rt*3 " - ; v: ' - - - '
*"" "- * * . ,
BY MRS. MARY RANDOLPH.
METHOD IS THE SOUL OF MANAGEMENT.
WITH AMENDMENTS AND ADDITIONS.
PUBLISHED BY JOHN PLASKITT,
218 Market Street.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, TO WIT:
Be it remembered, That on the twenty-ninth day of January, in
********* tne y ear f our Lord one thousand eight hundred and
I Q 1 twenty-eight, and of the Independence of the United
1 States of America, the fifty-second, WILLIAM B. RAN-
********* DOLPH, of the said district, has deposited in the office of
the Clerk of the District Court for the District of Columbia, the
title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the
words following, to wit:
"The Virginia Housewife; or, Methodical Cook. By MRS.
MARY RANDOLPH. Method is the soul of management.'*
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States,
entitled, " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the
copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of
euch copies during the times therein mentioned" and also to the
act, entitled, ct An act supplementary to an act, entitled, An act for
the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps,
Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies
during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits
thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical
and other prints."
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and affixed
the public seal of my office, the day and year aforesaid.
EDM. I. LEE,
Clerk of the District Court for the District of Columbia.
Beef soup, 13
Gravy soup, 14
Soup with Bouilli, 15
Veal soup, 15
Oyster soup, 1 6
Barley soup, 16
Dried pea soup,
Green pea soup, 17
Ochra soup, 17
Hare or Rabbit soup, 18
Soup of any kind of old fowl, 1 8
To dress turtle, 20
For the soup, 21
Mock turtle soup of calf's
Directions for curing 1 beef, 22
To dry beef for summer use, 24
To corn beef in hot weather, 25
Important observations on
roasting-, boiling 1 , frying-,
Brisket of beef baked, 29
To stew a rump of beef, 30
A fricando of beef, 30
An excellent method of
dressing beef, 31
To collar a flank of beef, 31
To make hunter's beef, 31
A nice little dish of beef, 32
Beef steaks, 32
To hash beef, 33
Beef steak pie, 33
Beef a-la-daube, 33
Directions for the pieces
in the different quarters
of veal, 34
Veal cutlets from the fillet
or leg-, 34
Veal chops, 35
Veal cutlets, 35
Knuckle of veal, 36
Baked fillet of veal, 36
Scotch collops of veal, 36
Rag-out of a breast of veal, 37
Fricando of veal, 37
To make a pie of sweet-
breads and oysters,
Mock turtle of "calf s head, 38
To grill a calPs head, 39
To collar a calf's head, 40
Calf's heart, a nice dish, 40
Calf's feet fricassee, 41
To fry calf's feet, 41
To prepare rennet, 41
To hash a calf's head, 42
To bake a calPs head, 42
To stuff and roast calf's liver, 4S
To broil calf's liver, 43
Directions for cleaning calf's
head and feet, 43
To roast the fore-quarter,
Baked lamb, 44
Fried lamb, 44
To dress lamb's head and
Boiled leg- of mutton, 45
Roasted leg of mutton, 46
Baked leg" of mutton, 46
Steaks of a leg of mutton, 46
To harrico mutton, 46
Mutton chops, 47
Boiled breast of mutton, 47
Breast of mutton in ragout, 47
To grill a breast of mutton, 47
Boiled shoulder of mutton, 48
Shoulder of mutton with
celery sauce, 48
Roasted loin of mutton, 48
To cure bacon, 48
To make souse, 50
To roast a pig, 51
To barbecue shote, 51
To roast a fore-quarter of
shote, , 52
To make shote cutlets, 52
To corn shote, 52
Shote's head, 53
Leg of pork with pease
Stewed chine, 53
To toast a ham, 54
To stuff a ham, 54
Soused feet in ragout, 54
To make sausages, 54
To make black puddings, 4
A sea pie, 55
To make paste for the pie, 55
Bologna sausages, 55
To cure herrings, 56
To bake sturgeon, 57
To make sturgeon cutlets, 57
Sturgeon steaks, 57
To boil sturgeon, 58
To bake a shad, 58
To boil a shad, 58
To roast a shad, 59
To broil a shad, 59
To boil rock fish, 59
To fry perch, 60
To pickle oysters, 60
To make a curry of catfish, 60
To dress a cod's head and
To make sauce for the
cod's head, 61
To dress a salt cod, 62
Matelote of any kind of
firm fish, 62
Chowder, a sea dish, 63
To pickle sturgeon, 63
To caveach fish, 64
To dress cod fish, 64
Cod fish pie, 64
To dress any kind of salted
To fricassee cod sounds and
tongues, t 65
An excellent way to dress
Fish a-la-daub, 66
Fish in jelly, 66
To make egg sauce for a
salt cod; 67
To dress cod sounds, 67
To stew carp, 67
To boil eels, ' 68
To pitchcock eels, 68
To broil eels, 68
To scollop oysters, 68
To fry oysters, 69
To make oyster loaves, 69
To roast a goose, 69
To make sauce for a goose, 70
To boil ducks with onion
To make onion sauce, 70
To roast ducks, 7C
To boil a turkey with oys-
ter sauce, 71
To make sauce for a turkey, 72
To roast a turkey, 72
To make sauce for a turkey, 72
To boil fowls, 73
To make white sauce for
Fricassee of small chickens, 74
To roast large fowls, 74
To make egg 1 sauce, 74
To boil young 1 chickens, 75
To roast young 1 chickens, 75
Fried chickens, 75
To roast woodcocks or
To roast wild ducks or teal, 76
To boil pigeons, 76
To roast pigeons, 77
To roast partridges or any
small birds, ' 77
To boil rabbits, 77
To roast rabbits, 78
To stew wild ducks, 78
To ctress ducks with juice
of oranges, 79
To dress ducks with onions, 79
To roast a calf s head, 79
To make a dish of curry
after the East Indian
Dish of rice to be served
up with the curry, in a
dish by itself, 80
Ochra and tomatos, 81
Gumbo a West India dish, 81
Spanish method of dress-
Paste for meat dumplins, 82
To make an olio a Span-
Ropa veija Spanish, 83
Chicken pudding, a fa-
vourite Virginia dish, 83
To make polenta,
To make croquets, 85
To make vermicelli, 85
Eggs in croquets, 86
Omelette souffle, 86
A nice twelve o'clock lun-
Eggs a-la-creme, 87
Sauce a-la-creme for the
Cabbage a-la-creme, 88
To make an omelette, 88
Omelette another way, 88
Gaspacho Spanish, 89
Eggs and tomatos, 89
To fricassee egip, 89
Fish sauce to keep a year, 90
Sauce for wild fowl, 90
Sauce for boiled rabbits, 90
Forcemeat balls, 91
Sauce for boiled ducks or
Oyster sauce for fish, 92
Celery sauce, 92
To melt butter, 93
Caper sauce, 94
Oyster catsup, 94
Celery vinegar, 95
To dress salad, 95
To boil potatos, 96
To fry sliced potatos, 97
Potatos mashed, 98
Potatos mashed with onions,98
To roast potatos, 98
To roast potatos under meat, 98
Jerusalem artichokes, 99
Sprouts and young greens, 100
To scollop tomatos, 101
To stew tomatos, 101
Red beet roots,
To mash turnips,
Puree of turnips,
Ragout of turnips,
Rag-out of French beans,
sraips, string 1 beans,
Lima, or sugar beans,
Turnip rooted cabbage,
Sweet potatos stewed,
Sweet potatos broiled,
Squash or cimlin,
Cabbage with onions,
To boil rice,
Rice journey, or johnny
Observations on puddings
Rice milk for a dessert,
To make puff paste,
To m^ke mince-meat for
To make jelly from feet,
A sweet-meat pudding, 117
To make an orange pud-
An apple custard, 118
Boiled loaf, 118
Transparent pudding, 118
Burnt custard, 119
An English plum pudding, 119
Marrow pudding, 120
Sippet pudding, 120
Sweet potato pudding, 120
An arrow root pudding, 121
Sago pudding, . 121
Puff pudding, 121
Rice pudding, 121
Plum pudding, 122
Almond pudding*, 122
Quire of paper pancakes, 123
A curd pudding, 123
Lemon pudding, 123
Bread pudding, 124
The Henrietta pudding, 124
Tansey pudding, 124
Cherry pudding, 125
110 \ Apple pie, 125
Baked apple pudding, 125
A nice boiled pudding, 125
An excellent and cheap
dessert dish, 126
Sliced apple pudding, 126
Baked Indian meal pud-
Boiled Indian meal pud-
Pumpkin pudding, 127
Fayette pudding, 127
Compote of apples,. 128
Apple fritters, 129
Bell fritters, 129
Bread fritters, 130
Spanish fritters, 130
To make mush, 130
Strawberry cream, 144
Cocoa nut cream, 144
Chocolate cream, 144
Ovster cream, 144
To make drop biscuit, 131
Iced jelly, 144
Tavern biscuit, 131
Peach cream, 144
Coffee cream, 145
Ginger bread, 132
Plebeian ginger bread, 132
Quince cream, 145
Citron cream, 145
Sugar ginger bread, 152
Almond cream, 146
Dough nuts a yankee
Lemon cream, 146
Lemonade iced, 146
Risen cake, 133
To make custard, 146
To make a. trifle, 147
Savoy, or spunge cake, 134
Rice blanc mange, 147
A rich fruit cake, 134
Floating island, 147
Naples biscuit, 135
Little plum cakes, 135
Soda cakes, 136
To make bread, 136
Lemon cream, 148
To make nice biscuit, 137
Orange cream, 148
Rice bread, 137
hisj.luTry cream, 148
Tea cream, 149
Patent yeast, 137
Sago cream, 149
To prepare the cakes, 138
Another method for mak-
Barley cream, 149
Gooseberry fool, 149
ing yeast, 138
To make slip, 150
Nice buns, 138
^urds and cream, 150
Rlanc mange, 150
Apoquiniminc cakes, 139
Batter cakes, 140
To make a hen's nest, 151
Pheasants a-la-daub, 151
Partridges a-la-daub, 152
Chickens a-la-daub, 152
Battc" bread, 140
Cream ,*akes, 140
To make savoury jelly, 152
Turkey a-la-daub, 153
Soufle biscuits, 140
Corn meal bread,
An excellent relish after
Sweet potato buns,
Rice woffles, 141
To stew perch, 154
Velvet cakes, 141
Chocolate cakes, , 141
Directions for makingpre-
Buckwheat cakes, 142
Observations on ice creams, 142
To preserve cling-stone
Ice creams, 14
Vanilla cream, 14!
Cling-stones sliced, 156
Raspberry cream, 14^
Soft" peaches, 156
Peach marmalade, 156
Peach chips, 156
tear marmalade, 157
Currant jelly, 158
Quince jelly, 158
Quince marmalade, 158
Morello cherries, 159
To dry cherries, 159
Raspberry jam, 160
To preserve strawberries, 160
Strawberry jam, 160
Apricots in brandy, 160
Peaches in brandy, 161
Cherries in brandy, 161
Magnum bonum plums in
Lemon pickle, 161
Tomato catsup, 162
Tomato marmalade, 162
Tomato sweet marmalade, 162
Tomato soy, 163
Pepper vinegar, 163
Mushroom catsup, 164
Tarragon, or astragon
Curry powder, 164
To pickle cucumbers, 164
Oil mangos, 165
To make the stuffing for
forty melons, 165
To make yellow pickle, 166
To make green pickles, 166
To prepare vinegar for
green or yellow pickle, 167
To pickle onions, 167
To pickle nastertiums, 167
To pickle radish pods, 168
To pickle English walnuts,
To pickle peppers, 168
To make walnut catsup, 169
To pickle green nectar-
ines, or apricots, 169
To pickle asparagus, 169
Observations on pickling, 169
Ginger wine, 170
Cherry shrub, 171
Currant wine, 171
To make cherry brandy, 172
Rose brandy, 172
Peach cordial, 172
Raspberry cordial, 173
Raspberry vinegar, 173
Mint cordial, 173
Hydromel, or mead, 174
To make a substitute for
Lemon cordial, 174
Ginger beer, 175
Spruce beer, 175
Molasses beer, 175
To keep lemon juice, 176
Sugar vinegar, 176
Honey vinegar, 176
'Sfyrup of 'vinegar, 177
Aromatic vinegar, 177
Vinegar of the four thieves, 177
Lavender water, 177
Hungarian water, 178
To prepare cosmetic soap
for washing the hands, 178
Cologne water, 178
Soft pomatum, 178
To make soap, 178
To make starch, 179
To dry herbs, 180
To clean silver utensils, 180
To make blacking, 180
168 j To clean knives and forks, 180
THE difficulties I encountered when I first
entered on the duties of a housekeeping life, from
the want of books sufficiently clear and concise
to impart knowledge to a Tyro, compelled me
to study the subject, and by actual experiment
to reduce every thing in the culinary line, to
proper weights and measures. This method I
found not only to diminish the necessary atten-
tion and labour, but to be also economical: for,
when the ingredients employed' were given in
just proportions,' the article made was always
equally good. The government of a family, bears
a Lilliputian resemblance to the government of a
nation. The contents' of the Treasury must be
known, and great care taken to keep the expen-
ditures from being equal to the receipts. A
regular system must be introduced into each de-
partment, which may be modified until matured,
and should then pass into an inviolable law. The
grand arcanum of management lies in three sim-
ple rules: "Let every thing be done at a proper
time, keep every thing in its proper place, and
put every thing to its proper use." If the mis-
tress of a family, will every morning examine
jninutely the different departments of her house-
hold, she must detect errors in their infant state,
when they can be corrected with ease; but a few
days' growth gives them gigantic strength: and
disorder, with all her attendant evils, are intro-
duced. Early rising is also essential to the good
government of a family. A late breakfast de-
ranges the whole business of the day, and throws
a portion of it on the next, which opens the door
for confusion to enter. The greater part of the
following receipts have been written from memo-
ry, where they were impressed by long con-
tinued practice. Should they prove serviceable
to the young inexperienced housekeeper, it will
add greatly to that gratification which an exten-
sive circulation of the work will be likely to
Washington, January, 1831.
MANAGEMENT is an art that may be acquired by every
woman of good sense and tolerable memory. If, unfortunately,
she has been bred in a family where domestic business is the
work of chance, she will have many difficulties to encounter;
but a determined resolution to obtain this valuable knowledge,
will enable her to surmount all obstacles. She must begin the
day with an early breakfast, requiring each person to be in
readiness to take their seats when the muffins, buckwheat
cakes, &c. are placed on the table. This looks social and com-
fortable. When the family breakfast by detachments, the table
remains a tedious time; the servants are kept from their morn-
ing's meal, and a complete derangement takes place in the
whole business of the day. No work can be done till break-
fast is finished. The Virginia ladies, who are proverbially good
managers, employ themselves, while their servants are eating,
in washing the cups, glasses, &c.; arranging the cruets, the
mustard, salt-sellers, pickle vases, and all the apparatus for the
dinner table. This occupies but a short time, and the lady
has the satisfaction of knowing that they are in much better
order than they would be if left to the servants. It also re-
lieves her from the trouble of seeing the dinner table prepared,
which should be done every day with the same scrupulous re-
gard to exact neatness and method, as if a grand company was
expected. When the servant is required to do this daily, he
soon gets into the habit of doing it well; and his mistress hav-
ing made arrangements for him in the morning, there is no fear
of bustle and confusion in running after things that may be
called for during the hour of dinner. When the kitchen break-
fast is over, and the cook has put all things in their proper
places, the mistress should go in to give her orders. Let afl
the articles intended for the dinner, pass in review before her:
Uave the butter, sugar, flour, meal, lard, given out in proper
quantities; the catsup, spice, wine, whatever may be wanted
for each f5jsb,tmastitedt6"thfe c(Xok,\ The mistress must tax
her owR f mens6ry With all this-:^ we'haW* no right to expect
slaves or hired servants to be more attentive to our interest
than we ourselves are: tbev **iil never recollect these little
articles until they are going* to use them; the mistress must then
be called out, and thus have the horrible drudgery of keeping
house all day, when one hour devoted to it in the morning,
would release her from trouble until the next day. There is
economy as well as comfort in a regular mode of doing business.
When the mistress gives out every thing, there is no waste;
but if temptation be thrown in the way of subordinates, not
many will have power to resist it; besides, it is an immoral act
to place them in a situation which we pray to be exempt from
The prosperity and happiness of a family depend greatly on
the order and regularity established in it. The husband, who
can ask a friend to partake of his dinner in full confidence of
finding his wife unruffled by the petty vexations attendant on
the neglect of household duties who can usher his guest into
the dining-room assured of seeing that methodical nicety which
is the essence of true elegance, will feel pride and exultation
in the possession of a companion, who gives to his home charms
that gratify every wish of his soul, and render the haunts of
dissipation hateful to him. The sons bred in such a family will
be moral men, of steady habits; and the daughters, if the
mother shall have performed the duties of a parent in the su-
perintendence of their education, as faithfully as she has done
those of a wife, will each be a treasure to her husband; and
being formed on the model of an exemplary mother, will use
the same means for securing the happiness of her own family,
wliich she has seen successfully practised under the paternal
TAKE four large bunches of asparagus, scrape it
nicely, cut off one inch of the tops, and lay them in
water, chop the stalks and put them on the fire with
a piece of bacon, a large onion cut up, and pepper
and salt; add two quarts of water, boil them till the
stalks are quite soft, then pulp them through a sieve,
and strain the water to it, which must be put back in
the pot; put into it a chicken cut up, with the tops of
asparagus which had been laid by, boil it until these
last articles are sufficiently done, thicken with flour,
butter and milk, and serve it up.
TAKE the hind shin of beef, cut off all the flesh
off the leg-bone, which must be taken away entirely,
or the soup will be greasy. Wash the meat clean and
14 . THE .VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
lay it in" a "pot', fcprfrikle o'vfef'it'orie 'small table-spoon-
ful of pounded black pepper, and two of salt; three
onions the size of a hen's egg, cut small, six small
carrots scraped and cut up, two small turnips pared
and cut into dice; pour on three quarts of water, cover
the pot close, and keep it gently and steadily boiling
five hours, which will leave about three pints of clear
soup; do not let the pot boil over, but take off the
scum carefully, as it rises. When it has boiled four
hours, put in a small bundle of thyme and parsley,
and a pint of celery cut small, or a tea-spoonful of
celery seed pounded. These latter ingredients would
lose their delicate flavour if boiled too much. Just
before you take it up, brown it in the following man-
ner: put a small table-spoonful of nice brown sugar
into an iron skillet, set it on the fire and stir it till it
melts and looks very dark, pour into it a ladle full of
the soup, a little at a time; stirring it all the while.
Strain this browning and mix it well with the soup;
take out the bundle of thyme and parsley, put the
nicest pieces of meat in your tureen, and pour on the
soup and vegetables; put in some toasted bread cut in
dice, and serve it up.
GET eight pounds of coarse lean beef wash it clean
and lay it in your pot, put in the same ingredients as
for the shin soup, with the same quantity of water,
and follow the process directed for that Strain the
soup through a sieve, and serve it up clear, with no-
thing more than toasted bread in it; two table-spoonsful
of mushroom oatsup will add a fine flavour to the soup.
THE .VIRGINIA HOtTSEWlFE. 15
. i * V ; j
SOUP WITH BOUILLI.
TAKE the nicest part of the thick brisket of beef,
about eight pounds, put it into a pot with every thing
directed for the other soup; make it exactly in the
same way, only put it on an hour sooner, that you may
have time to prepare the bouilli; after it has boiled
five hours, take out the beef, cover up the soup and set
it near the fire that it may keep hot. Take the skin
off the beef, have the yelk of an egg well beaten, dip
a feather in it and wash the top of your beef, sprinkle
over it the crumb of stale bread finely grated, put it in
a Dutch oven previously heated, put the top on with
coals enough to brown, but not burn the beef; let it
stand nearly an hour, and prepare your gravy thus:
Take a sufficient quantity of soup and the vegetables
boiled in it; add to it a table-spoonful of red wine,
and two of mushroom catsup, thicken with a little bit
of butter and a little brown flour; make it very hot,
pour it in your dish, and put the beef on it. Garnish
it with green pickle, cut in thin slices, serve up the
soup in a tureen with bits of toasted bread.
PVT into a pot three quarts of water, three onions
rut small, one spoonful of black pepper pounded, and
two of salt, with two or three slices of lean ham; let
it boil steadily two hours; skim it occasionally, then
put into it a shin of veal, let it boil two hours longer;
take out the slices of ham, and skim off the grease if
any should rise, take a gill of -good cream, mix with it
two table-spoonsful of flour very nicely, and the yelks
pf two eggs beaten well, strain this mixture, and add
16 THE viRGiNtA HOUSEWIFE.
some clipped parley? pour some &onp on by degrees,
stir it well, and pour it into the pot, continuing to stir
until it has boiled two or three minutes to take off
the raw taste of the eggs. If the cream be not per-
fectly sweet, and the eggs quite new, the thickening
will curdle in the soup. For a change you may put a
dozen ripe tomatos in, first taking off their skins, by
letting them stand a few minutes in hot water, when
they may be easily peeled. When made in this way
you must thicken it with the flour only. Any part of
the veal may be used, but the shin or knuckle is the
WASH and drain two quarts of oysters, put them on
with three quarts of water, three onions chopped up,
two or three slices of lean ham, pepper and salt; boil
it till reduced one-half, strain it through a sieve, re-
turn the liquid into the., pot, put in one quart of fresh
oysters, boil it till they are sufficiently done, and
thicken the soup with four spoonsful of flour, two gills
of rich cream, and the yelks of six new laid eggs
beaten well; boil it a few minutes after the thickening
is put in. Take care that it does not curdle, and that
the flour is not in lumps; serve it up with the last
oysters that were put in. If the flavour of thyme be
agreeable, you may put in a little, but take care that it
does not boil in it long enough to discolour the soup.
PUT on three gills of barley, three quarts of water,
a few onions cut up, six carrots scraped and cut into
dice, an equal quantity of turnips cut small; boil it
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 17
gently two hours, then put in four or five pounds of
the rack or neck of mutton, a few slices of lean ham,
with pepper and salt; boil it slowly two hours longer
and serve it up. Tomatos are an excellent addition
to this soup.
DRIED PEA SOUP.
TAKE one quart of split peas, or Lima beans, which
are better; put them in three quarts of very soft water
with three onions chopped up, pepper and salt; boil
them two hours; mash them well and pass them
through a sieve; return the liquid into the pot, thicken
it with a large piece of butter and flour, put in some
slices of nice salt pork, and a large tea-spoonful of
celery seed pounded; boil it till the pork is done, and
serve it tip; have some toasted bread cut into dice
and fried in butter, which must be put in the tureen
before you pour in the soup.
GREEN PEA SOUP.
MAKE it exactly as you do the dried pea soup, only
in place of the celery seed, put a handful of mint
chopped small, and a pint of young peas, which must
be boiled in the soup till tender; thicken it with a
quarter of a pound of butter, and two spoonsful of flour.
GET two double handsful of young ochra, wash and
slice it thin, add two onions chopped fine, put it into
a gallon of water at a very early hour in an earthen
pipkin, or very nice iron pot; it must be kept steadily
simmering, but not boiling: put in pepper and salt.
At 12 o'clock, put in a handful of Lima beans; at
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
half-past one o'clock, add three young cimlins cleaned
and cut in small pieces, a fowl, or knuckle of veal, a
bit of bacon or pork that has been boiled, and six to-
matos, with the skin taken off; when nearly done,
thicken with a spoonful of butter, mixed with one of
flour. Have rice boiled to eat with it.
HARE OR RABBIT SOUP.
OUT up two hares, put them into a pot with a piece
of bacon, two onions chopped, a bundle of thyme and
parsley, which must be taken out before the soup is
thickened, add pepper, salt, pounded cloves, and
mace, put in a sufficient quantity of water, stew it
gently three hours, thicken with a large spoonful of
butter, and one of brown flour, with a glass of red
wine; boil it a few minutes longer, and serve it up
with the nicest parts of the hares. Squirrels make
soup equally good, done the same way.
SOUP OF ANY KIND OF OLD FOWL,
The only way in which they are eatable.
PUT the fowls in a coop and feed them moderately
for a fortnight; kill one and cleanse it, cut off the
legs and wings, and separate the breast from the ribs,
which, together with the whole back, must be thrown
away, being too gross and strong for use. Take the
skin and fat from the parts cut off which are also gross.
Wash the pieces nicely, and put them on the fire with
about a pound of bacon, a large onion chopped small,
some pepper and salt, a few blades of mace, a hand-
ful of parsley, cut up very fine, and two quarts of
water, if it be a common fowl or duck a turkey will
require more water. Boil it gently for three hours,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 19
lie up a small bunch of thyme, and let it boil in it half
an hour, then take it out. Thicken your soup with a
large spoonful of butter rubbed into two of flour, the
yelks of two eggs, and half a pint of milk. Be care-
ful not to let it curdle in the soup.
An excellent dish for those who have not imbibed a
needless prejudice against those delicious Jish.
TAKE two large or four small white catfish that
have been caught in deep water, cut off the heads,
and skin and clean the bodies; cut each in three parts,
put them in a pot, with a pound of Jean bacon, a large
onion cut up, a handful of parsley chopped small,
*ome pepper and salt, pour in a sufficient quantity of
water, and stew them till the fish are quite tender but
not broken; beat the yelks of four fresh eggs, add to
them a large spoonful of butter, two of flour, and half
a pint of rich milk; make all these warm and thicken
the soup, take out the bacon, and put some of the fish
in your tureen, pour in the soup, and serve it up.
CHOP up twelve large onions, boil them in three
quarts of milk and water equally mixed, put in a bit
of veal or fowl, and a piece of bacon with pepper and
salt. When the onions are boiled to pulp, thicken it
with a large spoonful of butter mixed with one of
flour. Take out the meat, and serve it up with toasted
bread cut in small pieces in the soup.
20 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO DRESS TURTLE.
KILL it at night in winter, and in the morning in
summer. Hang it up by the hind fins, cut off the
head and let it bleed well. Separate the bottom shell
from the top, with great care, lest the gall bladder be
broken, which must-be cautiously taken out and thrown
away. Put the liver in a bowl of water. Empty
the guts and lay them in water; if there be eggs, put
them also in water. It is proper to have a separate
bowl of water for each article. Cut all the flesh from
the bottom shell, and lay it in water; then break the
shell in two, put it in a pot after having washed it
clean; pour on as much water as will cover it entirely,
add one pound of middling, or flitch of bacon, with
four onions chopped, and set it on the fire to boil.
Open the guts, cleanse them perfectly; take ofT the
inside skin, and put them in the pot with the shell;
let them boil steadily for three hours, and if the water
boils away too much, add more. Wash the top shell
nicely after taking out the flesh, cover it, and set it
by. Parboil the fins, clean them nicely taking off
all the black skin, and put them in water; cut the
flesh taken from the bottom and top shell, in small
pieces; cut the fins in two, lay them with the flesh
in a dish; sprinkle some salt over, and cover them up.
When the shell, &c. is done, take out the bacon,
scrape the shell clean, and strain the liquor; about one
quart of which must be put back in the pot; reserve
the rest for soup; pick out the guts, and cut them in
small pieces; take all the nice bits that were strained
out, put them with the guts into the gravy; lay in the
fins cut in pieces with them, and as much of the flesh
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 21
as will be sufficient to fill the upper shell; add to it,
(if a large turtle,) one bottle of white wine; cayenne
pepper, and salt, to your taste, one gill of mushroom
catsup, one gill of lemon pickle, mace, nutmegs and
cloves, pounded, to season it high. Mix two large
spoonsful of flour in one pound and a quarter of but-
ter; put it in with thyme, parsley, marjoram and
savory, tied in bunches; stew all these together, till
the flesh and fins are tender; wash out the top sfiell,
put a puff paste around the brim; sprinkle over the
shell pepper and salt, then take the herbs out of the
stew; if the gravy is not thick enough, add a little
niore flour, and fill the shell; should there be no eggs
in the turtle, boil six new laid ones for ten minutes,
put them in cold water a short time, peel them,
cut them in two, and place them on the turtle; make
a rich forcemeat, (see receipt for forcemeat,) fry the
balls nicely, and put them also in the shell; set it in
a dripping pan, with something under the sides to
keep it steady; have the Oven heated as for bread, and
let it rpmain in it till nicely browned. Fry the liver
and send it in hot.
FOR THE SOUP.
AT an early hour in the morning, put on eight
pounds of coarse beef, some bacon, onions, sweet
herbs, pepper and salt. .Make a rich soup, strain it
and thicken with a bit of butter, and brown flour; add
to it the water left from boiling- the bottom shell; sea*
son it very high with wine, catsup, spice and cayenne;
put in the flesh you reserved, and if that is not enough,
ndd the nicest parts of a well boiled calfs head; but
22 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
do not use the eyes or tongue; let it boil till tender,
and serve it up with fried forcemeat halls in it.
If you have curry powder, (see receipt for it,) it
will give a higher flavour to both soup and turtle, than
spice. Should you not want soup, the remaining
flesh may be fried, and served with a rich gravy.
MOCK TURTLE SOUP OF CALF'S HEAD.
HAVE a large head cleaned nicely without taking off
the skin, divide the chop from the front of the head,
take out the tongue, (which is best when salted,) put
on the head with a gallon of water, the hock of a ham
or a piece of nice pork, four or five onions, thyme,
parsley, cloves and nutmeg, pepper and salt, boil all
these together until the flesh on the head is quite ten-
der, then take it up, cut all into small pieces, take the
eyes out carefully, strain the water in which it was
boiled, add half a pint of wine and a gill of mushroom
catsup, let it boil slowly till reduced to two quarts,
thicken it with two spoonsful of bro wned flour rub-
bed into four ounces of butter, put the, meat in, and
after stewing it a short time, serve it up. The eyes
are a great delicacy.
DIRECTIONS FOR CURING BEEF.
PREPARE your brine in the middle of October, after
the following manner: get a thirty gallon cask, take
out one head, drive in the bung, and put some pitch
on it, to prevent leaking. See that the cask is quite
tight and clean. Put into it one pound of saltpetre
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 23
powdered, fifteen quarts of salt, and fifteen gallons of
cold water; stir it frequently, until dissolved, throw
over the cask a thick cloth, to keep out the dust; look
at it often and take off the scum. These proportions
have been accurately ascertained-^-fifteen gallons of
cold water will exactly hold, in solution, fifteen quarts
of good clean Liverpool salt, and one pound of salt-
petre: this brine will' be strong enough to bear up au
egg: if more salt be added, it will fall to the bottom
without strengthening the brine, the water being al-
ready saturated. This brine will cure all the beef
which a private family can use in the course of the
winter, and requires nothing more to be done to it
except occasionally skimming the dross that rises. It
must be kept in a cool, dry place. For salting yonr
beef, get a molasses hogshead and saw it in two, that
the beef may have space to lie on; bore some holes
in the bottom of these tubs, and raise them on one
side about an inch, that the bloody brine may run off.
Be sure that your beef is newly killed rub each
piece very well with good Liverpool salt a vast deal
depends upon rubbing the salt into every part it is
unnecessary to put saltpetre on it; sprinkle a good
deal of salt on the bottom of the tub. When the beef
is well salted, lay it in the tub, and be sure you put
the fleshy side downward. Put a great deal of salt
on your beef after it is packed in the tub; this pro-
tects it from animals who might eat, if they could
smell it, and does not waste the salt, for the beef can
only dissolve a certain portion. You must let the
beef lie in salt ten days, then take it out, brush off
the salt, and wipe it with a damp cloth; put it in the
brine with a bit of board and weight to keep it under.
24 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
In about ten days it will look red and be fit for the
*able, but it will be red much sooner when the brine
becomes older. The best time to begin to salt beef
is the latter end of October, if the weather be cool,
and from that time have it in succession. When
your beef is taken out of the tub, stir the salt about to
dry, that it may be ready for the next pieces. Tongues
are cured in the same manner.
TO DRY BEEF FOR SUMMER USE.
THE best pieces for this purpose are the thin brisk-
ets, or that part of the plate which is farthest from the
shoulder of the animal, the round and rib pieces
which are commonly used for roasting. These should
not be cut with long ribs and the back-bones must be
sawed off as close as possible, that the piece may lay
flat in the dish. About the middle of February, select
your beef from an animal well fatted with corn, and
which, when killed, will weigh one hundred and fifty
per quarter larger oxen are always coarse. Salt the
pieces as directed, let them lie one fortnight, then put
them in brine, where they must remain three weeks:
take them out at the end of the time, wipe them- quite
dry, rub them over with bran, and hang them in a
cool, dry, and, if possible, dark place, that the flies
may not get to them: they must be suspended, and
not allowed to touch any thing. It will be necessary,
in the course of the summer, to look them over oc*
casionally, and after a long wet season, to lay them
in the sun a few hours. Your tongues may be dried
in the same manner: make a little hole in the root,
run a twine through it, and suspend it. These dried
meats must be put in a good quantity of water, U>
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 25
ak, the night before they are to be used. In boiling,
it is absolutely necessary to have a large quantity of
water to put the beef in while the water is cold, to boil
steadily, skimming the pot, until the bones are ready
to fall out; and, if a tongue, till the skin peels off with
perfect ease: the skin must also be taken from the
beef. The housekeeper who will buy good ox beef,
and follow these directions exactly, may be assured
of always having delicious beef on her table. Ancient
prejudice has established a notion, that meat killed in
the decrease of the moon, will draw up when cooked.
The true cause of this shrinking, may be found in the
old age of the animal, or in its diseased state, at the
time of killing. The best age is from three to five
Few persons are aware of the injury they sustain,
by eating the flesh of diseased animals. None but
the Jewish butchers, who are paid exclusively for it,
attend to this important circumstance. The best rule
for judging that I have been able to discover, is the
colour of the fat. When the fat of beef is a high
shade of yellow, I reject it. If the fat of veal, mut-
ton, lamb or pork, have the slightest tinge of yellow,
I avoid it as diseased. The same rule holds good
when applied to poultry.
TO CORN BEEF IN HOT WEATHER.
TAKE a piece of thin brisket or plate, cut out the
ribs nicely, rub it on both sides well with two large
spoonsful of pounded saltpetre; pour on it a gill of
molasses and a quart of salt; rub them both in; put
it in a vessel just large enough to hold it, but not
tight, for the bloody brine must run off ns it makes,
6 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
or the meat will spoil. Let it be well covered, top,
bottom and sides, with the molasses and salt. In four
days you may boil it, tied up in a cloth with the salt,
&c. about it: when done, take the skin off nicoly, and
serve it up. If you have an ice-house or refrigerator/
it will be best to keep it there. A fillet or breast of
veal, and a leg or rack of mutton, are excellent done in
the same way.
IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS ON ROAST-
ING, BOILING, FRYING, &c.
IN roasting butchers' meat, be careful not to run the
spit through the nice parts: let the piece lie in water
one hour, then wash it out, wipe it perfectly dry, and
put it on the spit. Set it before a clear, steady fire:
sprinkle some salt on it, and when it becomes hot,
baste it for a time with salt and water: then put a
good spoonful of nice lard into the dripping-pan, and
when melted, continue to baste with it. When your
meat, of whatever kind, has been down some time,
but before it begins to look brown, cover it with paper
and baste on it; when it is nearly done, take off the
peper, dredge it with flour, turn the spit for some
minutes very quick, and baste all the time to raise a
froth after which, serve it up. When mutton is
roasted, after you take off the paper, loosen the skin
and peel it off carefully, then dredge and froth it up.
Beef and mutton must not be roasted as much as veal,
lamb, or pork; the two last must be skinned in the
manner directed for mutton. You may pour a little
melted butter in the dish with veal, but all the others
must be served without sauce, and garnished with
horse-radish, nicely scraped. Be careful not to let a
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 27
particle of dry flour be seen on the meat it has a
very ill appearance. Beef may look brown, but the
whiter the other meats are, the more genteel are they,
and if properly roasted, they may be perfectly done,
and quite white. A loin of- veal, and hind quarter of
lamb, should be dished with the kidneys uppermost;
and be sure to joint every thing that is to be separated
at table, or it will be impossible to carve neatly. For
those who must have gravy with these meats, let it be
made in any way they like, and served in a boat. No
meat can be well roasted except on a spit Burned by a
jack, and before a steady clear fire other methods are
no better than baking. Many cooks are in the habit
of half boiling the meats to plump them as they term
it, before they are spitted, but it destroys their fine
flavour. Whatever is to be boiled, must be put into
cold water with a little salt, which will cook them
regularly. When they are put in boiling water, the
outer side is done too much, before the inside gets
heated. Nice lard LS much better than butter for bast-
ing roasted meats, or for frying. To choose butchers'
meat, you must see that the fat is not yellow, and that
the lean parts are of a fine close grain, a'lfvely colour,
and will feel tender when pinched. Poultry should
be well covered with white fat; if the bottom of
the breast bone be gristly, it is young, but if it be a
hard bone, it is an old one. Fish are judged by the
liveliness of their eyes, and bright red of their gills.
Dredge every thing with flour before it is put on to
boil, and be sure to add salt to the water.
Fish, and all other articles for frying, after being
nicely prepared, should be laid on a board and dredged
with flour or meal mixed with salt: when it becomes
28 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
dry on one side, turn it, and dredge the other. For
broiling, have very clear coals, sprinkle a little salt
and pepper over the pieces, and whew done, dish them,
and pour over some, melted butter and chopped pars-
ley this is for broiled veal, wild fowl, birds or poul-
try: beef-steaks and mutton chops require only a
table-spoonful of hot water to be poured over. Slice
an onion in the dish before you p-jt in the steaks or
chops, and garnish both with rasped horse-radish. To
have viands served in perfection, the dishes should be
made hot, either by setting them over hot water, or by
put'ing some in them, and the instan^ the meats are
lafa in and garnished, put on a pewter dish cover. A
dim r looks ve; 7 enticing, when the steam rises from
/ach dish on removing the covers, and if it be judi-
cious/y ordered, will have a double relish. Profusion
is not elegance a dinner justly calculated for the
company, and consisting for the greater part of small
articles, correctly prepared, and neatly served up, will
aiake a much more pleasing appearance to the sight,
ajid give a far greater gratification to the appetite, than
a table loaded with food, and from the multiplicity of
dishes, unavoidably neglected in the preparation, and
served up cold.
There should always be a supply of brown flour
kept in readiness to thicken brown gravies, which
must be prepared in the following manner: put a pint
of flour in a Dutch oven, with some coals under it;
keep constantly stirring it until it is uniformly of a
dark brown, but none of it burnt, which would look
like dirt in the gravy. All kitchens should be pro-
vided with a saw for trimming meat, and also with
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 29
TAKE the bone from a round of beef, fill the space
with a forcemeat made of the crumbs of a stale loaf,
four ounces of marrow, two heads of garlic chopped
with thyme and parsley, some nutmeg, cloves, pepper
and salt, mix it to a paste with the yelks of four eggs
beaten, stuff the lean part of the round with it, and
make balls of the remainder; sew a fillet of strong
linen wide enough to keep it round and compact, put
it in a vessel just sufficiently large to hold it, add a
pint of red wine, cover it with sheets of tm or iron,
set it in a brick oven properly heated, and bake it
three hours; when done, skim the fat from the gravy,
thicken it with brown flour, add some mushroom and
walnut catsup, and serve it up garnished with force-
meat balls fried. It is still better when eaten cold
with sail ad.
BRISKET OF BEEF BAKED.
BONE a brisket of beef, and make holes in it with a
sharp knife about an inch apart, fill them alternately
with fat bacon, parsley and oysters, all chopped small
and seasoned with pounded cloves and nutmeg, pep-
per and salt, dredge it well with flour, lay it in a pan
with a pint of red wine and a large spoonful of lemon
pickle; bake it three hours, take the fat from the gravy
and strain it; serve it up garnished with green pickles.
Cur slices from a fat rump of beef six inches long
and half an inch thick, beat them well with a pestle;
30 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
make a forcemeat of bread crumbs, fat bacon chopped,
parsley, a little onion, some shred suet, pounded mace,
pepper and salt; mix it up with the yelks of eggs,
and spread a thin layer over each slice of beef, roll it
up tight, and secure the rolls with skewers, set them
before the fire, and turn them till they are a nice brown;
have ready a pint of good gravy, thickened with
brown flour and a spoonful of butter, a gill of red
wine, with two spoonsful of mushroom catsup, lay
the rolls in it, and stew them till tender; garnish with
TO STEW A RUMP OF BEEF.
TAKE out as much of the bone as can be done with
a saw, that it may lie flat on the dish, stuff it with
forcemeat made as before directed, lay it in a pot with
two quarts of water, a pint of red wine, some carrots
and turnips cut^n small pieces and stewed over it, a
head of cellery cut up, a few cloves of garlic, some
pounded cloves, pepper and salt, stew it gently till
sufficiently done, skim the fat off, thicken the gravy,
and serve it up; garnish with little bits of puff paste
uicely baked, and scraped horse-radish.
A FRICANDO OF BEEF.
Cur a few slices of beef six inches long, two or
three wide, and -one thick, lard them with bacon,
dredge them well, and make them a nice brown before
a brisk fire; stew them half an hour in a well seasoned
gravy, put some stewed sorrel or spinage in the dish,
lay on the beef, and pour over a sufficient quantity of
gravy; garnish with fried balls *
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 31
4N EXCELLENT METHOD OF DRESSING
TAKE a rib roasting piece that has been hanging ten
days or a fortnight, bone it neatly, rub some salt over
it and roll it tight, binding it around with twine, put
the spit through the inner fold without sticking it in
the flesh, skewer it well and roast it nicely; when
nearly done, dredge and froth it; garnish with scraped
TO COLLAR A FLANK OF BEEF.
GET a nice flank of beef, rub it well with a large
portion of saltpetre and common salt^let it remain
ten days, then wash it clean, take oflf the outer and
inner skin with the gristle, spread it on a board, and
cover the inside with the following mixture: parsley,
sage, thyme chopped fine, pepper, ^ilt and pounded
cloves; roll it up, sew a cloth over it, and bandage that
with tape, boil it gently five or six hours, when cold,
lay it on a tyoard without undoing it, put another board
on the top, with a heavy weight on it; let it remain
twenty-four hours, take off the bandages, cut a thin
slice from each end, serve it up garnished with green
pickle and sprigs of parsley.
TO MAKE HUNTERS' BEEF.
SELECT a fine fat round weighing about twenty-five
pounds, take three ounces saltpetre, one ounce of
cloves, half an ounce of alspice, a large nutmeg, and
a quart of salt; pound them all together very fine, take
the bone out, rub it well with this mixture on both
sides, put some of it at the bottom of a tub just large
2 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
enough to hold the beef, lay it in and strew the re-
mainder on the top, rub it well every day for two
weeks, and spread the mixture over it; at tbe end of
this time, wash the beef, bind it with tape, to keep
it round and compact, filling the hole where the bone
was with a piece of fat, lay it in a pan of convenient
size, strew a little suet over the top, and pour on it a
pint of water, cover the pan with a coarse crust and a
thick paper over that, it will take five hours baking;
when cold take off tbe tape. It is a delicious relish
at twelve o'clock, or for supper, eaten with vinegar,
mustard, oil, or sail ad. Skim the grease from the
gravy and bottle it; it makes an excellent seasoning
for any made dish.
A NICE LITTLE DISH OF BEEF.
MINCE cold roast beef, fat and lean, very fine, add
chopped onion, nepper, salt, and a little good gravy,
fill scollop shelB two parts full, and fill them up with
potatos mashed smooth with cream, put a bit of but-
ter on the top, and set them in an oven to brown.
THE best part of the beef for steaks, is the seventh
and eighth ribs, the fat and lean are better mixed, and
it is more tender than the rump if it be kept long
enough; cut the steaks half an inch thick, beat them
a little, have fine clear coals, rub the bars of the grid-
iron with a doth dipped in lard before you put it over
the coals, that none may drip to cause a bad smell,
put no salt on till you dish them, broil them quick,
turning them frequently; the dish must be very hot,
put some slices of onion in it, lay in the steaks, sprin-
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 33
kle a little salt, and pour over them a spoonful of
water and one of mushroom catsup, both made boiling
hot, garnish with scraped horse-radish, and put on a
hot dish cover. Every thing must be in readiness, for
the great excellence of a beef steak lies in having it
immediately from the gridiron.
TO HASH BEEF.
CUT slices of raw beef, put them in a stew pan
with a little water, some catsup, a clove of garlic,
pepper and salt, stew tluij.il till done, thicken the gravy
with a lump of butter rubbed into "brown flour. A
hash may be made of any kind of meat that has been
cooked, but it is not so good, and it is necessary to
have a gravy prepared and seasoned, and keep the
hash over the fire only a few minutes to make it hot.
BEEF STEAK PIE.
CUT nice steaks, and stew them till half (Tone, put
a puff paste in the dish, lay in the steaks with a few
slices of boiled ham, season the gravy very high, pour
it in the dish, put on .a lid of paste and bake it.
GET a round of beef, lard it well, and put it in a
Dutch oven; cut the meat from a shin of beef, or any
coarse piece in thin slices, put round the sides and
over the top some slices of bacon, salt, pepper, onion,
thyme, parsley, cellery tops, or seed pounded, and
some carrots cut small, strew the pieces of beef over,
cover it with water, let it stew very gently till per-
fectly done, take out the round, strain the gravy, let it
stand to be cold, take off the grease carefully, beat
34 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
the whites of four eggs, mix a little water with them,
put them to the gravy, let it boil till it looks clear,
strain it, and when cold, put it over the beef.
DIRECTIONS FOR THE PIECES IN THE DIF-
FERENT QUARTERS OF VEAL.
A LOIN of veal must always be roasted: the fillet or
leg may be dressed in various ways, the knuckle or
knee is proper for soup or for boiling; these are the
pieces that compose the hind quarter. In the fore
quarter, the breast and rack admit variety in cooking;
the shoulder and neck are only fit for soup.
VEAL CUTLETS FROM THE FILLET OR LEG.
CUT off the flank and take the bone out, then take
slices the size*of the fillet and half an inch thick, beat
two yelks of eggs light, and have some grated bread
mixed with pepper, salt, pounded nutmeg and chopped
parsley; beat the slices a little, lay them on a board
and wash the upper side with the egg, cover it thick
with the bread crumbs, press them on with a knife,
* and let them stand to dry a little, that they may not
fall off in frying, then turn them gently, put egg and
crumbs on in the same manner, put them into a pan
of boiling lard, and fry them a light brown; have
some good gravy ready, season it with a tea-spoonful
of curry powder, a large one of wine, and one of
lemon pickle, thicken with butter and brown flour,
drain every drop of lard from the cutlets, lay them in
the gravy, and stew them fifteen or twenty minutes;
serve them up garnished with lemon cut in thin slices.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 35
TAKE the best end of a rack of veal, cut it in chops,
with one bone in each, leave the small end of the
bone bare two inches, beat them flat, and prepare them
with eggs and crumbs, as the cutlets, butter some
half-sheets of white paper, wrap one round each chop,
skewer it well, leaving the bare bone out, broil them
till done, and take care the paper does not burn; have
nice white sauce in a boat.
CUT them from the fillet, put them in a stew pan
with a piece of nice pork, a clove of garlic, a bundle
of thyme and parsley, pepper and salt, cover them
with water and let them stew ten or fifteen minutes,
lay them on a dish, and when cold cover them well
with the crumb of stale bread finely grated, mixed
with the leaves of parsley chopped very small, some
pepper, salt and grated nutmeg; press these on the
veal with a knife, and when a little dried, turn it and
do the same to the other side; put a good quantity of
lard in a pan, when it boils lay the cutlets in carefully
that the crumbs may not fall; fry them a little brown,
lay them on a strainer to drain off the grease, do the
$ame with the crumbs that have fallen in the pan;
while this is doing, simmer the water they were boiled
in to half a pint, strain it and thicken with four ounces
of butter and a little browned flour; add a gill of
wine and one of mushroom catsup, put in the cut-
lets and crumbs, and stew till tender; add forcemeat
36 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE*
KNUCKLE OF VEAL.
BOIL a half pint of pearl barley in salt and water till
quite tender, drain the water from it and stir in a
piece of butter, put it in a deep dish; have the knuckle
nicely boiled in milk and water, and lay it on the
ley, pour some parsley and butter over it.
BAKED FILLET OF VEAL.
TAKE the bone out of the fillet, wrap the flap aromvd
and sew it, make a forcemeut of bread crumbs, the fat
of bacon, a little onion chopped, parsley, pepper, salt,
and a nutmeg pomided, wet it with the yelks of eggs,
fill the place from>which the bone was taken, make
holes around it with a knife and fill them also, and
lard the top; put it in a Butch oven with a pint of
water, bake it sufficiently, thicken the gravy with but-
ter and brown flour, add a giil of wine and one of
mushroom catsup, and serve it garnished with. force-
meat balls fried.
SCOTCH COLLOPS OF VEAL.
THEY may be made of the nice part of the rack, or
cut from the fillet, rub a little salt and pepper on them,
and fry them a light brown; have a rich gravy sea*
soned with wine, and any kind of catsup you choose,
with a few cloves of garlic, and some pounded mace,
thicken it, put the collops in and stew them a short
time, take them out, strain the gravy over, and gar-
nish with bunches of parsley fried crisp, and thin
slices of middling of bacon, curled around a skewer
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 87
TAKE the bone out of the fillet and cut thin slice*
the size of the leg, beat them flat, rub them with the
yelk of an egg beaten, lay on each piece a thin slice
of boiled ham, sprinkle salt, pepper, grated nutmeg,
chopped parsley, and bread crumbs over all, roll them
up tight, and secure them with skewers, rub them with
egg and roll them in bread crumbs, lay them on a tin
dripping pan, and set them in an oven; when brown
on one side, turn them, and when sufficiently done,
lay. them in a rich highly seasoned gravy made of
proper thickness, stew them till tender, garnish with
forcemeat balls and green pickles sliced.
RAGOUT OF A BREAST OF VEAL.
SEPARATE the joints of the brisket, and saw oflf the
sharp f nds of the ribs, trim it neatly, and half roast
it; put it in a stew pan with a quart of good gravy-
seasoned with wine, walnut and mushroom catsup, a
tea-spoonful of curry powder, and a few cloves of gar-
lic; stew it till tender, thicken the gravy, and garnish
with sweatbreads nicely broiled.
FRICANDO OF VEAL.
CUT slices from the fillet an inch thick and six
inches long, lard them with slips of lean middling of
bacon, bake them a light brown, stew them in well
seasoned gravy, made as thick as rich cream, serve
them up hot, and lay round the dish sorrel stewet
with butter, pepper and salt, till quite dry.
38 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO MAKE A PIE OF SWEETBREADS AND
BOIL the sweetbreads tender, stew the oysters, sea-
son them with pepper and salt, and thicken with
cream, butter, the yelks of eggs and flour, put a puff
paste at the bottom and around the sides of a deep
dish, take the oysters up with an egg spoon, lay
them in the bottom, and cover them with the sweet-
breads, fill the dish with gravy, put a paste on the
top, and bake it. This is the most delicate pie that
can be made. The sweetbread of veal is the most
delicious part, and may be broiled, fried, or dressed in
any way, and is always good.
MOCK TURTLE OF CALF'S HEAD.
HAVE the head nicely cleaned, divide the chop from
the skull, take out the brains and tongue, and boil the
other parts till tender, take them out of the water and
put into it a knuckle of veal or four pounds of lean
beef, three onions chopped, thyme, parsley, a tea-
spoonful of pounded cloves, the same of mace, salt,
and cayenne pepper to your taste boil these things
together till reduced to a pint, strain it, and add two
gills of red wine, one of mushroom and one of wal-
nut catsup, thicken it with butter and brown flour;
the head must be cut in small pieces and stewed a
few minutes in the gravy; put a paste round the edge
of a deep dish, three folds, one on the other, but none
on the bottom; pour in the meat and gravy, and bake
it till the paste is done; pick all strings from the
brains, pound them, and add grated bread, pepper aiiU
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
salt, make them in little cakes with the yelk of an
egg, fry them a nice brown, boil six eggs hard, leave
one whole and divide the others exactly in two, have
some bits of paste nicely baked; when the head is
taken from the oven, lay the whole egg in the middle,
and dispose the others, with the brain cakes and bits
of paste tastily around it. If it be wanted as soup, do
not reduce the gravy so much, and after stewing the
head, serve it in a tureen with the brain cakes and
forcemeat balls fried, in place of the eggs and paste.
The tongue should be salted and put in brine; they
are very delicate, and four of them boiled and pealed,
and served with four small chickens boiled, make a
handsome dish, either cold or hot, with parsley and
butter poured over them.
TO GRILL A CALF'S HEAD.
CLEAN and divide it as for the turtle, take out the
brains and tongue, boil it tender, take the eyes out
whole, and cut the flesh from the skull in small pieces;
take some of the water it was boiled in for gravy,
put to it salt, cayenne pepper, a grated nutmeg, with
a spoonful of lemon pickle; stew it till it is well
flavoured, take the jowl or chop, take out the bones,
and cover it with bread crumbs, chopped parsley,
pepper and salt, set it in an oven to brown, thicken
the gravy with the yelks of two eggs and a spoonful
of butter rubbed into two of flour, stew the head in it
a few minutes, put it in the dish, and lay the grilled
chop on it; garnish it with brain cakes and broiled
40 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO COLLAR A CALF'S HEAD.
AFTER cleaning it nicely, saw the bone down the
middle of the skull, but do not separate the head,
take out the brains and tongue, boil it tender enough
to remove the bones, which must be taken entirely
out; lay it on a board, have a good quantity of chop-
ped parsley seasoned with mace, nutmeg, pepper and
salt spread a layer of this, then one of thick slices
of ham, another of parsley and one of ham, roll it
up tight, sew a cloth over it, and bind that round
with tape; boil it half an hour, and when cold press
it. It must be kept covered with vinegar and water,
and is very delicious eaten with sallad or oil and
CALF'S HEART, A NICE DISH.
TAKE the heart and liver from the harslet, and cut
off the windpipe, boil the lights very tender, and cut
them in small pieces take as much of the water
they were boiled in as will be sufficient for gravy; add
to it a large spoonful of white wine, one of lemon
pickle, home grated nutmeg, pepper and salt, with a
large spoonful of butter, mixed with one of white
flour; let it boll a few minutes, and put in the minced
lights, set it by till the heart and liver are ready, cut
the ventricle out of the heart, wash it well, lard it all
over with narrow slips of middling, fill the cavity
with good forcemeat, put it in a pan on the broad end,
that the stuffing may not come out; bake it a nice
brown, slice the liver an inch thick and broil it, make
the mince hot, set the heart upright in the middle of
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 41
the dish, pour it around, lay the broiled liver on, and
garnish with bunches of fried parsley; it should be
served up extremely hot.
CALF'S FEET FRICASSEE.
BOIL the feet till very tender, cut them in two and
pull out the large bones, have half a pint of good
white gravy, add to it a spoonful of white wine, one
of lemon pickle, and some salt, with a tea-spoonful of
curry powder, stew the feet in it fifteen minutes, and
thicken it with the yelks of two eggs, a gill of milk,
a large spoonful of butter, and two of white flour, let
the thickening be very smooth, shake the stew pan
over the fire a few minutes, but do not let it boil lest
the eggs and milk should curdle.
TO FRY CALFS FEET.
PREPARE them as for the fricassee, dredge them well
with flour and fry them a light brown, pour parsley
and butter over, and garnish with fried parsley.
TO PREPARE RENNET.
TAKE the stomach from the calf as soon as it is
killed do not wash it, but hang it in a dry cool place
for four or five days; then turn it inside out, slip off all
the curd nicely with the hand, fill it with a little salt-
petre mixed with the quantity of salt necessary, and
lay it in a small stone pot, pour over it a small tea-
spoonful of vinegar, and sprinkle a handful of salt
over it, cover it closely and keep it for use. You
must not wash it that would weaken the gastric
juice, and injure the rennet. After it has been salted
six or eight weeks, cut off a piece four or five inches
42 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
long, put it in a large mustard bottle, or any vessel
that will hold about a pint and a half; put on it five
gills of cold water, and two gills of rose brandy
stop it very close, and shake it when you are going to
use it: a table-spoonful of this is sufficient for a quart
of milk. It must be prepared in very cool weather,
and if well done, will keep more than a year.
TO HASH A CALF'S HEAD.
BoiiTthe head till the meat is almost enough for eat-
ing; then cut it in thin slices, take three quarters of a
pint of good gravy, and add half a pint of white wine,
half a nutmeg, two anchovies, a sm^all onion stuck
with cloves, and a little mace; boil these up in the
liquor for a quarter of an hour, then strain it and boil
it up again; put in the meat, with salt to your taste,
let it stew a little, and if you choose it, you may add
some sweetbreads, and make some forcemeat balls
with veal; mix the brains with the yelks of eggs and
fry them to lay for a garnish. When the head is
ready to be sent in, stir in a bit of butter.
TO BAKE A CALF'S HEAD.
DIVIDE the calf's head, wash it clean, and having
the yelks of two eggs well beaten, wash the outside
of the head all over with them* and on that strew
raspings of bread sifted, pepper, salt, nutmeg and
mace powdered; also, the brains cut in pieces and
flipped in thick butter, then cover the head with bits
of butter, pour into the pan some white wine and
water, with as much gravy, and cover it close. Let
it be baked in a quick oven, and when it is served up,
pour on some strong gravy, arid garnish with slices
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 43
of lemon, red beet root pickled, fried oysters and
TO STUFF AND ROAST A CALF'S LIVER.
TAKE a fresh calf's liver, and having made a hole in
it with a large knife run in lengthways, but not quite
through, have ready a forced meat, or stuffing made
of part of the liver parboiled, fat of bacon minced
very fine, and sweet herbs powdered; add to these
some grated bread and spice finely powdered, with
pepper and salt. With this stuffing fill the hole in
the liver, which must be larded with fat bacon, and
then roasted, flouring it well, and basting with butter
till it is enough. This is to be served up hot, with
gravy sauce having a little wine in it.
TO BROIL CALF'S LIVER.
CUT it in slices, put over it salt and pepper; broil
it nicely, and pour on some melted butter with
chopped parsley after it is dished.
Directions for cleaning Calf's Head and Feet, for
those who live in the country and butcher their
As soon as the animal is killed, have the head and
feet taken off, wash them clean, sprinkle some pounded
rosin all over the hairs, then dip them in boiling
water, take them instantly out, the rosin will dry
immediately, and they may be scraped clean with
case; the feet should be soaked in water three or
four days, changing it daily; this will make them very
44 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO ROAST THE FORE-QUARTER, &c.
THE fore-quarter should always be roasted and
served with mint sauce in a boat; chop the mint small
and mix it with vinegar enough to make it liquid,
sweeten it with sugar.
The hind-quarter may be boiled or roasted, and re-
quires mint sauce; it may also be dressed in various
CUT the shank bone from a hind-quarter, separate
the joints of the loin, lay it in a pan with the kidney
uppermost, sprinkle some pepper and salt, add a few
cloves of garlic, a pint of water and a dozen large
ripe tomatos with the skins taken off, bake it but do
not let it be burnt, thicken the gravy with a little
butter and brown flour.
SEPARATE the leg from the loin, cut off the shank
and boil the leg; divide the loin in chops, dredge and
fry them a nice brown, lay the leg in the middle of
the dish, and put the chops around, pour over parsley
and butter, and garnish with fried parsley.
The leg cut into steaks and the loin into chops,
will make a fine fricassee, or cutlets.
TO DRESS LAMB'S HEAD AND FEET.
CLEAN them very nicely, and boil them till tender,
take off the flesh from the head with the eyes, also
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 45
mince the tongue and heart, which must be boiled
ttith the head; split the feet in two, put them with
the pieces from the head and the mince, into a pint
of good gravy, seasoned with pepper, salt, and tomato
catsup, or ripe tomatos: stew it till tender, thicken
the gravy, and lay the liver cut in slices and broiled
over it garnish with crisp parsley and bits of curled
THE saddle should always be roasted and garnished
with scraped horse-radish. See general observations
on roasting. Mutton is in the highest perfection from
August until Christmas, when it begins to decline in
BOILED LEG OF MUTTON.
CUT off the shank, wrap the flank nicely round and
secure it with skewers, dredge it well with flour, and
put it on the fire in a kettle of cold water with some
salt, and three or four heads of garlic, which will give
it a delicately fine flavour; skin it well, and when
nearly done, take it from the fire and keep it hot and
closely covered, that the steam may finish it; have
carrots well boiled to put in the dish under it, or tur-
nips boiled, mushed smooth and stewed with a lump
of butter and salt, laythe mutton on, and pour over
it butter melted with some flour in it, and a cup full
of capers with some of the vinegar; shake them
together over the fare till hot before you pour it on.
46 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
PREPARE it as for boiling, be very careful in spit-
ting it, cover it with paper and follow the directions
for roasting, serve it up garnished with scraped horse-
BAKED LEG OF MUTTON.
TAKE the flank off, but leave all the fat, cut out the
bone, stuff the place with a rich forcemeat, lard th^
top and sides with bacon, put it in a pan with a pint
of water, some chopped onion and cellery cut small,
a gill of red wine, one of mushroom catsup and a
tea-spoonful of carry powder, bake it and serve it up
with the gravy, garnish with forcemeat balls fried.
STEAKS OF A LEG OF MUTTOIN.
CUT off the flank, take out the bone, and cut it in
large slices half an inch thick, sprinkle some salt and
pepper, and broil it, pour over it nice melted butter
with capers; a leg cut in the same way and dressed as
directed for veal cutlets, is very fine. It is also ex-
cellent when salted as beef, and boiled, served up
with carrots or turnips.
A shoulder of mutton is best when roasted, but may
be made into cutlets or in a harrico.
TO HARRICO MUTTON.
TAKE the nicest part of the rack, divide it into
chops, with one bone in each, beat them flat, sprinkle
salt and pepper on them, and broil them nicely; make
a rich gravy out of the inferior parts, season it well
with pepper, a little spice, and any kind of catsup you
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 47
choose; when sufficiently done, strain it, and thicken
it with butter and brown flour, have some carrots and
turnips cut into small dice and boiled till tender, put
them in the gravy, lay the chops in and stew them
fifteen minutes; serve them up garnished with green
CUT the rack as for the harrico, broil them, and
when dished, pour over them a gravy made with two
large spoonsful of boiling water, one of mushroom
catsup, a small spoonful of butter and some salt, stir it
till the butter is melted, and garnish with horse-radish
BOILED BREAST OF MUTTON.
SEPARATE the joints of the brisket, and saw off the
sharp ends of the ribs, dredge it with flour, and boil
it; serve it up covered with onions see onion sauce.
BREAST OF MUTTON IN RAGOUT.
PREPARE the breast as for boiling, brown it nicely
in the oven, have a rich gravy well seasoned and
thickened with brown flour, stew the mutton in it till
sufficiently done, and garnish with forcemeat balls
TO GRILL A BREAST OF MUTTON.
PREPARE it as before, score the top, wash it over
with the yelk of an egg, sprinkle some salt, and
eover it with bread crumbs, bake it, and pour caper
sauce in the dish. It may also be roasted, the skill
48 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
taken off and frothed nicely, serve it up with good
gravy, and garnish with current jelly cut in slices.
The neck of mutton is fit only for soup, the liver is
very good when broiled.
BOILED SHOULDER OF MUTTON.
PUT it in cold water with some salt, and boil it till
tender; serve it up covered with onion sauce.
SHOULDER OF MUTTON WITH CELLERY
WASH and clean ten heads of cellery, cut off the
green tops and take off the outside stalks, cut the
heads in thin slices, boil them tender in a little milk,
just enough for gravy, add salt, and thicken it with a
spoonful of butter and some white flour; boil the
shoulder and pour the sauce over it.
ROASTED LOIN OF MUTTON.
CUT the loin in four pieces, take off the skin, rub
each piece with salt, wash them with the yelk of an
egg, .and cover them thickly with bread crumbs,
chopped parsley, pepper and salt; wrap them up se*
curely in paper, put them on a bird spit, and roast
them; put a little brown gravy in the dish, and garnish
TO CURE BACON.
HOGS are in the highest perfection, from two and a
half to four years old, and make the best bacon, whea
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 49
(hey do net weigh more than one hundred and fifty
or sixty at farthest; they should be fed with corn, six
weeks at least, before they are killed, and the shorter
distance they are driven to market, the better will
their flesh be. To secure them against the possibility
of spoiling, salt them before they get cold; take out
the chine or back-bone from the neck to the tail, cut
the hams, shoulders and middlings; take the -ribs from
the shoulders and the leaf fat from the hams: have
such tubs as are directed for beef, rub a large table
spoonful of saltpetre on the inside of each ham, for
some minutes, then rub both sides well with salt,
sprinkle the bottom of the tub with salt, lay the hams
with the skin downward, and put a good deal of salt'
between each layer; salt the shoulders and middlings
in the same manner, but less saltpetre is necessary;
eut the jowl or chop from the head, and rub it with
salt and saltpetre. You should cut off the feet just
above the knee joint; take off the ears and nose, and
lay them in a large tub of cold water for souse. When
the jowls have been in salt two weeks, hang them up
to smoke do so with the shoulders and middlings
at the end of three weeks, and the hams at the end
of four. If they remain longer in salt they will be
hard. Remember to hang the hams and shoulders
with the hocks down, to preserve the juices. Make a
good smoke every morning, and be careful not to have
a blaze; the smoke-house should stand alone, for any
additional heat will spoil the meat. During the hot
weather, beginning the first of April, it should be oc-
casionally taken down, examined rubbed with hick-
ory ashes, and hung up again.
50 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
The generally received opinion that saltpetre hard-
ens meat, is entirely erroneous: it tends greatly to
prevent putrefaction, but will not make it hard; neither
will laying in brine five or six weeks in cold weather,
have that effect, but remaining in salt too long, will
certainly draw off the juices, and harden it. Bacon
should be boiled in a large quantity of water, and a
ham is not done sufficiently, till the bone on the under
part comes off with ease. New bacon requires mucL
longer boiling than that which is old.
TO MAKE SOUSE.
LET all the pieces you intend to souse, remain
covered with cold water twelve hours; then wash them
out, wipe off the blood, and put them again in fresh
water; soak them in this manner, changing the water
frequently, and keeping it in a cool place, till the
blood is drawn away; scrape and clean each piece
perfectly nice, mix some meal with water, add salt to
it, and boil your souse gently, until you can run a
straw into the skin with ease. Do not put too much
in the pot, for it will boil to pieces and spoil the
appearance. The best way is to boil the feet in one
pot, the ears and nose in another, and the heads in a
third; these should be boiled till you can take all the
bones out; let them get cold, season the insides with
pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg; make it in a tight
roll, sew it up close in a cloth, and press it lightly.
Mix some more meal and cold water, just enough to
look white; add salt, and one-fourth of vinegar; put
your souse in different pots, and keep it well covered
with this mixture, and closely stopped. It will be
necessary to renew this liquor every two or three
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 51
weeks. Let your souse get quite cold after boiling,
before you put it in the liquor, and be sure to use pale
coloured vinegar, or the souse will be dark. Some
cooks singe the hair from the feet, etcetera, but this
destroys the colour: good souse will always be white.
TO ROAST A PIG.
THE pig must be very fat, nicely cleaned, and not
too large to lie in the dish; chop the liver fine and
mix it with crumbs of bread, chopped onion and
parsley, with pepper and salt, make it into a paste
with butter and an egg, stuff the body well with it,
and sew it up, spit it, and have a clear fire to roast it;
baste with salt and water at first, then rub it frequently
with a lump of lard wrapped in a piece of clean linen;
this will make it much more crisp than basting it from
the dripping pan. When the pig is done, take off the
head, separate the face from the chop, cut both in two
and take off the ears, take out the stuffing, split the
pig in two parts lengthways, lay it in the dish with
the head, ears, and feet, which have been cut off,
placed on each .side, put the stuffing in a bowl with a
glass of wine, and as much dripping as will make it
sufficiently liquid, put some of it under the pig, ami
serve the rest in a boat.
TO BARBECUE SHOTE.*
THIS is the name given in the southern states to a
fat young hog, which, when the head and feet are
* Shote being a Provincial term, and not a legitimate English
word, Mrs. U. has taken the liberty of spelling it in a way that
conveys the sound of the pronunciation more clearly than
shoot* the usual manner of spelling it,
52 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
taken off, and it is cut into four quarters, will weigh
six pounds per quarter. Take a fore-quarter, make
several incisions between the ribs, and stuff it with
rich forcemeat; put it in^ pan with a pint of water,
two cloves of garlic, pepper, salt, two gills of red
wine, and two of mushroom catsup, bake it, and
thicken the gravy with butter and brown flour; it must
be jointed, and the ribs cut across before it is cooked,
or it cannot be carved well; lay it in the dish with
the ribs uppermost; if it be not sufficiently brown,
add a little burnt sugar to the gravy, garnish with
TO ROAST A FORE-QUARTER OF SHOTE.
JOINT it for the convenience of carving, roast it be-
fore a brisk fire; when done, take the skin off, dredge
and froth it, put a little melted butter with some caper
vinegar over it, or serve it with mint sauce.
TO MAKE SHOTE CUTLETS.
TAKE the skin from the hind-quarter, and cut it in
pieces, prepare them in the way directed for veal
cutlets, make a little nice gravy with the skin and the
scraps of meat left, thicken it with butter and brown
flour, and season it in any way you like.
TO CORN SHOTE.
RUB a hind-quarter with saltpetre and common
salt, let it lie ten days, then boil it, and put either
carrots or parsnips under it, ~
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 53
TAKE out the brains, and boil the head till quite
tender, cut the heart and liver from the harslet, and
boil the feet with the head; cut all the meat from the
head in small pieces, mince the tongue and chop the
brains small, take some of the water the head was
boiled in, season it with onion, parsley and thyme, all
chopped tine, add any kind of catsup thicken it with
butter and brown flour, stew the whole in it fifteen
minutes, and put it in the dish: have the heart roasted
to put in the middle, lay the broiled liver around, and
garnish it with green pickle.
LEG OF PORK WITH PEASE PUDDING.
BOIL a small leg of pork that has been sufficiently
salted, score the top and serve it up; the pudding
must be in a separate dish; get small delicate pease,
wash them well, and tie them in a cloth,- allowing a
little room for swelling, boil them with the pork, then
mash and season them, tie them up again and finish
boiling it; take care not to break the pudding in turn-
ing it out.
TAKE the necl? chine, rub it well with salt, lay it in
a pan, put it in a pint of water, and fill it up with
sweet potatos nicely washed, but not peeled, cover
it close and bake it till done; serve it up with the
potatos, put a little of the gravy in the dish.
54 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO TOAST A HAM.
BOIL it well, take off the skin, and cover the top
thickly with bread crumbs, put it in an oven to brown,
and serve it up.
TO STUFF A HAM.
TAKE a well smoked ham, wash it very clean, make
incisions all over the top two inches deep, stuff them
quite full with parsley chopped small and some pep-
per, boil the ham sufficiently; do not take off the skin.
It must be eaten cold.
SOUSED FEET IN RAGOUT.
SPLIT the feet in two, dredge them with flour and
fry them a nice brown; have some well seasoned gravy
thickened with brown flour and butter; stew the feet
in it a few minutes.
TO MAKE SAUSAGES.
TAKE the tender pieces of fresh pork, chop them
exceedingly fine chop some of the leaf fat, and put
them together in the proportion of three pounds of
pork ti; one of fat, season it very high with pepper
and salt, add a small quantity of dried sage rubbed to
a powder, have the skins nicely prepared, fill them
and hang them in a dry place. Sausages are excellent
made into cakes and fried, but will not keep so well
as in skins.
TO MAKE BLACK PUDDINGS.
CATCH the blood as it runs from the hog, stir it
fMttitinunlly fill cold to prevent its coagulating; when
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 55
cold thicken it with boiled rice or oatmeal, add leaf
fat chopped small, pepper, salt, and any herbs that
are liked, fill the skins and smoke them two or three
days; they must be boiled before they are hung up,
and prick them with a fork to keep them from
A SEA" PIE.
LAY at the bottom of a small Dutch oven some
slices of boiled pork or salt beef, then potatos and
onions cut in slices, salt, pepper, thyme and parsley
shred fine, some crackers soaked, and a layer of fowls
cut up, or slices of veal; cover them with a paste not
too rich, put another layer of each article, and cover
them with paste until the oven is full; put a little but-
ter between each layer, pour in water till it reaches
the top crust, to which you must add wine, catsup of
any kind you please, and some pounded cloves; let
it stew until there is just gravy enough left; serve it
in a deep dish and pour the gravy on.
TO MAKE PASTE FOR THE PIE.
POUR half a pound of butter or dripping, boiling hot,
into a quart of flour, add as much water as will make
it a paste, work it and roll it well before you use it.
It is quite a savoury paste.
TAKE one pound of bacon fat and lean, one ditto
veal, do., pork, do., suet, chop all fine, season highly:
fill the skins, prick and boil them an hour, and hang
them to dry grated bread or boiled rice may be
added: clean the skins with salt and vinegar.
56 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO CURE HERRINGS.
THE best method for preserving herrings, and which
may be followed with ease, for a small family, is to
take the brine - left of your winter stock for beef, to
the fishing place, and when the seine is hauled, to
pick out the largest herrings, and throw them alive
into the brine; let them remain twenty-four hours,
take them out and lay them on sloping planks, that
the brine may drain off; have a tight barrel, put some
coarse alum salt at the bottom, then put in a layer of
herrings take care not to bruise them; sprinkle over
it alum salt and some saltpetre, then fish, salt, and
saltpetre, till the barrel is full; keep a board over it.
Should they not make brine enough to cover them in
a few weeks, you must add some, for they will be
rusty if not kept under brine. The proper time to
salt them is when they are quite fat: the scales will
adhere closely to a lean herring, but will be loose on
a fat one the former is not fit to be eaten. Do not
be sparing of salt when you put them up. When
they are to be used, take a few out of brine, soak
them an hour or two, scale them nicely, pull off the
gills, and the only entrail they have will come with
them; wash them clean and hang them up to dry.
When to be broiled, take half a sheet of white paper,
rub it over with butter, put the herring in, double the
edges securely, and broil without burning it. The
brine the herrings drink before they die, has a won*
derful effect in preserving their juices: when one or
two years old, they are equal to anchovies.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 57
TO BAKE STURGEON.
GET a piece of sturgeon with the skin on, the
piece next to the tail, scrape i : t well, cut out the gris-
tle, and boil it about twent^ minutes to take out the
oil; take it up, pull off the large scales, and when cold,
stuff it with forcemeat, made of bread crumbs, but-
ter, chopped parsley, pepper and salt, put it in a Dutch
oven just large enough to hold it, with a pint and a
half of water, a gill of red wine, one of mushroom
catsup, some salt and pepper, stew it gently till the
gravy is reduced to the quantity necessary to pour over
it; take up your sturgeon carefully, thicken the gravy
with a spoonful of butter rubb'ed into a large one of
nrown flour; see that it is perfectly smooth when
you put it in the dish.
TO MAKE STURGEON CUTLETS.
THE tail piece is the best; skin it and cut off the
gristle, cut it into slices about half an inch thick,
sprinkle c'/er them pepper and salt, dredge them with
flour, and fry them a nice light brown; have ready a
pint of good gravy, seasoned with catsup, wine, and
a little pounded cloves, and thickened with brown
flour and butter; when the cutlets are cold, put them
into the gravy and stew them a few minutes; garnish
the dish with nice forcemeat balls and parsley fried
CUT them as for the cutlets, dredge them, and fry
them nicely; dish them quickly lest they get cold;
58 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
pour over melted butter with chopped parsley, and
garnish with fried parsley.
TO BOIL STURGEON.
LEAVE the skin on, which must be nicely scraped,
take out the gristle, rub it with salt, and let it lie an
hour, then put it on in cold water with some salt and
a few cloves of garlic; it must be dredged with flour
before it is put into the water, skim it carefully, and
when dished, pour over it melted butter with chopped
parsley, a large spoonful of mushroom catsup, one of
lemon pickle, and one of pepper vinegar; send some
of it to table in a sauce boat; the sturgeon being a
dry fish, rich sauce is necessary.
TO BAKE A SHAD.
THE shad is a very indifferent fish unless it be large
and fat; when you get a good one, prepare it nicely,
put some forcemeat inside, and lay it at full length in
a pan with a pint of water, a gill of red wine, one of
mushroom catsup, a little pepper, vinegar, salt, a few
cloves of garlic, and six cloves:* stew it gently till the
gravy is sufficiently reduced; there should always be
a fish-slice with holes to lay the fish on, for the con-
venience of dishing without breaking it; when the
fish is taken up, slip it carefully into the dish; thicken
the gravy with butter and brown flour, and pour
TO BOIL A SHAD.
GET a nice fat shad, fresh from the water, that the
skin may not crack in boiling, put it in cold water on
a slice, in a kettle of proper length, with a wine
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 59
glass of pale vinegar, salt, a little garlic, and a bun-
dle of parsley; when it is done, drain all the water
from the fish, lay it in the dish, and garnish with
scraped horse-radish; have a sauce boat of nice melted
butter, to mix with the different catsups, as taste shall
TO ROAST A SHAD.
FILL the cavity with good forcemeat, sew it up, and
tie it on a board of proper size, cover it with bread
crumbs, with some salt and pepper, set it before the
fire to roast; when done on one side, turn it, tie it
again, and when sufficiently done, pull out the thread,
and serve it up with butter and parsley poured over it.
TO BROIL A SHAD.
SEPARATE one side from- the back-bone, so that it
will lie open without being split in two; wash it clean,
dry it with a cloth, sprinkle some salt and pepper oil
it, and let it stand till you afe ready to broil it; have
the gridiron hot and well greased, broil it nicely, and
pour over it melted butter.
TO BOIL ROCK FISH.
THE best part of the rock is the head and shoul-
ders clean it nicely, put it into the fish kettle with
cold water and salt, boil it gently and skim it well;
when done, drain off the water, lay it in the dish, and
garnish with scraped horse-radish; have two boats of
butter nicely melted with chopped parsley, or for a
change, you may have anchovy butter; the roe and
liver should be fried and served in separate dishes. If
any of the rock be left, it will make a delicious dL>k
60 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
next day; pick it in small pieces, put it in a stew
pan with a gill of water, a good lump of butter, some
salt, a large spoonful of lemon pickle, and one of
pepper vinegar shake it over the fire till perfectly
hot, and serve it up. It is almost equal to stewed
TO FRY PERCH.
CLEAN the fish nicely, but do not take out the roes;
dry them on a cloth, sprinkle some salt ; and dredge
them with flour, lay them separately on a board; when
one side is dry, turn them, sprinkle salt and dredge
the other side; be sure the lard boils when you put
the fish in, and fry them with great care; they should
be a yellowish brown when done. Send melted but*
ter or anchovy sauce in a boat.
TO PICKLE OYSTERS.
SELECT the largest oysters, drain off their liquor,
and wash them in clean water; pick out the pieces of
shells that may be left, put them in a stew pan with
water proportioned to the number of oysters, some
salt, blades of mace, and whole black pepper; stew
them a few minutes, then put them in a pot, and when
cold, add as much pale vinegar as will give the
liquor an agreeable acid.
TO MAKE A CURRY OF CATFISH.
TAKE the white channel catfish, cut off their heads,
skin and clean them, cut them in pieces four inches
long, put as many as will be sufficient for a dish into
a stew pan with a quart of water, two onions, and
chopped parsley; let them stew gently till the water
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 61
is reduced to half a pint, take -the fish out and lay
them on a dish, cover them to keep them hot, rub a
spoonful of butter into one of flour, add a large 4ear
spoonful of curry powder, thicken the gravy with it,
shake it over the fire a few minutes, and pour it over
the fish; be careful to have the gravy smooth.
TO DRESS A COD'S HEAD AND SHOULDERS.
TAKE out the gills and the blood from the bone,
wash the head very clean, rub over it a little salt, then
lay it on your fish plate; throw in the water a good
handful of salt, with a glass of vinegar, then put in
the fish, and let it boil gently half an hour; if it is a
large one, three quarters; take it up very carefully,
strip the skin nicely off, set it before a brisk fire,
dredge it all over with flour, and baste it well with
butter; when the froth begins to rise, throw over it
some very fine white bread crumbs; you must keep
basting it all the time to make it froth well; when it
is a fine light brown, dish it up, and garnish it with a
lemon cut in slices, scraped horse-radish, barberries,
a few small fish fried and laid around it, or fried
oysters cut the roe and liver in slices, and lay over
it a little of the lobster out of the sauce in lumps, and
then serve it up.
TO MAKE SAUCE FOR THE COD'S HEAD.
TAKE a lobster, if it be alive, stick a skewer in the
vent of the tail, (to keep the water out,) throw a
handful of salt in the water; when it boils, put in the
lobster, and boil it half an hour; if it has spawn on it,
fl THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
pick them off, and pound them exceedingly fine in a
marble mortar, and put them into half a pound of
good melted butter, then take the meat out of the lob-
ster, pull it in bits, and put it in your butter, with a
meat spoonful of lemon pickle, and the same of
walnut catsup, a slice of lemon, one or two slices of
horse-radish, a little beaten mace, salt and cayenne to
your taste; boil them one minute, then take out the
horse-radish and lemon, and serve it up in your sauce
N. B. If you cannot get lobsters, you may make
shrimp, cockle, or muscle sauce, the same way; if
there can be no shell fish got, you then may add two
anchovies cut small, a spoonful of walnut liquor, a
large onion stuck with cloves strain and put it in the
TO DRESS A SALT COD.
STEEP your salt fish in water all night, with a glass
of vinegar; it will take out the salt, and make it taste
like fresh fish; the next day boil it; when it is enough
take off the skin, pull it in fleaks into your dish, then
pour egg sauce over it, or parsnips boiled and beat
fine, with butter and cream; send it to the table on a
water plate, for it will soon grow cold.
MATELOTE OF ANY KIND OF FIRM FISH*
CUT the fish in pieces six inches long, put it in a
pot with onion, parsley, thyme, mushrooms, a little
spice, pepper and salt add red wine and water
enough for gravy, set it on a quick fire and reduce it
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 63
one-third, thicken with a spoonful of butter and two
of flour; put it in a dish with bits of bread fried in
butter, and pour the gravy over it.
CHOWDER, A SEA DISH.
TAKE any kind of firm fish, cut it in pieces six
inches long, sprinkle salt and pepper over each piece,
cover the bottom of a small Dutch oven with slices
of salt pork about half boiled, lay in the fish, strew-
ing a little chopped onion between; cover with crackers
that have been soaked soft in milk, pour over it two
gills of white wine, and two of water; put on the top
of the oven, and stew it gently about an hour; take it
out carefully, and lay it in a deep dish; thicken the
gravy with a little flour and a spoonful of butter, add
some chopped parsley, boil it a few minutes, and pour
it over the fish serve it up hot.
TO PICKLE STURGEON.
THE best sturgeons are the small ones, about four
feet long without the head, and the best part is the
one near the tail. After the sturgeon is split through
the back bone, take a piece with the skin on, which is
essential to its appearance and goodness, cut off the
gristle, scrape the skin well, wash it, and salt it let
it lie twenty-four hours, wipe off the salt, roll it, and
tie it around with twine, put it on in a good deal of
cold water, let it boil till you can run a straw easily
into the skin, take it up, pull off the large scales, and
when cold, put it in a pot, and cover it with one part
vinegar, and two of salt and water; keep it closely
stopped, and when served, garnish with green fennel.
64 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO CAVEACH FISH.
CUT the fish in pieces the thickness of your hand,
wash it and dry it in a cloth, sprinkle on some pepper
and salt, dredge it with flour, and fry it a nice brown;
when it gets cold, put it in a pot with a little chopped
onion between the layers, take as much vinegar and
water as will cover it, mix with it some oil, pounded
mace, and whole black pepper, pour it on, and stop
the pot closely. This is a very convenient article, as
it makes an excellent and ready addition to a dinner
or supper. When served up, it should be garnished
with green fennel, or parsley.
TO DRESS COD FISH.
BOIL the fish tender, pick it from the bones, take an
equal quantity of Irish potatos, or parsnips boiled and
chopped, and the same of onions well boiled; add
a sufficiency of melted butter, some grated nutmeg,
pepper, and salt, with a little brandy or wine; rub
them in a mortar till well mixed; if too stiff, liquify
it with cream or thickened milk, put paste in the bot-
tom of a dish, pour in the fish, and bake it. For
change, it may be baked in the form of patties.
COD FISH PIE.
SOAK the fish, boil it and take off the skin, pick the
meat from the bones, and mince it very fine; take
double the quantity of your fish, of stale bread grated;
pour over it as much new milk, boiling hot, as will
wet it completely, add minced parsley, nutmeg, pep-
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 66
per, and made mustard, with as much melted butter
as will make it sufficiently rich; the quantity must
be determined by that of the other ingredients beat
these together very well, add the minced fish, mix it
all, cover the bottom of the dish with good paste, pour
the fish in, put on a lid and bake it.
TO DRESS ANY KIND OF SALTED FISH.
TAKE the quantity necessary for the dish, wask
them, and lay them in fresh water for a night; then
put them on the tin plate with holes, and place it in
the fish kettle sprinkle over it pounded cloves and
pepper, with four cloves of garlic; put in a bundle of
sweet herbs and parsley, a large spoonful of tarragon,
and two of common vinegar, with a pint of wine;
roll one quarter of a pound of butter in two spoonsful
of flour, cut it in small pieces, and put it over the
fish cover it closely, and simmer it over a slow fire
half an hour; take the fish out carefully, and lay it in
the dish, set it over hot water, and cover it till the
gravy has boiled a little longer take out the garlic
and herbs, pour it over the fish, and serve it up. It
is very good when eaten cold with salad, garnished
TO FRICASSEE COD SOUNDS AND TONGUES.
SOAK them all night in fresh water, take off the
skins, cut them in two pieces, and boil them in milk
and water till quite tender, drain them in a colander,
and season with nutmeg, pepper, and a little salt
take as much new milk as will make sauce for it, roll
a good lump of butter in flour, melt it in the milk,
66 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
put the fish in, set it over the fire, and stir it till thick
enough, and serve it up.
AN EXCELLENT WAY TO DRESS FISH.
DREDGE the fish well with flour, sprinkle salt and
pepper on them, and fry them a nice brown; set them
by to get cold; put a quarter of a pound of butter in
a fryHg pan; when it boils, fry tomatos with the
skins taken off, parsley nicely picked, and a very little
chopped onion: when done, add as much water as will
make sauce for the fish- season it with pepper, salt,
and pounded cloves; add some wine and mushroom
catsup, put the fish in, and when thoroughly heated,
serve it up.
BOIL as many large white perch as will be sufficient
for the dish; do not take off their heads, and be care-
ful not to break their skins; when cold, place them in
the dish, and cover them with savoury jelly broken.
A nice piece of rock-fish is excellent done in the same
FISH IN JELLY.
FILL a deep glass dish half full of jelly have as
many small fish-moulds as will lie conveniently in it,
fill them with blanc mange; when they are cold, and
the jelly set, lay them on it, as if going in different
directions; put in a little more jelly, and let it get
cold, to keep the fish in their places then fill the dish
so as to cover them. The jelly should be made of
hog's feet, very light coloured, and perfectly trans-
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. CT
TO MAKE EGG SAUCE FOR A SALT COD.
BOIL four eggs hard, first half cnop the white, then
put in the yelks, and chop them both together, but
not very small; put them into half a pound of good
melted butter, and let it boil up then pour it on the
TO DRESS COD SOUNDS.
STEEP your sounds as you do the salt cod, and boil
them in a large quantity of milk and water; when
they are very tender and white, take them up, and
drain the water out and skin them; then pour the egg
sauce boiling hot over them, and serve them up.
TO STEW CARP.
GUT and scale your fish, wash and dry them well
with a clean cloth, dredge them with flour, fry them
ki lard until they are a light brown, and then put them
ir\ a stew pan with half a pint of water, and half a
pint of red wine, a meat spoonful of lemon pickle,
the same of walnut catsup, a little mushroom powder
and cayenne to your taste, a large onion stuck with
cloves, and a stick of horse-radish; cover your pan
close up to keep in the steam; let them stew gently
over a stove fire, till the gravy is reduced to just enough
to cover your fish in the dish; then take the fish out,
and put them on the dish you intend for the table;
set the gravy on the fire, and thicken it with flour,
and a large lump of butter; boil it a little, and strain
it over your fish; garnish them with pickled mush-
68 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
rooms and scraped horse-radish, and send them to
TO BOIL EELS.
CLEAN the eels, and cut off their heads, dry them,
and turn them round on your fish plate, boil them in
salt and water, and make parsley sauce for them.
TO PITCHCOCK EELS.
SKIN and wash your eels, then dry them with a
cloth, sprinkle them with pepper, salt, and a little
dried sage, turn them backward and forward, and
skewer them; rub a gridiron with beef suet, broil them
a nice brown, put them on a dish with good melted
butter, and lay around fried parsley.
TO BROIL EELS.
WHEN you have skinned and cleansed your eels as
before, rub them with the yelk of an egg, strew over
them bread crumbs, chopped parsley, sage, pepper,
and salt; baste them well with butter, and set them
in a dripping pan; serve them up with parsley and
butter for sauce.
TO SCOLLOP OYSTERS.
WHEN the oysters are opened, put them in a bowl,
and wash them out of their own liquor; put some in
the scollop shells, strew over them a few bread crumbs,
and lay a slice of butter on them, then more oysters,
bread crumbs, and a slice of butter on the top; put
them into a Dutch oven to brown, and serve them up
in the shells.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 69
TO FRY OYSTERS.
TAKE a quarter of a hundred of large oysters, wash
them and roll them in grated bread, with pepper and
salt, and fry them a light brown; if you choose, yon
may add a little parsley, shred fine. They are a pro-
per garnish for calves' head, or most made dishes.
TO MAKE OYSTER LOAVES.
TAKE little round loaves, cut off the tops, scrape
out all the crumbs, then put the oysters into a stew
pan with the crumbs that came out of the loaves, a
little water, and a good lump of butter; stew them
together ten or fifteen minutes, then put in a spoonful
of good cream, fill your loaves, lay the bit of crust
carefully on again, set them in the oven to crisp.
Three are enough for a side dish.
TO ROAST A GOOSE.
CHOP a few sage leaves and two onions very fine,
mix them with a good lump of butter, a tea-spoonful
of pepper, and two of salt, put it in the goose, then
spit it, lay it down, and dust it with flour; when it is
thoroughly hot, baste it with nice lard; if it be a
large one, it will require an hour and a half, before
a good clear fire; when it is enough, dredge and
baste it, pull out the spit, and pour in a little boiling
70 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO MAKE SAUCE FOR A GOOSE.
PARE, core and slice some apples; put them in a
sauce pan, with as much water as will keep them from
burning, set them over a very slow fire, keep them
closely covered till reduced to a pulp, then put in a
lump of butter, and sugar to your taste, beat them
well, and send them to the table in a china bowl.
TO BOIL DUCKS WITH ONION SAUCE.
SCALD and draw your ducks, put them in warm
water for a few minutes, then take them out and put
them in an earthen pot; pour over them a pint of
boiling milk, and let them lie in it two or three hours;
when you take them out, dredge them well with flour,
and put them in a copper of cold water; put on the
cover, let them boil slowly twenty minutes, then take
them out, and smother them with onion sauce.
TO MAKE ONION SAUCE.
BOIL eight or ten large onions, change the water
two or three times while they are boiling; when
enough, chop them on a board to keep them a good
colour, put them in a sauce pan with a quarter of a
pound of butter and two spoonsful of thick cream;
boil it a little, and pour it over the ducks.
TO ROAST DUCKS.
WHEN you have drawn the ducks, shred one onion
and a few sage leaves, put them into the ducks with
pepper and salt, spit and dust them with flour, and
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 71
baste them with lard: if your fire be very hot, they
will roast in twenty minutes; and the quicker they
are roasted, the better they will taste. Just before you
take them from the spit, dust them with flour and
baste them. Get ready some gravy made of the
gizzards and pinions, a large blade of mace, a few
pepper corns, a spoonful of catsup, a tea-spoonful of
lemon pickle; strain it and pour it on the ducks, and
send onion sauce in a boat.
TO BOIL A TURKEY WITH OYSTER SAUCE.
GRATE a loaf of bread, chop a score or more of
oysters fine, add nutmeg, pepper and salt to your
taste, mix it up into a light forcemeat with a quarter
of a pound of butter, a spoonful or two of cream,
and three eggs; stuff the craw with it, and make the
rest into balls and boil them; sew up the turkey,
dredge it well with flour, put it in a kettle of cold
water, cover it, and set it over the fire; as the scum
begins to rise, take it off, let it boil very slowly for
half an hour, then take off your kettle and keep it
closely covered; if it be of a middle size, let it stand
in the hot water half an hour, the steam being kept
in, will stew it enough, make it rise, keep the skia
whole, tender, and very white; when you dish it,
pour on a little oyster sauce, lay the balls round, and
serve it up with the rest of the sauce in a boat.
N. B. Set on the turkey in time, that it may
stew as above; it is the best way to boil one to
perfection. Put it over the fire to heat, just before
you dish it up.
72 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE*
TO MAKE SAUCE FOR A TURKEY.
As yuu open the oysters, put a pint into a bowl>
wash them out of their own liquor, and put them in
another bowl; when the liquor has settled, pour it off
into a sauce pan with a little white gravy, and a tea-
spoonful of lemon pickle thicken it with flour and a
good lump of butter; boil it three or four minutes, put
in a spoonful of good cream, add the oysters, keep
shaking them over the fire till they are quite hot, but
don't let them boil, for it will make them hard and
TO ROAST A TUHKEY.
MAKE the forcemeat thus: take the crumb of a loaf
of bread, a quarter of a pound of beef suet shred
fine, a little sausage meat or veal scraped and pounded
very fine, nutmeg, pepper, and salt to your taste; mix
it lightly with three eggs, stuff the craw with it, spit
it, and lay it down a good distance from the fire,
which should be clear and brisk; dust and baste it
several times with cold lard; it makes the froth
stronger than basting it with the hot out of the drip-
ping pan, and makes* the turkey rise better; when it
is enough, froth it up as before, dish it, and pour on
the same gravy as for the boiled turkey, or bread
sauce; garnish with lemon and pickles, and serve k
up; if it be of a middle size, it will require one hour
and a quarter to roast.
TO MAKE SAUCE FOR A TURKEY.
CUT the crumb of a loaf of bread in thm slices, and
put it in cold water with a few pepper corns, a fittte
THIS VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. TO
salt and onion then boil it till the bread is quite
soft, beat it well, put in a quarter of a pound of but-
ter, two spoonsful of thick cream, and put it in the
dish with the turkey.
TO BOIL FOWLS.
DUST the fowls well with flour, put them in a
kettle of cold water, cover it close, set it on the fire;
when the scum begins to rise, take it off, let them
boil very slowly for twenty minutes, then take them
off, cover them close, and the heat of the water will
stew them enough in half an hour; it keeps the skin
whole, and they will be both whiter and plumper than
if they had boiled fast; when you take them up, drain
them, and pour over them white sauce or melted
TO MAKE WHITE SAUCE FOR FOWLS.
TAKE a scrag of veal, the necks of fowls, or any
bits of mutton or veal you have; put them in a sauce
pan with a blade or two of mace, a few black pepper
corns, one anchovy, a head of celery, a bunch of
sweet herbs, a slice of the end of a lemon; put in a
quart of water, cover it close, let it boil till it is re-
duced to half a pint, strain it, and thicken it with
a quarter of a pound of butter mixed with flour, boil
it five or six minutes, put in two spoonsful of pickled
mushrooms, mix the yelks of two eggs with a tea
cup full of good cream and a little nutmeg put it
in the sauce, keep shaking it over the fire, but don't
let it boil.
74 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
} & jliit "
FRICASSEE OF SMALL CHICKENS.
TAKE off the legs and wings of four chickens,
separate the breasts from the backs, cut off the necks
and divide the backs across, clean the gizzards nicely,
put them with the livers and other parts of the chicken,
after being washed clean, into a sauce pan, add pep-
per, salt, and a little mace, cover them with, water,
and stew them till tender then take them out, thicken
half a pint of the water with two table spoonsful of
flour rubbed into four ounces of butter, add half a
pint of new milk, boil all together a few minutes,
then add a gill of white wine, stirring it in carefully
that it may not curdle; put the chickens in, and con-
tinue to shake the pan until they are sufficiently hot,
and serve them up.
TO ROAST LARGE FOWLS.
TAKE the fowls when they are ready dressed, put
them down to a good fire, dredge and baste them well
with lard; they will be near an hour in roasting; make
a gravy of the necks and gizzards, strain it, put in a
spoonful of brown flour; when you dish them, pour
on the gravy, and serve them up with egg sauce in a
TO MAKE EGG SAUCE.
BOIL four eggs for ten minutes, chop half the whites,
put them with the yelks, and chop them both together,
but not very fine; put them into a quarter of a pound
of good melted butter, and put it in a boat.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE, 75
TO BOIL YOUNG CHICKENS.
PUT the chickens in scalding water; as soon as the
feathers will slip off, take them out, or it will make
the skin hard and break: when you have drawn them,
lay them in skimmed milk for two hours, then truss
and dust them well with flour, put them in cold water,
cover them close, set them over a very slow fire,
take off the scum, let them boil slowly for five or six
minutes, take them off the fire, keep them closely
covered in the water for half an hour, it will stew
them enough; when you are going to dish them, set
them over the fire to make them hot, drain them, and
pour over white sauce made the same way as for the
TO ROAST YOUNG CHICKENS.
WHEN you kill young chickens, pluck them very
carefully, truss and put them down to a good fire*,
dredge and baste them with lard; they will take a
quarter of an hour in roasting; froth them up, lay
them on the dish, pour butter and parsley on, and
serve them up hot.
CUT them up as for the fricassee ? dredge them well
with flour, sprinkle them with salt, put them into a
good quantity of boiling lard, and fry them a light
brown; fry small pieces of mush and a quantity of
parsley nicely picked, to be served in the dish with
the chickens; take half a pint of rich milk, add to it
a small bit of butter, with pepper, salt, and chopped
76 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE,
parsley; stew it a little, and pour it orer the chickens,
and then garnish with the fried parsley.
TO ROAST WOODCOCKS OR SNIPES.
PLUCK, but do not draw them, put them on a small
spit, dredge and baste them well with lard, toast a
few slices of bread, put them on a clean plate, and set
it under the birds while they are roasting; if the fire
be good, they will take about ten minutes; whea you
take them from the spit, lay them upon the toasts on
the dish, pour melted butter round them, and serve
TO ROAST WILD DUCKS OR TEAL.
WHEN the ducks are ready dressed, put in them a
small onion, pepper, salt, and a spoonful of red wine;
if the fire be good, they will roast in twenty minutes;
make gravy of the necks and gizzards, a spoonful of
red wine, half an anchovy, a blade or two of mace,
one onion, and a little cayenne pepper; boil it till it
is wasted to half a pint, strain it through a hair sieve,
and pour it on the ducks serve them up with onion
sauce in a boat; garnish the dish with raspings of
TO BOIL PIGEONS.
SCALD the pigeons, draw them, take the craw out,
wash them in several waters, cut off the pinions, turn
the legs under the wings, dredge them, and put them
in soft cold water; boil them slowly a quarter of an
hour, dish them up, pour over them good melted but*
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 77
ter, lay round a little brocoli in bunches, and send
butter and parsley in a boat.
TO ROAST PIGEONS.
WHEN you have dressed your pigeons as before,
roll a good lump of butter in chopped parsley, with
pepper and salt, put it in your pigeons, spit, dust and
baste them; if the fire be good, they will roast in
twenty minutes; when they are enough, lay round
them bunches of asparagus, with parsley and butter
TO ROAST PARTRIDGES OR ANY SMALL
LARD them with slips of bacon, put them on a
skewer, tie it to the spit at both ends, dredge and
baste them, let them roast ten minutes, take the grated
crumb of half a loaf of bread, with a piece of but-
ter, the size of a walnut, put it in a stew pan, and
shake it over a gentle fire till it is of a light brown,
lay it between your birds, and pour over them a little
TO BROIL RABBITS.
WHEN you have cased the rabbits, skewer them
with their heads straight up, the fore-legs brought
down, and the hind-legs straight; boil them three
quarters of an hour at least, then smother them with
onion sauce, made the same as for boiled ducks, and
serve them up.
78 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO ROAST RABBITS.
WHEN you have cased the rabbits, skewer their
heads with their mouths upon their backs, stick their
fore-legs into their ribs, skewer the hind-legs doubled,
then make a pudding for them of the crumb of half a
loaf of bread, a little parsley, sweet marjoram and
thyme, all shred fine, nutmeg, salt and pepper to your
taste, mix them up into a light stuffing, with a quarter
of a pound of butter, a little good cream, and two
eggs; put it into the body, and sew them up; dredge
and baste them well with lard, roast them near an
hour, serve them up with parsley and butter for sauce,
chop the livers, and lay them in lumps round the edge
of the dish.
TO STEW WILD DUCKS.
HAVING prepared the fowls, rub the insides with
salt, pepper, and a little powdered cloves; put a shal-
lot or two with a lump of butter in the body of each,
then lay them in a pan that will just hold them, put-
ting butter under and over them, with vinegar and
water, and add pepper, salt, lemon peel, and a bunch
of sweet herbs; then cover the pan close, and let them
stew till done pass the liquor through a sieve, pour
it over the ducks, and serve them up hot, with a gar-
nish of lemon sliced, and raspings of bread fried.
The same way may teal, &c. be dressed.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 79
TO DRESS DUCKS WITH JUICE OF
THE ducks being singed, picked, and drawn, mince
the livers with a little scraped bacon, some butter,
green onions, sweet herbs and parsley, seasoned with
salt, pepper, and mushrooms; these being all minced
together, put them into the bodies of the ducks, and
roast them, covered with slices of bacon, and wrapped
up in paper; then put a little gravy, the juice of an
orange, a few shallots minced, into a stew pan, and
shake in a little pepper; when the ducks are roasted,
take off the bacon, dish them, and pour your sauce
with the juice of oranges over them, and serve them
TO DRESS DUCKS WITH ONIONS.
STUFF the ducks as before, cut the roots off small
onions, blanch them in scalding water, then pick and
put them into a stew pan with a little gravy, set them
over a gentle fire, and let them simmer; when they
are done, thicken them with cream and flour, and
when the ducks are roasted, dish them, pour the
ragout of onions over, and serve them up hot.
TO ROAST A CALF'S HEAD.
WASH and pick the head very nicely; having taken
out the brains and tongue, prepare a good quantity of
forced meat, with veal and suet well seasoned; fill
the hole of the head with this forced meat, skewer
and tie it together upon the spit, and roast it for an
kour and a half. Beat up the brains with a little sage
80 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
and parsley shred fine, a little salt, and the yelks of
two or three eggs; boil the tongue, peel, and cut it
into large dice, fry that with the brains, also some of
the forced meat made up into balls, and slices of
bacon. Let the sauce be strong gravy, with oysters,
mushrooms, capers, and a little white wine thickened.
TO MAKE A DISH OF CURRY AFTER THE
EAST INDIAN MANNER.
CUT two chickens as for fricassee, wash them clean,
and put them in a stew pan with as much water as
will cover them; sprinkle them with a large spoonful
of salt, and let them boil till tender, covered close all
the time, and skim them well; when boiled enough,
take up the chickens, and put the liquor of them into
a pan, then put half a pound of fresh butter "in the
pan, and brown it a little; put into it two cloves of
garlic, and a large onion sliced, and let these all fry
till brown, often shaking the pan; then put in the
chickens, and sprinkle over them two or three spoons-
ful of curry powder; then cover the pan close, and
let the chickens do till brown, often shaking the pan;
then put in the liquor the chickens were boiled in,
and let all stew till tender; if acid is agreeable,
squeeze the juice of a lemon or orange in it.
DISH OF RICE TO BE SERVED UP WITH
THE CURRY, IN A DISH BY ITSELF.
TAKE half a pound of rice, wash it clean in salt
and water then put it into two quarts of boiling
water, and boil it briskly twenty minutes; strain it
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 81
through a colander and shake it into a dish, but do not
touch it with your fingers nor with a spoon.
Beef, veal, mutton, rabbits, fish, &c. may be curried
and sent to table with or without the dish of rice.
Curry powder is used as a fine flavoured seasoning
for fish, fowls, steaks, chops, veal cutlets, hashes,
minces, alamodes, turtle soup, and in all rich dishes,
gravies, sauce, &c. &c.
OCHRA AND TOMATOS.
TAKE an equal quantity of each, let the ochra be
young, slice it, and skin the tomatos; put them into a
pan without water, add a lump of butter, an onion
chopped fine, some pepper and salt, and stew them
GUMBO A WEST INDIA DISH.
GATHER young pods of ochra, wash them clean,
and put them in a pan with a little water, salt and
pepper, stew them till tender, and serve them with
melted butter. They are very nutritious, and easy
BOIL two or three pounds of tripe, cut it in pieces,
and put it on the fire with a knuckle of veal, and a
sufficient quantity of water; part of a pod of pepper,
a little spice, sweet herbs according to your taste,
salt, and some dumplins; stew it till tender, and
thicken the gravy with butter and flour.
82 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
SPANISH METHOD OF DRESSING GIBLETS.
TAKE the entrails of fat full grown fowls, empty
them of their contents open them with a sharp
knife, scrape off the inner coat; wash them clean,
and put them on to boil with the liver, gizzard, and
other giblets; add salt, pepper, and chopped onion
when quite tender, set them by to cool; put some nice
dripping or butter in a pan, when it boils put the
giblets, add salt, fry them a nice brown; when nearly
done, break six eggs in a bowl, beat them a little,
pour them over the giblets, stir them for a few minutes,
and serve them up.
PASTE FOR MEAT DUMPLINS.
CHOP half a pound of suet very fine add one and
a quarter pound of flour, and a little salt mix it up
with half a pint of milk, knead it till it looks light;
take a bowl of proper size, rub the inside with butter,
roll out the paste and lay it in; parboil beef steaks,
mutton-chops, or any kind of meat you like; season
it and lay it in the bowl fill it with rich gravy, close
the paste over the top get a very thick cloth that will
keep out the water; wet and flour it, place it over the
top of the bowl gather it at bottom and tie it very
securely; the water jnust boil when you put it in
when done, dip the top in cold water for a moment,
that the cloth may not stick to the paste; untie and
take it off carefully put a dish on the bowl and turn
it over if properly made, it will come out without
breaking; have gravy in a boat to eat with it.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 83
TO MAKE AN OLLO A SPANISH DISH.
TAKE two pounds beef, one pound mutton, a chicken,
or half a pullet, and a small piece of pork; put them
into a pot with very little water, and set it on the fire
at ten o'clock, to stew gently; you must sprinkle over
it an onion chopped small, some pepper and salt,
before you pour in the water; at half after twelve,
put into the pot two or three apples or pears, peeled
and cut in two, tomatos with the skin taken off, cim-
blins cut in pieces, a handful of mint chopped, lima
beans, snaps, and any kind of vegetable you like; let
them all stew together till three o'clock; some cellery
tops cut small, and added at half after two, will im-
prove it much.
ROPA VEIJA SPANISH.
PEEL the skin from ripe tomatos, put them in a pan
with a spoonful of melted butter, some pepper and
salt, shred cold meat or fowl; put it in, and fry it
CHICKEN PUDDING, A FAVOURITE VIR-
BEAT ten eggs very light, add to them a quart o/
rich milk, with a quarter of a pound of butter melted,
and some pepper and salt; stir in as much flour as
will make a thin good batter; take four young chick-
ens, and after cleaning them nicely, cut off the legs,
wings, &c. put them all in a sauce pan, with some
salt and water, and a bundle of thyme and parsley,
84 THE VIRGINIA
boil them till nearly done, then take the chicken from
the water and put it in the batter, pour it in a deep
dish, and bake it; send nice white gravy in a boat.
TO MAKE POLENTA.
PUT a large spoonful of butter in a quart of water,
wet your corn meal with cold water in a bowl, add
some salt, and make it quite smooth, then put it in
the buttered water when it is hot, let it boil, stirring
it continually till done; as soon as you can handle it,
make it into a ball, and let it stand till quite cold
then cut it in thin slices, lay them in the bottom of a
deep dish so as to cover it, put on it slices of cheese,
and on that a few bits of butter; then mush, cheese
and butter, until the dish is full; put on the top thin
slices of cheese and butter, put the dish in a quick
oven; twenty or thirty minutes will bake it.
BOIL as much macaroni as will fill your dish, in
milk and water, till quite tender; drain it on a sieve,
sprinkle a little salt over it, put a layer in your dish,
then cheese and butter as in the polenta, and bake it
in the same manner.
: some crackers in small pieces, soak them in
milk until they are soft; then use them as a substitute
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 85
!*_";, _ ' ', ''
TO MAKE CROQUETS.
TAKE cold fowl or fresh meat of any kind, with
slices of ham, fat and lean chop thern together very
fine, add half as much stale bread grated, salt, pepper,
grated nutmeg, a teaspoonful of made mustard, a table-
spoonful of catsup, and a lump of butter; knead all
well together till it resembles sausage meat, make
them in cakes, dip them in the yelk of an egg beaten,
cover them thickly with grated bread, and fry them a
TO MAKE VERMECELLI.
BEAT two or three fresh eggs quite light, make them
into a stiff paste with flour, knead it well, and roll it
out very thin, cut it in narrow strips, give them a
twist, and dry them quickly on tin sheets. It is an
excellent ingredient in most soups, particularly those
that are thin. Noodles are made in the same manner,
only instead of strips they should be cut in tiny
squares and dried. They are also good in soups.
TAKE some veal, fat and lean, and some slices of
boiled ham, chop them very fine, and season it with
salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, and a small quantity of
parsley and thyme minced very fine; with a little
gravy make some paste, cover the bottoms of small
moulds, fill them with the meat, put thin lids on, and
bake them crisp; five is enough for a side dish.
86 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
EGGS IN CROQUETS.
BOIL eighteen eggs, separate the yelks and whites,
and cut them in dice; pour over them a sauce a-la-
creme, (see sauce a-la-creme^) add a little grated
bread, mix all well together, and let it get cold; put
in some salt and pepper, make them into cakes, ,cover
them well on both sides with grated bread, let them
stand an hour, and fry them a nice brown; dry them
a little before the fire, and dish them while quite hot.
BREAK six eggs, beat the yelks and whites separately
till very light, then mix them, add four table spoonsful
of powdered sugar, and a little grated lemon peel;
put a quarter of a pound of butter in a pan; when
melted, pour in the eggs and stir them; when they
have absorbed the butter, turn it on a plate previously
buttered, sprinkle some powdered sugar, set it in a
hot Dutch oven, and when a little brown, serve it
u.p for a desert.
PUT a pint of water, and a lump of butter the size
of an egg, into a sauce pan; stir in as much flour as
will make a thick batter, put it on the fire, and stir it
continually till it will not stick to the pan; put it in
a bowl, add three quarters of a pound of grated
oheese, mix it well, then break in two eggs, beat them
well, then two more until you put in six; when it
looks very light, drop it in small lumps on buttered
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 87
paper, bake it in a quick oven till of a delicate brown;
you may use corn meal instead of flour for a change.
A NICE TWELVE O'CLOCK LUNCHEON.
CUT some slices of bread tolerably thick, and toast
them slightly; bone some anchovies, lay half of one
on each toast, cover it well with grated cheese and
rhopped parsley mixed; pour a little melted butter on,
and brown it with a salamander; it must be done on
the dish you send it to table in.
BOIL twelve eggs just hard enough to allow you to
out them in slices cut some crusts of bread very thin,
put them in the bottom and round the sides of a mode-
rately deep dish, place the eggs in, strewing each
layer with the stale bread grated, and some pepper and
SAUCE A-LA-CREME, FOR THE EGGS.
PUT a quarter of a pound of butter, with a large
tablespoonful of flour rubbed well into it in a sauce
pan; add some chopped pars-ley, a little onion, salt,
pepper, nutmeg, and a gill of cream; stir it over the
fire until it begins to boil, then pour it over the eggs,
cover the top with grated bread, set it in a Dutch oven
with a heated top, and when a light brown, send it
88 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TAKE two good heads of cabbage, cut out the stalks,
boil it tender, with a little salt in the water have
ready one large spoonful of butter, and a small one of
flour rubbed into it, half a pint of milk, with pepper
and salt; make it hot, put the cabbage in after pressing
out the water, and stew it till quite tender.
TO MAKE AN OMELETTE.
BREAK six or eight eggs in a dish, beat them a little,
add parsley and chives chopped small, with pepper
and salt; mix all well together, put a piece of butter
in a pan, let it melt over a clear fire till nearly brown;
pour in the eggs, stir it in, and in a few minutes it
will be done sufficiently; double it, and dish it quite
OMELETTE ANOTHER WAY.
BREAK six eggs, leave out half the whites beat
them with a fork, and add some salt and chopped
parsley; take four ounces of fresh butter, cut half of
it in small pieces, put them in the omelette, put the
other half in a small frying pan; when melted, pour
in the eggs; stir till it begins to set, then turn it up
round the edges; when done, put a plate on and turn
the pan up, that it may not break the omelette must
be thick, and great care must be taken in frying;
instead of pavsley, you may use any kind of sweet
herb or onion chopped fine, anchovy minced, rasped
beef, ham or tongue,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 89
PUT some soft biscuit or toasted bread in the bottom
of a sallad bowl, put in a layer of sliced tomatos with
the skin taken off, and one of sliced cucumbers,
sprinkled with pepper, salt, and chopped onion; do
this until the bowl is full; stew some tomatos quite
soft, strain the juice, mix in some mustard, oil, and
water, and pour over it; make it two hours before it
EGGS AND TOMATOS.
PEEL the skins from a dozen large tomatos, put
four ounces of butter in a frying pan, add some salt,
pepper, and a little chopped onion; fry them a few
minutes, add the tomatos, and chop them while fry-
ing; when nearly done, break in six eggs, stir them
quickly, and serve them up.
TO FRICASSEE EGGS.
BOIL six eggs for five minutes, lay them in cold
water, peel them carefully, dredge them lightly with
flour, beat one egg light, dip the hard eggs in, roll
them in bread crumbs, seasoned with pepper, salt,
and grated nutmeg; cover them well with this, and
let them stand some time to dry fry them in
boiling lard, and serve them up with any kind of
rich, well seasoned gravy, and garnish with crisped
90 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
FISH SAUCE, TO KEEP A YEAR.
CHOP twenty-four anchovies, bones and all, ten
shallots, a handful of scraped horse radish, four blades
of mace, one quart of white wine, one pint of an-
chovy liquor, one pint of claret, twelve cloves, and
twelve pepper corns; boil them together till reduced
to a quart, then strain it off into a bottle for use.
Two spoonsful will be sufficient for a pound of butter.
SAUCE FOR WILD FOWL.
TAKE a gill of claret, with as much water, some
grated bread, three heads of shallots, a little whole
pepper, mace, grated nutmeg, and salt; let them stew
over the fire, then beat it up with butter, and put it
under the wild fowl, which being a little roasted, wiM.
afford gravy to mix with this sauce.
SAUCE FOR BOILED RABBITS.
BOIL the livers, and shred them very small, chop
two eggs not boiled very hard, a large spoonful of
grated white bread, some broth, sweet herbs, two
spoonsful of white wine, one of vinegar, a little salt,
and some butter; stir all together, and take care the
butter does not oil.
TAKE a rasher or two of bacon, and lay it at the
bottom of a stew pan, putting either veal, mutton, or
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 91
beef, cut in slices, over it; then add some sliced
onions, turnips, carrots, celery, a little thyme, and
alspice. Put in a little water, and set it on the fire,
stewing till it be brown at the bottom, which you will
know from the pan's hissing; then pour boiling water
over it, and stew it an hour and a half; but the time
must be regulated by the quantity. Season it with
salt and pepper.
TAKE half a pound of veal, and half a pound of
suet cut fine, and beat in a marble mortar or wooden
bowl; add a few sweet herbs shred fine, a little mace
pounded fine, a small nutmeg grated, a little lemon
peel, some pepper and salt, and the yelks of two
eggs; mix them well together, and make them into
balls and long pieces then roll them in flour, and fry
them brown. If they are for the use of white sauce, do
not fry them, but put them in a sauce-pan of hot water,
and let them boil a few minutes.
SAUCE FOR BOILED DUCKS OR RABBITS.
POUR boiled onions over your ducks, or rabbits,
prepared in this manner: peel some onions, and boil
them in plenty of water; then change the first water,
and boil them two hours: take them up and put them
in a colander to drain, and afterwards chop them on a
board; then put them in a sauce-pan, sprinkle a little
flour over them, and put in a large piece of butter,
with a little milk or cream. Set them over the fire.
S2 THB VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
and when the butter is melted, they will be done
enough. This is a good sauce for mutton also.
BOIL a little mace, and whole pepper, long enough
to take out the strong taste of the spice; then strain
it off, and melt three quarters of a pound of butter in
it. Cut the lobster in very small pieces, and stew it
till it is tender.
WASH half a pint of shrimps very clean mince
and put them in a stew-pan, with a spoonful of an-
chovy liquor, and a pound of thick melted butter;
boil it up for five minutes, and squeeze in half a
lemon. Toss it up, and puHt in a sauce-boat.
OYSTER SAUCE FOR FISH.
SCALD a pint of oysters, and strain them through a
sieve; then wash some more in cold water, and take
off their beards; put them in a stew-pan, and pour
the liquor over them; then add a large spoonful of
anchovy liquor, half a lemon, two blades of mace,
and thicken it with butter rolled in flour. Put in half
a pound of butter, and boil it till it is melted take
out the mace and lemon, and squeeze the lemon juice
into the sauce; boil it, and stir it all the time, and
put it in a boat.
WASH and pare a large bunch of celery very clean,
cut it into little bits, and boil it softly till it is tender;
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 93
add half a pint of cream, some mace, nutmeg, and a
small piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil it gently.
This is a good sauce for roasted or boiled fowls, tnr-
keys, partridges, or any other game.
CLEAN and wash one quart of fresh mushrooms,
cut them in two, and put them into a stew-pan, with
a little salt, a blade of mace, and a little butter; stew
them gently for half an hour, and then add half a pint
of cream, and the yejks of two eggs beat very well
keep stirring it till it boils up. Put it over the fowls
or turkies or you may put it on a dish with a piece
of fried bread first buttered then toasted brown, and
just dipped into boiling water. This is very good
sauce for white fowls of all kinds.
PLAIN butter melted thick, with a spoonful of w%l-
nut pickle or catsup, is a very good sauce; but yon
may put as many things as you choose into sauces.
TO MELT BUTTER-
NOTHING is more simple than this process, and
nothing so generally done badly. Keep a quart tin
sauce-pan, with a cover to it, exclusively for this pur-
pose; weigh one quarter of a pound of good butter;
rub into it two tea-spoonsful of flour; when well mixed,
put it in the sauce-pan with one table-spoonful of
water, and a little salt; cover it, and set the sauce-pan
94 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
in a larger one of boiling water; shake it constantly
till completely melted, and beginning to boil. If the
pan containing the butter be set on coals, it will oil
the butter and spoil it. This quantity is sufficient for
one sauce-boat. A great variety of delicious sauces
can be made, by adding different herbs to melted but-
ter, all of which are excellent to eat with fish, poultry,
or boiled butchers' meat. To begin with parsley
wash a large bunch very clean, pick the leaves from
the stems carefully, boil them ten minutes in salt and
water, drain them perfectly dry, mince them exceed-
ingly fine, and stir them in the butter when it begins
to melt. When herbs are added to butter, you must
put two spoonsful of water instead of one. Chervil,
young fennel, burnet, tarragon, and cress, or pepper-
grass, may all be used, and must be prepared in the
same manner as the parsley.
Is made by mixing a sufficient quantity of capers,
and adding them to the melted butter, with a little of
the liquor from the capers; where capers cannot be
obtained, pickled nasturtiums make a very good sub-
stitute, or even green pickle minced and put with the
GET fine fresh oysters, wash them in their own
liquor, put them in a marble mortar with salt, pouiided
mace, and cayenne pepper, in the proportions of one
ounce salt, two drachms mace, and one of cayenne
to each pint of oysters; pound them together, and add
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 95
a pint of white wine to each pint; boil it some minutes,
and rub it through a sieve; boil it again, skim it, and
when cold, bottle, cork, and seal it. This composition
gives a fine flavour to white sauces, and if a glass of
brandy be added, it will keep good for a considerable
POUND two gills of celery seed, put it into a bottle
and fill it with strong vinegar; shake it every day for
a fortnight, then strain it, and keep it for use. It will
impart a pleasant flavour of celery fo any thing with
which it is used. A very delicious flavour of thyme
may be obtained, by gathering it when in full perfec-
tion; it must be picked from the stalks, a large hand-
ful of it put into a jar, and a quart of vinegar or
brandy poured on it; cover it very close next day,
take all the thyme out, put in as much more; do this
a third time; then strain it, bottle and seal it securely.
This is greatly preferable to the dried thyme com-
monly used, during the season when it cannot be
obtained in a fresh state. Mint may be prepared in
the same way. The flavour of both these herbs must
be preserved by care in the preparation: if permitted
to stand more than twenty hours in the liquor they
are infused in, a coarse and bitter taste will be ex-
tracted, particularly from mint.
TO DRESS SALAD.
To have this delicate dish in perfection, the lettuce,
pepper grass, chervil, cress, &c. should be gathered
96 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
early in the morning, nicely picked, washed, and laid
in cold water, which will be improved by adding ice;
just before dinner is ready to be served, drain the
water from your salad, cut it into a bowl, giving the
proper proportions of each plant; prepare the follow-
ing mixture to pour over it: boil two fresh eggs ten
minutes, put them in. water to cool, then take the
yelks in a soup plate, pour on them a table spoonful
of cold water, rub them w r ith a w.ooden spoon unti)
they are perfectly dissolved; then add tw'o spoonsful
of oil: when well mixed, put in a teaspoonful of salt,
one of powdered sugar, and one of made mustard;
when all these are united and quite smooth, stir in
two table spoonsful of common, and two of tarragon
vinegar; put it over the salad, and garnish the top
with the whites of the eggs cut into rings, and lay
around the edge of the bowl young scallions, they
being the most delicate of the onion tribe.
TO BOIL POTATOS.
WASH them, but do not pare or cut them, unless
they are very large; fill a sauce-pan half full of pota-
tos of equal size, (or make them so by dividing the
large ones,) put to them as much cold water as will
cover them about an inch; they are sooner boiled, and
more savoury, than when drowned in water; most
boiled things are spoiled by having too little water,
but potatos are often spoiled by having too much;
they must merely be covered, and a little allowed for
waste in boiling, so that they must be just covered
When done. Set them on a moderate fire till they
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 97
boil, then 'take them off, and set them by the fire to
simmer slowly, till they are soft enough to admit a
fork; (place no dependence on the usual test of their
skin's cracking, which, if they are boiled fast, will
happen to some potatos when they are not half done,
and the inside is quite hard,) then pour off the water,
(if you let the potatos remain in the water a moment
after they are done enough, they will become waxy
and watery,) uncover the sauce-pan, and set it at such
a distance from the fire as will secure it from burning;
their superfluous moisture will evaporate, and the
potatos will be perfectly dry and mealy;' You may
afterwards place a napkin, folded up to the size of
the sauce-pan's djameter, over the potatos, to keep
them dry and mealy till wanted, this method of
managing potatos, is, in every respect, equal to steam*
ing them, and they are dressed in half the time.
TO FRY SLICED POTATOS.
PEEL large potatos, slice them about a quarter of
an inch thick, or cut them in shavings round and
round, as you would peel a lemon; dry them well in
a clean doth, and fry them in lard or dripping. Take
care that your fat and frying-pan are quite clean; put
it on a quick fire, watch it, and as soon as the lard
boils and is still, put in the slices of potatos, and keep
moving them till they are crisp; take them up, and
lay them to drain on a . sieve; send them up with
very little salt sprinkled on them.
98 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
WHEN the potatos are thoroughly boiled, drain
and dry them perfectly, pick out every speck, and
rub them through a colander into a clean stew-pan;
to a pound of potatos put half an ounce of butter, and
a tablespoonful of milk; do not make them too moist;
mix them well together. When the potatos are get-
ting old and specked, and in frosty weather, this is
the best way of dressing them you may put them
into shapes, touch them over with yelk of egg, and
brown them very slightly before a slow fire.
POTATOS MASHED WITH ONIONS.
PREPARE some onions by putting them through a
sieve, and mix them with potatos; in proportioning
the onions to the potatos, you will be guided by your
wish to have more or less of their flavour.
TO ROAST POTATOS.
WASH and dry your potatos, (all of a size,) and
put them in a tin Dutch oven, or cheese toaster; take
care not to put them too near the fire, or they will
get burned on the outside before they are warmed
through. Large potatos will require two hours to
roast them. To save time and trouble, some cooka
half boil them first.
TO ROAST POTATOS UNDER MEAT.
HALF boil large potatos, drain the water from them,
and put them into an earthen dish or small tin pan,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 99
under meat that is roasting, and baste them with some
of the dripping; when they are browned on one side,
turn them and brown the other; send them up around
the meat, or in a small dish.
Mix mashed potatos with the yelk of an egg, roll
them into balls, flour them, or cover them with egg
and bread crumbs, fry them in clean dripping, or
brown them in a Dutch oven. They are an agreeable
vegetable relish, and a supper dish.
ARE boiled and dressed in the various ways we have
just before directed for potatos. They should be
covered with thick melted butter, or a nice white or
PICK cabbages very clean, and wash them thorough-
ly; then look them carefully over again; quarter
them if they are very large; put them into a sauce pan
with plenty of boiling water; if any skum rises, take
it off, put a large spoonful of salt into the sauce pan,
and boil them till the stalks feel tender. A young
cabbage will take about twenty minutes, or half an
hour; when full grown, nearly an hour; see that they
are well covered with water all the time, and that no
dirt or smoke arises from stirring the fire. With
100 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
careful management, they will look as beautiful when
dressed as they did when growing. It will much
ameliorate the flavour of strong old cabbages, to boil
them in two waters, i. e. when they are half done, to
take them out, and put them into another sauce pan
of boiling water.
ARE boiled in the same manner; quarter them when
you send them to table.
SPROUTS AND YOUNG GREENS
THE receipt written for cabbages will answer as
well for sprouts, only they will be boiled enough in
SET a stew-pan with plenty of water on the fire,
sprinkle a handful of salt in it, let it boil, and skim it;
then put in the asparagus prepared thus: scrape all the
stalks till they are perfectly clean; throw them into a
pan of cold water as you scrape them; when they arc
all done, tie them in little bundles, of a quarter of a
hundred each, with bass, if you can get it, or tape; cut
off the stalks at the bottom, that they may be all of a
length; when they are tender at the stalk, which
will be in from twenty to thirty minutes, they are
done enough. Great care must be taken to watch the
exact time of their becoming tender; take them just
at that instant, and they will have their true flavour
and colour; a minute or two more boiling destroys
both. While the asparagus is boiling, toast a slice
of a loaf of bread, about a half an inch thick; brown
it delicately on both sides; dip it lightly in the liquor
the asparagus was boiled in, and lay it in the middle
of a dish; pour some melted butter on the toast, and
lay the asparagus upon it; let it project beyond the
asparagus, that the company may see there is a
toast. Do not pour butter over them, but send some
in a boat.
Is tied up in bundles, and dressed in the same way
TO SCOLLOP TOMATOS.
PEEL off the skin from large, full, ripe tomatos
put a layer in the bottom of a deep dish, cover it well
with bread grated fine; sprinkle on pepper and salt,
and lay some bits of butter over them put another
layer of each, till the dish is full let the top be
covered with crumbs and butter bake it a nice brown.
TO STEW TOMATOS.
TAKE off the skin, and put them in a pan with salt,
pepper, and a large piece of butter stew them till
CHOOSE those that are close and white, and of a
middle size trim off the outside leaves, cut off the
THF IRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
stalk flat at the bottom, let -them lie in salt and water
an hour before you boil them. Put them in boiling
water, with a handful of salt in it skim it well, and
let it boil slowly till done, which a small one will be
in fifteen minutes, a large one in twenty and take it
up the moment it is enough: a few minutes longer
boiling will spoil it.
RED BEET ROOTS,
ARE not so much used as they deserve to be; they
are dressed in the same way as parsnips, only neither
scraped nor cut till after they are boiled; they will
take from an hour and a half to three hours in boiling,
according to their size; to be sent to the table with
salt fish, boiled beef, &c. When young, small and
juicy, it is a very good variety, an excellent garnish,
and easily converted into a very cheap and pleasant
ARE to be-cooked just in the same manner as car-
rots; they require more or less time, according to their
size; therefore match them in size, and you must try
them by thrusting a fork into them as they are in the
water; when this goes easily through, they are done
enough: boil them from an hour to two hours, ac-
cording to their size and freshness. Parsnips are
sometimes sent up mashed in the same way as
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 103
LET them be well washed and scraped an hour is
enough for young spring carrots; grown carrots will
take from an hour and a half to two hours and a half.
The best way to try if they are done enough, is to
pierce them with a fork.
PEEL off half an inch of the stringy outside full
grown turnips will take about an hour and a half
gentle boiling; try them with a fork, and when ten-
der, take them up, and lay them on a sieve till the
water is thoroughly drained from them; send them up
whole; to very young turnips, leave about two inches
of green top; the old ones are better when the water
is changed as directed for cabbage.
TO MASH TURNIPS.
WHEN they are boiled quite tender, squeeze them
as dry as possible put them into a sauce pan, mash
them with a wooden spoon, and rub them through a
colander; add a little bit of butter, keep stirring them
till the butter is melted and well mixed with them,
and they are ready for table.
ARE the shoots which grow out, (in the spring,)
from the old turnip roots. Put them in cold water
an hour before they are dressed; the more water they
104 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
are boiled in, the better they will look; if boiled in
a small quantity of water, they will taste bitter; when
the water boils, put in a small handful of salt, and
then your vegetables; they are still better boiled with
bacon in the Virginia style: if fresh and young, they
will be done in about twenty minutes drain them on
the back of a sieve, and put them under the bacon.
GUT off the stalk end first, and then turn to the
point and strip off the strings; if not quite fresh,
have a bowl of spring water, with a little salt dissolved
in it, standing before you; as the beans are cleansed
and trimmed, throw them in; when all are done, put
them on the fire in boiling water, with some salt in
it; when they have boiled fifteen or twenty minutes,
take one out and taste it; as soon as they are tender,
take them up, and throw them into a colander to
drain. To send up the beans whole, when they are v
young, is much the best method, and their delicate
flavour and colour is much better preserved. When
a little more grown, they must be cut lengthwise in
thin slices after stringing; and for common tables,
they are split, and divided across; but those who are
nice, do not use them at such a growth as to require
SOAK them in cold water, wash them well, then put
them into plenty of boiling water, with a handful of
salt, and let them boil gently till they are tender,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 105
which will take an hour and a half, or two hours; the
surest way to know when they are done enough, is to
draw out a leaf; trim them, and drain them on a sieve,
and send up. melted butter with them, with some put
into small cups,,so that each guest may have one.
kind which bears flowers around the joints of
the stalks, must be cut into convenient lengths for the
dish; scrape the skin from the stalk, and pick out any
leaves or flowers that require to be removed; tie it up
in bunches, and boil it as asparagus; serve it up hot,
with melted butter poured over it. The brocoli that
heads at the top like cauliflowers, muai ue dressed in
the same manner as the cauliflower.
To have mem in perfection, they must be quite
young, gathered early in the morning, kept in a cool
place, and not shelled until they are to be dressed;
put salt in the water, and when it boils, put in the
peas; boil them quick twenty or thirty minutes, ac-
cording to their age; just before they are taken up,
add a little mint chopped very fine; drain all the
water from the peas, put in a bit of butter, and serve
them up quite hot.
PUREE OF TURNIPS.
PARE a dozen large turnips, slice them, and put
them into a stew-pan, with four ounces of butter and
a little salt; set the pan over a moderate fire, turn
106 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
them often with a wooden spoon; when they look
white, add a ladle full of veal gravy, stew them till
it becomes thick; skim it, and pass it through a sieve;
put the turnips in a dish, and pour the gravy over
RAGOUT OF TURNIPS.
PEEL as many small turnips as will fill a dish; put
them into a stew pan with some butter and a little
sugar, set them over a hot stove, shake them about,
and turn them till they are a good brown; pour
in half a pint of rich high seasoned gravy; stew the
turnips till tender, and serve them with the gravy
poured over them.
RAGOUT OF FRENCH BEANS, SNAPS,
LET them be young and fresh gathered, string them,
and cut them in long thin slices; throw them in boil-
ing water for fifteen minutes; have ready some well
seasoned brown gravy, drain the water from the beans,
put them in the gravy, stew them a few minutes, and
serve them garnished with forcemeat balls; there must
not be gravy enough to float the beans.
THIS is the smallest and most delicate species of
the Windsor bean. Gather them in the morning,
when they are full grown, but quite young, and do
not shell them till you are going to dress them. Put
them into boiling water, have a small bit of middling,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 107
(flitch,) of bacon, well boiled take the skin off, cover
it with bread crumbs, and toast it; lay this in the mid-
dle of the dish, drain all the water from the beans
put a little butter with them, and pour them round the
bacon. When the large Windsor beans are used, it
is best to put them into boiling water until the skins
will slip off, and then make them into a puree as
directed for turnips they are very coarse when plainly
LIMA, OR SUGAR BEANS.
LIKE all other spring and summer vegetables, they
must be young and freshly gathered: boil them till
tender, drain them, add a little butter, and serve them
up. These beans are easily preserved for winter
use, and will be nearly as good as fresh ones. Gather
them on a dry day, when full grown, but quite young:
have a clean and dry keg, sprinkle some salt in the
bottom, put in a layer of pods, containing the beans,
then a little salt do this till the keg is full; lay a
board on with a weight, to press them down; cover
the keg very close, and keep it in a dry, cool place
they should be put up as late in the season, as they
can be with convenience. When used, the pods must
be washed, and laid in fresh water all night; shell
them next day, and keep them in water till you are
going to boil them; when tender, serve them up with
melted butter in a boat. French beans (snaps) may
be preserved in the same manner.
TURNIP ROOTED CABBAGE.
THE cabbage growing at the top is not good; cut
the root in slices an inch thick, peel off the rind, aiuj
108 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
boil the slices in a large quantity of water, till tender,
serve it up hot, with melted butter poured over it.
THE purple ones are best; get them young and fresh;
pull out the stem, and parboil them to take off the
bitter taste; cut them in slices an inch thtck, but do
not peel them; dip them in the yelk of an egg, and
cover them with grated bread, a little salt and pepper
when this has dried, cover the other side the same
way fry them a nice brown. They are very deli-
cious, tasting much like soft crabs. The egg plant
may be dressed in another manner: scrape the rind
and parboil them; cut a slit from one end to the other,
take out the seeds, fill the space with a rich force-
meat, and stew them in well seasoned gravy, or bake
them, and serve up with gravy in the dish.
GET one of a good colour, and seven or eight inches
in diameter; cut a piece off the top, take out all the
seeds, wash and wipe the cavity, pare the rind off,
and fill the hollow with good forcemeat put the top
on, and set it in a deep pan, to protect the sides; bake
it in a moderate oven, put it carefully in the dish
without breaking, and it will look like a handsome
mould. Another way of cooking potato pumpkin is
to cut it in slices, pare off the rind, and make a puree
as directed for turnips.
TAKE those that are nearly of the same size, that
they may be Jone equally- wash them clean, but do
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 109
not peel them -boil them till tender, drain the water
off, and put them on tin sheets in a stove for a few
minutes to dry.
SWEET POTATOS STEWED.
WASH and wipe them, and if they be large, cut
them in two lengths; put them at the bottom of a stew
pan, lay over some slices of boiled ham; and on that,
one or two chickens cut up with pepper, salt, and a
bundle of herbs; pour in some water, and stew them
till done, then take out the herbs, serve the stew in a
deep dish thicken the gravy, and pour over it.
SWEET POTATOS BROILED.
CUT them across without peeling, in slices half an
inch thick, broil them on a griddle, and serve them
with butter in a boat.
GREAT care must be used in washing and picking it
clean; drain it, and throw it into boiling water a few
minutes will boil it sufficiently: press out all the
water, put it in a stew pan with a piece of butter, *
some pepper and salt chop it continually with a
spoon till it is quite dry: serve it with poached eggs
or without, as you please.
Is dressed as the spinach; and if they be mixed in
qual proportions, improve each other.
HO THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE*
GET a fine head of cabbage, not too large; pour
boiling water on, and cover it till you can turn the
feaves back, which you. must do carefully; take some
of those in the middle of the head off, chop them
fine, and mix them with rich forcemeat; put this in,
and replace the leaves to confine the stuffing tie it in
a cloth, and boil it serve it up whole, with a little
melted butter in the dish.
SQUASH OR CIMLIN.
GATHER young squashes, peel, and cut them in two;
take out the seeds, and boil them till tender; put
them into a colander, drain off the water, and rub
them with a wooden spoon through the colander; then
put them into a stew pan, with a cup full of cream, a
small piece of butter, some pepper and salt stew
them, stirring very frequently until dry. This is the
most delicate way of preparing squashes.
THE crooked neck of this squash is the best part,
it in slices an inch thick, take off the rind, and
boil them with salt in the water; drain them well
tjeFore they are dished, and pour melted butter over-
serve them up very hot.
The large part, containing the seeds, must be sliced
and paredcut it in small pieces, and stew it till soft,
with just water enough to cover it; pass it through a
sieve, and stew it again, adding some butter, pepper,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. Ill
and salt; it must be dry, but not burnt. It is excellent
when stewed with pork chops.
THERE are many varieties of these peas; the smaller
kind are the most delicate. Have them young and
newly gathered, shell and boil them tender; pour them
in a colander to drain; put some lard in a frying pan;
when it boils, mash the peas, and fry them in a cake
of a light brown; put it in the dish with the crust
uppermost garnish with thin bits of fried bacon.
They are very nice when fried whole, so that each
pea is distinct from the other; but they must be boiled
less, and fried with great care. Plain boiling is a very
common way of dressing them.
CABBAGE WITH ONIONS.
BOIL them separately, and mix them in the pro-
portions you like; add butter, pepper, and salt, and
either stew them, or fry them in a cake.
SCRAPE and wash the roots, put them into boiling
water with salt; when done, drain them, and place
them in the dish without cutting them up. They are
a very excellent vegetable, but require nicety in cook-
ing; exposure to the air, either in scraping, or after
boiling, will make them black.
HALF boil it, cut it up, and put it in a stew pan,
with a very little water, and a spoonful of butter; stew
112 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
them dry, and serve them up. For change, you may,
after stewing, cut them in scollop shells with grated
bread, and bake them; or make them into cakes, and
fry them. They are delicious in whatever way they
can be dressed.
GATHER grown mushrooms, but such as are young
enough to have red gills; cut off that part of the stem
which grew in the earth wash them carefully, and
take the skin from the top; put them into a stew pan
with some salt, but no water stew them till tender,
and thicken them with a spoonful of butter, mixed
with one of brown flour; red wine may be added, but
the flavour of the mushroom is too delicious to require
aid from any thing.
PREPARE them as above directed broil them on a
griddle, and when done, sprinkle pepper and salt on
the gills, and put a little butter on them.
TO BOIL RICE.
^*UT two cups full of rice in a bowl of water, rub it
well with the hand, and pour off the water; do this
until the water ceases to be discoloured; then put the
rice into two and a half cups of cold water; add a
tea-spoonful of salt, cover the pot close, and set it on
a brisk fire; let it boil ten minutes, pour off the
greater part of the water, and remove the pot to a bed
of coals, where it must remain a quarter of an how
to soak and dry.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 113
RICE JOURNEY, OR JOHNNY CAKE.
BOIL a pint of rice quite soft, with a tea-spoonful
of salt; mix with it while hot a large spoonful of but-
ter, and spread it on a dish to cool; when perfectly
cold, add a pint of rice flour and half a pint of milk
beat them all together till well mingled. Take the
middle part of the head of a barrel, make it quite
clean, wet it, and put on the mixture about an inch
thick, smooth with a spoon, and baste it with a little
milk; set the board aslant before clear coals; when
sufficiently baked, slip a thread under the cake and
turn it: baste and bake that side in a similar manner,
split it, and butter while hot. Small homony boiled
and mixed with rice flour, is better than all rice; and
if baked very thin, and afterwards toasted and but-
tered, it is nearly as good as cassada bread.
OBSERVATIONS ON PUDDINGS AND CAKES.
THE salt should always be washed from butter,
when it is to be used in any thing that has sugar for
an ingredient, and also from that which is melted to
grease any kind of mould for baking otherwise, there
will be a disagreeable salt taste on the outer side of
the article baked. Raisins should be -stoned and cut
in two, and have some flour sifted over them stir
them gently in the flour, and take them out free from
tamps; the small quantity that adheres to them, will
114 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
prevent their sticking together, or falling in a mass to
the bottom. Eggs must be fresh, or they will not
beat well: it is better to separate the yelks from the
whites always, though it is a more troublesome pro-
cess; but for some things it is essential to do so:
when they are to be mixed with milk, let it cool after
boiling, or the eggs will poach; and only set it on the
fire a few minutes, to take off the raw taste of the
eggs, stirring it all the time. Currants require wash-
ing in many waters to cleanse them; they must be
picked and well dried, or they will stick together.
Almonds should be put in hot water till the skins will
slip off, which is called blanching; they must always
be pounded with rose or orange flower water, to pre-
vent their oiling. When cream is used, put it in just
before the mixture is ready; much beating will de-
compose it. Before a pudding or cake is begun, every
ingredient necessary for it must be ready; when the
process is retarded by neglecting to have them pre-
pared, the article is injured. The oven must be in a
proper state, and the paste in the dishes or moulds,
ready for such things as require it. Promptitude is
necessary in all our actions, but never more so than
when engaged in making cakes and puddings. When
only one or two eggs are to be used, cooks generally
think it needless to beat them it is an error: eggs
injure every thing, unless they are made light be-
fore they are used. Cloths for boiling puddings
should be mJiae 01 German sheeting; an article less
thick, will admit the water, and injure the pudding*
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 116
RICE MILK FOR A DESSERT.
BOIL half a pint of rice in water till tender, pour
off the water, and add a pint of milk with two eggs
beaten well, stirred . into it; boil all together two or
three minutes; serve it up hot, and eat it with butter,
sugar, and nutmeg. It may be sweetened and cooled
in moulds, turned out in a deep dish, and surrounded
with rich milk, with raspberry marmalade stirred into
it, and strained to keep back the seeds or the milk
may be seasoned with wine and sugar.
TO MAKE PUFF PASTE.
SIFT a quart of flour, leave out a little for rolling
the paste, make up the remainder with cold water into
a stiff paste, knead it well, and roll it out several
times; wash the salt from a pound of butter, divide it
into four parts, put one of them on the paste in little
bits, fold it up, and continue to roll it till the butter is
well mixed; then put another portion of butter, roll
it in the same manner; do this till all the butter is
mingled with the paste; touch it very lightly with the
hands in making bake it in a moderate oven, that
will permit it to rise, but will not make it brown.
Good paste must look white, and as light as a feather.
TO MAKE MINCEMEAT FOR PIES.
BOIL either calves or hogs' feet till perfectly tender,
mb them through a colander; when cold, pass them
through again, and it will come out like pearl barley;
116 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
take one quart of this, one of chopped apples, the same
of currants, washed and picked, raisins stoned and cut,
of good brown sugar, suet nicely chopped, and cider,
with a pint of brandy; add a tea-spoonful of pounded
mace, one of cloves and of nutmegs; mix all these
together intimately. When the pies are to be made,
take out as much of this mixture as may be necessary;
to each quart of it, add a tea-spoonful of pounded
black pepper, and one of salt; this greatly improves
the flavour, and can be better mixed with a small por-
tion than with the whole mass. Cover the moulds
with paste % put in a sufficiency of mincemeat, cover
the top with citron sliced thin, and lay on it a lid
garnished around with paste cut in fanciful shapes.
They may be eaten either hot or cold, but are best
TO MAKE JELLY FROM FEET.
BOIL four calfs' feet, that have been nicely cleaned,
and the hoofs taken off; when the feet are boiled to
pieces, strain the liquor through a colander, and when
cold, take all the grease off, and put the jelly in a
skillet, leaving the dregs which will be at the bottom.
There should be from four feet, about two quarts of
jelly: pouc into it one quart of white wine, the juice
of six fresh lemons strained from the seeds, one pound
and a half of -powdered loaf sugar, a little pounded
cinnamon and mace, and the rind thinly pared from
two of the lemons; wash eight eggs very clean, whip
up the whites to a froth, crush the shells and put with
them, mix it with the jelly, set it on the fire, stir it
occasionally till the jelly is melted, but do not toueh
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 117
it afterwards. When it has boiled till it looks quite
clear on one side, and the dross accumulates on the
other, take off carefully the thickest part of the dross,
and pour the jelly in the bag; put back what runs
through, until it becomes quite transparent then set
a pitcher under the bag, and put a cover all over to
keep out the dust: the jelly looks much prettier when
it is broken to fill the glasses. The bag should be
made of cotton or linen, and be suspended in a frame
made for the purpose. The feet of hogs mafte the
palest coloured jelly; those of sheep are a beautiful
amber-colour, when prepared.
A SWEETMEAT PUDDING.
MAKE a quart of flour into puff paste; when done,
divide it into three parts of unequal size; roll the
largest out square and moderately thin, spread over it
a thin layer of marmalade, leaving a margin all
round about an inch broad; roll tlie next largest in
the same manner, lay it on, cover that with marmalade,
leaving a margin; then roll the smallest, and put it on
the other two, spreading marmalade; fold it up, one
fold over the other, the width of your hand press the
ends together, tie it in a cloth securely, and place it
in a kettle of boiling water, where it can lie at length
without doubling; boil it quickly, and when done,
pour melted butter with sugar and wine in the dish.
TO MAKE AN ORANGE PUDDING.
PUT two oranges and two lemons, into five quarts
of water boil them till the rinds are quite tender;
118 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
take them out, and when cold, slice them thin, and
pick out the seeds; put a pound of loaf sugar into a
pint of water when it boils, slice into it twelve
pippins pared and cored lay in the lemons and
oranges, stew them tender, cover the dish with puff
paste, lay the fruit in carefully, in alternate layers
pour on the syrup, put some slips of paste across,
and bake it.
AN APPLE CUSTARD.
PARE and core twelve pippins, slice them tolerably
thick, put a pound of loaf sugar in a stew pan, with
a pint of water and twelve cloves: boil and skim it,
then put in the apples, and .stew them till clear, and
but little of the syrup remains lay them in a deep
dish, and take out the cloves; when the apples are
cold, pour in a quart of rich boiled custard set it in
water, and make it boil till the custard is set take
care the water does not get into it.
POUR a quart of boiling milk over four little rolls of
bread cover them up, turning them occasionally till
saturated with the milk; tie them very tight in cloths,
and boil them an hour; lay them in the dish, and pour
a little melted butter over them; for sauce, have but-
ter in a boat, seasoned with wine, sugar, and grated
BEAT eight eggs very Alight, add half a pound of
pounded sugar, the same of fresh butter melted, and
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 119
half a nutmeg grated; sit it on a stove, and keep
stirring till it is as thick as buttered eggs put a puff
paste in a shallow dish, pour in the ingredients, and
bake it half an hour in a moderate oven; sift sugar
over it, and serve it up hot.
ONE measure of jelly, one of cream, and half a one
of wine; boil it fifteen minutes over a slow fire, stirring
all the time; sweeten it, and add a spcronful ef orange
flower or rose water; cool it in a mould, turn it in a
dish, and pour around it cream, seasoned in any way
BOIL a quart of milk and when cold, mix with it
the yelks of eight eggs; stir them together over the
fire a few minutes; sweeten it to your taste, put some
slices of savoy cake in the bottom of a deep dish, and
pour on the custard; whip the whites of the eggs to
a strong froth, lay it lightly on the top, sift some
sugar over it, and hold a salamander over it until it is
a light brown; garnish the top with raspberry marma-
lade, or any kind of preserved fruit.
AN ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING.
BEAT eight eggs very light, add to them a pound of
flour sifted, and a pound of powdered sugar; when it
looks quite light, put in a pound of suet finely shredj
a pint of milk, a nutmeg grated, and a gill of brandy;
120 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
mix with it a pound of currants, washed, picked, and
dried, and a pound of raisins stoned and floured tie
it in a thick cloth, and boil it steadily eight hours.
GRATE a large loaf of bread, and pour on the crumbs
a pint of rich milk boiling hot; when cold, add four
eggs, a pound of beef marrow sliced thin, a gill of
brandy, with sugar and nutmeg to your taste mix all
well together, and either bake or boil it* when done,
stick slices of citron over the top.
CUT a loaf of bread as thin as possible, put a layer
of it in the bottom of a deep dish, strew on some
slices of marrow or butter, with a handful of currants
or stoned raisins; do this till the dish is full; let the
currants or raisins be at the top; beat four eggs, mix
with them a quart of milk that has been boiled a little
and become cold, a quarter of a pound of sugar, and
a grated nutmeg pour it in, and bake it in a moderate
oven eat it with wine sauce.
SWEET POTATO PUDDING.
BOIL one pound of sweet potatos very tender, rub
them while hot through a colander; add six eggs well
beaten, three quarters of a pound of powdered sugar,
three quarters of butter, and some grated nutmeg and
lemon peel, with a glass of brandy; put a paste in
the dish, and when the pudding is done, sprinkle the
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 121
top with sugar, and cover it with bits of citron. Irish
potato pudding is made in the same manner, but re
not so good.
AN ARROW ROOT PUDDING.
BOIL a quart of milk, and make it into a thick bat-
ter, with arrow root; add six eggs, half a pound of
butter, the same of pounded sugar, half a nutmeg,
and a little grated lemon peel; put a paste in the
dish, and bake it nicely; when done, sift sugar over
it, and stick slips of citron all over the top.
WASH half a pound of sago in several waters; put
it on to boil in a quart of milk, with a stick of cin-
namon; stir it very frequently, for it is apt to burn:
when it becomes quite thick, take out the cinnamon,
stir it in half a pound of butter, and an equal quantity
of sugar, with a gill of wine; when cold, add six eggs
and four ounces of currants that have been plumped
in hot water bake it in a paste.
BEAT six eggs, add six spoonsful of milk, and six
of flour, butter some cups, pour in the batter, and
bake them quickly; turn them out, and eat them with
butter, sugar and nutmeg.
BOIL half a pound of rice in milk, until it is quite
tender; beat it well with a wooden spoon to mash the
132 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
grains; add three quarters of a pound of sugar, and
the same of melted butter; half a nutmeg, six eggs, a
gill of wine, and some grated lemon peel; put a paste
in the dish, and bake it. For change, it may be boiled,
and eaten with butter, sugar, and wine.
TAKE a pound of the best flour, sift it, and make it
up before sunrise, with six eggs beaten light; a large
spoonful of good yeast, and as much milk as will make
it the consistence of bread; let it rise well, knead into
it half a pound of butter, put in a grated nutmeg, with
one and a half pounds of raisins stoned and cut up;
mix all well together, wet the cloth, flour it, and tie it
loosely, that the pudding may have room to rise. Rai-
sins for puddings or cakes, should be rubbed in a little
flour, to prevent their settling to the bottom see that
it does not stick to them in lumps.
PUT a pound of sweet almonds in hot water till the
skin will slip off them; pound them with a little
orange flower or rose water, to keep them from oiling;
mix with them four crackers, finely pounded, or two
gills of rice flour; six eggs, a pint of cream, a pound
of sugar, half a pound of butter, and four table-
spoonsful of wine; put a nice paste in the bottom of
your dish, garnish the edges, pour in the pudding, and
bake it in a moderate oven.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 123
QUIRE OF PAPER PANCAKES.
BEAT sixteen eggs, add to them a quart of milk, a
nutmeg, half a pound of flour, a pound of melted
butter, a pound of sugar, and two gills of wine; take
care the flour be not in lumps; butter the pan for the
first pancake, run them as thin as possible, and when
coloured, they are done; do not turn them, but lay
them carefully in the dish, sprinkling powdered sugar
between each layer serve them up hot. This quantity
will make four dozen pancakes.
A CURD PUDDING.
PUT two quarts of milk on the fire; when it boils,
pour in half a pint of white wine, strain the curd from
the whey, and pound it in a mortar, with six ounces
of butter, half a pound of loaf sugar, and half a pint
of rice flour, or as much crackers beaten as fine as
flour; six eggs made light, and half a grated nutmeg
beat all well together, and bake them in saucers in a
moderate oven; turn them out carefully in your dish,
stick thin slices of citron in them, and pour on rich
melted butter, with sugar and wine.
GRATE the rind from six fresh lemons, squeeze the
juice from three, and strain it; beat the yelks of six-
teen eggs very light, put to them sixteen table-spoons-
ful of powdered loaf sugar, not heaped up the same
of melted butter; add the grated rind, and the juice,
with four crackers finely pounded, or an equal quantity
124 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
of rice flour; or for change, six ounces of corn meal,
which is excellent beat it till light, put a puff paste
in your dish, pour the pudding in, and bake it in a
moderate oven it must not be very brown.
GRATE the crumb of a stale loaf, and pour on it a
pint of boiling milk let it stand an hour, then beat it
to a pulp; add six eggs, well beaten, half a pound of
butter, the same of powdered sugar, half a nutmeg,
a glass of brandy, and some grated lemon peel put
a paste in the dish, and bake it. * t +
THE HENRIETTA PUDDING.
BEAT six eggs very light, sift into them a pound of
loaf sugar powdered, and a light pound of flour, with
half a grated nutmeg, and a glass of brandy; beat all
together very well, add a pint of cream, pour it in a
deep dish, and bake it when done, sift some pow-
dered sugar over it.
BEAT seven eggs very light, mix with them a pint
of cream, and nearly as much spinach juice, with a
little juice of tansey; add a quarter of a pound of
powdered crackers or pounded rice made fine, a glass
of wine, some grated nutmeg and sugar; stir it over
the fire to thicken, pour it into a paste and bake it, or
fry it like an omelette.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 126
BEAT six eggs very light, add half a pint of milk,
six ounces flour, eight ounces grated bread, twelve
.ounces suet, -chopped fine, a little salt; when it is beat
well, mix in eighteen ounces preserved cherries or
damsins; bake or boil it. Make a sauce of melted but-
ter, sugar and wine.
PUT a crust in the bottom of a dish, put on it a
layer of ripe apples, pared and sliced thin then a
layer of powdered sugar; do this alfernately till the
dish is full; put in a few tea-spoonsful of rose water
and some cloves put on a crust and bake it.
BAKED APPLE PUDDING.
TAKE well flavoured apples, bake, but do not burn
them, rub them through a sieve, take one pound of
the apples so prepared, mix with it, while hot, half
a pound of butter, and half a pound of powdered
sugar; the rinds of two lemons grated and when
cold, add six eggs well beaten; put a paste in the
bottom of a dish, and pour in the apples half an
hour will bake it; sift a little sugar on the apples
A NICE BOILED PUDDING.
MAKE up a pint of flour at sun rise, exactly as yon
<io for bread; see that it rises well have a large pot
126 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
of water boiling; and half an hour before the puddings
are to go to table, make the dough in balls, the size
of a goose egg; throw them in the water, and boil
them quickly, keeping the pot covered: they must
be torn asunder, as cutting will make them heavy;
eat them with powdered sugar, butter, and grated
;>**.-< .<*:.'. '
AN EXCELLENT AND CHEAP DESSERT
WASH a pint of small homony very clean, and boil
it tender; add an equal quantity of corn meal, make
it into a batter with eggs, milk, and a piece of butter;
bake it like batter cakes on a griddle, and eat it with
butter and molasses.
SLICED APPLE PUDDING.
BEAT six eggs very light, add a pint of rich milk,
pare some apples or peaches slice them thin, make
the eggs and milk into a tolerably thick batter with
flour, add a small cup of melted butter, put in the
fruit, and bake it in a deep dish eat with sugar, but-
ter, and nutmeg.
BAKED INDIAN MEAL PUDDING.
BOIL one quart of milk, mix in it two gills and a
half of corn meal very smoothly, seven eggs well
beaten, a gill of molastes, and a good piece of butter;
bake it two hours.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 127
BOILED INDIAN MEAL PUDDING
Mix one quart of corn meal, with three quarts of
milk; take care it be not lumpy add three eggs and
a gill of molasses; it must be put on at sun rise, to eat
at three o'clock; the great art in this pudding is tying
the bag properly, as the meal swells very much.
STEW a fine sweet pumpkin till soft and dry; rub
it through a sieve, mix with the pulp six eggs quite
light, a quarter of a pound of butter, half a pint of
new milk, some pounded ginger and nutmeg, a wine
glass of brandy, and sugar to your taste. Should it
be too liquid, stew it a little drier, put a paste round
the edges, and in the bottom of a shallow dish or
plate pour in the mixture, cut some thin bits of
paste, twist them, and lay them across the top, and
bake it nicely.
SLICE a loaf of bread tolerably thick la/ the slices
in the bottom of a dish, cutting them so as to cover it
completely; sprinkle some sugar and nutmeg, with a
little butter, on each layer; when all are in, pour on a
quart of good boiled custard sweetened- -serve it up
SIMMER half a pound of maccaroni in a plenty of
water, with a table-spoonful of salt, till tender, but
128 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
not broke strain it, beat five yelks, two whites of
eggs, half a pint of cream mince white meat and
OO ' 1
boiled ham very fine, add three spoonsful of grated
cheese, pepper : and salt; mix these with the maccaroni,
butter the mould, put it in, and steam it in a pan of
boiling water for an hour serve with rich gravy.
BOIL mealy potatos quite soft, first taking off the
skins; rub them while hot through a sieve, put them
in a stew pan over the fire, with as much water as
will make it the consistence of thick mush; sift one
quart of flour, and make it into a paste; with this
mush, knead it till light, roll it out thin, make the
dumplins. small fill them with apples, or any other
fruit tie them up in a thick cloth, and boil them
nicely eat them with butter, sugar, and nutmeg.
COMPOTE OF APPLES.
PARE and core the 'apples, and if you prefer it, cut
them in four, wash them clean, and put them in a
pan with water and sugar enough to cover them; add
cinnamon and lemon peel, which has been previously
soaked, scraped on the inside, and cut in strings; boil
them gently until the apples are done, take them out
in a deep dish, boil the syrup to a proper consistency,
and pour it on them: it will take a pound of sugar
for a large dish.
STEW any kind of fruit, and season it in any way
you like best; soak some slices of bread in butter; put
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 129
them while hot, in the bottom and round the sides of
a dish, which has been rubbed with butter put in
your fruit, and lay slices of bread prepared in the
same manner on the top: bake it a few minutes, turn
it carefully into another dish, sprinkle on some pow-
dered sugar, and glaze it with a salamander.
PARE some apples, and cut them in thin slices put
them in a bowl, with a glass of brandy, some white
wine, a quarter of a pound of pounded sugar, a little
cinnamon finely powdered, and the rind of a lemon
grated; let them stand some time, turning them over
frequently; beat two eggs very light, add one quarter
of a pound of flour, a table-spoonful of melted butter,
and as much cold water as will make a thin batter;
drip the apples on a sieve, mix them with the batter,
take one slice with a spoonful of batter to each fritter,
fry them quickly of a light brown, drain them well,
put them in a dish, sprinkling sugar over each, and
glaze them nicely.
PUT a piece of butter the size of an egg into a pint
of water; let it boil a few minutes thicken it very
smoothly with a pint of flour; let it remain a short
time on the fire, stir it all the time that it may not
stick to the pan, pour it in a wooden bowl, add five
or six eggs, breaking one and beating it in then
another, and so on till they are all in, and the dough
quite light put a pint of lard in a pan, let it boil,
130 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
make the fritters small, and fry them of a fine amber
CUT your bread of a convenient size, pour on it
some white wine, and let it stand a few minutes
drain it on a sieve, beat four eggs very light, add four
spoonsful of wine, beat all well together have your
lard boiling, dip the bread in the egg, and fry it a
light brown; sprinkle sugar on each, and glaze them.
MAKE up a quart of flour, with one egg well beaten,
a large spoonful of yeast, and as much milk as will
make it a little softer than muffin dough; mix it early
in the morning; when well risen, work in two spoons-
ful of melted butter, make it in balls the size of a
walnut, and fry them a light brown in boiling lard -
eat them with wine and sugar, or molasses.
TO MAKE MUSH.
PUT a lump of butter the size of an egg into a
quart of water, make it sufficiently thick with corn
meal and a little salt; it must be mixed perfectly
smooth stir it constantly till done enough.
PUT one pound of nice sugar into two pounds of
flour; add pounded spice of any kind, and pass them
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 131
through a sieve; beat four eggs, pour them on with
three quarters of a pound of melted butter, knead all
well together, and bake them.
BLANCH a pound of sweet almonds, pound them in
a mortar with rose water; whip the whites of seven
eggs to a strong froth, put in one pound of powdered
sugar, beat it some time, then put in the almonds-
mix them well, and drop them on sheets of paper
buttered; sift sugar over, and bake them quickly. Be
careful not to let them get discoloured.
TO MAKE DROP BISCUIT.
BEAT eight eggs very light, add to them twelve
ounces of flour, and one pound of sugar; when per*
fectly light, drop them on tin sheets, and bake them
in a quick oven.
To one pound of flour* add half a pound of sugar,
half a pound of butter, some mace and nutmeg pow*
dered, and a glass of brandy or wine; wet it with
milk, and when well kneaded, roll it thin, cut it in
shapes, and bake it quickly*
RUB half a pound of sugar into three pounds of
flour sift it, pour on half a pint of good yeast, beat
six eggs, add half a pint of milk mix all together,
and knead it well: if not soft enough, add more milk
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE*
it should be softer than bread; make it at night in
the morning, if well risen, work in six ounces of but-
ter, and bake it in small rolls; when cold, slice it,
lay it on tin sheets, and dry it in the oven.
TH.REE quarts of flour, three quarters of a pound
of brown sugar, a large spoonful of pounded ginger,
one tea-spoonful of powdered cloves sift it, melt half
a pound of butter in a quart of rich molasses, wet the
flour with it, knead it well, and bake it in a slack oven.
PLEBEIAN GINGER BREAD.
Mix three large spoonsful of pounded ginger, with
three quarts of flour sift it, dissolve three tea-spoons-
ful of pearl-ash in a cup of water, and pour it on the
flour; melt half a pound of butter in a quart of mo-
lasses, mix it with the flour, knead it well, cut it in
shapes, and bake it.
SUGAR GINGER BREAD.
TAKE two pounds of the nicest brown sugar, dry
and pound it, put it into three quarts of flour, add a
large cup full of powdered ginger, and sift the mixture;
wash the salt out of a pound of butter, and cream it;
have twelve eggs well beaten; work into the butter
first, the mixture, then the froth from the eggs, until
all are in, and it is quite light; add a glass of brandy,
butter shallow moulds, pour it in, and bake in a quick
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE 133
DOUGH NUTS A YANKEE CAKE.
DRY half a pound of. good brown sugar, pound it,
and mix it with two pounds of flour, and sift it; add
two spoonsful of yeast, and as much new milk as will
make it like bread: when well risen, knead in half a
pound of butter, make it in cakes the size of a half
dollar, and fry them a light brown in boiling lard.
TAKE three pounds of flour, one and a half of
pounded sugar, a tea-spoonful of cloves, one of mace,
and one of ginger, all finely powdered pass the
whole through a sieve, put to it four spoonsful of good
yeast, and twelve eggs mix it up well, and if not
sufficiently soft, add a little milk: make it up at night,
and set it to rise when well risen, knead into it a
pound of butter, and two gills of brandy; have ready
two pounds of raisins stoned, mix all well together,
pour it into a mould of proper size, and bake it in an
oven heated as for bread; let it stand till thoroughly-
done, and do not take it from the mould until quitt
WASH the salt from a pound of butter, and rub it
till it is soft as cream have ready a pound of flour
sifted, one of powdered sugar, and twelve eggs well
beaten; put alternately into the butter, sugar, flour,
and the froth from the eggs continuing to beat them
together till all the ingredients are in, and the cake
134 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
quite light: add some grated lemon peel, a nutmeg,
and a gill of brandy; butter the pans, and bake them.
This cake makes an excellent pudding, if baked in a
large mould, and eaten with sugar and wine. It is
also excellent when boiled, and served up with melted
butter, sugar and wine.
SAVOY OR SPUNGE CAKE.
TAKE twelve fresh eggs, put them in the scale, and
balance, them with sugar: take out half, and balance
the other half with flour; separate the whites from the
yelks, whip them up very light, then mix them, and
sift in, first sugar, then flour, till both are exhausted;
add some grated lemon peel; bake them in paper
cases, or little tin moulds. This also makes an
excellent pudding, with butter, sugar, and wine, for
A RICH FRUIT CAKE.
HAVE the following articles prepared, before you
begin the cake: four pounds of flour dried and sifted,
four pounds of butter washed to free it from salt, two
pounds of loaf sugar pounded, a quarter of a pound of
mace, the same of nutmegs powdered; wash four
pounds of currants clean, pick and dry them; blanch
one pound of sweet almonds, and cut them in very
thin slices; stone two pounds of raisins, cut them in
two, and strew a little flour over to prevent their
sticking together, and two pounds of citron sliced
thin; break thirty eggs, separating the yelks and
whites; work the butter to a cream with your hand
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 135
put in alternately, flour, sugar, and the froth from both
whites and yelks, which must be beaten separately,
and only the froth put in. When all are mixed, and
the cake looks very light, add the spice, with half a
pint of brandy, the currants and almonds; butter the
mould well, pour in part of the cake, strew over it
some raisins and citron do this until all is in; set it
in a well heated oven; when it has risen, and the top
is coloured, cover it with paper; it will require three
hours baking it must be iced.
BEAT twelve eggs light, add to them one pound of
flour, and one of powdered sugar; continue to beat all
together till perfectly light; bake it in long pans, four
inches wide, with divisions; so that each cake, when
done, will be four inches long, and one and a half
Mix a pound of sugar, with two pounds of flour,
and a large spoonful of pounded coriander seeds; sift
them, add three quarters of a pound of melted butter,
six eggs, and a gill of brandy; knead it well, roll it
thin, cut it in shapes, and bake without discolouring it.
LITTLE PLUM CAKES.
PREPARE them as directed for pound cake, add rai
sins and currants, bake them in small tin shapes, and
136 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
DISSOLVE half a pound of sugar in a pint of milk,
add a tea^spoonful of soda; pour it on two pounds of
flour melt half a pound of butter, knead all together
till light, put it in shallow moulds, and bake it quickly
in a brisk oven.
TO MAKE BREAD.
WHEN you find the barrel of flour a good one,
empty it into a chest or box, made for the purpose,
with a lid that will shut close: it keeps much better
in this manner than when packed in a barrel, and even
improves by lying lightly; sift the quantity you intend
to make up put into a bowl two gills and a half of
water for each quart, with a tea-spoon heaped up with
salt, and a large spoonful of yeast for each quart; stir
this mixture well, put into another bowl one handful
of flour from every quart; pour a little of the mixture
on to wet it, then more, until you get it all in, taking
, great care that it be smooth, and quite free from
lumps; beat it some minutes, take one-third of the
flour out of the kettle, pour on the batter, and sprin-
kle over it the dry flour; stop the kettle, and set it
where it can have a moderate degree of warmth:
when it has risen well, turn it into a bowl, mix in the
dry flour, and knead it on a board till it looks quite
light; return it to the kettle, and place it where it can
have proper heat: in the morning, take the dry crust
carefully from the top, put the dough on a board,
knead it well, make it into rolls, set them on tin sheets,
put a towel over, and let them stand near the fire till
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 137
the oven is ready. In winter, make the bread up at
three o'clock, and it will be ready to work before bed
time. In summer, make it up at five o'clock. A
quart of flour should weigh just one pound and
a quarter. The bread must be rasped when baked.
TO MAKE NICE BISCUIT.
RUB a large spoonful of butter into a quart of risen
dough, knead it well, and make it into biscuit, either
thick or thin: bake them quickly.
BOIJL six ounces of rice in a quart of water, till it
is dry and soft put it into two pounds of flour, mix
it in well; add two tea-spoonsful of salt, two large
spoonsful of yeast, and as much water as will make
it the consistence of bread: when well risen, bake it
PUT a tea-spoonful of salt, and a large one of yeast,
into a quart of flour; make it sufficiently soft, with
corn meal gruel; when well risen, bake it in a mould.
It is an excellent bread for breakfast. Indifferent
flour will rise much better, when made w;th gruel,
than with fair water.
PUT half a pound of fresh hops into a gallon of
water, and boil it away to two quarts; then strain it,
and make it a thin batter with flour; add half a pint
of good yeast, and when well fermented, pour it in a
138 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
bowl, and work in as much corn meal as will make it
the consistency of biscuit dough;, set it to rise, and
when quite light, make it into little cakes, which
must be dried in the shade, turning them very fre-
quently; keep them securely from damp and dust
Persons who live in town, and can procure brewer'*
yeast, will save trouble by using it: take one quart of
it, add a quart of water, and proceed as before directed
TO PREPARE THE CAKES. - p
TAKE one or more cakes, according to the flour you
are to make; pour on a little warm water; when it is
dissolved, stir it well, thicken with a little flour, and
set it near the fire, to rise before it is used. The best
thing to keep yeast in, is a small mug or pitcher, with
a close stopper, under which must be placed a double
fold of linen, to make it still closer. This is far
preferable to a bottle, and more easily cleaned.
ANOTHER METHOD FOR MAKING YEAST.
PEEL one large Irish potato, boil it till soft, rub it
through a sieve; add an equal quantity of flour, make
it sufficiently liquid with hop tea; and when a little
warmer than new milk, add a gill of good yeast; stir
it well, and keep it closely covered in a small pitcher.
PUT four ounces of sugar with three quarters of a
pound of flour; make it up with two spoonsful o f
yeast, and half a pint of milk; when well risen, work
into it four ounces of butter, make it into small buns,,
and bake them in a quick oven do not burn them.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 139
SIFT a quart of flour, put to it a little salt, and a
large spoonful of yeast beat the white of a fresh egg
to a strong froth, add it, and make the flour up with
cold water, as soft as you can to allow it to be han-
dled; set it in a moderately warm place. Next morn-
ing, beat it well with a spoon, put it on the griddle in
a round form, and bake it nicely, turning them fre-
quently till done.
,,; >, . FRENCH ROLLS.
SIFT a quart of flour, add a little salt, a spoonful of
yeast, two eggs well beaten, and half a pint of milk
knead it, and set it to rise: next morning, work in an
ounce of butter, make the dough into small rolls, and
bake them. The top crust should not be hard.
TAKE a quart of dough from your bread at a very
early hour in the morning; break three fresh eggs,
separating the yelks from the whites whip them
both to a froth, mix them with the dough, and add
gradually milk-warm water, till you make a batter the
thickness of buckwheat cakes: beat it well, and set
it to rise till near breakfast time; have the griddle
ready, pour on the batter to look quite round: they do
not require turning.
PUT a little salt, one egg beaten, and four ounces
of butter, in a quart of flour make it into a paste
140 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
with new milk, beat it for half an hour with a pestle,
roll the paste thin, and cut it. into round cakes; bake
them on a gridiron, and be careful not to burn them.
BOIL two cups of small homony very soft; add an
equal quantity of corn meal with -a little salt, and a
large spoonful of butter; make it in a thin batter with .
three eggs, and a sufficient quantity of milk beat all
together some time, and bake them on a griddle, or
in woffle irons. When eggs cannot be procured,
yeast makes a good substitute; put a spoonful in the
batter, and let it stand an hour to rise.
TAKE six spoonsful of flour and three of corn meal,
with a little salt sift them, and make a thin batter
with four eggs, and a sufficient quantity of rich milk;
bake it in little tin moulds in a quick oven.
MELT as much butter in a pint of milk, as will make
it rich as cream make the flour into a paste with this,
knead it well, roll it out frequently, cut it in squares,
and bake on a griddle.
RUB four ounces of butter into a quart of flour,
make it into paste with milk, knead it well, roll it as
thin as paper, and bake it to look white.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 141
CORN MEAL BREAD.
RUB a piece of butter the size of an egg, into a pint
of corn meal make it a batter with two eggs, and
some new milk add a spponful of yeast, set it by
the fire an hour to rise, butter little pans, and bake it.
SWEET POTATO BUNS.
BOIL and mash a potato, rub into it as much flour
as will make it like bread add spice and sugar to
your taste, with a spoonful of yeast; when it has risen
well, work in a piece of butter, bake it in small rolls,
to be eaten hot with butter, either for breakfast or tea.
BOIL two gills of rice quite soft, mix with it three
gills of flour, a little salt, two ounces melted butter,
two eggs beaten well, and as much milk as will make
it a thick batter beat it till very light, and bake it in
MAKE a batter of one quart of flour, three eggs, a
quart of milk, and a gill of yeast; when well risen,
stir in a large spoonful of melted butter, and bake
them in muffin hoops.
PUT half a pound of nice brown sugar into a quart
of flour, sift it, and make it into a paste, with four
ounces of butter melted in as much milk as will w r et
it; knead it till light, roll it tolerably thin, cut it 'in
142 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
strips an inch wide, and just long enough to lay in a
plate; bake them on a griddle, put them in the plate
in rows to checker each other, and serve them to eat
BEAT six eggs, add a pint of flour, two ounces of
melted butter, with as much milk as will make a thin
batter put in pounded loaf sugar to your taste,
pour it in the wafer irons, bake them quickly without
browning, and roll them while hot.
PUT a large spoonful of yeast and a little salt, into
a quart of buckwheat meal; make it into a batter with
cold water; let it rise well, and bake it on a griddle*
it turns sour very quickly, if it be allowed to stand
any time after it has risen.
OBSERVATIONS ON ICE CREAMS.
IT is the practice with some indolent cooks, to set
the freezer containing the cream, in a tub with ice and
salt, and put it in the ice house; it will certainly
freeze there; but not until the watery particles have
subsided, and by the separation destroyed the crea'm.
A freezer should be twelve or fourteen inches deep,
and eight or ten wide. This facilitates the operation
very much, by giving a larger surface for the ice to
form, which it always does on the sides of the vessel;
a silver spoon with a long handle should be provided
for scraping the ice from the sides as soon as formed;
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 143
and when the whole is congealed, pack it in moulds
(which must be placed with care, lest they should not
be upright,) in ice and salt, till sufficiently hard to
retain the shape they should not be turned out till
the moment they are to be served. The freezing tub
must be wide enough to leave a margin of four or five
inches all around the freezer, when placed in the mid-
dlewhich must be filled up with small lumps of ice
mixed with salt a larger tub would waste the ice.
The freezer must be kept constantly in motion during
the process, and ought to be made of pewter, which
is less liable than tin to be worn in holes, and spoil
the cream by admitting the salt water.
WHEN ice creams are not put into shapes, they
should always be served in glasses with handles.
BOIL a Vanilla bean in a quart of rich milk, until
it has imparted the flavour sufficiently then take it
out, and mix with the milk, eight eggs, yelks and
whites beaten well; let it boil a little longer; make it
very sweet, for much of the sugar is lost in the opera-
tion of freezing.
MAKE a quart of rich boiled custard when cold,
pour it on a quart of ripe red raspberries; mash them
in it, pass it through a sieve, sweeten, and freeze it
144 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE*
Is made in the same manner the strawberries must
be very ripe, and the stems picked out. If rich
cream can be procured, it will be infinitely better
the custard is intended as a substitute, when cream
cannot be had.
COCOA NUT CREAM.
TAKE the nut from its shell, pare it, and grate it
very fine; mix it with a quart of crear*, sweeten, and
freeze it. If the nut be a small G. A O, it will require
one and a half to flavour a quart of cream.
SCRAPE a quarter of a pound of chocolate very fine,
put it in a quart of milk, boil it till the chocolate is
dissolved, stirring it continually thicken with six
eggs. A Vanilla bean boiled with the milk, will im-
prove the flavour greatly.
MAKE a rich soup, (see directions for oyster soup,)
strain it from the oysters, and freeze it.
MAKE calf s foot jelly not very stiff, freeze it, and
serve it in glasses.
&ET fine soft peaches perfectly ripe, peel them,
take out the stones^ and put them in a China bowl;
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 145
sprinkle some sugar on, and chop them very small
with a silver spoon if the peaches be sufficiently ripe,
they will become a smooth pulp; add as much cream
or rich milk as you have peaches; put more sugar,
and freeze it.
TOAST two gills of raw coffee till it is a light browHj
and not a grain burnt; put it hot from the toaster
without grinding it, into a quart of rich, and perfectly
sweet milk; boil it, and add the yelks of eight eggs;
when done, strain it through a sieve, and sweeten it;
if properly, done, it will not be discoloured. The cof-
fee may be dried, and will answer for making in the
usual way to drink, allowing more for the quantity of
water, than if it had not gone through this process.
WASH ripe quinces and boil them whole till quit*
tender let them stand to drain and cool then rub
them through a hair sieve; mix with the pulp as much
cochineal finely powdered, as will make it a pretty
colour; then add an equal quantity of cream, and
sweeten it. Pears or apples may be used, prepared
in the same manner.
CUT the finest citron melons when perfectly ripe .
take out the seeds, and slice the nicest part into a
China bowl in small pieces, that will lie conveniently;
cover them with powdered sugar, and let them stand
several hours then drain off the syrup they have
146 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
made, and add as much cream as it will give a strong
flavour to, and freeze it. Pine apples may be used in
the same way.
POUR hot water on the almonds, and let them stand
till the skins will slip m off, then pound them fine, and
mix them with cream: a pound of almonds in the
shells, will be sufficient for a quart of cream sweeten
and freeze it. The kernels of the common black
walnut, /prepared in the same way, make an excel-
PARE the yellow rind very thin from four lemons
put them in a quart of fresh cream, and boil it;
squeeze and strain the juice of one lemon, saturate it
completely with powdered sugar; and when the cream
is quite cold, stir it in take care that it does not
curdle if not sufficiently sweet, add more sugar.
MAKE a quart of rich lemonade, whip the whites of
six fresh eggs to a strong froth mix theni well with
the lemonade, and freeze it. The juice of morello cher-
ries, or of currants mixed with water and sugar, and
prepared in the same way, make very delicate ices.
TO MAKE CUSTARD.
MAKE a quart of milk quite hot, that it may not
whey when baked; let it stand to get cold, and then
mix six eggs with it; sweeten it with loaf sugar, and
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 147
fill the custard cups put on the covers, and set them
in a Dutch oven with water, but not enough to risk
Us boiling into the cups; do not put on the top of the
oven. When the water has boiled ten or fifteen
minutes, take out a cup, and if the custard be the con-
sistence of jelly, it is sufficiently done; serve them
in the cups with the covers on, and a tea-spoon on
the dish between each cup grate nutmeg on the tops
TO MAKE A TRIFLE.
PUT slices of Savoy cake or Naples biscuit at the
bottom of a deep dish; wet it with white wine, and fill
the dish nearly to the top with rich boiled custard;
season half a pint of cream with white wine and sugar;
whip it to a froth as it rises, take it lightly off, and
lay it on the custard; pile it up high and tastily de-
corate it with preserves of any kind, cut so thin as not
to bear the froth down by its weight.
RICE BLANC MANGE.
BOIL a tea-cup full of rice in a very small quantity
of water, till it is near bursting then add half a pint
of milk, boil it to a mush, stirring all the time; season
it with sugar, wine, and nutmeg; dip the mould in
water, and fill it; when cold, turn it in a dish, aiyl
surround it with boiled custard seasoned, or syllabub
garnish it with marmalade.
HAVE the bowl nearly full of syllabub, made with
milk, white wine, and sugar; beat the whites of six
148 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
new laid eggs to a strong froth then mix with it rasp-
berry or strawberry marmalade enough to flavour and
colour it; lay the froth lightly on the syllabub, first
putting in some slices of cake; raise it in little mounds,
and garnish with something light.
SEASON the milk with sugar and white wine, but not
enough to curdle it; fill the glasses nearly full, and
crown them with whipt cream seasoned.
PARE the rind very thin from four fresh lemons,
squeeze the juice, and strain it put them both into
a quart of water, sweeten it to your taste, add the
whites of six eggs, beat to a froth; set it over the fire,
and keep stirring until it thickens, but do not let it
boil then pour it in a bowl; when cold, strain it
through a sieve, put it on the fire, and add the yelks
of the eggs^stir it till quite thick, and serve it in
., ORANGE CREAM
Is made in the same manner, but requires more juice
to give a flavour.
STIR as much raspberry marmalade into a quart of
cream> as will be sufficient to give a, rich flavour of
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 149
the fruit strain it, and fill your glasses, leaving out a
part to whip into froth for the top.
PUT one ounce of the best tea in a pitcher, pour on
it a table spoonful of water, and let it stand an hour to
soften the leaves^ then put to it a quart of boiling
cream, cover it close, and in half an houf^train it; add
four tea-spoonsful of a strong infusion of rennet in
water, stir it, arid set it on some hot ashes, and cover
it; when you find by cooling a little of it, that it will
jelly, pour it into glasses, and garnish with thin bits of
WASH the sago clean, and put it on the fire with a
stick of cinnamon, and as much water as will boil it
thick and soft; take out the cinnamon, and add rich
boiled custard till it is of a proper thickness; sweeten
it, and serve in glasses or cups, with grated nutmeg
on the top.
Is made the same way you may add a little white
wine to both; it will give an agreeable flavour.
PICK the stems and blossoms from two quarts of
green gooseberries; put them in a stew pan, with their
weight in loaf sugar, and a very little water when
sufficiently stewed, pass the pulp through a sieve; and
15C THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
when cold, add rich boiled custard till it is like thick
cream; put it in a glass bowl, and lay frothed cream
on the top.
TO MAKE SLIP.
MAKE a quart of rich milk moderately warm: then
stir into it one large spoonful of the preparation of ren-
net, (see receipt to -prepare rennet,) set it by, and
when cold, it will be as stiff as jelly. It should be
made only a few hours before it is used, or it will be
tough and watery; in summer, set the dish in ice after
it has jellied it must be eaten with powdered sugar,
cream, and nutmeg*
, , . / ,
CURDS AND CREAM". *
TURN one quart pf milk as for the slip let it stand
until just before it is to be served: then take it up with
a skimming dish, and lay it on a sieve when the
whey has drained off, put the curds in a dish, and
surround them with cream use sugar and nutmeg.
These are Arcadian dishes; very delicious, cheap, and
BREAK one ounce of isinglass into very small pieces;
wash it well, and pour on a pint of boiling water; next
morning, add a quart of milk, boil it till the isinglass is
dissolved, strain it, put in two ounces sweet almonds,
blanched and pounded; sweeten it, and put it in the
mould when stiff, turn them into a deep dish, and
put raspberry cream around them. For a change, stick
thin slips of blanched almonds all over the blanc mange*
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 151
and dress round with syllabub, nicely frothed. Some
moulds require colouring for an ear of corn, mix the
yelk of an egg with a little of the blanc mange; fill the
grains of the corn with it and when quite set, pour
in the white, but take care it is not warm enough to
melt the yellow: for a bunch of asparagus, colour a
little with spinach juice, to fill the green tops of the
heads. Fruit must be made the natural colour of what
it represents. Cochineal and alkanet root pounded and
dissolved in brandy; make good colouring; but* blanc
mange should never be served, without raspberry cream
or syllabub to eat with it.
TO MAKE A HEN'S NEST.
GET five small eggs, make a hole a* one end, and
empty the shells fill them with blanc mange: when
stiff and cold, take off the shells, pare the yellow rind
very thin from six lemons, boil them in water till ten-
der, then cut them in thin strips to resemble straw,
and preserve them with su^ar; fill a small deep dish
half full of nice jelly when it is set, put the straw
on in form of a nest, and lay the eggs in it. It is a
beautiful dish for a dessert or supper.
Little Dishes for a Second Course, or Supper.
ROAST two pheasants in the nicest manner -get a
deep dish, the size and form of the one you intend to
serve the pheasants in it must be as deep as a tureen;
put in savoury jelly about an inch and a half at the
bottom; when that is set, and the pheasants cold, lay
152 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
them on the jelly with their breasts down; fill the dish
with jelly up to their backs; take care it is not warm
enough to melt the other, and that the birds are not
displaced just before it is to be served, set it a mo-
ment in hot water to loosen it; -put the dish on the top,
and turn it out carefully.
TRUSS six partridges neatly, cover them with thin
slices of fat bacon taken from the top of a middling;
this keeps them white, and gives a good flavour; they
must be wrapped entirely in it roast them, and when
done, take off the bacon; let them get cold, and use
jelly as for the pheasants.
ROAST two half grown chfckens, cut off the legs
and wings, pull the breast from each side entire, take
the skin from all the pieces, lay it in the dish, and
cover it with jelly.
TO MAKE SAVOURY JELLY.
PUT ,eight or ten pounds of coarse lean beef, or the
same quantity of the inferior parts of the fore quarter
of veal, into a pot with two gallons of water, a pound
of lean salt pork, three large onions chopped, three
carrots, a large handful of parsley, and any sweet
herb that you choose, with pepper and salt; boil it
very gently till reduced to two quarts; strain it through
a sieve next day, take off the fat, turn out the jelly,
and separate it from the dregs at the bottom; put it on
the fire with half a pint of white wine, a large spoon-
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 153
ful of lemon pickle, and the whites and shells of four
eggs beaten: when it boils clear on one side, run it
through the jelly bag.
BONE a small turkey, put pepper and salt on the
inside, and cover it with slices of boiled ham or
tongue; fill it with well seasoned forcemeat, sew it up
and boil it cover it with jelly.
TURN a bowl on the dish, and put on it in regular
rings, beginning at the bottom, the following ingredi-
ents, all minced: anchovies with the bones taken out,
the white meat of fowls without the skin, hard boiled
eggs, the yelf s and whites chopped separately, parsley,
the lean of old ham scraped, the inner stalks of celery;
put a row of capers round the bottom of the bowl, and
dispose the others in a fanciful manner; put a little
pyramid of butter on the top, and' have a small glass
with egg mixed as for sallad, to eat with the salmagundi.
AN EXCELLENT RELISH AFTER DINNER.
PUT some soup or gravy from any of the dishes on
the table, into the stew dish; add a good portion of
pepper, vinegar, wine, catsup and salt; let it be very
highly seasoned; broil the legs, liver, and gizzard of
a turkey, the kidney of veal, or any thing you fancy;
cut it up in small pieces: when broiled, put it in the
gravy, and stew it at table.
154 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO STEW PERCH.
LAY the perch in a deep pan with the heads on;
sprinkle salt, pepper, and a little chopped onion over
each layer; when they are all in, take as much water
as will be sufficient to fill the pan less than half full;
add a gill of wine, one of catsup, a little lemon pickle
and spice; cover the pan, and let it -stew gently till
done; take out the fish without breaking, put. them in
a deep dish, pour thfe gravy on, and neatly turn them out.
DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING PRESERVES.
THE preserving pan should be made of bell metal,
fiat at the bottom, very large in diameter, but not deep.
It should have a cover to fit closely, and handles at
the sides of the pan, for taking it off with ease when
the syrup boils too fast. There should also be ^ large
chafing-dish with long legs, for the convenience of
moving it to any part of the room. The process is a
tedious one; and if the superintendent be not com-
fortably situated, the preserves cannot be properly
managed. A ladle the size of a saucer, pierced and
having a long handle, will be necessary for taking up
the fruit without syrup. When a chafing-dish cannot
be procured, the best substitute is a brick stove, with
a grating, to bum charcoal. The sugar should be the
best double refined; but if the pure amber coloured
sugar house syrup from the West Indies can be got, it
is greatly superior; it never ferments, and the trouble
is very much lessened by having ready made syrup,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 155
in which it is only necessary to boil the fruit till clear.
All delicate fruit should be done gently, and not al-
lowed to remain more than half an hour after it begins
to stew, before it is laid on dishes to cool; it must be
put into the syrup again for the same time; continue
this until it is sufficiently transparent. The advan-
tage of this method is that the preserves are less liable
to boil to pieces, than wKen done all at one time. It
is injudicious to put more in the pan at once, than can
lie on the bottom without crowding. The pan must
be made bright, and nothing permitted to cool in it,
lest it should canker. Delicate preserves should be
kept in small glasses or pots, that will not hold more
than one or two pounds, for the admission of air in-
jures them; put letter paper wet with brandy on the
preserves, and cover the tops with many folds of soft
paper, that will tie round closely; keep them in a dry
place, and expose them constantly to the sun to check
fermentation. Fruit for preserving should be in full
perfection, but not too tipe.
TO PRESERVE CLING-STONE PEACHES.
GET the finest yellow cling-stones, pare them, and
lay them in a bowl; have their weight of sugar
pounded, and sprinkle it over them as they are put in;
let them stand two or three hours, put them together
with the sugar into the pan, add a little water, and
let the peaches remain till thoroughly scalded; take
them out with the ladle, draining off the syrup; should
there not be enough to cover the peaches, add more
water, boil it and skim it, return the fruit, and do them
gently till quite clear. Have some stones cracked,
blanch the kernels, and preserve them with the peaches.
156 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE*
PARE the peaches, and cut them in as large slices
as possible,' have their weight in sugar, and preserve
them as the others.
GET yellow soft peaches that are not quite ripe,
pare and divide them, scrape the places where the
stones lay with a tea-spoon, and follow the former
TAKE the ripest soft peaches, (the yellow ones make
the prettiest marmalade,) pare them, and take out the
stones; put them in the pan with one pound of dry
light coloured brown sugar to two of peaches: when
they are juicy, they do not require water: with a
silver or wooden spoon, chop them with the sugar;
continue to do this, and let them boil gently till they
are a transparent pulp, that will be a jelly when cold.
Puffs made of this marmalade are very delicious.
SLICE them thin, and boil them till clear in a syrup
made with half their weight of sugar; lay them on
dishes in the sun, and turn them till dry; pack them
in pots with powdered sugar sifted over each layer;
should there be syrup left, continue the process with
other peaches. They are very nice when done with
pure honey instead of sugar*
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE* 187
THE small pears are better for preserving thari large
ones. Pare them, and make a syrup, with their weight
of sugar, and a little water leave the stem on, and
stick a clove in the blossom end of each; stew them
till perfectly transparent.
BOIL the pears till soft when cold, rub the pulp
through a sieve, and boil it to a jelly, allowing one
pound of sugar to two of pears.
SELECT the finest and most perfect quinces, lay them
on shelves, but do not let them touch each other; keep
them till they look yellow and have a fragrant smell;
put as many in the preserving pan as can lie con-
veniently, cover them with water, and scald them well:
then take out the cores, and put them in water; cover
the pan and boil them some time; strain the water,
add to it the weight of the quinces in pounded loaf
sugar, dissolve and skim it, pare the quinces, put them
in the pan, and should there not be syrup enough to
cover them, add more water stew them till quite
transparent. They will be light coloured if kept
covered during the process, and red if the cover be
taken off. Fill the space the cores occupied with
quince jelly, before they are put into the pots and
coyer them with syrup.
168 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
PICK full ripe currants from the stem, and put them
in a stone pot; then set it in an iron pot of water
take care that no water gets in: when the currants
have yielded their juice, pour them into a jelly bag
let it run as long as it will without pressing, which
must be reserved for the best jelly; you may then
squeeze the bag to make inferior kind. To each pint
of this juice, put one pound of loaf sugar powdered
boil it fifteen or twenty minutes skim it clean, and
put it in glasses; expose them daily to the sun to pre-
PREPARE the quinces as before directed, take off th
stems and blossoms, wash them clean, and cut them
in slices without paring; fill the pan, and pour in
water to cover them stew them gently, putting in a
little water occasionally till they are soft; then pour
them into a jelly bag; let all the liquor run through
without pressing it, which must be set aside for the
best jelly; to each pint of this, put a pound of loaf
sugar pounded, and boil it to a jelly. The bag may
be squeezed for an inferior, but a very nice jelly.
BOIL the quinces in water until soft, let them cool,
and rub all the pulp through a sieve: put two pounde
of it to one of sugar, pound a little cochineal, sift it
through fine muslin, and mix it with the quince to
give a colour; pick out the seeds, tie them in a muslin
bag, and boil them with the marmalade: when it is a
ihick jelly, take out the seeds, and put it in pots.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 169
THE most beautiful cherries to preserve, are the
carnation and common light red, with short stems;
select the finest that are not too ripe; take an equal
weight with the cherries of double refined sugar,
make it into a syrup, and preserve them without
stoning, and with the stems on; if they be done care-
fully, and the "Directions for preserving" closely
attended to, the stems will not come off, and they will
be so transparent that the stones may be seen.
TAKE out the stones with a quill over a deep dish,
to save the juice that runs from them; put to the juice
a pound of sugar for each pound of cherries, weighed
after they are stoned; boil and skim the syrup, then
put in the fruit, and stew till quite clear.
TO DRY CHERRIES.
STONE them, and save the juice: weigh the cherries,
and allow one pound of good brown sugar to three of
the fruit; boil it with the juice, put the cherries in,
stew them fifteen or twenty minutes, take them out,
drain off the syrup, and lay the cherries in dishes to
dry in the sun; keep the syrup to pour over a little at
a time, as it dries on the cherries, which must be
frequently turned over; when all the syrup is used,
put the cherries away in pots, sprinkling a little
powdered loaf sugar between the layers. They make
excellent pies, puddings, and charlottes.
160 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
To each pound of ripe red or English raspberries,
put one pound of loaf sugar stir it frequently, and
stew till it is a thick jelly.
TO PRESERVE STRAWBERRIES.
GET the largest strawberries before they are too
ripe; have the best loaf sugar, one pound to each of
strawberries stew them very gently, taking them out
to cool frequently, that they may not be mashed; when
they look clear, they are done enough.
Is made in the same manner as the raspberry, and
is rery fine to mix with cream for blanc mange, puffs,
sweetmeat puddings, &c. &c.
SELECT young gooseberries, make a syrup with one
pound of loaf sugar to each of fruit; stew them till
quite clear and the syrup becomes thick, but do not
let them be mashed. They are excellent made into
tarts do not cover the pan while they are stewing.
APRICOTS IN BRANDY.
TAKE freshly gathered apricots not too ripe; to
half their weight of loaf sugar, add as much water
as will cover the fruit; boil and skim it: then put in
the apricots, and let them remain five or six minutes;
take them up without syrup, and lay them on dishes
to cool; boil the syrup till reduced one half; when the
apricots are cold, put them in bottles, and cover thea
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 161
with equal quantities of syrup and French brandy.
If the apricots be cling-stones, they will require more
PEACHES IN BRANDY.
GET yellow soft peaches, perfectly free from defect
and newly gathered, but not too ripe; place them in a
pot, and cover them with cold weak lye; turn over
those that float frequently, that the lye may act equally
on them; at the end of an hour take them out, wipe
them carefully with a soft cloth to get off the down
and skin, and lay them in cold water; make a syrup
as for the apricots, and proceed in the same manner,
only scald the peaches more.
CHERRIES IN BRANDY.
GET the short stemmed bright red cherries in
bunches make a syrup, with equal quantities of sugar
and cherries; scald the cherries, but do not let the
skins crack, which they will do if the fruit be too ripe.
MAGNUM BONUM PLUMS IN BRANDY.
SELECT those that are free from blemish make a
syrup with half their weight of sugar, and preserve
them in the same manner directed for apricots green
gages. The large amber, and the blue plums, are also
excellent, done in the same way.
GRATE the yellow rind from two dozen fine fresh
lemons, quarter them, but leave them whole at the
162 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
bottom; sprinkle salt on them, and put them in the
sun every day until dry; then brush off the suit, put
them in a pot with one ounce of nutmegs, and one of
mace pounded; a large handful of horse radish scraped
and dried, two dozen cloves of garlic, and a pint of
mustard seed; pour on one gallon of strong vinegar,
tie the pot close, put a board on, and let it stand three
months strain it, and when perfectly clear, bottle it.
GATHER a peck of tomatos, pick out the stems, and
wash them; put them on the fire without water, sprin-
kle on a few spoonsful of salt, let them boil steadily
an hour, stirring them frequently; strain them through
a colander, and then through a sieve; put the liquid
on the fire with half a pint of chopped onions, half
a quarter of an ounce of mace broke into small pieces;
and if not sufficiently salt, add a little more one
table-spoonful of whole black pepper; boil all together
until just enough to fill two bottles;, cork it tight.
Make it in August, in dry weather.
GATHER full grown tomatos while quite green; take
out the stems, and stew them till soft; rub them
through a sieve, put the pulp on the fire seasoned
highly with pepper, salt, and pounded cloves; add
some garlic, and stew all together till thick: it keeps
well, and is excellent for seasoning gravies, &c. &c.
TOMATO SWEET MARMALADE.
PREPARE it in the same manner, mix some loaf sugar
with the pulp, and stew until it is a stiff jelly*
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 163
TAKE a bushel of full ripe tomatos, cut them in
slices without skinning sprinkle the bottom of a
large tub with salt, strew in the tomatos, and over
each layer of about two inches thick, sprinkle half a
pint of salt, and three onions sliced without taking off
When the bushel of tomatos is thus prepared, let
them remain for three days, then put them into a large
iron pot, in which they must boil from early in the
morning till night, constantly stirring to prevent their
sticking and mashing them.
The next morning, pass the mixture through a sieve,
pressing it to obtain all the liquor you can; and add
to it one ounce of clorves, quarter of a pound of
allspice, quarter of a pound of whole black pepper,
and a small wine glass of Cayenne; let it boil slowly
and constantly during the whole of the day in the
evening, put it into a suitable vessel to cool; and the
day after, bottle and cork it well: place it in a cool
situation during warm weather, and it will keep for
many years, provided it has been boiled very slowly
and sufficiently in the preparation. Should it ferment,
it must be boiled a second time.
GST one dozen pods of pepper when ripe, take out
the stems, and cut them in two; put them in a kettle
with three pints of vinegar, boil it away to one quart,
and strain it through a sieve. A little of this is excel-
lent in gravy of every kind, and gives a flavour
greatly superior to black pepper; it is also very fine
when added to each of the various catsups for fish sauce.
164 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TAKE the flaps of the proper mushrooms from the
stems wasli them, add some salt, and crush them;
then boil them some time, strain them through a cloth,
put them on the fire again with salt tq your taste, a
few cloves of garlic, and a quarter* of an ounce of
cloves pounded, to a peck of mushrooms; boil it till
reduced to less than half the original quantity bottle
and cork it well.
;, Wrt/Sjjta .. V-f. 1 ' :; I?- . " ;.-;
TARRAGON OR ASTRAGON VINEGAR.
PICK the tarragon nicely from the stem, let it lie in
a dry place forty-eight hours; put it in a pitcher, and
to one quart of the leaves put three pints of strong
vinegar; cover it close, and let it stand a week then
strain it, and after standing in the pitcher till quite
clear, bottle it, and cork it closely.
ONE ounce turmeric, one do. coriander seed, one
do. cummin seed, one do. white ginger, one of nut-
meg, one of mace, and one of Cayenne pepper; pound
all together, and pass them through a fine sieve; bottle
and cork it well one tea-spoonful is sufficient to sea-
son any made dish.
TO PICKLE CUCUMBERS.
GATHER them full grown, but quite young take off
the green rind, and slice them tolerably thick; put a
layer in a deep dish, strew over it some chopped onion
and salt; do this until they are all in; sprinkle salt on
the top, let them stand six hours, put them in a colari-
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 165
der when all the liquor has run off, put them in a pot,
strew a little cayenne pepper over each layer, and
cover them with strong cold vinegar; when the pot
is full, pour on some sweet oil, and tie it up close;
at the end of a fortnight, pour off the first vinegar,
and put on fresh.
GATHER the melons assize larger than a goose egg
put them in a pot, pour boiling salt and water made
strong upon them, and cover them up; next day, cut
a slit from the stem, to the blossom end, and take out
the seeds carefully return them to the^tyine^ and let
them remain in it eight days; then put them in strong
vinegar for a fortnight, wipe the insides with a soft
cloth, stuff them and tie them, pack them in a pot
with the slit uppermost; strew some of the staffing over
onoh Inyor, nnrl L'Qpp jjifjm pnvfrprl \vitii tKe best
. TO MAKE THE .STUFFING FOR FORTY
WASH a pound of white race ginger very clean;
pour boiling water on it, and let it stand twenty-four
hours; slice it thin^and dry it; one pound of horse-
radish scraped and dried, one pound of mustard seed
washed and dried, one pound of chopped onioii, one
ounce of mace, one of nutmeg pounded fine, two
ounces of turmeric, and a handful of whole black
pepper; ^nake these ingredients into a paste, with a
quarter of a pound of mustard, and a large cup full
of sweet oil; put a clove of garlic into each mango.
166 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO MAKE YELLOW PICKLE.
PUT all the articles intended for the yellow pickle
in a pot, and pour on them boiling salt and water
let them stand forty-eight hours, take advantage of a
clear hot day, press the water from the articles, and
lay them to dry in full sunshine, on a table covered
with a thick soft cloth, with the corners pinned se-
curely, that they may not blow up over the things
the cloth absorbs the moisture; and by turning them
frequently on a dry place, they become white, and re-
ceive the colour of the turmeric more readily one
day of clear sunshine is enough to prepare them for
the first vinegar; When dried, put them in a pot of
plain cold vinegar,- with a little turmeric in it let them
remain in it two weeks to draw off the water from
them, and to make them plump then put them in a
clean pot, and pour on the vinegar, prepared by the
following directions this is the most economical and
best way of keeping them mix the turmeric very
smoothly, before you add it to your pickles.
, " -
TO MAKE GREEN PICKLES.
PUT the articles you intend to pickle, in a pot and
cover them with boiling salt and water: put a thick
cloth on the top,, and then a plate that will fit it let
it stand till the next morning, then pour off the salt
and water, boil it again, and cover them as before; do
this until your pickles are a good green then put
them in plain cold vinegar, with some turmeric in it;
and at the end of a fortnight, put them up, as you do
the yellow pickle.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. i 167
TO PREPARE VINEGAR FOR GREEN OR
ONE pound.gf ginger sliced and dried, one of horse-
radish scraped and dried, one of mustard seed washed
and dried, one ounce long pepper, an ounce of mace,
and one of nutmegs finely pounded; put all these in-
gredients in a pot, pour two gallons of strong vinegar
on, and let it stand twelve months, stirring it very
frequently. When this vinegar is used^or the pickles,
put two gallons more vinegar, with some mace and
nutmegs, and keep it for another year. When the
prepared vinegar is poured from the ingredients, do it
very carefully, that it may be quite clear. Pickles
keep much better when the vinegar is not boiled.
Should the green pickles at any time lose their colour,
it may be restored by adding a little more turmeric.
All pickles are best, when one or two years old.
TO PICKLE ONIONS.
GET white onions that are not too large, cut the
stem close to the root with a sharp knife, put them in
a pot, pour on boiling salt and water to cover them,
stop the pot closely, let them stand a fortnight, chang-
ing the salt and water every three days; they must be
stirred daily, or those that float will become soft; at
the end of this time, take off the skin and outer shell,
put them in plain cold vinegar with a little turmeric.
If the vinegar be not very pale, the onion will not be
of a good colour.
TO PICKLE NASTERTIUMS.
GATHER the berries when full grown but young,
put them in a pot, pour boiling salt and water on, and
168 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE,
let them stand three or four days; then drain off the
water, and cover them with cold vinegar; add a few
blades of mace, and whole grains of black pepper.
TO PICKLE RADISH PODS.
CUT them in nice bunches as soon as they are fully
formed; they must be young and tender pour boiling
salt and water on them, cover with a thick cloth, and
pewter plate, to keep in the steam; repeat this every
day till they are a good green; then put tfiem in cold
vinegar, with mace and whole pepper; mix a little
turmeric, with a small portion of oil, and stir it into
the vinegar; it will make .the pods of a more lively
green. They are very pretty for garnishing meats.
TO PICKLE ENGLISH WALNUTS.
THE walnuts should be gathered when the nut is so
young that you can run a pin into it easily; pour boil-
ing salt and water on, and let them be covered with it
nine days, changing it every third day take them out,
and put them on dishes in the air for a few minutes,
taking care to turn them over; this will make them
black much sooner put them in a pot, strew over
some whole pepper, cloves, a little garlic, mustard
seed, and horse-radish scraped and dried; cover them
with strong cold vinegar.
TO PICKLE PEPPERS.
GATHER the large bell pepper when quite young,
leave the seeds in and the stem on, cut a slit in one
side between the large veins, to let the water in; pour
boiling salt and water on, changing it every day for
three weeks you must keep them closely stopped; if,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSfcWIFfi. 169
at the end of this time, they be a good green, put them
in pots, and cover them with cold vinegar and a little
turmeric; those that are not sufficiently green, must be
continued under the same process till they are so. Be
careful not to cut through the large veins, as the heat
will instantly diffuse itself through the pod.
TO MAKE WALNUT CATSUP.
GATHER the walnuts as for pickling, and keep them
in salt and water the same time; then pound them in
a marble mortar to every dozen walnuts, put a quart
of vinegar; stir them well every day for a week, then
put them in a bag, and press all the liquor through;
to each quart, put a teaspoonful of pounded cloves,
and one of mace, with six cloves of garlic boil it
fifteen or twenty minutes, and bottle it.
TO PICKLE GREEN NECTARINES OR APRI-
GATHER them while the shell is soffc green them
with salt and water as before directed; when a good
green, soak them in plain vinegar for a fortnight, and
put them in the yellow pickle pot*
TO PICKLE ASPARAGUS.
POUR boiling salt and water on, and cover them
close next day, take them out, dry them, and after
standing in vinegar, put them with the yellow pickle.
OBSERVATIONS ON PICKLING.
THE vessels for keeping pickles should be made of
stone ware, straight from the bottom to the top, with
stone covers to them; when the mouth is very wide,
170 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
the pickles may be taken out without breaking them.
The motive for keeping all pickles in plain vinegar*
previous to putting them in the prepared pot, is to
draw off the water with which they are saturated, that
they may not weaken the vinegar of the pot. Pickles
keep much better when the vinegar is not boiled.
To three gallons of water, put three pounds of
sugar, and four ounces of race ginger, washed in many
waters to cleanse it; boil them together for one hour,
and strain it through a sieve; when lukewarm, put it
in a cask with three lemons cut in slices, and two gills
of beer yeast; shake it well, and stop the cask very
tight; let it stand a week to ferment; and if not clear
enough to bottle, it must remain until it becomes so;
it will be fit to drink in ten days after bottling.
Ji Necessary Refreshment at all Parties.
BOIL two quarts of milk with a stick of cinnamon
and let it stand to be quite cold, first taking out the
cinnamon; blanch four ounces of the best swe^t
almonds, pound them in a marble mortar with a little
rose-water; mix them well with the milk, sweeten it
to your taste, and let it boil a few minutes only, lest
the almonds should be oily; strain it through a very
fine sieve till quite smooth, and free from the almonds;
serve it up either cold or lukewarm, in glasses with
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 171
GATHER ripe morello cherries, pick them from the
stalk, and put them in an earthen pot, which must be
set into an iron pot of water; makethe water boil, but
take care that none of it gets into the cherries; when
the juice is extracted, pour it into a bag made of
tolerably thick cloth, which will permit the juice to
pass, but not the pulp of your cherries; sweeten it to
your taste, and when it becomes perfectly clear, bot-
tle it put a gill of brandy into each bottle, before you
pour in the juice cover the corks with rosin. It will
keep all summer, in a dry cool place, and is delicious
mixed with water.
GATHER full ripe currants on a dry day, pick them
from the stalks, and weigh them; then crush them
with your hands, leaving none whole; for every two
pounds of currants put one quart of water; stir all
well together, and let it stand three hours, and strain
the liquor through a sieve; then, for every three
pounds of currants, put one pound of powdered loaf
sugar; stir it till the sugar is dissolved, boil it, and
Keep skimming it, as long as any scum will rise; let
it stand sixteen hours to cool, before you put it in the
cask stop it very close. If the quantity be twenty
gallons, let it stand three weeks before you bottle it;
if it be thirty gallons, it must remain a month; it
should be perfectly clear when drawn off put a lump
of sugar in each bottle, cork it well, and keep it in a
cool place, or it will turn sour. This is a pleasant
and cheap wine and if properly made, will keep goofl
172 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
for many years. It makes an agreeable beverage for
the sick, when mixed with water.
TO MAKE CHERRY BRANDY.
GET equal quantities of morello and common black
cherries; fill your cask, and pour on (to a ten gallon
cask) one gallon of boiling water; in two or three
hours, fill it up with brandy let it stand a week, then
draw off all, and put another gallon of boiling water,
and fill it again with brandy at the end of the week,
draw the whole off, empty the cask of the cherries,
and pour in your brandy with water, to reduce the
strength; first dissolving one pound of brown sugar in
each gallon of your mixture. If the brandy be very
strong, it will bear water enough to make the cask full.
GATHER leaves from fragrant roses without bruising.
fill a pitcher with them, and cover them with French
brandy; next day, pour off the brandy, take out the
leaves, and fill the pitcher with fresh ones, and re-
turn the brandy; do this till it is strongly impregnated,
then bottle it; keep the pitcher closely covered during
the process. It is better than distilled rose water foi
GATHER ripe cling-stone peaches, wipe oft' the down,
cut them to the stone in several places, and put them
in a cask; when filled with peaches, pour on as much
peach brandy as the cask will hold; let it stand six or
eight weeks, then draw it off, put in water until re-
duced to the strength of wine; to each gallon of this,
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 173
add one pound of good brown sugar dissolve it, and
pour the cordial into a cask just large enough to hold
it when perfectly clear, it is fit for use.
To each quart of ripe red raspberries, put one quart
of best French brandy; let it remain about a week,
then strain it through a sieve or bag, pressing out all
the liquid; when you have got as much as you want,
reduce the strength to your taste with water, and put
a pound of powdered loaf sugar to each gallon let it
stand till refined. Strawberry cordial is made the
same way. It destroys the flavour of these fruits to
put them on the fire.
PUT a quart of ripe red raspberries in a bowl; pour
on them a quart of strong well flavoured vinegar let
them stand twenty-four hours, strain them through a
bag, put this liquid on another quart of fresh raspber-
ries, which strain in the same manner and then on
a third quart: when this last is prepared, make it very
sweet with pounded loaf sugar; refine and bottle it.
It is a delicious beverage mixed with iced water.
PICK the mint early in the morning while the dew
is on it, and be careful not to bruise it; pour some
water over it, and drain it put two handsful into a
pitcher, with a quart of French brandy, cover it, and
let it stand till next clay; take the mint carefully out,
and put in as much more, which must be taken out
next day do this the third time: then put three
174 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
quarts of water to the brandy, and one pound of loaf
sugar powdered; mix it well together and when per-
fectly clear, bottle it.
HYDROMEL, OR MEAD.
Mix your mead in the proportion of thirty-six
ounces of honey to four quarts of warm water; when
the honey is completely held in solution, pour it into
a cask. When fermented, and become perfectly clear,
bottle and cork it well. If properly prepared, it is a
pleasant and wholesome drink; and in summer par-
ticularly grateful, on account of the large quantity of
carbonic acid gas which it contains. Its goodness,
however, depends greatly on the time of bottling, and
other circumstances, which can only be acquired by
TO MAKE A SUBSTITUTE FOR ARRACK.
DISSOLVE two scruples flowers of Benzoin, in one
quart of good rum.
CUT six fresh lemons in thin slices, put them into
a quart and a half of milk, boil it until the whey is
very clear, then pass it through a sieve; put to this
whey, one and a half quarts of French brandy, and
three pounds of powdered loaf sugar; stir it till the
sugar is dissolved let it stand to refine, and bottle it;
pare some of the yellow rind of the lemons very thin,
and put a little in each bottle.
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 175
POUR two gallons of boiling water on two pounds
brown sugar, one and a half ounce of cream of tartar,
and the same of pounded ginger; stir them well, and
put it in a small cask; when milk warm, put in half
a pint of good yeast, shake the cask well, and stop it
close in twenty-four hours it will be fit to bottle
cork it very well, and in ten days it will sparkle like
Champaigne one or two lemons cut in slices and
put in, will improve it much. For economy, you
may use molasses instead of sugar one quart in place
of two pounds. This is a wholesome and delicious
beverage in warm weather.
BOIL a handful of hops, and twice as much of the
chippings of sassafras root, in ten gallons of water;
strain it, and pour in, while hot, one gallon of molas-
ses, two spoonsful of the- essence of spruce, two
spoonsful of powdered ginger, and one of pounded
allspice; put it in a cask^when sufficiently cold, add
half a pint of good yeast; stir it well, stop it close,
and when fermented and clear, bottle and cork it tight.
PUT five quarts of hops, and five of wheat bran, into
fifteen gallons of water; boil it three or four hours,
strain it, and pour it into a cask with one head taken
out; put in five quarts of molasses, stir it till well
mixed, throw a cloth over the barrel; when moderately
warm, add a quart of good yeast, which must be
stirred in; then stop it close with a cloth and board.
When it has fermented and become quite clear, bottle
176 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
it the corks should be soaked inioilirig water an hour
or two, and the bottles perfectly clean, and well drained.
TO KEEP LEMON-JUICE.
GET lemons quite free from blemish, squeeze them,
and strain the juice; to each pint of it, put a pound of
good loaf sugar pounded; stir it frequently until the
sugar is completely dissolved, cover the pitcher closely,
and let it stand till the dregs have subsided, and the
syrup is transparent; have bottles perfectly clean and
dry, put a wine glass full of French brandy into each
bottle, fill it with syrup, corlj it, and dip the neck into
melted rosin or pitch; keep them in a cool dry cellar
do not put it on the fire it will destroy the fine
flavour of the juice.
Pour water on the peels of the lemons, let them
soak till you can scrape all the white pulp off, then
boil the peel till soft; preserve them with half their
weight of sugar, and keep them for mince pies, cakes,
&c. They are a very good substitute for citron.
To one measure of sugar, put seven measures of
water moderately warm; dissolve it completely put
it into a cask, stir in yeast in the proportion of a pint
to eight gallons: stop it cloap, and keep it in a warm
place till sufficiently sour.
To one quart of clear honey, put eight quarts of
warm water; mix it well together: when it has passed
through the acetous fermentation, a white vinegar will
be formed, in many respects better than the ordinary
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 177
SYRUP OF VINEGAR.
BOIL two pounds of sugar with four quarts of vine
gar, down to a syrup, and bottle it. This makes an
excellent beverage when mixed with water, either with
or without the addition of brandy. It is nearly equal
in flavour to the syrup of lime juice, when made with
PUT a portion of acetate of potash, (sal diureticus,j
into a smelling bottle; mix gradually .with it half itfe
weight of sulphuric acid, and add a few drops of oil
VINEGAR OF THE FOUR THIEVES.
TAKE lavender, rosemary, sage, wormwood, rue,
and mint, of each a large handful; prR them in a pot
of earthen ware, pour on them four quarts of very
strong vinegar, cover the pot closely, and put a board
on the top; keep it in the hottest sun two weeks,
then strain and bottle it, putting in each bottle a clove
of garlic. When it has settled in the bottle and be-
come clear, pour it off gently; do this until you get
it all free from sedimen^ The proper time to make
it is when the herbs are in full vigour, in June. This
vinegar is very refreshing in crowded rooms, in the
apartments of the sick; and is peculiarly grateful
when sprinkled about the house in damp weather.
LAVENDER WATER. .
PUT a pint of highly rectified spirits of wine, to
one ounce of essential oil of lavender, and two
178 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
drachms of ambergris; shake them well together, and
keep it closely stopped.
ONE pint spirits of wine, one ounce oil of rosemary,
and two drachms essence of ambergris.
TO PREPARE COSMETIC SOAP S FOR WASH-
ING THE HANDS.
r J^AKE a pound of castile, or any olher nice old soap;
scrape it in small pieces, and put it on the fire with a
little water stir it till it becomes a smooth paste,
pour it into a bowl, and when cold, add some laven-
der water, or essence of any kind beat it with a sil-
ver spoon until well mixed, thicken it with corn meal,
and keep it in small pots closely covered for the ad-
mission of air will soon make the soap hard.
THREE quarts spirits of wine, six drachms oil of
lavender, one drachm oil of rosemary, three drachms
essence of lemon, ten drops oil of cinnamon mix
them together very well.
GET nice sweet -lard that has no salt in it put in
any agreeable perfume, bea^it to a cream, and put it
in small pots.
TO MAKE SOAP.
PUT on the fire any quantity of lye you choose, that
is strong enough to bear an egg to each gallon, add
three quarters of a pound of clean grease: boil it very
fast, and stir it frequently a few hours will suffice to
make it good soap. When you find by cooling a little
THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE. 179
on a plate that it is a thick jelly, and no grease appears,
put in salt in the proportion of one pint to three gal-
lons let it boil a few minutes, and pour it in tubs to
cool (should the soap be thin, add a little water to that
in the plate, stir it well, and by that means ascertain
how much water is necessary for the whole quantity;
very strong lye will require water to thicken it, after
the incorporation is complete; this must be done before
the salt is added.) ISext day, cut out the soap, melt it,
and cool it again; this takes out all the lye, and keeps
the soap from shrinking when dried. A strict con-
formity to these rules, will banish the lunar bugbear,
which has so long annoyed soap makers. Should
cracknels be used, there must be one pound to each gal-
lon. Kitchen grease should be clarified in a quantity of
water, or the salt will prevent its incorporating with
the lye. Soft soap is made in the same manner, only
omitting the salt. It may also be matie by putting the
lye and grease together in exact proportions, and
placing it under the influence of a hot sun for eight
or ten days, stirring it well four or five times a day.
TO MAKE STARCH.
WASH a peck of good wheat, and pick it very clean;
put it in a tub, and cover it with water; it must be kept
in the sun, and the water changed every day, or it will
smell very offensively. When the wheat becomes
quite soft, it must be well rubbed in the hands, and the
husks thrown into another tub; let this white substance
settle, then pour off the water, put on fresh, stir it up
well, and let it subside; do this every day till the water
comes off clear then pour it off; collect the starch in
a bag, tie it up tight, and set it in the sun a few days;
then open it, and dry the starch on dishes.
180 THE VIRGINIA HOUSEWIFE.
TO DRY HERBS.
GATHER them on a dry day, just before they begin
to blossom; brush off the dust, cut them in small
branches, and dry them quickly in a moderate oven;
pick off' the leaves when dry, pound and sift them >
bottle them immediately, and cork them closely. , They
must be kept in a dry place.
TO CLEAN SILVER UTENSILS.
DISSOLVE two tea-spoonsful of alum in a quart of
moderately strong lye stir in a gill of soft soap, and
skim off the dross* Wash the silver clean in hot
water, let it remain covered with this mixture for ten
or fifteen minutes, turning it over frequently; then wash
it in hot soap suds, and rub it well with a dry cloth.
TO MAKE BLACKING.
A QUARTER o/ a pound of ivciry black, two ounces
of sugar candy, a quarter of an ounce of gum traga-
canth; pound them all very fine, boil a bottle of porter,
and stir the ingredients in while boiling hot.
TO CLEAN KNIVES AND FORKS.
WASH them in warm water, and wipe them till
quite dry; then touch them lightly over, without
smearing the handles, with rotten stoh. made wet;
let it dry on them, and then rub with a clean cloth
until they are bright* With this mode of cleaning,
one set of knives and forks will serve a family twenty
years; they will require the frequent use of a steel to
keep them with a keen edge but must never be put
into very hot water, lest the handles be injured
RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED
L,i : v LIDR'-RV
.40 GiANNiNl HALL EXT. 4493
THIS BOOK IS DUE BEFORE CLOSING TIME
ON LAST DATE STAMPED BELOW