Governor Harvey, on the 6tb of August, 1628, were directed to see 
that every person who arrived in the Colony, took the oath of allegiance and 
Bupremftcy. The last history of Maryland by William Hand Browne published 
in 1884, by Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston, makes this erroneous state- 
ment : 

" Of course Baltimore believing the Pope to be the spiricual head of the church 
neither could or would take this oath. He might very well have challenged 
their rights to offer it, since while it is true that the President and Council of the 
Virginia Company had been empowered to administer this oath, no such power 
was given to Polt, or to any authority in the Province, after the Company's dis- 
solution, and in oflppringit, they incurred the penalties of a high court. " P. 16. 



supremicie and aleidgiance to his lordship, and some of his 
followers, who making profession of the Roraishe religion, 
utterly refused to take the same, a thing W** we would not 
have doubted in him, whose former employm'ts under 
his late mat'y might have endeared to us a persuasion he 
could not have made denyall of that, in poynt, whereof 
consisteth the legaltie and fidelitie w"'' every true subject 
oweth unto his soveraigne. His lord'hip then offered to 
take this oath, a copy whereof is included, but in true dis- 
charge of the trust imposed on by his Ma'tie, wee could not 
imagine that soe much latitude was left for us to decline from 
the prescribed forms so strictly exacted and soe well justi- 
fied and defended, by the pen of our late Soveraigne Lord, 
King James, of happy memory, 

" And among the many blessings and favors for w'chwee 
are bound toblesse God, and w"'' the colony has received from 
his most gratious ma'tie, there is none whereby it hath 
been made more happy than in the freedome of our religion, 
w'ch we have enjoyed, and that no Pfioists have beene suf- 
fered to settle their aboade amongst us. The continuance 
whereof wee most humbly implore from his most sacred 
ma'tie, and earnestly beseech y"' lord'hps, that by your 
meditations and councells the same may be established, 
and confirmed unto us. And wee as our duety is with the 
whole colony, shall always pray for his ma'ties long life and 
eternall felicity, from whose royal hands the plantation must 
expect her establishment, and for whose honor God hath so 
reserved so glorious a worke by p'f ection thei-eof . " 

Before Lord Baltimore arrived in England, Charles the 
First on the 22d of November, 1629, in a reply to his letter of 


the following August, wrote: "We out of our princely care of 
you and well weighing that men of y*' condition and breeding 
are fitted for other employment than the forming of new 
plantations, which commonly have rugged and laborious 
beginnings, and require much greater meanes in managing 
them than usually the power of one private subject can 
reach unto, have thought fit hereby to advise you to desist 
from fui'ther prosecuting y°' designs that way, and with 
your first conveniency to returne back to y"' native comi- 

In a letter^ to Lord Dorchester, Secretary of State, written 
after his arrival in England, he asked that the Governor of 
Virginia might be instructed to assist his wife in coming 
home, in recovering debts due to him, and in disposing of her 
servants, and then he requested permission to choose a por- 
tion of land not already granted, with a charter like that of 
Avalon, and he with the assistance of gentlemen and others, 
though he did not go in person, would found a colony. 

John Pory late Secretary of Virginia wrote to Joseph Mede 
the distinguished scholar and theologian upon February 12, 
1629-30, that Baltimore was " preparing a bark to send to 
fetch his Lady^ and servants from thence, because the king 
will not permit him to go back again." 

'The letter in full was first printed in Founders of Maryland, Albany N. Y. , 
Joel Munsell, 1876. 

*Lord Baltimore's first wife was a most charming woman, a devoted wife and 
exemplary mother of many children. Her maiden name was Ann Mynne. Her 
death occurred on 18, 1G22, and Camden the Annalist in noting it, calls 
her " modesiissima mulier." But there is no record of his second marriage. It 
must have occurred alter he ceased to be Secretary of State, and retired to 
Ireland. This wife is never mentioned in books on the Baronetage. Lord 
Baltimore's most intimate friend Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, lost his 


Jamestown, during the administration of Governors West 
and Pott, was an insignificant hamlet. The houses of the 
colonists were small wooden buildings with not the faintest 
resemblance to the baronial halls of England, and the place 
for God's worship was of the same material as the dwell- 
ings and quite as plain. 

Sir George Yeardley's residence was in an enclosure of 
seven acres, which on the north abutted on the river, and 
his neighbor on the south was Captain Roger Smith. East- 
erly he was bounded by a fence which separated him from 
the land of the main island, and westerly by the Park. 
Captain Roger Smith had a lot of four acres, which upon 
the south touched the Governor's garden, and eastward it 
was bounrled by a bridge which led across the marsh to the 
island, and the yard of Capt. William Peirce. Ralph War- 
ner, a member of the council, in 162-1, built in the new town, 
upon one acre and a half of ground which on the south, was 
bounded by the James River, and on the east was a high- 
way which separated it from the grounds of George Manefie 

first wife, the daughter of the Earl of Cumberland, about the same time in the 
summer of 1622, as Baltimore lost his first wife The Earl of Straflord's second 
wife a daughter of the Earl of Clare, died in October, 1631. 

Lord Baltimore wrote from Lincoln's Inn Fields London, where he was then 
lodging, on the 11th of the month, in which he alludes to Strafford's loss and adds 
" There are few perhaps can judge of it better than L who have been a long time 
a man of sorrows." In less than a year Strafford was living with Elizabeth 
Rhodes whom he did not for some time publicly acknowledge as a wife. Fors' 
tern Statesmen of the British Gommomcealth. Baltimore in his letter seems to be 
alluding to the loss of his wife who died in the year 1622, and it is possible that 
his wife who left Virginia in 1630, and is said only in a sketch of Baltimore 
among the Ayscough Manuscripts to have been lost at sea, may have been one, 
to whom he was privately married. Philip Calvert, Secretary and Governor of 
Maryland, Governor Stuyvesant calls his illegitimate sou. 


merchant, and on the west was the grounds of Richard 
Stephens, merchant, au^ John Chew, merchant. East of the 
house built by Stephens, upon a lot which lay south upon 

the bay along the river, was the residence of Capt. Ralph 
Ham or. 

The brick church whose ruins are still seen, was not 
erected until about a half century after this period, although 
often represented as the church in which the first colonists 

The minister at this time was the Rev. Francis Bolton 
who, in 1621, upon the recommendation of the Earl of 
Southampton, had come to Virginia. After preaching for 
a period at Elizabeth City, and on the Eastern Shore^ of the 
Chesapeake he became the minister at Jamestown, where 

Richard Buck, and Hawte Wyatt, had b'^'^" ^^''^ v.^--^-^ 

in the parish. 

The principal merchant was Thoma 
Southwark, London, son of John Wa: 
Sussex. He died in February, 1629-30, a few weeks, before 

' lu a book of manuscript records in the Library of Congress is tiie following 
which shows the salaiy Bolton received as the first minister on the Eastern 
shore of Virginia. 

" Whereas, It is ordered by the Governor and Councii that Mr. Bolton shall 
receive for his salary, this year throughout all the plantations all the Eastern 
shore, t«n pound of tobacco, and one bushel of corn, for every planter and 
tradesman, above the age of sixteen years, alive at the crop. These are to re- 
quire Captain William Eps, commander of the said plantation, to raise the said 
ten pounds of tobacco, one bushel of corn, to bo levied accordingly throughout 
all the said plantations, charging all persons there residing, to yield ready obe- 
dience, and to be aiding and assisting unto the said Captain William Eps ia the 
execution of the warrant as they will answer the contrary at their peril. Given 
at James City, November 21, 1623." 

" Frakcis Wyatt." 


the arrival of Governor Harvey. His wilP witnessed by 
Bolton the minister, and John Southerne indicates that he 
was a prominent man in social life and ^ives an idea of the 
style of dress, of the period. To Di-. John Pott, acting 
governor, he bequeathed five thousand pounds of nails, of 
great value to one commencing a plantation ; to Elizabeth 
Potts, his wife, he gave one corfe, and cross cloth of 
wrought gold, and to Francis Pott his brother, a debt of 
eighty pounds of tobacco. The minister Francis Bolton 
received very useful supplies; a firkin of butter, a bushel of 
salt, six pounds of candles, a pound of pepper, a pound of 
ginger, two bushels of meal, a rundlett of ink, six quires of 
letter paper, and a pair of silk stockings. The wife of John 
Johnson was given six pounds of soap, six pounds of blue, 
and a pound of white starch. To the wife of John Brown- 
ing was bequeathed a thousand pins, a pair of knives carved 
with iwu images upon them, twelve pounds of white, and 
two pounds of blue starch. The wife of Mr. John Upton's 
was remembered by the present of a sea green scarf, 
edged with gold lace, two pounds of blue, and twelve of 
white starch. To his friend Thomas Burges he gave his best 
felt hat, and his second best sword, and to the wife of John 
Grevett a pair of sheets, six table napkins, three towels, and 
a table cloth, six pounds of soap, a pound of blue, and six 
pounds of white starch. The wife of Sergeant John Wane 
received four bushels of meal, four gallons of vinegar, a half 
pound of different colored thread, twenty needles, six dozen 
silk and thread buttons, a pewter candlestick, and a pewter 
pot de chambre. The wife of Thomas Key was left a gilded 

1 See Gleanings of H. F. Waters in N. E. Hist. Oen. Register, April, 1884. 


looking glass ; and of Eoger Thompson, a jar of oil, a pound 
of pepper, and a half bushel of salt. Benjamin Symes who 
became the first American benefactor to the cause of educa- 
tion, received a weeding hoe, the wife of Michael Batt two 
bushels of meal. His own wife Thomasine, daughter of 
William Hall, of Woodalling county Norfolk, England, re- 
ceived the rest of his estate, and John Southern, and James 
Stormes were overseers of the will. Southerne received a 
black beaver hat, and gold band, a doublet of black camlet, 
a pair of black hose, a Polander cap furred, and a pair of red 
slippers, and Stormes his best sword and a gold belt. War- 
net certainly loved his neighbors. John Browning whose 
wife is mentioned, in October, 1629, represented Elizabeth 
City in the legislature, and in that of 1630, sat John 
Southerne, Thomas Key, John Upton, Thomas Burges, 

The only legislature which assembled during the period 
Doctor John Pott, acted as governor, met in October, and 
was largely composed of the earlier colonists.^ The Assem- 

» Burgesses of the Assembly Convened at Jamestown, October 16, 1629. 
College Plantation or Henrico. 

Lt. Thomas Osborne. Arrived in 1619, in Bona Kova, and 

was now 35 years old Justice in 1632. 

Mathew Edlowe. Came in 1618 in Neptune, died iu 

1668, his wife Tabitha in 1670. His 
son John was under the guardianship 
of Col. Robert Wynne. 

Neck of Land, Charles City Corporation. 

Ser!i;'t. Sharpe. Samuel Sharpe came in 1610, with 

Gates and Somers, and had been a 

member of the first legislature in 1619. 

He married a girl who came in 1621 . 

Chene Boise. Arrived in 1617, in the OeorgCy and 

was now 35 years old. 


Shirley Hundred Island, 

Mr. Thomas Palmer. He, and his wife, and daughter seven 

years old, came in 1621, in the Tiger. 
Justice in 1632. 

John Harris. Had been several years in Virginia. 

Henry Throgmorton's Plantation. 

William Allen. Came in 1623, in Southampton. 

Jordan's Journey Charles City. 

William Popleton. Came in 1622, in the James as a 

servant of John Davies. 

Chaplain^s Choice Charles City. 

Walter Price. Came in 1618, in William and 


Westover, Charles City. 

Christopher Woodward. Aged 35 came in 1620 in Trial. 

Fleur Dieu Hundred. 

Anthony Pagett. Aged 40, came in 1623, a servant in 


James City. 

Mr. Menefie. Arrived in July 1623, in i\iQ. Samuel. 

A merchant. 
Mr. Kingsmell. Perhaps Kingswell came in the 

Delaware. His wife in the Susan. 

Paces Pains, James City. 

Lt. William Perry. 

John Smyth. Came in 1611, in Elizabeth. 

Over the River. 

Capt. John West. Brother of the late Lord Delaware . 

and Gov. Francis West. 
Capt. Rob't Fellgate. 

Pasbehay, James City. 
Thomas Bagwell. An old settler. 

Neck of Land, James City. 
Richard Brewster. 



bly authorized the beginning? of a plantation on the York, 
then called Pamunky River. As early as 1624, the King's 
Commissioners had recommended the planting of " Chis- 

Theodore Moyaes, 
Thomas Doe. 

Archer's Hope, James City. 

Came iu London Merchant. 

Between Archer's Hope, and Mo.rtin's Hundred. 

Mr. Joliu Utie. 

Richard Townsend. 

John Chew. 
Richard Tree. 

Thomas Kintifston. 
Thomas Fawcett. 

Thomas Harwood. 
Phettiplace Close. 

Christopher Stokes. 
Thomas Ceeley. 
Thomas Flint. 

Zachary Cripps. 

Capt. Natt Basse. 

Richard Bennett, 
liobert Savin. 
Thomas Jordan. 


■ Came in \hQ Francis Bona Ventura. 
A man of influence. 

Now about 24 years old. Came in 
the Abigail, 1620, had been a servant 
of Dr. John Pott. 

Hog Island. 

Came in the Charity. A merchant. 
Arrived in the George, with his sou 
twelve years old. 

Martin's Hundred. 

In the colony several years. 
In the colony several years. 

Mulberry Island. 

Came in 1623, in Margaret and John. 
An old settler, who came iu the Star. 

Warwick River. 

Had been five years in colony. 

A county justice in 1632. 

Came in 1618, in Diana, a county 
justice in 1632. . 

Came in 1621 in Marg't and John, a 
county justice iu 1632. 

^\ arosquoyake. 

Was about 40 years old and came 
in 1622, in Furtherance. 
Afterwards Councillor. 

Justice in 1632. 


kiake situated upon Pamunky " and to build a pale across 
from thence to Martin's Hundred, seven miles below James 

Joseph Mede in a letter^ to Sir Martin Stuteville in Janu- 
ary, 1629-30, after referring to Lord Baltimore's return to 
London, from Virginia, continues : "About the time of his 
being there, a certain Indian, dwelling some four or five 

days journey off, came and offered himself his wife, and 
four children," and " to ensure them of his fidelity he con- 
ducted them against the Indians, their enemies upon whose 
persons, by his guidance " they obtained ' ' more spoil and 
revenge than they had done since the great massacre there." 
And this action had so much the more of justice in it, by 
reason, that of late, those treacherous savages assailed the 
house of one Mr. Poole,' a minister and slew him, his wife, 
and all his family." 

Nutmeg Quarter. 

William Cole. Now about 31 years old, came in 

1618 in Neptune. His wife came in 
1616, in Susan. 

William Bentley. About 41 years of age, came as a 

bired man in 1624, in the Jacob. 

Elizabeth City. 
Lt. Thompson. 

Adam Thorowgood. Came in 1631, when 18 years old. 

Mr. liowlston Came in 1623 in Ood's Qift. 

John Browning, About 27 years old, came in 1621, in 

John Downeman. When a boy, came in 1611, married 

a maid sent out in 1621, in Waricick, 
' Court and Times of Charles tJie First. 

•Greville Pooley, minister, came, in 1622, in the ship James, and was a friend 
of Abraham Piersey. See p. 49. 


The action referred to was probably that of Captain Clai- 
boine who attacked and defeated the Indians at Candayak, 
now West Point, at the junction of the York and Pamunky 

Sir Robert Heath, formerly Recorder of London, when 
Attorney General of England, on the 10th of February, 
1629-30, a few weeks after Lord Baltimore's return, for 
himself and associates, asked that two degrees of land, upon 
which to settle a colony, with power ' ' to create, and esta- 
blish or confirm for ever, officers, ministers, and agents of 
all qualities and conditions, touching as well the church, as 
the military, and political part of the government, according 
to the genei-al orders and laws of the whole province: pay- 
ing and causing to be paid to these officers, ministers, and 
agents,. all their entertainment and Wages.'" 

Antoine Rideoute, the Baron de Sance, a French refugee, 
and his son George, w^ere made subjects of England, at this 
time, with the intention of planting a colony, of members 
of the Reformed Church in France, south of the James 
River. A charter was granted to Heath and the usual 
phraseology relative to zeal for Christianity, and desire to 
enlarge the bounds, and increase the trade of the kingdom, 
and the region ceded between the 31st and 36th degrees of 
north latitude in compliment to the king was called Carolana 
a few years later written Carolina. On the I5th of April, 
1680, the proprietor was informed that those who settled in 
that country must acknowledge the church of England. 
The next month under this charter, an agreement was made 
with George, Lord Berkeley, Sir William Boswell, Samuel 


Vassall, Hugh L'Amy and Peter de Licques/ by which 
they could form a settlement in Carolana, with power to 
appoint a Governor, and other officers, and that no appeal 
should be taken from the General Assembly of the province. 
This plan was not carried out, and in 1631, the charter was 
modified, in which Heath is referred to in these words : 
" He beeing about to lead thither a Colonye of men large 
and plentifull, professing the true Religion, sedulously and 
industriously applying themselves to the culture of j^ sayd 
land, and to merchandising, to be performed by industrye 
at his own charges and others by his example." By this 
instrument he was made "sole Lord Proprietor in chiefley 
Knight's service, and by paying for it, to us, our heirs, and 
successors, one circle of Gold in the fashion of a crown of 
the weight of twenty ounces with the inscription ingraved 
upon it : ' Deus coronet opus suum.'' " 

Peter de Licques of Picardy had been naturalized. 


EVENTS PROM A.D. 1630 TO A.D., 1684. 

Governor Harvev's Arrival. Assembly of 1630. Doctor 
Pott's Trial. Claiborne Trades with Bostox. Daniel Gookin 
AT Newport News. Death of Capt. John Smith. Social 
ties of Massachusetts and Virginia. Henry Fleet, Potomac 
TRADER. Assembly of February, 16:31-2. Sunday Legisla- 
tion. ^Monthly Courts. Assembly of September, 1632, 
Wreck of the Warwick. W illiam Bolton Agent for 
Planters. Capt. De Vries at .Jamestown. John Stone a 
ROUGH Sea-captain. 

fOHN Harvey when commissioned as Governor of 
Virginia, was knighted, in accordance with the 
custom commenced, at the appointment of Gov- 
ernor Yeardley. He remained in England for 
some time, and applied for an increase of the emoluments 
and privileges of his office. He also requested that the city 
of London, as before, might be permitted to send over one 
hundred friendless boys, and girls, and that six ministers con 
formable to the church of England, miglit also be procured 
for the Colony. 

The Privy Council, in reply to the petitions presented, 
allowed the colonists to hold a legislative assembly, whose 


ordinances would not be valid without the King's approval 
and agreed that Christian ministers could go to Virginia, 
provided, the settlements which invited them w^ould assume 
their support. 

Early in the year 1630, after a tedious voyage, by way of 
Cape Verd, Governor Harvey reached Jamestown, but on 
account of unusual sickness among the planters, he did not 
convene the General Assembly, until the week before 
Easter Sunday. At this time Francis West, late acting 
Governor, William Claiborne, and William Tucker, Coun- 
cillors, were in England. The Assembly met on March 24, 
1629-30 (O. S.), and as had been the custom, the oath of 
allegiance and supremacy was taken by the delegates.^ 

Harvey did not manifest the conciliatory spirit of his im- 
mediate predecessors, Yeardley and Wyatt. He walked 
among the colonists, as he did the quarter-deck of a ship of 
war, and desired to impress the settlers with the idea that 
he was a vice-roy. His arrogancy and arbitrary course 
immediately engendered opposition, and a people's party 
was the result. His unpopularity was increased by the 
alacrity displayed, in assisting Lord Baltimore, in establish- 
ing a province, out of a large and fertile portion of Virginia. 
The day after the Assembly convened there appears to 
have been some discussion as to the propriety of Lord Balti- 
more's project, and Thomas Tindall for calling Lord Balti- 

' The councillors present at this Assembly, were Dr. John Pott, William 
Ferrar and Samuel Mathews. A few weeks later Capt. John West, Hen. Finch, 
Christopher Cowling, Capt. Richard Stephens, Capt. John Utie, and Capt. 
Nath. Basse were members of his council. 


more a liar, and threatening to knock him down was placed 
in the pillory for two hours.* 

John Pott the acting Governor, at the time of Harvey's 
arrival, was an educated physician, careless in business, 
fond of good living, and a jovial companion.* 

He had pardoned Edward Wallis who had been convicted 
of murder and restored his privileges. He was also charged 
with keeping some cattle which did not belong to him. 
Harvey had not been at Jamestown but a few weeks, when 
he oi'dered Potts' arrest, who was at his plantation called 
Harrope, seven miles from Jamestown. He appeared before 
the General Court on the ninth of July, 1630, and before 
a jury of thirteen was tried for stealing cattle. The first 
day was occupied in pleading and KingswelP an old planter 
testified adversely. The next day Pott declared that the 
witness was unreliable and hypocritical, and told the story 
of Gusman of Alfrach, the rogue.* 

Heninjr, 1, 553. 

* George Sandys on 9, 1623, in a letter to Saruuel \Yrote, of London, 
alluding to Pott, writes: "I have given from time to time the best counceli I am 
able, at the first, he kept companie too much with his inferiours, who hung upon 
him, while his good liijuor lasted. After, he consorted withCaptaine Wliitacres, 
a man of no good example, with whom he is gone into Kicotan, yet whereso- ' 
ever he bee, he shall not bee without reach of my care, nor want for any thing 
that I or my credit can procure him." — Virginia Vetusta, p. 127. 

3 ,V Richard Kingswell, a planter on the neck of land, near Jamestown, came 
in 1610, in the ship " Delaware ;" his wife Jane, in 161G, arrived in the "Susan." 

■* Reference may ha had to the hypocrite and Spanish spy, Don Juan of the 
house of Gusman, wlio witli Captain Henry Dutiield was employed, b}' the King 
of Spain, to go to England, and burn ships with wild lire. 

Don Juan Gusman in his narrative declared that he reached Ireland in a ship, 
and was seized by the servants of Mahona, and taken to his castle and from 


The jury declared him pjuilty, but Governor Harvey de- 
chned to pronounce judgment, until he consulted the king, 
and he wrote to England that Pott " was the only physician 
in the colony, skilled in epidemical diseases, " and suggested 
that his estate should be restored in view of his long resi- 
dence, and the value of his services. Elizabeth, the doctor's 
wife, impelled by affection, after a dangerous voyage^ 
reached London, in September, after an absence of ten 
years, and with earnestness pleaded for her husband. The 
case was referred to commissioners who reported that the 
condemning of Doctor Pott " for felony "was very rigorous, 
if not erroneous, and recommended his pardon which the 
king granted. During the autumn of this year an expedi- 
tion of two hundred men under Captain Mathews was sent 
to search for mines beyond the Falls of James River, but 
overtaken by winter, returned without important results. 

William Claiborne continued during the whole of this 
year in England. John Winthrop, and associates, in 1630, 
entered Massachusetts Bay, and settled Boston, and the 
next spring his friends in London, contracted with Claiborne 
still there, to bring to Boston, from Virginia, forty tons of 
Indian wheat. A son of Winthrop writes from London, to 
his father; "This corne we understand they buy of the 
natives there, for trucke, there is great store all alongst 

thence was sent to the Earl of Desmond, where he was examined by a k-gate of 
the Pope and escaped suspicion by a forged passport, aod then went to 
liimerick, wliere he attended the church of England, and assisted to expel cattle 
stealers. This story was a tissue of falsehoods. In April, 1.594, his companion 
Henry Duffield, and a son of the Earl of Desmond, were confined in the Tower 
of London, char2;ed with burning her Majesty's ships at Chatham, at the instiga- 
tion of the K. of Spain. 


the coast, from a little to the southward of you, to Florida 
beyond, to be had for toyes, beadea, coper, tools, knives, 
glass, and such like,"^ 

On the 16th of May, 1631, the king issued a commission to 
his " trusty and well beloved William Cleyborne one of the 
council, and Secretary of State for our Colony of Virginia, 
and some other adventurers," to keep an interchange of trade 
with Nova Scotia and New England, and to trade for furs and 
corn in any region for which there is not already a patent 
granted toothers for sole trade." Under this permit Clai- 
borne returned to Virginia, and established trading posts at 
Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay, and at Palmers Island in 
Susquehanna River. Among those prominent at this periodin 
colonizing Virginia, was Daniel Gookin' of Cariggaline, a few 
miles south of Cork, on the shores of Cork Harbor, Ireland. 
In 1621, he determined to begin a plantation, in Virginia, 
near that of his friend Sir William Newce,^ and his brother 
Thomas Newce. 

In August of that year, the London Company wrote to the 
Governor of Virginia that he was about to transport cattle 
from Ireland and used these words, ''Let him have very 
good Tobacco for his cowes now at his first voiadge, for if he 
makes a good return it may be the occasion of a trade with 

' Jolia Winthrop, Jr., in Mass. His. Soc. Coll., 5tli Series, Vol., VIII, p. 30. 

" He was the son of John Gookin of Ripple Court, Kent County, Enplnnd, 
and with his brother Sir Vincent, settled in Ireland ; Vincent settled at Bandon, 
Cork County. 

3 Captain, afterwards Sir William Newce. laid out a suburb of Bandon called 
Newce's Town, and in 1613, was mayor of Bandon. He was appointed marshal 
of Virginia, and in October, 1623, arrived there at Newport News and soon died 


you from those parts [Ireland] not only with cattle, but with 
most of those commodities you want att better, and easier 
rates, than we from hence, shall be able." Gookin in 
November,^ arrived at Newport News in the ship Flying 
Hart, Cornelius Johnson, a Dutchman, being master thereof, 
and established a plantation where he made a brave stand 
against the Indians the following March. Soon after the 
massacre C4overnor Wyatt and wife paid him a visit, and 
he returned to England in the ship, v/hich brought the 
news of the slaughter of more than three hundred of the 
settlers. In 1623, the ship "Providence" again brought more 
servants for his land, and he may have been a passenger, 
but after this time he does not appear to have been a resi- 
dent, for any long period. It is probable his son Daniel, 
attended to affairs in Virginia, while he looked after his 
interests in England and Ireland. In a petition dated March 
11, 1631, he mentioned that he has been "for many years a 
great well wisher to new plantations, and a planter and 
adventurer in most of them " and asks for a grant of a cer- 
tain island which he "is credible informed lies between the 

' The Governor and Council of Virginia under date of January, 1622, wrote to 
the London Company : " There arrived here about the 22 of November, a shipp 
from Mr. Gookin out of Ireland wholy uppon his owne Adventure, withoute any 
returne at all to his contract wth you in England, w'ch was soe well furnished 
with all sortes of p'visioues as well as with f 'attie as we could wyshe all men 
would follow theire example, hee hath also brought with him about 50 men 
upon that Adventure, besides some 30 other Passengers, we haue accordinge to 
their desire sented them at Newport's News, and we doe conceive great hope 
yff the Irish Plantation p'sper, yt from Ireland greate multitude of people will 
be like to come hither ******** Mr. Pountis hath had some, 
conference with ye Mr. of the Irish shipp, a Dutchman, whose name ys Corne- 
lius Johnson of Home in Hollaude, who is soe farr in loue with this Couutrey, 
as he intendeth to returne hither." 


60th and 65th degree of north latitude, named St. Brandon 
or Isle de Verd, about three leagues, from the Blasques of 
Ireland." De Vries, the Dutch captain, writes that on the 
20th of March, 1633, he "anchored at evening, before New- 
port Snuw, where lived a gentleman of the name of Goe- 
gen" [Gookin], 

On the 21st of June, 1631, died the great adventurer Cap- 
tain John Smith, whose stories were as wonderful as those 
of the traveler Coryat. During the brief period he lived in 
Virginia, he quarreled w ith Francis West, brother of Lord 
Delaware, and others, and was sent home in disgrace.' In 
a letter to Earl of Salisbury, Lord High Treasurer, dated Oc- 
tober 4, 1609, from Captain John Katcliff is the following : 
" We heard yt all the counsell, were dead, but Captain Smith 
the President who reigned sole governor without assistants 
and would at first admitt of no councill but himself. This 
man is sent home to answer some misdeamenors whereof I 
persuade me, he can scarcely clear himself from great im- 
putations of blame." Wingfield mentions that he had 
been a beggar in Ireland, and in a letter to Lord Bacon, in 
1618, Smith writes relative to some scheme : ^ " Should I 
present it to the Biskayers, French, or Hollanders, they 
have made me large offers, but Nature doth binde me thus 
to begge at home, whom strangers have pleased to make a 
commander abroad." In a description of New England, 
which accompanied this letter, he also wrote : " Lett not 
the povertie of the author cause the action to be less re- 

' Spelman's Relotion quoted p. 52. 

2 The entire letter from the ori<rinal, in the British Public Record OfBce, has 
been publiahed in the American Antiquarian Society Proceedings for 1870. 


spected who desyres no better fortune than he would find 
there. In the interim, I humbly desyre y°' Honor would 
be pleased to grace me with the title of y" Ld'ps servant. 
Not that I desyre to strut upp the rest of my days in the 
chamber of ease and idleness, but that thereby I may be 
the better countenance for this my most desyred voy- 
age." After Smith had published a book on Virginia, 
George Pei'cey who had lived more than five years in the 
colony, wrote' to his brother the Earl of Northumberland, of 
a work containing "many untreuthes," wherein the Author 
" hathe nott spared to apropiate many deserts to himselfe 
which he never p'formed and stuffed hi? relacyons w"" so 
many falseties and malycyous detractyons." George, Earl 
of Kildare, wrote to the Secretary of State, on April 21, 
1630, that he had chosen a Captain Smith to live with him, 
" who through unfortunate disasters in his Majesty's service 
is a subject of pity." The Virginia Company, after he came 
back from Jamestown, never gave him their confidence, and 
he was used for a time l)y the New England companies. In 
his last days, he was befriended by Sir Samuel Salton- 
stall, Kt., a relative of Sir Richard Saltonstall, Kt., one of 
the founders of Massachusetts. Wye, the son of Samuel, 
a graduate of Oxford, in a translation of a History of the 
World by Hondius, published in 1635, inserted a portrait of 
Smith. The quaint historian Thomas Fuller who knew Smith 
gave the following estimate of his General History : ** From 
the Turks in Europe, ho passed to the Pagans in America, 
where such his perils, preservations, dangers, deliverances 

' See Virginia Vetusta, published by Munsell's Sons, Albany, N. Y., 1885. 



they seem to most men, above belief, to some, beyond truth. 
Yet we have two witnesses to attest them, the prose and 
the pictures both in his own book, and it soundeth much to 
the diminution of his deeds that he alone is the herald to 
publish and proclaim them." The remains of Smith were 
interred in Saint Sepulchre's church, chiefly erected by the 
ancestors of the Popham family, next to a fair and large 
inn, without Newgate, called the Saracen's Head, where an 
old chronicler mentions that "the carriers of Oxford do 
lodge, and are there on Wednesday or almost any day " and 
here Smith in the poverty of his last days may have often 
lounged, an appropriate place to tell the story of his taking 
three Turks' heads. But a few days after his burial the 
Privy Council appointed a new commission to consider how 
the plantation of Virginia now standeth, and to consider 
what commodity may be raised, in those parts." The com- 
missioners^ were chiefly members of the old London Com- 
pany and George Sandys who had returned from James- 
town wished to be Secretary of the body. A vigorous effort 
was made to restore the charter of the old Virginia Com- 

' Rymer, Vol. XIX. p. 301. 
The commissioners were : 

'Earl of Dorset, 
Earl of Danby, 
Sir Jolin Coke, Knight, 

" Robert Killigrew, Kt., 

" Thos. Roe, 

" Robert Heath, Kt., 

" Heneage Finch, Kt. 

" Duddley Diggs, Kt. 

" John Wolstenholme, Kt. 

" Francis Wyatt, Kt., 

" John Brooke, Kt. 

Sir Kenelm Digby, Knight. 
" John Zouch, Kt. 
" John Diivis, Kt. 
" John Banks, Esq. 
" Samuel Wrote. 
" George Sandys, Esq. 
" Jolm Wolstenholme, Esq. 
" Nicholas Ferrar, Esq. 
" Gabriel Barber, Esq. 
*' John Ferrar, Esq., 
" Thomas Gibb, Esq. 


pany, by the Ferrars and others, but the colonists, who at 
the time of its abrogation preferred the officers appointed 
by the London corporation, to the place hunters sent over 
by the king, had begun to reap the fruit of their own in- 
dustry and were more independent, and they were opposed 
to any step that would again make them the serfs of Lon- 
don merchants. While a new charter was prepared, the 
king at the last wisely refused his approval.^ 

Some of the founders of Boston and the adjacent towns in 
Massachusetts, were connected by social and family ties with 
the leading planters in the valley of the James River. Rich- 
ard, the eldest son of Sir Richard Saltonstall, Kt., in Novem- 
ber, 1631, visited Virginia, on his way to England to be 
married.^ Herbert Pelham born in 1546, married the sister of 
Lord Delaware, the Governor General, and of Francis West, 
Deputy Governor of Virginia, His son Herbert, by his 
first wife, in 1599, married Penelope, another daughter. 
Her daughter also named Penelope, married in Boston the 
well known Governor, Richard Dillingham, and her son Her- 
bert, born in 1600, was the first treasurer of Harvard Col- 
lege. The daughter of Herbert married Governor Josiah 
Winslow of Boston. 

William Brewester, the leader of the Plymouth seperatists 
when a young man was in the service of William Davison, 

' Oa March 2, 1632, a communication from Whitehall was received by the 
Attorney General that the old Virginia adventurers having accepted a new- 
charter of restitution, he sliould not pass any grant or patent without a proviso 
or exception of all formerly granted to the late Virginia Company. 

"In Hotten's List of Passengers in the " Suzan and Ellin" for New England, 
appear the names of Richard Saltonstall 23 years, his wife Merriall 22 years, 
and babe Merriall 9 months old ; also the following: " May 15, 1635, Penelopy 
Pelham 16 years to passe to her brothers Plantacon." 


ambassador of Queen Elizabeth at the Hague, and while 
there an elder of the Presbyterian church at Delft/ and 
soon after Brewster landed on the New England coast, Chris- 
topher, the second son of his employer, arrived at James- 
town, as Secretary of the Virginia Colony. 

Before the close of the year 1632, trading vessels fre- 
quently passed from Virginia to New England. The bark, 
Warwick, of about eighty tons burthen, with ten pieces 
of ordnance under Captain Walter Neale, was sent by 
London merchants in March, 1630, "for the discovery of 
the great lake in New England so to have intercepted the 
trade of beaver" and arrived about the first of June at 
Piscataqua. After returning to England, the owners sent 
her again with ' ' a factor to take charge of the trade goods, 
also a soldier^ for discovery." The factor was Henry Fleet, 
whose arrival from Virginia in 1627, had created in London 
a great interest. The '"' Warwick," on the 19th of Septem- 
ber, 1631, again cast anchor in Piscataqua harbor, and from 
thence sailed for Virginia, John Dunton being master of the 
vessel. After a short stay in the James River, the ship 
entered the Potomac river, and Fleet stopped at the Indian 
village Yow^accomoco, where he had traded before, and in 
time, to be the capital of the Province of Maryland, by his 
advice, a province whose charter had not then been written. 
Purchasing eight hundred bushels of corn from the natives, 

' William Boswell, tlieii ambassador at the Hague, on March 18, 1633, wrote 
of the distressed state of church government among the merchant adventures at 
Delft., that it was entirely Presbj-terian, and continued " Mr. Davison, Queen 
Elizabeth's ambassador was an elder in this church." Lai. State Papers. 

»N. E. Hist., Gen. Register July, 1867. p. 224. 


he sailed for New England on the 6th of December, but 
owing to bad weather, he did not until the 10th of January, 
1631-2, leave Point Comfort. On Tuesday, the 7th of Feb- 
ruary, he arrived at Piscataqua with his acceptable cargo, 
and on the 6th of March, he went to the Isle of Shoals for 
a supply of provisions for a return voyage to Virginia. The 
" Warwick" on the 16th came to the "Winysemett" now 
Chelsea, where resided the hospitable Samuel Warwick, in a 
house, built in 1625, " fortified with a pillizado, and flankers 
and gunnes both, below, and above." Winthrop mentions 
under date of March 24, lf)31-2. "The 'Bark Warwick' 
arrived at Natescua having been at Piscataquak and Salem 
to sell corn, brought from Virginia." On the 21st of Feb- 
ruary, 1G31-2, a legislative assembly convened at James- 
town, and the councillors were Francis and John West, ^ 
Samuel Mathews,^ William Claiborne,' Nathaniel Basse,* 
John Utie,^ William Tucker,^ and Richard Stephens.^ 

The councillors Henry Finch, Christopher Cooling, Wil- 
liam Peirce and Thomas Purify were absent. For the first 

' Brothers of Lord Delaware. 

" Samuel Mathews, see p. 20. 

3 See p. 24. 

* Natlianiel Basse aged 41 years came in 1622, iu the ship "Furtherance"' 
After the decease of Capt. Christopher Lawne, he and his associates had Lawne'a 
Plantation called Isle of Wight. History of Virginia Company, p. 194. 

s John Utie came in the " Francis Bonaventura " and settled on Hog Island 
near Jamestown. 

' William Tucker, see p. 40. 

' Richard Stephens arrived in 1623, and soon had a duel with George Har- 
rison who died a few days after, from a wound received. Governor Harvey 
subsequently had a fight with him and knocked out his teeth with a -cudgel. 
After the death of Stephens, Harvey married his widow. 


time, the first day of the week, in one of the acts of this 
legislature, is called Sunday instead of the Sabbath ; the 
act may have been prepared at the suggestion of Laud then 
Bishop of London, who was opposed to the use of the latter 
word. It was enacted "that the Statutes for comminge to 
Church every Sunday and holy days bee duly executed." 
These statutes however inclined to the strictness of the 
Mosaic system. Every one absent from church was fined a 
pound of tobacco for each absence ; if absent for a month, 
without good reason the penalty was fifty pounds of tobacco. 
At this session, it was also ordered that " Mynisters shall 
not give themselves to excesse in drinking or riott, spend- 
ing their tyme idellye by day or night, playing at dice, cards, 
or any other unlawfull game ; but at all tyme convenient 
they shall heare or reade somewhat of the Holy Scriptures 
or shall occupie themselves with some other honest study or 
exercise always doing the things which shall appertayne to 
honesty, and endeavour to profit the Church of God always 
showing in mynd that they ought to excell all others in 
puritie of life, and should be examples to the people to live 
well and Christianlike. " 

As yet the Colony had no State House but the burgesses 
were required to attend divine service in the room where 
they held their sessions, at the third beating of the drum, 
an hour after sunrise, and if absent without proper excuse 
were fined one shilling. 

The increase of population led to the extension of monthly 
courts, and those appointed justices in March, 1631-2 (0. S.), 
were among the most prominent citizens, and their names 
are worthy of preservation. 


Monthly Courts. 

Upper parts of Charles City and Henrico. 

William Ferrar, Quorum,^ Capt. Francis Epes, Capt. 
Thomas Pawlett,^ Capt. Thomas Osborne/ Capt. Thomas 
Palmer/ Walter Aston, Gent. 

Warwick River. 
Capt. Samuel Mathews, Quorum, Capt. Eichard Stephens, 
Capt. Thomas Flint, Zackary Cripps, Gent., John Brewer, 
Gent., Thomas Seeley, Gent. 


Capt. Nathaniel Basse, Quorum, Thomas Jordan, Gent., 
William Hutchinson, Gent., Richard Bennett, John Upton, 

Elizabeth City. 
Capt. William Tucker, Quorum, William English, Gent., 
Capt. Thos. Willoughby, Capt. Thos. Purifrie, Esq., 
Quorum, John Arundell, Gent., George Downes, Gent., 
Adam Thoroughgood. 

Capt. William Claiborne, Quorum, Obedience Robins, 
Gent,, Roger Saunders, Gent., Capt. Thos. Graves, Quorum, 
Charles Harman, Gent. 

* In commissions when one was designated quorum his presence was neces- 
sary to the validity of a meeting. 

■Pawlett was 48 years of age, in 1618, came in the " Neptune." 

*Came in November, 1619, in the "Bona Nova." 

* Arrived in the " Tipper," in November, 1621, with his wife Joane, and child 
Priscilla, eleven years old. 


Three of these persons could form a legal court provided 
two were quorums. Appeal could be taken to the General 
Court at Jamestown, composed of the members of the 

Councillor Basse, in March, was authorized to invite those 
of New England who disliked " coldness of climate or bar- 
reness of soil " to emigrate to the shore of Delaware Bay. 

On Monday, April 9, 1632 (O. S.), the bark " Warwick " 
left Boston, with a pinnace of twenty tons belonging to 
Samuel Maverick. The pinnace proceeded up the Potomac 
River, but Fleet in the "Warwick" stopped at Accomac, 
and on the 16th of May, accompanied by Claiborne in 
another small vessel, also sailed for the Potomac River. 
When he reached Yowocomaco he learned that Charles 
Harman of Accomac had been in the region, but three days 
before, and obtained three hundred pounds of beaver. As- 
cending the stream. Fleet on the 26th of May arrived at an 
Indian village on Potomac creek, in what is now Stafford 
county, Virginia.^ and here he found Maverick's pinnace 
laden with corn, which on the first of June, departed for 

' This villapfe for years bad been a point at whicb the Enprlish had traded. 
On the 20th of June, 1640, Capt. Claiborne was grranted 3000 acres at the town 
of Potomack, bounded on each side, by the place were this fort was fomierly 
built by the English, anno 1622. In Harpers Magazine for January, 1886, Mon- 
cure Conway describes an old tombstone in this vicinity which a few years ago 
had the following rude inscription, in letters If inches long. 

1618. 8 ATATIS SUA Y6. 


New England. Fleet remained and obtained a large amount 
of beaver from the Nacostines or Anacostans who resided 
where, now, is the city of Washington. 

On the 26th of June, his vessel anchored two leagues 
below the Falls of the Potomac. He passed several weeks 
in trading with the Indians, and on the 28th of August met 
a pinnace, with eight persons, one of whom was Charles 
Harman, a rival trader, and another John Utie of the Vir 
ginia Council. The latter arrested him, by order of the 
Council, and on the 7th of September, the "Warwick" 
anchored at Jamestown. 

Governor Harvey, always fond of money, saw that Fleet 
might be a profitable acquaintance. Fleet, in his Journal 
writes : The Governor bearing himself like a noble gentle- 
man showed me very much favor and used me with unex- 
pected courtesy. Captain Utye (Utie) did acquaint the 
Council with the success of the voyage, and every man 
seemed to be desirous to be a partner with me, in these em- 
ployments, I made as fair weather as might be with them, 
to the end in question, and what they would or could object, 
that I might see what issue it would come to. The Court 
was called the l-ith of September, when an order was made 
and I find the Governor hath favoured me therein. After 
this day, I had fiee power to dispose of myself." 

The owners of the "Warwick"^ in London, two years after 
made legal complaint that by authoiity of Governor Harvey, 
Henry Fleet had retained the ship, to their great loss. 

'The " Warwick" never returned to London. Winthrop under date of June 
30, 1636, wrote ; " Warrant to the constable of Dorchesster to inventory and 
apprize the rigging of bark Warwick, cast away." Harris in 1804, wrote " Near 


The legislature was in session when Utie returned to 
Jamestown with Fleet, and Charles Harman sat as a bur- 
gess from Accomac, and Nicholas Martain from the new 
plantation of Kiskeyako. 

To restrain trade among the Indians of the Potomac River 
it was enacted that all vessels coming into Virginia waters 
should report at Jamestown. About this time, a small 
vessel was sent from Virginia to explore the valley of the 
Delaware River, and trade with the natives, and Capt. De 
Vries was told by the Indians, that they had killed all on 

The year 1633, witnessed a large increase of population, a 
larger tobacco crop, with more attention to the cultivation 
of corn, and raising of cattle, and the colony was becoming 
a granary for New England } 

Among those who arrived as a planter, was William But- 
ton, supposed to have been the nephew of Captain Button, 
the Hudson Bay explorer, the name of whose pilot. Nelson, 
was given to that river whose waters flow from Lake Win- 
nepeg, into which also flow those of the Red River of 
Minnesota. He had been the captain of a ship in the ex- 
pedition against Rochelle and was not a stranger to Governor 
Harvey. At the request of the planters, in February 103-1:, 

this place [Commercial Point, Dorchester] is a small creek which bears the 
name of ' Barque Warwick' from a small vessel wliich ran aground here, two 
or three years after the first settlement of the town, the remains of which are 
still to be seen." W. B. T., in N. E. Hist. (ien. Register, July, 1867, writes: 
" My father's estate was bounded southerly on this same creek, and the street 
in front of the house, in whicli I wasljorn, now C'ommercial Street, was in my 
younger days ' Barque Warwick' Street." 

In 1632, there were 5000 bushels of corn raised and in 1634, 10,000 bushels. 


he went to England, and presented their wants, to the 
Privy Council. His mission was successful, and it was 
ordered that the planters should "enjoy all the privileges 
they had before the Virginia Company's patent was abro- 
gated, and that the Grovernor and Council, as was the cus- 
tom before 1625, might grant lands to freemen." 

For his services Button was allowed to select lands on 
either side of the Appomattox River. He died before 1639, 
and his widow became the wife of Ralph Wyatt, who had 
been wounded in the expedition against the Isle of Rhe.' 

The tobacco trade had now become so extensive that 
Dutch as .well as English ships sought the landings of the 
planters. De Vries, an experienced Dutch captain, on the 
9th of March, 1633, in a vessel from Manhattan now New 
York city, reached the frail fort that had been erected by 
Capt. Samuel Mathews at Point Comfort, by direction of the 
legislature. When he went to Jamestown he found Gov- 
ernor Harvey at the wharf, with an escort of " some hal- 
berdeers and musketeers," by whom he was cordially 
received, taken to his home, proffered a glass of sack, and 
invited to stay all night. In conversation the Grovernor dis- 
covered that he had known De Vries in the East Indies. 
The Dutch captain was astonished at finding so many of 
the planters inveterate gamblers, even staking their ser- 
vants, and told them he had "never seen such work in 
Turkey or Barbary." 

' Children of Hawte Wyatt, minister of Jamestown, and brother of the Gov- 
ernor, are said to have settled in Virginia. 


On the 15th of June, Captain Stone, whom De Vries had 
met at the Governor's table, sailed into the beautiful harbor 
of Manhattan. His relatives in England were said to have 
been respectable and influential people, but his bearing was 
that of a pirate. He strutted, swaggered, swore horribly, 
indulged in lewd conversation, and ignored the ten command- 
ments, which he had read in childhood on the tablets of 
parish churches. While on a carouse with Governor Von 
Twiller of Manhattan, he persuaded him to permit the seizing 
of a vessel from Plymouth colony, in charge of a member 
of its Council who had finished trading, and was about to 
return with a good cargo. Alleging that some of the Ply- 
mouth sailors had spoken reproachfully of Virginia, while 
the merchant and several oP the chief men, were on shore, 
Stone went aboard, with some of his crew, and compelled 
those in the Plymouth vessel to steer for Virginia. Several 
Dutch sailors who had been to Plymouth, and kindly 
treated there, said, "shall we suffer our friends to be thus 
abused before our faces, while our Governor is drunk ? " 
and procuring a pinnace sail' id after, and brought the 
vessel back. 

The next day Captain Stone, and Governor Von Twiller 
were sober, and asked the captain "f the Plymouth vessel 
not to take legal steps, to which he consented, but when 
Stone arrived in Massachusetts Bay to sell some cows, and 
salt, the Plymouth Colony sent brave Miles Standish to 
prosecute him, in the General Court of Massachusetts, and 
he was also bound over to appear in' the Admii-alty Court 
of England, but the Plymouth people discovering that they 


could not make good the charge of piracy, his sureties were 

While in Boston, his conduct was boisterous, and he 
sneeringly called Roger Ludlow, one of the General Court, 
a just ass, a play upon the word justice, which office he 
held. Found in bed, one night, with another man's wife, 
he was brought before the Governor, and "though it 
appeared he was in drink, and no act to be proved, yet it 
was thought fit he should abide his trial," and his pinnace 
was stayed,' but he refused to obey the warrant, and fled. 
Command was given to the soldiers to take him dead or 
alive, and he was found in a corn field near Dorchester.' 
Brought before the Boston court, the Grand Jury did not 
find sufficient evidence to sustain the charge of adultery.' 
The court however, in September, made this order:* " Cap- 
tain John Stone for his outrage committed in confronting 
authority, abuseing Mr. Ludlowe both in words and be- 
haviour, assaulting him, calling him a iust [just] ass is fined 
CZ and p'hibited comeing within this pattent w^*" out leave 
from the Gou'rm't under the penalty of death." 

After this, with some gentlemen, he visited Plymouth, 
and was courteously received, but soon quarreled with the 
Governor, and drew his dagger." On his return to Virginia, 
he sailed into the Connecticut River to trade with the 

' Winthrop, 

• Clapp. 

3 Winthrop. 

* Massachusetts'^Bay Records, Vol. 1, p. 108. 
» Bradford. 


Pequods, and his company, eight in all, were killed. 
Three of his men while on shore, hunting, were first slain ; 
then the chief with other Indians came into the cabii., and 
stayed until Stone fell asleep, when they killed him with a 
tomahawk. The rest of the crew were in the cook's room, 
which the Indians entering, the powder exploded by acci- 
dent. The Indians jumped overboard, but soon returned 
and killed those on board, took their clothes and goods, and 
burned the pinnace. Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts, 
wrote to Governor Harvey of Virginia, that the Indians 
should be punished, and thus began the Pequod war.^ 

In the autumn of 1633, a ship arrived at Jamestown with 
Edward Kingsmell and family, and a Mr. Wingate, wife, 
child, and forty other passengers on their way to begin a 
settlement in Carolana, now written Carolina, but owing to 
some misunderstanding they were carried to, and left in 
Virginia. Kingsmell instituted a suit against Samuel 
Vassal of London for breach of contract, and he was im- 
prisoned for some time. 

' Jonathan Brewster the son of the Plymouth leader, in 1636, had a tradinjar 
post on the shores of the Connecticut River, and he wrote that it was the Pequod 
chief, Sassacus who killed Stone. 



AFFAIRS OF THE COLONY FROM A.D. 1634 to A. D. 1638. 

Settlers of Maryland arrive. Thomas Cornwallis Chief 
Councillor, and three-fourths of Maryland Colonists 
Protestant in Faith. Ancestry of Cornwallis, First 
Commissioners for Plantations. Woodhouse asks to be Go- 
vernor. Route to Western Ocean. Exploration of Dela- 
ware River. Mode of Immigration. Sir. Edward Verney's 
son. Plantations of Mathews and Menefie. Notices of 
Stoner, Kemp, and Lidcott. Census A. D., 1635. Dispute 
with Gov. Harvey. Letter to Sir John Zouch, Gov. Har- 
vey goes to England. Settlers near Philadelphia. Nar- 
rative OF Gov. John West. Visit of Maverick of Boston. 
Gov. Harvey's return. Sergeant Major Donne. Norfolk 
County named, Capt. Thomas Stegg, George Ludlow Mer- 
chant. Benoni Buck the first Idiot born in Virginia, 

JNDER the charter granted, in 1632, to George Cal- 
vert, the first Lord Baltimore, his son a,nd suc- 
cessor Cecil, helped by some friends, sent out a 
Colony to the Province of Maryland, in a ship and pin- 
nace, which on the 24th of February, 1633-34, arrived at 
the mouth of the James River, 

While Leonard Calvert, the brother of the second Lord 
Baltimore, was the ostensible Governor of Maryland, the 


leading spirit was the chief councillor Thomas Cornwallis/ 
a man of more distinguished ancestry, and an adherent of 
the church of England. 

More than three-fourths of the first settlers of Maryland 
were Protestants* while those who adhered to the Church 
of Eome were " for the most part poor." 

'Thoraas Cornwullis, a merchant, and sheriflF of London in the days of 
Richard the Second, was a remote ancestor of the Maryland councillor, and also 
of the Lord Cornwallis who surrendered 1o Washington at Yorktown, Virginia. 
The great grandfather of the Maryland councillor was Sir Thomas, knighted 
by Queen Mary, and builder of Browne Hall. The following pasquinades 
appeared in his time : 

" Who built Brown Hall ? Sir Thomas^Cornwallis. 
How did he build it ? By selling of Calais." 

Another was 

" Sir Thomas Cornwallis what got you for Calais ? 
Browne Mali, Browne Hall, as large as a palace.'' 

His tombstone is oblong, of black and white marble, and upon it is a recumbent 
statue with feet restiug on a stag, the famib' crest, and on it is inscribed " Sir 
Thomas Cornwallis, son of Sir John, Comptroller of the Household to Queen 
Mary, Treasurer of Calleys, dyed 26 Dec, 1604, aged 86." 

The grandfather of Thomas of Maryland was Charles, knighted by King 
James, and ambassador (o rSpain. His father was Sir William, and his mother 
Catherine, daughter of ssir Philip of Erwarton Suffolk. His uncle Thomas 
married Anna, daughter of Samuel Bevercott, tlie predecessor of William Brew- 
ster, who became leader of the Plymouth Colonists, as postmaster at Scroob3^ 

A son of the .Maryland councillor, Thomas, born 1662, was Rector of Erwar- 
ton, and afterward ot Bradley Parva in Sulfolk, England. 

A grandson of the Councillor William born in 1708, was Hector of Weuham 
Mag. and Chelmondesler Suffolk. 

A great grandson, also named AVilliam born in 1751, was Rector of Whiters- 
ham and Elam in Kent and his daughter Caroline Frances, was a talented woman, 
scholar and authoress, who died January 8, 1858. 

" This fact is mentioned in a letter written by a Jesuit, to his Superior in 
England. The whole letter was first published in the third volume of " Records 
of the English Province of the Society Jesus," Burns and Gates, London. It 
was reprinted in this country, by the writer of this note, in Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society Magazine, Volume V, 1881. Reference also, to it will be found in 


The arrival of the Baltimore Colony to take possession of 
lands, already cultivated, and settled by Virginians, led to 
years of controversy. On the 14:th of March, 1634, at a 
meeting of the Governor and Council of Virginia, Capt. 
William Claiborne, ' ' requested the opinion of the Board 
how he should demean himself in respect of the Lord 
Baltimore's Plantations Patent, and his deputies, now 
seated in the Bay, for that they had signified unto Captain 
Claiborne, that he was now a member of their plantation, 
and therefore, should relinquish all relations and depend- 
ence on this Colony. It was answered, by the Board, that 
they wondered why there should be any such question 
made, that they knew no reason why they should render 
up the Eight of that Place of the Isle of Kent more than 
any other formerly given to the Colony, by his Ma''" Patent, 
and that the right of my Lord's Grant being yet undeter- 
mined in England, we are bound in duty and by our Oaths 
to maintain the Rights and Privileges of the Colony. 
Nevertheless in all humble Submission to his Majestie's 
Pleasure we resolve to keep and observe all good Correspon- 
dency with them, no way doubting that they on their parts 
will intrench upon his the Interest of this, his Majestys 

Governor Harvey, in a letter to Secretary Windebank, a 
friend of Lord Baltimore, vividly described the situation. 

" Sir : I shall put the daye wherein I did that service to 
my Lord Baltimore which deserved thankes from your 

Bradley Johnson's " Foundation of Maryland " published in 1883, by Maryland 
Historical Society, and in Neill's " Maryland in the Beginning," Cushings and 
Bailey, Baltimore, 1884 


Honor, into the accompt of my happie days, next unto that 
day wherein I was designed to doe his Majestie service in 
this place; and for the respect I owe to your Honor, and for 
the Noblenes I know to be in my Lord Baltimore and his de- 
signes I doe promise your Honor to do him, and his, all the 
service I am able, but I must sincerely let your Honer know 
that my power heere is not greate, it being limited by my 
Commission to the greater number of Voyces at the Coun- 
cell Table, and there I have almost all against me in what- 
ever I can propose, especially, if it concerns Maryland; and 
these proceedings of the Councell do so embolden others, 
that notwithstanding the obligation of Christianitie and his 
Maj''" commands to be assisting to them, in their first be- 
ginning ; many are so averse as that they crye and make it 
their familiar talk, that they would rather knock their 
Cattell in the heads than sell them to Maryland. 

" I am sorjy it is not in my power to rule these exorbitant 
courses, but for their present accommodation I sent unto 
them some Cowes of myne owne, and will do my best to 
procure them more, or anything else they stand in need of. 

''This faction I find great cause to suspect is nourished from 
England, for this summer came letters to Capt. Mathewes 
who is the patron of disoi-der, as your Honor will under- 
stand by the bearer hereof. Lieutenant Evelin (and by his 
comportment in other matters as your Honor will find in 
these papers) upon the reading whereof hee threw his hatt 
upon the ground, scratching his head, and in a fuiy stamp- 
ing, cry ed a pox upon Maryland; many letters and secrett 
intelligences hee and the rest of the Councell hav^e, espe- 
cially Clay borne, and many meetings and consultations for 


which Letters if I had power to search and examine their 
Consultations, I doubt not but to find notable combinations. 
I have written at large of the estate of the Colonie to the 
Lords in generall, to which I re mitt your Honor, humbly 
craving pardon for my brevity which is enforced by my 
indisposition of health p^ this tyme, so humbly presenting 
to your Honor, my best service and respects I take my leave 
and still will rest. 

"Your Humble, very affectionate servant, 

" John Harvey." 
"Virginia, 16th December, 1634." 

In April, 1634, the King appointed Commissioners for 
PlantationsS and among other powers, were authorized to 
make laws, ordinances, and constitutions, to provide for the 
support of the clergy with the advice of two or three bishops, 
to remove any Governor and appoint a successor, to choose 
bishop's suffragan with the advice of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and to revoke any grant of land surreptitiously 

Henry Woodhouse, who had been Governor of Bermuda, 
and served in the Isle of Rhe and Eochelle expeditions, this 
year, applied to be Governor of Virginia, and it was 
rumored that he had been appointed. A friend of Governor 

' The commissioners designated in the proclamation were William Laud, 
Archbishop of Canterbury ; Thomas, Lord Coventry, the keeper of the Great Seal ; 
Richard Neile, Archbishop of Yorke ; Richard, Earl of Portland, the High 
Treasurer ; Henry, Earl of Manchester, keeper of Privy Seal; Thomas, Earl of 
Arundel, and Surrey, Marshal of England ; Edward, Earlof Dorset, Chamberlain 
to the Queen ; Francis, Lord Cottington, the Cliaucellor ; Thomas Edmonds, 
Kt., Treasurer of the Household ; Henry Vane, Kt., Comptroller of the House- 
hold ; John Cooke Kt., Secretary ; Francis Widebank, Kt., Secretary. 


Winthrop of Massachusetts, \vi-ote from London, "'that 
there were ships and soldiers provided, and gjiven out as 
carrying the new Governor, Captain Woodhouse,^ to Vir- 
ginia." In his petition, Woodhouse urged that Harvey had 
ah'eady served more than the usual term of three years. 
The appointment for some reason was delayed, and the 
next year the petitioner again applied. 

The occupation of Quebec by the English led to informa- 
tion of seas to the westward, and renewed the desire to dis- 
cover an inland passage to Asia, through North America. 
In the days of Queen Elizabeth, Apsley, a London dealer in 
gew-gaws and playing cards, wrote to a friend, that he ex- 
pected to live long enough to see a letter in three months 
carried from London, to China, across the American conti- 

' Woodhouse was Governor of Bermudas from 1G28 to 1626. He was a member 
of the Virginia Assembly in 1647, and also in 1652, from Lower Norfolk. 

Among the papers in Her Majestys' Public Record office, London, is the fol- 

" To the King's Most Excellent Matie 

The humble pi^ticon of 

Henry Woodhouse. 

Humbly sheweth that whereas your Matie hath been graciously pleased neere 
four yeares past to promise your Peticouer the Governor's place of Virginia tlie 
settling of wch Plantacon hath bene of sucho long continuance that yor peti- 
coner starveth with the expectatioa. And having lost £600 of his arrears, 
and £60 ff yearly intertainment in Suffolk, never having received one penny 
for his enaploynient on the Isle of Rcy and Rochell. Captain Talbott enjoying 
the command of Tillbury Fort given by your Matie bee pleased to give a final 
end to his tedious suite. 

" Hee, therefore humbly prayeth your ^fr^tie will graciously declare your pleas- 
ure, and make your peticoner enjoy the happiness of your Maties favour by 
giveiugyour warrant for thedrawinp of his Commission wherebyyour Peticoner 
shall avoid further troubling of your Matie who is absolutely undone without 
yor Maties immediate dispatch. And hee sh-'l (as in duty ever bound) daily 
continue his prayers for your Maties I'jng and most prosperous raigne." 


nent, between the forty-third and forty-sixth parallels of 
north latitude. In the days of King Charles, one wrote : 
" Now all the question is only how broad the land may be at 
that place from the James River above the Falls, but all men 
conclude it to be not narrow, yet, that there is, and will be 
found the like rivers issuing in a South Sea or a West Sea, 
on the otlier side of these hills, as there is on this side where 
they run from the West, down into the East, after a course 
of one hundred and fifty miles, but of this certainty Mr. 
Henri Briggs, that most judicious and learned mathemati- 
cian wrote a small tractate, and presented it, to that most 
noble Earl of Southampton, the Governor of the Virginia 
Company in England, Anno, 1623, to which I refer for full 
information. And by such a discovery the planters of Vir- 
ginia shall gain the rich trade of the East Indies, and so 
cause it to be drawn through the continent of Virginia, 
part by land, and part by water, in a most gainful way, 
and safe and far less expenseful and dangerous than it now 
is. And yet they doubt not to find some rich and beneficial 
country and commodities not yet known to the world that 
lies west and by south now from the Plantation." Joseph 
Mede on Sept. 14, 1623, wrote to Sir Martin Stuteville ; ^ 
"It is said that Capt. Button hath discovered the Hudson's 
passage so far, as it is supposed, he came up to the Virginian 

In 1630 the bark " Warwick " arrived at the mouth of the 
Piscataqua River, New England, with a party sent for "dis- 
covery of the great Lake " and m 1633, Thomas Young, 
born in London, more than fifty years of age, petitioned 

' Court and Times of Charles the First. 


the King to be allowed at his own charges, to discover and 
search the unexplored parts of Virginia and adjacent regions, 
and that he would ''graciously be pleased to signifie by 
His royall letters to all the colonies of America, and in very 
particular manner the Governor and Councell of Virginia, 
and to let them understand that he is well satisfied of the 
fidelitie, allegiance, loyall proceeding, and great devotion 
of Mr. Young, to his Majesties Service^ and that therefore 
he hath employed him, together with his nephew, Mr. 
Robert Evelin. "=■ 

On the 23d of September, 1633, a special commission' was 
issued to Young, authorizing him to fit out ships, appoint 
officers, and make explorations without molestation from 
any of the colonial authorities of America. Among his 
assistants were a surgeon named Scott, and Alexander 
Baker, of St. Holborn's Parish, Middlesex, who had been con- 
fined '' in regard of some questions which occurred long ago 
concerning conscience, but now at hberty," who was to be 
the cosmographer, examiner of mines and trier of metals. * 

In April, 1634, Young wrote to Secretary Windebank, 
that he wished to sail as soon as possible and "that he be 
pleased to send for Mr. Robinson, the King's searcher at 
Gravesend, and to signifie to him, in his Majesties name 
that Mr. Young, his nephew Mr. Evelin, Mr. Baker his 
Cosmographer, and Mr. Scott his Phisition, have already 

' Young's letter is given in full in Scull's Evelyns in America, pp. 55, 56. 

■Robert Evelyn, BBCond son of Robert of Goodstone, Surrey, and wife Susanna, 
daughter of Gregory Young, of London, was born about A. D. 1505. 

3 Rymer, Vol. XIX. 

* ScuU'b Evelyns, p. 67. 



given satisfaction to his Majestie, in swearing their allegiance, 
and that therefore, they are not more to be questioned in 
that point. * ♦ * * Mr. Young humbly desires that 
some verie particular order may be given by His Majestie to 
my Lord Keeper for the pressing and keeping private of 
these articles from being seene or knowne by any. Pray, 
Sir, remember to ask if their be anie new Governor shortly 
to be made in Virginia."^ 

On the 16th of May, 1634, he was able to sail from Fal- 
mouth, with two vessels, but on the voyage was exposed to 
storms, and the larger ship became leaky. On the 4:th of 
of July he had reached Point Comfort, and Captain Clai- 
borne of the Isle of Kent, in a small bark, arrived about the 
same time and passed the night on board his ship. The 
next day he had an interview with Governor Harvey, and 
Thomas Cornwallis, the chief councillor of the new province 
of Maryland, and then visited Jamestown. 

On the 20th of July, his ship being repaired and provisioned 
and shallop built, he proceeded on his exploration of the 
Delaware River. On the 23d of August, he reached a 
lesser river which fell into the Delaware, supposed to 
have been the Schuylkill, and remained five days trading 
with the Indians, and then continued his ascent, and on 
the 29th reached shallow water. On the 1st of September, 
Lieutenant Robert Evelin went up in the shallop to the 
Falls of the Delaware. While the Dutch at Manhattan occa- 
sionally traded with the Indians, their post, Fort Nassau, 
was not then occupied. In a report written from the shores 

' Scull's Evelyns, p. 58. 


of the Delaware River on the 20th of October, to Windebank, 
Secretary of State, he discloses his hope of finding a passage 
to the Pacific ocean. His words are: "I passed by the 
great river, which I mention to your Honour, with purpose 
to have pursued the discovery thereof till I had found the 
great lake, from which I am informed this great river 
issueth, and from thence I have particular reason to believe 
there doth also issue some branch, one or more, by which 
I might have passed into that Mediterranean Sea, which the 
Indian relateth to be four days journey beyond the moun- 
tains ; but, having passed near fifteen leagues of the river, 
I was stopped from further proceeding by a ledge of rocks 
which crosseth the river over, so as I could not get over 
wath my vessel, by reason of the shallowness of the water, 
which at high water riseth not above a foot and a half over 
the rocks, and at low water the rocks are discovered five or 
six foot deep, so that I determined against the next summer 
to build a vessel which I will launch above the rocks, in which 
I propose to go up to the lake [Lake Erie ?], from whence I 
hope to find a way that leadeth into the Mediterranean Sea 
[Lake Superior ? ] ; and from the lake, I judge, that it can- 
not be less than 150 or 200 leagues to the North Ocean; and 
from thence I propose to discover the mouths thereof, which 
discharge themselves both into the North and South Seas. 
But if I fail in arriving at the lake, which I am confident 
I shall not, I will then take with me out of my vessel both 
workmen, and provisions which shall be portable, for the 
building of a small vessel, which I will carry those four 
days journey over land, with a competent number of men, 
and then I propose to cut down wood, and fit up a vessel upon 


the banks of that sea, and from thence make my discovery,"^ 
Evehn left Jamestown, with this letter about the middle 
of December, and during the last week of May, 1635, he 
sailed again for America to join his uncle Young upon 
" special and very important service." 

The exploration of the Delaware River above the Falls 
appears to have been abandoned, and an attempt to reach 
the great inland lake was made by the Kennebec River. 
Maverick, in his description of New England, writes •? " This 
is a great and spreading River, and runes very neer into 
Canada. One Captaine Young and three men with him, 
in the yeare 1636, went up the River upon discovery, and 
only by Carying their canoes some few times, and not farr 
by Land came into Canada River, very neare Kebeck Fort, 
where by the French, Capt. Young was taken, and carried 
for ffrance, but his Company returned safe." 

The Secretary of the Colony, under Harvey, in a report, 
to the King's Secretary, mentions that ' ' of hundreds of 
people who arrived in the colony, scarce any but are 
brought in as merchandize, to make sale." Agencies were 
established in London, to procure servants for persons dis- 
posed to invest money in tobacco plantations. Amid the 
meaner sort of immigrants, occasionally landed some man 
of family, and education, broken in fortune and reputation, 
or some youth under the displeasure of parents, sent away 
from home. Thomas, a son of Sir Edward Verney, in 
1634, fell in love with one, whom his parents did not wish 

' Aspinwall Papers. 

• Piret printed in New England Hist, and Gen. Register, January, 1885. 


that he should marry, as he was only about nineteen years of 
age, and the girl lower in social rank. After anxious de- 
hberation it was decided to send him to Virginia, and the 
mother opened a correspondence with an immigration agent 
who Uved in Bucklesbury, Cheapward, London, a street at 
that time on both sides occupied by grocers, apothecaries, 
and dealers in small wares. His reply is worthy of preser- 
vation, as it contains the best description of the mode of pro- 
curing servants and their transportation to Virginia, at that 
period. He writes with the directness of one experienced 
in his business: " If it will please Sir Edmond and your 
ladyshipp to bee ruled by my aduise your sonne should haue 
with him iij servants, at least, which may bee had heare, at 
a dayes warninge ; but indede I desiered if it were possible 
to have him bring a cooper out of the countrey, which wee 
cannot get soe redily here. 

" Every seruant hee sends oner will stand him in xij" his 
passage, and apparel fit for him, with other charges. After 
his cumming into Verginia I doubt nott but my frends, I 
haue there, hee shall bee well acomodated for his owne 
person, and at a resonable rate, and his men maye likewise 
be taken off his hande, and dyated for theyre worke, for 
the first yeare, and with some advantage to your sonne be- 
sides ; then, the next yeare, if hee shall like the country 
and be mynded to staye, and settel a plantation himselfe, 
these servants will bee seasoned, and bee enabled to direct 
such others as shall bee sent vnto him, from hence, hear- 
after ; or if hee shall nott like the country then he may sell 
theyre tyme they haue to Serve him, vnto other men that 
have neede of servants, and make a good beneffitt of them, 


as alsoe of all such things as he shall carry with him, for 
ther is nothing that we carry from thence, but if it cost 20s. 
heare, they doe geue there for it 30s. 

' ' Now, for his owne proper acomodation I must intreat 
your Ladiship that he maye bring up with him a fether 
bed, bolster, pillow, blanketts, rugg, and 3 payre of sheets 
vnless you will please they shall bee bought heare ; it is 
but a spare horse the more to bring them up. And let not 
his staye be longer. If hee had come up nowe I had then 
bespoake for him that accommodation (in regard to the iuti- 
masie I haue with the owners of this ship) which he cannot 
haue in every ship, that goeth thether ; for he should have 
layne in the greate cabbin, but I am afeared if wynde fayre 
for them to be gone, they will not staye past iij or iiij days 
longer at most. But howeeuer ther shal bee nothinge 
wantinge in mee to doe the best I can to get him the best 
acomodation I maye in some other shipp, if hee doe cum 
toe late. 

"Madam, the reason why I intreat your ladyshipp that hee 
may haue with him, for his own particular vse a fether bed, 
bolster, blanquetts, rugg, curtaynes, and vallance, is that 
although many howsholds in Verginia are soe well prouided 
as to entertayne a stranger with all thinges necessary for 
the belly, yet few or none better prouided for the back as 
yeat them to serve theyre own turnes ; therefore 'tis neces- 
sary that hee bee prouided. 

"Now, if it will please your ladiship that he maye haue 
ij men with him, I haue hear inclosed, and he might cum 
time enough to goe awaye in this shipp which I soe much 


desier hee should goe, for the good acomodation that I am 
suer he wold haue there. 

" The charge for himself and ij men, with the provisions 
which is needfull for him ta carry will come toe 56 li, more 
or less, and if you shall think fit toe lett him haue a third 
man, it is but xll" more, and truly it is the opinion of all 
that I haue conferred with that it is a greate deale better 
for him to haue som seasoned men of his owne, when he 
goes to settell a plantation, than to haue all fresh men, 
because these men maye bee inabled to direct others that 
hee shall haue hereafter."^ 

In August, young A^erney, with his men, barrels, and 
baggage' was received on board the good ship called the 
"Merchants Hope" of London, whereof was "master' under 
God, Robert Pay ge," then "riding at anchor in the river 
Thames and bound to Virginia." 

In 1634, there were two planters in Virginia that were sur- 
rounded with many comforts and some of the luxuries of 
life. Above Newport News, at Blunt Point, was the home 
of Samuel Mathews, perhaps the wealthiest man in the 
colony. His wife was the daughter of Sir Thomas Hin- 
ton, now one of the Council in Virginia. His wife's brother 
William Hinton, was a gentleman of the King's Privy 
Chamber. Sir Thomas Hinton had married a second time 

' Verney Papers, Camden Society Publication. 

•His freight bill was £117 18*'. 6d. 

3 Robert Page was a well known ship captain in the Vir(?inia trade. Verney 
ultimately settled in the West Indies. 


in 1622, the rich widow^ of Sir Sebastian Harvey, Lord 
Mayor of London. 

His house was comfortable, and he employed many ser- 
vants. His plantation was a painiature village, flax and 
hemp were there woven, cattle and swine were raised for the 
ships outward bound, hides were tanned and leather made 
into shoes. His dairy was large, and poultry was abundant. 
He was known as one who ' ' lived bravely, kept a good 
house, and was a true lover of Virginia." 

A few hours sail from Blunt Point and nearer Jamestown, 
was the next most attractive place owned by an enterpriz- 
ing merchant, George Menefle. His large garden contained 
the fruits of Holland, and the roses of Provence, and his 
orchard was planted with apple, pear, and cherry trees, 
and here the peach was cultivated for the first time in 
North America. Around the house were rosemary, thyme 
and majoram, favorites of that age.* 

Four years before John Harvard bequeathed his estate to 
the college near Boston, which bears his name, Benjamin 
Symmes of Virginia, left the first legacy by a resident of the 
American plantations of England, for the promotion of edu- 
cation. By his will made Feb. 12th, 1634-5, he gave two 

1 See page 31. 

»Perdita in Shakespeare's Winter's Tale, says : 

" Give me those flowers there, Dorcas. Reverend Sirs 
For you there's rosemary and rue, these keep 
Seeming, and favour all the v^inter long." 
In the same Act, again 

" Here's flowers for you 
Hot lavender, mint, savory, majoram." 


hundred acres on the Poquoson, a small stream which enters 
the Chesapeake Bay between Yorktown and Point Comfort, 
"with the milk and increase of eight cows for the main- 
tenance of a learned and honest man to keep upon the said 
ground a free school, for the education and instruction of 
the children of the adjoining parishes of Elizabeth city and 
Kingston, from Mary's Mount* downward to the Poquosen 

A few. years after his death, in a little pamphlet,^ the 
author w^rote : '* I may not forget to tell you we have a free 
school, with two hundred acres of land, a fine house^ upon 
it, forty milch kine, and other accommodations. The bene- 
factor deserveth perpetual mention, Mr. Benjamin Symmes,< 
worthy to be chronicled. Other petty schools we have." 

' Capt. Wollaston of " Maire Mount" now Quincy, Masa., about 1636, writes. 
Bradford " transports a g^reat part of ye servants to Virginia, and goes himself." 
Did he settle on the shores of James River, at Mary's Mount near Elizabeth 

^"'^ Perfect Description of Virginia," 1649. 

3 By the provisions of the will, the moneys arising from the first increase of 
cattle were to be used to build a school house. The profits from the subsequent 
sales of cattle, for the support of poor children. 

* Benjamin Syms, written also Symmes and Siines was probubly the same 
person, who in 1623, was living at Basse's Choice, and about 33 years of age. In 
1624, at this point died a Margaret Symes. In 1629, Thomas Warnet the mer- 
chant of Jamestown, bequeathed Benjamin Symes a weeding hoe. He was evi- 
dently a honest, religious, and childless planter. In March, 1642-3, the Vir- 
ginia Assembly, passed tlie following : " Be it enacted and confirmed, upon 
consideration, had of the godly disposition and good intenl of Benjamin Symms 
deceased, in founding by his last will and testament a free school ii\ Elizabeth 
county, for tiie incouragement of all others, in the like pious performance, 
that the said will and testament with all donations therein contained concerning 
the free school and the situation thereof in the said county, and the land apper- 
taining to the same, shall be confirmed according to the godly intent of the said 
testator without any alienation or conversion thereof to any place or county." 



John Stoner was sent by the King, in the autumn of 1634, 
to act as agent in making a contract concerning tobacco, 
and to be one of the Virginia Council, but died on the voy- 

In December, 1634, Richard Kemp, who had been ap- 
pointed Secretary through the influence of the Earl of Pem- 
broke, arrived, and he sent the answer of the colony to the 
proposition that the King should have the sole preemption 
of tobacco. Robert Lidcott,^a son of Sir John, was at this 
time in Virginia. He was connected with Edward Palmer,' 
the benevolent man who before 1625, projected a college 
and art school, to be situated on Palmer's Island in the Sus- 
quehanna near its mouth. 

Francis Pott, the brother of Governor Pott, early in 1635, 
was removed from the command of the fort at Point Com- 
fort, and Capt. Francis Hook, a naval officer who had been 
on duty with his ship upon the Irish coast, was appointed. 
By a census taken about February of this year' there were 

' Sir John Lidcott was the brother-in-law of Sir Thomas Overbury, tbe victim 
of intrigue poisoned in the Tower of London. The wife of Sir Thomas Over- 
bury, was the aunt of Edward Palmer. 

" For a notice of Edward Palmer and proposed School of Art, see Virginia 
Vetusta, Munsell's Sone, Albany, 1885, pages, 182-184. 

3 Census of A. D. 1634-5. 

" A list of the number of men, women, and children Jnhabitinge in the severall 
counties wth in the Collony of Virginia Anno Dmi 1634. 

Imprimis from Arrowhattock to Shirley Hundred, on both sides the river, 

being within the Countie of Henrico. 419 

Item, from Shirley hundred Hand to Weysnoake on both sides the River, 

being wthin the countie of Charles Citty. 511 


found to be five thousand men, women and children in 

The relations between Governor Harvey and his Council- 
lors became less pleasant every year.^ In open court he 
would revile them " and tell them they were to give their 
attendance as assistants to advise with him," but that " the 
power lay in himself to dispose of all matters as his Majes- 
ty's substitute." During the month of January, he re- 
ceived a letter from the King, which he acknowledged and 
wrote that on the i^Oth of February he would communicate 
it to the General Assembly. He however, detained certain 
letters to the King, which had been prepared by the planters. 

Item, from Upper Cheppeake Creek to Lawne's Creekeon the Southward 
side and from Checohominey River to Creeke on the northward side 
of the river, beinor wtli in the countie of James City. 886 

Item, from Lawne's Creek to Warrosquyoake Creeke on the soutliward 

side of the river, being witliin the Coiintye of Warrosquyoake. .522 

Item, from Ketches [Keith's] Creeke & Mill bury Hand to Marie's Mount 
on the northward side of the river being wth the countie of War- 
rick River. 811 

Item, from Maiies Mount to Foxhill wth the Plantations of the Back river 
& the old Pocoson river on the Northward side, and from Elizabeth 
river to Chesepeake River on the Southward side of the river being 
wtli in the countie of Elizabeth Citt}'. 859 

Item, in the Plantations of Kiskyake, Torku & the new Pocoson, being 

within the countie of Charles River. 510 

Item, in th^j Plantations on the Esterlie side of Chessepeake Bay, being 

within the countie of Accowmack. 396 

The whole number is 4,914 

" After this list was brought in, there arrived a ship of Holand with 145 from 
the Bermudas. 

" And since that 60 more in a English shipp wch likewise oanie from the Ber- 
mudas." State Papers Colonial, Vol. VIII, 35. 

» See Appendix, for letter of .Mathew.s, to Sir John Wolstenholm. 


and a petition was presented to the Council asking some 
redress from the evils they suffered. 

Late on the night of the 27th of April, 1635, Governor 
Harvey was informed that there had been a meeting at 
York, in the house of William Warren, which had been 
addressed by Francis Pott, Capt. Martin, and William Eng- 
lish, sheriff of the county, severely commenting on the 
course of the Governor. The next day the speakers were 
arrested, brought to Jamestown and ironed. During the 
day Francis Pott was before the Council, and produced the 
paper mentioning the grievances of the Colony which he 
had sent on to York. 

On the 29th the Council again met, and the Governor 
wished that those under arrest should be tried by martial 
law, but most of the Councillors insisted that the case be- 
longed to the civil law. 

The Governor sat in a chair with a " frowning counte- 
nance," and ordered the Councillors to be seated. He then 
drew a paper from his pocket, and said he was about to 
propose a question, and required each one, without con- 
sulting with his colleagues, to give an answer in writing. 

The query was ' ' What do you think they deserve, that 
have gone about, to persuade the people, from their obe- 
dience to his Majesty's substitute ?" Mr. Menefie was the 
first Councillor addressed, who replied that he was ' ' but a 
young lawyer and dare not upon the sudden deliver his 
opinion." William Farrar began then to make some re- 
marks as to the unreasonableness of the request, when he 
was silenced, and told not to speak out of his turn. Samuel 
Mathews said there was no precedent for his strange course. 


Others also expressed their disapproval, and after crimina- 
tions and recriminations the session of the Council closed. 
When they again met he sternly demanded why they 
had procured a petition against him. 

Menefie answered that a chief cause of the displeasure 
was his detaining certain letters that had been addressed to 
the King and the Lords. "Do you say so ? " quickly said 
the Governor. ' * Yes. " was the cool, but firm reply. Harvey 
angrily moving toward him struck him on the shoulder and 
said, " I arrest you on the suspicion of treason." Captain 
Utie in return, being near, said, " We, the like to you, Sir." 
Mathews seeing that the Governor had lost control of him- 
self firmly placed his arms around him and said, " There is 
no harm intended against you, sit down in your chair, and 
listen to the complaints of the colonists." Harvey insisted 
that they had no grievances and this meeting ended. 

After this, Capt. Purfury, a Councillor friendly to the 
Governor, wrote that he feared the people would proceed to 
violent measures. The Governor then held another confer- 
ence with his Council, on the 30th, and his commission was 
read, when the Councillors who had opposed him, agreed 
that they would assist him, if he would conform to his 
Majesty's pleasure as expressed in his commission and in- 
structions. The Council deeming it expedient, issued a call 
for the Burgesses to assemble and consider grievances, and 
adjourned for six days. A guard was left for the protection 
of the Governor, Three days after, he left Jamestown, 
"and went unto the Mills, to the house of one William 
Brockas, whose wife was generally suspected to have more 


familiarity with him than befitted a modest woman," and 
here dismissed his guard. 

On the 7th of May, the Council and Burgesses assembled, 
but before they organized, Secretary Kemp exhibited a 
threatening letter from the Governor, received that day, to 
which no attention was given. The next morning, the 
Secretary showed the Council another letter he had received, 
requesting that he would secretly surrender the commission 
of the King appointing him Governor, which the Council 
had already placed for safe keeping with one of their num- 
ber, George Menefie, until differences were settled. After 
resolving to send their statement of grievances to the King's 
Commissioners for Virginia in England, the Council until 
they heard from them, made choice of a temporary Gov- 
ernor, " Captain John West, an ancient inhabitant, a very 
honest gentleman of noble family, being brother to the 
Lord Laware sometime Governor of Virginia." 

Sir John Zouch, one of the Commissioners for Virginia, 
and a friend of Mathews, in November, 1634, visited the 
Colony where he had a son and daughters. Governor Harvey 
told the Privy Council that he was " of the Puritan Sect." 
After remaining a few months, he and Captain Button re- 
turned to England, His son writes to his " deare and lov- 
ing father " this letter now first printed. 

" Sr, I perceive that if the Gov' could haue done you any 
dispight hee would haue pursued it to the utermost, for 
one of the 2 Kine shot I was to receive for you ; being but 
a shrimpe I left at Capt. Brownes who promised to procure 
a letter, but was stricktly charged to retaine hir, w'"" com- 
mand the Councell since have contradicted. The Coun- 


cellors and Burgesses for the last Assembly haue fained a 
letter as from the Burgesses and others to the Councell com- 
playning of their manifould aggreevances, and desiring re- 
dresse from them. 

' ' The people of the lower parts mett in such troopes to 
set theire hands to the letter, that it put Capt. Purifie into 
an affright that caused him to write t<j the Grovern' of 
many incident dangers, insoemuch that hee durst not keepe 
a Courte, untill hee heard from him, or had a letter from 
his Ma"^ Hereupon the Gov' sendeth warrants for the 
Councell who soone after they met, consulted about send- 
ing the GoV for England, but Capt. Browne went home 
over night, a paine that hee had in his belly excused him 
sufficiently by reason hee opposed him, as did the rest. Mr. 
Manifie did absolutely refuse his aide in arresting him 
alleadging reasons that it was not fitt to deale soe w'" his 
Ma''" substitute ; hee went not home as hee said, but to the 
back river where hee debated w* himselfe, desiringe of 
God to confirme his resolucon or abolish it, but the losse of 
the Country sticking in his stomacke at last hee came, re- 
solved as the rest, when the Govern' did arrest him of 
high treason for the words hee spoke against him, at Ke- 
coughtan, you then present, but hee had no sooner given 
Mr. Menefie the thumpe on his shoulder, but Capt. Utay 
tooke him by the middle, and arrested him in his Ma''" 
name, the rest stepping and taking hould of him likewise: 
looking pale, as did Kempe, hee refused to goe till hee saw 
noe resistance, and then hee desired their leave to chuse a 
Deputie who though hee spoke very mildely ever since was 
denyed, they meete, sending him w"* all that can object 


ought against him, himselfe residing at Kttle towne, the 
intrini, for;-;etting and laying aside all malice formerly 
between them. I neede not to bee further impertinent 
presuming you will bee acquainted with the cause shortlie 
after you haue wondered att this unlooked for coming. 
The Maryland men haue boorded Capt. Claiborne, taken all 
his trade, and trading stuffe, bound his men, and cast them 
into the hold, besides beating and hurting them in what 
manner wee are not fully acquainted w'*", but I hope wee 
shall haue a journey to the Pacowomecke. The Countrey 
prayeth for you both [four words torn away] you come 
Governor. My sisters, and all your friends are very well who 
haue obleidged mee to them by infinit curtices. Soe w"" 
my honest humble dutie I rest, desiring you to salute all my 
friends, as from mee." 

At the time of Harvey's deposition by the Assembly, there 
was a ship* about to sail for England, and after he went 
aboard, Capt. Claiborne arrived from the Isle of Kent with 
the news of the encounter between his men and the Mary- 
land people in the Pocomoke Eiver, and also in another 
tributary of Chesapeake Bay. 

A boat of Claiborne, under the command of Ratcliff 
Warner, called the Long Tail, in which was Charles Harney 
of Accomac with goods for trading with the Indians, was 
met " in the river of Pocomoque^ on the Eastern Shore" 

'The Dutch Captain De Vries, wrote in his journal under date of May 17, 
1635, " 4 o'clock at Point Comfort, where we found a ship from London, in 
which was Sir John Harvey, Governor on behalf of the King of England. He 
was sent to England by his Council, and the people, who made a new Governor." 

=^ Language of Bill presented to the Grand Jury at Saint Mary, Maryland. 


by two pinnaces of the Marylanders under Councillor 
Thomas Cornwallis, on the twenty-third of April, and a 
skirmish took place, resultinpj in the killing of Warren and 
two of his party, John Bellson, and William Dawson; also 
one of the men of Cornwallis, William Ash more, and 
an apprentice, of Saint Mary. Not far from Claiborne's 
Island* of seven hundred acres, near Hudson's River, in the 
harbor of Great Wighcomoco, on the 10th of May, Corn- 
wallis met Thomas Smith, Gent, of Kent Island with Philip 
Tailor, Thomas DuffiU, and Richard Hancock. Smith was 
charged with felony, and piracy, and after a long delay 
was sentenced to be hung. 

Claiborne sent the following account of the affair to 
John Coke, one of the Secretaries of State. 

" Ever honoured Sir : How unhappy is this Colony to 
returne to his friends and welwishers a yearlly increase of 
infelicities, which though they seem ever at the height, yet 
new addition arises by some unfortunate accident. And 
behold now, tumults and broyles, wrongs and oppressions 
perpetrated with a high hand, and not without undue courses 
in alteration of Government, and such violence acted as hath 

' In Harrison's Memoir of Cliristison, published by Maryland Historical 
Society, referring to Peter Sharpe a pliysiciau, and member of the Society uf 
Friends, he writes : " This Peter Sharpe is the same person from whom the 
island in the mouth of Great Choptank river takes the name it now very im- 
properly l)far9 Tliis island has been known by several names according as it 
has belonjred to this or that person, but the name of the Quaker pjiysician of 
Culvert has cluno^ to it, and will ever be used to desiprnate a little patch of earth, 
originally 700 acres, diminishing year by year. * * * But, it purity of de- 
flignation should be allowed to govern, tlie ])roper name of tliis island is Clai- 
borne. In the deed of Will. Sharpe, son and heir of Peter, to John Eatou, 
Sept. 10, 1675, it is expressly stated that this island " -was foriiiftrly known by 
the name of Claiborne's Island.^' 



shewed itself in the effusion of native bloud, undoubtedly 
God will make a way for his glory, through the injustice of 
men, and the end will be'an establishment of this long lan- 
guishing Colony, 

''These actions here befell in a time while I at home was 
alsoe sett upon all sides by my cruell neighbours who have 
not only trampled upon all right, but contemned the express 
command of his Majestic under the protection whereof I 
deemed myself soe safe that I provided not enough against 
their malice, and soe perished by security, not deeming that 
I had such enemies or such men to deale with as would 
spurne at the Kings Royall commands upon them. 

"The particulars I need not trouble you with, these in- 
closed papers and relations will be too much testimony of 
the misfortunes that swallow us. It seems a wonder to me 
that Sir John Harvey always left to himselfe without vio- 
lence should not gaine a power to reestablish himself but all 
men were wronged, and even good and bad had forsaken 
him. A strange thing a Governor should so demeans him- 
self, for my part I am ignorant of all these things, and my 
own brothers are weight enough to presse down my 
thoughts. In which I shall possess patience untill it shall 
please God to move his May"" Royall heart, and the Lords 
minds to relieve and support as men wronged with as 
greivous pressures as ever Englishmen endured at the hands 
of their Countrymen. 

' ' For the future I advise as little innovation may be done 
as the nature of the affaires * * * and that they expect 
redress from the means his May*'' shall please to appoint. I 
desire your Candor may excuse my lynes which I desire to 


abreviate rather than to enlarge with the sad events of un- 
happy affaires rather coveting to mourne with in our own 
bossome,than to transfer to the eares of others. We beseech 
a speedy signification of his Majesties pleasure to * * the 
fury of our adversaries. In the interim we put up a sup- 
plication to the King of Kings to deliver us from them. I 
humbly take my leave and remaine. 

"Eliz. Citty "Your most humble servant, 

" SS"* May, 1635. " W. Clayborne." 

In the same ship, with Harvey, sailed Francis Pott, and 
Thomas Harwood, representatives of the Assembly to pre- 
sent their complaints, and reasons for sending the Go- 
vernor home. Upon the 14th of July the ship reached 
Plymouth and upon complaint to the Mayor,' the represen- 
tatives of the Virginians were arrested, and Governor Har- 
vey, the same day wrote to his friend. Secretary Windebank: 

"Right Honourable: I doubt not not but that your 
Honor will admire at my coming, from my charge without 
any licence or other direction from his May"* or the Lords. 
But it may please your Honor to calle to mynde howe that 
in my last Letter concerning the affayres of Virginia, I 
signified that the Assemblies being composed of a rude, 
ignorant, and ill-conditionede people were more lykelye to 

' Plymouth oflBcera made this report : 

"John Martyne, Mayor of Plymouth, Robert Trelawny and John Clement to 
the Privy Council : 

"Arrival that morninfr of Sir John Harv«y, Governor of Virginia, vrho gave 
information of a late munity and rebellion in the colony. Francis Pott having 
been charged as a principal author and actor tliey have detained . ...... 

from some letters sealed up in a trunk from the mutineers, in charge of Tho's 
Harwood and desires to know what shall be done vyith Francis Pott." 


effect mutinye than good lawes, and orders especially whilst 
the Councellgave them such examples; what I then feared, 
I soon after founde (but I must confess) their exorbitance, 
have by much exceeded my expectations; for presently 
after the departure of the ships (having received an infor- 
mation of some mutinous Assemblies,) I sent sent for the 
Councell as also warrants for the apprehending of the chieff 
mutineers, the Councell I called for theyr Advice in so 
dangerous a business: But I found them so farre from in- 
tending any good, that they came armed with a strength to 
surprise mee, and laying violent hands upon mee charged 
mee with Treason, for going about (as they saide) to betray 
theyr Forte into the hands of theyr Enemies of Marylande, 
telling mee I must resolve myselfe to goe presently into 
Englande, theare to make answer to the Countries Com- 
playnts against mee, forthwith setting at libertie such of 
the mutiny menne I had caused to be layed fast in irons. 

"In the next place they called an Assembly of the Bur- 
gesses, and some five days after made a new Governor, my- 
self being yet resident in the Countrie ; a large account of 
all theyre proceeds I shall with all convenient speed in per- 
son render unto your Honor, in the mean tyme I thought 
these but of Dutye. 

"As also to signifie to your Honor that landing at 
Plimouth the 24th of the month, I have made use of the 
Authoritie of the Mayor of the Place to fasten upon the 
two persons which came in the shipp with mee ; the one a 
person principally employed up and downe the CoUonie to 
persuade the Inhabitants to subscribe to a cabbal of pre- 
tended grievance agaynst mee, the other, expressly sent with 


Letters for the Councell and their unlawful Assemblies to 
their Agents and abettors in Englande. I have also used 
the same means to fasten upon theyr Letters which being 
brought to view no doubt already the malice of theyr rebel- 
lious Action's and Intentions may be discovered and it is to be 
feared that they intend no less then the subjection of Mary- 
land for whilst I was aboard the ship, and readie to depart 
the Collonie theare arrived Capt. Claborne from the Isle of 
Kent with the news of a hostile encounter twixt some of his 
people and those of Maryland and Capt. Francis Hooke tould 
mee that by the relation of some of Capt. Claybornes owne 
companye it was they who sought out the Maryland Boates 
which were trading among the Indians, and twice assaulted 
them, and that theare were some hurt and slayne on bothe 
sydes, and at Captain Clabornes' request two of the Coun- 
cell were dispatched for Maryland unto which, if those of 
Maryland condiscend not, they intend to supplant them and 
send them home as they have don mee, I presume Mr. 
Kemps' letter will more fully inform your Honor therein. 
After many troubles, and a wearisome passage I am bound 
to repose a day or two. I will hasten up to sende an account 
to your Honor of all matters concerning my Trust, in the 
mean tyme I rest. 

" Most readie to obey 

"your Honor's commands 

"John Harvey." 
" PHmouth, the lith of July, 1635." 

It was not until the 11th of December, that the case of 
Harvey was formally discussed by the King and Privy 


After the letter of the Virginia Councillors and Burgesses 
had been read, the King thought it was necessary to send 
Harvey back, even if he should remain but a day, that it was 
''an assumption of regal power to send hither the Go- 

To the charge that he had not administered the usual oaths 
to all who arrived in Virginia, Harvey made a denial. He 
also declared that while a minister named Wilhams had 
charged that one Eabent had said it was lawful to kill a 
heretic, that he had not shown deference to Williams be- 
cause he had married without a license, and that he had 
silenced White, another minister, because he had preached 
two years and had never exhibited any orders. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury, who was present, said that 
no minister ought to be allowed to go on board a ship to 
Virginia, unless he showed orders from the Bishop of a 
diocese. The Governor admitted that he had retired Sir 
Thomas Hinton from the Council, because his language was 
not respectful, and that in a fight with Richard Stephens, a 
councillor who had insulted him, he had knocked out some 
of his teeth " with a cudgel." 

During the summer of 1635, a number of persons under 
the leadership of George Holmes, went to the valley of the 
Delaware River, and occupied the deserted Fort Nassau, 
"obliquely opposite," where the city of Philadelphia was 
laid out, about half a century afterwards, by William Penn. 
Thomas Hall, one of the party, for some reason ran away 
from Holmes,^ and reaching Manhattan, informed the 

' Secretary Windebank on May 23, 1685, wrote to Earl of Lindsey to give 
every assiBtance to the bearer, Lieut. Robert Evelyn, about to return in th 



Dutch authorities, of the design of the Virginians. A ves- 
sel was sent and they were arrested during the summer, 
and on the first of September, returned to Manhattan, with 
Hohnes and fourteen or fifteen Virginians. Captain De 
Vries was employed to take them in his vessel to Virginia, 
and on the 10th of September landed at Kiquotan now 
Hampton, where he found twenty men in a pinnace about 
to sail and settle with those who had" so unexpectedly re- 

During the autumn of 1635, there were thirty-six ships* 
in the James River, each carrying from twenty to twenty- 

" Plain Joan,'' to Capt. Younor "on special and very important business." — 


'Thomas Hall and George Holmes became leading citizens in New Nether- 
land. On the 23d of March, 1639, they were both living in a house belonging to 
Governor VonTwiller. Calling themselves tobacco planters, in November they 
obtained a grant of land on East River, that portion of New York City between 
47lh and 52d street. In 1640, Hall sells his interest to Holmes. In 1643, Hall 
had become one of the "Eight Men" of Manhattan or New Amsterdam, and wag 
prominent for a quarter of a century. In 1649, Hall and Holmes bought lots in 
Lady Moody's settlement at Graveseud. In 1664, when the English took New 
Amsterdam now New York, Hall gave in his allegiance. 

• Among the ships that sailed from London in 1635, with passengers for Vir- 
ginia, were : 



Bona Ventura, 
Plain Joan, 
Thomas and John, 
Merchants Hope. 




James Ricroft. 

Richard Buckam. 

John Chappell. 

Richard Lambard. 

Richard Morgan. 

William Barker. 
Edward Walker. 
Leonard Betts. 
Richard Orchard. 
Isaac Brownell. 
Capt. Douglass. 
Hugh Weston. 


four guns awaiting cargoes of tobacco. The season was 
unusually sickly and fifteen captains died. During the fol- 
lowing winter great mortality prevailed among the colo- 
nists, and as the tobacco crop had been poor, one half of 
the ships were obliged to leave without freight.' 

The popular sovereignty exercised in Virginia found no 
favor with Charles the First ; and John West, Samuel 
Mathews, and William Pierce were ordered to be sent 
for,'* and Francis Pott was kept a close prisoner in the 
Fleet. During the year ending March 25, 163G, sixteen 
hundred immigrants settled in Virginia and twenty-one 
ships laden with tobacco had sailed from London, the cus- 
toms of one vessel being estimated at 3334 pounds sterling. 
Governor West did not come to England, but in March, 

Elizabeth, August, Christopher Browne. 

Globe, " Jeremy Blackman. 

Safety, " Johu Grant. 

George, " John Severne 

Thomas, " Henry Taverner. 

David. " John Hogg. 

Constance, October, Clement Campion. 

Abraham, " John Barker. 

' De Vries. 

»Tlie Privy Council on Dec. 22, 1635, issued the following : 

" That his Maytie will be pleased to give order that Capt. John West, Samuel 
Mathews, and William Pearce bee sent for, into England, to answer theyre mis- 
demeanours, they being the prime actors in the lato Mutenye in Virginia. 

"To give warrant to the Attorney Qenerall to have a newe Commipsion for Sir. 
John Harvey as shall be for his May ties service in Virginia. The Lord Balti- 
more desires that Mr. Secretary Windebank will be pleased if any Petition or 
Question should bee made touching Maryland to gett it referred to bee examined 
in the Countrye, in regard noe proofe can heare be made of the truthe. But if 
that cannot be done, then to move the Kinge to heare itt." 


1630 wrote to the Commissioners of Plantations the follow- 
ing account of his election : 

*' W"* in few days after Sir John Harvey had ex- 
pressed his intent to the Counsell heere of departinge the 
Colonye, Wee opened his Ma''" Commission wherein wee 
found ourselves enjoyned in case of vacancye whither by 
death or occasioned by publiq or private affayres to elect 
among our number, one to supply the place, with further 
command eyther from his Ma''" or your Lord^P' received, W^** 
choice made by pluralitye of voyces his Ma*''" Commission 
expressly ratifyes. 

"The Counsell with one consent were so pleased as to fasten 
their votes on mee to w'^'' the peoples suffrages as willingly 
condiscended. Neyther was presumption the cause of soe 
hasty a choyce, before Sir John Harvey was out of the 
Capes, as it is injuriously objected by some but I hope your 
Honours will conceive a truer and a more direct reason ne- 
cessitated it, for wee deferred the election untill the last 
day, and houre of the Counsell's sitting after W^"* tyme it 
was impossible to effect it w"* a full conformitye to his Ma'^'" 
commission, and reserving our duetie of informacon to 
your TiOPP', the dwellings of some of the Counsell being re- 
mote, one hundred miles from the other of them, and from 
the place of the shipps ridinge, that one ship being the last 
of that yeare left in the river, soe that onles we had then 
made our choyce we could not for want of the full number 
of the Counsell haue daly preferred it, neyther could we 
have given y" LorPP' a satisfaction that we had still pre- 
served the old forme of Governm* prescribed by his Ma*'" 
which we are resolved soe punctually to observe that (as 


formerly we have engaged ourselves to y"' Lor^P') we shall 
not until further instruction swerve from thence, though 
but in things indifferent. If by y"' LorPP' favourable media- 
tion it shall please his Ma^y'' to confirme the act of the coun- 
trye, I shall to my uttmost expresse myself a faythfull 
and zealous servant, or otherwise w"" as devoted a submis- 
sion be ready to give up my charge where his M'^' shall 
place it. 

i i yor Loppps j^^y please to be informed that the Colonie 
hath this yeare received an increase of one thousand six hun- 
dred and six persons, but I find with all that muche im- 
putation indeservedly lyeth upon the Countrye, by the 
Merchants crime whoe soe pester their shipps w"" passen- 
gers, that though throng and noysomeness they bring 
noe lesse than infection among us w'^'' is soe easily to be dis- 
tinguished from any cause in the malignitie of the clymate, 
that where the most pestered shipps vent their passengers 
they carry w"" them almost a general mortallitye w'^'' my 
duetye therefor prefers to y°' Lor^P serious consideracon. 
Without infringing his Ma'^" Grant to the Lord Baltimore 
we have taken the nearest course for avoiding of further 
unnaturall broiles between them of Maryland, and those of 
the Isle of Kent, as we find those of Maryland in o' limits 
we bind them in deep bondes to keep the Kinges peace to- 
wards those of the Isle of Kent, as also Capt. Clayborne the 
Commander of the Isle of Kent, to those of Maryland. As 
further cause shall require your Honours shall receive an 

* This letter was dated "Point Comfort, this 28th of March. 1636," and it 
was received on the 19th of June, at Hampton Court. 


Mathews, Menefie, and Peirce went to England to ans- 
wer the charges against them, and remained several 

Samuel Maverick of Massachusetts, passed about a year 
in Virginia while Harvey was absent, and in October, 1636, 
returned to Boston with two pinnaces, and brought fourteen 
heifers and eighty goats. Owing to a drought there had 
been a failure in the crop, and corn in Virginia this year, 
sold at 20 shillings a bushel, and most of the people had 
been obliged to live on purslane and other plants. One of his 
pinnaces, of about forty tons, was built of cedar at Barba- 
does, and was brought to Virginia by Captain Powell, who 
died, and was bought for a small sum. 

He interested men of science in Boston, by his narrative, 
as to the geology of the James River, and mentioned that 
there was a place about sixty miles above its mouth where 
the ground was full of shells and bones, and that he had 
seen a whale bone, but probably that of a mastodon, which 
had been found while digging a well, eighteen feet below 
the surface. 

Jerome Hawley, a friend of Harvey, who had been one of 
the gentlemen sewers to Queen Henrietta Maria, and a 
councillor of the Maryland Province, arrived in March, 
1637, in the " Friendship " and not long after was commis- 
sioned by the King as Treasurer for Virginia, provided he 
took the oath of allegiance and supremacy, and also council- 
lor with tho authority to collect 12 pence annual rent due 
on each fifty acres, which had not been collected since the 
dissolution of the Virginia Company.^ 

' Jmomc Iluwley was a brother of Henry, for so many years Governor of Bar- 
badoos, and of William, the signer in 1850, of the Protestant Declaration in 


This year there was recommended to the King as mem- 
bers of the Council, John Sibsie/ Richard Townsend, Robert 
Evelyn,^ and Christopher Wormeley. Wormeley had gone 
in 1631, to Association or Tortuga Island, and, while acting 
as Governor owing to his negligence the Spaniards seized it, 
and he, making his escape, arrived in 1635, in Virginia, 
about the time that Governor Harvey sailed for England. 

Captain Walter Neale, who had been an officer of the army, 
in 1630 arrived at Piscataqua, New Hampshire, to seek for 
a great lake toward the west, but in three years returned to 
London, when at the request of the King he was chosen 
Captain of the Artillery Company of the city. After care- 
fully drilling the company for four years, he applied to be 
Sergeant Major of Virginia; but George Donne, now thirty- 
two years old,^ obtained the appointment. 

Donne was the second son of the celebrated divine, John 
Donne, Dean of Saint Paul Cathedral, London, and led 
an eventful life. He had been associated with Sir Thomas 
Warner, in the settlement of the Isle of Saint Christopher, 
in the 17th degree of north latitude, and when the Spaniards 
under Don Frederic de Toledo captured the place, Donne 
was carried as hostage to Madrid, where he remained for a 
long time. In a letter written from London, on the 6th of 

' John Sybsie or Sibsie was probably the same person who had made trouble 
in the Massachusetts Colony. John Sipsey was a delegate in September, 1632, 
to the House of Burgesses from the upper precinct Elizabeth City. 

« Robert Evelyn came in 1634, with Capt. Young the explorer, visited England, 
returned in 1637, as Surveyor General with the rank of Lieutenant, in place of 
Gabriel Hawley, deceased. 

• Baptized May 9, 1605, in Parish Church, Camberwell, Surrey. 


December, 1633, to Went worth, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
are these words : "George Donne hath broken prison, and 
is come into England, My Lord of Carlile was so slow in get- 
ting him off, that he was constrained to take this course, to 
corrupt his keepers, and get away. " 

Governor Harvey, on the 18th of January, 1636-7, read 
his new commission in the church of Elizabeth City, and 
called an Assembly to meet on 20th of the next month, at 
Jamestown. His chief councillors were Secretary Richard 
Kemp, Sergeant Major George Donne, Thomas Purifye,^ 
Henry Browne,^ John Hobson,^ Adam Thoroughgood,* 

iPurifye came ia 1623, settled at Elizabeth City, and at tliis time was about 
55 years old. Capt. Thomas Young the explorer of the Delaware River, and a 
friend of Harvey, in a letter to Sir Toby Mathew, dated July 13, 1634, wrote 
that the Governor had incurred the " extreme hazard and malice from all the 
rest of the country, to whom I can find only two of his Council indifferent ; the 
one of ihem Captain Purfree, a soldier, and a man of open heart, honest and 
free, hating for aught I can perceive all kind of dissimulations and baseness ; 
the other an honest and plain man, but of small capacity and less power." 

^ Henry Brown or Browne was the man referred to in the last sentence of the 
above foot note. On July 14, 1637, he entered 2250 acres in James City County, 
and in November, 1643, 2459 acres. 

3 John Hobson, with Nathaniel Basse and others, was associated with Christo- 
pher Lawue in establishing the Isle of Wight plantation. He returned from a 
visit to England, in the summer of 1637, in the ship " Unitj'," Capt. William 

* Adam Thoroughgood when a boy, in 1621, came in the ship " Charles," and in 
1625, was a servant of Edward Waters, who remained in Bermudas for several 
years after the wreck in 1G09 of the " Sea Venture" and then migrated to Eliza- 
beth City. In 1626, he bought of John Gundry of Kiquotan, now Hampton, 152 
acres, adjoining land of William Capps and William Claiborne, in Elizabeth City 
County. In 1629, 1630, and 1632. he was a member of the House of Burgesses, and 
a member of the Monthly Court. He moved to Lynn Haven in Lower Norfolk, 
and on June 20, 1635, a patent was issued to him of 5350 acres, and on the 18th 
of December, a patent for 600 acres, and on February 8, 1637, a patent for 200 
acres, all these lying on Chesapeake Bay, fronting northerly, and on Lynn Haven 
River. During the year 1637, he was the President of the Court of Lower Nor- 


William BrocasS and Francis Hooke.^ 

About this time George Menefie returned from England 
with many servants and soon regained his influence. 

The Earl Arundel and Surrey^ being one of the Commis- 
sioners of Plantations, on the 18th of April, 1637, his son 

folk. His will was dated February 17, 1639-40, and probated April 27, 1640. 
Among other items is this : " My will and desire is that my beloved friend Cap- 
tain Thomas Willoughbie, and Mr. Henry Seawell here in Virginia, and my 
dearly beloved brother Sir John Thoroughgood, of Kensington, near London, 
and Mr. Alexander Harris, my wife's uncle living on Tower Hill, shall be over- 
seers of this my last will and testament." 

John Thoroughgood was knighted, about the 1630, had been Secretary of the 
Earl of Pembroke, and in the service of the Duke of Buckingham. The widow 
of Adam Thoroughgood married Captain John Qookin of Nausemond, a member 
of the Assembly of 1639, and probably a relation of Daniel Gookin who in 1642, 
was the presiding officer of the court of Upper Norfolk. John Gookin died, and 
on the 22d of November, 1643, letters of administration were granted to Mrs, 
Sarah Gookiu, on the estate of her husband. At a General Court held at James- 
town, October 8, 1644, the following judgment was rendered : " Whereas, it 
appeareth to the Court by the confession of James Lopham, that he hath in a 
most beastial and uncivil manner, by most scandalous and false suggestions, 
defamed Sarah, the daughter of Captain Adam Thoroughgood, deceased, to 
her great disparagement and defamation. 

" It is therefore ordered, that the said Lopham shall receive fifty lashes, at 
the mulberry tree, well applied to his naked back, and stand committed till he 
put in security for his good behavior." 

" Whereas it appeareth to the Court, that John Farnehough hath in a most 
scandalous manner defamed the daughter of Mrs Gookin, to her discredit 
though most vilely and falsely suggested. 

" It is therefore ordered, that the said Farnehough shall publicly in the 
parish church of Lynn Haven, in the time of divine service, ask the said Mrs. 
Gookin, and her children's forgiveness, putin security for good behavior, and pay 
unto the said Mrs. Gookin eight hundred and fifteen pounds of tobacco, for her 
charges herein expended." 

' William Brocas in 1649, had a fine vineyard, and in the Perfect Description 
of Virginia he is mentioned as having been a " great traveler." 

* The successor of Francis Pott in charge of fort at Pt. Comfort. 

3 Thomas Howard, Earl Arundel and Surry born July 7, 1592, was the seventh 
in descent from John Howard, Duke of Norfolk. In 1616, he conformed to the 


Heury, Lord Maltravers, obtained a grant of land north of 
James River, with the order, that it should be known as 
Norfolk County. 

On the 22d of January, 1638, the Governor and Council of 
Virginia did assign^ to Henry, Lord Maltravers, his heirs, 
and assigns, the territory on the south side of James River, 
on a tributary to be called " Maltravers River toward the 
head of y" s'd Nanzimum, als Maltravers being bounded 
from that point of Nanzimum als Maltravers River where 
it divides itself into branches, one degree in longitude on 
either side of the River, and in latitude to the height of 35 
degrees Northerly Latitude, by y' name and appellation of 
y" County of Norfolk." 

Among the principal traders now in Virginia, was Thomas 
Stegge, also written Stegg and Stagg. His daughter was 
the wife of John Byrd, a goldsmith of London, and the 
mother of William Byrd, the founder of the family of that 
name in Virginia. He was a correspondent of Mathew 
Cradock^ one of the founders of the Massachusetts Colony, 
residing in London, 

Church of England, and on Christmas day received the communion. Sir Horace 
Vere on January 8, 1616-17, wrote to Sir Thomas Roe: "The Earl Arundel 
has received the sacrament with his Majesty, and talks sharply aojainst the 
Papists." He was on August 29, 1631, made Earl Marshal of England. His 
latter years were passed in traveling, and in 1646, he died at Padaa. He was 
described as one who " was a Protestant but no bigot or Puritan," and was a 
patron of scholars, painters, and sculptors. The celebrated Arundel Marbles of 
the University of Oxford were a part of his valuable collection. His son Henry 
Frederick, Lord Maltravers, succeeded to the Earldom, and died in 1652, at his 
house in Arundel Street, London. 

' A full copy of the indenture is in the Appendix 

•The following letter from CradocK to John Jolifte, dated Feb. 21, 1636-7, is 
in the Winthrop Papers, Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. 4 s Vol. 6. 


Among the other merchants of note at this time, were 
John Chew, Thomas Burbage and George Ludlow. Lud- 
low, in 1630, at the same time as Samuel Maverick and 
Edward Gibbons, had applied to be admitted as a free- 
man of the Massachusetts Colony. When Roger Williams, 
the great divine, came to America, he sold to Ludlow the 
better clothes of himself and wife, as they were not needed, 
and Ludlow moved to Virginia without making payment, 
and " telling many falsehoods." On the 15th of July, 1637, 
Williams wrote to Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts, 
concerning his " vagrant debtor from whom he had much 
suffered."^ The next year when Ludlow was on a visit to 
Boston, he told Winthrop that he would send WiUiams 
eight hundred pounds of tobacco, but afterwards failed to 
keep his promise.^ His plantation in Virginia, was situated 
near the York River, adjoining that of Ralph Wormeley. 

"flFayle not to send the sliipp " Rebecka" victualled for three monthes to Vir- 
ginea to Mr. Thomas Steggs, with some commodditty such as you vnderstaud to be 
there most vendable, for valleue of 120^ or 150^ at most. Leaue the Ship wholey 
to Mr. Tho. Stecrgs disposinpf & if he send ought, back in her, to you & Rich. 
Hoare (for so isour advise) tfolowe his order tliere with & with the shippas neare 
you can. I wish Mr. John Hodges * * * command & goe Master in her & 
that he obserue Mr. Stegg's order in her further ymployment. She is to be 
victualled, for three months & to haue all her ordy nance belonging to her 
with other necessaries whereof ; all I desire is an Inventory may be sent me & 
the Master's hand to it." 

' On the 12th of September, 1637, he writes again : " It is now an old debt, 
especially my cows left behind four years ago, for me in Virginia and some 
goats. " 

'Williams on Dec. 30, 1638, wrote to Gov. Winthrop : " I am bold to request a 
little helpe and I hope the last concerning my old and bad debtour about whom I 
had formerly troubled your Worship, Mr. George Ludlow. I heare of a pinnace 
to put in to Newport, bound for Virginia, and I understand that if you please to 
testifie that you remember in the case, I may have some hope at least to get 
something. You were pleased, after dealing with him, in Boston, to certifie me 
that he had promised 800 li of tobacco." 


By a statute enacted in the days of Queen Elizabeth, the 
monarch was the custodian of all born fools, and the courts 
decided that an idiot or natural fool, was a child who could 
not count to twenty, rightly name the days of the week, or 
measure a yard of cloth. The first idiot born in Virginia 
was the son of Richard Buck, the early minister of the 
Colony, who came to Virginia, in 1610, with Sir Thomas 
Gates and who had been commended by Bishop Ravis of 
London, a prelate of mildness and liberality. He was born 
in 1616, and appropriately christened Benoni, a child of sor- 
row. Ambrose Harman, who had been his guardian for 
thirteen years, in 1637, sent a petition to England relative 
to his estate, which was referred to the Court of Wards, 
but before judicial action was had in the case, the poor boy 


The year after Buck's arrival in the Colony, in 1611, his 
wife had a daughter born during a period of great want and 
she was in remembrance of the language of Naomi, in the 
book of Ruth, named Mara; three years later a son was born 
and baptized as Gershom, a stranger in a strange land. 
After the birth of Benoni another son was born, to whom 
was given the name of Peleg. Both parents before the year 
1624, had died. 

The first <rraut of land Ludlow obtained was Aug. 31, 1638, in the Puritan 
district, the upper coilnty of New Norfolk, and amounted to 500 acres. Subse- 
quently he entered other lands. 

July 26, 1646, in York County, 1947 acres. 

March 14, 1646-7, in York County, 1452 acres. 

Oct. 18. 1650, in Northumberland County, 1000 acres. 

Mc'h 10, 1652-3, in Gloucester, 2000 acres. 

October 10, 1653. in Northumberland. 1000 acres. 

October 25. lo52, in (Jloucester, 8000 acres. 

October, 16.54, in Piankatanck Neck 186 acres. 

May 12, 1661, South side of Kappahuuock, 1000 acres. 



Legislature of 1637-8. Richard Morison in Command at Point 
Comfort. Letter of Treasurer IIawley. Swedish Vessel 
Arrives. Notice of Hawley. Panto n, a Clergyman, Ban- 
ished. Eaton of Harvard College Flees to the Colony. 
First Brick Church Commenced. Gov. Wyatt Reappointed. 
Roger Wingate, Treasurer. Donne's Essay on Virginia. 
Criticism of New England Puritans. Donne's Petition. 
Panton's Complaint to House of Commons. Rorert Evelin 
Surveyor of Virginia, and writes upon New Albion. 

LEGISLATIVE assembly was convened on the 
20th of March, 1637-8, and remained in session 
a month. The burgesses as the representatives 
of the people expressed their disapprobation of the duty on 
tobacco, and petitioned the King for free trade. The fort 
which had been erected during the first years of Harvey's ad- 
ministration, situated at Point Comfort and mounted with 
eight pieces of ordinance, was ordered to be repaired. Until 
this time the meetings of the Council for the want of a better 
place was held at the Governor's residence, and he was 


obliged to entertain them. To remedy this the Assembly 
also resolved to build a house for state purposes, and George 
Menefie was appointed the agent of the Colony to go to 
England, and sell tobacco to obtain moneys and also to 
employ suitable workmen. 

Eichard Morison^ the brother of Francis, afterwards Go- 
vernor, on the '29th of March, 1638, was appointed by the 
King, to succeed Francis Hooke, deceased, as commander of 
the fort. The Colonists now demurred to the fee of sixpence 
charged by the commander for registering each immigrant, 
and administering the oath of allegiance and supremacy ; 
but the Commissioners for Plantations declined to ralieve 
them of this tax. 

In the spring of 16:38, the sloop Grilfin from Sweden 
touched at Jamestown, Jerome Hawley, the Colonial Treas- 
urer, wrote to Windobank, Secretary of the King: " IJppon 
the 20th of March last, I took the bouldness to p'sent you 
w"" my letters wherein I gave only a tuch of the business of 
our Assembly, referring y" Hon°' to the general letters sent 
by Mr. Kemp from the govern' and Councell. Since W" 
tyme heare ariived a Dutch shipp' w'" comission from* the 

' In Rymer's Foedera Vol XX, p. 306, is the following : 

" Rex, vicesino none die Martii concedit liichardo Morison, Armigero, offi- 
cium Capitiinei sive Oustodis castri sivi? Propiigndculi de Point Comfort infra 
Dominium de Virginia, durante bene placits in reversiono." 

»A Swedish Dutch company, in 1037, was organized to trade on the banks of 
the Delaware River. An expedition under Minuits lato in the fall sailed from 
Gottenberg in a large ship of war Kalmar Nyckel (Key of Kalniar) and in the 
sloop Gripeu (<iritBn.) During March, 1638, the Swedes had reached their desti- 
nation, and it is supposed that the sloop GrilTin came to Jamestown from the 
Delaware Uiver. 


young Queene of Sweaden, and si.2;ned by eight of the Chief 
Lords of Sweden, the coppe whereof I would have taken to 
send to yo' Hono'' but the Captayne would not p'mitt me 
to take any coppe thereof, except hee might have free trade 
for tobacco to carry to Sweaden, w"" being contrary to his 
Ma*' instructions, the Govern' excused himself thereof. 

" The shipp remayned heare about 10 days to refresh w"' 
wood and water, during w'"^ tyme the M'. of the said shipp 
made knowne that both himself and another shipp of his 
company ^^ ere bound for Delaware Baye w"'' is the confines 
of Virginia and New England, and there they p'tend to 
make a plantation, and to plant tobacco, w"'' the Dutch do 
allso already in Hudson's River, w"'' is the very next river, 
northai'd from Delaware Baye. All w'^'' being his Ma" 
territorys I humbly conceive it may be done by his Ma" 
subjects of these parts, making use only of some English 
ships that resort heather for trade yearly, and be no charge 
at all to His Ma'=. 

" I am not able yet to give your Honour so good an ac- 
compt of the estate of his Majesties revenewe heare as I 
desire in regard it was late in the yeare before I arrived and 
the business of our Assembly bathe taken up all my tyme 
hitherto, but by the next returne of shipping I shall en- 
deavor to bring things into better order than heretofore 
they have bein, and by that tyme I hoape to make it appeare 
that your Honour, hath done his Majestie service in giv- 
ing him notice of the estate of his reveneue in those parts; 
whicli although I cannot now say it will be great, yet I pre- 
sume it is so farr considerable as that his Ma"' will not 
think it fitt to be lost; for 1 doubt not but it will serve to 


defray tlie pension which his Ma"= is pleased to allow the 
Governour yearly, which is £1000 per annum, yf his 
Majestie be pleased to imploy itt that waye, and I hoape 
to improve it dayly, as new comers do encrease the plan 
tation, besides his Majesties customes from hence wil-be 
much better understood, than heretofore they have bein. 

''Since my comeing to the place of Treasurer, I have de- 
cenied some underhand oppositions made against me, but 
littell hatha appeared in publick, therefore I can not particu- 
larly laye it to any man's charge. And because I finde that 
it chiefly aimed at the hindering me in making any bene- 
fitte of my place (whereof I assure your Honour I have not 
yet made the value of five pounds toward my charges.) I 
doe therefore make it my humble sute unto your Honour 
that you wilbe pleased to move the King in my behalfe, and 
procure His Majesties warrant for my fees, to the effect of 
this I send enclosed, which being added to your former 
favours, will much encrease my obligations to your Honour, 
and I shall still remayne, Your Honours much devoted 

Jerome Hawley, and Thomas Cornwallis, were the two 
councillors of the Maryland Colony, which in 1634, had 
settled at Saint l\Iary. Hawley returned to England in the 
summer of 1635, and came back to Virginia, early in 1638, 
as Colonial Treasurer, an office w^hich had not been filled 
since the dissolution of the Virginia Company. He soon 

•Secretary Kemp wrote from Jamestown, F^4)riiary 2G, 1G37-8: "George 
Menefie has arrived witli a ^k\\\, many servants but Hawley is away in Mary- 


visited Maryland Avhere he had large interests, and was pre- 
sent at a meeting of the Legislative assembly on February 
8th, 1637-8, at Saint Mary. 

George Eeade wrote from Jamestown on the 26th of Feb- 
ruary, to his brother Robert, a clerk of Secretary Winde- 
bank : " Mr. Hawley has not proven the man he took him 
for, having never given satisfaction for money received 
of him, nor brought him any servants." 

Hawley, then in Jamestown, on May 17th, wrote to 
Eobert Reade, of London, to excuse his delinquency, and 
urged that his brother lives in the Governor's house, and 
wants for nothing." In less than three months after this 
note was written, Hawley died deeply in debt to Cornwallis 
and Lord Baltimore/ 

Upon the solicitation of the merchant George Menefie, 
Antiiony Panton became rector in the new plantations of 
York and Cheskiack."^ Richard Kemp, Secretary of the 
Colony in 1639, acting as accuser and judge, charged the 
minister with having called him " a jackanapes," and say- 

' Jerome Hawley was the brullier of James Hawley of Brentford, Middlesex, 
Englpnd, of Henry Hawley, long Governor or Councillor of Barbadoes, and 
of William Hawley, who came from Barbadoes to Maryland after the death of 
Jerome, and in Iti.^O, was one of the signers of the Protestant Declaration. 

On the 14th of August, 1638, the Maryland authorities appointed Thomas 
CornwaiJiH, as the administrator of Jerome Hawley, " late of St. Maries." 
Five pounds were paid to the surgeon who attended him, three pounds for 
mourning clothes, and five pounds for funeral expenses. 

» Some times called Cheese Cake, " Kiskyake " or Cheskiack, by the Legisla- 
tive assembly of January, 1639-40, was recognized as a parish situated between 
Williamsburg and York. In 1642, it became Hampton Parish, afterwards 
known as York Hampton. 


ing, that he was " unfit for the place of Secretary," that his 
hair-lock was "tied np with ribbon as old as Pauls," also 
complained that he had spoken slightingly of Lord Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and Harvey banished him from the 
Colony "for mutinous, rebellious, and riotous actions." 

The person selected to superintend the building of the 
school at Cambridge endowed by Harvard, and to l)e its first 
head, was the brother of the pure and high minded Gov-, 
ernor of the New Haven Colony, but, Nathaniel Eaton 
proved the widest contrast, and a mortification to his rela- 
tives. For barbarously beating his usher Briscoe, on a 
Sabbath morning, with a walnut cudgel "big enough to 
have killed a horse " and for giving the scholars of Harvard 
fare not equal to that, which Dickens has described, as the 
diet at Dotheboys Hall, such as half-cleansed mackerel, and 
" goats' dung in the hasty pudding " he was fined and de- 
barred from teaching in the Massachusetts Colon3\ 

Cotton Mather, with some Attic wit, wrote : "he was a 
blade who marvellously deceived the expectations of good 
men concerning him, for he was one fitter to be a master of a 
Bridewell, than a college. He was a rare scholar himself, 
and he made many more such, but their education truly 
was in the school of Tyrannus." Dishonest in his deal- 
ings he fled from Cambridge, and Endecott, a deputy, wrote 
to Governor Winthrop, on the 10th of October, 1639, in- 
quiring whether it was "not needful to send after him 
where hee is gone in Nele's bark to A^ii'ginia, ■• * * * 
If you think meete to send him back, '■ * "■'■ Mr. Younge 
his shipp is like to staye these two or three dayes yet, who 
is bound for Virginea." It was not thought expedient to 


bring him back. His good wife and children sailed to meet 
him, but the ship and" all on board were lost. 

About this time, Winthrop mentions that Thomas Graves, 
a member of the Dorchester church, "and a very under- 
standing man," contrary to the advice of his friends de- 
termined to go to Virginia to live. The climate proved 
unfavorable, and soon he and his whole family, with the 
exception of a daughter, died. As she was left with a good 
estate, the renegade Eaton married her, and spent her patri- 
mony in riotous living, and then, about the year 1646, de- 
serted her, and went back to England. 

It was not till the year 1639, that any solid buildings* 
were erected at Jamestown. An impetus had resulted from 
a law passed, the year before, giving a portion of land, in 
the town, to any one who would build a house. During 
the year twelve houses and stores were erected, one of which 
was of brick, belonging to Secretary Kemp, "the fairest 
ever known in the country for substance and uniformity. " 
Heretofore the places of worship had been barn-like struc- 
tures framed of wood, but now the first brick^ church in 
Virginia, was commenced. The raising of silk worms re- 
ceived more attention, and the Governor sent to the King, a 
quantity of silk. 

' Secretary Kemp, on April G, 1688, wrote that people began to think about 
good buildings, " scarce any but hath his garden and orchf>rd." 

= Lord Delaware iu 1010, completed a rude wooden church at Jamestown, 
24X60 ft. iu dimensions which soon decayed. 

In 11619, there was a wooden church 20X50 ft. built at the expense of the 
people of Jamestown. 

The foundations of the brick church of 1689, were 28x56 ft. which were visi- 
ble a f<'\v 3'ears ago. The present dilajiidated church so often sketclied is a 
later and larger edifice, and should not be called the church of the first settlers. 


It was not until the autumn of 1639, that Sir Francis 
Wyatt arrived at Jamestown as the successor of Governor 
Harvey. By the influence of Lord Baltimore and Secretary 
of State Windebank. Kemp was retained as Secretary of the 
Colony. Of the hundreds of white people who now arrived in 
the ships, Secretary Kemp wrote that "scarce any, but are 
brought in as merchandise to make sale of." Under Wyatt's 
commission there was a concession, by which, when, there 
was a vacancy in the Council, it could be filled, by the 
majority of the votes of the remaining councillors. Among 
the earliest acts of the Governor was a strict inspection of 
tobacco, and the burning of all below a certain grade. He 
wrote : " Though the physic seems sharp, yet I hope it will 
bring the body of the colony to a sounder constitution of 
health than it ever yet enjoyed before." 

At an Assembly whicli convened on January 6th, 
1639-40, there was legislation which showed an improving 
condition. Hitherto an inn-keeper was authorized to charge 
eighteen pence, or six pounds of tobacco for a meal, but it 
was then enacted, that " on account of plenty provisions " 
only twelve pence should be the price. Ministers of the 
Gospel were allowed ten pounds of tobacco per poll, each to 
pay the clerk, and sexton; the Muster blaster General three 
pounds per poll, the Captain of the Fort and Point Comfort 
was allowed ten guards, and three pounds of tobacco per 
poll. A levy of two pounds per poll was made for a new 
fort, and also two pounds per poll to build a state house. 
Cattle had so increased, that it was made lawful to ex- 
port to New England, the seventh head of neat cattle. 
Benjamin Harrison, who had been clerk of the Council for 
19 - 


some years, was allowed £7, 10s. for his services. The 
boundaries of the Isle of Wight, Upper, and Lower Norfolk 
counties were defined, and the parish of Lawne's Creek 
was created. The first minister in Norfolk County is said 
to have arrived about this time, named John Wilson. 

Eoger Wingate was appointed by the King, Treasurer in 
the place of Jerome Hawley, deceased. 

On the loth of August, 1639, the case of Panton was re- 
ferred to the new Governor Wyatt, about to sail for Virginia, 
and the Council there, and his sentence suspended, and 
Governor Harvey ordered to deliver up his estate. It was 
further ordered, that if upon examination he should be 
found innocent, he should be restored to the rectorship of 
York and Chiskiack. 

Secretary Kemp, and Sergeant Major Donne, were in 
England the early part of the year 1640, in the interest of 
Governor Harvey, and the latter addressed a labored trea- 
tise to Charles the First, entitled "Virginia Reviewed," 
which is still preserved among the Harleian Manuscripts of 
the British Museum. 

After mentioning that a settled government in Virginia was 
just beginning, and " that till of very late, every man's own 
particular profit hath been the most earnestly pursued " he 
continues " How this assercon findes warrant is evident by 
the late action of some pticulers, fiery and head strong in 
their disorders and conspiracy against yo' Maj''" commis- 
sioned Governo'', at this present, in that Country, of whose 
condition an officer neither I nor any und' y"' sacred autho- 
rity can, if justly, but speack honorablie, he being according 


to his place ready to accompt, able to justifie, discreet to 
mannage every circumstance of his proceedings, in that de- 
putation, as in y°' roiall i^resence, at the Councell table y 
Maj"' with y"' Lords allowed.^ 

"But in this poynt I will content my satisfaction, with 
a calmness of silence, by reason that if any Tempest threaten 
the Delinciuents to y Maj''" High Court of Starre Chamber, 
is the power of qualification by y°' gracious mercy referred. 

" From the convenience (most likely) of some former 
Gov' their easinesse of nature, or uncertainty of appeals 
(the Plantation then wholly depending on the wills and 
counsails of Men and Trade,) hath this enormity drawn 
p'sump on. Out of suchp'sumpcon (we doubt long in plot- 
ting though lately practised) during the licence of this aris- 
tocracie, those of that councell have used to eye authority, 
and to dispute power with their Govern"' whom certainly 
they always find readie to assent with them, rather looking 
after their own thrift, than the dignity of their trust, or 
els the successe of their discrecons was more fortunate than 
their fortunes. 

"Cases in deseases of desperate quallitye are not all- 
waies lenative, for had this insolence bene passed over, the 
defects of this colonie, had still lyen asleep, untill a second 
sudden mischance, I might say, a mischief e, had for ever 
disheartened a third attempt of Peopling it, casting a dis- 
honor upon our jS'ation, lessning and diminishing yo' pos- 
session, cutting of a greater number of yo' subjects, had it 
not apparently bene proved that it is better to dye, noblie 

'See page 126. 


may.nteneiHg the justice of bono', the hono' of justice, than 
to comply with a multitude whose policy is gayne, whose 
gravitye is giddinesse, whose discretion is noyse and tu- 
mult " 

After several pages devoted to the condition of Virginia, 
he writes the following sharp criticism of New England. 

*' On the Northern part of the Virginian Continent lieth 
New England. In that Countrye it is a question undecided 
though yo' Maj''" hath a firm interest whether the In- 
habitants acknowledge you their King, or whether they by 
yo' Majesty are worthy to be acknowledged subjects. 

" New England it is styled, supposed in the same Latitude 
Av"* Nova Albion, whose discoverer was Sir Francis Drake 

* * * * Much available for comfort, for assistance 
(if occasion should bee) might such a complantation prove, 
were not the people themselves in their manners and lives 
both infectious and pestilent. They, in religion, their coun- 
try, in its Barronnesse and not unequallie fruitfull. So 
heartily they hate conformity that they detest order, ambi- 
tious of a new Creation of ridiculous novelty, most ridicu- 
lous schisme by Sepacon. They are in a manner desprate 
Enthusiasticks, for whereas all men are moved (as a heathen 
noted) by Eeligion, the p'swasion whereof is the chief in 
pollicy, a good historian granteth, these Fanaticks choose, 
rather without pollicy or religion, to be misled by their lay 
elders, than be guided by the true Pastors of their selves, 
or governed by their naturall Boveraigne. 

''Allmost, it exceeds a wonder howe manye of faire 
quallitye alien and sell their whole estates in their Old age 


to shuffle themselves, Wives, and Children, into their New 
England Blind zeale, and more blinde Seaducers doe so 
gull and cheat their consciences, that willingly they make 
exchange of their Reason, and knowledge for credulous sim- 
plicitye, willfull Ignorance. The antick prancks, the strange 
unheard of Vanityes which are constantly brought for 
Newes, that these men in New England doe, and studdy to 
doe, gives more a?3d more as much occasion of pitty as of 

' * Dissembled Sanctity is a double Iniquity sayd the Pro- 
verbial speech, verefyed in these seperatists of New Eng- 
land, all pretend, none professe Religion as they ought. 
***** What a Comonwealth amongst such Pre- 
cisians is likely to flourish where zeale is preposteroous, 
Cruelty in Justice, Confusion in Law, is not difficult to be 
resolved. A Colony there can be none; it were dishon' to 
the name so to entitle it, a Plantation not to be expected, 
the people themselves so slouthfull that had not Virginia 
lately supplyed and relieved them their Calamitye had beene 

While in England Donnepresented the following petition 
to the King. 

'• That y" Pef goeing over w"* Sir John Harvey Gov' for yo' 
Ma'"*' in the Province of Virginia was by him recommended 
to yo' Ma''' who was graciously pleased to appoint him for 
one of his Councells, when following yo' Ma''" orders and 
directions by yo' letters in speedy appointing a Muster Mas- 

' A fuH abstract of Donne's essay, is given in^the Appendix. 


fcer General & Marshall by choyce both of Sir John Harvey & 
the rest of the Councell then, yo' pet' was thought well fitt 
to execute the aforesaid places, and soe did, untill the Gov"" & 
Counsell employed him as Agent for the Collonye to prose- 
cute a suite against those persons y' were lately seditious and 
disturb'd the peaceable Government & were by yC Royall 
commands sent to answeare theyre contempt & misde- 
meanor which service to his power he has effected & is now 
returninge to his charge. 

' ' May it therefore please yo' Royall Ma''^ to give order 
that yo' humble pef may have a confirmacon under ye 
Great Scale of ye foresaide places of Muster Master Gene- 
rall and Marshall whereof theis two yeares y"' Pet' hath 
been possest and executed without excepcon," 

The dispute begun in Virginia between Anthony Panton, 
clergyman, and Secretary Kemp, was continued in Eng- 
land, and on the 30th of October, 1641, the following was 
presented to the Privy Council and the House of Commons. 
" Anthony Panton, clerk, Minister of God's word in Vir- 
ginia, and agent for the Colony and clergy complaineth of 
the conduct of Sir John Harvie late Governor, of Mr. 
Richard Kerape the Secretary, of Captain Wormeley late 
commander of Charles County, and others, at whose hands 
the colonists have suffered many arbitary and illegal pro- 
ceedings in judgment, tyranny, extortion, and most cruel 
oppression which have extended to unjust whippings, cut- 
ting of ears, fining and confiscation of honest mens' goods, 
converting fines to their own profit and use, supporting 
Popery, and in many other ways." 


The petition further mentioned that Kemp privately ran 
out of Virginia* carrying the charter and records, and that 
he and his associates had slandered Governor Wyatt, and 
" obtained surreptitiously a new Governor, and a new 
charter without any just cause showji against the former 
Governor [Wyatt] who has only exercised his authority for 
a year and a half," he prayed for the stopping of the Go- 
vernor elect and his commission till matters and rectified, 
and that order may be taken for the forthcoming of Sir 
John Harvie, Richard Kemp, and Christopher Wormeley^ 
to answer the charges against them ." 

His request received attention, as the following counter 
petition of Kemp and Wormeley indicates, which on No- 
vember 3, 164:1, was presented ; " In August last, upon the 
unjust complaint of Anthony Panton a turbulent person 
petitioners were by order of the House of Commons stayed, 
when about to return to their families in Virginia. The 
House of Commons by an order of the 8th of September, 
allowed them to depart, but on the 1st of October, when on 
board of the ship, were again stayed. Berkeley the Gov- 
ernor elect presented a similiar petition. George Donne 
never returned to Virginia and soon died, John West taking 

' Thomas Stegg, the influential merchant of Westover, was fined lifty pounds 
sterling and to be imprisoned durinjj; the Governor's pleasure, for furnishing 
money to Kemp and assistinif him to leave the colony with some of its impor- 
t:;nt records. 

^Christopher Wormeley docs not appear to have returned to Virginia, while 
his son Ralph, was a prominent planter. In the Sixth Report of the Royal 
Historical Commission, p. 414, there is the following : " 4 May, 1G40, two copies 
ot an award made by Ricluird Wnshiirjton and Christopher Wormely, Esquires 
(acting as arbitrators at the request of certain dissentients) respecting a dispute 
about a right of way trom Carcrofte to Ousten Co., York." 


his place as Marshall and Muster Master General. The 
power of Governor Harvey: was completely broken. In a 
letter to Secretary of State, Windebank, on May 8th, 1640, 
he wrote, "that he was so narrowly watched that he had 
scarce time of privacy to write, his estate had been torn 
from him, his return to England had been denied, notwith- 
standing his many bodily infirmities, which were beyond 
the skill of the Colony." During his last years he had 
married the widow of the Kichard Stephens, merchant and 
councillor, with whom he once had an altercation. Captain 
De Vries, the Dutch trader, in September, 1642, instituted a 
suit to recover £4, 14s. due from the estate of Richard 
Stephens, "for goods sold to Lady Harvey, who was at 
the time wife of said Stevens." 

' George Evelyn, also written Evelhi, bis brother, ceased to be commander of 
Kent Island, Maryland, on April 23, 1638, and on May 30th of tliis year he ac- 
knowledges a debt to "his brother Lieut. Robert Evelin, fourteen hundred pounds 
of tobacco and fifty-two pounds of beaver, for so much received of him upon the 
account of William Clobery and Company ; " and for his security assigns lo him 
all the right, title, and interest, of the said Clobery and Company in the service of 
Andrew Baker, Thos. Baker, and .John Hatch, and all the profits and use of said 
servants until the debt shall be satisfied. He also in another entry acknowledges 
himself to owe " to his dear brother Robert Evelin " a hundred weight of beaver 
and as security assigns to him his Manor of Eveliutou or Piny Point on the 
Maryland shore of the Potomac. Captaiu George Evelyn, on August 3, 1649, 
purchased of Thomas Grendon, certain land in James City County, which on 
April 28, 1650, he gave to his second son, Mouatjoy. On June 20, 1651, Governor 
Berkeley granted to Mountjoy Evelyu 600 acres of land in the county of James 
City, on the south side of the river. 

Scull, in ''The Evelyns of America," mentions that Robert Evelyn's uncle, 
Captain Thomas Young, also purchased a farm in James City County, and that 
his son Thomas served in the Parliament Army, under General Monk. In later 
years this sou was an officer in Bacon's rebellion in Virginia and known as 
"Captain Young of Chickahominy." In January, 1675-6, he was hung iu 
York County under a sentence of a Court Martial. 


After a long visit to England, Robert Evelin' in 1637, in 
the ship " Plain Joane" returned to Virginia, and after the 
death of Cxabriel Hawley, was appointed by the Governor, 
and duly confirmed Surveyor General of Virginia. 

About the year 1640, he made another voyage to England, 
and printed a little book of directions for immigrants to 
America, which has become very rare, with the following 
title : 

for Adventurers 

With small stock to jjet two for one 
and prood land freely: 
And for Gentlemen, and all Servants, Laborers, and 
Artificers to live plentifully. 
And the true Description of the heallliiest, pleasantest and richest 
plantation of new Albion 
in North Virginia, proved by tbirteen wituessep. 
Togi'tber with 
A Letter from Master Robert Evelin who lived there nianv 
yeares, showing the particularities, and excellency thereof. 
With a briefe of the charn^e of victuiill, and necessaries to transport 
and buy stocke for eacij I'lanter and Laborer there, to get his 
Master 50^ or more in twelve trades and 
at 10^ charges onely a man. 

Printed in they ear e 1641. 

• See note preceding page. 



AFFAIRS FROM A.D., 1642 TO A.D., 1651. 

Arrival of Gov. Berkeley. George Sandys Colonial Agent. 
Attempt to restore the London Company. Remonstrance op 
Assembly, Visit of New England Ministers. Support for 
Gov. Berkeley. Assembly of 1642-3. Lord Baltimore seeks 
Virginia revenue. Letters of Marque. Capt. Richard 
Ingle. De Vries visits Jamestown. Fight between Ships. 
Rising of the Indians. Captain Stegg captures a Bristol 
Ship in Boston harbor. Robert Kvelin. Sir Edmund Plow- 
don. Daniel Gookin. Assembly o¥ 1644. (Jruel strife in 
Maryland. Legislation of 1645 Henry Bishop Visits Eng- 
land. Opechancanough Defeated. Lt. Thomas Rolfe. 
Thomas Harrison and Patrick Copland nonconformist 
Ministers. Public Market. Colony in 1649. Arrival op 
Norwood, Stevens,, and Francis Moryson. The Custis 
Family. Governor Berkeley's Speech against the Naviga- 
tion Act. 

>IR William Berkeley,^ Knight, in February, 1642, 
arrived at Jamestown as the successor of Gov- 

ernor Francis Wyatt. In the priaie of life, a 

graduate of Merton College, Oxford, accustomed to travel, a 

1 His father was Sir Maurice Beikeley Kt.,of Hamwortli Middlesex. Ho was 
born in July, 1608, and matriculated at Merton College, Oxford, in 1623, and in 
1639, received the degree of A.M. 


favorite of the King, and once a Gentlemen of the Privy- 
Chamber, his administration, from the first, was energetic 
and progressive. 

Taught to beheve that no commonwealth could exist 
without a King, and that there could ba no church without 
a bishop, he could not separate disloyalty and non-confor- 
mity. By his commission, it was pi'ovided, that he and 
Secretary Kemp, then in England, should take the oaths 
of allegiance and supremacy before sailing, and after 
arrival in Virginia, administer the oath to the follow- 
ing Councillors, Sir Francis Wyatt, Kt,* John West, 

His brother, Charles Henry, born in December, IflOO ; Maurice born in April, 
1603 ; and John in February, 1607, were men of distinction. The latter led the 
army of Kin;^ Chnrles, in 1638, against the Scotch and was created Baron 
Berkeley of Stratton. Charles was kniirhted in 1623, and after the restoration, 
Treasurer of the Household of Charles the Second. 

'Gov. Wyatt seems to have remained in the colony several months after 
the arrival of Berkeley. In 1G13, his wife was a widow, liviajf at Baxley, 
Kent, Eni^land. He had several 8ons, one, named Georjfe, was in 1653, a Lieu- 
tenant in the Navy and when in that year he was ofidred tlie command of the 
" Samp.son" he declined for "he did not think himself fit for command, as ho 
had received many wounds in the late wars, especially in his head." G. P. 
Scull in his memoir of Dorothea Scott prints a letter from King James' 
daun;hter Elizibeth, Queen of Bohemia, dated from the Hague, March 4, 1655, and 
addressed to Lord Finch, whose first wife was the sister of Governor Wyatt, in 
which there is a reference to the Governor's son The words are : " As for the 
" Countess " I can tell you heavie news of her, for she is turned quaker, and 
preaches every day in a tubb. Your nephew Georjre [Wyatt] can tell you of 
her quakino, but her tubb preacliinsf is come since he went, I believe." 

Governor \Vy;itt's aunt, Jane Wyatt, married a Scott, whose grand-daughter 
Dorothea Scott, married Major Daniel Gotherson ot Cromwells' Army, and 
about 1655, became a Quaker preacher. Her husband died in 1055, when .she 
again married Joseph Horben, of Kent, and about 1630, she settled on Long 
Island, Mew York. 


Esq./ Samuel Mathews, Esq.,^ Nathaniel Littleton, Esq.,' 
Christopher Wormeley/ Esq., William Peirce, Esq.,* Roger 
Wingate, Esq.," John Hohson,^ Thomas Powlett,^ George 
Menefie,® Henry Brown, Esq., WiUiara Brocas, Esq., Argall 

Francis Wvatt, son of tlie Governor, in 1641, was enrolled aa a student of 
the Inner Temple. Brock gives the following from the Virginia Land Records : 

Henr}' Wyatt, Esq., eldest son of Sir Francis Wyatt, Dec. 26, 1641, lease for 21 
years of 50 acres in Pasbyiiay, James City county for the raising of corn, for tlie 
better protection of the plantation. George Wyatt, April 21, 1642, in James 
City County 250 acres. Thomas Wyatt, Sept. 24, 1643, " twenty miles up " on 
the south side of Eappahanuock, 2000 acres. 

Richard Wyatt, Aug 20, 1645, in Mobyack Bay, 500 acres. 

Ralph Wyatt in 1636 lease to Abraham Wood and others of certain islands. 

William Wyatt April 27, 1658, in Gloucester Co., 400 acres. 

William Wyatt March 16, 1663, in Gloucester Co., 400 acres. 

Mayor William Wyatt May 20, 1064, in New Kent Co., 1940 acres. 

Anthony W^yatf, June 28, 1664, in New Kent Co., 282 acres. 

Anthony Wyatt July 24, 1669, in Charles City, 398 acres. 

'See page 15. 

■ See page 21. 

* His plantation was on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. 

* He does not appear to have remained in Virginia, but son Ralph was promi- 

s Peirce as early as May, 1623, had been appointed by Governor Wyatt during 
his first term of office. Captain of his Guard, and commander of James City. 
For other notices see pages, 59, 128. 

* Appointed in August, 1639, Treasurer for life. 
' See Chapter V. 

* Thomas Powlett or Pawlett, came in the " Neptune" in 1618, and was in 
1643, about 57 years old. 

9 See p. 112. 


Yeardley/ Thomas Pettus, Thomas Willoughby/ Richard 
Bennett,^ and Humphrey Higginson,* George Ludlow,' 
early in 1642, also appeared as one of the Council. Clai- 
borne was appointed by the King, colonial Treasurer. 

The first assembly after Berkeley's arrival convened on 
April 1, 1642, and among the Burgesses were a number of 
the more enterprising colonists. Benjamin Harrison® who 
had for several years been clerk of the Council, and Richard 
Townsend, who, in 1629, had represented the planters be- 

' Argall Yeardley was the eldest son of the Governor and now about 21 years 
old. See page 16. 

'Thomas Willoughby came in the ship "Prosperous" as early as 1610, and 
was now about 40 years old and was a merchant. 

His only son Thomas born Dec. 25, 1632, was sent to the Merchant Tailors, 
School, London. 

Elizabeth, the wife of Col. William Willoujjhby, one oftlie Commissioners of 
the Navy, about 16o2 died in England, and at tlu^ time her sister .Jane Ham- 
mond was living in Virginia, perhaps the wife of Col. Manwarinfj Hammond, 
one of Gov. Berkele3''8 councillors. She had a son Lawrence Hammond. 

Francis, the son of the widow Elizabeth, being the Deputy Governor of 
Massachusetts, died in 1672, and his widow Margaret married Lawrence, son of 
Jane Hammond of Virginia 

A Willoughby .\llerton was in 1711, Deputy Collector of Customs for Potomac 
River indicating some connection of Isaac Allerton's family with the VVilloughbys. 
A Henry Willoughby, born in 1026, at Stukely, Berkinghamshire, died in No- 
vember, 1685, at Hill's Creek, Virginia. His son Henry who went with his 
father to Virginia, married .July 28, 1695, Elizabeth daughter of William Pidgeon 
of Stepney. The relation between these families has not been ascertained. 

3 Governor of Virginia under Cromwell. 

* Among the passengers for Virginia in the ship " George," Capt. Severn, in 
1635, was Humphrey Higginson. 

'See Chapter IV. 

* Benjamin Harrison on July 10, 1635, received a grant of 200 acres in War- 
rosquoyake afterwards Nansemond County. 


tween Archer's Hope and Martin's Hundred, John Upton, 
who had in 1632, been appointed a judge for Warrosquoy- 
oake, Obedience Robins,' an old justice in Accomack, 
Thomas Harwood who had been prominent in the dispute 
with Governor Harvey, Edward Hill, who was afterwards 
insurrectionary Governor in Maryland, and John Hill, a 
sympathizer with the New England Puritans.'' 

Berkeley was often choleric and arbitrary in his measures, 
yet his hospitality to strangers, outspoken manner, and 
hearty interest in the general welfare of the Colony, for 
several years, gave him influence with many. At the outset 
of his administration he sustained the people, in opposing a 
measure, which tended to cripple their energies. 

The legislative assembly of 1639, had appointed George 
Sandys^ who had been Treasurer of the Colony, before the 

' Jolm Robins, in 1633, in a communication to the colonial antliorities, speaks 
of his father who died on the voyage. In 1633, John Kobins, the younger son 
and heir of John Kobins, deceased, received on September 7th, a grant of 300 
aeres in Elizabeth City County. 

In 1640, December 3d, Obedience Robins entered 3000 acres in Accomack 

2 In addition to the above, the following, were members of the Assembly, of 
April, 1643, andsifrnersof tlie Remonstrance. Thomas Dewe, Ferd. Franklin, 
John Weale, Nath. Gough, Jos. Jolinson, Walter Chiles, Wm. Dacker, W. 
Butler Thomas Fallows, George Worleigh, George Hardy, Francis Fowler, 
Tho's Bernard, Edward Windham. 

3 It is probable that Sandys went to England, and was there when his transla- 
tion of Ovid's Metamorphosis was elegantly published in 1633, in folio, at Ox- 
ford. In 1636, he also published a duodecimo, with this title : 

" Paraphrase upon the Psalmes of David and upon the Hymnes dispersed 
throughout the Old and New Testament." 

Four years later he published an 18mo. " Christ's Passion, a Tragedy ; with 
annotations, London, printed by I. L., and are to be sold by William Leake 
at his shop in Chancery Lane, neere unto the Rowles, 1640." 


abrogation of the charter of the Virginia Company of 
London, to watch over their interest in England, but in 
disregard of their wishes, he revived the project, which 
had been pressed ten years before, and presented a petition 
to the House of Commons, in the name of the adventurers 
and planters of Virginia, asking a restoration to the old 
London Company of all the privileges of their old chai-ter, 
except, that the Crown should reserve the right to appoint a 

The Assembly of April, 1642, after fully debating the 
matter, ' ' maturely considering the reasons on both sides as 
well enquiring for, as against the company" with the Gov- 
ernor, and Council, sent a statement to the King in which 
they set forth sound principles of constitutional liberty. 

They declared that their agent had mistaken his in- 
structions, and that they would consider it a calamity to 
see the charter of the old company revived, and that if it 
were again to attempt to exercise power, there would come 
anarchy and unhappiness in the Colony, whose people had 
not forgotten the intolerable sufferings, illegal proceedings, 
and barbarous treatment during the period of the said com- 
pany's sway. 

Collins mentions that in the family Bible of Archblslmp Sandys, was this 
record: " George Sandes born the seventh day of March, at six of the Clock in 
tlie morning 1577. His godfalliers were George, Earl of Cumberland and Wil- 
liam, Lord Ewer. His godmother Catharine, Countess of Huntington." He 
died at the ajje of 66 years, in the house of his niece, the widow of Governor 
Wyatt. In the register of Besley Abbey is this entry : " Georgius Sandys, 
Poelarum Anglorum sui soeculi facile princeps, sepultus fuit Martii 7 Stilo 
Anglic, An. Dom., 1643." 


The whole trade of the Colony had been monopolized by 
the company, insomuch that when any person desired to go 
for England he had not liberty to carry with him the fruits 
of his own labor, for comfort and support, but was forced 
to bring it to the Magazine of the company, there to ex- 
change it for unprofitable and useless wares. 

That they were now happy by the freedom of annual As- 
semblies, warranted to them by his Majesty's gracious in 
structions, by legal trials, by juries in all criminal and civil 
causes, and by his Majesty's royal encouragement upon all 
occasions to address him, by humble petitions, which so 
much distinguisheth our happiness from that of former 
times wlien private letters to friends were rarely permitted 
to be sent to England, 

They further argued that the old corporation could not 
be introduced without proving the illegality of the King's 
proceedings against them, so that all grants since, upon such 
a foundation must be void; "and if as they pretend, the 
King had no right to grant, our lands held by immediate 
grant from his Majesty must be void, and our possessions 
must give place to their claim, which is an invincible argu- 
ment of ruin and desolation to the Colony, as we must be 
outed of our possessions if their pretence." 

"And though it is alleged by them that the charter of 
orders from the Treasurer and company (Anno 1618) gives us 
claim and right to be members of the corporation quatenus 
planters, yet it appears by the charter, that planters and 
adventurers who are members of the company are considered 
by themselves, and distinguished in privileges, from planters 


and adventurers not being members ; and as the King's 
grantees we find ourselves condemned in the said Charter 
one clause of it pronouncing m these words ; " we do or- 
dain that all persons as of their own voluntary will and 
authority shall remove into Virginia without any grant from 
us, in a great and general Quarter Court, in writing, under 
our seals shall be declared, as they are, occupiers of our 
land ; that is of the common lands of us the said Treasurer 
and Company." 

Now if persons who remove into this country without 
license from the Treasurer and company are to be deemed 
occupiers of the company's land, much more will such 
grantees be deemed occupiers of their land, who hold their 
rights under an erroneous judgment as they pretend. 

That if the company be revived, and they have leave by 
virtue of their charter of orders publickly to dispossess us, 
the wiser world we hope will excuse us if we refuse to de- 
part with what, next to our lives, nearest concerns us 
(which are our estates, the livelihood of ourselves, our wives 
and children) to the courtesy and will of such taskmasters, 
from whom we have already experienced so much oppres- 

That we will not admit of so unnatural a distance as a 
company to interpose between his Sacred Majesty, and us 
his subjects, from whose immediate protection we have re- 
ceived so many royal favors and gracious blessings. 

That by such admission, we shall degenerate from our 
birthrights, being naturalized under a monarchical and not 
a popular, or tumultuary government, depending upon the 


greatest number of votes of persons of several honors and 
dispositions as that of a company must be granted to be, 
from whose General Quarter Courts all laws binding the 
planters here did, and would again, issue. 

That we cannot without breach of natural duty and reli- 
gion, give up and resign the lands we hold by grants from 
the King upon certain annual rents (fitter as we humbly 
conceive, if his Majesty shall so please, for a branch of his 
own royal stem than for a company) to the claim of a cor- 
poration ; for besides our own births, our possessions enjoin 
us as a fealty without a salvafide aliis Dominis. 

That by the admission of a company the freedom of our 
trade (the blood and life of a commonwealth) will be mono- 
polized, for they who with most secret reservation, and 
most subtlety argue for a company though they pretend 
to submit the government to the King, yet reserve to the 
corporation property to the land, and power of managing 
the trade ; which word managing in every sense of it is 
convertible to monopolizing, and will subject the trade 
to the whole control and direction of their Quarter Courts 
held at so great a distance from us that it is not probable or 
possible for them to be acquainted with the accidental cir- 
cumstances of the Colony, so as to form proper rules and 
regulations for our trade, which our Grand Assembly, 
acquainted with the clime and accidents thereof, have and 
may upon better grounds, prescribe, and which in any 
other way will be destructive to us. 

That the pretence that the government shall be made 
good to the King, that is, that the King shall nominate and 


appoint the Governor, we take at best, to be but a fallacy 
and a trap, not of capacity enough to catch men with eyes 
and forethought ; for upon a supposition that the Governour 
shall be named and appointed by the King, yet his depend- 
ence, so far as respects his continuance or removal, will by 
reason of their power, and interest with great men, rest in 
the company, which naturally brings with it conformity to 
their wills in whatever shall be commanded, and we leave 
it to the best judgments whether such dependence will not 
be pernicious to the Colony. 

After these reasons, with firmness they make the follow- 
ing positive declaration. 

"We the Governour, Council, and Burgesses of this pre- 
sent Grand Assembly having taken into serious considera- 
tion these and many other dangerous effects which must be 
concomitant in and from a company or corporation, have 
thought fit to declare, and hereby do declare, for ourselves 
and all the commonality of this Colony, that it was never 
desired, sought after, or. endeavored to be sought for, either 
directly or indirectly by the consent of any Grand Assembly 
or the common consent of the people ; and we do hereby fur- 
ther declare and testify to all the World, that we will never 
admit the restoring the said Company, or any, for, or in 
their behalf, saving to ourselves herein a most faithful and 
loyal obedience to his most Sacred Majesty, our dread 
Sovereign whose royal and gracious protection, allowance, 
and maintenance of this our just declaration and protesta- 
tion we doubt not (according to his accustomed clemency 
and benignity to his subjects) to find. 

" And we do further enact, and be it here])y enacted and 
manifested by the authority aforesaid, that what person or 


persons soever either is, or shall be hereafter any planter or 
adventurer, and shall go about, by any way or gaeans, either 
directly or indirectly, to sue for, advise, assist, abet, coun- 
tenance, or contrive the reducing this Colony to a Company 
or Corporation ***** shall be held and deemed an 
enemy to the Colony and shall forfeit his or their whole 
estate or estates that shall be found within the limits of the 
Colony, the one half shall be and come to the publick use, 
the other moity or half to the informer." 

After the preparation of their objections, the Assembly 
postponed all business and adjourned to the second of June, 
When the protest was received by the King, the civil war 
had begun in England, and he was in Yorkshire directing 
troops against the friends of Parliament. Although his ap- 
proval of their propositions would have no weight with 
Parliament, yet it was most graciously given, while he was 
sojourning at York, in these w^ords : 

*' Charles Rex 

** Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. Whereas 
we have received a petition from you, our Governour, Coun- 
cil, and Burgesses of the Grand Assenibly in Virginia, 
together with a declaration and protestation of the first of 
April, against a petition presented in your names, to the 
House of Commons in this our Kingdom, for restoring of 
the letters patent for incorporating of the late treasurer, 
and Company, contrary to your intent and meaning, and 
against all such as shall go about to alienate you from our 
immediate protection ; and whereas you desire, by your 
petition, that we should co)ifirm this your declaration and 
protestation under our royal signet, and transmit it to that 


our Colony. These are to signify, that your acknowledg- 
ment of our grace, bounty, and favour toward you, and 
your so earnest desire to continue under our immediate 
protection is veiy acceptable unto us ; and that as we had 
not before the least intention to consent to the introduction 
of any Company over that our Colony, so we are by it 
much confirmed in our resolution, as thinking it unfit to 
change a form of government, wherein (besides many other 
reasons given and to be given) our subjects there having had 
so long experience of it, received so much contentment and 
satisfaction. And this our approbation of your petition and 
protestation we have thought fit to transmit to you, under 
our royal signet. Given at our Court, at York, the 5th of 
July, 1642." 

During this sunmier, there was an efi'ort to secure New 
England ministers for some vacant parishes. Some of the 
settlers upon the banks of the Nansemond River were from 
the city of London, and had been under the influence of those 
Puritan preachers who had opposed the policy of Arch- 
bishop Laud. The parish of Upper Norfolk had grown so 
large that in 1641, the Assembly enacted : " For the better 
enabling the inhabitants of this colony to the religious 
worship and service of Almighty God, which is often neg- 
lected and slackened by the incojivenient and remote vast- 
ness of parishes, Resolved, That the county of Upper 
Norfolk be divided into three distinct parishes, viz : one, 
on the south side of Nansimon river, from the present glebe 
to head of said river, on the other side of the river, the 
bounds to be limited from Cooling's CKeek, including both 
sides of the creek, upward to the head of the western 


branch, and to be nominated the South Parish. It is also 
thought, and confirmed that the east side of Nansimun 
river from present glebe downward to the north of said 
river, be a peculiar parish, to which the glebe and parson- 
age house that now is, shall be appropiated and called East 
Parish ; the third parish, to begin on the west side of Nan- 
simun river, to be limited from Cooling's creek, as afore- 
said, and to extend downward to the mouth of the river, 
including all Chuckatuck, on both sides, and the Ragged 
Islands, to be known by the West Parish." 

During the summer of 1642, Philip Bennett, of the Upper 
Norfolk district, came in small pinnace, to Boston, with a 
petition, signed by John Hill, Richard Bennett, an influen- 
tial merchant, afterwards Governor, and Daniel Gookin, 
junior, " a Kentish soldier, a very forward man to advance 
martial discipline," and others, in all, to the number of sev- 
enty-one, asking for three able ministers, to occupy parishes 
in their neighborhood. 

At a session of the General Court of Massachusetts Bay 
on the 8th of September, it was voted relative to ' ' the 
ministers proposed to be sent to Virginia, that if the churches 
will consent to have them go, the Magistrates should com- 
mend them to the Government there." 

The churches selected John Knowles,* a ripe scholar who 

' Knowles after a few years left New England and became a preacher at Bris- 
tol Cathedral, and then was sixteen years at Pei-shore, Worcester. On April 9, 
1665, his house was searched, and he imprisoned tor sedition because he had 
collected mone^' for safFeriug Polanders, which, in his petition for release he 
quaintly says,. '" he did not know was unlawful, but ttiought them an object of 
pity." After his release, he devoted liimself to the sufferers from the plajfue in 
London. He lived to the ripe age of 85 years, and in 1685 died. 


had been educated at old Cambridge University, William 
Tompson,' a graduate of Oxford, and Thomas James, who 
had been two years preacher at Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts, but then at New Haven, Connecticut. 

Their voyage was long, and stormy, occupying several 
weeks. As they passed Hell Gate in Long Island Sound, 
their pinnace was " bilged upon the rocks," but Mr. Aller- 
ton, the son-in-law of William Brewster, the leader of the 
Plymouth Colony, who wa:^ then at Manhattan, obtained 
for them another vessel, in which in mid-winter they sailed 
for Virginia, 

Soon after they reached their destination, on March 1st, 
1642-3 (O. S.), the Assembly' convened at Jamestown, when 

' William Totnpson, as the name was written, was born in Lancashire, Eng., 
in 1598, and in 1619, left Oxford, and before coming to New England, preached 
at Winwick. In " Terra Marim" J. B. Lippiucott& Co., he i3 erroneously men- 
tioned a8 the cordial friend of Lord Baltimore. That William Tompson was a 
Maryland settler and the only Roman Catholic that sided with Ingle and the 
friends of Parliament, but afterward came back to I^ord Baltimore's party. 

" House of Burgesses March 1 , 1642-3. 

Henrico County Capt. Mathew Gough. 

Mr. Arthur Bayley. 

Mr. Dan. Luellin. 
Charles City Go. Walter Ashton. 

Thomas Stegg^ Speaker. 

Mr. Walter Chiles. 

Capt. Rob't Hutchinson. 

Mr. Rowland Sadler. 
James City Co. Mr. Uenry Filnier. 

Capt. John Fludd. 

Mr. Stephen Webb. 

Mr. Wm. Davie. 
Warwick River Co. Capt. Thomas Flint. 

Mr. Toby Smith. 
Elizabeth City Co. Mr. John Branch. 

Mr. John Hoddin. 


under Governor Berkeley's influence, it was enacted " for 
the preservation of the puritie of doctrine, and vnitie of 
the church, that all men whatsoever, which shall reside in 
the collony are to be conformable to the orders and con- 
stitution, of the Church of England, and the laws therein 
established, and not otherwise to be admitted to teach pub- 
lickly or privately. And that the Grand Counsel do take 
care that all non-conformists upon notice of shall be com- 
pelled to depart the collony with all convenience." 

It was also re-enacted that no popish recusants should at 
any time hold office unless they had taken the oaths of alle- 
giance and supremacy, and that no popish priest could re- 
main in the Colony longer than five days, after receiving 
notice to leave from the Governor, or the authority of the 

The church polity determined upon for the parishes was 
quite peculiar. In New England civil affairs were subject 
to the vote of the church, but the reverse was the order in 
Virginia, and spiritual concerns were under the supervision 
of officers chosen by the body politic. Each parish was in- 
dependent. The law passed, declared : "That the vestrie of 

ItU of Wight Co. Mr. Arthur Jones. 

Mr. Richard Death. 
Upper Norfolk Co. Mr. John Carter. 

Mr. Randall Crew. 
Lower Norfolk Co. Mr. Cornelius Lloyd. 

Mr. Edward Windham. 
York County. Mr. John Chew. 

Capt. Chesman. 

Mr. Wm. Tayler. 
Northampton Co. Mr. Phil. Tayler. 

Mr. Edward Scarborough. 


evrie parish, with the allowance of the coinmancler, and 
comr's of the county living, and resideing witliin the said 
parish, or the vestrie alone, in case of their non-residence, 
shall from henceforward, have power to eliot, make choyce 
of their ministers, and he or they so elected by the com- 
mander and com'rs, or by the vestrie, in case of non-residence 
as aforesaid, to be recommended and presented to the said 
commander, and com'rs or vestrie alone, to the Governor, 
and so by him admitted. Provided, that it shall be lawfall 
for the Gov' for the time being to admit and elect such a 
minister as he shall allow of in James Citty parish. And 
in any parish where the Governour and his successors shall 
have a plantation, provided he or they enjoy not that privi- 
lege but in one parish, where he or they have such a planta- 
tion, And vpon the neglect, or misbecoming of the ministers 
or any of them compl't thereof being made by the vestrie, 
The Governour and Council are requested so to proceed 
against such minister or ministers, by suspension, or other 
punishment as they shall think fitt and tlio offence require,' 
Removall of such ministers, to be left to the Grand Assem- 
bly." With a vestry elected by a community of godless 
planters, the most orthodox minister was liable to be com- 
plained of, suspended or removed, by the secular power, 
while a wine bibbing and horse racing parson could be re- 
tained for years by a vestry of jolly and loose living parish- 
ioners. As yet the rancor of civil war had not separated 
neighbors, and while Stegg the speaker of the House, Ben- 
nett of the Council, and others, sympathized with Parlia- 
ment, they were disposed to support their royalist Governor 
as the following legislation shows. 


" Whereas the vnkind differences now in England, It 
may be with great reason be assured to the most scrupolous 
that the severall pension & allowance from his Ma'tie to 
the Governour of this place is for the present withdrawn 
and suspended & that therefore for sustentation and support 
of the honour of this place of Governour in accomodation 
from the plantation in cleare and absolute terms of neces- 
sitie is required and inforced ; 

" Yet nevertheles this present Grand Assembly together 
and eye to the honour of the place, having alsoe entered 
into a deep sense and consideration of the duty and trust 
w^hich the publique votes and suffrages have cast vpon them 
vnder which is comprehended as the most speciall and 
binding obligation the preservation of the rights and pro- 
perties of the people, to which this course now intended may 
seem to threaten violence however, rather innovated in the 
manner and circumstance, then in value and substance ; 
Yet as well for the silencing of pretences as for answearing 
arguments of weight. 

"/^ is tliouglit fitt hereby to declare that as from the in- 
fancy of the colony there never was the like concurrence 
and pressure of affairs which they likewise hope and pray 
to Almighty God to [avert] from his Ma'tie and his ma'ties 
kingdom, soe they have recorded to the posteritie, with this 
ensueing president of accommodation for the Governour, that 
the aforesaid instance, and motives removed, they will 
never yield or consent to receive [renew ?] the same " and it 
was ordered that a levy of two shillings upon each tithable 


person, payable in provisio|is', be made for the support of the 
Governor, and a house .witli a lot of two acres was also 
presented, as "a free and voluntary gift, in consideration 
of many worthy favours manifested toward the Colony." 
At this session, persons who fled from England on account 
of their debts, were exempted from prosecution by creditors, 
because in the language of the Act, "it might hazard the 
deserting of the great part of the country." 

Several changes were made in names and boundaries. 
The plantation of " Achomack " was ordered to be called 
Northampton, and C'harles River County was changed to 
York, and Warwick River to Warwick County. Upper 
Norfolk was divided into three parishes, and " Chescake " 
was changed to Hampton Parish. Two parishes were 
created in Northampton County, one south of Kings Creek, 
the other between Kings Creek and Naswattocks. The 
monthly courts were made bi-mensal, and designated as 
County Courts. 

Walter Austin, Rice Hoe, Joseph Johnson and Walter 
Chiles, were authorized to explore the country west and 
south of the " Appomattake " river, with the privilege of 
trading with the Indians for fourteen years. 

All old settlers who arrived at the last cuniing of Sir 
Thomas Gates, or before, were exempted fiom military 

' Indian corn was rated at 10 sliillings a banel, two barrels in ear, e<iuivalcut 
to a barrel without cobs ; wheat at 4«. a bushel ; beef at 3i pence a pound, pork 
at 4 pence a pound ; good hens at 13 pence, lapons at 1«. M, calves six weeks 
old, at 35 shillings ; butter at 8(f. per pound ; good goats at 30«. ; pigs to roast 
three shillings; cheese (j pen^e a pound; geese, turkeys and kids each 5 


service, and public taxes, except those for the support of 

The doctrine of popular sovereignty was set forth in a 
declaration that an Act of the Assembly was higher than 
any act of the General Court, or proclamation of the Go- 

The New England ministers received no encouragement 
from Governor Berkele)^ An old chronicler quaintly men 
tions : "They found loving and liberal entertainment in 
the country and were bestowed in several places, by the 
care of some honest minded persons that much desired their 
company rather than by any care of the Governor. ***** 
It fared with them as it had done before with the Apostles 
in the primitive times, that the people magnified them, and 
their hearts seemed to be much inflamed with an earnest 
desire after the Gospel, though the civil rulers of the country 
did not allow of their public preaching because they did 
not conform to the ciders of the church of England, how- 
ever, the people resorted to them in private houses as much 
as before." 

Early in the summer of 1643, not washing to continue 
preaching in opposition to the authorities, they returned to 
Massachusetts. Lord Baltimore profiting by the short- 
sighted policy of the Virginia Governor, was quick to make 
know^n through Capt. Edward Gibbons,' of Boston, that 

1 Gibbons as a j'ouug man had been inclined to be wild, but becan>e a sedate 
and prominent merchant of Boston, havlnci: commercial transactions with the 
planters of Virginia and Maryland. Gov. Winthrop, under date of lOth month 
1646, wrote: " But the Lord is still pleased to afflict us in our shipping, for 
Major Gibbons and Capt. Leverett having sent a new ship of about one hundred 


the officers of Maryland would welcome any English non- 

In February, 1630-7, Cecil, Lord Baltimore, presuming 
upon his poweriul court influence, and devoted friendship 
of Secretary Windebank,^ applied for the Governorship of 

tons to Virjjinia, and having there freighted her witli tobacco, g-oing out of the 
river, by a sudden storm was forced ashore, and lost her auclior and much of the 
goods, totlie loss (aw is estimated) of two tliousaud pounds." 

Lord Baltimore iu iGoO, " havin<r good experience of the honour, worth, and 
ability, of F.dwiird Gibbons, Esquire, ilajor General of New England" appointed 
him one of the council of ^tate and Admiral of the Province of Maryland. 
He was presi^nt, in 1652, when Maryland surrendered to the Commonwealth of 
England, and at his deatli, he owned a wind-mill at Saint MarJ^ 

' Francis Windebank, son of Sir Thomas, of Hurst, Berkshire, a graduate of 
Saint Johns, Oxford, was a trimmer, and trickster. Through the influence of 
Laud, when Bishop of London, he was in June, 1632, aj-.pointed to succeed Sir 
Dudley Carleton, the Viscount Dorchester, deceased, as Secretary of State, and 
that mouth George, iiord Baltimore, obtained the grant of Maryland. When Laud 
became unpopular, he forsook him, and suspected of being a Koman Catholic 
he fled in 1640, to France. Charles the First learned to dislike him. In a letter 
from Paris, dated Feb. 5-15, 1640-1 the Earl of Leicester alludes to him: '•! as- 
sure you that of all the men in the world, I have the least obligation, and the 
least affection to the little Ex-Secretarius that is come hither. I never held any 
other correspondence with him heretofore than that wliich his office and my 
employment recpiired ; and since his being here, he hath had no more from me 
than such civility as is due to a person ol his quality, painfully and dangerously 
accused, I must confess, but not yet condemned for aught I know, and I am 
sure it doth not belong to me, to judge or to degrade him. He comes often to 
my chapel, though he tind rio altars there to bow unto, nor any candles upon 
them to help a blind devotion." Tlie Secretary, in 1646, died in Paris. 

Cecii-, Baltimore, Feb. 23, 1636-7, to Secretary Windebakk. 

Right Honorable. 

Since I waited on yon I have (heere iu the Country) further considered of the 
proposition which 1 made unto your Honor concerning the advancenunt of his 
Majties service in Virgini;i,an(l I have desired my Brother I'easeley to acquaint 
you with my resolution iu it, wliich I will infallibly performe if his Majtie 
phiase to accept ot it, for you may 1 e most assured that I would not iugage my 
credit in business of such importance, and especially to such persons before I 


Virginia, with a salary of two thousand pounds a year, and 
while it was not obtained, it is probable that by his influence, 
Gabriel Havvley received the appointment of Surveyor, and 
Jerome Hawley that of Treasurer of Virginia. Ever anxious 

was very well assured of my ability to performe with satisfaction what I under- 
take. I do presume by him, also to propose unto you a way of the King in the 
business ; such a one as I conceive may be most likely to take"effect, or in case 
of his refusall of it, in that way will I conceive be less prejudiciall to me; but 
this I submit to your better judgment. If the business takes effect as the King 
will receive a great benefitt by it, so will it be of good consequence to me, v/hich 
I shall accordingly acknowledge to your honor, and besides I shall thereby be 
inabled to do you such further service as shall make me to appeare unto you a 
really grateful man. 

I am much your debtor Sir for former favours, and in especiall for your present 
care of my New Fouudland business, that concerns me very much which 1 shall 
likewise acknowledge to you, for I know by good experience your noble integ- 
rity and favour to me to be such, as that you will by the best of your Endeavors 
protect me from injury. 

Your honors most atfectionate 
Warder Castle and humble servant, 

25 Feb., 1636. C. Baltimore. 


The Lord Baltimore having considered of the discourse that was betwixt us 
Mr. Secretary and himself, concerning his desire to do his Majestic service in 
Virginia doth conceive (v/ith submission to Mr. Secretary's better judgment) 
this to be a fitt way to propound the matter to the King. 

That Mr. Secretary may bee pleased to take notice to his Majestic how sensible 
he hath often found the Lord Baltimore to bee, for the great favours he hath 
received from the King in his late occasions, and how desirous hee is to do him 
some acceptable service, wherein hee may express his duty and gratitude to his 
Majesty. The consideration whereof hath invited him to take some paines to 
informe himselfe, of the present state of Virginia whereof hee hath acquired so 
much knowledge aa hee will understand the great prejudice the King suffers there 
by not receiving so much profit from thence, as he ought to have and is due ; 
wherefore he did assure Mr. Secretary that he would undertake to improve his 
Majesties Revenue further eight thousand pounds yearly more than now he re- 
ceived for, or by revenue of that plantation, and this his Lordship will do without 
laying any new, or other taxes or imposition on the Planters than what they now 
do, and will most willingly pay. But because this advancement of the King's 
revenue in Virginia cannot be effected unless the Lord Baltimore do remove and 


for his own aggrandizement at the expense of pohtical and 
rehgious scruples, on the 28th of February, 1643-4, he re- 
ceived authority from the King, then at Oxford, authoriz- 
ing his brother Leonard Calvert, Governor of Maryland, to 
treat with the General Assembly of Virginia' as to duties to 
be imposed upon goods exported, or imported, and that, 
when this agreement was effected, that then Lord Balti- 
more should, with such associates, as he should choose, 
have a lease of these customs, with power to appoint such 
collectors as he might desire. 

reside some time there, which he cannot with his safety, well do except hee be 
authorized and enabled, by having the government of that country, whereunto, 
though Mr. Secretary perceives the Lord Baltimore hath no ambition or aflFec- 
tion, yet for the advancement and performance of this service hee dotli verily 
thinke that upon his Majesties command the Lord Baltimore would accej)t of the 
government, and two thousand pounds per year for the support thereof, payable 
out of that improvement of Rent, and for that purpose would so accommodate 
his private occasions heero, as he might bee ready to transport himself thither 
with as much speede as his Maties service required. And thai if his Majtie were 
pleased to speake with the Lord Baltimore hee would upon signification of his 
pleasure make his present repayre from the country, to give him particular and 
perfect satisfaction of the meanes and manner to raise the increase of Revenue. 

'The following are extracts from a blank commission prepared on April 10, 

"Cecilius. Lord Baltimore, to all to whom these presents come, greeting: 
Whereas, our Sovereign lord, the King, by his Highness commission, under the 
great seal of England, bearing date at Oxford, the 28 day of February, now last 
past, hath authorized Leonard Calvert, brother of me, the said Lord Baltimore, 
to treat, conclude, and agree, and with the General Assembly of the Colony of 
Virginia, for and concerning the ascertaining and establishing, by Act of General 
Assembly there, of customs, and duties, to be paid to his Majesty, his heirs and 
successors in Virginia, upon exportation of tobacco and other goods and mer- 
chandize from thence, and upon all other goods and merchandize brought in and 
imported there, other than for necessary supply of clothing imported, as by the 
said commission more at large appeareth. 

And, whereas, by a contract or agceement in writing, bearing date the da}' of 
the date of the said commission, made between our sovereign Lord, the King, 
of the one party, and the said Lord Baltimore of the other party, reciting the 


The Earl of Warwick as Admiral of the Parliament fleet, 
gave letters of marque to captains of ships autliorizino; them 
to capture all vessels from Bristol, Barnstable, Dartmouth 
and other places whose merchants supported the King, and 
during the winter of liUS-i, the Virginians were informed 
that henceforth they should be free from all taxation not 
self-imposed, and that whenever there was a vacancy, they 
might choose their own Governor. 

While those in the Governor's presence continued to pray 
"God save the King," those who had business relations 
with the merchants of London, were disposed to give heed 
to the orders of the House of Commons. 

Richard Ingle, ^ Captain of a London ship, in January, 
1643-4, arrived in the waters of Chesapeake Bay and sailing 
up to Saint Mary, the capital of the province of Maryland, he 

said commissiou liereiubcfore recited, our said Sovereign Lord, the King, for the 
consideration iu the said contract or ao^rewiuent expressed, is pleased, and hath 
agreed with me, the said Lord Baltimore, that in case a certainty and customs, 
and duties shall be established by act of General Assembly of the said Colony of 
Virginia, accordino: to tlie tenor of said couimission ; That then his said Majesty 
will make a lease, or grant to me, and such others as I shall desire to be joyned 
with me, of the same custoius and duties which shall be established as aforesaid, 
for such term, and under such rents and covenants iis iu the same contract or 
agreement are expressed," etc. , etc. 

' Ingle was probably the same person who came !<, Boston early in the sum- 
mer of 1642, of whom Winthrop in his History of Xew England, writes: " The 
ship Eleanor of London, one Mr. Inglee, master, arrived at Boston. She was 
laden with tobacco from Virginia, and having been about It days at sea, she 
was taken with such a tempest, as though all her sails were down and made up, 
yet they were blown from the yards, and slie was laid over on one side, two and 
a half hours, so low as the water stood upon her deck, and the sea over-racking 
her continually. ***** Hhe staid here and was well fitted with masts, 
sails and rigging, and victuals at such reasonable rates, as the master was much 
affected with his entertainment, and professed that he had never found the like 
usage in Virginia, where he had traded these ten years." 


was arrested for speeches disloyal to tlie King, by acting 
Governor Brent, and the following proclamation issued : 
"These are to publish & p'claym to all psons as well 
seamen as others, that Richard Ingle M' of his ship is 
arrested upon highe treason to his Ma''''; & therefore to 
require all p'sons to be aiding and assisting to his LqP' offi- 
cers in seizing of his ship, and not to offer any resistance 
or contempt hereunto, nor to be any otherwaise aiding or 
assisting to the said Richard Ingle upon perl of highe trea- 
son to his Ma'y." 

The chief charges' when examined were of no great impor- 
tance and Thomas Cornwallis, the chief councillor and most 
prominent man in Maryland "to show his affection to Par- 
liament found means to free Ingle, and restore his ship, and 
goods, for which, ho was fined the highest sum that could, 
by law, be laid upon him, and for safety of his person was 
forced to leave his estate in the hands of a servant, and 
fly with Ingle to England " about the middle of March. 

A Rotterdam vessel on the 22d of October, 164:3, arrived 
at Jamestown with a cargo of wine, and in it, was Capt. De 
Vries as passenger. He remained during the whole winter 

'It was charged tliat on the 9,Q\\\ of November, 1641, "not havinjy tlie feare 
of God before his eies, but instigated thereunto by the instigation of the 
divill & example of other traitors of liis Matie traiterously & as an enemy did 
levie war and beare arms arjst his matio & exercise the command and captain- 
ship of the town of Gravesend" in Eni^land ; that lie had said in 1G42-3, that in 
February of that. year he had been bidden in the Kinfr's name to come ashore at 
Accomac in Virginia, but he had refused to do so, and had threatened to cut oft 
the head of any one who should corac on his ship: that in April, 1043, at Mat- 
tapanian St. Clement's Hundred, he said "that Prince Rupert was Prince Traitor 
& Prince Rogue and it he had him aboard his ship he would whip him at the 



in the Valley of the James River and frequently visited 
Governor Berkeley, who treated him with great hospitality. 
The ship in which he came sailed one hundred and seven 
miles beyond Jamestown and discharged its freight. The 
planters, as when De Vries was before in Virginia, still 
lost "their servants by gambling," He wrote that while 
the Virginians were hospitable, " they are not proper persons 
to trade with. You must look out when you trade with 
them Peter is always by Paul or you will be struck in the 
tail, for if they can deceive any one they account it a 
Roman action. They say in their language ' He played him 
an English trick.'" 

On the loth of April, ItUi, De Vries, at the suggestion of 
Governor Berkeley, engaged passage in a London ship of 
twenty-eight guns, then anchored at Jamestown. When 
the vessel reached Blunt Point, on the 13th, there was seen 
a Bristol vessel of twelve guns, pursued by two London 
ships discharging cannon, but it being of lighter draught 
sailed into Warwick Creek, and escaped with little injury. 
De Vries passed the night, after the fight, on board of one 
of the London vessels, and the next morning, visited the 
Bristol ship in the Creek, and learned that a planter who 
was on board to purchase some goods, had been killed. 
On the 15th of April, he went aboard his own ship, and on 
the 18th, eleven ships of London, each carrying from eigh- 
teen to twenty guns, sailed from the fort, at Point Comfort, 
for England. 

The eighteenth day of April, was Good Friday, of the eccle- 
siastical calendar, and Governor Berkeley had ordered it to 


be kept as a special fast day to pray for King Charles, but 
it was not observed, as it had become a day of unexpected 
mourning. The Indians observing that the white popula- 
tion was engaged in civil war, determined to gratify their 
revenge, and the day before Good Friday commenced to kill 
the settlers and continued their bloody work for two days. 
They divided themselves into small companies, and beset 
the English houses a little before the break of day, waiting 
for the first person who should open the door. Beating out 
his brains they entered the house, slew all within, and then 
burned the building with the dead, or wounded women and 
children.^ About three hundred whites lost their lives. 

Governor Calvert, of Maryland had already gone to Ox- 
ford, to confer with King Charles, and Berkeley, perplexed 
by the demonstration against the King, made Secretary 
Kemp acting Governor, and sailed for England to take 
advice. While he was absent, during the sunnner, Capt. 
Thomas Stegg, a member of his Council and who had 
been speaker of the Assembly, in March, 16-1:3, api^eared 
in the waters of Boston with a letter of marque from 
the Earl of Warwick, and a ship of twenty-four guns, 
and finding there a Bristol ship with a cargo of fish, he 
showed the captain his commission and said that he would 
give him thirty minutes to consider certain terms of sur- 
render. The movement was surprising and there was great 
excitement, crowds having gathered upon Windmill Hill 
during the parley. The Bristol captain, after consulting 
with his sailors, accepted the terms, and the ship was taken 

Johnson's Wonder Working Providence. 


by Stegg as a prize The next Sunday some of the Boston 
ministers denounced the Virginia captain, and urged the 
magistrates to prevent his taking the ship, but they did not 
see how they could restrain one acting under a commission 
from parliament. Majors Gibbons, and Sedgwick, were 
subsequently ordered not to permit any ships to fight in the 

Eobert Evelin after publishing in England in 1641, his 
small tract on New Albion, returned to America and was in 
1642, living on his plantation in Maryland. Some frontier 
settlers, near Pascatoway, having been murdered by ma- 
rauding Indians, Governor Calvert, on the 23d of June 
appointed him to "levy, train, and muster" the people in that 
region, and protect them from the savages. During the 
month of July, he sat as a member of the Maryland Assem- 
bly' from St. George's Hundred, having been summoned by 
special writ. 

Sir Edmund Plowden^ probably arrived from England with 

• After this Assembly, Gov. Calvert wrote to Gov. Berkeley, asking him to 
send one hundred men by Ihe first of October, to Kent Island to unite iu an 
expedition against the hostile " Sasquesahanocks, Wicomeses, and Nanticokes." 
On the 5th of Oclober the Governor and Virginia Council decided that it was 
" impossible to comply with his request, as many of the inhabitants were about 
to remove to new plantations, aud were hardly able to get arms and ammunition 
to defend themselves ; and those remaining upon the old plantations not having 
a supply of military provisions, besides the heavy hand ot God's visitation 
upon the plantations generally, of which few were recovered." 

^'Sir Edmund Plowden, Kt., was the grandson of Edmund Plowden, the 
learned and honorable pleader, who died iu 1584, and whose commentaries on 
law, Chief Justice Coke called " exquisite and elaborate." His father was Francis 
Plowden, of Plowden Salop. The Knight was married about the year 1610, to 
Mabel, daughter of Peter Mariner of Wanstead, Hampshire, who brought him 
an estate of £300 per annum in land. 


Evelin, in 1042, and sailed up the river Delaware.^ The set- 
tlement of English spoken of by the council of Manhattan, 
this year, as "obliquely opposite Fort Nassau," which 
is now the site of Philadelphia, may have been fostered 
by him, and near this spot in 1631:, Robert Evelin, and his 
uncle Capt. Young, had stopped. 

The winter of 1642-3, Plowden seems to have passed in 
Virginia, and Maryland. Printz, the Governor of the set- 
tlement of Swedes, on the Delaware, in a letter to the 
Swedish West India Company, gives some account of 
Plowden. He mentions: "How last year [1643] in Vir- 
ginia he desired to sail with his people, sixteen in number, 
in a barque from Heckeraack [Accomac] to Kikathans 

lu 1632, lie with other persons petitioned the King for " Manitie or Long Isle " 
and " tiiirty miles square of the coast next adjoining, to be erected into a County 
Palatine called Syon to be held of " " bis Majesty's Crown of Ireland without 
appeal or sul)jection to the Governor and Company of Virginia," with some 
modifications, the isle called Plowden, and the country New Albion, the petition 
was granted at Oatland on July 24th, of this year, and a charter granted and 
sealed Juno 21, 1634, at Dublin, Ireland 

He was a violent person. In 1633, owing to e.Kcessive cruelty his wife was 
obliged to leave his house. Plowden having professed conformity to the 
church of England, and giving bond not to use any cruelty, his wife returned 
to her home, but in March, 1639, she complained that her husband was still 
cruel and refused to support her, and remained in prison to avoid paying alimony. 
As late as the 7th of May, 1640, he was in the Fleet Prison, and probably after 
being released from confinement he sailed for America, where he stayed seven 

Not only his wife but others sulfe red from his unbridled temper. Philip 
Oldfield, Rector of Lasham, Hants, for twenty-five years, in .May, 1638, com- 
plained that Plowden " threatened his rain, unjustly detained ids body, beat his 
wife, great with child, and insulted ovi^r his weak and declining estate." 

' In the Delaware ReffixfrV, Vol. 1, page 83, a writer mentions that " in 1642, 
tVe Dutch proceeded to the Schuylicill, with a view of dispossessing the Mary- 
landers, who had lately seated themselvsa there." 


[Hampton] and when they came to the Bay of Virginia, the 
captain who had previously conspired with the Knight's 
people to kill him, directed his course, not to Kikathan, but 
to Cape Henry passing which, they came to an isle in the 
high sea called Smith's Island, when they took counsel in 
what way they should put him to death, and thought it 
best not to slay him with their hands, but to set him, with- 
out food, clothes, or arms, on the above named island, 
which was not inhabited by men, or animals, save wolves 
and bears, and this they did. Nevertheless, two young noble 
retainers, who had been brought up by the Knight, and 
who knew nothing of that plot, when they beheld this evil 
fortune of their lord, leaped from the barque into the ocean, 
swam ashore and remained with their master. The fourth 
day following, an EngHsh sloop sailed by Smith's Island, 
coming so close, that the young men were able to hail her, 
when the Knight was taken aboard, half-dead and as black 
as the ground, and conveyed to Hackemack, where he re- 
covered. The Knight's people, however, arrived with the 
barque May 6, 1643, at our Fort Elfsborg and asked after 
ships to old England. Hereupon I demanded their pass, 
and enquired from whence they came ; and as soon as I per- 
ceived they were not on a proper errand, I took them with 
me, with their consent, to Christina, to bargain about flour 
and other provisions, and questioned them, until a maid 
servant, who had been the Knight's washerwoman, con- 
fessed the truth and betrayed them. I at once caused an 
inventory to be taken of their goods, in their presence, and 
held the people prisoners, until the very English sloop 
which had rescued the Knight arrived, with a letter from 


him, concerning the matter, not alone addressed to me, but 
to all the governors and commandants of the whole coast 
of Florida. Thereupon, I surrendered to him the people, 
barque, and goods, in precise accordance with the inventory, 
and he paid me, 425 riksdaler for my expenses. The 
chief of these traitors the Knight has had executed. He 
himself is still in Virginia, and as he constantly professes, 
expects vessels and people from Ireland and England. To 
all ships and barques that come from thence, he grants free 
commission to trade here, in the river, with the savages ; 
but I have not permitted any of them to pass, nor shall I 
do so, until I receive order and command to that effect, from 
my most gracious Queen, her Royal Majesty of Sweden.'" 

While residing in Virginia, in 1643, Plowden bought an 
interest in a bark,'^ with Draper, of Kickotan, and in May 
of this year, Margaret Brent, subsequently the executrix of 
Governor Calvert of Maryland, visited Kent Islsfnd accom- 
panied by Anne, his lame maid servant. 

In May, 1641, Daniel Gookin, Jr., son of Daniel Gookin, 
who had become much interested in the preaching of the 
non-conformist ministers, left Virginia and became one of 
the most distinguished citizens of Boston.' 

> Printz's letter translated by Gregory B. Keen, first appeared in Vol. VII, 
Pennsylvania Magazine. 

•In N. Y. Colonial Documents Vol. XII, p. 57, is the followinpr : 

" I Peter Jansen aged about 22 years declare at the request of Mr. Moor 
that he when, in 1643, in the River Rapahanick heard one Middeler say that the 
bark now belonjring to Peter Lawerensen and Mr. Throckmorten, when Mr. 
Middeler was skipper, was the property of Sir Edmund Pleyden. Knijrht, viz. : 
one half of the biirk & 3 hogsheads of flour, freighted on account of said Knight. 

sHis father was also named Daniel Gookin also written Gookins There is an 
indenture on record dated Feb. 1, 1630, between Daniel Gookins, Gent, and 


On the first of October, an Assembly^ convened, Richard 
Kemp the Secretary, acting as Governor, in the absence of 

Thos. Addison his servant. In 1G87, there was a grant to Daniel Gookins of 
2500 acres upon the north-west of Nanseniond Eiver. In 1642, Daniel Gookins 
was President of the Court of Upper Norfolk. From a verse by Cotton Mather 
he appears to liave been influenced by William Tomson's preaching. 

" A constellation of great converts there 

Shone round him, and his heavenly glory wear, 
Gookins was one of tliem, by Tompson's pains, 
Christ and New England, a dear Gookins gained." 

While he did not live there, he owned a plantation near South River, Mary- 
land, and, in 1655, two of his negroes there were killed by Indians. He was a 
friend of John Eliot, tiie Indian Missionary, and wrote a history of the Massa- 
chusetts tribes. Chief Justice Sewall called to see hira when dying, and that 
day wrote in his journal, "a right good man." 

His tombstone is at Cambridge, Mass., with this inscription. 

" Here Lyeth Interred 

Ye body of 

^ Major-General Daniel Gookins 

aged 75 years 

Who departed this life 

Ye 19th March, 1686-7." 

' Council, at Assembly convened October 1, 1644. 

Capt. Wm. Claiborne, Capt. Wm. Peirce, Capt. Henry Browne, Capt. W. 
Brocas, Mr. George Menifie, Mr. Richard Bennett, Capt. Humphrey Higginson, 
Capt. Thos. Bernard, Mr. George Ludlow, Capt. Richard Towusend. 

Burgesses, October. 1644. 

James City Couvty. 

Capt. Robert Hutchinson. Mr, George Jordan. 

Mr. Stephen Webb. Mr. John Shepherd. 

Mr. Edward Travis. Mr. Tho's Warren. 
Mr. Tho's Loveing. 

York County. 
Mr. John Chew. Capt. X'pher Caulthropp. 

Mr. Rowland Burnham. 



The increased consumption of liquor led to some prohibi- 
tory enactments. It was ordered that no one should keep 
an inn unless he had the approval of the county court, 
and a license from the Gov^ernor, and that he should not 
" sell or utter wine, or strong liquor," but might dispose of 
strong beer at the rate of eight pounds of tobacco a gallon, 
and that no "debts for wines or strong liquors" could be 
recovered by law. The price of a meal at a public house 
was fixed at ten pounds of tobacco. 

Mr. Peter Hull. 
Mr. George Hardy. 

Mr. Cornelias Lloyd. 

Lt. Wm. Wos. 

Capt. Tho's Bernard. 
Mr. John Walker. 

Mr Obedience Robins. 

Me of Wight Co. 

Mr. Ricbard Death. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 

Mr. .John Sydney. 

Elizabeth City Co. 

Mr. .John Hodin. » 

Warwick County. 

Mr. Joliu lleyrick. 

Northampton County. 

Mr. Edward Douglas. 

Upjyer Norfolk Co. 

Mr. Moore Fcntleroy. 

Mr. Randall Crew. 

Charles City Co. 
Capt. Edward Hill, Speaker. Mr. John Westrop. 

Jlr. Francis Poylhers. 
Mr. John Bishop. 

Mr. Richard Cocker. 
Mr, Abraham Wood. 


Mr. Dan. Lewcllin, 

Henrico County. 

Mr. Wui. Hatcher. 



Actinaj Govei-nor Kemp, on February, 17, 1644-45 con- 
vened another Assembly/ wliich authorized George Mene- 

' Councillors Present at Assembly February 17, 1644-5. 

John West, William ' !l,iiIjorne, Willi im Pfjrco, Thomas WillouLrlibie, 
ThoDias Prtttys, ilichard Beunett, Hearj' Uro^vn, Ai-goll Yennll"y, Oapt. Hum- 
phrey Higginson, Capt. Bernard, Mr. George Ludlow, Capt. Rich. Townsend. 

Mr. Ambrose Harmor. 
Capt. Rob't Hutchiuson. 
Mr. Wm. Barrett. 

Mr. John Baugh. 

Capt. Ed. Hill, Speaker. 
Mr. Rice Hoe. 

Mr. Edward Lloyd. 
Mr. Tho'a Meares. 

Capt. Harwood. 
Mr. Tho's Bernard. 

~Mr. Arthur Smith. 
Mr. Philip Bennett. 

Capt. Yeo. 

Capt X'plier Calthropp. 

Mr. Edm'd Scarborough. 


James City Co. 

Mr. John Corker. 
Mr. Geo. Stephens. 
Mr. John Rogers. 

Henrico County. 

Mr. Ab. Wood. 

Charles City Co. 

L't. Francis Poythers. 
Mr. Edward Prince. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 

Mr. X'pher Burroughs. 

^\arwick Co. 

Mr. Henry Heyricke. 

Isle of Wight Co. 

Mr. George Hardy. 

Upper Norfolk Co. 

IMr. Moore Foutleroy 

Elieabeth City Co. 

Mr. Arthur Price. 

Northampton Co. 

Mr. Stephen Charlton. 


fie' and Richard Bennett, to purchase powder and sliot for the 
use of the Colony against the Indians, and enacted "for 
God's glory and the j)ubUck benefitt of the CoUony to tlie 
end that Godmigh^avei-t hisheavie judgments that are now 
vpon us. that the last Wednesday of everie month be sett 
apart for a day of fifast and hiimihation, and that it be 
wholly dedicated to prayers and preaching," and also " that 
the eighteenth day of April be yearly celebrated by thaaks- 
givingefor our deliverance from the hands of the Salvages." 

(?aptain Claiborne, Henry Fleet, and Argall Yeardley 
were invited to be at Jamestown, in October, Uj-ii, at 
a meeting of the General Court, to give their advice as to 
an expedition against the Rappahannock Indians, and in 
February, 1G45, the Assembly authorized the erection of a 
fort, at Pamunkey, to be called Fort Royal ; one at Falls of 
James River to be named Fort Charles ; and a third on the 
ridge of Chickahominy to be known as Fort James. Ar- 
rangements were made to send sixty men, and a piece of 
ordinance to each post, and supplies for three months, and 
in April, Captain Fleet was sent " to trade witlf the Rap- 
pahannocks, or any Indians not in amity with Opechanca- 
nough " to obtain the necessary corn. 

While these preparations were being made, in February, 
1G45, Richard Ingle in the ship " Reformation " with a com- 
mission from Parliament appeared again before Saint Mary, 
Maryland, aided in an uprising in favor of Parliament, car- 
ried the zealous Jesuits And row White and Philip Fisher, 
prisoners to England, and compelled Governor Calvert to 
flee to Virginia. The action of the Virginia Assembly in 

1 Menefie was now the leading merchant. On April 19. 1638, he entered 3000 
acre.-? of land on account of GO transport, of whom 23 wore, as he adserts, " negroes, 
I 'brought out of England." 


March, 1645-6, showed that some in that colony, were 
friendly to those opposed to Lord Baltimore. The following 
appears among the transactions of the session: "whereas 
Lieutenant Nicholas Stillwell and others of the colony, 
have secretly conveyed themselves to Maryland or Kent, 
and divers others engaged to follow, if timely prevention is 
not had therein. Be it therefore enacted that Cai^t. Thos, 
Willoughby, Esq., and Capt. Edward Hill be hereby autho- 
rized to go to Maryland, or Kent, to demand, the return of 
such persons, who are already departed from the colony." 
Hill had been speaker of the Assembly in 1644:, and after he 
arrived in Maryland was commissioned as Governor and in 
January, 1640, called an Assembly whose members, with 
two or three exceptions, were unfriendly to Lord Balti- 
more\ In December, Governor Calvert returned from 
Virginia with an armed force, and took Hill, and the Assem- 
bly then in session, prisoners. Claiborne who had occupied 
Kent Island then returned to Virginia. 

It was aiot until the 7th of June, 1645, that Governor 
Berkeley returned from his visit to England, and nine days 
after, at a meeting of the Council, at Jamestown, a letter 
was read from Margaret Worleigh, a prisoner in the hands 
of the great chief Opechancanough, in which, she men- 
tioned that he desired a redemption of captives and a 
treaty of peace. It was agreed that there should be an 
armistice and that Margaret Worleigh should be informed 
that the Governor would soon come to Eickahock, or Fort 
Eoyal, on the Pamunkey River, and would be pleased there 

•Lord Baltimore in a letter of 1649,. mentions that "with the exception of 
two or three, of the rebelled party " were the members of the Assembly. 


to confei- with twelve of the chief's principal men. Captain 
Henry Fleet was engaged as interpreter, to meet tlie Governor 
at his estate, the Middle Plantation, not far from James- 
town. The conference does not appear to have taken place, 
for the legislature of March, 16-i5-C>, authorized the erection 
of Fort Henry at the Falls of Appommatox, and Lieut. 
Francis Poythers was empowered to raise sixty men, and 
act under tiie advice of Captain Henry Fleet. Fleet had 
been instructed to gather, by the 20th of April, at Kiquotan, 
now Hampton, boats, provisions for six weeks, three hun- 
dred pounds of powder, twelve hundred of shot and bullets, 
and a company of sixty men . It was understood that if 
Fleet did not conquer, a peace with Opechancanough and 
his allies, that the Colony would not pay for the supplies. 

The first legislature,' after Berkeley's return, convened on 
November 20, 1645, and some changes were made in the 
method of raising revenue, for the support of the Colony. 
Hitherto, the expenses of government had been met by a 

• Bdkgesses of the Assembly, Convened Nov. 20, 1645. 
James City Co.- 

John Flood. Ambrose Harmer. 

Walter Chiles. ~ Tlio's Warne. 
Thomas Swan. Peter Ridley. 

Robert Wethrall. George Stevens. 

York County. 
Capt. Xpher Caulthrope. Arthur Price. 

Rowland Riirnham 

Isle of Wight Co. 
Capt. Jolin Upton. John Seward. 

George Hardin. 

Lotcer Norfolk Co. 
Cornelius Lloyd, X'pher Burrows. 


Via GIN I A CA R OL Oil UM. 

general poll tax which proved ''insupportable for the 
poorer sorte," and it was now ordered tl^at each owner of 
one hundred acres of land should annually i)ay four pounds 
of tobacco; each three years old cow and breeding sheep 
was taxed three pounds of tobacco, each horse, mare or 
gelding, thirty-two pounds, each goat, two pounds, and 
every tithable person twenty pounds of tobacco. It was 
also enacted that not more than thirty pounds of tobacco 
should be cliarged for a gallon of "Canary, Malaga, Sherry, 
Muskadine and Allegant" wines, noi* more than twenty 
pounds for " Maderea, and Fyall," nor more than forty, for 
"Aqua Vitae or Brandy," nor more than eighty pounds 
for "English Strong Waters," and that "no merchant 
of Jamestown whatsoever shall retayle wine or strong 

Capt. Leonard Yeo. 

Capt. Tlio's Bernard. 
John Walker. 

Edmund Scarborough. 

Philip Bennett. 
Edward Major. 

Capt. Francis Eps. 
Capt. Edward Hill. 
Edward Prince. 
Rice Hoe. 

EUzaheth City County. 

. John Chandler. 

Waricick County. 

Randall Crew, v 

Northampton Co. 

Tlio's Johnson. 

Upper Norfolk Co. 

Richard Wells. 

Charles City Co. 

William Barker. 
Charles Sj)arrow. 
Anthony Wyatt. 

Henrico County, 
NortMtmberland Co. 

Abraham Wood. 
John Matrum. 


waters," and that tavern keepers, shall not charge above 
the estabhshed price. 

As many troublesome suits had been multiplied by the 
unskillfuhiess and covetousness of attorneys for their own 
profit, "and inordinate lucre " rather than " the good and 
benefit of their clients," it was ordered that " all mercenary 
attorneys, be wholly expelled from such office," except in 
those cases which had already been commenced. 

Excessive doctors' fees had led planters to allow their ser- 
vants to die, rather than to " fall into the hands, of griping 
and avaricious men," and it was also provided, that a phy 
sician, or chirurgeon, could be brought before the court and 
be made to testify as to the value of his drugs, and medi- 
cines, when complaint had been made of his exorbitant bill. 

The Assembly was prorogued by the Governor to the first 
of March, 164:5-6, and on the ITth, the House of Burgesses 
transmitted the following, which showed that they now 
acknowledged Parliament : " We desire to thank the House 
of Commons for all its favours, but especially for informing 
us by letter of the 18th of October, 1644:, that all sequestra- 
tions upon the goods of planters and others of Virginia was 
taken off ; in return the merchants of London have enjoyed 
trade with the Colony, and free admission to her courts of 

"The savage King, who contrived the massacre of our 
people, is so abandoned by his people, and they so routed 
and dispersed, that they are no longer a nation, and we 
now suffer only from robbery by a few starved outlaws 


whom by Grod's assistance, we doubt not to root out in 
another year. 

" We send this by Mr. Henry Bishop\ who formerly served 
the King, in these unhappy wars in England, but is now a 
member of our Colony, and actually engaged by plantation, 
and servants upon tlie place. His lands are in sequestra- 
tion and we humbly pray that the sequestration may be 
taken off, that he may be enabled to strengthen his planta- 
tion with people, and supply those already seated there." 

At this session measures were adopted for a vigorous pro- 
secution of the war against the Indians, and for the defence 
of the inhabitants south of James River, and to prevent the 
savages from ''fishing in the Bristoll or Appomattocke 
River," and from cutting down their corn, and other ser- 
vices against them, forty-five soldiers were ordered to be 
raised from Bass's Choice, and the countr}^ upward, and a 

' Henry Bishop of Henfield, Sussex, entered on October 20, 1640, in Lower 
Chipoak, south side of James River, 1200 acres, but he did not return to Vir- 
ginia. Charles the Second on August 14, 1660, commissioned him for seven 
years as Postmaster General of England. His enemies complained tliat during the 
days of the Comnionwealtli he had been accustomed to meet Major John Wild- 
man, Praise God Barebones, and other Republicans, at the Commonwealth 
Club House in Bow Street, Covent Garden, and that he also employed dis- 
aiFected persons in the Post Office. In c<msequence of these charges he was 
obliged in March, 1663, to surrender hi.i commission, and Daniel O'Neale who 
had been groom of the King's bed chamber, was his successor. O'Neals died in 
1664, but his wife the Countess of Chesterfield continued to carry out the postal 
contracts. Her maiden name was Katherine Wooton, and her first husband 
was Henry, Lord Stanhoi)e. As his widow she was the governess in Holland of 
the Princess Mary, the sister of Charles the Second. Her second husband was 
John Poliander Kirckhoven of Holland. 

Charles the Second created her Countess of Chesterfield on June 5, 1060, for 
services to his sister. Her third luisband was O'Neale groom of the King's bed- 
chamber. She died April 9, 1G67, and was buried at Becton, Maliierbe, Kent. 

O'Neale's successor as Postmaster General was Henry, Lord Arlington. 


fort erected at the Falls of the Appomattox. The campaign 
of the summer of 1646, was successful. The writer of the 
** Description of New Albion " alludes to the ' Indian war 
ended, first, by the valour, courage, and hot charge of Cap- 
tain Marshall, and valiant Still well, and finished by the per- 
sonal and resolute march and victory of Sir William Berkeley, 
Governor there, taking the old King Ope Ohankino prisoner." 
On an early map^ between the Falls of Appomattox and the 
James River is this sentence, '' Hereabout Sir Will. Barkley 
conquered and took prisoner the great Indian Emperour, 
Abatschakia, after the massacre in Virginia." 

At the Assembly^ held in October of that year, Nicto- 
wance the new chief, made a treaty of peace by which the 

* Heerman's. 

= Assembly held Octobek, 1646. 

Councillors present Capt. Jolia West, Secretary Kicliard Kemp, Capt. Wil- 
liam Brocas, Capt. Tho's Pettiis, Capt. Thomas Willoiigliby, Capt. W. Bernard, 
Capt. Henry Browne, Mr. Richard Bennett, Geor<Te Ludlowe. 


James City Co. 

Ambrose Harmer Speaker. 

Walter Chiles. 

Capt. Rob't Shepheard. 

George Jordon. 
Thomas Lovinge. 
Wm. Barrett. 

Henrico Co. 

Capt. Ab. Wood. 

William Cocke. 

CJuirles City Co. 

Riije Hoe. 

Dan Llucllen. 

Isle of Wigld Co. 

Mr. Fawdowne. 

James Bagnall. 

Elizabeth City Co. 

John Robins. 

Henry Ball. 


Indians agreed to abandon the land below the Falls of the 
James, and those of Pamnnkey, and confine their hunting 
to the region between the York and Rappahannock Rivers. 

Fort Henry, on the Appomattox, with six hundred acres 
of land was granted to Capt. Abraham Wood, on condition 
that he would keep there, ten men, for three years, each 
person, to be exempted from taxation ; Fort James on the 
Chickahominy was granted to Lieut. Thomas Rolfe^ with 

York County. 

Jjugli . Wm. Luddington. 

Warwick Co. 

Tho's Taylor. John Walker. 

Eandall Crew. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 

Edward Lloyd. Robert Eyres. 

Tho's Mears. 

Noi'thampton Co. 
Edward Douglas. Tho's Johnson. 

Nansemond Co. 
Edward Major. Sam. Stoughton. 

'In " Virginia Vestusta " it was mentioned that Capt. John Rolfe's last wife 
was Jane, daughter of Capt. William Peirce of Jamestown, and that John Rolfe 
made a will dated March 10, 1621-2, in which he speaks of Thomas and Eliza- 
betli " two small children of tender age," and it was assumed that Thomas " of 
tender age," was the son of Jane Peirce. Some have taken exception to this 
position, and think that the Thomas of the will, was the son by Powhatan's 

Thomas Rolfe the son of John had a daughter Jane, which was also the name 
of his father's last white wife. At Scultliorpe Rectory, Norfolk, England, 
there is a portrait of a wife of Capt. John Rolfe with a lad by her sidie. Her 
liair is parted in the middle, without ornaments, and her dress is that of a civi- 
lized woman. 

In " Virginia Vetusta," Munsell's Sons, Albany, 1885, page 141, Rolfe's 
daughter Elizabeth, is erroneously called Jane ; and in "Virginia Company of 
London," Joel Munsell, Albany, page 91 , there is a misleading typographical 


four hundred acres, provided he held it, for the same time 
with six men ; Fort Royal or Rickahock on the Pamunkey, 
with six hundred acres was given to Capt. Roger Marshall, 
on condition he held it with ten men. 

While Daniel Gookin removed from Nansemond, after 
the non-conformist ministers were silenced, quite a congre- 
gation in that region maintained services without the Book 
of Common Prayer. Thomas Harrison, a minister who had 
been a friend of Governor Berkeley and approved of the act 
which had been passed requiring services to be held accord- 
ing to the canons of the church of England, after the Indian 
massacre repented of the course he had pursued, and went 
and preached to the Nansemond people, and avowed his sym- 
pathy with Puritanism. 

It is worthy of notice that Patrick Copland,^ also written 
Copeland the friend of the Ferrars, projector of the first 

error. Quoting from Hamor are these words, " two of her sons to see the mar- 
riage," the her should have been printed his, referring to Powhatan. 

The following grants of laud to Thomas llolfe are on record : 

August 8tli, 16j3, 535 acres north side of Chickalioniiny River called Fort 

April 25, 1656, 325 acres in James City County. 

Sept 26, 1658, 50 acres, an ancjle in Cliickahominy River. 

Sept. 25. 1663, 750 acres S. W. side of Paspetank River. 

' In 1614, Copland was chaplain of one of the ships of the East India Com- 
pany, and in 1616, returned to Encjland with an East Indian lad whom he had 
taught to read and write At his suggestion, on Dec. 22d, 1610, the youth was 
publicly baptized in St. Dionis church, London, " as the first fruits of India." 

In 1617, ('opland returned to the Indian Ocaii in the " Royal .James," and on 
the 2d of December, 1618, preached to the commanders of the English Fleet, the 
Admiral of whom was Sir Thomas Dale, formerly Governor of Virginia. Leav- 
ing Java in February, 1621, the " Royal James," begun the return voyage to 
England, and near Cape Good Hope, Copland collected £70 for the good of 


English free school in North America, a building for which 
was commenced, at Charles City, and also in 1621, Presi- 
dent elect of the College at Henrico, should at the Bermu- 
das, on January 31, 1043-4, have left the church of England, 
and joined an Independent, non-liturgical body. A peti- 

Virginia. On the 18th of April, 1632, lie preached before the Virginia Com- 
pany a thanksfjiving sermon, and in it he speaks of "This noble Plantation 
tending so liighly to the advancement of the Gospel, and to the honoringjof our 
dread Sovereign, by enlarging of his kingdoms, and adding a fifth crown into his 
other four: for ' En dot Virginia quintam,' is the motto of the legal seal of 

In tlie Mask of Flowers phiyed by gentlemen of Grays' Inn upon Twelfth 
Night 1613-14, Kawasha, a God of the Virginians appears, and says : 

" But now is Britannic fit to be 
A seat for a fifth Monarchie." 

On the 34th of October, 1631, the London Company, after conferring with Cop- 
land, determined to use the money raised on board the " Ro3'^al James" to the 
building of a free school in Virginia, at Charles Cit\', and in March, lb33, a Mr. 
DiKC or Dilke was selected as teacher. Richard Downes, bred a scholar, went 
over about 1619, in search of work at the Indian college in Henrico, aa rector of 
which, in July, 1G32, Copland was appointed, but owing to the Indian troubles 
and other difficulties, did not go to Virginia. 

In June, 1633, Leonard Hudson, a carpenter, with wife and five apprentices left 
England to build the East Indian school at Charles city. In December, 1623, a 
collection was made for this school by the East India company both on shore, 
and on board their ships in port. This was not immediately called for, and on 
October 20, 1624, Sir John Wolstenholme moved that the Council of Virginia 
should receive the moneys collected. A Mr. CaroJofFwas sent over to look after 
the school, of whom the Governor and Council of Virginia, wrote under date of 
June 15, 1625. " We should be ready with our utra )st endeavours to assist the 
pious work of the East In lia free school, bat we mast not dissemble that be. 
sides the unseasonable arrival, we thought the acts of Mr. Caroloft" will over- 
balance all his other sufficiency though e.xceeding good." 

Copland was induced to leave London in 1625, as a minister for Bermudas at 
a salary of 100 marks, and to have "a free school erected for the bringing up of 
youth in literature and good learning." He was accompanied by his wife 
and daughter. On the 20th of November, 1626, at a meeting of Bermudas 
Council was urged the support of the free school. The Governor who did not like 
free schools wrote to London that Copland had purchased laud, and erected a 


tion from this body, received the favorable consideration of 
the House of Commons in October, 1645, and on the 4th of 
the next November, Lord Admiral, the Earl of Warwick, 
with the Commissioners for Plantations, issued a proclama- 
tion ordering the petitioners "and all others in that part of 
the world" freedom of worship without " trouble and moles- 
tation," with permission to remove "their goods to any 
other part of America." In 1646, Governor Sayle of Ber- 
mudas, one of Copland's associates, on his way to England, 
in the interest of the free church, visited the non-confor- 
mists of Virginia, and proposed that they should unite with 
the movement to form a free cluirch on the isle of the sea. 
Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts when he heard of this 
project seems to have written in disapproval, to which Har- 
rison writing from Elizabeth river November 2d, 1640, replies 
" Had your propositions found us risen up, and in a posture 
of removal, there is weight and worth, and force enough in 
them to have staked us down again, but the good hand of 
the Lord hath put the same care and consideration into the 
hearts of some amongst us, and since you have permitted 
and encouraged us, to give an account of our matters we 

building, and had " a project to train up cliildren to be preachers, to send 
abroad to convert tlie Indians, and adds " I wisli we had ministers contented to 
preach the gosp''l, and let tliis Free School alone, until we are free from debt." 
In 10o4, Copland is spoken of, as havinn; purchased four acres of land, on which 
he had built, and disbursed <€1G00 sterling. " Father Copland " as he was now 
called, on December 4, l6;!9, wrote to Governor W^inthiop of Massarlui.sclts, rela- 
tive to tiie training of Indian children, and asks that he will send to him an 
Indian boy and a <;irl to be educated, whose passage he will pay. 

Early in 1644, Copland left the Church of England. In 1047, he was im- 
prisoned as a non-conformist, and was then a widower. In 1649, he went with 
an independent church to Eleutliera Isle, and was then about eighty years old. 
Before 1655, he was dead. 


shall be bold to do it, when the mind of the Lord shall be 
made out unto us, and to seek, and take directions, (if you 
please commands), from you, for such shall all your advices 
be unto us, which are dictated, and breathed from so much 
goodness, sweetness, affection, experience, prudence, piety." 

This letter was borne to Boston in the vessel of Captain 
Edward Gibbons, whom Scottow calls " the younger brother 
of the house of an honourable extraction " and the same 
person to whom Lord Baltimore, in 1650, tendered a com- 
mission as Councillor and Admiral of the Province of Mary- 

Governor Berkeley called an Assembly* which on the 3d 
of November, 1617, convened and took notice of the non- 

' Members of Assembly November 3, 1647, 

Councillora present, John West, Richard Kempe, William Brocas, Thomas 
Fetters, William Bernard, Henry Browne, George Ludlowe. 

James City Co. 

Capt. R. Hutchinson. George Jordan. 

Capt. Bridges Freeman. William Davis. 

Capt. Robert Shepheard. Peter Ridley. 

Charles City Co. 
Capt. Edward Hill. Capt. Francis Poythers. 

Elizabeth City Co. 
Anthony Elliot. Henry Poole. 

John Chandler. 

York County. 
Richard Lee. Francis Morgan. 

Capt. W. Tayler. 

Tipper Norfolk Co. 

Moore Fantleroy. Richard Wells. 

Sam. Stoughton. 


conformists by the passage of the following : ' ' Vpon divers 
informations presented to the Assembly against severall 
ministers for their neglect and refractory refusing, after 
warning given them to read common prayer, or divine ser- 
vice vpon the Sabbath days, contrary to the canons of the 
church, and acts of Parliament therein established, for 
future remedie thereof ; Be it enacted, by the Governour, 
Council and Burgesses of this Grand Assembly that all 
ministers in the several cures throughout the colony doe 
duly vpon every Sabboth day read such prayers as are ap- 
pointed and prescribed vnto them by the said booke of com- 
mon prayer ; And be it further enacted as a penaltie to 
such as have neglected, or shall neglect their duty herein, 
That no parishioner shall be compelled either by distresse, 
or otherwise to pay any manner of tythes or duties to any 
unconformist as aforesaid." 

Supported by the House of Commons, and the Earl of 
Warwick, Harrison continued to worship according to the 
liberty permitted by Parliament, and in February, 1648, 

Warwick County. 
Capt. Tho's Flint. Randall Crew. 

Isle of Wiglit Co. 
Capt. John Upton. John George. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 

Lt. John Sidney. Cornelius Lloyd. 

Henry Woodhouse. Thos. Meares. 

Northampton Co. 
Edmund Scarborough. Stephen Charlton. 

Northumberland Co. William Presley. 

Henrico County. Capt. Thos. Harris. 


wrote from Nansemond, to Governor Winthrop : "That 
golden apple, the ordinance of toleration is now fairly fallen 
into the lap of the saints, no more compelling men to go to 
the parish churches, or to sacrifice the abomination of their 
souls, or to offer up the sacrifice of fools ; and yet all such as 
preach, print, or practice auy thing, contrary to the known 
fundamentals of religion, the peace of the State^ or power 
of godliness, are excluded from the sweetness of this indul- 
gence. Concerning ourselves we have received letters full of 
of life, and love, from the Earl of Warwick, who engageth 
himself to the uttermost to advance the things of peace and 
welfare, and the Prince of Peace himself hafch hitherto been 
so tender to us, that He hath not suffered any opposition 
yet to fall amongst us, a matter of no small admiration, 
considering where we dwell, even where Satan's throne is. 
Seventy-four have joined here in fellowship, and nineteen 
stand propounded, and many more, of great hopes and ex- 

In February, 1648, he again writes to Winthrop and gives 
much information of the state of parties in England, and 
mentions "that part of this news, I had from the mouth of 
an old Jesuit who wanted neither information to know the 
truth, nor malice to misreport and misrepresent." 

About this time Philip Fisher,^ a Jesuit who had been 
taken prisoner with Andrew White, by Ingle and carried to 

' Fislier was born in Madrid, Spain, in 1595-G, entered tlie Jesuit order 
1616-17 and in 1636 was superior of Maryland Mission ; witli Andrew White he 
was taken prisoner in 1645, by Ingle, and brouo;ht to England. After being 
confined some time in Newgate Prison, by the influence of Secretary Winde- 
bank he was released. He died in 1652. His letter in 1648 to Carrara, General 
of the Jesuits, is in Foley's Records of EnglisJi Jesuits. 


England, returned to Maryland, by vvtiy of Virginia, and is 
probably the person to whom Harrison refers. 

A letter of Fisher has been preserved, dated March 1, 
1648, in which he writes : "At length my companion and 
myself reached Virginia in the mouth of January, after a 
terrible journey of seven weeks. There I left my compan- 
ion, and awaited myself the opportunity of proceeding to 
Maryland where I arrived in the month of February. * * * 
A road, by land, through the forest has just been open<^d 
from Maryland to Virginia. This will make it but a two 
days journey, and both countiies can be united in one mis- 
sion. After Easter, I shall wait upon the Governor of 
Virginia on important business. 

In 1648, arrangements were com})leted by which the Vir- 
ginia non -conformists removed to the shores of Chesapeake 
Bay, in sight of where is now the caiiitolof Maryland. 
Captain William Stone of Hungar's Neck, on the Eastern 
shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, a nephew of Thomas 
Stone, a haberdasher of T^ondon, a Protestant in faith and 
in sympathy with Parliament, was the agent who carried on 
the negotiations relative to removal, and was in August, 
1648, commissioned Governor of Maryland. 

One of the first to arrive in Maryland was William 
Durand' of Upper Norfolk. Richard Bennett also went to 
Maryland and remained for a short time. 

' VVilliaiU Durand had listeuL'd to .John Davenport, tlie tirst niinidter at Xow 
Haven, Ct., wlien he was the Vicar of St. Stephens, London. He brought with 
him hite in 1(548 or early in 1649, to Maryland his wife, dau2:hter, four children, 
two freemen, Pull and Arciier, and servants Thomas Marsh, Margaret Marsh, 
William Warren, William Ilogff, and Ann Coles. In 1652, he was one of the 
Commissioners who made treaty with the Susquehannas at the Severn River, 



Harrison visited Boston, in October, 1648, and awaited 
there the action of the House of Commons in England, on 
Berkeley's conduct toward the Nansemond congregation. 
Before the close of the year he married Dorothy, a daughter 
of Deputy Governor Samuel Symonds, who came from 
Yeldham, Essex. Mrs. Lucy Downing, sister of Gov. Win- 
throp of Massachusetts, under date of Dec. 12, 1648, wrote 
to her nephew John Winthrop of Connecticut : *' You hear, 
I believe, our cousin Dorothy Simonds is now won and 
wedded to Mr. Harrison,^ the Virginia Minister." 

Rev. Dr. Warwick, in a discourse delivered in Dublin, 
Ireland, April 17, 1862, said, " The history of Dr. Harrison is 
rather remarkable. He was born in Yorkshire near Hull. 
While a child his parents removed to America.^" Perhaps 
Benjamin Harrison clerk of the Council, in 1B34, was his 

After remaining about two years in, or near Boston, 
Harrison went to England and never returned to America. 
Governor Winthrop under date of 8 mo, 20 day, 1648 (0. S.) 
alludes to the visit in these words : "In the time of our 
General Court heare arrived from Virginia, one Mr. Hary- 
son, pastor of the Church at Nansemond there, and reported 
that the church was grown to one hundred and eighteen 
persons, and many more looking toward it, which had 
stirred up the Governor there, Sir William Berkeley i, to make 

now Annapolis. In October, 1651, he obtained a grant of land, at the Cliffs of 
Calvert county. In 1654, he was Secretary of the Province, and in 1657, he 
united with the Quakers. It is said he went to North Carolina. 

'On the 21st day, 3d month, 1648 (0. S.) the wife of Edward Harrison, of 
Virginia, in Boston, gave birth to a son named John. On the 28th day, 8th 
month, 1649,(0. S.) died Elizabeth, a daughter aged about 7 days, of Thomas 
Harrison, pastor of the church at Virginia. 


persecution against them, and he had banished their elder 
Mr. Durand and himself (viz. Mr. Haryson) was to depart 
the country by the thii'd ship, at furthest, which had caused 
him to come to take advice of the magistrates and elders." 

Harrison mentioned how Capt. Sayle of Bermudas and 
associates had obtained a pei-mit from Parliament to settle 
on one of the Bahamas, and that under the charter he had 
liberty of worship, and also an entire separation of church 
and state, and that Sayle, wished the Virginians to cast in 
their lot with him. They were advised by Winthrop not 
to go to the lonely isle of the sea, and to remain if possible 
where they were. 

A public market twice a week was established at James- 
town, in 1649, and the space allotted to it, was from the 
sandy hollow on the westward, by Peter Knight's store, 
extending eastward, to the house of Launcelott Elay, and 
the north side bounded by the Back river. ^ The population 
of the colony was about fifteen thousand persons, including 
three hundred negroes. While there were only two hun- 
dred horses, and mares, and fifty asses, owned by these 

' Jamestown was first built on the west end of a peninsula of about two 
thousand acres. In 1611, it had " two rows of houses of framed timber, and some 
of them two stories and a garret high, and three large store-houses joined 
together in length." In 1610, as described by Rolfe, it had a population of fifty 
men under the command of Lt. Sharpe, in the absence of Captain Francia 
West. In 1619, Governor Yeardlcy found only tlie rude houses built in Sir 
Thomas Gates' time, and a church wholly of timber, fifty feet in length and 
twenty feet in breadth. 

Before \Q'Z'i, what was called the Xew Town, was connected by a bridge over 
the marsh and here resided Stephens, Yeiirdley and others. It is now under 
water. Tlie first brick church was begun in 1639, and its foumiations are visible, 
the second brick church whose rained tower is now visible was built at a 
later period. The bricks used at Jamestown were made there. 


planters, there were over twenty thousand bulls, cows^ 
calves, and five thousand pjoats, and three tliousand sheep. 
Beef was sold at two and a half pence a pound, and pork 
at three pence. They had six public breweries while many 
brewed their beer at home. As yet there was no saw mill 
for boards, but five water mills, and four wind mills, to 
grind corn. 

Most of the masters of ships like Page and Thomas Stegg, 
had their horses, servants, and plantations in the colony, and 
carried to England, timber for masts, and building, as well 
as tobacco in their vessels. Bricks were also made in 
abundance, and there is no evidence that it was customary 
to import bricks for building purposes. During the first 
week of January, 1649, there were trading on James Eiver, 
seven vessels from New England, seven from London, two 
from Bristol, and twelve Hollanders. 

Governor Berkeley now lived at Green Spring two miles 
north of Jamestown, in a house of brick, made in the neigh- 
borhood, with a spacious hall way, and six rooms, and had 
set out an orchard of fifteen hundred trees, consisting of 
peaches, apricots, quinces and other kinds. 

Richard Bennett in 16-18, had raised many apples and 
made twenty butts of cider. Captain Brocas of the Council, 
a great traveler, had an excellent vineyard, and had made 
some wine, Richard Kinsman made out of his pear orchard 
forty or fifty butts of perry. A writer of the period refers to 
"worthy Captain Mathews, an old planter of above thirty 
years standing, one of the council, and a most deserving 
Commonwealth man * * * * He hath a fine house, and 
all things answerable to it ; he sows yearly store of hemp 


and flax and causes it to be spun ; he keeps weavers and 
hath a tan house, causes leather to be dressed, hath eight 
shoe-makers in tlieir trade, hath forty negroe servants, 
brings them up to trade,- in his house; he yearly sows abund- 
ance of wheat, barley, etc., the wheat he selleth at four 
shillings the bushel, kills store of beeves, and sells them to 
victual the ships when they come thither ; hath abundance 
of kine, a brave dairy, swine great store,- and poultry : he 
married the daughter of Sh^ Thomas Hinton, and in a word 
keeps a good house, lives bravely, and a true lover of Vir- 
ginia, he is worthy of much honor." 

When, in 164:9, news came that Charles the First, his 
brother's friend, and one whom he had personally known, 
had been beheaded by order of Parliament, Governor Ber- 
keley was grieved, and indignant, and although Stegg, 
Bennett, Claiborne, Mathews, and the most enterprising 
men were his political opponents, he called an Assembly^ 

' Assembly of Octobek. 1644. 

James City County. 

Walter Chiles. Geo. Read. 

Thomas Swan. Wm. Whittaker. 

Wm. Biirrett. John Duuston. 

Henrico County. Wm. Hatcher. 

Charles City County. 
Capt. Edward Hill. Cha'a Sparrow. 

Wawick County. 
Capt. Tho's Harwood, Speaker, John Walker. 

Ide of Wight County. 
George Hardj. Robert Pitt. 


which met on the 10th of October, and as the Burgesses 
were his friends, or indifferent whether the King, or House 
of Commons ruled in England, his sentiments were ex 
pressed by them, in a long, and vehement declaration. 

But at the very time that Berkeley had action taken in 
Virginia that would gratify the widow of the King and the 
Royalists, on October 11, 1649, the Council of State in Eng- 
land, wrote to the Governor that they were informed, by 
petition of the congregation of Nanseraond, that their minis- 
ter Mr. Harrison, an able man, of unblamable conversation, 
had been banished the Colony, because he would not con- 
form to the use of the Common Prayer Book, and as he 
could not be ignorant, that the use of it was prohibited by 
Parliament, he was directed to allow Mr. Harrison to return 
to his ministry ; " but as has been mentioned he went to 
England and occupied positions of importance. 

Six months before Harrison came to Boston, arrived Sir 
Edmund Plowden, Kt. , who is thus noticed by Winthrop : 
" Arrived one Sir Edmund Plowden, who had been in Vir- 

Nansemond City Co. 
John Carter. Toby Smith. 

Elizabeth City Co. 
Lt. Wm. Worlicli. John Robins. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 
Barth. lloskius. Thos. Lambert. 

Tork County. 
Capt, Ralph Wormeley. Rowland Burnham. 

Northumberland Co. 
Capt. Fr. Poythers. Jo. Trussell. 


ginia about seven years. He came first with a patent of a 
County Palatine for Delaware Baye, but wanting a pilot for 
that place went to Virginia, and then having lost his estate 
he brought over, and all his people scattered from him, he 
came hither to return to England for supply, intending to 
return and plant Delaware, if lie could get sufficient strength 
to disposess the Swedes," but he never returned.' 

About the fifteenth day of September, 1649, the "Virginia 
Merchant," Capt. John Locker, a ship of three hundred 
tons burden, sailed" for Jamestown with many passengers. 
Among those who engaged passage were Colonel Norwood 
a relative of Governor Berkeley, Major Francis Morison 
sympathizers with the King, and Major Stevens' who had 
served under Waller in the Parliament Arm 3^ when it be- 
sieged Exeter, held by Sir John Berkeley, the Governor's 

' In December, 1648, lie liad published A Description of the Province oj New 
Albion. In 1651, he had chambers iu London, and on the 29th of July, 1655, 
he made his will, dated nt Wauftead, which on the22d of July, 1(559 was proved. 
He requested to be buried in Lidbury church, in Sliropshire, in the chapel of the 

2 Major William Stevens probably for some time remained in Accomac, 
whftre Yeardley and others held his political sentiments, and perhaps the 
same person who in March, 1651, declared his fealty to the '' comnionweftlth 
of England as it is nowe established without King or House of Lords." He 
may have been the one who settled near the re<4:ion, where he was cast away, in 
1650, and thus became a citizen of Maryland. In the records of Somerset 
county, Md., is the following : " Richard Stevens, brother to William Stevens of 
Somerset County, in ye Province of Mar3iand, was youngest son of John Stevens 
of Lebourn in ye Parish of Buckhighani in England, died at the house of bis 
brother William aforesaid, ye 22d day of April, 10G7. and was Jjuried at his 
plantation called Kehoboth iu ye county and province aforesaid, in America, ye 
25th day of April." 

In 1679, Col. William Stevens entered a tract of two thousand acres on 
the shores of the upper part of Assateague Bay near, where, in 1650 the " Vir- 
ginia Merchant's " passengers landed in distress. 


brother. Driven by a storm the ship found itself on the 
12th of January, 1650, among the islands of Assateague Bay 
on the Atlantic coast of Maryland. Upon one of these, 
Colonel Norwood, Major Morrison, Stephens, Francis Gary 
and others landed, and after several days, crossed over to the 
main land and were hospitably treated by the Indians. A 
white fur trader, Jenkin Price,^ arrived, and under his guid- 
ance, they began their journey to Nathaniel Littleton's plan- 
tation, the nearest in Accomac. Toward night of the first 
day they reached a point opposite Chincoteague Island, and at 
the close of the second day after twenty-five miles of travel, 
they came to Price's post on the Littleton plantation. From 
thence they proceeded to the plantation of Stephen Charl- 
ton, who gave them fresh clothing. Lower down in Ac- 
comac, now Northampton County, they visited Argall 
Yeardley, the son of the former Governor, who was born at 
Jamestown, in 1621, and recently married. Norwood in his 
Narrative writes : " It fell out very luckily for my better 
welcome, that he hid not long before brought over a wife 
from Rotterdam that I had known almost from a child. Her 
father, Custis^ by name kept kept a victualling house in that 

'In October, 1660, the Assembly gave 5000 pounds of tobacco to Jenkin 
Price for the preservation of certain persons. Price was now poor and evidently 
this was a gratuity for his kindness to Norwood, now become Treasurer of 

2 John Custisof Rotterdam, according to Meade, wr.s of Irish de.scent, and was 
in Northampton county as early as 1640- He had six sons, Thomas of Balti- 
more, Ireland, Edward of London, Robert of Rotterdam, and John. William, 
and Joseph, residents of Virginia. The descendants of William are still in 

His son was a prominent man and High Sheriff of Northampton in 1664, and 
in 1676, Major General during Bacon's Rebellion. His estate on the eastern 
shore was called after Lord Arlington, His second wife was a daughter of Col. 

Virginia carolorum. 209 

town, lived in good repute, and \va3 the general host of our 
nation there. The Esquire' knowing I had the honour to 
be the Governor's kinsman, and his wife knowing my con- 
versation in Holland, I was received, caress'd more Hke a 
domestick, and near relation, than a m^ji in misery, and a 
stranger, I stay'd there for a passage over the Bay, about 
ten days welcomed and feasted not only by the Esquire and 
his wife, but by many neighbours that were not too re- 

About the middle of February, Norwood, in a sloop, 
crossed the Chesapeake Bay and landed at Esquire Ludlow's* 

Edward Scarborough. Qemn-al John had but one child, a son also named Jolin 
had several children, one of whom was the John whose tombstone has tlie fol- 
lowing inscription : 

" Under this new tombstone lies the body 

of the Hon. John Custis Esquire 

of the city of Williainsburjr 

and Parish of BrutoE 

Formerly of Huujjars Parish on the 

Eastern Shore 

of Virginia, and county of Northampton 

Aged 71 years and yet lived but seven years 

which was the space of time he kept 

A Bachelor's home at Arlington 
on the Eastern Shore of Virginia " 

On the opposite side is " The inscription put on this tomb was by his own pos- 
itive orders. 

Wm. Coaley, Man., Fenchurch Street 
fecit London." 

He married in Williamsbuigh the daughter of Col. Daniel Parke, and sister 
of the profligate Col. Daniel Parke, Jr., who was killed when Governor of Lee- 
ward Islands. His son Daniel Parke Custis married Martha Dandridge, and tho 
widow Martha Custis became the wife of General George Washington. 

• Yeardley's father used to send his tobacco to Rotterdam. 
George Ludlow, of Massachusetts notoriety, see page 136. 


plantation, near the entrance of York River. Here learn- 
ing that Captain Wormeley\ of the Council who lived not a 
furlong distant, was entertaining some guests who had 
recently come from England, he crossed the creek and went 
to the house where he found Sir Thomas Lunsford,^ Sir 
Henry Chicheley, Sir Philip Honey wood, and Colonel Ham- 
mond. The rest of the winter was passed by Norwood 
at Green Spring near Jamestown, the plantation of Gover- 
nor Berkeley. In May he was sent to visit Charles the 
Second, to solicit for the ofifice of Treasurer of Virginia, then 
held by William Claiborne, a friend of Parliament, and a 
brother of his fellow traveler Francis Morison, was placed in 
command of the Fort at Point Comfort. Norwood found 
that Charles the Second had left Holland and gone to Scot - 
land, having made a treaty with the Covenanters that he 
would sustain the Covenant and the church of Scotland.^ 

' Ralph Wormeley died before 16G9, and his widow Agatha, married Sir 
Henry Chicheley, one of the guests referred to in the text. Wormeley's Creek 
was well known to the soldiers at the sief?e of Yorktown in 1781, and also in 

''On August 7, 1649, a pass was issued for Sir Thomas Lunsford, wife, and 
children, to go to Virginia. Some mouths later, on condition of taking the en- 
gagement Sir Henry Chicheley also was permitted to go. Chicheley in later 
years married Agatha, the widow of his entertainer. 

3 Henry Norwood, in July, 1661, received the appointment for life as captain 
of Sandown Castle, Kent, and the same year was commissioned as Lt. Colonel of 
Lord Rutherford's regiment, and deputy governor of Dunkirk. In September, 
1663, he came to England and " kissed the King's hand " and began to raise 
recruits. He is next Colonel of the regiment and at Tangiers, and Capt. 
Charles Norwood served under him. In a letter dated London Feb. 20, 1665 
(O.S.) are these words: " Lord Sandwich goes on Wednesday down to Portsmouth 
to take shipping for Spain. Henry Norwood goes in the ship with Lord Sand- 
wich, which after the Ambassador's landing, carries him to Tangiers." The 


About the time of Norwood's visit in June, 1650, the King 
at Breda, Holland, appointed a new Council for Virginia, evi- 
dently at Berkeley's suggestion, one of whom was Sir W, 
Davenant, Kt.,* whom he also appointed Governor of Mary- 
land, in February, 1649-50, when he was at the Isle of 
Jersey. The King in Davenant's commission uses this lan- 
guage. " Whereas the Lord Baltimore, Proprietary of the 
Province of Maryland, in America, doth visibly adhere to 
the rebells of England, and admit all kinde of schismaticks 
and sectaries, and other ill-affected persons, into the said 
plantations of Maryland, so that we have cause to appre- 
hend very great prejudice to our service thereby, and very 
danger to our plantations in Virginia, who have carried 
themselves with so much loyalty, and fidelity to the King, 
our father, of blessed memory." The commission em- 
powered the Governor to see that no danger arose in Mary- 
land *'to our loyall plantations in Virginia." Further 
requiring him " to hold due correspondence with our trusty 
and well beloved Sir William Berkeley, Knight, our Gov- 
ernor of the said plantations of Virginia, and to comply 

Prince of Fez presented liim with a horse, a camel, and a youn|j: lion. In 1667, 
he was Lt. Governor of Tangiers. 

In 1675, he came from Holland to London to confer with Lord Culpepper, and 
the Agents of the Virginia Colony. 

' Sir Wm. Davenant, Kt. was Shakspeure's <rodson, and like his sponsor in 
baptism, was <riven to poetry. He never reached the Chesajjeake Bay. With 
the aid of Henrietta Maria, the widow of the beheaded Kiuy, he sailed from 
Normandy, with a company of weavers, and t)ther artisans, but on the voyage 
was captured and taken lo Enjrland. Lodged in the Tower of London he there 
finished his poem, " Gondibert," and at length was released " from durance 
vile" through the friendly intercession of Secretary John Miltou, the great Puri- 
tan poet. 


with him in all things necessary for oar service and the 
mutual good of hoth plantations." 

Lord Baltimore had been informed of a disposition upon 
the part of Virginians to take possession of their old trading 
posts, and in a letter to Governor Stone, dated August 26, 
1651, wrote: "We understand that Sir William Barkely 
hath lately taken upon him, to grant a commission to one 
Edm'd Scarborough of Accamack, in Virginia, to seat 
Palmer's Island within our Province." 

The Parliament of England in 1650, to protect their com- 
merce, which had suffered from the enterprise of the Dutch, 
passed the Navigation Act which forbade any goods being 
carried to the Colonies, except in English vessels, and de- 
clared that the Colonies having originated from the author- 
ity, wealth, and population of England, they were dependent 
upon, and subject to the legislation of Parliament. The 
trade with Holland had been a source of revenue to Vir- 
ginia, and before the Burgesses in Assembly at Jamestown 
on March 17th, 1650-1, Governor Berkeley delivered the 
following violent harangue. 

" Gentlemen You perceave by the Declaration, that the 
men of Westnilnister have set out, which I beleeve you 
have all seene, how they meane to deale with you 
hereafter, who in the time of their wooing and courting 
you proposed such hard conditions to be performed on 
your part & on their owne nothing but a benigne ac- 
ceptance of your duties to them. Indeed methinks they 
might have proposed something to us which might have 
strengthened us to beare those heavy chaines they are 


making ready for us, though it were but an assurance 
that we shall eat the bread for which our owne Oxen 
plow, and with owne sweat we reape, but this assurance 
(it seeras) were a franchise beyond the condition they have 
resolv'd on the Question we ought to be in : For the reason 
why they talk so Magisterially to us, is this, we are for- 
sooth their worships slaves, bought with their money, and 
by consequence ought not to buy or sell, but with those 
they sliall authorize, with a few trifles, to cozen us of all 
for which we toile and labour. 

" If the whole Curient of their reasoning were not as 
ridiculous, as their actions have been Tyrannicall and 
bloudy ; we might wonder with what browes they could 
sustaine such impertinent assertions : For if you look into it, 
the strength of their argument runs onely thus : we have 
laid violent hands on your Land-Lord, possess'd his Man- 
ner house where you used to pay your rents, therefor now- 
tender your respects to the same house you once reverenced : 
I call my Conscience to witness, I lie not, I cannot in all 
their Declaration perceave a stronger argument for what 
they would impose on us, than this which I have now told 
you : they talke indeed of money laid out on this country 
in its infancy : I will not say how little, nor how Centuply 
repaid, but will onely aske, was it theirs ? They who in 
the beginning of this warr were so porre & indigent that 
the wealth and rapines of three kingdomes & their Churches 
too, cannot yet make rich, but are faine to seeke out 
new Territories and impositions to sustaine their Luxury 
amongst themselves. 


'' Surely Gentlemen we are more slaves by nature, then 
their power can make us, if we suffer ourselves to be shaken 
with these paper bulletfcs & those on my life are the heaviest 
they Either can or will send us. ' Tis true, with us, they 
haue long threatened the Barbados, yet not a ship goes 
thither but to beg trade, nor will they do to us, if we dare 
Honourably resist their Imperious Ordinance. Assuredly, 
Gentlemen, you have heard under what heavy burthens the 
afflicted English Nation now groanes, and calls to heaven 
for reliefe : how new and formerly unheard of impositions 
make the wives pray for barrennes, and their husbands 
deafnes to exclude the cryes of their succourles staruing 
children : And I am confident you do believe that none 
would long endure this slavery, if the Sword at their throats 
Did not compell them to Languish under the misery they 
hourely suffer. Looke on their sufferings with the eyes of 
uuderstanding and that will prevent all your teares, but 
those of Compassion. Consider with what prisons and 
Axes they have paid those that have served them to the 
hazard of their Soules : Consider yourselves how happy 
you are, and have been, how the Gates of Wealth and 
Honour are shut on no man, and that there is not here an 
Arbitrary hand, that dares to touch the substance of either 
poore or rich. But, that wliich I would haue you chiefly to 
consider with thankfulness is : That God hath separated 
you from the guilt of the crying bloud of our Pious Sover- 
aigne of over blessed memory : But mistake not Gentlemen 
part of it will yet staine your garments if you wiUingly sub- 
mit to those murtherers hands that shed it. 


" I tremble tothinke how the oathesthey will impose will 
make those guilty of it, that haue long abhor'd the traiter- 
ousnesse of the act : But I confesse having had so frequent 
testimonies of your courages, I cannot haue a reasonable 
Suspition of any cowardly falling of from the former reso- 
lutions, and haueonely mentioned fhis last, as a part of my 
dut}" and care of you, not of any reall doubts and feares ; 
or if with untryed men we were to argue on this subject, 
what is it can be hoped for in a change, which we have 
not already 1 Is it liberty ? The sun looks not on a people 
more free than we are from all oppression. Is it wealth ? 
Hundreds of examples shew us that Industry & Thrift in a 
short time may bring us to as high of it as the country and 
and our Conditions are 3^et capable of. Is it security to 
enjoy this wealth when gotten ? With out blushing I will 
speake it, I am confident theare lives not that person can 
accuse me of attempting the least act against any man's 
property. Is it peace ? The Indians, God be blessed, round 
about us are subdued: we can only feare the Londoners, 
who would faine bring us to the same poverty, wherein the 
Dutch found and relieved us, would take away the liberty of 
our consciences, and tongues, and our right of giving and 
selling our goods to whom we please. 

"But, Gentlemen, by the Grace of God, we wilf not so 
tamely part with our King, and all these blessings we 
enjoy under him. and if they oppose us, do but follow me, 
I will either lead you to victory, or loose a life which I 
cannot more gloriously sacrifice tlian for iny loyalty and 
your security ." 


The speech was pubhshed with this title : 

The Speech 

of the Honourable 



Governour aud Capt : Generall of Virginia 

to the Burgesses in the Grand 

Assembly at James Towne on the 

17 of March 165i 

Together with a 

Of the whole Country, occasioned upon the 

Sight of a printed paper from England 

Intituled An Act, &c 


Printed by Samuel Brown, English 
Bookseller 1651 



A.D.. 1660. 

Parliament Commissioners Appointed. Surrender of North- 
ampton PEOPLE. Notice of Captain Stegg. Richard Ben- 
nett, Governor. The Bennett Family. Lord Baltimore 
acknowledges the Commonwealth. Notice of John Hammond 
AND Tiios. Woodward. Francis Lovelace returns to Eng- 
land. Samuel Drisius, Dutch CLERGYMAN. Francis Yeardley 
visits Roanoke Indians. Col. Ed. Hill. William J>att. 
Henry Flekt. John Carter. Rogicr Ludlow. The witch 
Mary Lee. Edward Digc^ks and Silk Culture. Governor 
DiGGES. Death of Councillor Gooch. Notice of the elder 
Nathaniel Bacon. Religious Condition. Indians Attacked 
BY Col. Hill. Gov. Digges visits London. Assembly's letter 
TO Cromwell. Compromise of boundary question. Arrival 
of Quakers. Richard Lee. Henry Coriu.v. Isaac Allerton. 
Thomas Gerard. John Washington. Governor Samuel 
Mathews. Debate on Constitutional Laav. Cott^tcillors 
Bridger and Mitchell. Expedition against Assateague In- 
dians. Election of Governor Berkeley. Theodoric Bland. 
Commissioners from New Amsterdam. Sir Henry Moody. 

jHE Council of State, of the Coiniiiouvvealth of 
England, after long deliberation,* in 1651, deter- 
mined to send commissioners, to reduce the planta- 
tions of Chesapeake Bay, to due obedience. Instructions 

' As early aa December 2S, 1649, the Committee of Admiralty summoned to 
appear before them, Maurice Thompson, Benjamin Worsley, AVilliam Penoyer 


were issued to Capt. Robert Dennis, Mr. Richard Bennett, 
Mr. Thomas Stegg and Capt. William Claiborne as commis- 
sioners. Under the direction of Capt. Dennis they were to 
proceed with two ships, the "John," and a Guinea frigate of 
Holland and upon the arrival of all, or any two, in Virginia, 
they were to assert the power of Parliament, and the Com- 
monwealth of England, and to offer indemnity and issue par- 
dons, with such limitations as they deemed best. Those 
taking the oath to be true and faithful to the Common- 
wealth of England, without a King, or House of Lords, 
were to choose their own Burgesses, who would make all 
necessary laws for local goverment, not contrary to those of 

and William Allen, to testify what the interest of the Commonwealth required 
in Virginia, and on the 9th of January, 1649-50, this Committee reported to the 
Council of State, relative " to the government of Vir(?inia and present juncture 
of affairs in relation to that plantation" and advised that " Commissioners be 
nominated by Parliament in wlioiu the government may be immediately placed." 
It was more than eighteen months after this report, before definite action was 
taken. On September 23, IGoT, Captain Curtis was authorized to act aa Com- 
missioner in caseof^the death of Capt. Dennis. A fleet of armed merchant 
vessels accompanied the ships of war. On August 15, 1651, Mr. Stegg, to be 
appointed one of the Commissioners, had liberty to go with the fleet to Virginia, 
and liberty was given to all going in tlie fleet, to carry shoes and other goods 
usually sent thither for trade." 

The Virginia fleet arrived reduced by storms, and many men sicli, in Decem- 
ber, 1651, at Barbadoes. Six hundred men were able to do duty and Sir George 
Ayscue, taking advantage of their presence, summoned Lord Willoaghby to 
surrender the place, to Parliament. The fleet after remaining seven days, pro- 
ceeded on its way toward Virginia. 

Before the fleet left England, under date of October 3, 1651, the Council of 
State sent to Richard B>mnett in Virginia, some instructions which were not to 
be opened until after the country was reduced to the obedience of the Common- 


Capt. Dennis and Captain Stegg,^ were lost in the ship 
John " \\\ which they sailed, but C iptaiii Curtis arriving 

» Captain Stegg was a prominent Viroiuiiiu, see p. IS.l. As early as lG37,lie was 
known as a merchant. On October 5, 1651, juat before "John*' sailed, he 
made his will, an abstract of which, by H. F. Waters, is in the N. E. Hist. Oen. 
Ref/ister, for April, ISSr). In it, he bequeatbed to his son Thomas, his whole 
estate in Virginia, and an interest, in certain vessels ; to his daughter Grace, the 
wife of John Byrd, goldsmith, of London, houses in London ; and to his wife 
Elizabeth, daring widowhood, or natuml life, his estate after the payment of 
debts and legacies, but in case of her marriage eight hundred pounds. 

His son Thomas, also became an influential man. In 1663, he received a 
(rrant of 800 acres in Henrico County and in January, lOi'iS, in Henrico County, 
1280 acres including the site of the city of Richmond, and the same year, 
another 18")0 acres in the same county. Upon Heerraan's Map drawn in 1670, 
and published in 1673, the isle at the foot of the Falls of James River, is marked 
" Stegg's Isle." 

The junior Thomas Stegg, made his will March iU, 1670, which was proved 
on May 15, 1671. His moth-^r had become the wife of Thomas Grendon of 
London. He left to the children of his sister Grace Byrd, wife of John of 
London, legacies. His nephew AVilliam Byrd, received also a large estate. 
At the time of uaaking the will William was only eighteen years of age, and 
he is cautioned " not to be led away by the evil instructions he shall receive 
from others, but to be governed by the prudent and provident advice of his 
aunt, the testator's " loving wife." 

In 1685, a Thomas Greudou died at sea, and Col. Wm. Byrd in a letter 
dated June 5th, 1685, wrote: " I am heartily sorry for the death of Coz. Gran- 
don and wish you may secure yourself in England, for the old woman will carry 
away all here." The latter end of January, 1684-5 his aunt Mrs. Grendon, had 
married a Mr. Edward Brain who came to Virginia in September, 1684, with 
thirty servants, and a large amount of goods. Byrd calls Mrs. Grendon. " the 
old gentlewoman." 

About the time that the elder Stegg died, two others connected with the 
Virginia trade also wrote their wills. 

Thomas Fawne about to sail for Virginia, on Dec. 25, 1651, made a will in 
which he gives to Robert Williams, surgeon of the Virginia trading ship, 
" Peter," a watch and cornelian ring ; to his servant William Martin, passage 
to Virginia, his freedom there, and a suit of clothes, and he makes John Younge 
and John Stone his executors. 

Robert Nickolson of London, merchant, son of Francis of Ipswich, made his 
will on November, 10, 1651. He appears to have been religiously disposed, as 


with the Guinea fripjate, showed the duplicate instructions 
to Bennett, and Claiborne, who were in Virginia. 

At the time that Captain Curtis appeared in the waters 
of the Chesapeake, Major General Gibbons of New England, 
who had been commissioned by Lord Baltimore, Admiral of 
the Province of Marjdand, had his pinnace seized by two 
persons, Wilson and Read, connected with the fleet of Curtis, 
because the loadiiig men in Maryland were averse to a sur- 
render to the Parliament, as their povv^ers had been derived 
from the Proprietary of the Province. Gibbons went to 
England and complained of the treatment received, and 
asked for damages, but the Council of state reported ad- 
versely. They did not think that they could "give the peti- 
tioner any relief, because it did not appear, that one penny, 
of that he lost, came into the hands of the State." 

The Commissioners proceeded to execute their commis- 

lie bequeathes len pounds sterling toward the relief of the English captives in 
Turkey and forty shillinL^s to Mr. Pickett, minister of Pontibridge, Essex. He 
was also en the ship " Peter " as he gives to the master of the ship, John 
Tounge, twenty shillings to buy his wife a ring. To Thomas Fawne two pairs 
of Cordovant gloves and Leo Afer [Africanus] a book of History : to John Cor- 
bin his waisting coat, stuff coat, Turkey waistcoat, and two pairs of Cordovant 
gloves ; To John Richards two pairs of Cordovant, and I.ockcr's sermons ; to 
John Stone twenty shilling, two jiairs of Cordovants and the rest of tlie books 
in the cabin ; " to Capt. Sam. Atatthewea of Virginia Esq., one pair of Buckskin 
gloves, and to Mrs. Matthews his wife two pairs of kid skin gloves ;" to Samuel, 
his son a pair of buckskin gloves, and to another sou a pair of Cordovant. To 
Mrs. Mary Bernard of Warwick river Le gave six pairs of kid gloves, and to 
each of her daughters three pairs. To Mrs. Veheath Land Vernald, daughter of 
widow Mary Vernald of Warwick River, he gave a diamond ring, and also a gold 
ring with tlie motto " Idem qui pridem." 

Cordovan leather so called from Cordova in Spain. Spenser in " Faery 
Queen " alludes to the '* Buskins he wore of costliest cordwaine." 



sion, ' and although Governor Berkeley blustered and talked 
of resistance, the Commissioners who had the sympathies of 
some of the best planters, upon arriving at Jamestown, con- 
vinced the Burgesses, that resistance would be disastrous 
to the prosperity of the Colony, and on the 12th of March, 
1651-2,^ it was agreed that they would submit to the Com- 

' Whitelocke in Memorink of the English Affairs under date of oSIay 14, 1652, 
has this : " Letters, that the Inhabitants of Virginia willingly submitted to the 
Government of the Parliament." 

^ The people of North am pton county, on the eastern shore of the bay, seem to 
have had the engagement left with them to sign on tlie 11th of March, and 
signatures were obtained during the month, as appears from the following on 
the County Records. ♦ 

"The Engaiim't tendered to ye Inhabitants of Northampton County, Eleaventh 
of March, 1651 (O. S). 

" Wee whose Names are subscribed ; doe hereby Engage and promise to bee 
true and faithful! to the Commonwealth of England as it is nowe Established 
without Kinge or House of Lords. 

Nathan'U Littleton 
Obedience Kobins 
Edm. Scarburgh 
Edvv. Douglas 
Peter Walker 
Wm. Andrews Seu'r 
Nich. Waddelone 
Allex. Addison 
James Barnabye 
Jno Pannell 
Sam'U Sone 
Jno. Denman 
James Berry 
Phillip Farrant 
'Jno. Tilney 
Sampson Robins 
Jno. EUis 
Jeffery Minshatt 
Qeorgine Hacke 

25 of March 

Argoll Yardley 
Wm. Waters 
Wm. Jones 
Tlios. Sprigge\ 
Jno. Dye 
X'ofer Maior 
Allex. Harryson-' 
Wm. Muuds 
Francis Flood 
Steph. Stringer 
X'ofer Jarvis 
Nich. Scott 
Anth. Hodg.skias 
Jno. Nuthall ^ 
Wm. Whiltingtou 
Wm. Coake 
Ben. Cowdrey 
Levyne Den wood 
Robert Andrews 

Rich. Vaughan* 
Thos. Johnson 
Dan'U Baker 
Thomas Hint 
Thos. Figby 
Robert Marryott 
Jno. Parkes 
Wm._ Stanley 
Jno. Ayers 
Robert Harryson "' 
Luke Billington 
Randolfe Hutchinson 
Nich. Granger 
Thos. Truman 
Allex. .Madoxe 
Henr. Armitradinge 
Steph. Charlton 
Jno. Parraraore 
Jno. Robearts 



mon wealth, "and their subscription be acknowledged a 
voluntary act, not forced nor constrained by a conquest upon 
the country." The Commissioners accepted a clause declar- 
ing that: "Virginia shall have and enjoy the antient 

Rich. Hainby Ben. Mathews X'ofer Dixon 

Edw. Harrington Jno. Stringer 

Tricesimo Die Marty 1G51 (0. S.) 

Edni. Mathews 
Jno. Custis 
Jno. Johnson Jan. 
Farmer Jones 
Jno. Dixon 
Jno. Taylor 
Mathew Stone 
Tobine Selve 
Rich. Nottingham 
Nehemiali Coventon 
Francis Morgan 
Wm. Ward 
Jno. Johnson, Senr 
Edw. Southren 
Jno. Merryfin 
Dan '11 Chad well 
Jno. Teeslocke 
Jno. Coulson 
Jno. Machaell 
Juo. Cornley 
Rich. Newell 
Jno. Lee 
Phill Merrydayr 
Edw. Moore 
Jno. Brillyant 
Jno. Rutter 
Andrew Hendrye 
Antho. Carpenter 
Jno. Wise 
Wm. Taylor 
Jno. Waleford 
Mick Richett 

Ambrose Dixon 
Wm. Horose 
liobt. Blake 
Rich. Hill 
Jno. Pott 
Edw. Marshall 
Jno. Dolling 
Charles Scarburgh 
Walter Williams 
Wm. Stephens 
Jno. Thatcher 
Rich. Smyth 
David Wheatley 
Robert Berry 
Wm. Preeninge 
Tho. Butterie 
Jno. James 
Tho. Price 
Rich. Baily 
Rich. Hudson 
Rich. Alleyn 
"Jno. Lewis 
Jno. .Johnson, Sen'r 
Wm. Gaskins 
Nicholas Jueyre 
James Adkinson 
Wm. Gower 
Wm. Boucher 
Jno. Johnson Jr. 
Wm. Jorden . 
X'ofer Kirke 
Thos. Savage 

Steph. Horsey 
Juo. Robinson 
Symon Bailey 
Jno. Hinman 
Jno. Coulson 
Aill. Mathews 
Edw. Leene 
James Johnson 
Elial Hartree 
Charles Ratliffe 
Juo. Graye 
Jno. Willyams 
Randall Revell 
Wm. Smyth 
Wm. Custis 
Tho. Miller 
Robert Baily 
Juo. Whitehead 
Armstrong Foster 
Wm. Andrews Jun'r 
Sam'l Calvert 
Francis Goodman 
Jno. Willyams 
Wm. Corner 
Rich. Smyth 
Sam'l Robins 
Jno. Garnell 
David Kiffyu 
Jno Browne 
Wm. Monitor 
Wm. Browne 
Rich. Kellam 


bounds and lyniitts granted by the charters of the former 

Kings, and that we shall seek a new charter from the par- 
liament for that purpose, against any, that have intrencht 
vpon the rights thereof. " 

It was further promised that Virginia should have free 
trade, as the people of England, according to the laws of 
the Commonwealth, and " be free from all taxes, customes, 
and impositions whatsoever" and that no forts should be 
erected without their consent, nor garrisons maintained. 
That nothing should be done for a year, as to the exclusion 
of the Book of Common Prayer, and that all who refused 
the oath, could have a year before removing from the Colony. 

Governor Berkeley was permitted to send to the excited 
King, a messenger, at his own expense, to give an account of* 
the surrender, and that neither he, nor any of his Council 
for a whole year, should bo censured for prayers and kind 
words about the King in their homes, and quiet social 

Heretofore, the colonists had been governed by commis- 
sioners and instructions from England, but hereafter they 
were promised freedom in the choice of officers. A Dutch 
ship had left some goods in the Colony, and cleared for Hol- 
land without paying customs due, and it was provided that 

IJicii. Bruducke Saui'l Sinotbergull Jno. Edwards 

Thos. Clarke Wm. Colebourne VVm. Melliu<fer 

Thos. Crc'cro Alex. ^laddoxe Hai)h"ll Hudson 

Sam'l Jones Sam'l Powell Rich. Tegger 

Hen. White James Brcwce Samuel Goldfino 

X'ofen Calvert Wni Luddiugton 

Recordantur vicesino die Augusty Ano. 1652 

Teste Edm. Mathews, Cloc. Cur. 


Governor Berkeley's back salary should be paid by the 
sale of these goods. 

The month after the ackaowledment of the Common- 
wealth of England, an Assembly duly elected, met at James- 
town, and on April 30th, " after long and serious debate and 
advice for the settling of the government of Virginia, it was 
unanimously voted and concluded by the Commissioners 
apppintedby the authority of Parliament, and by all the Bur- 
gesses of the several counties and places respectively until 
the further pleasure of the State be known, that Mr. Rich- 
ard Bennett Esq., be Governor^ for the ensuing year, or 

' The Bennett family always had influence in Virginia. The Governor was th e 
nephew of Edward Bennett who had been Deputy Governor of the Merchant 
Adventurers of England resident at Delft. He was a prominent Loudon mer- 
chant. Early in 1621, he visited Delf, and Rotterdam, the tobacco marts. Sir 
Edwin Sandys, at a meeting of the Virginia Company of London, on April 13, 
1621, moved "that in regards Mr. Edward Bennett, a cittizen, had so well de- 
served of this Company hj a treatise wch he made touching the inconvenience 
that the importacon of Tobacco out ol Spaine had brouglit into this land; and by 
his often attendance vpon the Comittecs of the Lower howse of Comons about 
the same, * * * that therefore he might haue the fauor to bo admitted a 
free member of the Company wch mocon was thought very reasonable, and 
being putt to the question was generally assented unto and confirmed by the 
erecon of hands." 

At a meeting of the Company on October 24, 1621, the Deputy mentioned 
"that the first patent was for a gentleman that iiad deserved singularly well of 
the Company before hee was a member thereof. And since his admittance hee 
had been att a verie great charge for transportinge of people to Virginia, namely 
Mr. Bennett who now joyns himselfe in this business with Mr. Wiseman and 
Mr. Ayres, and divers other their associates." 

At the time of the Indian uprising in March, 1621-2, more than fifty were 
killed at what was known as Edward Bennett's plantation, althougli he never 
came to America. 

In November, 1622, a vessel of twenty tons burden, of which Isaac Madison 
was Captain and Robert Bennett Master, traded with the Indians around Chesa- 
peake Bay, and in a volume of Virginia manuscript records in the Library of Con- 
gress is the following: "Whereas Mr. Robert Beunet of Wariscoyak, Mercht 


until the next meetin;:? of the Assembly, with all the just 
powers and authorities that may belong to the place law- 
fully. And likewise that Colonel William Clayborne be 
Secretary of State with all belonging to that office, and 
is to be next in place to the Governor ; next that of 
the Council of State to be as followeth, Captain John 
West, Samuel Mathewes, Col. Nathaniel Littleton, Col. 
Argoll Yeardly, Col. Thomas Pettus, Col. Humphry Hig- 
ginson, Col. George Ludlow, Col. William Barrett, Capt. 
Bridges Freeman, Capt. Thomas Harwood, Major William 
Taylor, Capt. Francis Epps, Col. John Cheesman, and they 
shall have power to execute, and do equal justice to all the 
people and inhabitants of this Colony according to such in- 
struction as they have, or shall receive from the Parliament, 
and according to the known law of England, and the act 
of Assembly have establislied." 

late dec'd is indebted to Mr. Vl''illiam Benet ^Minister of said plantation the sum 
of 15331 lbs of tobacco for his salary for two years, tliis is therefore to require 
John Chew of James City, Merchant, who hath the raana<renient of the business 
of the s'd Robert Benet to satisfy and pay unto the said William Benet the sum 
of 1533i lbs. 

«' James City, March 20, 1623." 

Bennet the clergyman arrived at the Bennett or Warosquoyak plantation in 
1621, having come in the ship "Sea Flower" and toward the close of 1624, he 
died. His wife Catherine came in 1622, in the ship " Abigail " and on the 22d 
of January, 1624-5, was residing at Shirley, a widow, with an infant named 
William, three weeks old. 

On the 25th of January, 1624-5, a muster of Mr. Edward Bennett's servants 
at VVariscoj'ak was taken, and the number was twelve, two of whom were 

Richard the nephew, was a Burgess from the Wariscoyak district in 1629. and 
in 1632, one of the Justices of the monthly Court. In 1624, he was a Councillor. 
Owing to his Puritan sympathies in 1649, he went to Maryland, but remained 
a short period, and in 1651, was appointed a Commissioner in behalf of the 
Commonwealth of England. His subsequent career will be referred to in 
another chapter. 




• This Assembly' declared on the 5th of May that "the 
right of election of all officers of the Colony appertain to 

' Members op Assembly. Convened April 2G, 1853. 

Henrico County. 

Robert Wetherall. 
Lt. Col. John Fludd. 
Hen. Soane. 

Robert Pitt. 
George Hardie 

Will. ILucher 

Charles City Co. 

Capt. Djin. Mansill. 
George Stephens. 
William Wbittakar. 

Me of Wight Co. 

John Ge orge. 

John Moore. 

Namemond Co. 

Ed. Major, Speaker. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 

Hen Woodhouse. 
Charles Burro wes. 

Elizahcth City Co 

John Sheppard. 

Warwick River County. 

Lt. Col. Sam. Matthews. Wni. Whitby, Speaker. 

York County. 

Capr. Francis Morgan. Capt. Austin Warner. 

Henry Lee. 

Capt. Thos. Due. 

Cor Lloyd. 
Thos. Lambert. 


Northampton Co. 

jMajor Obedience Robins. 
Edmund Scarbrough. 
Thos. .Tohnson. 

William Jones. 
Ant ho. Hogkins. 

Northumberland Co. 
John Mottram. George Fletcher. 

Gloucester Co. Hugh Quiane. 

Lancaster Co. Francis Willis. 


the Burgesses, the representation of tlic people," and that 
the Governor and Council should sit in the same house, and 
take the same oath as the Burgesses. 

Argall Yeardley, and his brother Francis, Richard Lee, 
Col. Samuel Mathews, and others, of the leading colonists, 
upheld the acts of Parliament, and after the adjournment 
of the Assembly, Mathews was sent to obtain a ratification 
of the articles of agreement with the Commissioners of Plan- 
tions. They were read in the House of Commons on the 
28th of August, and Lord Baltimore and others objected to 
the clauses which ])rovided that Parliameiit should restore 
to them the region which they had held, before the Province 
of Maryland had been created. The Committee found that 
the settlement could not " speedily, be proceeded in." Bal- 
timore, always judicious and politic, w^here his own interest 
was concerned, presented among others, the following rea- 
sons why Maryland sh(;uld remain under a separate govei-n- 
ment. " First. It is much better to keep that government 
still divided from Virginia (as it has been for these twenty 
years past), than to unite them, for by that means this 
Commonwealth will have the more power over both, by 
making one a.n instrument, as occasion may require, to 
keep the other, in its due obedience, to this Common- 

" Secondly, In case any defection should happen in either 
Colony (as lately was in Virginia), the other may be a place 
of refuge for such as continue faithful to its Commonwealth, 
as Maryland lately was Upon that occasion, which it 
could not have been, in case the government of that place 
had been at that time united into, or hav^e any dependence 
on Virginia. 


" Thirdly It will cause an emulation in both, which of 
them shall giv^e the better account of their proceedings to 
the supreme authority of this Commonwealth, on which 
they both depend, and also which of them shall give better 
satisfaction to the planters and adventurers of both. 

""Fourthly, The Lord Baltimore having an estate, and 
his residence in England, this Commonwealth will have a 
better assurance of the due obedience of that plantation, 
and the planters and adventurers thither, of having right 
done unto them, in case the government thereof have still 
a dependence upon him, and he upon this Commonwealth 
(as he had before on the late King), than if the government 
of that place, at so remote a distance, should be disposed of 
into other hands, who had little, or nothing here to be re- 
sponsible for it, and whose interest and residence were 
wholly there. 

*' Fifthly J By the continuance of his interest in the govern- 
ment, those of this Commonwealth, and the people there, 
are eased of the charged of a Deputy G-overnor, which he at 
his own charge maintains * the inhabitants there being so 
poor, and so like to be, for many years, as they are not able 
to contribute anything toward it. 

''Sixthly, If the Lord Baltimore should, by this Common- 
wealth, be prejudiced in any of the rights or privileges of 

his patent, of that Province, it would be a great discourage- 
ment to others in foreign plantations, upon any exigency 
to adhere to the interest of this Commonwealth, because it 
is notoriously known, that by his express directions, his 
officers, and the people there, did adhere to the interest of 


this Commonwealth, when all other English plantations, 
except New England, declared against the Parliament, and 
at that time received their friends in time of distress, for 
which, he was like, divers times, to be deprived of his in- 
terest there, by the Colony of Virginia, and others who had 
commission from the late King's eldest son for that purpose, 
as appears by a commission granted by him, to Sir Wm, 

On the 25th of November, 1652, another Assembly con- 
vened at Jamestown, and exercised its right to determine 
the qualifications of its members. John Hammond was 
expelled because he was well known as "a scandalous per- 
son, and a frequent disturber of the peace of the country 
by libeli, and other illegal practices." James Pyland of Isle 
of Wight county was not permitted to take his seat, because 
he had circulated a ' ' blasphemous catechise " and was a 
sympathizer with Thomas Woodward a violent royalist, who 
had been assayer of the London mint, and was dismissed in 
1649, by Bradshaw, President of the Council of State, be- 
cause of his opposition to Parliament, and who came to 
Virginia vowing that he would never see England again, 
until his Majesty's return from exile.' 

The Assembly^ transacted but little business as they were 

' Soon after Charles the Second ascended the throne, "Woodward was remem- 
bered, and be and his son John apjiointcd assay masters of the mint. He re- 
mained in Vir^finia, as when his son John died, in 1665, the wife of John appar- 
ently in En<?land, waived all claims and consented to the appointment of a 
Charles Giffard as assay master. 

= Members of Assembly November 1652. 
Henrico County. Capt, William Harris. 



awaiting iiitelligetice from their agent in London. A new- 
parish was created in Northampton county, formerly Ac- 

Capt. IleQ. Perry. 
Capt. Dan. Llewellin. 
Major Abraliam Wood. 


Abra. Watson. 

William Thomas 
William Edwards. 

IhU of WigU Co. 
Lt. Col. Matthews. 
Col. Tho. Dew Speaker. 

Lt. Col. Cor. Lloj^d. 
Major Thog. Lambert. 

Peter Ransome. 

Capt. Steph. Gill. 
William Gonge. 

Col Hugh Guinne. 
Lt. Col. Robbing. 
Capt. H'y Fleet. 

Chariot City Co. 

Capt. Woodlift'. 
Capt. Chas. Sparrow, 

James City Co. 

Hen. Soane. 

Surrey Co. 

George Stephens. 

Charles Reynolds- 
Warwick County 

William Whitby. 
Nanscmond Co. 

Peter Montague. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 

Charles Burrows. 

Elizaheth City Co. 

Theo. Howe. 
York County. 

Major X'pher Calthorpe. 

Gloucester Go. 

Francis Willis. 

Northampton Co. 

Steph. Charlton. 

Lancaster Co. 

Wm. Underwood. 


comae above Ocqualiaiiock Creek. George Fletcher was 
granted the privilege for fourteen years, of brewing in 
wooden vessels. Colonel William Claiborne, and Capt. 
Henry Fleet, so long identified with Maryland, now one of 
the Burgesses from Lancaster county, were authorized with 
their associates "to discover, and enjoy such benefits, and 
trades for fourteen years, as they shall find out in places 
where no English have ever been and discovered, nor have 
had particular trade, and to take up such lands by patents, 
proving their rights, as they shall think good. Abraham 
Wood, a representative from Charles City county, was 
given similar privileges. 

Col. Francis Lovelace, who had for his attachment to the 
King, suffered loss of office and sequestration of property, 
was in Virginia at the time of the surrender, and received 
permission from Commissioners Bennett and Claiborne to 
repair to the late King of the Scots, Charles was called.* 

The Navigation Act of Parliament, designed to protect 
Enghsh manufacturers and merchants by prohibiting for- 
eigners trading with the colonies, not only inconvenienced 
the settlers in Virginia, but led them to look upon smug- 
gling, as a necessity. As soon as Dutch vessels ceased to 
arrive at Jamestown, London traders raised the price of 
their goods, and ship owners increased the price of trans- 
portation. In a short period freight upon tobacco doubled, 
while the staple only brought one-thii-d what it did before 
the Navigation Act. 

' Francis Lovelace, upon the accession of Charles the Second to the throne, 
was made Recorder of Canterbury. He had a son (Joldwell and died about 1663. 
lie was probably the Francis a ho was the son of Richard, Baron Lovelace, and 
brother of John the second Baron. 



Governor Stuyvesant of New Amsterdam, in May, 1653, 
sent Commissioners to Governor Bennett to propose a 
friendly alliance for commercial purposes. The Virginia 
authorities replied that they were not at liberty to make any 
arrangements, until they conferred with the Council of State 
in England. 

An Assembly' convened on 5th of July, 1653, and Lt. Col. 
Walter Chiles, a son-in-law of Capt. John Page, was elected 

• Assembly convened July 5, 1653. 

James City Co. 

Lt. Ool. Walter Ciiiles. 
William Wiiittaker. 

Hen. Soane. 
Ab Watson. 

Surry County. 
Capt. W. Batte. Willi am Edward. 

Warioick County. 
Lt. Col. Sam. Mathews. William Whitby Sp. 

Charles City Co. 
John Bushopp. Ant'y Wyatt. 

Nansemond Co. 

Col. Thos. Dew. 
Lt. Col. Ed. Major. 

Peter Montafjue, 

Lower Norfolk Co. 
Col. Francis Yeardley. Lt. Col. Cor Lloyd. 

Gloucester Co. 

Abra. Iverson. Richard Pate. 

Me of Wight Co. 

Lt. Col. Rob't Pitt. Dan. Bouclier. 

Major Geo. Fowden. 


speaker, but as he was agent for a Dutch vessel, which was 
under seizure, it was not deemed expedient that he should 
preside, and William Whitby was then chosen. A clergyman 
had been elected a delegate, but it was voted " that Mr. 
Eobert Bracewell, clerk, be suspended, and is not in a 
capacity of serving as a Burgess, since it was unpresidential, 
and may produce bad consequences." Eoger Green, also a 
clergyman of Nansemond, asked permission for himself and 
others, for a tract of land to those who should first settle 
near Eoanoke river. Secretary Claiborne was also requested 
to decide whether he would settle at Ramonack on the 
Pamunky. Edmund Scarborough, the prominent merchant 
on the Eastern Shore, while he signed the engagement pro- 
bably chagrined by the effect of the Navigation Act, circu- 
lated a scandalous and seditious paper, which led the 
Assembly to disable him fi'om holding officer, and to appoint 

Northampton Co. 

Capt.'!Tlios. Joliiison. 

Stephen Horsey. 

Lancaster Co. 

Capt. M. Fantleroy. 

William Hackett. 

York County. 

Robert Booth. 

Wni. Hock way. 
Capt- F. Morgan. 

Northumberland Co. 

Lt. Col . Fletcher. 

Walter Broadhurst. 

Henrico Co. 

Capt. Win. Harris. 

Elitaleth City Co. 

John Shepperd. 


Tho's. Thornbury. 


a committee to visit Northampton county and compose the 

The boundaries of Westmoreland county, at this session, 
were defined as "from the Machoactoke river, where Mr. 
Cole lives, to the Falls of the great river of Pawtomacke 
above the Necostines' town." 

Thomas Thornbury who 1625, was a servant, was a mem- 
ber from Elizabeth City, had lived for a few years in Mary- 
land, sympathized with Parliament, and was a member 
of the Maryland Assembly, of 1649, which passed the Act 
concerning religion. 

In November, 1653, the Governor and Council of New 
Amsterdam having been informed that there was a large 
quantity of tobacco in Virginia, wKich for the want of ships 
could not be exported, and it was proposed that a ship should 
"make a voyage to Smith's Island ^ on the north cape of 
the Bay of Virginia, near Haccomaco whereunto is said a 
sufncient quantity of tobacco lies ready for shipment." 

This lonely island, far away from Jamestown, a Dutch 
vessel could stop at and receive a cargo without molesta- 

The authorities at Manhattan, in December, " resolved for 
the promotion of so laudable an object as the continuation 
of peace, increase of commerce, and cultivation of corres 
pondence between old friends and co-religionists," to send 
once more a commissioner to Virginia, and authorized and 

' Smith's Islaud was named after Sir Thomas Smith the first President of the 
Virginia Company. Capt. John Smith afterwards claimed that it was named 
for him. 


commanded ''the Reverend, and very learned Mr. Samuel 
Drisius,' Minister^of the Gospel,'' to go and inquire of the 
Governor and Council whether they had heard from Eng- 
land in relation to the proposition which had been made in 
the early summer. They deputed him to propose, that if 
they had received no directions, " a provisional continuation 
of the commerce, and intercourse between the two places," 
to be terminated at any time after six days notice to mer- 
chants and traders to protect them from loss. 

During this year, a young fur trader brou;.^ht to the house 
of Francis, * a son of the late Governor Yeardley, a chief of 
a Roanoke tribe, with his brother's assistance Yeardley sent 
a carpenter, and six laborers, to build the chief a house, and 
franchise his territory. ' ' They paid for three great rivers 
and also all such others as they should like of, southerly,'' 
and took possession in the name of the Commonwealth of 
England, receiving as a symbol of surrender, a sod of earth 
with an arrow shot therein. Subsequently the Roanoke 
chief, brought a Tuskarora chief, and forty-five of his tribe, 
to Yeardley's house, and asked that his wife, and son, 
might be baptized. The Indian child was presented to the 
minister before the congregation, baptized, and left with 
Yeardley "to be bred up a Christian.''^ 

' Drisius died in 1672, respected. 

^Francis Yeardley was oue of the Maryland Couucillors, appointed in 165:3, by 
the Parliament^ Commissioners. ;.He^ held some land* near Portopaco on the 
Potomac, but iu 1654, left that Province. 

3 These fucts are from Thiirloe, in a letter of Francis' V<;irdl('y dated May 
8, 1654, written to John Farrar at Little Gidding iu^IIuntin^rdonshire. It con- 
cludes with salulalions " ti> his virtuous couuti y-woman,, t'nc wortiiily to he 



At the Assembly^ which began its sessions on November 
20, 1654:, Charles Norwood was clerk. The Governor re- 

honored Mrs. Virwiuia Farrar." Virginia Farrar had prepared in 1651 a map of 

John her father was buried Sept. 28. 1657, next to his brother Nicholas. " Vir- 
ginia, daughter of John Farrar and Bathsheba his wife, Jan. 17, 1687 died." 

' Assembly convened Nov. 20, 1654. 

Charles City Co. 

Major Abra. Wood. 

Col. Ed. Hill, Speaker. 
Capt. Henry Perry. 

William Worlich. 

Thomas Breman. 

Henrico County. 

Thomas Dipnal. 
Abra. Watson. 

Lt. Col. Pitt. 
Capt. John Moone. 

Barthol. Hoskins. 

John Carter. 

Peter Walker. 
William Waters. 

Stephen Hamlin . 

Elizabeth City County. 

John Sheppard. 

Gloucester Co. 

WingBeld Webb. 

Richard Cock. 

James City Co. 

Wm. Whitaker. 
H'y Soane. 

Isle of Wight Co. 

Francis Hobbs. 
Capt. John Bond. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 

Lyonell Mason . 
Lancaster Co. 

James Bagnall. 
Northampton Co. 

Tho's Johnson. 

Col. Tho's. Dew. 

Northumberland Co, 

Nansemond Co. 

Sam. Stoughton. 
John Trussell. 


commended Edward Digges,' as a member of the Council, 
the noniinatio!! was confirmed, and he took the oath of 
fidehty. Col. Edward Hill who was elected Speaker, had 
been charged before the General Court with being a blas- 
phemer and atheist, and Hatcher, a delegate from Henrico 
County, indignantly declared that "the mouth of this House 
was a Devil." For his free speech about the Right Wor- 
shipful Speaker he was compelled to kneel, and make an 
humble acknowledgment of his impropriety of speech, and 
his name appears to have been dropped from the roll. One 
of the members, from Surrey, was William Batt, a son of 

Surrey County. 
William Batt. James Mason. 

Warwick Go. 
Lt. Col. Sam. Mathews. William Whitbye. 

York County. 

Capt. W. Qooch. John Hayman. 

Robert Booth. 

Westmoreland County. 

John Holland. Alex. Baynham. 

' Edward Di;;ge3 was the son of Sir Dudley, Knight, and his mother was a 
granddaughter of Sir Thomas Kemp. Sir Dudlt^y was an active public man, 
but quick tempered. His political opponent at one period was Sir Edwin Sandys. 
Oiamberlain under date of .January 17, 1GJ4-5, wrote : "Sir Edwyu Sandys 
obtained his election for Kent by crying down his rivals, Sir. Nicholos Tufton, 
and Sir Dudley Digges as papists and royalists." lie was active in the impeach- 
ment of Duke of Buckingham, with Sir Nathaniel Rich and others OflFending 
King Charles by his " plain country language," in 1627, Ik; was imprisoned at the 
Fl'^et, but after a few weeks, having expressed sorrow for his " unfitting words " 
was restored to liberty. The King stopped Ins mouth on November 17, lOJJO, by 
granting him the office of Master of the Rolls, in reversion after Sir Julius 
Caesar. Ho died in 1018. A brother of Edward named Dudley, the third son 
of Sir DuJl«>y, publiahed a treatise on the '• lUajality of subjerts taking up arms 
against their Sovereign," which in 1647, was brought to the notice of the Com- 
mittee of Complaints of Parliament. 


Robert Batt, vice Master of University College, Oxford. 
As early as thej5th of September, 1643, he had entered land on 
Mobjack Bay, Gloucester county. His sister Catharine, was 
the wife of Philip Mallory, and a niece Martha, was a wife 
of Thomas Mallory, the Dean of Chester Cathedral, who 
refused to pay the ship money tax, and perhaps the Thomas 
Mallory who in 1660, was a prominent non-conformist Lon- 
don^ divine. His brothers Thomas and Henry were also 
residents of the Colony. 

In view of some hostile feeling exhibited by the Indians 
in the region of Rappahannock river, a hundred naen from 
Lancaster county, forty from Northumberland, and thirty 
from Westmoreland, the frontier counties, were ordered to 
assemble at the house of Thomas Meade on the Rappa- 
hannock, to proceed under John Carter^ against the Indians, 
with Capt. Henry Fleet, and David Wheatliff as interpre- 

After this Fleet does not appear in any official capacity. 
He probably settled near the mouth of the Potomac, known 
still as Fleet's Point, and accommodated persons, passing 
from Maryland to Virginia. A deposition has been preserved 
that shows that one Henry Carline, of Kent county, Mary- 
land, in 1655, stopped at his house with a woman, and that 
he provided lodgings also for another woman, and a man. 

'Brock supposes that be is the immigrant who arrived May 12,1611, in the ship 
" Prosperous," and who had entered before 1635, 40 acres in Charles City, and 
100 in Warosquoyake. He was in 1643, a member of the Assembly from Upper 
Norfolk county. In October, 1060, "Colonel Carter ordered upon his oath to 
declare the whole truth that passed between liim and Colonel Claiborne at the 
Assembly in 1658 or 1654, concerning; an act of aon-address to the Right Honor- 
able Sir William Berkeley." His third wife was Sarah, a daughter of Gabriel 
Ludlow, and on June 10, 1669, he died. 


Fleet becoming indignant at Carline's loose behavior, turned 
him, and the woman who came with him, out of his house, 
and had them arraigned before the Eappahannock Court. 
He was fined for keeping the servant woman fi-om her 
employer, and disowning his wife, and the woman was 
ordered to receive tliirty lashes.' 

Eoger Ludlow* who had been ridiculed by Captain Stone,^ 
in 1632, as a "Just Ass" left New England, and became 
in 1654, a resident of Virginia. The western shore of the 
Potomac about this time began to be occupied by planters- 

The deplorable superstition known as witchcraft, mani- 
fested itself in Virginia, as in New England. The ship 
*' Charity," John Bos worth, Master, in 1654, left England, 
for Virginia. The voyage was stormy, and two or three 
weeks before the vessel entered Chesapeake Bay, the sailors 
whispered that a witch was on board. Mary Lee a little, 
and quite aged woman, was the suspected one, and it was 
demanded of the master that she should be examined, 
which the captain at first refused to consent to, but as the 
sailors continued clamorous, after consulting with Henry 
Corbin, a passenger twenty-five years old, and Robert Chip- 
son, a merchant, he yielded to the demand. Two seamen 

• Hansons " Old Kent," p. 212. 

- linger Ludlow was the brother-in-law of Deputy Gov. Eudicott to Massa- 
cliusette. In 1630, lie settled at Dorchester, aud for four years was one of the 
EBsistant Governors. In 1635, he went to Connecticut, aud for nineteen years 
was either a maf^istrate or deputy governor. The inhabitants of Fairfield 
appointed him, in 1654. to lead an expedition against the ludian.s, but this was 
not approved by the Connecticut authorities, and after this he moved to Vir. 

3 See page 96. 


searched her body, and declared they had found witch 
marks. During the ni^ht she was left fastened to the cap- 
stan, and the next morning it was reported that the marks 
" for the most part were shrunk into the body." Corbin 
was pressed to examine her, and at last, the terrified woman 
said she was a witch. In opposition to the captain, the 
crew then hung her, and when life was extinct, tossed her 
body in the sea. 

The relations of trade with New Amsterdam remained un- 
satisfactory. Edmund Scarborough in the summer of 1655, 
went to Manhattan and bought some negro slaves for his 
plantation in Accomac, but he was not permitted to take 
them thither, until he gave a bond that his vessel would 
not enter the Delaware River, nor stop, and trade with any 
of the Dutch plantations. 

Edward Digges at Denbigh on the James River, near 
Mulberry Island, and at Bellfield eight miles from Williams- 
burg, paid great attention to silk culture, employing two 
native Armenians, skilled in the business. An interesting 
letter, written by him in 1654, to John Ferrar the brother 
of Nicholas, the last deputy of the Virginia Company, has 
been preserved. Virginia, the daughter of John, and niece 
of Councillor William of Virginia was also one of his cor- 
respondents, and her brother, named John, wove into poor 
rhyme, the substance of all the letters which she had re- 
ceived from the Colony, extracts from which are interest 
ing as giving the names of the principal persons then 
engaged in raising silk. 

" Sir Henry Chichly that heroick knight 
Affirms ther's not an ingenious wight 


In Virginia but makes all sjieetl he can 

To be ere long a silken, noble man. 

And say, Colonel Ludlow certifies 

That thence from silk great profit will arise ; 

Yet, worthy Bernard that stout Colonel 

Informs the Lady, the M-orke most facile 

And of rich silken stuffs made wholly there 

lie hopes that he and others shall soon weare. 

So, Major John Westi'ope ripe smooth silk will be 

A gallant designe for that brave country. 

Mr. George Lobs that prudent old planter 
Tells her that worms ne'r'e spun silk 
Let's give those gentle women their full dress 
Mistress Garrett and Burbage for silk clues 
That Colonel's wife needs not far to rove 
Her court affords a pleasant mulberry grove, 
But noble Diggs carries the bell away 
Lass ! stint of eggs u)ade so small the essay 
His two Armenians from Tiiikey sent 

Are now most busy 

Lo here, what Mistress Mary Ward hath sent 

And to her Lady cousin she presents 

The rare bottoms took from her apple trees 

That all England may it believe and see ; 

Her honored kinsman. Esquire Ferrar 

To confirm and make the wonder greater 

Ten more hath he sent her, which he found 

On stately oakes and shrubs which kiss the ground 

And Doctour Russell, that learned Fhysition 

Hath witli his, made a full addition." 

An important principle was asserted by the Assembly in 
1655. Every freeman had the privilege of a vote until two 
years before, when the elective franchise was limited to 



housekeepers, freeholders, leaseholders, or other tenants, 
but it was now repealed because it was " hard and unagree- 
able to reason that any persons shall pay taxes, and have 
no votes in election." To ensure fair elections it was or- 
dered that the vote should not be by the voice, but by sub- 

About the same time a plan was devised which if effect- 
ually carried out might have saved many lives, and civilized 
the Indians, a plan which is again being urged, in its 
main features, by philanthropists. It was enacted, that for 
every eight wolves' heads delivered, by any Indian, to the 
authorities, the head man of his band should receive a co w 
" as a step to civilizing them, and making them Christians," 
and it was also provided, that Indians might bring their 
children within the white settlements, choose guardians for 
them, and the Colony would pay for their education. To 
protect them from heartless speculators, it was ordered that 
the lands of Indians were inalienable, unless by special per- 
mission of the Assembly. 

Governor Bennett having gone to England on affairs of 
the Colony, Edward Digges now thirty-five years of age was 
chosen as his successor, Claiborne, remaining Secretary. 
His councillors ' were chiefly those who had held the posi- 

' Councillors IMarch 31st, 1655. 
Capt. John "West, Col. Bridges Freeman. 

Col. Sam. Mathews. Col. Edward Hill. 

Col. Argall Yeardley. Col. William Taylor. 

Col. Tho's Pettus. Col. Thomas Dew. 

Col. Humphrjr Ilijjcgiuson. Lt. Col. Obedience Robins. 

Col. George Ludlow. Lt. Col. Sam. Mathews. 

Col. William Bernard. Capt. Henry Perry. 

Capt. William Qooch. 


tion for many years. A son of Col. Mathews, sits with his 
father. WiUiam Gooch, also a new councillor and a young 
man, died, much lamented, soon after his appointment.^ 

According to adjournment, upon December 1st, 1656, the 
Assembly convened and Lt. Col. Walker,^ and Nathaniel 
Bacon3 were nominated and confirmed as Councillors, and 
several new Burgesses admitted to fill vacancies. Henry 

' Upon the Temple plantation, in the suburbs of Yorktown, uear the house, 
where Lord Cornwallia surrendered to Washington, is a tombstone, with this 

" Major William Gooch of this parish 
Died October 29, 1655. 
Within this tomb, there doth interred lie 
No shape,],but substance, true nobility. 
Itself, though young, in years just twenty-nine, 
Yet graced with virtues moral, and divine ; 
The Church from him did good participate 
In counsel rare, fit to adorne a State." 

'John Walker supposed to be, by Brock, the brother of Joseph Walker, St. 
Margarets, Wostmittisler. January 39, 1651-2, he ea:erod lloO acres on W;irc 
River, Mobjack Bay. 

3 Nathaniel Bacon sou of Rev. James Bacon, and grandson of Sir James of 
Friston Hall, Suffolk, knighted in 1604, and buried in February. 1618. The 
second husband of Councillor Bacon's mother, was Rev. Robert Peck a graduate 
of Cambridge, rector of Hingham, England, more than 30 years, and for con 
science sake came to Massachusetts Bay, in 1638, and was for several years 
pastor of the Congregational church at Hingham, New England, but, in 1641 
went back to his church in old England and died its rector, in 1656, during the 
Cromwellian period. 

Hia daughter Anne Peck, married in New England, Major John Mason, the 
conqueror of the Pequot Indians, in Connecticut. 

Councillor Bacon was baptized jAugust '39, 16-30, in St. Mary's parish, Bury 
St, Edmonds, and in 1647, was residing in France. lie arrived in Vir"-lnia 
about 1050, accompanied by his wife Elizabeth, whose maiden name was Kings- 
well. Notices of his cousin_2Nathaniel, also, of the Virginia Council will be 
found in later chapters of this work. 


Eandolph was elected clerk in the place of Major Charles 
Norwood } 

The Assembly of 1656, enacted : " For encouragement of 
the mmisters in the country, and that they may be better 
enabled to attend both publick commands and their private 
cares ; It is ordered, that from henceforth each minister, in 
his owne person, with six other servants of his family shall 
be free from pubiique levies ; Allwaies provided they be 
examined by Mr. Philip Mallory and Mr. John [Roger ? ] 
Green and they to certify their abilities to the Governour 
and Councill, who are to proceed according to their judg- 

It is probable that each congregation was at liberty to 
worship with, or without, the Prayer Book. Gatford in his 
treatise "Public Good without Private Interest" dedicated 
to Cromwell does not give a pleasing account of the religious 
condition of Virginia at this period. He refers to the 
majority of the colonists "as these wicked and ungodly 
wretches heretofore planted there," and while admitting 
that there aie some ministers "rehgious and laborious" 
yet there were ' ' not a few, whose wicked and profane 
lives cause the worship of God not only to be slighted, 
but to be little less than abhored." Of them he further 
writes : "The greatest part of them are such as went over 
thither not out of any desire or design to do God, and that 
Plantation, much less the poor heathen, thereto adjoining, 
any service, but out of some by aims and ends of their own. 

' CbarltsNorivood may have returned to Euirlaiid aud be the same Charles 
who served at Tangiers under Col. Henry Norwood, Henry Randolph had a aon 
William who died before 1660. The fati er died in 1673. 


being indeed such as were ashamed or afraid to hve any 
longer liet^ in this native [England] or at least, such as 
sought only to get something for themselves." Reference 
is made to a minister who was accused of a shameless and 
unnatural net who '' was only caused to stand in some pub- 
lic place, for a small time, with a paper in his hat, with his 
crime written therein. Where on the other side, in the 
year 1055, other eminent able preachers indeed, were for no 
crime, unless, for being of a different judgment, in our late 
unha])py differences, * * * turned out of their employ- 
ment and livelihood." 

An alarm was created by the appearance m 1656, near the 
Falls of James River, of some strange Indians called Richa- 
hecrians, from the western mountains, and Col. Edward 
Hill, with one hundred men, was sent to confer with them, 
and avoid if possible blood-shedding. Tottopottomoy with 
one hundred Pamunkeys also accompanied Hill, and this 
chief was slain in a fight with the strangers. The conduct of 
Hill in this campaign was severely censured, the Assembly 
suspended him from all offices civil and military, and Col. 
Abraham Wood was appointed to take his place as com- 
mander of the regiment of Charles City and Henrico. Gat- 
ford writes of this affair: '' The Planters did lately, viz. Ano. 
1656, (when a numerous people of the Indians more remote 
from the Colonie, came down to treat with the English about 
setling of Peace, and withall a lil^erty of trade with them) 
most ])ei*fidiously and barbarously (aftera declaration of their 
desires and intentions) murther five of their Kings that came 
in expectation of abetter reception, and brought much beaver 
with them to begin the intercourse of the commerce. This 

unparallel'd hellish treachery and anti-christian perfidy 


more to be detested than any heathenish inhumanity, can- 
not but stink most abominably in the nosethils 9t as many 
Indians, as shall be infested with the least sent of it, even 
to their perpetual abhorring and abandoning of the very 
sight and name of an English man, till some new genera- 
tion of a better extract shall be transplante(3 among them." ' 

In reference to this, Gatford writes. ' ' The Planters have 
turned some of the Indians out of their places of abode and 
subsistence, after that the Indians have submitted to the 
Colony, and to their government, and have taken up their 
own lands, after the custom, used by the Colony. As they did 
otherwise also very unchristianly requite the service which 
one of the Indian kings did them in fighting against other 
Indians, that were presumed to be enemies to the English, 
and to draw towards them, to do them mischief. For that, 
when, the said King desirous to show his fidelity to the 
English, if not in obedience to some of their commander's 
orders, did adventure too far with his own Indians, in the 
pursuit of those other Indians, and thereby lost his life in 
that action, as some report, though others thought him to be 
taken alive by the enemies. His wife and children that were 
by him, at his expiring, recommended to the care of the 
English vv * * * * were so far from receiving the 
favour and kind usage, merited by their father, that they 
were wholly neglected, and exposed to shift for themselves. 

" And though it be alleged by some, as to the former part 
of this grievance, that the portion of land which was taken 
from the said King, before his death, by an English colonel 

•' Public Good without Private Interest p. 8. 


was acknowledged openly in court, yet 'tis generally be- 
lieved, and by some stoutly asserted, that the said King 
was affrighted, and threatened into that acknowledgment, 
by the said Colonel." 

Col. Thomas Dew^ of the Council was empowered, with 
others, to explore the rivers between Cape Hatteras and 
Cape Fear. The people of Virginia had grown weary of the 
attempt to restore their old boundaries. Lord Baltimore, by 
his adherence to CromwelP, had great power with Parlia- 

* Henry Woodhouse when Governor of Bermudas, wrote to London in 1627, 
that one-third of the settlers were disposed to go to Virginia. Among the 
prominent planters there were Thomas Dew and Ben. Harrison. They were pro 
bably the same persons with these names who a few years after are planters in 

'Cromwell's letters show the conflicting interest. On January 12, 1654-5, he 
wrote to Governor Bennett of Virginia. 

" Sir : Whereas the differences between the Lord Baltimore and the inhabi- 
tants of Virginia, concerning the bounds by them respectively claimed, ;ire de- 
pending before our council, and yet undetermined ; and whereas we are credibly 
informed, you have notwithstanding gone unto his plantation in iMaryland, and 
countenance some people there in opposing the Lord Baltimore's officers, 
wherebj^ and with other forces from Virginia, you have much disturbed that 
colony, and people, to the engendering of tumults, and much bloodshed there, 
if not prevented : 

"We, therefore, at the request of the Lord Baltimore, and divers other persons 
of quality here, who are engaged by great adventures in his interest, do, for pre- 
venting of disturbances or tumults there, will, and require you, and all others 
deriving any authority from you, to forbear disturbing the Lord Baltimore, or 
lii.- ofticers, or his people in Maryland, and to permit all things to remain as thej- 
were before anj' disturbance or alteration made by you, or by any other, upon 
pretence of authority from you, till the said differences above mentioned be de- 
termined by ua here and we give further order herein. We rest your loving 

"Oliver P." 

The above letter was written upon, hearing from only one side, in tiic contro- 
versy, but upon further information the Protector wrote. 


ment, therefore this Assembly directed that "letters be 
sent to Colonel Samuel Mathews, and Mr. Bennett, in 
respect of the differences with Lord Baltimore, concernnig 
our bounds is as far from determination, as at first, that 
they desist until further orders from this country." 

In view of a contemplated visit of Governor Digges, to 
London, Col. Samuel Mathews was elected as his suc- 
cessor,^ and it was ordered that Francis Morison, the 
speaker, should prepare a letter to be taken by Digges for 
the Protector Cromwell, and his Secretary of State, John 

" Wliilehall, 36tli September, 1655. 

" Sirs : It seems to us, by yours of the twenty-niuth of June, aud by the relation 
we received by Colonel Bennett, that some mistake, or scruple hath arisen con- 
cerning the sense of our Letters, of the twelftli of January last, as if by our 
Letters we had intimated that we should have a stop put to the proceedings 
of those Commissioners who were authorized to settle the Civil Government of 
Maryland. Which was not at all intended by us ; nor so mucli as proposed to 
us, by those, who made addresses to us, to obtain our said Letters. 

" But our intention (as our Letter dotii plainly import) was only to prevent, and 
forbid any force or violence to be offered by either of the plantations of Vir- 
ginia or Maryland, from one, to the other, upon the ditfeniiic!^ concerning their 
bonds, the said differences being then under the considcratiun of Ourself and 
Council here. Which, for your more full satisfaction we have thougiit fit to 
signify to you, and rest 

" Your loving friend, 

" Olivek p." 

The above was addressed " To the Commissioners of Maryland." 

' Col. Samuel Mathews who was still in England. The Record of this Assem- 
bly, mentions; '' Edward Digges Esq., at present Governor, to continue and re- 
tain during his abode in the country, and in the interim Col Samuel Mathews 
Governor elect to take place next to him in Council." It was also arranged 
that after Digges ceased to be Governor, he should be of the Council, and take 
place after Capt. John West. 


The Assembly's letter to Cromwell was as follows : 
^^ May it x>lease your Highness, 

" We could not find a fitter means to represent the condi- 
tion of this country to you, than this worthy person Mr. 
Digges, our late Governor, whose occasions calling him 
into England we have instructed him with the state of this 
place as he left it ; we shall beseech your Highness to give 
credit to his relations, which we assure ourselves will be 
fruitful, having had many experiences of his candor in the 
time of his government, which he hath managed under 
your Highness with so much moderation, prudence and 
justice, that we should be much longer in expressing this 
truth, but that we fear to have already too much trespassed 
by interrupting your Highness's most serious thoughts in 
greater affairs than what can concern your Highness's most 
humble, most devoted servant. Dated in the Assembly of 
Virginia, loth Dec. 1G56." 

The arrival of Digges in England with his conciliatory dis- 
position, and powerful social influences, did much to settle 
the long pending controversy, and on the 30th of Novem- 
ber, 1657, articles of agreement in the presence of Digges, 
and others, were signed by Lord Baltimore, and Commis- 
sioner Samuel Matthews of Virginia. The paper mentions 
" that Lord Baltimore, upon a treaty with the said Richard 
Bennett and Colonel Samuel Mathews, occasioned by the 
friendly endeavors of Edward Digges Esq'r, about the com- 
posure of the said differences." The agreement was to the 
effect that if those in Maryland would deliver up to Lord 
Baltimore's Governor and officers, the records of the Pro- 
vince, and the great seal if it could be found, that he would 


leave all offences that may have arisen to be determined in 
the way the Protector of England and his Council should 
direct; that patents should be issued to those who had 
claimed lands during the difficulties ; that all who wished 
to remove from Maryland should have leave to do so any 
time within a year ; and 

"Lastly, the Lord Baltimore doth promise, that he will 
never give his assent to the repeal of a law established here- 
tofore in Maryland, by his lordship's consent,^ whereby all 
persons professing to believe in Jesus Christ, have freedom 
of conscience there." 

The opinions of Cromwell relative to toleration in reli- 
gion, were in advance of his age.^ In a letter to Cardinal 

'The law was framed by tlie Marylanders in 1649, aud, in 1650, Lord Balti- 
more gave his consent thereto. 

Thomas Harrison, the Nansemond clergyman, in his letter to Winthrop, re- 
joiced in the Act, passed by Parliament, in 1647, by which persons were no more 
compelled to go to parish churches, this is what he called ' ' that golden apple 
the ordinance of toleration." He was not however, in favor, like Roger Williams, 
and Patrick Copland, of nuresiricted religious liberty. He thought that in each 
community those only should be tolerated who believed in the doctrines of the 
early creed, and the sacrament of baptism, and the Lord's Supper. He would 
not tolerate those who denied the divinity of Christ, or the importance of infant 
baptism. The " Act concerning- religion passed by the Maryland Assembly 
of 1649, with the approbation of the Virginia Puritans, carried out the views of 
Harrison, and to deny the doctrine of the Trinity made one liable to death and 
confiscation of goods. 

"But a few days before he wrote the letter to the Maryland Commissioners, in 
a speech delivered on September 17th, 1656, at the assembling: of Parliament he 
said : " Our practice since the last Parliament hath been to let all this Nation 
see, that whatever pretentions to Religion would continue quiet, peaceable, they 
should enjoy conscience and liberty to themselves, and not to n ake religion a 
pretence for arms and blood. Truly we have suffered them, and that cheerfully, 
80 to enjoy their own liberties. Whatsoever is contrary and ' not peaceable' 


Mazarin, whom he calls a "brother and confederate," he 
expresses his intention to make " further progress," in his 
living toward Roman Catholics, and shows that the Cardinal 
was in sympathy with him against the royal family, then 
in exile, in France. Alluding to the friend of Charles the 
Second, Sir John Berkeley, the brother of the Virginia 
Governor, and the tutor of the Duke of York, he wrote to his 
Eminency' : " I did fear that Berkeley would not have been 
able to go through and carry on that work ; and that either 
the Duke would have cooled in his suit, or condescended to 
his brother. * * * * j£ j ^^^ ^-^^^^ mistaken in his, the 
Duke's character, as I received it from your Eminency, that 
fire which is kindled between them will not ask bellows to 
blow it, and keep it burning. * * * * jf j^j^jg breach be 
widened a little more, and this difference fomented, with a 
little caution in respect of the persons to be added to it, I 
distrust not but that Party which is already forsaken of 

let the pretence be never so specious, if it tend to combination, to interest, aud 
factions, we shall not care by the grace of God whim we meet withal, though 
never so specious, if they be not quiet. 

" And truly I am against all liberty of conscience repugnant to this. If men 
•will profess, be they those under Baptism, be they those of the Independent 
judgment simply, or of the Presbyterian judgment, in the name of God, encour- 
age them, countenance them, so long as they do plainly continue to be thankful 
to God, and to make use of the liberty to enjoy their own consciences." 

' Cromwell, and the Republicans considered it good policy to enlist the Roman 
Catholic element of England against the royalists. A daughter of Christopher 
Wandesforde, whose father had been a confidential adviser of the ICarl of 
Strafford, and succeeded him as Deputy of Ireland, mentions a meeting 
held in her uncle's house, in London, of the Close committee of Parliament to 
consult about the King's trial, and that Mr. Rushworth kept the key of the 
room, in which they met, aud to which the members i)rivately repaired. One 
morning he saw several disguised faces enter, " particularly, he knew the Lord 
Baltimore, * * * and others suspected to be Papists, or fanatics, which 
strange mixture did much surprize him." 


God * * * and noisome to their countrymen, will grow 
lower in the opinion of all the world " 

When the articles of peace were signed by the Virginia 
and Maryland representatives, a ship was on its way to 
Chesapeake Bay, and toward the close of December, 1657, 
landed in Virginia two preachers of the Society of Friends, 
Josiah Coale, and Thomas Thurston, whose presence created 
an uproar, and they were treated as disturbers of the peace. 
It cannot be denied, that some of the people, called 
"Friends of Truth," during the Ci'omwellian era, had a 
" zeal without knowledge," and made themselves ridiculous. 
That once sturdy soldier, James Nayler, led captive by silly 
women, and addressed as the " fairest among ten thousand " 
as he rode through the streets of Bristol, preceded by ad- 
mirers, strewing the road, with their scarfs, shawls, and 
handkerchiefs, v/as of course, laughed at by thoughtless 
boys, insulted by foul-mouthed men, and pitied by charita- 
ble citizens. 

William Penn, always calm, and reasonable, in public 
discourse, mentions that under a wild enthusiasm, one of 
the gentler sex, in England divested herself of the garments 
of delicacy, to symbolize the nakedness of the world, where 
"all is show and counterfeit," but, no one even supposed, 
that she was not "clothed on with chastity," as much as the 
woman of the legend, who rode, naked, through the town, 

*' Qodiva, wife to that grim Earl, who ruled 
" In Coventry. " 

The first preachers who entered Virginia, calling upon 
men to repent, like John the Baptist did in the wilderness, 
excited serious thought in few minds, but the vigorous 
opposition of many. As they violated the Colonial Statutes, 


they were at length thrown in prison, and when released 
compelled to leave the country. With Thomas Chapman ' 
of Vii'ginia who appears to have been a convert, they entered 
Maryland where they were subject to scourgings, and ex- 
pelled the Province. Passing northward, they soon were 
beyond the cabin of any white settler. For food, they de- 
pended largely upon the berries, and chestnuts, of the forest, 
and often were fed by the Susquehannocks, a tribe whose 
wigwams they found. In a pubhcation printed in London, 
called '' The Deceiver of the Nations discovered, and his 
Cruelty made manifest more especially his Cruel Works of 
Darkness laid open, and reproved in Mariland and Vir- 
ginia," the writer* mentions that "the Indians whom they 
judge to be heathen exceeded in kindness, in courtesies, in 
love and mercy, unto them, who were strangers." 

During the Cromwelhan era, there was an increase of popu- 
lation, upon the Virginia side of the Potomac north of York 
river. From Governor Bennett on November 27, 1654, Giles 
Brent, who had been Deputy Governor of Maryland, ob- 
tained a large grant of land, and Brent's Point is still known. 
His strong minded sister whose relation to Govern or Leon 
ard Calvert had been so peculiar, and intimate, the next 
year, received a grant from Governor Digges. Among 
other settlers were Richard Lee,^ Henry Corbin, Isaac Aller- 

• A ThomaB Chapman ia 1610, came to Virginia in the ship "Trial " and his 
wife Ann came in 1G17, in the "George." In 1623, a son named Thomas was 
born, and it living would at this period have been tliirty-five years of age. 

=» Francis Howgill, published A.D., 1660. 

s Upon his father's tombstone, is the following long inscription. 

"Herelyeth interred the Body of Sr. Robert Lee Knt., Sonne and heire of 
Benedict Lee of Huccott, in the county of Bucks, who was second brother to 


ton, William Ball, John and Lawrence Washington. Rich- 
ard Lee, said to have been one of the sons of a poor knight 
with a large family, was in the Colony, as early as 1642, and 
in 1647, was a Burgess from York County. He identified 
himself with the CromweUian party, and in 1655, was in Eng- 
land. In September, he secured passage to return upon the 
ship " Anthony," but at Gravesend, his trunk was seized by 
the searcher of customs, containing two hundred ounces of 
silver plate, which was afterwards released because of 
" Colonel Lee being faithful, and useful, to the interest of 
the commonwealth." Henry Corbin, born in Warwickshire 
about 1629, in July, 1645, married Alice, daughter of 
Richard Eltonhead^ of Eltonhead of Lancashire, England, 

Sir Robert Lee of Birdsthorn. He was born at Helstrop in the Pr'sh of Drayton 
Beaucbamp, Ao Di'ni, 1545, and married Dame Luce Piggott daughter to Tho's 
Piggott of Beachampton, in ye county of Bucks, Esq,, by whom he had issue 
viir sonnes viz : Sir Henry Lee K't a Baronett, Edward, Bennett, Thomas, 
George, Robert, Richard, and Anthonie, and vi daughters Frances, Elizab. , Mary, 
Maro-aret, Joyce, and Alice : when he had been married 55 years he dep'ted 
this life in tlie faith of Jesus Christ at Stafford Langton in ye County of Essex, 
and was buried at Hardwick Ao. D'ni 1616, Aug. 20, ^tatis 73." 

The first wife of Richard Lee, the immigrant, was Elizabeth daughter of Wil- 
liam Langdon, of the County of Cornwall, and widow of Nicholas Manyard. It 
is remarkable that on the tomb-stone of Richard Lee Councillor, son of the first 
Richard, it should be mentioned that he is of an old and honorable family in 
Shropshire, without any allusion to the Knight of Esses. 

1 William Eltonhead, a son of Richard of Lancashire, came in 1654, to Mary- 
land as a special messenger from Lord Baltimore, and was shot in the skirmish 
at Severn river between the partisans of Parliament and Lord Baltimore. 

Henry Corbin by his wife Alice, had : 

Henry, who died in infancy. 

Thomas, who became a London merchant. 

Oawin, whose first wife was Catherine, daughter of Ralph Wormely of 
Middlesex Co., Va. 

Letitia, married Richard Lee of Westmoreland Co., Va. 


and in 1654, arrived in Virginia. Isaac Allerton* settled 
near Wicomico after 1654, was a graduate of Harvard 
A.D., 1650, and his mother was a Brewster, the daughter 
of the celebrated leader of the Puritans who landed, 
from the " May Flower," at Plymouth Rock, Massa- 
chusetts. The families of these men were intimate, and 
the children intermarried,' and in 1670, Allerton, John 
Lee^ Henry Corbin, and Thomas Gerard agreed to build a 
banqueting house, at a point convenient to their residences. 
Thomas Gerrard lived not far from Isaac Allerton, at 
Masthotick Creek, the southern border of Westmoreland 
county. Like the Brents he had been prominent in the pro- 
vince of Maryland. He was the brother-in-law of Justinian 
Snow, the first factor of the Maryland province, called by a 
Jesuit journalist of the period an "obstinate heretic," 
while Gerard professed to be an adherent of the Church of 
Rome. He was a physician, and privy councillor in Mary- 

Alice, married Philip Lightfoot of Middlesex Co., Va. 

Winifred, tuarried Le Roy Griffin. 

Ann, married William Tayloe of London wlio settled, and in 1694, died in 

Frances, married Edmund Jennings of Rippon, .Yorkshire, died in London 
Nov. 22, 1713. 

'John Davenport, minister of New Haven, on the 27th of 7th month, 1654, in 
a letter to John Wiuthrop Jr. Dep. Gov. of Connecticut, referring to Dr. Choyse? 
writes " He is now upon a voyage for Virginia with Mr. Allerton." 

' Hancock, son of Richard Lee, married Elizabeth a daughter of Isaac Allerton. 

3 Richard Lee the immigrant, died before September, 1G66. In Palmer's 
Calendar of Virginia State Papers is the following: " Writ issued by Ira Kirk- 
haiu (Cl'k Sept. 25, IGG'J), to sheriff of Westmoreland -county requiring the 
arrest of Mr. John Lee, one of the executors of the last will and testament of 
Col. Ric'd. Lee to appear before Governor and Council on 3d day of next Qen'l 

Court, in the forenoon, to answer the suit of Edward Lisbro as marrying 

Anne, relict of the said Col. Lee." 


land but in 1058, had an unpleasant controversy with a Jesuit 
missionary, name Fitz Herbert, who threatened to excom- 
municate him, because he did not bring his wife and child- 
ren to church, and Fitz Herbert also reported that he had 
' ' beaten an Irish servant because she had refused to be a 
Protestant or go to Prayer with those of his family, that 
were so." 

He was also accused of being intemperate, and opposed to 
the friends of Lord Baltimore. Upon these last charges, he 
was tried, deposed from the Council, and declared incapa- 
ble of holding any office. After this, he removed to Vir- 
ginia, and was the neighbor of Isaac AUerton, and in 1670, 
arranged with his neighbors to build a " banqueting house." 
On Feb. 5, 1672, he made his will, and therein expressed his 
wish, to buried by the side of his wife, Susanna Snow, in 
Maryland, and Major Isaac AUerton and John Lee were 
appointed to settle his estate. 

Not far from these, settled John and Lawrence Washing- 
ton, of whose ancestry nothing is definitely known. ^ In 

' Josepli L. Cliester L.LD., D. C. L., the late eminent editor and aunotator of 
Westminister Ahhey Registers in a letter of Sept. 8, 1877, wrote to me : " In your 
Fmmders of Maryland is a letter off John Washington. Can you, by any 
means, obtain for me a fac-simile, or traciug, of his signature? I have lately 
come upon a Deed, which I have strong reasons to think is his, and if, on a 
comparison of the two signatures this sliould prove to be the case, I think my 
long protracted labors on the AVasliington history would come to an end." Dr. 
Chester did not aucceed, before his death, in finding in Virginia an autograph of 
John Washington and having completely destroyed the pedigree as given by 
Sparks and Irving, nothing positive is known. 

General Washington, in a letter to the Earl of Buchan, mentions that his 
ancestor was a relative of the Fairfaxes of the nortli of England, to whom 
Buchan was allied. Henry Fairfax sheiifE of Yorkshire and Henry Washington, 
married sisters Anna and Eleanora Harrison of South Cave, Yorkshire. Henry 


1058, John, the ancestor of the illustrious and first president 
of the United States of America, reached the Chesapeake 
Bay in a ship owned by Edward Prescott, and the master 
of which was John Greene. During the voyage from Eng- 
land the crew became excited and declared that one of the 
passengers, Elizabeth Richardson, was a witch, and when 
near the Western Islands hung her, and threw her body into 
the sea. John Washington, as the Ship was consigned to 
Maryland, made complaint to the Provincial Court,' and 

Washington died in 1718, and bis widow Eltsanora lived in St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
London. Her eldest son Pilchard was born at South Cave in 1G90, and another 
child wa? born there, she had five other children at Doncaater or in London. 
Perhaps Richard Washington who died in Barbadoes in 1747, was a son of 
Richard, and grandson of Henry. General Washington corresponded with a 
Richard Washington of London who may have been the son of the Barbadoes 
Richard. In the autumn of 1751, George Washington took his sick brother 
Lawrence, to the Barbadoes. From a letter of Theodore Pargiter dated London, 
Aug. 2, 1654, it is learned that he had a cousin John Wa.shington at Barbadoes. 
Could this be the John who came to Virginia? See Waters' (Meanings in N. E. 
Eist. Qen. Register October, 1884. 

In a footnote on page 137 " Founders of Maryland" Munsell, Albany, 1876, 
Henry, the hu.sband of Eleanor Harrison, by C;irele3suess, is called Richard 
Washington. And, " it is probable that Jolm Washington " in the same note 
should read ; It is probable thdt Richard of Barha<loes. As it now reads, it is 
without sense . 

' Governor Fendall of Maryland on behalf of the Council of Maryland on Oct. 
5, 1659, issued the following: 

''WiiicuEAS John Washington of Westmoreland County in Virginia hath 
made complaynt ag'st Edward Prescott Merch't, Accusing ye s'd Prescott of 
ffelouy, and the Goueruor of this Province alleging bow that bee ye s'd Prescott 
hanged a witc* oc his ship as hee Wiis outward bound from England hither, 
the last yeare upon wch complaynt of ye s'd Washington, Gou'r caused ye s'd 
Edward Prescott to bee arrested, Taking Bond for his appearance at this Provin- 
cial Court of 4000 lbs. Tobacco Gyving moreover notice to ye s'd Washington by 
letter of his proceedings therein (a copie of wch Here wth ye s'd] Washington 
answers thereto as followeth. 

' " Mr. Washington Vpon yor complaynt to me yt Mr. Prescott did in liis voy- 
age from England, hither, cause a woman to bee executed for a witch I have 



Prescott the owner of the ship was held for trial. Prescott 
ajDpeared in October, 1659, and declared that as owner of 
the ship he had protested against the hanging, but that the 
Captain and sailors would not listen to his remonstrance, and 
he was discharged. A writer of the period, alludes to such 
occurrences , His words are : ' ' Another wickedness wiiich 
some traders thither have practised upon their passengers 

caused Mm to be apprehended uppon suspition of ffelony & I've intend to bind 
him over to the Provincial Court to answere it, when I doe allso expect you 
to bee to make good ye charge. Hee will be called upon ye 4th and 5th of 
October next at ye Court then to be held at Patux't neeare Mr. ffenwick'a house 
where I suppose you will not feyle to bee. Witnesses examined in Virfrinia 
will bee of no value here, in this case, for this must be face to face with ye party 
accused or they stand for nothing. I thouglit good to acqiia3'ut you with this 
that you may not come unprovided. This at present Sir, is all from 

' "Yor ffriend JosiAS Fendall. 
" 39th September."' 

On the next day, John Washington answered. 

" Hon'ble S'r Yors of this 29tli instant, this day I received. I am sorry y't 
my extraordinary occasions will not permitt me to bee at ye next Provincial 
Court to bee held at Mary Land ye 4th of this next month. 

" Because then, God willing, I intend to gett'my young sonne baptized. All ye 
company and Gossips being already invited. Besides, in this short time witnesses 
cannot bee gott to come over. But if Mr. Prescott bee bound to answer at ye 
next Provincial Court after this, I shall doe what lyeth in my power to get them 
over. Sr. I shall desire you for to acquaynt mee whether Mr. Prescott be bound 
over to ye next Court, and when, ye Court is, that I may have sometime for to 
provide eyidence. 

" Yo'r ffriend «& Serv't 

" John Washington." 
" 30th Sept. 1659." 

" To wch complaynt of John Washington the s'd Edward Prescott submitting 
himselfe to his tryall denyeth not but that there was one Elizabeth Richardson 
hanged on his ship as he was outward Bound ye last j'eare from England and 
coming for this province, neare unto ye Western Island by his Master & Com- 
pany (hee having appointed one John Greene for yt voyage Master), though 
himselfe was both Mercht & owner of ye ship. But further sayth That he wth 
stood ye proceedings of his s'd Master & Company & protested ag'st them in 
that business. And that thereupon both ye Master & Company were ready to 


(scarce ever heard of before, much less practised by any 
that call them selves Christians) ib this, When a storm or 
tempest hath happened at sea in their passa<^e from hence, 
thither, or tln^y have otherwise miscarried, through the 
default of the Master or Pilot of the ship, so that their 
passage hath been tedious and difficult : Some of those Mas- 
ters have laide all the blame upon some of their passengers; 
and not onely accused them for witches, but executed some 
of them as witches, by their own authority, and without 
any legal trial and conviction." 

John Washington of Westmoreland, in 1661, was a war- 
den of White Chapel in Lancaster county. His brother 
Lawrence lived a few miles from him, on the banks of the 
Rappahannock river, Francis Doughty, a brother-in-law of 
Governor Stone of Mai-yland, the father-in-law of Hugh 
O'Neal of Patuxent, formerly, the minister of the English 
speaking members, of the Reformed Church, at Manhattan, 
now New York city, was for a time in charge of Setting- 
bourne Parish, and among the records of Essex county, Va., 
there is the complaint of John Catlett, and Humphrey 
Boothe, to Governor Berkeley, that he was a non-confor- 
mist, and that " he denied the supremacy of the King, 
contrary to the canons of the church of England" and re- 
fused to allow them " to communicate in the blessed ordi- 
nance of the Lord's Supper." 

William Ball^ perhaps the person of that name iiv the 
Visitation of Cheshire "a soldier under Sir Thomas Fair- 

• He died in IBTO, and Bmclc mentions, that ho left two sons, William and 
Joseph, and a dauo^hter Hannah. Around White Chapel church there is a 
tombstone over the grave of David Ball ; and of Mary Ann Ball the daujjliter 


fax," came from England in 1650, and settled at the mouth 
of Corotoman river in Lancaster county, and attended White 
Chapel church of which John Washington was warden. 

Some distance below these planters, at Carter's Creek, on 
the upper side, and not far from the mouth of York River, 
in 1648, Lewis Burwell a planter of character entered a large 
tract of land, and in 1650, obtained a grant of sixteen hun- 
dred and fifty acres in Northumberland county. He died 
in 1656, and was buried' at Fairfield on Carter's Creek, 

Samuel Mathews having returned from England, as Go- 
vernor and Captain G-eneral attended the Legislative Assem- 
bly of March 13th, 1657-8, convened at Jamestown. The 
former Governor Richard Bennett became a member of the 

of Rev. John Bertrand. A daughter of Richard Lee of Ditchley was the third 
wife of James Ball. A Mary Ball married a Washington, whose sou, was the 
" first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." 

' On his tombstone is the following: " To the loving memory of Major Lewis 
Burwell, of the County of Gloucester in Virginia, gentleman, who descended 
from the ancient faniilj^ of the Burvvells, of the County of Bedford, and North- 
ampton, in England, who nothing more worthy in his birth, than virtuous in 
life, exchanged this life for a better on the 19th day of November, in the thirty- 
third year of his age A.D., 1G58." 

Meade mentions the following inscriptions at Carter's Creek upon stones mark- 
ing the resting places of the wives of Lewis Burwell, father and son. 

"To the sacred memory of Abigail, the loving and beloved wife of Major 
Lewis Burwell of the County of Gloucester, Gent, who was descended of the 
illustrious family of the Bacons, and heiress of Nathaniel Bacon, Esq., Presi- 
dent of Virginia, who, not being more honorable in her birth, than virtuous in 
her life, departed this world, the 12th of November, 1672, aged 36 years, hav- 
ing blessed her husband with tour sons and six daughters." 

This inscription seems to be to the memory of the wife of Lewis Burwell, 

*' The daughter of Robert Higginson. She died Npvenaber 36th, 1675. Sl>e 
was the wife of Major L. Burwell." 


Council.' This Assembly is memorable for its discussion of 
the principles of Republican government, and for the suc- 
cessful assertion that the Burgesses were the representatives 
of the people, and that in them was vested the power to 
elect the Governor and Council. 

On the first of April, 165S, the Governor announced that 
the House of Burgesses^ was dissolved, but the delegates 

* Council in March 1658-9. 

Richard BiMinett. Capt, Henry Perry. 

Col. W. Claiborne, Secretary. Col. George Reade ? 

Col. John West. Lt. Col. John Walker ? 

Col. Wm. Bernard. Col. Abra'ni Wood. 

Col. Thomas Dew. Col. John Carter. 

Col. Obedience Robins. 

Mr. W. Horsmanden. 
Lt. Col. Anthony Elliot. 

' BURUESSES March 13, 1657-8. 

Henrico County. Major Wm. Harris. 

Charles City Co. 

Warham Horsmanden. Capt. Robert Wynne. 

James City Co. 

Hen. Soane. Thos. Loveinge. 

Maj. R'd Webster. Wm. Corker. 

Surrey County. 

Lt. Col. Thos. Swann. Major Wm. Butler. 

Wm. Edwards. Capt. Wm. Cawfield. 

Upper Norfolk Co. 

Lt. Col. Ed. Carter. Giles Webb. 

Thomas Francis. 

Zower Norfolk Co. 

Col. John Sidney. Major Leonard Mason, 



declared that the step was improper, and asked that he 
would revoke the order. The Governor and his Council, 
after deliberation, expressed a willingness to recede, if the 
House would speedily adjourn, and refer the point in dis- 
pute, to the Lord Protector of England, but the House was 
not satisfied with this answer, and appointed a Committee, 
consisting of Col. John Carter, Warham Horsmanden, John 
Sidney, Thomas Swan, Richard Webster, Jeremy Hain, 
and William Mitchell to consider what were the rights of the 
House and report thereon. They were of the opinion, after 

Major William. 

Jolm Smith, Speaker. 

Jeremy Haine. 

Major John Bond. 
Thos. Tabernor. 

New Kent County. 

Lt. Col. Anth. Elliot. 

Rappaha7inock Co 
Lancaster Co. 

Peter Montague. 
Peter Knight. 

William Kendall. 
William Mellinga. 
William Mitchell. 

Elizabeth City Co. 

John Powell. 

Warwick County. 

Thomas Davis. 

York County. 

Eobert Borne. 

Isle of Wight Co. 

John Brewer. 
Joseph Bridger. 

William Blacky. 

Gloucester Co. 

Capt. Thos. Ramsey 

Thomas Luceur. 

Col. John Carter. 

Northumberland Co. 

John Hanie. 

Northampton Co. 

Randall Revell. 
John Willcox. 


examining the Constitutions, and present form of govern- 
ment, that the Burgesses were the representatives of the 
people, and that they could not he dissolved, except hy their 
own consent. After this, the Governor appeared, and ac- 
knowledged the supreme power of the House, to elect the 
Governor and Council. The House then proceeded to the 
election of Samuel Mathews as Governor, and twelve Coun- 
cillors. Joseph Bridger an ahle and useful man, superin- 
tended the erection of a brick church five miles south-east 
from Smithfield. The first brick house in Virginia was 
erected in 1638, at Jamestown, and this church was built 
some years afterwards. The son of Joseph Bridger born in 
1628, also named Joseph, may have been the member of 
this Assembly^ He was paymaster of the troops during the 
Bacon Rebellion, and a tombstone'' marks his remains in 
Smithfield church-yard. William Michell, or Mitchell, a 
member from Northampton county was not an ornament 

• Councillors, April, 1658. 

John West. Henry Perry. 

Thomas Pettus. George Rcade. 

Thomas Hill. Abraham Wood. 

Thomas Dew. John Carter. 

William Bernard. Warham Ilorsmandcn. 

Obedience Robins. Anthony Ellyott. 

="• Sacred 

To ye Memor}' of 

The Honble Joseph Bridger. 

Esqr. Councilr. of State in Virginia 

To King Charles ye 2d 

Dying April ye 15, A. D., 1680 

Aged 58 years Mournfully h^ft 

His Wife. 3 sons and 4 daughters." 


nor a blessing to the Colony, but an adventurer, of ill fame 
from Maryland. Lord Baltimore had, in 1650, made him a 
Councillor, but soon deposed him. Leaving his wife in 
England, he brought over in the ship which he commanded 
several lewd women, and upon his arrival in the province 
led a most scandalous life,^ and scoffed at Christianity. 

Eandall Revell a Burgess of the same county, followed the 
trade of a cooper, and had been in 1638, a member of the 
Maryland Assembly, and at a later period was quite promi- 
nent in the affairs of the Eastern Shore. The Assembly in 
March, 165Y-8, resolved that it was expedient to eject all 
lawyers who were Burgesses, and submitted their decision 
to the Governor and Council, who rephed " The Governor 
and Council will consent to this proposition so far as it shall 
be agreeable to Magna Charta. " Wm. Claiborne." 

"23Martii, 1657 [0. S.J 

This communication was referred to a Committee who 
reported : " We have considered Magna Charta, and do not 
discover any prohibition contained therein," and the posi- 
tion of the Assembly was maintained. 

1 Ann, a daughter of Elizabeth Bolton of St. Martin's in the Fields, Middlesex, 
was hired as a servant, to act as governess, whom he harshly used, and then 
sold to Francis Brooke, for a wife. 

At a court held on June 22, 1G52, at St. Mary, Tliomas Cole, aged thirty-two 
years, deposes : " That before coming out of England, he was at Mr. Edmond 
Plowden's chamber. He asked me ' with whom I lived.' I replied ' Capt. Mit- 
chell.' He persuaded me not to go with him to Virginia, and asked me ' of what 
religion, he was, and whether I ever seen him go to Church ; ' I made answer ' I 
never saw him to Church.' He replied, " thut Captain Mitchell being among a 
company of gentlemen, wondered that the world had been deluded, bo many 
hundred years, with a man and a pigeon,' referring to Christ and the Holy Spirit." 


At this period few English ships arrived, and Dutch 
vessels were prohil)itod, so that trade was stagnant. Tiady 
Newport, in England, under date of July 1+, 1658 wrote : 
" My daughter Bromley has a son come from Virginia, he 
has heen there almost four years, and ther(^ is no profit to 
he had there, trading is poor."^ 

Among the last official acts of Governor Mathews was the 
sending a letter" dated August 24, 1359, to Governor Fen- 
dall of Maryland asking him to co-operate, with an expedi- 
tion, miderCol. Edmund Scarborough, against the Assatea- 
gue band of Indians, dwelling upon the Eastern Shore near 
the boundary line of \lrginia and Maryland. 

Scarborough, then at Occahannock, on the 28th forwarded 
the letter, which by some delay did not reach the Maryland 
Governor until the 23d of the next month, and mentioned 
that it was his intention in ten days to move with three 
hundred men, and sixty horses, and establish a garrison 

' Sir Kichard Newport in October, 1G48, was cieated Baron Newport, liis wife 
was Rnchel, fiistcr of Sir Kichard Leveson, his dau^liter Beatrix married Sir 
Henr}' Bromley Kt., of Salop, and IiIh son was, i)robab]y, the person who had 
been in Virjjinia. 

*" The Conceariie of aaftie depending on those persons in trust hath directed 
the Intelli>?ence of our present deai{i;ne8 against the Assatage Indians imd Con- 
federals, which we haue accomodated with sufficient forces now presumeing 
the advantage of this opportunity, lying before you reasons politicall will 
press your Endeavours to assault the Coraon Enemy who soe long triumphed in 
the mines of Christian bloud, that warr on the Sea Side willbe on our parts 
prosecuted, and if the Nanticokc and confederals be the Suliject of your like 
Designe, it may, if not vtterly extinguish yet snlficiently Subject the iusolen- 
cicB of those Indians who now despise the English honnour. Vso and iuiproue 
this from 

" Your humble Servant 

"Samuel Mathews." 
"Aug. 24, 1659. 



on the sea-side of the Eastern Shore, and then search for 
the Indians toward the head of Wicocomoko or Pocomoke 
river. Governor Fendall replied that he would consult 
with his Councillors, and on October 9th at Patuxent it was 
decided to be inexpedient to engage in a war with the Assa- 
teagues, the cause of which was not mentioned in the Vir- 
ginia Governor's letter. The expedition upon the part of 
the Virginians was not abandoned, as the Assembly at 
Jamestown in March, 1660, made an appropriation to defray 
the expenses of the " late war in Accomack." 

At an Assembly convened in March 1658-9,* was chosen 
the " Honourable Colonel Samuel Mathews Governour, and 

'Burgesses March, 1658-9. 
n$nrico County. William Hatcher. 

Charles City Co. 
Col. Ed. Hill, Speaker. Warham Horsmanden. 

James City Co. 

Walter Cliiles. Capt.Tlio's Foulke. 

Capt. W. Whittacre. Capt. Matt. Edlowe. 

Surrey Co. 

Capt. George Jordan. Capt. Wm. Cawfield. 

Thomas Warren. 

Me of Wight Co. 

Col. Robert Pitt. Capt. English. 

Major John Bond. James Pyland. 

Upper Norfolk Co. 

Lt. Col. Ed. Carter. Giles Webb. 

Capt. Tho's Goodwyn. 

Lower Norfolk Co. 
Col. John Sidney. Lemuel Mason. 



Captain General for two years," and at the expiration of 
that ])eriod it was enacted that the next Governor should 
be elected from the Councillors, who henceforward should 
hold office for life unless impeached for misdemeanors. The 
Council refused to accept the life tenure, and the next ses- 
sion the law was repealed. 

A wise law was passed, that if, for any reason, the 
Governor, or Secretary, should fail to summon an Assembly, 
that then, the sheriff of James City could issue a call. 

During the summer of 1659, it was known in Virginia 
that Richard Cromwell had given up the office of Protector, 
and ships which which left England in the beginning of 
December after a quick voyage of six weeks, anchored in 

Warwick County Jolm Harlowe. 

Mizabeth Oity G: 
William Batte. Florentin Paine. 

York County. 

N.ith. Bacon Esq'r. Thos. BusLrod. 

Major Joseph Crosbaw. Wm. Hay. 

New Kent Co. William Black. 

Lancaster Co. 

Col. Jolm Carter. Henry Corbin. 

Rappahannock Co. 

Col. Moore Fantleroy. John Weyre. 

Olouceater Co. 

Capt. Francis Willis. Capt. Augustine Warner. 

Northampton Co. 

John Stringer. William Jones. 

Northumberland County. Geo. Coleclougb. 


James Eiver, in January, 1660, with the news " that the 
Parliament was then sitting," and that General Lambert 
had gone forth to fight the forces of General Monk. Sir 
Henry Moody, who was then on a visit to Virginia, sent this 
intelligence in a letter to any English captain at Manhattan.' 
The Virginians were much excited by the report, as it was 
evident that anotlier change in the government of England 
was impending. At this critical period Governor Samuel 
Mathews suddenly died, and on March 13, 1659-60 [0. S.] 
an Assembly convened,' and the Burgesses declared that 

' Letter of John Davenport, minister of New Haven, to John Winthrop, Jr 

"Assembly op Makch 1659-60. 
Councillors Present. 

Ex. Gov. Richard Bennett. Col. Obedience Robins. 

Col. W. Claiborne, Sec. Capt. Henry Perry. 

Col Wm. Bernard. Lt. Col. John Walker. 

Col. Thos. Petlus,.. Col. Abraham Wood. 

Col. Francis Morison. Lt. Col. Edward Carter. 

Col. Edward Hill. Capt. Augustine Warner. 

Col. Thomas Dewe. 


Henrico Go. 
Theodoric Bland, Speaker Capt. Wm. Farrer. 

Charles City Co. 
Theodrick Bland. Charles Sparrow. 

Capt. Robt. Wynne. 

James City Co. 
Henry Soane. Richard Ford. 

Capt. Robt. Ellison. William Morley. 

Surrey Co. 
Major Wm. Cawfield. William Browne. 


there being in England no lesident, absolute, and general 
confessed power," for the present, the "Supreame power of 

Me of Wight Co. 
Col. Robert Pitt. Mnj. John Bond. 

Maj Kicliaid Hill. Nicholas Smith. 

Upper Norfolk Co. 

Giles Webb. Geo. Calchmaie. 

Wm, DensoD. 

Lower If 01 folk Co. 

Capt. John Sidney. Lemuel Mason. 

Northampton Co. 

Col. Edm'd Scarborough. Lt. Col. John Stringer 

Major Wm. Waters. - 

Wartcick Co. 

Col. IMiles Cary. Major Ed. Griffitj. 

Elizabeth City Co. 

Lt. Col. W. Worlick. Capt. John Powell. 

York Co. 

X'phen Calthropp. Nathaniel Bacon. 

Major Joseph Croshaw. Robert Baldry. 

New Kent Co. 
Col. Manwaring Hammond. Lt. Col. Robert Abrahall. 

Rappahannock Co. 
Col. Moore Fantleroy. John Weyre. 

Oloucester Co. 
Capt. Francis Willis. Capt. Poter Knight. 

Capt. Peter Jennings. David Cant. 

Lancaster Co. 

Col. John Carter. John Curtis. 

Henry Corbin. 

Northumberland Co. Capt. Peter At^hton. 

• Westmoreland Go. Capt. Tho's Foulke. 


the government," in Virginia was in them, and proceeded to 
elect one to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mathevi^s. 

It was therefore enacted "that the Honourable Sir William 
Berkeley bee Governour and Captain Gen'll of Virginia, and 
that he govern according to the ancient laws of England, 
and the established laws of this Country, and that all writs 
issue in the name of the Grand Assembly of Virginia." 

To him was given the power to select a Council and Sec- 
retary, every two years, but he could not dissolve an As- 
sembly except with the consent of a majority of the Bur- 
gesses. "According to the desire" of Governor Berkeley, 
the Assembly confirmed Col. William Claiborne, Secretary 
of State. Theodoric Bland, ^ the son-in-law of Bennett, the 
first Governor under the Commonwealth, was elected 

The faithful minister, Philip Mallory, was voted two 
thousand pounds of tobacco for his services, and he and a 
minister named Lansdale were invited to preach at James- 
town, during the session of the next Assembly. 

Good feeling prevailed during the sessions of the Assem- 
bly, and republicans and royalists, seemed to be only 

' Theodoric Bland on January 16, 1629-30 was baptized at St. Antbolm's Lon- 
don was a mcrcliant in Spain and in the Canary Islands, and in 1654, came to 
Virginia. His wife was Anne, daughter of Governor Richard Bennett. 

In 1676, John Bland of London, his brother, published a memorial with this 
title The Humble Bevionstrance of John Bland of London, Merchant, on the 
Behalf of the Inhabitants and Planters in Virginia and Maryland." The Lon- 
don merchant was prosperous, and did many friendly acts for Virginia. In 
1660, a Richard Bland was a commissioner of Elizabeth City County, 

Theodoric Bland died in 1671, and was buried within the walls of Westover 
Church, between the bodies of William Perry and Walter Aston. He left three 
sons, Theodoric, Richard and John. * 


interested in promoting the prosperity of Virginia. A 
resolution of good will was passed, acknowledging the 
services of the family of Lord Delaware in these words : 
" Whereas the many important favours and services ren- 
dered the country of Virginia by the noble family of the 
Wests, predecessors to Mr. John West,^ the now only sur- 
vivor, claim at least agratefuU remembrance of their former 
merrits be still continued to their survivors. It is ordered, 
that the levies of the said Master West and his family be 
remitted and he be exempted from payment thereof during 

In February, it was known at New Amsterdam that the 
Governor of Virginia was dead, and Governor Stuyvesant 

" ' Secretary Brock, of the Virpfinia Historical Society, contributeB the follow- 
ing document signed by John West, to the New England Eistcrical and Genea- 
logical Reguter, January, 1886. 

"' Oct. 29, 1655. This day Pindabake, the Protector of the young King of 
Chiskoyalv was at my house, intending to have spoken with the Governor, then 
expected to be heerd but he came not. & tlierefore hee desyned to leave his 
mind with mee, Major Will Wiat & divers others, as foUowith, viz: that Was- 

sahickon the had freely given unto Mr. Edward Wyatt and his heyres, 

executors, administrators or assigns, all the land from Mr. Hugh Guinn's old 

marksd trees Vttamarke Creeke, including all Pagan liigli Land being freely 

given, and with the consent of all the rest of the Indians, it was also agreed 
among them all, that neither the King, nor any other of his Indians should sell, 
alienate, or dispose of any land belonging unto them, without the consent of 
Mr. Ed. Wyatt, which was the only business that he had to acquaint the Gov'r 
therewith in the behalfe of Mr. Ed. Wyat as we heero do testify under our hands 
this present 29th of October, 1655. 

" John West." 
The witnesses were : Willm Benett, 

John W'est Junior, 
By mark Toby West, 

Pindabake Protector of Wm (Godfrey, ) Sign 

the young King John King, |- with 

Chiskoyake John Talbutt, ) mark 


and the Council deputed Nicholas Varlett, and Brian New- 
ton to go and express their sorrow, for In's " sad and unex- 
pected decease," their wish to renew old friendship, and 
make a treaty for free commerce. If practicahle, they were 
also desired to enlist soldiers, for service in New Nether n 

The instructions to the Commissioners were definite and 
judicious. They were to land at " Kycetan " now Hamp- 
ton, and "salute Colonel Claborn " who still resided there, 
and was Secretary of the Colony, "and request his advice, 
counsel and help, for the greate security of the yacht." 
After receiving information from Claiborne, the}^ were to 
present their credentials to the recognized representative of 
the Colony, and ask for a conference to arrange a prelimin- 
ary treaty. If consent could be obtained, they were to 
enlist " some good, resolute men, and among them, as 
many Scots as possible '' in all not more than " twent^'^-five 
or thirty." 

If they had time, the suggestion was made that they 
should " cross over to Maryland" and " inquire as secretly 
as possible whether any preparations against our people in 
the South river were being made there." They were also 
instructed in case a treaty was agreed ujion with the author- 
ities in Virginia, that it was not final, until revised, and 
approved by both sides. Should they find upon their 
arrival, that no Governor had been chosen to fill the va- 
cancy, after remaing eight or ten days, they were to leave, 
with the understanding, that negotiations would be resumed 
in the autumn. As Heerman was well acquainted with the 
English language, they were authorized to obtain his assist- 


ance. The Assembly was in session when they arrived, 
and had elected Berkek^y to fill the office of Governor 
made vacant by the death of Mathews. While for good rea- 
sons, the commissioners were not allowed to enlist soldiers 
to serve under a foreign flag, they wci-e treated courteously 
and the outline of a treaty settled. In April, they returned 
to Manhattan, and in June, Sir Henry Moody arrived on the 
part of Virginia, with credentials signed by the Governor, 
and Theodore Bland, the Speaker of the Assembly. Four 
articles were agreed upon, and sent to Goveinor Berkeley 
for approval, which however he could not sign for reasons 
in the following letter, written on August 20, IGCO, to Go- 
vernor Stuy vesant : 

" Sir, I have received the letter, you were pleased to send 
me, by Mr. Mills his vessell, and shall be ever ready to 
comply with you in all acts of neighbourly friendship and 
amity. But, truly Sir, you desire nie to do that concern- 
ing your titles, and claims to land in this northern part of 
America, which I am in no capacity to do, for I am but a 
servant of the Assembly, neither do they arrogate any power 
to themselves, further than the miserable distractions of 
Englaiid force them to. For when God shall be pleased in 
his mercy to take away and dissipate the unnatural divi- 
sions of their native country, they will immediately return 
to their own professed obedience- What then they should 
do in matters of contract, donation, or confession of right 
would have little strength or significance; much more pre- 
sumptive and impertinent would it be in me to do it with- 
out their knowledge or assent. We shall very shoi-tly meet 
again, and then, if to them you signify your desires, I 
shall labor all I can, to get you a satisfactory answer." 



Sir Henry Moody, Baronet, was the son of Lady Deborah 
Moody whose maiden name was Dunche. Her grandfather 
Wilham Dunche, who died May 11, 1579, had two sons, 
Edward and Walter, Edward was a member of parlia- 
ment during the reigns of James the First, and also his son 

Walter of Avesbury, Wiltshire, married Deborah daughter 
of James Pilkinton, first Bishop of Durham under Queen 
Elizabeth, who was kind to non-conformists. One of the 
four daughters of Walter, Deborah, married Sir Henry 
Moody, Baronet^ of Garsden, Wilts. 

About the year 1632, Lady Deborah Moody was left a 
widow with one son, Sir Henry. After residing some time 
in London, about A.D., 1639, she sailed for America, and in 
April, 1640, was a member of the church at Salem, Mass., 
and in 1641, purchased the farm near Lynn, of John Hump- 
ries, whose wife was a daughter of the Earl of Lincoln. 
Lechford, writes ; "Lady Moody lives at Lynn, but is of 
Salem church. She is a good lady, almost undone by buying 
Master Humphries farm." 

In December, 1642, she was presented for holding that 
the baptism of infants was no ordinance of God, and the 
next year she moved to New Amsterdam, for liberty of 
worship. In March, 1643, in the Massachusetts Records it 
is mentioned, that the Rev. Mr. Walton "is for Long Island 

1 The last wife of Sir John Stafford, was the sister of Sir Henry Moody, Bt. 
Stafford had been haptized at Geneva January 4, 1555-6, John Calvin standing 
as sponsor. Stafford's fiUher died in Geneva, May 5, 1557. 


shortly there to set clown with my Lady Moodie, from under 
civill and church watch among ye Dutch." For a time she 
was molested by Indians, but on the 19th of December, 
1645, a patent for the town of Gravesend, Long Island, was 
given unto "Ye honoured Lady Deborah Moody ; Sir Henry 
Moody, Baronet ; " and others and " to have and enjoye the 
free libertie of conscience according to the custome and 
manner of Holland, without molestation or disturbance 
from any madgistrate, or madgistrates, or any ecclesiastical 

In 1655, her house was surrounded by Indians, who were 
at last driven away by soldiers from New Amsterdam, and 
about 1659, she died. Her son, Sir Henry Moody may have 
i-emained some time in England. After his mother's depart- 
ure, his father's place at Garsden was sold to a Sir Laurence 
Washington, chief register, who died in 1643, at the age of 
sixty-four years. He was as early as 1645, on Long Island. 

In September, 1659, a fort belonging to the Dutch, about 
eighty miles above Manhattan, was for some weeks sur- 
rounded by a large body of Indians who destroyed corn- 
fields, and killed settlers. Sir Henry Moody was requested 
to raise a company, and go to their relief. He marched to 
the fort, dispersed the Indians, and entering it unfurled the 
English flag. About this time he disposed of his plantation 
at Gravesend, Long Island, and this year, made a visit to 

In October, 1660, the Virginia Assembly ordained: " That 
Sir Henry Moody bee implored in an embase by the right 
honourable the Governor, to the Manados, about the affaires 
of the country shall have elevaen thousand pounds of 


tobacco out of the levie, this year, as a gratuity for his paines 

After this he took lodgings with Daniel Litschoe, an inn- 
keeper of New Amsterdam, whose house according to 
G-erard, was near the present junction of Wall and Pearl 
streets, New York City. He appears at this time to have 
been quite poor, as on the 20th of September, 1661, he left 
certain books' for the payment of his board and lodging. 

He returned to Virginia, and died at the house of Colonel 
Francis Moryson, acting Grovernor during Berkeley's absence 
in England. He was tlie first Baronet who died in Vir- 

While a few of the colonists were educated and able to 
educate their children in England, the great majority were 

' la N. Y. Col. Doc's, Vol. 4, 8vo, 1851, p. GtO, is the followinir : 

•' Calholo(rui} contaiuinir tlie namos of such books as Sir. Heury Moidie left 
ill security in hands of Daniel Litscho when he went for Virginia. 

A latyn Bible in folio. 

A written book in folio contiuning privatt matters of State. 

Seventeen severall books of di'votional matter. 

A dictionaries Latin and English. 

Sixteen several latin and Kalian bookx of divers matters. 

A book in folio containing tlie voyage of Ferdinand Mendoz. 

A book in folio kalleth Sylva Sylvarum. 

A. book in quarto kalleth, bartas six days worke of the lord and translated in 
Enolish by Josiah Sylvester. 

A book in quarto kalleth the Sume and Substance of the Conference which it 
please iiis Excellent ^lajestie to have with the lords, bi.shops, &c., at Hampton 
Court contracteth by William Barlov/. 

A book in quarto kalleth Ecclesin-stica Interpretatio or the Exposition upon 
the diSicult and doubtful passages of the seven Epistles called Catholique, and 
the Revalation collected by John Mayer. 

Eleven several bookx moore of divers subjects. 

The verification of his father's knights order given by King James," 


not above the grade of laborers, and enjoyed but few of the 
comforts of hfe. 

Lionel Gatford, B. I)., published in 1657, a small treatise 
entitled "Piiblick Good without Private Interest." He 
was friendly to Lord Baltimore, although a Puritan. In 
a dedicatory epistle to Cromwell, "his Highness, the Lord 
Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland," he writes, 
that "poor, neglected, despised Virginia, and the English 
Colonie there, with the adjacent heathen inhabitants of the 
same continent, came often and often into his thoughts." 

In allusion to the peculiar form of church government in 
existence, he used this language : " It cannot be expected 
that either your petitioner, or any other, how zealously 
affected soever they are to the advancement of God's glory 
and the propagation of the Gospel of Christ, should leave 
their preaching, and other ministration here, iw their own 
native Country that so much needs them, though they 
should be allowed to pre;ich no where but in bonds and 
fetters, or in caves, and other hiding places (which they 
fear not, so long as your Highness shall retain the Sovereign 
power solely in your own hands) and go into Virginia to 
labour there, in utter impossibilities, or to be thrust out from 
labouring, wlioii any probabiliuies of doing good should be 
offered there, only upon that distast or suggestion of any 
turbulent or vicious persons that shall complain of them to 
a Governour as indifferent, and vicious as themselves." 

In the treatise among other hindrances to the prosperity 
of the Colony, are mentioned : "The people that are sent to 
inhabit in that Colonie, are the most of them the very 


scum and off scouring of our Nation, vagrants or con- 
demned persons, or such others, as by the looseness and 
viciousness of their Hves have disabled themselves to sub- 
sist any longer in this Nation ; and when they come thither 
either know not how, or will not betake themselves to any 
sober, industrious course of living. And if they chance to get 
ought to maintain them in their licentiousness and wicked- 
ness fall to practising their old abominable practice there, as 
much or more than they ever did heer. So that if they 
come to be members or officers in the said Colonies, whereby 
they are rendered more conspicuous in their true colours, 
their idleness, and otherwise evil examples, do not only 
corrupt and taint others of the same Colonic, but cause the 
very Heathen to loath both them and the very profession of 
Christianity for their sakes." 

He also lamented "that very many Children and servants 
sent into that Plantation, that were violently taken away, 
or cheatingly duckoyed without the consent or knowledge 
of their Parents or Masters by some proestigious Plagiaries 
(commonly called Spirits) into some private places, or ships, 
and there sold to be transported; and then resold there to be 
servants or slaves to those that will give most for them. 
A practice proper for Spirits, namely the Spirits of Devils, 
but to be abhorred and abominated of all men that know 
either what men are, or whose originally they are, or what 
their relatives are, either natural, civil, or Christian." 

In every country, at its first settlement, will be found 
hardy adventurers, of obscure birth, and wholly dependent 
upon their energy, and industry, who rise to positions of 
prominence, and influence, and it was not remarkable, that 


the Assemblies in the days of Berkeley, and the Common- 
wealth, should have contained some of these. 

If Abraham Wood, a boy ten years of age, could come to 
Virginia, and after serving his term as a servant, advance 
in position, and in 1654, be a Burgess, it is creditable to 
him, and if in the Assembly of that year should also be 
John Trussell, who when he was nineteen years of age, in 
1622, became a servant in Charles City County, and William 
Worlich, who came the same year when eighteen years 
old, and was a servant in Elizabeth City, it only shows what 
poor immigrant boys like those of the present century who 
have landed at New York City, may by perseverance, ac- 

General Monk reached London, early in February, the 
news of which was received, in Virginia, before the first of 
May, with the report, that the monarchy would soon bo re- 
stored. On the 29th of May, Charles the Second entered 
London amid the acclamations of the people. 



Colonists quietly accept restoration of the King. Instruc- 
tions TO Governor Berkeley. Philip Mallory, clergyman, 
visits England. Berkeley in England. Francis Morison, 
chosen temporary governor. quakers fined and impris- 
ONED. Office Seekers. Encroachments upon Indians. 
Grant of 1662, op lands, to favorites of the King. Pub- 
lication of " Vikginia's Cure." Governor Berkeley's re- 
turn. Legislation against Quakers and Baptists. Attempt 
to build up Jamestown. Birkenhead conspiracy. Fugitive 
SERVANTS. Burgesses A.D., 1668. Persecution of Quakers. 
Scarborough, Surveyor General, criticises Quakers. Con- 
ference AS TO cessation OF TOBACCO PLANTING. \\ ILLIAM DrUM- 

MOND AND Thomas Woodward. Letter of Morison in behalf 
OF Virginia. Annual elections postponed. Northern In- 
dians. Conference of 1666, as to tobacco. Burgesses in 
1666. Ships in 1667 destroyed by thb Dutch. Colonists Dis- 
contented. Silk presented to the King. Explorations of 
Lederer, and Henry Batt. Jail Biri«. Suffrage restricted. 
Berkeley's Report of 1671, to Commissioners of Planta- 

HE transition from the rule of the Commonwealth 
of England, to the government of Charles the 
Second, was as quiet, and bloodless, as, the sur- 
render in 1652, to the former power. The merchants of Vir- 


ginia had little interest in the political disputes of England, 
and hoped that by the restoration of Charles the Second, they 
might obtain a repeal of the Navigation Act, which restricted 
the carrying of tobacco, to vessels owned by Englishmen and 
had depressed the commercial interests of tlie Colony. As 
the people, by their Burgesses, had freely elected Berkeley, 
Governor, who had acknowledged,' that he was, "but a 
servant of the Assembly's," and as his brother John was one 
of the friends and advisers of the King, they believed it to 
be good policy to cordially accept the changed condition * of 
affairs. The King on the 31st of July, recognized Gov. 
Berkeley and the Council. The Assembly which convened 
on the 11th of October, 1660, only transacted absolutely 
necessary business. The Council and Assembly had been 
obhged to meet in the houses of Mr. Woodhouse, and of 
Thomas Hunt, and the Governor was requested "to take 
into his care the building of a State House," and to 
make contracts at his pleasure. He was also empowered 
"to presse tenne men of the ordinarie sort of people, 
allowing each man two thousand pounds of tobacco, per 
annum, and to employ them tov,ard the building of a State 
house," but no work was done. A Committee ad interim 
was appointed, composed of Henry Soane, Speaker, Na- 

' See Chapter VII, Berkeley's letter to New Amsterdam authorities. 

"Their lanffuagfe in acknowledi^ring the King was not as servile as that of the 
Massachusetts Colony. Governor Endicott by order of the General Court, of the 
latter, on Aug. 7, 1601, fulsomely wrote, "Royal Sir: Your just title to the 
Crown enthronizeth you in our consciences ; yourpraciousness, in our affections • 
that, inspireth unto duty, this, naturalizeth unto loyalty." 



thaniel Bacon, Esq., Col. Miles Gary,' Major Nicholas Hill, 
Capt. Eobert Eilyson, Capt. George Jordon,^ and Mr. Wal- 
ter Chiles, and until the 23d of March, 1660-1, a recess was 

The Council for Foreign Plantations in England directed 
a letter to Sir William Berkeley, Governor "for the time 
being" and the Virginia Council, in which, they enjoined 
that all rehgious exercises should be according to the pro- 
fession of the church of England, and that they should en- 
courage learned and orthodox ministers, as it was a shame 
for a rich and flourishing people to be without a ministry 

^ Colonel Miles Cary was a descendant of William Caiy, merchant, the Mayor 
of Bristol in 1546 ; in 1665, he was one of the Council of Virginia. On March 
29, 1668, he was superintending the erection of defences at Point Comfort 
against the Dutch, and here lost his life. Two of his sons. Miles, and Thomas, 
were prominent in public affairs and identified themselves with the Quakers. 
Story, a Quaker preacher, brother of the Dean of Lismore, and Keeper of the 
Great Seal of the Province of Pennsylvania, and one of the early Mayors of Phila- 
delphia, held in 1690, a Friends' Meeting at Yorktown. Two days after, he 
writes " Went to Thomas Carey's who had been lately convinced. His wife 
had been also. His brother Miles, and wife, coming hither to see us were made 
partakers of the same visitation." Several yeais later he made another visit and 
wrote : " Made a visit to Miles Carey, Secretary of the County, who being absent, 
his wife, a Friend, prevailed with us to stay to supper." 

Thomas Gary tliought to be the son of the Councillor, married a daughter of 
Archdale, the Quaker Governor of Carolina, and in 1697, was Receiver General 
of that Colony. 

" Jordon is a name found iu the earlier records. In the first Assembly of 1619 
was Samuel Jordon. Mary Tue, daughter of Hugh Crouch, executrix of Lt. 
Richard Crouch, in 1623, " assigned 100 acres of land wch lies in Diggs, his 
Hundred to Samuel Jordon of Charles Hundred, gentleman." Neills' Virginia 
Company, p. 315. In March, 1623, Robert Jordan was slain by the Indians at 
Berkeley Hundred five miles from Charles City. 

Alice the daughter of John Miles, and wife of George Jordon, died January 7, 
1650 (O.S.) 


proportionate to the population, and such a ministry was 
necessary to the winning of the souls of those whom they 
had purchased as slaves." 

With this communication was sent the King's Proclama- 
tion from Breada, and an Act of Indemnity. The letter was 
entirely conciliatory, and they were urged to lay aside "ani- 
mosities hegotten by the late distracted and unsettled times, 
and affectionately unite, so that former differences be 
buried in oblivion." 

The old London Company was reported to be again 
making an effort for the restoration of their charter, and 
the Assembly fearing the loss of their liberties, from the 
Plantation Commissioners, determined to send Sir WiUiam 
Berkeley, at their own expense, to act as their agent, in 
England and present their wants to the King. 

Pliillip Mallory, who had "been eminently faithfull in 
the ministry, and very dilligent in endeavouring the ad- 
vancement of all those meanes that might conduce to the ad- 
vancement of religion," was also appointed by the Assembly 
of March, 1660-1, to undertake to solicit in England, in 
behalf of their " church affaires." 

Berkeley reached London in the summer of 1661, when the 
Cavaliers were in a frenzy of joy. A formal, political, and 
hence unlovely, type of Puritanism had succumbed to the 
noisy, jeering, and i)leasure-loving sycophants of the Court. 
Taverns, brothels, and theaters, had rapidly increased since 
the Coronation day, and the Virginia Governor was pleased 
to see the performance on the stage of his tragi-comedy.' 

1 Pepys on January 19, 16fi0-l, went to the theatre and saw the "Lost 
Lady " played, but was not much pleased. 


"The Lost Lady" which twenty years before had been 
entered at Stationers' Hall. 

His visit, with his brother, a favorite of the King, and 
high in power, tended to develop the worse, and restrain 
his better traits, so that Berkeley before, and Berkeley after 
the restoration, did not appear the same person. 

Francis Moryson,^ also written Morison, had been chosen 
Governor during the absence of Berkeley, and the Assembly 
of March, 1661-2, provided for a revision and modification of 
the laws of the Colony, and also "sett downe certaine rules to 
be observed in the government of the church, until God shall 
please to turne his majesties pious thoughts toward us, and 
provide a better supply of ministers. " 

The "whole liturgie " every Sunday was to be "thor- 
oughly read." The word Sunday or Lord's Day is used 
more frequently than Sabbath in the Acts. The " orna- 
ments" of the church were called "a greate bible, two com- 

' His wife was Cecilia, the sieter of Giles Rawlins, who was Killed iu a duel 
with one of Lord Dillon's sons, in August, 1662, in St. James Field, Pall Mall. 
His brother, was Richard who had been in charge of the rude fort at Point 
Comfort. The latter obtained this appointment through his father's influence 
with Lord Falkland. 

On January 3d, 1648, there was granted to Richard 110 acres in Elizabeth 
City known as " Fort Field." The widow Winifred Moryson who obtained a 
grant in 1652, of 400 acres on the south side of Horn Harbor creekwas probably 
the mother. Major Francis Moryson on June 1, 1654, obtained possession of 
24 acres near Jamestown, upon which stood the old " Glassc House." In 1621, 
Capt. William Norton with some Italians were sent by the London Company 
to establish glass works. Norton died, in 1(j23, acd Sandys, Colonial Treasurer, 
wrote that the Italians were disorderly, and "Vinceuzio had cracked the furnace 
with a Iron crow-bar." See Virginia Vetusta, page 121. The glass factory was 
not successful and the ground upon which it stood was sold by Governor Har- 
vey to Anthony Coleman, and by successive assignments became the property of 
Francis Morison. 


mon prayer books, a communion cloath and napkin, a 
pulpit, and cushion." 

For the support of the government, a duty of two shil- 
lings was imposed upon every hogshead of tobacco shipped 
to England, and ten, shillings upon each hogshead shipped 
to foreign ports, those ships excepted, belonging to persons 
residing in the Colony. 

Fines were ordered to be imposed upon Quakers, and 
other non-conformists, holding unlawful assemblies. Wil- 
liam Cole of Maryland, a Quaker, soon after visited Vir- 
ginia, with George Wilson, one of their preachers from 
England, who violating the law, was imprisoned.^ A letter 
written by Wilson, shows that members of the Society of 
Friends m their plainness of speech, seemed coarse and un- 
charitable. It was dated " From that dirty dungeon in 
Jamestown, the 17th of the Third Month, 16(32," (0. S.) and 
is as follows : 

" If they Avho visit not such in prison (as Christ speaks 
of) shall be punished with everlasting destruction, what 
will ye do i Or what will become of you who put us into 
such nasty, stinking prisons, as this dirty dungeon, where 
we have not had the benefit to do what nature requireth, nor 
so much as air, to blow in, at a window, but close made up 
with brick and lime, so that there is no air to take away the 

•William Kobinson, a nu-rchaut of London and Quaker preacher, as early as 
1658, visited Virjjinia. In a letter written, at Boston, not long before he, and 
William Leddra. to thedis<^race of tlie Puritans, was liun<T, he uses these words : 

" I came lately from Virt^iaia, with my brethiva Robert Hod jj^son, ChriHto|iher 
Holden and William Leddra, at which i)lace I was ab(n)t fourteen months in 
service, and liard travel, throu^'h tho Country, for the Seeds Sake. * ^ * j 
waein prieoa in Virginia about six months." 


smell our dung and p ^ who for all their cruelty, I can 

truly say, ' Father forgive them, for they know not what 
they do.' But thus saith the Lord unto me ' Tell them that 
because wilfully they are ignorant, I will strike them with 
astonishment, and will bring upon them the filth of their 
detestable things, and in that day they should be glad if they 

could to eat their own dung and drink their own p , it 

shall so odiously stand before them, that it shall be an evil 
stink in succeeding generations. This you shall eternally 
witness, for I have spoken with you in the name of the 
Lord, in whose authority this is to go abroad." 

John Grave, also a Quaker, this year wrote a poem which 
was printed with title "A Song of Sion, written by a 
Citizen thereof, whose outward habitation is in Virginia ; 
and being sent over to some of his Friends in England, the 
same is found fitting to be published, for to warn the seed 
of Evil Doers." 

As soon as it was known that negotiations were begun to 
place Charles the Second on the throne, applicants for places 
in Virginia preferred their requests. Captain James Neale^* 

' It is unnecessary to print this word in full, wLich is now considered vulgar. 

= Neale was Captain of a Maryland pinnace at an early period. On the Ist of 
September, 1642, he arrived at Boston with two pinnaces, commissioned by Go- 
vernor Calvert to buy mares and slieep. While there one of his pinnaces was 
found to be worm eaten and was abandoned. After the civil war in England 
commenced, he crossed the ocean, and he and his father fought for the King. 
In 1660, he returned to Maryland commended by Lord Baltimore, and in 1666, 
petitions the Assembly for the naturalization of Ann his wife, and children 
Henrietta Maria, James, Dorothy, and Anthony, born in Spain during his resi- 
dence there, as a merchant, and when employed there by King and Duke of 
York " in several emergent affairs" His daughter Henrietta Maria married 
Richard, the son of Richard Bennett the Puritan, who, for a time, lived near the 
Severn River, and was subsequently Governor of Virginia. 


who had been before the civil war a prominent man in 
Maryland, and had shed his blood on the royalist side during 
the Commonwealth period, before the King, left Breda, 
asked to hold the office of Treasurer of Virginia, but, this 
was given to Major Henry Norwood, a relative of the Go- 
vernor. Thomas Ludwell received the Secretaryship which 
had so long been held by William Claiborne, and in the 
place of Thomas Lovinge, Edmund Scarborough, became 
his Majesty's Surveyor General. Philip Honeywood who 
had been in Virginia, a guest at Ralph Wormeley's returned 
to England, and in April, 1GG2, was in command of the 
garrison, and subsequently Deputy Governor of Portsmouth. 
Nicholas Downe, the chief cook of his Majesty's kitchen died 
in Virginia, and Ann his widow petitioned the easy tempered 
King for an annuity.' 

In view of the fact that the Colony was threatened with 
ruin by the excessive planting of a single staple, tobacco, 
which was sold at so low a rate that "neither merchant, 
nor planter could well subsist," the Assembly enacted that 
a quantity of flax seed should be brought from England, 
and distributed in the several counties, to agents, who were 
authorized to sell it on time to planters, and a premium of 
three pounds of tobacco was offered to every one who 
would spin the flax raised, and weave the yarn into cloth, a 

' Anthony Langston, who had been an ensipn in Prince Maurice's Regiment 
after fourteen years residence in Yirfjinia, in Jimuury, 1660-3, returns to Lon- 
don, and is fond of drinking in thv. Dog Tavern. In a brawl, he killed a man, 
was tried, found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to be burned in tlie 
hand. By the eftort of friends he was pardoned, and became a captain of the 
naval service. 


yard wide; and for every yard of woolen cloth made of 
yarn spun in the Colony, a promise of five pounds of tobacco 
was offered . 

A promise of fifty pounds of tobacco was also offered for 
any sea going vessel built in the country. Henry Soane, 
Speaker, having died, Captain Eobert Wynn took his place. 
Hon. Nathaniel Bacon^ having been made one of the Coun- 
cil, Major Edward Griffith was appointed to fill the vacancy 
in the Committee ad interim. The Assembly was not dis- 
solved, but adjourned to meet in March of the next year. 

As settlers increased upon the shores of the Potomac, 
and Rappahannock, collision with the Indians became more 
frequent, and the Assembly was disposed to protect the 
savages as far as they could. Captain Giles Brent, Col. 
Gerard Fowke,'' Captain George Mason, and Mr. John Lord 
were censured for the "injuries and affronts done to Wahan- 
ganoche," the chief of the "Potowmeck " Indians, and Brent 
and Folke, for arresting and binding the chief, were heavily 
fined, and debarred from holding any office civil or military, 
and Mason, and Ford, w^ere also fined, to a small amount. 
Col- Moore Fantleroy^ for his treatment of the Rappannocks 

• See Chapter VII, for a notice of this councillor. 

» Colonel Gerard Fowke was the sou of Roger and Mary Folke of Gunston 
Hall, Staffordshire, and a Geutleman of the Bed Chamber, in daj's of Charles 
the First, and Colonel of Cavalry in battle of Worcester, and now a merchant. 
He obtained 1400 acres at Paspatany on the Potomac River. Captain George 
Mason vpaa his cousin and both had been Colonels, in the King's army, during 
the civil war. Gerard Fowke's daughter Mary, married her cousin, the son of 
Captain George Mason.— Z)inwddi<? Papers, Vol. I, p. xxiii. 

3 In 1663, Moore Fantleroy in England "an untoward fellow" was suspected of 
opposition to the King. Perhaps he was a relative of the Virginia immigrant. 


was disqualified for holding office, and bound to good 

At this Assembly, it was ordered that Mr. George Har- 
wood, having spoken words "to the dishonour of the right 
honourable gouernour ffi-ancis Morrison, esquire,'' should 
ask forgiveness upon his knees. 

The Virginians now, had occasion to contrast the peaceful 
government of Governors Bennett, Digges, and Mathews 
under the Commonwealth of England, with their condition 
under Charles the Second. The Navigation Act was not re- 
pealed, but, more strictly enforced, and court favorites were 
endeavoring to enrich themselves at the expense of the Colo- 
nists, who were indignant, when a communication from the 
King, dated December 5, lG(i2, Avas received, addressed to 
the Governor, and Council of Virginia, informing them, 
that he had given away, a large poi-tion of the best land in 
Virginia, to a few persons, and, in the spring of 1662-3, 
Francis Moryson went to England, as agent of Virginia to 
offer remonstrance. 

The King informed the Colony that on the 18th of Sep- 
tember, I'UO, when he was a fugitive, he had given to 
certain persons all that territory "bound by the rivers 
Tappahannacke or Rappahannacke, and Quiriough or Pata- 
womacke, and Thaspayoke" which they could not enjoy ; 
and that he had now revoked the grant,' and issued a new 

1 In July, 1639, owing to tlie increase of population in Bermudas, the Pro- 
prietors of the Island, in London, petitioned fortius n-yion "scituate betwixt 
the two Rivers of Kapahanock, and Patowmack wcli by good Inforniacon your 
petit'iors finde to be both healthfull and otherwise not yet Inhabited," 

Lefroy's Benmidas, Vol. I, p. 553. 



patent to Sir Humphrey Hooka Kt., John Fitz Herbert, Esq., 
and Eobert Yicaredge, merchant, granting them the use 
and profits of the region, for a certain term of years. In 
view of rumors of opposition, he wrote in August, 1663, to 
the Colonial authorities not to place any obstruction in the 
way of Sir Humphrey Hooke^ and his associates. 

Governor Berkeley was in England from the summer of 
1661, to the autumn of 1662, and while there, a small treatise 
by R. G. was published, entitled Virginia's Care or an Ad- 
visive Concerning Virginia, Discovering the True Ground 
of that Churches Unhappiness. The v/riter was probably 
Roger Green, who had been, like Mallory, a respected min- 
ister in the Colony. He alludes to his being present at 
Jamestown in 1656, when the Assembly passed an act for 
establishing markets, and was sent to England with letters 
from Governor Morrison in behalf of the interest of the 
Church, and education. He deplores the want of towns 
and the evil of living upon isolaterl plantations, whereby 
" not only was there a very numerous generation of Christ- 
ian children born in Virginia unserviceable for any employ- 
ment of Church or State ; but an obstacle was also cast in 
the way of the conversion of the Heathen." 

The Burgesses elected by the people he mentions " were 
usually such as went over servants thither, and though by 
time, and industry, they may have attained competent 
estates, yet by reason of their poor and mean condition, 
were unskilful in judging of a good estate, either of church 
or Commonvfealth, or by the means of procuring it." 

' Hooke in lf)61, was Hi/ili Sheriff of Gloucostersliire, and in 1664, Deputy 
Lieutenant of Bristol. 


The Commissioners of Plantations, in 16G2, were fre- 
quently seen, by Governor Berkeley, now in England, The 
proposition to cease planting tobacco in Virginia, for a cer 
tain period was discussed by the Board,' during the months 
of May, and June, but was not approved. In July, 1662, 
Governor Berkeley was ordered to return, and in a commu- 
nication to the Commissioners, he alludes to the sudden 
command of the King, to depart for Virginia, and his de- 
termination to promote, as far as possible, the culture of 
silk, flax, and hemp, and the cutting of mast timbers. He 
further mentions, that hereafter he will see that the laws of 
the Colony are printed,^ before they are presented, for the 
Board's approval. The order to return to Virginia was for 
a few weeks, suspended, and in August, the Board for 
Plantations, discussed these questions and decided that the 
Colony should bear its own expenses. The salary of the 
Governor was fixed at one thousand pounds sterling, to be 
raised by a tax of two shillings upon each hogshead of 

The shipmasters, in the Virginia trade, then in London, 
objected to the two shilling tobacco tax, and the ten pence 
castle duty at Point Comfort, because the .Colony fur- 
nished no proper defence for their ships. On the 26th 
of August a petition signed by Gov. Berkeley, Sir Henry 

' Soon after, a folio was published in London by Francis Moryson with the 
title Laws of Virginia. To this was prefixed .-1 Description of Virginia, which 
was probably, the same which appeared, in a sfparale form, of twelve pages, 
with tho title : A Description and View of Virginia By Sir William Berkeley, 
the Oovernour, London, 1663. 


Chicheley, Edward Digges, Eichard Lee^ and others came 
before the Board, in which it was mentioned that tobacco 
was now sold at so low a rate, as not to defray the freight 
charges, and begging that they would order that its plant- 
ing be restricted. To this, on the 6th of September, again 
came a remonstrance from the ship- masters and owners. 

It was now arranged that Berkeley should leave for Vir- 
ginia, and on the 12th of September he received his Majesty's 
instructions. He was to see that the Act of Navigation 
against which so much had been said, should be strictly re- 
spected. The planters were to be encouraged to build towns, 
and they could not "have a better example, than from their 
neighbours of New England, who have, in a few years, 
raised that Colony to breed wealth, reputation, and secu- 
rity." He was also to appoint Commissioners to treat, with 
those of Maryland, respecting tobacco, and within a month, 
after his arrival, was to call a General Assembly, and to 
publish his Majesty's pardon and oblivion to all not at- 
tainted of the " horrid murder of our dear Father." 

The King and his advisers, do not appear to have approved 
of a severe policy toward Quakers and other non-confor- 
mists. Among other instructions were these : " And be- 
cause Wee are willing to give all possible encouragement to 
persons of different persuasion in matters of Religion to 
transport themselves thither with their stocks; You are not 
to suffer any man to be molested, or disquieted in the exer- 
cise of his Religion, so he be content with a quiet and peace- 

' Ricliard Lee, now in England, felt that a douceur to Secretary Nicliolas 
would not be unprofitable, and on the 7th of October, 1662, he sent him " ten 
pieces to buy a little toy, and also some rarities " from Virginia. 


able enjcrying it, not givinoj therein offence or scandall to 
tlie Government : But Wee oblige you in your own house 
and family to the profession of the Protestant Religion, 
according as it is now established in our Kingdome of Eng- 
land, and the recommending it to all others under your 
government, as farre as it may consist with the peace and 
quiet of our said Colony."^ 

As instructed, in less than a montli, after his arrival, at 
Jamestown, he summoned the Assembly, which had never 
been dissolved, and on the 23d of December, 1G62, it con- 
vened, with Capt. Robert Wynne, the speaker. 

During the Cromwellian era not only was there a develop- 
ment of the "Society of Friends," but an organization 
which rejected infant baptism, and particularly the ser- 
vice in the Book of Common Prayer, which asserted, that 
after the application of water, the child is regenerated with 
the Holy Spirit. To prevent the spread of the latter class 
of religionists, the Assembly passed this Act: "Whereas 
many scismaticall persons out of their averseness to the 
orthodox, established religion, or out of the new f angled 
conceits of their owne hereticall inventions, refuse to have 
their children baptized : Be it therefore enacted, that all 
persons that in contempt of the divine sacrament of bap- 
tisme, shall refuse, when they may carry their child to a 
lawfull minister in that county, ,to have them baptised 
shallbe amerced two thousand pounds ; halfe to the in- 
former, halfe to the publique." Another act was passed 

' In the Appendix will be found a letter of Governor Berkeley to Charles the 
Second after the Kestoration, and also his speeches to the Council and Burgesses 
in accepting the Governorship of Virginia before the Restoration 


intended to check the loose tongues of gossips, in these 
words : "Whereas oftentimes many babhng women often 
slander and scandalize their neighbours, for which, their 
poore husbands, are often brought into chargeable and vexa- 
tious suites and cast in greate damages ; Bee it enacted * * 
that in actions of slander occasioned by the wife as afore- 
said, after judgment passed shallbe punished by ducking, 
and if the slander be soe enormous as to be adjudged at a 
greater damage than five hundred pounds of tobacco, then 
the woman to suffer a ducking for each five hundred 
pounds of tobacco adjudged against the husband if he re- 
fuses to pay the tobacco.'" 

The absence of any building for the sessions of the legis- 
lature and court, more than fifty years after the planting of 
the Colony, evinced the absence of a proper pride and pub- 
he spirit, and the King had enjoined upon Berkeley the 
building up of the capitol. By his energy the legislature 
ordered that thirty brick houses should be built twenty feet 
in width, and forty in length, the roof to have a fifteen 
foot pitch, and to be covered with slate or tile. The bricks 
were not to be brought from England, as it would have 

1 Babbling women were found in all parts of the Colony. The following is 
from the manuscript record of Northampton Coynty, under date of September 8, 
1634: " Upon dew examination it is thought fitt by the board that s'yd Joane 
Butler shalbe draweu ouer the Rings Creeke [Kings Creek] at the starne of a 
boate or Canoux * * * also the next Sabolli day in the tyme of deuyne [di- 
vine] seruis, between the first and second lesson, present herselfe before the 
minister and say after him as followeth : 

" I Joane Butler doe acknoweledge to have called Marie Drewe huare, and 
thereby I confess I have done her manefest wronge wherefore I desire before 
this cougregaton that the s'yd Marie Drew will forgiue me, and alsoe that this 
congregaton will ioyne [join] in prayer with me, that God may forgiue me." 


been as strange as "carrying coals to New Castle," but were 
to be burned in the neighborhood. The houses were to be 
regularly placed " in a square or such other forme as the 
honorable Sir William Berkeley" should deem most appro- 
priate. No more wooden houses were under the act to be 
built in Jamestown. Each of the seventeen counties was 
auchorized to build and to impress bricklayers, sawyers, 
carpenters, and other tradesmen. The act however proved 
unpopular and drove away mechanics. Morison wrote to 
Earl of Clarendon in 1665 : "Our porre assaye, of building 
four or five houses, lost us hundreds of people." 

Upon the 10th of September, 1663, the Assembly met ac- 
cording to adjournment, and among the Burgesses to fill 
vacancies was Col. Gerard Fowke formerly of Maryland, 
now a representative of Westmoreland County, who took 
the prescribed oath of allegiance and supremacy. Col. Wil- 
liam Claiborne, no longer Secretary, and now living in the 
Pamunky valley, was a delegate from New Kent County. 

The indentured white servants, the refuse of the camps of 
the late civil war, and the alleys of London, with the 
heathen slaves, from the coast of Africa, were now so nu- 
merous as to be a constant source of anxiety to the planters. 
In Gloucester County there appears at this time to have 
been a combination for a general uprising, which failed by 
one Berkenhead, a servant of a planter named Smith, be- 
coming an informer. The legislature felt that tlie planters 
had escaped from "a horrid plot " and resolved ' ' that Ber- 
kenhead have his freedom, and five thousand pounds of 
tobacco given him, in Gloster County, and that his master 


be satisfied for his time and it was further resolved '^ that 
the 13th of September, be annually kept holy, being the 
day those villains intended to put the plot in execution." 
Four of the conspirators v^ere tried and executed.' 

Fugitive white servants began to occasion great trouble. 
William Drummond complained, in 1662, that the court at 
Boston, had illegally discharged one of his servants, and the 
Virginia Assembly retaliated by ordering that "there be 
seized, to the value of forty pound sterling money, out 
the estate of some persons, relateing to the said government 
of Boston, which, is in consideration of wages due for such 
a servant's time, as was illegally cleared from the said Drum- 
mond's employ in New England. William Claiborne, Jr., 
still living at Kiquotan (Hampton), in August, 1662, arrived 
at Delaware Bay in search of two escaped servants. 

Notwithstanding previous enactments against the Quakers, 
their traveling preachers persisted in going to out of the 
way places, without money, and asking for none, yet 
preaching a gospel of peace, and good will, as far as they 
understood the teaching of Christ. Their cheerful endur- 
ance of hardship, with their plain teaching, attracted the 
attention and aroused the consciences of rude frontiersmen 
who, hitherto, had no one to care for their souls, and 
Quaker meetings multiplied. 

' On April 10, 1665, Secretary Ludwell wrote to Secretary of State in Eng- 
land, that he had "sent the trial of those servants who in September, 1663, con- 
spired to ruin the Government." 

In October, 1661, at Bermudas, was discovered a plot of the Irish servants and 
Negro slaves to rise, cut the throats of their masters, and ruin the country. 



The Assembly,^ of 16G3, determined upon more vigorous 
measures of repression, and passed the following preamblo: 
"Whereas it is evident of late time, that certaine persons 
under the names of Quakers, and other names of separation 
have taken up and maintained sundry dangerous opinions, 

'Burgesses in Assemi'.ly Septembkk, 1663. 
Henrico Co. Capt. Wm. Farrar. 

Chdiies City Co. 
Capt. Kobt. Wynne, Speaker. Capt. Francis Gray. 

Stephen Hamelyn. 

James City Co. 

Capt. Edw'd Ramsey. 

Capt. Robt. Ellyson 
Walter Cbiles, 

Capt. Wm. Cockeram 

Major Nicb. Hill. 
Capt. Josepb Bridger. 

Nansemond Co. 
I.oicer Norfolk Co. 

Capt. John Powell. 
Warwick Co. 
York County. 
New Kent Co. 

Capt. Peter Jennings. 
Lancaster Co. 

Thomas Lucas. 

Surrey County. 

Thomas Warren. 

Me of Wifj'ht Co. 

Dr. Robt. Williamson. 

George Wallinga. 
Major Lemuel Mason. 
EHzaheth City Co. 

Col. Leonard Yeo. 

A'ajorEdvv. Oritfith. 
Lt. Col. Barber. 
Col. W. Claiborne. 

Gloucester Co. 

Capt, Tho's Walker. 
Raleigh Frances. 

Rappahannock Co. 

Capt. John Weye. 

Northumberland Co. 
Westmoreland County. 


Wm. Presley. 
Col. Gerard Fowke. 


and tenets, and whereas the said persons, under pretence 
of religious worship doe often assemble themselves in 
greate numbers in several parts of this colony, to the greate 
endangering its publique peace and safety, and to the terror 
of the people by raaintayning a secrett and strict corres- 
pondency among themselves, and in the meantime separat- 
ing good and loyall subjects from the pubhque congregations, 
and usual places of divine service ; " it was enacted, after 
this preamble, that if Separatists, above the age of sixteen 
years, to the number of five, or more, assembled at any 
time, and any place, to worship, not according to the laws 
of England, for the first offence, they were to be fined two 
hundred pounds of tobacco, for the second offence, five 
hundred pounds, and for offending the third time should be 
banished from the colony. If any master of a ship brought 
into the colony, after the first of July, 166J:, a Quaker, ex^ 
cept under the laws of England, he should be fined five 
thousand pounds of tobacco. If any person entertained a 
Quaker in, or near his house, to preach, he was also liable to 
a fine of fiv^e thousand pounds. In their excessive zeal for 
the church of England, they expelled John Porter, of T^ower 
Norfolk, because sheriff John Hill, of that county, had re- 
presented to the House that he ' ' was loving to the Quakers, 
and stood well affected towards them, and had been at their 
meetings, and was so far an ana-baptist as to be against 
the baptizing of children." 

Northampton Go. 
Lt. Col. Kendall. Major Wm. Andrews. 

Accomack Co. 
Devereux Browne. Hugh Yeo.> 

Hugh Yeo cordwainer, was the fourth son of Justinian, of Hartland, Dovonshire. 


During the autumn of 1663, Mary Tomkins and Alice 
Ambrose were at the CUffs in Calvert County, Maryland, 
and wi-ote to George Fox, the eminent Quaker preacher : 
"We have been in Virginia, where we have had a good 
service for the Lord. Our sufferings have been large * * * 
we are now about to set sail for Virginia again." Bishop 
referring to these in " New England Judged " writes : 
" Mary Tomkins and Alice Ambrose^ these two servants of 
the Lord having been at Virginia ■■ - * who had there suf- 
fered thirty-two stripes apiece, with a nine corded whip, 
three knots in each cord, being drawn up to the pillory, in 
such an uncivil manner, as is not to be rehearsed, with a 
running knot about their hands, the very first lash of which 
drew blood, and made it run down in abundance from their 

Lord Baltimore, ever watchful to increase the rentals 
from his Province, managed to make disturbances in Vir- 
ginia profitable. Moryson, Governor of Virginia for a brief 
period, in a letter to the Earl of Clarendon' wrote : " I do 
not complain against so honorable a person as his Lordship, 
but, admire his prudent management, that never omits to 
improve the least occasion to his advantage." 

Virginia's extremity was always Maryland's opportunity. 
The law against the Puritans in the former colony in 1648, 
drove an industrious population to the banks of the Severn 
River in Maryland, so the law against Separatists, Quakers 

* Alice Ambrose afterwards became the wife of John Gary of West River, 

''Clarendon Papers in N. 7. Hmt. Soc. CoL, 1869. 


and others from the cliurch of England, in 1664, increased 
the population of Lord Baltimore's province. 

In November, 1661, arrangements were made to give 
lands to certain inhabitants of " Northampton otherwise 
called Accomack" who wished to remove to the region 
above Watkin's Point, the north part of the Bay " into 
which the river Wighco, formerly called Wighcocomico, 
afterward Pocomoke, then again, at this time, Wighco - 

In February, 1662-3, John Elzey, Randall Re veil, and 
Stephen Horsey were appointed by Governor Charles Cal- 
vert, Commissioners for this district. In September, 1663, 
the Assembly in session at Jamestown ordered Col. Edmund 
Scarborough, his Majesty's Surveyor General of Virginia, 
to collect rents, and dues to the Colony of Virginia, of all 
persons residing below a line, from the "north side of 
Wicomicoe River, on the Eastern shore, and near unto, and 
on the south side of the straight limb opposite to Patuxent 
river. " 

Scarborough's report to the Governor and Council of Vir. 
ginia of his proceedings at Anamesseck and Manoakin is 
stamped all over with the characteristics of a violent and 
prejudiced partisan. 

In company with Col. John Stringer, who had been one 
the Burgesses of Northampton County, four of the Commis- 
sion, and forty horsemen, whom betook "for pomp and 
safety," on Sunday morning, October 11, 1663, he arrived at 
Anamessecks to repel, as he reports, the contempt threatened 
"by some Quakers, and a foole in office." He wrote that ; 


"On Monday morning at y* house of Stephen Horssy an 
officer of y^ Lord Baltimore I began to pubHsh y' commands 
of y* Assembly, and for y' y' officer could not road, I often 
read y= act unto him who made noe reply, but brought a 
pattent instead of his commission and tould us there was his 
authority, and y' hee was put in trust by y' Lord leift. of 
Maryland, and that he would not be false to his trust." 

After some discussion, Scarborough arrested him, because 
he would not acknowledge the act of the Virginia Assembly 
and placed the "broad arrow" on his door. " So thus pro- 
ceeding," he continues, " wee went to y' house of Ambrose 
Dixon, a Quaker, where a boat and two men belonging 
to Groome's Shipp, and two running Quakers were, also 
George Johnson, and Thomas Price inhabitants, and 
Quakers." They also refusing, he arrested them, for con- 
tempt, and placed the "broad arrow " on their doors. He 
then "marched off to Henry Bostons," who asked a/ 
little tiuie for deliberation ' Going from thence, to Manoa- 
kin, all there acknowledged the Virginia authorities, but 
Mr. John Elzey, and Capt. William Thorne, officers under 
Lord Baltimore. In his report he mentions that "at that 
time one Hollins worth,' merchant of a Northern vessel, 
came and presented his request for liberty of trade w"*" I 
doubted was some plott of y' Quakers." His portraiture of 
the Quakers was vivid, but not flattering. " Stephen 
Horssy, y= ignorant yet insolent officer, a cooper by profes- 

' William Hollinsworth of Salem, Mass., had been licensed by the Province 
of Maryland to trade with the Indians. 


sion, who lived long in y' lower parts of Accomack/ once 
elected a burgess by y^ comon crowd, and thrown out by 
y" assembly for a fractious and tumultuous person, a man 
repugnant to all gov'mt, of all sects, yet professed by 
none, constant in nothing, but opposing church govm't, 
his children at great ages, yet uncristened. That left y" 
lower parts to head rebellion at Anamessecks." 

"George Johnson, y* proteus of heresy who hath been 
often wandering in this county, where, he is notorious for 
shiffting schismatical pranks, at length pitched at Anames- 
secks where hee hath bin this yeare and made a plantation,' 

"Thomas Price,' a creeping Quaker, by trade a leather 
dresser, whose conscience would not serve to dwell amongst 
the wicked, and therefore retired to Anamessecks, where 
he hears much, and says nothing els but y* hee would not 
obey gov'm't for w'ch he also stands arrested." 

"Ambrose Dixon, a caulker by profession, that lived long 
in Y lower parts was often, in question, for his quaking 
profession, removed to Anamessecks there to act what hee 
could not be here permitted, is a prater of nonsence. * * * 
A receiver of many Quakers, his house y= place of their 

"Henry Boston, an unmanerly fellow y' stands con- 
demned on o' records for slighting and condemnmg y^ laws 
of y' county, a rebell to gover'nt and disobedient to author- 

^ He signed the eugagemeat to the Coinmouwealth of England, iu March, 
" A signer in March, 1651-2. 


ity, for w'ch he received a late reward w'th a rattan, 
hath not subscribed, hid himself, and so escaped arrest. 
These are all, except two or three loose fellows, y' follow 
the Quakers for scrapps, whom a good whip is fittest to re- 

Governor Calvert, incensed at Scarborough's proceedings, 
visited Governor Berkeley at Jamestown, who disclaimed 
the acts of his Surveyor General, and in the spring of 1G64, 
did order Scarborough, and the surveyors Catlett and Law- 
rence, with Capt. Joseph Bridger, Capt. Robert Ellyson, 
and Mr. Bulmer Mitford to go to Manoakin, and on the 
10th of May confer with commissioners upon the part of 
Maryland, and if possible adjust the boundary dispute.' 

\ ' In 1666, the region in dispute became a portion of Somerset Count}', Maryland , 
^"^ named after Lord Baltimore's sister Lady Mary Somerset. The first County 
Judges were Stephen Horsey, William Stevens, William Thome, James .Jones, 
John Worden, Henry Boston, George Johnson, and John White. Horsey was the 
first sheriff of the County ; he and Johnson, and Boston, were the Quakers from 
Accomac. William Stevens was instrumental in bringincj a number of Presby- 
terians to Somerset County. George Fox, in 1673, preached at his house to the 
Quakers. He lived near Rehoboth in the valley of the Pocomoke Kivcr. Bowen 
in " Days ofMakemie " pives the following from the Somerset Records : " Rich- 
ard Stevens, brother William Stevens of Somerset county ye Province of ^lary- 
land was youngest son to John Stevens of Lebourn in ye Parish of Buckingham 
in England, died at the house of his brother William aforesaid, ye 22d day of 
April, 1667, and was buried at his plantation called Rehoboth, in ye county 
and province aforesaid, in America, ye 25th day of April, 1667." 
Over the remains of Judge Stevens is a slab with this inscription : 
" Here lyeth the body of William 

Stevens Esq, who departed this 

Life, the 23 of December 1G87. 

Aged 57 years, he was 22 years 

Judge of this County Court one of 

His Lordships Councill, and one of ye 

Deputy Lieutenants of this 

Province of Maryland 

ViviT Post Funera Virtus." 


In April, 1663, Governor Berkeley wrote to the Governor 
of Maryland : " I and the Councell here haue considered of 
the means of Redresse [relative to the excessive planting of 
tobacco] and authorize the Gentlemen of the Councell Co" 
Richard Lee, Co" Robert Smith, Co" John Carter & Mr. 
Henry Corbin, our Commis" to communicate our Results to 
yo" & appoynted the eleuenth day of May next to be the 
time & the County Court house of Northumberland County 
the place of Conference."* ******* 

*' This worthy Gentleman Mr. Richard Bennett^ at the in- 
instance of mee & the Councell hath taken upon him, the 
trouble of deliuering this to yo" by whome if yo' returne yo' 
acceptance & that the urgency of yo^ affayres might per- 
mitt us the honour to see yourself at the Conference, both I 
and Mr. Secretary unless hindered by the interposall of some 
unexpected and pressing occasion, would come to wayte 
uppon yo" at the time & place appoynted." 

On the 8th of May upon the part of Maryland, Phihp Cal- 
vert, Secretary Henry Sewall, Mr. Henry Coursey and Mr. 
Edward Lloyd were appointed Commissioners to confer 
with those of Virginia. The meeting took place on the 

' Richard Bennett, son of Governor Bennett of Virginia, after tlie Puritans 
settled on the banks of the Severn was identified with Maryland and the refer- 
ence I think is to him rather than his father. Richard Bennett, Gent, in 1663, 
was one of the Burgesses from Baltimore County, in the Maryland Assembly, 
and in 1665, a Commissioner of Kent County. His wife was Henrietta Maria 
Neale, the eldest daughter of Capt. James Neale. Bennett was drowned and 
left a son Richard. His widow aftei wards married Philemon, a sou of Edward 
Lloyd, one of the Puritans who came from Virginia to Maryland. 

Richard Bennett, the grandson of Governor Bennett, married Elizabeth 


12th of May, at Major Isaac Allerton's at Wiccocomoco, a 
tributary of the Potomac. 

The conference was harmonious, and tlie Maryland Com- 
missionei"s agreed that it should be proposed to their re- 
spective Assemblies, that no tobacco should be planted in 
either colony, in 1664, after the 20th of June. The Maryland 
Assembly however, refused to ratify the agreement. The 
agents of Virginia in England, Sir Henry Cliicheley, John 
Jeffreys, Edward Digges, and Francis Moryson urged the 
Privy Council on November 16, 1664, to issue an order re- 
stricting the raising of tobacco. In their communications it 
was estimated that the population of Virginia was forty 
thousand and that English manufactures were imported 
to the value of £200.000 sterling, while they raised only 
about 50.000 hogshead of tobacco, winch sold at ^3 ster- 
ling per hogshead, would leave them ^ in debt to 
English creditors. Three days after Lord Baltimore opposed 
the proposition. He was not in favor of restricting the 
planters in Maryland. If in Virginia " any Uve in a poor 
manner" he thought it was "not from the low price of 
tobacco, but from their own sloth, ill husbandry, and pur- 
posely spending tlieir cropps in Brandewine, and other 
liquors, it being evident and known that such as are indus- 
trious were not destitute." After the discussion it was not 
considered expedient to take any action upon the subject. 

After Francis Yeardley left Maryland, and explored the 
Roanoke region. Englishmen began to settle in North Caro- 
lina, and immigration was accelerated by the oppressive 
laws against Quakers existing in Virginia and Maryland. 
William Durand, Secretary of Maryland during the Crom- 


welliaii era in 1657, began to attend Friends' meeting near 
Annapolis, and as his name does not appear after this in 
the records of the Province, it is supposed, that he went to 
Carolina and that the place marked Durands, on the 
Koanoke, Heerman's map of 1673, indicates his plantation.* 
John Porter of Virginia was "loving to the Quakers," and 
John Porter prominent in Carolina in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century, was the son of a Quaker. 

While Governor Berkeley was in England, a company 
was formed, of which he and his brother were members, 
who in 1603, obtained a grant of Carolina.^ To tiu-n the 

' Georfe Duraud couspicuous in the early days of Carolina was probably his son. 
William Hawley, a brother ot Jerome, who in 1650, with William Durand and 
others signed the Declaration of Maryland Protestants, as early as 1839, had 
appeared in Virginia as " Governor of Carolina" and land was granted by the 
Virginia legislature that it might be colonized by one hundred persons from 
Virginia freemen, being single and disengaged of debt." — Bancroft's Hist. U- 
States, Edition of 1876, Vol. I, p. 485. 

= The charter sot forth, in the usual language, that the proprietor?, "excited 
by a laudable and pious zeal for the propagation of the Gospel have begged a 
certain country, in the parts of America, not yet cultivated and planted" etc., 
and saving the allegiance due the King, they were invested with as ample priv- 
ileges within their palatinate, as any Bishop of Durham enjoyed within his 

Of all the proprietary grants, the charter of Maryland was the only one 
which contained a clause, requiring all churches and chajjels to be erected in 
accordance with the church of England. 

A. D. 1621, Nova Scotia — Mentions "desire for the propagation of the 
Christian Religion," and gives Proprietor patronage of churches and chapels. 

A. D., 1628, AvALON — Mentions " desire to propagate Christianity," gives pri- 
vileges of a Bishop of Durham and patronage of churches. 

A. D. 1627, Barbadoes — Mentions " laudable and pious de.sign of propaga- 
ting the Christian religion," and gives privileges of Bishop of Durham etc. 

A. D. 1629, Carolana — Mentions " laudable zeal for the propagation of the 
Christian faith" with privileges of Bishop of Durham, etc. 


flow of immigration now toward Maryland, in another 
direction, the proprietors granted to the settlers complete 
liberty of conscience, and it was left to Governor Berkeley to 
visit the country, and also select the first Governor. Wil- 
liam Drummond, a Scotchman of ability who had been in 
Virginia for several years, was appointed Governor of 
Albemarle, and on January 7th, 1664-5, his instructions were 
forwarded by the proprietors. Another chapter will note 
his subsequent career. The first surveyor of the proprietors 
was Thomas Woodward of York river, formerly of London. 

After Moryson had been two years in England as the 
accredited agent of Virginia, Governor Berkeley on April 
12, 1665, wrote to the Secretary of State, afterwards created 
Lord Arlington, that he was not begging for himself, 
" knowing that no seasonable showers or dews can recover 
a withered root," but he asked, that Col. Francis Moryson 
who, as well as his father, had fought for the King, might 
remain two years longer as agent, with a salary of £200 
derived from the tax on tobacco. 

In July a great alarm was created by the rumor that the 
Dutch Admiral De Ruyter was approaching, with a hostile 
fleet, and the Governor commanded the colonels and cap- 

A. D. 1G33, Maryland — Mentions " laudable and pious zeal for extending 
the Cbristiau religion ' fjives privileges of Bisliop of Durham, but adds that all 
places of worship are " to be dedicated and consecrated according to the eccle- 
siastical laws of our kingdom of England." 

Thomas Thorougooil, in 1050, iu an essay published, j^fiving probabilities that 
the American Indians were Jews, remarks : "In the Charter of Maryland the 
pious zeal lor the piopagatioa of the Gospel iss first mentioned * * "" * and 
there is a special provision against ihe prejudice or diminution of God's holy 
and truly Christian religion, and llie allegiance due to the King's Majesty, his 
heirs and successors." 


tains of the several counties to be ready with their men to 
cover the ships in harbor witli small shot, if necessary. He 
v^^rote to England that he thought he could procure fifteen 
hundred horsemen, and two thousand foot soldiers, but was 
in need of great guns for the fort which was in process of 

A letter of the Virginia agent was addressed to Clarendon, 
Lord High Chancellor of England at this time, which he 

' ' An Humble Addresse in the behalfe of Virginia. 

'' May it Please yo' Lor*^ : 

" The only Shipp that is likely to goe this yeare being w"* 
in a few days ready to Sayle, occasions this Speedy and 
most humble Addresse to 3^0' Lor'. 

" The narrative delivered to yo' Lor^ att Salisbury sett forth 
the Two maine parts of my instruccons from Virginia, To 
represent Mary lands dissent from them in the State for 
planting. To gett BristoU Patoi.t for Rapahanock revoakd, 
I shall not trouble y"' Lo^ w''' particulars in either. 

" ffor the first, The comon calamitie hatha little raysedthe 
price of our comoditie w"*" perhapps will supply his Lo*''' w^'' 
better Arguments than formerly to oppose vs, Soe that I 
shall lett that rest as it doth, wholy to decline it, I dare not 
vntill further Order from the Countrie. 

" If or the Bristoll Patent Since I vnderstood that it was y°' 
Lqpp' oppinion. That it would appeare hard to oppose a new 
Graunt to those bono"' x'ersons concern'd in the Old, there- 


fore I shall only p'sent the same necessary restrictions of my 
former Narrative, and most humbly leave it to y°' Lo^p' de- 

"ffirst, That there might bee noe alteration in point of 
Government altogether in consistant w"" the peace of the 
rest of the Countrie. Secondly, That the Rights of the 
p'sent Possessors p'served, their Rents not raysed, 
nor new ffines imposed, or their Tenures altered. Thirdly, 
That there may bee timeperfixed for peopling of the Places 
see granted or in case of ffaylure, Liberty to others to take 
vpp the Lands. My Lord, this is a Law as old as the first 
planting the Countrie, and a most wholsome one, for other- 
wise perticuler men would keepe great tracts of Land in 
their hands, in hope of getting a great rate for it, and 
neither people the Places themselves, nor lett others that 
would doe it. If the time seemes too short that the Law 
injoynes, I shall most humbly leave it to y°' Lo^p to inlarge 
it, only desiring y' his M* pleasure may be consulted w"* 
before the grant passes. 

"But now Lord, the raaine busines of this Paper is to p'sent 
some generall Propositions to make the neighbourhood of 
Maryland less p'judiciall to vs. If they shall appeare (vpon 
yo' LoPP view) Reasonable, then most humbly to desire y°' 
Lo'^P to Signifie soe much by yo' Letter to the Countrie W" 
will both infinitely satisfie them, and cleere yo' Represent©' 
from neglect in their service. 

'* My Lord, this will appeare att first Sight a Proposition 
rather of envy ag* Maryland, than of Advantage to Virginia, 
But if yo' LoPP pleases to looke into the Reasons yo" will 


finde yo' Represento' in this Labours to p'serve, from a ne- 
cessary Ruine the poor Countrie that hath intrusted him. 

"All taxes (my Lord) w"> vs are by Pole, not Acre, the losse 
of the poorest man as great to Virginia as the richest, all 
paying equall Soe tha^t if any comand comes from hence, 
that requires men or money to effect it, his Lopp' Countrie, 
lyes ready att the Doore, to invite them, w"" as good land 
free from all Incombrances. By this meanes, wee yearely 
Loose considerable numbers of People, and by it have fewer 
hands to Act any thing for our Advantage, or for the Ad- 
vance of his Ma''" Service, and fewer Purses to pay for it. 

" My Lord this is no Ayrie notion of mine w'^^ I should not 
have p^sumed to offer to soe great a minister of State as 
yor Lqpp Ynlesse I could demonstrate the truth, by the Sadd 
effects of it. 

"His Ma"" instructions by S' William Berkeley, though 
they did not positively enjoyne the building of a Towne, yet 
they soe recommended it to vs, that wee must have Showne 
a supine negligence if we had not att least indeavord it. 
Our poore Assay of building ffower or ffive houses lost vs 
hundreds of people w'" I hope will wipe off that odium that 
is throwne vpon the Governm't, That wee vse our people 
worse than Maryland, and therefore they Leave vs, and 
flye to them. But the true reason (my Lord) is. That wee 
are ready vpon all comands to expresse our zeale to his 
Ma*'" Service to the vttermost of our abilitie. 

" I shall trouble yo' Lqpp w"' an other Demonstration of the 
reasonableness of this Proposition. This Parliament made a 


Law, That noe Sectary or Quaker shall bee iransported 
to Virginia or New England, Wee were extreamely joyfull of 
it, hopeing wee should have beene securd from those distur- 
bances. That those people make where they come. But, my 
Lord it was soe farr from working the good effect we hope 
for, and I am confident the Parliament intended, that it 
hath proved most infinitely ruinous to vs, ffor his Lo^p tak- 
ing his Maryland for part of neither, and soe not concerned 
in the Law, grants a Tolleration to all Sorts of Sects, w*^** 
by their neighbourhood (a River only severing vs) Infect 
our People, and by that drawes them from vs, or spreads 
their Yenome amongst vs, Thus (my Lord) by not bringing 
both Countries vnder One Standard, we cannot have bene- 
fitt of any Act of Grace, though made never soe much to 
our Advantage. 

'' My Lord, I aime not, by this, to bring Maryland Subor- 
dinate to Virginia. But I desire they may bee both Soe, to 
the King and Councell, nor doe I att all intend any thing, 
in this, a complaint ag* soe hono'''' a Person as his Lopp 
but rather Admire his prudent management, That never 
Omitts to improve the least occasion to his Advantage, I 
know (my Lord) it is his Lqpp interest to gett People to him, 
as it is ours, to fix them with vs, for it is an vndoubted 
truth, That the Riches of all Plantations chiefly consist in 
the wt'il Peopling of them, ffor had wee Mexico and Peru 
vnder ground, and wanted People to bring it above Ground 
wee should for all that, remaine as poore and indigent as 
though Planted on Bagshott Heath, the barrenest place I 


" Peace and Warr is vndoubtedly (my Lord) his Ma''" Pre- 
rogative in all his Dominions, If Virginia and Maryland 
have not the Same ffriends and Enemies w'^'' allwayes they 
have not, it must of necessitie bee a Consequence, That att 
one time or other wee shall fight English and Indians, 
ag' Indians and English, Soe that the reasonableness of this 
Proposition appeares in every p'ticular can be imagined. 

*' But (my Lord) after all I shall humbly follow that part of 
my Instructions to Acquiesse in yo' Lopp' decision (for there 
the Countrie hath laid it) I would I had as well performed 
the other part of soe fully Stateing their miserable Condi- 
tion, That they might receave redresse for it. 

"Having expressed this zeale to his Ma*'" Servis and the 
Countries Good, I should bee loth to bee soe partiall to my 
selfe as not to remove the least Obstruction that any Interest 
of mine can bee to either, I therefore (my Lord) most 
humbly p'sent you w"" my Commission, desireing of yo"" 
Lqpp That when there is a ffort built, for it hath been a 
Castle only in the Ayre this 30 yeares, yo" Lo^p will be 
pleased that my nephew Charles Morrison may have the 
comand, a Youth every way (if my neereness to him doth 
not make me misstake) capeable of the Place, my Lord of 
ffawkland gott it for his ffather, the only compensation any 
of vs had, for the Lievtenantship of the Ordinance purchased 
by my ffather, and settled vpon my elder Brother, by the 
composition w"" S"' Edward Villers for Master, and disposed 
of by his Ma''" to S' William Heydon w"' a promise to conf erre 
vpon my Brother a place of equal Valleu, But (my Lord) I 
intend not to Capitulate but most freely render it vpp, leav- 


ing both my Selfe, and nephew to yo' Lo^p' Goodness and 
ever remaining 

'* y" Lqpp most humble and Dutyfull Servant 
' ' and Creature 

" Francis Moryson." 

It was the pohcy of Berkeley not to encourage elections 
for Burgesses, so that, the Assembly of 1G64, was only an 
adjournment of that of the previous year, and this was 
prorogued to October loth, 1G65, when a stringent law 
relative to Indians, was passed. It enacted, that if any 
Englishman was murdered by any Indian, that the nearest 
Indian town should be answerable for it with their lives 
or liberties. The Indians were also deprived of the power 
of choosing their own chief or werowance, and ordered to 
receive as their chief commander an Indian appointed by 
the Governor. All wliite inhabitants going to courts or 
churches, were ordered to bear arms to prevent the Indians 
making " sume desperate attempt upon them.'* 

The incursion of the Seneca and other Northern Indians 
had created quite a panic, and Governor Berkeley did not 
feel very kindly toward tliem. He wrote in 1665 : " To my 
honored friend Major General Smythe." 

" Sir : I wrote my first letter to you in haste, the minute 
after I read yours, bat since I have collected myself, I think 
it necessary to destroy all these Northerne Indians, for they 
must needs be conscious of the coming of the other Indians. 
If you the Council were willing, and the Council of War be 
of this opinion, it may be done, and that without expense. 
For the women and children will defray all expense. Let 
me hear from you, and what you think of it, and if the 


first impulse do not deceive me, and lead me too much, I 
think this resolution to be of absolute necessity. If your 
young men will not undertake it alone, there will be enough, 
from these parts, who will undertake it, for their share of 
the booty.'" 

About the same time John Catlett, Thomas Goodriche, 
Jno. Weire, and Humphrey Boothe, Justices of Rappahan- 
nock County Court, wrote to Berkeley : 

" Hon'ble Sir : Upon serious consideration of the honor- 
able Governor's letter, and your honorable desire of our 
opinion of them, we are, by many circumstances, and 'tis 
our joynt opinion that the execrable murders are and have 
been committed by a combination of Northern Indians above, 
as their complices. We doubt not, by the assistance of 
Almighty God, -and by the strength of our Northerne parts, 
we can • utterly destroye and eradicate them, without 
further pay, and encouragement, than the spoyles of our 

At the Assembly's session in October, 1666, it was de- 
cided that the law was too full of severity, which held the 
neighboring Indian town, responsible for a murder by any 
Indian, without any proof of their being involved therein, 
and it was modified, and enacted that all Indians coming 
within certain bounds, after being duly notified, might be 
killed by any Englishman. 

Until after the days of Cromwell, the acting of plays was 
considered injurious to the commonwealth, and in the 

'This letter copied from Essex County Records appeared July 16, 1877, in 
Richmond Despatch. 


daily prayer, appointed for the plantation of Virginia, and 
published in A. D., 1612, is the following petition: "Let 
Sanballat & Tobias, Papists & Players and such other 
Amonits & Horonits the scum & dregs of the earth, let 
the mocke such as helpe to build vp the wals of Jerusalem , 
and they that be filthy let them filthy still." It is not 
therefore surprising that on November 16th, 1665, John 
Fawsett, the King's attorney for Accomack, should have 
presented Cornelius Wilkinson, Philip Howard and William 
Darby •■' for acting a play, by them, called "y"= Bare and ye 
Cubb, on y*" 27th of August last past." The court ordered 
that the accused " appeare y next Court in those habili- 
m'ts that they then acted in, and give a draught of such 
verses, or other speeches & passages w*^** were then acted 
by them." The evidence against them was not con- 
clusive, for in the records of the court held January, 
1655-6, is the following " Whereas Edward Martin was this 
Day examined, concerning his informacon given to Mr. 
ffawsett his ma"" Attorney for Accomack County about a 
play called " ye bare and y* Cubb, whereby severall persons 
were brought to Court, and charges thereon arise, and y* 
Court finding the said p'sons not guilty of fault, suspended 
the payment of Court charges, and forasmuch as it appeareth 
upon y'= oath of y' said Mr. ffawsett that upon y'= s'd Edward 
Martin's informacon, the Charge and trouble of that suit did 
accrew. It's therefore ordered that y" said Edward Martin 
pay all ye Charges in y'= suit and ex's." 

The spring of the year 166C, found few vessels in the 
waters of Virginia or Maryland seeking tobacco, while every 
planter and merchant had more than they desired. To 


prevent utter ruin/ it was determined that there should be 
another conference of Commissioners at Jamestown, from 
Maryland, Virginia, and Albermarle or Carolina. They as- 
sembled on the 12th of July, and Virginia was represented 
by Thomas Ludwell, Jr., Colonial Secretary, Major General 
Eobert Smith, Major General Richard Bennett, Esq., of the 
Council, and by Capt. Daniel Parke% Capt. Joseph Bridger, 

» Berkeley, versed in the language of the courtier, wrote on May 1, 1666, to the 
Secretary of State, that the colonists are compelled to " live after the simplicity 
of the past age, indeed, unless the danger of our country gave our fears, tongues 
and language, we should shortly forget all sounds that did not concern the busi- 
ness of our farms. As we are further out from danger, so we appear nearer to 
Heaven with our prayers tlial His Sacred Majesty's enemies may either drink 
the sea or lick the dust." 

''Col. Daniel Parke was from Surrey, England, and was one of the first vestry- 
men of the Williamsburg i)arish. His son Daniel, whose wife was the daughter 
of Philip Ludwell, was a violent and licentious man. Under Governor Andros, he 
was Collector and Naval officer for the Lower James River District. By invita- 
tion, the wife of the distinguished clergy nan Blair, Commissary of the Bishop of 
London, sat in the pew of Lady Berkeley, now the wife of Ludwell, and one day 
Parke an enemy of her husband, mad or drunk, went to church, and pulled her 
out of his mother-in-law's pew. As he was faithless to his marriage vows, he 
hated the minister Eburne because he had preached against the violators of the 
Seventh commandment. Leaving two daughters in Virginia, owing to his 
offences, he fled to England, purchased an estate in Hampshiie, managed to ob- 
tain a seat in Parliament, from which he was soon expelled for bribery. 'Again 
a fugitive, he joined the army in Holland, as a volunteer, and became an aide- 
de-camp of Marlborough, and through his interest in 1706, became Governor of 
Antegoa, where his corrupt public acts, and gross private life incurred the 
hatred of the inhabitants, and on the 7th of December, 1710, he was killed by a 
mob. While on the field, Marlborough wrote to his wife, under date of Angus t 
13, 1704 : "The bearer, my aid-de-camp. Colonel Parke ,vvill give her [the Queen] 
an account of what has passed." 

Col. Parke's portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller, represented him with the Queen's 
picture in miniature, suspended from his neck by a red ribbon, a despatch in his 
right hand, and the battle field in the back ground. 

His daughter Lucy became the wife of Col. Wm. Byrd, and Fanny married 
John Custis of Accomac, the descendant of the Rotterdam inn-keeper. His son 
Daniel Parke Custis married Martha Dandridge, who when the widow Custis, 
married the venerated George Washington. 


Capt. Peter Jennings, and Mr. Tho's Ballard, gent, of the 
Burgesses. Upon the part of Maryland were present 
Philip Calvert, Henry Coursey and Robert Slye, and the 
commissioners from Carolina were William Drummond 
Governor of Albemarle, and tlie Surveyor General Thomas 
Woodward, the devoted royalist who had been assayer of 
the London Mint. It was agreed that it would be benefi- 
cial to trade to suspend the planting of tobacco from the 
first of February, 1666-7, for one year. 

The next day the Governor and Councillors Robert Smith, 
Richard Bennett,^ Thos Stegg, Henry Corbynand Theodoric 
Bland, wrote to England as to the action of the Council, 
and mentioned that they had more tobacco in store than 
would be carried away in three years. 

On the 18th of July, Secretary Ludwell, in a letter to the 
Secretary of State, in England, bolstered up the waning 
reputation of the Governor, by describing him, " as pious 
and examplary, prudent and just in peace, diligent and 
valiant in war." 

Governor Berkeley on the 23d of October, again called the 
old Assembly' elected several years before, to meet. The 

' Under the military organizatiou of the Colony, Smith, and Bennett, were 
two of the three Major Generals ; Stegg was the son of Capt. Thomas Stegg, 
lost at sea, see p. 219. and Bland was the son-in law of Bennett. 

'Assembly Convened October, 1666. 

Capt Robert Wynne, Speaker. 

Henrico County. Capt. William Ferrar. 

Charles City Co. 

Mr. Speaker. Capt. Tho'e Southcoat. 



next day he addressed the following to the Chancellor of 
Maryland, and also to the Governor of Carolina : 

Lt. Col. Wm. Barber. 
Col. \Vm. Clayborne. 

Capt. Edward Ramsey. 
James City. 

Capt. Laur. Baker. 

Adjt. Gen. Bridger. 
Major Nich. Hill. 

York Co. 

Capt. Dan'l Parke. 
New Kent Co. 

Capt. Wm. Berkeley. 
James Co. 

Mr. Thomas Ballard. 
Mr. Theo. Hone. 
Surrey Co. 

Mr. Tho's Warren. 
Isle of Wight Co. 

Rob't Williamson. 

Nansemo7id Co. 

Capt. John Leare. 
Lower Norfolk Co. 
Capt. Adam Thorougood Capt. Wm. Cowen 

Elizabeth City Co. 

Capt. John Powell. 
Gloucester Co. 

Major Thomas Walker 
Raleigh Traverse. 
Rappahannock Co. 

Mr. Thomas Lucas. 
Col. Henry Mees. 
Westmoreland Co. 

Col. John Washington. 
Mr. William Presley. 

Northampton Co. 

Capt. John Savage. 

Accommack Co. 

Mr. Hugh Yeo. 

Col. John Blake. 

Capt. Leonard Yeo. 

Adj't Gen. Jennings. 
Lancaster Co. 

Capt. John Weye. 
Stafford Co. 

^ol. Nich. Spencer. 
Northumberland Co 

Lt. Col. Kendall. 
Col, Ed. Scarborough 


" Most Honoured Sir : I must once more beg your pardon 
for importuning you to send us your declaration of the gover- 
nour, and councels assent, to a cessation, for indeed not only 
our assembly, and courts, but all our commerce have their 
dependence on the assurance of that our former results 
receive no interruption by the alteration of our opinion, and 
its the voice of all, that a cessation will make some few mer- 
chants venture their goods to us, in these dangerous times, 
which, otherwise, they will keep by them, and then in what 
a miserable condition will these poor colonies be; for however 
we are at a greater distance from danger, we shall be the 
first that for want of necessarys shall feel the pressure of a 
terrible waj-. The last ship, that came to us, informs us 
that the scales yet hung formidably ballauced, and that few 
will venture to us, but on hopes of great gaines. This with 
many other considerations make us desire you to hasten this 
messenger, with your answer, which we are confident will 
satisfie all our hopes and wishes. 

" Your most humble servant 
"Jamestown, the assembly 
" setting 8 ber. 24th, 1666. " William Berkeley." 

In this dearth of manufactured goods, the Assembly 
passed the following, intimating that want of industry was 
a partial cause of suffering. " Whereas the present ob- 
struction of trade, and the nakedness of the country doe 
sufficiently evidence the necessity of providing supply of 
our wants by improveing all means of raysing, and promote- 
ing manufactures amonge ourselves, and the governours 
honour haveing by apparent demonstrations manifested 
that our poverty and necessity proceeds more from want of 
industry, than defect of ability, since that five women or 


children of 12 or 13 yeares of age, may with much ease 
provide suffitieDt cloathing, for thirty persons, if they 
would betake themselves to spinning which cannot be ob- 
jected against, if weavers and loomes, were once provided; 
for the better effecting whereof " it was enacted that within 
two years, each county should set up a loom, and provide 
a weaver at the charge of the county. Berkeley at this 
period, made a vigorous effort to raise flax upon hia plan- 
tation, but the crop failed. 

At the request of the colonists, the English guard ship 
" Elizabeth " of forty-six guns, Capt. Lightfoot, was sent 
to the mouth of the James River, to protect merchant 
vessels from Dutch war ships. Early in June, 1667, the 
"Prince William" with two or three other Hollanders, 
attacked the merchant shipping in Chesapeake Bay near 
Point Comfort, and Conway, captain of one of these ships 
fought them for six hours, but was obliged to surrender. 
The enemy then sailed up the James River, and found the 
captain of the " Elizabeth " absent, with his mistress, at a 
wedding. After firing one gun, the "Elizabeth" surrend- 
ered, and was burned. Having destroyed seven merchant 
ships, and captured thirteen more, the enemy sailed away* 
leaving the people in consternation. 

Berkeley now found his position most embarrassing. Sec- 
retary Ludwell wrote to Lord John, his brother, that his 
condition was very sad. The court party at home was ready 

' On tlie24tli of August Capt. White, in the English frigate " Oxford" gave 
chase to three Holland war Tessela and defeated. The Dutch Admiral was 
killed, and said to have been the officer who burned the " Elizabeth." Col. State 
Papers, 1667. 


to reduce the colony, to a proprietary government ; the 
people of the Colony were restless, because, the Council 
composed of a few wealthy monopolists and their relatiyes\ 
had virtually abolished the election for burgesses and thus 
created discontent, and the Governor in his perplexity 
determined to solicit his recall. A letter signed by all the 
Council requested that he might be continued in ofifice. 
Letters however reached England with much censure of 
the Governor's passion, weakness, and infirmities of age, 
and complaint of the great sway of the Council. 

To the miseries caused by war with Holland, was added 
another affliction. Daring the month of August, there had 
been constant and violent rains, and on the 27th of the 
month, a dreadful hurricane in a few hours destroyed almost 
the entire crop of coin and tobacco, and blew down the 
frail houses of a largo portion of the inhabitants. 

The Assembly convened the next month, and "whereas 
by the violence of the late storme, many barnes have been 
blowne downe, and the corne therein endangered by the 

'For years, Virc:inia was controlled by a few rich lohacco mercbauts and 
planters, whose families bad intermarried. Governor Spotswood in a letter to 
the Commissioners of trade dated March I), 1713 {See Spotsiooad Letters, Vol. I, 
p. 60), uses these words : " The greater part of the present Council are related to 
the family of the Burwells. And as there are sundry other geullemeu of the 
name family whose qualifications may entitle them to bo of the Council, if they 
also should be admitted upon the said private recpmmendation as Mr. Berkeley 
hath been, the whole Council in a short time would be of one kindred. As it is 
now, if Mr. Bassett and .Mr. Berkeley sliould take their places, there will be no 
less than seven, so near related that they will j^o off the bench whenever a cause 
of the Burwells comes to be tried." 

In the Records of Northumplon County, Va., it is mentioned that in 1640 
William Burwell transported Lewis Burwell, George Burwell and Elizabeth 



raine, many fences orerthrowne, and the corne within de- 
voured by cattle and hogs," it was enacted, that no grain, 
for a year, should be exported. 

The late invasion of the Dutch convinced the Assembly 
that a Fort at Point Comfort, would not protect their ship- 
ping, and they resolved to erect forts on the James, Nanse- 
mond, and York Rivers, at Corotoman on the Rappahannock, 
and at Yeocomico on the Potomac. Captain Silas Taylor^ 
who had been in Virginia applied to the authorities in Eng- 
land to be appointed engineer in charge of the defences 
of the Colony. 

In 1668, the people of Virginia were much encouraged, by 
peace declared between England and Holland, and trade 
began to revive. To revive an interest in the colony, and 
prove that some thing beside tobacco could be produced 
a present of silk, that had been delayed by the Dutch war, 
was forwarded to the King, with the following letters. 
*' To the King's Most Sacred Majestie 

" The Governor, Councell and Burgesses of his 

" Majesties CoUony of Virginia. 

"In all humility doe pray that your Majestie will be 
pleased graciously to accept their present of three hundred 
pounds of silke, being the first fruites of their labours in 

' Taylor was at this time in charge of the military stores at Harwich, he had 
served under a distinguished military engineer ou the continent. Oldenberg, 
Secretary of the Royal Society, who wrote to Governor WintLrop : '• How 
happy would it be if there were an union of all our English Colonies for free 
communication with martial assistance;" in a letter dated August 5 1663 
writes about " Capt. Silas Taylor, also an ingenious and knowing person who is 
now going for Virginia, for his private occasions." Pepys, in his Diary, speaks 
of taking a drink with Taylor in the Sun Tavern, King street, London, and on 
July 1, 1668, goes to the chapel at White Hall to listen to an anthem composed 
by Taylor. 


that kind, which they humbly hope your Majestie will be 
the more inclined to doe, in regard it is a Royajl commodity 
and that your favorable recepcon of it will be a very great 
incouragement to us to make a greater progresse in that 
worke. And allthough it be a truth that our want of that 
skill which other countryes, longer conversant in and better 
acquainted with the makeing of that comodity have is a very 
great retardment to our making better and greater quanti- 
tyes of it, yet we hope that your Majestie upon this small 
experiment of our industry will be graciously pleased here- 
after to grant us your favourable assistance by commanding 
men better skilled in that and other staple comodityes, for 
which this country is very proper, to come and reside 
amongst us, that in some short tyme we may (to the honor 
of your^NIajestie and the advantage of our nation in generall 
and ourselves in perticular) introduce silke, flax, hempe, 
and potash amongst us, and noe longer depend wholly upon 
tobacco, to the mine of the colony, and decay of your 
Majesties customs. This we most humbly hope from your 
Princely goodnesse, and may God for ever and for ever 
blesse your Majestie with all happyness. 

" Your Majesties most humbly and faithful and obedient 
subjects and servants. 

" William Berkeley, 
" in the name of the Councell. 
"Virginia "Tho. Ludwell, Secretary. 

"22 July. 1668, Robert Wynne, Speaker. 

" May it please your Sacred Majestie 
" Now that the peace has given us some security that our 
first fruites of silke may come safe to your Majestie, we 


have with al humble acknowledgments of your Majesties 
gracious protection of us sent it to your Majestie. The 
present is smal of itselfe, but the hopes and consequences of 
this exelent commodity may be hereafter of an inestimable 
benefit to your Majesties kingdomes. It is not ful three 
score yeares since France began to make silke, yet this 
amongst others is one cause of the immense wealth of 
France. This country, both for the clymate and fruitful- 
nesse of it, is more proportioned suddenly to produce this 
admirable commodity than France can be ; but for this flax 
and hempe we want some able skilful men to instruct us. 

" With your Majesties gracious permission I wil lay my 
selfe at your Majesties feet this yeare, and wil beg leave to 
goe into France to procure skilful men for al thes^, great 
workes. The great God of heaven protect your Majestie 
and keepe you safe from al your ennimies of what nature 
soever they are, this for ever shal pray. 

"Your Sacred Majestie most 
"humble, most obedient 
" Virginia " subject and servant 

"July 22, 1668. Will. Berkeley." 

The King returned this acknowledgment " To our Trusty 
and Welbeloved Sir William Berkeley Knt, Our Gover- 
nour of our Colony of Virginia, to bo communicated to y* 
Councill of that Our Colony." 

"Trusty and welbeloved, wee greet you well. Wee 
have received w"" much content y' dutifull respects of 
that Our Colony in y* present, lately made us by you, 
& ye Councell there of y'' first product of y'^ new Manu- 
facture of Silke, W**, as a mark of Our Princely accep- 


tation of yo' dutyes & of y"" particular encouragement, Wee 
resolve to give to yo' industry in y' prosecution and im- 
provem't of that or any other useful! Manufacture, Wee 
have commanded to be wrought up for y* use of Our owne 
person, and herein Wee have thought good te give you this 
knowledge from Our owne Royall hand, and to assure of 
Our more especiall care & protection in all occasions that 
may concern that our ancient Colony and Plantation, whose 
laudable industry, raysed in good part & improved by y'' 
sobriety of y^ government we esteem much & are desirous 
by this & any other seasonable expression of Our favour, as 
farre as in us lies, to encourage. And soe Wee bid you 
Farewell. Given at Our Court at Whitehall, the 25 day of 
November, in y' 20th year of our Reigne 1668. 

To encourage the manufacture of silk, the Assembly of 
October, 1669, renewed the former premium of fifty pounds 
of tobacco for each pound of wound silk. 

As the expense of sending Burgesses to the Assembly 
which did nothing more than carry out the orders of the 
Governor and Council, a county frequently sent but one 
Burgess, it was enacted "that after this present session 
each county shall be enjoined to return two burgesses for 
the better service of the publique.'" 

While the Indians, when provoked, were dangerous, yet 
an estimate, made at this time, shows they were not nu- 

County. Bands. Bowmen. 

Nanzemond Nanzemonds 45 

Surrey Powchyicks 30 

" Weyenoakes 15 



Charles City Comity 



(( i< 



a u 



Henrico County 



(( a 



New Kent County 



a (I 



(t u 



(c (( 



(( it, 



Gloucester County. 



Rappahannock County 



(( u 

Nanzcattico ) 
Mattehatique J 

l( <l 


Northumberland County 



Westmoreland County. 





John Lederer an intelligent German, in 1669 made an ex- 
ploration from the head waters of York River, toward the 
mountains, and on the 20th of May, 1670, began a second 
tour, with Major Harris, twenty white men, and five In- 
dians. They started from the Falls of James River, and on 
the twenty -second of the month reached the Indian village, 
Monakin. From thence proceeding westward, on the 3d 
of June they came to the south branch of the James River, 
computed to be one hundred miles from the Monakin village. 
For some reason, from this point the Englishmen retraced 
their steps, but Lederer with a Susquehanna Indian pushed 
on in a south-westerly direction, and on the 9th arrived at 
Sapon, an Indian town upon a branch of the Shawan 


[Chowan], Proceeding fifty miles south by west, he found 
a strong Indian village on an island in Roanoke River, and 
there found some Rickohockans, on a visit, who were after- 
Avards killed in a quarrel with their entertainers. On the 
19th of June, he was at Watery, and going westward he 
came to Sara, and on the 26th of June reached the Lake of 
Ushery. Here he rested for two days, and then began his 
return and on the 14th of July was at the seat of the Chief 
of the Tuskioras [Tuscaroras] and on the 18th arrived at the 
white settlements on the Apomatuck River, 

Not considering that he had been fairly treated by the 
Virginia authorities he went over to Maryland, and in 
April, 1671, petitioned for naturalization. The Secretary of 
that Province, Sir Wilham Talbot, found him a modest and 
ingenious person and his journal written in Latin, he trans- 
lated and published.^ 

Major General Wood received a commission to send out 
an expedition beyond the mountains the year after Lederer 
returned, and on Friday, September 1, 1671, Thomas Batts,' 

'"The discoveries of John Lederer, from Virginia to the west of Carolina. 
Translated out of Latin, by Sir William Talbot. Loudon, S. Heyrick, 1672." 
3 pi., 27 pp., 1 map, sm, 4to. 

•Robert Batt, grandson of Henry of Okewell near Bristol!, was fellow and 
vicar-master of University College, Oxford. By his wife IMary, dniitrhter of 
John Parry, he had several children, among others : 

1. John Batt, Captain and Justice of the Peace who married Martha, daughter 
of Thomas Mallory, Dean of Chester who had John, drowned at sea coming 
from Virginia with his father. William living in Virginia 16G7 ; Thomas in Vir 
ginia 1667 ; Henry in Virginia 1667 ; Martiia in Virginia 1667. 

2. Catherine daughter of Robert, sister Capt. John, J. P., married Philip 
Mallory. N. E. Hist. Qen. Reg., April, 1885. 

William Batt, perhaps brother of Capt. John, in 1643, entered 220 acree, on 
Mobjack Bay, and in 1649, 182 acres at Pacolacke, Chipoke Creek, James City 


moving in a mountainous region. Mohetan country 
was reached on the 16th, and the next day they found the 
falls of a river, like those of the James, probably the 
Kanawha. From this point, they began the return journey, 
and on the 21st arrived at the village of the Hanohaskies, 
to find that Thomas Wood had died and was buried. On 
Sunday morning, the first of October, they reached Fort 
Henry, now the site of Petersburg. 

On the 20th of April 16T0, a communication from the in- 
habitants of York, Gloucester, and Middlesex counties was 
read to the Council, representing their apprehensions that 
the peace of the Colony was "endangered by the great 
numbers of fellows, and other desperate villaines, sent 
hither from the several prisons in England." The Council 
after considering the paper, ordered "that it shall not be 
permitted to any person trading hither to bring in, and 
land any jaile birds, or such others, who for notorious 
offences have deserved to dye in England, from and after 
the twentyeth day of January next. * * * * And we 
'Thomas Wood, Robert Falland, Jack Nesan, once a servant 
of General Wood, Perecute an Apomatuck chief, with five 
horses proceeded westward from the Apomatuck town, and 
on the 4:th came to a town of Sapong. The next day they 
reached a village of Hanohaskies, where Thomas Wood re- 
mained on account of sickness, and on the 9th slept at the 
Talera Indian village. On the 12th they were by the side 
of the Eoanoke River, and on the 14th, they were slowly 

County. Thomas and Henry Batt entered 5878 acres on August 29, 1668, on 
tlae Boutli side of James River, the valley of the Appamattock. 

William Batt, in April 1670, entered 700 acres in Charles City County^ 



have been the more induced to make this order, by the 
horror yet remaineing amongst us, of the barbarous designe 
of those villaines, in September, 1663, who attempted, at 
once, the subversion of ourrehgion, lawes, hbertyes, right"., 
and proprietyos, the sad effect of which desperate conspiracy 
we had undoubtedly felt, had not God of his infinite mercy 
prevented it, by a tymely and wonderfull discovery of the 
same; nor hath it been a small motive to us to hinder and 
prohibit the importation of such dangerous and scandalous 
people,^ since thereby we apparently lose our reputation, 
whilst we are believed to be a place only fitt to receive such 
base and lewd persons." 

Gradually the forms of popular government, long in use, 
were obliterated, and the power lodged with an oligarchy. 
The Assembly, the creature of the Governor and Council, in 
October, 1670, passed the following : "Whereas the usuall 
way of chuseing burgesses by the votes of all persons who 
haveing served their tyme are if reemen of this country who 

1 On Marcli 88, 16G7, the following convicts were sent from Newgate to Vir- 
ginia, William Payne, Edward Evans, John Ward, Tho's Harwood, Robert 
Allen, William Allen, Jonas Sonier, Dorothy Bywater, Nicholas Danse, John 
English, George Windrewe, William Alexander, Mathew Cotter, William Kel- 
1am, Isaac Oliver, John Coughtland, John Smith, Mathew Jones. 

Luttrell, in his Diary, under November, 1693, wrote " That a ship lay in 
Leith, going for Virginia, on board which, the magistrates-had ordered 50 lewd 
women out of the house of correction, and 30 other who walked the streets after 
10 at night." 

Jonathan Boucher, the learned colonial clergyman and the tutor of General 
Washington's stepson John Parke Custis,in his autobiography, has the follow- 
ing : " Mr. Washington was the second of five sons; of parents distinguished 
neither for their rank nor their fortune. * * * George who like most people, 
thereabouts, at that time, had no other education than reading, writing, and 
accounts, which he was taught by a convict servant, whom his father bought for 
a school -master. " 



haveing little interest in the country doe of tner make tumults 
at the election to the disturbance of his Majesties peace, than 
by their discretions in their votes provide for the conserva- 
sion thereof, by makeing choyce of persons fitly qualifyed for 
the discharge of soe great a trust. And whereas the lawes 
of England grant a voyce in such election, only to such as 
by their estates real or personall have interest enough to 
tye them to the endeavour of the publique good ; It is hereby 
enacted that none but ff reeholders and house keepers who 
only are answerable to the publique, for the levies, shall 
hereafter have'a voice in the election of any burgesses in 
this country, and that the election shall be at the court 

The Commissioners of Plantations in 1670, sent over cer- 
tain queries to Governor Berkeley, which in 1671, he 
answered, as follows: 

1. What councils, assemblies, and courts of judicature are 
within your government and of what nature or kind ? 

1 The Assembly of 1722-3, made a further restriction of suffrage. It Avas then 
enacted that " no free negro, mulatto, or Indian whatsoever sliall have any vote 
at the election of burgesses, or any other election whatsoever." As required, the 
Btatutes of this session were sent to England to be approved by the Commission- 
ers of Trade and Plantations. Their attorney was Richard West, son-in-law 
of the distinguished Bishop Burnet, and brother-in-law of Governor Burnet of 
New York. He did not approve of the law, and wrote " I cannot see why one 
freeman should be used worse than another, merely on account of his complex- 
Ion. ***** It cannot be right to strip all free persons of a black com- 
plexion from those rights which are so justly valuable to any treeman." His 
opinion was rejected. West, on Dec. 3, 1726, died Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 
and was buried in Dublin. 

George Mason of Gunston Hall, in the Virginia Declaration of Rights ol' June, 
1776, reincorporated the idea of the suffrage law of 1656, that it was " some- 
thing hard and unagreeable to reason, that any persons shall pay taxes, and 
have no votes in election." 


Ansioer. There is a Governor, and sixteen counsellors, 
who have from his sacred majesiie a commission of Oyer 
and Terminer, who judge and determine all causes that 
are above fifteen pounds sterling ; for that is under, there 
are particular courts in every county, which are twenty in 

2. What courts of judicature are within your government 
relating to the admiralty ? 

Ajiswer. In twenty-eight yeares there has never been one 
prize brought into the country; so that there is no need for a 
particular court for that concern. 

3. Where the legislative and executive powers of your 
government are seated ? 

Answer. In the governor, councel, and assembly, and 
officers substituted by them. 

1. What statute laws and ordinances are now made and 
in force ? 

Ansiver. The secretary of this country every year sends 
to the lord chancellor, or one of the principal secretaries, 
vv^hat laws are yearly made ; which for the most part con- 
cern only our own private exigincies for contrary to the laws 
of England we never did, nor dare make any, only this, that 
no sale of land is good and legal, unless, within three 
months after the conveyance it be recorded in the general 
court or county courts. 

5. What number of horse and foot are within your 
government, and whether they be trained bands or standing 
forces ? 

Ansiver. All our freeman are bound to be trained every 
month in their particular counties, which we suppose, and do 


not much mistake in the calculation, are near eight thousand 
horse; there are more, but it is too chargeable for poor 
people as we are, to exercise them. 

6. What castles and fforts are within your government, 
and how situated, as also what stores and provisions they 
are furnished withall ? 

Answer. There are five fforts in the county, two in Jameg 
Eiver, and one in the three other rivers, of York, Rappa- 
hannock and Potomek; but God knows we have neither skill 
or ability to maintain them; for there is not, nor as far as 
my enquiry can reach, ever was one ingenier in the country,, 
so that we are at continual charge to repair unskilfuU and 
inartificial buildings of tliat nature. There is not above 
thirty great and serviceable guns; this we yearly supply 
with powder and shot as far as our utmost abilities will 
permit us. 

Y. What number of privateers do frequent your coasts and 
neighbouring seas; what their burthens are; the number of 
their men, and guns, and the names of their commanders ? 

Answer. None to our knowledge since the late Dutch war. 

8. What is the strength of your bordering neighbours, be 
they Indians or others, by sea, and land; what correspond- 
ence do you keep with your neighbours ? 

Answer. We have no Europeans seated nearer to us than 
St. Christophers or Mexico that we know of, except some 
few ffrench, that are beyond New England. The Indians, 
our neighbours are absolutely subjected, so that there is no 
fear of them. As for correspondence, we have none with 


any European strangers; nor is there a possibility to have 
it with our own nation further than our traffick concerns. 

9. What arms, ammunition, and stores did you find upon 
the place, or have been sent you since, upon his majestye's 
account; when received; how employed; what quantity of 
them is remaining, and where ? 

Answer. When I came into the country, I found only one 
ruinated ffort, with eight great guns, most unserviceable, 
and all dismounted, but four, situated in a most unhealthy 
place and where if an Enemy knew the soundings, he could 
keep out of the danger of the best guns in Europe. His 
Majesty, in the time of the Dutch warr, sent us thirty great 
guns, most of which were lost, in the ship that brought 
them. Before, or since this, we never had one great or 
small gun sent us, since my coming hither; nor I believe 
in twenty years before. All that have been sent by his 
sacred majesty, are still in the country, with a few more we 
lately bought. 

10. What monies have been paid as appointed to be paid 
by his majesty, or levied within your government for and 
towards the buying of amies, or making or maintaining any 
ffortifications or castles, and how have the said monies 
been expended ? 

Answer. Besides those guns I mentioned, we never had 
any monies of his majesty towards the buying of amnmni- 
tion or building of fforts. What monies can be spared out 
of the publick revenue, we yearly lay out in ammunition. 

11. What are the boundaries and contents of the land 
within your government ? 


Answer. As for the boundaries of our land, it was once 
great, ten degrees of latitude, but now it has pleased his 
majesty to confine us to halfe a degree, [on the Atlantic 
coast ?] Knowingly, I speak this. Pray God, it may be 
for his majesty's service, but I much fear the contrary. 

12. What commodities are there of the production, growth 
and manufacture, of your plantation ; and particularly^ 
what materials are tliere already growing, or may be pro- 
duced, for shipping, in the same ? 

Answer. Commodities of the growth of our country, we 
never had any, but tobacco, which in this yet is consider- 
able, that it yields his majesty a great sense, but of late we 
have begun to make silk, and so many mulberry trees are 
planted, and planting, that if we had skilful men from 
Naples or Sicily to teach us the act of making it perfectly, 
in less than half an age, we should make as much silk in 
one year, as England did yearly expend three score years 
since; but now we hear it is grown to a greater excess, and 
more common and vulgar usage. Now for shipping, we 
have admirable masts, and very good oaks; but for iron ore 
I dare not say there is sufficient to keep one iron mill going 
for seven years. 

13. Whether salt-petre is, or may be produced within 
your plantation, and if so, at what rate may it be delivered 
in England % 

Ansiver. Salt-petre we know of none, in the country. 

14. What rivers, harbours, or roads are there in or about 
your plantation, and government, and what depth and 
soundings are they ? 


Answer. Rivers we have four, as I named before, all able 
safely, and severally, to bear and harbour a thousand ships 
of the greatest burtlien, 

15. What number of planters, servants, and slaves; and 
how many parishes are there in your plantation ? 

Answer. We suppose, and I am very sure we do not much 
miscount, that there is in Virginia above forty thousand per- 
sons, men. women and children, and of which, the reare two 
thousand black slaves, six thousand christian servants, for 
a short time, the rest are born in the country, or have come 
into settle and rent, in bettering their condition in a grow- 
ing country. 

16. What number of English, Scot, or Irish have, for these 
seven years last past, come yearly to plant and inhabite 
within your government; as also what blacks or slaves have 
been brought in within the said time ? 

Ansiuer. Yearly, we suppose there comes in, of servants 
about fifteen hundred, of which, most are English, few 
Scotch and fewer Irish, and not above two or three ships 
of negroes, in seven years. 

17. What number of people have yearly died, within your 
plantation, and government, for these seven last years past, 
both whites and blacks ? 

Answer. All new plantations are, for an age or two, un- 
healthy, till they are thoroughly cleared of wood; but unless 
we had a particular register office for the denoting of all 
that died, I cannot give a particular answer to this quer}--, 
only this I can say, that there is not oft unseasoned hands 
(as we term them) that die now, whereas heretofore not one 
of five escaped the first year. 


18. What number of ships do trade yearly to and from 
your plantation, and of what burthen are they ? 

Answer. English ships, near eighty come out of Eng- 
land and Ireland, every year, for tobacco; few New England 
ketches; but of our own we never yet had more than 
two, at one time, and those not more than twenty ton 

19. What obstructions do you find to the improvement of 
the trade and navigation of the plantations within your 
government ? 

Ansiver. Mighty and destructive, by that severe act of 
parliament which excludes us the having any commerce, 
with any nation in Europe, but our own, so that we cannot 
add to our plantation any commodity that grows out of it, 
as olive trees, cotton, or vines. Besides this we cannot pro- 
cure any skilfull men, for our new hopeful commodity, 
silk; for it is not lawfull for us to carry a pipe stave, or a 
barrel of corn to any place in Europe, out of the King's 
dominions. If this were for his majesty's service, or the 
good of his subjects we should not repine, whatever our suf- 
ferings are for it; but on my soul it is the contrary for both. 
And this is the cause why no small or great vessels are built 
here; for we are most obedient to all laws, whilst the New 
England men break through, and men trade to any place 
that their interests bmd them. 

20. What advantages or improvements do you observe 
that may be gained to your trade and navigation ? 

Answer. None unless we had liberty to transpose our 
pipe staves, timber, and corn, to other places besides the 
King's dominions. 


21. What rates and duties ai-e charged and payable upon 
any goods exported out of your plantation, whether of your 
own growth or manufacture, or otherwise, as also upon 
goods imported ? 

Answer. No goods eithei- exported or imported pay any; 
the least duties, here, only two shillings the hogshead; on 
tobacco exported, which is to defray all public charges; and 
this year we could not got an account of more than fifteen 
thousand hogshead; out of which, the Kings allows me a 
thousand [pounds sterling] yearly, with which I must main- 
tain the part of ray place, and one hundred interv^ening 
charges, that cannot be put to public account. And I can 
knowingly affirm that there is no government after years 
settlement, but has thrice as much allowed him. But I am 
supported by my hopes, that his gracious majesty will one 
day consider me. 

22. What revenues doe or may arise to his majesty 
within your government, and of what nature is it; by whom 
is the same collected, and how answered and accounted to 
his majesty ? 

Answer. There is a revenue arising to his majesty, but 
out of the quit rents; and of this he hath given away to a 
deserving servant, Col. Henry Norwood. 

23. What course is taken about the instructing the people, 
within your government, in the christian religion; and what 
provision is there made for the paying of your juinistry ? 

Answer. The same course that is taken in England, out 
of towns, every man according to his abihty, instructing his 
children. We have fforty eight parishes, and our ministers 


are well paid, and by my consent should be better if they 
would pray oftener, and preach less. 

But of all other commodities, as this, the worst are sent 
us. and we had few that M^e could boast of, since the perse- 
cution in Cromwell's tiranny drove divers worthy men 
hither. But I thank God, there are no free schools, nor 
printing, and I hope we shall not have, these hundred years; 
for learning has brought disobedience, and heresy, and sects 
into the world, and printing has divulged them, and libels 
against the best government. God keep us from both." 


AFFAIRS FROM A.D., 1673 TO A.D., 1685. 
GovEKxoR Behkelky's Iruitabiltty. His Marriage. Second 


Indian TROur.LKs. Rashness of Mason and Washington. 
Bacon's Rebellion. Berkeley's Remonstrance. Bacon's 
Confession. Subsei^ue.vt troubles. Exeoution of insur- 
gents. .\rrival of troops. Deputy Governors Jeffreys 
and cliichelky. governors culpepcer and howard. 

KRKELEY, in applying for a release of the cus- 
tom charges upon certain hogsheads of tobacco, 
confesses to Lord Arlington, that "age and mis- 
fortune have withered his desires, as well as his hopes. 
Though ambition commonly leaves sober, old age; covetous- 
ness does not.'' In the desire for gain, it is probable, as his 
enemies charged, that he favored contractors, and monopo- 
lists and thus produced a wide spread discontent. 

Edmundson, a Quaker preacher, whose zeal was not 
without knowledge, and a companion of the celebrated, 
" mellow voiced," George Fox, visited Virginia in 1672, and 
ill his journal, has described an interview with the Governor, 
on his journey from Carolina. He writes : "As I returned, 
itfvvas laid upon me, to visit the Governor Sir William Bar- 


clay [Berkeley] and to speak with him about Friends suf- 
ferings. I went about six miles out of my way to speak 
with him, accompanied by William Garrett^ an honest and 
ancient Friend. I told the Governor, that I came from 
Ireland, where his brother^ w^as Lord Lieutenant, who was 
kind to our Friends; and if he had any service for me, to 
his brother, I would willingly do it; and as his brother was 
kind to our Friends in Ireland, I hoped he would be so to 
our Friends in Virginia. 

" He was very peevish and brittle, and I could fasten noth- 
ing on him, with all the soft arguments I could use * * * 
The next day, was the men's meeting at William Wrights' 
house,^ the justice [Taverner] went to the meeting, about 
eight or nine miles, and several other persons came to the 
meeting, particularly Richard Bennett, alias Major General 
Bennett. Justice Taverners wife came to me, and told me, 
that the Major General, and others, were below, staying to 
speak with me; so I went down to them. They were cour- 
teous and said, they only stayed to see me, and acknowl- 

I William Garrott, bricklayer, was one of the first immigrauts arriving in 1607, 
at Jamestown. In April, 1020, tlierc was present at a meeting of tlie Virginia- 
Company in London, a William Jarratt (Garrett ?) described as an inhabitant of 
Virginia, for thirteen years. 

Another William Garrett aged abont 17, came in the ship " George," in 1619, 
as one of the servants of Abraham Piersey 

= Lord Berkeley of Stratton was one of the sons of Sir Maurice of Brnton, was 
kuio-hted in 1638, and in 1640, a member of Parliament, in 1643, Commissary 
General under Hopton, in 1654, was present at the baptism of Henrietta Maria 
infant of the King. Fled with King Charles and resided in Paris. From 1653 
to 1655, served undi^r Turenne the great Frencti ')fficer. He was created by 
Charles the Second Baron Berkeley of Stratton May 19, 1653, and in 1650, was 
made Lord President of Counuixght. In 1668, he brought Twickenham Park, 
and in 1670, was made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 

3 A William Wright was under sheriff of James City County. 


edge what I had spoken, in the meeting, was truth. I 
told them the reason of our Friends, drawing apart from 
them, was to lay down a method to provide for our poor 
widows and fatherless children. '' * * * The Major 
General replied, he was glad to hear there was such care and 
order among us. He further said, he was a man of great 
estate, and many of our Friends, poor men; therefore he 
desired to contribute with them. He likewise asked me 
' ' How I was treated by the Governor ? ' I told him ' he was 
brittle and peevish, and I could get nothing fastened on him ' 
He asked me 'If the Governor called me dog, rogue, etc' 
I said 'No.' 'Then,' said he, 'You took him in his best 
humor, those being his u^ual terms, when he is angry, for 
he is an enemy to eveiy appearance of good.' They were 
tender and loving, and we parted so, the Major General de- 
siring to see me at his house, which I was willing to do and 
accordingly went. " Bennett did not hve long after this, for 
Edmundson writes : " He was a solid, wise man, receiving 
the truth, and died in the same, leaving two Friends, exe- 

About this time the gossips of the Colony were busy Avith 
their tongues. The old Governor frequently did things 
which occasioned surprise, but astonishment was never 
greater, than when it was announced, that Berkeley, now 
more than three score years of age, had married Frances* the 

I At a meetinjr of the General Court on April 20, 1670, the petition of Mrs. 
Frances Stephens relict of C'apt. S.uuucl was read, asking that she might be imme- 
diately possLsed of the huui^ and personal e.nate at Boldrux, Warwick County, 
where John Hill then lived, and the next day the will of her husband was re- 

The prominent men of Virginia were inclined to widows. Governor Harvey 
married in his declining years the widow of Councillor llichard fcjtephens. Th» 


vigorous and energetic widow of Samuel Stephens. After 
Drummond's terra as Governor of Albemarle expired, Samuel 
Stephens of Warwick County^ in October, 1667, was chosen 
to succeed him, and died about two years after, leaving his 
widow a good estate. 

Difficulties again occurring between England and Holland, 
eight ships of war bearing the flag of the latter, in July, 
1673, appeared off Point Comfort, and for four hours fought 
two English men-of-war. took eight merchant vessels and 
sunk five, A sloop containing Capt. James Carteret the 
weak and dissipated son of Sir George, and his young bride 
w^as suffered to be run ashore. One of the captured vessels, 
was a schooner from New York, and a passenger, Samuel 
Hopkins, informed the Dutch Admiral, that New York was 
not well protected, and the fleet then proceeded thither, and 
took the town. 

About the time that Philip Mallory, the respected clei-gy- 
man, went to England, Assembly of 1660-1, asked, that the 
King woukl request the Universities of Oxford, and Cam- 
bridge, to send over competent ministers. Morgan God- 
wyn, also written Godwin^ who belonged to a family of theo- 

widow of Governor Setli Sotliel, of Carolina, wliose maiden name \vas Xww 
Willis of Ipswich, Mussacliusotts.took for her fourth husband Col. John Lear of 
Virginia. tSir Henry Chiclieky married the widow A^-atha Wormeley. Bichard 
Lawrence, the insurgent, married a prosperous widow who kt^pt a tavern at 
Jamestown. No explanation has been found of tlie foUowiiitf, iu a letter of Sir 
John Berkeley written at Paris, as early as Sept. "0, 105-, to Edward Hyde, 
afterwards Earl of Clarendon : " Will. Berkeley is married in Vircfmia. His sis- 
ter Jane is coming to France." 

' His great-grandfather was Thomas Godwin, chaplain in ordinary to Queen 
Elizabeth and advanced to the iJishopric of Bath and Wells. 

His grandfather was Francis Godwin, born A. D., 1561, educated at Christ 
church, Oxford, and made by King James, Bishop of Hereford. 

', His father, Morgan, died in 1645, and was Archdeacon of Shropshire 




logians, on March 16th, 1664 5, received the degree of A. B., 
from Oxford, and came to Virginia, and took charge of 
Marston parish, which adjoined Middle Plantation, now 

Ill a letter to Berkeley he admits that the Governor had : 
"Asa tender father, nourished and preserved Virginia in 
her infancy, and nonage. But as our Blessed Lord once 
said to the young man in the Gospel, ' Yet lackest thou one 
thing,' so may we, and I fear too truly, say of Virginia 
that there is one thing, the propagation and establishing of 
religion in her, is wanting." In another passage he declares 
"The ]\Iinisters are most miserably handled by their Plebeian 
Juntos, the Vesteries ; to whom the hiring (that is the 
usual word there) and admission of ministers is solely left. 
And there being no law obliging them to any more than 
procure a lay reader (to be obtained at a very moderate 
rate), they either resolve to have none at all, or reduce them 
to their own terms; that is to use them how they please, 
pay them what they list, and to discard them whensoever 
they have a mind to it. And this is the recompense of their 
leaving their hopes in England (far more considerable to 
the merest curate, then what can possibly be apprehended 
there)" together with their friends and relatives, and their 
native soil to venture their lives into those parts, amongst 
strangers and enemies to their profession, who look ujion 
them as a burden; as being with their families (^when they 
have any) to be supported out of their labour." Apologeti- 
cally he continues: "I would not be thought to reflect 
herein upon your Excellency, w^ho have always professed 
great tenderness for churchmen. For alas! these. things 
are kept from your ears; nor dare the Ministers had they 


opportunity, acquaint you with them, for fear of being used 
worse. And there being no superior clergyman, neither in 
Council, nor in any place of authority, for them to address 
their complaints to, and by this means have their grievances 
brought to your Excellencies knowledge, they are left with- 
out remedy." 

In another place he declared; "Two-thirds of the preachers 
are made up of leaden lay priests of the vestries' ordination, 
and are both the shame and grief of the rightly ordained 
clergy there." He soon left Virginia, and for a time w^as in 
the West Indies.^ 

Moryson, agent for Virginia, in England, wrote to the 
colonial authorities "We have lately received, from the 
most worthy Bishop of Winchester, to whom the country 
hath great obligation, for assisting us, powerfully, in all 
our negociations, a virulent libel against all the plantations, 
and Virginia, in particular, a copy of which we send you, 
and think it necessary that an answer of it be directed from 
you, to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Bishops of Win- 
chester, in vindication of your government. It is written 
by Godwin who sometime served in Maston [Marston] 
Parish, and copy of it hath been given to all the bishops of 
England. We have since seen the fellow% and demanded 
his hand to it which he refuseth, and in your further orders 
shall proceed against the inconsiderable wretch." 

'In January 1667-8, Col. Dodman obtained judgment against Morgan for 
1000 lbs. of tobacco, and in April, 1670, upon Godwyn's petition, Major George 
Mason, Sheriff of Stafford County was ordered by the General Court to arrest 
Dodman. Upon investigation, the claim was adjudged illegal and Dodman 
expressed sorrow, and delivered up Godwyn's books which he had seized. 


Godwyn had counted the cost of presenting his views 
to the Bishops and could not be deterred by a storm of 
words, and in 1680, he i)ubHshed in London a pamphlet' 
called, "The Negroes and Indians Advocate suing for 
their admission into the church, or a pei'suasive to the in- 
structing and baptizing the Negroe's and Indians in our 
Plantations; showing that as the coniijliance therewith can 
prejudice no man's just interest, so the willful and neglect- 
ful opposing of it is no less a manifest apostacy from the 
Christian faith, with a Brief Account of Religion in Vir- 

In this treatise, he contended that negroes whether slaves 
or freemen, had an equal right with other men to the exer- 
cise and privileges of Christianity, and alludes to planters 
who ridiculed his position, and declared that although the 
black slave bore the resemblance, had not the qualities of a 
man, of which "atheism and irreligion were the parents, 
and sloth and avarice, the foster nurses,-' wrote Godwyn. 

He was not silenced b}'- vindicative plantei-s, and five 3^ear3 
later was permitted to preach in Westminister Abbey on the 
inhumanity of slave-holding, taking for a text the 34:th 
verse of the 2d chapter of Jeremiah : " In thy skirts is found 
the blood of the souls of the poor innocents, I have not 
found it by secret search, but upon all these." 

The discourse was printed with the title of "Trade pre- 
ferred before Religion, and Christ made to give place to 
Mammon, represented in a sermon relating to Plantations." 

Nathaniel Bacon, Junior, arrived in Virginia, about the 
year 1671:, when thirty years old, where his father's cousin, 

' In 1681 a supplement was printed. 



also named Nathaniel Bacon, was a respected planter, and 
member of the Governor's Council. The young man was 
the son of Thomas Bacon of Freestone Hall, Suffolk, an 
ancient seat, and his mother was the daughter of Sir Robert 
Brooke, Kt. He was entered on November 22, 1664, as a 
student at Grays Inn, London, and subsequently was per- 
mitted to travel. Upon his return he was gay, extravagant 
and headstrong, and with the disapprobation of friends of 
the bride, married Ehzabeth, the eldest daughter of Sir 
Edward, and sister of Sir John Duke of Benhill Lodge, 
near Saxmonham, Suffolk. His father as a measure of 
prudence furnished him with a stock of goods which cost 
eighteen hundred pounds sterling, and with his wife now 
tw^enty-four years old, he settled at Curies, on the banks of 
the James River. 

In the early summer of 1675, the Doegs, a tribe of the 
Potomac River, charged a planter, named Mathews, with 
unfair dealings, and retaliated by stealing his swine. The 
Indians were pursued, and some killed. Then Robert 
Henn, a herdsman was found wounded, at the door of his 
cabin, in Stafford County, Virginia, who lived long enough 
to say, that his assailants were savages. A party in July, 
under Col. Geoi-ge Mason, and Capt. Brent, crossed the 
Potomac, in pursuit and divided their forces. The horse- 
men, under Brent, found a wigwam of Doegs, surrounded 
it, and killed the chief and ten others as they came out. 
Col. Mason found an encampment also near by, and with 
those on foot, killed fourteen, when a chief ran up, and told 
him that they were fi-iendly Susquehannas, and that the 
murder which had incensed the whites was committed by a 
band of wandering Senecas. 


After this, great excitement prevailed upon the Maryland, 
as well as the Virginia shore of the Potomac, and a joint 
movement against the Indians was arranged . The Virginians 
were under Col. John Washington, Col. George Mason and 
Major Isaac Allerfcon; and the Marylanders, were com- 
manded by Major Thomas Trueman. The latter reached a 
fort of the Susquehannas, on Sunday morning, September 
25th, 1675, and was informeil tliat the marauding Senecas 
had done the injury to the settleivs, but. they had left four 
days before, and were probably near the head of thePatapsco 
River. The next morning thero was a junction of the 
Maryla,nders and Virginians, and the officers of the latter 
were Col. John Washington, Col. George Mason, and Major 
Allerton. About six of the principal Indians came out of 
their earth fort, and showed by their certificates and medals 
that they held friendly relations witli the people of Mary- 
land, but Col. Washington said '"Why keep them any 
longer? Let us knock them on the head." 

The rash suggestion was adopted, and the fort in marshy 
ground, surrounded with limbs of trees, was besieged. The 
outraged savages held out, for six weeks, and then upon a 
moonlight night, stole away. The indignity heaped upon 
them was quickly revenged, and ten white people were 
speedily killed for each chief that had been murdered. 
The authorities of Maryland were shocked at what they 
termed the ''barbarous andinhumiii" act of Major True- 
man and his associates, and he was impeached by the Assem- 
bly, and debarred from hjlling offijo, while all possible 
reparation was made to the Indians. Virginia was re- 
quested to censure the act of Col. Washington, and others, 
and it is said that Governor Berkeley was willing, but no 


steps were taken by the Council and Burgesses. Passing 
round the rude stockades erected at the heads of the prin- 
cipal rivers, the Indians commenced the work of retaliation, 
and from the Falls of the Potomac, to the Falls of the 
James, stealthily crept, scalping the isolated planter, and 
mutilating the bodies of helpless women, and babes, and 
among others who fell, was the overseer of the younger 
Nathaniel Bacon. 

For the protection of frontiersmen, the Assembly which 
convened, in March, 1076, declared war against those sav- 
ages, who had lately committed murders, and robberies, and 
arrangements were made for tlie raising of five hundred 
men, in the older, and more secure counties, to be paid by 
the Colony, and stationed at points, liable to attacks from 
the savages. Eighty-four men, under Captain Peter Knight 
were to be in a place of defence, near the plantation of John 
Mathews, on the Potomac River, in Stafford County; one 
hundred and eleven, under Major Lawrence Smith, near the 
Falls of Rappahannock River; fifty-two, under Col. William 
Claiborne, Jr., on Mattaponi River; sixty one, under Major 
GeorgeLyddall near Mahixon, on Pamunky River; fifty-five, 
under Lt. Col. Edward Ramsey at Falls of James River ; 
thirty-eight, under Major Peter Jones, near the Falls of 
the Appomattox at Major General Wood's or Fleet's; forty, 
under Captain Roger Potter upon the Black Water near the 
house of Richard Atkins in the County of Surrey ; forty, 
under Oapb. Edward Wiggins at the head of Nansemond ; 
and a fort in Accomac, between John Reddings, and the 
Pocomoke River, 

The persons appointed to press men, and horses, were 
Col. St. Leger Codd, and Major Thomas Brereton of North- 


umberland, Col. William Bull, and Col. John Carter of 
Lancaster, Col. Christopher Wormeley, and Major John 
Burnham, of Middlesex, Col. Francis Willis, and Col. 
Philip Ludwell of Gloucester, Col. Kobert Abrahall, and 
Col. John West, of New Kent, Col. Nathaniel Bacon, Esq., 
and Major John Page, of York, Lt. Col. Edward Ramsey, 
Major William White, and Capt. Hubert Farrell of James 
City County, Col. Pritchard, Lt. Col. Cole, and Major 
Thomas Cary, of Warwick, Lt. Col. Charles Morrison, and 
Capt. Anthony Armested of Elizabeth City County, Lt. Col. 
Edward Hill, and Capt. Nicholas Wyatt, of Charles City 
County, Col. Thomas Swann, and Lt. Col. George Jor- 
dan, of Surrey, Col. Joseph Bridger, Col. John George, and 
Major James Powell, of Isle of Wight, Col. Thomas God- 
win, Lt. Col. John Lear, and Major Thomas Millner of 
Nanzemond, Col. Lemuel Mason, and Major Francis Sawyer 
of Lower Norfolk. 

The following commissioners were appointed to use In- 
dian scouts, receive hostages, and reward Indians for 
services rendered ; Col. William Farrer (Ferrar), and Lt. 
Col. Francis Epes, of Henrico, Col. Nicholas Spencer, and 
Lt. Col. John Washington, of Westmoreland, Col. William 
Traverse, and Capt. Thomas Hawkins, of Rappahannock, 
Col. George Alason, and Mr. James Austin, of Stafford 

Roaming Indian traders had been accustomed to sell 
powder, shot, and guns, to the Indians, at extravagant 
prices, and to break up this dangerous custom, it was en- 
acted, that if any person, ten days after the close of the 
session of the Assembly, should be found selling directly, or 
indirectly, powder, or fire arms; after conviction, should be 


put to death, without benefits of clergy, and forfeit his 
estate. The County Courts were authorized to nominate, 
in each county, not more than five persons to supply, with 
necessary goods, the peaceable Indians, but none of the 
late traders could be appointed. 

Nathaniel Bacon, junior, as a merchant had been engaged 
in the Indian trade, having nearly completed a new trading 
post, was greatly disappointed, when he found, that he 
could not obtain a license to traffic with the savages. 

Others were chagrined because they received neither 
appointments as officers of the forces to operate against the 
Indians, nor profits from the erection of the several stock- 
ades. Throughout the Colony, moreover, there was a good 
deal of discontent because the Governor gave the offices, 
and contracts, to a few favorites, and Bacon determined to 
lead this element, and intimidate the Governor. As one of 
the council, he told his neighbors, that he would pursue the 
Indians, without any expense to the public, and thus ral- 
lied them to his support. He then applied for a commission 
to lead a force against the Indians, but Bei'keley did not 
grant it, but ordered the military officers, of each county, 
to appoint officers necessary to suppress Indian hostilties. 

In the hope of composing difliculties, the Governor, on 
the 3d of May, 1076, with an escort of three hundred men 
proceeded to visit the upper part of the York and James 
Kivers, and found that Bacon had gone with a force of two 
hundred persons to the great village of the Ockinagees on 
an island, in a river, two hundred miles southward, and there 
while the Indians w^ere friendly in disposition, provoked 


a quarrel iu which the Indians lost fiftj, and he, eleven 

Governor Berkeley became convinced that there was 
wide spread discontent among the people, who, for a long 
time had been deprived of the privilege of electing Bur- 
gesses for an Assembly. Those not free holders, or house 
holders, while subject to taxation, were not, as formerly, 
permitted to vote. For t!ie first time, in fourteen years, he 
now gave notice of an election for Burgesses, to a new 

At the same time, he issued this declaration, to be read in 
every county. 

"The Declaracon and Remonstrance of S' William Ber- 
keley his most sacred Ma''« Govern' & Cap' Gen" of Vir- 

" Sheweth, That about the year 1660, Coll Mathews the 
then Govern' dyed, and then in consideracon of the ser- 
uicelhad don the Country, in defending them from, and 
destroying great numbers of the Indians, without the loss 
of three men in all the time that warr lasted, and in 
contemplacon of the equall and vncorrupt Justice I had dis. 

' In tiie catalogue of Thorpe I^Ianuscripts, 1834, sold in L(jn(lon, are the fol- 
lowinjr titles. 

" Mrs. Ijacon to her sister concerning a murder committed by the Indians, 
May, 1670." 

"The Virginians jileafor opposing the Indians without the Governor's order 
humbly offered as a test of their utmost intentions to vindicate them from all 
misapprehensions of disloyalty and disobedience." 

" Gen. N. Bacon's description of the flftht between the English and Indiana, 
May. 1676." 


tributed to all men, I^ot onely the Assembly/ but the 
vnanimous votes of all the Country concurred to make me 
Govern' in a time, when if the Rebells' in England had 
prevailed, I had certainly dyed for accepting itt, 'twa;; 

' The following address of Governor Berkeley in view of his election, after the 
death of Governor Mathews, shows his true position. 

*' Mr. Speaker, wee have all had great and pressing feares of ofiFendiug a Su- 
preanie power which neither by present possession is soe, nor yet has a pub- 
liquely confessed politique capacity to be a Supreme power. I alsoeMr. Speaker 
have my pressing feares too, and am seriously afraid to offend him, who by all 
Englishmen is confessed to be in a naturall, politique capacity of being a 
Supreame power. I have bin once already outed by a Supreame power. I doe 
therefore in the presence of God and you make this safe protest alone, and for us 
all, that if any Supreme settled power appeares I will imediately lay down my 
commission, but will live most submissively obedient to any power God shall 
Bet over me, as the experience of eight years have shewed I have down. When 
this is recorded and you are still in the same mind, I am ready most thankfully 
andacknowledgiugly to serve you, in which alsoe I shall desire to secure the con- 
currence of the Council." 

His speech to the Council, March 19, 1G59-60, concluded in these words : 

" I will passionately speak this last truth, I doe give thanks to God; I doe 
give thanks to you, and pray that this admirable Harmony of consents which 
you have shown to be in you all may be ominous and exemplary to our nation, 
that peace may at last return to our long afflicted, miserable distracted country, 
and let every one say Amen." 

In his address to the Speaker and his honored friends, the Burgesses, dated 
" From my house " the same day, he said, after referring to Charles the First, 
having first commissioned him as Governor, "Immediately after his Royal 
Sonne (whom I beseech God soe to bless that he might exceed his admired 
Father in wisdom, pietie and justice) resigning his judgment to his Father's 
choice, sent me a comition to governe here under him, which I exercised with 
all faithfulness and humilitie to his command." He then mentions the arrival 
of the Parliament ship after the battle of Worcester, with a small force which 
" finding me defenceless " a change " was quietly affected." 

After the surrender to Parliament he wrote on May 14, 1653, to Charles, in 
exile, and besought " pardon forgiving up the Colony of Virginia to the rebels," 
and spoke, of Colonel Lovelace the bearer of the note, who had been in Vir- 
ginia since A. D., 1650, and would give fuller information. 

Two days after the address to the Councillors, the following wae prepared : 


Gent, an vnfortnnate Love, shewed to me, for to shew 
myselfe groatfull for this, I was wilhng to accept this 
Government againe, wlion by my gracious Kings favour' 
I might liave had other places much more profitab^: and 

"We doe unanimously concur in the Election of Sr. William Berkeley to be 
the present Governour of this Colony. 
March 21th, 1G59. 

Richard Bennett Edward Hill 

William Bernard Thomas Dewe 

John Walker Edward Carter 

Ueorfje Keade Thomas Swanu 

Thomas Pettus Augustine W^arner." 

Tho : Claiborne 

' Charles the Second after the Restoration, upon July 31, IGfiO, renewed his 
commission as Governor, and Berkeley under date of March 18, 1600-1, wrote : 

" May it please your Majestic I have received a Commission from your Sacred 
Matie to be Goyernouv of this your Maties Colony of Vir<;inia, and at your 
Maties ii'eet in a dutifull thankfullness to your Majestic that you yett think me 
worthy of your Royall Conunands. It is Irue, may it please your most Sacred 
Majestic that in a fervent desire to doe your Majestic all the service I could with 
possibility arrive to, I did something whicli if misrepresented to your Majestie 
may cause you to think me guilty of a Aveakness I should ever abhor myself for. 
But it was noe more, may it please your Majestie, than to Icape over the fold to 
save your Matie's flock, when your Majesties enemies of that fold had barred up 
the lawfull entrance into itt, and enclosed the Wolves of Scisme, and rebellion 
ready to devour all within it. 

" Nor did I adventure in this without the advice and impulsion of your Majes- 
ties best subjects in these parts (wch I believe more timely inspired with the 
same spirit your Majesties other subjects after vv^ere) threatened me with the 
omission of that duty -vvhicli I owed to your Majestie if I nenlected my utmost 
endeavours of preserving all your Majesties then perishing Loyall subjects in 
this Country ; I have a thousand witnesses of this beside the Awful Reverence 
I ever had of your Sacred iNIajestie which would never suffer me to support 
myselfe by an untruth, who would rather begg your Majesties pardon for my 
endeavours to doe your Majestie Service thanjustifyc myselfe in the wrong 
interpreting the best way to it. But this relation I only make your Majestie 
which before God is my witness (as farr as I am able to know my own heart) 
I always in all conditions had more feare of your Majesties frownes than the 
Swords or Tortures of your enemies. 



less toylesome than this hath beene. Since that time y^ 
I returned into the Country I call tlie great God, Judge of 
all things in heaven and earth, to witness, that I doe not, 
know of any thing relateive to this Country, wherein I have 
acted vnjustl}^ corruptly, or negligently, in distributeing 
equall Justice to all men, & takeing all possible care to pre- 
serve their proprietys, & defend them from their barbarous 

" But for all this, p'happs I have erred in things I know 
not of, if I have I am soe conscious of humane frailty, & 
my own defects, y^ I will not onely acknowledge them, but 
repent of, and amend them, and not like the Rebell Bacon 
p'sist in an error, onely because I have committed itt, and 

" God of Heaven turn these years of afHiction your Majestie baa suffered for, 
and bv your Subjects to ages of liappiness : Soe forever prayes 

" Your Majestie most Humble 

" most Dutiful], Loyall & obedient 
" Subject, Servant, Creature 
" March 18, 1660. " William Bebkelet. 

From your Majestie 
" Colony of Virginia. 
An erroneous statement has been made that Berkeley invited Charles to Vir- 
ginia. Clarendon in his History of tlie Rebellion mentions not that Governor 
Berkeley really invited the King to Virginia, " but almost inviting him hither, as 
to a place that wanted nothing. And the truth is, whilst the Parliament had 
nothing else to do, the plantation in a short time was more improved in people 
and stock than it had been from the beginning, to that time, and had reduced 
the Indian to a very good neighbourhood. But, alas, they were so far from 
being in a condition to defend themselves, all their industry having been em 
ployed in making the best advantage of their particular plantations without 
assigning time or men, to provide for the public service, or building forts, or 
any places of retreat, that there no sooner appeared two or three ships from the 
Parliament, than all thoughts of resistance were laid aside. Sir "William Ber- 
keley the Governor, was suffered to lemain there as a private man, upon his own 
plantation, which was a better subsistence, than he could have found any where 


tells me in diverse of his letters that itt is not for Iiis honour 
to confess a fault, but I am of opinion y* itt is onely for 
divells to be incorrigable, & men of principles like y* worst 
of divells, and these, he hath, il" truth be reported to me, of 
diverse of his expressions of Atheisme, tending to take 
away all Religion and Laws. 

"And now I will state the Question betwixt me as a Governr 
and Mr. Bacon, and say that if any enemies should invade 
England, any Councell', Justice of peace, or other inferiour 
officer might raise what forces they could to protect his 
Ma"" subjects. But I say againe, if after the Kings knowl- 
edge of this inuasion, any, the greatest peere of England, 
should raise forces ag' the Kings p'hibicon this would be 
now, & euer was in all ages & Nacons accompted treason. 
Nay I will goe further, that though this peere was truly 
zealous for the preseruacon of his King & subjects, and had 
better and greater abillitys than all the rest of his fellow 
subjects, to doe his King and Country seruice, yett if the 
King (though by false informacon) should suspect the con- 
trary, itt were treason in this Noble peere to p'ced after the 
King's prohibicon, and for the truth of this I appeale to all 
the laws of England, and the Laws and constitutions of all 
other Nacons in the world. And yett further, itt is declared 
by this P'liament that the takeing vp Amies for the King & 
P'lianient is treason, for the event shewed that whatever 
the pretence was to seduce ignorant & evill affected people, 
yett the end was ruinous to both King & people, as this 
will be, if not prevented, I doe therefore againe declair that 
Bacon, proceeding ag' all Laws of all Nations modern & 
ancient is Rebell to his sacred Ma''' and this County, nor 


will I insist vpon the sweareing of men to live and dye 
togeather, which is treason by the very words of the Law. 

" Now, my friends, I have liv^ed Si yeares amongst you, 
as vncorrupt and dihgent as ever Govern' was, Bacon is a 
man of two years amongst you, his p'son and qualities vn- 
knowne to most of you & to all men else, by any vertuous 
action y' ever I heard of, And that very action which he 
boasts of, was sickly & fooleishly, & as I am informed 
treacherously carried to the dishonour of the English Nacon 
yett in itt, he lost more men, than I did in three years 
Wari', and by y^ grace of God will putt myselfe to the same 
dangers & troubles againe when I have brought Bacon to 
acknowledge the Laws are above him, and I doubt not but, 
by God's assistance, to have better success than Bacon hath 
had, the reason of my hopes are, that I will take Councell 
of wiser men then myselfe, but Mr. Bacon hath none about 
him, but the lowest of the people. 

"Yett, I must further enlarge, that I cannot without 
your helpe, doe any thinge in this but dye in defence of my 
King, his laws, & subjects, which I will cheerefully doe, 
though alone I doe itt, and considering my poore fortunes, 
I can not leave my poore Wife, and friends a better legacy, 
than by dyeing ioc my King & you: for his sacred Ma'^ will 
easeily distinguish betweene Mr. Bacons actions & myne, and 
Kings have long Arnies, either to reward or punish. 

"Now after all this, if Mr. Bacon can shew one president 
or example where such actings in any Nacon what ever, 
was approved of, I will mediate with the King, and you, 
for a p'don, and excuce for him, but I can shew him an hun- 


dred examples where brave & great men have beene putt 
to death for gaineing Victorys ag' y' comand of their Su- 

*' Lastly my most assured ffriends I would have pre- 
serued those Indians that I knew were howerly att our 
mercy, to have been our spyes and intelligence, to finde out 
our bloody enemies, but as soone as I had the least intel- 
ligence that they alsoe were trecherous enimies, I gave out 
Commissions to destroy y"" all as all the Commissions them- 
selves will speak itt. 

"To conclude, I have don what was possible both to 
friend and enimy, have granted Mr. Bacon three pardons, 
which he hath scornefully reiected, suppoaseing stronger to 
subuert, then I and you to maineteyne the Laws, by which 
onely, and Gods assisting grace and mercy, all men must 
hope for peace and safety. I will add noe more things much 
more is still remaineing to Justifie me & condemne Mr. 
Bacon, but to desier that this declaracon may be read in 
every County Co" in the Country, and that a Court be pre- 
sently called to doe itt, before the Assembly meet. That 
your approbacon or dissattisfaction of this declaracon may 
be knovvne to all y' Country, and the Kings Councell, to 
whose most revered Judgments itt is submitted, Giuen y' 
xxix"* day of May, a happy day, in the xxviii"' yeare of his 
most sacred Ma''" Reigne, Charles the second, who God 
grant long & prosperously to reigne, and lett all his good 
subiects say Amen." 

At the election for Burgesses in Henrico County, the 
sheriff attempted to read the above declaration, the court 
being in session, when Bacon violently took it from him, 


and by intimidation was elected a Burgess. In a sloop with 
fifty followers he went to Jamestown to sit in the Assembly 
which was to convene, on the 5th of June. He reached the 
place at night, and in the darkness visted his confederates 
Drummond, and Lawrence, and before sunrise returned to 
his vessel. His arrival having been made known, he was 
pursued by Captain Gardiner of the "Adam and Eve," to 
Sandy Point, and was th'^re arrested by Sheriff Hone. 
When he was brought bef; re the Governor, Berkeley said 
" Mr. Bacon have you forgotten to be a gentleman ?" The 
reply was " No," then said the Governor, " I will place you 
on parol." 

Four days after the Assembly convened, on the 9th of 
June, the Governor stood up and said : " If there be joy 
in the presence of the angels over a sinner that repenteth, 
there is joy now: call Mr. Bacon," then. Bacon upon his 
knees, offered this confession " I Nath. Bacon, Jr., of 
Henrico County in Virginia, doe hereby most readily, freely 
and most humbly acknowledge that I am and have been 
guilty of diverse late unlawfull, mutinous, and rebellious 
practices, contrary to my duty to his most sacred, majesties 
gouvernour, and this country, by beating up of drums, 
raiseing of men in amies, marching with them into severall 
parts of this his most sacred majesties colony, not only 
without order, and commission, but contrary to the express 
orders and commands of the Rt. Hon. Sir WilHam Ber- 
keley, Kn't his majesties most worthy governour, and cap- 
tain general of Virginia. And I doe further acknowledge 
that the said honourable govornour hath been very favour- 
able to me, by his severall reiterated gracious offers of 
pardon, thereby to reclaime me from the persecution [pro- 


secution ?] of those my unjust proceedings (whose noble and 
generous mercy and clemency I can never sufficiently ac- 
knowledge) and for the re-settlement of this whole country 
in peace and quietnesse. And I doe hereby upon my knees 
most humbly begg of Almighty God, and of his majesties 
said governour, that upon this my most harty and un- 
feigned acknowledgment of my said miscarriages, and un- 
warrantable practices, he will please to grant me his gracious 
pardon and indemnity humbly desireing also the honourable 
councell of state, by whose goodnesse I am alsoe much 
obleiged, and the honourable burgesses of the present grand 
Assembly to interceed and mediate with his honour to 
grant me such pardon. 

' ' And I doe hereby promise, upon the word and faith of a 
Christian, and of a gentleman, that upon such pardon 
granted me, as I shall ever acknowledge soe great a favour, 
soe I will alwaies bear true faith and allegiance to his most 
sacred majestic, and demeane myself dutifully, faithfully, 
and peaceably to the government, and the laws of this 
country; and am most ready, and willing to enter into bond 
of two thousand pound Stirling, and for security thereof bind 
my whole estate, in Virginia, to the country, for my good 
and quiet behaviour, for one w^hole yeare from this date, and 
doe promise and obleige myself to continue my said duty and 
allegiance at all times afterward. In testimony of this my 
free and harty recognition, I have hereunto subscribed my 
name, this 9th day of June, 1676. 

Nath. Bacon." 

" Wee of his majesties councell of state of Virginia doe 
hereby desire, according to Mr. Bacon's request, the right 


honourable, the govenour to grant the said Mr. Bacon his 
pardon. Dated the 9th of June, 16T6." 

Phill. Ludwell Nath'l Bacon 

James Bray ^ Thos. Beale 

Wm. Cole, * Tho. Ballard 

Ra. Wormeley Jo. Bridger 
Hen, Chicheley." 

The day after his confession, the Assembly declared war 
against the Indians, and a force of a thousand men were 
authorized to be raised, one-eighth to be cavalry. Indians 
taken in war were to be divided among the conquering party 
as slaves for life. The fort in Henrico County under Col. 
Edward Ramsey, in New Kent County, under Col. W. 
Claiborne, Jr., and in Rappahannock under Major Lawrence 
Smith were abandoned, and the soldiers placed upon the 
frontier. "Nathaniell Bacon, jun'r Esq., gen'll and com- 
mander in chiefe of tbe force raised," was so designated, in 
the Act. After promising, Berkeley, with characteristic 
obstinacy, refused to sign the commission. Bacon, as hot- 
headed as the Governor, asked to be excused from the coun- 
cil table, alleging that he wished to go home to visit his 
sick wife. 

Not many days after, on the 21st of June, the bold Bacon 
marched into town, with four hundred footmen, and one 
hundred and twenty horsemen. Surrounding the house, in 
which, the Governor, Council, and Burgesses were assem- 
bled, he demanded a commission, as general. By the earnest 
entreaty of the Council, and Assembly, it was reluctantly 
signed the next day, and issued by the Governor. " Out of 
a hearty and pious desire to put an end to all suites, and 


controversies," all treasons and misdemeanors, committed 
between the first of Marcli, and the twenty-fourth day of 
June, were ''put in utter oblivion," and tlien, the Assembly 
was dissolved. Bacon and Berkeley, were as antag(jnistic 
as before. The Governor left Jamestown, and went to 
Gloucester County, and again proclaimed the General a 
rebel, and that his commission liaving been given under 
threats, was of no validity.* 

Bacon with six hundred foot, and seven hundred horse- 
men, and provisions for two months, on the 29th of July, 
arrived at the Middle Plantation, now WiUiamsburgh, seven 
miles from Jamestown, and informed that the Governor 
was ill Gloucester County raising forces against him, hav- 
ing taken possession of the forts of James and York Rivers, 
issued the following on the next day, called 

"The Declaraoon ye People." 

"1st. For haveing v])on specious pretences of publique 
works raised great vinust taxes vpon the Comonality for y" 
advancement of private favorites & other sinister ends, but 
noe visible effects in any measure adequate. For not have- 
ing dureing this long time of his gou'men' in any measure 
advanced this hopefull Colony either by fortificacons, 
Townes, or Trade. 

"2. For haveing abused & rendered conteniptable the 
Magistrates of Justice, by advanceing to places of Judicature 
scandalous and Ignorant favourites. 

• The King's Commissioners reported : " The Gloucester petition was th« 
unhappy accident that made the Indian war recoil into a civil war." 



" 3. Forhaveiiig wronged his Ma''" prerogative & interest 
by assumeing Monopoly of y^ Beaver trade, & for haveing 
in y' uniust gaine betrayed, & sold his Ma''" Country & y^ 
lives of his loyall subiects to the barbarous heathen. 

"4. For haveing protected, favoured, & Imboldned the 
Indians ag' his Ma''"' loyall subiects, never contriveing, re- 
quireing, or appointing any due or prop', meanes of sattis- 
facon for theire many Inuasions, robberies, & murthers 
committed vpon us. 

" 5. For haveing when the Army of English was just vpon 
y'= track of those Indians, wiio now in all places burne, 
spoyle, murther, & when we might with ease have distroyed 
y"" who were then in open hostillity, for them haveing ex- 
pressly countermanded & sent back our Army, by passing 
his word for y^ peaceable demeanour of y^ said Indians, 
who immediately p'secuted their evill intencons, comit- 
ting horrid murthers & robberies in all places, being p'tected 
by y*^ said ingagem' & word past, of him y^ said S"" W'" Ber- 
keley, haveing ruined & laid desolate a greate part of his 
Ma''" Country, and have now drawne y"" seules into such 
obscure & remote places, & are by theire success soe im- 
boldned & confirmed, by theire confederacy soe strengthned 
yt ye crycs of blood are in all places, and the terror and con- 
stirnacon of y^ people soe greate, are now l)ecome, not onely 
a difficult, but a very formidable enimy, who might att first 
with ease haue beene distroyed. 

"6. And lately when vpon y^ loud out cryes of blood y"^ 
Assembly had with all care raised & formed an Army for 
the preventing of further mischief e & safeguard of this his 
Ma''" Colony. 


*' 7. For haveing with onely y" privacy of some few favou- 
rites, w"' out acquainting the people, onely by the alteraconof 
a figure, forged a Commission, by we know not wiiat hand, 
not onely without, but even ag' the consent of y'^ people, for 
the raiseing & elf ecting civil warr & distrucon, which being 
happily & without blood shed prevented, for haveing the 
second time attempted y= same, thereby calling downe our 
forces from the defence of y= fronteeres & most weekely 
expoased places. 

" 8. For the prevencon of civill mischiefe & ruin amongst 
ourselves, whilst y' barbarous enimy in all places did in- 
vade, murther & spoyle vs, his ma''" most faithfull subiects. 

" Of this & the aforesaid Articles we accuse S' William 
Berkeley as guilty of each & eu'y one of the same, and as 
one who hath traiteronsly attempted, violated & iniured 
his Ma"" interest here, by a losse of a greate parte of this 
his Colony & many of his faithfull, loyall subiects, by him 
betrayed & in a barbarous & shamefull manner expoased to 
the Incursions & murther of y*^ heathen. And we doe fur- 
ther declare these y" ensueing p'sons in this list, to haue 
beene his wicked & pernicious councoll" Confederates, aiders, 
and assisters ag' y" Comonality in these our Civill como- 


S' Henry Chichley Nich. Spencer 

L' Coll Christop ' Wormeley' Joseph Bridger 

Phihp LudwelP W^" Claiborne Jr' 

'Capt. Christopher Worrudey iu November, 1671, married the relict of Jus 
tiniau Alymer, hite minister of Jamestowu. 

= Succeeded Th( mas l>ud\vell aa Secretary. 

:* Secretary Claiborjie niairiid Jane Euller of Loudon and had three sons. 
The eldeni William Cli.iboine, Jr., of Ecmancock on the Pamunky. Thomas 
killed by the Indians, and Leonard who wept to the West Jpdies. 


Eobt Beverley Tho. Hawkins 

Ei : Lee W" Sherwood 

Tho: Ballard • Jo" Page, Gierke^ 

Wm. Cole Jo' Cliiffe, Gierke' 

Kich'* Whit acre 

John West : Hubert Farrell : Tho. Reade : Matt. Kempe. 

" And we doe further demand y' y" said S' W"". Berkeley, 

with all y*" p'sons in this list be forthwith delivered vp or 
surrender y" selves within fower days after the notice 
hereof. Or otherwise we declare as followeth, 

" That in whatsoever place, house, or ship, any of y" said 
p'sons shall reside, be hidd, or p'tected, we declaire y*" 
owners. Masters, or Inhabitants of y" said places to be con- 
federates & trayters to y people, & the estates of y"" is 
alsoe of all y aforesaid p'sons to be confiscated, & this we 
the Gomons of Virginia doe declare, desiering a firm vnion 
amongst our selues that we may joyntly & with one accord 
defend ourselves ag' the comon Enimy, & lett not y' faults 
of y' guilty be y' reproach of y' inocent, or ye faults or 

William Jr., liad a son William, and two daughters, Ursula and Mary. 
Ursula married William Gooch. 

Thomas Story, Recorder of Philadelphia, and a friend of William Penn, 
visited a member of the Society ot Friends, one Edward Thomas at Bangor 
House on the 21st day of 11th month (0. S.) 1698, accompanied, he writes in his 
iournal, by "Captain William Clnyborne grandsiju of Colonel Clayboru wXio 
subdued the emperor of the Indians of those parts, and his people between the 
Mattapony and Pamunkie." 

In March, 1699, he went to the house of William Clayborne at Pamunky 
Neck, and held a meeting' at Ramoncock, at which was present Captain Clay- 
borne, Major Palmer and Doctor Walker. 

' John Paige, in 1680, had charge of the churches in Elizabeth County. 
'' In 1680, John Clough or ClufEe was rector of Southwark, Surry County. 


criiues of y*" oppress" deuide & sep'ate vs who have suf- 
fered by their oppressions. 

'* These therefore in his ma"" name to comand you forth 
with to seize y" p'sons above menconed as Trayters to y" 
King & Country, & them to bring to Middle plantacon, & 
there to secure y"" vntill further order, and in case of oppo- 
sition, if you want any further assistance you are forthwith 
to demand ittin y' name of y" people in all y* Counties of 

"Nath. Bacon, 
" Gen" by Consent of y' people." 

On the first day of August a detachment of three hundred 
men under Giles Bland,' a nephew of Theodoric Bland was 
sent to James River, and captured a ship commanded by a 
Captain Larimore, and on the eighth of the month, Bacon 
took Sir Henry Chicheley prisoner, and sent him to JMehick- 

' John Bland, the London merchant, in Juno, 1658, wrote to the Admiralty 
that he had ''a i)lantatiou in Virginia, bnt servants being very scarce there, ho 
■went to Chelsea College to see if any prisoners there had lired slaves and ser- 
vants in tlie Indies, would go to Virginia ; two mulattoes offered to go rather 
than remain eternally in prison." 

He was the father of Giles who had been suspended from the Collectorship of 
Customs in Virginia, by Governor Berkeley. Tlie manuscript Records of the 
General Court in possession of the Virginia Historical Society show that there 
was great enmity between Secretary Thomas Ludwell, and Giles Bland. The 
latter before the 18th of November, 1674, had called the Secretary abusive 
names, and '« the said Bland taking one of his [Ludwell's] gloves, witliout his 
knowledge or consent, did iguominiously, presumptuously, and unworthily 
nayl the same up at the State House doore, with a most false and scandalous 
Libel, which contained these words, That, the owner of that glove was a son of 
H whore, mechanic fellow, puppy, and a coward." 

Thomas Ludwell went to England to counteract the influenc' of some letters 
which Bland had written. At a meeting of the General Court in Jamestown upon 
October 7, 1675, the Governor mentioned that Bland was suspended from office. 


son Fort, on the Pamunky River, and seized the plantations 
of Thomas Ludwell, Col. Parks, Maj. Gen. Smith; and of 
the Governor, at Green Spring. 

The sympathy with Bacon must have been widely ex- 
tended, or the Governor v.^ould not have retired to Accomack 
on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay. Giles Bland 
and Captain Carver, were sent with La^'imore's ship of six- 
teen guns, a barge of four guns, and a sloop, with a force 
of two hundred and fifty men to watch Berkeley, and 
Bacon after issuing a call for an Assembly to convene on 
the 4th of September, began to march against the Indians. 
Larimore who was a prisoner, in his own ship, privately 
sent a note to Berkeley, that with a small force the insur- 
gents could be captured. 

Philip Ludwell volunteered to lead an expedition, and 
with twenty -six men went out in some small boats and, with- 
out difficulty the vessels were disarmed, Bland and Carver 
brought ashore, and the latter quickly hung. The Governor 
now returned to the western shore with five ships and ten 
sloops and a large force, and anchoring near Jamestown, on 
the 7th of September, demanded its surrender, offering 
pardon to all except Drummond, and Lawrence,^ the ad- 
visers, and friends of Bacon. Lawrence and others fled, 
and the next day Berkeley entered. Bacon informed of this, 
marched toward the place, and soon commanded its ap- 
proaches. Jamestown, was then described as a small 
peninsula with the main river on the south, encompassed 

' Eichard Lawrence, son of George, of Stapleton, Dorsetshire, when eighteen 
years of age, in 1636, entered Magdalene Hall, Oxford, but did not graduate. 
He was probably, the same person as the insurgent, who was known as having 
been an Oxford student. 


on the north, from the east point, with a deep creek flow- 
ing in a semi-circle to the west within ten paces of the 
river, and by a neck, joined to the mainland. The penin- 
sula was about two miles from east to west, and about a 
mile from north to south. The town was about the middle 
close to the river, extending east and west three-fourths of 
a mile, and containing a church of brick, and some sixteen 
or eighteen houses, not all inhabited. Drummond and Law- 
rence lived in two of the best. In the settlement there were 
only about twelve famihes, and most of these, quaintly 
wrote a chronicler of the day, "getting their liveings, by 
keeping of ordnaries, at extraordnary rates." 

After Bacon planted his cannon, Berkeley became 
alarmed, evacuated, and by night with his ships descended 
the river, while the forces of Bacon^ entered and burned the 

'John Verney, in London, on December 7, 1676, wrote to Sir Ricliard Verney 
" Yesterday came news that Mr. Bacon luid taken and burnt Jamestown, in 
Virginia, and made Sir Thomas [Henry] Chicheley, prisoner, clapping him in 
chains, but keeping him alive to exchau^je for Mr. Bland, and that Gov. Sir 
Wm. Berkeley had again fled." Seventh Royal Historical Commission Report. 
Clayton, the parson of Jamestown, in 1684, describes it as situated on a penin- 
sula, connected with the main land, by a neck twenty or thirty yards wide, 
which at certain tides was overflowed. A swamp ran diagonally tlirougli the 
peninsula, owned by one Sherwood. Clayton wrote of " Jamestown Island 
which is much of an oval figure. A swamp runs diagonal-wise over the island 
whereby is lost at least 150 acres of land, which could be meadow * * * I have 
talked several times thereof, to .Mr. Sherwood the owner of the swamp, yet 
nothing is es.sayed in order thereto." 

In the Jamestown churchyard, was a stone with this inscription, when the 
writer was there in May, 1886. 

" Here Lyeth William Sherwood that was Born in tlie jmrish of White Chap- 
pel near London. A Great Sinner Waiting lor a Joyfiill Resurrection." At the 
beginning of the ewanip was a half moon brick wall for defence. This was 
built after 1673, for on May 17th of this year, complaint was made to the 
General Court that Drummond and Howe who had agreed to build a fort, had 


church^ and dwellings of the town. Lawrence set fire to 
his own house, and directed the other incendiaries. 

Bacon then marched to the Governor's plantation, 
at Green Spring, where he rested for two or three 
days, and then proceeded to Gloucester County, and 
made his headquarters, at the plantation of Colonel 
Warner. Here he became sick and on the first of Oc- 
tober, died at the house of Mr. Pate.^ After this In- 

brought tlie bricks and tlieu the work Isad ceased. There was also near it a de- 
aerted tetragon earth-work. 

' The church now in ruins. Bishop Meade in his Old ParisJiea of Virginia 
thinks was not erected, until alter 167G, and his reasons for this opinion are 

It must not be forgotten that there were no brick buildings before A.D., 1840, 
in Jamestown. Governor Harvey in a letter, alludes to the brick house erected 
by his Secretary, Richard Kemp, "the fairest ever known in this country for sub- 
stance and uniformity." At this time Harvey mentions that contributions had 
been made for the first brick church. Near the present ruined church, there 
can be seen, the ruins of another brick church 28 X 56 feet in dimensions, with 
a tower 18 ft. square. This is the remnant of the church that the insurgents 
burned . 

After the burning, the parish was served by the John Qough who tiled January 
15th, 1683-4, and his successor a parson of Jamestown, was John Clayton, a cor- 
respondent of Kober Boyle the philosopher and philanthropist. The building 
whose tower is still seen by the traveler, must have been erected between 1677, 
and 1684. 

"Richard Pate, Dec. 12, 1650, entered 1141 acres, on north side of York river, 
died in 1657, and letters of administration were issued to his nephew John Pate. 
Bacon probably died at John Pate's house. Oldmixon often inaccurate, men- 
tions that he died at the house of Ur Green, 

A pamphlet appears to have been published in London, in 1677, relative to the 
rebellion, with the title " Strange News from Virginia being a relation of all the 
occurrences in that Country since the death of Nathaniel Bacon, with an account 
of thirteen persons tried and executed for their rebellion there." A writer in 
London " Notes and Queries " 2 Scr., Vol. xi, p. 200, mentions that is chiefly ex- 
tracts from a letter of !Sir John Berry, the commander of the troops sent out. 
This however may be the pamphlet of eight pages, whose real title page is: 
" Strange News from Virginia ; Being a full and true Account of the Life and 


gram' assumed command, Major Robert Beverley a friend 
of Berkeley, captured a Colonel Hansford born in Virginia, 
carried him to Accomack, where he was brought before a 
court martial and quickly suspended from the gallows. 
Beverley returning to the western shore, seized Major 
Cheeseman, and Ca])tain Wilford who was the second son 
of a poor knight, who had been killed while fighting for 
King Charles. The former died in prison, while his wife 
was insulted by the coarse words of the Governor. The 
latter was "a small man with a great heart" who had 
for some years been an Indian interpreter. Captain Farlow, 
whose niece was the wife of Cheeseman, a good scholar, and 
liked by his neighbors, was executed about the same time. 

Death of Nathaniel Bacon, Esq., who was the only cause and Original of all the 
late troubles in that Country. With a full relation of all the Accidents which 
have happened in the late \V:ir there l)etween the Cliristians, and Indiana. 
London, juiblishod for William Harris, 1077." 

The writer of the pamphlet, published by Harris, makes ihc followinjj re- 
marks on Bacon's death: " It is rei)orted, by some, that this Mr. Bacon was a 
very hard drinker, and that ho dyed by imbibing or taking in too much brandy. 
But 1 am informed by those who are Persons of undoubted reputation, and had 
the happiness to see tlie same letter whicii gave his Majesty an account of his 
death, that there was no such thiujr therein mentioned ; he was certainly a per- 
son indeed with great natural parts, which, notwithstanding his juvenile extrav- 
agances he had endued with many elaboi ate acquisitions, and by help of 
learning and study knew how to manage them, to a Miracle, it being the gene- 
ral vogue of all that knew him tliat he usually spoke as much sense, in a few 
words, and declared that sense as opportunely ****** where- 
fbre as I am myself a lover of Ingenuity, though an abhorrer of disturbance, or 
Rebellion, I think fit, since Providence was ytleased to let him dye a Natural 
death in his Bed, not to asperse him, with saying, that he killed himself, with 
drinking." Bacon's only daughter, Mary, married Hugh Chamberlain, physi- 
cian to Queen Aan«. 

'Probably William Ingram of New Kent to whom on April 5, 1671, there 
was a grant of 2500 acres at the head of Pamuukey River. John Hansford who 
died in 1671, left two sons, John and William. 



After Bacon's death, and these executions, Berkeley left 
Accomack, and came to the mouth of York river, when a 
ship commanded by Capt, Grantham, arrived from England . 
Capt. Christopher Evelin had arrived in England, with the 
startling intelligence, that there was an insurrection/ The 
King immediately ordered troops to be raised for the support 
of the Governor. As recruiting officers with men beating 
drums, for men, to enlist for the Virginia campaign, 
marched up and down the streets of London, there was 
much discussion among the merchants, whether this first 
sending of troops to the Colony, was a wise step. In Sep- 
tember, Sir. John Berry, Herbert Jeffreys, and Francis 
Moryson, once Governor, were appointed Commissioners, 
to proceed to Virginia, to examine, and report on the con- 
dition of the Colony, and at the same time, a royal pardon 
was sent out, for all except Bacon. Governor Berkeley 
having sent over his resignation on the ground of his age 
and bodily weakness, Jeffreys, on the 1 1th of November, 
was also commissioned as his successor. 

Sir John Werden, secretary of Duke of York, on the 30th of 
November, 1676, wrote from St. James, to Governor Andros 
of New York, enclosing an order " from his Ma^ to forbidd 
yo' admitting any of the accomplices of Bacon, the chiefe of 
the seditious in Virginia, into yo' governm'nt, a caution w'*" 
I presume you needed not, but y' order from the King will 
by shewing His Ma" displesure ag" y"", obviate all such 
plausible pretences as they may have scattered about to 

' In the proceedings of the General Court at James City on April 5, 1671, 
there is notice of a suit of William Drummond and Capt. Christopher Eyelln 
against the estate of John Currer. 


debauch the fidehty or attract the pitty of the neipjhbour 

*' Att the same time, I may tell you besides, that S' John 
Berry is ah-eady gone with the Bristoll frigate, and a ketch; 
that the forces desyned to reduce those people unto their due 
obedience are now well embarked and in the Downes way- 
teing for the first opportunity of fay re wind to sett sayle: 
I wish them good successe y' being a matter of noe small 
importance to His Ma'' service." 

Capt. Thomas Grantham, who had passed the winter of 
1672-3, in Virginia, sailed from England, with the ship 
"Concord" carrying thirty-two guns, and by the first of 
January, 1677, was at the mouth of York River, with the 
news that soldiers were coming. The presence of a ship of 
war, under a kind, firm, and prudent commander, acted 
Hke oil upon troubled waters, and the authority of the 
King's Governor, began to be recognized. Grantham 
soon after his arrival, went to Portopatank, and near Mr. 
Pate's house held a conference with the insurgent leaders, 
and showed the folly of a small band holding out in oppo- 
sition to the strength of England and concluded his address 
in these words . ''Have you not heard what numerous 
forces are coming from England to suppress your tumoul- 
tuous proceedings ? * * * * Hearken therefore to the 
tenders of peace, before it is too late; consult, like men of 
sense, your own felicity; and quietly lay down your arms." 

Governor Berkeley could not resist the influence of such 
a peace-maker, and as the result of moderation many took 
an oath renouncing the rebellion.* 

' The oath was in tliese words " I do willingly and heartily declare 

that I know, and in my conscience, believe Richard Lawrence, and many others 


Before the disturbances were quieted Captain Hubert Far- 
rell, accompanied by Councillor Bacon, the relative of the 
deceased insurgent, and Colonel Ludwell, went with an 
armed party, to dislodge Major Thomas Whaly, in posses- 
sion of Councillor Bacon's house. In the attack upon the 
house, Farrell was killed, and his men fled. 

Grantham arriving at West Point, at the junction of the 
Pamunky with the York River, had a most satisfactory talk 
with the insurgents there, and they sailed down with him, 
to TindalFs Point, to give in their submission to Governor 
Berkeley who was still at this place 

Dummond and Lawrence, at this time, remained with a 
small force at a brick house, in New Kent County, on the 
south side of York River, two miles from West Point. 

The ships with the troops and commissioners, of which 
they had been informed, by Captain Grantham, on the 29th 
of January, 1676-7, entered the Chesapeake Bay. Berkeley 
came to Kiquotan now Hampton, and went on board the 
ship " Bristol " to confer with the Commissioners, and gave 
them a list of those then executed.^ An Assembly was 

with him, to be in open rebellion against the King's most Sacred Majesty, and 
against the Right Honourable the Governor of Virginia, and the good estab- 
lish'd laws and peace of this Colony of Virginia. Which rebellion I do from 
my heart abhor and detest and do therefore most willingly, freely, and from my 
heart, swear my full allegiance to the King's most Excellent Majesty ; and 
that I will with my life and whole estate, serve and obey the Right Honour- 
able the Governor and obey all such magistrates and officers as he shall from 
time to time appoint over me ; and with them, or any of them, use my utmost 
endeavour to my life's end , to take, seize, kill, and destroy all such persons 
whatsoever as either now are, or hereafter shall be in such rebellion as is recited. 
This oath I do most heartily, freely and willingly take, in the presence of 
Almighty God. So help me God." 

» The immoral andlmmodest Aphra Behn wrote a play which was published 
with the title : 


called to meet on the 20th of February at Green Spring, the 
Governor's home. While the King had ordered a general 
amnesty to all, except Bacon, the Governor in opposition to 
the vdsh of the Commissioners, executed in all, twenty- three 
persons. At a court martial held on board Capt. John 
Martin's ship, in York River on January 11th, Thomas 
Hall was condemned to be hung, and the next day Thomas 
Young, Henry Page and James Wilson. 

William Drummond, in Chickahominy swamp, was cap- 
tured and when brought before Berkeley, he was stripped, 
the ring torn from his finger, and treated in a barbarous 
manner. Although he had not borne arms, nor held any 
office under Bacon, he was arraigned on the 20th of January, 
before a court martial which met at tlie house of Col. James 
Bray, condemned at one o'clock and hung at Middle Plan- 
tation, three hours after his sentence was passed. 

"The Widdow Ranter, or The History of Bacon in Virginia, A Tragi- 
comedy. Acted by their Majesties Servants " 

In it two friends at Jamestown thus converse 

" Haztvrd. This unexpected happiness o'erjoys ! Who could have imagined 
to have found thee in Virginia ! 

" Friend. My uncle's dying here, left me a considerable plantation. * * * * 
but pr'ythee what drew thee to this part of the new world ? 

"Hazard. Why, faith, ill company, and the common vice of the town, 
gaming. * * * * I had rather starve abroad, than live pitied, and despised 
at home. 

" Friend. Would he [the new Governor] were landed, we hear he is a noble 

" Hazard. He has all the qualities of a gentleman, besides he is nobly born. 

" Friend. This country wants nothing but to be peopled with a well bom 
race, to make it one of the best colonies in the world * * * * but we are ruled 
by a Council, some of which have been, perhaps, transported criminals, who, 
having now acquired great estates, are now become Your Honour and Rt. Wor- 
shipful, and possess all places." 


On the 24th of the month, another court martial was held 
at Green Spring, and sentence of death passed upon James 
Crewes, William Cookson, John Digby, William Rookings, 
William West, and John Turner. The last two made their 

After the legislative Assembly convened, civil courts 
were resumed and prisoners were tried by a jury of free- 
holders and house-keepers. A court was held on the 8th of 
March, when the King's Commissioners sat on the bench, 
and Giles Bland^ and Robert Jones were found guilty of 
treason, and condemned to death, the next day Anthony 
Arnold, Richard Turner and Robert Stoakes were sentenced 
to be hung and the third day John Isles and Richard 

On the 16th of March, John Whitson, and William Scar- 
borough were found guilty, and sentenced to die. 

The Assembly, " because mercy is acceptable to God " 
enacted that Col. Thomas Goodrich^ and Thomas Gordon, a 

' Giles Bland, nephew of Tbeodoric, had been opposed to the Berkeley clique 
for some time. He was arrai<^ned before the Qeueral Court, Nov. 21, 1674, at 
Jamestown, for callinjj Thomas Ludwell Secretary of the Colony, " a puppy, a 
pitiful fellow, and son of a whore," as has been mentioned in another foot note. 

The father of Giles Bland according to O'Hart was the John Bland of London 
of whom Pepys wrote in his Diary of June 13, 1680 " Mr. John Bland Merchant 
was buryed in ye chancil in St. Olave's Church, Hart Street." 

Giles married Frances Proby and left a son Giles whose wife was Mary Brown. 

Giles the grandson was born in 1703, and in 1756, died cliildloBS. 

VI = Among the manuscripts of Leed Castle, County Kent, England, there is a let- 
/ ter from F. Berkeley dated Aug. 9, 1677, in which the writer says he sends a 
I narrative compiled from the memoirs of Robert Holden, Langston, Gutteridgt), 
[Goodrich] and others. He wrote perhaps to Governor Berkeley as the letter 
has no address, that as soon as the addressee's back was turned the " Lieut Go- 
,.vernor said he would lay £100 that the addressee would not be permitted to Bee 


church of England minister, on bended knees, with ropes 
about their necks, should appear before Rappahannock court 
and acknowledge their rebellious acts, the former also to 
pay a fine, and the latter never to perform ministerial func- 
tion in the Colony. Several others were ordered to endure 
similar disgrace. Joseph Ingram, Gregory Walklett, and 
George Milner, who were insurgent officers when West 
Point was surrendered were declared incapable of any office 
other than that of constable, and road surveyor, yet Milner 
had used his influence to quell the insurrection/ 

Richard Lawrence, and Major Thomas Whaly, expecting 
neither justice, nor mercy, from the implacable Governor, 

the King, but would be sent to the Tower. — Appendix, 6th Report Royal His- 
torical Commission. 

Reference is made to Col. Thomas Goodrich, John Langston, and Robert Hol- 
den. Tlie last became a prominent citizen in Carolina, and in 1G79, was com- 
missioned to explore to " or beyond tlie Apalatian mountains." 

' " On January 7, 167(5-7, Milner sent this note to Capt, Grantham. 

'« Sir : You have undertakon a work tliat will speak j^our everlasting fame 
and glory ; the consolidating our sad difEerences, preventing the sword and 
famine, with other horrors, that gaping, were ready to swallow up tliis miserable 
country. The service you will do herein to the Almighty, to our dread Sove- 
reign, the Governor, and the Country, will make you honourably spoken of 
throughout the World I have only to add, that since now, as I hope it will 
appear by the whole aeries of my actions, my life, and fortune are both shipp'd 
off with the Governor and his friends ; if therefore I may bo thought worthy to 
advise, I shall leave to your serious consideration; tliat if you think good the 
Honourable Governor be persuaded to proceed by the same method his Majesty 
did, at his restoration, by a Declaration from Bredagh. Such a one here from 
his Honour, would abundantly settle the minds of hundreds, that are at present 
ammus'd [amazed] and at a full stand. All I add is that Mercj and Indemnity 
were ever yet a greater friend to Peace, than Severity, tho' Justice were on the 
same side. I beseech you to dispatch the bearer, bacit, lest I am forc'd to come 
single, and then render myself incapable of doing that service to the Honour- 
able Governor, which is designed by 

" Your faithful servant, 

" Geo. MriiNHR." 


left the Colony, and many of the common people, panic 
stricken went to Carolina, Maryland, and other places* to 
find a home. 

Among the Harleian MSS., in the British Museum is the 
following hst of Berkeley, which has been published in the 
Force Historical Tracts. 

''A List of those that have reen executed for y^ Latb 


1. One Johnson a stirer of the people to sedition, but no 
fighter. [John Johnson.] 

2. One Barlow, one of Cromwell's soldiers very active in 
this rebellion and taken with forty men coming to surprise 
me in Accomack. [George Farloe ?] 

3. One Carver a valiant man, and stout seaman, taken 
miraculously, who came with Bland, with equal com'n, and 
200 men, to take me, and some other gentlemen that 
assisted me, with the help of 200 soldiers, miraculously de- 
livered into my hand. [William Carver.] 

4. One Wilford an Interpreter that frightened the Queen 
of Pamunkey from y' lands she had granted her by the As- 
sembly, a month after peace was concluded with her. 
[Thomas Wilford.] 

6. One Hartford a valiant stout man and most resolved 
rebel. [Thomas Hansford ?] 

' lu the Boston Town Records, under date of July 29, 1678, is this entry : 
" "William Mason, brick layer, Charles Cleato dancing-master, Clasen Wheeler 
his seru't fiddler, of Virginia, all at John Smith's butcher, and p. George Joy, 
said to be in the rebellion of Nathaniel Bakon there." 


At York whilst I lay there. 

1. One Young, commissionated by General Moncke long 
before he declared for y' King. [Thomas Young.] 

2. One Page, a carpenter, formerly ray servant, but for 
his violence used against the Royal Party, made a colonel. 
[Henry Page.] 

3. One Harris, shot to death a valiant, loyalist prisoner. 

4. One Hall, a Clerk of a County but more useful to the 
Rebels than 40 army men, that dyed very penitent, confes- 
sing his rebellion against his King and his ingratitude to me. 
[Thomas Hall of New Kent County.] 

Att Middle Plantation. 
One Drummond a Scotchman that we all suppose was the 
originall cause of the whole rebellion, with a common 
Frenchman [John Baptista] that had been very bloody. 

Condemned at my house. 

1. One Col'l Crewe, Bacon's parasyte that continually 
went about y"= country extolling Mr. Bacon's actions (justi- 
fying his rebellion). [James Crewes.] 

2. One Cookson taken in rebellion. [Wm. Cookson]. 

3. One Danby from a servant made a captain. [John 
Digby ?] 

[Signed] " William Berkeley." 

James Wilson, formerly a servant, condemned the same 
day, as Page, does not appear on the list. Thomas Young, 
was the son of Capt. Thos. Young, who in 1634, explored 
the Delaware River. Scull in Tlie Evelyns in America, 
gives the following from the Public Record office, London. 


" An Account of the Estate of Thomas Younge who was 
taken prisoner, he being an Officer in the Eebelhon was 
condemned by a Court Martiall, and hanged ni York County 
in January last. This being taken upon the oath of Mary, 
his reUct, who hatli given bond for the same : Imprimis, a 
Plantation with a good dwelling house, a ver}^ good tobacco 
house, and an Indifferent good Orchard, their seat being 
400 acres of land in James City County." 

George Evelin was his cousin, who was formerly com- 
mander of Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay. Evelin in 
16-19, bought of Thomas Grandon, land in James City 
County which the next year he gave to his son Mountjoy. 
Gov. Berkeley on June 20, 1651, granted 600 acres in James 
City County to Mountjoy. On the 29th of November, 1653, 
he married Dorothy, tlie daughter of Col. Obedience Eobins 
of the Eastern Shore of Chesapeake Bay, and after his 
death, she became the wife of William Andrews Jr., An- 
drews in the proceedings of the General Court, in April, 
1670, appears as the guardian of George, the son of Mount- 
joy Evelin'. 

The Commissioners one of whom, Jeffreys, held the Com- 
mission as Governor, remonstrated with Berkeley upon 
his harsh and impolitic course, and had no intercourse with 

' The following extracts from the Register of St. Peter's Church, Cornhill, 
London, published by the Ilarleian Society, show the relation of the Youngs and 

" 1579, Augfust IG, Sonday : Christneug of Thomas Younge sonue of Gregory 
Younoj grocer, the child was born the lOtli daye, being Monday." 

" 1590, October 19, Monday : Wedding- of Robert Ending Sonne of George 
Eueling, And Susan Young daughter of Mi-. Gregory Young, grocer." 

" 1593, Christuinge of George Eueling sonneof Robert Eueling, Armerer, the 
child was borne the olth of January being Monday." 


him except in their official capacity. On one occasion he 
sent them from his house/ in his own cama.Gje, but with 
the common hangman acting as postiUion. During the 
month of April, Berkeley sailed for England and Commis- 
sionei- Jeffreys became Governor. In his first proclama- 
tion he mentioned that his commission was dated Novem- 
ber 11th, 167*3, and then uses the following language relative 
to the King, who "hath upon y^ humble representation of 
the Rt. Hon. Sir WiUiam Berkeley, his great age and bodily 
weakness in respect whereof he held himselfe unable to 
perform and execute the duty of his place & office, and 
therefore did most humbly & earnestly beseech his gracious 
Ma"' for leaue to returne : His Majesty declared that s'd 
WiUiam Berkeley should speedily return into England, 
whither hee is now gone." A few weeks after his arriv^al in 
England, on the lath of July, Berkeley died.^ The remain- 
ing Commissioners, Sir John Berry and Francis Moryson, also 
during the summer, returned to England, and their reports 
created an unfavorable impression of the late Governor. 

The Governor's brother, Lord Berkeley, met Sir John 
Berry in the Council Chamber and "with an angry voice 
and a Berklean look, told him that he and Moryson' had 

' Berkeley's mansion was a plain brick, building containinjjf a hull, six rooms 
and a garret. The bricks were were not brou^dit from England, as has been 
,ber.n mentioned, but were made on the spot. Ureen Spring is^two miles north 
of James Hiver, and five from Jamestown. 

'He was buried in Twickenham in England. 

3 Quvernor Berkeley's wife was severe in her remarks upon Moryson, and was 
a woman ulio had a vigorous tongue. In a letter of Moryson in l(i77, to Philip 
Ludwell ; who, in 1680, bi'caine her husband, he writes " .Mr, Secretary Coven- 
try says he will vindicate me to all the world, that neither before ui}' goin^, nor 
after my return have I otFered any thing to the King and Lords but with a respect 


murdered his brother." The Lord Chancellor after the 
report of the Commissioners said that "he knew not 
whether it was lawful to wish a person alive, otherwise he 
would wish Sir William Berkeley so, to see what could be 
answered to such barbarity." Upon October 22, 1677, in 
an order of the King for the relief of the widow, it was de- 
clared that Drummond "had been sentenced and put to 
death contrary to the laws of the Kingdom." 

Thomas Ludwell, who had been Secretary of the Colony, 
under Berkeley, for more than fifteen years, died soon after 
the Governor. In Bruton^ church yard, Williamsburg, he 
was buried, and the stone which marks his resting has this 
inscription : 

"Under this marble lyeth the body of Thomas Ludwell, 
Esquire, Secretary of Va., who was born at Bruton, in the 
county of Somerset, in the kingdom of England, and de- 
parted this life in the year 1678. And near this, lye the 
bodies of Richard Kemp, Esquire, his predecessor in the 
Secretary's office, and Sir Thomas Lunsford," Knight. 

f al tenderness to Sir Wm. Berkeley, nor have I ever spoken of his Lady but 
with a courtesy that beLjugs to her sex, though she was pleased to tell Madam 
Jeffries she wondered I would be so impertinent as to go to Virginia where I 
was so hated the people would tear me to pieces. Pray remember my service 
to her, and tell lier ladyship she waj very uncharitable [that] she would not 
for warn me of the danger I went to, but I did not mind it, for I had no gun 
shot ofi", nor bonfires made for joy of my j^'oiug away. ' 

'Bruton parish named after Bruton, Somerset, England, where was the 
family seat of the Berkeley s. 

"Sir Thomas Pelham and Thomas Luusford Senior, were neighbors in Sussex 
and near kindred. On the 26th of June, 1632, while Pelham was hunting, his 
dog went into Lausford's grounds and was shot, which led to ill-feeling. In 
August, 1633, as Pelham was returning from church in his coach, with his wife 
and others, Thomas Lunsford Junior, with an associate stepped out from a copse 
with swords and pistols, to attack Pelham. 


In inemorj of whom this marble is placed, by order of 
Philip Ludwell, Esq., nephew of the saidThomas Ludwell 
in the year 172T." 

It was a surprise to the Virginians, in 16G0, to learn, 
that the lands between the Potomac and Rappahannock, had 
been given to a royal favorite, Lord Culpepper, but sur- 

Luueford was arrested, tried and imprisoned, and fined £5,000, but in October, 
1634, escaped, by bribing his k'^eper. His father was in the Fleet four years, 
and in 16157 Dr. Alexander Leiijhton certified that he liad grown so weak, that 
he ought to be permitted to go to his own house in London. This Leighton 
was the physician and preaclier, father of Archbishop Leighton, and also pris- 
oner, having lost both his ears and been branded and imprisoned for writing a 
seditious pamphlet against the King. Lunsford died on the 4th of November, of 
that year. Three of his sons were Colonels on the Royalist side during the civil 

L Henry born A.D., 1611, was killed July 25, 1643, at the siege of Bristol. 

2. Herbert was knighted July G, 1644, and survived the war. 

3. Thomas was knighted Dec. 28, 1641, and made Lieutenant of the tower of 
London. The citizens were indignant at the appointment of one who had been 
outlawed and was notorious as a profligate. The House of Commons declared 
him unfit for the office, and tlie apprentices of London became so unruly in con- 
sequence of it, the King was forced to take from him the the keys of the Tower. 

On the 27th of December while walking through Westminister Hall with 
twenty or thirty of his friends and meeting a band of apprentices, he and his 
companions drew their swords, and wounded twenty or thirty of them and de- 
nounced them as " roundheads," because it was their fashion to cut the hair 

Secretary Windebank, writing from Oxford, May 22, 1644, tells Col. Ashburn- 
ham. " Att Loudon th.ey apprehend us very weeke, but I assure you Sir Tho. 
Lunsford this day came from army and saith there arc about 10,000 horses and 
foote, of as likely men as he ever sawe in his life." 

He was married, in 1640, to Katerina, daughter of Henry Nevill of Co 
Berks, and she was his second wife. By h(!r he had a daughter Elizabeth, born 
in 1642, who in 1667, married a Daniel Norton of Co. Berks ; Philip|)a who died 
young; and ]Maria born in the Tower of London, who in November, 1665, mar- 
ried Tho lias Collyer, a brewer of Shoe Lane, London. 

A pedigree of Lunsford in the British Museum, mentions that he " sould all, 
and went into Virginia, where he married his third wife." 


prise was turned to indignation when, in 1673, the profli- 
gate and improvident King gave to this covetous lord, and 
associates, '' all the dominion of land and water called Vir- 
ginia," for a period of thirty-one years. 

The Assembly which convened in September, 167J:, "deeply 
sencible of the many and griovous pressures dayly growing" 
''thought ntt that a humble supplication be made to his 
sacred Majestie," " That he would be gratiously pleased to 
revoke the said grants, to the yaid Lord." 

On the 21st of September, Governor Berkeley wrote to 
Lord Arhngton infoi-ming him that Col. Francis Moryson, 
Secretary Thomas Ludwell, and Major General Robert 
Smith, had been appointed agents for Virginia, in England. 

The agents opened their negotiations by asking that Vir- 
ginia might be allowed to purchase the land between the 
Potomac and Rappahannock which bad already been given to 
Lord Culpepper and associates; that the people of the Colony 
should rely directly upon the Crown for protection, free from 
the intervention of any Proprietary ; that as before, the 
Governor and Council should reside in Virginia; that there 
be no departure from the custom, of the Assembly levying 
all taxes upon the people; that all laws made by the As- 
sembly be operative, unless withjn two years, the King 
expressed his disapproval. 

On the lyth of November, 1675, the Commissioners for 
Foreign Plantations, presented to the King and Privy Coun- 
cil a report recommending in substance what the repre- 
sentatives of Viiginia wished, and the King ordered a 
charter to be prepared in conforuiity therewith. Culpepper 
and his friends offered some objections, especially to the 


proviso that the colonists should not be taxed except by 
their own Assembly, to which the agents replied that it 
"contains that which we conceive to be the right of Vir- 
ginians, as well as all other Englishmen, which is not to be 
taxed but by their consent, expressed by their repr<'senta- 

Before the charter was signed by the King the startling 
intelligence of the wide spread insurrection under Bacon 
was received, and negotiations were suspended. 

Before the insurrection, three of the solid, sober men, 
who for years had been acknowledged leaders, died, Gov- 
ernor Bennett,^ and Digges,'' and Secretary Claiboine. Ben- 
nett died a Puritan, apparently, in sympathy with the 
Society of Friends. Digges, cautious, and moderate in his 
views, was honored by his neighbors. Before the late civil 
war, upon a tombstone, at Bellville, on York River, eight 
miles from Williamsburg, could be seen the following. 

"To the memory of Edward Diggs, Esq,, sonne of Sir 
Dudley Diggs of Chilham in Kent, Knight and Baronett, 

' The General Court at Jamestown on Nov. 3, 1G72, roquestcd Major General 
Richard Bennett, to see that the sheriff of Lower Norfolk take into custody Wil- 
liam Carver of Elizabeth River who had stabbed and killed a man. The last 
mention of him is on November 18, 1674, in the court proceedings. 

= A fragment of the Records of the Geneial Court oi Virginia under date of 
June 15, 1675, has the following : " A probate of ye last will and testament of 
Edw'd Diggs Esq., dcc'd is Granted jNIra. Eliz'h Digges ye Relict k Executrix, 
for that ye Court are of opinion yt was all of Edw'd Diggs Esq., his owne writ- 
ing and being proved by ye Oath of Capt. Wni. Diggs one of ye witnesses to ye 
eaid Will. 

William Digges married adaughterof Henry Sewell or Sewall of Patiixeut Mary- 
land Her mother after her father's deatii in IGGl, became the wife of Charles, 
the third Lord Baltimore. Col. Digges, was a i>romiuent citizen in Maryland, 
at the accession of William and Mury to the throne of England. 


Master of the Rolls in the reigne of Charles the 1st, who 
departed this hfe the 15th of March, 1675, in the 55th year 
of his age, one of his Majesty's Councill for this his Colony 
of Virginia. A gentleman of most considerable parts and 
ingenuity, and the only introducer and promoter of the silk 
manufactures in this Colonie, and in every thing else a 
pattern worthy of all pious imitation. He had issue six 
sonnes, and seven daughters, by the body of Elizabeth his 
wife, who of her conjugal affection hath dedicated to him, 
this memorial." His father was a Knight but not a Baronet, 
as the inscription mentions. 

Col. Claiborne, in the Assembly of 1666, was a Burgess 
from New Kent County. How long he lived after this 
period has not been ascertained. John Clayton^ the parson 
of James City, who in 1682, came to Virginia, alludes to 

' Clayton in a letter to the Royal Society wrote ; " I was told a pleasant story of 
an old gentleman, Col. Cleyhorn, as I remember, was his name, the same that sent 
the rattlesnakes to the Royal Society, some years since. He had 'he odd fancy of 
keeping some of these snakes always in barrels, iu the house, and one time an In- 
dian pretending to charm them, so as to take them, by the neck, in his hand, with- 
out biting of him, the old gentleman caused a rattlesnake to be brought forth ; 
the Indian began his charm with a little wand, whisking it round and round the 
rattlesnake's head, bringing it by degrees nigher and nigher, and at length flung 
the switch away, and whisked his hand about in like manner, bringing his 
hand still higher and higher, by taking less circles, when the old gentleman hit 
the snake with his crutch and the snake snapped the Indian by the hand, and 
bit him very sharply betwixt the fingers, which put the charm to an end, and he 
roared out, but stretched his arm out as high as he could, calling for a string 
wherewith he tied his arm as hard as possibly he could and clapped a hot burn- 
ing coal thereon, and singed it stoutly, whereby he was cured." 

Capt. William Claiborne a descendant, was living.'; in 1099. Story, the Quaker 
preacher, in his journal, mentions, that on the 10th of the second month [O. S,] 
he visited the Chickahominy village, reduced to eleven wigwams, on Paniunkey 
neck, and then, went one mile, to the house of the grandson of Secretary 


him, as one who had given some rattlesnakes to the Royal 
Society, an aged man who had carried a crutch, and then 

Jeffreys, during his brief terra of office proved a judicious 
and conciliatory Governor. The Assembly of Octol)er, 1G77, 
William Traverse, speaker, met at the house of Capt. Otho 
Thorpe, in Middle Plantation, and as some persons were 
disposed to call others, ' ' traitors, rebels, rogues, or such 
like," retarding " the former estate of love and friendship 
desired by all good people," it was enacted that all, using 
opprobrious epithets, should be fined. Arrangements were 
also made for the establishing of marts or fairs whither 
friendly Indians would come and trade. The King had 
issued instructions, wiiich arrived early in 1677, requiring 
the Assembly to meet once in two years, and except for good 
cause not to sit more than fourteen days, and that the mem- 
bers be elected "only by freeholders as being more agree- 
able to the custom of England. " Thomas Ludvvell, Secretary, 
and Daniel Parke were both in England as Council agents, 
at the time of the calling of the Assembly by Governor 
Jeffreys, and were directed not to disj)OSe of any more 
money of the Virginia Colonists, without the King's order 
in Council. 

In May, 1677, a conference was held with the representa- 
tives of the Indian tribes, and a peace concluded. The In- 
dians agreed to acknowledge the King, by an annual tribute 
of three arrows, and some beaver skins, and in return, no 
Indian was to be imprisoned, except by a legal warrant, their 
reservations of land were to be inalienable, and they were 
to be permitted to catch fish, and oysters, within the ceded 




Among the chiefs present were two women, one known 
as the Queen of Pamunkey, a relative of Powhatan and Ope- 
cancanough. She wore a turban, made by a three inch plait, 
of black and white wampum, and her robe was of deer- 
skins with the hair on the outside, ornamented with a 
twisted fringe six inches deep from the shoulder to the 
feet. From the earliest days of the Colony prominent white 
men had found temporary alliances with Indian women. 
Sir Thomas Dale sent Hamor,Ho Powhatan, "to procure 
a daughter of his, reputed to be his delight, and darling " 
" to be his nearest companion, wife, and bed-fellow."^ The 
Queen of Pamunkey at the time of the treaty, had by her 
side, a son, twenty years of age, whose father, was reputed 
to be an English colonel. 

Upon the 30tli of December, 1678, Jeffreys died, and Sir 
Henry Chicheley, Deputy Governor, a sober, kind, moderate 
man, w^ho when a widower had married Agatha, the widow 
of Ralph Wormeley, and had lived in Virginia, for more than 
a quarter of a century, became the acting Governor, which 
met the approval of the King. During his term of office, 
on the 25th of April, 1679, an Assembly convened, at James 
City, and elected Mathew Kemp, speaker. 

For the defence of the country from the incursion of 
savages, it was enacted that a garrison or store-house should 

• Virginia Comjpany of London, pp. 92, 93. 

2 This custom is not entirely discontinued. In Forty years among the Siovx by 
Eev. S. R. Riggs, LL.D., his wife writes July 31, 1837, from the vicinity of Fort 
Snellinof, Minnesota : " Until my location here I was not aware that it was so 
exceedingly common, for officers in the army to have two wives, or more, but 
one, of course, legally so. For instance, at the Fort, before the removal of the 
last troops, tiiere were but two officers who were not known to have an Indian 
woman, if not half Indian children," 


be erected at the heads of the four principal rivers, and 
Major Isaac Allerton, grandson of Brewster of Plymouth 
Rock, Col. St. Leger Codd/ and Col. George Mason were 
designated to superintend the building of a house sixty feet 
in length, and twenty-two in breadth, and a magazine ten 
feet square at Neapsico, near Occoquan, on the Potomac 

Upon condition that Capt. William Byrd would settle 
two hundred and fifty persons on both sides of the James 
river within the space of a mile, there was granted to him, 
" beginning on the south side of James river, one mile and 
a half below the Falls, and so continuing five miles up the 
river, in a straight line, and backwards, one mile in the 
woods; and on the north side of the said river beginning a 
half mile befor.e the Falls, and thence continuing five miles 
up the river; and two miles backward into the woods." 

On the 31st of July, Col. WiUiam Kendall, and Col. 
Southey Littleton of the Eastern Shore arrived in New 
Yorkj^" with credentials from Governor Chicheley, to confer 

' Codd afterwards I'esided ia Maryland. 

" Col. Kendall was in the Assemblies of 1659, 1663 and 1666, one of the Bur- 
gesses from Northampton. 

Col. Southey Littleton, was the son of Nathaniel Littleton, and Ann his 
wife, who was a dau<fbter ot Lewis and Elizabeth Southey early settlers at 
Jamestown. The father of Southey had a plantation at Nandua Creek which 
the son inherited. The father died iu 1654, and the mother in 1656. At the 
time of her death she resided at Ma^^othy Ba)', Xorthampton County. In her 
will slie requests the non-conformist brother-in-law of Governor Stone, "Mr. 
Francis Doughty, Minister and preacher of ye word in this parish, to Councell 
my children, not only in the management of their estates, and ciuill behavior in 
ye AVorld. But bee a meanes to iii.struct them in the feare of God & seruice of 
the Allmi;rhty and Creator, and in ye true faith in Jesus Christ, into whose hands 
I commiti in common, all our soules when it pleaseth him to take them from vs 
out of this sinfull life to wch desire I say Amen and Amen." 


with Governor Andros, on Indian affairs, and it was 
arranged to hold a council, at Albany, in the autumn with 
the Onondagas and other bands of Iroquois.^ 

Her eldest cliild Edward was made the executor. Her daughter Esther, in 
1663, had married John the second son of Col. Obedience Robins. 

The younger son Southey, whose plantation was at Nandua, was born in 1645, 
and a record of the Robins family mentions, that he died in New York Citv 
probably at the time of his visit as a Commissioner from Virginia. He left 
children : 1, Nathaniel who married Susanna Waters. 2 Bowman who died 
before A.D., 1700. 3. Southey who married Mary, dauj^hter of Thomas and 
Susan Upshur Brower. 4. Esther married Col. William Whittington 5. Sarah 
married John Dennis of Somerset Co., Md. 6. Elizabeth married Richard 
Waters of Somerset, Md. 7. Gertrude who married a Mr. Harmanson. 

' In Palmer's Calendar of Virginia Papers is the following account of the con- 
ference . 

' ' The Onondagas answer upon the Propositions of Col. Wm. Kendall Agent for 
ye Country of Virginia. 

"Names of Sachems — Carrackkondre" — Otrienachce — Canisicktoe and 5 

"Brethren of Virginia. 

" Ist. We are come here in the Prefixed Housse, where we are used to make 
Propositions, and have understood that wch is by you Repi'esented. All our 
Indians (meaning their souldiers) have been destracted, or without their senses, 
in committing of this act against the Christians in Virginia, for itt is done with- 
out our order, and against our will. They have been like a child, who having 
an ax in itts hand, is not sensible, what itt doth with itt, and cannot discern be- 
tween good and Evil. Its made known to us by you, the dammagethat our peo- 
ple have done in Virginia in plundering your houses. We doe Confesse itt, but 
do say again, as above, that they have done very wickedly. We have likewise 
understood that when our young Indians come near any Christians, must lay 
down their arms, as a token of friendship. It is likewise told us, that if auy of 
our People shall goe to warr tovva "ds your parts, against any Indians, not in 
friendship with you, that they shall forbear to come near your Plautacons, 
all which we absolute undertake, and do thank you that .you have Propounded 
ye same. 

" We have Likeways understood that by the Informacou, his hour, ye govr 
here, hath given you, you haue forgiven that, which is past, for which we do 
thank you hertily. You are People of understanding, butt we are Brutish, 
Blinde, and without understanding aa we have said above ; and we are thankful 
and glad that 3'ou Imputed and Communicate some knowledge to us, and if our 
young Indians come amongst you, be friendly to ym, for they goe against their 
Enemys the Downaganhoes, doe present a Belt of zewant 20 deep. 


In May, 1680, there appeared in Virginia as Governor, 
the capable, but corrupt, and pleasure loving, Thomas Lord 
Culpepper,' who with Lord Arlington, and others, had 

" 2d. We thank them of Virjf'inia & commend and praise tlieir understanding 
that they show such favour to the Oneydes, our children, and Include tliem iu 
such a friendship. Doe give 8 faddom zewant. 

" 3d. VVlien our Young Indians goe out a fighting against their enemies, lett 
tliem be well used, and do not look so narrowly upon a Little Indian corn or 
Tobacco, but let us live like friends. As for j^e burning of your houses, it is 
unknown to us, but the Plundering of some goods, and ye killing of a Beast, wee 
do not deny ; as for killing of horses, we have no hand in ; but ye Oneydes have, 
and Pointed to some of them then Present have shot foure. 

" And when wee come for Indian Corn or any Provision doe not lett our guns 
and arnies be taken from us, seeing it was tlie beginning of these last troubles . 
We doe thank you for your Tobacco and Hum, doe give 7 faddom ze'n't." 

' Lord John Culpepper father of the Governor was a devoted friend of Charles 
the First. In 16-10, he was an able member of Parliament, and spoke against 
monopolies as follows : " I have one grievance to offer you but this one com- 
priseth many. It is a nest of wasps, a swam of vermine which have over crept 
the land, I mean the monopolies. Tliese like the frogs of Egypt have gotten 
possession of our dwellings, we have scarce a room free from them They sup 
in our cup, they dip in our dish, they sit by our fire. We find them in the dye 
vat, wash bowl, and powdering tub, etc., etc." 

He was subsequently Master of the Rolls and one of the Privy Council, and 
on October 31st, 1664, he was created Baron Thoresway of Lincoln. During 
the civil war he was a trusted counsellor of the King, and after Charles was 
beheaded, he was confided in by the widow Henrietta .Maria, and his son. A 
letter of the widow to him has been published in the Appendix to 6th Report of 
Royal Historical (J.j;umidsion. It is dated Paris, April 23, il665, anc begins 
" My Lord Culpepper, I have seen by several letters which you have written 
to Lord Jermyn that you think it would be for the benefit of the King, my son, 
that there should be a better understanding than heretofore, between him and 
me, than there is This causes me to write this letter to inform you that there 
is no fault on my side, but that I have been unfortunate enough that the King 
has not put in me the confidence which I deserved at his hands, botli as his 
mother, and as a person who has not, and has never shown herself as having 
any other interest than liis.' The letter is long and signed " Your very good 

In 1660, the first Baron Thorseway died, and hia son Thomas Culpepper, by his 
second wife, became the second Baron. The latter alleged that he had lost ten 


obtained the grant of Virginia, and for several years liad 
been a member of the Board for Plantations. He was in - 
structed to see that voters were restricted to freeholders and 
householders, that legislative assemblies were summoned by 
the special direction of the crown, and that laws were not 
to originate with them, but to be prepared by the Governor 
and Council, and transmitted to the crown, and when 
approved be presented to the Burgesses to accept or reject. 

To him was given the " full power and authoritie to sus- 
pend any member of the Councellif you see just cause; and 
our will and pleasure is, that every member of our Councell 
suspended by you, shall be uncapable during such suspen- 
sion of serving as member of the General Assembly." 

Soon after his arrival, an Assembly was summoned, 
which convened on the 8th of Jane, at Jamestown. Thomas 
Ballard was chosen speaker, and the clerk, was Robert 
Beverley. The first Act passed had been prepared in Eng- 
land, and was a free and general pardon to all, who had 
participated in the Bacon Rebellion, but the estate of the 
late Nathaniel Bacon, Junior, was declared to be forfeited 

tliousaud pounds sterling in consequence of his loyalty, and iu July, 1661, was 
appointed by the King, Governor of the Isle of Wight, with power to appoint 
a deputy. With Secretary Bennett, afterwards Lord Arlington he was intimate, 
and on the 4th of January, 1663-3, he sent him a ninre as a Christmas present, 
and an acknowledgment of obligation. Toward non-conformists he was s<'\ rre. 
He sent Priscilla Moseley a Quakeress to prison, who died while in confinement. 
He seized two strangers called " Desperate canters" and put them in jail, and 
with grim humor gave them the Koran in English, to read, and one of his 
friends wrote " If they should turn Turks, it would be a great blow to the 
whole sect." 

By his arbitrary measures, the inhabitants of the Isle of Wight learned to 
dislike him, and iu 1666, presented a petition to the King, stating their griev- 


to the King, and also the estates of Giles Bland, Anthony 
Arnold, Richaid Turney, Eichard Pomfrey, John Isles, 
Robert Stoakes, John Whiston, and William Scarborough, 
all of whom had been executed for treason, and also that of 
Richard Lawrence, "who fyred James City and is since 
fled," while Joseph Ingram, Gregory Walklett, Thomas 
Whaley, and John Forth, were disquahfied holding any 
public office. 

On the 10th of August, entrusting affairs to the Lieu- 
tenant Governor, Sir Henry Chicheley, he sailed by way of 
Boston, for England, taking with him the servants and sol- 
diers, that he brought to the Colony, and all his plate and 

On the twenty-second of August, before daylight, the 
ship in which he embarked, owned by Capt. Jarvis, and 
named the "Betty " in compliment to his wife who was the 
widow of the insurgent, ran aground. At daylight, he was 
taken ashore, with two of his men, and walking through 
the woods reached Sandwich, about sixty miles from Boston, 
where horses and a guide were obtained, aiid on the twenty- 
fourth, he reached the latter place, and tiio next day was 
tendered a banquet, and escorted to the hall, hy the eight 
mihtary companies of the town. Capt. Jarvis did not 
arrive with his ship until the first week in October. On 
the ITtJiof October, Governor Andros of New York came 
to consult Culpepper, but found that he had sailed two 
days before.'' 

' Letter of Culpepper, Va. Hist. Reg., 1850. 
» Hull's Diary. 


To his sister Culpepper wrote, from Boston : "My Lady 
Berkeley is married to Mr. [Philip] Ludwell/ and thinkesno 
more of our world. I shall now marry Cate^ as soone as I 
can, and then shall reckon my self e to be a freeman with- 
out clogge or charge." 

In December, Culpepper reached England. Bacon's 
widow, now the wife of Captain Jarvis, with her husband, 
brought suit in 1681, to obtain a portion of the estate of Sir 
Edward Duke, her father. In his will he wrote that she was 
to have a legacy of £2000, "but if she marry Bacon, void." 
The case was decided against her and the Lord Chancellor 
spoke of "such an example of presumptuous disobedience 
highly meriting such a punishment, she being only prohi- 
bited to marry with one man, by name; and nothing in 

' Philip Ludwell, and his brother, Secretary Thomas Ludwell were grandsons 
of Philip Cottington of Godmanster, Surrey. Their mother's uncle was Francis, 
Lord Cottington, and she was the daughter of James Cottington. Thomas 
Ludwell died in Virginia, but Philip went to England after having been Gov- 
ernor of Carolina, and died near Stratford. His son Philip was a prominent 
citizen of Virginia. 

= His only daughter Catherine, married Thomas the 5th Lord Fairfax, and 
their son, through his mother obtained Leeds Castle in Kent, England, and five 
millions of acres in northern Virginia. The first Fairfax, who came to America 
to reside, was Colonel William.a widower, who settled in Salem, Massachussetts, 
where he married Deborah the daughter of Francis Clarke. He had been Collector 
of Customs, and in 1733, was Justice of the Peace. In 1734, in June, he left Massa- 
chusetts, and went to Virginia as the agent of Lord Fairfax, and built Belvoir, 
near Mount Vernon, a very modest residence, yet at the time one of the best in 
Virginia. It was of brick, and two stories in height. Upon the first floor, were 
four rooms, and a hall, and on the second floor, were five rooms. The sixth 
Lord Fairfax died in 1781, a bachelor, and was buried at Winchester, Virginia. 
His brother Robert, in England, was the seventh Lord, who died childless, and 
then Bryan the son of Col. William and wife Deborah rector of Fairfax pariah, 
Va., became the eighth Lord. The eleventh Lord now living, is John Fairfax 
MD., residing in Maryland, near Washington, D.C. 


the whole fair Garden of Eden would serve her tmii, \mi 
this forbidden fruit." ■ 

The Assembly of June passed a law that no tobacco 
should be shipped before the 20th of March, 1681, and that 
it must be from certain desig:nated landings, but when the 
time arrived ship captains and merchants found tliat no 
warehouses, had been prepared at these places, to shelter the 
tobacco, and no inns for themselves, and they suffered loss 
and inconvenience, and trade was depressed. 

Lord Baltimore on the 19th of July, 1G81, in a letter to 
the Earl of Anglesea, refers to the then condition of Vir- 
ginia, and the sympathy of its Secretary, with Fendall, 
formerly Governor of Maryland. He writes : "This Fen- 
dall has a great influence on, and interest in, most of 
the rascalls in North part of Virginia, where he was for 
some time, when he was forced to absent himselfe from 
Maryland, and at that time I gave notice to Sir Henry 
Chicheley to sett eyes over him, the same notice I gave to 
Coll. Nicholas Spencer, Secretary of Virginia, but I feare 
the latter, (M'tlicr through want of resolution, <n' loyalty, 
did not prevent (what he might) the seditious practices of 
this Rebell, and I may the more boldly affirm this, since 
formerly, and but few days afore my apprehending this fel- 
low, he had openly entertained and cherisht this Rascall in 
his house, which give me cause to be confident that he has 
encouraged Fendall in his designes against Mary Land for- 
getting or (as I suppose) not considering that a defection in 
my government, may raise another Bacon in Virginia, the 
people there being as ripe and leaddy for another Rebellion 
as ever they were, and I know not but one, of the two, I've 


caused to be apprehended, might have served their own 
turne. Mj^ Lord, if his Maj*'" please not to send in some 
Loyall active person to command under Sir Henry Chiche- 
ley (who is now super anuated) very speedily, the govern- 
ment of Virginia will be in danger, I pray God, Secretary 
Spencer be owner of so much loyalty, as to deserve the trust 
and dignity now conferred on him, had I the honor to be one 
houre with your Lordshipp I could give your Lordshipp sat- 
isfaction in some things, relating to His Maj''"' service, which 
I dare not committ to paper in this juncture. I therefor 
humbly begg your Loi'dshipps" pardon for breaking in upon 
you, with this fresh trouble, afore I've expiated the rude- 
nesse of my former address." 

An Assembly met in April, 1682, which after much 
debate, adjourned, without providing any remedy, for the 
excessive production of tobacco. Early in May a number 
of persons banded together, and after destroying their own 
tobacco plants, went to the plantations of their neighbors, 
and cut up their plantings. Acting Governor Chicheley 
took immediate steps to check these riotous proceedings. 
Philemon Lloyd, one of the Council of Maryland, who had 
married the widow of Richard Bennett, Jr., while in Albany, 
attending a Indian conference, in a letter dated June 2.5, 
1682, refers to the disorders, in these words : " The tumul- 
tuous rabble have destroyed my tobacco in four counties, 
computed to be eight or ten thousand h'heads and persists 
notwithstanding ten or twelve have been slain and many 
taken prisoners, yet there was hope y^ that they would be 
fully suppressed in some short time, for y' the Gov' had very 
timely, secured allarmes. The news you heard of S' Henry 
Chicheleys house being burnt is too trew, but my Lord [Balti- 


inoroj iiifonus iiio it was not by thoni, hut by accideat, 
wlioreby S' Henry liad a very groat losse', saving no part of: 
his goods." 

A littlo while after this Ciiicheley, infirm from age but 
respected by all, for his probity, and mildness died. His 
widow Agatha, in the autumn of 1683, visited England, 
under the j)rotection of hor husband's friend, and neighbor, 
Major General Robert Smith. During this summer a Cap- 
tain John Williams, who had seized a two mast vessel in 
Cuba, landed at and visited the Custis plantation, and 
neighborhood in Accomac, and frightened the planters by 
the piratical bearing of his crew, then sailed into Mary- 
land waters and attempted to seize the proprietor, Lord 
Baltimore. The reckless crew proceeded to Connecticut and 
Rhode Island, and were seized by the authorities of the 
latter, and two were sent to Governor Chicheley for trial. 

When the news of the riotous proceedings relative to 
tobacco planting reached England, Culpepper was ordered 
to return to his post as Governor, and was directed to take 
notice o^' his Majesty's resentment of a seditious declaration 
made by the Assembly of Virginia during the government 
of Jeffreys, whereby they asserted " that his Majesty's com- 
missioners having called for and forced from the Clerk of 
the Assembly, all the original journals of the Assembly 
which power they su])posed his Majesty would not grant 
them, for that, they find not the same to have been prac- 
ticed by any of the Kings of England, and did therefore 
take the same to be a violation of their [)rivileges, desirino- 
with all satisfaction to be given them, that they might be 
assured no such violation of tlie privileges should be offered 
for the future." 


While the King was ready to pardon the Burgesses for 
their resolution, he directed Culpepper to express his dis- 
approval thereof, and have it erased from the record, 
and also have a resolution passed at the next Assembly 
declaring the right of his Majesty and officers at their 
pleasure, to call for public records and journals. 

He vt^as also instructed " to administer the oath of alle- 
giance and supremacy to the members and officers of the 
Council and Asseuibly, all judges, and justices, and all 
other persons, that hold any office in the said Colony by 
virtue of any patent under our great seal of England, or 
the public seal of Virginia, and to permit a liberty of con- 
science to all other persons, except Papist, so they be con- 
tented with a quiet peaceable enjoyment of it, not giving 
offence, or scandal to the government." 

Soon after his arrival, he stopped execution against 
John Pleasants, a quiet and peaceable Quaker, indicted in 
Henrico County, under the statute, which imposed a fine of 
twenty pounds for not going to church, and attending a 
conventicle. The tobacco riotors were tried, three were 
hanged, and one pardoned, on condition, that he would 
render service to the public, by building a bridge. 

Culpepper was unpopular and charged with buying up 
piasters, a silver coin of Spain, equivalent to eight reals, at 
the rate of five shillings each, and then, by proclamation, 
declaring the " piece of eight " a legal tender to the amount 
of six shillings. When the soldiers of Sir John Berry's 
regiment were paid for their services, they received the 
"piece of eight" at six shillings, and thus the Governor 
enriched himself. ' 

^' Oldmixou. 


Without permission, he again returned to England, on 
the ground that it was necessary to report in person to the 
crown, hut, the plea was not admitted, and he was de- 
prived of office. 

The Council' under date of May 4, 1683, in a communica- 
tion to the authorities, in England, wrote : " That whereas 
his Majesty had granted all the quit rents of the southern part 
of this Colony, to the Lords Arlington and Culpepper, for a 
certain term of years, that his Majesty would be pleased to 
give those noble lords something in lieu, and appropriate 
the quit-rents and all escheat to the use of the government." 

An arrangement was length concluded by which Culpe])- 
per abandoned all claims, except to a portion of the North- 
ern Neck, aud fo:' the remainder, received an annual pension 
for twenty years, of six hundred pounds. 

Francis. Lord Howard of Effingham, in August, 10S3, 
was appointed Governor, but it was not, until the following 
February, that he reached Virginia. Among other instruc- 
tions, he was directed to see, that no person used a i)rinting 
press.* After a conference with the Council on the 21st of 
February, it was determined to call the Assembly to meet 
on the 16th of April. While it was in session Major Robert 
Beverley was tried before the General Court for being a ring 
leader in creating the disturbances in connection with the 

'Councillors at this time were Robert Smith, Jos. Bridger, Phil. Ludwell, 
Jno. Page, Wm Byrd, Nich. Spencer, Nath. Bacon, VVm. Cole, Ricli. Lee, son 
of the first councillor Kichard Lee. 

'On Feb. 21st, 1683-3, "John Buckner called before Lord Culpepper, and his 
Council, for printing the laws of 1080, witliout his Excellency's licence ; and ho 
and the printer ordered to enter into Bond, in £100, not to print any thing here- 
after, until his Majesty's pleasure shall be known.'' 


illegal cutting of tol)acco plants, and for other misdemean- 
ors. .On the 11th of May, 1682, he had been arrested under 
a warrant from Governoi* Chicheley, and placed on board the 
ship " Duke of York," John Purvis, commander, and on 
Saturday evenin.^ the 13th, he demanded as a free born sub- 
ject of England, to be informed as to the charge upon which 
he had been committed. On the last day of this month, he 
was transferred t<^ the ship "Concord," Capt. William 
Jeffreys, and in the middle of June, he was placed on board 
of a sloop belonging to Colonel Custis, to be taken to the 
Eastern shore to be delivered to the sheriff of Nortbaaipton 
County. He escaped from the sloop, but was again seized 
at his house in Middlesex, and brought before the Governor 
and Council at Jamestown. In Septeuiber he petitioned by 
his attorney William Fitzhugh for a habeas corpus to be 
directed to the sheriff of Northampton, which was denied, 
as Lord Culpepper was expected. On January 10th, 1682-3 
he was charged with having refused as clerk to deliver 
copies of the journal of the House of Burgesses, of 1682, to 
the Lt. Governor and Council without the leave of his mas- 
ters, the members of the Assembly. In May, 1684, he was 
fouad guilty of high misdemeanors, and was pardoned, 
having presented the following, on bended knees, to the 
Governor, and Council, sitting as a Court. 

'To his Excellencie ffrancis Lord Howard Baron of 
Effingham, his Majesties Lieut, and Governor General of 
Virginia, and to the honorable Councell of State. 

"Robert Beverley most humbly presenting, sheweth, 
" That the true sence of his misfortunate offenses hath 
brought him to that degree of compunction, that hee is 


under an unexpresible sorrow for the same which is much 
augmented, by the consideration that hee should soe incon- 
siderately forfeited that esteem for the government, that he 
had with the often hazard of liis life endeavored to purchase, 
and which had been gratiously laid upon him beyond his 
deserts, the weight of which consideration is enough to 
smite liim into an abysse of dispair ; but that, the hope 
hee hath, that hee shall not miss that mercy which is most 
obviously inherent, and an inseparable concomitant in your 
lordshipps noble breast, and those of the honorable his 
majesties councell of state, here not only buoys him up, and 
withholds him from perishing in that gulph, but also gives 
him confidence most humbly to address himselfe to your 
excellency and the honorable court to looke upon him with 
an indulgent eye, lying at the foot of your justice, and 
most humbly imploring your mercy; this my Lord, is the 
only way he hath to approach your Lordship by the free 
confession of his offences, and true repentance his heart is 
filled with, not without almost an assured liopo, that it will 
meet with a benigne reception in your lordships merceful 
heart, because the Kings of Kings and Lords of Lords is well 
pleased that the prayers, tears,and true iv|)(>iii,aiice of every 
sinner should reach his blessed throno, even to the expi- 
ation of their sins, and re- establishment in grace. 

" Your lordship hath been gratiously pleased to assign 
councell for this your sorrowful petitioner to make his de- 
fence in law; but he is resolved not to make use of any 
meanes, either to vindicate himself, oi- to exterminate his 
crimes, but most humbly to tln-ow himselfe upon the mercy 
of your lordshi]) and tlie court, which if your lordship shall 
be pleased to extend towards him all the days of his life, shall 


be spent in the study to expiate his guilt, and truly and 
faithfully to serve his most gratious sovereign in a ready 
and most willing obedience to your lordships and the 
councell's commands with the last drop of his blood, and 
shall most heartily pray for a long and happy reigne to his 
most excellent majestie, and health, honoi", and prosperity 
for your lordshipp, and the councell. 
" May 3, 1684. " Robert Beverley." 

While the Assembly was in session Lord Howard re- 
ceived a visit from Charles, Lord Baltimore, on his return 
from Maryland to England, and Col. Philip LudwelP now 
the husband of Lady Berkeley, came back from his visit to 
London. During the month of June a letter writer men- 
tioned that Governor Howard was going to New York in 
the "Quaker ketch" to pass the warm season, and that the 
merchants Kennon and Pleasants had received ' ' thirty-four 
negroes, seven or eight tuns of rum, and sugar, and dry 
goods for sale." During the summer Lady Berkeley was 
very ill, and after this little mention of her is found in the 
chronicles of the period.^ 

Among the older families, there was much talk, in Janu- 
ary, 168i-5, concerning the unexpected marriage of the 
widow Grendon, the sister of the second Thomas Stegge, 

' R. R. in Va. Hist. Register, Vol 1, p. GO. mentious that Ludwell was a 
widower, with two daughters aud a son, when he married tlie widow of Gov- 
ernor Berkeley. The usual statement is that he had a son and daugliter by the 
widow Berkeley. 

» Nicholas Bacon the elder, and for a time acting governor, in his will made in 
March, 1691-2 (O. S.) left her his riding horse, and ten pounds sterling. In May 
1880, the writer found at Jamestown, a portion of the stone, which was placed 
over her grave, and all of the inscription left was " Lady Frances Berkeley." 


and aunt of Capt. William Byrd, founder of Rich- 
mond, " to one Mr. Edward Brain," writes her nephew, 
*' a stranger to all, here, but pretends to be worth money, 
if not, the old woman may thank herself." 

During this year a party of fifty roaming Seneca Indians 
from New York were met within a few miles of Westover. 
Trade in negroes was rapidly increasing, while Governor 
Berkeley reported in 1671, not more than two thousand 
black slaves, the number now was doubled.' 

Howard of Effingham had not been long in office, when 
Charles the Second, was taken sick. The King after re- 
ceiving the Sacrament, from a priest of the Church of 
Rome, with one of his mistresses weeping, by his bed-side, 
and with thoughts of another, whispering " Do not let poor 
Nelly, starve," in February, 1085, died."" 

' Governor Spotswood in 1713, estimated nej^roes and other servants, above six- 
teen years of age aa more than 13,000 and (loveruor Dinwiddle in 1756, estimated 
the entire negro population at 120,150 nearly as many as the whites, which was 
supposed to be 173,316. 

' Green's History of Eufjland. 




Page 13. 

The tobacco trade, as early as 1621, was a source of revenue to James the 
First, King of England, as will be seen from the following correspondence of 
Lionel Cranfield, the Lord Treasurer, with Marquis of Buckingham. 

" Chelsey July 31, 1021- The King's rent of £15,500 for tobacco, is in danger 
to be lost, or at beat, to decliua much, and all the money spent about the planta- 
tions of Virginia and Burmothes will be lost, if there be not some present course 
taken to restrain the planting of tobacco, liero in England." 

" December 4, 1621. 

" I have agreed with the farmers of tobacco for this year, for £8000, and have 
told theiu to bring in bat three score thousand weight, and have left the Vir- 
ginia,and 15 )ur ;io.)the3, free to bringin ^thout restraint, and his Majesty to have 
the benetii ot the impost. * * * * This is £2000 more than could be gotten 
by the Lords at Hampton Court ***** The Virginia and Burmoothea 
Company have no reason to complain, there being no restraint, but they left to 
free trade." 

Page 20. 

Capt. John Martin, councillor. At a meeting of the Virginia Company of 
London, held on February 3, 1622-3 ; "Sr John Brooke moued the Court in the 
behalfe of Capt. John Martin, that they would please accordinge to my Lord of 
South'tons promise, to graunt him a Patent with as ample priuileges as hath bin 
graunted to his L'p, or any other ancient Aduenturer, and that his shares of 
laud menconed in his former Patent, or shall become due for traus[)orlacon of 
p'sons at his charge may be laide out in Martin Braudon, well request the Court 
agreed imto hauinge alwaies otfered as much unto him. 

'' But whereas Captaine Martin moued that he might haue therewith those 
Swamps and bogga as lay neare thereabout, wch for keepinge of his Swyne 


The Court made liiin Auusweare that he must be contented to take his due pro- 
porcon of land together, as it shall fall out in that place of Martin Brandon of 
well as he saith, he was formerly possessed." 

Page 23. 
" The Coppie op Abraham Peirsey his Will. 

P. R. O. ~) In the name of God Amen, I Abraham Peirsey of Peirsey's hundred 
Colonial I Egquire^ being sicke in bodie but in perfect memory thankes be to 
Vol "VIII ' *^® Everlasting God I doe by these presents ordeyne constitute and 
no. 5. 1. J make this my last will and testament. First, I bequeath my 
soule unto my heavenly Father my Creator hopinge and surelie trustiuge that 
by the meritts of his sonne Jesus Christ that all my sinns are wholelie and 
cleerlie washed away by the deer blood of my Saviour Christ Jesus, and that 
after this life I shall sett in glory with his Angells and for my corporall bodie I 
bequeath that to the earth from whence it came to be decentlie buryed with out 
any pompe or vayne glorie in the garden plott where my new frame doth stand. 

Secondlie, I ordayne and appointe my deare and well beloved wife Francis 
Peirsey to be my absolute and sole executrix and also I doe earnestlie entreate 
my welbeloved frends Mr. Grevill Pooly Mynisler and Mr. Richard Kingsmill 
of James Citty Island gentelmen to be my overseers in Virginia and to bee as 
helpetuU and aydinge unto my executrix in all things to the uttermost of theire 
power which she shall stand in need of your helpes. 

Thirdlie, I would have all my debtes both in Virginia and England to be 
paid as shall appeare by bond bill or by other good proofe in the lawe which I 
will sett downe in a sceduU what debts in tobaccoes I owe & what is oweinge 
me. And further I ordeyne and appoynT my deare and welbeloved friend Mr. 
Delionell Russell of London Merchant to be another of my overseers for all busi- 
nesses whatsoever doth coucerne my executrix in England for the debts in Eng- 
land you shall receave from me a scedull thereof. 

Fourthlie, I ordeyne and appoyut my executrix to make sayle of all my land 
housinge and other buildings whatsoever now doth or hereafter shall belonge 
to the aforesaid Abraham Peirsey either by purchase or by patent for men which 
I the said Abraham Peirsey have transported upon my owue charge and also 
so much land as is due to me for divers servaunts which hath beene transported 
by me Abraham Peirsey sence my goeinge for England which was in the begin- 
ninge of March 1630, of which servants I have not taken upp one footc of land 
for the men theire will appere how many there be for the women about eight. 
Also I will and ordeyne my executrix to make sayle of all the estate I the said 
Abraham hath in Virginia as namelie Servaunts cattle Hoggs corne tobacco 
and all other kinde of goods moveables or housell stuffe or chattels whatsoever 
which did nowe or at any tyme belonge to me Abraham Peirsey and that my 


executrix shall witliin two monthes after my decease d(;livcr up to the Governor 
and counsi-ll a true Inventoiie in upon her oath of all my estate soe left as afore 
said and then my executrix sliall imeadiatelie goi^ about with the helpe of the 
overseers aforesaid nmke saile of all the estate as aforesaid to llie profitt it can 
be sould for. And heinge soe don I beijueathe as a legacye uiy debt l)eiu<r paid 
unto my sister Judalh Smitheson in En<flan(l twenty pounds sterlinffe in money 
unto my brother John Peirsey twenty pounds sterlinpfe in money yf he be live- 
inge further I doe bequeath unto my two overseers Mr. Poly Mynister and Mr. 
Kintrsmill unto each of them for their paynes the sum of tliree hundred pounds 
of the best tobacco which maKeth six hundred pounds of the best tobacco to be 
paid unto them by my executrix when all my estate shall be brought into 
tobacco or money or both or else within eighteene mounthes after my death Also 
I bequeath as a legacie unto my deere friend in En^rland .Mr. Delionell Russell 
merchant the some of thirty i)ounds sterliuge to be i)ai(l him by my executrix 
within the space of two years for his i)aynes which he is to take- in the behalfe 
of my executrix and my childrens estuto wiiicii I should disnose unto them nol- 
withstandinge he is lo have factoridge for all busines comingo to his liands. 

Also I bequeath unto Nathaniell West sonne unto my deare beloved wife 
Francis Peirsey the some of Twenty pounds steilinge money when he shall 
attayne the age of twenty-one yeares and not afore. Further I bequeath unto 
my dearelie beloved wife beinge ray sole executrix my debts and legacies paid 
one-third part and one-twelfth part out of my estate aforesaid the other one- 
third part one-sixth part and one twelfth part of my estate remaynlnge I be- 
queath it to Elizabeth Peirsey and Mary Peirsey my daughters equally to be 
devised betwixt them within one yeare and a halfe after ray decease to be con- 
signed to Mr. Russell merchant as aforesiid in the; best merchauntable tobacco 
for the use of my two children as aforesaid or else ray executrix to make the 
said sorae good as aforesaid in the best tobacco out of her owne estate and that 
my two daughters aforesaid shall have sulBcient divtt lodge! nge washinge and 
apparell unto theire portions aforesaid bo paid over unto .\Ir. Russell and they 
sliipped carefully for England and to Mr. Russell the charges to goe out of their 
porconsand if either of my foresaid daughters doth marry without the consent of 
theire Mother in lawe and the consent of Mr. Deliou.^ll Russell both had togeather 
if it be possible lo be had then for such account the other sister shall enjoy halfc 
the porcon soe not otFending for better preferment but and if they both shall soe 
olleud in that kindc then my will is that they shall have but halfe of the por 
cons before resiled and the other to goe to my brother Jrjhu Peirsey, yf any of 
my daughters should die before they attayne to be married my will is that the 
one should be heire to the other my will is that my children should remayne ie 
the custody of my deare friend -Mr. Russell till they be marricKl and that theire 
porcons to be put forth to good men u;ion securitie for tl«ire mayntenaunce. 
Thus not doubtlnge that my deare wife Francis Peirsey my full and ai)solute 
executrix and my two overseers before mentioued will doe theire best endeavours 


for accomplisliinge this my last will and testament written under my owns liand 
this first day of Marcli 1636 [26 -7, 0. S.] and hereunto have fixed my seale and 
subscribed my name the day and yeare above written. 

Abraham Peirsey, 
Witnesses hereunto 
Qrenville Pooly 
Vera copia 

Ben Harryson 

Ck Con. 

Page 39. 

Jabez Whitacre of the Council of 1626, was probably the brother of Alexan- 
der, the devoted clergyman at Henrico who about the year 1617, was drowned. 
The second wife of William Wliitacreor Whitalierthe head of Saint John's 
College, Cambridge, and father of Alexander, soon after husband's death, gave 
birth to a son, who was christened Jabez. Soe Athenm Cantahrigienses, Cam- 
bridge, 1861. 

Page 69. 

The ministers of the lower parish of the Accomac County were first Francis 
Bolton. The next of whom we have any account is William Cotton, whose 
mother lived in Bunbury, Cheshire, England. He was a brother-in-law of Wil- 
liam Stone the first Protestant Governor of Maryland. He had great trouble in 
collecting his tythes, and in proceedings instituted in court in 1634, for the re- 
covery of them, is the following: "John Waltham aged 24, Randall Reuell 21 
yeares & John Ford 25 yeares therabouis, sworue and examined say that they 
heard Henry Charlton say that if had had Mr. Cotton without the Church yeard 
he would have kict him ouer the Pallysados calling of him, black cotted ras- 
koll. Upon the Complaynt of Mr. Cotton ag'st the s'yd Charleton, and the 
depositions aboue expressed it is ordered that the s'yd Charleton shall for the 
s'yd oifence byuld a pare of stocks, and sitt in them three seuerall Sabouth days 
in the time of Dyvine Seruis, and there aske Mr. Cotton forgiueness. " 

The same yeaiv a babbling woman, see page 294, was dragged in King's 
Creek behind a canoe, and then obliged to go to Mr. Cotton's church, and con- 
fess her sin. There was no formal organization of a vestry in Accomac until 
16:}5, and in September a parsonage was ordered to be erected, of wood, 40 feet 
wide and 18 feet deep, and 9 feet to the valley, with a chimney at each end, and 
upon eacli side a room, one for a study, and the other for a " buttery." 

Cotton died in 1640. and his successor was John Rozier. One of the colonists 
in his will calls hift his " dear and respected friend," and John Holloway a 
physician bequeaths to him a folio Greek Testament. Nathaniel Eaton the first 
Principal of Harvard, when he fled from Cambridge, Massachusetts, came to 


Accomac, and for a time assisted Rozier in ministerial duties. Thomas Palmer 
Bucceeded Rozier, and John Armourier was the next minister of the parisli and 
he was followed as early as 1051, by Thomas Higby who married tlie widow o^ 
John Wilkins, vestryman. Before 1655, Higby died, and Francis Doufrhty, a 
brother-in-law of Governor Stone and non-conformist, is called in 1656, in the will 
of Ann, the widow of Col. Nathaniel Littleton, " Minister and Preacher of ve 
word, in this parish" now in Nortliampton County. On June 8, 1657, Doughty 
issued the following: " To all xtian people to whome this present wrightinge 
shall come. 

" Knowe yee that whereas there is a marriage to bee had and soleumized be- 
tween me ffrancis Doughty of Northampton County in Virginia & Ann Eaton 
of ye same County, and yt the s'd ffrancis Doughty may by virtue of marriage 
haue or expect to haue a right or interest " in her estate, "do disowue and dis- 
charge all right, to her estate, and to her children." 

It is thought that the widow was the second wife of Nathaniel Eaton whom 
he had deserted, when he went to England. 

When Governor Berkeley fled to A<!feomac, another non-conformist was 
preacher in the lower parish, as the following correspondence indicates 

*' Whereas Mr. Daniel Richardson o'r late minister, for want of orders, was 
found not orthodox, and therefore hired him from yeareto yeare ( to supply the 
place of ^linister so farr as the Lawes of England and this Countrey could make 
him capable) until wee could supply ourselves with an able, orthodox divine. 
And forasmuch as ilr. Isaac Key did present whom wee find very able and 
worthy wee of the Vestry & subscribers hereof doe certifyc unto yor Honor that 
at a vestry the 8th day of May last past did discharge the said Richardson from 
his said ministry as may fully appear by an order of the said Vestry there made, 
And have since made choice of the said Mr. Isaac Key for o'r minister who hath 
accepted, and most willingly ^3 remised to serve. Wherefore wee hereby request 
yor Honor's confirmacon by Inducting him into this o'r parish as minister, And 
yor Bupplycants shall ever pray. 

John Stringer 
William Kendall 
William Waters. 
John Robins 
James Pigot " 

"To which, Governor Berkeley, assents, in these wcjrds: This worthy learned 
Gent. Mr. Key is soe we!l knowne to me, that I am most certaine you will be 
happy in haueinge soe deeeruing a person to officiate to you & aduise and com- 
fort you in all yor spirtuall wants and necessityes, and I doe require that he bee 
immediately Inducted 
Nov. 18, 1676. William Berkeley." 

Richardson was living in 1680, in Somerset County, Maryland. 


Page 71. 

Clieue Boise or Cheney Boys was probably a relative of Capt. Isaac Bar 
grave, the first person with Captain Ward, in 1618, to establish a private planta- 
tion in Virc^inia. Doctor Bargrave, Dean of Canterbury, was the brother of 
Isaac and the successor of John Boys in the Deanery who had married his sister. 
In the first Legislative Assembly of Virginia, in 1619, was a John Boys, and 
Cheney was no doubt a member of the same family. In Ilotten's " Muster of 
1625," Chene Boise is recorded as Chyna Boj'se, living at Charles City, and then 
26 years of age, and as having' arrived in May, 1617, in the "George." 

Page 79. 

Reference is not to Gusman the Spanish Spy, as mentioned on page 79, but to 
the hero of the Spanish romance by Mateo Alemon of Seville, called Guzman 
de Alt'arache the Rogue. 

It was translated into English, by James Mabbe, a graduate of Oxford, Sec- 
retary to Sir John Digby afterwards Earl of Bristol, when on an embassy to 
Spain. The following entries are in the Registers of Stationers' Hall. Under 
date of Februarj'- 28, 1G20-1, was entered. " A booke called the first part of the 
life of Gusman of Alfarach written in Spain by Matthew Alemau, and trans- 
lated into English by J. M : provided it is not to be printed unless translation 
be allowed," 

Under dale of August 21, 1622, was entered " A booke called The Second 
part of the life of Gusman de Aliarach by Matthew Aleman" Ben Jonsoh in 
some verses tipon the translation writes. 

" For the' Spaine gave him his first care and vogue 
He would be called hereafter, the English Rogue." 

The hero of the romance begins his career as a scullion in Madrid, then be- 
came an errand boy, steals and hides himself in Toledo, when he acts the gen- 
tleman, then returns to Madrid and cheats his creditors. 

Page 81. 

Gov. Winthrop of Massachusetts was informed on April 30, 1681, by his son 
in Loudon, that a contract had been made with Capt. Claiborne then in that 
city to bring grain to Boston, and he mentions that " the ship that bringeth it 
wch is the " Africa," whereof, Capt. Cleyborne is commander. 

In the proceedings of Accomac Court, under date of May 4, 1635, appears the 
following: " Were you Richard Thompson with Capt. Wm. Clay borne in the 
ship called the " Affrica " at the post of Susquehanna in the Bay of Chesapioque 
about September in the year 1631 ?"' 

Thompson then 23 years of age, replied that he was not in the ship, but in a 
boat, at the post. " a littell before the fall of the leaffe " and did see Capt. Cla - 
borne trading with the Indians 


Paoe 8-,'. 

Danifil, Wroiher of Sir Vincent Oookin, was umrried in IGOO.toMary, daughter 
of Ricliard Hird. His 8on Daniel was born ia 1G12, and about 1G;J9, lie was 
ninrricd a second time, to Mary Dollinu: of St. Supulchro'.s Parish, London, aged 
about 21 years. After her death he married llanuali, who was a widow Savage, 
and daughter of Edward Tyug of Massachusetts. Upon February 1, 1(3)30. Daniel 
(iookin, Junior, conveys to Thomas Addison, late servant of Daniel his father, 
150 acres above Newport News, at the place called " Marie's Mount " 

Page 90. 

Charles Harmar also written llarmer, by following the careless transcription 
of Hoiten, appears ia this volume as Harman was the son of John Harmar, 
Warden of Winchester. He was an enterprising planter at Magotliy Bay of the 
Eastern Shor<;, and a prominent man. When only twenty-four years of age, he 
came, in 1622, in the ship " Furtherance," to Virginia. His brother John, born at 
Chursdon, Gloucestershire, was a graduate ai Magdalene College, Oxford, and a 
distinguished scholar and clergyman, having translated into Greek and Latin 
the Westminster Catechifcm. In 1653, ho delivered an address at Oxford, to 
Oliver Cromwell, and by the influence of Richard Cromwell, in 1659, was 
chosen Greek professor, but lost the professorship, after the return of Charles 
the Second. 

Charles Harmar in 1635, entered land because of the transportation of eight 
negroes, and the following white servants: Evan Jones, Tliomas Cole, James 
Courtney, Lazarus Manning, Thomas Davis, Ricliard Wyett, John Symons, Rich- 
ard Newton, Elizabeth Burnett, Rebecca Slaughter, Mary «.'hest. He died before 
A. D. 1644, as 150 acres were granted on the 17th of September of this year to 
Eliza, daughter and heir to said Charles Harmar, and on May 1, 1654, this land 
was assigned by Thomas Harmar the son of Dr. John the Greek professor, who 
calls himself the heir of Eliza Harmar, to Nathaniel Littleton. 

In the Northampton County Records the widow of Charles Harmar is said to 
have married a Captain Littleton. 

Obedience Robins, born A. D. 1601, Wiis with Charles Harmar, a member in 
1632, ofthe first County Court of Accomac, and was abrotiier of Richard of North- 
amjitonshire, and of Edward a merchant in Accomac. His name and associations 
seem to indicate that he was of Puritan affinities. His wife was the widow of 
Edward Waters, one of the two ship-wrecked persons, who in 1610, refused to 
leave the Bermudas, with Sir Thomas Gates and Sir Geo. Somers, being pleased 
with the island. In 1618, the ship "Diana" arrived at the Bermudas and among 
the passengers was Grace O'Neil then a girl sixteen years old. She became the 
wife of Waters and they then removed to Elizabeth Citj', now Hampton, Vir- 
ginia, where their first child, William was born, who became an active citizen 
of Northampton County. Before A.D., 1628, Edward Waters died, and his 



widow married Obedience Robins. In February, 1638, William Cotton, minister 
of the parish, complained to the Accomac Court, that Robins had refused to 
issue warrants for the minister's tithes. 

Edward Robins, merchant in Accomac and brother of Obedience died in July, 
1641, and his daughter Rachel married Richard Beard, and Elizabeth became the 
wife of William Burgess. After William Stone of Northampton became its first 
Protestant Governor, Beard and Burgess removed to Maryland. Beard made 
the first map of Annapolis and belonged to the people "in scorn called Quakers,'* 
and Burgess was in sympathy with Cromwellians at least, for a period. Jane 
the wife of George Puddington a member of the Maryland Assembly, from Ann 
Arundel Count}^ in 1650, was a sister-in-law of Obedience Robins. Mountjoy 
Evelin, the second son of George formerly of Kent Island, Maryland, married in 
1653, Dorothy the third child of Obedience and Grace Robins. 

Thomas Higby the then minister, was complained of by Obedience Robins 
because he had abused him. Probably Robins, had as in 1633, been negligent as 
to the minister's tithes, he died in 1662, but his widow Grace lived twenty 
years longer. 

Page 97. 

William Cotton, minister, on October 25, 1634, complained to Accomac Court, 
that the administrator of Capt. John Stone, deceased, had not paid tithes. 

Page 121. 

Among the Records of Northampton County, Va., is the following order from 

" The Marylanders have taken my pinnace the Jjong Tayle with her company 
and some others of my men trading in other places ; Philip Taylor go to Patow. 
meeks and Patuxent. Given at Kent, eleventh of May, 1635." 

In subsequent years Jane, the widow of Philip Taylor, married William Elton- 
head of Maryland. Taylor, in 1635, was 24 years of age. 

Page 128. 

Francis Pott, and his nephew John, in 1647, had a plantation at Magothy Bay, 
and in 1654, a Francis Pott was sheriff of Northampton County. 

Page 135. 

Bawl MS., A. 271/0.30. 
A CoppY OF Dn. Coxe's Title he Claimes in Nokfpolk County. 

This indenture made the 22d Jany Anno Dom : 1637, and in ye 13th year of or 
Sou'r : Lord Charles by ye Grace of God King of Eugland, Scotland firance & 
Ireland Defender of ye faith, &c. , Between Sr. John Harvey Knt, Gou'r for ye 
time being of the Colony of Virginia with ye Consent of ye Councel of State of 
ye same, on ye one part, and the Rt. Honble Henry Lord Matravers of ye other 

API END IX, 411 

part WITNESSETH that whereas it hath pleased the King's most excellent inajtie 
by hifl royal lotterB bearing date ye 11th day of April in ye 13th year of his 
Majts reign to autliorizo& coinand nie yo sd Sr. John Harvey vvth ye sd Counce 
to assign & sell unto ye sd Henry Lord Matravers & his heiros for euer a compe- 
tent tract of Land in yo Southern part of ye Colony to beare a name of a 
County &, be called ye County of Norfolk upon such conditions for ye time & 
manner of planting it as shall be found requisit for ye General good of ye 
Colony, and wth such powers and priviledges aH may be fitt for a person of his 
quality, Reserueingto his majtiehis heiros & successors ye yearly rent 20*. to be 
paid by ye sd Lord Matravers «& his heires for ye said County. 

Now Know yee that ye bd Sr. Jolm iliuvcy Ivnt. Govr. &('apt. Gentt of 
Virginia wth the Consent of yo sd Coiuicel of State By virtue of his majt's said 
royal Letters to me & ye sd Councel directed, and in Consideration of ye under- 
taking of the said Henry Lord Matravers to transport at his own Costs and 
charges & to settle & plant diners Inhabitants in ye Colony for ye advancemt. 
& General good of ye Plantation Ilaue Granted allotted assigned & confirmed 
ye said Henry Lord Matravers & his heires for euer a certaine Territory & Tract 
of Land situate Lying & being on the southern side of James River in the Branch 
of ye sd River hereafter to be called Matravers River, towards the head of ye sd 
Nanziraum ats Matravers River being bounded from that part of Nanziinum 
River ats Matravers River where it diuides it self into Branches one degree in 
Longitude on either side of ye River and in Latitude to ye heigiit of 35 Degrees 
Northerly Latitude by ye name and appellation of ye County of Norfolk. And 
further I ye said Sr. John Harvey Knt. wth tlie consent of ye sd Councel do 
grant & agree to and wth ye sd Heury Lord Matravers & his heires that when 
he or they haue i)lanted& peopled ye aboue menconed tract of Laud hereby to 
him (Si his heirs assigned & appointed that then it shall be lawfull for him ye sd 
Lord ^latriivtrs or his heires to make clioice of & to enter into & haue as 
much more Land in Virginia as is herein contained. With ye same & ye like pri 
viledges to bo had & chosen in such place & places where no English shall be 
then settled or Inhabitted or haue made choice of & the same granted to them 
either by Patent or order of Court to haue and to hold ye aboue men- 
coned Tract of Land according to ye Limits & bounds thereof as also all «& singular 
the Lands to be chosen as aforesaid with their & euery of their appurtces with 
all mines, as well Koyal mines of Gold k silver as oilier Mines & ^linerals 
woods thshings ffowlings waters Rivers & all other profits comodities & heredi- 
tamts whatsoeuer wth in ye prcincts of ye aforeed Territory or tract of Land as 
to the aforesd Lands to be chosen unto ye sd Henry Lord Matravers & his heirs 
for euer. In as large & ample manner any Grants haue hereto fore been made to 
any adventurers or undertakers whatsoeuer, eitiier by ye Late treasurer & Com- 
pany or at at any time since To be held of o'r sd Sou'r Lord the King 
his heirs & Successors as of his mannor of East Greenwich in free «t comon 
Soccage by fealty, and not in Capito nor by Kuts seruice. Yielding 
& paying unto our said Sou'r Lord ye iving his heires and SucceBsrs lor euer 


one-fifth part of ye said ore ye Mines of Gold & Silver which shall be found 
within ye limits of ye sd Tract of Laud & County of Norfolk and ye Lands 
to be chosen and taken up as aforesd And likewise yieldinfy & paying 
unto or sd Sou'r Lord the King his heires k Successrs for ye sd Comity of 
Norfolk the yearly Rent of 20. shill at ye feast of St. Michael ye Archangel unto 
ye hands of his Majts Treasurer of Virginia to begin after ye expiration of ye 
first seuen yeares after ye date hereof and further it shall be lawfuU to «& for ye sd 
Henry Lord Matravers or his heires his or their tenants «& seruauts & such as he 
or they shall contract with or send or Imploy for ye sd County to go and return 
trade & traffick wth ye Natives or otherwise within ye Limitts of ye Colony 
Also to Import & transport their goods & merchandizes at their will and pleas- 
ures paying only such duties to ye Kings Majts heires & Successrs as ye sd late 
treasurer h Company did, or ought to haue paid (vizt.) five pounds per cent for 
all imported Goods & five pounds per cent : for all Exported Goods wth out any 
other taxes imposicons, burdens or Restraints upon them to be Imposed other- 
wise than by ye Grant or Consent by Grand Assembly of ye General Colony of 
Virginia & for ye publick necessary seruice thereof And It is further granted & 
agreed that ye persons to be transported shall not be taken away nor comanded 
either by ye Gov'r for ye time being of Virginia or any other Authority there, 
from the business «& employmt of ye sd Henry Lord JIatrauers or his heires & 
others contracted with & employed as aforesd upon any pretence whatsoeuer 
(necessary defence of ye Country, Preseruation of ye peace suppressing tumults 
ariseing wthin ye Land & tr3rals in matters of Justice in Criminal Cases of life & 
death, or in civil Laws by appeal only excepted) And ye sd Sr Jno Harvey with 
the Consent of ye Councel aforesd do further agree to & with ye sd Henry Lord 
Matravers & his heires that It shall be LawfuU to & for ye sd Henry Lord 
Matravers & his heires to make & Ordaine such Officers & Coraanders, Also to 
name k, fFrarae such Orders Ordinances & constitutions from time to time for ye 
Rule & Govormnt. Ordering & directing of all persona to be transported & set- 
tled within ye sd County so that ye sd Orders Ordinances & constitutions be not 
repugnant to ye Laws of England or to the particular Laws of the Colony as to 
such Orders and Instructions as shall be from time to time directed from ye 
King Majistie or from ye Lords of his Majts most Honble privy Councel to the 
Govern 'r & Councel in Virginia (ordinary appeals to ye Court at James City held 
by the Governs and Councel only Excepted) and the sd Lord Matravers for him 
& his heires doth Coveu't & agree so & wth ye sd Govr & Councel that he or they 
shall & will with in ye lime or terme of seuen yeares from ye date hereof plant & 
secure with a sufficient strength of people the said County of Norfolk herein by 
these presents Granted And further that ye sd Henry Lord Matravers or his 
heires shall from time to time dureing the said seven yeares make or cause to be 
made a true Certificate to the Governour & Councel in Virginia for the time 
being of euery person transported and Landed in Virginia or shipped for Virginia 
and dying before arrival to be entered by his Majts Secretary in Virginia in the 


Court Rolls kept at James City. In witness whereof I the said Sr. John 
Harvey Knight, Govern'r haue to the one part of these present Indentures sett 
his hand and the seal of the Colony and to the other part tliereof the said Henry 
Lord Matravers hath sett to his hand and seal. 

Page 136. 

George Ludlow on February 20, 1642-3 gave a deed for a house to Argall 
Yeardley, and Nathaniel Eaton the minister, and formerly of Harvard College, 
Cambridge, Mass., was one of the witnesses, see Northampton County Records. 

Roger Ludlow who came to Virginia in 1654, was a brother of George, and 
there was another brother Gabriel, whose children were in England. George 
Ludlow of York County, and parish, became a member of the Council in Vir- 
ginia in 1642, and in IGDo, not long before his death was a member of that 

In his will, he gives legacies to the children of Roger, his l)rother, namely, 
Jonathan, Joseph, Roger, Anne, Mary and Sarah. The codicil to his will was 
dated October 28, 1655, and the children are called minors. Jonathan was at 
that time in Dublin, Ireland, where resided Nathaniel Brewster, a minister, one 
of the first graduates of Harvard, whose wite was a Sarah Ludlow, probably 
the sister of George and Roger. Sarah Ludlow supposed to have been the 
daughter of Roger, was the last wife of John Carter of Virginia, and her son 
Robert, born in 1661, was the large slave holder known as King Carter. 

Colonel Daniel Park, Jr., married a Miss Ludlow of Green Spring. Col. 
George Ludlow in his will, an abstract of which is given by H. F. Waters in 
N. E. Hist. Gen. Register for July, 1886, bequeaths to George, the son of Col. 
William Bernard, his great silver tankard with his arms on it, and to George, 
son of Capt. Richard Webster, of Jamestown, a silver tankard that had been 
brought in 1655, by Mr. Bowler. At the time the will was made, there was 
living at his house in York Parish, a Rebecca Hurst in liie capacity of house- 
keeper or privileged servant, whom his nephew Tlio'.nas, son of Gabriel, pro- 
posed to marry, and it is provided that if he curries out his intention, all 
bequeathed to him shall go to Jonathan, son of George. 

Page 142. 

Before going to Maryland Capt. William Hawley as early as A.D. 1044, lived 
in Northampton County, Virginia. 

Vm-.-e. 144. 

Until the year 1635, there had been no formal organization of a church vestry 
in Acoomac County. William Cotton whose mother, Joane, r.-sidcd at Bnnbury 
in Cheshire, England, was then, minister, and after his death, in 1640, John 
Rozier, became the preacher, and was a respectable person. Rozier employed 
Nathaniel Eaton as an assistant, and owing to a diflereuce between them, 


Nathaniel Littleton, Obedience Robins, John Neale, and John Gookin were 
appointed arbitrators, and they on March 28, 1642-3, decided that Rozier should 
pay six hundred pounds of tobacco to Eaton ; and that the next year the vestry 
should pay him that amount. Eaton left in 1646, and that there is record of a 
suit brought in January, 1 046-7, against the estate of Nathaniel Eaton, Clerk, 
that is clericus, clergyman. See Note to Page 69. 

Page 149. 

Abstract of George Donne's Essay " Virginia Eeviewed" among the Harleian 
Manuscripts 7021, fol. 289, in the British Museum. 

It begins " Most sacred and most gracious Sir : The Benefitts they are greate. 
The blessings wherewith yor People have beene fedd since yor possession of 
yor inheritance ye Crowne are to all tSfations an Admiartion (admiration) with 
an Envy. Peace and plenty setled in the trueth of Religion, flourishing by the 
Establishment of an Empire." After a few more fulsome sentences, several 
pages are devoted to " a search into antiquities for succession of their names 
who first by land, and afterwards by Sea attended as well their labours, by 
conquering, as their diligence by opening unknowne Countries." 

The essay then gives four reasons for the discovery of new countries, and the 
foundation of colonies, namely " Enlargement of the Church, employment of 
shipps, maintenance of artificers & mariners, & increase of treasure to King 
and Kingdom." 

Twenty-one reasons are then given why Virginia " hath undergone a disre- 
puted fame." There is then considered the danger of surprisal by the Spaniards 
and the defence of the colony. Next the duties of Governors of Colonies are 
pointed out, and the proper kind of immigrants described. In this connection 
follows the criticism upon New England which appears on pages 148, 149 of 
this volume. Maryland is then praised for its fertility and Lord Baltimore com- 
mended for " siding with our endeavors in Virginia." 

The author in concluding the essay " his first presumption & yery likely his 
last " writes : 

•' Concerning one chief poynt why I ouely undergoe a censure by Entrance on 
the buisiness of Virginia after soe manie interested in it, since the first Planta- 
tion why I alone should seeme to bee wise, whilse others more instructed keep 
silence, I pleaded by way of answere, as did one, long since, in Salust. Those 
things they heard, or read, I p'sonally have seene, and done what they have 
learned by Information, I have tryed by action, and experience, beinge soe 
much the more capable of what I p'sent as deeds and proofs are before words 
and intimations *****! have submitted these few papers to yor 
Majesty (as free from AfEectation, as full of Affection.) 

" The Memory of yor gracious, excellent, singular favours to my father in his 
life, and unto his end, requires the best of my services, if I deserve the honor of 
being acknowledged his sonne, or the greater, of living under yor scepter. The 


bounty of your Grace to myself durinfj: my imprisonment in Spaine, freely 
granted. ***** In all duty, endeavors to bee knowue amongst yor 
most Faithful!, yor Majesties 

Most humble subject 

George Donne." 

Page 151. 
Perhaps a relative of Christoplier Wormeley ; one Ralph ^V'ormeley, about 
1644, married the widow of Luke Stebbins, merchant, upon the Eastern Shore 
of Chesapeake Bay. 

Page 152. 

On the 20th of January, 1G44-5, dame Elizabeth Ilarvcy asked the Court to 
sub.stitule Richard Komp and Captain William Peirce as trustees in place of 
Capt. Samuel Mathews, Capt. D. Gookin, George Ludhnv and Capt. Thomas 
Bernard, former trustees, under a feoffment, made by the said dame Elizabeth 
for the use of Samuel Stevens gent., her son by a former marriage. 

Page 181. 

After Chapter 6th was printed there were found in the Northampton County 
Records, two letters from William Webb of London, dated July 20, 1642, one 
letter directed " to my worthy friend Mr. Thomas Copley at his plantation in 
Maryland ;" the other, "To his Noble Reverend Mr. Andrew White, Esq., att 
Maryland." These letters mention that Sir Edmund Plowden was about to sail 
for America. These letters have been printed in the Pennsylvania Historical 
Society Magazine. 

An account appeares in the Records with the following items. 
" Sir Edmund Plowden. 

Dr. to Edw : Mathews 
1643. flor takinge flower Depositions 
att the Soxochar, aff, and cop. attested 
under my hand wch Sir Edm. Plowden 

p'tended to carry for England, the busines lb. tob. 

a description of New Albion 150 

fEor searching several Books att 
yt office in Jame.stowue, and traiiscribinge 
Cop. of manuscripts here described, to have to 
testifye to his friends in England, 150." 

In October, 1640, Plowden was still in prison for contempt of Court, in re- 
fusing to pay his wife's alimony. It was not long after hi.s release when he 
went to America. 


Page 187. 

Captain Robert Morysou in a deposition, upon record in Northampton County, 
mentions that during the year, 1644, his ship left Smith's Island for England by 
way of Dublin, Ireland, and that Captain " Clayborne" and his wife, and Capt. 
Philip Taylor were passengers. 

Page 194. 

Lt. Thomas Rolfe, Campbell mentions upon the authority of Richard Ran- 
dolph, as having married a Miss Poythers who had an only daughter Jane, 
which was also the name of John Rolfe'slast white wife. Jane married Robert 
Boiling upon whose tombstone in Prince George County was this inscription : 
" Here lyeth interred in the hope of a joyful resurrection the body of Robertj 
Boiling, the son of John & Maty Boiling of All Hallows, Barkiu Parish, Tower 
Street, London. He was born on the 26th day of December in the year 1646, 
and came to Virginia October 2, 1600, and departed this life the 17th day of 
July 1709, aged 62 yeares, six months, and twenty-one days." 

Page 195. 

Capt. Roger Marshall had lived in Northampton County, and Ann the wife 
of Col. Nathaniel Littleton had stood as god-mother at the christening of his 
eldest son. 

Page 201. 

William Stone, Governor of Maryland, was in 16-33, a resident of Accomac 
County, as the whole Eastern Shore was then called, whose commissioners were 
William Claiborne, Obedience Robins, William Stone, William Burdett, John 
Wilkins, and William Andrews. 

In September, 1635, he was a vestryman, and at a meeting when his brother- 
in-law the minister William Cotton, was allowed a pansonage which was to be 
18 X 40 ft. with a chimney at each end, and annexed to that chimney a room, 
" one for a study " the other for a " buttery.'' In 1640, he held land " between 
Mattawomex and Hungar's Creek." On the 27th of October, 1040, he was a wit- 
ness to an agreement as were also Nathaniel Littleton, and Nathaniel Eaton the 
minister of unsavory rei)utation. In 1046, he was sheriff of Northampton 
County, and his under sheriff' was Thomas Hatton, without doubt, the same who 
in 1648, with his wife and two sons Robert and Thomas went to Maryland. Job 
Chandler, a brother of Samuel a merchant of London, was at this time in North- 
ampton, and afterwards was a Maryland councillor. Francis Doughty the non- 
conformist minister was the Governor's brother-in-law. Verlinda, daughter of 
William Cotton the minister and his wife Anna, married Thomas Burdett. who 
settled in Charles County, Maryland, in 16.58, she was a widow residing at 
Naujemie where Governor Stone, also lived. Verlinda her aunt, was the Gov- 
ernor's wife. In 1653, the Governor sold his house, at Hungar's Creek, Virginia 
to Capt. William Whittington. Joane, the mother of the clergyman Cotton, 
lived at Bunbury, Cheshire, England. 


Page 207. 

Major Philip Stevens was g:iven by the Couucil of State of England, by an 
order, dated August 10, 1650, " £oO, as a reward for his sufferings in Virginia." 
While William Stevens was an otEcer under Waller, there is no evidence that he 
came to Virginia, as assumed on page 207. Philip was probably the per- 
son who, with Norwood, was ship-wrecked. 

There was however a William Stevens in Accomac before 1642, who came out 
as the servant of John Seavern, surgeon and is called a carpenter. He is proba- 
bly the same person as William of Pingoieague who died in 1663, and whose 
son was also named William. The Avidowof the elder ^Villiam was named Ann 
and she married a Wilson, the wife of the son Williani was named Prit?cilla. 
The Col. William Stevens who went to Maryland may have been a ditferent 

Page 208. 

A John Custis, in 1657, married the widow of Peter Walker. 

Page 210. 

Sir Thomas Lunsford's wife Avas Catberine, daughter of Sir Henry Neville, 
Kt. and his wife Elizabeth the child of Sir John Smith of Osterhanger, Kent. 
The CJeneral Court at James City, October 12, 1670, refer to Lunsford as de- 
ceased, and three daughters in England, and " Katherine" in Virginia. 

Page 210. 

Major Henry Norwood was imprisoned in the Tower, London, in January, 
1654-5, and owing to his poverty, on Sept. 23, 1657, 10 shillings a week were 
allowed to him, Burton in his " Diary" under date of March 16th, 1658-9 
writes : "Major Norwood is at liberty by virtue of an order of his Highness and 
his Council * * * Mr. Norwood not to come to England, without leave." 

After the accession of Charles tiie Second, he was one of the officers of the 
forces which reduced the Dutch at Manhattan, and in 1665, he returned to Eng- 
land and Governor Nicoll of New York recommended him as his successor, be- 
cause he was a person, " whose temperament would bo acceptable both to the 
soldiers and the country." 

Richard Fox who arrived at Jamestown in the winter of 1050, with Nor- 
wood, seems to have gone back witli him to England, as on June 22d, the Coun- 
cil of State ordered that " Richard Fox be discharged from prison on condition 
that he leaves town in four days, and to be of good behaviour." 

Page 211. 

Aubrey in " in Bodleian Letters" referring to Davenant'a residence in France 
has this language : " Here he layed an ingeuiose designeto carry a considerable 
number ot artificers (chiefly weavers) from hence to Virginia, and by Mary the 
Queen mothers meanes he got favour from the King of France, to goe into the 



prisons, and pick, and choose, and when the poor damned wretches knew what 
the de.sigae was they crj'ed uno ore ' Tont Tisseran.' We are all weavers. 
Well [he took] 36 as I remember, and shipped the u, and as he was on his voyage 
towards Virginia, he and his Tisseran, were all taken by the ships, then, be., 
longing to the Parliament." 

His commission came into the hands of the Puritan minister formerly of Vir- 
ginia, and upon November 10, 1653, the Council of State directed " Thomas 
Harrison, minister of St. Danstan's in the East, London, to bring to Council, the 
commission lately granted by Charles Stuart to William Davenaut, to have 
command in some English plantation, in America." 

Page 213. 

Edmund Scarborough was one of the early merchants of Accomac and North- 
ampton Counties. In 1651, he sent a vessel into the Delaware River to trade 
with the Indians, which was stopped at Fort Nassau nearly opposite Philadel- 
phia, by the Dutch commander Andreas Huddc. He was a royalist in his 
sympathies, and a friend of Gov. Berkeley. The following is among the North- 
ampton Records : 

" Collonell Littleton 
" I pray (vpon sight hereof) deliuer unto Mr. Edmund Scarbrugh Towe [two] 
of yor best Ewe Lambe wch I have giuen him, for his Daughters Tabitha & 
Matilda, charge ye same to Accott, fr 

" yor Llovinge frend 
" April 10, 1653. William Berkeley." 

Col. Obedience Robins, in February, 1658, entered the following protest ^ 
against an outrageous proceeding of Scarborough. " Capt. John Jacob a High 
Germayiie of Frankendall in the palatiate, who in ye yeare 1651, engaged to ye 
State of England & embarked himselfe theire in a London or New England 
shipp whereof Capt. Rich : Thurston was comandr & with a good quantitj'^e of 
English goods came into New England, and thence vdth Mr. Cuttin vnto 
Severne [now Annapolis] & returned to New England with John Bennett vnto 
Boston, in New England, and by unfailable testimony imployed vnto Virginia 
by Mr. Samll Mauericke, Mr. Robert Knight & Mr. Nathll Gardner three prin- 
cipal mrchants liuinge in Boston in New England came vnto mee, and com- 
playned that beiuge in a New England vessel! belonginge vnto ye aboue Mr. 
Rob't Knight, at Nominy in patomack Riucr att Anker, in a small creeke, 
aground there, came a vessell called ye Flobby horse belonging vnto & sett forth 
by Left Coll. Edm. Scarburgli wth eight armed men ; & in his absence did seize 
his vessel as they s'd for the State of England. 

"Towe [two] of his men being Aboard And hee about halfaHowre after, 
came on board, and finding these five men armed, hee demanded their intent, 
they answered they seized the vessell & goods for ye State of England, where- 
vpon hee asked them if they had a comission soe to doe, they replj'ed he should 


see it, then he s'd that not only bis vessel but his Body alsoe was readdy to doe 
ye State seruice, but afterwarde Hee tould them, that if they came to take any 
vessell without a commission thoy wore pirate, whcnivpon they grew to hard 
words & one of them presentcl a pistol att him, and as hee presented itt, after- 
ward confessed had not his mayster Mark Mairge stept between them, he 
had shott him, hee seeing a pisloll cockt att him stept into ye cabbin & fetched 
out a gunn «Sc towe of ye men took hold of ye gun, until ye ten named 
Rich. Wayman strucke him ouer ye \jead with ye butt end of bis gun & 
very sore wounded him, the other wth his pistoU cockt ready to fyre vpon 
him. And soe viollently carryed away bis vessell & disposed of most of 
bis goodes, at their pleasure. And when he bad desiered them to lett ye 
goods alone, tiiey tould him, hee had a knock vpon one side of bis bead 
already & if hee would not be quiett they would knock his brayne out, or 
ye other side. Hee therefore desired mee to go witli him & p'test against their 
proceediuges ; his s'd vessell beiug brought into or Harbour, and the stearne of 
the ship ' Speadweir of Bristoll, Capt. peter Wraxall being commander 
thereof, who had giueu a coppie of his commission from ye Admiralty of Em^- 
land vnto Left. Coll. Edm. Scarburgh By wch power hee sett forth his Hobby 
Horse on the 26th daye of this instant moneth. I went aboard ye aforesaid ship 
' Speedwell.' And in tlie name of the Keepers of the Libertye of England, by 
authority of Parlim'tdid require of Mr. Dauis Mayst'.-rs Male of ye shii)p the s'd 
vessell & goods to be deliuered vnto mee, ye Capt. John Jacob, and hee ye s'd 
Mr. Dauis replyed, ausoMe that bee bad orders froin Capt. Wraxall not to de- 
liuer her vnto any person or persons whatsoever, and vntil he had further orders 
be would not deliuer." 

In the investigation which took place, Mark Magge the Master of the Hobby 
Horse deposed that he came down from Ockabannock and ftnmd the Xew England 
vessel by the Mills, and that after they were anchored by the " Bristol ship,'' 
came aboard Argall Yeardley, Obedience Robins, Capt. John Stringer, and Mr. 
Lambertou, and as they were leaving t!ie chirurgeon abused the master, and 
said " that be had a horse at home, and thought to bring, but he was afraid they 
would have made him a Colonel, Major, or Justice of the Peace " and that be 
further declared, " that most all of them here were Rogues or whores, or vaga- 
bonds, or thcives, or beggars, and many other scandalous names.' 

Col. Scarborough in consequence of Ibis and other actions, for a time left the 
country. He died in 1671, and left a widow Mary, and son Charles. His 
sons-in-law were John West, and Devereux Browne. The administrators of his 
estate were Col. Kendall, Capt. John Custis, William Custis, and Major William 

Pages 226, 256. 

Austine or Augustine Warner of the Assembly of 1652, whose eldest son was 
born October 20, 1643. was named also Augustine, and in 1658, was enrolled a 
pupil of the Merchant Tailors' School, London. 


Milred Warner his sister, marrieJ Lawrence, son of John Washington the im- 
migrant. Mildred Washino-ton was left a widow, with three children, John» 
Augustine, and Mildred. She afterwards married Geortje Gale, and was buried 
in January 1700-1, at St. Nicholas Church, White Hav^en, Cumberland, England. 
Mildred's son Augustine, was the father of George Washington, the first Presi- 
dent of tlie Republic. 

Page 233. 

Roger Green was alive in 1671, and designated in the records of the General 
Court, as " preacher." Ou the 38d of November, 1671, the Court ordered the 
vestry of the parish of James City, to pay to Green, 12,00^5 of tobacco, for the 
accommodation of Mr. Samuel Jones, minister of the parish. See p. 244. 

Page 235. 
The Reverend and learned Samuel Drisius preached perhaps during this visit 
as Commissioner from Manhattan. In May 1654, in a deposition, Sarah the wife 
of John Hunman, incidentally mentions that, "the last Sabbath Mr. Drisius 
preached here [Northampton County] this deponent, her husband and daughter 
went to Richard Jacobs," 

Page 231. 
Thomas Mallory, Dean of Chester, was not the same person as Thomas Mal- 
lory, the London minister at a later date. The Dean was the sou of Sir William 
Mallory, of Stewdley, Yorkshire, and after being iu Mobberley for a number of 
years, he went to Chester and at the age of 78, iu April, 1644, died, and was 
buried in the Cathedral. 

Page 245. 
Samuel Butler the author of " Hudibras" was alive at the time of the Indian 
troubles, and fond of far-fetched allusions, thus refers to tke Indian chief Totto- 

" Our brethren of New England use 
Choice malefactors to excuse, 
And hung the guiltless in their stead 
Of whom the churches have less need 
As lately 't happened : in a town 
There lived a cobler, and but one, 
That out of doctrine could not use. 
And mend men's lives as well as shoes. 
This precious brother having slain 
In times of jjeace, an Indian, 
Not out of malice, but mere zeal 
Because he was infidel 
The mighty Tottippottimoy 
Sent to our elders an envoy 
Complaining sorely of the breach," 


Page 254. 

William Eltouhead, of Maryland, the brother-in-law of Henry Corbyn, may 
have been the same person who married Jane, the widow of Philip Taylor, a 
Burgess of Northampton County in 168-, and a former associate of Claiborne. 

Page 255. 

Hancock, son of Richard Lee. who married the jjranddaughter of Williatn \ 
Brewster, the leader of the Puritan Colony at Plymouth Rock, was in 1077, one \ 
of the Commissioners of Northampton County, and was in the county in 1682, J 
in 1688 he was a resident of Northumberland County and built the place called j 
Ditchley. / 

Page 258. 

See page 226. 

Page 275. 

On May 6, 1650, a pass was issued " for Sir Henry Moodie and Francis Love- 
lace, with six servants, to Long Island, they subscribing the engagement." 

Page 287. 

Anthony Langston prepared a letter on the condition of Virginia, and espe- 
cially the needT>f Iron works, which is among the Egerton MSS. of the British 

Page 290. 

Among the Egerton MSS. is also preserved the Remonstrance of Virginia, 
dated March 28, 1003, and signed by Berkeley, Francis Moryson, Thomas Lud. 
well, Sec. Richard Lee, Nathaniel Bacon, Ab : Wood, John Carter, Edward 
Carter, Theodore Bland, Thomas Steggo, and Henry Corbyn, protesting against 
the grant of lauds to certain Lords. 

Page 293. 

The letters of Governor Berkeley to the Virginia Assembly in 1659-60, and 
to Charles the Second after the Restoration are in footnote of Chapter Nine, on 
pages 352, 353. 



Al)be, Thomas. 23. 

Abbot, Archbishop, describes George 

Calvert, 63. 

Maurice, Va. Coiuiriissioner, 12. 
Abdy, Anthony, Va. Commissioner, 12. 
Abraliain, an Indian dies in London, 29. 
Abrahall, Lt. Col. Robert, burgess. 2(39, 

Accomac County, 177, 181. 

called Northampton. 169. 

first parsonage in, 406, 416. 
/Nearly ministers of 406, 407. 
' church censures, 400. 

play actors, 315. 
Addams, Ann, servajit, 19. 
Addison Alexander, 221. 

Thomas, 184, 409. 
Adkiuson, James, 221. 
Africa, Claiborne's ship at Susquiiianna, 

Albemarle, Commissioners, 317. 
Alciat, the poet, 46. 

Aleman, Matthew, Spanish novelist, 408. 
Alford, Richard, servant, 18. 
Alfracli, the Kogue, a Sj'auish romance, 

79, 408 
Allen, William, of London, 217. 

burgess, 72. 

servant, 23. 
AUerton. Isaac, son-in-law of Puritan 

Brewster, 167, 255. 

Junior, 157; settles in Virginia, 

255 ; pursues Indians, 347, 387 ; 

daughter marries Hancock Lee, 421. 

Alleyn, Richard, 221. 

Ambrose, Alice, Quakeress, 299. 

Anacostan Indians, 92. 

Anderson. Major William, admisistrator 

of Ednuiud Scarborough's estate, 

Andrews, William of Accomac, 221, 298, 


Junior. 221. 
Angelo, negro slave, 35. 
Anamessex, settlement. 300. 
Anthonie, a servant, 20. 
Antony, a neirro, 40. 
A])pleton, Richard, 40. 
Appou.attox, region, 171, 192. 

Fort, 194. 
Ai)sley, London merchant, 103. 
Argall, Governor Samuel, 12, 19, 22, 

34; at Cadiz, 36, death of, 37. 

Ann, daugiiter of, 37. 
Arlington, Lord Henry, 192, 307, 382, 


in Accomac, 208, 209. 
Armenian silk workers in Va., 240. 
Arniested, Capt. Antliouy,'349. 
Armitadringe, Henry. 221." 
Armourier. Jolin, clergyman, 407. 
Arnohi, Anthony, sentenced to die, 

Arundel Marbles, 135. 

Ann, servant, 16. 

John, a Justice, 90. 

Richard, servant, 16. 

Thomas, Karl of Surrey, 102, 134. 
Assateague, Bay, 208. 

Indians, expedition against, 265. 



Assembly of Virginia, claims supreme 
power, pro tern, 269. 
A. D., 1629,71. 

1629-30, 77. 

1631-32, 88. 

1635. 116. 

1637-8, 138. 

1639-40, 145, 158. 

1642, 157. 

1644, 184. 

1645, 189. 
1645-6, 191. 

1646, 193. 

1647, 198. 
1649, 205. 
1650-51, 212. 
1652, April, 224. 
1652, November, 229. 
1653, 232. 

1654, 236. 

1655, 241. 

1656, 243. 
1657-58, 260. 
1658-59, 266. 
1659-60, 268. 
1660, October, 281. 

1662, 293. 

1663, 295. 

1664, 313. 

1666, 317. 

1667, 321. 

1668, 322 

1669, 329. 

1670, 329. 
1676, 348, 360. 
1676-77, 373. 
1677, 385. 

1679, 386. 

1680, 390. 
1682, 398. 
1683, 397. 

Asbmore, William, killed. 121. 

Ashton, Capt. Peter, burgess, 269. 

(Aston) Walter, burfjess, 90, 167, 

Atkins, Kicbard, 348. 

Ayers, Jobn, 221. 

Aylmer, Justinian, clergyman st James- 
town, 363. 


Babbliuof woman ducked, 406. 

Bacon, Ann, daugbter of the rebel, 369. 

Elizabetb, wife of tbe rebel, 243, 

346, 351 ; ber second marriage, 

391 ; law-suit of, 392. 

Francis, Lord VeruUnn, letter from 

Capt. Jobn Smith, 83. 
James, clergyman, 243. 
Natbaniel, son of James, Ms bap- 
tism 243 ; early life, 243 ; step- 
father aPuritan minister in New 
England, 243 ; mention of, 260 ; 
267, 269, 282, 288, 348, 360, 372, 
397, 400. 
Natbaniel, son of Thomas, early 
life, 346 ; attacks Indians, 350, 
351 ; sui)presses Gov. Berkeley's 
declaration, 357 ; sails to James- 
town, 357 ; asks for pardon, 358 ; 
elected general, SCO ; proclaimed 
a rebel, 361 ; bis appeal to tbe 
people, 361-363; cai>tures Sir 
Henry Chicheley, 365 ; bis death, 
368 ; mention of 389 ; bis widow, 
Bagwell, James, burgess, 193, 236. 

Thomas, burgess, 72. 
Bailife, George, servant, 17. 
Baily, Richard, 221, 
Sobert, 221. 
Symon, 221. 
Baker, Alexander, metallurgist, 105. 
Daniel, 221. « 
Lawrence, burgess, 318. 
W^illiam. servant, 18. 
Baldrj', liobert, burgess, 269. 
Baldwin, Jobn, servant, 17. 
Baley, Temperance, 42. 
Ball, William, burgess, 193, 349; family 

of, 259. 
Ballard, Thomas burges,?, 317, 318, 360, 

363/^Cr.'* 3 7 f- 
Baltimoie, Tbe Lords, see Cahert. 
Bam ford, Jobn, servant, 23. 
Banks, Sir Jobn, Kt., 85. 
Bankus, Christopher, servant, 18. 
Banqneting House, 255 
Baptists, legislation against, 293. 
Baptista, John, insurgent, 377. 
Barber, Gabriel, London merchant, 85. 

Lt. Col., burgess, 297, 318. 
Barebcmes, Praise God, 192. 



Bargrave, Doctor, Dean Canterbury, 408. 

Ipuac, 408. 
Barker, C'ajit. John, 128. 

Williniii, bHrii^fsa, 100. 
Barimbye, .Iiunt-s, 221. 
Barnctt, Tlii'()])hiliis. servant, 10. 
Barrett, William, burgess, 180, 193,205, 

Basse, f^apt. Nathaniel, burgeps, 73, 

councillor, 78, 88 ; deputed to 

invite New Euirlanders to Delaware 

Biiy, 91 ; founder o I Isle of Wight 

plantation, 133. 
Bateman, Kobert, 13. 
Bates, John, servant, 23. 
Bait, Catherine, 238, 327. 

Jolui, 238, 327. 

Ilonrv, 327, 328. 

.Martha. 327. 

Michael, 71. 

Kobert, ot Oxford, 238, 327. 

Thomas, 327, 328. 

William, burgess, 232, 237. 
Baugh, John, UMr^''*^**. 186. 
Bayley, Arthur, burgess, 107. 
Baynlmm, Alexander, bui-gess, 237 
Beah.', 'I'lionias, couuciilor, 3G0. 
Beard, Richard, Quaker. 410. 
Beaumont, (iile.s, 30. 
Behn, A]>hra, play writer, 373. 
Bell, Robert, Loiuhui lamchiuit, 13 
Bellingham, Herbert, 80. 

Richard, 86. 
Bellson, John, 121. 
Benge, William, 18. 
Bennett, Edward, London merchant, 

113, 224. 

Philip, burgess, IGO, 180, 190. 

Richard, Governor, 73, 157, 166. 
184, 186, 187, 193,201, 218, 224, 
225, 242, 249, 208, 310, 340, 353, 

Richard, Jr., 304, 394. 

Robert, 224, 225. 

William, minister, 225. 
Bentley, William, burge.-^s, 94. 
Beristou, Tlieo])hilu3, servant, 16 
Berkeley, Sir Charles. Kt., 155. 

Lady Frances, 379, 392 ; her tomb 
stone, 400. 

Lord Ceorge, 75. 

John of Stratton, 155, 207, 251, 
281,320,340, 379. 

Maurice, 155. 


Berkeley, Richard, 19. 

William, burgess, 318. 

Govt;rnor, ancestry of, 154, 155 ; 
arrival in Virginia, l.-)4; first 
councillors, 155-167; entertains 
Captain De Vries, 178; visits 
England, 179, 188 ; captures Ope- 
chankano, Vo'.'j ; opi)oses Nanse- 
mond Puritans, 202 ; grief at the 
exeeulion of Charles the First, 
205; speech against Navigation 
Act, 212; surrenders to parlia- 
ment, 221 ; elected (iovernor, 270, 
273 ; speeches to burgesses and 
council of Virginia, 352 ; letter to 
Gov. Stuyve6ant,273 ; recognized 
as Governor, by Charles the 
Second, 281 ; his apology tO the 
King, 353 ; his stage play en- 
acted. 283 ; visit from Governor 
Calvert, 303 ; letters of, 307, 308, 
313. 316, 319; despondent, 331; 
on silk culture, 324 ; his replies 
to Ccminiissioner of Plantations, 
330-338 ; bis covetousness, 339 ; 
described by Quaker preacher, 
340; marriage of, 341; visit to 
upi)er James River, 350 ; calls an 
Assembly, 351 ; address to the 
colonists, 351-357 ; referred to in 
Clarendon's History, 354 ; his 
course during Bacon's rebellion, 
300, 301, 300, 368 ; resigns his 
office, 370 ; rudeness of, 379 ; hia 
house described, 379; wife of, 
379 ; death of, 379. 
Herkenhead, a servant, discloses a con- 

epiracy, 296. 
Bermudas, trade with, 28 ; toleration at, 

Bernard, Mary, bequest to, 220. 

George, bequest to. 220. 

Thomas, burgess, 168, 184, 185, 186, 

William, councillor, 180. 193, 198, 
241, 242, 261, 268, 353-4. 
Bernardo, the Italian, 18. 
Bernardoe, Philip, 31. 
Berry, James. 221. 

Robert, 221. 

Sir Jolm, brings troops, 309, 370; 
censured bv Berkeley of Stratton, 
Betts, Capt. Leonard, 127. 



Bevercott, Samuel, of Sciooby, 99. 
Beverley, Major Robert, 304, 309, 390, 

397, 398. 
Bew, Robert, 41. 
Billinjrton, Luke, 221. 
Bishop, John, burgess, 185, 382. 

Henry, visits England, 192; Post- 
master General, 192 ; notice of, 
Black, William, burgess, 202, 207. 
Blackman, Capt. Jeremy, i28. 
Blackwood, Susan, servant, 39. 
Blake, Col. John, burgess, 318. 

Robert, 221. 
Bland, Giles, 305, 374 ; abusive of Sec- 
retary Ludwell, 374; executed, 

374 ; family of, 374. 

John of London, 270, 305, 374. 

Richard, 270. 

Theodoric, 208, 270, 273. 
Blaney, Edward, councillor, 38; widow 

of, 40. 
Bohune, Doctor, slain, 39. 
Boise (Boys), Ann, 204. 

Cheney, burgess, 71,408. 

John, Dean of Canterbury, 408. 

John, burgess, 408. 
Boiling, Robert, his tomb-stone, 416. 
Bolton, Francis, clergyman, 69, 406. 
Bond, John, burgess, 230, 202, 260, 209. 
Bonde, Martin, 113. 
Bones, fossil discovered, 131. 
Booth, Henrv, servant, 18. 

Humphrey, 259, 314. 

Robert, burgess, 233, 237. 
Borne, Robert, burj^ess, 202. 
Boston, privateer at, 179 ; ministers of, 

denounce Capt. Stegg, 180. 

Henry, Quaker, 301, 303. 
Boswell, Sir William, 75. 
Bosvvorth, Capt. John, 239. 
Boucher, Daniel, burgess, 232. 

Jonathan, clergyman, 329. 

William, 221. 
Boundary, dispute, 247, 248, 249. 
Boyle, Richard of London, 253. 
Bracewell, Robert, clergyman, 233. 
Brain, Edward, 219, 401. 
Branch, John, burgess, 236. 
Bray, Col. James, 300, 373. 
Brennan, Thomas, burgess, 230. 
Brent, Giles, 177, 236, 253, 288, 340. 

Margaret, 183. 
Breieton, Major Thomas, 343. 

Brewce, James, 221. 
Brewster, Jonathan, 97. 

^vatliauiel, minister, 413. 

Richard, burgess, 72. 

William, of Plymouth, 24, 86, 167. 
Brick house, first at Jamestown, 263. 

houses ordered, 294,295, 300. 

made in Virginia, 204, 294. 
Bridger, Col. Joseph, 262, 283, 297, 303, 

318, 349, 360. 
Bridges, Thomas, servant, 22. 
Briggs, Henry, mathematician, 104. 
Brillyant, John, 221. 
Broadhurst, Walter, burgesu, 238. 
Broadshaw, Ricliard, servant, 23. 
Hrocas, William, councillor, 117, 134, 

156,184, 193, 198,204. 
Brock, R. A. Sec, Va., Hist. Society, 57. 
Bromley, George, 13. 

Sir Henry, 265. 

Sir Thomas, 22. 

Francis, 264, 

Virginia merchant, 264. 
Brooke, Sir John, Kt., 85, 403. 

Sir Robert, Kt., 346. 
Brooks, Thomas, servant, 23. 
Browne, Devereux, 297. 

John, 221. 

Henry, councillor, 118, 133, 156, 
184, 86, 193, 198. 

Susan Upshur, 388. 

Thomas, 388. 

William, burgess, 208. 
Browne's Maryland, error in, 65. 
Brownell, Capt. Isaac, 127. 
Browning, John, burgess, 70, 74. 
Brudricke, Richard, 223. 
Brutou Parish, 380. 
Buckam, Capt. Riehard, 127. 
Bucke, Richard, clergyman, 09 ; child- 
ren of, 137. 
Buckingham, Duke of, 21, 62, 63 ; let- 
ters to, 403. 
Buckner, John, printer, fined, 397. 
Burbagei Thomas, merchant, 130, 241. 
Burgess, William, 410. 
Burnham, Major John, 349. 

Rowland, burgess, 184, 189. 206. 1 
Burroughs, Charles, burgess, 220, 230. 

Christopher, burgess, 180, 189. 
Burwell, Abigail, 260. 

Elizabeth, 321. 

George, 321. 

Lewis, 200, 321. 



Bushell, Willijim, 57. 
Buslirod, TliDiiia*', burj^a'HS, 207. 
BuiltT, Joiuu-, ducked lor t^lunder, 291. 

Natlianiel, letters of. 28-80. 

William, bur^'ess, MS, 2G1. 
BiUterfield, Jolin, SHwaut, IS. 
Butterie, Tliouias. 221. 
Button. Capt. William, 93,91. 113. 
Byrd, Grace, wife of John, vlO. 

John, London ^oldsMiitli, !85, 219. 

William, l:io, 219, ;J87, :398, 401. 


Cc-esar, Sir Julius, 11,20. 

Caltliorp (Caulthrop) Cliristopher. bur- 

jress, 184, ISO. 1H9, 2:10.233, 2G9. 
Calvert, Ann, dau^diter of (Tenrgi', 62. 

(ieorjre, 1st Lord Baltimoie. 11 ; 
early life of 01 ; Secretary of 
State, 02 r brilliant courtier, 62 ; 
friend of Spanish ambassador, 
62 ; loses favor with Bucking- 
ham, 63 ; created Baron of Bal- 
timore, 63 ; visits New Found- 
land, 63; letter to W^entworth, 
63 ; goes to Virginia, 64 ; refuses 
the required oath, 65 ; his first 
wife, 67- 

Cecil, 2d Lord Baltimore, arrival of 
his colony, 98 ; aided by Governor 
Harvey, 100 ; requests aid of 
Windebank, 128 ; desires settlers 
from New England, 173; wishes 
to be Governor of Virginia, 173 ; 
reference to. 188 ; invites Edward 
Gibbous of Boston to be Admiral. 
198; complains of Gov. Berkelej'^, 
212; adheres to Parliament, 227 ; 
pledge to sustain Act on Reli- 
gion, 250; an adroit politi- 
cian. 299. 311; opposes the re- 
striction of tobacco planting, 305. 

Charles, 3d Lord Baltimore, his 
wife, 383 ; calls Virginians ras- 
cals, 893 ; censures Gov. Fen- 
dall, 393. 

Leonard, Gov. of M'd, 98; autho- 
rized to collect taxes in Va., 175 ; 
visits England, 179 ; writes to 
Gov. Berkeley, 183 ; flees to Va., 

Philip, 68,' 317. 

Calvin, .John, sponsor at Geneva, 274. 
Campbell, James, 12. 
Campion, ('apt. (^'lemcnt, 128. 
Canlayack, Indian village, 75.' 
Cant, i>avid, burucs.s, 209. 
Canterbury, Arclibishop, of, 102. 
Cupps, William, planter, 14, 47, 55, 04. 
Carli'ton, Henry, placed in the stocks, 

Carline, Meiuy of Maryland, 238. 
Carolana, lleath'.s charter of, 75. 
Carpenter, Anthony, 221. 
Carter, Col. Edward, 201, 206, 268, 353. 

Col. John, 108, 200, 236, 238, 261, 

Ro.sanna, servant, 17. 
Carteret, Capt. James taken by Dutch, 


Sir George, 842. 
Carver, Captain William, hunsr, 300, 

Cart Wright, Abraham, 12. 
Cary, Francis, shipwrecked, 208. 

Miles, councillor, 209, 282. 

Miles. Junior, Quaker, 282. 

Thomas, Quaker, 282 

William, 282. 
Catchmaie, George, burgess, 209. 
Catlett, John, 259, 303, 314. 
Cattle from Ireland, 81. 

in A.D.. 1649. 203. 
Cawfield, Capt. William, burgess, 201, 

200, 208. 
Ceelev, Thomas, burgess, 73. 
Census of A I)., 1034-5,114. 
Chadwell, Daniel, 221. 
Chamberlain, Hugh, son-in-law of rebel 

Bacon, 309. 
Chambers, Alice, servant, 22. 

James, servant, 17. 

Thomas, servant, 23. 
Champion, Pascoc, 40. 
Chandler, Job, 410. 

John, burgess, 190, 198. 

Samuel, London merchant, 416. 
Charles the, proclamation of, 10. 

Second, bis reply to Va. Assembly, 
104 ; conciliatory, 282, 292 ; given 
away lands, 289 ; acknowledges 
receipt of silk, .321 ; censures the 
Assembly, 396 ; death of, 401. 
Chapman. Nicholas, 21. 

Thomas, Quaker, 253. 



Chappell, Capt. John, 127. 

Cbarlton, Stephen, burgess, 186, 199 

308, 231, 230. 
Charter of Avalon, as to Christianity, 

Barbadoes, aa to Christianity, 306. 
Carolana, as to Christianity, 30i5. 
Maryhind restrictive, 307. 
Nova Scotia, 306. 
Cheskiake plantation, 73, 142, 171. 
Cheesman, Captain, burgess, 168, 225. 

Major, dies in ])rison, 3S7. 
Chester, Dr. J. L. Chester, on Washing- 
ton ancestry, 256. 
Chesterfield, Countess of, 192. 
Chew, John, merchant, 69, 73, 130 ; 

burgess, 168, 184. 325. 
Chicheley, Agatha, 386, 395. 

Sir Henry, arrival of, 210 ; marries 
widow "NVormeley, 210; mention 
of, 240, 392, 305, 360; captured 
by Bacon, 365 ; Deputy Governor, 
386, 391, 394; infirm with age, 
394 ; death of, 395. 
Chichester, Lord Arthur, 11. 
Children for Virginia, 47, 77 ; kidnapped, 

Chiles, Waller, burgess, 158, 167, 171, 

189, 193, 305. 333, 366, 382, 397. 
Chipson, Robert, 239. 
Chiskoyake, Indian chief, 371. 
Christison, Quaker preacher, 121. 
Church of England, rites ordered, 283. 
Claiborne, Leonard. 43, 363. 

Thomas, 43, 363. , \ 

William, Secretary, 24 ; notice (if, 
43, 363 ; councillor, 37, 78, 8^, 
184, 186; witness tea will, 48 1 
defeats Indians, 75 ; takes grain 
to Boston, 80; trades with Poto- 
mac Indians, 91 ; with the Sus- 
quehauuas, 408 ; asks advice of 
Va. council, 100 ; at P't Comfort, 
106; his trading vessel ciptured, 
120; letter to Sir John Coke. 
121 ; arrives from Kent Island, 
125; treasurer of Va., 157, 187, 
188 ; Parliament commissioner, 
217; Secretary of State, 225, 231, 
233; Secretary unJer Gov. Digges, 
242; under Gov. Mathews, 261, 
264; under Gov. Berkeley, 268, 
370, 372; visits Dublin, 416 ; bur- 
gess from New Kent, 268, 270, 

Claiborne, contintied 

373 ; old age, 384 ; wife men- 
tioned, 416. 

William, Junior, 290, 348, 363; 
children of, 364. 

William, grandson of Secretary, 
364 ; attends Quaker meeting, 
364, 384, 
Claiborne's Island, 121. 
Clarendon's notice of Gov. Berkeley, 

Clarke, John, mate of May Flower, 30, 


Thomas, 221. 
Clayton, John, clergyman, describes 

Jamestown, 367 ; alludes to Clai- 
borne, 384. 
Claxton, John, servant, 17. 
Cleate, Charles, dancing master, 376. 
Clement, Elizabeth, 19. 

Jeremy, 19. 

John, 123. 
Cloberrjr, William, London merchant, 

Close, Phettiplace, burgess, 73. 
Clough, John, clergyman, 364. 
Coake, William, 321. 
Cock, Richard, burgess, 236. 

William, burgess, 193. 
Cocker, Richard, burgess, 185. 
Cockeran, William, burgess, 873. 
Codd, Col. St. Lcger, 348, 397. ^ 
Coke, Sir John, K't, 85, 103, 121. 
Cole, Josiah, Quaker, 352. \ 

Thomas of Maryland, 264. 

William, councillor, 74, 349, 360, 
' 364, 398. 

William, Quaker preacher, 285. 
Colebourne, William, 22K5 
Coleclough, George, burgess, 367. 
Coles, Ann, servant, 301. 
Collowe, Stephen, 40. 
Comes, John, 18. 
Comon, Nicholas, 17. 
Common Pi-ayer Book prohibited, 306. 
Conaway, Aaron, servant, 3L 
Concubinage with Indian woman, 386. 
Convicts sent to Virginia, 338, 329. 
Couv/ay, Captain, fights the Dutch, 320 

Maurice, describes old tomtbone. 

Sir Edward, 11. 
Cooke, Christopher, servant, 
Cuokaon, William, 374, 377. 
Cooper, Thomas, 2L 



Cooper, Walter, 21. 

Copland. Piitrick, clergyman, 31, 195, 
iulerest in Vu., 11)5, lJ)(j ; at Ber- 
mudas, 11)6 ; erects a free scliool, 
l'J7; becomes a non-conformist, 197; 
goes to Isle of Eleuthera, 197 ; let- 
ter to Gov. Winthrop, 197. 
Corbin, John, bequest to, iJ31. 

Henry, notice of. 239, 254 ; bur- 
jress, 2G7, 2G!), 304. 
Cordovant gloves, 221. 
Corker, John, burgess, 186. 
William, burgess, 261. 
Coruley. John, 222. 
Coruwallis, Caroline, 99. 
Lord at Yorktovvn, 99. 
Sir Charles, 99, 
Sir Jo!m, 99. 
• Sir Thomas, 99. 
Sir William, 99. 
Thomas of Maryland, 99, 100, 121, 

141, 177. 
Thomas, clerj^jmiau, 99. 
William, clergyman, 99. 
Corotoman river, 2(.i0 
Coryat, the traveler, 83. 
Cottinjjftou, James, 392, 

Pliilip, 392. 
Cotton, Ann, wife of William, 417. 
Joane, mother of Wm., 406, 414. 
Verliuda, 417. 

William, minister, 406, 410, 414. 
Coulsou, John, 221. 
Couper, Walter, servant, 15. 
Coursey, Henry, 304, 317. 
Coveuton, Nehemiah, 222. 
Coventry, Thomas, Lord, 102. 
Cowdrey, Ben., 221. 
Cowen. Capt. William, burgess, 318 
Coxe, Dr. Uaniei, claim to Norfolk Co 

Cradack, Matthew, 136. 
Craufield, Lord Treasurer, on tobacco 

revenue, 403. 
Crecro, Thomas, 221. 
'Crew, Randall, burgess, 168, 185, 190, 

194, 199. 
Crewes, James, sentenced to die, 374 

Cripps, Zachary, justice, 94. 
Crocker, Henry, 40. 
Cromwell, Oliver on boundary dispute, 
247, 248, 249 ; views as to toleration, 
250 ; letlfer to Cardinal Mazuriu,251. 

Cromwell, Richard, 207. 

Crosse, Thomas, 40. 

Croshaw, Joseph, burgess, 267, 269. 

Crouch, Hugh, 282. 

Richard, 282. 
Curtis, Captain, Parliament commis- 
si(mer, 218, 220, 221. 
John, burgess, 269. 
Custis, Daniel Parke, 209, 316. 
Edward, 208. 
John, 208,221. 
John, Junior, 209. 
Joseph, 208. 
Martha, 209. 
Thomas, 208. 
William, 208, 221, 417. 
Culpepper, Lord John, his speech in 
Parliament, 389; letter to, from 
Henrietta ^Maria, widow of Charles 
the First, 389; created Baron Thorse- 
way, 389. 

Lord Thomas, Second Baron of 
Thorseway, 381 ; grant of land 
to, 382 ; arrival in Virginia, 389; 
notice of, 389 ; visits Boston) 
391 ; letter to his sister, 392 ; re- 
turns to Virginia, 395 ; his in- 
structions, 396 ; unpopular, 396, 
Catherine, daughter of Thomas, 
marries Thomas, 5tL Lord Fair- 
fax, 392. 


Dacker, William, burgess, 158. 
Dalby, William, servant, 22. 
Dale, Sir Thomas, 29, 30, 386. 
Dauby, Earl of, 85. 
Dancy, John, servant, 17. 
Dandrid-e. .Martha, 209,316. 
Davenant, Sii- William, Kt. and poet, 

appointed Gov. of Maryland, 211 

Davenport, John, Puritan minister, 201, 

Davies, Capt. James, 30. 

. John, servant, 19. 
Davis, Jane, servant, 14. 

Sir John, Kt.,85 

Thomas, burgess, 202. 

William, burgess, 167, 198. 



Davison, Christopher, Secretary of Va., 

24, 25, 87. 

Frances, 25. 

Walter, 24. 

William, Kt. and Ambassador, 87. 
Dawson, Georoce, servant, 23. 

William, 21. 
Dav,John, servant, 17. 
Death, Richard, burgess, 168, 185. 
Delaware, Henry, FourUi Lord, 56. 

Thomas, Third Lord, 56, 85, 102, 

118, 144. 

River, Falls of, 103. 
Denman, John, 231. 
Dennis, John of Somerset, M'd., 388 

Robert, Parliament commissioner, 

lost at sea, 219. 
Denson, William, burgess, 269. 
Denwood, Levin, 221. 
De Ruyter, Dutch Admiral, 307. 
Desmond, Earl of, 80. 
Deverill, Geo., servant, 16. 
De Vries, Dutch captain, 83, 93, 94, 127, 

177, 178. 
Dew, Thomas, burgess, 158, 226, 230. 

232, 236, 242, 247, 261, 263, 268, 353. 
Dichfield. Edward, 13. 
Digby, Sir Kenelon, Kt., 85. 

John, sentenced to death, 374, 377. 
Digges, Sir Dudley, Kt., 85, 237, 383. 

Edward, 237 ; attention to silk cul- 
ture, 240; Gov. of Vu., 242, 248, 

249, 292, 305 ; death of, 303. 

Elizabeth, 303. 

William, 303. 
Dipnall, Thomas, burgess, 236. 
■Dixon, Ambrose, Quaker, 221, 301. 

Christopher, 221. 

John, 222. 
Doctors' fees excessive, 191. 
Dodmon, Colonel, 344. 
Doe, Theodore, burgess, 73. 
Doeg, Indians attacked by John Wash- 
ington and others, 346, 347. 
Dolemnn, Thomas, servant, 19. 
Dolling, John, 221. 
Donne, (Jeorge, councillor and muster 

mar^ter, 132,133, 146, 148, 149; his 

essay on Virginia, 414. 

John, D D., father of George, 132. 
Dorset, Earl of, 56, 85, 103. 
Doughty, Francis, non-conformist minis- 
ter, 259, 387 ; proposes marriage 407. 

Douglas, Edward, , burgess, 185, 194, 

Douglass, Captain, 127. 
Downe, Nicholas, of the King's kitchen, 

Downes, George, justice, 90. 

Richard, 196. 
Downeman, John, burgess, 74. 
Downing, Lucy, sister of Gov. Win- 

throp, 203. 
Drayton's ode to George Sandys, 45. 
Drisius, Samuel of Manhattan, 235 ; 

preaclies in Virginia, 420. 
Drummond, complains of Boston Court, 

296 ; Gov. of Albemarle, 307, 343 ; 

tobacco commissioner, 317; at 

Jamestown, 358; mention of, 371, 

372 ; executed, 373, 377, 880. 
Duffill, Thomas, 121. 
Duke, Elizabeth, wife of rebel Bacon, 

346, 391, 392. 

Sir Edward. Kt., 346, 392. 

Sir John, Kt., 346. 
Dunche, Deborah, wife of Sir H'y 

.Moody, 274. 

Edward, M. P., 274. 

Walter, 274. 

William 274. 
Dunn, Thomas, servant, 16. 
Dunston, John, burgess, 205. 
Dunton, Captain John, 87. 
Durand, George, of Carolina, 306. 

AVilliam, Secretary of M'd., 201, 
Dutch attack at P't Comfort, 320, 343. 

New York, 242. 
Dye, John, 231. 


Eaton, Ann, Widow; 407. 

Nathaniel, disgraced principal of 
Harvard College, 143, 144, 406, 
Edlowe, Matthew, burgess, 71, 266. 
Edmonds, Sir Thomas, Knight, 103. 
Edmunds, Robert, servant, 18. 
Edmuudson, Quaker preacher, visits 

Gov. Berkeley, 339. 
Edwards, John, 17, 231. 

Richard, 13. 

Sir Thomas, 11. 

William, burgess, 230, 232, 261. 



Elective francliise, 242 ; restriction of, j Farlow, Captain, executed, 869, :37f, 

330. "' 

Elfrith, Capt. Daniel, 34. 

Elliott, Authouy, burgess, 198, 262. 

Ellis, John, 221. 

Ellyson, (Ellison) Robert, burgess, 208, 

282, 297, 303. 
Ellonhead, Alice, 254. 

Jane, 410. 

Kichard, 254. 

Willinm, 254, 421. 
Elzey, John, Maryland commissioner 

300, 301. 
Endicott, Dep. Gov. of Mass., 239. 
English, William, burgess, 90, 110, 200. 
Epes (Eppa) Francis, burjfess, 90, 190, 

225, 349. 
Errors typographical, noted, 194, 257. 
Essex, Earl of, 35, 36. 
Evans, John, 18. 

Thomas, 40. ^ 

Evelin, (Evelyn) Capt. ClmBtopher,369. 
Georjje, commander at Kent Island, 

152 ; his christening, 378. 
Mountjoy, son of George, 158, 378, 


Robert, Senior, 378. 

Robert, Junior, 101, 105; at Falls 
of Delaware River, 106 ; council- 
lor, 132 ; Surveyor General, 132, 

153 ; his book, 153, 180 ; in Mary- 
land, 180,181. 

Evelinton Manor, 152. 
Eyres, Nicholas, servant, 17. 
Robert, burgess, 194. 


Fairc lihl, James, servant, 15. 
Fairfax, Bryan, 8ih Lord, 392. 

Catherine, wife of 5th Lord, 392. 
Frances, wife of Col. William, 392. 
John, Uih Lord, 392. 
Robert, 7th Lord, 392. 
Thomas. 6th L<jrd, 392. 
William, collector at Salem, Mass., 
392 ; councillor in Va., 392 ; resi- 
dence of described, 392. 
Falland, Robert, ex])lorer, 328. 
Fallows, Thomas, buryess, 158. 
Fanshaw, Thomas, 12. 

Farnehough, John, 134. 

Farrant, Philip, 221. 

Farrell, Capt. Herbert, 349, 364, killed, 

Fawcett, Thomas, burgess, 73 
Fawdowne, Mr., burgess, 193. 
Fausett, John, attorney, 315. 
Fell, Planter, 8hii)wrei.ked, 54. 
Fellgatc, Capt. Robert, burger-s. 72. 
Feudall, Gov. of .Nid., 257, 205, 393. 
Ferrar (Farrar), Johr., 85. 
John, Junior, 235,240. 
Nicholas, 14,25,41,85. 240. 
Virginia, 236, 240. 
William, councillor, 38, 42, 116, 
240, 268. 297, 317, 349. 
Figby (Higby '\\ Thomas, 221. 
Filmer, floury, burgess, 167. 
Finch, Jane. 13. 

Hen., councillor, 78. 
Sir Thomas, 13. 
Fisher, Philip, Jesuit, 187, 200, 201. 
Fitz Herbert, Jesuit, 256. 
Fitz Hugh, William, 398. 
Flax culturo, 287, 320. 
Fleet, Henrv, Captain, 52, 58, 87, 88, 

91,92, 187, 189, 230,231,238. 
Fletcher, George, burgees, 226, 231. 
Flint, Thomas, burgess, 73, 90, 167, 

Fludd (Flood), John, burgess, 167, 189, 

Francis, 221. 
Nathaniel, 41. 
Ford, John, of Acconuic, 406. 

Richard, jburgess, 268. 
Fort Charles, 'JamoB -River Falls, 189. 
i Henry, A])j)om;atox, 189, 194, 328. 

James, Chickahominy, 187, 194. 
Royal, Pamunkey, 187, 194. 
Forts, desired. 312, 323. 
Foster, Armstrong, 221. 
P'owlke, Thomas, burgess, 206, 269. 
Fowden, George, burgess, 232. 
Fowke, Col. Gerard, burgess, 288, 295 

Fowler, Francis, 18, 232 
Fox, George. Quaker preacher 297,299, 
Francis, Thomas, burgess, 261. 

Raleigh,, 297. 
Franklin, Ferd., burgess, 158. 

Fantleroy (Faunlleroy), Moore, bur- \ Freeman, Bridges, councillor 198 225 
gess, 185, 186, 198, 233, 267, 289, 288. ; 242. 



Freeman, Ralph, 12. 
Freetliorne, Richard, servant, 58. 
Free trade, petition for, 137. 
Friends, Society of, see Quakers. 
Fruits, cultivated in A. D., 1649, 204. 


Gale, Georfje, marries widow of Law- 
rence Washington, 420. 
Gambling, prevalence of, 94, 178. 
Gardiner, Captain, 358. 
Gardner, Nathaniel, 418. 
Garnell (Garnett ?), Jchn, 221. 
Garrett (Jarret), Williaui, 23, 340. 
Gaskins, William, 221. 
Gaston, Sir Francis, 11- 
Gates, Sir Thomas, 171. 
Gatford, Lionel, his treatise, 244, 277,278 
George, John, burgess, 199,226,349. 
Gerrard, Thomas, physician of Md., 
255, intemperate, 256, will of 250. 
Gibbons, Capt. Edward of Boston, 
trades in Va , 136, 172, 180, 198 : 
Admiral of Md., 173, 220 ; ,his ship 
captured, 220. 
Gibbs, Francis, 19. 

Thomas, 12, 50, 85. 
Giles, Jonathan, servant, 14. 
Gill, Stephen, burgess, 230. 
Glass works, 284. 

Godwin (Godwyii), Francis, Bishop of 
Hereford, 342. 
Morgan, Senior, 342. 
Morgan, Junior, clergyman in Va., 
342, 343 ; writings ot 343, 344, 345 ; 
suit against, 344. 
Thomas, Bishop of Bath, 342. 
Goldfine, Sajnuel, 223. 
Goldsmith, Arthur, servant, 22. 
Gondomar, Spanish Ambassador, 62. 
Gooch, William, councillor, 237, 242; 

tomb of, 243. 
Good Friday, massacre, 179. 
Goodman, Francis, 221. 
Goodrich, Col. Thomas, 314; fined 

Goodwyn (Godwin) Thomas, burgess 

266, 349. 
Gookin, Daniel, Senior, 31, '81, 82, 83, 

Daniel, Junior, 82, 134, 106, 183, 
184. 409. 

Gookin, John of Nansemond, 134, 414. 

John of Ripple Court, 81. 

Sarah, 134. 

Sir Vincent, Kt., 81, 409. 
Gordon, Thomas, rebellious clergyman, 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinand, 11. 
Gossips, law concerning, 294. 
Gotherson, Major Daniel, 155. 
Gouge, William, burgess, 230. 
Gough, John, clergyman, 368. 

Matthew, burgess, 167. 

Niithaniel, burgess, 158. 
Gower, William, 221. 
Graudon (Grendon), Thomas, 152, 219. 

widow, 219, 400. 
Granger, Nicholas, 221. 
Grant, Capt. Jolin, 128. 
Grantham, Capt. Thomas, bearer of 

dispatches, 370, 371 ; conference 

with insurgents, 372. 
Grave, John, Quaker, his song, 286. 
Graves, Robert, servant, 23. 

Thomas of Mass., goes to Va., 144. 

Justice, 90. 
Gray, Francis, burgess, 297. 
Graj e, John, 221 
Green, Roger, clergvman, 233, 234,290, 

Greene, John, shipmaster, 257. 
Green Spring, Governor Berkeley's 

house at, 204. 
Gregory, Richard, servant, 16. 
Griffith. Edward, burgess, 269, 288. 

Guinne, Hugh, burgess, 226, 230, 
Gundry, John, 133. 
Gusman (Guzman), Spanish Spy, 79. 


of Alfarache, a Spanish Romance, 

79, 408. 
Guy, Capt. Arthur, buys negroes, 59. 

Robert, servant, lb. 


Hacke, Georgine, 221. 
Hacker, John, 41. 
Hackett, William, burgess, 233. 
Haine, Jeremy, burgess, 262. 
Hall, Susan, servant, 16. 
Susanna, 48. 



Hall, Tliomas, 10; at Delaware River, 
12(i; at Manhattan, 127. 

Thomas, insurgent, 'il'i, 877. 

Thoniasinc, 71 . 
Ilaniby, Kichard, 221. 
Hamlin, Stephen, biufress, 236, 297. 
Hamor, Elizabeth, I'J. 

Hal|)h, ID, 38, 4;}, 09 
llaninioiul. Colonel, 210. 

Francis, 157. 

Joaue, 157. 

John, burgess, expelled, 239. 

Lawrence, 157._ 

Main waring, burjxess, 157, 20'.>. 

Margaret, 157. 
Hancock, Kichard, 121. 
Haudford, Sir Humphrey, 12. 
Hauie, John, l>argess, 262. 
Hanolaskie Indians, 828. 
llaiissford, Colonel, executed, 809, 87G. 

John, 809. 

John, .Junior, 809. 

William, 809. 
Hardy (Hardie), (,Te')r;LJre, burgess, 158, 

185, 180, 189, 205,220. 
Harlowe, Jolm, burgess, 207. 
Ilarinar (llarnian), Charles of Accouiac, 

90, 91, 92 ; Imrges.s 98, 120, -409. 

Eliza, danghlcr of Charles, 409, 

John, Wardi-n ol Winchester, jt'JO. 

John, O.xfonl pr(^t'e.-.sor, 409. 

Thomas, 409. 
Harmor,, burgess, 187, 180, 

187, 198. 
Harris, Capt. Thomas, burgess, 207. 

William, burgess, 229, 288, 201. 
an insurgent, 877. 
Harrison, Bt-njamin, Clerk of Council, 

140, 157, 202, 400. 

Edward, wife died in Bo.ston, 202. 

Elizabeth, 202. 

John, 203. 

Thomas, clergyman, 195, 197, 200; 
marries in Massachusetts, 200; 
his views of toleration in Mary- 
land's Act of Heligion, 25U ; 
minister in London, 418 ; in pos- 
session of commission to the i)oet 
Davenaut, 418. 
Harrysou, Alexander, 231. 

Robert, 221. 
Hartree, Elial, 22. 
Harvard, John, 112, 148. 


Harvey, Elizabeth, widow of Richard 

Stephens, 152, 341 

(Jov. John,/G, 38, 51, 77; arrival 
of, 92 ; M'riend to Lord Balti- 
more, 100; dispute with Va. 
Council, 115-118; mention of, 
120, 128, 128, 133. 143, 153 ; mar- 
riage of, 152, 341. 

Marv, 112. 

Sir Sebastian, 21, 112. 
Haiwood, (ieorge, 389. 

Thomas, burgess, 73, 138, 158, 186, 
205, 225. 
Hatch, Thomas, servant, 10. 
HalchfV, William, burgess, 185, 205, 

22<i, 287, 200. 
llatton, Robert, 410. 

Thomas, 410. 
Ilawes, .Michael, 13. 
Hawkins, Capt. Thomas, 349 364. 
Hawley, Gabriel, 182, 153, 173. 

Henry, 181, 143. 

James, 143. 

Jerome, 181, 188, 141. 142, 174. 

William, 131, 143,300, 414. 
Hawte, Jane, 13. 

Sir William, 18. 
Hay William, burgess, 207. 
Hayman, John, burgess. 287. 
Heiuii, Sir liobert, 11, 75, 45. 
Heerman. Augustine, 272; map of 

198, 200. 
llelder, Edmund, plivsician, tombstone 

of, 91. 
Hely, John, 43. 
Hendrye, Andrew, 321. 
Henn, Robert. 340. 
Heyvick, John, burgess, 185, 186. 
Hickes, Sir Baptist, 11. 
Iligby, Thomas, Accomac clereryman. 

407, 410. 
Hlgginson, Humphrey, councillor, 157 

184, 186,225, 242. 

Robert, 200. 
Hill, Edward, Speaker of Assembly, 53 

158, 185, 180, 190, 198, 305, 336! 

343, 345. 268, 349. 858. 

John, burgess, 158, 166, 298. 
Nicholas, burgess, 283 297 

Richard, burgess, 221, 269. 

Thimias, councillor, ::j68. 
Uinman, John, 221. 



Hiuton, Sir Tliomas, Kt., councillor, 

21,111, 112, 126,205. 

William, son of Thomas, 111. 
Hobbs, Francis, burgess, 23G. 
Hobson, John, councillor, 133, 15G. 
Hobby Horse, name of vessel of Scar- 
borough, 418. 
Hockway, William, burgess, 233, 
Hodden (Hodin), John, burgess, 107, 

Hodges, Capt. John, 136. 
Hodo-skins (Hoskins), Anthony, bur- 
gess, 221, 226. 
Hodgson, Robert, Quaker, 285. 
Hoe, Rice, burgess, 171, 186,190,193. 
Hogben, Joseph, 155. 
Hogg, Capt. John, 128. 
Holden, Christopher, Quaker, 285. 
Holland, John, burgess, 237. 
Hollinsvvorth, William, from New Eng- 
land, gOl. 
Holloway, John, surgeon, 406. 
: Holmes, George, visits Delaware River, 

126, 127. 
Holt, Randall, 40. 
Hone, Theodore, burgess, 318, 358. 
Honeywood, Sir Philip, 210. 

Philip, 210. 
Hook, Capt. Francis, 114, 125, 134, 


Sir Humphrey, Kt., 291. 
Hopson, Thomas, servant, 22. 
Horsey, Stephen, burgess, 221, 233, 300 ; 

Quaker, 303. 
Horsmanden, Warliam, burgess, 261, 

263, 266. 
Hoskins, Bartholomew, burgess, 200, 

Howard, Lord Francis, Gov. of Va. , 

397, 400. 

John, servant, 20. 

Philijj, supposed play-actor, 315. 
Howe, Theodore, burgess, 230. 
Hubberstead, Edward, servant, 23. 
Hudibras, satirical jjoem, 421. 
Hudson, Leonard, carpenter, 196. 

Raphael, 221. 

Richard, 221. 
Hudson's River of Chesapeake Bay, 

Hull, George, servant, 14. 

Jeffrey, 19. 

Peter, 185. 

William, 71. 

Hunt, Thomas, 281. 
Hurd, Edward, 57. 
Hurricaie, very severe, 321. 
Hutchinson, Randolph, 221. 

Robert, burgess, 167, 184, 180, 198. 

William, 90. 


Idiot, first in Virginia, 136. 

Immigration agents in London, 108. 

Indian Queen of Pamunkey, 386. 

traders forbidden to sell fire arms, 

Indians, die in London, 29 ; attack pin- 
nace of Pountis. 52; kill Spelman, 
53; murder a clergyman, 74; at- 
tack settlers,, 93 ; kill Capt. John 
Stone, 97; massacre on Good Friday, 
179 ; dispersed, 191 ; plan to civi- 
lize, 242 ; expedition against, 245 ; 
injustice to, 246 ; incursions of, 3l3 ; 
legislation as to, 313, 314, 348 ; cen- 
sus of, 325 ; conference with tribes, 

Ingle, Captain Richard, charges against, 
176, 177 ; befriended by Thomas 
Cornwallis, 177 ; attacks Saint 
Mary, 187. 

Ingram, Josej)h, sentenced to death, 375. 
William, 369, 

Ireland, cattle brought from, 81, 82. 

Italian glass workers, 284. 

Iverson, Abraham, burgess, 232. 


Jack ui an, Solomon, servant, 23. 
Jackson, John, 58. 

Walter, servant, 23. 
Jacob, Capt. John, his vessel seized in 

Potomac River, 418, 419. _^- 
Jail-birds, fear of, 328. 
James, Edward, 12. 

the King, 62, 63. 

John, 221. 

Thomas, Puritan minister, 167. 
Jamestown, 68, 203, 366, 367 ; brick 

church, when built, 144, 203, 368 ; 

fort at, 367. 
Jansen, Peter, 183. 
Jarvis, Capt., marries the widow Bacon, 




Jarvis, Cliristopliur, 221. 
JnfTerson, Tiioiuas, liis report, '.\',\. 
Jt!ffn!y8, Jidin, 305. 

Herbirt, Goveruor, 870 ; fiiBt pro- 
cliimation of, 379 ; culls an As- 
sembly, 385 ; confers with In- 
dians, 385 ; ilealh of, 380 ; his 
wife, 380 

Wiiliian, Captain, 398. 
Jenninj^s, Kdniuml, 255. 

Peter, burjrysH, 209, 297, 318. 
Jermayne, Philip, 12- 
Johnson, ('apt. (.-ornelius, 82, S3. 

George of M'd, scbiaiuutic, 301, 302. 

James, 221. 

John, 70, 221. 

John, Jr., 222. 

Joseph, buri^ess, 158, 171. ^ 

Robert, London j^rocer, 12, 91. 

Thomas, burjr.-ss, 190, 194, 221, 
226, 233, 230. 
Jones, Anthony, servant, 16. 

Arthur, burgess, 168. 

Farmer, 221. 

Henry, servant, 21. 

Nathau, servant, 23. 

Major, 348. 

Peter, 23 

Robert, inSur'fent, 374. 

Samuel, clerifyman, 420 

Thomas, Capl. of .Mav Klower, 31, 
32, 33. 
Jordan (Jordoa), Cecilia, 41. 

Margaret, 42. 

Robert, 282. 

Samuel, 41, 282. 

Thomas,, 73, 90. 

Georffc, burgc'ss, 184, 193, 198, 266, 
282. 349. 
Jordan, William, 221. 
Justices for A.D. 1631-32, 90. 


Kellam, Richard, 222. 

Kemj), Richard, Secnt.irv, 114, 118, 119, 

120, 141. 143, 141, "145, 1.50, 155; 

actino (Governor. 179, 184, 18G, 193, 

198 : mouumHni to, 380. 

Matthew, burgfs.s, 364, 386. 
Kendall. (tovt^rnor of Bermudas, 34. 

William, burgess, 262, 298, 318, 
387, 388, 407, 419. 

Kent Lshmd, 81, 100. 

Key, Isuaf, clergyman, 407. 

'rhoma.s, life of, 70. 
Kilfia, David, 221. 
Killigrew, Sir R(jbert, 11, 85 
Kiiig-sle}', William, 22. 
Kingsmill, Richard, 49, 73, 79, 404, 

Kingston, 'rhonias, burgess, 73. 
Kingswell, Elward, 97. 
Kinsman, Richard, his pear orchard, 

Kirke, Christopher, 221.' 
Knight, Monh'cai, 19. 

Robert. Boston merchant, 418. 

Peter, 203. 
Knowles, John, minister from Now 

England, 100. 


L'Amy, Hugh, 76. 

Lucton, Ht'nry, 18. 

Lakes, toward the Wost.'rn S,':i, 104. 

Lambanl, Capt. Richard, 127. 
Lambert, Thomas, burgess, 206, 262, 

Land laws of Virginia, 56. 
Langston, Anthony, visits London. 287 ; 

ur;res the erection of iron-works, 

John, 375. 
Lansdale, a preacher, 270. 
Lapworth, Michael, 26. 
Larimore, Captain, captured by Baron. 

360. ^ 

Latham, John, 62 
Lathrop, John, 23. 
Lawerenson, Peter, 183. 
Lawric, Capt. Christopher, 88, 133. 
Lawrence, Richard, 303 ; associate of 

Bacon, 358 ; notice of, 366, 368 ; 

burns his own house, 368 ; declared 

a rebel, 371, 372; escapes 375. 
La '.son, Alice, 18. 

Christopher, 18. 
Lawyers troublesome, 191, 264 
Laydcn, Katherine, 23. 
Lea, T nomas, 23. 
Leare. John, Colonel, 318. 349. 
Leate, Nicholas, 13. 
Lederer, Jolm, explorer, 326, 327. 



Leddra, William, Quaker, 385. 
Lee, Ann, wife of Kicliard, 255, 
Benedict, 253. 
Christopher, 221. 
Elizabeth, 258. 

Hancock, couimissioner of North- 
ampton, 421 ; removes to Nrrth- 
umberlaiid, 421 ; marries grand- 
daughter of Puritan Brewster, 
255, 421. 
John, 255. 

Mary, hunw as a witch, 289. 
Richard, Senior, bur<jesft, 198 ; no- 
tice of, 258 ; faithful to Parlia- 
ment ; 292 ; tobacco commission- 
ers, 304. 
Richard, Junior, 260, 364, 398. 
Sir Fleiiry, Kt., 254. 
Sir Robert. Kt., 258. 
Leighton, Dr. Alexander, 381. 
Lt?ister, Thomas, 40. 
Lewd women sent to Virginia, 329. 
Lewes, Roger, 23. 
Lewis, John, 221. 
Ley, Chief Justice, 23. 
Licques, Peter de, 76. 
Lidcott, Robert, 114. 

Sir John, 114. 
Lightfoot, Capt., surrenders to Dutch, 

Littleton, Ann, widow of Nathaniel, 387, 
407, 416. 
Edward, 387. 

Nathaniel, councillor, 156,225, 887 ; 
plantation in Accomac, 208 ; ac- 
knowledges Parliament, 221 ; 
mention "of 407, 413, 418. 
Southey, 887. 
Liquors, sale of restricted, 185 ; price 

of, 185, 196. 
Lisbro, Edward, 255. 
Liturgy, enjoined, 284. 
Llewellin (Luelliu) Daniel, burgess, 107, 

185, 198, 280. 
Lloyd, Cornelius, burgess, 168, 185, 189, 
199,226, 232. 
Edward, 186, 194, 304. 
Philemon, 804, 894. 
Lobs, George, old planter, 241. 
Lobbolly, food, 58. 
Locker, Capt. .John, 207. 
Logsward, John, 57. 
London Mint, assay master goes to Va., 

Longe, Elias, servant, 18. 

Jane, servant, 18. 
Long Island granted to Plowdeu, 181. 
Lo[>ham, James, 134. 
Loveing, Thomas, burgess, 184, 193 

r.ovelace. Col. Francis, 231, 352, 421. 
Lucar (Lucas), Thomas, burgess, 202, 

Luddington, William, burgess, 194, 

Ludlow, Anne, diuxghter of Roger, 413. 
Gabriel, brother of Roger, 413. 
George, brother of Roger, 413 ; 
councillor, 136, 137, 157, 184, 186, 
198, 198, 209, 225, 241, 242 ; his 
will, 418. 
> Mary, daughter of Roger, 413. 
Jonathan, son of Roger, 413. 
Joseph, son of Roger, 413. 
Roger, brother ot George, 96, 239, 

Roger, son of Roger, 413. 
Sarah, supposed sister of George. 
^ 413. 

Sarah, daughter of Roger, 413. 
Thomas, nephew of George, 413. 
Ludwell, Philip, Senior, 349 ; council- 
lor, 300, 363 ; captures insurgents 
366 ; notice of, 892 ; marries Lady 
Frances Berkeley, 892. 
Philip, Junior, 381, 392. 
Thomas, Secretary, 282, 296, 317 ; 
Hatters Gov. Berkeley, 817; at- 
tacked by Bland, 365 ; visits Eng- 
land, 305, 880, 385 ; monument 
to, 380. 
Lunsford, Catherine, '381, 417. 
Elizabeth, 381. 
Herbert, 381. 
Henry, 881. 
Katerina, 381. 
Thomas, Senior, 380 ; in the Fleet 

prison, 881 ; death of, 381. 
Thomas, Kt., j)ass for Va., 210; 
waylays Pelliam, 380 ; impris 
oned, 881 ; knighted, 381, L't of 
Tower of London, 381 ; his family, 
881, 417 ; monument to, 380. 
Lusan, William, 21. 
Lyddall, Major George, 348. 




Mabbe, Jamos, Iranslator of Gusmau of 

Alfiirachc, 4()b. 
Mivchaell, John, 222. 
Macock, tSarali, 18. 
Madison, ("apt. Isaac, councillor, 21,38. 

Mary, 213. 
''Madox, Alexander. 221, 22:J. 
Maffjre, Mariv, .Master of the boat Hobby 

Horse, 419. 
Major, Christopher, 221. 

' Edward, 190,194, 226,232. 
Mallorv, Catherine, 238. 
• Philip, cleriryman, 23S, 244, 270, 

Thomas, Dean of Cheater, 238, 827, 

Londr)n non-conformist, 420. 

William, K't, 420. 
Maltravers, alius Nauzemimd Hiver, 


Lord Henry, 135 ; grant of Norfolk 
County. 411. 
Manchester, Henry, Earl of, 102. 
Manhattan, commissioner from, 234. 
Manoakiu in Maryland, 303. 
Mansell, Capt. Dan., burgess, 22G. 

Robert, aervant, 42. 
Mansfield, David, servant, 17. 
Marryott, Robert, 221. 
Marsh, Margaret, 201. 

Thomas, 201. 
Marshall. Capt. Roger, 195; son chris- 
tened, 419. 

Edward, 221. 
Martian, Nicholas, burj;ess, 93. 
Martin, B:andoD,403. 

Captain, 11(5 

Edward of .\eromac, 315. 

John, cuuneillor, 20, 26, 50; Lon- 
don Conjpany concerning, 403. 
Martyne, John, Mayor of Plymouth, 123. 
Maryland, charter restricted, 307. 

colonists arrive, 98 

first settlers chiefly Protestants, 99. 

dissents as to restriction of tobacco 

culture, 308. 
Marv's Mount, Massachusetts, 113. 

"Virginia. 113. 409. 
Mason, George, censured, 288, sheriff 

344, 346, 349, 387. 

Mason, James, burgess, 237. 

Leonard, burgess, 261. 

Lyonoll, burgess, 236. 

Lenuu'l, burgess, 266, 269, 297, 349. 

William, bricklayer, 376. 
Massachusetts, adulation of Charles the 

Second, 287. 
Matheman, John, servant, 14. 
Mather, Cotton, 184. 
Matthews, Edward, 221, 223. 

John, 348. 

Philip, 221. 

Robert, 21. 

Samuel, coancill<)r,20, 21, 38, 78,88, 
90, 225, 242; expedition against 
Indians, 80; builds a fort, 94; 
described by Gov. Harvey, 101 ; 
his plantation, 112, 205 ; dis- 
pute with the Governor, 116, 
128, 131; colony agent, 227; 
chosen Governor, 248, 260, 266 ; 
concerning Assateague Indians, 
265 ; death of, 268. 

Sauiuel, .Junior, bequest to, 220 ; 
burgess, 226, 230, 232, 237, 242. 
Matrum, John, burgess, 190. 
May, Sir Humphrey, 11. 
May Flower, the ship, 30. 
Meade, Thomas, 238. 
Mearefl, Thomas, burgess, 186, 194 

Mede, Joseph, the clergyman, refers to 

Capt. Henry Fleet, 53; his notice 

of liord Baltimore, 67 ; refers to In- 
dians, 74. 
Mees, Col. Henry, burgess, 318. 
iMellinge, William, burgess, 223, 233. 

^lenefic, George, councillor, 68, 72; his 

house, 112; dispute with Gov. 

Harvey, 116, 117, 119, 131. 134; 

obtains a minister for Cheskiak, 

142; councillor under Berkeley, 

156, 184, 187 ; brings negroes from 

England, 187. 
Merryday, Philip, 221. 
.Meriyfin, John, 221. 
Mildmay, Sir Henry, 11. 
Miles, Alice, 282. 

George, 282. 
.Miller, Thomas, 221. 
Mills, in A.D. 1649, 204. 
Milner, George, 375. 

Thomas, 349. 



Ministers, supported by colonists, 77; 

criticism of, 244. 
Minsliall, JeflFrey. 223. 
Mitcliell, William, burgess, 262 ; no- 
tice of, 263, 264. 
Mitford, Buhner, 803. 
Mole, GTeorge, 13. 
Molton, Thomas, servant, 18. 
Monakin, Indian village, 3i6. 
Monk, General, in London, 279. 
Montague, Peter, servant, 21. 
burgess, 230, 232, 262. 
Sir Charles, 11. 
Moody, Lady Deborah, 127 ; sketch of, 

Sir Henry, Kt., 127; pass for, 421 ; 
visits Virginia, 268 ; his father's 
place in England, sold to Sir 
Lawrence Wasliington, 275 ; no- 
tice of, 275, 276. 
Moone, Capt. John, burgess, 236. 
Moore, Edward, 221. 

John, burgess, 226. 
Morer, Richard, 13. 

Morgan, Francis, burgess, 198,221, 226, 

Capt. Richard, 127. 
Morison (Moryson), Charles, 312, 349. 
Cecilia, 284. 

Francis, 138 ; shipwrecked, 207 
in charge of Fort P't Comfort, 
210; si)eaker of Assembly, 248; 
acting Governor, 284; mention 
of, 289, 290, 307 ; letters to Lord 
(Clarendon, 308; censures God- 
wyn, the clergyman, 344 ; his 
report on Bacon's rebellion,, 
370, 379. 
Sir Richard, 416. 
Robert, 416. 
Morley, William, burgess, 268. 
Morris, John, servant, 40. 

Mary, servant, 40. 
Mosely. Priscilla, Quakeress, 390. 
Mottram, John, burgess, 226. 
Moulton, William, 221. 
Moyse,'^, Theodore, burgess, 73. 
Mund, William, 221. 
Munday, Robert, 40. 
Mynne, Ann, wife of George, Lord Balti- 
more. 67. 


Nansemond non-conformists, 202, 206. 

Nasawattocks Creek, 171. 

Navigation Act, Berkeley's speech 
against, 212-216; eflFect of, 231; 
effort to appeal, 281 ; enforced, 292. 

Neale, Ann, 286. 
Anthony, 286. 
Dorothy, 286. 
James, '286, 287. 
John of Accomac, 414. 
Henrietta Maria, 286, 304. 
Walter, 87, 132; applies for office 
in V^a., 133. 

Neale's (Nele's), bark, 143, 286. 

Xegroe slaves, 15, 33,- 34, 35, 58, 59, 
187, 401. 

Neile, Aixhbishop of Yorke, 122. 

Nesan, Jack, explorer, 328. 

Newce, Thomas, 81. 

Sir AVilliam, Marshall of Va., 81. 

Newce's Town, Ireland, 81. 

Newell, Richard, 221. 

New England ministers visit Va., 165, 
sharply criticized by Donne, 149. 

Newport, Lady, 265. 
Sir Richard, 265. 

Nickolson, Francis, 219. 
Robert, will of, 219. 

Non-conformists, law relating to, 199. 

Norfolk County, why named, 105, 411. 
Upper ])arishes of, 169. 

Northampton County parishes, 169 ; 
submits to parliament, 231 ; upper 
parish formed, 231. 

Norton, Capt. William, 284. 

Norwood, Col. Henry, wrecked on 
Maryland coast, 307; at Littleton's 
plantation, 208; visits Argall Yeard- 
ley 308 ; relation of Gov. Berkeley, 
209; visits Wormeley, 210; re- 
turns to England and visits 
Charles the Second, 310; impris- 
oned, 417 ; at Tangiers, 210 ; at the 
surrender of Manhattan, 417 ; 
treasurer of Virginia, 337. 
Major Charles, clerk of Assembly, 

Nottingham, Richard, 221. 

Nuthall, John, 331. 




Oath of allej;iauce and supremacy, 
iisai^e a.s to, G4, 05, 78. 

Okley, Robert, servant, 2^. 

Onondaga Indian.^ reply to Va. com- 
missioners, 388. 

O'Neal, Daniel, Post Master General, 
Hugh, of Patnxent, Md., 259. 

O'Neil, Grace, 410. 

Opecliankauo, Indian Chief, 187, 189, 

Orchard, Capt. Richard, 127. 

Osborne, Thomas, burgess, 71, 90. 

Ottowell, Thomas, servant, 41. 

Overbury, Sir Thomas, 114. 

Ovvin, Benjamin, servant, 15. 


Pacific Ocean, route sought to, 104. 
P;ige, Capt. John, 282, 349. 397. 

clergyman, 304. 

Henrv, caxiifiiitfiJV-^exiicuJied, 373, 

Robert, 111. 
Pagett (Paggit), Anthony .servant, 23; 

burgess, 72. 

Lord William, 11. 
Paine, Florentine, burgess, 207. 
Pale built from James to York Kiver, 

Pallavaciuo, Edward, 13. 
Palmer, Edward, projector of Univer- 
sity and School of Art, for Va., 27, 


Thomas, 72, 90. 

Thomas, clergyman in Accomac, 

William, 13. 
Palmer's Island, 27, 81, 114. 212. 
Pamunkey, Queen of, 380 : her son, 

Panton, Antliony, Hector of Chespiak, 

142, 143, 144, 150. 
Pargiter. Theodore, of London, 257. 
Parke, Daniel, councillor, 209, 310, 318, 

Junior, 209; unprincipled, 316; 
aid- to Marlborough, 310; killed 
by a mob, 316. 

Parke, Fanny, wife of John Custis, 316. 

Lucy, wife of Col. William I3yrd, 
Parnell, William, servant, 16. 
Parramoro, John, 221. 

Mr., 25. 
Pate, John, 308. 

Kicliard, burgess, 232, 368. 
Pawlett, Thomas, burgess, 90, 150. 
Peach orcliard, first in Va.. 112. 
Peakc, Robert, servant, 10. 
Peasley, William, brother-in-law of 2d 

Lord Baltimore, 02. 
Peck, Ann, 243. 

Robert, clergyman, 243. 
Pedro, John, a uegroe servant, 15. 
Peirce (Piers, Pearce, Pierce), Capt. 

William, 19, 35 ; his house, .''.0. OS ; 

councillor, 88, 128, 131, 157," 184, 


Jane, daughter of William, relict 
of Capt. John Rolfe, 19, 59. 
Peirsey (Piersoj', Persey), Abraham, 

22; councillor, 38, 43, 48; marries 

widow of Niithiiniel West, 49 ; will 

of, 49, 403, 404. 

Elizabeth, 405. 

Frances, 405. 

Mary, 405. 
Pelliam, Herbert, brother-in-law of 

Gov. West, 86. 
Junior, 80. 
Pembroke, Earl of, 114, 134. 
Penn, Robert, servant, 22. 

William, philanthropist, 252. 
Penoyer, Willituu, 217. 
Pepys Samuel, notices Gov. Berkeley's 

stage play, 283. 
Pequod Indians, 96, 97. 
Percevall, Samuel, 37. 
Percy, George, Dep. Governor, alludes 

to false statments, 84. 
Perecute, Indian Chief, 328. 
Perky ns, William, London merchant, 

Perry, Capt. Ilenrv, burgess, 230, 236, 


Lt. William, 72, 270. 
Pettus, (Pettvs), Tlnmiaa, councillor, 

157, 180, '193, 198, 225, 242, 203, 

268, 353 
Pidgeon, Elizabeth, 157. 

William, 157. 
Pigot, James, 407. 



Pilkington, Margaret, servant, 18. 

William, servant, 18. 
Pilkinton, James, Bishop of Durham, 

Piudabake, an Indian, 271. 
Pirates, Irish proposal to transport, 

Pitt, Robert, burgess, 205, 226, 232. 236, 

26'), 269. 
Play-actors in Accomac, 315. 
Pleasants, John, Quaker, 396, 400. 
Plo\vd«n, Sir Edmund, Kt., notice of, 
180, 183; in Fleet Prison, 181; 
"* deserted by servants, 182; visits 
Boston, 206; death and will, 207; 
his chambers in London. 264 ; bill 
for preparation of New Albion, a 
book, 415. 
Pocahontas, in London, 29 ; marriage 

of her companion, 29. 
Poconoke River, conflict in, 120. 
Point Comfort, fort at, 137, 312; Lou- 
don ships at, 178; Dutch attack, 
Pollinglon, John, burgess, 46. 
Pomfroy, Richard, insurgent, 374. 
Poole, Daniel, Frenchman, 17. 

Henry, burgess, 198. 
Pooley, Greville, preacher, 41, 49, 74, 

404, 405. 
Popham, Francis, 21. 

John, 21. 
Popleton William, burgess, 172. 
Population, increase of, 89, 93, 114, 130, 

Poquoson River, 113. 
Porv, John, Secretary of Colony, 16, 17, 

'25, 33, 67. 
Porter, Joliu, friendly to Quakers, 298, 

Peter, 40. 
Pott, Doctor John, councillor, 38, 78 ; 
physician to Colony, 39 ; Governor, 
69, 71 ; bequest to, 71 ; described 
by Sandys, 79 ; trial and pardon 
of, 79, 80. 

John, Junior, 221, 410. 
Elizabeth, 39, 70,80. 
Francis, 114, 116, 123, 128, 410. 
Porter, Capt. Roger, 348. 
Pountis, John, his pinnace atvacked by 

Indians, 52. 
Powell, Captain, 33, 131. 
James, 349. 

Powell, John, burgess, 262, 269, 297, 


Samuel, 12, 23. 

Thomas, 19. 

William, burgess, 40, 41. 
Powhatan, Indian Chief, 29, 52. 
Poythers, Francis, burgess, 185, 186, 

189, 198, 206. 
Preen, Capt. John, 46. 
Preeninge, William, 221. 
Prescott, Capt. Edward, complaint 

against, 257. 
Presley, William, burgess, 199, 297, 

Preston, Roger, servant, 42. 
Price, Arthur, burgess, 186, 189. 

Jenkyn of Pangoteague, assists 

shipwrecked persons, 208; gratuity 

to, 208. 

Thomas, a Quaker, 302. 

Walter, burgess, 72. 
Prince, Edward, burgess, 186, 190. 

Governor at Delaware River, 181. 
Pritchard, Thomas, 40. 
Privy council uphold Gov. Harvey, 

Protestant Religion enjoined, 293. 
Puddington, George, 410. 

Jane, 410. 
Purify, (Purifrie, Purfury), Thomas, 

councillor, 88, 90, 117, 133. 
Puritans, 24, 30 ; criticism of, 148, 

149 ; removed from Va., 201. 


Quakers, punished, 285, 289 ; laws 
against, 293, 297 ; censured by Scar- 
borough, 301. 

Queen of Pamunkey Indians, 386. 


Rabnet, Maryland colonist, 126. 
Ramsey, Capt. Edward, burgess, 297, 

318, 348, 360. 

Capt. Thomas, burgess, 262. 
Randolph, Henry, clerk of Assembly, 

death of, 244. 

William, death of, 244. 
Ransome, Peter, burgess, 230. 
Rappahannock Indians, 187. 
Ratliffe, Elkinton, 19. 



Ratliffe. Charles, 231. 

Ravis, Bishop of Loadon, 137. 

Rawlins, Cecilia, 281. 

Giles, 284. 
Reade, George, 142 ; liurgess, 20o, 201 

26:5, 353. 

Robert, 143. 

Thomas, 364. 
Reddinur, John, 348. 
Redhead, Christopher, servant, 18. 
Reli<^ious liberty, views of Roger Wil 

liaina and others, 250. 
Revell. Randall, burgess, 221, 263, 264 

Reynolds, (Jharles, burgess, 230. 
Rich, .Sir Nathaniel, 12, 

Robert, 31. 
Richett, Mick, 231. 
Richahecrian Indians, alarm settlers 

245 ; village, 337. 
Rickahock, see Fort Royal. 
Ricroft, Capt. James. 127. 
Rideoute, Antoine. 75. 
Ridley. Peter, burgess, 189, 198. 
Roanoke Hi/er, explored, 337. 
Roberts, John, 221. 
Robins, Dorothy, 410. 

Edward, 410. 

Elizab(^th, 410. 

Grace, 409. 

John, lost at sea, 158. --' 
Junior, 193, 200. 
son of Obedience, 407. 

Obedience, 9 :, 158, 185, 221. 230 
burgess, 230 ; councillor, 226 
263, 388 ; protests against seiz 
ure of New England vessel, 418 
family of, 409. 

Rachel, 410. 

Richar.l, 409. 

Sami)Son, 221. 

Samuel, 231. 
Robinson, John, Puritan pastor at Ley 

den, 30. 

searcher at Gravesend, 105 
of Northampton Co., 321. 

Matthew, 40. 

William, Quaker, 285. 
Roe, Sir Tliomas, Kt., 85. 
Rogers, George, 41. 

John, burgess, 186. 
Rolfe, Capt. John, his widow, 19, 59 

194 ; his daughter Elizabeth, 194 

his son Thomas, 194 ; his grand 

daughter, 194. 


Rolfe, Lt. Thomas, notice of, 416. 
Rookings, William, sentenced to 

death, 374. 
Roper, Clement, servant, 23. 
Rossiugham, Edmund, nephew of Gov. 

Yeardley,50, 51. 
Rotterdam, ship at Jamestown, 177. 
Rowinge, Henry, servant, 23. 
Rowlstou, a burgess, 74. 
Rozier, John, preaches in Accomac, 406, 

Russell, Dellli>nell, London luercha ut 

404, 405. 

John, 41. 

idiysiciun, 241. 
Rutter, John, 221. 


Sabbath, a Sunday Legislation, 89. 
Sadler, Rowland,, 167. 
Salisbury, Earl of. letter to, y3. 
Salter, Elizabeth, 18. 
Saltonstall, Meiiiall, 86. 

Ri(-hard, yO. 

Sir Richard, Kt. , 84. 

Sir Samuel, Kt.,84. 

Wye, 84. 
Sance, Baron de, 75. 
Sanders, Alexander, servant, 16. 

Henry, servant, 20. 
Sands (Sandys), David, minister, 21. 
Sandys, Archbishop, 159. 

George, colonial treasurer, 17, 18, 
45,61,65; writings of, 44, 45, 158 ; 
agent for Va., 159 ; ancestor of, 

Margaret, 13, 14. 

Samuel, 13, 14. 
Saracen's Head Inn, London, 85. 
Sassacus, Indian chief, 97. 
Savage, Thomas, 331. 

John, burgess, 318. 
Savin, Robert, burgess, 73. 
Sawell, Thomas, servant, 23. 
Sawier, William, servant, 41. 
Sawyer, Maj(jr Francis, 349 
Sayle, Gov. William', visits Va. Puri- 
tans, 197, 203. 
Seneca Indians near We.stover, 401. 
Scarborough (Scarburg), Charles, 221. 


Edmund, merchant, burgess, 168, 
186, 190, 199, 221, 236, 269, 318 ; 
buys slaves at Manhattan, 340; 




Scarborough. Edmund, continued : 

Surveyor General, 287, visits An- 
amessex, 300, report of oOl ; ex- 
pedition against Assatcagues, 
265 ; sends vessel to Delaware 
River, 418 ; his men seize a New 
England vessel, 418; death of, 
419 ; executors of, 419. 

Matilda, 418. 

Tabitha, 418. 

Mary, widow of Edmund, 419. 

Charles, son of Edmund, 419. 
School, bequest for a, 71, 113, 113. 

building begun at Charles City, 
Scott, Dorothea, memoir of, 155. 

Nicholas, 231. 

a physician and surgeon, 105. 
Scull, G. D., memoir of Dorothea 

Scott, 155. 
Seaverne, John, surgeon, 417. 
Seawell, Henry, 134. 
Seeley (Ceelev), Thomas, justice, 90. 
Selve, Tobine, 331. 
Sergeant, Richard, servant, 23. 
Servants, agencies for wliite, 108. 

of Edward Blaney, 41. 

Ralph Hamor, 19. 

Isaac Madison, 33. 

John Martin, 30. 

Samuel Mathevs^s, 31. 

John Pott, 39. 

Roger Smith, 18. 

William Tucker, 40. 

Francis West, 15. 

Francis Wyalt, 14. 

Gov. Yeardley, 16, 17. 

Indenture, 57. 

Sufferings, 58. 

Insurrection, 395. . 

elevation of, 379, 290. 
Severence, Capt. John, 128. 
Sewall, Henry of Maryland, 304, 383. 
Seward, John, burgess, 189. 
Sharpe, Peter, Quaker physician, 131. 

Samuel, burgess, 46, 55, 71. 
Sharpless, Edward, ears cut off, 25, 26. 
Shaw, Ann is, servant, 23. 
Sheaperd, Robert, servant, 17, 41 ; bur- 
gess, 193, 198. 
Sheliey, John, servant, 41. 
Shepherd, John, burgess, 184, 236, 338, 

Sherwood, William, 364 ; tnmb of, 637. 

Ship-building encouraged, 288. 

Sibsie (Sibsey, Sypsey), John, wrecked 

in Barnstable Bay, 54 ; councillor, 

Sidney (Sydney), John, burgess, 185, 

199, 261,366,369. 
Silk presented to Charles the Second, 


Slaves,"negro, 33, 34, 35, 58, 59. 
Smith, Arthur, burgess, 186. 

Capt. John, quariels with Francis 
West, 53, 83 ; notice of, 84, 85. 

John, burgess, 363. 

John of Nibley, 18. 

Nicholas, burgess, 369. 

Osmond, servant, 

Robert, 304 ; letter from Berkeley , 

Roger, councillor, 18, 38, 43, 68. 

Toby, burgess, 167, 306. 

Sir Thomas of London, 9, 11 ; Va. 
Indians die at his house, 39. 
Smith's Island, why so named, 334. 
Smithson, Judith, 405. 
Smothergall, Samuel, 233. 
Smyth, John, burgess, 73. 

Richard, 33. 

William, 331. 
Snow, Justinian, 355. 
Somerset, Lady Mary, 303. 
Sone (Soane), Henry, burgess, 336, 330, 

333, 336, 361, 268 281 ; death of, 388. 

Samuel, 331. 
Southampton, Earl of, 9, 20. 
Southcoat, Capt. Thomas, bui-gess, 317. 
Soittherne, John, 71. 
Southren, Edward, 221. 
Southev, Ann, 387. 

Elizabeth, 387. 

Lewis, 387. 
Sparks, John, servant, 17. 
Sparrow, Charles, burgess, 190, 205, 

230, 268. 
Spelman, Henrv, killed by Indians, 52. 

Sir Henry, "K't, 24. 
Spencer, Nicholas, burgess, 318, 349 : 

secretary, 393, 394, 398. 
Spicer, George, servant, 21. 
Sprigge, Thomas, 221. - 
StaflFord, Sir John, 274. - 

Standish, Capt. Miles, 95. 
Stanley, William, 221. 
State House needed at Jamestown, 138, 




Slebbins, Luke, widow i>f, iiiarritri 

Ral[>li Wnruielej, 415. 
Stegif, Capt. Thomas, 135, IIJC ; fiiUHl, 
151 ; speaker of As8<-inl)ly, 1G7 ; 
seizes iv ship at Boslou, 17'J ; Parlia 
meat couiuiissioner, 218 ; lost at 
sea, 319 ; will of, 219. 
Tiiomas, Junior, 319; councillor, 
Stepiieii.s (Stevens), Frances, widow of 
Samuel, 341. 

Geor<'e, burgess, 180, 189, 336, 330. 
Kichard, 66, G9 ; councillor, 78, 88 ; 
lights a duel, 88 ; his widow mar- 
ries Gov. Harvey, 153, 415. 
Samuel, 341, 415. 
Stevens, Major Philip, 307. 417. 
William of Accomac,331, 417. 
Somerset, 207. 417. 
Stillwell, L't Nicholas, 188. 
Stoakes, Robert, an iasurirent, 374. 
Stone, Capt. John, rough mariner fined, 
91. 95 : killed, 90 ; mention of, 410. 
^laximilian, servant, 10. 
Verlinda, wife of Gov. William, 

William of Northampton Co., first 
Protestant Governor of Marylanil, 
301, 416 ; letter from Lord Balti- 
more, 213; brotheriu-law of 
Francis Doui^hty and Jolm 
Cozier, clerirymen, 406. 410. 
Story, 'I'hom: s, Quaker preacher, 304. 
Stouirhlon, Sauimd, biir<^e3s, 194, 198, 

Strachey, William, servant, 10. 
Strange, W^ilUam, servant, 10. 
Stringer, John, burgess, 231, 307, 309, 
300, 41 »7. 
Stephen, 331. 
Stuteville, Sir Martin, K'r, 74. 
Stuyvesant, Goverivor, 333, 272. 
Symes (Simes. Symmes), Benjamin, 

founds a school, 71, 112, 113. 
Symonds, Dorothy, wife ot Harrison, the 
non-contbrmist minister, 302. 
Samuel, 303. 
Swan, Thomas, burgess, 189, 205,201, 

349, 353. 
Swedes of Delaware River, 138, 139. 


'."'abernor, Thomas, burgess, 262. 
Talbot, Sir William, Sec. of Md., 337. 
Taverner, Capt. Henry, 128. 

Robert, 42. 
Taylor (Tayjer), James, 410. 

Phi.ip, hurgess, 121, 168, 410, 41(i, 

'i'hoinas, burgess, 194. 

William, burgess, 108, 198, 231 ; 

councillor, 235, 242. 
Silas, engineer, notice of, 332. 
Tegger, Richard. 233. 
Thomas, Edward, Quaker, 364. 
Nathaniel, servant, 'i^j. 
William, burgess, 330. 
Thompson, Ann, servant, 10. 
George, servant, 40. 
L't., ourgess, 74. 
Maurice, 317. 
Paul, 74. 

Richard, associate of Claiborne, 108. 
Hoger, 10, 71. 
WUliam. 40. 
Thornbury, Thomas, burgess. 233, 234. 
Thoroughgood, Adam, burgess, 74, 90, 
Sir John, K't, 134. 
Thomas, as to Maryland charter, 
Thome, George, 19., 

Otto, 385. 
Thurston, Capt. Riclianl . 419. 
Mary, Quakeress, 299. 
Quaker preacher. 253. 
Tiluey, John, 331. 

Tobacco trade, 37, 47, .55, 56, 91, 131, 
145; excessive planting, 287, 391, 
304, 310, 317. 
Riots, 394, 397. 
revenu<-, 403. 
Toleration in Religion. 197,2.50,311. 
Tomps )n, Nicholas, servant, 17. 
Thomas, 57. 

William, minister from New Eng- 
land, 107, 184. 
William, Roman Catholic, 107. 
Tottopottomoy, Indian Chief, killed, 
345 ; family neglected, 240 ; men- 
tion of in Hudihras, 430. 
Town organization desired, 30. 
Towns, building of, a failure, 310. 



Townseud, Richard, servant, 39 ; bur- 
gess, 73 ; councillor, 133, 157, 184, 

Traverse, Raleigh, burgess, 318. 

Col. William, 849 ; speaker of As- 
sembly, 385. 

Travis, Edward, burgess, 184. 

Tree, Richard, burgess, 73. 

Trelawney, Robert, 133. 

Troops an ive from London, 378. 

Truman, Thomas, 331. 

Major Thomas, of M'd., harsh to- 
ward Indians, 347. 

Trussell, John, burgess, 306, 336, 339. 

Tucliiu, Simon, suspected, 36. 

Tucker, Daniel, 34. 
Elizabeth, 40. 
Marv, 40. 

William, councillor, 38, 40, 78, 88, 

Turner, John, insurgent, 374. 
Martin, servant, 17. 


Underwood, William, burgess, 330. 
Upton, John, burgess. 33, 90, 189 


William, 133. 
Urwick, Rev. Doctor, alludes to Doctor 

Harrison, formerly of Va , 308. 
Ute. John, burgess, 73, 78, 88, 93, 117, 



Vane, Sir Henry, Kt., 103. 
Vassalls, Samuel, 76, 97. 
Vaughan. Richai'd, 83k 
Vernald, Mary, bequest to, 330. 
Verney, Lady, letter to, 109. 

Sir Edward, 108. 

Thonu\s, 108, 111. 
Vicaredge, Robert, merchant, 390. 
Vincencio, the Italian, 18. 
Virginia Company, 33, 85, 159, 164. 

commissioners, 11, 13. 13, 85, 317. 

population, 36. 

university projected, 37. 

church government, 167. 

submissive to Parliament, 33!. 

land ceded, by the King, 389. 

urged to imitate New England 

Virginia continued. 

presents silk to King, 328. 

remonstrance, 383, 395, 431. 
Von Twiller, Covernor at Manhattan, 



Waddelove. Nicholas, 231. 
Waleford, John, 331. 
Walker, Caot. Edward, 127. 

John, burgess, 185, 190, 194, 805, 

343 ; councillor. 261. '^68, 353. 
Peter, burgess, 321, 336. 
Thomas, burgess, 397. 
Walklett, Gregory, an insurgent, 375. 
Walliugs, George, burgess, 397. 
Waltham, John, 406. 
W^ard, Captain, 408. 
Mary, 241. 
William, 821. 
Warne, John, bequest to, 70. 

Thomas, burgess, 189. 
Warner, Augustine, burgess, 222, 267 ; 
councillor, 353. 
Augustine, Junior, at Merchant 

Tailors' School, London, 419. 
Mildred, wife of Lawrence Wash- 
ington, 420 ; her second hus- 
band, 420 ; buried in England, 
Ralph, councillor, 68. 
Warnet, Thomas, merchant, 69 ; will 

of, 70. 
Warren, Rat cliff. 120. 

Thomas, burgess, 184, 266, 297,318. 
William, 116. 
Warwick, Earl of, 31, 176, 179, 197, 

creek, 178. 

the ship at Potomac Falls, 92 ; 
wrecked, 92, 104. 
Washington, x^ugustiue, father of the 
President, 420. 
Eleanor, 257. 

George, President, ancestor of, 
3ri6 ; taught by a convict servant, 
John, the immigrant complains of 
the hanging of a supposed witch, 
258 ; warden, 259 ; burgess, 318 ; 
harsh toward Indians, 347. 
son of Mildred, 420. 

of Barbadoes, 257. 



Waehington, Henry, 257. 
Lawrence, brotlier of John, 259. 
son of John, 420. 
brother of George, 257. 
Mildred, 420. 

daiiffliter, of 420. 
Richiird, 257. 
of Barbadoes, 257. 
Waters, Edwiird, 410. 
Grace, 410. 
Nathaniel, 388. 
Susanna, 388. 
VVilliani, 407, 410. 
VVaterliouHe, Mr., 25. 
Walkins, liice, 41. 
Watson, Abraham, burgess, 232, 23G. 

James, servant, 23. 
Weale, John, burjjess, 155. 
Webb, Giles, burgess, 261, 266, 269. 

Stephen, servant, 18 ; burgess, 167, 

Wingfield, burgess, 236. 
Webster, -Richard, burgess, 261, 413. 
Wells, Richard, burgess. 190, 198. 
Wentworih, Earl of Strafford, 67, 

Werden, Sir John on Va. insurgents, 

West, ancestor, 15. 

Francis, brother of Lord Delaware, 
15. 37, 43, 51, 52, 55, 59, 78, 
Frances, widow of Nathaniel, 15, 

49, 405. 
John, Governor and councillor, 15, 
72, 78, 88, 118, 129, 130, 155, 186, 
198, 225, 242, 267, 271, 349, 
John, Junior, 271. 
Nathaniel brother of Lord Dela- 
ware, 15, 49 ; his widow marries 
Abraham Pcirsey, 49. 
Nathaniel. Junior, 405. 
Richard, Attorne}' on Va. suffrage, 

Toby, 271. 

VVMlliam. an insurgent, 374. 
Western, Capt. Hugh, 127. 

Sir Kiclmid, 11. 
Westrop, John, burgess, 185, 341. 
Wethrall, Robert, burgess, 189, 226, 
230. i 

Weyre, John, burgess, 267,369,297, 
314, 318. 

Whaly, Major Thomas, insurgent, 372, 

Wheatley ( Wheatliff ), David, 221, 

Wheeler, C'lasen, a fiddler, 376. 
Whitaker, Alexander, minister, 406. 
Jabez, councillor, 38, 406. 
William, burgess, 205, 206, 232, 

236. 266. 
William, D.D., 406. 
Whitbv, William, burgess, 226, 230 

232, 237. 
While, Andrew, Jesuit missionary, 187, 
201, 415; Va. minister, without 
orders, 130. 
Francis, D.D., 12. 
Jeremy, 41. 
Major William, 349. 
Whitehaud, George, servant, 16. 
Whitehead, John, 221. 
Whilmore, Robert, 41. 
Whittington, William, 221, 417. 
Wiggins, {.'apt. Edward, 348. 
Wighcomoco River, 121. 
Willrahan, Sir Roger, Kt., 61. 
Wilford, Thomas, executed, 369, 376. 
Wilkins, John, his widow, 407. 
Willcox, J(din, burgess, 263. 
Williams, Pierce, servant, 23. 
Robert, surgeon, 319. 
lioger, surgeon, 21. 
New England minister complains 

of Councillor Ludlow, 136. 
Thomas, 43. 
Walter, 331. 
Williamson, Dr. Robert, 297, 318 
Willis, Ann, servant, 16. 

Francis, burgess, 226, 230,267, 269, 
Wilmore, George, 12. 
Willoughby, Elizabeth, 157. 
Francis. 157. 
Henry, 157. 
Thomas, 46; councillor, 134 157 

186.188, 193. 
Junior, pupil in Merchant Tailors- 
School, London, 157. 
William, Colonel, 157. 
Wilson, George, Quaker, letter of, 285. 
James, sentenced to death, 373. 
John, e.irly minister, 146. 
Windham, Edward, burgess, 158, 168. 
Wingate, Roger, Colonial Treasurer. 
146, 156. 



Winslow, Edward, 33, 53. 

Winthrop, Gov. John, of Mass., 97, 103, 

Wise, John, 231. 
Witch, woman hung as a, 257. 
Witchcraft, 339, 257. 
Wollaston, Capt., 113. 
Wolstenholmo, Sir John, Kt., 13, 85. 

Joliu, Junior, 85. 
Wood, Abraham, burgess, 185, 190,193, 

194, 331, 236,345,361, 363, 368, 379, 


Thomas, dies among Indians, 328. 
Woodliall, John, 37. 
Woodhouse, Henry, burgess, 102, 103, 

199, 330, 347, 381. 
Woodliffe, Captain, burgess, 230. 
Woodward, Christopher, burgess, 73. 

John, 239. 

Thomas, assay master at London 
mint, 329 ; in Carolina, 307, 317. 
Worleigh, George, burgess, 158. 

Margaret, taken by Indians, 188. 
Worlich, William, burgess, 306, 336, 

269, 279. 
Wormeley, Agatha, 310, 386. 

Christopher, Senior, 133, 156, 415 ; 
marries widow Stebbms, 415. 

Junior, 349 ; marries the widow 
Aylnier, 363. 
Worsley, Benjamin, 317. 
Wos, William, burgess, 185. 
Wraxall, Capt. Peter, 419. 
Wright, William, under sheriff, 340. 
Wrote, Samuel of Loudon, 13, 45, 50, 

79, 85. 

Sir Thomas, 11. 
Wyatt, Anthony, burgess, 14, 156, 190, 


Edward, 271. 

Eleanor, 14. 

Francis, Governor of Va., 13, 14, 
30, 28, 37, 44, 60, 85, 145, 151, 155. 

sou of Governor, 156. 

George, father of Governor, 13, 37. 

George, son of Governor, 13, 155, 

Wyatt, Hawte, brother of Governor, 13, 

Henry, son of Governor. 156. 

Margaret, wife of Governor, 13, 14, 
155, 159. 

Nicholas, 349. -^ 

Ralph, 14,94, 156, 
Richard, 156 

Thomas, 13. 

Williinn, 156, 271. 
Wyud, Sir Humphrey, Kt., 61. 
Wynne, Cnpt. Robert, burgess, 261, 368, 

387, 393, 397, 317. 


Yates, Captain, voyage of, 19. 

Edward, servant, 16. 
Yeardley (Yardley), Argall, 48, 157; 

councillor, 186, 189, 331, 335, 242. 

Elizabeth, 48- 

Governor of Va., 16,37, 38, 38, 44, 
47 ; will of, 48 ; house in James- 
town, 68. 

Ralph, brother of Governor, 48, 50. 

Temperance, wife of Governor, 16, 
Yeo, Leonard, burgess, 186, 190, 207, 


Hugh, burgess, 398, 318. 
Young, Gregory of London, grocer, 105, 


Capt. Thomas, 106, 107, 108, 153, 

Susanna, 105, 378. 

Thomas, son of Captain Thomas, 
153 ; executed as an insurgent, 
153, 373, 377, 378. 


Zouch, Sir John, Kt., 85; visits Va., 
118; letter to, 118-130. 


Owin^ to the distance of the author, from tlie press, while the pafjes 
were printed, the following corrections are necessary. 

Pacre 14 jMuster of Sir Thomas should read Sir Francis. 

47 Snnishury, " " Sainsbury. 

68 Manefie, " " Menefie. 

G9 was the grounds, " " were. 

77 Bolton, " " Button. 

79 Foot note erroneous, reference to the hero in a Spanish 
romance, see page 408. 

86 Dillingham, should read Bellingham. 

88 Wanoick, " " Maverick. 

91 Barman, " " Harmar. 


99 Sir Philip of Erwartou, " " Sir Philip Parker. 

IVA Kingston, " " Kiquotan, 

120 Ratcliff Warner, " " Warren. 

" Charles Harney, " '* Harmar. 

126 Rabent, " " Rabnet. 

139 vicesino, " " vicesimo. 

" placits, " " placito, 

168 Edward Scarborough, " " Edmund. 

198 Thomas Fetters, " " Pettus. 

202 Wancick, " " Urwick. 

" 1834. «< '< 1634. 

205 October, 1644, " " 1649. 

209 Edward Scarborough, " " Edmund. ' 

230 William Gouge, " " Gouge. 

232 John Bushopp, " " Bishop. 

233 William Mellin, ' " Mellinge. 
" holding officer " " office. 

288 John. 

328 Last eight lines of text, " " as the first 8 lines. 

342 165- " " 1650. 

345 vindicative, " " vindictive. 

349 Col William Bull, " " Ball.