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Full text of "The Virginia magazine of history and biography"

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THE 



VIRGINIA MAGAZINE 



OF 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 



RICHMOND, VA. 



VOL. X— No. 1. JULY. 1G02. 



Digitized by 
Kntered at the Posioffice at Klchmond, Va., as Second-class Matter. 

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PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 



ARCHER ANDERSON, CHAS. V. MEREDITH, 
E. W. JAMES, E. V. VALENTINE, 

Rev. W. MEADE CLARK. 



EDITOR OF THE MAGAZINE, 

WILLIAM G. STANARD. 



CONTENTS. 

1. Virginia Legislative Documents 1 

2. The John Brown Letters 17 

3. The Germans of the Valley 33 

4. Abridgment of Virginia Laws, 1694 49 

5. Eastern Shore History 65 

6. Henry County from its Formation in 1776 to the 

end of the Eighteenth Century, et seq 72 

7. The Battle of Point Pleasant 75 

8. Virginia Militia in the Revolution 82 

9. Adam Muller, first White Settler in the Valley of 

Virginia 84 

10. Genealogy 86 

The Farrar, Brooke, Heradon, Renick, Michaux, Fulton, 
Cox, Eskridge, Steptoe, Lindsays, Minors, RoBards, 
Mosby, Cannon, Cocke, &c.. Families. 

11. Notes and Queries 102 

12. Publications Received Ill 



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ZOl 



THE ANNUAL MEETING 

Of the Virginia Historical Society has been post- 
poned until January i6th, 1903. The proceedings 
will therefore be published in the April Number of 
the Magazine. 



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THE LIST OF MEMBERS. 



HONORAIJY MEMBERS. 



Arber, Prof. Edward, Birminebam, Eni;:. 
Brown, Alexander, Norwood, Va. 
Gilbert, Hon. J. W , New York. N. Y. 
Jones, Rev. Jobn Wm., D. D., Richmond, 

Va. 
Keane, Prof. A. H., London, England. 



Robertson, Captain Harrison Charlottes- 

ville, Va. 
Spoffard, Hon. A. R., Washington, D. C. 
Stewart, Mrs. John, Brook Hill, Va. 
Wbitsitt. Rev. W. H., D. D., Richmond, Va. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Adams, F G., Topeka, Kansas. 
Atrill, Chas. H., London, Eng'd. 
Bacon, H. F., Bury St. Edmund, Eng'd. 
Banks, Chas. E , M. D.. Chelsea, Mass. 
Barber, E. A., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bryant. H. W., Portland, Maine. 
Campeau, Hon., F. R. E., Ottawa, Canada. 
Carrington, Gen. H B., New York, N. Y. 
Champlin, J. D.. Jr., New York, N. Y. 
Craig, Isaac, Alleghany, Pa. 
Dean, John Ward. Boston, Mass. 
Darling. Gen. C. W.. Utica. N Y. 
Drake. Col. S. A., Kcnnebunkport, Me. 
Fernow, Berthold, Washington, D. C. 
Graham. A. A., Columbus, O. 
Green, Hon. S. A., M. D , Boston. Mass. 
Hart, Chas. H., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Hayden, Rev. H. E., Wilkes- Barre, Pa. 
Hinsdale, Prof. B. A., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Hoadly, Hon. C J.. Hartford, Conn. 
Hoes, Rev. R. R., Washington, D. C. 
Judah, George F., Spanish Town, Jamaica. 
Lee, J. W. M., Baltimore, Md. 
Nicholson, Col. J. P., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Perry, Hon. Amos, Providence, R. I. 
Pe>^ter, Gen. J. Watts de, New York. N. Y. 
Phillimore, W. P. W , London, Eng'd. 
Richemond, Mons. Meschinet De, La Ro- 

chelle, France. 
Rose, Josiah, London, England. 
Ross, Hon. D. A., Quebec. Canada. 
Thwing, E. P., Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Wright, W. H. K., Plymouth, England. 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



Adams, Wm. Newton, New York, N. Y. 
Alexander, H. M., New York, N. Y. 
Andrews,©., Baltimore, Md. 
Bain. George M. Jr., Norfolk, Va. 
Barksdale. George A., Richmond, Va. 
Barksdale. R., M. D.. Petersburg, Va. 
Blackwell, Henry, New York, N. Y. 
Brooks, P. C , Boston, Mass 
Bryan, Joseph, Richmond, Va. 
Byrd, George H.. New York, N. Y. 
Cabell, J. Alston. Richmond, Va. 
Childers, Col. Gracey, Clarksville, Tenn. 
Claiborne, Mrs. H. A., Richmond, Va. 
Clements, Mrs. Helen I., Baltimore, Md. 
Cleburne, C. J., M. D., United States 

Navy. 
Conway. M. D., New York, N. Y. 
Cottrell, James L., Richmond, Va. 
Deats. H. E . FleminRton, N. J. 
Downman, R. H , New Orleans, La. 



Gary, J. A., Baltimore. Md. 

Gibbs, Mrs. Virginia B., New York, 

N. Y. 
Grafflin, John C, Baltimore, Md. 
Grandy, C. Wiley, Norfolk, Va. 
Gratz, Simon, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Grigsby, H. C, Smithville. Va. 
Hassam. John T., Boston, Mass. 
Hearst, Mrs. Phoebe A., Alameda, Cal. 
Hughes. R. M., Norfolk, Va. 
Hutchinson. Charles Hare, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Ingalls, M. E., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Jones, Wm. Ellis, Richmond. Va. 
Keith. Charles P., Philadelphia. Pa. 
Langhorne, J. C, Salem, Va. 
Lee, Edmund. J., M D., Philadelphia. Pa. 
Lee, General G. W. C. Burks, Va. 
Lee, W. H., St. Louis Mo. 
Leigh, C. J., New York. N. Y. 
Leiter, L. Z., Chicago, III. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Ill 



Los:an, General T. M.. Howardsville, Va. 
Low, Hon. Seth, New York, N. Y. 
Mallory, Hon. E. S., Jackson, Tenn. 
Miller, Dr. J. L., Thomas, W. Va. 
Minor, B. B., Richmond. Va. 
McCormick, Cyrus Hall, Chicago, 111. 
Price, Prof. Thos. R., Columbia Col., N. Y. 
Richardson, D. C. Richmond, Va. 
Richeson, Col. Thomas, St. Louis, Mo. 
Rives, Hon. Geo. Lockhart, New York.N.Y. 
Sheppard, Wm. L., Richmond, Va. 
Stabbs, Wm. C, New Orleans, La. 



Talcott, Col. T. M R., Bon Air, Va. 
Traylor, R. L., Richmond, Va. 
Van de Vyver, Rt. Rev. A., D. D., Rich- 
mond. Va. 
Waterman, W. H., New Bedford, Mass. 
Webb, W. Seward, New York, N. Y. 
Whitehead, J. B.. Norfolk, Va. 
Wickham, Henry T., Richmond. Va. 
Williams, A. D.. Richmond, Va. 
Williams, Thomas C. Richmond, Va. 
Winthrop, Robert C, Jr., Boston. Massachu- 

MttS. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS.* 



Adams, Gilmer S., Louisville, Ky. 
Adams, Walter, Frammgham, Mass. 
Addison. E. B., Richmond, Va. 
Addison, John, Richmond, Va. 
Adkins, S. B., Richmond. Va. 
Aglar, Mrs. F. B , St. Louis, Mo. 
Alexander, L. D., New York, N. Y. 
Alger, General Russell A , Detroit, Mich. 
Allen, W. H., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Allerton, Samuel W., Chicago, Ills. 
Anderson, Colonel Archer, Richmond, Va. 
Anderson, B. R., M. D., Colorado Springs, 

Col. 
Anderson, Davis C, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Anderson, Gen. Charles J.. Richmond, Va. 
Anderson, Edward L., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Anderson, W. A., Lexington, Va. 
Andoe, Mrs. R. L., Gainesville, Ga. 
Armstrong, Mrs. Mollie Towles, Bridge- 

port, Ky. 
Arthur, Miss Ellen Hemdon, New York, 

N. Y. 
Atchison, Dr. Clifton R., Nashville, Tenn. 
Atkinson, J. B.. Earlington, Ky. 
Atkinson, Thomas, Richmond, Va. 
Antry, J. L., Corsicana, Texas. 
Axtell, Decatur, Richmond. Va. 

Bagby, Mrs. Parke C, Richmond, Va. 
Baker. Colonel R. H.. Norfolk, Va. 
Ballou, Hosca Starr, Brookline. Mass. 
Banta, Theodore M.. New York, N. Y. 
Barrow, Pope, Savannah, Ga. 
Barton. R. T., Winchester, Va. 
Battle, Prof. K. P., Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Baxter, W. H., Petersburg, Va. 
Bayne, Howard R., New York, N. Y. 
Beale. Mrs. Chas. Willing, Arden, N. C. 
Bcale, Rev. G. W„ D. D., Heathsville. Va. 



Beall, Mrs. H. A.. Parkesburg, Pa. 
Best. Frank E.. Chicago. 111. 
Bethea, Mrs. Sarah B., Montgomery, Ala. 
Beveridge, Miss Edyth C, Richmond, Va. 
Bishop, Mrs. J. L., Selma, Ala. 
Bidgood, Col. J. v., Richmond, Va. 
Bigelow, F. G., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Blackford, Prof. L. M., Alexandria, Va. 
Blackford. Capt. Chas. M., Lynchburg, Va 
Blackstock, Ira B., Springfield, 111. 
Blow, Lieut. George P., U. S. N., La Salle, 

Ills. 
Bodie, John T., Chicago, III. 
Boisseau, P. H., Danville, Va. 
Boiling, Stanhope, Richmond, Va. 
Bosher, Robert S., Richmond, Va. 
Boyd, Miss Mary E. R., Waukesha, Wis. 
Boykiii, Colonel F'. M., Richmond, Va. 
Bradford, Mrs. A. W., Marmet, W. Va. 
Branch, Major John P., Richmond, Va. 
Brent, Frank P., Accomac county, Va. 
Broadhead, Prof. G. C, Columbia, Mo. 
Brodhead, Lucas, Spring Station, Ky. 
Brockett, Mrs. Albert D.. Alexandria, Va. 
Brooke, Richard N., Washington, D. C. 
Brooke, Robert T , Richmond, Va. 
Brooke, S. S., Roanoke, Va. 
Brooke, Prof. St. George T., Morgantown, 

W. Va. 
Brooks, Dr. Swepson J., Harrison, N. Y. 
Broun. Major T. L., Charleston, W. Va. 
Brown, J. Thompson, Brierfield, Va. 
Brown, Prof. W. G., Columbia, Mo. 
Bruce, Horatio W., Louisville, Ky. 
Bruce. Philip Alexander, Virginia. 
Bryan, Mrs. Joseph, Richmond, Va. 
Bryan, J. Stewart, Richmond, Va. 
Bryant, C. B., Martinsville. Va. 
Buchanan, Mrs. Lytic, Louisville, Ky. 



* This list also includes subscribers to the Magazine. 



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IV 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Buckner, Mrs. S. B., Rio, Ky. 

Buffington, General A. R.« U. S. A., Madi- 
son, N. J. 

Buford, Commander M. B., U. S. N., Watch 
Hill. R. I. 

Bullitt, W. C, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Burgis, Richard P., El Paso, Texas. 

Bumiss. Mrs. Nathaniel, Norfolk, Va. 

Butler, Hugh, Denver, Col. 

Byrd, S. M., CedartoMm, Ga. 

Caine, Paul, Louisville, Ky. 
California S. R., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Callahan, G. C, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cameron, Alexander. Richmond, Va. 
Cannon, G. Randolph, Richmond, Va. 
Capps, W. L., U. S. N., Navy Yard, N. Y. 
Came, Rev. R. L., Fort Monroe, Va. 
Carpenter, Franklin R., Denver, Col. 
Carrington, Peyton R., Richmond, Va. 
Carter. John W., Martinsrille, Va. 
Cary, W. M., Baltimore, Md. 
Casey, Prof. Joseph J , New York, N. Y. 
Caskie, James, Richmond, Va. 
Chalmers, J. F.. Richmond. Va. 
Chandler, Prof. J. A C, Richmond, Va. 
Chandler, Walter T., Chicago, Ills. 
Chapman, Dr Wm. A., Cedartown, Ga. 
Chappell, Philip E., Kansas City, Mo. 
Chauncy, Mrs. Agnes, Narberth, Pa. 
Chew, Philemon, St. Louis, Mo. 
Christian, Judge Geo. L.. Richmond, Va. 
Christian. Walter, Richmond, Va. 
Clark, Clarence H., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Clark, F. B , Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Clark, Mrs J. M., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Clark, M. H., Clarksville, Tenn. 
Clark, Rev. W. M., Richmond, Va. 
Clarke, P. N., Louisville. Ky. 
Clement, Capt. Henry, U. S. A. 
Clyde, W. P , New York, N. Y. 
Cocke, Charles P., New Orleans, La. 
Cocke, Dr. W. Irby, Port Washington, N. Y. 
Coe Brothers, Springfield, 111. 
Coke, Captain John A., Richmond, Va. 
Coke, Mrs. J.Guthrie, Russellville, Ky. 
Coleman, Charles W., Washington, D.C. 
Coles, Mrs. T. B.. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Colston, F. M., Baltimore, Md. 
Colston, Edward, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Conrad, George N., Harrisonburg, Va. 
Conrad, Major Holmes. Winchester, Va. 
Constant, S. V.. New York, N. Y. 
Cooke, George S., Richmond, Va. 
Cooke, Dr. G. Wythe, Washington, D. C. 
Cooke, John H., Richmond, Va. 
Coolidge, Archibald C , Cambridge, Mass. 



Corbin, Richard W., Paris, France. 
Coming, John Herbert, Washington, D. C. 
Coutant, Dr. R. S., Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Cox. Mrs. L. B.. Chicago, 111. 
Craighill, Gen. W. P., U. S. A., Charles- 
town, W. Va. 
Crenshaw, M. Millson, Washington, D. C. 
Crenshaw, S. Dabney, Richmond, Va. 
Crocker, Major J. F., Portsmouth, Va. 
Cropper, John, Washington, D. C. 
Crozer, Wm. A., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Crump, Beverly T., Richmond, Va. 
Cullingworth. J. N., Richmond, Va. 
Cunningham, R. H.. Henderson, Ky. 
Curry. Hon. J. L. M., Washington, D. C. 
Cussons, CapUin John, Glen Allen, Va. 
Curtis, Mrs. H. W.. Knoxville, Tenn. 
Cutshaw, Colonel W. E., Richmond, Va. 

Dabney, Prof. R. H., University of Va. 
Dale, Chalmers. New York, N. Y. 
Dandridge, Miss Mary E., Cincinnati, O. 
Danforth, Elliott, New York, N. Y. 
Daniel. J. R. V., Richmond, Va. 
Daugherty, Wm. G., Baltimore, Md. 
Daughters A. R., Aubum, Ala. 
Daughters A. R., Joseph Habersham Chap> 

ter, Atlanta, Ga. 
Daughters A. R., Washington, D. C. 
Davenport, G. A., Richmond, Va. 
Davies, W. G., New York, N. Y. 
Denham, Edward, New Bedford, Mass. 
Dickinson, Colonel A. G., New York, N. Y. 
Dimmock. Capt. M. J., Richmond, Va. 
Dismukea, Elisha P., Columbus, Ca. 
Donally, Mrs. Miriam W., Charleston, W.Va. 
Doran, J. J., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Doremus. Mrs. C. A., New York, N. Y. 
Doyle, John A., Pendarreii,Crickhowell,Eng. 
Dudley, Rt. Rev Thomas U., D. D., Loais- 

ville. Ky. 
Duke.Judge R. T.W. Jr., Charlottesville, Va. 
Dunn, John, M. D , Richmond, Va. 
Dupont, Hon. H. A., Wilmington, Del. 
Durrett, Colonel R. T , Louisville, Ky. 

East, John P., New York, N. Y. 
Eaton, George G., Washington, D. C. 
Edwards, G. F., Portsmouth, Va. 
Edwards, Thos. H., West Point, Va. 
Elkins. Hon. S. B., Elkins, W. Va. 
Ellinger, William, Fox Island, Va. 
Ellis, Powhatan, Richmond. Va. 
Elliott, Mrs. Randolph L., Germantown, 

Pa. 
Ely, Mrs. Jno. H., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
English, Mrs. W. E., Indianapolis, Ind. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Eppes. Miss Emily H.. City Point, Va. 
Evans, Capt. Nelson P., Portsmouth, O. 

Farragut, Lo>-a]l, New York, N. Y. 

Farrar, B. J., Nashville, Tenn. 

Farrar, Edgar H., New Orleans, La. 

Farrar, J. B., Richmond, Va. 

Feild, W. P , Little Rock, Ark. 

Ferrell, Mrs. Cbas. C, Austin, Texas. 

Ferrar, Michael Lloyd, Ealing, Eng. 

Ficklen, Carter B., Havana, Cuba. 

Fitzhugh, Gen. Chas. L., Alleghany, Pa. 

Fitzhugh, Frank, Galveston, Texas. 

Fleet, Col. A.F.,Supt. Culver Military Acad- 
emy, Culver, Indiana. 

Fleming, Colonel R. J.. Washington, D. C. 

Folsom, A. A., Brookline, Mass. 

Footc, W. W., San Francisco, Cal. 

Ford, Worthington C, Chevy Chase, Md. 

Fountain, Major S. W., U. S. A., Zam- 
borga, P. 1. 

Fox, W. F., Richmond, Va. 

Fowler, F. Mackenzie, Harlow, England. 

Frankliu, James, Jr , Lynchburg, Va. 

French, Jno. Herndon, New York, N. Y. 

Fuller, Chief Justice Melville W., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Fulton, J. H., Wytheville, Va. 

Gaines, C. Carrington. Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 
Gaines. R. H., New York, N. Y. 
Gantt. Judge J. B., Jefferson City, Mo. 
Garland, Spotswood, Wilmington, Del. 
Garrett, Mrs. Robert, Baltimore, Md. 
George, Major J. P., Richmond, Va. 
Gibson, Geo. Rutledge, New York, N. Y. 
Gibson, Rt. Rev. Robt. A., Richmond, Va. 
Gillis, H. A., Richmond, Va. 
Glenn, Miss Isa G. U.. New York, N. Y. 
Glover, Chas. C, Georgetown, D. C. 
Goode, Hon. John, Washington, D. C. 
Gordon, Armstead C, Staunton, Va. 
Gordon Mrs. W. W., Richmond, Va. 
Gray, Henry W., Jr., Boston, Maes. 
Gray, W. F., Richmond, Va. 
Green, B. W., M. D., Charlottesville, Va. 
Green, Ben. E . Dalton, Ga 
Green, Raleigh T., Culpeper, Va 
Greenway. G.C., M. D., Hot Springs, Ark. 
Grinnan, Judge Daniel, Richmond, Va. 
Guillardeu, W. L., New York, N. Y. 
Gummey, Charles F., Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Guonell, Mrs. Allen T., Colorado Springs. 
Guy, Jackson, Richmond, Va. 
Hagner, Judge A B., Washington, D. C. 
Hagan, John C , Richmond, Va. 



Hall, Charles H., M. D., Macon, Ga. 

Hall, David M., Richmond, Va. 

Hamilton, S. M., Washington, D. C. 

Hancock, W. Scott, St. Louis. Mo. 

Harris, Abner, Louisville, Ky. 

Harris, John T., Jr., Harrisonburg, Va. 

Harrison, Col. Burton N., New York, N. Y. 

Harrison, Geo. T., M. D , New York, N. Y. 

Harrison, Robert L.. New York. N. Y. 

Harrison, W. Preston, Chicago, 111. 

Hart, Prof. Albert B., Harvard University. 

Haskins, C. W., New York. 

Harvie, Miss Anne F., Richmond, Va. 
Harwood, J. B , Fort Smith, Ark. 

Hauser, Mrs.S. T., Helena, Montana. 

Hawes. S. H.. Richmond, Va. 
Heffelfinger, Jacob, Hampton, Va. 

Henley, Mrs. Charles F., Mountainville, 
Tenn. 

Hemming, Mrs. C. C, Colorado Spgs., Col. 
Herbert, Colonel A., Alexandria. Va. 
Herndon, Eugene G., Germantown, Pa. 
Herndon, J. W., Alexandria, Va. 
Higgins, Mrs. D. H , Joliet. 111. 

Hill, W. M., Richmond, Va. 

Hoar, Hon. George F., Worcester, Mass. 
Hobson, Henry W., Jr . Denver, Col. 
Hoen, E. A., Richmond, Va. 
Holt, R. O., Wa-hington. D. C. 
Hord, Rev. A. H., Germantown. Pa. 
Hoss, Rev. E. E., D. D.. Nashville, Tenn. 
Howard, Major McH., Baltimore, Md. 
Howard^Saunders, Mrs. R. V., Athens, Ala* 
Howell, M. B. Nashville. Tenn. 
Hughes, Charles J., Jr., Denver, Col. 
Hughes, A. S., Denver, Col. 
Hume, Frank, Alexandria, Va. 
Hunnewell, J. F.. Charlestown, Mass. 
Hunt, Gaillard, Washington, D. C. 
Hunt, George M. P., Globe, Arizona 
Hunter, James W., Norfolk, Va. 
Hunter, Major John, Jr., Richmond, Va. 
Hunter, Mrs. Robert W , Alexandria, Va. 
Hurt, George A , Atlanta, Ga. 
Hutcheson, Mrs. J. C, Houston, Texas. 
Hutchinson, Francis M., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Hutzler, H. S., Richmond, Va. 

Ingle, Edward. Baltimore. Md. 

James, Edward Wilson, Norfolk, Va. 
Jeffress, T. F., Richmond. Va. 
Jenkins, Edward A , Baltimore, Md. 
Jenkins, Luther H.. Richmond, Va. 
Jewett, W. K., Colorado Spgs., Colorado. 
Johnson, B. F., Richmond, Va. 



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VI 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Johnson, Mrs. R. C, Washington, D. C. 
Johnson, Capt. Wm. R., Crescent, W. Va. 
Johnston, Christopher, M. D., Baltimore, 

Md. 
Johnston, Miss Mary, Birmingham, Ala. 
Johne, Adrian H., New York, N. Y. 
Jones. Rev. J. William, Richmond, Va. 
Jones, I. N., Richmond, Va. 
Jones, W. Strother, Red Bank, N. J. 
Jones, Colonel Meriwether, Richmond, Va. 
Jones, William Henry, Braswell, Va. 
Jones, Wm. L., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Jordan, Scott, Chicago, III. 
Judkins, Mrs. W. D., Danville, Va. 

Keeling, Judge J. M.. Norfolk, Va. 
Keim, M's. Betty L., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Keith, Albert G., Cambridge, Mass. 
Kelley, James, New York. N. Y. 
Kemper, Charles E., Washington, D. C. 
Kemper, Dr. G. W. H., Muncie, Ind. 
Kemper, Simeon V., Butte, Montana, 
Kemper, Willis M , Cincinnati. Ohio. 
Kent, Prof. C. W., University of Va. 
Kilby, Judge Wilbur J.. Suffolk, Va. 
Kirkman, Lieutenant George W., U. S. A. 
Knabe, William, Baltimore, Md. 

Lambert. Mrs. W. H., Germantown, Pa. 
La Munyon, Mrs P. E., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lancaster, R. A., Jr , Richmond, Va. 
Lassiter, Major F. R., Petersburg, Va. 
Lathrop. Bryan, Chicago. HI. 
Latta, Mrs. E. D., Charlotte, N. C. 
Lawless, Hon. J. T., Norfolk, Va. 
Lea, Mrs. Overton, Nashville, Tenn. 
Leach, J. Granville, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Leach, James A., Richmond, Va. 
Leake, Judge A. K., Richmond, Va. 
Leake, Judge Wm. Josiah, Richmond, Va. 
Lee, Miss Lucy, Maysville, Ky. 
Lee, Captain R. E., West Point, Va. 
Lee, R. E., Jr., Fairfax county, Va. 
I^ib, Mrs. Lida C. G., San Josi, Ca!. 
Leigh, Egbert G., Jr , Richmond, Va. 
Letcher, S. Houston, Lexington, Va. 
Lewis, Henry J., Louisville, Ky. 
Lincoln, Solomon, Boston, Mass. 
Livezey. John G, Newport News, Va. 
Lodge. Hon. H. C, Nahant, Mass. 
Logan, Walter S , New York, N. Y. 
Lomax, E. L., Omaha, Neb. 
Loyall, Captain B. P., Norfolk. Va. 
Lyon. Mrs. George A., Richmond, Va. 
Lucas, D. B., Charlestown, W. Va. 



Madden, Mrs. Edgar. New York, N. Y. 
Maddox, E. L., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Maddox, L. O., Cincinnatti, Ohio. 
Maffit, Mrs. John N , Wilmington, N. C. 
Malone, Prof. T. H., Nashville, Tenn. 
Mallory, Lt.-Col. J. S., U. S. A. 
Markham, George D., St. Louis, Mo. 
Matthews, Albert, Boston, Mass. 
Maurice. H. A., Manchester, Va. 
Maury. Colonel R. L., Richmond, Va 
Maxwell, John W. C. San Francisco, CaL 
Mayer. Augustus, Chicago, 111. 
Mayo, E. C, Richmond, Va. 
Mayo, P. H., Richmond, Va. 
Mayo, Rev. Robt. A., West River, Md. 
Mentz, Mrs. J. E , Philadelphia, Pa. 
Meredith, Charles V , Richmond, Va. 
Merrick, Dr. T. D., Richmond, Va. 
Merrill. Mrs. Lida W.. Terre Haute, Ind. 
Meysenburg, Mrs. D. C, Clayton, Mo. 
Middendorf, J. Wm., Baltimore, Md. 
Miller, Mrs. Catharine A., Indianapolis, Ind^ 
Miller, Rudolph P , New York, N. Y. 
Minetree, Mrs. Joseph P., Washington, 

D. C. 
Mitchell, Kirk wood. Richmond, Va. 
Mitchell, S. P., Petersburg, Va. 
Mitchell, Prof. S. C, Richmond, Va. 
Moore, Josiah S., Richmond, Va. 
Moore, Mrs. Thomas L., Richmond, Va. 
Moore, Warner, " 

Morehead, C. R.. El Paso, Texas. 
Morrison, Mrs. Portia Lee, Farmville, Va- 
Morton, Dr. Daniel, St. Joseph, Mo. 
Morgan, Dr. D. H., U. S. N. 
Munford. B. B., Richmond. Va. 
Myers. Major E. T. D.. Richmond, Va» 
McAllister, J. T., Hot Springs, Va. 
McBryde, Dr. J. M., Blacksburg, Va. 
McCabe, Capt. W. G., Richmond, Va. 
McCarty, Allen, St. Louis, Mo. 
McCord, James H.. St. Joseph, Mo. 
McGehee. C. ., Atlanta, Ga. 
McGuire, Mrs. Frank H., Richmond, Va.. 
McGuire.J. P., 

McGuire, J. P., Jr., " 

Mcllwaine. Prof. H. R., Hampden-Sidney 

College, Va. 
Mcllwaine. W. P., Petersburg, Va. 
McLaughlin, J. Fairfax, Jr., New York, N- 

Y. 
McLellan. Mrs. Aurora P., Athens, Ala. 
McNutt, Francis A., Rome, Italy. 

Nash, H. M.. M. D.. Norfolk, Va 
Nay lor, Hugh E., Front Royal, Va, 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 



VU 



T^elBon, Rev. James, D. D., Womans' Col- 
lege, Richmond, Va. 

Tifewton, Virgioius, Richmond, Va. 

NichoUs, Rt. Rev. W. F., San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Nolting, W. Otto. Richmond, Va. 

Norris, S. Henry, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Norton. Miss Helen M., Little Rock, Ark. 

Ogden, Robt. C, New York. 
Old, Major, W. W., Norfolk, Va. 
Oliver. Dr. A. S., Elberton, Ga 
Owen, Thomas N., CarrolUon, Ala. 
Owen, B. P., Chesterfield Co., Va. 

Pace, E. C, Ashley, Ills. 

Page, S. Davis, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Page, L. W., Washington, D. C. 

Page, Major Mann, Brandon, Va. 

Page, Rosewell, Richmond, Va. 

Page, Thomas Nelson, Washington, D. C. 

Palmer, Thos. W., Detroit, Mich. 

Palmer. Col. William H., Richmond, Va 

Parker, Major John, Browsholme Hall, 

Clethiroe, Lancashire. Eng. 
Parker, Mrs. H. H., Portland, Oregon. 
Parrish, R. L., Covington. Va. 
Patterson, James A , Philadelphia, Pa. 
Patteson, S. S. P., Richmond, Va. 
Patton, Marcus W., New Orleans, La. 
Payne, Gen. William H.. Warrenton. Va. 
Pegram. John Combe, Providence, R. I. 
Pell, F. A., New York. N. Y. 
Peeler, Mrs. Martha E., Fiteler, Issaquena. 

Co., Miss. 
Penn, Mrs. James G.. Danville, Va. 
Pennington, William C, Baltimore. Md. 
Peterkin, Mrs. George W., Parkersburg, 

W. Va. 
Pettus, William J.. M. D., U. S. Marine 

Hos., Cleveland. O. 
Petty. J. Calvert, Sulphur Mines, Va. 
Ph'.nizy, Mrs Billups. Athens. Ga. 
Pickett, Thomas E., M. D., Maysville, Ky. 
Pierce Orestes, Oakland, Cal. 
Pinckard, W. P., Birmingham, Ala. 
Pitts, A. D., Selma, Ala. 
Poindexter, Charles E . Jeffersonville, Ind. 
Pollard, Henry R.. Richmond, Va. 
Pollard, J. G.. Richmond, Va. 
Pope, George, Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Potwin, Mrs. Eliza Lewis, Evanston, III. 
Prentiss. Judge R. R., Suffolk, Va. 
Price, Chas. R., Springfield Junction, Ills. 
Pritchctt, Carr W., Glasgow. Mo. 
Prvor, Gen. Roger A.. New York, N. Y. 



Pugh, A. H., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
PuUen, Charles L., New Orleans, La. 
Pulliam, D. L., Manchester, Va. 
Purcell, Col. J. B., Richmond. Va. 

Raines, Judge C. W., Austin, Texas. 
Ramsay, Mrs. Wm. McC, Westover, Va 
Randolph, Beverley- S., Frostburg, Md. 
Randolph. Rt. Rev. A. M., D. D., Norfolk, 

Va. 
Randolph, Miss Elizabeth L., Kingston, 

R. L 
Randolph, G. A., Warrensburg. Ills 
Randolph, Dr. John, Arvonia, Va. 
Randolph, W. H., Radford, Va. 
Raymond. C. H., New York, N. Y. 
Read, Frank S., Fort Smith, Ark. 
Read, M. Alston, Laguna. Texas. 
Read, Henry N , M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Read, Samuel R., Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Reinhart, J. W., Netherwood, N. J. 
Rennolds, Robert G., Richmond, Va. 
Ridenour, Miss Emma B., Indianapolis, 

Ind. 
Ridgeley, Mrs. Jane M., Chicago, Ills. 
Rivers, Flournoy, Pulaski, Tenn. 
Rives, Mrs. W. C, Washington, D. C. 
RoBards. Col John Lewis, Hannibal, Mo. 
Robertson, Mrs. Fred. S , Manchester, Va. 
Robertson, Thos. B., Eastville, Va. 
Robins. William B , Richmond. Va. 
Roller, Gen. John E., Harrisonburg, Va. 
Roosevelt, Hon. Theodore, President oi 

the United States, Washington. D. C. 
Roper, Bartlett H., Sen., Petersburg, Va. 
Rowland, Miss Kate Mason, Richmond, 

Va. 
Ruggles, Mrs. Va. Tabell, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Rust, Gen. P. C, New York, N. Y. 
Ryan, Thos. F., New York, N. Y. 

Sands, Conway R., Richmond, Va. 
Saunders, W. B., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Savage. N. R., Richmond, Va. 
Schouler, Prof. James, Boston, Mass. 
Scott. Mrs. Matthew, BloomiuKton, Ills. 
Scott Thomas B , Richmond, Va. 
Seabreese, Rev. A. W.. Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Seymour, Mrs. W. H , Montgomery, Ala. 
Shelby. Mrs. Susan H., Lexington. Ky. 
Shepherd, John, Chicago, Ills. 
Shields, Prof. Chas. W.. Princeton, N.J. 
Shippen, Mrs. Rebecca Lloyd, Baltimore, 

Md. 
Simon, H. T., St. Louis, Mo. 
Sitterding. Fred., Richmond, Va. 



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Vlll 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Shirreflfs, Reuben, Washington, D. C. 
Slaughter, Francis W., Germantown, Pa. 
Smith, Mrs. G. Herbert. Wilmington. N. C. 
Smith. Willis B.. Richmond, Va. 
Smith, Lieutenant Commander R. C, U. 

S. N., Washington, D C. 
Smith, Tunstall, Baltimore. Md. 
Snowden, W. H., Arcturus, Va. 
Spears, Harrv D., New York, N Y. 
Spencer, Mrs. Samuel, New York, N. Y. 
Spencer, J. H., Martinsville, Va. 
Spotswood. Mrs. W. F., Petersburg, Va. 
SUnard, W. G., Richmond. Va. 
Steiger, E., New York, N. Y. 
Stevens, Byam K., New York, N. Y. 
Stevens, Leo. E., Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Stewart. Miss Annie C, Brook Hill, Va. 
Stewart, Miss E. Hope. " 

Stewart, Miss Norma, " 

Stewart, Miss Lucy W., " 

Stewart, Rev. J. Calvin. Richmond, Va. 
Stewart, J. A., Louisville, Ky. 
Stimson, Mrs. Daniel M., New York. 
Stimson, R. M., Marietta. Ohio. 
Stone, Rev. A. E.. D. D., Dallas. Texas. 
Stratton, Miss Mabel Laird, Richmond, Va. 
Strayer. H. B., Nashville, Tenn. 
Stringfellow. Maj. Chas. S., Richmond,Va. 
Strother, Hon. P. W.. Pearisburg. Va. 
Sturdevant. Col. R., Cape Girardeau, Mo. 
Summers, L P , Abingdon, Va. 
Syrich, F. D.. Washington. D. C. 

Taber, Dr. George E., Richmond, Va. 
Tandy, Mrs. Ada C, Charlottesville, Va. 
Tandy, Mrs R. T., Columbia, Mo. 
Taylor, W. E.. Norfolk, Va. 
Terhune, Mrs. E. T., Pamplin Lake. N. J. 
Thomas. Douglas H., Baltimore. Md. 
Thomas, R. S., Smithfield, Va. 
Thornton, Mrs. Champe F., Richmond, Va. 
Throckmorton, C.Wickliffe, New York.N.Y, 
Thruston, R. C. Ballard. Louisville, Ky. 
Todd, Chas. H.. M. D., Owensboro, Ky. 
Todd. George D.. Louisville, Ky. 
Towles, Walter, Henderson, Ky. 
Travers, S. W., Richmond, Va. 
Tree, J. B.. 

Trice, H. H., Norfolk, Va. 
Trigg, W. R., Richmond. Va. 
Tucker, J. D.. South Boston, Va. 
Tunstall, Alex., M. D., Norfolk, Va. 
Tunstall, Richard B.. " 

Tyler, Mrs. A. M., Richmond. Va. 
Tyler, Prof. Lyon G., Williamsburg, Va. 



Underwood, Mrs. Emma J., Gainesville, 

Ala. 
Underwood. Gen. John C, Covington, Ky. 
Upshur, Rear Admiral John H., U. S. N.. 

Washington, D. C. 
Upshur. T. T , Nassawaddox, Va. 

Valentine, B. B., Richmond, Va. 

Valentine, E. P., 

Valentine, E. V., 

Valentine, G. G., Richmond, Va. 

Valentine, M.S., Jr., •' 

Van Ness, Mrs. Sarah B., East Lexington, 

Mass. 
Venable, Hon. E. C, Petersburg, Va. 
Vermillion, John. Norfolk. Va. 
Vinal, Alvin A., Accord, Mass. 
Vinsonhaler, Judge D. M., Omaha, Neb. 

Waddell. J. A.,Btaunton. Va. 
Waddey. Everett, Richmond, Va. 
Waggener, B. P., Atchinson, Kan. 
Walke, Frank A , M. D.. Norfolk. Va. 
Walke, Cornelius, New York, N. Y. 
Walker, G. A., Richmond, Va. 
Walker. J. G., Richmond. Va. 
Walker, L. S.. Woodstock, Va. 
Wall. Mrs. C. F.. Nashville, Tenn. 
Ward, Colonel John H.. Louisville, Ky. 
Warren, L. R.. Richmond, Va. 
Washington. Joseph E..Wessyngton, Tenn. 
Washington, W. Dc H., New York. 
Waters. Arnold Elzcy, Baltimore, Md. 
Watts. Judge Legh R.. Portsmouth, Va. 
Wayland, Prof. J. W., Bridgewater, Va. 
Weddell, A. W., Richmond. Va. 
Wellford, Judge B. R., Richmond, Va. 
Wellford, C. E., 

Welch, Charles A., Boston, Mass. 
West, Mrs. Henry L., Washington, D. C. 
White, Prof. H. A.. Columbia, S. C. 
White, J. B., Kansas City, Mo. 
White, Mile^, Jr., Baltimore, Md. 
White, W. T., Waco, Texas. 
Whiting, W. W., Mobile, Ala. 
Whitner. Charles F., Atlanta, Ga. 
Whitsitt, Rev. W H., D. D., Richmond, 

Va. 
Whittet, Robert, Richmond, Va. 
Whitty,J. H., 

Wiggins, Mrs. Sarah H., Indianapolis, Ind. 
Willard, Mrs. Joseph E.. Fairfax Co , Va. 
Williams, Capt. Chas. U.. Richmond, Va. 
Williams, Mrs. F. L., Bristol, R. L 
Williams, Henry, Baltimore, Md. 
Williams, John G., Orange, Va. 



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LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Williams, J. P., Savannah. Ga. 

Williams. John Skelton, Richmond, Va. 

Williams. Mrs. Robt. K., Norfolk, Va. 

Williamson, D A., Covington, Va. 

Williamson, J. T., Columbia, Tenn. 

Winston, James B., Glen Allen, Va. 

Wingo, Chas. E., Richmond, Va. 

Wise, Mrs. Barton H., Richmond, Va. 

Wise, Prof. Henry A., Baltimore, Md. 

Wise, John C, M. D., U. S. N., Warren- 
ton, Va. 

Wise, Captain Wm. C, U. S. N., Navy 
Yard, Pensacola, Fla. 

Withers, Alfred D., Roane's, Va. 

Withers, H. C, Austin. Texas. 

Withers, H. C, Carrollton, Ills. 

Withers, H. M., Kansas City, Mo. 



Withington, Lothrop, London, Eng. 
Wood, Charles T., Savannah, Ga. 
Woodhull, Mrs. Oliver J., San Antonio, 

Texas. 
Woods, Hon. Micajah, Charlottesville, Va. 
Wright, Jacob Ridgeway, Wilkes- Barre, 

Penn. 
Wright. Mrs. Selden S., San Francisco, 

Cal. 

Yates, Miss Grace E., Springfield, Ills. 
Yonge, Samuel H., Richmond, Va. 
Young, Hon. B. H., Louisville, Ky. 

Zimmer. W. L , Petersburg, Va. 
Zimmerman, J. H., Alexandria, Va. 



LIBRARIES— Annual Members. 

American Geographical Society, New York, Long Island Historical Society Library, 
N. Y. Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Boston Public Library, Boston, Mass. 
Brooklyn Public Library, Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Brooklyn Library, Montague St., Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 
Brown University Library,Providence,R I. 

Carnegie Library. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Carnegie Free Libary, Alleghany. Pa. 
Carnegie Library, Atlanta, Ga. 
Central Library, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Chicago Public Library, Chicago, III. 
Chicago University Library, Chicago, Ills. 
Cincinnati Public Library, Cincinnati, O 
Cornell University Library, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Detroit Public Library, Detroit, Mich 

Hampton N. and A. Institute Library, 

Hampton, Va. 
Harvard University Library, Cambridge, 

Mass. 
Hearst Free Library, Anaconda. Mon. 
Hearst Free Library, Lead City, S. l> 

Illinois Society S A. R., Chicago, Ills. 
Indiana State Library, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Iowa, Historical Dept. of, Des Moines, I. 

Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, 
Mo. 



Lexington. Ky., Public Library. 
Library of Congress, Washington, D 



C. 



Maine State Library, Augusta, Me. 
Massachusetts State Library, Boston, Mass. 
Mechanics Benevolent Association Library, 

Petersburg, Va. 
Mercantile Association Library, New York, 

N. Y. 
Milwaukee Public Librar>-, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis Athenaeum Library, Minne- 

apolis, Minn. 

Navy Department Library, Washington, 

D. C. 
Nebraska University Library, Lincoln, 

Neb. 
Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 
Norfolk Public Library, Norfolk, Va. 

Oberliii College Library, Oberlin, Ohio. 
Ohio State Library, Columbus, O. 
Omaha Public Library, Omaha, Neb. 

Parliament Library, Ottawa. Canada. 
Peabody Institute, Baltimore, Md. 
Pennsylvania State Librar>', Harrisburg, 

Pa. 
Peoria Public Library, Peoria, III. 
Pequot Library, Southport, Conn. 
Philadelphia Law Association Library, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pratt Free Library. Baltimore. Md. 

Princeton University Librar\', PrincetoH, 
N.J. 



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X VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Randolph- Macon College Library, Ash- University of Michigan Library, Ann Ar- 

land.Va. bor Mich. 

University of Minnesota Library, Minne- 

Randolph- Macon Womans College, Col- apolis, Minn. 

lege Park, Va. University of Virginia Library, Charlotteft- 

ville, Va. 

Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, University of West Virginia Library, Mor- 

Louisville, Ky. gantown, W. Va. 

Springfield City Library Asso'n, Spring- Vanderbilt University Library, Nashville, 

field, Mass. Tenn. 

Slate Department Library', Washington, Virginia State Library, Richmond, Va. 

D. C. Virginia Military Institute Library, Lex- 
Stanford University Library, Cal. ington, Va. 
St. Louis Mercantile Library, St. Louis. 

Mo. West Virginia Historical Society Library, 

Charleston, W. Va. 

Toronto Public Library, Toronto, Canada. War Department Library jWashington, D. C. 

Trinity College Library, Hartford, Conn. Wheeling Public Library, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Tulane University Library, New Orleans, Woburn Public Library, Woburn. Mass. 

La. Worcester Free Public Library, Worcester, 

Mass. 
Union Theological Seminary Librar>', Wyoming Historical and Geol. Society Li- 
Richmond, Va. brary, Wilkes- Barre, Pa. 
University of California Library, Berkeley, 

Cal. Yale University Library, Cambridge, Mass. 
University of Indiana Library, Blooming* 

ton. Ind. 

LIBRARIES— Life Members. 

Astor Library, New York, N. Y. Library Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Boston Athenaeum Library, Boston, Mass. New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

California State LihTar>', Sacramento, Cal. Richmond College Library. Richmond, Va. 
Columbia College Librar>-, New York, 
N. Y. Washington and Lee University Library, 

Lexington, Va. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Virginia Historical Society 



AT ITS 



ANNUAL MEETING 



HELD IN THE 



Hall of the House of Delegates, Januaru 16, 1903, 



WITH THE 



LIST OF OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



RICHMOND: 

WM. ELLIS JONES, BOOK AND JOB PRINTER. 
1903- 



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OP'FICERS 

OF THE 

Virginia Historical Society, 

JANUARY, 1903. 



President. 
W. Gordon McCabe, Richmond, Va. 

Vice-Presidents. 
J. L. M. Curry, Washington, D. C* 
Archer Anderson, Richmond, Va. 
Edward V. Valentine^ Richmond, Va. 

Corresponding Secretary and Librarian. 
William G. Stanard, Richmond, Va. 

Recording Secretary. 
David C. Richardson, Richmond, Va. 

Treasurer, 
Robert T. Brooke, Richmond, Va. 

Executive Committee. 

Joseph Bryan, Richmond, Va. Edw. Wilson James, Norfolk, Va. 
Lyon G. Tyler, Williamsburg, Va. S. S. P. Patteson, Richmond, Va. 
C. V. Meredith, Richmond, Va. Chas. W. Kent, University of Va. 
W. Meade Clark, Richmond, Va. J. A. C. Chandler, Richmond, Va. 

A. C. Gordon. Staunton, Va. J. P. McGuire, Richmond, Va. 

B. B. MuNFORD, Richmond, Va. S. C. Mitchell, Richmond, Va. 

and, eX' officio the President, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries, 
and Treasurer, 



^ Died since election, vacancy not yet filled. 

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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



Virginia Historical Society 



IN 



Annual Meeting held January i6, igoj. 



The (postponed) annual meeting of the Virginia Historical 
Society was held on January i6, 1903, at 8:15 P. M., in the hall 
of the House of Delegates in the Virginia State Capitol. 

A large number of ladies and gentlemen were present when 
Mr. Joseph Bryan, President of the Society, called the meeting 
to order and stated that the first business was the reading of the 
report of the Executive Committee. He then read the report as 
follows: 

Report of the Executive Committee. 
To the Members of the Virginia Historical Society: 

The Executive Committee of your Society begs to make 
the following report of the Society for the year ending Novem- 
ber 8, 1902: 

Membership. 

The membership of the Society is now 758, ten less than the 
number reported last year. This reduction is due to names that 
have been dropped from continued failure to pay their annual 
dues. There are still a number of delinquents, indeed too 
many, and your Committee would urge the members to greater 
promptness in their remittances to the treasurer, as the means 



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VI VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

with which to meet our imperative demands are almost entirely 
obtained from the annual contribution of members. If there is 
any member who does not wish to continue his membership and 
to receive the publications of the Society, it would relieve the 
treasurer of some embarrassment if he would kindly indicate 
this, but until the wish of the member is known to the contrary 
it is presumed that he wishes to remain. But in that case the 
member should with proper promptness pay his annual dues. 

Despite, however, these delinquencies our financial condition 
is better than it was at the time of our last report. 

The treasurer's report is as follows: 

Treasurer's Report. 

Balance on hand November 9th, 1901, $ 27 00 

Receipts. 

1901. 1902. 

Annual dues |3. »33 34 l3»249 69 

Life members 50 00 100 00 

Magazines 19285 19690 

Publications 29 50 102 60 

Interest 47 92 ' 53 16 

Advertisements 127 50 109 50 

13,581 II 13,911 85 3,911 85 

3.938 85 
Expenditures. 

Stamps, postage and express .. . $ 116 98 $ 122 85 

Repairs 319 25 

Insurance 67 50 60 00 

Books, stationery, &c 83 86 64 20 

Binding 72 15 

Printing magazines, catalogue, 

&c 1,239 85 1,018 50 

Wages 240 00 240 00 

Salaries 1,65000 1,65000 

General expenses 289 65 242 18 

$4,007 09 13,469 88 3,469 88 

Balance in State Bank November 8, 1902 I468 97 



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PROCEEDINGS. Vll 

The Treasurer holds on account of the Permanent Fund: 

State Bank 3% Certificates I 400 00 

Virginia State Bond 3% loooo 

Mortgage running 3 years, from May 9, 1901, bearing 5% • . 3«ooo 00 

Total I3.500 00 

Of the above balance in bank of $468.97, the Executive 
Committee have, since this account was closed, applied 
$300 to the Permanent Fund, making the amount now, $3,800 00 

It will be seen that our receipts have increased over last year 
$330.74, and our expenditures have decreased $537.22. But in 
the year 1900, owing to $319.25 extraordinary repairs, the ex- 
penditures exceeded current receipts by $425.98, which we have 
recovered and, with the previous balance of $27, carry forward 
$468.97. 

APDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

The additions to our library have been 410 books and pamph- 
lets, a great portion of which were gifts to the Society. Among 
the donors of books and objects of historical or antiquarian in- 
terest have been Rev. H. E. Hayden, Mr. Miles White, Jr., Mr. 
W. H. Snowden. Major R. T. Barton, Mrs. M. E. Henry Ruf- 
fin, General W. P. Craighill, Prof. C. W. Kent, Mrs. Bernard 
G. Farrar, Mr. W. S. Appleton, Dr. J. L. Miller, Mr. Edward 
Wilson James, Rev. B. D. Tucker, D. D., Mr. and Mrs. W. G. 
Stanard, Dr. W. R. Whitehead, Mr. Morgan P. Robinson, Mr. 
Albert Matthews, Mr. William K. Anderson, Miss Virginia 
Ritchie, Mrs. Lizzie C. Robinson, Mrs. Anne C. Rutherfoord, 
Mrs. John Dunn, Captain M. J. Dimmock. Mrs. Alfred Williams, 
Mrs. D. B. Winfree, Mrs. Henry M. Baker, Mr. John C. BulKtt, 
Mr. James B. Anderson, Mr. J. A. Waddell, Mr. Frank Hume 
and Miss Fanny B. Hunter. 

The library is greatly in need of more shelf room, and espec- 
ially a place in which our valuable collection of newspapers can 
be kept together. Besides this shelf room a complete outfit 
for a card catalogue would add greatly to the usefulness of the 
library. The inaccessibility of much of our material is perhaps 



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Vlll VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

a sufficient reason for the failure of our members to avail them- 
selves fully of it. 

Gifts and Loans. 

The Society continues to be the recipient of very valuable and 
interesting gifts and loans. 

During the past year a full length silhouette of the Right Rev. 
Richard Channing Moore, Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vir- 
ginia, has been presented by General William P. Craighill, of 
the United States Army, and a steel engraving of Bishop William 
Meade by Mrs. James R. Taylor, of Staunton, Va. 

Twenty-five volumes of store account books of a mercantile 
firm in Louisa county, Virginia, from 1826 to 1868, have been 
presented by Prof C. W. Kent, University of Virginia. These 
books afford much valuable information in regard to prices dur- 
ing that period. 

A map of the Summer Islands (Bermuda), in 1626, containing 
the names of all land owners, presented by Mrs. Bernard G. 
Farrar, of St. Louis, Mo. 

A sword presented by the State of Virginia to Thomas Ritchie, 
as heir to his brother. Captain John Ritchie, U. S. A., who was 
killed at the battle of Niagara in 18 14, was presented by Miss 
Virginia Ritchie, in accordance with the request of her sister, 
the late Mrs. Isabella H. Harrison, of Brandon, Virginia. 

The sword of Lieutenant John Trabue, of Chesterfield county, 
Virginia, an officer of the Revolution, and a member of the 
Society of Cincinnati, together with a framed commission as 
Ensign, and a letter from General Baron Von Steuben, have been 
loaned by Mrs. Lizzie C. Robinson. 

A certificate of Lieutenant John Trabue' s membership in the 
Society of Cincinnati, signed by Washington, has also been 
loaned. 

One of the most valuable acquisitions to our collection is a map 
of Virginia by John Henry, father of Patrick Henry, dated Lon- 
don, 1770, which was presented by Mr. W. C. Bullitt, of Phila- 
delphia, in accordance with a request of his father, the late John 
C. Bullitt. This map is exceedingly rare, and it is believed that 



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PROCEEDINGS. IX 

there are only two copies in existence; this one was long in the 
possession of the Horner family of Fauquier county, Virginia. 

A portait of Thomas Nelson, afterwards signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence and Governor of Virginia, painted by 
Chamberlin in London, 1754, has been loaned to the Society by 
Dr. Charles C. Page, of New York city. 

The commission of the Hon. A. H. H. Stuart, as Secretary 
of the Interior, signed by President Fillmore, and a letter from 
Daniel Webster, asking if he would accept the office, have been 
presented by Mrs. R. A. Gibson, of Richmond, Virginia, the 
daughter of Mr. Stuart. 

Two large frames of beautiful photographic views of the ex- 
terior and interior of the buildings and of the grounds at Bran- 
don have been loaned by Miss Edyth C. Beveridge. 

The Society is indebted to Mr. Michael Lloyd Ferrar, of Little 
Gidding, Ealing, Eng., for .copies and photographic fac-similes 
of a number of valuable letters discovered not long since at Mag- 
dalene College, Cambridge. These letters were once part of 
the papers of John Ferrar. who took so notable a part in the 
affairs of Virginia during the period of the Company, and com- 
prise letters from Yeardley, Pory, Rolfe, Edwin Sandys, Rev. 
Richard Buck, and a number of others. Mr. Ferrar has prom- 
ised to continue his favors. 

There are besides these a number of other gifts of manuscripts 
and photographs, for which the Society desires in general terms 
to return its thanks. 

Publication Committee. 

The Magazine has been regularly issued, and will be continued 
on the same general lines as in the past, giving as much space 
as possible to the printing of unpublished historical documents. 

The publication of the Abridgment of the Virginia Laws com- 
piled in 1694, will be completed with the January, 1903, number 
of the Magazine. An edition of three hundred copies of this 
abridgment will be reprinted for sale. 

During the coming year the Magazine will be largely given 



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X VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

up to the publication of some very valuable, but almost unknown, 
papers in the Virginia State Archives. In the beginning will be 
printed a series of papers, of dates ranging from 1665 to 1774, 
similar to those in the Calendar of Virginia State Papers. These 
papers were found at various times after their respective dates 
had been passed in the publication of the Calendar, and were 
intended for a supplementary volume, which was never issued. 

Another series of much interest is the correspondence from 
1759 t^ 1770 of the Committee of Safety, representing the Vir- 
ginia General Assembly, with Edward Montague, the Agent 
for Virginia, in England. These letters discuss fully the reasons 
for various laws which had been passed in Virginia, and other- 
wise contain much valuable historical matter pertaining to that 
period. 

The Legislative papers, of which two instalments have been 
printed in the Magazine, will be continued, taking up again the 
very varied and numerous papers of 1775 and continuing to later 
dates. 

It gives the Committee great pleasure to state that through 
the courtesy of Messrs. Lothrop Withington and Henry F. 
Waters, there will be published, beginning briefly in January, a 
series of Abstracts of English Wills, etc., similar to the well 
known ** Waters' Gleanings," in the New England Historical 
and Genealogical Register, All know how much these added 
to the knowledge of the connection of America with England, 
and there is no doubt that the series to be published in our Mag- 
azine will be much more valuable to Virginians. 

Another valuable addition to our Manuscripts will be copies of 
the certificates of service in the French and Indian wars, of which 
there is a large number in the State Land Office. These papers 
are being copied now. and when the work is completed they will 
be bound and indexed. 

The Society has this year again a very competent copyist at 
work making transcripts of the legislative documents and other 
Virginia State records for future use in the Magazine. While 
referring to the Virginia State Records notice should be made 



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PROCEEDINGS. XI 

of the fact that at the last session of the Legislature $i,ooo was 
appropriated for the work of arranging and indexing those now 
in the State Library. The Honorable D. Q. Eggleston, Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth, has since been carrying out the 
purposes of the act in the most intelligent and efficient manner. 
He has engaged the services of Mr. W. T. Nimmo, of Peters- 
burg, who, for a number of months past, has been occupied in 
arranging and filing these most valuable papers. 

The Committee is gratified to be able to report that they have 
made arrangements to have a considerable amount of copies 
made from the very valuable and unpublished early Virginia 
records, now in the Manuscript Department of the Congressional 
Library. The manuscript volumes of Virginia records came to 
the Congressional Library with the library of Jefferson, which 
,was bought by Congress some years after his death, and contain 
much matter of interest which, in course of time, will be pub- 
lished in our Magazine. 

The Annual Address. 

We are glad to say that the address which our constitution 
requires as a special feature of our annual meeting, will this year 
be delivered by Prof Albert Bushnell Hart, of Harvard Univer- 
sity. This meeting has been delayed until now in order that we 
might be assured of the presence of Dr. Hart. 

Deaths. 

The following members have died during the past year. 

Life Members. 

Major D. N. Walker, Richmond, Va. 
Arthur L. Rives, Reedsville, Mass. 
Charles Hare Hutchinson, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Colonel Thomas Richeson, St. Louis, Mo. 

Afinuai Members, 

Pascal Davie, Richmond, Va. 
Rev. D. F. Forrest, D. D. 



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XH VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Rear Admiral J. F. Jouett, U. S. N. 

R. A. Lancaster, Richmond, Va. 

Colonel Charles Marshall, Baltimore, Md. 

Charles Broadway Rouss, New York, N. Y. 

H. C. Thacker, Boston, Mass. 

Dr. W. R. Whitehead, Denver, Col. 

Conclusion. 

The most interesting event in connection with the history of 
Virginia during the past year has been the organization of a 
company for the appropriate celebration of the founding of the 
Colony at Jamestown, in 1607. This organization has been 
fortunate in securing as its chief executive General Fitzhugh 
Lee, and while much yet remains to be done in determining the 
scope of the operation and the methods of the celebration, and 
in securing the necessary appropriations and contributions, so 
much has been already accomplished by the vigorous manage- 
ment which has taken hold of this company that there is every 
reason to believe that the great event of 1607 will be appropri- 
ately recognized by Virginia, the United States and the world. 

Under our amended charter it will be necessary for the Society 
to elect another President at this annual meeting, and I take this 
occasion to express my high appreciation of the confidence in 
me which has been exhibited by my re-election as President for 
ten years, and my gratification that the Society has assumed a 
condition of permanence and of usefulness which promises to 
make it one of our lasting institutions. 

Jos. Bryan, President, 
Richmondy Jamiary 16^ ^903* 

Election of Officers. 

The next business was the election of officers for the ensuing 
year. 

A resolution having been offered and adopted that a commit- 
tee be appointed to present nominations, President Bryan named 
Messrs. Pollard, Gray and Scott as members of the committee. 



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PROCEEDINGS. Xlll 

The committee retired, and on its return, the chairman, Mr. 
Henry R. Pollard, presented the following nominations: 

President — W. Gordon McCabe, Richmond, Va. 

Vice-Presidents — ^J. L. M. Curry, Washington, D. C. ; Archer 
Anderson, Richmond, Va. ; Edward V. Valentine, Richmond, 
Va. 

Corresponding Secretary and Librarian — William G. Stanard, 
Richmond, Va. 

Recording Secretary — David C. Richardson, Richmond, Va. 

Treasurer — Robert T. Brooke, Richmond, Va. 

Executive Committee — ^Joseph Bryan, Richmond, Va. ; Lyon 
G. Tyler, Williamsburg, Va. ; C. V. Meredith, Richmond, Va. ; 
B. B. Munford, Richmond, Va. ; Edward Wilson James, Nor- 
folk, Va., Armistead C. Gordon, Staunton, Va. ; Charles W. 
Kent, University of Virginia; J. A. C. Chandler, Richmond, 
Va.; W. Meade Clark, Richmond, Va. ; S. S. P. Patteson, 
Richmond, Va. ; J. P. McGuire, Richmond, Va. ; S. C. Mitchell, 
Richmond, Va. 

On motion, the nominees were voted on as a whole and were 
unanimously elected. 

President Bryan theh requested Mr. Pollard to escort the 
President-elect, Captain W. Gordon McCabe, to the stand. 

President Bryan introduced the President-elect, who in a brief 
address expressed his thanks and his hopes for the future of the 
Society. 

President McCabe then introduced Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart, 
of Harvard University, who delivered an able address on '* His- 
torical Societies and Historical Research.'* 

Prof. Hart's address was listened to with great attention and 
with frequent applause. 

After thanking Prof. Hart in the name of the Society, Presi- 

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XIV VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

dent McCabe turned to the Ex-President and stated that he still 
had a very pleasant duty to perform. 

He then in eloquent language, expressive of the affectionate 
regard in which Mr. Bryan is held, presented to him a loving 
cup, the gift of the Executive Committee. The cup bears the 
seal of the Society and the following inscriptions: 

" Presented to Joseph Bryan, Esq., by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Virginia Historical .Society, as a token of affection 
and regard, and in recognition of his executive ability as Presi- 
dent of the Society, 1 893-1 903.'* 

"Semper lionos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt." 

January 16, 1903." 

Mr. Bryan, who was entirely ignorant of the purpose of the 
Committee, replied in a few words which were characterized by 
deep feeling. 

Then, on motion, the meeting adjourned. 



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In S^emortam* 



J. L. M. CURRY, 

Dictd February 12, 1903. 



At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Virginia His- 
torical Society, March 7, 1903, the following minute of respect 
to the memory of the late J. L. M. Curry, D. D., LL. D., a 
Vice-President of the Virginia Historical Society, were reported 
and adopted: 

The Honorable J. L. M. CrkRV has passed away since the last 
meeting of the Virginia Historical Society. 

As he was for many years its Senior Vice-President and a member of 
its Executive Committee, it is fitting that his associates of that Com- 
mittee should give some expres-^ion to their deep sense of his merits 
and of the loss they, in common with all Virginians, have sustained in 
his death. Dr. Curry's winning personal traits and the generous encour- 
agement he always extended to the labors of other men could not fail 
to attract the affectionate regard of all who were brought near him. 

But, had these lovable quaHties been wanting, his conspicuous ability 
and high character must everywhere have commanded respect. 

Touching life at many points in his long and varied career, he returned 
in his later years with renewed ardor to the pursuits of his young man- 
hood, the study of constitutional history and the practical business of 
the statesman. 

For such practical work, as his early brilliant service in the Congress 
of the United States and in that of the Southern Confederacy had shown, 
he possessed the prime requisite in exceptional power as a public speaker. 
No one who ever heard him on a great occasion canforgethis magnetic 
presence, his commanding voice, the abounding force and volume of his 
language, and, above all, that intensity of utterance which flashed con- 
viction, that fusion of reason with emotion, without which no orator can 
sway large assemblies of men. This power he had. This power he 
exerted in many fields, during a long life, but always for high and noble 
ends. 



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XVI VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

His arduous work in the cause of popular education was not unworthy 
of his distinction as a statesman. 

For here his constant guide, his impelling motive was the statesman's 
maxim that, an extended suffrage being the necessary basis of American 
political life, the safety of the State demands the education of the voter. 

Thus, his treatment of whatever became the subject of his special con- 
sideration took the color of his lifelong devotion to labors connected 
with constitutional law and government. 

His colleagues of this Committee have felt that the light of these 
elevated pursuits was cast, through his presence with them, upon the 
humbler domain of historical investigation committed to their charge. 
Be it, therefore. 

Resolved, by the Executive Committee of the Virginia Historical So- 
ciety, that the foregoing minute be recorded in their proceedings, and 
that the Corresponding Secretary be instructed to transmit a copy of it to 
Mrs. Curry and to publish the same in the April number of the Virginia 
Magazine of History and Biography, 

(Signed) Archer Anderson, 

E. V. Valentine, 
D. C. Richardson, 
Joseph Bryan. 



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THE 



VIRGINIA MAGAZINE 



OF 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 




Published Quarterly bv 

THE VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

FOR 

THE YEAR ENDING JUNE, 1903. 



VOLUME X. 



Richmond, Va: 

HOUSE OF THE SOCIETY, 

No. 707 East Franklin St. 



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PUB Lie A TTON COMMITTEE. 

ARCHER ANDERSON, 
C. V. MEREDITH. 
E. V. VALENTINE. 
EDWARD WILSON JAMES, 
Rev. W. MEADE CLARK. 



Editor of the Magazine. 
WILLIAM G. STANARD. 



WM. ELLIS JONES, PRINTER, 
RICHMOND, VA. 



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Table of Contents. 



Alleghany County, Pioneer Days in. By W. A. McAllister 183, 254 

Books in Colonial Virginia 389 

Book Reviews 218, 326 

Brown, John, Letters 17, i6r, 273, 383 

Gary, Wilson, Will of, 1772 189 

Eastern Shore History. By T. T. Uphshur 65 

Ferrar Papers, The. Contributed by Michael Lloyd Ferrar. . 130, 283, 414 

Finances of Virginia. The Effect of the Adoption of the Constitu- 
tion on. By W. F. Dodd ; 360 

Genealogy— Brooke, 87, 197, 301, 443; Cocke, Gray, &c , 100, 202, 
306; Eskridge, &c., 95; Farrar, 86, 206, 308; Hemdon, 90, 200, 
304, 441; Lindsay, 96, 203, 310; Michaux, Fulton, &c., 94; Minor, 
97» 204, 311, 436; Mosby, 99; RoBards 98, 205, 307 

Germans of the Valley, The. By J. W. Wayland 33, 113 

Henry County, Va., From its Formation in 1776, &c. Contributed 
by C. B. Bryant 72, 139, 239, 356 

Historical and Genealogical Notes and Queries 102, 208, 312, 429 

House of Burgesses (The), 1683 and 1684 236 

Letters, Some Colonial 176 

Muller (Miller) Adam, First White Settler in the Valley of Virginia. 
By C. E. Kemper 84 

Northampton County, Va. List of Tithables in, 1666. Contributed 
by F. B. Robertson 194, 258 

Point Pleasant, The Battle of. By J. A. McAllister 75 

Proctor, Wm., Letters of, 1 739-40 298 

Publications Received in, 446 



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IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Vi iginia in i636-*8. From English Public Records 263 

Virginia in 1638. From English Public Records 423 

Virginia Colonial Records, Some 37i 

Virginia Committee of Correspondence, Proceedings of, 1759-67. . . 337 

Virginia Gleanings in England. By Lothrop Withington and H. F. 
Waters 291, 405 

Virginia Historical Society, Proceedings of Annual Meeting i-xvi 

List of Members, January Magazine. 

Virginia Laws, An Abridgment of. 49, 145, 241 

Virginia Legislative Documents i 

Virginia Militia in the Revolution 82, 188, 295, 419 

Virginia Newspapers in Public Libraries 225, 421 

Westmoreland County, Va., Slave Owners, 1782. Contributed by 
Edward Wilson James 229 



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lVu^V 







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THE 

Virginia Magazine 

OF 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

VoL.X. JULY, 1902. No. 1. 

VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. 



(continued) 



Note II — Continued. 

In the absence of contemporary records we are indebted to a 
personal quarrel, in which the participants resorted at much 
length to the newspapers, for some details of the session of 1764. 

George Mercer, a son of John Mercer, of "Marlborough," 
Stafford county, Va. , had served with distinction as a lieutenant 
colonel in the English army, and on the passage of the Stamp 
Act accepted the position of one of the collectors under that 
act. This, on the part of a Virginian, caused great indignation 
in the colony and the effigies of Lord George Grenville, the 
English minister, and of George Mercer were burnt at West- 
moreland C. H. It was alleged that Richard Henry Lee was 
the most active agent in this affair, and when John Mercer, and 
his son James (long a prominent member of the House of Bur- 
gesses and afterwards a judge of the State Court of Appeals) 
undertook the defence of George Mercer, they discovered tha 
Lee himself had applied for a collectorship under the Stamp Act. 
This evidence of inconsistency they set forth in long and violently 



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Z VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

denunciatory letters in the Virginia Gazette during 1766. Lee 
admitted that "early in November," 1764, without considering 
the consequences of the act he had made such application; but 
stated that within a few days he had been convinced of his error, 
and had used his utmost endeavors to oppose the unconstitutional 
measures of Parliament. ' * With confidence I appeal to many 
worthy gentlemen with whom I served in the General Assembly. 
They know who first moved, in the House of Burgesses, for the 
address to his Majesty, the memorial to the Lords, and the 
remonstrance to the House of Commons; they also know what 
part I took in preparing those papers." 

To this the Mercers replied at great length, and a letter from 
James Mercer, printed in the Gazette, October 3d, 1766, throws 
a good deal of light on the proceedings of the session of the 
fall of 1764. 

He says : 

" But to return. During the October General Court in 1764 
there were several letters received from England which seemed 
to import an absolute certainty of the British Parliament intend- 
ing to impose Stamp duties in America if no worse; which threw 
most people into a violent flame. And before the meeting of the 
Assembly, which was on the 30th day of October, after the late 
speaker came to town and brought with him a letter from a com- 
mittee of the House of Representatives of the province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, which he had received some considerable 
time before, addressed to him as Speaker of the House of Bur- 
gesses of Virginia; this letter advised the Assembly that the 
British House of Commons in a Committee of the whole House 
had voted that certain Stamp Duties ought to be imposed within 
America; that the bill for carrying the votes into a law was post- 
poned until the next meeting of Parliament; that their General 
Court had drawn up a remonstrance against the authority of 
Parliament, and that the Gentlemen who subscribed that letter 
were appointed a committee, during the recess of the Repre- 
sentatives of that Province, to correspond with the several 
Legislatures on the continent to desire them to join in so neces- 
sary a step. Besides this, a letter was received by our committee 
of correspondence. I need not say from whom as its subject 
will shew it, this letter covered the votes of the House of Com- 



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VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. 8 

mons (mentioned in that from the Committee of the Represent- 
atives of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay) which consisted 
of above i8 resolves, but on this occasion, the 15th and the 
paragraph relating thereto is all I think material, which though 
long, I shall recite for fear of some lurking, slanderous future 
abuse. 

•London, April nth, 1764. 
* Gentlemen : 

*The 15th resolution is the most alarming to the Colonies. 
The Chancellor of the Exchequer had determined this measure 
should take place but I informed you in my last of the check 
we gave to its progress (the last was the 9th of March). Mr. 
G. [Grenville] after declaring it was far from his intention to force 
any motion without hearing every objection, put the house in 
mind that the National debt amounted to 146,000,000, So alarm- 
ing a circumstance that great attention was due to the revenue, 
that America gave birth to the last war, which cost us 74,000,000. 
He stated the annual expense of America in time of peace at 
j^350,ooo, a sum the several colonies are capable of relieving us 
from; but the duties proposed would be insufficient without the 
addition of stamp taxes which he thought might be raised with- 
out any great burthen to the subjects and collected with fewer 
officers. But though he readily acquiesced in postponing this 
point yet hoped that the power & sovereignty of parliament 
over every part of the British dominions for the purpose of rais- 
ing or collecting any tax would never be disputed. That if there 
was a single man doubted it he would take the sense of the 
House, having heard without doors hints of this nature dropped. 
He then called for the sense of Parliament and that the House 
might not suffer objections of that Nature at a future day. The 
Members interested in the Plantations expressed great surprise 
that a doubt of that nature could ever exist. Mr. G. then sug- 
gested that this great object being the relief of this kingdom 
from the burthen, which in Justice America should bear, it would 
be as satisfactory to him if the several provinces would among 
themselves, and in modes best suited to their circumstances, 
raise a sum adequate to the expense of their defence. This, to 
the best of recollection was all that materially fell from him on 
the Subject and it appears to me of first importance to the Col- 



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4 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

onies. The house appeared so unanimous of opinion that 
America should ease the revenue of this annual expense that I 
am perswaded they will not listen to any remonstrance against 
it (but the introduction of inland taxes is a matter of the first 
impression and moment to the subjects there). What steps the 
respective provinces will fall on must be left to their better Judg- 
ment. I shall only presume to add what appears the determined 
sense of Government that this money be furnished by America 
by some means or other; pleas of incapacity will scarce avail 
and therefore I should conceive it would be extreme worthy of 
your serious attention what may be the consequence of intro- 
ducing such a precedent as the imposition of a Stamp Tax by 
British Parliament.* 

These two letters, not to mention many from other sensible 
correspondents on the other side of the Atlantick, were read by 
many of the House of Burgesses before they met, and by many 
others after the meeting. In short I can say with great certainty 
that the whole House was in a flame before they met, and every 
thing that could be done by them was determined to be pursued 
so soon as the Governour should be addressed, and the first 
forms of the House be got through. This >vas not only intended, 
but actually done; but who was the first mover I know not. 
Agreeable to a standing rule, such letters were to be laid before 
the House, and accordingly I find on their journals the following 
minutes which I beg leave to insert: 

* Thursday, November ist. 

Mr. Speaker laid before the House a letter which he received 
in July last from a committee appointed by the Hon. House of 
Representatives of the Massachusetts Bay, relative to the late 
act of Parliament concerning the Sugar trade with the foreign 
colonies, &c., and the said letter was read and ordered to lie 
on the table.* 

From a resolve hereafter mentioned it will appear that the 
&c. related to the votes of the House of commons relative to 
the Stamp Duties. 

'Wednesday, November 7th. Ordered that the committee 
appointed to correspond with the Agent of this colony in Great 
Britian, &c., do lay the Agent's letters received since the meeting 



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VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. O 

of the last session of Assembly and their answers thereto before 
the house. 

Mr. Attorney from the Committee of Correspondence accord- 
ing to order laid before the House the Agent's letters, together 
with their answers. 

Ordered, that the said letters and answers do lie on the table. * 

The Governor being addressed and the first forms of the house 
being now got through on * Tuesday, November 13th, on a motion 
made resolved that this House will resolve itself into a committee 
to consider the state of the Colony. 

Ordered that the several letters to and from the agent with 
the letter addressed to the Speaker from the Committee for the 
Massachusetts Government, which were ordered to lie on the 
table, be referred to the same committee. 

The House immediately resolved itself into the said committee 
pursuant to the above mentioned resolution of the House, and 
after some time spent therein Mr. Speaker resumed the chair, 
and Mr. Attorney reported that the Committee had had that 
matter under their consideration and had come to several reso- 
lutions thereon. 

Ordered that the same be reported to the House to-morrow. 

Wednesday, November 14th. Mr. Attorney from the com- 
mittee of the whole house reported according to order, that the 
committee had had under their consideration the state of the 
colony and the several letters to them referred and had come to 
several resolutions thereon ; which he read in his place and then 
delivered in at the table, where they were again twice read, and 
agreed to with some amendments, and are as follows: 

* Resolved, that a most humble & dutiful address be presented 
to his majesty imploring his royal protection of his faithful sub- 
jects, the people of this colony, in the enjoyment of all their 
natural & civil rights as men and as descendants of Britons, 
which rights must be violated if laws respecting the internal 
governmenment and taxation of themselves are imposed upon 
them by any other power than that derived from their own con- 
sent by and with the approbation of their sovereign or his sub- 
stitute, &c., &c. 

Resolved, that a memorial be prepared to be laid before the 
Right Honorable the Lords, &c. 



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6 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Resolved, that a memorial be prepared to be laid before the 
Honorable the House of Commoms, &c.* 

I have recited more of the address than memorials in order to 
show that the House thought it very essential to the preservation 
of their rights & privileges to be wholly exempt from the au- 
thority of Parliament as to every Species of internal taxation, 
without criticising on * the nature and tendency ' of the act as 
Col. Lee did, and I insert the following resolve to show the 
subject of the Massachusetts letter: 

* Resolved, that the committee appointed to correspond with 
the Agent of this Colony in Great Britain, &c., be directed to 
answer the letter of the 25th of June last from the Committee 
of the House of Representatives for the province of Massachu- 
setts Bay to the Hon. the Speaker of the House of Representatives 
for the province of Virginia, and to assure that Committee that 
the Assembly of Virginia (Methink R. H. Lee ought to have 
been excepted) are highly sensible of the very great importance 
it is as well to the colony of Virginia as to America in general, 
that the subjects of great Britain in this part of its dominion 
should continue in posser»sion of their ancient and most valuable 
right of being taxed only by consent of their Repsesentatives, 
and that the Assembly here (I presume except as before excepted) 
will omit no measure in their power to prevent such essential in- 
jury from being done to the rights & liberties of the people. 

Ordered that a Committee be appointed to draw up the ad- 
dress and memorials in the said report mentioned and it is 
referred to Mr. Attorney, Mr. Richard Henry Lee, Mr. Landon 
Carter, Mr. Wythe, Mr. Endmond Pendleton, Mr. Benjamin 
Harrison, Mr. Cary & Mr. Fleming to prepare & bring in the 
same.* 

On Tuesday, December the i8th, after several conferences 
with the council and many alterations in a committee of the 
whole house, the address to his Majesty, Memorial to the Lords, 
and Memorial to the Commons (which before now was new 
christened by the name of a remonstrance), were completed and 
passed; but to prove that the House was privy to the printed 
votes mentioned in my former publication and now said to have 
come enclosed in the letter herein afore set forth, I beg leave to 
insert the following clause of the remonstrance: 



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VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. 7 

* It appearing by the printed votes of the House of Commons 
of Great Britain in Parliament assembled that in a committee 
of the whole House the 17th day of March last, it was resolved 
that towards defending, protecting and securing the British 
Colonies and plantations in America, it may be proper to change 
Stamp Duties in the said colonies and plantations; and that it 
being apprehended that the same subject which was then de- 
clined may be resumed and further pursued in a succeeding 
session, the Council and Burgesses of Virginia, met in General 
Assembly, judge it their indispensable duty in a respectful man- 
ner, but with decent firmness, to remonstrate against such a 
measure, that at least a cession of those rights, which in their 
opinion must be infringed by that procedure, may not be inferred 
from their silence at so important a crisis, &c.* 

From this undeniable authority it appears that the letter from 
the Massachusetts Bay was read in the House of Burgesses on 
the first day of November, the other on the 7th; so that from 
these dates if no earlier (not to mention the conference with his 
brothers) the Westmoreland Colonel must have had publick and 
judicial notice * in what manner the tax was to be laid and the 
consequence of it.' and that at the time he wrote his private ad- 
dress for the deputation, though early in November, he must 
have been fully convinced of the impropriety of ' traitorously 
aiding and assisting in the destruction of his country's liberty, 
and that with parracidal hands he was endeavoring to fasten chains 
of slavery on this his native country, although like the tenderest 
and best of mothers she had long fostered and powerfully sup- 
ported him. ' * 

As to his conduct in the Senate, I really do not recollect with 
that certainty I would choose to do to repeat it. All that I can 
say is that the motion was consequential to the letters being or- 
dered to lie on the table, and though R. H. Lee may have made 
the first motion for the address to the commons yet I do deny 
he first proposed the address to his Majesty and memorial to the 
Lords, for I well remember the late Speaker proposed them 
when in a committee of the whole house as an amendment to the 

♦ Vide R. H. Lee's dying speech. [This is what the Mercers called 
Lee's defence of himself.] 



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8 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

first motion, and his reasons were, that the meanest subject in the 
British Dominion had a ri^ht to approach the throne, but that 
it would be doing nothing to remonstrate the commons, for that 
the bill for laying the Stamp Duties would be looked on as a 
money bill against which not even a petition would be received 
nor could any member be prevailed on to present it, being as 
contrary to the rules of Parliament. ' ' 

Note III. 
Resolutions of 1765. 

The famous resolutions of . Patrick Henry, adopted by the 
House of Burgesses on May 30, 1765, in support of which he 
made his speech, in which it seemed that George III was com- 
pared with Tarquin, Caesar and Charles I. Perhaps the best 
account of the adoption of these resolutions is in W. W. Henry's 
Life of Patrick Heyiry^ I, 79-94. 

The '* spurious resolutions '* referred to in the text were doubt- 
less the six as adopted in committee, and which were published 
in the newspapers at the time. It appears that on the report of 
the committee to the House, only the first five were adopted 
by that body, and that on the next day the fifth was rescinded, 
leaving the first four, which constituted the final action of the 
House of Burgesses. 

The fifth and sixth resolutions, not accepted by the House, 
are as follows : 

** Resolved, That his Majesty's liege people, the inhabitants 
of this Colony, are not bound to yield obedience to any law or 
ordinance whatever, designed to impose any taxation whatso- 
ever upon them, other than by the laws or ordinances of the 
General Assembly aforesaid. 

*' Resolved, That any person who shall by speaking or writing 
assert or maintain that any person or persons, other than the 
General Assembly of this Colony, have any right or power to 
impose or lay any taxation on the people here, shall be 
deemed an enemy to his Majesty's Colony." 

Though the four resolutions sent by the Committee of Cor- 
respondence to the Agent have been often printed, they are 
of so great historical importance that it is thought well to print 
them with the rest of the letters. 



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VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. 9 

The manuscript history of Virginia (or rather it may better 
be termed a first essay towards a history), by Edmund Ran- 
dolph, which is among the collections of the Virginia Historical 
Society, is of interest, as written by one who was a resident of 
Williamsburg, reached manhood before tlie revolution, and was 
closely associated with the principal actors in the events of the 
period. 

* This is an era illustrious, indeed, in the annals of Virginia, with- 
out an immediate oppression, without a cause depending so much 
on hasty feeling as theoretic reasoning; without a distaste for mon- 
archy, with loyalty to the reigning prince, with paternal attach- 
ment to the transatlantic members of the empire; with an admi- 
ration of their genius, learning and virtues, with a subserviency 
in cultivating their manners and their fashions; in a word, with 
England as a model of all which was great and venerable the 
House of Burgesses, in the year 1765, gave utterance to princi- 
ples which in ten years were to expand into a revolution. 

The charters had shown that the first adventurers demanded 
and were allowed to possess the rights of English subjects. 
The English Constitution was, at once the standard and bulwark 
of their liberty. Under its protection they had contested the 
usurpations of kings, parliaments and governors. The specific 
doctrine which condemned taxation without representation had 
been often quoted as a fundamental one of colonial freedom, and 
every generation of lawyers imbibed it in their studies. 

The details of government and the subjects of legislation in 
Virginia were few and circumscribed in comparison with those 
of an independent empire. Hence Virginian politics did not 
go beyond general principles and a jealousy of the rights most 
dear. It was understood that to hold the purse was a check 
upon the sword itself. 

Corruption was making gigantic strides in England, and 
America was a field in which necessitous partizans might be 
pampered at the expense of American labour. American prop- 
erty, therefore, had no other security than the mercy of Parlia- 
ment if they could enact laws of revenue without the assent of 
the colonies. Virtual representation was sophistry at best if we 
gave it its highest character. Scarcely in any state of Virginia 
opinion could sentiments like these have been restrained where 



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10 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

there was the slightest appearance of parliamentary taxation. 
But when intelligence arrived of the parliamentary resolutions 
preparatory to the Stamp Act, a corps of members in the House 
of Burgesses, whose habits and expectations had no relation to 
men in power, had increased without being discovered by the 
aristocratic part of the house, or by those members themselves. 
From the lower counties fortune, rank and perhaps fashion, had 
often sent representatives; but the repeated divisions of the 
upper counties drew representatives from humble walks. A 
collision between these two classes caused them to diverge from 
each other as widely in their sentiments in granting public money 
as in their incomes and expenses. While one would pay a public 
servant, upon a strict calculation of the labour to be performed, 
the other would augment the stipend for the sake of dignity. 
A rivalship was the consequence; but the new party had hitherto 
been able only to vote and to be counted. They wanted a 
leader. At this critical moment Patrick Henry appeared as a 
member from the county of Louisa. 

From birth he derived neither splendour nor opulence. But 
from a pious and virtuous example he imbibed a disposition to 
religion and virtue which, when formed in youth, fails not in 
good fruit in mature age. 

The mildness of his temper coinciding with th€ example ren- 
dered him amiable. Of classical erudition, he neglected the 
scanty opportunities which were afforded to him for the chase, 
for conversation, and for his own reflection. He sounded the 
recesses and depths of the human heart. On the facts thus col- 
lected he suffered his vast genius and unbounded imagination to 
brood, unfettered by scholastic rules. His memory was faithful 
and prompt. 

At first he devoted himself to merchandise, and from an aver- 
sion to drudgery and with no fondness for labour he could not 
be otherwise than unsuccessful. 

Having experienced his command in social discourse he took 
refuge in the study and the practice of the law. 

In blackletter precedents he was never profound, in general 
principles he had no reason to shrink from the struggle with any 
man. 

Not always grammatical and sometimes coarse in his language 



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VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. 11 

he taught his hearers how to forget his inaccuracies by his ac- 
tion, his varying countenance and voice. 

Crowning these popular qualities with the universal belief that 
he understood the condition of the Virginian planters and was 
completely embarked in their fate, he was naturally hailed as 
the democratic chief. 

Sir Robert Walpole, the celebrated premier of Great Britain, 
is said to have declared in the year 1739, when to tax the colo- 
nies for revenue was proposed to him, that he had not courage 
for such an experiment. He was not ignorant of their growing 
ability or of the wants of the parent country. But upon this 
subject he had learnt from the history of Virginia that while she 
never withheld due submission to government her patience had 
its just limits. The ministry, in 1765, did not discover these 
plain signs, but calculated that our black population and our 
old propensities would paralyze rebellion and that a tumult 
stirred in haste would subside after a momentary ferment. 

However these things may be, on the 29th day of May, 1765, 
Mr. Henry plucked the veil from the shrine of parliamentary 
omnipotence. He inveighed against the usurpation of Parlia- 
ment in their avowed purpose at a fature day of charging stamp 
and other duties in the colonies without their consent. 

It was judicious in Mr. Henry to suspend his resolutions de- 
nouncing this usurpation until a day or two before the close of 
the session. At this stage of business those who would be most 
averse to an absence from home, merely to guard against evils 
in speculation, had retired. Those who were left behind were ex- 
empt from this resdessness. They clung to Mr. Henry, and 
some others classed on the other side in the controversy were 
not unmoved by the crisis. 

The resolutions offered by Mr. Henry are understood to have 
been written by Mr. John Fleming,* a member from Cumber- 

* John Fleming, of *' Maiden's Adventure," Cumberland county, was 
son of Colonel John Fleming, formerly County Lieutenant of Goochland 
and Burgess for that county (and Mary Boiling his wife), was a lawyer 
in large practice, as his fee-book, which is still preserved, attests In 
1755 he was elected to the House ot Burgesses for Cumberland, and 
represented that county for eleven years, until his death in 1767. He 
married Susanna , and dying April 21, 1767, left a son and two 



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12 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

land county, distingnished for his patriotism and the strength 
of his mind, and they were seconded by Mr. George Johnson*, 
from Fairfax county. 

It is unknown whether the friends of Henry's resolutions 
were impressed by the inconsistency of permitting taxes for the 
regulation of external trades and rejecting internal taxes for the 
purpose of revenue. If they were, they probably extricated 
themselves by pleading the infancy of political reasoning, which 
had conceded the distinction to a certain mystical dependence 
of a colony on the mother country. Had Henry boldly cut the 
knot by reprobating both species of taxation equally, and the 
latter as having been submitted to, from an unconsciousness of 
the nerve of manhood, a reluctance to excite discontents, or an 
overpowering idolatry to parliamentary power, the frankness 
and truth of the concession would have destroyed its force. 

In his harangue he certainly indulged a strain never before 
heard in the Royal Capitol. This circumstance passed while he 
was speaking: "Caesar (cried he) had his Brutus, Charles the 
First his Cromwell, and George the Third." ** Treason, sir,** 
exclaimed the speaker, to which Henry instantly replied: "And 



daughters. The son, John Fleming, Major of the ist Virginia, was in 
command of his regiment at the battle of Princeton and was killed in 
that action. Of the brothers of John Fleming, of the text, Thomas was 
Colonel of the 9th Virginia regiment in the revolution, and died in ser- 
vice ; Charles was Captain in the 3d and 7th Virginia, Lieut. -Colonel 
3d and Sth, and Colonel commanding militia or volunteers at the close 
of the war; while a third brother, William, was member of the House of 
Burgesses and Conventions, of the Continental Congress, and Judge of 
the Court of Appeals of Virginia. 

* George Johnston, ol Fairfax county, and a resident of Alexandria, 
was one of the most eminent lawyers of his period in Virginia, and it 
has been claimed that he was the author of the resolutions of 1765. 
He was a member of the House of Burgesses from 1758 continuously 
until his death in the summer of 1766. He married Sarah, daughter of 
Major Dennis McCarty, of Westmoreland county, and was father of 
George Johnston, Lt.-Col. and A. D. C. to Washington, who died in 
service June, 1777. It is a little curious that of the three persons most 
closely associated with the famous resolutions, Henry was the son of a 
native of Scotland, Johnston was born in that country, and Fleming was 
of Scotch descent. 



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VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. 13 

George the Third may he never have either." This dextrous 
escape or retreat, if it did not savour of lively eloquence was of 
itself a victory. In no part of history have I drawn any char- 
acter but according to its size as it appeared at the time. Ac- 
cordingly, in the year 1774, Mr. Henry's is resumed, retouched 
and enlarged, perhaps, with a few repetitions. 

He carried through the Committee of the whole house all the 
resolutions which he proposed. But on the succeeding day, 
when they were reported to the house itself, the two last, as 
being too inflammatory, were laid aside, and the rest, which 
were adopted, being more correspondent with the general senti- 
ment, were by the severance of these two, better guarantees of 
a stable opposition to Parliament. The Governor, after the 
public business, omitted the civility of a parting speech, and 
dissolved the House of Burgesses by a simple fiat, thus by the 
suspicion attending colonial management, and an excessive con- 
fidence in their own security did the British Ministry become the 
pioneers to the dismemberment of the Empire." 



Note IV. 
Treaties With the Indians. 

From the period of the peace with France, in 1763, the policy 
of the English government was to prevent extension of the ex- 
isting colonies westward, and encroachment on lands claimed 
by the Indians by well-defined boundaries. The policy was op- 
posed with especial persistence by Virginia; but in spite of 
opposition it was determined in England that it should be car- 
ried out. 

It was in pursuance with this policy that the treaty of Hard 
Labor, in Western South Carolina, was made in 1768. Under 
this treaty the western boundary of Virginia began at a point on 
the North Carolina line to the westward of Chiswell's lead mines, 
extended to these mines, and thence to the junction of the Ka- 
nawha and Ohio. 

Chiswell's mines were in the present county of Wythe, on the 
present New river, opposite the mouth of Cripple creek. The 
site of the mines is now known as Austinville. 



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14 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Phelan's History of Tennessee states that the line of treaty 
of 1768 began at a point about thirty-six miles east of the Long 
Island of Holston. The last-named place, famous in the early 
history of the Southwest, and of the settlement of Tennessee, 
is on the Holston river just above its junction with the North 
Fork. 

As many whites had already settled to the westward of this 
line and many more were anxious to do so, the arrangement 
caused great discontent. Constant efforts on the part of Vir- 
ginia, in which the Governor rendered valuable assistance, drew 
from the English Government instructions for another treaty, 
which was negotiated at Lochaber, in South Carolina, in 1770. 
This time the eastern limit of the Cherokee lands was marked by 
a line beginning about six miles east of the Long Island of Hol- 
ston, and extending in a straight course to the junction of the 
Kanawha and Ohio. 

By the change between the lines of 1768 and 1770, practically 
all of Virginia and the present West Virginia, west and south- 
west of New and Kanawha rivers, was legally opened for colo- 
nization. 

See Bancro/i (Edition 1885), Vol. Ill, Chap. XXV and XXX. 



Papers Relating to the French and Indian War. 

Amelia — ss. 

In the year 1758 I was ordered out with the Drafted 
Militia from this county to Bedford '& for the use of the Soldiers 
took & had appraised three ^ Cattle, to three pounds sixteen 
shillings; at that time I did not know the owner, was the reason 
no Certificate was given, since which I have been satisfied they 
were the Property of Maj' William Mead. Given under my 
hand this 3d Sept*r, 1770. 

John Winn. 



Bedford — ss. 

This day came William Mead, Gent, before me, John Tal- 
bot, a Justice for this County & made Oath that he has never 
Received any satisfaction for the within Cattle. 



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VIRGINIA LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS. 15 

Given under my hand this 24th day of Jan'y, 1774. 

John Talbot. 



May 17, 1774. To the Honorable Mr. Speaker & Gentlemen 
of the house of Burgesses: 

The Petition of William Mead Humbly sheweth that your 
petitioner had taken from him by the militia of Amelia 
County in the year 1758 three head of Cattle, which your Peti- 
tioner has never Received any satisfaction for; your Petitioner 
begs leave to Inform this honorable house the reason why he 
has never made application for pay before this time, was owing 
to his not being able to obtain proper Certificates from the Com- 
manding officer which your Petitioner has now got & hopes this 
Hon**" house will take his case under their consideration & 
allow him what you in your wisdoms shall think just, & your 
Petitioner as in duty bound shall ever pray, &c. 

[Endorsed]: Petition of Wm. Mead, ref'd to Claims 17 May 
1774. to search for. 

May 7, 1774. 
To the Hon**'*" the Speaker and Burgesses of Virginia: 

James Keeling 

Humbly sheweth that being a soldier in the Virginia 
Regiment and employed in erecting a Fortress, He received a 
hurt which broke his arm and dislocated his shoulder, has ever 
since been exceeding troublesome to him & a great obstruction 
in geting a subsistence, and now involved in the calamitys of 
old age & indigence, Most Humbly implores the interposition of 
the worthy members of this House agreeably with their wonted 
human & generous conduct on similar occasions, and he as in 
duty bound shall ever Pray. 

May, 1774. James Keeling. 

[Endorsed]: Petition of James Keeling, ref'd to Claims, May 
17, 1774. 20^ present, 5;^ ^ an. for life, reported. 



1774. Frederick County — ss: 

Philip Burwell personally appeared before me , 

one of his Majesties Justices of the peace for the County of Fred- 



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16 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

erick, and made oath that himself and James Keeling were both 
soldiers at one time of the Virginia Regiment in the Company 
Commanded by Capt. Buckner. That he saw James Keeling 
with his arm in a sling and every other appearance of a broken 
bone, and he was informed that Keeling had received the Hurt 
helping to raise a Fort at Long Island on the Holstons River a 
day or two before. He also deposeth that it was mention that 
the hurt was of such a nature that Keeling's arm must be taken 
off, and further that he is fully of opinion the present weak and 
much disabled condition of his arm was occasioned by the above 
hurt, and that the sd. Keeling was (before receiving the hurt) 
always reported an active good Soldier. Sworn before me 
this Day of . 



Frederick County — ss: 

Personally appeared James Keeling and Arthur Dent before 
me and made oath as Follows: the said James Keeling that he 
was a soldier in the Virginia Regiment in the year 1761, in as- 
sisting to raise the Fort at Long Island he received a Hurt 
which Broke his arm and shoulder, of which he has been ever 
since rendered incapable of getting a livelihood by his Labour: 
and the said Arthur Dent made oath that he was a soldier in 
the Virginia Regiment at the same time, and that he remem- 
bered the above accident to have happened, that he was in the 
Country's service at that time, and that he Verily Believes he 
Has not been able to get his Living by Labour since that time. 
Sworn to before me this 13th day of June, 1772. 

James Wood, 
(to be continued.) 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 17 

THE JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 



Found in the Virginia State Library in 1901. 



[Introduction- Continumd.] 



A grave question of fact has been raised anew by the recent 
discussion of the Brown letters and the Harper's Ferry incident. 
Did Frederick the Great present a sword to Washington, accom- 
panied with the handsome sentiment: ** From the oldest to the 
greatest general?'* Stated more narrowly, did he present a 
sword, with or without the sentiment ? 

Notwithstanding Col. Lewis Washington's postive testimony 
before the Senate Committee, heretofore quoted, the conclusion 
is unavoidable, after patient investigation, that the tradition is a 
myth. Not one of Washington's many biographers mentions 
the sword, and surely every one of them would have been glad 
to chronicle so notable an incident if there had been any histori- 
cal basis for it. Again, there have been elaborate and ex- 
haustive catalogues published about Washington's personal 
belongings, and the swords have been described in minute 
detail. No mention is made of a sword presented by Fred- 
erick. 

The distinguished Virginian and author, Dr. Moncure D. 
Conway, now of New York, has kindly aided me in my investi- 
gation, and I venture to quote from a letter lately received from 
him, under dale of April 9. 

**I endeavored many years ago to find out just when the 
Frederick legend, which arose in 1780, about an equally myth- 
ical portrait, became associated with the sword. I could find 
no earlier mention of it than that of the Hon. Mr. Summers, of 
Kanawha, in 1843, when he presented another Washington 
sword to Congress. Summers did not, however, quote any 
words of Frederick as accompanying it. Of course the legend 
of a sword must have existed in the family previously, but if the 
alleged words of Frederick had then (1843) been connected with 
the sword alluded to, Summers would probably have quoted 

them. 

a 



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18 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

"Washington did possess a sword sent him from Germany 
by a manufacturer of weapons, named Alte, at Solingen. It 
bears an inscription laudatory of the * Condemner of despotism,' 
etc., but not at all resembling the sentence ascribed to Frederick. 
The inscription is in German, and it is possible that some of the 
family * * * regarded it as sent by Frederick; though it would 
be still difficult to discover how it became associated with the 
sword at Albany. About the latter the late George Howell, 
State Librarian, wrote me from Albany twelve years ago that oh 
seeing it he thought the sword, with its steel beads, a very nig- 
gardly present to be sent by Frederick to Washington ; and one 
report that I saw of Prince Henry's visit to it led me to suspect 
that he was rather ashamed of it. 

"The German, Alte. sent his sword over by his son, who, 
instead of delivering it to Washington, sold it to some broker 
shop in Philadelphia for $30. A friend of the President found 
it there and carried it to Washington C1795), who was much 
puzzled and had inquiries made by his Minister in Holland. I 
do not know where it is now.*' 

The LaFayette pistols were genuine, and one. of them is now 
in the State Library of New York. Dr. Conway writes me that 
the other, having b^en lent to a gentleman for an attraction at 
some charitable exhibition, was stolen from his hotel in Phila- 
delphia, and has never been recovered. 

The report of Col. Robert E. Lee. herewith published, gives 
in brief exactness the story of the capture of Brown and his co- 
conspirators, and, with what I have written, constitutes, I hope, 
a sufficient introduction to the letters. 



Col. R. E. Lee's Report. 

Headquarters Harper's Ferry, 

October 19, 1859. 
Colonel : I have the honor to report, for the information of 
the Secretary of War, that on arriving here on the night of the 
17th instant, in obedience to Special Orders No. 194 of that 
date from your office, I learned that a party of insurgents, about 
II p. m. on the i6th, had seized the watchmen stationed at the 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 19 

armory, arsenal, rifle factory, and bridge across the Potomac, 
and taken possession of those points. They then dispatched 
six men, under one of their party, called Captain Aaron C. 
Stevens, to arrest the principal citizens in the neighborhood and 
incite the negroes to join in the insurrection. The party took 
Colonel L. W. Washington from his bed about ij4 a. m. on 
the 17th and brought him, with four of his servants, to this place. 
Mr. J. H. Allstadt and six of his servants were in the same 
manner seized about 3 a. m., and arms placed in the hands of 
the negroes. Upon their return here, John C. Cook, one of the 
party sent to Mr. Washington's, was dispatched to Maryland 
with Mr. Washington's wagon, two of his servants and three 
of Mr. Allstadt' s for arms and ammunition, &c. As day ad- 
vanced, and citizens of Harper's Ferry commenced their usual 
avocations, they were separately captured, to the number of 
forty, as well as I could learn, and confined in one room of the 
fire-engine house of the armory, which seems early to have been 
selected as a point of defence. About 11 a. m. the volunteer 
companies from Virginia began to arrive, and the Jefferson 
Guards and volunteers from Charlestown, under Captain J. W. 
Rowen, I understood, were first on the ground. The Ham- 
tramck Guards, Captain V. M. Butler; the Shepherdstown 
Troop, Captain Jacob Rienahart; and Captain Alburtis's com- 
pany from Martinsburg arrived in the afternoon. These com- 
panies, under the direction of Colonels R. W. Baylor and John 
T. Gibson, forced the insurgents to abandon their positions at 
the bridge and in the village, and to withdraw within the armory 
inclosure, where they fortified themselves in the fire-engine 
house, and carried ten of their prisoners for the purpose of in- 
suring their safety and facilitating their escape, whom they 
termed hostages, and whose names are Colonel L. W. Wash- 
ington, of Jefferson county, Virginia; Mr. J. H. Allstadt. of 
Jefferson county, Virginia; Mr. Israel Russell, justice of the 
peace, Harper's Ferry; Mr. John Donahue, clerk of Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad; Mr. Terence Byrne, of Maryland; Mr. 
George D. Shope, of Frederick, Maryland; Mr. Benjamin Mills, 
master armorer. Harper's Ferry arsenal ; Mr. A. M. Ball, mas- 
ter machinist. Harper's Ferry arsenal; Mr. J. E. P. Dainger- 
field, paymaster's clerk, Harper's Ferry arsenal; Mr. J. Burd, 



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20 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

armorer, Harper's Ferry arsenal. After sunset more troops 
arrived. Captain B. B. Washington's company from Win- 
chester, and three companies from Fredericktown, Maryland, 
under Colonel Shriver. Later in the evening the companies 
from Baltimore, under General Charles C. Edgerton, second 
light brigade, and a detachment of marines, commanded by 
Lieutenant J. Green, accompanied by Major Russell, of that 
corps, reached Sandy Hook, about one and a half mile east 
of Harper's Ferry. At this point I came up with these last- 
named troops, and leaving General Edgerton and his command 
on the Maryland side of the river for the night, caused the ma- 
rines to proceed to Harper's Ferry, and placed them within the 
armory grounds to prevent the possibility of the escape of the 
insurgents. Having taken measures to halt in Baltimore the 
artillery companies ordered from Fort Monroe, I made prepara- 
tions to attack the insurgents at daylight. But for the fear of 
sacrificing the lives of some of the gentlemen held by them as 
prisoners in a midnight assault, I should have ordered the attack 
at once. 

Their safety was the subject of painful consideration, and to 
prevent, if possible, jeopardizing their lives, I determined to 
summon the insurgents to surrender. As soon after daylight as 
the arrangements were made Lieutenant J. E. B. Stewart, ist 
cavalry, who had accompanied me from Washington as staff 
officer, was dispatched, under a flag, with a written summons 
(a copy of which is hereto annexed marked A). Knowing the 
character of the leader of the insurgents, I did not expect it would 
be accepted. I had therefore directed that the volunteer troops, 
under their respective commanders, should be paraded on the 
lines assigned them outside the armory, and had prepared a 
storming party of twelve marines, under their commander. Lieu- 
tenant Green, and had placed them close to the engine-house 
and secure from its fire. Three marines were furnished with 
sledge-hammers to break in the doors, and the men were in- 
structed how to distinguish our citizens from the insurgents; to 
attack with the bayonets and not to injure the blacks detained 
in custody unless they resisted. Lieutenant Stewart was also 
directed not to receive from the insurgents any counter proposi- 
tions. If they accepted the terms offered, they must imme- 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 21 

diately deliver up their arms and release their prisoners. If they 
did not, he must, on leaving the engine-house, give me the sig- 
nal. My object was, with a view of saving our citizens, to have 
as short an interval as possible between the summons and attack. 
The summons, as I had anticipated, was rejected. At the con- 
certed signal the storming party moved quickly to the door and 
commenced the attack. The fire-engines within the house had 
been placed by the besieged close to the doors. The doors 
were fastened by ropes, the spring of which prevented their 
being broken by the blows of the hammers. The men were^ 
therefore, ordered to drop the hammers, and, with a portion of 
the reserve, to use as a battering-ram a heavy ladder, with which 
they dashed in a part of the door and gave admittance to the 
storming party. The fire of the insurgents up to this time had 
been harmless. At the threshold one marine fell mortally 
wounded. The rest, led by Lieutenant Green and Major Rus- 
sell, quickly ended the contest. The insurgents that resisted 
were bayoneted. Their leader, John Brown, was cut down by 
the sword of Lieutenant Green, and our citizens were protected 
by both officers and men. The whole was over in a few minutes. 
After our citizens were liberated and the wounded cared for, 
Lieutenant-Colonel S. S. Mills, of the 53rd Maryland regiment, 
with the Baltimore Independent Greys, Lieutenant B. F. Simp- 
son commanding, was sent on the Maryland side of the river to 
search for John G. Cook, and to bring in the arms, &c., belong- 
ing to the insurgent party, which were said to be deposited in a 
school-house two and a half miles distant. Subsequently, 
Lieutenant J. E. B. Stewart, with a party of marines, was dis- 
patched to the Kennedy farm, situated in Maryland, about four 
and a half miles from Harper's Ferry, which had been rented by 
John Brown and used as the depot for his men and munitions. 
Colonel Mills saw nothing of Cook, but found the boxes of arms 
(Sharp's carbines and belt revolvers), and recovered Mr. Wash- 
ington's wagon and horses. Lieutenant Stewart found also at 
the Kennedy farm a number of sword pikes, blankets, shoes, 
tents, and all the necessaries for a campaign. These articles 
have been deposited in the government store-house at the 
armory. 
. From the information derived from the papers found upon the 



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22 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

persons and among the baggage of the insurgents, and the state- 
ment of those now in custody, it appears that the party consisted 
of nineteen men^fourteen white and five black. Tliat they 
were headed by John Brown, of some notoriety in Kansas, who 
in June last located himself in Maryland, at the Kennedy farm, 
where he has been engaged in preparing to capture the United 
States works at Harper's Ferry, tie avows that his object was 
the liberation of the slaves of Virginia, and of the whole South ; 
and acknowledges that he has been disappointed in his expecta- 
tions of aid from the black as well as white population, both in 
the Southern and Northern States, 'the blacks whom he forced 
from their homes in this neighborhood, as far as I could learn, 
gave him no voluntary assistance. The servants of Messrs. 
Washington and Allstadt, retained at the armory, took no part 
in the conflict, and those carried to Maryland returned to their 
homes as soon as released. The result proves that the plan was 
the attempt of a fanatic or madman, which could only end in 
failure; and its temporary success v. as owing to the panic and 
confusion he succeeded in creating by magnifying his numbers. 
I append a list of the insurgents (marked B). Cook is the 
only man known to have escaped. The other survivors of the 
expedition, viz: John Brown, A. C. Stevens, Edwin Coppic, and 
Green Shields (alias S. Emperor), I have delivered into the 
hands of the marshal of the western district of Virginia and the 
sheriff of Jefferson county. They were escorted to Charlestown 
by a detachment of marines, under Lieutenant Green. About 
nine o'clock this evening I received a report from Mr. Moore, 
from Pleasant Valley, Maryland, that a body of men had, about 
sunset, descended from the mountains, attacked the house of 
Mr. Gennett, and from the cries of murder and screams of the 
women and children, he believed the residents of the valley were 
being massacred. . The alarm and excitement in tl^e village of 
Harper's Ferry was increased by the arrival of families from 
Sandy Hook, fleeing for safety. The report was, however, so 
improbable that I could give no credence to it, yet I thought it 
possible that some atrocity might have been committed, and I 
started with twenty-five marines, under Lieutenant Green, accom- 
panied by Lieutenant Stewart, for the scene of the alleged out- 
rage, about four and a half miles distant. I was happy to find 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 23 

it a false alarm. The inhabitants of Pleasant Valley were quiet 
and unhaifmed, and Mr. Gennet^ and his family safe and asleep. 

I will now, in obedience to your dispatch of this date, direct 
the detachment of marines to return to the nayy-yard at Wash- 
ington in the train that passes here at i^ a. m. to-night, and 
will myself take advantage of the same train to report to you in 
person at the War Department. I must also ask to express my 
thanks to Lieutenant Stewart, Major Russell, and Lieutenant 
Green, for the aid they afforded me, and my entire commenda- 
tion of the conduct of the detachment of marines, who were at 
all times ready and prompt in the execution of any diity. 

The promptness with which the volunteer troops repaired to 
the scene of disturbance, and the alacricty they displayed to sup- 
press the gross outrage against law and order, I know will elicit 
your hearty approbation. Equal zeal was shown by the presi- 
dent and officers of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company 
in their transportation of the troops, and in their readiness to 
furnish the facilities of their well-ordered road. 

A list of the killed and wounded, as far ascome to my know- 
ledge, is herewith annexed (marked C), and I enclose a copy of 
the ** Provisional Constitution and ordinances for the people of 
the United United States,** of which there were a large number 
prepared for issut by the insurgents. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. E. Lee, 
Colonel Commanding, 
Colonel S. Cooper, 
Adjutant-General U, S, Army, Washington City, D, C 



A. 

Headquarters Harper's Ferry, 
October i8, 1859. 
Colonel Lee, United St^te? army, commanding the troops sent 
by the President of the United States to suppress the insurrec- 
tion at this place, demands the surrender of the persons in the 
armory buildings. 

If they will peaceably surrender themselves and restore the 
pillageor property, they shall be kept in safety to await the orders 



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24 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of the President Colonel Lee represents to them, in all frank- 
ness, that it is impossible for them to escape; that the armory 
is surrounded on all sides by troops, and that if he is compelled 
to take them by force he cannot answer for their safety. 

R. E. Lee, 
Colonel Commanding United States Troops. 



B. 
List of Insurgents — 14. 

John Brown, of New York, commander-in-chief, badly 
wounded; prisoner. 

Aaron C. Stevens, Connecticut, captain, badly wounded; pris- 
oner. 

Edwin Coppic, Iowa, lieutenant, unhurt; prisoner. 

Oliver Brown, New York, captain; killed. 

Watson Brown, New York, captain; killed. 

Albert Hazlett, Pennsylvania, lieutenant; killed. 

William Leeman, Maine, lieutenant; killed. 

Stuart Taylor, Canada, private; killed. 

Charles P. Tidd, Maine, private; killed. 

William Thompson, New York, private; killed. 

Adolph Thompson, New York, private; killed. 

John Kag^i, Ohio, private; killed. 

Jeremiah Anderson, Indiana, private; killed. 

John E. Cook, Connecticut, captain; escaped. 

C. 
Negroes — 5. 

Dangerfield, Newby, Ohio; killed. 

Louis Leavy, Oberlin, Ohio; killed. 

Green Shields (alias Emperor), New York, unhurt; prisoner. 

Copeland, Oberlin, Ohio; prisoner. 

O. P. Anderson, Pennsylvania; unaccounted for. 

List of the Killed and Wounded by the Insur- 
gents— 14. 

Fontaine Beckham, railroad agent and mayor of Harper's 
Ferry; killed. 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 26 

G. W. Turner, Jefferson county, Virginia; killed. 

Thomas Boerly, Harper's Ferry; killed. 

Heywood Shepherd, negro, railroad porter; killed. 

Private Quinn, marine corps; killed. 

Mr. Murphy; wounded. 

Mr. Young; wounded. 

Mr. Richardson; wounded. 

Mr. Hammond; wounded. 

Mr. McCabe; wounded. 

Mr. Dorsey; wounded. 

Mr. Hooper; wounded. 

Mr. Woollet; wounded. 

Private Rupert, marine corps; wounded. 



Colonel Lee to the Secretary of War. 

Harper's Ferry Arsenal, October i8, 1859. 

Sir, — Upon a more deliberate examination of the wounds of 
O. Brown, they are believed not to be mortal. He has three 
wounds, but they are not considered by the surgeon as bad as 
first reported. Please direct me what to do with him and the 
other white prisoners. I am very respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

R. E. Lee, 
Colonel Commanding, 

The John Brown Letters. 
E. B. TO John Brown. 

[Envelope.] [Printed] God Hath Made Of One Blood All 
Nations Of Men. [MS.] Capt. John Brown, Charlestown, 
Virginia. 

[Endorsed]: E. B., Rhode Island. 

Newport, R. L, Eleventh Month, 9th, 1859. 

John Brown: 

Dear Friend, — Thy letter of the ist of this month, in which 
thee acknowledges the reception of my first letter, & says thee 
would be grateful for another from me, has quickened every 



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26 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

pulse of my woman's heart. I am very happy that it is within 
my power, even in so humble a manner, to contribute some\yhat 
to thy consolation. Besides, I am, if possible, even happier to 
know from thyself that the opinion which thousands of Friends 
entertain in regard to thy attempt at Harper's Ferry is not in- 
correct; but that, as we believed, so it is indeed true, that thou 
didst undertake that brave & heroic work from the promptings 
of a strong religious concern. 

I have said before that the members of our Society, being non- 
resistants, do not generally approve of taking up arms; but, as 
during the war for independence, the patriotism of some Friends 
overcame their scruples on this point, so that they fought for 
liberty, so now I am of opinion that Friends approve thy inten- 
tions, & readily pardon the means employed in the nobleness of 
thy zeal for the poor slaves that thou mightst obtain liberty for 
them. Indeed, if it is ever right to take the sword in order to 
contend in defense of great principles, then, by all the circum- 
stances of thy life, that right has been thine. 

If La Fayette won the lasting gratitude of the American 
people, because he rendered aid in the great strife for freedom, 
they should not fail at the same time to remember that he gave 
his fortune & himself to the cause of those who were legally in 
rebellion, & avowed treason. Thou hast made ^s great a self- 
sacrifice. Thy fortune & thy life, like his, have been consecrated 
to the cause of human freedom. The red -taped circumlocution 
office of Buchanan's government may idolize the name of La 
Fayette, & seek to censure thee; but future history, which, like 
God's eye, views all things impartially, will justly rank thee, if 
a less successful, yet a not less honored defender of human 
rights. 

Yes, it is true, as well said by thee, that Christ armed Peter 
with a sword. If thee believes thvself, as called by thy inward 
spirit & sincere conscience to have been chosen to the work 
which thou hast undertaken, then thou hast no guilt in the sight 
of God, in that act. It is not obedience to human, but to divine 
laws, that makes our actions right. Thus the Word shows us 
that many of God's most eminent servants have been those who 
were called to violate human laws in behalf of truth & justice, 
Sc very many sealed their testinjony with their blood. 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 27 

Thy dear wife, & others mentioned by thee, shall be cared for 
by me, & I trust by all Friends, to the extent of my poor ability. 
Whatever can be done for their comfort or welfare, within my 
power, shall be very earnestly contributed. O, I do pray that 
thy poor wife, & all those of thy family living, may have much 
sympathy, & very many friends, for my heart bleeds for them in 
their great sorrow ! 

Now, my dear friend, what can I say to thee more ! I dread 
to speak the word that may be the last. Oh, I pray for thee 
morning & evenings that God would be very near thee & bless 
thee ! My heart, filled with sympathy for thee as it is, thrilled 
with joy when I learned that my dear Sister, Lydia Child, of- 
fered to nurse thee. How willingly would my hands perform 
that office for thee, if circumstances permitted ! It was very 
noble too, & generous minds will not forget it, that Geo. H. 
Hoyt volunteered his services in thy defence. A better advocate 
for thee than Portia he may have been ; but, alas, he had to deal 
with a more cruel Shylock. 

God be with thee; &, if thee does never hear from me again, 
know that my tearful prayers are ever for thee. If thou must 
die, know that thou shalt be numbered among the martyrs. 
Read the Word much, & find there how those who were mar- 
tyrs for a righteous cause shall be most honored in a future life. 
O, I beg thee, I intreat thee, to put all thy trust in God ! Re- 
member that Jesus was legally executed, but that he died in be- 
half of justice & humanity! I myself should count it a glory to 
be lifted upon the same cross! 

If, now, my letters have furnished thee even one little moment 
of comfort, I am a thousand-fold repaid. God bless thee ! 
Farewell ! 

From thy friend, E. B. 



To Mrs. John Brown. 

[Envelope.] [MS]. Mrs. John Brown, Charlestown, Va 
[Endorsed]: Anonymous Nonsense. 

Toringford, Ct., Nov. 15th, 1859. 
To my unknown Friend Mrs. John Brown: 

I send you the following address, which is an exact copy 



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28 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of one just sent to Governor Wise. Please show it to your 
husband's counsel, or to any friend or legal adviser. It may 
suggest some plan to mitigate his sentence, or secure its com- 
mutation to imprisonment for life. Be of good courage, and 
hope against hope. 

A Sympathizing Friend. 



To Governor Wise. 
To his excellency Governor Wise, of the State of Virginia: 

Very De^r Sir: 

I t^ke this timely opportunity to call your profound at- 
tention to the unprecedented haste in the trial and conviction of 
John Brown and his associates for causing the riot and blood- 
shed at *' Harper's Ferry." 

We ask no pardon in the case. But we do ask at least a 
year' s delay to execute sentence. 

From what I see and hear I believe that if the State insists 
upon the execution of these men on the 2d day Dec. inst., she 
will commit a serious and irretrievable blunder. 

Besides, this case can only be finally disposed of by the U. S. 
Court, which only by the Constitution is competent to try crim- 
inals in all cases of T R E A S O N. 

Now the only way for the South to put herself in a just posi- 
tion toward the North is to secure at once an extra session of 
the Virginia Legislator and by overruling the motion already 
made in arrest of judgment, refer the whole question to the 
Supreme Court of the United States for a final sentence! If the 
South do not heed this counsel they will risk an attempt at res- 
cue and farther bloodshed. "A word to the wise is sufficient." 
** Be wise in time, *Tis madness to defer." 

(Signed) An Onlooker. 

P. S. As the constitution provides that the Court of the 
United States alone is competent to try criminals in all cases of 
TREASON all the proceedings in the case of Brown up to 
this time on a charge of Treason are simply null and void in law. 

We will not believe that the Sovereign State of Virginia wilt 
in a moment of panic assume and keep such an attitude be- 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 29 

fore the country and the world, as to make and execute laws for 
these United States until we are obliged to believe it. 



John Irvin to the Sheriff of Jefferson County, 
Virginia, Charlestown. 

[Envelope] [MS.] To the Sheriff of Jefferson County, Vir- 
ginia, Charlestown. 

[Endorsed]: John Irvin, Lima, Ohio. Warning. Not very 
reliable. 

Near Lima, Allen Co., O., Nov. 21st, '59. 

To the Sheriff of Jefferson Co., Va: 

I have heard to day that muskets are being distributed in 
this and other free states for the rescue of Brown and Confed- 
erates at Charles Town, Convicted for grave offences against 
the laws of the State of Virgina. 

Whether the report be true or not I cannot say certainly, but 
the will of the Abollitionists and black republicans is good to do 
it, and there is no telling what the wild spirit of fannaicism will 
do particularly as it is urged on by relig. fanatics and politicle 
demagogues at all Events the authorities with you should be on 
the lookout and be prepared for contingencies. 

I heard Chase make a speech at lima a few days before the 
governors Election in whitch he said that the republican Organi- 
zation was to prevent the spread of Slavery in the terretorees and 
to Eradicate slavery from the whole Country, that he knew what 
the decisions of the Supreme Court would be in regard to Slavery 
in the territories and with regard to the fugitive Slave law, but 
that he was prepared to resist them. 

I am a Virginian but have been residing since 1857 in this 
County, but feel that I am in the wrong pew. 

In the true spirit of a Virginian I am, &c., 

John Irvin. 

P. S. My name kneed not go to the publick as it would be 
an injury to me, but the above statements are never the less 
true. J. I. 



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30 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

To THE Clerk of Court, Charlestown. 
[No envelope, no endorsement.] 

(Copy;) 
** Clerk of the Court, Charlestown, Va. : 

Sir, — You had better caution your authorities to be careful 
what you — with ** Ossawatimi Brown,*' So sure as you hurt 
One hair of his head — mark my word the following day you will 
see every City — Town and Village South of Mason & Dixon's 

line in 

Flames. 

We are determined to put down Slavery at any odds. 

Forcibly if it must. Peaceably if it can. 

Believe me when I tell you the end is not yet by a long odds. 

All of us at the North sympathize with the 
Martyrs of Harper's Ferry." 

On the Envelope: '* Clerk of the Court, Charlestown, Ka- 
nawha Co* y, Virginia." 

Postmarked: **New York, Oct. 23, 1859." 



G. W. Gevin to Andrew Hunter. 

[Endorsed]: Frankfort Telegraph. 
By Telegraph. 

Frankfort, Ky., Nov. 22nd, 1859. 
Andrew Hunter: 

Did you on Fifteenth address a letter to the Mayor of 
Frankfort, Ky. ? Answer quick. 

G. W. Gevin, Mayor. 

Nemo to Andrew Hunter, Esq. 
[Envelope.] [MS.] Andrew Hunter, Esq.. Att'y & C, 
Clarksburgh, Virginia. Suposed to be Charlestown, Va. 
[Endorsed]: Detective. 
[Printed]: Angier House, S. Merchant Proprietor. 

Cleveland, December 7, 1859. 
Dr. Sr.: 

I am here, & and as yet have no tidings of the party about 
whom I am in search of 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 31 

The probability is that the Detective Force I have employed, 
will find out something to at least give us a clue to the where- 
abouts of our ferring Child. God only knows how anxious I 
am as well as you to light on the person we seek ! 
Will write again in the morning. 

Yrs. truly, 

Nemo. 



Jesse Walker to Andrew Hunter, Esq. 
[No envelope.] [Endorsed]: Jesse Walker. 

New Market, Nov. 21, '59. 
Andrew Hunter, Esq., Charlestown, Va. 

Dr. Sir, — I see in the public prints that you are iii possession 
of the correspondence of the notorious John Brown, and having 
allso noticed that Brown, when examined, stated that he expected 
assistance from North & South Carolina, my object in addressing 
you this note is to know whether he had or had not any corres- 
pondent in this State. We have an old Abolition Preacher in 
this State by the name of Daniel Worth who professes to be of 
the true Weslian faith that we are very suspicious of him, his 
associations is with persons of the very lowest order of Society. 
Horace Greely, Garret Smith, Gov. Chase and others are great 
men with him. I have no doubt you have been annoyed by 
letters from different parts of the country, but I hope you will 
pardon me as I am anxious, as well as many of my neighbours, 
to know if Brown had any correspondent in this country. 

Yours Respectfully, 

Jesse Walker. 
Andrew Hunter, Esq. 

Address: New Market, Randolph Co., N. C. 



Mahala Doyle to John Brown. 
[No envelope.] [Endorsed]: Mahala Doyle. 

(Copy.) 

Chattanooga, Tennessee, Nov. 20th, 1859. 
John Brown: 

Sir, — Altho' vengence is not mine I confess that I do feel 
gratified, to hear that you were stopped in your fiendish career 



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32 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

at Harper* s Ferry, with the loss of your two sons, you can now 
appreciate my distress in Kansas, when you then & there entered 
my house at midnight and arrested my Husband and two boys 
and took them out of the yard and in cold blood shot them dead 
in my hearing, you cant say you done it to free slaves, we had 
none and never expected to own one, but has only made me a 
poor disconsolate widow with helpless children, while I feel for 
your folly I do hope & trust that you will meet youc just reward. 
O how it pained my heart to hear the dying groans of my Hus- 
band & children, if this scrawl gives you any consolation you 
are welcome to it. 

Mahala Doyle. 

N. B. My son John Doyle whos life I beged of you is now 
grown up and is very desirous to be at Charlestown on the day 
of your execution, would certainly be there if his means would 
permit it that he might adjust the rope around your neck if Gov. 
Wise would permit it. 

M. Doyle. 



To Clerk of the Court of Jefferson County. 
[Endorsed]: Clerk of County Ct. of Kenawha. Menace. 

Kanawha C. H., Va., 29th Oct , 1859. 
Sir, — The inclosed is a copy of an anonymous* letter received 
by me last night. Thinking it may have been intended for you, 
I send the copy. The original has been enclosed to Governor 
Wise. 

On the Envelope the letter was directed thus: 

** Clerk of the Court, Charlestown, Kanawha Co'y, Virginia.** 

Postmarked: " New York, Oct. 23, 1859.'* 

Yours. Resp., 

A. W. Quarrier, 
Q'k Kanawha County, Va. 
To the Clerk of County Court, Jefferson C*ty, Va. 

*The letter here referred to is that printed above, addressed ** Clerk 
of the Court, Charlestown." 

(to be continued) 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 33 



THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY.^ 



By John Walter Wayland. 



(continued) 

About the same year that the Germans began to locate in the 
districts adjoining *' Massanutting," another German settlement 
was begun in the lower part of the Valley, in what is now Jeffer- 
son county. 

At the period of which we are speaking, the only crossing of 
the Potomac for many miles east and west of the * * Great Falls * * 
(Harper's Ferry) was the "Old Packhorse Ford,*' a few miles 
above the junction of the Potomac and the Shenandoah. How 
long this ancient ford had been in use before it became known 
to the white man, is only a matter for conjecture. It was the 
** bridge," so to speak, upon the great Indian highway north 
and south ; and how many thousands of the aborigines had passed 
that way, from generation to generation, cannot be told. Here, 
too, on both sides of the river, the red warriors had often grap- 
pled in their tribal death struggles, as the great numbers of arrow 
heads and otheV relics found in the vicinity bear witness. By 



Author's Note Concerning *'The Germans of the Valley." 
* I desire to express in this way my sincere gratitude to the Editor of 
the Virginia Historical Magazine for correcting in his April issue sev- 
eral errors that appear in my essay on the Germans of the Valley; and 
while I thus express my thanks to the Editor for the corrections already 
offered, I also solicit competent criticism from others; for although I 
made every effort in my power to have the paper true to fact in every 
instance, it is nevertheless very probable, in consideration of the stress 
of manifold duties under which the essay was written, that it is marred 
by other errors in addition to those already corrected. Moreover, lack 
of time for research and compilation compelled me to give only a pass- 
ing notice to many subjects worthy of a more thorough investigation; 
hence any additional information concerning any point too briefly men- 
tioned, or the calling of attention to the omission of any fact too im_ 
portant to be neglected, as well as the correction of any error, by mean^ 
of either a public or private medium, will be most kindly received. 
Bridgewater, Va. John Walter Wayland. 



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34 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINL. 

this way, too, perhaps, marched the warring or commercial hosts 
of that mysterious race that has left us no trace of its language 
or its history, that puzzling race that we call the Mound Builders, 
for want of a better name. Long forgotten races, who, thousands 
of years ago, may have possessed our fair land, possibly trod 
this ancient ford, just as did the boys in Gray and Blue from '6i 
to *65, 

About 1726 or J 727 a number of Pennsylvania Germans crossed 
the Cohongoruton (Potomac) at the Old Packhorse Ford, and 
founded a village near by that they called * * New Mecklenburg. * * 
In 1762 this village was incorporated under the name of '* Shep- 
herdstown," being thus renamed in honor of Thomas Shepherd 
(Schaefer), who fettled there in 1734. The names of most of 
the Germans that founded New Mecklenburg may be found to- 
day in the northern part of Jefferson county, and they belong to 
many of the most respectable families of that section. Mr. 
Howell Brown, a county surveyor of Jefferson, has put the set- 
tlement of New Mecklenburg in 1728, and land grants bearing 
as early a date as 1729 are still preserved in some of the old 
families; but inasmuch as the first settlements in Jefferson, as in 
many other localities, were made several years prior to the 
issuance of any grant in that section, it is safe to accept 1726 or 
1727 as the year when the village of New Mecklenburg was 
founded. The families that first located at. and in the vicinity 
of, New Mecklenburg were simply squatters upon the land; but 
many of them afterward purchased their right to the property 
from a Welshman, Richard Ap Morgan, who obtained a large 
grant of land about 1730. On High street, Shepherdstown, be- 
tween Princess and Mill streets, is a small log house, which is 
believed to have been built by Richard Morgan. It is, at any 
rate, one of the first buildings erected in the Valley. 

The author of Norris* History of the lower Shenandoah Valley 
says: "Jefferson county has the honor, beyond all peradventure, 
of being the seat of the first settlements of the white man in the 
great valley stretching its fertile hills and dales from the Potomac 
southward for over one hundred miles. Undoubtedly the first 
white man who built a cabin south of the Potomac did so upon 
the spot where now stands the ancient and pleasant little village 
of Shepherdstown." But we have seen that the settlement near 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 35 

Swift Run Gap was also made about 1726. It seems reasonable 
to conclude, then, that when the Germans first came across the 
Potomac most of them settled down at once, founding New 
Mecklenburg, as we have seen, while a few bolder spirits pushed 
on up the Shenandoah and located on or near the ** old field ** 
of ** Massanutting." 

In 1732 Yost Heit (Joist Hite) came from York, Pa., bring- 
ing with him his three sons-in-law and others, and seltied on 
the Opequon river, dve hiiles south of where Winchester now 
stands. His homestead was upon the great Indian highway to 
the upper parts of the Valley, which highway was afterwards 
widened, macadamized and otherwise improved, and is now the 
well known Valley Turnpike. Jacob Chrisman, one of Hite*s 
sons-in-law, proceeded two miles further south, on the same road, 
and settled at a spring, still known as Chrisman* s Spring; George 
Baumann (Bowman), another son-in-law, located still further 
south, on Cedar creek; and the third, Paul Frohmann (Froman), 
also settled on Cedar creek, several miles west of Bowman. 
Peter Stephans and several others founded Stephansburg, 
which was afterwards known as Newtown, later as Stephens- 
burg, and now as Stephens City. Colonel John Hite, a son of 
Joist Hite, distinguished for his bravery during the Indian wars, 
built near Winchester, in 1753, a house of limestone, which was 
at that time considered the most elegant residence west of the 
Blue Ridge, and it is still standing, preserved in good condition. 

Several years prior to the settlement of any portion of the 
Valley by the white man, a *' Dutchman" from New York, by 
the name of John Vanmeter, accompanied a war party of the 
Delaware Indians on one of their excursions southward against 
their inveterate enemies, the Catawbas. Near or upon the present 
site of Franklin, the county seat of Pendleton county, W. Va. , 
a fierce battle was fought, in which the Delawares were worsted 
and driven back. Vanmeter took part in the battle and escaped 
afterward with the defeated braves; and although he was on 
the losing side in this venture, he at once set about, with true 
German instinct, to turn his ill-starred trip to good account. 
He had seen the fertile bottom lands, all unoccupied, along the 
Shenandoah and the South Branch of the Potomac; he made 
application to Governor Gooch for a grant of land, and obtained 



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36 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

40,000 acres in the lower part of the Valley. It was Vanmeter's 
grant that Joist Hite purchased in 1732, when he and his party- 
settled on the Opequon. 

One of the prominent early settlers in the Valley was Jacob 
Stauffer (Stover), who obtained a large grant of land that ex- 
tended from the confluence of the two forks of the Shenandoah 
river southwestward along the main stream into what is now Page 
county, thus comprising portions of the present counties of Page, 
Warren and Shenandoah. It is related of Stover that, in order 
to obtain his grrant, he gave names to every horse, cow and pig 
that he possessed, and represented them as heads of families, 
ready to settle on his land. He located near the northeast end 
of the Massanutten Mountain and founded there Stufferstadt, 
the present town of Strasburg. 

Part of Stover's grant was on what was then called ** Mesinetto 
creek,'* in the present county of Page. A settlement was estab- 
lished there that was known later as the " Masinutton settle- 
ment." To-day the site is preserved in the little town of 
Massanutten, on the Shenandoah river, about four miles south- 
west of Luray. Coupling these facts with some noted above, it 
is safe to conclude that the settlement at '* Massanuttin^," on the 
"Shenando,*' founded by Rangdmann, Falk, Muller and others 
on land purchased from Stover, was identical with the **Masi- 
nutton settlement " mentioned above, and hence on or near the 
site of the present village of Massanutten. Thus, too, the 
** Massanutting" settlement of Rangdmann, Falk and Muller 
would have been within the then easy distance of twelve or fif- 
teen miles* of the other German settlement near Elkton, in the 
southeast part of Rockingham — the Swift Run Gap settlement. 

It was stated above that Stover obtained his grant in 1730. 
Kercheval and some others say 1733. The change to 1730 is 
made upon the strength of Rangdmann's petition of 1733, which 
declares that ''about four years past" they (Rangdmann and 
his party) had purchased their land of Stover. This would put 
Stover in possession as early as 1729 or 1730; and it is not 



* I do not mean by this that distances were more easily covered then 
than now, which is not true, but that "neighbors" in those days often 
lived miles apart. 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 37 

probable that the facts were misstated in a petition to the General 
Court, composed of the Governor and Council, who must have 
had at hand facilities for ascertaining when the several grants were 
made. 

In 1734 Robert Harper settled at the "Great Falls," as the 
junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah was called, and estab- 
lished a ferry which he managed for many years, leaving his 
name finally to the picturesque locality in the present day term, 
*' Harper's Ferry." 

About the same time, William Strope, Israel Friend, Thomas 
and Van Swearington, Edward Lucas, James Foreman, John 
Lemon, Jacob Hite (son of Joist Hite), Jacob Vanmeter and 
others located in the same vicinity. 

Kercheval says, that about the year 1738, two cabins were 
erected " near the run " in Winchester, and that tradition said 
they were occupied by German families, but that he was unable to 
ascertain the names of these families. 

According to Schuricht, Klauprecht, the historian of the Ohio 
Valley appears to make the founding of Winchester earlier than 
1738. Klauprecht says, that in 1740, two German inhabitants 
of Winchester, Thomas Mehrlin and John Sailing, started on a 
bold trading trip into the Indian country; and from this Schuricht 
thinks Winchester must have been at that time a small village. 
The two years, however, from 1738 to 1740, may have been suf- 
ficient for a considerable growth of the settlement. 

One of the early settlers of Page county was a German named 
Ruffner. He came to Virginia about 1745, and secured a large 
tract of land on the Hawksbill creek, near Luray. According to 
the family history, he was the son of a German baron who lived 
in Hanover. The name of this pioneer is perpetuated in '* Ruff- 
ner' s Cave," in close neighborhood to the world famous Luray 
Cave. William Millars founded a settlement, sometime during 
the early half of the century, on the Shenandoah river, above 
Front Royal, in Warren county. About the same period many 
other German pioneers sought homes in various parts of the 
Valley, the Schmuckers from Michelstadt, the Koiners from 
Winterlingen in Wurtenburg, the Benders, Beckers (Bakers), 
Westerhoefers, Sauers (Sowers), Von Webers, Casselmanns, 
Finks, Funkhousers, Moiers, Weiers and many others. Bern- 



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38 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

hard Weier, a hunter, discovered in 1804 the beautiful W^yer*s 
Cave. 

The German Lutherans, German Reformed Mennonites, Cal- 
vinists, Dunkers, etc. , forced their way up through the Valley, 
and furnished a varying percentage in the population of Augusta, 
Rockbridge. Botetourt, Roanoke, Craig, Montgomery, Pulaski, 
and Wythe counties. Prof. M. F. Maury (^Physical Survey of 
Vtrgtma, I SjS) says: **This county, Augusta, as well as Rock- 
ingham, Shenandoah and Frederick, was settled up in a great 
measure by Germans, and the population has retained its German 
character.** In Wythe, Pulaski, Montgomery and Craig counties 
the Germans met a number of Swiss who emigrated from North 
Carolina to Virginia. Schuricht quotes Captain R. B. Moor- 
man, of Roanoke, assaying: ** Rockbridge, Botetourt, Roanoke, 
Craig, Montgomery and Pulaski present a grateful field to the 
German- American historian.'* Salem, in Roanoke county, was 
for many years almost the exclusive domain of the Lutherans, 
and some think that a large number of German Chapels and 
other meeting houses may have formerly existed in the more re- 
mote valleys of the mountains. 

Through the kindness of Judge W. B. Simmons, of Fincastle, 
Va., I am able to give the names of a number of German fami- 
lies that located in Botetourt county immediately after the 
Revolution. These, however, are evidently not the first Ger- 
mans to settle in that county. ** The earliest deeds to the Ger- 
man element in this [Botetourt] county," says Judge Simmons, 
** bear date from 1783. The first, or among the first, German 
settlers were the Graybills, Simmons, Keplers, Gishs, Broughs, 
Sniders, Harshbargers, Bechmers, Amens and others. The 
Amens now spell their name * Ammen.* All came in the '8o's. 
These Germans came into this county directly after the Revolu- 
tionary war, from Pennsylvania and Maryland, — mostly from 
Pennsylvania. The German element I think you will find came 
into Virginia abou^ the same time all along up the Valley, a great 
many of them stopping m what are now Rockingham, Shenan- 
doah, and Augusta, and the lower counties. I do not think 
many stopped in what is now Rockbridge. The Germans 
looked for good land, and have, as a general rule, held on to it. 
They evidently had money and seem to have paid cash for iheir 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 39 

lands, and paid as much for their lands then as the same lands 
are worth now. As a rule the German element are a frugal, 
sturdy, honest folk. For many years they made the mistake of 
not educating their children ; * but for some years many of them 
are educating their children, many of whom are filling the various 
professions with ability. ' ' 

The commissioners who valued the lands of Rockingham 
county in 1782, found 860 land owners in the county. Among 
the largest land owners were the following Germans: Bowmans, 
Conrads, Coffmans, Chrismans, Clicks, Crotzers, Fitzwaters, 
Harnsbergers, Kisers, Kislings, Kooglers, Kaylors, Millers, 
Minnicks, Michaels, Messicks, Fences, Rollers, Rimels, Sheetses, 
Shumakers, Shavers, Shanks, Vanpelts, Wines, Wengers and 
Weavers. 

Prominent among the German families that located in Shenan- 
doah county toward the close of the colonial period, were the 
Neffs, the Kageys, and the Henkels, who settled in, and in the 
vicinity of. New Market. Rev. Paul Henkel was the first of the 
family in Shenandoah, and came to New Market soon after the 
close of the Revolution. He was a grandson of Rev. Gerhard 
Henkel, the first of the name in America, and was born near 
the present city of Salisbury, North Carolina. Gerhard Hen- 
kel, previous to his coming to America, was a German court 
preacher, and was descended, through a Count Henkel, of Dr. 
Johann Henkel, who was Father Confessor to Queen Maria about 
the year 1530. 

Count Henkel was instrumental in sending the Muhlenbergs 
to America. In x8o6 Rev. Ambrose Henkel, a son of Paul 
Henkel, established a printing house at New Market, which is 
still conducted by the Henkel family. Concerning this establish- 
ment. Rev. G. D. Bernheim, D. D., says, in his '* History of 
the German Settlements and the Lutheran Church in the Caro- 
linas: " "The Lutheran Church in America has had its publica- 
tion boards and societies in abundance which have doubtless 
accomplished a good work; but the oldest establishment of the 

•This is true only of one or two sects of the Germans, the Dunkers, 
Mennonites, etc. Most of the Botetourt Germans were Dunkers. They 
now have a college at Daleville, Botetourt county. 



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40 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

kind is the one in New Market, Va., dating back to 1806. It 
has issued more truly Lutheran Theological works in an English 
dress, than any similar institution in the world.'* The Neffs are 
of German-Swiss descent. They first located in Pennsylvania, 
on coming to America, but later moved south. The first of the 
family in Shenandoah county bought land about three miles 
north of New Market, where some of their descendants still re- 
side. The family has had numerous members distinguished in 
both civil and military life. 

The Kagey family is also of German -Swiss origin. Hans 
Kagy, the first of the name in America, came to Pennsylvania 
in 17 1 5. Henry Kagey moved from Lancaster county, Pa., to 
Page county, Va., in 1768. A few years later he crossed the 
Massanutten mountain into Shenandoah county, and settled on 
Smith's creek, about two miles east of New Market. In 1781, 
Rudolph Kagy moved from Pennsylvania to the Valley, and 
located at Boiling Spring, three miles northwest of New Market. 
It may be of interest to note here that John Henry Kagi, John 
Brown's 'Secretary of War,' who was killed at Harper's Ferry 
in 1859, was a great-grandson of Henry Kagey mentioned 
above. 

Among the tide of German immigrants that flowed up the 
Valley about the close of the Revolution were the Tirkles, 
Hesses, Garbers, Wines, Myerses, Pences, and others, who lo- 
cated in the vicinity of Forestville, Shenandoah county; and 
the Faltzes, Helsleys, Coffelts, Clines, Kellers, Benders (Painters), 
Bowmans, Rinkers, Tysingers, Empschillers, Lantzs, Stouts, 
Wilkinses, Frys, Rosenbergers, and Lindamoods, who settled 
in the vicinity of Hamburg, in the same county. 

It may be well to sum up this division of our subject with a 
brief account of the several towns in the Valley of Virginia that 
were founded by Germans, or numbered a large proportion of 
Germans among their original citizens. 

The oldest town in the Valley is Shepherdstown (New Meck- 
lenburg), in Jefferson county, founded on the banks of the 
Potomac in 1726 or 1727 by German mechanics, and established 
by law in November, 1762. This villa][;^e is twelve miles above 
Harper's Ferry, and is the place where James Rumsey built the 
first steamboat, in 1788. 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 41 

Jacob Stover founded Strasburg (Staufferstadt) probably in 
the year 1729 or 1730. The town was incorporated by law in 
November, 176 1. The original citizens were all Germans, and 
only fifty years ago the German language was still in general use 
there, though English was fairly well understood. 

About the time Strasburg was founded, the *'old field" set- 
tlement of '* Massanutting," already mentioned several times, 
was made on Stover* s grant, and the site is doubtless preserved 
to-day in the village of Massanutten, in Page county. Near 
Massanutten is another hamlet that must be of German origin — 
Hamburg. When this village was begun is not known. 

Stephens City (Stephensburg), in Frederick county, was 
founded in 1732 by Peter Stephens (Stephans), who came to the 
Valley with Joist Hite. The town was incorporated in Septem- 
ber, 1758. 

About the same time that the settlement at Stephensburg was 
begun, the first house in Kernstown was built on the land of Adam 
Kern. 

In 1734 the historic town of Harper's Ferry was founded by 
Robert Harper and others. 

As already noted, several German families were settled at 
Winchester (Frederickstown) in 1738. The town was estab- 
lished by law, under the patronage of Colonel James Wood, in 
1752. Robert Rutherford opened the first store in the village. 
Winchester soon had a mixed population of Germans, Irish and 
a few Scotch and English. "It was customary for the Dutch on 
St. Patrick's day," says Kercheval, "to exhibit the effigy of the 
saint, with a string of Irish potatoes around his neck, and his wife 
Sheeley, with her apron loaded also with potatoes. This was 
always followed by a riot. The Irish resented the indignity offered 
to their saint and his holy spouse, and a battle followed. On St. 
Michael's day the Irish would retort, and exhibit the saint with 
a rope of 'sour krout ' about the neck. Then the Dutch, like 
the Yankee, ' felt chock full of fight,' and at it they went, pell 
mell, and many a black eye, bloody nose and broken head was 
the result. The author recollects one of these riots since the 
war of the revolution. The practice was at last put down by the 
rigor with which our courts of justice punished the rioters." 

Woodstock (Millerstown) was established by law in March, 



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42 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1 761; SO It was founded probably about 1740. At the time of 
its establishment by law Jacob Miller (Mueller.) laid off 1,200 
acres of land, 96 of which were divided into half-acre lots, the 
remainder into five-acre lots. *'This town," says Kercheval, 
* * appears to have been originally laid out upon a larger scale 
than any of our ancient villages. Like the most of our towns, 
it was settled exclusively by Germans, and their religion, cus- 
toms, manners and language, were for a long time preserved, 
and to this day * the German language is generally in use by the 
inhabitants." 

Ten miles southwest of Woodstock, in Shenandoah county, is 
a second village by the name of Hamburg, which was originally 
settled by Germans at an early date. 

In 1772 Fincastle, the present county seat of Botetourt county, 
was incorporated. The date of its first settlement must have 
been much earlier. When tl>e town was established by law, 
Israel Christian made a present of forty acres of land to the 
justices of Botetourt court for the use of the county. 

Near Fincastle, and probably about the date of its first settle- 
ment, the village of Amsterdam was founded by Pennsylvania 
German Dunkers. Amsterdam was laid out by an official sur- 
vey on the 22nd day of January, 1796. The deeds of convey- 
ance to certain lots are from George Stoner and wife, who 
designate the lots as *'Nos. — '■ — ,*' in '* Stonertown;" but the 
surveyor calls the plan of the town, *'A Map of Amsterdam.** 
George Stoner was a German who bought his land on December 
29th, 1794, of John Snider. Snider bought the same land about 
1792. 

The first house ever built in Harrisonburg, Rockingham 
county, is still standing near the corner of Main and Bruce streets, 
and is used by General John E. Roller as a law office. The 
building is constructed of limestone, and is still firm and sound. 
This house was built by Thomas Harrison, the founder of Har- 
risonburg. It was the mansion house of a plantation of 1,290 
acres. ,At one time it was occupied by Reuben Harrison, and 
later by a German named Grouse, who kept a *' wagon stand.** 
Later still this house was the '* stage stand,*' where the relays 



• 1850. 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 43 

of horses on Brockett*s stage line up and down the Valley, and 
by the Swift Run Gap road to Richmond, were kept. It was 
the headquarters of the militia officers at mustering times, and 
is said to have been the scene of several bloody rows. 

Harrisonburg was established by law in 1780, and Lot No. i 
was conveyed by Thomas Harrison by deed to Thomas Louns- 
don, on November 2, 1783, in consideration that Lounsdon 
would, before March ist, 1784, erect a dwelling house on it 20 
ft. X 16 ft., with stone or brick chimney. 

In 1785 we find twenty persons owning lots in Harrisonburg, 
namely: John Apler, Henry Burges, Conrad Bradley, James 
Curry, Peter Conrad, William Cravens, trustee for Frederick 
Spangler, John Ewin, Sr., Thomas Henry, Dennis Leanchan, 
James Mitchel, Charles McClain, Brewer Reeves, Richard Ran- 
kin, Thomas Scott, J. Shipman, Anthony Sourbeer, Andrew 
Shanklin, Thomas Soolvian, Hugh Tiffney and John Turner. 

In 1788 Front Royal (then in Frederick, now in Warren 
county) was incorporated, with Thomas Allen, Robert Russell, 
William Headley, William Jennings, John Hickman, Thomas 
Hand and Thomas Buck, trustees; and fifty acres of land, the 
property of Solomon Vanmeter, James Moore, Robert Haines, 
William Cunningham, Peter Halley, John Smith, Allen Wiley, 
Original Wroe, George Chick, William Morris and Henry Trout, 
were laid out in lots and streets. 

Keezletown (Keizell's Town) was established by law in 1791. 
Between Harrisonburg and Keezletown there existed a sharp 
rivalry from the founding of each, and this rivalry did not at all 
abate when the act of establishing Harrisonburg passed the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1780. On the contrary, we find that Mr. 
Keizell laid out one hundred acres of land in lots and streets — 
double the size of Harrisonburg — and offered many inducements 
to purchasers who would build on these lots; and, during the 
years from 1781 to 1784, there appears to have been more deeds 
for lots in *' Keizell's Town " admitted to record than for lots in 
Harrisonburg. 

Among the first conveyances of lots in Keezletown were those 
to David Warron, of **lot No. 3 of ye west square;*' to John 
Grabill, of lot No. 8, west square; to Michael Pugh, of lot No. 
5; to John Armentrout, of lots Nos. 41 and 42; and to Thomas 



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44 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Lounsdale, of lot No. 3, south square. The consideration of 
these conveyances was that the purchasers should build dwelling 
houses 20 ft. X 18 ft., with stone or brick chimneys, and make 
an annual payment of four shillings. Keezletown was estab- 
lished by an act of Assembly passed December 7th, 1791, in the 
following words: *' Be it enacted by the General Assembly that 
the one hundred acres of land, the property of George Keizell, 
in the county of Rockingham, as the same is now laid off in 
lots and streets, shall be established a town by the name of 
' Keizell's Town,' and that George Houston, George Carpenter, 
Martin Earman, Peter Nicholas, John Snapp, John Swisher and 
John Pence, gentlemen, shall be and are hereby constituted 
trustees thereof." 

V. The Germans of the Valley as Patriots. 

No other period of Virginia history gives better evidence of 
the devotion and loyalty of the German Virginians to American 
interests than the struggle for Independence; and yet, on account 
of circumstances, they have received comparatively little recog- 
nition. The German troops in the colonial armies proved brave 
and reliable; but because German mercenaries fought in the 
English army, due credit has often been denied them, and even 
their integrity has been suspected. In the prevalent animosity 
against the Hessians and other Germans who were the unfortu- 
nate victims of an abominable bargain, which the English King 
had made with a few covetous German princes, men seemed to 
forget De Kalb, Von Der Wieden and Von Steuben, whose 
illustrious names are inseparably linked with that of Virginia's 
greatest son. When Washington unfurled America's battle 
banner, many German-Americans were among the brave men 
that followed him ; and none were braver than the Germans from 
the Valley of Virginia. Among them were Muhlenberg, Darke, 
Stephan, Baumann, Mueller, and hundreds of others less known 
to fame. 

One reason, perhaps, why some have doubted the patriotism 
of the Valley Germans in* time of war, is because some of them 
have refused to bear arms. Several of the religious sects look 
upon war as an evil, and have always endeavored to promote the 
public welfare by peaceable, rather than warlike, methods; and 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 45 

it may be a question, after all, whether the citizen ^^ho faithfully 
serves his State at home, and builds up the internal strength of 
the nation, is not as true a patriot as the one who grasps his 
sword at the first martial strain. "The pious German Quakers, 
Tunkers, and Mennonites," says Schuricht, "who refused to 
carry arms for religious reasons, served the cause of liberty and 
independence in their unostentatious way. They raised pro- 
visions, and some historians state that they hauled wagon- loads 
of grain to the camps for the starving soldiers. It was an act of 
injustice to doubt their sincerity." 

But the Lutherans and others, who were not restrained by 
religious convictions, joined at once in the struggle for liberty. 
Der Staatsbote, a German paper published in Philadelphia, had 
many readers among the Germans of the Valley, and stirred the 
Revolutionary spirit. Heinrich Ringer, at Winchester, and 
Jacob Nicolas, at Picket Mountain,* Augusta county, were the 
Virginia agents ol this paper. The edition of March 19, 1776, 
contains an appeal to the Germans, beginning as follows : " Re- 
member that your forefathers emigrated to America to escape 
bondage and to enjoy liberty." * * * 

As a sort of prelude to the Revolution occurred the battle of 
Point Pleasant, in 1774, the memory of which still lives in the 
quaint old song, of which the following is the first stanza: 

" Let us mind the tenth day of October, 
Seventy-four, which caused woe. 
The Indian savages they did cover 
The pleasant banks of the Ohio. ' * 

In this battle General Andrew Lewis, of Augusta county, 
commanding the whites, the detatchment from the Holstein 
settlement, now Washington county, was led by Captain Shelby, 
a German Virginian ; and on the day after the battle, a reinforce- 
ment of three hundred men arrived from Fincastle, in Botetourt 
county, under command of Colonel Christian, who also appears 
to have been a German. 



•This is the form given by Schuricht, but I think he must mean Peaked 
Mountain, the upper end of the Massanutten, which is now, by the divi- 
sion of counties, in Rockingham. 



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46 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

A few months before the battle of Point Pleasant, a movement 
of organized resistance to British authority was inaugurated by 
the German inhabitants of the Valley, which, in point of time, 
appears to rank first * among similar movements throughout Vir- 
ginia. Hon. J. M. H. Beale makes the following statements in 
a letter, published in the New York Herald and afterwards at 
Woodstock, Va., November 30, 1894, in the Shenandoah Herald: 
** They [the Germans] formed a distinct organization, as contra- 
distinguished from its colonial and invested power in a * Com- 
mittee of Safety,* the prerogatives of which were to erect 
opposition to the royal power in case of necessity. 

' • The meeting which took these initial revolutionary steps was 
held at Woodstock on the i6th of June, 1774, one year before 
the celebrated Mecklenburg meeting f in North Carolina, which 
occurred in June, 1775. The Rev. Peter Muehlenburg was 
chosen the moderator of the meeting and afterwards as chairman 
of the Committee on Resolutions, reported a number of spirited 
and appropriate resolutions, the tone of which was bolder than 
public opinion was then prepared to sanction. The following 
are a part of the noble sentiments then put forth by those patri- 
x)tic lovers of liberty: 

** ' That we will pay due submission to such acts of government 
as his Majesty has a right by law to exercise over his subjects, 
and to such only. 

** 'That it is the inherent right of British subjects to be gov- 
erned and taxed by representatives chosen by themselves only, 
and that every act of the British Parliament respecting the in- 
ternal policy of America is a dangerous and unconstitutional 
Invasion of our rights and privileges. 

' ' ' That the enforcing the execution of the said acts of Parlia- 
ment by a military power will have a necessary tendency to cause 
a civil war, thereby dissolving that union which has so long hap- 



* Of public meetings held in Virginia during this year, which adopted 
similar resolutions, the first was at Fredericksburg, June ist; then fol- 
lowed Prince William county. June 6th; Frederick county, June 8th, and 
that at Woodstock, June i6th. — Editor. 

tMr. Beale apparently accepts the account of the Mecklenburg meet- 
ing without questioning its authenticity. 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 47 

pily subsisted between the mother country and her colonies; and 
that we will most heartily and unanimously concur with our 
suffering brethren of Boston, and every other part of North 
America, who are the immediate victims of tyranny, in promot- 
ing all proper measures to avert such dreadful calamities, to pro- 
cure a redress of our grievances, and to secure our common 
liberties. ' 

*• The other resolutions were common at that period, depre- 
ciating importation or exportation with Great Britain and the 
East India Company, who are called ' the servile tools of Arbi- 
trary power.' The proceedings close by 'pledging themselves 
to each other, and to our country,* that 'we will inviolably ad- 
here to the votes of this day.* * The Committee of Safety and 
Correspondence appointed for the county consisted of Rev. Peter 
Muehl^nburg, chairman, Francis Slaughter, Abraham Bird, 
Tavener Beale (father of the undersigned), John Tipton and 
Abraham Bowman, esqrs., members. 

'*The proceeding? of this meeting are published in full in the 
Virginia Gazette for August 4, 1774, a file of which paper is 
preserved in the Congressional Library at Washington city." 

Among the men who took part in General George Rogers 
Clarke's celebrated campaign to Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, 
were the following German officers, who gained special distinc- 
tion: Captain Leonard Helm, of Fauquier county, and Major 
Joseph Bowman, of Frederick county, who was next in command 
to General Clarke. Other names mentioned in William H. 
English's ** Conquest of the Northwest of the River Ohio, 1778- 
1783, and Life of General Clarke," are essentially German- Vir- 
ginian: Honaker, Chrisman, etc. General Clarke was himself 
a native of Albemarle county, Virginia. "No episode in the 
history of Virginia," says Schuricht, "is more glorious than 
this. With one hundred and seventy ragged boys General 
Clarke crossed rivers in the month of February, 1779, planted 
the Virginian Standard upon the banks of the Mississippi — de- 
manded and secured unconditional surrender — and from that 



*The pronouns here seem to be somewhat twisted. I have copied 
them as they are written. 



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48 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

time the country of Illinois, Missouri, etc., was. opened to civili- 
zation. 

** The great distances, the uncertainty, the wilderness, and the 
Indians, made General Clark's expedition one of terrible hard- 
ship, and the adroitness with which Clarke proceeded in recon- 
ciling both the Indians and French inhabitants and surprising 
the English posts Kaskaskia and Vincennes, and the indomitable 
energy displayed by him and his soldiers in overcoming the 
rigors of winter and the terrors of rain and flood, cannot but 
command admiration." 

Several years prior to the Revolutionary War, General Daniel 
Morgan organized his famous band of riflemen, and took an 
active part in the Indian wars. In his company were a large 
number of German-Virginians from Winchester and its vicinity. 
Andreas Simon* names the following: Johann Schultz,. Jacob 
Sperry, Peter and Simon Lauck, Frederick Kurtz, Karl Grimm, 
Georg Heisler and Adam Kurz. Six of these formed the so- 
called *' Dutch Mess." They messed together during the entire 
war, and, singularly enough, not one of them met with any dis- 
aster during all their severe campaigns. They gained special 
distinction by their bravery and their attachment to Morgan. 
They followed him in all his adventurous expeditions against the 
Indians, in the disastrous campaign of General Braddock, in 
Arnold's invasion of Canada and to the end of the War of In- 
dependence. The six members of the "mess'* acted as Mor- 
gan's aides-de-camp, but never received or accepted oflicers' 
commissions. After the war was over they received valuable 
tracts of land near Winchester, as rewards of their service, and 
upon these lands their descendants live to-day. 



*^Der Westen, Chicago, 1892. 
(to be concluded.) 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 



49 



An Abridgement of the Laws of Virginia. 

(continued) 



COUNTY CLERK'S FEES. 




For an accon, .... 


8 


For a petition if he write it, 


10 


For ent' order, .... 


8 


For entering a pet., . . 


3 


For copy order, . . . 


8 


For a certificat for land, . 


20 


Forex\ 


15 


For any other certificate. 


10 


For attachm*, .... 


15 


For recv'** any other busi- 




For deposition lo & copy, 


10 


ness, Orphens excepted 


20 


For administration & pro- 




For Rec* Inventory & 




bat, 


60 


Convey., .... 


30 


For a Subp', .... 


10 


For a Scire facias, . . . 


. 10 


And if any thing else the Court to adjudge the Fee. 




SHERIFFS FEES. 




For an arr. , . . . . . 


10 


For serving Ex° under loo, 


10 


Jl^For a bond, . . . 


15 


if above to 500, . . . 


20 


For going to prison, . . 


10 


if above 500 to 1,000, 


40 


For whiping, .... 


20 


For every M above 2,000, 
For Sum. Jury & pan" for 


10 


For pillory, 


20 


every cause, . . . 


12 


For serveing a Sub*^, . . 


10 


Fr every person Sumon*, 


5 



Attachm" as for arr. & if further Trouble to be allowed by 
ye Court, for Sumons every appraiser, 10; & ye appraiser to 
have per day, 30. 

FEES. 
Clerk of ye Assembly. 

For an order & copy of Aud', 20. For Cop: y* acts of an 
Assem"', 300. All ye rest are out of use. 

Act 5 1664. An act concerning ye Regulateing ye Sacretary 
office. 

No person to have a view of ye Record but upon pub. ord' 
except ye clerk of ye office, but any may w*** ye elk. w" he makes 
y* Search for w^ shalbe pd. i* or lott) Tobo. besides ye cops. 
& half so much to ye County Clk. 



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50 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Act 4 1669. an act for yeffeesof a Dedimus potestatem from 
ye Gen" Court, 50; County Court, 25. 

Act 6 1672. An act concerning Sherr. Fees for arrests. 

That y'' fee for an arr. be to ye bond 5 & not any thing for 
comitt™* or release"* unless ye person be actually put in prison. 

Act 5 1677. An act ascertaining ye price of double patt*'. 

En. yt ye fee for such be Soft) tob. for Every Tract Con- 
tained in y* pattent but w° old patented Lands are drawn into 
one pattent w'^'out new no more y° 80 for yt. 

Act 10 1677. An act ascertaining Coroners fees. 

En. yt y** fee be 13' 4* or 1331b tob. to be paid out of ye 
estate of y'' deceased & if none by y" County & where there is 
no Coron' any Justice to do y* office. 

Act 16 1680. Additional fees ascertained to County Court 
Clerks. 

For writing a pr. of Indentures, 40; for a bound, 10; for a 
Retraxit, 4; for fileing & indorseing bill, &c., 3; for all answers 
to peticons if writ by themselves, 10; if not, 5; & so for peti- 
cons; for a warrt. by comand of Court or Justice, 10. 

For a chancery bill if written in y* ^ay of other usual * * 
exceed not one side of a Sheet of paper, 20; if more every side, 
10. Rec** ye pan" of Jury & oath, 10. Ret. & Rec* ex*", 10. 
Ret & Record attachm't, 10. 

For Inventories & appraism" & outcries if ye elk. be not 
agreed with ye Court to allow. 

For ret. administration & For bill costs, .... 3 

prob* 40 

For procure ye Signing y™, 10 For private Cor" attend- 

For pub. anything at cor*- ance, 200 

house if writt by y"- 

selves, 5 

For ackn* Lands & Recor. For reting. Dower & 

copy, 25 record, . * ... 20 

For att. Dedimus & ret, to For a care at 5 For ent. 

ye office, .... 100 & record Refferance, . 5 

For ret. appeals & Secur- For quietus & Recor., . 25 

ity 30 For recor. issueingattach"', 3 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 51 

And w*soever elk. shall take more y° by law established Shall 
forfeit for every pound ten to y" party overcharged. 



FENCES. 

Pr. La. 77 Ent. when fences shalbe Lawfull or sufficient. 

En. Fences shalbe sufficient about Clear' d grounds 4^ foot 
high or ye damages done by hoggs, Goats or chattle shalbe to 
ye plant" own loss & if ye planter by hunting horses, &c. , shall 
hurt any of them unless he have such a fence, he shall mak^ 
sattisfaction to ye own' & if they be so hurt as to dy ye owner 
of ye ground shall pay y* vallue double to ye owner of ye horse, 
&c., and where Fence is sufficient 4J^ foot & so found by two 
honest men appointed by a com', ye owner of ye horses, &c. , 
shall make sattisfaction for ye damage. 

Act 17 1666. An act Including Sheep in ye 77 act printed 
Laws. This act comprehends Sheep & makes y" Equall Liable 
w*** other creatures. 

Act 2. An act concerning Fences. 

Owners of unruly horses shall keep y" up from ye 20*^ of July 
to ye last of Octob' yearly & if ye fence be ^% foot high & a 
horse break into a cornfield ye owner upon proof of ye damage 
shall pay for ye first trespass single damages & for Every Tres- 
pass afterwards double damages to ye party grieved. 

A ffence shalbe deemed sufficient where nothing mencon* in 
77 Act pr. La. can creep through. 



FINES. 



Act 9 1663. An act for ye % of all fines to be p* to ye In- 
former. The Title speaks ye substance. 



FLAX. 



Act 13 1691 Ent. an act Enjoyning ye Planting & dressing 
of flax & hemp. 

Every Tithable is by this act to make a pound of Flax & a 
pound of hemp every year or two pound of each drest und' ye 
penalty 6olb tob pr. £ for omitting & for y" discovery of every 



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52 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Titha. shall cary his flax or hemp so made to a Magestrate and 
make oath or sufficient proof yt it is of his own growth of w*'" 
he shall have a Certificate to produce to ye next Court & who 
ever neglect yt shalbe Judged a breaker of the act, yi of ye fine 
to ye King & queen & ys to ye Informer & yi to ye County & 
ye act to continue 3 years after the last of October next. 

Pr. La. 100 Ent. ag* Fornication. 

A man or woman Comiting Fornication upon proof by con- 
fession or evidence shall pay 50olb tob* to ye use of ye parish & 
be bound to good behaviour & if either be serv'* & ye Master 
will not pay y* 50olb tob", for w''" he shall have yi years Service 
if he do, y° ye serv* to be whiped & if a basterd be gott ye 
woman serv'ts shall serve 2 years for ye loss & Trouble of her 
Master & pay 2,000ft) tob. besides ye fine & ye reputed Father 
put in Security to keep ye child. 

Act 6 1662. An act concerning women Serv** gott w^ child 
by their Masters. 

Such Woman Serv" Shall after by her time by Indenture or 
Custum be sold by Churchwardens of ye parish where she was 
brought to bed for two years & ye toba. Imployed to ye use of 
y* parish. 

Act 12 1662 Ent. An act for Mullatto Children being bound 
or free according to ye Condition of ye Mother. Part of this 
act is yt if any Xtian Shall Comitt fornication w*** a negro man 
or woman he or she so offending shall pay double fines Imposed 
on fornicacon by ye 100 Act pr. La. 

Act II 1692 Ent. an act for ye more effectuall Suppressing 
y* Sever" offences of Swearing, Cursing, prophaining God's holy 
name, Saboath breaking, Drunkeness, Fornication and Adultery. 

By this act whoso is Convicted of Swearing, &c., by Confes- 
sion or two wittnesses shall pay one shilling for every Offence.. 
And whoso ever Shall Travill on ye Sabboath day or other wayes 
prophain it 8c be Convicted afores"* shall pay & whosoever shalbe 
convicted of drunkeness as afore*^ shall pay 10' & if ye offenders 
in all ye afore*** crims be not able to pay they shalbe put in y* 
Stocks 3 howers and whosoever Shalbe Convicted of Fornicacon 
as affores* Shall pay ten pound Sterl. & for Audultry ;^20 Sterl- 
ing, & if they be not able they have 30 lashes or 3 months Im- 
prison"* & it is further En. yt where there is violent Suspicion 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 53 

of two liveing leudly together yt every person Entertaining a 
woman or Frequenting her comp' after pub. admonition to avoyd 
y* same by y" minister & vestry or if no minister, churchwarden 
& vestry, for Every time it shalbe proved he hath been in her 
Comp' Shall as if he had been Convicted of Audultery & ye 
woman ye like ye Grandjury to present Such Offenders, ye for- 
feitures to be devided into 3 parts, i to repairing ye Church or 
Chapell, I to ye Maintaince of ye Minister & ye other to y* In- 
former. 

Act 16 1691 Ent. An act for suppressing outlying slaves. 
P" of this act is That if any English Woman being Free have a 
bastard by a negro shall pay ;^I5 w^^'in a month to ye Church- 
wardens & for failing be disposed of for 5 years, ye fine or wht. 
she shalbe sold for disposed yi to their Maj'*", ys to ye p'ish & 
y^ to ye Informer, & ye Child bound out by y* Church ward" 
for 30 years & in case ye woman be a serv* She shalbe sold for 
5 years after her time is Expired. 



HIGH WAVES. 

Pr. La. 79 Ent. Survey" for highwayes. 

That Justices yearly in October Court appoint such who shall 
lay out conv* waies to church. Court, Jamestown & from County 
to County 40 foot broad and bridges where Occasion & being 
so made shall keep y" in Repair. The Vestries upon ye desire 
of y* Survey" are to order y" help necessary from every one 
According to his Tithables. 

And if the Court fail Survey" Vestries & people in their Re- 
spective duties to be fined five hund** lb to ye use of ye County 
& if any one fall Trees + ye waies & do not forthw'** clear y" 
or do Inclose y* waies with a fence y* grandjury shall p'sent y* 
Same as a Comon Nuisance, y* Inclosure opened & y* offender 
fined i,ooolb tob. to y" use of y* county & where a Creek or 
Swamp part 2 Counties those Counties Shall contribute to a 
bridge. 

Act 4 1667 Ent. An act for Roads to houses. 

Every person haveing a plantacon Shall in a Conv' place make 
a Gate for man & horse to pass. 



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54 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Act 15 1680 Ent. an act for ye well clearing y* heads of y*" 
Rivers from Logs & trees for ye more Safe passing of Sloops & 
boats. 

En. y' y* Justices of y* County Courts annually in June or 
July order y* Survey" to clear ye Rivers & creeks w''" shalbe 
done under ye penaltys 79 act pr. La. for delinquency & he y' 
fall Trees & cleers them not for ye first offence 5oolb tob. , 2^ 
1,000 to ye ur»e of ye County. 



HOGS. 



Pr. La. 125 Ent. ag* steeling hogs. 

Hee y' shalbe convicted of steeling or unlawfully killing a 
hogg Shall pay to y* owner i,ooolb tob* & to ye Informer 1,000 
more, & if not able, to serve two years, i to ye first & ye other 
to y*" Latter, & he shalbe adjudged, an hogg stealer yt brings 
home an hogg w^^'out Ears & he yt Receives such hog with""* 
Imediately discovering it to ye next Com' shalbe deemed an 
actor in y* Trespass & y* owner Informing shall have both y*" 
fines. 

Act ye 5 1665. An act concerning y*" Intent of some former 
penalties. 

En. yt w° sever" persons are concerned in stealing hogs, boats 
or ye like, Every p'ticular offender may be singly prose* ted for 
ye whole fine. 

Pr. La. 118. ag* private taking away of Boats. 

En. y* y'' County Court shall in such case award 50olt) tobo. 
& what damage ye boate or Canoe sustains. 

Act 4 1674 Ent. an act comanding such Indians who keep 
hogs to marke y'' same. 

En. y* Indian proof shalbe good ag* Indians in hogstealing 
& y* Indian Town y* keeps hogs shall give such marks as y' 
Adjacent Counties shall appoint. ^ 

Act 2 1679 Ent. an additionall act for y*" better preventing 
y*" stealing of hoggs. 

En. for ye first offence be 2,ooo11j tob^ for ye 2^ offence y^ 
party to stand two howers in ye pillory & have both his ears 
nailed & after ye time is out, cut loose from y*" Navies to be In- 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1 694. 65 

flicted by any County Court & for ye 3"* offence to be Tryed as 
in Felony. 

Act 2 169}. An act concerning Indian hoggs. 

En. yt Surry County Court assign a p'ticular marke for y* 
hogs of ye Notoway & Weyanoaks ; & an English man haveing 
pork of an Indian shall prove it to be of yt Indian Town Mark 
or forfeit i,ooolb Tob°, yi, to their Maj*'*", 34 to ye Informer. 



HORSES. 

Pr. La. 113 Ent. Stray horses. 

Whoso takes up a horse, stray Cattle or Boate adrift shall 
Cause horses & Cattle w"* mark, colour & Stature & boat w*" 
proportion & w**' was found in her to be cryed publickly in 
Churches & Chapells of ye County w*''in a month & if no owner 
apear y° at Court it shalbe Lawfull to make use of them till ye 
owner appear who shall pay loolb Tobo. 

Act 2 1669 Ent. an act ag* y" Importcon of horses & mairs. 

Whosoever Import horse or mair from Anoth' Governm' y*" 
Sherr. of ye County where they are Imported shall make seizure 
of them for ye use of ye Public & Render an Acco* to y' As- 
sembly, y* Informer to have half valine. 

Act 10 1691. An act to prevent horses Running at large & 
barking fruit trees. 

En. yt ye owners of horses, mairs or Colts are notoriously 
known to be barkers of fruit trees shall keep them w*''in a fence 
for if they run at large & be taken y" owner shall pay to y* per- 
son delivering y" upon proof by his own oath & another Evi- 
dence loolb toba. & if they break into an orchard et*" & do spoil 
y* owner shall pay to ye party Injured for y* i*' Trespass 2oolt) 
& y* 2^ 400 & for ye 3* ye horse may be killed y'' fence being 4^2 
foot high. 



IMPOSITIONS. 

Act 3** 1680 Ent. an act for ye Raising a pub. Revinue for y" 
better Support of this his Maj*'*' Colony of Virg'. For every 
hhd. tobo. & every 500 bulk Exported by land or water shalbe 



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56 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

paid 2* & every Ship Coming heither Shall pay for Every Tun 
^ lb of powder or 3 lb shott or 15* in lieu & 6* for every person 
Imported not being a Marriner, ye same to be to ye king for y* 
Support of ye Govemm\ ye Master of Every Ship shall deliver 
his boat Swaines book to ye Collector & Sware to ye truth. 

And if he shall willingly or wittingly conceale any part of his 
freight or make false entry of y" burthen of his vessell or number 
of persons Imported he shall forfeit loo;^ sterl. & Treble duties 
for every hh** 50otb bulk or Tun Concealed, ^ to Inform^ J^ to 
King, & every Master of a yessell shall Enter into a bond of 
20;^ sterl. to ye King, &c., for ye pay"* of y' duty of so many 
hhds. or 5oolb tob. as shall appear to be enter* d in England 
more y° in Virg', bond to be voyd if not put in Ex"" w'^'in a year 
& to be made w^^'out fee Collect" Sallary as y* Gov' w*** y* advice 
of y* Council shall adjudge necessary & an allowance not exceed- 
ing 10 pr. ct. to such master as give true ans' & pay down the 
duties by money or exchange. 

All former acts for y" raising of 2' p' hhd. castle duties, Tun- 
age or headmoney Repealed by this act, but y* 134 act pr. La. 
& another act concerning y" previledges of Virg' owners to be 
in full force. 

Act 4 1693 Ent. an act laying an Imposition upon skins & 
furrs for ye better Suport of y" Colledge of W" & Mary in Virg*. 

By this act ye duties are upon skins, &c. , exported by land or 
water. 

d. d. d. 

Rawhide, ... 3 Undresldoe, o^ Fox Skin, . . . i}^ 
Tanned hide, . 6 Bever p' lb, 3 Doz. Racoon skins, 3 
Drest Buck skins, ^ Otter skin, . 2 Doz. Muskrat skins, 2 
Undrest ** i Wildcat skin ij4 Elk skin, . . . 4j4 

Drest doe skin, lyi Mink skin, . i 

These duties to be paid before y* goods are shipt off to y* 
Collector under penalty of forfeiture, yi to their Majesties yi to 
ye Informer. The collector to acco' to y" Govern" of ye Col- 
ledge or their deputies for y* duties & to have 10 p' c* for their 
Trouble. 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 57 

IMPRESSES. 

Act 8 1667. An Act restraining y" Impresse of Timber. 

En. y' no one under pretence of a warr* to Impresse Timb^ 
for pub. use, &c., shall Impresse any Timber from any man's 
land before Composition w'" ye Owner for ye price & pay"" or 
causion for pay"* of y* same upon penalty of paying for each 
Timber Tree 5;^sterl., but if ye owner be unreasonable in y" 
price it shalbe Lawfull to procure a valluacon by 2 men upon 
oath & it is further Enacted that none shall Impresse Sloop, 
Shallop, boat or vessell, horses, cart, arms, provisions, goods 
or merch'dizes without sufficient warr' & y* warr' to be shewed, 
& whosoever shall have power to Impresse such shall have power 
likewise to cause two men of y* neighbourhood to appraise such 
vessell & to ascertain y* valine of y* hire P' y* day or month & 
y' writeing be drawn signifying y* hire p' day or month, one to 
remain w'** y* appraisers & ye other w'^ ye owner, &c. , & ye 
owner to bring such writing to y" next County Court where 
if y* sloop were imprest for y* use of y* Co" then to be p* out of 
ye County Let^y, but for ye use of y* pub. y° ye County Court 
is to return Certificate of such writeing to ye next assembly for 
Satisfaccon. 

And if such slaves, &c., shalbe cast away or lost ye owner 
shall have his choyce of y" wages or y^ valine of y* thing accord- 
ing to y* appraisem*, 8c if there be occasion to Impress provisions 
y" Impresser shall have two men to appraise y* same & Returne 
a note certifying y* quantity 8c price to y* next Co*' Court to be 
paid for as y" case is by ye County or Assembly according to 
y* apprais"*, and where a man is Imprest he shall be paid, if be- 
twixt of 7"' & ye ID of March, lolb Tob. pr. day, 8c if betwixt 
y* loth of March & y* loth of Sept' i8lb Tob. pr. day for y" 
first ID dales & for all time above 10, between 7"*' 8c March, 20olb 
tob* pr. month & betwixt March & 7**' 30olb tobo. pr. month, 
& for a horse imprest y* owner shall have 151b tobo. p' day for 
y* first 20 dales, & after lolb tobo. p' day, & before ye impresser 
shall take the horses two of ye neibours shall appraise y" & a 
writing of y** valine shalbe signed & ye owner shalbe p* if ye 
horse be lost by y* County or Country as ye case is, either ac- 
cording to y" appraism* or wages due, & if any one contrary to 



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58 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

this law impresse & carry away any of the afore"* particulars he 
shalbe fined double y* vallue to y* use of y* owner, to be recov- 
ered by accon of Trespass in any court of Judicature. 



INDIANS. 

P^ La. 136 Ent. an act concerning y*" Indians. 

No Indian King or other shall for any consideracon sell & 
whoso shall take Indian goods shalbe punished as if done y'' 
same from an English man & whoso shall incroach upon y* In- 
dian's Lands shalbe Removed by y*" Sherr. & his houses built 
there burnt. None shall Imprison an Indian King w^^'out warr* 
from y* Govern' & two of y" Councill. 

Whoso shall kill, wound or Maim an Indian shall suffer as if he 
had done it to an Englishman, & if an Indian w'^'out Leave of his 
King by inveghling of y*" English or of his own accord be har- 
boured by an Englishman whoso shall take him & carry him to 
his Town shall recover of him y* harboured him as for Enter- 
taining of Runawaies. No person shall Entertain a neighbour 
Indian but by lycense from y'' Govern' & be answerable for all y* 
Injury y" Indian shall do. All y^ Rest of this act seems to be 
repealed or out of practice. 

Act 8 1665 Ent. an act concerning y*' Indians. 

En. That where y'' Indians comit any murder upon ye Eng- 
lish y" next Town to use there utmost Endeavours to discover y*" 
actors & shalbe answerable for it. The Indians prohibited to 
choose their own Werowance, y*" Gover' to appoint him & if y*^ 
Indians Refuse obedience or murder him they shalbe accounted 
Rebells. whoso shall harbor or imploy an Indian shalbe fined 
5,ooolb tobo. or suffer a years Imprisonm', unless upon security 
Given to ye County Court & a certificate from y" he obtained y" 
Gover" License. 

Southern branches of Blackwater are declared to be from y'' 
head of those branches to y'' p'sent apomatuck Indian Town & 
thence crosse y" river by a Continued line to y" Manakin Town. 

Act 14 1680 Ent. an act revising & reinforcing an act made 
at James City 20*'* S^\ 1665, & puting y' same in due Ex**°. 

By this the s** act is revised 8c Reinforced. 

Act 9 169 1 Ent. an act for a free Trade w'" Indians. 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 59- 

All former acts & clauses Restraining Trade w*** Indians by 
this act are Repealed & a free Trade for all persons w*** all In- 
dians at all times & further it is enacted y^none shall go hunting 
Remote from ye plantacons w^'^out ye Govern" License & under 
such Restriccons as Cover' & council shall think fitt. 



LANDS. 

Act 2 1692 Ent. An act for confirmacon of Lands. 

En. yt where a new tract hath been taken up & added to 
seated pattent ye shalbe seated to save it w'^in 3 years after y*^ 
date of this act unless it hath been seated before, but w^' shalbe 
taken up hereafter shalbe seated within 3 years. 

Lands overplus w^^in ye bounds being found excepted & 
Marshes & sunken grounds paying their Maj***"" quitrents for y". 

Act 14 1 69 1. An act for ye alteracon of ye time for ye pro- 
cessioning of Land. 

That ye time be between y* last of Sept' & ye last of March. 

Pr. La. 68 Ent. Rights of Lands. 

all persons claiming land by Importacon shall prove their 
Rights before y'' Gover**' & Councill or produce Certificates to 
y* Secretaries office. 

Pr. La. 69 Ent. deserted lands. 

whoso would pattent deserted Lands shall prove before y*" 
Gen" Co'* that it was not planted in 3 years & have order from 
y" for it & ye first petition' producing rights shall not be denyed. 

Pr. La. 70 Ent. Seating upon other Devidents. 

if any happen unwarily to build upon another stand y*" Charg 
of it Shalbe vallued by 12 men & y' Refunded by ye owner to 
ye Seator, but if y* owner be unwilling y° y*" s** men shall valine 
Worth of y" Land before Seating, w''*' ye seator shall pay to ye 
owner for it, provided no consideracon be allowed to him y* after 
warning shall obstinately l^uild or cleer. 

Pr. La. 71 Ent. not to Shoot or Rang upon other men's 
land. 

Whoso shall hunt or Shoot upon another's Dividend w^'^out 
Leave shall for Every such Trespass pay 400 lb tob'' to y*^ pro- 
prietor, ^ to ye pub. uses, but if ye land be not seated tho' 
taken up it shall be lawfull & also to pursue & fetch off game 



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60 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Shot without y* limit, & to seek cattle or hogs, giveing notice 
first to ye owner of his Intent & time he cfesignes to stay. 

Provided allwaies y* ye Govern' may Commissionate some 
Gent to give license to persons to hunt wild hogs upon any Man's 
Land w*'out their fenced plantacons. 

Pr. La. 72 Ent. Lands 5 years in possession. 

Whosoever pretends title to Land shall prosecute his claim 
before it hath been peaceably enjoyed 5 years, this extends to 
all such as have not prosecuted their title w*^in 5 years since y* 
6*" 8**^ 1646, provided yt this Limitacon Sarr not orphants, feme 
Coverts, persons out of ye Country or insane, but yt y* orphans 
have 5 years after he be at age, woman 5 years after free from 
coverture, viz: if she marry againe before y* 5 years expire & 
become a widow to yt husband, after his death she shall make it 
up 5 years, insane 5 years after Recovery, persons out of y" 
Country 5 years after arrival provided they come w**'in 2 years 
after their title become due to y'' Land. 

Pr. La. 76. Lands to be plainly marked and bounded. 

Survey'* prohibited to give a plot of a survey untill 6 months 
after survey & ordered to marke y* bounds plainly und' penalty 
of 50 lb tobo. for Every 100 acres to ye use of Country. 

Pr. La. 78 Ent. bounds of Lands to be every 4 years renewed 
by ye view of y* neibourhood. 

That within 12 months after y* act y* Inhabitants of every 
neck of Land shall goe in procession & so y' marked Trees of 
Every man's Land & so every four years once & bounds being 
by y' consent of y* proprietor thus settled shall stand ag* him & 
all claiming under him & if defferance be such y* it cannot be 
by y" neibourhood desided y° 2 honest able survey" shall in y* 
presence of y* neibourhood lay out y' land in Controversy & y* 
shalbe y* settled bounds after, & he y* causes y' defferance shall 
pay y'' charg of y" survey & for this End y* courts are to order 
y* vestryes to divide y* parishes into precints & to appoint daies 
i^^ between Easter & Whit Sunday to go y" procession & if y* 
court fail to do this they shalbe fined 10,000 tob*, & if y* vestry 
fail fined i . 200, & every person failing to go upon y* day 350. 

Act 2 1664 Ent. an act for frontiers to be seated w*** 4 able 
hands. 

None here after to seat frontiers without 4 hands armed such 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 61 

as already have pattented land to have 7 years to seat & to 
strengthen each plantacon w*" y* afores* number of hands or else 
to desert ye land. 

Act 20 1666 Ent. an act declaring w' is meant by seating of 
Lands. 

Declared y* building an house & Keeping a Stock one whole 
year upon y* Land shalbe acco'^ Seating and y* clearing, plant- 
ing & tending an acre of ground for one year shalbe accounted 
planting & y* Either of these pYormees y* condition of ye pattent. 

Act 21 1666 Ent. an act concerning Imperfect pattents. En. 
for preservacon of all present Titles & avoyding future trouble 
y* all Lands held by former pattents of w**** there is no Record 
extant or to w"** there is no Rights anexed in y* Records untill 
this assembly shalbe valied. 

En. That hereafter no pattent passe y** office before y* rights 
are Entered & compared. 

Act 6 1665 Ent. an act Concerning bounding of Counties & 
parishes. 

En. y* y* Law y' binds us to y" bounding of our Lands be in 
force to y* bounding of our counties & parishes. 

Enterred Act 9 1 67 2 Ent. an act concerning swamps & marshes. 

En. y* no man shall take up Marsh, Swamp or Sunken Land 
adjoyning to any man's Land w^'^out first giving notice to ye 
owner of ye Land & if he refuse w"*in a yeare & to take up y* 
marsh it shalbe then Lawful for him y* gave notice to pattent it. 

Act 3 1673 Ent. an act for y" better puting in to Ex'" y*" Act 
for processions. 

En. y* orphan's Lands be comprised in y* processionall & in 
case differance concerning y* bounds y" ye orphan's Land to be 
laid out by 2 Survey" in presence of ye neibourhood & 2 men 
appointed by y* county court in behalf of y* Orphens & y" charg 
born, viz: ye orphan to pay one half of y* Survey of his own 
Land and y* owner of y* adjacent y" other half & y* whole charg 
of Surveying his own Land. 

Act ye 5 1674 Ent. An act Impowering feme coverts to make 
good acknowledgm" of Sales of Land. 

En. y* all sales of acknowledgm" y* have been or shalbe made 
by husband & wife shalbe good to all intents, &c. , as if they had 
been done by fine or recovery or otherwise. 



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62 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

LETTERS. 

Pr. La. 90. Publick Letters, how to be conveyed. 

All Letters subscribed for y*" use of his Maj*'" or publick shalbe 
conveyed from plantacon to plantacon to y*' place directed under 
penalty of 350 lb tobo. pr. defalt & if any person be put to ex- 
traordinary charg y'' County Courts are empowered to levy 
payniS y'' Subscriptions being signed by ye Gover*', some one of 
y* quorum, coll., Lt. Coll. orMaj. & where such Letters come 
& any of y* family can write they are required to Endors. ye 
day & hour. 

Act 5. 1692 Ent. Ah act for Encourageing y* erecting of a 
post office in this Country. 

Their Maj'*'" Letteres pattents for 21 years dated ye 17'** Feb', 
in y^ 4'" year of their reign being granted to tho. Neal, Elsq', for 
a post office for his Encouragem* this act gives. 

For post of a Letter not exceeding a sheet & above 50 miles 
3** & for ye like post not exceed 2 sheets 6* & for every sheet 
exceeding 2 sheets to advance 3** & for every pacq* 12* pr. oz. & 
for a Letter not exceed a sheet above 80 miles 4^^* & for one not 
exceed 2 sheets 9* & for one not exceed every sheet exceeding 
2 to advance ^}4 & for Every pacq* 18** pr. oz. Merch" Ace*", 
Esh* Invoyces & bills of Loading to passe at y* rate of double 
Letters — & this doth not extend to such as have a mind to Im- 
ploy special messengers — All Letters superscribed for y*" Maj"** 
or Countrys Service to go without Charg. A post house to be 
Erected in each County. Act to continue in force as long as ye 
Letters Pattent. 

Pr. La. 51 Ent. pub. Levies to be first paid where a sherr. 
receives tob* for Levies fees & other debts & does not receive 
all in kinde, then ye pub. cr. shalbe first paid upon penalty of 
1,000 lb tobo. to y* use of y*" pub. if y* Sherr. Convert y* tob* 
otherwayes. 

Pr. La. 55. List of tithables, how to be taken. 

A Com' shalbe apointed to take y* list of Tithables, y* county 
being devided into divers precincts & yt list shalbe under y* 
hand of y*" Masters of y* families & Contain y" names & numb' 
of Tithables, & if it be a false one ye Master to pay Treble du- 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 63 

ties for every Tithable Concealed — pub. Notice to be given of y* 
day y* Justice will receive y* list & yt day to be before y" 10"* 
of June & Whoso does not y" bring in his list shalbe Judged a 
i^^ concealer & ye Justice Either failing to give notice or to 
take y" list or to give a True list of his own shall pay Trible 
9^ dutiyes & also if he connive at a Conceal""' & he shall in 
Aug* Court following deliver his Acco* to ye Clerk of y* County 
Court who shall return an exact list to ye Clerk of Assembly. 

Pr. La. 54 Ent. What persons are tithable. 

En. All male persons, all negros, male & female, imported, 
all Indians Serv", male or female, how Ever procured being ad- 
judged Cristian Natives & Imported ffree not Tithables till 16. 

Act 13 1662 Ent. An act declareing woman Serv*" titha. 

En. yt such whose comon imploy"' is working in ye ground 
shall pay Tithes & y** Mr. concealing such shalbe fined as for 
other Concealm**. 

* * * Ent. an act for y*" exacten discovery of conceal' d 
Tithables. 

That Every Mast^ of a family shall give an exact acco* of all 
Tithables in ther families by name to y" magestrate appointed, 
by y* lo*** of June, & if he conceal any such concealed persons 
shalbe forfeited to y** Informer, unless he was purchased after ye 
10*'' of June, but if he have less than a year to serve or be a free- 
man then y*" master shall forfeit i,oootb tob*. Women serv" are 
exempted, w*'" whether Tithable or not is left to the court to 
Judge. 

Act 7 1668 Ent. an act continueing y*Tax on negro women. 

That negro women tho sat free shalbe still liable to payment 
of Levies. 

Act 4 1674 Ent. an act for list of Tithables to be publish*. 

En. y* y** Severall lists of Tithables taken shall y" next court 
after y* 10*" of June be by y* elk. of ye court written & set up 
on y* court door. 

Act 3 1672 Ent. An'act concerning Titha. born in y'' Country. 

these y* are appointed to take y*" list shall take an acco* of all 
Negro, Mulatto an Indian children & y" ages of y", w*"* y^ owner 
shall make appear upon oath or by evidence & y' m' shall regis- 
ter all such children negros or mullattos w"*in 12 months after y* 
birth w*" y' exact ages, upon default for paying Levy for y* year 



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64 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

& SO yearly untill such Register be made & all negro women 
born in y* country shalbe accounted Tithables at i6. 

Act 9 1676 Ent. An act repealing y* act allowing free Tith- 
ables to divers persons. 

En. y* no person heretofore Tithable shalbe exempted from 
Levy except y** Gover' & his Serv", y' Single persons of y* coun- 
cil & all ministers Beneficed & such Impotent persons as y* 
county courts shall from time to time exempt. 

Act 13 1676. An act for laying of parish Levies. 

ffreeholders & housekeepers have Liberty to choose six dis- 
creet freeholders & hous-keepers to vote w'" y" vestry in assess- 
ing parish Levies but where ye parish fail to choose such men 
or they do not appear y' Vestry to proceed w'^out y". for this 
Election a day shalbe appointed annually in 7**' by y" eldest 
Justice Comicon in y* p'sh & if none y°by y* Judge of y" Court. 

Act 4 1677 Ent. an act imposeing Fines on Sherrs. conceal- 
ing Tithables. 

The Sherr. or Collect' of y" Levy y* shall receive Tobo. for 
concealed Tithables. 

Act 7 1680 Ent. an act ascertaining y" time w° negro children 
can be titha. 

En. y* all negro children Imported shall w^^in 3 months after 
y* arrivall be brought to y* County Court for y'ages to be Judged 
& y' ages to be put upon record & being so such negroes shalbe 
ace"* titha. at 12 years old & a Xtian Serv' imported shall not be 
titha. till 14 years. 

Act 2 1682 Ent. Act declareing Indian women Serv^ tith- 
ables. By this act all Indian women are a like titha. w^** negro. 

Act 2 1693 Ent. an act for y*" Encouragem* of y*" manufacture 
of Linen & Cloath. 

En. ^y* y* Justices of every County do annually in 9**' or X** 
meet at y* court house & y° & there set 3 sev" rewards to be 
levied in y* County & to be disposed of by y" as an Encourage*"* 
to such persons as shall produce to y* Justice at ye next court 
for laying y* Levey y*^ 3 best pieces of Linen of their own make- 
ing 15 ells Long & ^ of a yard wide, provided y* reward ex- 
ceed not Sootb of tobo. for y" i", for y* 2** 6ootb, for y' 3* 40olb. 
this act to continue 6 years and no longer. 
(to be continued.) 



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EASTERN SHORE HISTORY. 65 

EASTERN SHORE HISTORY. 



An Address By Thomas T. Upshur. 



NOTES— (See Vol. IX, 88-99). 



Nassawadox, Va., May 26, 1902. 
Editor Virginia Magazine of History and Biography: 

I. Let me call the attention of the readers of your Maga- 
zine, to Vol. IX, No. I, p. 89, to the words Nassawadox (now 
Bridgetown). 

. The Peninsula after one or two scares about the Indian mas- 
sacres was divided into Military precincts. On July 25, 1650— 
Vol. 3, p. 217, "Northampton County, Va., Records** — it is shown 
that Robert Berry and others had reported that t^ie Gingaskin 
Indians, of whom King Tom was then Chief, *'were of foul 
intent towards settlers,'* & on 9th of October, 1651, the county 
of Northampton was divided into precincts, and officers ap- 
pointed to command them as follows: 

From lower end of Magothy Bay, to South side of **01d 
Plantation Creek,** Captain Edward Douglas. 

For Regiment of Horse, Captain Peter Walker. 

From the house of Lewis Whyte to Old Plantation Creek, in- 
cluding John Little's house at Seaside, Major Obedience Robins. 

From house of Lewis Whyte including Savage's Neck. Cap- 
tain John Savage. 

For Hungars Creek, Captain William Andrews. 

For Nuswattocks Creek, Captain Stephen Charlton. 

For Occahomock Creek, Captain Edmund Scarburgh. 

For precincts of Nandua, Captain Samuel Goldsmith.'* 

See Vol., Orders, &c.. No. 3, p. 217, and also Vol. No. 4, 
** Northampton County, Va., Records.'* 

The military district or precinct gathering place called Nus- 
wattocks is now called Bridgetown, doubtless so renamed be- 
cause it is not on Nussawadox creek, but is at the bridge over 
Hungars creek near its head waters. The place is indiscrimi- 
nately referred to in ' * Northampton County Records * ' as ' * the 



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66 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Bridge at Nuswattocks, the bridge at Hungars, and the bridge 
over Hungars Creek at Nuswattocks, and the context shows 
that the present site of Bridgetown was where the Commission- 
er's or Justice's Court for the upper part of the County met al- 
ternately with "Old Plantation," for the convenience of the 
settlers, thereby saving them long journeys. Col. Stephen 
Charlton's home was the plantation now called the *' Glebe." 
only about three miles from Bridgetown, down what is now 
called "Church Neck," which farm reverted to Hungars Parish 
to aid in the maintenance of a Rector, provided his daughter 
Bridgett, who afterwards married Isaac Foxcroft, should leave 
no issue. Over this farm there was long subsequent (about the 
middle of the past century), a law suit brought by the over- 
seers of the poor of Northampton county, which after various 
trials and appeals, ended in the Parish being robbed of it, on a 
technicality in the law, for Bridgett (Charlton) Foxcroft, died 
childless. ^ 

2. That Eastville was called "The Horns." See Chancery 
proceedings, Vol. i. Land Causes, p. 267, Northampton county, 
Va., Records, which reads as follows: "We find that the 
bounder in the lease mentioned, to the eastward, called "The 
Horns," is to the eastward of where the road now runs by the 
Courthouse, and that that road hath been for sixty years and 
upwards where it now runs," &c.. &c. See, also, deed from 
Joseph Godwin to Northampton county, March, 1688, Vol. xi, 
deeds, wills, &c., p. 207, Northampton county, Va., Records. 
The Chancery Proceedings referred to also contain a plat show- 
ing Courthouse, the " Holt House," at the site of the present 
hotel in Eastville, known as the "Taylor House," a very quaint 
old building, modernized somewhat, but a part of which seems 
old enough to have been the original " Holt House," and the 
road running past it with the branch, or " Horn " of the Gulf, 
or Wiscapouso, as the Indians called the branch of Hungar's 
Creek nearest to Eastville — "Rocky Branch" is the other 
"Horn." 

3. See Smith's History of Virginia, p. 109, for Captain Smith's 
first visit to the Eastern Shore, Va. 

4. " Dale's Gift." See Rolfe's Relation of Virginia, Vir- 
ginia Historical Register, Vol. i, p. 102. See, also, the petition 



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EASTERN SHORE HISTORY. 67 

of Henry Williams for land, Vol. i, Northampton county, Va., 
Records, May 4, 1635. ** For as much as Henry Williams doth 
make appeare by sufficient testymony to oure Cor* y* he hath 
remayned in this land 20 yeares doing much Serviss ffor the 
Countrye, we certifye the same ffor the truth to the Gov' & 
Counsell att James Cittye under the title offCor'. Itt lyeth est 
into the woods, west on the mayne Creeke, North on Henry 
Charlton's land." 

The Rev'd E. D. Neill, in his Virginia Company, p. 107, 
when quoting from Rolfe's Relation of the State of Virginia, 
and when referring to the Condition of the Colonists in 1616, 
says : 

** The places which are now possessed and inhabited are sixe. 
I. * Henrico* and the limits. 2. * Bermuda Nether Hundreds.' 
3. *West & Sherley.' 4. 'Jamestown.' 5. 'Kequotan.' 6. 
* Dale's Gift.' " See Virginia Historical Register, Vol. i, p. loi, 
and Southern Literary Messenger of June, 1839, Vol. 5, p. 401. 
See map of " Part of Colonial Virginia," attached to Cooke's 
History of Virginia, showing the location of Dale's Gift to have 
been in the southern part of Northampton county. Va., on the 
Chesapeake Bay side of the Peninsula, about where the mouth 
of * Old Plantation ' Creek is shown on more recent maps, and 
very near the site of the present town of Cape Charles." 

5. See '* Ten Decades of the Union," by Hon. Henry A. Wise. 
For simile "The Land of the Myrtle and the Pine." 

6. See **John Porey's Narrative in relation to his travels in 
1621:" 

** Having but ten men meaningly provided to plant the Sec- 
retaries land on the Eastern Shore near Accomacke — Captain 
Wilcock's plantation, the better to secure and assist each other. 
Sir Georgfe Yeardley intending to visit Smith's Isles, fell sick, 
that he could not, so that he sent me with Estinieve Moll, a 
Frenchman, to finde a convenient place to make salt in. Having 
taken a muster of the company's tenantes, I went to Smith's 
Isles where was our Salt House. Not far off we found a more 
convenient place, & so returned to Jamestown. Being furnished 
a second time we arrived at Aqoohanock (Occohannock) and 
confered with Kiptopeke, their King," &c. See Smith's His- 
tory of Virginia." pp. no, 119, 348, 413, 424, 567, and 595. 



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68 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

All of which relate in part to early settlement of the Eastern 
Shore and as to salt works. See ** Beverly," p. 39. 

7. *'As Dales Gift being upon the Sea/' &c., see **Rolfe*s 
Relation of Virginia,** '* Virginia Historical Register,'* Vol. I, 
p. lOI. 

8. Only nine settlers remaining at Secretaries Plantation at 
Accomack in 1621. See ** Neill's Virginia Company," p. 282, 
quoting from the proceedings during the second year of South- 
ampton's Directorship. 

9. Kiptopeke (or Kictopeke as given in * * Northampton County, 
Virginia, Records"), a brother of the Laughing King. See 
** Smith's History of Virginia, p. 569, and in this same reference 
it is shown that at the time of Captain John Smith's visit in 1608, 
the Indians were estimated by him to number about 2,000. 

10. For will of Okiawampe, see vol. 1657 to 1666, ''North- 
ampton County, Virginia, Records," dated 22d April, 1657. 

11. Richard Hill— 

"Whereas Wathiwamp (the same name as Okiawampe and 
Wachiwampe), Kinge of the Occahannocke Indyans, hath made 
his Compl* to this Cor^ that Richard Hill, Overseer unto M' 
Edm. Scarburgh, his servants, inhabitinge all Occhannocke, 
hath lately p'sented a gun att the breast Of the s* Kinge of Oce- 
hannocke whereby hee was disturbed in his huntinge. Upon 
Consideracon of y* badd Consequences wc** maye ensue upon 
such unadvised p'actices. It is thought fitt & ordered that for 
future tyme noe Englishman shall disturb, mollest, or act any- 
thinge ag'st the s^ Indyan Kinge to hind' him in his huntinge, 
as they will answ' the same," 7 May, 1650. See Vol. 3, p. 212, 
•* Northampton County, Virginia, Records." See order about 
* ' Laughing King Indyans, ' ' same volume as last reference above, 
p. 207, "Northampton County, Virginia, Records." 

12. In 1667, &c., about visitation of small pox, see order of 
Sir Wm. Berkeley. Vol. 8, p. 19, Northampton County, Vir- 
ginia, Records. See, also, Beverly's History, p. 184, quoted 
by Howe, p. 141, which says : '* In 1700 the Indians of Eastern 
Virginia were almost wasted, but such towns and people as re- 
tain their names and live in bodies are hereunder set down ; all 
of which together can't raise 500 fighting men. They live 



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EASTERN SHORE HISTORY. 69 

poorly and much in fear of the neighboring Indians. Each 
town, by the treaty of peace of 1677, P^ys 3 Indian arrows for 
their land, and 20 Beaver skins for protection each year. 

In Accomac are eight towns — 

1. Gingoteague — The remains of this town all joined with a 
nation of Maryland Indians. 

2. Metomkin — Which was much decreased of late by small 
pox that was carried thither. 

3. Kicquotank — Is reduced to a very few men. 

4. Matchapungo — Has a small number yet living. 

5. Ocahonnock— *' 

6. Pungoteague — Governed by a Queen, but a small nation. 

7. Onancock — Has four or five families. 

8. Chiconessex — Has very few who just keep the name. 

9. Nandua — A seat of the Empress — not above 20 families — 
but she has all the niations on the Shore undpr tribute. 

10. In Northampton — The Gangascoe (Gingaskins) which is 
almost as numerous as all the foregoing put together.*' 

13. The Accomacks were a branch of the Powhatans and 
spoke their language, &c. See Smith's History of Virginia, p. 
no. See, also, Scharff's History of Philadelphia, Vol. i, under 
Caption of * 'Indians,** in which it is shown that the Lenape and 
Mengues united, and that a part migrated south of the Potomac 
into Virginia. See, also, Scharff's History of Maryland, Vol. 
i» P- I3« quoting Smith's History of Virginia, p. 55, referring 
to period about 161 2, says: ** But there are on the River Acco- 
honnock 40 men, and they of Accomack 80 men, who doth 
equalize any of the territories of Powhatan, and speak his lan- 
guage, who over these doth rule as king. The people to the 
north, on River Tauta Wighcomoca, are of little statue, of an- 
other language from the rest, and very rude." That the East- 
ern Shore of Virginia Indians were timid and harmless. See 
Beverly, p. 39. This reference also shows that the Eastern 
Shore Virginia Indians were not included in the massacre of 
1622, and in Volume No. 2, Northampton County, Virginia, Re- 
cords, 1640 to 1645, *t is shown that the English were alarmed 
by the massacre of 1644 ^^ Jamestown, but the Eastern Shore 
Indians did not participate. 



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70 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

14. * * The Laughing King once sent a deputation of Indians, ' ' 
&c. For this item see Volume No. 2, Northampton County, 
Virginia, Records. After Daniel Cugley's arrest he was sent to 
Jamestown for trial before the Governor and Council. He 
seemed never to forgive the Court for its action. He died not 
very long after, leaving considerable property to his widow, 
Hannah, and his daughter, ** Margery." Hannah, said to have 
been born Tyng, a daughter of Edward Tyng, of Boston, mar- 
ried first Ensign Thomas Savage, the interpreter, by whom she 
had a son, John, afterwards Captain John Savage, who received 
a patent for a Grand Dividend of land 9,000 acres in right of 
his father, ** Ancient Thomas Savage.** A part of this land is 
yet known as ** Savage* s Neck,** in Northampton County. 
Hannah sur\'ived Mr. Cugley but a short time. 

15. That ** Roanoke** was made of shells, see Charles Camp- 
bell's History of Virginia, p. 55, and also in many places in the 
Records of Northampton and Accomac Counties, Virginia. 

16. The Plantation of Accomac grew in strength until 1634, 
&c. See Palmer*s State Papers, Vol. viii, p. 35; also, Census 
of 1634, quoted in ** Virginia Carolorum," pp. 114, 115. 

17. '* On the 2d of March, 1642,** the name of the Plantation 
of Accomack was changed to Northampton County. See Hen- 
ing*s Statutes, Vol. i, p. 249. 

18. ** Debedeavon,** the Indian Emperor. His name was 
spelled several ways — Debatavon, Depatiavon and others. 

19. For proof of Colonel Edmund Scarburgh's official posi- 
tions, see Acts of Assembly, No. 11, loth September, 1663 

20. *'For List of Grievances,*' see Virginia Magazine, His- 
tory and Biography. Vol. ii. No. 3, p. 289. 

22. That Black Beard, the Pirate, was Edward Teach, and 
was from Accomac County, Virginia, see Wheeler's History of 
North Carolina, part i, p. 38 ; also Williamson's History of 
North Carolina, Vol. 2, pp. 2-11; also, Martin's History of 
North Carolina, Vol. i, pp. 281-286 ; also. Biographical Sketches 
ot both Edward Teach and Governor Drummond, by Dr. Ste- 
phen B. Weeks, Santa Fe, New Mexico. There are, possibly, 
some members of the Teach family living in Accomac County 
now. One Mrs. Mary Teach, n6e Justice, died near Marion- 



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EASTERN SHORE HISTORY. 71 

ville, in this county, which is only a few miles from my residence, 
about the year 1887 or 1888. She and her husband were natives 
of Accomac County, Virginia. 

23. Court Records. All the Cases mentioned in the Address 
on page 96 of the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 
Vol. ix. No. I, can be found in the first three volumes of North- 
ampton County Records, and the Matrimonial Wager between 
George Scovell and Mr. Mountney, concerning Wm. Burdett 
and the Widow Saunders, can be found in Vol. No. i, 1632-40, 
in the year 1633, Northampton County, Virginia, Records. 

24. In the closing paragraph of the address appears the words : 
"Her table is the Gourmand's Heaven, and is always full." 

I think it is generally conceded that although few residents of 
the Elastern Shore of Virginia get rich, it is as easy a region to 
make a living in as any in the world. In 1886, when searching 
some old chests of papers pertaining to the estate of one of my 
ancestors, I found an old contract made between the deceased 
and another man, who agreed to hire a slave from him, and in 
the contract it was stipulated that the said slave ** should not be 
fed on Terrapin oftener than three times a week." I presented 
the contract to Mr. John Teackle, of Baltimore, Md. , who prob- 
ably has it yet as a curiosity. It was dated during the closing 
year of the i8th century. Before the late Civil War, diamond- 
back terrapins were very cheap and plentiful ; so were oysters, 
clams, wild water-fowl, and fish abundant. * * Water vegetables, ' ' 
as they were called in ante bellum days. Now all are obtainable 
in their respective seasons, but at comparatively exhorbitant 
prices. 

Hoping that I have proven the main points in my address to 
the satisfaction of yourself and the many readers of your Mag- 
azine, 

I am yours faithfully, 

Thos. T. Upshur. 



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72 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



HENRY COUNTY 

From its Formation in 1776 to the End of the Eighteenth 
Century, et seq. 



From the records in the clerks office, by C. B. Bryant, Martinsville, Va. 



(continued.) 



1782, March. — John Salmon, Esqr., is allowed £^ for serving 
as Clerk to the Court of Inquiry of this County 23 days in mak- 
ing instructions for supplying the Continental Army with cloth- 
ng & provisions. 

Ordered that the several delinquents who were appointed to 
furnish Clothing & Beef for the Continental Army be summoned 
to appear here at the 2d day of the next term. 

George Waller, Esq., is recommended to his Excellency the 
Governor as a proper person to serve as Colonel of the militia. 
Peter Saunders, Esq., recomended as Lt. Colonel. Brice Mar- 
tin is recomended as Major. George Hairston is recommended 
as Colonel. Peter Hairston is recommended as Major. 

George Elliott is allowed £1^, — for a Horse impressed into 
military service in June, 1781. and lost in said service. 

Also ;^22. — for one ditto at same time and lost. 

Also ;^34. — for a Wagon, Geer & Jackscrew at same time. 

Also ;^53. 10. for 107 days service with Wagon & Team. 

Also ;^io. for 20 days service with Wagon & Team when 
marching to the Marques Dela Fayett in 1781. 

Also allowed 12s. for 3 Casks. 

Robert Stockton produced certificate from Elijah King, Lieut, 
in Col. Washington's Light Dragoons, that he impressed a Stone 
Horse, 5 ft. high, 10 years old, almost full blooded & worth 
;^i5o, specie. 

John Barksdale is appointed Captain of the company formerly 
commanded by Major Brice Martin, and John Redd ist Lieut. 
& John Cox 2d Lieut. 

Joseph Cooper is appointed Captain of the company com- 
manded by Capt. Geo. Hairston, George Hamilton ist Lieut., 
and Thadeus Salmon, Ensign. 



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HENRY COUNTY, VA. 73 

George Reynolds is appointed Captain of the company com- 
manded by Capt. Peter Hairston, Matthew Webb ist Lieut. , 
John Conway 2d Lieut, & Bazel O'Neal, Ensign. 

1782, May. A court held for adjusting claims for property 
impressed or taken for Public Service, pursuant to act of Assem- 
bly. 

Josiah Smith allowed for 82 Rations to Thomas Smith, a 
British prisoner wounded and unable to travel. 

Also for 103 lbs Bacon furnished Brigade of Wagons belong- 
ing to Gen' Sumter by Sam' Moore F. Master. 

Also for 970 wt. of Blades furnished same. Samuel Hairston 
is allowed for 765 lbs Beef, 7 Diats & five pecks Corn furnished 
Jesse Heard, Com'y of Provisions. 

Harris Wilson allowed £\, 17. o for i Beef on expedition 
against Insurrection of the Tories in the year 1780. James 
Spencer allowed 6 lbs Bacon to Capt. Hanby's company on 
their march to join Gen' Green in May 1781. 

Peter Hairston for 4 Barrels corn for the use of Gen' Hospital. 
Phillip Buzzard 55 | specie for 276 lbs Beef to Com*y Provis- 
ions; also, 31 I for 31 Diets to Capt. Hanby's company on their 
march to join Gen' Green in Feb'y, 1781. 

John Ferguson allowed 18 | 9 for 25 lbs Bacon & 14 | for 14 
Diets to guard & British Prisoners on their way from the South- 
ward to Winchester in May, 1781. 

Also 10 I for a Barrel of Corn to ditto in November, 1781. 
Also £^\, 15. o for 475 lbs Beef to ditto in ditto. 

John George 18 | 9 for 25 lbs Bacon to Capt. Lanier*s Comp'y 
on their march to join Gen' Green. 

John Ferguson ^^3. 11. i. for \^\% lbs Pork, 12 lbs Bacon & 
one & a half gallons corn for Hospital at Henry C. H., May, 
1781. 

Also allowed 19 | for 19 Diets to Capt. Gwinn's company on 
march to Augusta from Gen' Green after battle of Guilford. 

Also £\o. 9. o for 950 lbs Beef, 12 Diets. 100 lbs Fodder & 
two bushels corn furnished Jesse Heard, Commissary of Provis- 
ions. 

Spencer Clark 42 | 3 for 58 lbs Bacon furnished Hospital at 
Henry Courthouse in March, 1781. 

James Majors 15 | for 20 lbs ditto to ditto. 



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74 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Richard Reynolds £^2, 17. o for 285 lbs beef to Comissary. 

William Gates allowed 6 | for 6 Diets furnished same. 

Anthony Bitting for 217 lbs Beef furnished in the year 1780. 

Robert Jones, Jr., ^^3. 3. o for 315 lbs Beef to Commissary of 
Provisions. Josiah Carter is allowed 5 | 6 for 3 Diets & i bushel 
corn & one peck to Hugh Armstrong on his way to Gen* Green. 

Also 4 I 6 for 150 bundles Fodder to Jacob Goan, Quarter 
Master Gen\ 

Also 10 I for four bushels meal furnished a guard with British 
prisoners on their march from the Southward to Winchester. 

Also for 12 I for 3 bushels Rye for 4 Teams on their return 
from Charlotte, in No. Carolina, to Peytonsburg, Wm. McCraw, 
D. Q. M. 

Joseph Morris £\, 16. 3 for 2 barrels corn, 10 lbs Bacon & 15 
lbs salt Pork to wagons from Peytonsburg to south — by Geo. 
Rowland. 

William Hunter ;^3, 5. ofor 325 lbs Beef to Jesse Heard, C. P. 

Aris Vaughan J[^\, 4. 4. for 73 lbs Pork to Hospital at H*y C. 
H., 1781. Joseph Morris 15 | for 20 lbs Bacon furnished Capt. 
Henderson's company on their march to join Gen' Green. 

John Neavil 2 | for 4 gallons corn furnished Jesse Heard. 

Thomas Haile i | 6 for 3 gallons ditto to ditto. 

Francis Kearby 4 | 4 for 13 lbs Pork to same. John Law 
£\, 13. 9 for 45 lbs Bacon to Capt. Thomas Smith's company 
on their march to join Gen' Green. 

John Gresham 10 | 8 for i\% lbs Bacon taken for Henry mil- 
itia. George Hairston J[fi. 6. o for one bushels Salt, 100 
bundles Blades, 21 Diets & half bushel corn furnished John 
Armstrong, Major commanding 4th North Carolina Regiment. 

Wm. Halbert 12 | for 6 Diets & 8 gallons corn to Jesse Heard, 
C. P. Also £^, 5. 3. for pasturage for 12 Beeves 269 days, 12 
Diets & 12 gallons corn furnished same. 

Jonathan Hanby ;^3. for 300 lbs Beef furnished the same. 

John Marr j^ii. 10. o. for 11 50 lbs ditto to same. 

John Parr £^2>' i5- o- ^^r 375 lbs ditto to same. 

Mary Tarrent £^2. 5. o. for 225 lbs dittto to same. 

William Hayne 12 | for 16 lbs Bacon to Capt. Tho's Smith's 
company. 

(to be continued) 



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BATTLE OF POINT PLEASANT. 75 

THE BATTLE OF POINT PLEASANT. 



(Contributed by J. T. McAllister, of Hot Springs, Bath county, Va.) 



(continued) 



THE BATTLE. 

On Monday morning, October the loth, about half an hour before sun- 
rise, two of Captain Russell's company— James Mooney and Heck- 
man — who had gone somewhat over a mile from the camp, came upon 
a large party of Indians, one was killed and the survivor ran back at 
full speed to give the alarm, telling those in camp he had seen five acres 
of ground covered with Indians as thick as they could stand. (W. of 
W., p. i8. and Campbell MSS.) 

Almost at the same time two others discovered the Indians. These 
were members of Captain Evan Shelby's company, one of whom was 
Sergeant James Robertson, and the other Valentine Sevier, a brother of 
John Sevier. These reported that they had seen about 30 Indians. (W. 
of W.. p. 18.) 

There was an instant call to arms, and the soldiers, rolling out of 
their blankets with a glance at the flints and the priming, were ready. 

General Lewis, thinking it was only a scouting party with which he 
had to deal, ordered out Colonel Chas. Lewis with 150 men, in charge of 
Captain John Dickenson, Captain Benjamin Harrison, Captain Samuel 
Wilson, Captain John Lewis (of Augusta), and Captain Andrew Lock- 
ridge. Colonel William Fleming was also ordered to take command of 
one hundred and fifty more of the Botetourt, Bedford and Fincastle 

troops, led by Captain Thomas Buford, of Bedford ; Captain 

Love, of Botetourt; Captain Evan Shelby, and Captain William Rus- 
sell, of Fincastle. 

Fleming had the left, and marched up the bank of the Ohio. Colonel 
Charles Lewis marched on the right, some distance from the bank. 

They had gone only about half-mile when a most vigorous attack was 
made by the united tribes of the Shawnees, Delewars, Mingoes and 
Tarvas and several other nations. The sun had not yet risen, and the 
men who stayed in camp heard the clash of hundreds of guns ringing 
out together, proclaiming that the attack was a serious one. Both of 
the scouts in front pf white line were killed. 

The first attack fell on the division led by Colonel Charles Lewis, 
which was drawn up on the high ground skirting Crooked Run. Lewis 
received a mortal wound in the outset, which in a few hours caused his 
death. He had not protected himself, as the men had, by sheltering 
behind trees, but was in an open piece of ground, cheering on his men. 



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76 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

when he was shot. He stayed with them until the line was formed, 
then giving his gun to one of the men near he walked back unaided to 
camp. 

Several of Lewis's men fell at the first round. The first division 
wavered and started to fall back, and the brum of the battle now bore 
upon Colonel Fleming's men. Fleming, forgetting the need for caution, 
stepped into the open to give orders to his division, and received two 
balls through his left arm and one through his breast. In a very calm 
manner he animated the officers and men to continue the fight and he 
went back towards camp. 

In the meantime General Lewis had ordered Colonel Field with his 
company and with the companies of Captain Robert McDowell, Captain 
George Mathews, Captain John Stuart, Captain William Paul, Captain 
Mathew Arbuckle, Captain Robert McClenochan and Captain John 
Lewis (of Botetourt), to the front. This division numbered 200 men. 

It arrived only just in time. Colonel Lewis and Colonel Fleming had 
both been disabled by wounds from leading the charge, and the battle 
was going against the whites. The men who had been left in camp 
also began to hurry to the scene. General Lewis, now realizing the 
extent of the damage, began to fortify the camp by felling timber, so 
as to form a breastwork running across the point from the Kanawha to 
the Ohio, to provide a place of safety from which his men could fight. 

The new forces under Colonel John Field slowly beat back the 
enemy, who killed and wounded white men at every advance. 

Colonel Field profitted by the fate of the two leaders who had fallen 
before him, and tried to protect himself by sheltering behind a great 
tree. But while trying to shoot an Indian who was talking to amuse 
him, some others who were above among some fallen timber shot him 
dead. 

When Field fell the command devolved on Captain Even Shelby, 
whose company was then led by his son Isaac. 

Steadily, undaunted by the loss of their leaders, while the Indians 
were attacking with the utmost skill, caution and bravery, the troops 
fought on. 

It was a fight in which single combat was everything. Each man 
sheltered himself behind a stump, or rock, or tree trunk. The line had 
now extended itself to about a mile and a half, but the foes were never 
more than twenty yards apart. Many of the combatants g^rappled hand- 
to-hand, fighting and tomahawked each other to the death. The clatter 
of the rifle, the cries* and groans of the wounded, the shouts of the 
white combatants mingled with the appalling war-whoops and yells of 
their foes. 

Thinking they would gain a complete victory the Indians planted men 
over each river to kill the whites if they should swim over. Those over 
the Ohio in the time of battle called to the other men to "drive the 



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BATTLE OF POINT PLEASANT. 77 

white dogs in.** Cornstalk and the other chiefs ran continually along 
the lines exhorting their men to **lie close,*' ** shoot well,*' and to 
** fight and be strong." 

Thus the fight continued till noon. Then the Indians tried to get 
around the flank of the whites into their camp, but were repulsed, and 
a party of whites followed up the advantage by sending a detachment 
led by Isaac Shelby, James Stewart and George Mathews, which ran 
along the banks of the Kanawha and outflanked the enemy in return. 

The close underwood, the steep banks and logs greatly favored the 
retreat of the Indians. Colonel William Christian estimates that several 
hundred Indians were employed in cutting saplins to take off thefr 
wounded. Many of their dead they threw into the Ohio River. 

The Rev. Wm. P. Price, of Marberton, in 'his excellent History of 
Pocahontas, is inclined to attribute the lull in the battle and the retreat 
of the Indians to another cause. He claims the credit of this for Jacob 
Warwick, who is said to have been across the Kanawha at work with 
some 50 or 60 men, who were slaughtering meat for the army for its in- 
tended march to the Indian towns, and who hearing the firing, at first 
thought it was in honor of Lord Dunmore's arrival, and finally, knowing 
it was a battle, rallied the butchers and returned to the camp. He 
claims that this party was mistaken by Constalk for the expected re- 
enforcements under Colonel Wm. Christian. He brings forward as evi- 
dence the statement said to have been made by Jacob Warwick and 
Joseph Mayse and by Charles Cameron, all of whom were in the battle, 
and all from this immediate section. 

The statement is inconsistent in many respects. First, it claims that 
the firing was supposed to be in honor of Lord Dunmore's arrival. 
And yet it claims they were butchering meat for the ordered march, 
which, iT true, would itself prove that Dunmore was noi expected. 
Again, .the lull did not occur till noon and a heavy battle had been rag- 
ing since sunrise. If they heard the firing they were most tardy in ar- 
riving at its meaning and tendering their help. 

Further, it appears that there were no orders received from Lord Dun- 
more until after the battle. 

The claim will hardly stand in the light of the letters written from the 
battle field by Colonel Wm. Christian and by Isaac Shelby. But to re- 
turn to the battle. 

From noon till about one o'clock there was a slight abatement in the 
battle. When they failed in their flank movement the Indians fell back, 
the best fighters covering their retreat, while the wounded were being 
carried off; so hotly were they pressed that they were not able to bear 
away all of their dead— a very unusual thing for the Indians. Though 
the whites pressed them, it was necessary to do .so with the greatest 
caution ; any exposure of the men was instantly punished. This retreat 



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78 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

put the Indians in a strong position, from which the officers deemed it 
impossible to drive them except at two heavy a cost. 

Worn out with fighting, and standing there with occasional shots ex- 
changed, they retained their respective positions till dark. Tauntingly, 
the Indians called to the whites that to-morrow they would have 2,000 
men for them to fight. They damned the men, and said : *' Don*t you 
whistle now" (deriding the fifes), and made very merry about a 
treaty. ' ' 

Under the cover of darkness the Indians slipped away and made a 
most skilful retreat, carrying all of their wounded with them safely 
across the Ohio. 

The Indians got no scalps except that of one or two stragglers whom 
they killed before the engagement. They scalped many of their own 
dead to prevent the whites from doing so, but the whites obtained more 
than twenty of theirs. 

So eager were the Indians for scalps that when Captain John Frogge, 
of Staunton, was killed, three Indians were shot over his body endeav- 
oring by turns to scalp him. (See Stew. Letter, Nov. 4, 1774.) 

The whites, though victorious, had suffered severely. The estimates 
of the killed and wounded are widely at variance. Captain John Stew- 
art, who wrote an account of the battle, places the number of the killed 
and mortally wounded at 75, and those severely or slightly wounded at 
140. Monette, in his " Valley of the Mississippi," says 87 killed and 
141 wounded. William Wilson, one of the participants in the battle, in 
a deposition made in 1833, says that the number of killed and wounded 
amounted to j6o. It is probable that many of the wounded died later, 
which would swell the list of the ones named as killed, and that some 
writers take no notice of the slightly wounded men, who are included in 
the other lists. It is not uncommon to find the same man's nahie given 
in one list as wounded and the other as killed. 

Colonel Wm. Christian, who did not reach the Point until the mid- 
night after the battle, in a letter written 15th October to Colonel Wm. 
Campbell, which is to be printed in the Virginia Magazine of History 
and Biography for the first time in any historical collection, says : 

" I will enclose you a state of the killed and wounded. I made it 
to-day from what scattering accounts I could gather. I have been 
through all the camps, and believe that many more men will die. 
There were many shot in two places. One in particular, I observed, 
with two bullits gone in three. They are really in a deplorable situa- 
tion — bad doctors, few medicines, nothing to do with, proper for them, 
makes it worse still." 

Some of the writers state that Lewis left Point Pleasant on the 12th. 
This is clearly an error, as is shown by the letter from Christian, who, 
writing on the 15th. says that it will be Monday following before Lewis 



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BATTLE OF POINT PLEASANT. 79 

can cross the Ohio. A letter written by Captain Geo. Mathews says 
they crossed the Ohio on the 17th. 

The residue of the campaign is quickly told. As soon as it was pos- 
sible for Lewis to make proper provision for his wounded men, and 
leaving 300 to care for and protect its wounded, he pushed on. His 
men were now more eager than ever to inflict a lasting punishment upon 
the Indians. With about 1,100 men he passed over the Ohio, and pro- 
ceeding by way of the Salt Licks, he pushed on to the Pickaway plains. 
When but a few miles away from the Earl's encampment he was met by 
a messenger, informing him that a treaty of peace was being negotiated 
by the Indians, and ordering him to return immediately to the mouth 
of the Kanawha. Suspecting the integrity of his Lordship's motives, 
and urged by the advice of his officers generally. General Lewis refused 
to obey these orders and continued to advance, until they were met at 
Kilkenny Creek and in sight of an Indian village, by Governor Dun- 
more himself, and only then were they reluctantly induced to march 
homeward. 

Lewis led his army back to Point Pleasant, which was reached 
on the 28th. Here he left a garrison of fifty men, and then by compa- 
nies the volunteers marched through the wilderness to their respective 
homes, where they were disbanded early in November. 

Meanwhile, the officers of the other division of the army, the part 
which was led by Dunmore in person, and which took no part in this 
battle, held a notable meeting on the 5th of October, 1774, at Fort 
Gower. Of this meeting Benjamin Ashby was clerk. 

In their resolutions they say, that after having lived in the woods 
for three months, without any intelligence from Boston, or from the 
delegates at Philadelphia, and fearing that their countrymen might 
not understand their position, in order to give assurance that they were 
ready at all times, to the utmost of their powers, to maintain and defend 
the just rights and privileges of their colony, they adopted the following 
resolutions : 

'* Resolved, That we will bear the utmost faithful allegiance to his 
majesty, King George the Third, while his majesty delights to reign 
over a brave and free people ; that we will, at the expense of life and 
everything dear and valuable, exert ourselves in the support of the 
honor of his crown and the dignity of the British Empire. Buf^ as the 
love of liberty and attachment to the real interests and just rights of 
America outweigh every other consideration, we resolve, that we will 
exert every power within us for the defence of American liberty, and 
for the support of her just rights and privileges, not in any precipitous, 
riotous, or tumultuous manner, but when regularly called forth by the 
unanimous voice ot our countrymen." 

'* Resolved^ That we entertain the greatest respect for his excellency, 
the Rt. Hon. Lord Dunmore, who commanded the expedition against 



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80 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the Shawnees, and who, we are confident, underwent the fatigue of this 
singular campaign from no other motive than the true interests of the 
country.'* 

It will be noted that none of Lewis's men took part in the meeting, 
and it is a most significant fact that this meeting, composed of his own 
immediate officers, should have deemed it necessary to pass a resolu- 
tion giving their opinion of the motives prompting his Lordship. 

This, as well as the resolution adopted in 1775 by the Virginia House 
of Burgesses, upon Dunmore's exparte statement, complimentary to 
Lord Dunmore and the troops which he had commanded against the 
Indians, (a compliment which, says Wirt, so far as Dunmore was con- 
cerned, was afterwards found to be unmerited), have been pointed to as 
evidence of the contention that Dunmore was not guilty of betraying 
Lewis at Point Pleasant. 

It is to be noted, however, that men who do what Dunmore is charged 
with doing, do not do it in the light of day. That rumors of his im- 
proper designs were current at the time among the troops led by him 
seems to be shown by the last of the two resolutions at Fort Gower. 
The Virginia House of Burgesses would probably pass such compli- 
mentary resolutions as a matter of form, even though some intimations 
of this treachery may have reached them. 

The leaders of Virginia were playing a deep-laid game for the free- 
dom of America, and it would not have suited their purposes to expose 
Dunmore at that time. 

In Buell s Life of Paul Jones ^ p 21, there is an extract from the jour- 
nal of Jones with reference to the condition of affairs in January, 1775, 
in which there is the following sentence : 

*' Colonel Washington, Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Livingston agreed that 
it would be better to postpone the open rupture, if P9ssible, to the next 
year, that the widely scattered Colonies might have opportunity to 
arrive at a more complete concert than had been reached up to that 
time" 

Whether or not we believe the statement of Colonel Andrew Lewis 
(son of General Andrew), that *' Blue Jacket, a Shawnee chief, visited 
Lord Dunmore's camp on October 9th, the day before the battle, and 
went straight from there to the Point, and some ol them went to camp 
with Lord Dunmore immediately after the battle," or that " Lord Dun- 
more, in a conversation with Conally and others on the loth, the day 
of the battle, remarked, that * Lewis is probably having hot work about 
this time," (Hale's Trans-Alleghany Pioneers, p. 205), it is certain 
that other men of intelligence who were actors in events at that time 
believed Dunmore guilty of the charge. 

In speaking of the matter, Howe says : 

" Great excitement, amounting almost to mutiny, prevailed among 
the troops, at not being allowed to fight the Indians. They were highly 



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BATTLE OF POINT PLEASANT. 81 

dissatisfied with the Governor and the treaty. The conduct of Dunmore 
could not be satisfactorily explained by them except by supposing that 
he had received orders from the royal government to terminate the war 
speedily with the hostile tribes, and to make such terms with them as 
might secure their alliance in favor of England against the colonies, in 
case the growing difficulties with them should terminate in open war. 
Such, too, was said to have been the opinions of General Washington 
and Chief-Justice Marshall." 

John Stewart, one of the captains in the battle, was the first clerk of 
Greenbrier County. On some of the pages of the first deed book he 
has written some memories of these bloody times. In speaking of this 
battle he says : " 1 have since been informed by Colonel (General) Lewis 
that the Earl of Dunmore knew of the attack to be made upon us by 
the Indians at the mouth of the Kanawha, and hoped our destruction. 
This secret was communicated to him by indisputable authority." 

The evidence sustaining absolutely a charge of this kind is hard to 
produce, but the known facts are of such character as to place Lord 
Dunmore's motives in an exceeding bad light, and to leave a stain upon 
his reputation which his subsequent conduct was ver>' far from re- 
moving. 

The Men who Took Part in the Battle and Their Subsequent 
Services to Their Country. 

The Virginia Gazette of December i, 1774, in speaking of the men 
who had fought and won this important battle, says: "Their names 
will be handed down to posterity with honor." Unfortunately these 
names, with a few exceptions, have not been handed down. Of all the 
men who followed Lewis on this expedition only the names of 120 have 
been brought to light It is said that there is in existence a complete 
muster-roll of the' troops, but I have vainly applied to the supposed 
owner for information as to its existence or its contents. No response 
have I had to my inquiries. But the services of that part of this 120 
who survived shows of what stuff this army was made. A historian of 
note, in a recent contribution, says of them : 

"The war of Independence was at hand, and the heroes of Point 
Pleasant went to meet the heroes of Bunker Hill and together they were 
the heroes of Monmouth, Brandy wine. King's Mountain, and Yorktown. 
Seven officers in the battle of Point Pleasant rose to the rank of general 
in the revolutionary army ; six captains in that battle commanded regi- 
ments on continental establishment in the war of independence ; four 
officers in that battle led the attack on Gwynn's Island, in Chesapeake 
Bay, in June, 1776, which resulted in the dislodgmentof Lord Dunmore 
the late Governor, who was thus driven from the shores of Virginia 
never to return ; one officer' in that battle was the most prominent Amer- 
ican officer in the battle of Brandy wine, where he was severely wounded; 



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82 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

another officer in that battle led the advance at the storming of Stony 
Point, one of the most daring achievements of the revolution ; still an- 
other officer in that battle won lasting fame as the * Hero of King*s 
Mountain.' * ♦ * Indeed, it is a matter of history that these Point 
Pleasant men were on nearly every battle-field of the Revolution. And 
OHC of them, when sixty-three years of age, led the Americans at the 
battle of the Thames, in 1813, secured a great victory, and thus broke 
the English power in the Northwest." 

J. T. McAllister. 
May 28th, igo2, 

[In a future number Mr. McAllister will contribute as full a list as it 
is now possible to make of the men who took part in the battle.] 

(concluded) 



VIRGINIA MILITIA IN THE REVOLUTION. 



(continued.) 



1777. Sept. 23. Jones, Thomas, for waggon hire with Caroline Mil- 
itia, £\i. o. o. 

25. Jones, Capt. Joseph, for pay, Provisions, &c., for his Comply, 
Dinwid: Militia, 1^ acc't, 270. 2. 10. 

Jones, Capt. Richard, for Ditto, Ditto, ^ acct., 235. 12. 10. 

27. Johns, Capt. William, for Ditto, Ditto, Buckingham, Do., *^ 
accot., 188. 9. 6. 

30. Jones, Capt. Orlando, for Ditto, Ditto, Albemarle Do., %> accot., 
248. 3. o. 

Oct'r I. Jones, William, for waggon hire, with the Prince George 
Ditto.. ^ accot., 12. 15. o. 

3. Johnson, Isaac, Ditto, Guns for part of Capt. Thos. Thweat's 
Comp'y, 2. 5. o. 

II. Johnson, William, for Diets, &c., furnished Capt. Jno. Ogleby's 
Comply, 2d Regim't, i. 10. 4*^. 

13. Jones, Capt. Orlando, for provisions furnished his Comp'y, ^ 
accot., 2. 6. o. 

Dec'r 3. Johnson, Benjamin, for waggon hire with Orange, &c , 
Militia, f^ accot., 33. 15. o. 

6. Jones, John, for ferriage of Sundry Militia to Portsmouth, %* accot., 
8. 12. 6. 



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VIRGINIA MILITIA IN THE REVOLUTION. 83 

12. Jett, Peter, for repairing Guns for four Militia of Westmorel'd, 
^ cert., 2. 13. 10. 

Johnson, Capt. William, for short pay to self & officers the 7th Mar. 
last, 7. 5. o. 

17. Jones, William, for addit'l allow*ce for wagon hire (See accot. 
Sett, ist Oct. last), 6. i. 10. 

1778. Jan'y 21. Jones, Capt. Richard, for Colours, &c., for Amelia 
Militia, ^ accot., 11. 11. o. 

23. Johns, Capt. William, for difference of pay for 2d Lieut, (see 
accot. 2d Sept. last), 6. 14. o. 

Mar. 7. Johnson, Capt. Philip, for 2 days pay, &c., ofhisComp'y 
(see acct. settl'd 20 Sept. Last), 7. 18. o. 

II. Jones, John, for ferriage of Sergt. Dudley & men to and from 
Ports'th, ^ cert., i. 10. o. 

14. Jones, James, Lieut., for pay of his Comp'y of Nansemond Mil- 
itia, ^ accot., 22. 17. 2. 

21. Ingles, William, for Bacon, &c., furnished for Kentucky Ex- 
I>ed'n, ^ accot, 4. 12. o. 

ApM 13. Jones, Nich's, & Rich'd, Expenses, 3. 5. o. 

May 10. Ingram, Jonathan, for horse hire, i. 16. o. 

27. Jones, Daniel, for diets, &c., Halifax Guard, 17. 6. 

29. Jenkin, Wm., Express, i. 14. o. 

Johnston, Zach., Colours for Augusta Militia, 13. 13. 9. 

31. Jett, Capt. Peter, for pay & Rations Westmoreland Militia, 73. 
12. 10. 

July 22. Innes, Harry, for Provisions, waggon hire, &c., to Bedford 
Militia, 19. 4. 4. 

Oct'r 21. Johnson, John, for Pay as a Spy in Rockingham Militia, 
18. 30 

Nov*r 3d. Jordan, Capt. Edw'd, for a fife for Lunenburg Militia, 
o. 18. o. 

18. Ingles, Colo. William, for Ferrages & Diets to Militia, ^ accot. 
& vouchers, 26. i. 7. 

Dec'r 5. Judkins, Jesse, for Provisions & ferrages to Surrey Militia, 
^ Cert., 5. 6. 3. 
9. Johnson, Zachariah, for Sundry persons, packhorses, &c., 29. o. o. 

15. Do., Do., for a fife to Augusta Militia, %i Cert., i. 10. o. 
Jefferson, Thomas, Esqr., for Bacon & Colours to Albemarle Militia, 

^ Cert., 7. 19. 7;^. 

(to be continued) 



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84 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINL. 

Adam Muller (Miller), First White Settler in the Valley 

of Virginia. 



Editor Virginia Magazine of History and Biography : 

In the opening chapters of Mr. John Walter Wayland's article upon 
the German element of the Valley, which appeared in the April number 
of the Magazine, reference is made to the German settlement at Elk- 
ton, on the Shenandoah river, in the eastern portion of Rockingham 
county. It may be of interest to your readers to know something of 
the first white man who settled in the Virginia Valley, of whom there 
is record evidence, and the writer believes that there is certain infor- 
mation bearing upon this subiect with which Mr. Wayland was unac- 
quainted when his article was written 

The Adam Muller (Miller) mentioned in Mr. Wayland's essay as one 
of the Elkton pioneers, was born in Germany about the year 1700. He 
was naturalized March 13, 1741-42, by Governor Gooch, and the ori- 
ginal certificate of his naturalization is to-day in the possession of Miss 
Elizabeth B. Miller, his great-great-granddaughter, who resides near 
Elkton, and it was printed in the October number, 1900, of William 
and Mary College Quarterly. The statement is made in this paper that 
Adam Miller was born in Schresoin, Germany, ** and had settled and 
inhabited for fifteen years past on Shenandoa in this colony." This 
declaration proves beyond question that he had settled on the Shenan- 
doah river either in 1726 or 1727, as time is now reckoned. 

7 he story of his coming to America, first to Pennsylvania, and then 
to Virginia and the Valley, has been preserved by the oral testimony 
of one who knew him personally. Jacob Miller, grandson of Adam, was 
born in the year 1769 and died in 1861, aged 92 years. His grandfather 
survived until about the close of the revolution, and Jacob Miller remem- 
bered him well. Upon his authority it is stated that Adam Miller came 
as a young man, with his wife and an unmarried sister, to Pennsylvania 
from Germany, and first located in Lancaster county, and after residing 
there several years determined to try his fortunes in Virginia. He 
embarked at the head of Chesapeake Bay and landed in the vicinity of 
Williamsburg, where he fell in with some members of the Spotswood 
expedition, and, learning of the wonderful country beyond the moun- 
tains, determined to see it for himself. He followed closely the line of 
Spotswood's march, crossed the mountains at Swift Run Gap, and was 
so well pleased with the country that he immediately returned to Penn- 
sylvania for his family and brought them to Virginia. It is also related 
that the pioneer first located on the Hawksbill, a tributary of the Shen- 
andoah now in the county of Page ; but the location proved unhealthful, 



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FIRST WHITE SETTLER IN VALLEY OF VIRGINIA. 85 

and, after losing several children, he removed to the place on the Shen- 
andoah, which became his permanent residence and is to this day in the 
possession of Miss Elizabeth B. Miller, his descendant. The Hawksbill 
enters the Shenandoah a few miles northeast of Swift Run Gap, while 
the permanent home of Adam Miller is a few miles southwest of that 
point, at which Governor Spotswood entered the Valley. 

It is further related that the colonists who settled at Elkton were 
friends and neighbors of Adam Miller in Pennsylvania, and came to 
Virginia upon the representations made by him as to the beauty 
and fertility Rf the Valley. Miller was certainly there with his family 
several years before Rangdman, Folk, Crimsart and others came, and 
with them constituted *'the very few inhabitants and they frequently 
visited by indians," referred to in the petition mentioned by Mr. Way- 
land, which is given in full in Palmer's Calendar of Virginia State 
Papers. So far as can be ascertained; Adam Miller had no title to his 
lands until he joined with Rangdman, Folk and others in the purchase 
from Jacob Stover, and hence his signature to the petition referred to 
above. It may not be amiss to preserve in this paper the names of this 
sturdy German's children and some of the families in the Valley who 
descend from him. The sons of Adam Miller were : Adam and Henry, 
and his two daughters, Anna Barbara and Elizabeth. Adam, Jr., was 
killed by the Indians, but the date is unknown. Henry married a Miss 
Cooger, and the house which he built is still standing at Green Meadows, 
the ancestral home of the Millers. Anna Barbara Miller married Jacob 
Baer (Bear\ the son of Jacob Bear, a native of Switzerland, who located 
in Pennsylvania about 1728, but removed to the Elkton settlement 
about 1740. Elizabeth Miller married John Baer (Bear), brother of 
Jacob. Through these children Adam Miller has left a numerous pos- 
terity in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, and among the families in 
Rockingham county who descend from him may be mentioned the 
Millers, who reside in east Rockingham along and near the Shenandoah ; 
the Bears, of east and west Rockingham ; the Kempers, of Cross Keys, 
Va. ; the Vanceys, Gibbons, Hopkins, Mauzys, Harnsbergers, and 
others, nearly all of whom reside in the eastern portion of Rock- 
ingham county, in the same general neighborhood where their enter- 
prising ancestor made his home, then the lone outpost of civilization 
west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. 

This narrative is based upon the statements made by Major Thomas 
K. Miller, deceased, of Elkton, who died some years ago. He was the 
son of Jacob Miller referred to in the beginning of this paper, and from 
Major Miller the foregoing information has come to the writer through 
his daughter, Miss Elizabeth B. Miller, Mr. C. VV. S. Turner, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, who formerly resided at Elkton, and Mr. John W. Black- 
burn, of Grottoes, Va. It is much to be regretted that contemporaneous 
record evidence of the foregoing facts is not obtainable, but the great 



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86 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

age of Jacob Miller, his acquaintance with his grandfather, the high 
character of Major Thomas K. Miller, and the unquestionable veracity 
of the three living persons mentioned, all combine to stamp this bit of 
local history as true beyond a reasonable doubt. 

Charles E. Kemper. 
Wdshingtotty D, C, April 2 4^ 1^2, 



GENEALOGY. 



THE FARRAR FAMILY. 
(continued from vol. IX, 322.) 

38. Perrin^ Farrar {IViliiam^), lived first in Goochland county and 
afterwards in Louisa, where he died at the age of 60. He married 
Sarah Lacy, of St. Martin's parish, Hanover county, and had issue : 

73. Ann, born October 9, 1758, died unmarried ; 74. Mattheu^ ; 75. Ste- 
phens \ 76. Sally, born Feb. 2d, 1765, married Matthew Anderson, of 
Goochland county ; 77. Lucy, married Landsie Jones, of Hanover 
county ; 78. Elizabeth, bom August 14, 1769, married John Lee, and 
went West ; 79. Fanny, married John Hancock, and went West. 

39. Joseph Royal' Farrar [Joseph^) was born about 1740, and lived 
for many years in Goochland county. In 1766 he was commissioned 
Captain of militia. In 1785 he removed to Kentucky, where he died in 
Fayette county. He married three times, (I) August 3d, 1762, Phoebe, 
daughter of James Harris, of Cumberland county (see "Chart of De- 
scendants of Captain Thos. Harris"); (II) Martha Gaines ; (III) about 
1783, Jane, daughter of Thos. Ford, of Goochland. Issue : (ist m.) 80. 
Sarah, bom July 18, 1763, died in infancy; 8r. Sarah, born February 
10, 1765, married John Royster ; 8^. Mary, born January 27, 1767, mar- 
ried William Harris; 83. Lucy, born February 19, 1769, married John 
Crouch ; (2d m.) 84, Judith, married John Flournoy ; 85. Elizabeth, 
married Dr. John Selman, of Maryland, Surgeon U. S. A.; 85. Joseph 
Royal, who died at the age of 13 years ; (3d m.) 86. William, who mar- 
ried and died young, leaving children in Indiana ; 87. Bernard Gained ; 
88. Jane, married Dr. Coleman Rogers, of Louisville, Ky.; 89. Joseph 

Royal, married , daughter of Benjamin Smith, of Fayette county, 

Ky , and died leaving children. 

44. Absolam Farrar^ ( Thomas^) removed with his lather to Georgia. 
He married in Columbia county, Ga., Mrs. Phoebe Clark (n^e Avery) 
and afterwards removed to Morgan county, Ga. They died in Henry 
county in the same State. He was aged nearly 90 years. 



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GENEALOGY. 87 

Issue: 90. Phoebe, married Paul ; 91. Maria, born in 1796, 

married first Owen Fort Spullock, and secondly Abel Fleming ; 92. 

Orrie, married Paul ; 93. Thurza, married James McCord ; 94. 

Matilda, married J. C. Reeve ; 9s. John ; 96. Thomas ; 97. George. 

45. Ab^er^ F ARK AR {Thomas', Wiliiam^), was born in Mecklenburg 
county, Va., September 16, 1768, and died in Marietta, Ga. He mar- 
ried Catherine . 

Issue: 98. Elizabeth, bom December 3d, 1792; 99. Jesse Carter*; 
100. Thurza; 101. Francis Howard, born January 10, 1801 ; 102. Diana, 
born May 19, 1806 ; married three times (I) Tilmau Pruitt ; fll) Thomp- 
son ; (III) Whalley ; all their descendants live in Mississippi. 

47. Thomas' Farrar {Thotnas^, Willianfi), removed from South 
Carolina to Claiborne county, Miss., about 181 1. He married his cousin 
Martha, daughter of Thomas Farrar. 

Issue : 103. Thomas Princ^ ; 104. Frederick Hillsman^ ; 105. Edgar 
Douglas^ ; 106. Matilda, married Judge Alderson, and had a daughter, 
who married Dr. Weems. 

55. Thomas* Farrar {George'*), removed from Virginia to South Car- 
olina, then to Georgia, and finally to Claiborne county. Miss., where he 
died August 24, 1833. He married Margaret Prince. 

Issue : 107. Cyprian ; 108. Field, settled in Tennessee ; 109. Wads- 
worth, settled in New Orleans; no. Burke; iii. Pinckney, settled in 
Texas; 112. Matilda; 113. Martha, married her cousin, Thomas Far- 
rar ; 114. Lucinda, one of the daughters, married Judge McCaleb. 

60. John* Farrar {Peter"*), bom November 8, 1754, and married 
April ist, 1775, Rebecca Warthen. 

Issue: 115. Mary Magdalen Chastain, born February, 1776, married 
John Swann, of Powhatan county; 116. Peter Fietd* \ 117. John W., 
bom July 4, 1780; 118. Rebecca Hudson, born July 29, 1787, married 
Christopher Tompkins, of King William county, Va. 

64. Samuel" Farrar {Peter*), born August 23d, 1762, died April 6, 
1818. He married Betty, daughter of Richard and Mary (Chubb) 
Eggleston, and had issue : 

119. Mary Chastain, married her first cousin, Richard Beverley 
Eggleston (son of Edmund Eggleston and Jane Langhome, his wife); 
120. Jane E. died unmarried ; 121. Dr. Stephen C; 122. Dr. Richard* \ 
123. Edmund, died unmarried. 

(to be continued.) 



THE BROOKE FAMILY OF VIRGINIA. 
By Prof. St. George Tucker Brooke, Morgantown, W. Va. 
(Continued.) 
Answer to queries on pages 3i6-'i7 of January (1892) number of this 



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83 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(i) It seems to be certain that the father of George Brooke, of Man- 
tapike, was Humphrey, a brother of Robert Brooke (the "Knight of 
the Golden Horseshoe ") and also of William. It is an interesting fact 
that on the very day (15th December, 1775), on which the Virginia Leg- 
islature elected Carter Braxton to the Congress which passed the Dec- 
laration of Independence, his first cousin, George Brooke, of Mantapike, 
went security for certain of his debts; and as late as 1825 (just fifty 
years later), Chief-Justice John Marshall decided that those debts were a 
cloud upon the title to Mantapike, and refused to decree specific per- 
ormance of a contract of sale against an intended purchaser because 
the vendor could not convey a clean title (Garnett, Executor of Brooke 
vs. Macon, 6th Call., 308). George Braxton, the elder, by his will dated 
30th of June, 1725, left a tract of 578 acres on the Mattapony river in 
King William county "to his daughter, Elizabeth Brooke, and the 
heirs of her body." George Brooke, as eldest son and heir of the said 
Elizabeth Brooke, inherited that estate tail from his mother. He bought 
Mantapike from Tunstall Banks, containing 780 acres, lying upon the 
Mattapony river in King and Queen county. Upon his petition, the 
Legislature, in 1769, settled the land in King William county upon him 
\r\ fee-simple and entailed upon him his fee-simple estate in Mantapike. 
Of course, Jefferson's statute of October 7, 1776, enlarged George 
Brooke's entailed estate in Mantapike into a fee-simple, so that he could 
convey or devise it as he pleased. Accordingly, by his will in 1781 he 
devised Mantapike to his oldest son, Richard, "' after my jtist debts are 
paid.'' This was just as Mantapike would have gone under the entail, 
with the material difference, however, that under the entail Richard 
would have taken Mantapike discharged of the debts of his ancestor ; 
and it was that clause, ''^ after my just debts are paid y' which Chief- 
Justice Marshall decided was a cloud upon the title to Mantapike. 

(2) If the George Brooke here mentioned was not George of Manta- 
pike (who was not more than three years old at that date) he cannot be 
accounted for except by supposing him to have been the brother of 
Robert, Humphrey and William ; and there is no trace of any such 
brother anywhere. In 1720, there was a joint patent of land to Robert 
Brooke, Humphrey Brooke and William Brooke. They were evidently 
brothers. William, in his will (1734) mentions his brother Humphrey, 
and Robert in his will (1736) mentions his brother Humphrey ; if Hum- 
phrey was brother of Robert and of William, then William and Robert 
were brothers of each other. In a deed from this Robert, Jr., to Tobias 
Ingram, it is mentioned that this Robert was a son ol Robert, Sr., (who 
was husband of Katherine Booth). 

(3) These parties spelled their name with a final s. Accordingly, they 
are of a different family. 

(4) George Brooke married Judith Marshall, sister of Chief-Justice 
Marshall, about 1783 (see Paxton's Marshall Family). He was a son of 



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, GENEALOGY. 89 

f Humphrey, of Fauquier, who was a brother of George, of Mantapike. 

(see the Will of Humphrey, of Fauquier). 

(5) This Humphrey Brooke was a nephew of George, of Mantapike, 
and was a son of Robert and Anne (Aylett) Brooke. He is said to 
have served as a volunteer aid on General Washington's staff; but the 
circumstances of his capture by the British are unknown to this writer. 

(7) There is a mistake here as to date. The title page of John Mer- 
cer's Code bears date 1752, not 1759. Rut this Magazine of last January, 
p. 274, says that John Mercer's Code was published in 1737 ; but George 
Brooke, of Mantapike, was only twelve years old at that date, and he 
certainly did subscribe for Mercer's Code of 1752. Were there two edi- 
tions of the work. 

(8) No "local habitation" has been found for Reuben Brooke, 
for whose services onboard the brig "Mosquito" a certificate was 
issued to Thomas Brooke. Could this Thomas have been his father 
and also the same Thomas who was father of Commodore Walter 
Brooke ? 

(9) Commodore Walter Brooke, first Commodore in the Virginia 
Navy in the Revolution, was the son of Thomas Brooke, of Maryland, 
and of his wife, Sarah Mason, aunt of George Mason, of Gunston Hall, 
and of Sarah Ann Mason Mercer, daughter of John iMercer, of ** Marl- 
boro," and wife of Samuel" Selden, of "Salvington." He had been a 
midshipman in the British Navy. It is said that at Washington's sug- 
geston he bought a plantation near Mount Vernon. He called his place 
** Retirement," and lived and died and was buried there. Commodore 
Brooke's son, Taliaferro Brooke, while a youth died at " Retirement," 
and was buried there. It is said that Washington ordered a tombstone 
from Paris, through La Fayette, which was brought over to *' Retire- 
ment" and placed at the head of Taliaferro Brooke's grave, where it 
remained for one hundred years ; it was then removed, with the remains, 
to the graveyard of Zion (Episcopal) church in Charles Town, W. Va., 
by a granddaughter of Commodore Brooke. It may be seen there to- 
day. Where did the youth get his Christian name '* Taliaferro " ? 

(II, 12, 13) Humphrey Brooke, of Fauquier, was a brother of George 
Brooke, of Mantapike (see George Brooke's Will). There were two 
Matthew Whiting Brookes. One was the son of Humphrey of F*auquier, 
and married Cecilia Gustavus Brown, and the other was the son of Ed- 
mund Brooke, who was a grandsonof Robert the " Knight of the Golden 
Horseshoe" ; the last named Matthew married Elizabeth Lewis. 

Perhaps it may be mentioned in this place that there were eight 
Brookes of the Virginia family in the Revolutionary army, while the 
ninth, Dr. Lawrence Brooke, was with Paul Jones in the American 
navy.* 

I This Magazine for January, 1900, p. 289 ; and for April, 1901, p. 443 ; ** Narrative of 
My Life," by Judge Francis T. Brooke. 



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90 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The officers of the army were : Col. George Brooke of Mantapike; • 
Col. J. H. Brooke, of Fauquier; » Capt. Wm. Brooke; * Humphrey 
Brooke (ex-midshipman in the British Navy) on Washington's staff as 
volunteer aid;* Lieutenants Robert, Francis T., John T., and Edmund.' 
Of course this list excludes Commodore Brooke and Reuben Brooke, 
of the Virginia Navy, as they were of the Maryland family, though with 
a big mixture of Virginia blood. 

My recollection is that in the last page of Queries and answers to 
Queries, which I sent you several days ago, I say that in 1752 one Hum- 
phrey Brooke lived in Williamsburg, and in 1788 one Humphrey Brooke 
represented WHliamsbtirg in the Convention which met in Richmond 
to ratify or reject the present Constitution of the United States, and I 
ask if they were the same man, and, if so, was he Humphrey, of Fau- 
quier? I find from Virginia Historical Collections, Volume X, that 
Humphrey did not represent Wiiiiamsburg, but Fauquier. 

St. George T. Brooke. 

(to be continued.) 



A GENEALOGY OF THE HERNDON FAMILY. 
(Compiled by John W. Herndon.) 



(continued) 

54. Edward Herndon,' b. Greene co., Ala., Aug. 15, 1832 ; m. Eutaw, 
Ala., Jan. 7, 1856, his cousin, Virginia Bell [dau, Alexander and Helen 
(Brock) Bell], b. Greene co., Ala , Oct, 16, 1836 ; d. July 30, 1899. He 
was a lieutenant C. S. A., and was killed at the battle of the Wilderness, 
Spotsylvania, May 15th, 1864. Ch : 65. Solomon McAlpine, d. aged 10 
yrs ; 66. Thomas Hord, unm ; lives Mobile ; 67. Edward Tremlet, d. 
aged 22 yrs.; 68. Stanley Bell, lives in Mobile ; m. June 12, 1888, Lucy 
Cadwallader Jones, of Nashville, Tenn., dau. of Robin Ap. C. and Sarah 
(Polk) Jones ; ch : Robert Cadwallader, Virginia, Rebecca, and Lucy. 

55. Fannie Herndon,' b. Erie, Ala., Aug. 10, 1834 ; m. Francis Ed- 
ward StoUenwerck, of Mobile, [son of Louis Auguste and Aim^e (Coup- 
s^e) StoUenwerck] ; b. Greensboro, Ala., May 15, 1830 ; d. Oct. 11, 1867. 
Ch : 69. Mary Aim^e, b. New York, March 31, 1857; m.July 19, 1895. 



2. This Magazine for April. 1899. p. 433. 

3. Calendar of Virginia State Papers, April i, 1781, to December 31. 1781, p. 19. 

4. Memorial Address of G. D. Gray, Esq., of the Culpeper Bar, on the Life and Char- 
acter of the late Hon. James V. Brooke, of VVarrenton, Va. 

5. The statement of his descendants. 

6. This Magazine, July, 1889: SafTell's Records of the Revolutionary War. "Narra- 
tive of My Life," by Judge Francis T. Brooke. 



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GENEALOGY. 91 

Charles Brown Percy (who m. ist No. 58) ; no ch. 70. Francis Edward, 
b. Feb. 12, 1865; m. 1895 Helen Foster; ch : I. Francis Edward; II. 
Robert Foster ; III. Fleetwood Tremlet. 71. A dau. d. infancy. 

56. Emma January HerndonJ b. , m. May 11, 1858, Brett Ran- 
dolph, and lives in Birmingham, Ala. Ch : I. Augusta, m. 1878 John B. 
Reid, and has— Emma Toulmin, Annie Perry, Augusta. Brett, and 
Oliver; II. John, b. Sept. 6, 1861 ; m. Maggie Bell; d. March, 1895, 
and had Phedora, Jule and John Brett; III. Brett, b. 1863 ; d. 1867 ; IV. 
Emma, b. March, 1866, m. 1890, Clarence Agee, and has — Lucy Ran- 
dolph, Ann Hunley, and Emma Herndon ; V. Lucy, b. Feb. 23 , d. 

1897 ; VI. Herndon, d. aged 3 mos.; VII. Fanny Toulmin, b. Sept. — , 
1873; m. 1899, John Philips Evans ; VIII. Tremlet Herndon, b. May 7, 
1876. d. March 25, 1901 ; m. Chester T. Mattison and had — Em. Agee ; 
IX. Virginia Meade, b. May 17, 1882, unm. 

57. Anne Tremlette Herndon,' b. June 24, 1843, d. California June 17, 
1883, ; m. May 10, 1864, Dr. Edward Burt Perrin, b. Jan. 12, 1839 (son 
of George G. and Adeline B Perrin \ lives in Williams, Ariz. Ch : I. 
Anne Tremlett, b. Dec 17, 1865; d. Nov. 4, 1868; II. Estelle, b. Jan. 
21, 1868; d. Feb. 26, 1868; III. Anne. b. May 6, 1869; d. May 6, 1869; 
IV. Adeline Burt, b, Sept. 13, 1870: V. Emma Toulman, b, Dec. 11, 
1872, d. July 30, 1875; VI. Helen Herndon, b. June 23, 1874; m. Jan. 
17, 1894, Arthur Lee Robinson (son of Richard A. and Eliza D.), b. 
Louisville, Ky., Nov. 29, 1864. and has— Lela Perrin, b. Louisville, Dec. 
14. 1894 ; VII. Edward Burt. b. Feb. 28, 1878 ; VIII. Virginia Herndon, 
b. March i, 1882 : IX. Fanny B., b. June 9, 1883 ; d. June 9, 1883. 

48. Edward Herndon,' b. Sept. 17, 1799; ^- Feb., 1872 ; m. Oct. 22, 
1822, Melvina A. Cammack, daughter of Robert and Elizabeth (Chew) 
Cammack ; he bore the title of ** Major," moved to Alabama in 1819. 
Ch. 72. Elizabeth Chew, b. 1825, des. unk. 73. Mary Virginia, b. 1826 ; 
m. June 4, 1844, Harrison Wall Covington, and had : I. Edmund D. 
Brazry, b. 1845. m. M. Cole and had 5 ch.; II. Caroline, b. 1847, m, 
Capt. A. Cole, of N. C, and had 5 ch. ; afterwards m. Col. Archibald 
Stewart McNeil, of N. C, and by him had 7 ch. ; III. Haswell Cam- 
mack, b. 1852; IV. Sarah Willis, b. 1854; V. Virginia Chew, b. 1856; 
m. and had ch. ; VI. Edward Herndon, b. 1858, no ch. ; VII. Liza 

Cadwallader, b. 18— ; m. Kevett and had 6 ch. ; VIII. Archie, 

b. 1862 ; m. and had 3 ch.; IX. Robert, b. 1866 ; m. and had 2 ch. 74. 
Robert Edward, b. 1829, des. unk. 75. Thomas Cammack, b. 1830 ; 
m. 1859, Rebecca J. Krumbhriir, live in New Orleans; ch.: I. Edward 
K., b. 1861 ; II. M. Alice, b. 1863; III. Virginia J., b. 1869; m. E. 
Moulton, and had 2 daus. ; IV. Preston, b. 1873 ; V. Samuel Mc- 
Cutcheon. b. 1874. 76. Malvina Christine, b. 1832. m. Nov., 1849, 
Judge Anthony Winston Dillard ; ch.: I. Lucy Cammack, b. 1850, m. 
R. Woodson ; II. Edward Erskine, b. 1852 ; m. and has 2 ch. ; III. 
John Cadwallader, b. 1854 ; m. Miss Johannes, of Texas ; IV. Eliza, b. 



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92 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1856 ; m. and had 1 ch.; F. Nagner, lives San Antonio, Tex.; V. Chris- 
tine Herndon, b. 1859; V- Alice, b. 1862 ; Anna, b. 1863, lives San 
Antonio, Tex. 77. Emma Jane, b. 1835, m. 1854, Thomas P. Under- 
wood, of New Orleans, lives Gainesville, Ala.; ch., I, Thomas Hem- 
don, b. 1858 ; m. Fanny Tobin, of New Orleans, and has a. Tobin 
Herndon, b. 1889 ; II. Malvinia. b. 1S60, d. 1878. 78. Lucy Chew, b. 
1836, des. unk. 79 Samuel Nelson, b. 1836, des. unk. 80. Addeson 
Cammack, b. 1840 ; m. in Texas ; d. s. p. before 1896. 

II. William Herndon* [5-3-2-1], sometimes called William Albert, 
b. "Spotsylvania C*ty," V'a., 1767, d. ** Belvoir,'* his home, Jan. 18, 
1823 ; m. in Fredericksburg, 17SS, Isabella Whiteler (dau. of Jacob and 
Jane) b. in Fred. 1768 ; d. " Bel voir," May 27,. 1827. He was a progres- 
sive citizen of Fredericksburg and very active in promoting its advance- 
ment. He was a member of the Common Council, secretary and treas- 
urer of the Rappahannock |ockey Club, and a subscriber to the Charity 
School, and one of the vice-presidents of the Colonization Society ; 
owner of that noted tavern '* Indian Queen,'* which was the stopping 
place for the mail coaches which ran between Richmond and Alexan- 
dria ; owner of some noted blood horses ; in 1820 was postmaster of 
Spotsylvania C H.; in i8iohe owned "The White or Bowyer's Sul- 
phur Springs," Greenbrier Co.; took much interest in the Presbyterian 
church, of which he was a conscientious member. His home, " Bel- 
voir," was situated on the Massaponax, six miles from Frederick.sburg. 
Ch : 81. Elizabeth Battaley, b. 17S9, d. 1813; m. 1812 Bila Whiting; 
des. unk ; 82. Jane Whiteler. 83. Robert, b. 1793 ; d. 1813. 84. Margaret, 
b. 1795 ; d. 1795. 85. James, b. 1796 ; m. Ap 26, 1818, Ann S. Estes (dau. 
T. T.), d. s. p. 86. Elenor, b. 1799, d. 1809. 87. William Albert. 88. 
Elizabeth Ann. 89. Joseph Strachan, b. 1S05 ; d. Ap 14, 1829; S. T. 
and C. of the F*redericksburg Riflemen ; unm. 90. Edwin, in 1835 
called " Dr." moved to Texas and d there; des. unk. 
(to be continted. ) 



THE RENICK F^AMILY. 

At the foot of page 67. VV^ithers' Border Warfare, appears a note by 
Dr. Draper, which is as follows : 

" For an account of the captivity of the Renick family, as related by 
their aged representative to the writer, from 1845 to 1867, see Appen- 
dix No. 15. Robert Renick, who was killed on the occasion referred 
to, was a man of characterand influence in his day. His name appears 
on Captain John Smith's company roll of Augusta militia as early as 
1742. and four years later he was lieutenant of a mounted company of 
Augusta militia, as shown by the Preston MS. Papers. 

" Instead of 176(, the capture of the Renick family occurred July 25, 
1757, as shown by the Preston Register, which states that Renick and 
another were killed on that day ; Mrs. Renick and seven children, and 



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GENEALOGY. 93 

a Mrs. Dennis, captured ; and the same day, at Craig's Creek, one man 
was killed and two wounded. 

"The Renick traditions state that Mrs. Renick had only five children 
when taken, and one born after reaching the Indian Towns, and cor- 
rects some other statements not properly related in Withers* narrative 
of the affair." 

Appendix No. 15 : 

The following narrative is made up by combining disconnected 
statements of the late Felix Renick, of Pickaway county, Ohio, who 
was accidentally killed in January, 1848, when 78 years of age. He 
communicated his traditions between 1845-47. 

In 1867 William Renick, of Greenbrier, then 75 years of age, son of 
Robert, who was born while his mother was a captive in the Shawnee 
Towns ; and the same year B. F. Renick, also of Greenbrier, sent me 
his traditions. All three had enlarged their knowledge by conversa- 
tions with other aged Renick relatives. 

The Renicks came originally from northern Germany. The name 
originally was simply Wicks, but some of their number settling on the 
Rhine, when, to indicate their particular clan by their locality, they 
called themselves Rhinewicks, or Rinewicks, which in the course of 
time was modified to Rennicfcs, and finally to Renick. They moved to 
Scotland to escape religious persecution. After a time at least one por- 
tion of the family located in Colerain county, Ireland ; and later still 
three brothers, with their father, migrated to the eastern portion of 
Pennsylvania, and Robert subsequently wended his way to that portion 
of Augusta county, on the frontier of Virginia, which in later years be- 
came Rockbridge county. He settled in the forks of James river, a fine 
rich country. 

Preston's Register gives us the date of the captivity July 25. 1757. 
Withers and all the Renick traditions agree that Mrs. Renick and five 
children were captured by a Shawnee party, while Mr. Robert Renick, 
the head of the family, was at a neighbor's, but was there overtaken 
and killed. The five Renick children were Nancy, about thirteen years 
of age ; William, about eleven ; Thomas, about nine ; Margaret, or 
Peggy, about seven ; Joshua, about five, and Robert, about a year and 
a half old, whom the mother carried in her arms the greater part of the 
way to Chillicothe ; but at length the crying of the child caused the un- 
feeling captors to snatch him from his mother and dash out his brains 
against a tree. The captives were taken to the Shawnee Towns, on the 
Scioto, when, according to Indian custom, they were divided among 
their captors and scattered among the .Scioto villages, excepting little 
Joshua, who was taken to Piqua, on the Miami, and affijiated into the 
family of Tecumseh's parents. The subsequent great chief was not 
then born ; but in after years young Renick associated with Tecumseh 
and his brother as they grew up. 

(to be continted.) 



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94 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



MICHAUX, FULTON, COX. &c. 

The first part of the within genealogy was written by Mrs. Martha 
Venable» the great granddaughter of Abraham Michaux, from the 
records of her family, and also from her personal recollections, 
(and was next copied and added to at Hampden Sidney, Prince 
Edward county, Va., during the winter of 1889-90 ) The next addi- 
tion to these records was made by Louis Debrill Jones, of New Store, 
Buckingham county, Va., who gave a copy to Jefferson Le Grand 
Fulton, of Chicago, III., who, in turn, compiled this last copy, adding 
to the genealogy the record of the Fulton-Cox branch, taken from re- 
cords and information received from the various members of the family, 
and who would like to receive at any time such additional information 
or corrections as any member of the families concerned may be able to 
furnish him. 

Incidentally the collections of the Virginia Historical Society give the 
information that Peter Le Grand was the burgess from Prince Edward 
county, Va., from 1758 to 1765. 

The burial-ground of the Le Grand family is in Buckingham county, 
Va., about six miles from Farmville, where many of the old grave- 
stones are now to be seen. 

Chicago, 111., February i?, 1897. 

Records of the Fulton-Cox Family. 

In the reign of Louts XIV, during the religious persecution conse- 
quent to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, (Edict of Nantes, April 
i3» 1598; revocation of the Edict of Nantes, October 22, 1685,) lived 
Roche, my great-great-grandmother's father, in the city of Sedan. He 
had three daughters. The oldest, about eighteen years old, as I sup- 
pose was the custom, had been examined three times by the Priest or 
Government official, and her father, fearing that she would be taken 
and put in a Catholic school, sent her and his niece, with her infant 
child, to a seaport, that they might embark for Holland. They were 
conducted by men, dressed in women's clothing, called Night-Walkers. 
On the journey, while crossing a small stream at a mill, in the night, the 
mother stumbled on some rocks, and the child cried. This aroused the 
soldiers stationed there, and there came out, in the language of my 
great-grandmother, nine lusty fellows, and captured and carried them 
to prison. The father was permitted to take his daughter home, but his 
niece was detained in prison and required to walk the streets every 
morning, exposed to the ridicule and scoffs of the Catholics, as a pen- 
alty for her attempts to escape. Her husband having gone before to 
Holland, under the guise of a ship-carpenter, who (Louis Debrill Jones, 
of New Store, Buckingham county, Va., says) was Louis Le Grand, 



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GENEALOGY. 95 

father of Peter Le Grand, who married the little cap. But our ancestor 
Roche, after paying a certain amount every year for the privilege of be- 
ing permitted to live in peace, determined again to send his daughters 
to Holland. On the journey my great-great-grandmother, Susannah 
Roche, the younger daughter of the two, was taken very ill, and they 
were obliged to carry her into a public house, and while there she would 
frequently cough, which attracted the attention of the soldiers, and they 
inquired if they had any Huguenots there. It was answered that they 
had a very sick person, and requested silence. Thence they went to 
Amsterdam, and while there were visited by their father, who, seeing 
his daughters eat brown bread, reproved them, saying that if it were 
a stone he would choose the whitest. The daughters were using the 
cheap bread for economy, but their father objected to it. 

(TO BE CONTINUED.) 



ESKRIDGE, STEPTOE, &c. 

(CONTINUED FROM IX, 20I.) 

(2) William* Steptoe, (James,* Elizabeth*, George*), married ist. Miss 
Brown ; 2d, Miss Dillon. Children by Miss Dillon : i. Col. Edward Jen- 
ner, U. S. A., married Miss Clayton ; 2. John Reed, married Miss 
Whitten ; 3. William, married, ist, Miss Payne, 2d, Miss Steptoe ; 4. 
Patrick Dillon, married Miss Clement ; 5. Nannie Brown, married J. 
W. Eldridge ; 6. Lucia C, married D. C. Huffard ; 7. Mary C, died 
unmarried. 

(3) George* (James,* Elizabeth,* George'), married Miss Thomas. 
Children : i. John R., married Miss Goggin ; 2. George ; 3. Norborne; 
4. Sam, unmarried ; 5. Thomas ; 6. Henry (Dr.), m. Miss Harris ; 7. 
Jacob, M., m. Miss Harris ; 8. Elizabeth M., m. Mr. Foster ; 9. Frances, 
m. Mr. Armistead. 

(To be contmued, with extracts from county records and other 
sources in regard to the families of Eskridge, Steptoe, Langhorne, Ken- 
ner, &c.) 



ESKRIDGE— Corrections. 

I beg leave to say that William* married Elizabeth Scott, of Winches- 
ter, Va.^ not of Maryland, as Mrs. West has it on p 435 of Vol. VII. 

The portrait of Elizabeth Scott Eskridge is in Montgomery county, 
and I have a photograph of it. My mother remembered her very well. 

William Scott Eskridge* married Margaret Frances Brown, daughter 
of John Brown, Chancellor of the Western District of Virginia, and 
Frances Peyton, his wife. 

They had one son, who died in infancy, and daughters as follows : 

I. Frances Peyton, who married John T. Towles, of Bayou Sara, La.; 



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96 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Children: William E., d. s. p., John T., d. s. p., Isabella Margaret, 
Fanny P., Robert S., and Daniel T. 

2. Elizabeth Scott, who married R. T. W. Duke, of Charlottesville, 
Va.; Children: Wm. R., R. T. W., Jr., and Mary Willoughby, who 
intermarried with Chas. Slaughter, M. D., of Lynchburg, and died, 
leaving a daughter, Mary W. D. 

3. Maria B., who married General R. Lindsay Walker, and died, 
leaving Lewis, d. s. p., William Scott, d. s. p., Thomas H., and Frank 
T., who married a daughter of Roger A. Pryor, of New York, and 
died, leaving Roger, Lindsay, Fanny, Frank and Polly. 

4 Virginia, who died unmarried. 

Anne, * married John C. Covell, not Coriil, as Mrs. West has it on p. 

436. Vol. VII. 

R. T. W. D. 



LINDSAYS IN VIRGINIA. 

A notice in the January, 1901, number of the Historical Magazine, of 
*' The Lindsays 0/ America y^' by Margaret Isabella Lindsay (Albany, 
1889), states that '*the Virginia Lindsays descend from a Robert Lind- 
say of Northumberland." 

There seem to be several families of Lindsays in Virginia, descend- 
ants of different emigrants to America. One of these is the family in 
Rockbridge county, of which Senator William Lindsay, of Kentucky, 
is a member. Another is that of Albemarle county. 

The Albemarle Lindsays are descendants of Adam Lindsay, wlro is 
believed to have come to Virginia from Scotland in the latter part of 
the seventeenth or early in the eighteenth century. A MS. in the hand- 
writing of Mrs. Elizabeth Lindsay Gordon, widow of Gen. William F. 
Gordon, of Albemarle, and a daughter of Col. Reuben Lindsay of that 
county, states : 

" My great-grandfather, Adam Lindsay, must have emigrated to this 
country early in seventeen hundred or before. 1 am not certain whether 
my grandfather, James Lindsay, was born in America or Scotland. I 
had a mourning ring made for my uncle Caleb, in which was inscribed 
' Jas. Lindsay, died iyS2, aged S2 years.' " 

Col. James Lindsay, of Caroline, son of Adam, the emigrant, married 
Sarah Daniel. His family Bible, now in the possession of Mason Gor- 
don, Esq., of Charlottesville, contains the following entries : 

** Caleb Lindsay, the son of James Lindsay and Sarah, his wife, was 
born 14th Feb'y, 1720 

•• Elizabeth Lindsay, daughter of James Lindsay and Sarah, his wife, 
was born the 29th March, 1724. 

"J<»hn, son of James and Sarah, was born 27th August, 1728. 

** William, son of |ames and Sarah, was born 7th Feb'y, 173 1. 

"Jacob, son of James and Sarah, was born nth March, 1733. 



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GENEALOGY. 97 

*' Sarah, daughter of James and Sarah, was born 15th June, 1735. 

*' Mary, daughter of James and Sarah, was born 3rd April. 1738. 

"James, son of James and Sarah, was born 23rd May, 1740. 

*' Daniel, son of James and Sarah, was bom 23rd May, 1742. 

" Reuben, son of James and Sarah, was born 15th Jan'y, 1747. 

*' Sukie, daughter of James and Lucy Lindsay, was born .** 

Caleb Lindsay, the oldest son of Col. James Lindsay, of Caroline, 
and his first wife, Sarah Daniel, had no children ; and at his death gave 
his large estate in Essex county, Virginia, to his youngest brother, 
Reuben Lindsay, who had married Caleb's adopted daughter, Hannah 
Tidwell. Hannah Tidwell was the niece of Caleb Lindsay*s wife, and 
was the daughter of John Tidwell, of Westmoreland county, who was 
the son of John Tidwell, the emigrant, who came to Virginia from 
Wales, and was a man of large wealth and influence in Virginia. The 
name of Tidwell is believed to be now extinct in Virginia. 
(to be continued) 



FOUR SUCCESSIVE JOHN MINORS. 
By Charles M. Blackford, Lynchburg, Va. 

The Minor family in Virginia, with its connections, is one of the most 
numerous within its boundaries. From the first of the name to the 
present day its members have been influential in their respective com- 
munities, but have ever shunned office, and hence are as not as well 
known as many families of less real merit but fewer peculiarities. 

The first of the blood in Virginia was Meindert Doodes and his wife 
Mary Geret: b th were from Holland He was a sea captain who 
abandoned the sea and settled on the lower waters of the Rappahannock 
in Virginia, about 1650. His wife belonged to a family of some social 
and political distinction in Holland. The son of Meindert Doodes 
assumed the name of Doodes Minor — whether the "Minor *' was another 
term for "Junior,*' or was a corruption of Meindert, does not appear. 
Minor Doodes and Doodes Minor were both naturalized in October, 
1673, by the same act of the House of Burgesses and by their respective 
names. (See 2 Hen. Stat, at Large, 3 )S.) The wills of Meindert Doodes 
and Doodes Minor are both of record in Middlesex county. By the will 
of the former he leaves his estate to "his son Doodes Minor." By the 
will of Doodes Minor, who married a Miss Montague, a part of his estate 
was given to his son Geret Minor, whose name was derived from the 
family name of the wife of Meindert Doodes. His name was afterwards 
corrupted into "Garret," and has been extensively used in the Minor 
family ever since. This Geret Minor, son of Doodes Minor, was the 
father of 

The First John Minor, 

who was born in 1707, and on the 14th of November, 1732, married 
7 



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98 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Sarah Carr, daughter of Thomas Carr and his wife Mary Dabney. This 
Mary Dabney was born January 22d, 1685. The estate known as **Top- 
ping Castle," on the north bank of the North Anna river, in Carohne 
county, was given John Minor by his father-in-law Thomas Carr. This 
first John was a Justice of the Peace and a man of strong mind and will 
and was of great influence in his community. He and his wife Sarah 
Carr had eleven children, the eldest of whom was 

The Second John Minor. 

He was known as *' Major John Minor of Topping Castle." He was 
born on Nov. 13th, 1735, and died March 21st, 1800. His wife was 
Elizabeth Cosby. He was a man of mark. His judgment was sound 
and his energy tireless— a man of affairs, successful, practical and much 
consulted by his neighbors and friends. He never held public office, 
and like all of his blood never sought one ; yet no man .so moulded 
the public sentiment of his community or did more to elevate its morals. 

(TO BE continued) 



THE RoBARDS FAMILY. 

(Compiled by John Lewis RoBards, Hannibal, Mo.) 

(Continued from Volume IX, No. 2, October, 1901, page 198.) 

II. William RoBards, Sr., testator, was a militia lieutenant in 1764, 
and a member of the Committee of Safety for Goochland county, Va., 
^ov 1775. He died in December, 1783. 

As. contemplated in his will, Mrs. Elizabeth Lewis RoBards, his 
widow, moved with her family, slaves, etc., to their fine farm midway 
between Harrodsburg and Danville, in Kentucky. The Mississippi 
river was the western boundary of Virginia until 1792, when Kentucky 
was admitted as a State 

A writer in Leslie's Popular Monthly for July, 1898, page 25, says 
Widow RoBards built a large, handsome house ; was uniformly kind, 
considerate, and a generous, warm-hearted woman; proud, high-spirited, 
and was considered the most influential personage in the Blue Grass 
region; that her daughters— viz: Sallie RoBards Jouett, wife of Captain 
John Jouett, member of the Virginia Legislature for several years, and 
Elizabeth Lewis RoBards, wife of General William Buckner, were noted 
for their beauty and social tact. 

Captain Jouett was the hero of the following daring deed: In the heat 
of the Revolutionary war, in June, 17S1, when Cornwallis was near 
Richmond, burning the barns, fences, and crops, and killing the horses 
of the farmers of Virginia, he sent Colonel Tarleton, with 250 cavalr>', 
on a special secret raid to surprise and capture the General Assembly, 
then in session at Charlottesville, in Albemarle county, Va. Their clan- 
destine, rapid march was observed by Captain John Jouett. He divined 



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GENEALOGY. 99 

their dangerous purpose, and started at once on his fleet thoroughbred 
horse to defeat their strategy. The passing, firing, race was swift, daring 
and perilous — so hot and close that a single unlucky bullet, or a misstep 
of his faithful steed, would place Captain Jouett at the inercy of the ma- 
rauding troops. Fortune — Providence — favored the brave patriot. He 
gave the sudden warning, but so narrow was the escape of the Legisla- 
ture that seven of the members were captured. 

A copy of the concurrent resolutions adopted December 12, 1786, 
shows the appreciation of the House and Senate of Virginia of the 
daring and important service of Captain John Jouett in baffling the 
scheme of Lord Comwallis and his noted cavalry leader. Colonel 
Tarleton. 

(Excerpt from Journal of House of Delegates of Virginia.) 
A motion was made that the House come to the following resolution: 

Whereas, a resolution passed the 12th day of June, 1781, requesting 
the Executive to present to Captain John Jouett an elegant sword and 
pair of pistols as a memorial of the high sense the General Assembly 
entertained of his activity and enterprise in watching the motions of the 
enemy's cavalry on their incursion to Charlottesville, and conveying to 
the Assembly timely notice of their approach, whereby the designs of 
the enemy were frustrated and many valuable stores preserved; and it 
appearing that the same has not been completely carried into execu- 
tion : 

Resolved, therefore^ That the Executive be requested to comply with 
the said resolution in such manner as to them may be deemed most 
proper; and that they be empowered to draw upon the treasury for such 
a sum of money out of the contingent fund as shall be necessary for the 
purpose. 

(to be continued) 

LITTLEBERRY MOS BY— WILLIAM CANNON. 

To the Editor of the Virginia Magazine : 

Sir,— The statement made in "The Cocke Family " on page 438, 
Virginia Magazine, Vol. IV, April, 1897, that Colonel Littleberry Mosby 
was a captain of the Revolution is erroneous. 

The Captain was his son Littleberry, Jr., who was Brigadier-General 
of Militia 1814. Nor is Colonel Littleberry Mosby, Sr., buried at "Fort 
Hill," but at "Font Hill,'* Powhatan county (same page). There are 
no grave-stones. He was County Lieutenant of Powhatan i78o-'8i. 
Was he ever a Burgess ? He was not sheriff of Powhatan in 1795, as 
erroneously stated in the same foot-note, on page 438, but in 1797. 
Qualified March 16, 1797. Order Book No. 5, page 320, Powhatan C. 
H. Member of the Cumberland County Committee of Public Safety- 



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100 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1775-1776. See the MSS. Minutes of this body in State Library at Rich- 
mond. See vol. V, page 103, William and Mary Quarterly, for lists. 

Colonel Mosby was born 1729, and died January 14, 1809. His will 
made January 6, 1809 ; probated March 15, 1S09. Will Book 3, page 292, 
Powhatan C. H. 



The William Cannon of "Mt Ida," set out in same foot-note, page 
438, Virginia Magazine, vol. IV, first married Sarah Mosby, daughter of 
Colonel Littleberry Mosby, Sr., and second, the Martha Cocke there set 
out This latter marriage bond is of record at Aniclia C. H., June 24, 
1790. 

William Cannon *' broke " towards the close of his life, lost his home 
" Mt. Ida," Buckingham county, probablyabout i8i>4 or 5, and in 1807 
emigrated to Davidson county (Nashville). Tenn., with his sons John, 
James and William (of his Cocke marriage) and his son-in-law, Silas 
Flournoy (Mrs. F. was his daughter Martha, of his Mosby marriage). 
In 1820 he removed to Caldwell county and settled near ** the Big Spring 
on Indian Camp Creek." He died the same year and is buried in a 
well-known graveyard on the "Catlett" or *' Bennett" farm, near 
Princeton, Ky.. a known but unmarked grave. 

The present hamlet of New Canton, Buckingham county, post-office 
established January i, 1802 — Benjamin Pollard, postmaster— undoubt. 
ediy must have been "New Cannon," and established on his lands. 
See 12 Hening, 665, Nov. 5. 178S. See also 12 Hening, 661, Nov. 7, 
1788; 14 Hening, 259, 260, Nov. 3^ 1793; "4 Hening, 269, Nov. 28, 
1793—25 acres near mouth of Bear (now Phelps » creek, on lands of 
William Cannon — n ime " New Cannon." 

An Irish family named Leitch has owned " Mt. Ida" for about sixty 
years. They succeeded to \\ ilkinson, and Wilkinson to Ross. 

On a window pane in a room in " the old part " of the present resi- 
dence is written as with a diamond, " D. Ross came to ' Mt. Ida ' Satur- 
day. March 30, i8<»5 "—undoubtedly when Cannon's ownership ceased. 
(Records at Buckingham C. H., burned 182—.) Tradition says an old 
graveyard was at the foot of "the hill," not visible for two generations. 

See also 9 Hening, 234, Oct., 177ft, and 16 Hening, 321, Dec. 19, 
1794, and 16 Hening, 70, Jan. 30, 1S04, and 9 Hening, 559, Oct., 1778, 
for tobacco"inspection, warehouses, ferry tolls, etc. 

FLouRNoy Rivers. 
Pulaski, Tenn. 

(TO BE CONTINUED) 



COCKE, GRAY, BOWIE, ROBB, &c 
By Miss Fannv B. Hunter, Alexandria, Va. 
Some partial tracing through the line of Lucy, * the fourth dau<:hter 
of Secretary Cocke, ' of Williamsburg, and Elizabeth Catesby, his wife 



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GENEALOGY. 101 

(Va. His. Mag., Vol. , p. ), who married Frank Waring, of 

Essex county, Va., May 12, 1744. 

Of this marriage there were four daughters and three sons, viz : 
Lucy, ■ Ann, Elizabeth, Susanna, Thomas, William and Henry. The 

late Mr. Lewis, of , in his history of the family, from which the 

most of this is taken, wrote of these sons : *' They entered heart and 
sword into the Revolution, and were in all hard-fought battles at the 
North, and we, their descendants, may well be proud of the part they 
bore.*' Henry,' the youngest, was Capt. of the 7th Virginia Regiment, 
and died from exposure near the close of the war, leaving no children 
Thomas* was unmarried in 1803. William,* second son, left one son, 
Henry, * father of Mrs. Mary Waring Buckner. His first wife was Lucy 
Robb, daughter of Robert Gilchrist Robb; the second was Lucy Stiff, 
of Middlesex county 

Lucy' Waring, eldest daughter of Frank and Lucy Cocke Waring, m. 
December 14, 1769, James Robb, of Port Royal, a native of Scotland, 
and nephew of Robt. Gilchrist, a man of much prominence in the Col- 
ony. Mr. Robb died April 21, 1805 ; his wife died October 3, 1819. 

Their children were: i. William,* b. in Essex, 1771 ; d. 1820. 

II. Lucy,* b. Aprils, 1773, married John Gray, of Traveller's Rest, 
Stafford county, Va. 

III. Robert Gilchrist* Robb, born in Orange county, 1775; m. 1st, 
Nellie, dau. of Dr. Wm. Bankhead and Ellen Stewart ; 2d Mrs. Sere- 
phena Norfleet, n^e Vermecula, of Naples. 

IV. Anne, b. January, 1777, married John Catlett, of Port Royal ; 
died March 10, 1853, (issue: Robert, * James, * Peter,* and 2 daus.) 

V. Margaret,* b. in Orange county, 1779 ; d. aged 13 years. 

VI. Elizabeth,* b. in Orange county, 1782 ; d. 1804. 

VII. James,* b. 1784; d. 1788. 

VIII. Patrick,* b. 1771, m. Pratt, dau. of John Pratt, of Caro- 
line county. 

Issue of John and Lucy* (Robb) Gray,' : 

I. Agnes,* b. March 2, 1794 ; died at '* Eastwood " in 1864 — a woman 
of great force of character, a devoted churchwoman ; "given to hos- 
pitality,*' especially to its ministers, several of whom bestowed her 
name upon their children 

II. Atcheson* Gray, b. December i, 1798; d. 1822; married Cath- 
erine Lewis Willis ; left no children. 

III. Margaret* Gray, b. March 3, 1803 ; d. 1839 unmarried. 

IV. Janet Robinson,* b. September 10, 1805 ; d. 1878; married Jan. 
3, 1827, her I St cousin, William Pollock, of Scotland, who was b. in 
Glasgow August 20, 1797. 

(TO BE continued) 



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102 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Historical and Genealogical Notes and Queries. 



Corrections : Robert Carter Nicholas was born January 28, 1728, 
and not in 1715, as stated, IX, 358. 

On same page it should read that Dudley Diggs was a member of the 
House of Burgesses from 1752, instead of 1732. 



Rev. David Mossom's Note Book. 

The Rev. David Mossom was rector of St. Peter's parish, New Kent 
county, Va. And in order to give some idea of the preaching in "Col- 
onial Days," we give some extracts from his note book, which is large, 
and filled with notes on ordinary business matters. 
He lived on the Mattaponi or Pamunkey river. 

Page 42 — Ship York arrived 29th of June, 1729, and sailed May 2nd. 

May — Had thirty-one joints of bacon on hand. 

Page 50 — [Preached] on the Errors of our Senses and of Decrees. 

Page 52 — On the Imagination. 

Page 53 — Of Habits and of Memory. 

Jane Chapman was born 29th February, 1776. Reynolds, her brother, 
was bom 22nd July, 1778. Their brother, who was not baptized, was 
born 26th of December, 1780. 

Page 29— John Reynolds is mentioned. 

Page 68 — On modes of thinking. 

Nov, 1780 — Sugar and coffee mentioned. Can Matter think? On 
the essence of Substances. 

Page 90 — On the Will and Liberty. On quebusdam in physia. A 
page in Latin (is translated). On certain things in Physics. On the 
Moon. 

Page 98— Concerning jure divino, on Infallibility. 

The Reynolds Chapman, mentioned above, was probably the one who 
became clerk of Orange about 1789. The old note book belonged to 
his son, Richard Chapman. 

I omitted to mention a Discourse on Tides and a discourse in Latin, 
very hard to read. 

Ought we to keep the preaching of the Gospel from the Gentiles. 

That we have corruptions in the revised text on the Messias. 

On the Being of God. Is the Being of God possible ? 

The Danger of falling into the errors. 

Reason the only test of Divine Revelation. 

On the eloquence of the Holy Scriptures. 

The Rev. Mr. Mossom was the minister who performed the marriage 
ceremony of General Washington at the U^hite House, a few miles 
from St. Peter's church. Mr. Mossom lived in St. Peter's parish for 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 103 

forty years, and must have been a man of good character, according to 
Bishop Meade. 

It is related. on his tombstone that he was the first native born Ameri- 
can who was ordained in the Colonial Church. He came from New- 
buryport, Massachusetts. See Meade, Vol. I, p. 386. 

A. G. Grinnan. 

[The contribution printed above is the last of many obligations con- 
ferred on the Editors of this Magazine by that accomplished historical 
student and genealogist, the late Dr. A G. Grinnan, of Madison county, 
Va.] 

Lumber in 1774. 

King William, March 31, 1774, 
Plank and Scantling to be sold by the Subscriber at his Saw Mill, 
near AyletVs Warehouse, J^attapony River, upon the most reasonable 
Terms, and of the following kinds, viz : White Oak, Black Walnut, 
Sweet Gum, Ash, Poplar, Birch (which makes elegant Furniture), best 
Yellow Heart Pine for Flooring, and clear of Heart and Sap if required, 
common high Land and Slash Pine for other Uses. A reasonable credit 
will be allowed, and European and West India Goods received in Pay- 
ment. I shall prepare several Sets of Plank and Scantling for executing 
Hobday's Wheat Machines, which, or any other kind of Plank or Scant- 
ling, I can send to Norfolk, or any part of York River Orders, which 
may come by the Post to the Post Office at Aylett's, will be duly com- 
plied with. I have also for sale a Quantity of excellent Madeira Wine, 
of the London and New York Qualities, in Hogsheads and Quarter 
Casks, on twelve Months* Credit, and will receive Corn or Wheat in 
Payment. 

William Avlett. 



Advertisement of Lost Book, 1774. 

Lent to some of my acquaintai^e, or lost. Dr. Beattie on Truth, and 
Reid on The Human Mind. Any person who has either of those Books 
will oblige me by informing the Printer thereof or returning them to 
me. The Name at the Bottom of the Coat of Arms denotes the Owner. 

Ralph Wormlev, Junior. 

Virgiaia Gazette, March 24, 1774^ 



The Will of Benjamin Harrison, The Signer. 

The following is an abstract of the will on record at Charles City 
C. H.: 

*' Heads of a will written by Benjamin Harrison, of Berkeley, all in 
.my own hand," intended to be carried to Peter Lyons, Esq ; but if any 
accident happen to. prevent, it is to be taken as my last will. 

To dear and affectionate wife, Elizabeth, all my furniture forever. 



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104 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

except my plate, which she is to have the use of during life ; also coach, 
harness and six horses. Also, the use of the land where I live, called 
Berkeley, with the slaves thereon, and all stocks of horses, cattle, &c., 
except what is specifically devised. She is to pay my debts and to sup- 
port son William and daughter Sarah. Also, give her my part of the 
ship now on the stocks, and all the money due from the other partners. 
She is to assist in any manner she sees fit son Carter in building or buy- 
ing a house at Cabin Point. At wife's death give Berkeley except such 
part as I shall give to son William) to son Benjamin, and if he die with- 
out issue, to son Carter Bassett. To son Carter Bassett my land at 
Cabin Point, my mill and the miller, Oneas, my land on both sides of 
Savage's Run, my lots near the town of Richmond and those drawn in 
Byrd's lottery in partnership with Col. Nathaniel Harrison. 

To son William, at his mother's death or his coming of age, the upper 
land of the Berkeley tract, and if he dies without issue, to son Carter 
Bassett. To son Benjamin all the negroes he has of mine in his posses- 
sion at Hardlabour, except one. 

To son Carter Bassett 14 negroes, and I direct that 30 head of cattle 
and 3 good work horses be bought for him ; also give him my phaeton 
and harness and two colts, and. at the death of his mother, all my plate. 

To son William the plantation called Oldhides, and two negroes ; 
and also the stocks on said plantation, and 40 ewes and a ram from 
Berkeley. 

To daughter Elizabeth Rickman 6 negroes. To daughter Ann Coup- 
land 5 negroes, and my chariot, which is to be fitted up in the best 
manner and horses bought and given to her. To daughter Lucy, Lucy 
Randolph, a negro. To daughter, Betty Randolph, a negro. To 
grandson, Wm. Randolph, a negro, and one also to the child not yet 
named. To daughter, Sarah Harrison, three negroes, and son Benja- 
min is to pay her 220 half Johannes in gold. 

At death of wife all stocks, &c., at Berkeley, not otherwise devised, 
to go to son Benjamin, and all negroes possessed by wife to be divided 
between Benjamin and Carter. 

Codicil Jan. 8, 1 780. The negroes in possession of wife at the time of 
her death to be divided into four equal parts, without parting men and 
their wives, and three of these parts are to be divided equally between 
Benjamin and Carter, and the other between my four daughters. Proved 
in Charles City Court June 16, 1791. 

Inventory of Benjamin Harrison, deceased, recorded 1791. Total value 
of personal estate ;f4,286.io. 

There is in the same book the executors' accounts. They provide for 
a legacy of j£4oo left by their grandfather to Benjamin Harrison's daugh- 
ter Ann, who married William Randolph, and also for a legacy to his 
[the grandfather's] daughter Lucy, late Mrs. Necks, of London, of 
jC I SOf with interest from Oct. 8, 1751, to 1799. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 105 

Hawkins. — Information is desired concerning the ancestry of Joseph 
Hawkins and Sarah, his wife The will of Joseph Hawkins, dated 
1770, is in Winchester, Frederick county, Va. One daughter, Sarah, 
married Gen. John Savier, first Governor of Tennessee ; another mar- 
ried Lt.-Col Richard Campbell, who was killed at the battle of Eutaw 
Springs. There were two more daughters, Elizabeth and Mary , 1 do 
not know whether they married or not. He also had sons Joseph, 
William and Samuel. There may have been other children. 

GooDE.— Information is wanted concerning the wife of Joseph Goode, 
one of the younger sons of John Goode, of Whitby, who came to Vir- 
ginia about 1650. 

Keith.— Information is wanted concerning Alexander Keith (son of 
Alexander Keith), and his wife Sarah Galey. Was this the Alexander 
Keith who served in Col. Alexander Spotswood's regiment during the 
revolutionary war? 

Miss Mary Hoss, 
2106 West End Ave., Nashville, Tenn. 

Simmons. — Richard Simmons was a member of Captain Hugh Ste- 
phenson's Berkeley county, Virginia, company which went to the war 
of the revolution from Shepherdstown, Va. (now West Va.). Can any 
reader of the Magazine state anything further in regard to his services 
or history ? Where can a list be seen of Stephenson's company ? 

Morgan's Riflemen.— Can any reader of the Magazine state where 
a list, or partial list, of Daniel Morgan's Riflemen of the revolution can 
be seen? It was the nth Virginia. 

William A. Miller, 
Copyright Office, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 



Poythress-Batte, &c.— (See VII, i, 4).— Issue of Robt. Boiling 
and Helen French Batte : Henry Batte, Bassett French Batte, Robert 
Boiling Batte (died, age seventeen), Francis (died in infancy), Helen 
Bland French Batte and Macon Batte. 

Issue of Rosa Bland Batte and Robert R. Hill, of Petersburg, Va. : 
Benjamin Mason and Almeria Orr. 

Issue of Virginia Elizabeth Eppes and Joseph P. Minetree : Mary 
Virginia, who married Dr. H. B. Hollifield, of Sandersville, Ga., no 
issue ; Louisa Gibson, who married George He wit Evans, of Alexan- 
dria, one child ; John Eppes, Joseph Powhatan. Martha Batte, Elizabeth 
Eppes, James Lawrence, George McPhail (Robert Hill and Henry 
Batte, twins, died in infancy), Claudia Hains. 

Issue of Louisa Gibson Minetree and George Hewit Evans : Chaplin 
Eppes. 

Issue of Judge Peter P. Batte, brother of Henry Batte, of Wood 



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106 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Lawn, and Elizabeth Poindexter : Agnes, married Richard Eppes, of 
Nottoway ; Mary, married Robert Anderson, of Prince Edward ; Cary, 
C. S. A., killed in battle Chancellorsville 1862; Peter Vernon, Major 
C. S. A., married Miss Kate Stuart, of Stockton, Cal. 

William Poythress, the only son of Peter Poythress, of Branchester, 

married, first, a Miss Boiling ; 2nd., , and had issue: Elizabeth, 

who married Richard Marks. This daughter was living at Branchester, 
the old home, at the time of her death. She had issue : Nannie Rich- 
ardetta, infant ; Nannie married Mr. Stephen W. Britton, of Peters- 
burg, Virginia, and had issue : Richard died 18—; Stephen, now 

living in New York ; Hugh Stockdell, living in Newport News ; John 
Keane ; Mason ; Kate Stockdell. 

This is the last generation from Branchester, Pr. Geo. the original 
home of the Poythress . 



"Carter's Creek." 

The old home of the Burwell family, on Carter's creek, Gloucester 
county, of which a view is given in the frontispiece, was the oldest house 
in Virginia, bearing a date on its walls, and had a greater appearance 
of antiquity than any other which survived from colonial days. 

The massive walls, the narrow windows with their small panes, the 
groups of high, diamond-shaped chimneys, and the heavy arches of the 
cellar, were all marks of its age. As is seen from the picture, it was 
more like a small old English manor house than any other building in 
Virginia. 

r> 

The inscription L. 'A., cut on the high triple chimney, shows 
1694. 
that Carter's Creek was built by Hon. Lewis Burwell, member of the 
Council, and his wife, Abigail Smith, neice and heiress of President 
Nathaniel Bacon. It originally consisted of a central portion and two 
wings ; but one of the latter was torn down many years ago. The ele- 
gance with which the house was formerly fitted, was shown by some 
beautiful marble mantels, which could be seen some years ago in the 
cellar, where they had been placed after being taken out of rooms 
above. 

One very large apartment was traditionally stated to have been the 
ball-room. Near the house is the graveyard, in which can be seen 
(though now in a most mutilated condition) the tombs of many genera- 
tions of the Burwells, from Major Lewis, who had a grant of a large 
tract of land here in 1648, and died in 1658, down through Hon. Lewis 
Burwell, the builder of the house, and his son Nathaniel, &c. 

The estate here was successively the property of Major Lewis Burwell 
(d. 1658); Hon. Lewis Burwell, of the Council (d. 1710); Major Nathan- 
iel Burwell, member of the House of Burgesses (d. 1721); Hon. Lewis 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 107 

Burwell, Governor of Virginia (d. 1752); Lewis Burwell, member of 
the House of Burgesses and Revolutionary Convention (d. 1779), 2i"d 
is believed to have been sold by the sons of the last named. 
The house was burned a few years ago. 



Williams-Hill. — The following pedigree is taken from the Harleian 
MSS., 2289, page 55, in the British Museum: 

Hugh Thomas Brecknock Pedigree. 

Roger Williams, of the Gore=Eliz. dr. to Walter 
near Brecknock. I Delahay. 



Walter=Eliz. dr. to Walkin, Vicar of 
I Bryngwyn. 



Wm. Williams=- 



Parson of Chicquihomine 
Parish in Virginia. 

Wm. Williams, of James City John, 

county, Va. 

Same manuscript, page 65: 

Sir Edw. Williams, Kt^ 

Henry=Mary. dr. to John El!z.=Edw. Hill, of 

Walbrioff, of Virginia. 

Hannamloch. 
P269. 

I think a much fuller pedigree of Sir Edw. Williams could be gotten 
from the MSS., as my correspondent simply sent me the item, thinking 
I might be interested in it. 

C. W. T., New York. 

[In an account of the Hill family published a number of years ago in 
the Richmond Standard, it was stated that, according to tradition, the 
wife of Col. Edward Hill, 2d, of Shirley, was Miss Williams.] 



Cotton, Talbot. — Cotton from old Bible. Ralph Cotton, son of 
John Ralph Cotton, bom January loth, 1742, married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of William Kitchen, Loudoun county, Va. 

Henry, born September 4th, 1763; Susannah, born February 14th, 
1765 ; Peggy, bom August 4th, 1767 ; lemima, born August 8th, 1769 ; 
Mary Jane, bom January 27th, 1772; |ohn, born February 12th, 1774; 
William, bom March 13th, 1776 ; Sarah, born May loth, 1778 ; Nathaniel, 



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108 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

born April 7th, 1783 ; Ralph, bom January 17th, 1786 ; Robert, born 
September 4th, 1788. 

Talbot. 

Matthew Talbott, born September, 1699 ; Charles, his son, bom No- 
vember 6th, 1723; Mary, dau. of Charles, born December Mh, 1755. 
Mary married Plummer Thurston, 1777. Williston, son of Charles, 

married Elizabeth Cocke, December, 1769 ; ist wife, Talbot, 

married Ezekiel Thurston. 

Allan Talbot, son of Williston, married Martha Ridley Thornton, 
daughter of Sterling Thornton, 1814. Allan was Elizabeth Cocke's son. 



Virginia Military Association, 1756. 
[Letter from Virginia to Md. Gazette. '\ 
Md. Gazette y June //, 1756 : 

Williamsburg, May 28. On Thursday, the 20th, several Gentlemen 
of the Association, under Col. Peyton Randolph, met at Fredericksburg 
to the number of 130, and at a Council of War held next day the fol- 
lowing Gentlemen were chosen officers, viz : 

Captains : Wamer Lewis, Bernard Moore, Charles Carter, Richard 
Eppes, Nathaniel West Dandridge, and JohnSyme ; and Aids de Camp 
Presley Thornton and Charles Osborne. 

In the afternoon an excellent Sermon, suitable to the occasion, was 
preached to them by the Reverend Mr. McDaniel. of King George 
county, from the 2 Samuel, X, 12 : ** Be of good Courage, and let us 
play the men for our People and for the Cities of our God. And the 
Lord do that which seemeth him good." They afterwards subscribed 
to certiin Articles for their good Government amongst themselves, 
which they agreed shall be to them as a Law, and obliged themselves 
to abide by them accordingly. On Sunday they marched from Fred- 
ericksburg, and 'twas expected would be at Winchester Tuesday last. 

[Copied from old file in Annapolis, Oct , 1901, by N. S. Dandridge.] 

[We are indebted to a lady of Baltimore for this interesting extract. 
This refers to a volunteer cavalry organization, formed in the year 
named, which, however, proved unsuited for mountain campaigning.] 



Mildred Washington Willis. 

Editor of the Virginia Magazine: 

A communication from Mr. Benjamin E. Green in your October 
number, 1901, states that John Washington's daughter, Mildred, was 
Henry Willis' second wife, and that Lawrence Washington's daughter. 
Mildred, was Henry Willis' third wife. 

This is not correct according to the manuscript of Colonel Byrd Willis 
of Fredericksburg and Florida. Of course it is not a matter of much 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 109 

historic interest but the extract from his manuscript which proves that 
this statement is incorrect is amusing. He says: 

** When the second wife of my grandfather Willis died (she had been 
the widow Mildred Brown) my grandmother, then the widow Gregory 
wept immoderately on hearing it. When some one remarked that it 
was strange for her to grieve so for a cousin, she replied that the death 
of her cousin was not the sole cause of her grief, though she loved her 
dearly as they were cousins and bore the same name, but that she knew 
that old Harry Willis would be down there to see her at once and she 
did not know what she should do with him. 

" The sequel proved she knew the man for ' in a little month * he sat 
himself down at her door and commenced a regular seige. She held 
out for some time but fin «lly capitulated so that in less than two months 
after the death of his second wife, Mildred Brown (n^e Washington) he 
married Mildred Gregory, the sister to Augustine Washington. My 
father was the only son of thi^ marriage." 

Colonel Byrd Willis in writing of his grandfather. Colonel Henry Wil- 
lis, says that ** he courted his three wives when maids and married them 
all when widows ** 

Henry Willis' third wife was a granddaughter of John Washington 
and his wife Ann Pope, and was a daugliter of Lawrence Washington 
and Mildred Warner, his wife. She was therefore the sister of Augustine 
Washington, the father of General Washington. In the well known 
picture of the baptism of Washington it was his aunt Mildred, then the 
young and beautiful widow Gregory, who held him in her arms and was 
his godmother. She had then been married twice, first to a Mr. Lewis 
and then to Mr. Gregory. Soon after the baptism of Washington she 
married Henry Willis. 

Mildred Willis by her marriage with Harry Willis had only one child, 
a boy, whom she named after her first husband ** Lewis.'* Her husband 
died when this son was .still a boy and the care of his education and his 
estate devolved upon his mother who seems to have had much of that 
painstaking thrif. and accuracy which characterized her distinguished 
nephew and godson. She educated her son very highly and greatly 
added to his estate, building for him the handsome house on the out- 
skirts of Frederick.sburg, known as "Willis Hill." He was sent to the 
same school with his cousin George. Col. Willis, in his same manu- 
script, says his father— 

** Was a school mate of George Washington, his first cousin, who was 
two years his senior, one having been born in 1732, and the other in 
I7U I have heard my father speak of the General's industry and 
assiduity at school as very remarkable. Whilst his brother and the 
other boys were at Bandy or other games at playtime, he was behind 
the door ciphering. But oneinstanceof youthful exhiliration was related 
by my father of his distinguished schoolmate while they were at the 



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110 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

same school, and that was his romping on one occasion with one of the 
largest girls. This was so unusual that it excited no little comment 
amongst the other lads." 

Lewis Willis married Mary Champe, of Lamb's creek. His first child 
was named Mildred Washington. She married Landon Carter, of Cleve, 
King George county. She left three daughters, one of whom died un- 
married. Another married Robert Mercer, and the third, Lucy Landon, 
General John Minor, of Fredericksburg. Mrs. Minor left six sons — 
John Minor, of Fredericksburg ; Dr. Lewis Willis Minor, U. S. Navy, 
and subsequently of the C. S. Navy ; L. H. Minor, of Edgewood, Han- 
over county ; Launcelot, a missionary, who died and was buried at 
Cape Palmas, Africa; Charles Landon Carter, of U. S. Army (who 
died long before the war), and James Monroe, of Brooklyn, who before 
the war was in U. S. Navy. Mrs. Minor also left one daughter, who 
married Wm. M. Blackford, of Fredericksburg, but who in 1846 moved 
to Lynchburg. 

Lewis Willis' other children by his wife Mary Champe were John, 
Harry, Jane, who married Mr. Alexander ; Mary, who married Mr. 
Battaile, and William C. On the death of Mary Champe, Lewis Willis 
married the widow of his brother-in-law, John Champe, who was before 
her first marriage Ann Carter, of Cleve, the sister of Landon Carter, of 
Cleve, who had married Lewis Willis' first daughter, Mildred. 

Lewis VVillis' children by his second wife were two, who died infants, 
and Byrd Charles* Willis, the writer of the manuscript, known univer- 
sally as •• Col. Byrd Willis." 

Chas. M. Blackford. 

Lynchburg^ Va.^ Nov. 10, igoi. 



Colonel Cary and Captain Moody (See IX, 106). —There is an 
item I wish to write up concerning Colonel Miles Cary the 2d and his 
affair with Capiain James Moody \n 1702, spread upon the records of 
York county, Liber., XI 1, p, 21. 

1 find that Colonel Robert Quarry in a letter to the Lords Commis- 
sioners of Trade, &c. ( Mass. Coll., 3d series, VII, 241), dated "New 
York, June 16, 1703," thus refers to the matter: " The complaints against 
the commanders of H. M. ships are become general. I presume y'r L'p's 
will receive them from Va., Md. & N. Y. It w'd take a quire of paper 
for particularizing the several rude, barbarous, & extravagant actions of 
one Capiain James Moody, Comm'r of the Southampton Man of War. 
He neither spared the gentleman of the country, the queen's officers, 
nor the Governor himself, because they would not suffer him to marry 



• It may not be generally known that the name *' Charles." so common amongst the 
Carters and their connection, is a badge of the loyalty of Virginia to the Stuarts. Rob- 
ert (King) Carter, of Corotomen, had a son born on or about the day Charles I was be- 
headed. The boy was named Charles to emphasize his father's devotion to the man be 
ever held a martyr. 



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PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. Ill 

a Gentleman's daughter, when at the same time he hath a wife & children 
in London. This was a sufficient ground for him to attempt the lives 
of the Gentlewoman's father, several of his relations, and especially of 
a very worthy gentleman, one Colonel Cary, that courted the young 
lady. The Governor was forced to secure the peace, the country being 
all in an uproar by this man's extravagant actions. The particulars y'r 
L'd'ps will have from the Governor and Council of Virginia. * * * '* 
These ** particulars " as set forth by the Governor and the proceed- 
ings thereon I should like to get from England. Can you tell me just 
how I should go about it — to what precise official I should write in the 
State paper office, &c.. &c.? 

Wilson Miles Carv. 



Horse Chair for Sale, 1774. 

To be Sold.— An exceeding neat and strong one Horse Chair (to 
carry two people), on Steel Springs, with a Leather Head and Apron, 
lined with light coloured cloth, and curtains of the same, with Brass 
Caps to the whet- Is, and Harness complete ; made by Barnard^ Coach- 
maker, in London^ only two years ago, and very little the worse for 
Wear. Inquire of Mr. Craig, Saddler, in IVilliamsburg, 

Va. Gazette, October 27, 1774. 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 



The Evolution of the Mason and Dixon's Line. By Morgan 
Poitiaux Robinson Reprinted from the April and May, 1902, numbers 
of the Oracle Magazine, Richmond, Virginia. Published by special 
request. Richmond, Va. Oracle Publishing Company. 1902. Pp. 18, 
paper. 

Mr. Robinson has given in brief and intelligible form a very clear 
account of the famous, but little understood. Mason and Dixon's Line. 
He presents a preliminary sketch of the various grants of territory in 
America, which lead up to the difference between Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania in regard to boundary lines, and an account of the work of 
Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, the two surveyors who ran the line 
between the two colonies. In addition the subsequent legislation and 
consequent surveys down to the present time are related. 

Mr. Robinson has evidently made a very careful study of his subject 
and his pamphlet is of value and interest. 

The Colonial Virginia Register. A List of Governors, Coun- 
cillors and Other Higher Officials, and also of the Members of the 
House of Burgesses and the Revolutionary Conventions of the Colony 



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112 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of Virginia. Compiled by William G. and Mary Newton Stanard. 
Albany, N. Y., Joel MunselPs Sons Publishers. 1902. Pp. 249 (with 
index). 

The History of Slavery in Virginia. By James Curtis Ballagh, 
Associate in History, Johns Hopkins University Baltimore. The Johns 
Hopkins Press 1902. Pp. viii, 16 ». 

A Review of Mr. Ballagh's valuable work will appear in a future 
number. 

The Scotch-Irish or the Scot in North Britain, North Ireland 
and North America. By Charles A. Hanna. 2 vols. New York and 
London, 1902. 

The Discoveries of John Lederer in three several marches from 
Virginia to the West of Carolina and other parts of the Continent. 
Begun in March, 1669, and ended in September, 167 . Togethtr with 
a General Map of the whole Territory which he traversed. Collected 
and Translated out of Latine from his Discourse and Writings, by Sir 
William Talbot, Baronet London, 1672. [Facsimile reprint by George 
P. Humphrey, Rochester, N Y., 19* '2.] 

This is an excellent reprint of Lederer's rare and valuable account 
of his explorations. Perhaps the reason assigned by Talbot in his ad- 
dress "To the Reader,*' wliy \ irginia became uncomfortable for Led- 
erer, may not be the real one. It is possible that debt may have btfcn 
the cause of his flight to Maryland. See *' \irginia Magazine of History 
and B ography," V 111, 324, for a suit, 1673, against the estate of a '* Dr. 
Ledderer." 

Pennsylvania Archives, Third Series, Vols. I-XXX, inclusive Pre- 
sented by the Pennsylvania State Library. 

The Ohio Valley in Colonial Days. By Berthold Femow. Albany, 
N. Y., 1892. 

Rev. Thomas Bray, His Life and Selected Works Relating to Mary- 
land. Edited by Bernard C Steiner. Maryland Historical Society Fund 
Publication. Baltimore, 1901 Presented by the Maryland Historical 
Society, 

Harper's Ferry Invasion. U. S. Senate Report, i860. 

Cromwell's Policy in Its Economic Aspects. By- George L. Bear. 
Boston, 1902. 

Chronology of the Origin and Progress of Paper Making. By Joel 
Munsell. Albany, 1876. 

Brother Jonathan By Alb -rt Matthews. Cambridge, 1892. 

The Term Indian Summer. By Albert Matthews. 

Colonial Times on Buzzard's Bay. By VV. R. Bliss. Boston and N. 
Y., 1888. 



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New Series. 

** Collections of the Virginia Historical Society. New Series. Edited 
by R. A. Brock, Corresponding Secretary and Librarian of the Society, 
(Seal) Richmond, Va. Published by the Society," Eleven annual 
volumes, uniform. 8vo., cloth, issued 1882-92, carefully indexed, as 
follows : 

The Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant-Governor of 
the Colony of Virginia, 17 10-1722. Now first printed from the manu- 
script in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society, with an 
introduction and notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two Volumes. Portrait and Arms, pp xxi-i79 and vii-368. 8.00 

The Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Colony of Virginia, 1 751- 1758. Now first pnnted from the manu- 
script in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society, with an 
introduction and notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two volumes, pp. Ixix^saS and xviii-768. Portraits, facsimile of letters of presentation 
from W. W. Corcoran, cut of Mace of Borough of Norfolk, Va., and reproduction of the 
Blap of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania, engraved for Jefferson's Notes 
on Virginia, 1787. 6.60 

Documents, Chiefly Unpublished. Relating to the Huguenot Emigration 
to Virginia and to the Settlement at Manakin Town, with an Appen- 
dix of Genealogies, presenting data of the Fontaine. Maury, Dupuy, 
Trabue, Marye, Chastaine, Cocke and other Families. 
Pages xxi-247. Contains /aC'SimiU of plan of "King William's Tovm." 2 .60 

Miscellaneous Papers, 1672-1865. Now first printed from the manuscript 
in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society. Comprising 
Charter of the Royal African Co., 1672; Report on the Huguenot 
Settlement 1700; Papers of George Gilmer of 'Ten Park," 1775-78; 
Orderly Book of Capt. George Stubblefield, 1776; Career of the 
Iron-clad Virginia, 1862; Memorial of Johnson's Island, 1862-4; Beale's 
Cav. Brigade Parole, 1865. 
Pages viii-374. 2.60 

Abstract of the Proceedings of the Virginia Company of London, 1619- 
1624, Prepared from the Records in the Library of Congress by 
Conway Robinson, with an introduction and notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two volumes. Pages xlvii-318 and 300. The introduction contains a valuable critical 

essay on the sources of information for the student of Virginia History. 6.00 

The Histor>' of the Virginia Federal Convention of 1788, with some ac- 
count of the Eminent Virginians of that era who were members of 
the Body, by Hugh Blair Grigsby. LL. D., with a Biographical 
Sketch of the Author and illustrative notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two volumes. Pages xxvii-373 and 411. 

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Proceedings of the Virginia Historical Society at the Annual Meeting 
held December 21-22, 1891, with Historical Papers read on the oc- 
casion and others. 

Pages xix-386. Contains papers on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence and the 
Call for the First Congress; Historical Elements in Virginia Education and Literary 
EflTort; Notes on Recent Work in Southern History; Ancient Epitaphs and Descriptions 
in York and James City Counties, Washington's First Election to the House of Burgesses ; 
Smithfield Church, built in 163a, Richmond's First Academy; Facts from the Accomac 
County Records, Relating to Bacon's Rebellion ; Thomas Hansford, first Martyr to Ameri- 
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French in 1755; Orderly Books of Major Wm. Heath, 1777, and Capt. Robert Gamble, 1779, 
and Memoir of General John Cropper. 2.50 

The full set of these publications can be obtained for $31 .00, or the separate 
publications, at the prices named. 
Discount allowed to booksellers. 



Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Edited to October 
ist, 1898, by Philip A. Bruce, and since that date by William G. Stanard, 
Corresponding Secretary and Librarian of the Society, (Seal). Pub- 
lished Quarterly by the Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Va. 
House of the Society, No. 707 East Franklin St. 

Volume I — Octavo, pp. 484-viii-xxvi-xxxii. 

Contains cut of the Society's Building, accounts of the proceedings and transactions of 
the Society for the year 1893. and many exceedingly valuable, original historical documents 
and papers which have never before appeared in print. Among others may be mentioned, 
Discourse of the London Company on its administration of Virginia affairs. 1607-1624; 
Abstracts of Colonial Patents in the Register of the Virginia Land Office, beginning in 1624, 
with full genealogical notes and an extended Genealogy of the Claiborne Family ; The 
Mutiny in Virginia in 1635; Samuel Matthew's Letter and Sir John Harvey's Declaration; 
Speech of Governor Berkeley and Declaration of the Assembly with reference to the change 
of Government in England and the passage of the First Navigation Act of 1651 ; Petition 
of the Planters of Virginia and Mar>-land in opposition to the Navigation Act of 1661 ; 
Bacon's Rebellion, 1676; His three proclamations. Letters of Sherwood and Ludwell, Pro- 
posals of Smith and Ludwell. and Thomas Bacon's Petition ; Letters of William Fitzhugh 
(1650-1701). a Leading Lawyer and Planter of Virginia, with a genealogical account of the 
Fitzhughs in England ; Lists of Public Officers in the various Counties in Virginia late in 
the 17th and early in the i8th centuries ; Roster of Soldiers in the French and Indian Wars 
under Colonel Washington ; Officers, Seamen and Marines in the Virginia Navy of the 
Revolution ; Roll of the 4th Virginia Regiment in the Revolution ; Diary of Captain John 
Davis of the Pennsylvania Line in the Yorktown Campaign ; General George Rogers 
Clark. — Roll of the Illinois and Crockett's Regiments and the Expedition to Vinccnnes; 
Department of " Historical Notes and Queries." containing contributions by Hon. Wm. 
Wirt Henry, and many other items of value; Department of " Book Reviews;" A full 
Index. 6.00 

VoLUMB II — Octavo, pp. 48a-ii-xxiv. 

Contains a full account of the proceedings and transactions of the Society for the 
year 1894. and the following list of articles copied from the original documents : Report 
of Governor and Council on the Condition of Affiiirs in Virginia in 1626 ; Abstracts of Col- 
onial Patents in the Register of the Virginia Land Office, with full genealogical notes and 
extetided genealogies of the Fleet, Robins and Thoroughgood Families; Reports of Griev- 
ances by the Counties of Virginia after the suppression of Bacon's Insurrection ; A full his- 
tor>' of the First Legislative Assembly ever held in America (tbftt in 1619 at Jamestown), 
written hy Hon. Wm. Wirt Henry; The concluding list of Virginia Soldiers engaged in 
the French and Indian Wars; The opening lists of the Virginia Officers and Men in the 
Continental Line, compiled from official sources; A valuable account of the Indian Wars 
in Augusta County, by Mr. Joseph A. Waddell, with the lists of the killed and wounded 

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8 

Instructions to Governor Yeardley in 1618 and i6a6, and to Governor Berlceley in 1641 ; Let- 
ters of William Fitzhugh continued, with full genealogical notes ; The Will of William 
Pitzhugh; A complete List of Public Officers in Virginia in 1702 and 1714; Valuable ac- 
count of Horse Racing in Virginia, by Mr. Wm. G. Stanard : The first instalment of an 
article on Robert Beverley and his Descendants ; Wills of Richard Kemp and Rev. John 
Lawrence, both bearing the date of the 17th century ; Short Biographies of all the memh^rB 
of the Virginia Historical Society who died in the course of 1894 ; An elaborate Genealogy 
of the Flourooy Family, throwing light on the Huguenot Emigration ; Department of His- 
torical Notes and Queries, containing many valuable short historical papers and also Gene- 
alogical contributions, among which the Carr and Landon Genealogies are of special 
interest ; Department of Book Reviews, containing critical articles by well known historical 
scholars. Volume II, like Volume I, has been thoroughly indexed. 0*00 

Volume HI— Octavo, pp. 460-ii-xxviii. 

Contains a full account of the proceedings of the Society for the year 1895, and the follow- 
ing list of articles copied from original documents : Letters of William Fitzhugh con- 
tinued; Instructions to Berkeley, 1662; Virginia under Governors Harvey and Gooch; 
Causes of Discontent leading to the Insurrection of 1666 under Bacon ; Will of Benjamin 
Harrison the Elder; Culpeper's Report on Virginia in 1683 ; Defense of Col. Edward Hill ; 
A series of Colonial letters written by William Byrd, Jr., Thomas Ludwell, Robert Carter, 
Richard Lee, and Sir John Randolph ; Decisions of the General Court of Virginia, 1626- 
16^, first instalment; Indictment of Governor Nicholson by the leading members of his 
Council; Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents, extending to 1635, with full genealogical 
notes; A History of Robert Beverley and his Descendants, with interesting Wills and new 
nuUter obtained from England ; Genealogies of the Flournoy, Cocke, Carr, Todd and Chap- 
pell Families ; Voluminous Historical Notes and Queries of extraordinary original value, 
relating to a great variety of subjects ; Department of Book Reviews, containing articles 
from the pens of well known historical scholars. Volume III, like the preceding Volumes, 
has a full index. 5.00 

VoLUMB IV— Octavo, pp 492-i-xxiii. 

COotains the following general list of Contents : A Marriage Agreement between John 
Caitis and his wife ; A Perswasive to Towns and Cohabitation by Rev. Francis Mackemie 
1705; Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents for 1635-6; Army Supplies in the Revolution. 
Series of original letters by Judge Innes ; Attacks by the Dutch on Virginia Fleet, 1667 ; 
Boundary Line Proceedings, for Virginia and North Carolina 1710 ; Charges against Spots- 
wood by House of Burgess 1719 ; Council Proceedings, 1716-1717; Decisions of Virginia 
General Court, 1636-28 Continued ; Defence of Colonel Edward Hill Continued Depositions 
of Revolutionary Soldiers from County records ; Early Spotsylvania Marriage Licenses ; 
Genealogy — Cocke, Flournoy, Trabue, Jones, and Rootes Families; Historical Notes and 
Queries ; A full list of House of Burgesses, 1766 to 1775 ; Instructions to Governor Francis 
Nicholson ; Letter and Proclamation of Argall ; Letters of William Fitzhugh ; Narrative of 
Bacon's Rebellion by the English Commissioners ; full abstracts of Northampton County 
Records in 17th Century ; Ordeal of Touch in Colonial Virginia : Patent of Auditor and 
Surveyor-General ; Prince George County Records with much information as to its families ; 
Proceedings of Visitors of William and Mary College, 1716; A list of Shareholders in Lon- 
don Company, 1783; also of Slave Owners in Spotsylvania County, 1783 ; Virginia Tobacco 
in Russia in i7th*Century. Volume IV has a full index. 0.00 

Volume V— Octavo, pp. 47>-i-xxlii. 

Contains the following general list of Contents: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents, 
1636 ; and Patents and Grants, 1769 ; Rappahannock and Isle of Wight Wills. 17th Century ; 
Government of Virginia. 1666 ; Bacon's Men in Surry ; and List of Persons Suflfering by the 
Rebellion ; Boundary Line Proceedings, 1710 ; Carter Papers ; Case of Anthony Penton ; 
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Oldest Masonic Lodge 102 

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THE 

VIRGINIA MAGAZINE 

OF 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE 

VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

RICHMOND. VA. 



VCH^. X-NO. 2. . OCTOBER. 1902. 



£nter«d at the Postoffioe at Richmond, Va., a* Second-da^g^^t^ QQq[^ 



WM. ELLIS JONES, PRINTER, 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 



ARCHER ANDERSON, CHAS. V. MEREDITH, 
E. W. JAMES, E. V. VALENTINE, 

Rev. W. MEADE CLARK. 



EDITOR OF THE MAGAZINE, 

. WILLIAM G. STANARD. 



CONTENTS. 

1. The Germans of the Valley 113 

2. Ferrar Papers 130 

3. Henry County from its Formation in 1776 to the 

end of the Eighteenth Century, et seq 139 

4. Abridgment of Virginia Laws, 1694 145 

5. The John Brown Letters 161 

6. Some Colonial Letters 176 

7. Pioneer Days in Alleghany County 183 

8. Virginia Militia in the Revolution 188 

9. Will of Wilson Cary, 1772 189 

10. List of Tithables in Northampton County, Vir- 

ginia, August, 1666 194 

11. Genealogy 197 

The Brooke, Herndon, Cocke, Gray, Bowie, Robb, &c., 
Lindsay, Minor, RoBards and Farrar Families. 

12. Notes and Queries 208 

13. Book Reviews 218 



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THE 

Virginia Magazine 

OF 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 



Vol. X. OCTOBER, 1902. No. 2. 



THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 



By John Walter Wayland. 



(concluded) 

During the whole period of the Revolution, only one case is 
known in which a Virginia German was disloyal to the American 
cause — the Tories were mainly of English descent. In 1781, at 
the time when Lord Cornwallis was invading Virginia, John 
Claypole, a Scotchman by birth, who lived within the present 
limits of Hardy county, West Virginia, succeeded in drawing 
over to the British side a number of the settlers on Lost river 
and the South Fork ^ of the Potomac. They refused to pay 
taxes and to furnish their quota of militiamen. Among them 
was John Brake, an old German of considerable wealth, being 
in possession of a fine farm, a mill, a distillery, and a large num- 
ber of fat hogs and cattle. *' He was an exception in his politi- 
cal course lo his countrymen,'* says Kercheval, "as they were 
almost to a man true Whigs and friends to this country.** 
Brake's house was on the South Fork, about fifteen miles above 
Moorefield, and was a place of rendezvous for the Insurgents 
who organized themselves, making John Claypole their com- 

* That is, the South Fork of the Sou/h Branch of the Potomac. 



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114 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

mander. The insurrection was soon suppressed by General 
Morgan, who took Brake prisoner and quartered his German 
sharpshooters at the old gentleman's house, to live on the 
best that his farm, mill and distillery afforded. Three days 
later, General Morgan and his troops returned to Winchester, 
and the Tory insurrection was at an end. Most of those who 
had engaged in it, aroused to a sense of shame by their conduct, 
were thereafter loyal Americans; and several even volunteered, 
and aided in the capture of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 

A year or two ago the writer passed by the place where 
Brake's house stood. It was built at the west side of the river 
bottom, against the side of the mountain. Part of the old wall 
is still standing, and the place is known throughout the surround- 
ing country as *' Brake's Fort." 

VI. The Germans of the Valley as Pioneers. 

A very few words will suffice under this head. From the forti- 
tude displayed by the Germans in pushing into the Shenandoah 
Valley, while it was yet uninhabited, except by a few stray herds 
of buffaloes and numerous bands of hostile savages, we may be 
sure that they also bore their full share in the winning of that 
greater west beyond the mountains. 

In 1773 an emigration society, including several Germans 
among its members — one by the name of Herman — left Botetourt 
county and moved to Kentucky. Other German Virginians, 
that settled in Kentucky at the same time, were: Abraham Hite, 
Joseph and Jacob Sadowsky, and Captain A. Shoeplin (Chap- 
line). The Revolutionary soldiers furnished a large contingent 
of pioneers to Kentucky and Ohio, this territory belonging at 
the time to Virginia. The State of Virginia had presented lands 
to many of the patriots, and about the year 1788 there was a 
heavy influx to the "Virginia Military Lands" on both sides of 
the Ohio river. Woodford county, of the present State of 
Kentucky, was settled principally by emigrants from Eastern 
Virginia and the Valley. Daniel Weissiger, who had once lived 
at Norfolk, and later at Staunton, is named as the founder of 
Frankfort, Ky. The name was given it by the German settlers, 
many of whom had come from Frankfort on the Main. Major 
Georg Michael Bedinger, of Shepherdstown, Va., went to Ken- 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 115 

tucky in 1779, distinguished himself as a valiant officer in the 
battle of Blue Lick, August 19, 1782; was elected delegate of 
Bourbon county to the first Legislature of the State in 1792, and 
was a member of the United States Congress from 1803 to 1807. 
Reuben R. Springer went to Kentucky from Botetourt county 
in 1788. Bernhard Weier, who discovered the famous Weyer*s 
Cave in 1804, subsequently settled in Highland county, Ohio. 
These few isolated instances only serve as examples of pioneer 
movements westward in which large numbers of the German 
Virginians took part. Not only Kentucky and Ohio received 
many of these immigrants, but also Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee 
and Missouri as well. Many of the most prominent families in 
these States are descended from the German pioneers from the 
Valley and other portions of Virginia. 

VII. Home Life of the Germans. 

The Germans of the Valley, like most of their race, were 
simple, modest, and frugal. Their style of living and their in- 
dustry were the chief causes of their prosperity and rapidly 
gained wealth. The majority of them, especially the Mennonites, 
Tunkers and Quakers, owned no slaves, since they believed the 
institution of slavery to be an evil, unjust to the slave and dis- 
pleasing to God. There was doubtless also some antipathy 
toward the negro race. As a result of the various causes the 
proportion of negroes has always been smaller in the Valley than 
in other parts of the State. Most of the Germans did not care 
to possess very large estates, but their farms were usually of a 
comparatively small size, containing generally about as much 
land as the owner, with the assistance of his family could keep 
in a good state of cultivation. On a few acres, carefully tilled 
and well fertilized from the stable yards, surprisingly large crops 
were produced. 

The dress of the early settlers was of the plainest and most 
primitive sort — generally being of their own manufacture. 
Previously to the war of the Revolution the married men usually 
shaved their heads, and then either wore wigs or white linen 
caps; but when the war began this fashion was abandoned, 
partly, perhaps, from patriotic considerations, but chiefly from 



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116 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

necessity. Owing to the interruption of trade with England, 
wigs and white linen for caps were often hard to obtain. The 
men's coats were generally made with broad backs, and straight, 
short skirts, having pockets on the outside with large flaps. 
The waistcoat skirts were long, extending nearly half way down 
ro the knees. They also had very broad pocket flaps. The 
breeches were short, barely reaching to the knee, and had a 
band surrounding the knee, and, fastening the band, brass or 
silver buckles. The hats worn were made of either wool or fur, 
having broad brims and low crowns. 

*' The female dress," says Kercheval, ** was generally the short 
gown and petticoat made of the plainest materials. The Ger- 
man women mostly wore tight calico caps on their heads, and 
in the summer season they were generally seen with no other 
clothing than a linen shift and petticoat — the feet, hands and 
arms bare. In hay and harvest time, they joined the men in the 
labor of the meadow and grain fields. This custom, of the 
females laboring in the time of harvest, was not exclusively a 
German practice, but was common to all the northern people. 
Many females were most expert mowers and reapers. Within 
th*^ author's recollection, he has seen several female reapers who 
were equal to the stoutest males in the harvest field. It was no 
uncommon thing to see the female part of the family at the hoe 
or plow; and some of our now wealthiest citizens frequently 
boast of their grandmothers, aye mothers too, performing this 
kind of heavy labor." 

Kercheval wrote over half a century ago. Perhaps he would 
be surprised to know that some of the mothers of even the present 
generation have also labored habitually in the fields. The writer 
has known within the last two decades several buxom German 
girls that were ready every harvest to follow the cradle or " drop 
reaper" and earn their "dollar a day." 

** The Dutchman's barn," continues Kercheval, ** was usually 
the best building on his farm. He was sure to erect a fine large 
barn, before he built any other dwelling-house ihah his rude log 
cabin. There were none of our primitive immigrants more uni- 
form in the form of their buildings than the Germans. Their 
dwelling-houses were seldom raised more than a single story in 
height, with a large cellar beneath; the chimney in the middle. 



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THE GERMANS GF TH£ VALLEY. 117 

with a very wide fire-place in one end for the kitchen, in the 
other end a stove room. Their furniture was of the simplest 
and plainest kind ; and there was always a long pine table fixed 
in one corner of the stove foom, with permanent benches on one 
side. On the upper flpor garners for holding grain were very 
common. Their beds were generally filled with straw or chaff, 
with a fine feather bed for covering in the winter.'* 

When Barbara or Katrina and Hans or Fritz had finally set- 
tled their wedding-day, much ceremony was undertaken and 
great preparations made. The fattest calf and lamb, the best 
chickens and turkeys, and the finest bread, butter, milk, honey, 
home-made sugar and wine (if it could be had) were prepared 
in overwhelming abundance. The clergyman was on hand at 
the place appointed for the marriage, in good time. Before the 
performance of the ceremony four of the best looking young 
women and four of the handsomest young men were chosen as 
* ' waiters ' ' upon the bride and groom. The waiter3 wore badges 
to indicate their offices. The groomsmen were invariably deco- 
rated with fine white aprons, beautifully embroidered; and the 
privilege of ** wearing the apron " was considered a high honor. 
The duty of the waiters consisted not only in waiting on the 
bride and groom, but they were also required, after the ceremony 
to serve the wedding dinner, and to guard the bride's slipper 
while she was eating, for the custom of stealing the bride's shoe 
afforded the assembled guests the most enjoyable amusement. 
To succeed in accomplishing the expected feat the greatest dex- 
terity was practiced by the younger members of the company; 
while on the other hand, the greatest vigilance on the part of 
the waiters was exercised to protect the bride against the theft; 
and, if the shoe was stolen the wa.iters had to pay a penalty, 
usually one dollar or a bottle of wine, for the redemption of the 
shoe. As a punishment to the bride herself she was not per- 
mitted to dance until the shoe was restored. This custom was 
continued among the Germans, from generation to generation, 
till after the war of the Revolution. 

Another custom, not exclusively German, but prevalent more 
or less among Celtic peoples also, was called ** throwing the 
stocking." When the bride and groom had retired for the night 
the young marriageable guests were admitted temporarily to the 



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118 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

room. A stocking, rolled up in a ball, was given to the young 
women, who, one after another, went to the foot of the bed and, 
standing with their backs to the foot board, would throw the 
stocking over their shoulders at the bride's head. The first one 
that succeeding in striking her head or cap was to be the one 
next married. The young men, in a similar manner, and with 
the same motive, would throw the stocking at the groom's head. 

Among the Lutherans and Calvinists, dancingand similar forms 
of amusement were common, particularly at their wedding parties. 
Occasionally these seasons of festivity and rejoicing were kept 
up for two or three weeks together. Among the Dunkers and 
Mennonites, dancing and similar modes of entertainment were 
very uncommon. Most of them were remarkable for their strict 
adherence to the '* non-conformity'* principles of their religion 
that forbid dancing and similar customs. 

All the Germans, as a rule, were careful early to instruct their 
children in the different principles and ceremonies of their re- 
ligions, and in their recognized habits and customs. 

VIII. Religious Life of the Valley Germans. 

Most of the Germans that settled in the Valley were church 
members, and the sects represented among them were the 
Quakers, Mennonites, Dunkers, German Calvinists or Reformed, 
and Lutherans. 

The number of German Quakers, or Quakers of any nation- 
ality, in the Valley was always very small ; although the few that 
came were among the first settlers. Alexander Ross, a Quaker, 
obtained a grant of land near the present site of Winchester, in 
the year 1732, or thereabouts. A few other localities were set- 
tled wholly or in part by this sect, but the aggregate number 
was not large; and at the present day the number of Quakers 
in the Valley must be very small, for I have not been able to 
learn the whereabouts of any, except of a small community at 
Winchester, this community, doubtless, containing the survivors 
of the Ross settlement of 1732. The Friends of Winchester 
have a very neat and tasteful meeting-house on Washington and 
Piccadilly Streets. 

The Germans of what is now Page county were originally 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 119 

almost all Mennonites. They were remarkable for their strict 
adherence to all the moral and religious observances required by 
their sect, and the same qualities are characteristic of them to 
the present day. A large number of Mennonties settled also in 
what is now Rockingham county. At the present time the de- 
scendants of these early settlers form populous communities in 
the western portions of that county. 

The Dunkers located principally in Shenandoah, Rockingham, 
Augusta and Botetourt counties, where there descendants are 
numerous to-day. 

Inasmuch as the general reader is apt to be less familiar with 
this sect than with the others herein mentioned, it may not be 
out of place to give here a brief sketch of the Dunker Brother- 
hood. The sect grew out of the great religious awakening that 
occurred in Germany during the closing years of the seventeenth 
century, when large numbers of people, becoming dissatisfied 
with the lack of spirituality in the State Church, withdrew from 
its communion and met in separate societies for the worship of 
God. They were called Separatists or Pietists, and among 
them were to be found such men as Jacob Phillip Spenner, Her- 
ftian Francke, founder of the Orphans' Home and School at 
Halle, Ernest Christian Hochman, Alexander Mack, and many 
others whose names have become historically prominent. The 
Pietists were bitterly persecuted by the Catholic and Reformed 
churches, and were driven from place to place until finally Count 
Cassimir, of Witgenstein, opened a place of refuge for them in 
his province. Here, in the little village of Schwartzennan, Alex- 
ander Mack and others, similarly inclined, met together to read 
and study the Word. They mutually agreed to lay aside all 
existing creeds, confessions of faith, catechisms, etc., and search 
for the truth in God's Book, and to follow as that truth revealed 
should lead them. They were led to adopt the simple Word, 
particularly the New Testament Scriptures, as their creed, and 
to declare in favor of a literal observance of all the command- 
ments of Christ. In 1708 a small company, eight souls, were 
baptized in the river Eder, by trine immersion. The church 
was organized with Alexander Mack as its first minister. In 
17 19 the Brethren, as they called themselves, began emigrating 
to America, and in less than ten years the entire church was set- 



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120 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

tied in the vicinity of Geitnantown and Philadelphia. From this 
nucleus in the New World, the churches spread southward and 
westward, and are to-day most numerous in Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, 
Nebraska and Kansas. For a number of years the church, as a 
whole, opposed Sunday Schools, higher education and foreign 
missions, although there were some highly educated men, Christo- 
pher Sower, and others, among the early members of the church, 
but now their foreign missionaries are in different parts of Europe 
and Asia, and there are at least ten colleges, under the direction 
of the church, in the United States. The official name of the 
sect is the *' German Baptist Brethren. * ' **Tunker," **Dun- 
ker'* and **Dunkard" are only nicknames derived from the 
practice of immersion in baptism. 

The Dunkers organized a church in Augusta county first, in 
the year 1790, with Bishop Miller as the first minister in charge. 
Churches were organized in Botetourt and Rockingham counties 
about the same time. The oldest church house in the Valley, now 
standing, is Garber's Church, about two miles west of Harrison- 
burg, in Rockingham county. It was built about the close of 
the eighteenth century, and has been in constant use ever since. 
Some of the first ministers at the Garber Church were Benjamin 
Bowmon, Daniel Garber, John Kagey, and Peter Nead. 

The Quakers, Mennonites and Dunkers were all plaiti, honest, 
industrious people, and opposed to war, intemperance and 
slavery. 

Towards the close of the seventeenth; and in the early part of 
the eighteenth, century, numerous immigrations of French 
Huguenots and German Calvinists, or Reformists, under the 
leadership of Claude Philippe de Richebourg, came to America 
from Elsace and Lorraine. These were industrious and pious 
people, and they scattered successively over Tidewater Vir- 
ginia, Midland, and the Shenandoah Valley. In the Valley they 
met with other German and Huguenot elements and mingled 
with them. The Reformed* sect thus came into the Valley from 
various sources, and in considerable numbers; and it is probable 

♦ The Reformed Calvinists, the German Calvinists, the German Re- 
formed, the Reformists, or the Reformed. 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 121 

that they had, at the end of the eighteenth century, about as 
many churches organized as the Lutherans; but the record of 
the Lutheran churches seems to be the more complete. 

In the year 1740, the Reformed built a church near Winches- 
ter; in the year 1786 they, together with the Lutherans, pur- 
chased a church house at Martinsburg, in Berkeley county. 
Many of these early church houses were held jointly by the 
Reformed and Lutherans. About the close of the colonial period 
these two denominations built a church, called Old Zion, near 
Hamburg, in Shenandoah county. This house was erected on 
land donated for the purpose by Lord Thomas Fairfax, who was 
a generous patron of the different churches in the lower parts of 
the Valley. The tract of land belonging to Old Zion consisted 
of several hundred acres; and the church to-day — the property 
now belongs exclusively to the Lutherans — derives no small 
revenue from these lands. The Reformed had a church at 
Shepherdstown before the close of the Revolution, and the Rev. 
Michael Slaughter conducted the service there as early as 1780. 
The Rev. Mr. Slaughter was followed by Dr. Charles Meyer, 
who perfected the organization of the church, and had charge 
of the work for many years. 

The most complete record of early church work seems to have 
been kept by the Lutherans; but even this is very defective, and 
consequently we are able to give only the account of some of the 
more prominent organizations. 

A well-authenticated tradition exists among the Lutherans of 
the Valley, that Rev. H. M. Muhlenberg, father of General 
Muhlenberg, preached at the little setdement of New Mecklen- 
burg (Shepherdstown), about 1729-30. The elder Mr. Muhlen- 
berg, as well as his famous son, was a highly educated and 
eminent minister of the Lutheran Church, having been graduated 
at one of the most noted theological schools of Europe. He 
made several visits from his home in Pennsylvania to Maryland 
and the new settlements in Virginia; and many of the Valley 
Germans were from the section of Pennsylvania where Mr. 
Muhlenberg lived. The first regular congregation, with a house 
of worship, was not organized in Shepherdstown *till about 1755; 
and the first regular pastor, Rev. Mr. Bauer, was called about 
1776. He served the congregation several years, and was suc- 



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122 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ceeded by Rev. Mr. Wiltbahn, who held the charge three years; 
then came Mr. Nichodemus, for seven years, Mr. George Young, 
four years, and Mr. Weyman, three years. Soon after 1790, the 
Rev. Christian Streit, who had located at Winchester, and who 
was also serving the congregation at Martinsburg and several 
other points, took charge of the church at Shepherdstown, and 
visited it regularly for a number of years. He was succeeded 
by Rev. David Young, of Pennsylvania. 

In May, 1753, Lord Fairfax donated a lot to the Lutherans of 
Winchester; and on June 16, 1764, was laid the cornerstone for 
the erection of a church house on the donated lot. Among the 
founders and members of the church were the following: 
Thomas Schmidt, Nicholas Schrack, Christian Heiskell, Chris- 
toph Wetzel, Georg Schumacher, Balthasar Poe, Jacob Kop- 
penhaber, and Heinrich Weller. Johannes Casper Kirchner had 
at this time the ministerial charge; Ludwig Adam was sacristan, 
and Anton Ludi was schoolmaster. The Rev. Christian Streit, 
mentioned above, was appointed pastor in 1785, and continued 
in this capacity until his death in 181 2. 

The German Lutheran Church at Woodstock was founded a 
number of years prior to the Revolution. Abraham Brumbacher 
made a present of the church lot, and by deed transferred it to 
Abraham Keller, Lorenz Schnapp, Georg Feller, Jacob Halz- 
mann, Friedrich Staufer, Philip Hoffmann, Heinrich Froebel 
(Fravel), Henry Nelson, Burr Harrison, T. Beale, and Joseph 
Pugh. The first church house was a rough log building; but 
during the pastorship of the Rev. (General) Muhlenberg, who 
served the congregation up to the outbreak of the Revolutionary 
war, a large and handsome church was erected. After Rev. Mr. 
Muhlenburg joined the American army, in 1776, the Woodstock 
congregation was without a permanent pastor, until 1806, when 
Samuel Simon Schmucker was called to the charge and contin- 
ued in the office for forty years. From 1776 to 1806, Revs. 
Heinrich Moeller, C. F. Wiltbahn, Jacob Goering, J. D. Kurtz, 
Christian Streit, J. D. Jung,* and others, rendered the congre- 
gation occasional services. 

The Lutheran Church at New Market, organized soon after 



• Young. 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 123 

the Revolution, was served in the pastorship by the descendants 
of Gerhard Henkel, of Germanna, the first German preacher in 
Virginia. The New Market Lutheran pastors were, Paul Hen- 
kel, Ambrosius Henkel, David Henkel, and Socrates Henkel, 
who is probably still living. Ambrosius Henkel, in 1806, founded 
the Henkel Printing House, of which note has been made. The 
Henkels also preached at Old Zion, mentioned above, the church 
house near Hamburg — about twelve miles north of New Market — 
held jointly at first by the Lutherans and Reformed.* 

St. John's Lutheran Church, at Martinsburg. Berkeley county, 
was founded about 1776. A church record book, the joint 
property of the Lutheran and Reformed congregations, who 
worshipped in the same house 'till 1832, is still in existence, 
bearing date of 1779. The first record in it is of the baptism of 
Magdalena Frantz, February 25, 1779. There was no resident 
pastor until 1790. but the services were faithfully conducted by 
ministers of the Lutheran Church, who visited the congregation 
at Martinsburg as often as their duties to other congregations, 
scattered over several counties, would allow. The first regular 
pastor was the Rev. Christian Streit. already mentioned in other 
connections. He resided at Winchester. In 1790 Rev. John 
David Young located at Martinsburg, and succeeded Mr. Streit . 
in charge of the church at that place. 

The first Lutheran church in Augusta county was known as 
Trinity, or Coiner's Church, and was built, in 1780, on a branch 
of the Shenandoah river, five miles southwest of Waynesboro. 
The first minister was probably the Rev. Adolph Spindle. The 
trustees and organizers of the church were Casper Koiner, Mar- 
tin Bush and Jacob Barger. The next Lutheran church organ- 
ized in the county was at Mt. Tabor, near Middlebrook, the 
church house being built in 1785. 

In 1795, or thereabouts. Dr. Georg Daniel Flohr was pastor 
among the German settlements on New river, and particularly 
at the Swiss colony at New Bern, Pulaski county. In Wythe 
county, adjoining on the southwest, a German Lutheran church 



♦There was also a Lutheran church at Rude's Hill, three miles north- 
east of New Market, in which Rev. Mr. Muhlenberg had regular meet- 
ings prior to the Revolution. 



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124 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

was established, in 1792, on land donated by Stophel Zimmer- 
mann and John Davis, and owned jointly by the Lutherans and 
Reformed. 

Schuricht quotes the following, from an article written by Rev. 
Alex. Phillippi, D. D., and published, by -request of the Luth- 
eran Pastor's Association of Wythe county, in the Wytheville 
Dispatch, of April 9, 1^97: 

'* After 1732, the Germans, mostly from Pennsylvania, came 
in considerable numbers to the lower Valley of Virginia and 
slowly extended themselves into the southwestern part of the 
State, so that at the time of the outbreaking of the Revolutionary 
war, several considerable settlements had been formed in what is 
now Wythe jlnd adjoining counties. These settlements, after 
the close of the war, received numerous additions from Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland and the lower Valley of Virginia. The e^rly 
Germans who came to Wythe county, with few exceptions, had 
some means, and were a hardy, industrious, moral, intelligent, 
Christian people. The Bibles, some very costly and beautiful 
copies, which they brought with them, are still found in posses- 
sion of their posterity, with many other useful and religious 
books, had a place in almost every family. Schoolhouses, which 
for the time were also used as places of public worship, were 
among the first and most expensive buildings erected. With 
few exceptions these people were Protestants, nearly equally 
divided between the Lutheran and the German Reformed 
churches. For reasons not fully understood at this day, these 
colonists failed to secure and bring with them into their new 
homes pious and capable pastors and teachers, and for twenty- 
five or more years religion and education were not only greatly 
neglected in these feeble and scattered communities [but were 
also often abused] by incapable and immoral, godless leaders." 

Rev. Mr. Phillippi also relates that the following German Luth- 
eran churhes were established: The St. John's Lutheran Church, 
one mile north of Wytheville; and, twelve miles west, St. Paul's 
Church; that in 1796 Rev. Leonard Willy became pastor of 
Cedar Grove Church, in Smyth County, and of Kimberling, St. 
Paul's, and St. John's in Wythe county. 

In 1799 Rev. Dr. Flohr, already mentioned, accepted a call 
to the Lutheran churches in southwest Virginia, and located at 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. J 26 

a place several miles north of Wytheville. His ministry ended 
at his death in 1826, and his body lies buried in St. John^s 
cemetery. 

This outline of some of the more prominent steps of early 
church organization and religious movements among the Valley 
Germans has necessarily been very imperfect, owing in part to 
my inability to present the facts more appropriately, and in part 
to the difficulty experienced in obtaining facts to be presented. 
It can only be a cause of regret to all who are interested in our 
colonial history, that so much of those early days was left un- 
recorded. It is hoped, however, that the deep religious spirit 
of the German pioneers of the Valley has been attested, at least 
in some measure, by the facts adduced. They brought their 
religion with them, and deemed it a sacred heritage. The church 
and the schoolhouse were built side by side, and the head and 
the heart were taught together. 

IX. Two Representative Men. 

It may be well to conclude this study of the Valley Germans 
with personal sketches of two men who are fairly typical of their 
time and people. The two chosen are not selected because they 
are the only ones worthy of mention, or because they are known 
to be the ones most worthy, but because they embody some 
qualities that were (and are) characteristic of all the Germans 
of the Valley, and at the same time display other qualities char- 
acteristic of respective classes and sections. 

John Kagey the ** Good Man.*' 

Mention has already been made in this essay of Henry Kagey, 
who came from Pennsylvania in 1768, and, after a brief sojourn 
in Page county, located in 1769 near New Market, in Shenan- 
doah county. His eldest son, John, born March 7, 1757, in 
Lancaster county, Pa., is the subject of this sketch. 

John Kagey was a plain, poorly educated Dunker preacher, 
but a man of exalted piety, sterling character, and noble gene- 
rosity. His affectionate disposition, kindness of heart, and 
practical Christianity won the love and esteem of all with whom 
he came in contact, and he was revered by old and young, rich 



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126 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and poor, white and black, wherever he went. '* In all the mu- 
tations of a long and active life, most of which was spent in a 
new country, where great diversity of character always exists, 
and where a teacher is so likely to provoke opposition, if not 
hatred, no matter how anxious to avoid it, he seemed to possess 
such rare qualifications of mind and heart that disarmed all op- 
position and won the respect, the love and esteem of all classes 
and conditions of men, an accomplishment so rare that one must 
needs feel that some supernatural power was his. This he did 
not claim, but he believed the best way to persuade men to lead 
the life of a Christian was to exemplify that kind of a life in daily 
practice of the divine commands to feed the hungry, clothe the 
naked, comfort the distressed in heart, and in all things do justly 
and love mercy. In an eminent degree he thus practiced what 
he taught, and by it gave the most abundant proof of his sincerity 
and established a claim to an exalted Christian character." 

From an elegy written by Joseph Salyards, scholar and poet, 
whose widowed mother was often the recipient of John Kagey's 
charity, the following stanzas are quoted: 

** The breezes of suspiring Spring 

From Massanutten's side shall blow, 
Around this spot their incense fling 

And sigh in holy whispers low; 
For while with joyful haste he trod 

Yon deepening dale and arduous hill, 
The conscious, all-pervading God 

Engrossed his soul-felt whispers still. 
And still the airs of hill and plain, 
Effusions from his lips retain. 

" In yonder lane the widow lorn, — 

Naomi of our heartless years, — 
Leans o'er her orphan's every morn. 

And yields to unavailing tears, 
For he whose voice had soothed so long. 

Sad memory's unobtrusive sigh, 
Whose hand secured from wreckless wrong, 

Whose bosom bled at sorrow's cry. 
He, too, has left our wintry shore, 
He hears the sufferer plead no more." 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 127 

"Almost as good as John Kagey ** has been an expression on 
the lips of old and young in the counties of Rockingham and 
Shenandoah for' the last three generations. It was a current 
saying during his lifetime that ** nobody could make John Ka- 
gey do wrong, or break his word." Upon a certain occasion a 
cattle dealer from a distant locality expressed the opinion in New 
Market that no man he had ever met was strictly honest Some 
one referred him to John Kagey. "Well," remarked the 
dealer, "I'll test him." Accordingly, the dealer, with several 
others, rode out to Kagey* s farm.* The latter had some young 
cows for sale. After looking at the cows, the dealer pointed to 

one and said: " Mr. Kagey, I'll give you dollars [naming 

a figure somewhat above the cow's value] for that animal." 
** You can't have her for that," replied the old man, "it's more 

than she is worth. You can have her for dollars " [naming 

a lower price]. The dealer went away convinced that at least 
one man was strictly honest. 

The last seven years of Kagey 's life were passed in blindness; 
yet he did not cease from the deeds of goodness that had dis- 
tinguished his more active service until, at the ripe age of four- 
score years and nearly ten, the hand of death was laid upon him. 

"Ah, purer than the snow that heart, 
Which meekly lies unthrobbing here; 

More undefiled the God-like part 
He bore in our precarious sphere, 

And deathless in our souls shall be 

The fragrance of his memory.'* 

John Muhlenberg the "Great Man." 

John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg was born at Trappe. Penn- 
sylvania, in 1746. His father was the venerable patriarch of the 
Lutheran Church in America — the Rev. Heinrich M. Muhlen- 
berg, who had come to the New World at the instance of Count 
Henkel of Poeltzig, and others. The younger Muhlenberg in 
his youth was a boy difficult to manage, but under his father's 
guidance he acquired an excellent educational training. Des- 



*The ministers of the Dunker and Mennonite persuasions do not re- 
ceive salaries for preaching. Many of them are farmers and stockmen. 



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128 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

tined for the ministry, he was sent to Germany to complete his 
studies; but, instead of at first entering school, the young. man 
joined himself as an apprentice to a mercantile house in Lubeck. 
He held this position three years, working faithfully; but his 
spirit was too restless to be long content with duties so monoto- 
nous. He abruptly left his place and enlisted in a regiment of 
dragoons at Hanover. Later on, his better judgment overcame 
his disposition toward the adventurous, and he resumed his study 
of theology. Having duly passed his examinations, he returned 
to America and received the appointment to the pastorate at 
Woodstock, Va. The young preacher gained the intimate 
friendship of George Washington and Patrick Henry, and with 
them, took a deep interest in the American resistance to British 
authority. Muhlenberg*s military antecedence was revived, 
and, upon the recommendation of General Washington and 
Patrick Henry, he was commissioned Colonel of the Eighth 
Virginia Regiment. He preached his valedictory sermon at 
Woodstock in January of 1776. The church was crowded with 
the German farmers, their wives and children, from far and near. 
The pastor implored his people to support the struggle for liberty. 
** Dear brethren and sisters," he exclaimed, '* I feel truly grieved 
to announce that this is my farewell sermon, but if it is God's 
will I shall soon return to you. It is a sacred duty that calls me 
from you and I feel I must submit to it. The endangered father- 
land, to which we owe wealth and blood, needs our arms — it 
calls on its sons to drive off the oppressors. You know how 
much we have suffered for years — that all our petitions for help 
have been in vain — and that the King of England shut his ears 
to our complaints. The Holy Scripture says: There is a time 
for everything in this world; a time to talk, a time to be silent, 
a time to preach and to pray — but also a time to fight — and this 
time has come ! Therefore, whoever loves freedom and his new 
fatherland, he may follow me!'' Laying aside his priestly 
gown, the Rev. Mr. Muhlenberg buckled on a sword: A scene 
of great enthusiasm followed; the people rose to their feet and 
joined in the intonation of Luther's stirring hymn: 

" Eine feste Burg ist unser Gott." 

Outside the church drums were beat, and in about half an 



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THE GERMANS OF THE VALLEY. 129 

hour one hundred and sixty-two men had enlisted to follow their 
fighting parson. This act of German- American patriotism has 
been celebrated in Read's poem, **The Rising,'* and by several 
German- American poets: Dr. Victor Precht, in his drama, 
** Kuerassand Kutte;" and Prof Wilhelm Mueller, in his poem, 
**Dieletzte Predigt.'' 

Muhlenberg's regiment served first at Charleston, S. C, and 
in Georgia. On February 21, 1777, Muhlenburg was made a 
brigadier-general, and the Third and Fifth Virginia Regiments 
were added to his Eighth. Many Germans belonged also to these 
two regiments. The battle of Brandy wine, on September 11, 
1777, was disastrous to the American army. An utter rout was 
prevented only by the heroic stand of Muhlenberg's brigade, 
which checked the advance of the British and thus enabled the 
retreating columns to escape annihilation. In the British army 
at this time were many German mercenaries, and it is said that 
a number of them recognized Muhlenberg in this encounter at 
Brandywine. The reputation he had made in the Hanover 
Dragoons and other German circles was too striking to be soon 
forgotten, and when the Germans at Brandwine ran up against 
his columns, and recognized their former comrade, they cast 
terrified glances at one another, exclaiming ** Here comes Devil 
Pete." In the battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777, Muhlenberg 
defeated the opposing wing of the enemy, and when the center 
and right wing of the American army gave way, he again cov- 
ered the retreat. In 1780 he fought in Virginia under his friend. 
General Von Steuben, against the traitor Arnold, who was pil- 
laging the James River Valley. When Arnold was harassing 
Petersburg, Mnhlenberg, with a few hundred of his German 
troops, defended the bridge leading to the town, and, though 
forced to withdraw, brought his men off in good order. In his 
report to Congress, Governor Jefferson spoke of this achieve- 
ment with high admiration. In the final decisive actions at 
Yorktown, Muhlenberg's brigade — four hundred of his light 
infantry — under General Hamilton, stormed Redoubt No. 10, 
and captured it in nine minutes. In this action Colonel Bow- 
man, a German from the lower Valley, was among the slain. 

After the surrender of Cornwallis, Washington appointed 
Muhlenberg military commander in Virginia, and at the end of 



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130 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the war the Woodstock congregation invited him to resume his 
pastorate. Muhlenberg declined, saying: **It would not be 
proper to again graft the pastor on the soldier." He returned 
to Pennsylvania, and was elected to Congress. On October i, 
1807, he died. At Trappe, Pa., near his father's old church, a 
tombstone bears this inscription : 

To the memory of General Peter Muhlenburg. 

Bom Oct. 1st, 1746, and died Oct. ist, 1807. 

He was brave in battle, wise in council, honorable in all his 

actions, a faithful friend and an honest man. 

Let this be the conclusion of our present study of the Germans 
of the Valley; and let us see in the lives of John Kagey and 
John Muhlenburg, the *'Good Man*' and the ** Great Man," a 
summing up of those sterling qualities which, whether in peace 
or in war, in high station or in low, have marked a sturdy race, 
guardians of the home, guardians of the State, and servants of 
the Most High. 

Note. — It may be too much to say that John Kagey is truly 
** representative,'* since he was better than the average man of 
his time and community; he may perhaps be termed, more 
exactly, the "ideal man," toward which many of his contemp- 
oraries approached. 



THE FERRAR PAPERS* 
At Magdalene CoHege, Cambridge. 



Communicated by Michael Lloyd Ferrar, Little Gidding, 
Ealing, Eng. 



Order of Privy Council to Nicholas Ferrar, 1623. 

In his very interesting introduction to Mr. Conway Robinson's 
Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Virgiiiia Company of Lon- 
don, i6ig-i624, Mr. Brock gives us the certificates of the 



*The Society is greatly obliged to Mr. Ferrar, one of its English mem- 
bers, for the copies presented here and for other courtesies in connection 
with these Ferrar papers. 



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THE FERRAR PAPERS. 131 

Company's Secretaries to the correctness of the copies of the 
Proceedings made by the Deputy Treasurer, Nicholas Ferrar, 
before handing over the original Minutes to the Company's suc- 
cessors. In the certificate printed on page IX of the introduc- 
tion the Secretary of the Company says that he could not compare 
the copy of a certain letter of the Privy Council to Mr. Deputy 
Ferrar with the original because the latter had not been put up 
with the other original documents. This letter, dated Decem- 
ber 30, 1623, was read by the Deputy at a court held on 14th, 
January, 1624, vide, page 246, Vol. II of the Abstract and was 
practically a personal mandate to the Deputy to seize all letters, 
public and private, which their Lordships had heard were in a 
ship just then arrived from Virginia, and to bring such letters, 
unopened, to them at once, ** whereof you shall not fail, and this 
shall be your warrant.'* 

The Deputy no doubt looked on this mandate, addressed to 
him direct and not thro' the Treasurer, as a personal order to 
himself to perform an invidious task and one for which he might 
be severely blamed afterwards and therefore retained the paper 
for his own protection. The document disappeared from sight 
— at least from public sight— and no further mention of it appears 
to have been made. 

I have now had the good fortune to come upon it, among a 
collection of old Ferrar Papers of that time, which were discov- 
ered a few years ago in Magdalene College, Cambridge, and 
have been placed temporarily in my possession, as a Ferrar, by 
the Master and Fellows of the college in a very courteous manner. 
The collection comprises both private letters to and from various 
members of the Ferrar family, dating from 1601 down to the 
middle of the Eighteenth century, and public and semi-public 
correspondence between the two Deputies (John and Nicholas) 
and Sir Edwyn Sandys in London, and various persons in Vir- 
ginia, including six holograph letters from Governor Sir George 
Yeardley, and letters from John Rolf, husband to Pocahontas, 
John Pory, the colonial secretary to Yeardley, George Thorpe, 
Rev. Richard Buck and a number of other persons who are men- 
tioned in Alexander Brown's First Republic, There are also a 
few copies of the London Courts Proceedings for both Virginia 
and the Somers Islands, and some old accounts showing the 



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132 VIRGINM HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

various things taken out by the emigrants — if we may so term 
them — or settlers, clothes, tools, harness, arms, armour, aqua 
vitae, &c. In one account is entered a Drum, Could that 
have been the Drum mentioned on page 206 of this Magazine 
for October, 1900, as having been among the chattels of Colonel 
Wm. Farrar, with the Family Arms painted on it ? 

The above papers all refer to the period 1618-1630, other later 
papers, mostly fragmentary, are much concerned with John 
Ferrar's daughter, Virginia Ferrar, born 1625, and her efforts 
in aid of the silk industry. Then later on are family papers of 
no public interest. 

Looking over the Virginia Papers, just after reading the 
Preface to the Abstract above referred to, the discovery of the 
original Privy Council order which the Secretary in 1624 could 
not find gave me a glad surprise. There, unopened and un- 
read probably since the day Nicholas read it in court, lay the 
orignal document. The copy given to the Company is not quite 
a correct copy. The spelling of the signatures having been 
altered and other clerical mistakes made. I attach to this an 
exact copy of the original, which is written on one page of a 
sheet of foolscap. The address is on the back of the sheet, 
which was folded in the usual way and sealed with red wax: 
**To our loving friend Nicholas Farrar deputie of the Virginia 
Companie." The name was then spelled Farrar as often as 
Ferrar, but the latter eventually, before Nicholas* death in 1637, 
became the accepted, as it was the correct spelling. The 
**freind" in the above address was the usual and the correct 
(Anglo Saxon Freond) mode of the spelling, the present 
*' friend*' having unaccountably superseded it. 

It will be seen by comparing the copy at page 246, Vol. II, 
of the Abstract with the original that the former was very hastily 
made. Indeed, the copies of the whole series, 1619-1624, were 
made in a very short time by the loyal and indefatigable deputy. 

The signatures are placed in wrong positions. Richmond & 
Lenox is made into two separate names. Carlile and Middlesex 
are misspelt. Jo. Lincoln is made into John Lincolne and J. 
Brooke into John Brooke. The Index (Vol. II) says that John 
Lincoln was John, Earl of Lincoln. But no Earl would sign 
his name in that way, and in any case the then Earl of Lincoln 



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THE FERRAR PAPERS. 133 

was Tlreophilus. It is no doubt the signature of the Bishop of 
Lincoln. 

Then in the body of the document are two mistakes. ** Shall 
not fail" should be **may not fail," and ** unopened" should 
be above the line, having been inserted after the line was written. 

No doubt in the hasty copying of these records clerical errors 
were made. On page 245, Vol. II, Abstract, I find ** Bowery 
Bess * ' for the ship Bonny Bess. And on page 559 of A. Brown's 
First Republic he has ''possessors of our Religion " instead of 
** professors, " the actual word in the original paper now in my 
possession from Magdalene College, Cambridge. And on page 
341 of the same most interesting and most valuable book John 
Ferrar's ship, The Garland, is put down as being of 25 instead 
of 250 tons. 

A propose of the books I have mentioned above, The Abstract 
and The First Republic, I may be permitted to put on record 
here the intense admiration I cannot but feel for the compilers of 
the former and the author of the latter, Mr. Brown, whose latest 
book on Virginia, English Politics in Virginia, I have lately 
received from a Virginia Ferrar cousin, from whom I had prev- 
iously received The First Republic and John Fiske's Old Vir- 
ginia, &c,y and Tyler's Cradle of the Republic, and Mary 
Johnston's three wondrous Tales of Old Virginia. All these 
and the periodical Virginia Magazhie are monumental works, 
are perennia. 

The following is an exact copy, in every way, of the letter 
from the '* Lords of the Council " to Nicholas Ferrar, dated 30th 
December, 1623, read by him at ye Quarter Court held on 
14th January, 1624, *'the copy whereof doth here ensue," says 
the Abstract, Vol. II, p. 246.* That copy has some clerical 
errors in it. I give now an exact copy: 

COPY. 

** After o' hartie comendacions wee are informed that there is 



*N. B. The original could not be found in 1624 when the Company's 
Secretary was ''comparing " Nicholas Ferraris copies with the originals. 
I have now discovered it among the Magdalene papers lent to me — to 
me a surprising discovery. Vide, p. ix, Vol. I, of the Abstract. 



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134 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

a shipp Iktely arrived from Virginia, and for some causes Knowne 
unto us wee do hereby require yo" to seaze upon all the letters 
aswell publique as private that come in the said shipp and to 
bringe or cause them to bee safely brought unto us unopened 
with as much expedition as you can, whereof you may not fayle 
and this shalbe yo' warrant. 

And so wee bid yo" hartilie farewell. From Whitehall the 
30*** of December 1623, 

Yo' loving friends, 
Jo: Lincoln. C. S. Middelsex 



Richmond & Lenox 
Carlile 



Rich* Weston. 
Deputy of the Virginia Companie." 



J. Brooke 



Letter of John Rolfe, 1617. 

The following letter from John Rolf to Sir Edwin Sandys, 
dated 8 June, 1617, from Jamestown, has recently been found 
among other old Virginian and Ferrar papers in Magdalene Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where they had been deposited with other 
Ferrar things in 1790 by the then Master, the Rev. Dr. Peckard, 
whose wife was a Miss Martha Ferrar, great-granddaughter of 
John Ferrar the Deputy and Sir Edwin's right hand m his con- 
nection with Virginia in those early days. Dr. Peckard left no 
descendants. By the courtesy of Magdalene I am now in pos- 
session of these papers. 

The letter is written on three sides of a sheet of foolscap, the 
fourth page being left blank, to form an envelope and bear the 
address. 

The copy is exact in every particular. The length of each 
line has been preserved ; * the words written over the line in the 
original have been so written in the copy; the contractions and 
spelling have been adhered to; "fortifications" appears as 
** forty ficacons." 

Rolf (as he spells his name) went out, in 1617, with the newly 
appointed Governor, Captain Samuel Argall, in the ship George, 



*This has not been preserved in printing. — Ed. 

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THE FERRAR PAPERS. 136 

as Secretary and Recorder. Before setting sail from Gravesend, 
in March, his wife, Pocahontas, died, and Rolf took her infant 
son with him. At Plymouth he left the child with his friend 
Sir Lewis Stukeley. This quite confirms what Captain John 
Smith says of the disposal of the child after his mother's untimely 
death. 

On page 253 of the First Republic Mr. Brown remarks that 
the Governor ** must have had very favorable winds, as this was 
a very quick passage," from the Lizard, April 21st, to Point 
Comfort, May 25th; and in the letter we have Rolf's description 
of the passage, which was done a good deal in foggy weather, 
** with no small peril." It will be noticed that Rolf 's dates, 
loth April and 15th May, have been modernized by Mr. Brown 
into the dates above mentioned. The date of the letter would 
thus be now i8th June, a celebrated date in more modern Eng- 
lish history and, by accident, the date of this note. . 

The letter was written in 1617 to Sir Edwin Sandys, who made 
it over, as he did all letters from Virginia, to John Ferrar, who 
subsequently, in 1619, when Sir Edwin became head of the com- 
pany in London, was elected his deputy. John Ferrar' s en- 
dorsement on the letter show briefly the points noticed by Rolf, 
a curious one being *• Indians loving and will part with their 
children." So if^ the request for land for his son. I have no 
information as to whether the request was complied with. 
Among the products of the country he mentions tobacco: ** To- 
bacco greate plenty in the ground." We know that he was the 
first Englishman to introduce the cultivation of the plant into 
the new colony, in 161 2. 

He was one of the six Councillors who were among the 347 
persons murdered in the first Indian Massacre on 22d March, 
1622. Ten persons, names given by Dr. Peckard, p. 114, were 
murdered at William Ferrar's plantation. He was probably the 
ancestor of the present General Bernard Farrar and a member 
of the Deputy's family. 

Among all the early pioneers of civilization on the banks of 

James river none bore a higher character than John Rolf, and 

this letter of his is, I think, deserving of being made known to 

lovers of Virginia, and of being preserved in the pages of the 

Virginia Magazine, 



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136 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

* * Honored Sir 

* * The many courtysies and &vors I have receaved at yo' 
hands shall (during my life) bynd me to yo" in my best service: 
and so often as occasion shall offer itself, I will not forgett to ex- 
press the same at this p'sent I have briefly noted to yo" in what 
estate wee found the Colony; and of o' speedy passage thether. 

** Upon the loth of Aprill wee departed from Plymouth, and 
the next daie lost sight of the Lyzard, having the Treasorer in 
o' Company, wch kept w*** us about 3 weeke: at what tyme we 
lost her in foggy weather wch contynued after 20 daies, in wch 
tyme wee hadd hardly a daie to make a certeyne observacon. 
The same daie month (according to the daie of the weeke) that 
we lost the lands end, we fell w*^ the dangerous showldes of Cape 
Codd, runnying in one glass from 20, to 5, and 4 fathom water, 
not able to see (by reason of the thyck fogg) half a Cables 
length from, the shipp How we ancored all night, and the next 
daie w"* no smale p'ill gott cleere of them, ffrom hence wee 
shaped o' course along o' Coast of Virginia, keeping o' lead all 
the waie, w"*' was o' best guide having so good a Pylott as o' 
Gov'no', the fogg still contynuyng, and arryved at Point Com- 
fort ye 15*** of May, all o' Company being in good health, only 
one man dyed, who was sickly before he came from England. 
Thus it pleased God to bless us w'** a speedy and p'sporous pas- 
sage, yea hadd wee not bene troubled; to free o' selves from 
those showlds, and w'** mysty weather, we hadd assuredly (by 
Gods help) arryved in Virginia in a moneths space. Two, or 3 
daies after arrived Captaine Martyne w*" his Pynnace all his men 
in good health to o' joyes. 

•* Wee found the Colony (God be thancked) in good estate 
now injoying a firmer Peace, nor more plenty, how eve' in build- 
ings, fortifications, and of boats, much ruyned and greate want. 
O' p'sent Gov'no' at James towne is repayring and making 
straight what he fyndeth decayed and reaked, to whose good 
indeavo"and noble disposicon o' Colony hath bene, is, and wilbe 
much indebted. All men cheerefully labor about their grounds, 
their harts and hands not sceasing from worke, though many 
have scarce raggs to cove' their naked bodyes. Englishe wheate, 
barly, Indyan corne. Tobacco greate plenty in the ground. 
Hemp and flax seed distributed to most men by the Gov'no', 
and is putt into the ground: nothing neglected, w"" any waies 



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THE FERRAR PAPERS. 137 

may be avayleable to advannce the Colony, and to give incour- 
rage"t to yo'self and the rest of the Ho**'* Company. The Cattle 
thrive and increase exceeding well, the ploughes yerely worke 
and oxen are plentyfull. The Indyans very loving, and willing 
to parte w*** their childeren. My wives death, is much lamented; 
my childe much desyred when it is of better strength to endurr 
so hard a passage whose life greately extinguisheth the sorrow 
of her loss, saying all must die, but tis enough that her childe 
liveth. I know not how I may be censued for leaving my childe 
behinde me, nor what hazard I may incurr of yo' noble love and 
other of my best frends. At my departure from Gravesend 
(nothw*''standing I was much ymportuned) I hadd no such in- 
tent. But in o' short passage to Plymouth, in smothe water, I 
found such feare and hazard of his health (being not fully re- 
covered of his sickness) and lack of attendance (for they who 
looked to him hadd need of nurses themselves, and indeed in 
all o' passage proved no better) that by the advise of Captaine 
Argall, and divers who also foresaw the danger and knew the 
inconvenyence thereof p'swaded me to what I did. At, Ply- 
mouth I found S' Lewes Stukely so nobly mynded towards me, 
that he most earnestly intreated to have the keping of him, 
yntill my Brother tooke further order. I thought good to cer- 
tyfie, yo° hereof, and desyre yo' self and all the Company for 
these causes, to hold me excused, if in their judgments I may 
be censured to have erred herein. A firme contynuance of yo' 
favo' and love towards me I daylie praie for. And although 
greate is my loss, and much my sorrow to be deprived of so 
greate a comfort, and hopes I hadd to effect my zealous inten- 
cons and desyres as well in others, as in her whose soule (I doubt 
not) resteth in eternall happynes: yet such temperance have I 
learned in p'sperity, and patience in adversitie, that I will as 
joyfully receive evill, as good at the hand of God: and assuredly 
trust that He, who hath p'served my childe, even as a brand 
snatched out of the fier, hath further blessings in store for me, 
and will give me strength and courrage to undertake any religi- 
ous and charitable ymploym^, yo'self and the Ho*"* Company 
shall comand me, and w*"* in duty I am bound to doe. Now my 
last request at this tyme is to yo'self (whom I have found a father 
to me, my wife and childe and will ever acknowledg it wth the best 
gratefuUnes my hart and penn can offer) that yo" would be pleased 



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138 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(as yo" have begun and ben one of ye principall instrumn^ herein) 
to contynue yo' noble fa vo' and furtheranc even for my child's sake, 
being the lyving ashes of his deceased Mother, and that yo° will 
still be the meanes, that yo' owne free libality and all others by yo' 
expoucem* in obtayning so liberali a stipend, may not die w*"* 
my wife, but contynue for her childs advancem*, w**" will the bet- 
ter inhable myself and him hereafter to undertake and execute 
what may be comannded and requyred from us. Thus refer- . 
ing myself to yo' approved wisedom craving p'don for my bold- 
nes, desyring no longer to live, then when I shall cease from 
studying and indeavoring to bend my best strength to p* sever 
in this Accon. for the advancem* of the Hono' of o' God King 
and Country, w*** humble remembrance to yo'self and yo' noble 
and virtuous Lady whose requeste I will not forgett to satisfie 
wherein I may when tyme shall serve I take my leave and rest 
At yo' command 

ever ready 
James Town this 8 of June i6 17 Jo: Rolf 

P* Scrip'. ** May yo" please S' as occasion shalbe offered to 
remember me for some place of comannd, and some estate of 
land to be confirmed to me and my childe, wherein I have for- 
merly found yo' love and readyness, for w*** I shall rest much 
bound unto you.'* 
This is addressed on the back of the sheets more antiquo: 
'*To my honored and much respected 
frend Sir Edwyne Sandys 
Knight deliver these." 
And it is endorsed in John Ferrar's hand: 
" Mr. John Rolf from Virginia to Sir 
Edwin Sandys 8 June, 1617. 
Their journie to Virginia. 
Good state of the Colonic. 
Store of cattle and ploughs. 

The Indians loving and will part with their children. 
Their comfort of his son. 
He left at Plimmouth with S' Lewes Stukeley. 
Desireth the stipend may be continued to him. 
Prayeth a place of command: and land for his son. 

Sir Edwyn Sandes." 



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HENRY COUNTY, VA. 139 



HENRY COUNTY 

From its Formation in 1776 to the End of the Eighteenth 
Century, et seq. 



From the records in the clerks office, by C. B. Bryant, Martinsville, Va. 



(continued) 

Lewis Jenkins 12 | 4)^ for 16^ lbs Bacon to same. 

Jeremiah Sourberry 19 | 10 for 26% ditto ditto. 

Henry Page White 18 | for 24 lbs. ditto to Hospital at Henry 
C. H., May, 1781. 

Thomas Jones 7 | 6 for 10 lbs ditto to same. 

Phillip Broshears 12 | for 3 bushels Corn & 200 lbs Fodder to 
Lieut. Col. Lee's Legion, G. Carrington, Q. M. P. Legion. 

John Hickey 8 | for 8 Diets furnished Col. Hugh Crockett. 

Collins Hampton £^ for 300 lbs Beef furnished Capt. Eliphaz 
Shelton's Company on march against the Tories. 

Wm. Faulkner £2 for 200 lbs ditto, to ditto, on ditto. 

Wm. Smith £6, 3. o. for 615 lbs do. to Jesse Heard, Com'sy 
Prov. 

Joseph Martin £2, 7. 3. for 18 bushels Corn & 15 lbs Bacon 
for the use of Lieut. Col. Lee's Legion. 

William West £2^. 3. o. for 325 lbs Beef to Capt. Eliphaz 
Shelton's Company on their march against the Tories. 

James Lyon 20 | for 100 lbs Beef to militia on same march. 

Daniel Carlin 2 | 6 for i^ bushels Corn furnished Capt. Dis- 
sarts Company on their return from Gen' Green. 

Also ;^3. 5. o. for 325 lbs Beef to* Capt. Henderson's Com- 
pany on their march against the Tories. Also 6 | for 2>^ bus. 
meal. 

William Adams ^^i. 5. 6. for 34 lbs Bacon to Col. Penn for 
the use of Henry militia. 

George Hamilton £^, 14. o. for 375 lbs Beef furnished Jno. 
Salmon, Comm' of the tax, agreeable to Act of Assembly passed 
in 1780. 

Also 8 I I for 10^ Bacon for Hospital at Henry Courthouse. 



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140 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

John Loyd ;^8. i. o. for i6 bbls corn & 12 bundles Fodder for 
the Gen' Hospital at Col. Perkins's in Pittsylvania. 

Wm. Mitchell 17 | for 10 Diets & Forage for 14 Horses for 
the Troops under the Command of Brigadier Gen' Pickins. 

Thomas Jamerson 15 | 9 for 21 lbs Bacon to Capt. Lanier. 

Also 2 I 6 for 2 Diets & 2 sheaves Oats to Jesse Heard, Com*y 
Prov. 

David Witt £^2. 5. o. for 225 lbs Beef to same. 

Also 4 I 6 for 3 Diets & i J^ gallons Corn to same. 

Wm. Swanson 5 | 6 for 4 Diets & i^4 gals Corn to same. 

James Tarrant £,2^. 10. o. for 350 lbs Beef to same. 

Richard Adams £/^ for 400 lbs Beef to same. 

Eliphaz Shelton £fi for 800 lbs Beef to same. 

David Chadwell J[fi for 600 lbs Beef to same. 

Nathan Hall £2. 5. o. for 225 lbs Beef to same. 

Wm. Halbert ;^3 for 300 lbs Beef to same. 

Joseph Anthony £\. 5. o. for 425 lbs Beef to same. 

John Reed ;^3. 13. for 365 lbs Beef to same. 

Robert Stockton £(>, 10. o. for 650 lbs Beef to same. 

James Lyon £2^. 5. o. for 325 lbs Beef to same. 

John Cameron £2, 15. o. for 275 lbs Beef to same. 

John Farrel £},, 17. 8. for 325 lbs Beef, 10 Diets, i bush, 
corn & 8 bun. Fodder to same. 

Israel Standifer 20 | for 100 lbs Beef to same. 

Hamon Critz 6 | for 30 lbs same to same. 

John Rentfro 15 | for 75 lbs same to same. 

Wm. Cowden 15 | for 75 lbs same to same. 

Isbam Blankinship £2. 14. for 216 pasturages for same. 

Robert Bolton 15 | 4 for twice feeding 92 cattle for same. 

Stephen Heard £2^. 11. 3. for 285 pasturages for same. 

George Heard £2, 15. 6 for 222 pasturages for same. 

Humphrey Edmundson £2^. 2. 6. for 250 pasturages for same. 

John Hickey 6 | for 6 Diets furnished same. 

John Wells 19 | 6 for 13 Diets & 15 feeds of Horses for same. 

George Carter £2^. 4. o. for 320 lbs Beef to same. 

Frederick Fulkerson ^^4. 8. o. for 440 lbs ditto for ditto. 

Stephen Heard £^. for 226 pasturages, 3 pecks corn & 22 
diats to same. 

Sam' Southerland £^ for 60 bushels corn to same. 



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HENRY COUNTY, VA. 141 

Hugh Martin /^i, 6. 4. for 132 lbs Beef to same. 

John Alexandria £^. 8. o. for 480 lbs ditto for ditto. 

John Law 13 | for 20 pasturages, 7 Diets & 2 pecks corn to 
same. 

Peter Gilliam j(^2. 3. 6. for 30 pasturages, 3 bus. Corn & 30 
diets to same. 

John Martin ;^8. 15. o. for 875 lbs Beef furnished same. 

Elisha Keen /^j, 10. o. for 750 lbs ditto to ditto. 

George Heard 21 | for twice feeding 72 head cattle, 6 Diets 
and 6 pecks corn furnished same. 

Sam' Southerland ^^i. 16. 3. for 17 Diets, 20 bush. Oats & 39 
pasturages to same. 

Robert Powell j(^2, 17. o. for 285 lbs Beef to same. 

Peter Gilliam £6. 5. o. for 625 lbs ditto to ditto. 

Daniel Ward /^g. 13. o. for 965 lbs ditto to ditto. 

Frederick Rives jCg. 15. o. for 975 lbs ditto to ditto. Also 
;^i. 8. 3. for 10 Diets, 5 pecks Corn, j4 bushel Oats, 37 bundles 
com blades & 150 rough feeds for public cattle lo ditto. 

George Gilmore 20 | for 100 lbs Beef to same. 

Peter Gilliam 24 | for 120 ditto to ditto. 

Elisha Estes 6 | for 30 ditto to ditto. 

Peter Gilliam ;^i. 11. 6. for 30 pasturages, i bus. corn & 22 
Diets to same. Also £S' 6. 6. for 330 pasturages, 22 Diets & i 
bus. corn to same. 

Thomas Heard 34 | for 34 Diets furnished same. 

Joseph Martin ;^2. 17. o. for 265 lbs Beef, 2 Diets & 4 gals, 
com to same 

Edward Richards £2. 1 1. o. for 34 Diets & forage for 34 horses 
for same. 

John Reed 4 | 6 for 18 Sheaves Oats furnished same. 

Robert Hampton 9 | for 12 lbs Bacon for the Henry Militia. 

John Jonakin 13 | 6 for 18 lbs Bacon for Lt. Col. Lee's Legion. 

James Spratley 10 | 6 for 14 ditto ditto, March, 1781. 

Sherwood Mays 11 | 3 for 15 ditto ditto ditto. 

Thomas Jamerson 20 | — 2 bbls corn. Gen' Hospital at Col. 
Perkin's. 

Joseph Anthony 28 | — 2 bbls & 4 bus. Corn to same. 

Phillip Anglin 30 | for 3 bushels corn furnished the Hospital 
at Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina. 



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142 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Joseph Anthony n | for i bush. Corn & 9 Diets to Capt. 
Erwin. 

Susannah Reynolds 7 | 6 for 10 lbs Bacon for Henry Militia. 

Charles Finch 26 | — 2 bbls corn & 200 lbs Fodder for same. 

John Briscoe 16 | 6 for 22 lbs Bacon for same on march to 
Gen* Green. 

Daniel Carlin 6 | for 3 Bushels Corn to Capt Moore's Company 
on their march to join Gen' Green in No. Carolina. 

Wm. George 17 | 6 for 18 lbs Bacon & upper leather for a 
pair of shoes for the use of the Hospital at Henry Courthouse. 

Richard Adams 14 | 6 for 18 lbs Bacon for Henry Militia. 

Daniel Carlin 4 | for 3 pecks Corn & pasturage for 5 Horses 
furnished Capt. Paris' s Comp'y ag'st the Tories. 

Also 2 I for I Bus. Corn furnished Gen' Pickins's Brigade. 

Also 20 I for one gallon Brandy furnished Maj' Joseph Cloyd 
of Montgomery on his march ag'st the Tories. 

Wm. Finch is allowed 25 | for 2>4 barrels corn furnished a 
Brigade of Publick Waggons from Peytonsburg to Charlotte No. 
Carolina. 

Haman Critz £2, 4. 9. for 2 Bush. Corn & 33 lbs Bacon for 
Brigade of Wagons belonging to Gen' Sumter. 

George Mabry ;^3. 5. o. for 200 lbs Pork Hospital at Henry 
Courthouse. 

Wm. Gardnor J[^\, 9. 3. for 52 lbs Bacon for use at same. 

Matthew Small 18 | 7 for 24^ ditto for ditto. 

Wm. Alexander £^\, 12. 9. for 43 lbs ditto for ditto. 

Rowland Salmon 6 | 9 for 9 lbs ditto for ditto. 

Jeremiah Burnett ;^i. 9. 3. for 39 lbs ditto for ditto. 

Joseph Scales £^\, 17. 9. for 229 Bundles Blades & 7 bushels 
Corn furnished the Henry Militia marching to join Gen' Green. 

George Rogers 4 | for 3 Diets & 12 Bundles Blades furnished 
to H. Armstrong in conveying Lead to Gen' Green. 

Frederick Reives £^2, 13. 3. for 71 lbs Bacon furnished Capt. 
James Cowden for the use of the Henry militia. 

John Fontaine, Esq', Capt., resigned, and John Alexander is 
appointed in his room, John Parr, ist Lieut., Reuben Payne, 
Ensign. 

The case of Ryan vs. Rowland's Ex'ors is referred to Patrick 
Henry, Esqr. 



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HENRY COUNTY, VA. 143 

Archalaus Hughes & Abraham Penn, Esq", are appointed to 
settle the Depreciation of what money run at after June, 1781, 
& make report. 

John Salmon & John Dillard, Esq" allowed 15 | each for 
assessing the Comm" Lands in the South Battalion. 

Robert Woods & William Tunstall, Esq", allowed 15 | each 
for assessing the Comm" Lands in the North Battalion. 

George Hairston allowed ;^ 13 for 26 days service of Wagon 
& Team for militia from this county to Gen* Green in 1781. 

John Pinkard 8 | for i Peck Corn & 8 Diets to Com" of Pro- 
visions. 

Henry Dillion 30 | for a Gun impressed from him for the use 
of the militia when ordered to join the Marquis De La Fayette. 

John Furguson 15 | 8 for 20 Sheaves Oats & 2 bushels corn 
for the guards with the British prisoners from the Southward to 
Winchester in November, 1781. 

Also 6 I 9 for 9 lbs Bacon to Militia on march to join Gen* 
Green. 

Joseph Scales ;^I5. 17. 3. for 4 bushls corn, 840 sheaves Oats, 
212 lbs Bacon & ^}4 bushls meal to Q. M. of Lt Col. Lee*s 
Legion, March, 1781. 

Robert Powell 50 | for 3 Hhds., 33 Diets & i bush, corn to 
Com' Prov. 

Peter Guilliam 53 | for 9 Hhds. & 2 bushls wheat to same. 

John Rowland's Ex*ors j£2, 11. 3. for Beef & Bacon to the 
Militia when ordered to So. Carolina to join General Gates in 
July, 1780. 

Robert Sherwood j(^2. 19. 8. for 358 wt. Flour on march to 
Gen' Green. 

Josiah Carter 42 | for saddle for use at Gen* Hospital at Henry 
C. H. 

Wm. Poore ;^24. 15. o. for a Horse impressed when ordered 
out against the Tories in the Hollow & died on the expedition. 

Joseph Anthony /^2. 9. 2. for 3 bushels Corn, 32 bundles 
Fodder, 24 lbs Bacon & 4^ Gallons Whiskey to Q. M. of Lt. 
Col. Lee's Legion. 

Thomas McKain £1, 14. 6. for making and putting on 10 prs. 
Horse shoes & i doz. Halter Rings furnished the same. 



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144 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

James Spencer is allowed £6 for 1 2 days of his Waggon & 
Team on the march to York in Sept'r 1781. 

Also 12 I 6 for 19 lbs dryed Beef, >^ bus. meal, 2 bushels & 
10 Sheaves Oats for same at the same time. 

Also 10 I for 60 Sheaves Oats furnished Wm. Graves, W. C. 
for Wm. McCraw A. Q. M. of Continental Stores at Peytons- 
burgh. 

Also £2>' 5- o- ^or 325 lbs Beef furnished Commissary of Pro- 
visions. 

Also ;^i8. 16. 6. for Pasturage for 60 Beeves 24 days, 10 Diets 
& forage for 13 Horses for same. 

Also £1. 12. o. for two Waggons & Teams hauling to British 
Prisoners. 

Also 8 Diets for the Guard under Commissary Hyme, Feb'y, 
1781. 

Also £2, for a Rifle Gun impressed by Capt. Henderson for 
use against the Tories, and lost. 

George Hairston 18 | for 9 Bushels corn furnished militia when 
against the Tories in the year 1780. 

Also 45 I for a Gun furnished Capt. Jonathan Hanby for his 
company ordered to Ninety Six in 1781 & lost at 96. 

Joel Harbour £2f. 14. 8. for 360 lbs Beef, i Peck Meal, 2 
bundles Fodder & 2 Diets to Jesse Heard Com'y of Provisions. 

Wm. Blevins, Jr., £<) for a Rifle Gun impressed by Capt. 
David Lanier to join Gen* Green in March, 1781, & lost. 

Haman Critz, Sen', 45 | for smooth bored Gun taken by Capt. 
John Dillard in March, 1781, & lost. 

Wm. Blevins, S\ 45 | for smooth bored Gun taken by Capt. 
David Lanier on his march to Gen* Greene in March, 1781. 

John Marr £^ for Waggon & Team 8 days in going to the 
aid of Marquis De Lafayette. 

Benj. Potter £6. 16. o. for Rifle Gun & shot bag taken by 
Capt. Tully Choice going to the aid of Gen* Greene. 

Thomas Hill 9 | 9 for 13 lbs Bacon furnished the Hospital at 
Henry Courthouse, April, 1781. 

(to be continued) 



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ABRIDGMENT QF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 146 

An Abridgement of the Laws of Virginia. 
(continued) 

MARRIAGES. 

Pr. La. 1 2 Ent. None to be married but by Minist" nor by 
y" but by License or publishing y* banes. 

No marriage valid but such as is made by y' minister accord- 
ing to y* Law of England, y* minister not marrying w^^'out License 
from y* Gov', his deputy or thrice publishing y* banes, if y* per- 
sons dwell in two pushes y* banes must be asked in both & cer- 
tificate to passe from Curate to Curate accordingly. 

The Minister y' marries contrary to this act fined lo.ooolb 
tob*. 

Pr. La. 17 Ent. Licenses for marriages how to issue. 

Persons desiring License shall go to ye elk. of y* County 
Court & give bond y' y' is none Lawfull cause to hinder y* mar- 
riage, upon w'" y' elk. shall draw License & certificate to y' first 
in Comicon for y* County or such other as ye Gov' shall depute 
y* he hath taken bond, & he there upon shall sign ye License & 
y* elk. shall yearly in 7**' Court return in y* names of y* p'ties mar- 
ried & of y* security to y' Sacretaries Office their to be recorded 
& deliver an acco* of y* fees due for y' License to y* Collector of 
y* County under ye penalty of i,oooft) tobo. to ye use of the 
Gov'. 

Fees. 

To y* Gov', . . 2o* or 200 to y' Sacretary, . 4olb tob. 
To y* elk., ... 50 to y* Ministers. . . 

To y' Minister by license, 200. if by baine*-, 50. 

Act 6 1670 Ent. Licences for marriages how to Issue. 
. En. y' no clerk Issue licence for marriages but y' County Clerk 
where ye maid her parent or guardian dwell, & y' he grant not any 
such certificate w'^out y' p'sonal consent of ye parents or Guard- 
ian & to aver y* same in his certificate upon pain of forfeiting 
his place. 

Pr. La. 99 Ent. against secret marriages. 

No Minist" shall publish ye bains or celebrate ye marriage be- 
tween Serv" unless he have a certificate from y' Masters yt it is 



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146 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

done w**" their consent under y* penalty of io,ooolb tobo. & ye 
Servants procureing y^selves to be married w^'out Consent of 
their Masters shall serve a year & if any being free shall secretly 
marry w**" a Servant he or she shall pay ye mr. of y" Serv* i,50olb 
tobo. or a years service & y* Serv* shall serve ye whole time & 
a year after. 

MILITIA. 

Act 23 1666 Ent. an act emposeing fines on refractory 
persons. 

En. Every Soldier not appearing fined loolb tobo to be dis- 
posed for y* use of y*" Regim*, y* Command" return to y* Sherr. 
shalbe Sufficient warr* to distrain for it upon refusall, unless be- 
fore y* laying of y* levy y* party fined do shew to y" Comand' 
Sufficient cause for his absence. 

Act 4 1684 Ent. an act for y* better Suply of y* Country w'** 
armes & amunition. 

All armes w**"* y* Standing Militia now have or hereafter shall 
provide shall not be impressed nor be liable to distress, seizure, 
attach"* or execution after y' 25^** of March, 1686. Every 
Trooper is to provide a good saddle, armes & furniture fit for a 
Trooper & other furniture fit for a foot Soldier & y* each provide 
2ft) powder & 8lb shot & keep their armes clean & fixed, ye 
Trooper failing fined 40otb tob" & ye foot man 200 to y* King 
for ye use of ye Country to provide Colours & Drums & Trumpets. 
The Coll. to cause a gen" muster y* i" thursday in oct' yearly or 
oftener if occasion & every Cap* to exercise at least once in 3 
months. 

Act I 1693 Ent. an act appointing Rangers on y* Frontiers 
of y" 4 great Rivers. 

En. y* from yMast of aprill, 1694, ^^^ Lt., eleaven Sold" 
& 2 Indians be Levied to Range at y" heads of y* rivers, each 
River so many 

Lts. pay finding all 5,ooolb tobo. and cask pr. annum. Sol- 
ders finding all 3,ooolb tobo. & caske p' annum. Indians 8 yards 
of duffellsand 2 barr** Indian corne, to be provided by y*Lt. who 
shalbe reimbursed in y" next pub. Levy, y" Lieut, to provide 
by warr* from y^ Comand' in Chief of y* County for each of y* 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 147 

Indians an able horse, bridle & Sadie & y* owner to be paid by 
y* Country after y' rate of 3ott) tobo. p' moneth. 

The comanders in chief to take <iare y' y* Soldiers be duly 
Exercised & an accot. there of sent to y* Sacretaries office. It 
is further Enacted y' upon any emergency such Soldiers as y* 
Gover' w*** y* advice of ye councill shall Levy shalbe pd. out of 
y* pub. Levy, a Cap* finding all after y* Rate of ten thousand 
pounds tob* p' annum, Lt. & Soldiers as before. An English 
man or Indian bringing news to any Officer, civil or military, 
such officer shall diligently inquire y* ground of it & if it prove 
true & be serviceable y" he y' brought it shalbe rewarded, but if 
false punished, y* County Court to consider y* reward & Certify 
it to y* assembly for allowance & to Inflict a suitable punish"'. 
This act in force till ye last of aprill, 1695. 



MILLS. 



Pr. La. 121 Ent**. ag' exacting Millers. 

All maner of mills to provide Stillards or stapele weights & 
Scales to receive and deliver grain & y* for sufficient grinding 
they take about 6*** part for toll upon penally of i,ooolb tobo. & 
y* grand jury to inquire thereof. 

Act 16 1666. An act for Millars to grind according to turn, 
he y' refuseth to grinde according to turn shalbe fined i,ooolb 
tobo. & if he be a Serv' punished at y* discreation of y* County 
Court unless he can prove he did it by his Mast" order & y' y* 
fine shalbe recovered ag* him. 

Act 3 1667 Ent. an act of encouragem* for erecting mills, if 
a person willing to erect a mill hath Land only on one side a 
conve* place for it & y* own' on y* other side refuse an acre for y' 
purpose, y* County Court upon his request shall ord' two cred- 
ible persons or Comicon" to view y* Land & if it not take away 
housing, orchards or other imediat conveniehcy to valine it & 
for y' consideracon payd to put ye party requiring into poss'ion. 

Act 3 169^ Ent. an act for Encouragem* to Erect fulling 
milb. 

En. y' Same previledg be given to Such as to undertakers 
of other mills 
& by y* s* Act 1667 like liberty for 2 acres of Land for erecting 



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148 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

churches & Court houses, but in case they be deserted y* Land 
shall revert to y* i" prbprietor paying w* he Received for it. 

Act I 167 1 Ent. an act prohibiting Millers y* takeing of 
more y" }4 part of English grain toll for grinding thereof by 
this act y* toll for grinding English grain is ascertained yi part 
& for Indian ^ part & y* y' Miller exceeding that shall undergo 
y* penalty of y* 16 Act 1666. 



NATURALIZATION. 

Act 2 1680 Ent. an act for naturalizacon. by this act y* 
Gover' for y' time being by a pub. Instrucment under y* broad 
Seal may declare any alien now in or w*** after shall come 
upon his takeing y" oaths of allegiance fully naturalized, who 
shall by vertue of this act have equall previledg w^** ye natural 
borne subject. 

The Gove' shall have 40' & his elk. 10', by this act also where 
an alien hath formerly patented or purchased Land or other 
Real Estate & sold it again ye same is secured & confirmed to 
y* purchaser & his heirs forever, but this act shall not be cori- 
strued to enable any forreigner to do any thing w'^*' by y" Laws 
of England concerning y* plantacons he is disabled to doe. 



NEWS. 



Pr. La. 91 Ent. divulgers of false news. 

Whoso shall forge & divulg a false report tending to y* trouble 
of y* Country he shall by y* next Justice be bound over to ye 
County Court where if he produce not his author he shalbe fin'd 
two thousand pound tobo. or lesse & give bond for his behavior 
if it appear y* he did maliciously publish or Invent it. 



ORDINARIES. 

Pr. La. 97 ent. ordinaries keepers how to sell. 

En. all wine, Beer & other strong drink shalbe retailed by 
English Sealed Measures & Every ordinary Keeper shall sell or by 
such be put down & fined 5,oootb tob° & every ordinary- Keeper 
shall have a License from y* Com" of y*" county & signed by y« 
first in Comicon & give bond to sell at ye rates Sett by y*" Comi- 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 1^^ 

con". To . pay ye Gove' 35ott) tobo. for his license. & to- do 
according to y* Laws of England. 

Act 9 1668 Ent. an act for restraint of tipling houses, by 
this Cominis" are to take especial care for ye Suppressing of y* 
exorbitant number of tipling houses & not to p'mit more than 
two in a County & those near y* Court house unless at port, 
Ferrys and great Roads for accomodacon of Travellers & good 
security be taken of those y* have License to conform to y* Laws 
& y' all keeping tipling houses without License be fined 2,ooolb 
tobo. , ^ to y* county ^ to y* Informer. 

Act 10 1676-7. An act Regulating Ordinaries & y' price of 
Liqu". 

By this act 2 ordinaries are to be admitted in a county except 
where y'.Gen" Court shalbe held, y' y* power of granting license 
be in y* County Courts, y" gover' being paid as by former Laws 
& that none be licensed but such as give bond to finde & pro- 
vide Constantly for Travellers good diet & Lodging & horse, 
meet & to Sell at these rates. 

Virg' Drams, Strong Beer or ale as hereafter by y* act 1671, 
Sider or perry boyld 2olb Tobo. pr. gall., raw 18. Lodging 31b 
tob. p' night, diet at ye Gen" Court 1 2tb tobo. p' meal for y* 
master & y* man 8, and in ye County ordinaries 10 for y* master 
& 6 for y* Serv*, pastuage 6ft) tob* p' day & night & if housed 
Indian corn at y" rate of 40ft) tobo. pr. bush", oates 60 pr. bush", 
to secure all horses from running away or being stolen or to pay 
y* charge of finding y" or pay for y™ if lost. 

That ye Justices in May & 9*" yearly at ye County Court house 
set y" Rates upon liquors not here rated at y* marquit price & 
y' ordinary Keepers advance not above ct. pr. ct. upon penalty of 
ten fold such exaction & whosoever shall give more y** is here set 
down shall pay 5 fold y* sum over paid & ye Justices failing to 
meet as afores'd to be fined 5,000ft) tobo & cask, }4 to y* use of 
y* county )^ to ye Informer & y* ordinary Keeper transgressing 
this Law to be fined so likewise. 

Act 6 1667 Ent. an act Rating ordinary Keepers. None to 
have License before he give bond to sell, viz: 

Dyet for M' 15ft), for Serv' loft), for Lodging 5tt). Spanish 
Wine p' gall" 10" or looft), french wine 8' or 8olb, Brandy, Eng. 
Sperits or Virg' drams i6oft), rum looft), Beer 40ft). 



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150 • VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. * 

Sider or perry 251b & he y' selb at greater rates for y* first of- 
fence ijooott) tobo., 2* License taken away & ye penalty of y* 
bond, >^ to y* Informer % to ye County. 

Act 3* 167 1 Ent. an act for y* moderacon of Liquor rates. 
En. yt. Spanish wine be lo' or loolb tob* p' gall', french wines 8' 
or 8olb. 

Brandy; Eng. Spirits or virg* drams 10" or loolb, Beer, Cider 
or perry 2* or 20. Beer Brewed w**" Mallasses i' or lolb. penalty 
for exceeding as pr. y* former act. 

Act 3 1 69 1 Ent. An act prohibiting ordinary keepers to give 
c' to Seamen & others. By this an ordinary is prohibited to 
trust or sell drink for more y' y* vallue of 300ft) tobo. in one 
year to any unless he be worth 50;^ sterl. or have two Serv" 
upon pain of losing all such over plus tob" & where any ordinary 
Keeper shall gitt a bill for more under pretence it is for other 
goods in one year & ye fraud be proved he shall forfeit double 
y* sum of y* obligation, }i to ye King. % to ye Informer & be 
uncapable of keeping ordinary & if an ordinary keeper be fore- 
warned by a M' of a Ship entertaining any of his Seamen he 
shalbe liable to such damages as is provided in y* act ag* enter- ' 
taining of other Serv**. 

This act not to extend to y" ordinary keepers of James city 
give Credit in Gen" Court or assembly time. 



ORPHANS. 

Pr. La. 66 Ent. concerning orphans. 

Where Exec*" refuse y* Court to appoint others to act accord- 
ing to ye will but if y* will be so y' no peison will undertake it 
y" y" Estate shalbe managed as an In Testates, viz: y* if y* es- 
tate will bare it y* orphan shalbe maintained out of y* Interest 
but if not he shalbe bound out to a handy craft trade till 21, Ex- 
cept he have a Relacon will maintain him w^^'out deminution of 
y* principal w*' whether great or small to be delivered to y* or- 
phans at y* years appointed by Law. Cattle, horses & sheep 
to be returned in kinde & plate & mony to be preserved & de- 
livered in kind, other house-hold stuff to be appraised in money 
^ y* vallue paid to ye orph. in Country Commodities at y* price 
curr'. That ye court take able Secur. for ophans estate to have 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. ^^l 

it changed as they think fit & they enquire whether orphan^ be 
maintained & Educated according to their Estates & if they find 
defects to Remove y* orphans to other guardians & to chiing 
ther M" if too rigorous or negligent to teach y"". That ten p' 
ct. be allowed to guardians for collecting Debts. 

That 3olb tob* pr. day be allowed to an appraisor & if y* 
funer** Elxpenses be Excessive they be regulated by y* Court ac- 
cording to y* proportion of y" Estate & quallity of y* person. 

Pr. La. 67 Ent. orphans Lands not to be aliened. 

That y* County Courts take care y* orphans land be not aliened 
sold or taken up as deserted during y* minority of orphans & y* 
y' Guardian do not let out any orphans Land longer tell he come 
of age & oblige ye tenant to plant an orchard & build a good 
house, keep good fences & ye houses in Repair & leave it ten- 
antable at his Surrender & make such provision in ye lease as to 
prevent wast of Timber for any use but y* plantacon. 

Act 4 167 1 Ent. an act how negros belonging to orphans of 
intestates shalbe disposed of 

The County Courts are impowered either to cause y* negros 
to be appraised, sold at an out cry or preserved in kind as they 
think most expedient for y* orphans Interest. 

Act 2 1672 Ent. an additional act Concerning orphans Es- 
tates, y* it shalbe Lawfull for y* County Courts to dispose of 
orphans estates according to y* best of their Judgm" & advant. 
of y* orphans in such cases where they cannot find persons will- 
ing to take according to 66 act pr. la. 

Act 7 1679 Ent. an act for secureing orphans estates, y* be- 
fore ord' for administracon be granted good security be taken 
for y* parties due administracon according to Law & such Justices 
as sit in Court when such ord' is granted & neglect to make 
ord' for secur. shall make good y* estate in case it be imbecilled 
by y* administrator & y* all Justices before they sign administra- 
con require certificate from y* elk. y' secur. is given. 

•i^The Governor signes. 



PARDON. 

Act I 1680 Ent. an act of free & Gen" pardon, Indemnity 
& oblivion. 



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152 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

By this all Treasons & misprisons, murders, felonies, crimes & 
misdemeanors done before y* i6'' June, 1676, are pardon'd ex- 
cept Nat. Bacon who is adjudged by this act attainted of high 
Treasons & his estate accordingly forfeited & except Giles Bland, 
Anthony Arnold, Rich* Turner, Rich* Pomfry, John kle, Robt. 
Stokes, John Watson, Wm. Scarburgh who were all Legally 
Convicted & executed except Rich* Lawrence who fled. 

If Jos. Ingram, Gregory Wacklet, Tho. Whaley, Jon. Forth, 
John Langston hereafter accept or exercise any office in virg* 
they to be accepted & for any wrong yt. hath ever comitted be- 
tween The first of May & x6 June, 1676, for w"* no Judg"' ob- 
tained before y* 25 Aprill, 1679, no Sattisfaccon to be given or 
required but where ye goods of any not ingaged in ye Rebellion 
have been taken away between y* i" of May & 16 of Jan'y shall 
be found in ye possession of any other person y* owner may sue 
for & recover y°, & Serv" in y* rebellion not to be further pun- 
ished y' y* time incurring between y* s* i" of may & 16 Jan*^ 
shalbe accounted no part of their service, & it is En. y* no ver- 
dict. Judg"*& Indict"*, Informacon, Decrees, Sentances, probats 
of Wills, administracons, writs, orders or other proceedings in 
Law made or execution thereupon before y* passing of this act 
shalbe avoyded but be of such force & effect as if y" person as- 
suming y° y* title of Cover' & Council had been Legally so; And 
it is En. y* whoso shall malliciously & advisedly by speach or 
writing defame y* Cover' shalbe imprisoned a year w**out bail, 
&c., & forfeit as shalbe adjudged not exceeding above 500;^ 
sterL to ye King & whoso shall defame y* councill". Judges & 
other principall Officers shalbe imprison* 3 months w*^out bail, 
&c., & forfeit as shalbe adjudged not exceeding loo;^ sterl. to 
ye King, &c. 

PLANTCUTTINC. 

Act 2 1684 Ent. an act for y' better preservacon of y* peace 
of Virg' & preventing unlawfull & treasonable associations. 
That if any person or persons to y* number of 8 or above being 
assembled together shall after ye first day of June next goe about 
w'** force unfawfull to cut, pull up or destroy tob* plants in beds 
or hills destroy y* same either curing or cured in hh*' or out, ot 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. ]53 

pull down, burn or destroy y* houses where it lyes, being com- 
manded in y* King's name by y'' Cover., one of y* Coun" or st 
Justice to disperse. &c., shall continue together 4 hours after 
such proclamacon made at or nere y* place where such persons 
are assembled y" every such person shalbe deem*d, declared & 
adjudged Traitors & Suffer death & forfeit in cases of high 
Treason provided he be prosecuted ag* w^^in 12 moneths after y* 
offence comitted. 



PRISONS. 

Act 5 1684. An act repealing y* 42 & 43 acts of ye printed 
Laws & for building prisons in each County & for assertaining 
rules to each Prison, by this act y* 42 & 43 acts are Repealed 
& a strong virg* prison ordered to be built & Continued in each 
county by y* Justices at y'' Charge of y* County under y* penalty 
of 5,oooft) tobo. & being answerable for escape for want of such 
& ye Justices are hereby impower'd to lay out lands adjoyning 
to such prisons n6t above 80 pole square for liberty of prisons 
not comitted for Treason or fellony upon bond to y* Sherr. for 
true Imprisonm' & so long as such prison" shall keep y" rules 
it shalbe no escape. It is further Enacted y' y* bounds be marked 
out & notified by y* Justices & Entered upon y* records where 
prisons are y* county is excused from building a new one. 



PUBLIC CLAIMES. 

Act 2 1691 Ent. An act directing how pub. claims shalbe cer- 
tified, allowance. 

That before every Assembly, County Courts shalbe held for 
y* proof of every Pub. Debts & y* certificate w" a full acct. of 
all p'ticalars claimed & by w* authority & for w' Service y* same 
is due to be issued by y* elk., Endorsed upon y* accot. claim* 
& delivered to ye Burg*, proof to be made by y" oath of y" 
claim". At least & where ye claim amonts to looflb tobo. y* 
clerk to have for fee 2olb in y" pub. Levy if under nothing. 

Claims to be returned to y* i'* or 2* Assembly or to be excluded. 
Sherr* for pub. Service to have nothing but wt. is set down in y* 
La. for Sherr. fees. This act to be published at every church 



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154 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

y* Sunday before such Court by y" Sherr. or his Deputy and at 
such Court by y* clerks. 



RUNAWAIES. 

Pr. La. I02 Ent. Runawaies. 

Runawaies are to make Sattisfaccon by service double y* time 
of service neglected & if they run away in y* cropps & y* charge 
of recovering be extraordinary y* court shall Judge a longer time 
of Service, proportionable to ye damage & y* Master y' intends 
to take y* benefit of this act shall as soon as he hath got his 
Serv* carry him to y*" next com' & there prove y* time of absence 
& charg of recovery upon w""* he shall have Certificate fix)m y* 
com" & y* court on y^ certificate pass Judg'^'for service & if any 
English Serv* run away w** a negro he shall serve y' Mr. of y* 
negro so long as y* negro ought, if he had not been a slave w" 
his time, if ther be more Xtians y" one each to serve his pro- 
portion & if y' negro dye or be Lost y' Xtian serv" in comp* 
shall by proportion pay 4,5001b tobo & Cask or 4 years service. 

Act II 1666 Ent. An act imposeing a fine for Enterta"* of 
Runa^'. whosoever shall harbor a Runaway Serv' shall pay 6otb 
tob. per day & night to y* owner of y* Serv\ this to extend to 
serv" only by first indenter. 

Act 4 1668. An act about Correcting of Runaways. That 
Corporal punish"** Inflicted on a Runaway Serv* by Mast' or 
magistrate shall not barr y* Sattisfaccon by Law to y* Master. 

Act 8 1669. An act for Encouragemt. to apprehend Runa- 
waies. by this act for taking up a Runaway Serv* either by In- 
denture, Custom or Coven* is allowed i.ooolb tobo. to be 
l^^refunded by service, he y* takes up y* Runaway shall carry 
him to y* next Justice & have his certificate to y" assembly & y" 
deliver him to y* constable who is to convey him to y* next con- 
stable, &c. , & so to his M'. Every constable to give his receipt 
for y* runaway & for his Escape to yay i,ooolb tobo. & for re- 
imburshing y* publick y*' County Court is impower'd to make 
l^^sale of y* Serv* after his service due his M' is expired. 

Act I 1670 Ent. An act concerning Runaways. The act of 
1669 is by this continued but ye i,ooolb tob® reduced to 200 if 
runaway be found above 10 miles from his M'" house & 100 if 



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above 5 to be paid by y* publick in ye Co*^ wher y* taker up 
dwell. Y* slave too is here comprehended but y* Serv' after his 
Expiracon of his time to his M' shall serve 4 months for every 
200 to such as he shall be assigned to by y® assembly or a com' 
from them. That y* Master of y* Serv* y' has Runaway shall 
keep his hair close cut under y* penalty of loott) tobo. for every 
time y* fuguitive shalbe after y* 2* time taken up, % to ye pub. 
j4 to ye Informer & every Con*"* into whose hands a Runaway 
shall come by a Justice's warr' shall whip him severely, tho y* 
warr' omitt it, & y° to convey him to ye next Cons*** who is to 
do y* like, &c., untill he come to his Master. Ever)' Consta. 
shall give a receipt for y* runaway & if escape be made y* of- 
fender cons"*** shall pay 40olb tob., }4 to ye Informer j4 toy* 
pub. Y* former fine of i,oc)oft repealed, y* rest of this act is 
out of force. 

Act I 1680 Ent. and additional act about runawayes. 

By this act y* i" act of 1670 is continued w"* these alteracons, 
viz: That every certificate for taken up a runaway before be ad- 
mitted to y* assembly shall mention ye M" proper Xtian & Sur- 
name, County where they dwell, time of takeing up y* sd. Serv' 
& distance of place from y* Masters planta., & y* proper & sur- 
name of y* serv' & at y** same of Assembly w" such certificate is 
allowed in all the like sum shalbe assessed upon y* Mr. of y* 
Serv*, for w*** he shalbe reimbursed by services according to 
aforesd. act & such certificate shall come proved from y* county 
court as all other claimes. 

Act 3 1684 Ent. An act Repealing y' act concerning pursute 
of runawaies. 

By this 8 act 1663 is repealed. 

Act 5 1662. an act for punish of Scandulous ps'ons. 

En. That in accons of slander occasioned by ye wife after 
Judg"' for Damages if the husband refuse payment y* woman 
shalbe ducked once for every 5ootb tobo. contained in y* order. 

Pr. La. 35 Ent. Court not to take cogniznnce of anything 
under 20ott) tobo., part of this act that no words shalbe action- 
able but such as by law will bring y* person to punish"*. 

Vide this act at large under Title Courts. 



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156 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



SERVANTS. 

Pr. La. 98 Ent. Serv'ts, how long to serve. Serv'ts com- 
tS^ing in w^^out Indenture shall serve 5 years if above 16, it 
under till 24 ye county courts to Judge of their age. 

Pr. La. loi. Entitled heired Serv'ts. That every Serv' after 
his time is expired at ye County Court Ent' his freedom & take 
Certificate from ye Clerk & yt. shall be sufficient warr' fory'm 
yt. Entertain him & if he shall after become Serv' to another, 
ye Mast' yn. hiring him shall take his Certificate of freedom & 
keep it till his time is out & whosoever shall harbour a Serv* or 
heired freeman Runaway having no certificate shall pay to ye 
Master 3olb tobo. pr. day & night for all ye time they entertaine 
ym. , but if a Runaway Serv* forge a certificate or Steal ye true 
one, ye person y** Entertaine him shalbe free, but ye serv* 
•i^(Altered by 11 Act, 1666.) shall stand in ye pillory two hours 
on a Court day, & if ye Certificate happen to be worn out ye 
cl'k shall grant a new one but in it y' shall mention ye loss of 
ye ist & if a person coming injfree Contract w'** any & before ye 
time be out go to another, he shall first p'form ye ist contract 
& pay ye damages ye other contractor sustaines. 

Pr. La. 103 Ent. Cruelty of M" prohibited. The M' shall 
provide for his serv* competent diet, cloathing & Lodging & in 
Correction use Moderacon, for it is Lawfull for ye serv' giving 
notice to his Master, & haveing Just cause of compl't, to make 
compPt to a com", & if he find ye same to be Just he is to give 
ord' for warning ye M' to ye next Co'ty Court. 

Pr. La. 104 Ent. Against unruly Serv". 

The Serv* for laying violent hands upon his Mr., Mrs. or 
overseer shall serve a year. 

Pr. La. 105 Ent. ag* Tradeing w*" Serv**. Who ever shall 
buy, sell, trade or truck w*** a Serv* w*''out Leave of his Mr. 
shall Suffer a monthes Imprisonm* w'*'out Bail or mainprize, & 
give Security for his good behaviour & forfeit to ye Mr. 4 Times 
ye valine of ye things traded for. 

Act 2. 1662 Ent. An act Concerning Serv". owners of 
goods, Serv" y* bring in goods unless it be their wareing appar" 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1 694. 157 

or have, any consigned to y'm shall have ye property, and have 
permission of their Mr. may sell them. 

Act 8, 1662. An act concerning Serv" being ye reputed 
Fathers of Basterd Children. 

Where a basterd is gott by a serv't ye parish shall keep ye 
child, after ye Reputed is free he shall make Sattisfaccon. 

Act II, 1662. An act concerning Serv" brought in under 16 
years of age. Ye Mr. shall carry his serv' if under age & have 
no Indentures, to Court within 4 Months after he bought him or 
else he shall serve no Long' y'n one of 16 years. 

Act 12 1662 Ent. an act for mulatto children being bound or 
ftree according to ye condition of ye mother. 

Every mulatto shalbe bond or free according to y** condicon 
of y* mother, &c. 

Act 5 1665 Ent. an act concerning ye Intent of some form' 
penalties. 

Where a Freeman is punishable by fine a servt. shall receive 
corporall punishm't 20 Lashes for 50olb tobo., unless any will 
pay ye fine, for w*'*' if y* Serv' agree he shall perform y* agreem" 
after he is Free & yt. ye Mr. have y* like Remedy. 

Act 12 1666 Ent. An act concerning Serves coming in w'**out 
Indentures. 

That such shall Serve according to their age, viz: if adjudged 
19 Years to Serve 5 years, if under to Serve till 24 & Ev^ry 
mast' Intending y* Benefit of this act shall w*^in 2 courts after he 
buyes such Serv* bring him to court. 



SERVANTS & SLAVES. 

Act 2 1667. An act declaring y* Baptism of Slaves doth noi 
exempt y" from Bondage. 

Declared y' Baptism doth not alter y* condMon of a slave. 

Act I 1669 Ent. an act about y^ casual killing of slaves, if 
a slave Resists his Mast' or other by his Mast" orders correcting 
him, & by extremity of ye correction chance to dye y* shall not 
be fellony but ye actor acquitted. 

Act y* 5 1670 Ent. an act declareing no Indians nor negros to 
buy Xtian Serv*. 



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158 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

No Indian nor negro tho* Baptized & free shalbe capable of 
purchashing Xtians. 

Act 5 1672 Ent. an act concerning Serv" sold for ye custom. 
Every Serv' coming in presumably w**out Indenture shall by 
his Mast' be brought before a Justice & if he declare he hath an 
Indenture but cannot y' produce it he shall have a months time 
& if he then fail he shalbe ever after Barred from his claim by 
reason of a pretended Indenture. 

Act 7 1676 Ent. An act limiting Mrs. dealing w** their Serv*'. 

No Mr. shall make a bargain w*** his Serv" before he be abso- 
lutely free either from his Corn or cloaths or other except before 
or w^" ye approbacon of a Justice or Justices upon pain of for- 
feiting all ye advantages of ye Bargain & to such Serv" such time 
of Service as is due to y" M' w' he makes such Bargains. 

Act 10 1680 Ent. an act for preventing negro Insurrection. 

A negro or slave not to arm w"* a club, staff or gun, sword or 
other weapon nor to go from home w^^'out certificate & such not 
to be granted but upon necessary occasions, y* negro offending 
shalbe sent to ye next Con**** who shall give him 20 lashes on y* 
bare back & send him home, if a negro or slave lift his hand 
ag* a Xtian upon proof thereof by ye oath of ye party he shall 
have 30 Lashes on ye bare back & if a slave absent & lurk in 
. obscure places & comit Injuries & resist any Lawfull employed 
to apprehend him it shall be lawfull for such person to kill him. 
This Law to be published once in 6 months at y* county courts 
& p"' churches. 

Act I 1682 Ent. an act to repeal a former law making In- 
dians & others free. 

By this ye 12th act 1670 Ent. an act who shalbe Slaves re- 
peal' d & all Serv" except Turkes & Moores whilst in amity w*' 
his Ma'' brought in after ye publicacon of this act by sea or land 
whether Negros, Moors, Mallatto or Indians who & whose were 
not Xtians at ye tyme of ye purchase of such Serv" by some 
Xtian are made slaves altho' afterwards & before Such y' impor- 
tacon they shalbe converted to ye Xtian faith & all Indians w"' 
hereafter shalbe sold by our neighbouring Indians to be slaves, 
&c. 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 159 

Act 3, 1682 Ent. An aditional act for ye better preventing 
Insurrections by Negros. 

Ye churchwardens of every parish are hereby Enjoyned by 
ye 1st of Jan'*" following to provide copies of this & ye loth act 
1680, at ye charg of ye p'sh & to caus y°* to be entered upon ye 
Register & ye Minister or read' some one Sunday in Sep' & 
March after ye 2d Lesson to read both, Churchward., Minister 
or Read' yt. makes default shall forfeit 6oolb tobo, J^ to y* In- 
former j4 to ye poor of y* p'sh & it is further En. yt. after ye 
20 of Jan'' next no Mr. or overseer should suffer any slave not 
belonging to him not to be upon y'' plantation above 4 hours at 
one time w^^out his M'** leave upon pain to forfeit 20olb tobo. to 
y* Informer, to be convicted before a Justice by 2 wittnesses. 

Act 16 1691. An act for suppressing outlying slaves. 

Upon Intelligence of outlying slaves 2 Justices, one of y* quo- 
rum, are impowered to issue War* to y* Sherr. to apprehend y" 
& y* Sherr. is required upon all such occasions to raise such force 
as he thinks conv' & if ye slaves resist, runaway or refuse to sur- 
render it shalbe Lawful to kill y" & ye owner shalbe paid by ye 
pub. 4,000 for a negro. 

Act 3 1692. Act for ye more speedy prosecuting slaves Comitt- 
ing Capital Crimes. 

By this act all slaves comitting capitall offences shalbe laid in 
ye County Goal till ye Sherr. obtain y" Gov" comicon of oyer 
& Terminer directed to such persons as he thinks fitt to try y* 
slaves at y* court house of ye county & y* confession of y* party, 
2 witt. or one with pregnant circumstances w**'out a Jury shalbe 
a nough & if a slave be found guilty they shall pass Judgmt. as 
ye Law of England provides in like case & it is further En. yt. 
all horses, catt. & hogs marked w*** a negros marke be by y* 
last of decemb' converted to ye M" mark of yt. slave or be for- 
feit to ye poore of y' parish & if a negro quart' be kept w^^out 
a Xtian overseer y* damage y' done by y" negros y* master shall 
pay for. 

SHIRRIFFS. 

Pr. La. 45 Ent. Sherr. makeing false returns. 

The sherr. yt. fails to make ret. yt. y* writ is executed 3 daies 



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160 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

before ye day In y* Gen" Court & 2 daies in y" county court 
fined 1, 000ft) tobo., % to y*" Inform' y^ to ye County, if ye pe' 
prove ye delivery of ye warrent. • 

Pr. La. 46 Ent. Sherrs. to take Bail. 

Sher^-. neglecting to take bail or consenting to an escape shalbe 
liable to pay y* award of y* Court & also if y* consent to y" escape 
be proved i,ooolb tobo., )^ to ye pub. % to y^ party grieved, if 
bail be taken & ye party appear not Judg"* shall goe against y* 
Bail, but y* Sherr. or bail may have an attachm* ag* y" parties 
estate & if y* party be brought forth y** next court y* Sherr. or 
Bail shalbe acquited. 

Pr. La. 47 Ent. Non est Inventus. 

w° a sherr. return a non est Inventus he shall declare upon 
oath yt. he hath been at y* def " house & Left a Copy of ye writt 
& if he Refuse order to pass as for non Ret. & if his Ret. be 
allowed, y* d'' being called thrice, an attachm' shall Issue ag* his 
Estate returnable y* next Court following where if y* def * appeare 
not to repleayen Judg"* shalbe granted y*" pr for his debt, it ap- 
pearing to be due. 

Pr. La. 52 Ent. Y*" Sherr upon y* Instance of y*' Treasurer 
or his deputy to collect y*' Quit rents. 

quit rents to be collected by y* Sherr. & paid or y* Levies in 
direct Specie of tobo. or money, no fees or debts to be preferred 
to y" under y* penalty for pay™* of other debts before Levies. 

Pr. La. 58 Ent. no arrest to be on ye Saboth dayes. 

by this no Sherr., &c., shall execute any writt, &c., upon y* 
Saboth day, 30 Jan"^', 29 May nor at Gen" must" or election of 
Burgesses Except for riots, fellony or Suspicion of fellonies * * 
out of prison. 

Pr. La. 60 Ent. Com" to take Secnr of Sheriffs. 

En. Yt. com" be answerable to ye pub. for all Levies & for 
ye Sherr. performance of his place ^ they are impower'd to 
take Secur. of him to save y "selves — no Justice to be liable but 
Such as are of ye comicon w" ye defence is made. 

Act I, 1662 Ent. an act concerning sherr. making false ret. 

Where a Sherr. shalbe proved to have executed a writt & yet 
made a false ret. he shalbe fined 300oIb tobo., >j to ye pub, ^2 
to ye party delayed by it. 

Cto be concluded) 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 161 

THE JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 



Found in the Virginia State Library in 1901. 



Frederick Brown to John Brown. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Capt. John Brown, Charlestown, Vir- 
ginia, Care of his Custodian. 
[Endorsed]: Fred. Brown. 

Pecatonica, 111., November 4th, 1859. 
Dear Uncle: 

It is with sorrow I have heard of the affair at Harper's 
Ferry, resulting in the death of two of your sons and others, 
the capture and imprisonment of yourself and some of your as- 
sociates. This event has created a profound sensation and 
awakened the attention of the whole country. No recent event 
with so few engaged in the promotion of it, has so generally ar- 
rested the attention of all people throughout the United States. 
Although I am and have been opposed to interference with 
slavery in the states where it exists, either by action upon the 
part of Congress or by individuals outside of the slave States, 
yet nevertheless your boldness and independence of character, 
your self reliance and zeal for oppressed and afflicted humanity 
has won my admiration and cannot fail to excite the admiration 
of all those who love the welfare, the happiness and the progress 
of the whole human race. I watched at the time and read with 
the deepest interest the history of all your acts and others for 
the promotion of liberty in the Territory of Kansas. It cannot 
be denied but what the hero of Osswatomie acted a very promi- 
nent, vallient and important part in making Kansas in the future 
a free and prosperous State of this Confederacy. Your deeds 
in that quarter of the world are a part of the history of the 
times and particularly of the future State of Kansas. I am told 
by many persons who have been in Kansas during the past sum- 
mer that your memory is cherished in the highest respect by the 
people of that Territory. Although I cannot approve of your 
acts of armed intervention in behalf of the slaves at Harper's 



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162 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Ferry, but since your arrest for that cause, your conduct has 
been such, for instance, your coolness and courage in the pres- 
ence of the power and authority of the State of Virginia, the 
simple, truthful, courageous and wise answers to all inquiries put 
to you by men of the highest official position in that State, to- 
gether with the various remarks made by you in the presence of 
that Tribunal and before that Court which has condemned you 
to die the death of a felon, har» excited the admiration of the 
whole country and created a powerful reaction of public senti- 
ment in your favor. I give it as my opinion only, that it will be 
the most foolish act the authority of the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia ever permitted to be done within her borders, viz: to exe- 
cute you upon the gallows. Why Sir, the very act of execution 
ahd for such a cause and after the most speedy trial of modern 
times and under such peculiar circumstances would ipso facto 
create you a Martyr and enroll your name among the noble dead 
who have died for the cause of religion, for the cause of liberty, 
and for the welfare of the human race. If it should be your fate 
to die in accordance with the sentence of that Court, in the land 
where the Declaration of Independence had its origin, the sen- 
timents of which you have always cherished, I confess to you I 
shall feel no concern but what you will die as you have lived, 
like a man and a hero. I extend to you and your unhappy as- 
sociates my most cordial sympathy. 

With great respect, your nephew, 

Frederick Brown. 
To Capt. John Brown. 

Aunt Lizv to John Brown. 

[Envelope] [MS.] John Brown, Charleston, Va. 

[Endorsed]: Anonymous Nonsense. 
Much Esteemed Friend, John Brown: 

I feel anxious to take thee by the hand and bid thee a final 
farewell but distance prevents my doing so at present. We feel 
for and sympathize with thee in thy affliction, though the days 
are few until thee will lay down thy life and dye a martyr to the 
cause of Freedom. 

Thy last act appears short sighted to many but all has been 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 163 

laying still for years trying to do away slavery on peaceable 
terms, but all in vain, they might just as well try to do away the 
Devil at once without an Insurrection and even that would be 
impossible, for the whole south would be at arms as he is the 
only friend they have. Be of good cheer, thee has loosened the 
wheel on its axel and it is now ready for action, and if Governor 
Wise does not loose thy chains, undo the heavy burdens and let 
the oppressed go free he will see more John Brown in Virginia 
before long than he could erect galows for in a life time. 

I call that mind free which is not imprisoned in its-sdf or in a 
sect, which recognizes in all human beings the image of God, 
and the right of his children, which delights in virtue and sym- 
pathises with the sufferings of the poor downtrodden slave. And 
happy is that Soul that offers its-self up a willing victim to the 
cause of freedom. Can there be a single one that glances his 
eye on this page that does not revolt at the existence of slavery. 
We are going a head here, the spirit of liberty has taken new 
life since the Harper Ferry insurrection, and be assured that no 
man will be found here long that will have the hardihood to be 
found against liberty and right. Yes, the spirit of oppression 
fraud and cruelty will soon seek some dark corner of the earth 
where neither sun, moon nor stars shall behold it, this is only a 
commencing of insurrections at the South, it will yet make the 
name of John Brown a terror to the slaveholding aristocracy, 
and a word of cheer and presage to the cause of constitutional 
liberty, we hope that the liberty party will push on until Virginia 
and all the other states of the confederacy shall be free from the 
curse of slavery, redeemed, regenerated and disenthralled by 
the genus of universal Emancipation. 

God hasten the day of our deliverence. 

The opponents of human liberty cannot dwell in an atmos- 
phere like ours much longer, their dark spirits are better fitted 
for a climate where eternal frosts lock all nature in her chilling 
arms, then I say rejoice in the good cause, nothing daunted, and 
victory will be soon won, for God has no attribute that can side 
with wrong. 

Aunt Lizy. 

Rejoice. 



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164 VIRGINIA HISTORrCAL MAGAZINE. 

P. C. W. TO John Brown. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Old Ossawattomie John Brown, Harper's 
Ferry. [Forwarded] Charlestown, Virginia. 

[Endorsed]: Anonymous, improper, — don't deliver. 

Louisville, Ky., Oct. 31st, 1859. 
Old Ossawattomie John Brown, Harper's Ferry, Va. 

Sir, — You are now about to embark in the very unenviable 
occupation of hemp-pulling; hut when your mind reverts to the 
many poor families in Kansas whom you robbed of the last 
mouthful of provisions, and then rode off exultingly on their 
only horse, driving their only cow before you: when your mind 
reverts to the innocent blood shed at your hands in Kansas and 
Virginia; what can you say but that you deserve death in its 
most horrid form. Pray fervently to the Lord to forgive your 
sins instead of soliciting Northern Counsel to defend your forlorn 

hopes. 

Very Truly, 

P. C W., 
formerly a Pro Slavery man in Kansas Territory. 



A. D. Stevens to his Uncle. 

Charlestown, Va., Dec. nth, '59. 
Unkcle James, 

It is under rather adverse circumstances, that I sit down to 
write you. 

I hope you do not think that I hav forgotten you nor Aunt 
neather. I suppose you hav seen by the papers about the Har- 
per's Ferry affair, & that I and several more, are about as they say 
to dance on nothing. It is rather a queer way to leave this world, 
but If a person must di, because he loves man & justice why, I 
think it becums one of the best of deaths. 

Death is something we all must meet, and I rather difor try- 
ing to doo good, than eviL 

I received six wounds at the Ferry, and the Doc's thought at 
one time that I would not live, I under went a grat deal of hard 
pain, but am quite well now, and very cherfull. 

It is true ! I should like to live a few years yet, here in this 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 165 

world, but if my time comes now, I shall meet it cheerfully, and 
it will not be meny years, untill I shall have the pleasure of see- 
ing you all in the other world. The old man pased off in good 
FAITH, and the rest of the men are I think quite cheerfuU and 
happy. There time is close at hand, And man gets to the end 
of his €hain when he takes life, that is, it's all hei:an doo. It is 
a long road that never turn's they say. 

I think now, from what I have seen, that the way we ware 
trying to doo away with Slavory, is not the best way, but I had 
to get this experiance before I knew it. I think the ruling power 
of the univirse is working in all these things, and we shall get 
our JUST reward. There is a feeling in my bosom for the op- 
presed, and I cannot help it, & I am very thankfull for it. 

If you hav time, it would give me pleasure to have an answer 
to this. Give my love to your wife & boy's & all kind friend's. 
Your's, for the right, 

A. D. Stevens. 



A Rescue Plan told in Cipher. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Capt. Ossawattomie Brown, Harper's 
Ferry, Va. 

[Forwarded] Charlestown. 

[Endorsed]: In cipher. Villainous. 

13.2.3. i8. 12.9. 14. 
4.5. 1. 18. 2. 

23.5. 1. 18.5. 1. 12.12. 18.9.7.8 20. 2.15.21. 13.1.25. 
12.15.15.k6.15.18. 21.19. I5-I4-5- 1-25. I5.H-5. 3-I5-I3-- 
I3-5.I4.3.5-9-I4 7- 20. 15. -4. 1.25. 

6.5.9.7.14. 6. 1. 14. 1.20.9.3.9. 19. 13. 1. 19. 13.21. 3.8. 1. 19. 
16. 15. 19. 19.9. 1.2. 12.5. 1 1. 5.5. 16. 9.14. 7. 15. 15.4. 19. 16.9. 18.- 
9.20.19. 20.9.12. 12. 23.5. 1. 18. 18.9.22.5. 

3-15- 13- 15. 
4. 15. 14.20. 2.5. 1. 12. 1. 18. 13.5.4. 

A I, B 2, C 3, D 4, E 5, F 6, G 7, H 8, I 9, J 10, K 11, L 12, 
M 13. N 14, O 15, P 16, Q 17, R 18, S 19, T 20, U 21, V 22, W 
23, X 24, Y 25, Z 26. 



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106 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

[Translation.] 

Oberlin. 
Dear B., 

We are all right you may look for us, one by one commenc- 
ing to-day. 

Feign fanaticism as much as possable, keep in good spirits till 
we arrive. Como. 

Don't be alarmed. 



Jacob Howe, Jr., to John Brown. 

[E^ivelope] [MS.] Capt. John Brown (States' Prisoner), 

Cbarlestown, Va. 

[Endorsed]: Jacob Howe. Idle stuft, I think. Doubtful. 

Balto., Nov. 28th, 1859. 
Dear Friend John, 

Enclosed you will find $2 which you can cheerfully have — 
for your Service during the Late War at Harper's ferry. Friend 
John little did I think you would come to what you have, and 
you have my sympathies you have one who feels for you I pray 
you do not have any fear, you will be rescued if we die for it. 

I am glad to see you are a fearless man intenden to carry out 
what you begun but I am sorry to say you did not succeed dear 
John I feel sorry for you and your companions could I only see 
you I would tell you something that would astonish you. 

I now bid you good bye untill we meet again I remain a Native 
Northerner (although i am in the south). 

Jacob Howe, Jr. 

if there is any thing I can do for you, just name it & it will be 
done. 



James Q. Lester to John Brown. 

[Envelope] [M.S.] Capt. John Brown, Charlestown Jail, 
Charlestown, Jefferson County, Virginia, U. S. 

[Endorsed]: James Q. Lester, Hartford, Conn. Autograph. 

Hartford, Nov. 7th, 1859. 
Capt. John Brown: 

Dear Sir. — I have a collection of Autographs, and would 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 167 

consider it a great honor to be permitted to place yours among 
them. 

My best wishes are with you and I most sincerely hope that 
you will again be free. 

Hoping that you will grant my favor, I remain, 
Very truly yours, 

James Q. Lester. 
Address James Q. Lester, 
Care Box 783, Hartford, Conn. 



B. TO John Brown. 

[Envelop^] [MS.] Capt. John Brown, Charlestown Jail, Va. 

[Endorsed]: Anonymous Rescue, rather bold, consider. 

Salem, O., Nov. 24th, 59. 
Capt. John Brown: 

Dear Friend, — I write you these few lines to inform you 
that there are large Companies of men forming in all the Norths 
em States which will in due time march to your rescue. 
Hope on, keep in good Spirits, you Shall be rescued. 

Yours in haste, B — . 



T. A. B. TO Governor Wise. 

[Endorsed]: T. A. B., Lanesville, to be considered, Colt's 
revolvers. 

Lanesville, Ohio, Nov. 23rd, 59. 
Hon. H. A. Wise: 

Dear Sir, — Think not Strange, yet it is even so, on Last 
night I saw at the house of a Frend, about 30 miles southeast of 
this, betwen 30 & 36 men, all armed with Colts Six Shooters & 
a Species of home made Bowie knife, well calculated to do Exi- 
cution, being very much fatigued I retired very early, but I 
learned enough by over hearing to ascertain that about 300 men 
of their Stamp will cross the Ohio river near Cistersville on the 
night of the 26th of this month, keep to the Woods as much as 
possible, & on the night of the ist of December make a decent 
on Charlestown. They are generaly young & desperate men 
judging from those I saw, but headed by an old Hunter of N. 



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168 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

W. Virginia^ whois well acquainted with every Hundred acres 
of Land from Central O. to Winchester, Va. 

do not think this a Hoax as I do not give my name. I am a 
poor Mechanick struggling with poverty & we have men here 
who would ruin my business. 

Truly, T. A. B. 

One Hard Ware firm in our Town has Rec'd 500 Colts revol- 
vers & by Northern Express!, & they are gone. 



Harrisburg to C. B. Harding, Esq. 

[Envelope] C. B. Harding, Esqr., Charlestown, Jefferson 
Co., Va. 

[Endorsed]: Anonymous, Harrisburg, Warning. 

Harrisburg, Pa., Nov. 23rd, 1859. 
C. B. Harding, E^qr., 

Sir, — I wish to inform you that a force of armed men in- 
tend leaving here so as to arrive at Charlestown by the day of 
execution of Brown to rescue him if such can be done, they are 
armed with Colts revolvers and will make a desperate attempt. 
Their exact number I have not been able to learn but think it 
is pretty large. Their plan is to fire Charlestown in several 
places and amid the confusion that ensues will run of Brown. I 
write this to put you upon your guard. Look well to your safety 
for they will not spare life. 

Yours, Harrisburg. 



Union Co. to John Brown. 

[Envelope] [MS.] John Brown, Esq., Charleston, Va. 
Postmarked: Hartford, Ct. 
[Endorsed] : Anonymous rescue. 

Keep up your courage. We'll take care of you. 

Yours, Union Co. 



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john brown letters. 169 

Thos. T. Heat^ to John Brqwn, 

[Envelope] [MS.] Captain John Brown, Charlestown, Jef- 
ferson County, Va. 

[Endorsed]: Thos. T. Heath. Sympathy. 

Cincinnati, Nov'b'r 26th, 1859. 

Captain John Brown, Charlestown Jail, Va. 

Honored Sire, — I have never met you — yet community of 
interest in freedom's cause makes us fellow-soldiers — and the 
ties of humanity constitute us brethren. 

You doubdess see the day approaching and are prepared — 
for the Everlasting Arms are around and underneath you! 

My Senior friend, you have fought a good fight — kept the 
faith — probably soon will have finished your course — and will in 
thai day receive the crown from The Lord, The Righteous Judge 
— Keep your heart right! 

A thousand times ten thousand and thousands of thousands, 
believe the red right arm of Jah Jehovah has been made bare — 
that He hath worked in and through you — and we know it will 
be well! 

Already, Sire, we catch the fore-running murmur of .the great 
shout which on the morrow shall burst from a freed world! 
God's word is sure! And His best blessing 2Xx^2Ay yours, — for 
you shall live in the hearts of your fellow men. And if you go 
hence it shall be up the Heavens in a chariot, and ten thousand 
new-fired sons of freedom shall catch your staff and mantle ! 

To your family too you leave glory as an heritage — And a 
host of warm hearts shall build and be their *' Home." — Such 
have never been forsaken — never will be. 

Sire, the sword of the spirit which you have unsheathed — that 
flaming blade shall flash and turn every way until the end ! In 
Heaven you will experience much joy over the deeds done in 
the flesh — over victory! 

In spirit only we know each other — but this is all — everything 
— then with devoutest prayer that if not to meet here, we shall 
meet in that great throng who have gone up through great trib- 
ulation, Let me Remain, 

Your Junior Brother, 

Thomas T Heath. 



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170 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

[Stamped in paper]: Thos. T. Heath, Attorney At Law, Cin- 
cinnati. 



J. A. COPELAND TO AdDISON W. HaLBERT. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Mr. Addison W. Halbert, Oberlin, Ohio. 
[Endorsed]: Copeland. Should' nt go. 

Charleston, Dec. lo, 1859. 
Friend Halbert: 

I take my pen in hand to pen you a few lines in answei" to 
your kind and affectionate letter of 5 Inst. 

Well dear friend I am happy that I can say to you that I am 
well both in body and mind. It is true that placed in the posi- 
tion that I am that it seames almost imposable tome to pen 
such a letter as I should. But although this is the case I will 
try to pen a few words of perhaps som interest to you. 

Your kind letter came to me bringing such pleasure as a trav- 
erler across som drery deasert feel when for many long day he 
has been traverling without water to quench his thirst and to 
cool his parched lips. I was happy to hear you was well and 
and that though I atn confined within the walls of a prison and 
that under sentence of death, you have not forgoten me. Ah 
friend, it is true that I am now under sentence of death and am 
to die on the 16 of this month (perhaps before you get this) and 
that upon the gallows and for doing what, for what crime or 
crimes am I to die, is it for som black hearted crime, is becaus 
I have dipt my hand in my brothers blood that I am to be hung, 
not at all, for what is it then ? No, it is for obeying the com- 
mandment of my God in doing to others as I would have them 
do to me. It is because I have attempted to assist in giving 
that freedom to at least a few of my poor and enslaved brethrin 
who has been most foully and unjustly deprived of their liberty, 
by cruel and unjust men, but you are too well acquainted with 
all of the circumstances for me to add more on this point. 

You ask me to tell you about poor Leary. Well, when we 
came to the Ferry we were put under the command Capt. Kaga 
and sent about half a mile from the bridg where Capt. Brown 
and men were station, to Hairs Rifle Factory, this was about 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 171 

lo o*c. at night, we remain there untiil Mondey about 2 0*c. 
P. M. waiting for orc^ers from Cap. Brown without receiving 
any, at this we discovered that we were being surronded by men 
when Capt. Kaga give orders to leave th^ building and make 
our escape, which we accordingly did, but upon getting in the 
road at the back of the building we had occupied we discovered 
that our onely means of escape if any was to cross the Shana- 
dore river, which we tride to cross, on entering the river we 
turned and fired one round at those who had by this time opened 
a hot fire on us from all sides. Capt. Kaga succeeded in get- 
ting about two thirds across the river when he was shot through 
the head and sank beneath the river, the who fire of at leas 
fifty men was then turned upon poor Leary and myself, when he 
being next to Kaga and in advace of me about ten or twelve 
feet, saw that their was no posable chance of escape left us, got 
up on a ston that was near him and turned his back on the side 
of the river to which we were tring escape and was shot through 
the body, but did not die untiil about ten hours afterward as I have 
been informed since I have been in jail. At the time Leary was 
shot I succeeded in getting above som stones that were just 
above me in the river and floated down behind them and remain 
so untiil thought that we were all killed, when som of them com- 
ing out to where Leary was discoved me and I was puled upt 
out of the water with the intetion of being shot, but som of 
those that were present not being such cowards as to want to 
kill a man when disarmed and a prisener, prevented it. When 
I was taken to the charstown jail where I have bee ever sence as 
you ftill well know. And now dear freid, I will write but a few 
words more and I must close my correspondent with you 
forever on this earth, which I hope may resumed in heaven 
where it will never be again interrupted. Give my love to you 
mother and brothers and my mother, father, &c., an.i to all my 
friends, so Good by dear friend, serve you God and meet me 
in heaven. I remain. 

Yours now and forever, 

John A. Copeland. 



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172 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

R. Washington*? to Andrew Hunter. 



ginia. 



[Envelope] [MS.] Andrew Hunter, Esq., Charlestown.Vir- 
•nia. 
[Endorsed]: R. Washington. Detective. 

Rutland. Vermont, Novr., i8th, 1859, 10.30 P. M. 
Andrew Hunter, Esq. : 

Dear Sir, — I have been suddenly call off to Montreal to at- 
tend to a matter in which I had been engaged previous to my 
visiting you. I have however arrainged with my partners Mess. 
Matsell and Mackellar to attend to any matter that interest Our 
Cause during my absence which will only be for two or three 
days. I am keeping three of my organs in readiness to take 
advantage of what comes in my way. I regret to say that there 
is a very bad state of feeling existing in this section judging 
from the talk of the persons on* the train, but its only talk. 
For they say if John Brown is Hung that there are plenty more 
John Browns I tell them no, only in talk. But I tell them if 
there is I pity them if they try it on even if there is a thousand 
of them. These Vermonters profess to worship the name of 
Liberty but its only in name, for the talk Treason in saying they 
go for a disolution of the Union sooner than slavery should ex- 
ist, and that they can do without the south. What you War- 
mounters do without the south when it comes to that you'l find 
the south extends farther north and nearer to the Blue Moun- 
tains than you have any idea of. Its only talk, there aint any 
more John Browns for some week to come. I hope to be in 
Montreal to-morrow afternoon and will be Bobbing around, per- 
haps I may tumble to something and if I do I will make a note 
of it. 

Very respectfully, 

R. Washington. 



— TO Sheriff of Jefferson County. 

[Endorsed]: Anonymous Warning. 

Yellow Springs, O., Nov. 22nd, 1859. 
To the Sheriff of Jefferson Co. 

Dear Sir, — Be very careful and watch closely every stranger 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 173 

that appears in your town until after the hanging of Brown for 
there has an expedition formed in this county, especially at Xenia 
and in Springfield, Clark Co., to rescue old Brown. They have 
also in their league persons from the neighborhood of Urbanna, 
Columbus, Cleveland and Circinnati; they are all determined and 
strong willed men of the true Abolition stamp, who will sacrifice 
life and property to save '* the noble John Brown,'' as they call 
him. I am not informed what the number will be but it will be 
large. The movement will be made in the following manner and 
for all I know is very probably going on at this moment. Per- 
sons are to start from all these places separately and to arrive in 
Charlestown at different times and by different routes, coming 
as strangers urged by curiosity to see the execution of Brown. 
Some of these will have negroes with them travelling as servants 
so as to be able to have as many present as possible. 

They think this can be done without suspicion because there 
will be such a number of strangers present at the execution. 
Of course they have arrangements made which are to carry of 
Brown and his confederates if possible by strategy but if it can- 
not be done in this way they will strike a bold and decisive blow 
and retreat in a body until they can reach a free state and then 
to scatter, they think that they will surprise everybody so that 
no resistance will be made. This effort will be made about the 
30th of Nov. or ist of Dec, they will not wait for night but will 
make the attack if one is necessary at the first favorable oppor- 
tunity either at night or day. 

Do not think because this letter has no signature that it is not 
to be relied on, for it is, if my name should be signed there are 
persons who will kill me here so I dare not do it, the circum- 
stances under which I write as it is are precarious. 

Heed this letter if you wish to see the law take its course. If 
you do not listen to it the consequences may be bad both for 
your state and the Union. I am satisfied that in writing this let- 
ter I have done my duty, both to you and to humanity. This 
is all I know, to tell how I discovered it would reveal myself so 
believe this letter to come from one who favors law and order. 



To the Sheriff of Jefferson Co., Va. 



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174 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

C. Camp to Col. A. M. Barbour. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Col. A. M. Barbour, Supt. for Govern- 
ment, Harper's Ferry. 

Private. Per Politeness Conductor Express. 
[Endorsed]: Detective. 

Wheeling, Nov. 22, 1859, 
Tuesday A. M., 5 O'clock. 

Col. A. M. Barbour, Harpers Ferry, Va. 

Dr. Sir, — I came in this morning thoroughly knocked up 
and as it is too early to find Gen. Feeny I hasten to write you 
concerning what I have gleaned on my way and which you will 
communicate to Gov. Wise. A man got on the train at some 
point near Cumberland and while on the train he got into con- 
versation with a brakeman on the forward seat next the door; 
he made enquiries about Bellair, how far it was from Zanesville, 
how soon he could reach there if he stopped on the road and 
took the Express train, after getting his information he resumed 
his original seat near the stove and when we stopped for supper 
at Peidmont, left the train bag & baggage. This is enough for 
me, if he comes on he will not be missed. I go into Ohio im- 
mediately. You may rest assured if the attack is made they 
will rendezvous in the mountains and assemble by train & troop 
when the time comes and if an attack is made the march will be 
on Saturday night & Sunday morning. I do not believe in an 
attempt at rescue at the execution. 

I am marking cards for a living. *' The renowned & only or- 
iginal National Card Writer begs leave to offer to the public," 
&C. I send you copy. 

Yours Cordially, 

C. Camp. 

I send this to you as Gov. Wise letter's produce enquiries. 

C 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 175 

A. J. Snow to John Brown. 
Breeksville, Ciiyahoga Co., Ohio, Nov. 19, '59. 
Friend Brown: 

being an old neighbor of yours and presuming that you are 
not very pleasantly situated, thought I would drop to your ad- 
dress a few lines to let you know the state of feeling generally in 
this section of country. Well, then, firstly, we consider that 
you have broken the laws of the land and are guilty unto death, 
you engaged in a perilous expedition to free a down troden 
people and failed, and are therefore guilty and by law ought to 
die, the same would have been the case with Hancock and all 
the signers of the declaration of Independence. But I must 
liken your case more particularly to Lafayette, who periled his 
life, without hope or wish of reward, for freedom. Now I dont 
want you to understand me as sympathising with you in an at- 
tempt to raise rebellion among or run off slaves, for I do not. 
but think that taking slaves from their owners, excuse me, I 
mean masters, is as bad as taking horses from their owners, I 
mean by law, but still I think that if any man. any white man, 
or at least any free white man, would at all be justifiable in rais- 
ing rebellion among, or running off slaves, it would be you, for 
the injuries that you received in Kansas would justify almost 
anything. Now the only sympathy that I have with you in this 
affair is, that you are an agitator, for all great evils, whether 
Civil, Religious or Political must be strongly agitated before 
they will be done away. Now I consider American slavery the 
wor^t slavery that ever existed, for it is the most abject slavery, 
amongst the most free and enlightened people that ever lived. 
And we of the north as a nation have to participate in this great 
evil. i. e., in the stigma of it. Would to God that there was a 
peaceable dissolution of the free and slave states of this Union. 
I said that American slavery was the worst slavery that ever 
existed. I will take that back, for I consider slavery of the 
mind worse than slavery of the body, therefore the slavery of 
priestcraft is worse than the bodily slavery of the southern states 
of this union. The minister claiming to be from god, who 
comes before the people with his sanctimonious face, and says, 



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176 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

claiming it to be the word of God, ** slaves obey your masters," 
is a worse man than the slave owner who with whip' in hand 
says to his slave, damn you, do as I tell you. 

But to return to your particular case. I will here say that 
there will be built in this section a respectable monument to the 
memory of **01d John Brown," the great slavery agitator, 
*'01d Brown," of Kansas, **Osawatamie Brown," and in after 
years your name will be coupled with those that have been 
amongst the foremost in all great reforms. — Stephen Arnold 
Douglas is also a great Slavery agitator but for an entirely dif- 
ferent purpose, and his name is becoming even now a byword 
and a reproach and is contemptuously coupled with Benedict 
Arnold and ought to be treated by all highminded men as the 
Earl of Balcarras treated that traitor. — Decator is lauded to the 
highest degree for liberating a few slaves at Tripoli and making 
them renounce their system of slavery, while James Buchanan 
is considered worse than a bandit chieftain for his attempt to 
extend the bounds of slavery into Kansas — and many there are 
who wish that John Brown and James Buchanan had to change 
places. The Harpers Ferry affair is strengthening the Repub- 
lican party very materially. With a strong sympathy for the 
cause of freedom every where, I subscribe myself, 

Yours truly, 

A. J. Snow. 

(to be continued) 



SOME COLONIAL LETTERS. 



This Society has been recently presented with copies of sev- 
•eral letters between members of the Carter and Byrd families 
and .some of their friends. The originals of these were among 
the large and valuable collection of family papers at " Oakland," 
Cumberland county, the old seat of the Cocke family, and were 
probably destroyed in the fire which consumed that old house. 

Unfortunately some of the sheets of these copies were lost 
before they were given to the Society; but as family letters of 



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SOME COLONIAL LETTERS. 177 

the colonial period of Virginia, especially between ladies, are so 
rare, it has been thought desirable to print them, even with the 
omissions. 

Charles Carter, of "Cleve," King George county, was mar- 
ried three times. One of his wives, Anne, to whom he was mar- 
ried in 1741, was daughter of Colonel Wm. Byrd, 2d, of ** West- 
over.** One of the daughters of Charles Carter, Judith, married 
Wm. Burnett Browne, of Salem, Mass., and afterwards of '* El- 
sing Green,** King William county, Va. It is probable that 
*' Molly** Carter was visiting her sister in New England at the 
time the correspondence begins. 



* Mrs. Maria Beverley ( ?) to Maria Carter. 

[The beginning of this letter is missing.] 

** Rebecca Burwellf is soon to render Mr. Jacqueline Ambler 
the happiest of Mortals, that Miss Fanny Burwell,J of York, 
proposes to Grace Rosewell by wedding Mr. John Page, and 
that Miss Fairfax § will shortly wed Mr. Warner Washington, 
of Gloucester,*' — adding with regard to this marriage: *' What 
think you my Molly, of 45 for 21 ? Does it strike you as alto- 
gether Suitable ? But can you hear of so Vast many of our 

* Maria, daughter of Landon Carter, of '* Sabine Hall," married Rob- 
ert Beverley, of "Blandfield." 

t Rebecca, daughter of Hon. Lewis Burwell, Governor of Virginia, 
was bom May 29, 1746, and married May 24. 1764, Jacqueline Ambler, 
afterwards treasurer of the State of Virginia. Rebecca Burwell was 
the ''Belinda " of Jefferson's college days. Her daughter, Mary Am- 
bler, was the wife of Chief Justice Marshall. 

t Frances, daughter of Hon. Robert Carter Burwell, of Isle of Wight 
county, member of the Council, married John Page, Governor of Vir- 
ginia. 

I Hannah, youngest daughter of William Fairfax, of " Belvoir," mar- 
ried (his second wife), Warner Washington, of Gloucester, and after- 
wards of Frederick county, where he died in 1791. He was son of John 
Washington, of *' Highgate," Gloucester. 



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178 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Sex about to change their Estate without enlisting yourself in 
their Number ? I cannot believe the young Gentlemen of New 
England are so Vastly depraved in their way of Thinking as not 
to have made you many Applications of that Sort. They must 
by such an omission impeach themselves, they cannot be blest 
with any great Degree of Penetration to let so many Charms 
rest unobserved. But why do I run on at this Rate ? I remem- 
ber your Grandmama told me you had a great Variety of Suit- 
ors. I should be sorry to hear you had accepted any of their 
Offers, because by that means I should be deprived of any Pros- 
pect of having you near me again. 

^•Youraff," 

Cousin Beverley. 



Charles Carter to Maria Carter. 

Virginia, January 25, 1764. 
My Dear Molly: 

I must Acknowledge the favor of your many Letters which 
my Illness has prevented my Aswering. I love to receive them 
from you, but I wish they were a little better wrote, which would 
add much to the Satisfaction. I intend, if I can persuade Whit- 
man to take it so far, to send Ten Barrels of Corn to the care 
of Mr. Pearce, to raise you some Pocket money. Have you 
any Wants ? I hope my Molly will put a deaf ear to the flatter- 
ing Speeches of the World, and remember that one hour's Sick- 
ness may deprive her of every beauty a Giddy, foolish woman 
can boast of. I wish you had wrote me how the Lobsters and 
Salmon agreed with you, as you took care to eat them all, & 
did not indulge us with a Taste of either. 

You will see from your Sister's Letter, which will save me the 
trouble of adding more, that I am on the recovery, and that all 
the rest of your Relations, as far as I Know, are in good Health. 

Pray God Bless my Dear Child, & keep her from all danger 
of every Kind & sort. 

I am your most Affec. Father, 

Charles Carter. 



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SOME COLONIAL LETTERS. 179 

Mrs. Maria Byrd* to Maria Carter. 

December the 24th, 1763. 
My Dear Molly: 

When your Uncle Byrd returned from the Oyer & Termi- 
ner Court on Saturday, he delivered me your last Epistle, which 
brought Joy & Gladness to my Heart, as I have a true & sincere 
Affection for my beloved namesake. Your cousin Beverley has 
been so extremely III that no one imagined for 17 Days that she 
could recover, but last week I heard she had been two or three 
times to take the Air. 

I am Impatient to see her, yet cannot venture to take so long 
a Journey till the Spring. I have heard your Father should say 
he was to have you home next Summer, the very thought of 
which affords me a pleasing Satisfaction. And in all probability 
you will meet with your Uncle & Aunt Byrd, as you travel home, 
either at New York or in Philadelphia, as about that time they 
propose to make a Tour to the North, & Til assure you, if it so 
happen, it would give great pleasure to Them. I have taken an 
abundance of Phisick since I last saw you, but I thank God I 
am well enough at this time to give you under my handwriting, 
that I am my Dear Molly's 

Most Affectionate Grandmother, 

Maria Byrd. 



William BvRDf to Maria Carter. 
My Dear Niece: 

I was in great hopes, as well as your Aunt & Grandmama, 
that you would have given us the Pleasure of your Company at 
Westover e'er now, & I should have rejoiced in an Opportunity 
of convincing you of my Affection. Report informs us that you 
are going to be Married very soon; I wish it had been agreeable 
to you to have given some of your Friends here Notice of it, 

* Mrs. Maria (Taylor) Byrd, widow of William Byrd, ad, and grand- 
mother of Maria Carter. 

t Colonel William Byrd, 3d, of Westover. See this Magazine, IX, 
80-88. 



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180 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

because we think ourselves interested in your Happiness; for 
my part, I shall always be glad to contribute to it. Mr. Armis- 
tead is a young Gendeman entirely acceptable to us, & we sin- 
cerely wish you both every Blessing of the married State. Be 
pleased my Dear Molly, to present my very best Compliments 
to him, & accept yourself of our Love & tender Friendship. I 
& the rest of your Relations here beg the Favour of you and 
Mr. Armistead to spend your Christmass at Westover, where 
many young People are to make merry, give our Love to your 
Sisters, & bring them with you. Our Coach shall attend you 
anywhere at any time. I ever am, My Dear Niece, 
Your Most Affec. Uncle, 

William Bvrd. 
Westover, Nov. 25, 1765. 



TO Maria Carter. 



***On examining the date of my Dear Friend*s Letter that 
ohe was so obliging as to write me, I am ashamed to think how 
long a time has expired since I received it. Will you, my Dear 
Friend, forgive me for not acknowledging it before ? I trust you 
will, & as a confession of a fault is the first step to Amendment, 
I hope to convince her how thoroughly sensible I am of mine, 
by the readiness with which I shall answer any future Letters she 
may honour me with. You tell me in yours of your diverting 
litde girls. How happy should I be to see them as well as their 
Parents, but thats a happiness which unpropitious fate denys 
me; I dare say, if I Knew Mr. Armistead I should soon find other 
reasons to esteem him than barely his being the Husband of my 
friend Maria. When you favour me with a Letter, which I hope 
will not be long, you can oblige me by letting me know how you 
like Lord Dunmore in Virginia. We are extremely well satisfied 
with Governor Try on here. Mrs. Try on is a very sensible 
Woman, & indeed what you call a Learned one, & his Secretary 
Coll. Fanning is a very amiable Man. he says he is a near Re- 
lation of Coll. Byrd, but of that you will be better 

[Part of this letter is missing.] 

* This letter was from a northern school frienjj who may be the ancestor 
of some who read it. 



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some colonial letters. 181 

Mrs. Fielde* to Mrs. Maria (Carter) Armistead.! 
My Dear Madam: 

Your Servant is just arrived with the Chair, for which I am 
much obliged, but am sjill more obliged by that Friendly and 
agreeable Entertainment I met with at Hesse, w'h I wish it may 
ever be in my power to return. I enclose the Receipts you De- 
sir' d, a thimble to Miss Jenny, w** is the smallest I have, & a pair 
of Mitts that I hope will fit one of the little Ladies. My Comp'" 
attend Mr. Armistead and your young Family, particularly I 
beg to be remembered to my good little friend Mast' Billy. 

I am Dear Mad" with an unfeigned esteem. 

Your Most Affectionate, 

E. Fielde. 
The Glebe, May 24th, 1774. 



Mrs. Feilde to Mrs. Armistead. 
[Part of this letter is missing.] 

** I cannot Express to you the concern it gave me to hear you 
were about to remove from your Home. Alas the Deluge of 
Calamities that have fallen on this unhappy Country; the Pros- 
pect is dreadful. Families flying from their Habitations, & what 
is still worse, Slaughter & Death to close up the rear. Oh 
Shocking, oh Horrible! But I cannot possibly believe that 
either the Governor or the Government intend to destroy the 
Country or distress the People in this Manner. You mention 
your having Prisoners which I did not Know of before. I un- 

* Rev. Thomas Fielde or Field, who is believed to have been an Eng- 
lishman, was chosen minister of Kingston parish, Gloucester, in 1770. 
He api>ears to have sided with England during the Revolution and re- 
moved to New York. 

t As has been stated Maria Carter married Wm. Armistead of* Hesse," 
Kingston parish, Gloucester county. They had issue: (i) Mary Ann, 
married Thomas Byrd (the Mr. Byrd referred to in Lucy Armistead's 

letter); (2) Lucy, married Harvey; (3) Jane, married William Cocke 

of "Oakland;" (4) William B., d s.p.; (5) Ann Cleves, married John 
P. Pleasants of Baltimore; (6) Judith Carter, married Richard H. Moale 
of Baltimore; (7) Charles Carter, d. s.p.; (8) Sarah, married Fairfax 
Washington; (9) Eleanor B., married Wm. McMecham of Baltimore. 



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182 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

derstand they were Officers. One of them Dying in your house 
must have occasioned great trouble in your Family, & also a 
great Fatigue upon your Spirits. I think this Western World 
is now actually turn*d up side down, & that we shall none of us 
know whether we stand on our Heads or our Heels, but I hope 
after we have been well jolted ^ jatnd/ed & shak'd together, we 
may by some lucky hit be thrown into our old Places & Stations, 
that the World will settle into its usual course, and things move 
in the same order as formerly. 

* 'Accept my constant and Affectionate regard for your Dear 
self and whatever concerns your Happiness, and be assured I 
highly prize your Friendship & think myself happy in every 
Token of regard I have received from you since I came into 
this Country.*' 



Mrs. Feilde to Mrs. Armistead. 
, [Part of this letter is missing.] 

New York, Aug. 17, 1779. 
Dear Mad": 

The very few opportunitys we meet with of writing to Vir- 
ginia makes me gladly embrace the one w** now occurs of con- 
veying a few lines to inform you that we are well, & to assure 
you that we constantly entertain the same regard for our Friends 
at Hesse of whose health & wellfare it will always give us pleas- 
ure to hear. 

I was much disappointed in not receiving a line from you by 
Mr. Smith when he came to Elizabeth Town, & we were very 
sorry a permit could not be obtained for his coming into the 
City; at ye time his first lett' was rec** Mr. Feilde had been con- 
fined to his room many days, by a swelling of his Foot, but im- 
mediately went (but with difficulty), to make application for 
that purpose, but as it was refused, he could do nothing further. 
He afterwards wrote to Mr. Smith by a Flag, w'h brought his 
last letter. Nothing could exceed our astonishment when he 
says Mr. Rodolph had informed him we had two of his negroes 
living with us, w*" is so far from truth, that .... 



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pioneer days in alleghany county. 183 

Lucy Armistead to Mrs. Maria Armistead. 

[Part of this letter is missing.] 

reading. Mr. Byrd rides and we work till dinner which comes 
in at three. When the Weather is fine we generally take a walk, 
when we return we drink Tea or Coffee. At night we work, while 
Mr. Byrd reads to us; at nine we go to bed: this is the manner 
in which we spend our Time when are entirely alone; pray Mama 
let me Know what you think of it. How much am I obliged to 
my Dear Mama for inquiring what I was most in need of ; I am 
very well off for everything but Gowns: a few pocket handker- 
chiefs would not be amiss, though I would not for the world have 
my Dear Mama put herself to any trouble about them. You 
say you must insist on my taking more pains with my writing. 
That will be useless, as you say the Gentlemen have lost the Art 
of making Pens. I agree with you. I think they have, and 
when I have a bad pen it is impossible to write well. With duty 
to my Dear Mama, & love to my Sisters, 

I remain your 

Dutyful Daughter, 

Lucy Armistead. 

P. S. Mammy Amy desires her love, & begs you will save 
some of the young Ladies old Gowns for her. 



PIONEER DAYS IN ALLEGHANY COUNTY. 



(By W. A. McAllister, Warm Springs, Va..) 



The history of Western Virginia has been sadly neglected by 
every historian with a more than local prominence. 
. The reasons for this may be partially explained by a glance at 
the map of Virginia and by a brief review of the past and a 
glimpse at the present inhabitants of this section. Taking Alle- 
ghany as the county specially under consideration, let us exam- 
ine its location and note its boundary line. Bordered as it is by 
chains of mountains and interspersed with valleys and ridges 



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184 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

alternately, providing, as the only natural outlets, a concourse 
of rugged stfeams, is it surprising that its attractions were long 
meeting recognition ? With an early settlement of hardy pio- 
neers, having few literary tastes, rapidly replaced by heteroge- 
neous immigrants as the hand of progress pushed toward its 
wealthy stores, is it remarkable that its annals have been ill pre- 
served ? Yet like all the counties adjoining the Blue Ridge on 
the west, Alleghany was for many decades the scene of treach- 
erous outrages at the hands of the savage Reds, not to mention 
the milder dangers of wild animals to which the border settlers 
were continually subjected. 

Augusta county (formed in 1745) had no definite boundary 
on the west, and is, therefore, the mother county of all western 
Virginia. 

But her territory was not long left unscathed, for the liberty- 
loving people of Fincastle soon (1769) claimed the county of 
Botetourt from her bosom soil, and Bath held her first court in 
1791. Not, however, till 1822 was Alleghany carved from Bote- 
tourt, Bath and Monroe. 

Early Settlement. 

The exact date of the pioneers arrival in this county is not 
known, but as Fort Young was built by Peter Hogg in 1756, 
according to specifications furnished by Colonel George Wash- 
ington and at the command of Governor Dinwiddie, it is prob- 
able the settlers had become numerous at that time. 

It is a further authenticated fact that William Mann, who oc- 
cupied Salt Petre Cave on Jackson river as his first habitation 
west of his Erin home, had built a strongly stockaded fort before 
1761. 

The early settlers were chiefly Scotch-Irish and therefore cov- 
enanters, but we find that **The Vestry of Augusta parish had 
established a * chapel of ease ' at the forks of James river, and 
paid Sampson Mathews a small salary for his services (as reader) 
at that point; but in the fall of 1757, the greater part of the in- 
habitants thereabouts ' having deserted their plantations by 
reason of the enemy Indians,' it was resolved that the chapel 
referred to was unnecessary, and the services of the reader were 
discontinued." 



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PIONEER DAYS IN ALLEGHANY COUNTY. 186 

Unlike the majority of the cavaliers, Governor Dinwiddie* 
was peculiarly strenuous in his temperance views; nor did he 
neglect the opportunity of divulging his principles to the re- 
moter settlers, as is shown in his communication to Major Lewis. 
He thus admonishes him : ' * Recommend morality and sobriety 
to all people.*' It is probable the admonition was well placed, 
for they were not all covenanters of the stricter sect, and no 
doubt apple-jack and red-eye were favorites of many. 

One of the leading pioneers of this county was Peter Wright, 
a famous hunter, who resided near the present site of Coving- 
ton. It is by him that Peters mountain got its name. 

There is a large projecting rock on this mountain known as 
Peter's Rock; and tradition tells us that while crossing the 
mountain one winter he was overtaken by a snow-storm and 
took refuge beneath the crest of this rock. The depth of the 
snow compelled him to spend several days in his rude abode 
without a morsel of food. His intense hunger induced him to 
chew his moccasins and the nourishment obtained from them 
sustained him until a deer could be killed. It wasz further mat- 
ter of tradition that Wright had hidden a quantity of money 
near this rock, but this was not verified until recently, when Mr. 
Jourdan Helmintaler, after diligent search, exhumed at the point 
designated a casket containing some valuable coins. 

Fort Young. 

As stated, this fort was constructed in 1756. Its location was 
only a few yards from the present site of the large iron furnace 
at Covington. In excavating for the foundation some Indian 
relics were unearthed and are now in possession of Mr. Frank Ly- 
man — the former owner of the furnace. In 1761, about sixty 
Shaxnee Indians invaded the settlement at the forks of James 
river, and after killing some half dozen men, captured Mrs. 
Hannah Dennis, Mrs. Renix and Mrs. Smith with five of Mrs. 



• ** Cavalier " is simply a term frequently used by writers to describe 
the inhabitants of eastern Virginia during the Colonial period. Gov- 
ernor Dinwiddie was a shrewd Scotchman, with probably more traits 
resembling his fellow-countrymen (in origin) of the Valley, than any 
usually ascribed to the English Cavaliers. — Ed. 



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186 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Renix's children and a servant girl named Sally Jew. Among 
the massacred were the above named ladies* husbands. The 
Indians then separated; twenty of them returned to the Ohio 
with the captives, while the remaining forty started up the Cow- 
pasture river. The settlers were hastily notified and assembled 
at Paul's fort. From thence the Indians were pursued and over- 
taken. A brief skirmish ensued in which nine of the savages 
were slain and the others put to flight. The remainder of the 
story is given by Withers: ** According to the stipulation of 
Boquet's treaty with the Shawnees, Mrs. Renix and two of her 
sons, Robert and William (later Col. Renix — both late of Green- 
brier) were brought to Staunton and redeemed. Joshua Renix 
took an Indian wife, became a chief of the Miamies and died 
near Detroit (1810)." 

Hannah Dennis was allotted to the Chilicothe towns. She 
learned the Indian language and practiced their manner and 
customs. She became proficient in nursing the sick and finding 
the savages believers in necromancy and witchcraft she practiced 
both. The Indians being very susceptive, she was given perfect 
liberty and treated as a queen. In June, 1763, the opportunity 
of escape which she sought was given and she at once availed 
herself of it. As soon as her intention was suspected, she was 
pursued and fired upon, but seeking refuge in the hollow limb of 
a fallen sycamore she avoided detection and succeeded in making 
her way safely to the Levels on Greenbrier river. She was found 
here in an exhausted state and taken to the home of Archibald 
Clendennin. She had then been upwards of twenty days on her 
disconsolate journey, alone, and with no other food than green 
grapes, herbs and wild cherries. When she had sufficiently re- 
cuperated, she was taken on horse-back to Fort Young and from 
thence returned to her relatives. 

In October, 1764, about fifty Delaware and Mingo warriors 
ascended the Big Sandy and came over on New river; there the 
party divided, a portion going toward the Catawba settlement 
(in Botetourt), while the other division crossed over to Dunlap's 
creek. Following that stream to its confluence, they crossed 
Jackson river above Fort Young, and skirting the settlement 



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PIONEER DAYS IN ALLEGHANY COUNTY. 187 

aboot the fort, proceeded to Carpenters Fort,* which was at that 
time in charge of a Mr. Brown. Meeting William Carpenter 
near the fort, they killed and scalped him, and coming to the 
fort captured Carpenter*s son Joseph, two small Brown children 
and a woman. No other whites being close the Indians plun- 
dered the house, and retreated precipitately by way of Green- 
brier river. The shot that killed Carpenter was heard at Fort 
Young, but the weakness of the garrison there and the paucity 
of the settlers, necessitated the summoning of aid from Captain 
Audley Paul at Fort Dinwiddie (twenty-five miles up Jackson 
river). This worthy leader immediately started in pursuit, but 
was unable to overtake this party of the savages, though he ac- 
cidentally encountered those who had gone to the Catawba. 
The Indians were surprised and easily routed. Joseph Carpen- 
ter afterwards became Dr. Carpenter, of Nicholas county, and 
the younger Brown became Colonel Samuel Brown, late of 
Greenbrier. The elder Brown cast his lot with the Indians, 
whom he learned to love, and among his captors sought and won 
the idol of his heart. The account of his single visit to his aged 
mother (then residing in Greenbrier) is impressively portrayed 
by Colonel John G. Gamble and copied by Waddell in his An- 
nals of Augusta. He (J. Brown) died in Michigan (1815) loved 
and respected for his zeal and philanthropy. 

A familiar frequenter at Fort Young was an Indian hunter. 
Mad Anthony. He was valuable to the whites as he told all he 
knew of the inimical plots of his race, but as he was a tattler, 
both sides were cautious in taking him into confidence. He often 
left the fort ostensibly to hunt, but in reality to get lead and 
mould a shot-pouch full, with which he would return in the even- 
ing. He was always reticent when questioned as to the source 
of his bullets, and never could he be induced to divulge the 
secret. The lead-mine (if such it be) yet awaits the prospector's 
pick. 

(to BE concluded) 



♦ This fort was on the property now owned by Colonel W. A. Gil- 
liam, and near his present residence. 



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188 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



VIRGINIA MILITIA IN THE REVOLUTION. 



(continued) 



1777. Jan'y 28. King, Henry, for 48 blankets @ 24 | , ^57. 12. 

Feb'y i. Kennedy, David, for Provisions furnished an escort to 
Powder waggon, 28. 5. 3. 

Kirk, Patrick, for summoning the Justices of Frederick County, 5. 5. o. 

3. Kerby, Richard, for one Rifle for Capt. Flem*g Bates Comp'y, Cher- 
okee Exped'n, 5. o. o. 

6. Knott, Elvinton, Lieut., for pay & forage of his Do. to OctV 17th 
last, 10. 5. o. 

King, Capt. Miles, for Do. Min't Do. to 4 inst. ^ accot, 665. 18. 2>^. 

Ditto, for a Musket & Bayonet for Do., 2. 10. 

Mar. 7. Kerby, Capt. William, of the York Militia, for pay & rations 
to Feb. 28 last, 89. 17. 4. 

12. King, Henry, for one Gun delivered Col. John Wilson, 3. 5 o. 

19. Kerby, Capt. William, for short pd. the Capt., Lieut. & Ensign 
last settlem't, 4. 18. 6. 

Ap'l 5. King, Michael, for 35 days pay & forage as Q'r master at 
Hampton, 7. 17. 6. 

King, Col. Henry, for pay as County Lieut, for 35 days pay at 15 ] , 
26. 5. o. 

King, Capt. Miles, for pay of his Comp'y to March 18 ^ accot., 98. 

1-9. 

9. Kidd, Daniel for Linnen, &c., furnished Tho. Madi.son for Chero- 
kee Exped'n, 250. i. 10. 

16. King, Capt. Edmund, for i Drum and 2 Halberts for his Comp'y 
Miltia, 2. o. o. 

21. Kinkead, Capt. John, for pay & rations of his Comp'y Do. to the 
ist Inst., 228. 18. 4. 

24. King, Miles, for paid expenses to sick soldiers at Hampton ^ 
accot, 5. 1.3. 

King, Henry, Miles & John, for sundry Tools, &c., furnished Barracksf 
&c., F* accot., ir. 19. o. 

Sept. 5. Kidd, Daniel, for horse hire on Cherokee Expedition, 1. 17. 6. 

8. Kidd, Joseph, for victualling Brunswick Militia, ^ accot, 7. i. 3. 

Oct. 23. King, Henr>', for pay of sundry workmen on Barracks at 
Hampton, "^ accot., 50. o. 3. 

Nov. 18. Ditto, for sundry Persons for forage, &c., furnished Ditto, 
^ accot., 31. 10, 4. 



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VIRGINIA MILITIA IN THE REVOLUTION. 189 

Dec. 8. Kinline, John, Lieut., for pay of his Guard of Princess Anne 
Ditto, ^ accot., i8. 2. 8. 

1778. Jan'y 16. Kennedy, William, for Rations for Kentucky Militia, 
^ accot., 2. 13. 8. 

23. Ker, Edward, for provisions furnished a Guard at Pingoteague, 
^ accot., 3. 4. o. 

26. Kennedy. David, for paid for sundries for the Frederick Militia 
^ accot., 51. 14. 3. 

Feb'y 13. Knott, Elvinton, Lieut., for pay, &c., of three Guards of 
Nansem'd Ditto ^ accot., 68. o. i. 

23. Kendall, George, for pay, &c., of sundry detch'ts North'n Militia 
^ accot., 95. 13. o. 

Mar. 27. King, Capt. Michael, for Ditto his Comp'y of Nansem'd 
Ditto ^ accot., 108. 6. 6. 

May 18. Kenner, Maj'r Winder, for his pay & for provisions for 
Norlh'd Militia, 9. 3. 5. 

25. Kinline, Capt. John, for pay Princess Anne Militia, 41. i. 2. 

26. Kidd, Joseph, for pay as Q'r Master sergt. to Brunswick Do., 3. 
3.0. 

(TO BE CONTINUED) 



WILL OF WILSON GARY, 1772. 
(See Vol. IX, 104-111.) 



In the Name of God Amen. I Wilson Gary of Ceeleys in the County 
& Parish of Elizabeth City, of sound and perfect Mind & Memory do 
make and publish this my last will and Testament in Manner and Form 
following 

I give & bequeath unto my dear Wife Sarah Gary the sum of five 
hundred Pounds current money, her cabinet. Gold Watch, and rings, my 
coach, Post chariot & Horses, chair. Carts and Harness and all my 
Household Goods and Kitchen Furniture, Liquors of every sort, Pro- 
visions, all the new Goods in my House at the Time of my Death and 
what new Goods are sent for to Britain or elsewhere the year I shall 
dye, tho* not arrived except the Negroes Clothes, Tools &c sent for my 
slaves in Gloucester and King and Queen, which I desire may be ap- 
plyed for their use. I also lend my said dear wife during her life the 
use of all my Plate and what Books of mine she shall desire. I lend 
also to my said dear Wife during her life all my Lands in Elizabeth City 
County and whatever Lands in the said County I shall hereafter pur- 
chase & hope my dear son will let his mother use tend & enjoy 



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190 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the same tho' the law may not strictly permit me to devise Lands of 
which I may not be seised in my Life time. I also lend to my said dear 
Wife during her Life the slaves I may have in Elizabeth City at the Time 
of my Death and all the Stocks of every kind kept upon the said Lands, 
all of which Lands, slaves & stocks I lend her the sole use of without 
being accountable to any Person. I hereby order & direct my son 
Wilson Miles Gary to pay his mother annually on the first Day of Janu- 
ary the sum of one hundred Pounds current money in Lieu & full of her 
Dower share, thirds or Part which she may or might claim to my Lands, 
slaves, stocks &c in the Counties of Albemarle, Henrico, Warwick, 
Gloster and King & Queen, which said sum of one hundred Pounds, if 
he neglects delays or refuseth to pay within two months after it becomes 
due I hereby authorize & give Power to his said Mother to take, seize 
and expose to public sale as many of the slaves as will fully satisfy & 
pay what is at any time behind, or remains due to her of the above an- 
nuity, and to discharge the Costs that may accrue. I also give to my 
said dear wife, while she continues sole, full Liberty & Power to cut up, 
sell & carry off Wood. Plank or other Timber from my Lands in Eliza- 
beth City County without any molestation or Impeachment of Waste. 

My Pew in the Church of Elizabeth City Parish I hereby annex to my 
Messuage in the said Parish called & known by the name of Ceeleys 
willing the said Pew may go and pass forever with the said Messuage, 
as the same shall descend. 

Whereas I am told that the widow of George Dudley formerly my 
Overseer hath in her Will left me a Legacy, I give the said Legacy to 
her son living in King & Queen near Poropotank. 

I desire my Exutors will send to England for the following Books, all 
lettered & bound in calf, viz: the Spectator, Pamela, Clarissa and S'r 
Charles Grandison, which Books I give to my Granddaughter Sarah 
Cary— I give devise and bequeath to my son Wilson Miles Cary, to him 
and his Heirs forever all my lands, Slaves, stocks and other Things 
whatsoever lying & being in the Counties of Albemarle & Hanover, 
and after his Mother's Death all my Lands in the County of Elizabeth 
City 

Item. I give and bequeath all my Lands in the County of Warwick, 
together with my water Grist mill to my son Wilson Miles Cary and the 
Heirs of his Body lawfully begotten forever and on Failure of such 
Heirs of the Body of my said Son then to the Heirs of myself and 
the Heirs of their Bodies lawfully begotten forever, and on Failure of 
such my right Heirs then to the use of the Parish of Warwick in the 
County of Warwick for a glebe for the Benefit of the Minister of the 
said Parish forever. 

Item. I give and bequeath all the Lands I have purchased in the County 
of King & Queen to my son Wilson Miles Cary and the Heirs of his 
Body lawfully begotten forever. 



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WILL OF WILSON GARY, 1772. 191 

Item. I give and bequeath all my Lands in the County of Gloucester 
together with my Water grist Mill to my son Wilson Miles Gary & the 
Heirs of his Body lawfully begotten forever. 

Item. I give & bequeath to my said son W. M. G. all my Slaves, 
Stocks, plantation utensils and other Things on my Lands & Plantations 
in the Gounties of Warwick, Gloucester and King & Queen to him and 
his Heirs forever. 

Icem. I give to my granddaughter Sarah Gary when she is twenty 
one years old or when she is married, on condition it is w'th the Gonsent 
of her Father or guardian, the sum of five Hundred Pounds current 
money of Virginia. 

Whereas I lent my son the sum of three hundred and fifty four Pounds 
for which I have his Bond bearing date the 23rd of January 1765, with 
Interest thereon from the 10 Day of April 1765, I do hereby assign over 
& give in Trust to my other E.xecutors for the sole Use, Benefit and Be- 
hoof of my Granddaughter Mary Munro Gary the said Bond & the money 
due therefrom to be paid her when she is twenty years old or when she 
is married with the consent of her Father or Guardian, with the accru- 
ing Interest and I desire and request my Executors when the Sums 
given my said Granddaughters can be paid & received that the money 
may be put upon Interest on undoubted Security for the use and Benefit 
of my said Granddaughters that it may be increased when they entitled 
to receive the said Legacies. 

I had in a former will made a Provision for my Daughter Mrs. Sarah 
Gary in Gase I should survive my Son Wilson Miles Gary her Husband 
but at the request of my said Son I have omitted the said Provision. 

Item. I give and bequeath unto my said son W. M. G. all Sums of 
money I may have due to me in Great Britain now or at the Time of my 
Death and direct that all sums of money which my said son has paid for 
me or engaged to pay on my account may be paid him out of my Estate 
here and deeni'd Part of my Debts and I esteem and reckon what Pro- 
vision I have made for his children or any of his Family as given to 
himself 

All the rest and residue of my Estate not heretofore disposed of after 
paying my just Debts and the Legacies in this Will specifically given, I 
give to my four Daughters Sarah Mary, Anne and Elizabeth and my 
said son Wilson Miles Gary over and above what I have paid to the 
Husbands of my said Daughters in my Life time and over and above 
what I have already given to them and my said son equally to be divided 
between. And I do hereby give and bequeath to my Executors the 
Part or share alotted to my said Daughter Elizabeth Fairfax In Trust for 
the use and Benefit of my said Daughter Elizabeth and I direct the same 
to be put out at Interest upon a good & undoubted security and the 
Profits or Interest thereof to be annually paid to my said Daughter Eliz- 
abeth upon her own Receipt without the Intervention of Bryan 



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192 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Fairfax her Husband, towards the maintenance & better support 
of her & her children and to her sole use, Benefit, Behoof of [sic] Dis- 
postal during her natural life and after her Decease the principal sum to 
her Daughters and her son William towards his support, I mean all 
such Daughters as she may leave at the Time of her Death. 

And whereas the said Bryan Fairfax is indebted to me by bond I do 
hereby direct my Executors when the said Money be received to put the 
same also to Interest and to pay the said Interest annually to my said 
Daughter Elizabeth during her natural Life in the same manner and 
under the like Conditions and Terms as before is directed for her Part 
of my personal Estate and the Principal Money at her Death to go and 
be divided in the same Manner as that directed. 

Item. I give to my dear Nephew Colo. Cary Selden fifty Pounds cur- 
rent money in full of all Demands he may have upon me & it is my far- 
ther will that if he should not otherwise be able to reimburse himself for 
the Loss he hath sustained in some Carolina money he had to dispose 
of for me (tho' I think Colo. Lem'l Riddick is liable for the same) ihat 
he may be indemnified & paid out of my Estate. 

Item. I give to Mrs. Elizbeth Eyre the sum of twenty Pounds current 
money and a suit of mouning out of Colo. Prentis's Store upon condi- 
tion that she remain with my dear wife unless they should mutually agree 
to part. I direct my Executors if they shall think my Estate can con- 
veniently afford it to lay out one hundred Pounds Sterling in purchasing 
Rings of such Value as they may approve but if my personal Estate 
should fall short according to my Expectation that they have Power to 
omit Part or all of the said Rings as they may think proper except one, 
which at all events I desire may be a handsome one and presented to 
my dear sister Selden as a small Token of the affectionate Regard I bear 
to her; the other Rings to be distributed at the Discretion of my Execu- 
tors should they be bought. 

Item. I give unto Robt. Carter Nicholas Esq'r the sum of one hun- 
dred Pounds current Money for his extra Trouble and advice. In Case 
any Difficulties or Disputes should arise on any Thing in this my will 
on such occasions, to avoid the Expence and Delay of litigation I recom- 
mend that two honest & disinterested Persons may be chosen as Referees 
& if they cant agree that a third Person may be added to & decide all 
Disputes that may arise. 

Item. I give to my grandson Miles Cary my silver Watch and my 
Sword and Pistols mounted with Silver and my other arms. 

Whereas I was with the Honble. John Blair & Col. John Boiling de- 
ceased left Executor to my sister Ann Whiting who by her last Will 
and Testament has given nine hundred Pounds, six hundred Pounds, 
Part thereof, due by bond from Colo. Henry Whiting, the said John Boi- 
ling before I was qualified to act as an Executor received without my 
Privity and against my approbation, and the remaining three Hundred 



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WILL OF WILSON GARY, I772. 193 

Pounds due from myself was paid at the desire of the said John Blair upon 
an Ample mortgage recorded in the General Court for the Use and Ben- 
efit of the legatees to one James Shields; since which Payment none of 
the principal or Interest has been in my Hands, but wholly at the Dis- 
position and management of the said John Blair, who received the money 
and applyed it to his own use and Behoof, I hereby desire order and 
direct my Ex'rs to get legal and full discharges or counter Bonds from 
the Legatees for the full sum of nine hundred Pounds, and all the Interest 
due thereon and if they should refuse or neglect to give such Discharges 
that my Estate may be indemnified, I hereby order and direct my Ex- 
ecutors to apply to the General Court in Chancery or to pursue any other 
ways that shall be judged or advised most proper and effectual to obtain 
the same. 

As I may leave verbal directions as to some trifiing matters I desire 
they may be complyed with. 

I hereby api>oint my dear and dutiful son Wilson Miles Cary, my son 
in law R. C. Nicholas, and my Kinsman Richard Cary of Warwick, Ex- 
ecutors of this my Will. I direct that my Executors may not be obliged 
to give any security for their Performence of the Trust hereby reposed 
in them and I do hereby declare that my son Wilson Miles Cary is not 
by any means intended by my appointing him an Executor to be releived 
from the Debt due to me by Bond & which I have given to his daughter 
Mary Munro Cary And I desire the said Robert & Richard will each of 
them accept the sum of fifty Pounds as a farther Token of my Regard 
& Esteem for them upon Condition that they qualify and act as Executors 
to my will. Revoking all other wills by me heretofore made I do declare 
this writing contained on five Pages of Paper to be my only true last 
will & Testament. In witness whereof I have hereto subscribed my 
name & affixed my seal this tenth day of October in the year of our 
Lord one thousand seven hundred & seventy two. 

Wilson Cary. 

Signed, Sealed, published & declared by the Testator as & for his 
last will & Testament in Presence of us who at his request & in his 
Presence subscribed our names as Witnesses thereto. 

Samuel Rowland, James Gill, 

Wm. Reade, Thomas Wade, Jun., 

Abram Parish, X Keziah Ward's mark. 



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194 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



List of Tithables in Northampton County, Virginia, 
August, i666. 



(From the Records in the Clerk's Office.) 



Communicated by T. B. Robertson. Eastville, Va. 



A list of Tythables in North'ton county, Anno Dom., 1666, delivered 
in att a court held for the s'd county the 28th of August, 1666. 



Thomas Dunton, 
Isaac Russell, 
Robt. Dunworth, 
Wm. Smith, 
John Dike, 
Daniel Jill.— 6 



Jeasse Harman, 
Tho. Owen.— 2 



Benjamin Cowdree, 
Josias Cowdree, 
Cornelius Harman.— 3 



John Kendall, 
Owen Edmond, 
Geo. South, 
John Farrier, 
John Tomblings, 
Henry Newton, 
Owen Hall.— 7 



Peter Lang, 
Cornelius George.— 2 



James Sanders, 
Perse Davis, 
John Dalby. — 3 



Arthur Armitradings, 
Isaac Jacob, 
Thomas Needy, 
John Dawson, 
Francis Broukes, 
Sliven Avis, 
Morgan Pouldin, 
Wm. Stevens, 
Henry Reade, 
Derick Derickson. — 10 



John Dalby, Sen., 
John Dalby, Jun., 
John Seawell, 
Hen. Bowans, 
Richard Costinge. — 5 



John Cole, 
John Field, 
Robt. Twilly, 
Wm. Rabishaw.— 4 



Thomas Bagley. — i 



Will Gatehill, 
John Evans. — 2 



Nicholas Hudson. — i 



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TITHABLES IN NORTHAMPTON, 1 666. 
Henry Hall. — i 



195 



Lieft. Isaack Foxcoroft, 

Thomas Lucas, 
4 negros. — 8 



Richard Nottingham, 
Wm. Ewin. — 2 



Thomas Ast. — i 



Att the Widow Gunter's: 
Richard Wildgoose, 
Tony — A Frenchman.— 2 



Simon Foscus, Sen., 
- Jun., 
Thomas '* 
Mathew Patrick.— 4 



Walter Mills.— i 



John Winborough, sen., 
jun., 
Frank ** —3 



Capt. Wm. Spencer, 
Wm. Whittington, 
Robt. Wiggin, 
Wm. Scriven, 
Jacob Hill. 
Patrick Strelby, 
Thomas Powell, 
2 negros. — 9 



Mr. Wm. Westerhouse.— I 



Lawrence Schyn, 
Adryan Westerhouse, 
John Richards, 
Armstrong Foster.— 4 



Mr. Tho. Evens, 



John Faris, 
Clause— A Dutch 
boy. — 2 



Edward Joyne. — i 

Wm. Gaskin, 
Robt. " 

*• Butler, 
Nath'l Starkey, 
Nat— A negro.— 5 



Thomas Bulluck. — i 



Sampson Robins, 
Rich'd Ridge.— 2 



Amos Garris. — i 



John Walter, 
Jeremiah Walter.- 



Will Morris. — i 



Jas. Davis, sen., 
*• '' jun., 
Thomas Davis, 
Steven Lang, 
Abraham Bownamy.— 5 



Capt. Will Joanes, 
John Lukes, 
John Bulluck, 
Harman Johnson. — 4 



John Lyons, 
Thos. Collins. — 2 



John Mapp, 
Peter Watson. — 2 



Wm. Marshiall, 
Willjipshott.— 2 



Wm. Hickman, 



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196 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Mr. Haggaman. — 2 



Att Wilcox. Lambet Groton. — i 



John Stockley, 
John Bowin, 
Thomas E. Smith.— 3 

Robt Foster, 
John 

Phillipp Jacob, 
Martin Saks.— 4 



Wm. Foster, 
I Servant. — 2 



Walter Price, 
John Clarke. — 2 



Edw. Stevens, 
John Wilson. — 2 



Jacob Bishopp, 
Rich'd Bibbins. — 2 



John Plumb. — i 



Joseph ** 
Thomas Rice. — 3 



Thos. Church, 
Sam'l Church.— 2 



Thomas Parker, 
John Hornby. — 2 



Mr. Thos. Rideinge, 
Mr. Argall Yardley, 
Sam'l England, 
Will Vaughanghom, 
Hen. Matthew, 
Griffin Morgan, 
Tho. Rock, 
Catalina — A negro.— 8 



Abraham Vansoult. — i 



Nicholas Granger, 
Thomas Wilson, 
John Robins.— 3 



Cannlus Pence. — i 



John Abbott.- 



Phillipp Mongon 1 ^^^^^ _. 
Mary *• |negros.— 2 



Geo. West.— I 



Rich'd Ast, 
Miles Growk, 
Robt. Warbeton.— 3 

Christopher Turner.— i 
(to be concluded) 



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GENEALOGY. 197 



GENEALOGY. 



THE BROOKE FAMILY OF VIRGINIA. 
By Prof. St. George Tucker Brooke, Morgantown, W. Va. 



Answers to queries on page3 316-17 of January (1902) number of this 
Magazine — continued. 

This writer has information of five Humphreys Brooke whp were bom 
in Virginia and lived in that Colony during the eighteenth century, four 
of whom were contemporaries. They were: 

1. Humphrey who was the husband of Elizabeth Braxton at least as 
early as June 30th, 1725, and we know not how much earlier. He was 
'* my Loving brother Humphrey " mentioned by Robert Brooke (one of 
the ** Knights of the Golden Horseshoe") in his will which was pub- 
lished in the last April number of this Magazine. He is said to have 
died in the year 1738. 

2. Humphrey, the son of the Knight of the Golden Horseshoe, and 
mentioned in the latter's will He died a bachelor, or widower without 
children, between 1758 and 1763. 

3. Humphrey of Fauquier, brother of George of Mantapike, married, 

first, Ann Whiting, second, Mildred (?). Said to have been bom in 

1728, died 1802. 

4. Humphrey Booth, son of Robert who was the oldest son of Robert, 

the Knight of the Golden Horseshoe. He married Sally (?). 

He was certainly living and a married man in 1791. 

5. Humphrey, son of Robert and grandson of Humphrey and Eliza- 
beth Braxton, and nephew of Humphrey of Fauquier and of George of 
Mantapike. He was the midshipman in the British Navy. He was born 
about 1752, died about 1840. He lived at *' Oaklands,'* near Winchester. 
He married Sally Page, nota bene. One Humphrey was living in Wil- 
liamsburg in 1752. 

Querie. The writer has seen the statement that Carter Braxton mar- 
ried a daughter of William Brooke. Can any one say whether this 
statement is correct ? 

Johnston, in his Memorials of Virginia Clerks, says Francis Brooke, 
second clerk of Fauquier county, was afterwards one of the judges of 
the Court of Appeals. That is all wrong. The judge of the Court of 
Appeals was Francis Taliaferro Brooke, of whom hereafter. 

Docu-MENTS Continued. 

At a Court held for Essex Co. at Tappahannock on the 19th day of 
March Anno Domini 1744. This last will and Testament of Robert 



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198 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Brooke Gent dec'd [printed in April, 1902, Magazine] was presented 
in Court by the Rev'd Robert Rose, Clerk, and William Beverley, Esqr, 
two of the Executors therein named, who made oath thereto and there 
being no witness the subscribing thereto. The Rev'd Robert Rose made 
oath that the said Robert Brooke delivered the said will to him and de- 
clared it to be his last will and Testament, soon after it was wrote, and 
desired him to keep it, and it had remained in his custody ever since, 
and the justices on viewing thereof were satisfied that it was all wrote 
by the same Robert Brooke's own hand, whereupon it was ordered to 
be recorded, and a certificate was granted to the said Robert and Wil- 
liam for obtaining a probate thereto in due form. 

Teste: John Lee. 
Will Book No. 7 Essex Co. Court House. 

Will of William Brooke, the elder, 2nd son of Robert Brooke, Junr., 
Will Book No. II, page 389. 

In the name of God, This is the last will of William Brooke the elder 
of the Co. of Essex, Gent. I will and devise all my lands in the Co. of 
Orange and all my rights and title to the same to my executors hereafter 
mentioned, to be by them sold for the most that can be got and my de- 
sire is that the money arising from the sale be applied to the payment of 
my debts. 

Item. I give to my dear wife all the slaves and their increase, which 
I got by her during her life, only in lieu of the dower, and after her 
death, I give the said slaves and their increase, to my daughter Sukey 
and to my unborn child, equally to be divided between them, at my 
wife's death as aforesaid to them and their heirs forever I give to my 
son William Brooke, the four following slaves and their present and 
future increase, to-wit: Cooper, Newman, Jenny and Will, to him and 
his heirs forever. Item. I give to my daughter Phoebe the following 
slaves together with their present and future increase, to-wit: Sam, Isaac, 
Lucy, Winney and Jenny to her and her heirs forever. My will is that 
all my personal estate whatever be sold by my executors and the money 
arising from sale to be applied to the payment of my debts and if the 
money arising from the sale of my land should not be sufficient, what 
remains over to be equally divided among all my children. I appoint 
my brother Robert Brooke Guardian to my son William and I appoint 
my Cousin William Brooke and Mr. Andrew Anderson guardians to my 
daughter Phoebe. I also appoint my wife guardian to her own children. 
I constitute and appoint my brother Robert Brooke and Capt. John 
Rowzee Executors of this my will. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto put my hand and seal this twenty- 
first day of October, 1761. 

William Brooke. 

Signed, sealed and published in the presence of 

Mary Jinkes, Pitman Clements, Al. Rose. 

(In lieu of her dower first interlined ) 



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GENEALOGY. 199 

At a court held for Essex Co. Tappahannock, on the i6th day of No- 
vember, 1 76 1. This last will and testament was sworn to by the Execu- 
tors therein named. Proved by Pitman Clements and Alexander Rose 
two of the witnesses thereto and admitted to Record. 

Teste: John Lee, Junr., Clk. 

Will of John Taliaferro, Will Book No. 3, page 157, Essex Co. 

To son Lawrence the plantation he now liveth on, together with land 
thereto belonging, to him and his heirs forever, also three negroes 
named Cain, Grats and Bert, now in his possession. To son John the 
plantation whereon he now liveth, to daughter Mary a ring of twenty 
shillings value, to daughter Elizabeth, seventy and eight pounds. Son 
Charles, Son Zachariah, Son Robert, Son Richard, Son William and 
Wife, heirs, viz: Charles, Sarah, Robert, Zachariah, Catherine, Richard 
and William, his personal and negroes to be divided between the above 
named. 

Date ist day of June, 17 15, in the 5th year of our Sovereign Lord 
George. 

John Taliaferro. 

At a Court held for Essex on Tuesday ye 21st day of June, 1720. 
This Will was presented in Court by Robert Taliaferro and Zachariah 
Taliaferro Executors therein named, who made oath thereto, and being 
farther proved by the oath of Henry Brine a witness thereto and also 
made oath that he saw John Sutton (who is now dead) another of the 
witnesses sign the same, is admitted to record. 

Teste. William Beverley, Clk. 

At a Court held for Essex Co. at Tappahannock on the 19th day o 
November, 1764. This last Will and Testament of William Brooke 
dec'd was this day presented in Court and proved by the Witnesses 
thereto and ordered to be recorded, and at a Court Continued and held 
for the same County at Tappahannock on the 21st day of May Anno 
Domini 1765 was presented in Court by John Rose Gent, one of the 
Executors herein named who made oath thereto according to law, and 
on his motion having performed what the law in the like cases require, 
Certificate is Granted him for obtaining a probate thereof in due form, 
and at a Court held for the said Co. at Tappahannock on the i8th day 
of May, 1767, this Will was again presented in Court by Anne Brooke 
the Executrix herein named who made oath thereto according to Law 
which is allowed to be certified. 

Test: John Lee, Junr., Clk. 

Will Book No. 12 Essex Co. Court House. 
(to be continued) 



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200 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

A GENEALOGY OF THE HERNDON FAMILY. 

(Compiled by John W. Herndon, Alexandria, Va.) 

(continued) 

82. Jane Whiteler Herndon,* b. 1791; d. 1849; m. March 8, 1809, Car- 
ter Littlepage Stevenson, of '* Hazel Hill" (son of Rev. James and 
Frances Arnette, Littlepage, Stevenson), an eminent lawyer. Ch., I. 
Frances Arnette, m. William Wyatt Tyler, nephew of President John 
Tyler. IL Isabella Herndon, m. Charles Beniis, and had : Charles, d. 
inf. III. Byrd Woodville, U. S. N., un. m. IV. Carter Littlepage, 
general C. S. A., b. September 21, 1817; d. August 15, 1888; m. June 
15, 1842, Martha Silvery Griswold; ch., a Virginia, b. January 24, 1844, 
d. inf.; b William Herndon, b. May 8, 1845, d. July 11, 1845; c Isabella 
Herndon, b. August 26, 1847; d. August i, 1886; m. April 25, 1867, 
James Taylor, and had: Carter Littlepage, b. July 24, 1871, d. August 
II, 1872, and Bernard Moore, b. September 23, 1880, d. July 14, 1882I 
d Clara Geisee, b. August 28, 1849; ni«» October 14, 1874, Battaile Fitz 
Hugh Gordon, of **Santee," Caroline county, Va., and had: Belle, b. 
September 29, 1875: Patsey Fitz Hugh, b. May 2, 1877, m., November 
30, 1898, Thomas Pratt Yerby, and has one child, Patsey Gordon, b. 
April 4, 1900; Sallie Carter, b. December 28, 1880; Martha Griswold, 
b. October 2, 1883; Susan Knox, b. December 15, 1885; Carter Steven- 
son, b. November 15, 1887, e Edwin Whipple, b. February 9, 1854; d. 
February 27, 1855. V. Sarah Woodville, d. un. m., November 16, 1898. 

87. William Albert Herndon,' b. 1801; d. July 24, 1828; m. June 16, 
1825, Juliet Ann Broaddus, of Culpeper C. H. (dau.of William and Ann, 
Tutt, Broaddus). In 1825 he was living in Culpeper, but in 1827 at 
**Belvoir; " was a member of the Hope Fire Co., of Fredericksburg. 
Ch., 91. Mary. 92. William A., d. un. m. 

91. Mary Elinor Herndon,^ b. 1826; m. John Roberts, of Culpeper 
county. Ch., 93. Lucy, m. John Peter, of Culpeper, and had: L John 
Custis, m. and has ch.; II. William Herndon, un. m.; III. James Min- 
nigerode, un. m.; IV. Beverley Stanard. 94. Susan Broaddus, m. 1868, 
Albert Gilliam Conway, d. 1896, and had: I. Thomas Yerby, b. 1870, 
m. Miss Lemon, of Botetourt county, no ch.; II. Columbia Taylor, b. 
1873; III. Lizzie Elinor, b. 1875; IV. Bessie Lewis, b. 1876; V. Robert, b. 
1878; VI. Elinor, b. 1888; VII. Louis Roberts, b. 1890. 95. Louis, m. 

, and had: I. Elinor Herndon, un. m.; II. Conway Peyton, un. m. 

96. Lizzie Green, m. Mason Wallace, of Culpeper, lives Charlottesville; 
ch., I. Elliott Lambert; II. Mary Kelton; III. Emmet Mason; IV. Eli- 
nor Thompson; V. Horatio Nelson; VI. John Roberts; VII. Sidney 
Wishart. 97. Anne, un. m. 



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GENEALOGY. 201 

88. Elizabeth Ann Herndon/ b. 1803; d. October 14, 1865; m. Decem- 
ber 25, 1822, Charles Green (son of James and Elizabeth P., Jones, 
Green), b. December 17, 1798; d. March 17, 1879. Ch., 98. Elizabeth, 
b. April 16, 1825; <^- April 18, 1889; m. August 7, 1847, Philip St George 
Ambler (son Colonel John and Katherine, Norton, Ambler); d. March 
19. T877; they had: I.John, b. June 23, 1848, lives Lynchburg; II. Chas. 
Green, b. October 22, 1849; d. July 25, 1878; III. Catherine, b. January 
13, 1851; m. John Cameron, of Lynchburg, and has three ch., Hemdon, 
John and Frank; IV. P. St. George, b. November 30, 1853, m. Mary 
Theresa Jordan, d. August 3, 1900, and had six ch., a Emily Page, b. 
June 13, 1889; b P. St. George, b. January 12, 1891; c Blanche Jordan, 
b. September 17, 1892; d Mary Nelson, b. August 4, 1894; e Theresa, 
b. June 21, 1896; f Martha Cary, b. June i, 1900; V. William Hemdon, 
b. March 12, 1856; d. October 29, 1875; VI. Edwin Burkardike, b. June 
13. ^851; VII. Anne Hemdon, b. April 15, 1862; m. G. H. Wilkins, of 
Lynchburg; ch., a John Ambler, b. February 8, 1894; b G. H., b. June 
18, 1895, and c Cary Jaqueline, b. December 17, 1909. 99. James W., 
b. May 15. 1830; d. March 18. 1878; m. Mary Fanny Jett, b. March 161 
1831; d. May 10, 1895; ch., I. James Jett, b. April 28, 1851; II. Charles, 
b. May 3, 1853; III. Ann Herndon, b. March 2, 1858; d, May 18, 1862; 
IV. Edward McCormick, b. September 12, 1865. 

12. Joseph Herndon* [5-3-2-1], of "Locust Grove," Spots.; b. 1773; 
d. Febmary 8, 1832; m. Lucy Duerson. He was paymaster of the i6th 
regiment, V. M. (Lt.-Col. Aylett Waller), in 1815, and a member of Mt. 
Hermon Baptist church Ch., 100. Alexander. loi. Thomas. 102. 
Huldah, m. Rev. Herndon Frazer (see No. 117). 103. Mary Ann, d. un. 
m. aged 33 years. 

100. Alexander Herndon,* b. December 9, 1801; d. July 6, 1875; "^m 
December 20, 182 1, Anne Billingsley (dau. Rev. John A.), b. April 3, 
1798; d. July 2, 1878. He was a farmer, a member of the Jackson com- 
mittee of correspondence for Spots., and a member of the Baptist 
Church. Ch., 104 John Joseph, b. October 28, 1822; d. March 8, 1895, 
un. m. 105. Lucy Mary, b. September 15, 1824; d. May, 1896; m., De- 
cember, 1844, James C. De Jarnett; ch., I. Joseph Herndon, d. inf ; II. 
James Elliott, lives Baity, Va.; III. Nannie Herndon, m. Chas. Gooch, 
lives Hunters Lodge, Va.; IV. Bettie Coleman, m. George Burke, lives 
Parge, Va., and has four ch.; V. Alexander Herndon, m. Fenton Mor- 
ton, lives Baity, Va., and has three ch., VI. Mary Hampton, m. W. H. 
Jesse, lives Monaskon, Va., and has ten children; VII. Lucy Lee, un. 
m.. lives Baity, Va.; VIII. James Coleman, m. Mrs. Coghill, lives Pe- 
nola, Va., and has two ch.; IX. Jennie Lewis, un. m., lives Baity, Va.; 
X. Julia Hawes, m. Fountain Richards, d. 1898; no ch. 



(TO BE CO.NTINt'ED) 



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202 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

COCKE, GRAY. BOWIE, ROBB. &c. 

By Miss Fanny B. Hunter, Warrenton, Va. 

(continued) 

V. John Bowie Gray,* born November ii, 1808; died June, 1861; mar- 
ried, 1829, Jane Moore Cave, of Fredericksburg, daughter of Benjamin 
Cave and Jane Moore Glassell.* 

VI. Robert Gray,* born December 12, 1811; died aged 18. 
Issue of William and Janet (Gray) Pollock: 

I. William,* Captain C. S. A.; died 1864 unmarried. 

II. John Gray,* Captain Confederate Army, married Estelle Lewis, 
daughter of Fielding Lewis, King George county (three children, Cath- 
erine Lewis,' wife of Harry Knox Gore, of Ireland; Margaret Aitche- 
son and John Gray). 

III. Aitcheson,* married Hannah Jett, of King George (six children, 
Janet Robinson,' Julia Lane, John Gray, Nellie, Malcolm, Agnes). 

IV. Matthew Bajley,* married, 1870, Catherine Lewis, second daughter 
of Fielding Lewis, who died 1871, married, second, Lucy Daingerfield 
Tayloe, daughter of Colonel John Tayloe, of Chatterton, King George, 
who married a sister of Fielding Lewis. Issue: 

Matthew Tayloe,' married Elizabeth: i. Bernard (one son Matthew 
Tayloe*); 2. Helen Janet;' 3. Andrew;' 4. Catherine Lewis.' 
Children of John Bowie* and Jane Moore (Cave) Gray: 

I. Robert Aitcheson,* married Adelaide Heyman, of Georgetown, 
D. C. Issue: 

Anna Heyman;' Julia Heyman; Robert Heyman; John. 

II. Lucy Robb, married, first, Dr. Joseph Alexander, second, 

Ongley (no children). 

III. Agnes Spruel, married Captain Paul Venable, C. S. A , of Dan- 
ville, Va. 

IV. Margaret, married William Dickinson, of Caroline county. She 
died young, leaving one child, Margaret Gray, who married William 
Madison (no children). 

(to be continued) 



•Glassell Family.— Andrew Glassell, of Torchorwald, Madison county, emigrated 
from Dumfries, Scotland, in 1756. He was a grandson of John Glassell and his wife Mary 
Coulter, and son of Robert, who, in 1734, married Mar>' Kelton, of Torchorwald Town, 
near the castle of the Douglas. The eldest son by this marriage was John Glassell, who 
was for many years a merchant in Fredericksburg, but returned to Scotland and bought 
an estate near Edinburgh, where he resided with his wife, Helen Buchan. Their one 
daughter married Ix)rd John Campbell, whose son, George, became Duke of Argjle. 

Andrew Glassell, the second son, was born October 8, 1738. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Erasmus and Jane (Moore) Taylor. 



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GENEALOGY. 203 

LINDSAYS IN VIRGINIA. 
(By Armistead C. Gordon, Staunton, Va.) 

(continued) 

Hannah Tidwell was the second wife of Colonel Reuben Lindsay, his 
first wife having been Sarah Walker, daughter of Thomas Walker and 
Mildred Thornton Meriwether. It was by the marriage of Dr. Thomas 
Walker and Mildred Thornton Meriwether, then a widow, that the es- 
tate of ** Castle Hill," near Cobham, Va., came into his family, and 
thence into that of the Riveses. 

The following entries are taken from the old Lindsay Bible, above re- 
ferred to: 

'* Sarah Lindsay, daughter of Thomas Walker & Mildred, his wife, 
was born the 28th of May, 1758. Married 20th of October, 1774. 

*' Mildred Thornton Lindsay, Daughter of Reuben and Sarah Lind- 
say, was bom ye 5th May, 1776. 

** James Lindsay, son of Reuben and Sarah Lindsay, was bom the 
3rd June, 1778, died 3rd Sep'r, 1778. 

** Sarah Walker Lindsay, daughter of Reuben and Sarah Lindsay, 
was bom ye 14th May, 1780. 

*• Elizabeth Grimes Lindsay was bom 25th January, 1783, and died. 

** William Lindsay, son of Reuben and Hannah Lindsay, was bom 
6th October, 1790. 

" Elizabeth was bom 22nd April, 1792. Married, the 22 January, 1813. 

**Mary was born 6th September, 1796, & married, i6th day of May, 
i8i6." 

Of Colonel Reuben Lindsay's children by his first wife, Mildred 
Thomton Lindsay married James Gordon Waddell, son of the Rev. 
James Waddell, "the Blind Preacher," and d. s.p., and Sarah Walker 
Lindsay married, about 1810, her first cousin, Captain James Lindsay, 
of **The Meadows," Louisa county, Va., who was the son of Daniel 
Lindsay, Colonel Reuben's elder brother. 

Captain James Lindsay, and Sarah, his wife, had two children, one of 
whom died in infancy ; the other, Mildred Lindsay, married, 1837, Alex- 
ander Taylor, of Orange county. The children of Alexander Taylor 
and Mildred, his wife, were Fannie and Sarah Lindsay. Fannie died at 
the age of thirteen; Sarah Lindsay, married, 1858, Colonel John Mer- 
cer Patton, and died in 1872, leaving issue: i. John M. Patton, Jr.; 2. 
Alexander Taylor Patton, married, 1900, Beatrice Chanler; 3. Sarah 
Lindsay Patton; 4. George Tazewell Patton; 5 Rev. James Lindsay 
Patton, married Fannie Leake; 6. Rev. Robert Williams Patton, married 
Janie Stuart Stringfellow ; 7. William Rives Patton, d, s. p.; 8. Alfred 
Slaughter Patton, died in infancy. 

(TO BE continued) 



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204 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

FOUR SUCCESSIVE JOHN MINORS. 

By Charles M. Blackford, Lynchburg, Va. 

(continued) 

In addition to the care of his own large estate, he managed the affairs 
of General Thomas Nelson while the General was engaged in caring 
for those of the State. Once a month he visited the plantations of Gen- 
eral Nelson and saw that their several managers were properly attending 
to their duty. When on this round he rode many miles, for the estates 
were widely separated. I have heard Mrs. Frances Berkeley, the widow 
of Dr Carter Berkeley, of Edgewood, Hanover county, and the daugh- 
ter of Governor John Page, and whose daughter married a grandson of 
this gentleman, describe Major Minor when thus on his monthly trip of 
inspection. He rode a bob-tailed black cob of great strength and en- 
durance, and never went at a gait slower than a brisk canter. If he 
met anyone on the road who wished to talk with him, the person met 
had to turn, take his gait, and ride with him until the conversation 
ended. His title of Major was acquired during the Revolution, and 
with one or more of his sons, one of whom was the third John Minor, 
he was at the seige and surrender of Yorktown. 

He believed in education and his many children were sent to the best 
schools, and one or more were sent abroad to secure greater advant- 
ages. Among his children were Lancelot Minor, the father of the two 
brothers, John B. Minor, for fifty years the great professor of law at the 
University of Virginia, and Lucian Minor, professor of law at William 
and Mary College, and of Dr. Charles Minor, a very eminent physician 
of Charlottesville, Va. Another of Major Minor's children was Diana» 
the wife of Richard Maury and the mother of Commodore Matthew F. 
Maury, and the grandmother of General Dabney H. Maury. It is, how- 
ever, of the successive Johns I now write. Major Minor's third child was 
The Third John Minor. 

He was born at Topping Castle, in Caroline county, in 1761, and is 
buried with his wife in the old Masonic graveyard in Fredericksburg, 
Va., where a handsome red marble mausoleuui marks their last resting 
place. He entered the Revolutionary army when a boy, and when 
peace came, studied law under Mr. Wythe, and making Fredericksburg 
his home, very early achieved marked success, and acquired much rep- 
utation both for his knowledge of law and his magnetic eloquence. In 
1790, he married Mary Berkeley, the daughter of Landon Carter Berke- 
ley, of Airwell, in Hanover county. She died a few months after their 
marriage, and in 1793, he married her cousin, Lucy Landon Carter, 
daughter of Landon Carter, of Cleve, King George county, and his 
wife, Mildred Washington Willis, of Willis Hill, Fredericksburg. She 
was the daughter of Mildred Washington, the aunt of General Wash- 
ington, who, as the widow Gregory, married Harry Willis, of Freder- 
icksburg. 

(to be continued) 



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GENEALOGY. 205 

THE RoBARDS FAMILY. 

(Compiled by John Lewis RoBards, Hannibal, Md.) 

(continued) 

And the said resolution being twice read« was, on the question put 
thereon, agreed to by the House. 

Ordered, that Mr. Thomson do carry the bill to the Senate, and desire 
their concurrence. 

Dec. 12, 1786. 

A message from the Senate by Mr. Lee: 

Mr. Speaker, — The Senate have agreed to the resolution respecting 
Capt. John Jouett. 

in. Ensign William Robards, Jr.'s first wife was Elizabeth Pleasants 
Cocke, after her death he married his second wife, Elizabeth Lewis and 
settled in Jessamine county, Kentucky. He died, testate, November, 
1823. As a historic paper a certified copy of his marriage bond is here 
given to acquaint the present generation with the statute law of Virginia 
on marriage 125 years ago, viz: 

Know all men by these presents. That William RoBards, Jr., and 
Lewis RoBards are held and firmly bound unto the Executive power of 
this State in the sum of fifty pounds in current money. To which pay- 
ment, well and truly to be made, we do bind ourselves, and each of us, 
our and each of our heirs, executors or administrators, jointly and sev- 
erally by these presents. 

Witness our hands and seals this 29th day of August, one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty one. 

The condition of the above obligation is such that if there is not any 
lawful cause to obstruct a marriage intended to be had and solemnized 
between the above bonded William RoBards, Jr., and Elizabeth Lewis, 
then the above obligation to be void, else to remain in full force. 

William RoBards, (Seal.) 
Lewis RoBards, (Seal.) 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of 
George Payne. 

State of Virginia, \ 
Goochland County. / 

I, William Miller, Clerk of the said County of Goochland, do certify 
that the above is a true copy of the bond filed in my ofl^ce executed by 
William RoBards with Lewis RoBards security for the purpose of ob- 
taining a license to intermarry with Elizabeth Lewis, with the exception 



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206 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

of the date, which is expressed in the bond in fair legible figures as fol- 
lows: (29th day of August, 1781). 

(Signed) William Miller, Clk. 

They had the following children: IV. Nancy, wife of William Cald- 
well; William RoBards— father of William A.* RoBards — Attorney-Gen- 
eral of Missouri; Rebecca, wife of Lewis T. Singleton; Kitty, wife of 
James Harvey, afterwards widow Harvey and widower Singleton were 
married, and Otho RoBards, who married Cassa Gregg, n^ Pitts. 

V. Their children were John M. RoBards; Dr. Wm. A. RoBards, who 
married Augusta Burton, lives near Danville, Ky.; Younger P. RoBards, 
died 1901 in St. Louis, Mo.; Kittie RoBards, who married George Cald- 
well, and James H. Robards, who married Mary Brooks. 

(to be continued) 



THE FARRAR FAMILY. 
(continued) 

74. Matthew* Farrar (Perrin''), of Goochland county (?), bom 
1726, died 1844, is said to have been a soldier in the Revolution. He 
married Martha Murrell, of Goochland county. Issue: 

124. Sarah, married Major Thomas Shelton; 125. Nancy, died at the 
age of twenty-five, unmarried; 126. Judith, died at the age of eighteen, 

unmarried; 127. Stephen, married Duncan; 128. Martha, died at 

the age of twenty, unmarried; 129. Catherine Smith, died at the age of 
seventy-two, unmarried; 130. Matthew, removed to Mississippi. He 

married three times. By his first marriage with Holland, he had a 

daughter, who married Henry Baskette. He also had several children 
by his second wife; 131. Garland,* married Mary L. Shepherd, of Flu- 
vanna county, and had nine children, one of whom is B. J.** Farrar, of 
Nashville, Tenn; 132. Elizabeth Oliver, married O. T. Mitchell; 133. 
Mary Kent, married M. B. Shepherd, of Fluvanna county. 

75. Stephen® Farrar (Perrin'^), of Louisa county, a colonel of Vir- 
ginia militia. He served as an ensign in the war of 1812. He married 
Elizabeth Rice, of Fluvanna county, and had at least one son. Dr. John 
Garland Farrar, who removed to Fayette, Miss., where he died Novem- 
ber, 1847. 

87. Dr. Bernard Gaines' Farrar {Joseph RoyaP\ bom July 4, 
1784; died July i, 1849. He removed with his parents to Kentucky, 
graduated in medicine at Philadelphia, and became an eminent physi- 
cian, a surgeon in the war of 1812, and held various public offices. He 
removed to St. Louis in 1806. Dr. Farrar married twice: first, about 
1812, Sarah, daughter of William Christy; second, in February, 1820, 



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GENEALOGY. 207 

Ann Clark, daughter of Charles Mynn Thruston, Jr., of Louisville, Ky. 
Issue: 

First marriage: 134. James, died unmarried; 135. William, died un- 
married; 136. Martha Jane, married in 1833, James T. Swearingen, of 
St. Louis, Mo.; second marriage: 137. John O' Fallon, married twice, 
first, , daughter of Hugh S. Garland, and secondly, Sally M., daugh- 
ter of William T. Christy, of St. Louis, and died December 12, 1877, 
leaving seven sons and two daughters; 138. Benjamin, married in 1849, 
Ann W., daughter of Luther M. Kennett, of St. Louis, and died July 
14, 1878, leaving four sons and two daughters; 139. Bernard Gaines,* of 
St. Louis, Brigadier-General, U. S. A., and served with distinction dur- 
ing the Civil war. He married, June 14, 1852, Isabella, daughter of Dr. 
Alexander W. Mitchell. To this lady, who has taken a deep interest in 
the history of the Farrar family, and who has pursued her investigations 
in a most intelligent and thorough way. we are indebted for by far the 
greater proportion of the data from which this genealogy has been 
drawn. Mrs. Farrar's collections from original records and correspon- 
dence, contain, information in much greater detail than it has been pos- 
sible to use here; 140.. James S., who married, first, Eliza, daughter of 
William T. Christy, and second, Adele S., daughter of Thomas Ruth- 
erford, of St. Louis; 141. Ellen, married, first, James White Kennett, 
of St. Louis; and second, Samuel T. Hauser, Helena, Mont. 

In addition to what was said on page 87, July number, it should be 
stated that: 55. Thomas'* Farrar served in the Revolution as first lieu- 
tenant in the 5th South Carolina Continental regiment. He was bom 
in Virginia, October i, 1754. He married Margaret Prince (who was 
bom March 4, 1754). His granddaughter, Mrs. A. M. Hutchinson, still 
living, states that be never lived in Georgia, iii. Dr. Pinckney Farrar, 
lived first in St. Clair county, Ala., and afterwards in Texas. He mar- 
ried . 109. Thomas Wadsworth, of New Orleans, married , 

and had children, no. Burke Farrar, married in Virginia, and had a 
son, and a daughter named Margaret. 112. Matilda Farrar, married 
Judge McCaleb. 

55. Thomas Farrar had three children not named in the li.st given on 
page 87; a son Ephraim, who died of yellow fever on a voyage out of 
New Orleans, and two daughters. Laura, who married John Bruce, and 
Margaret Prince,' who married George Swilling, and removed to For- 
syth county, Ga. 

(to be concluded) 



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208 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Historical and Genealogical Notes and Queries. 



Christ Church, Lancaster County. 

The Society is indebted to Mr. Samuel Troth, of Philadelphia, well 
known as a skilful amateur, for two fine photographs of our best pre- 
served colonial church and for kind permission to reproduce them. 

Christ Church has had the bad fortune, looked at from the point of 
view of the denomination to which it belongs, or the reverse, regarding 
it as a relic of the past, to have been for many years almost entirely 
without a congregation. Though this abandonment has subjected the 
building to some mutilation, it has at the same time prevented any 
change or modernization which the convenience or bad taste of congre- 
gations (and in some instances in this State, particularly of rectors) 
have brought about in churches which have been in constant use. Though 
the roof had become leaky, portions of railings carried off by relic 
hunters, most of the windows broken by passing vandals, the Creed and 
Commandments torn from their frames, the tombs in the yard broken 
into fragments (it is stated in the neighborhood that a large piece of the 
tomb of Robert Carter, containing the coat-of-arms was stolen and car- 
ried away not many years ago by a party who were in the Rappahannock 
in a yacht belonging to a wealthy and well known New Yorker) and even 
the baptismal font broken, the main fabric of the church within and 
without remains as it was when built. The high pulpit, with the sound- 
ing-board above it and clerk's desk below, the great pews of black wal- 
nut, some of them capable of containing twenty people and the rock like 
plaster on the walls, still remain as they were, only needing comparatively 
slight repairs and refreshing. 

It is known from Bishop Meade's statement derived from the old ves- 
try book, now lost, from extracts from the same record now in the pos- 
session of a lady of Norfolk, Va., and from the will of the founder, that 
Christ Church was built entirely at the cost of Robert Carter, of ** Coro- 
toman," Lancaster county, who was commonly known as "King Car- 
ter," and was completed about 1732. 

Robert Carter's home, '* Corotoman," was three miles distant from the 
church and is connected with it by a straight road, which was formerly 
lined all the way by a very high and compact hedge of cedar trees, some 
of which still remain. His house was situated on the bank of the 
Rappahannock (here almost at its mouth) between the Corotoman river 
and Carter's creek, and affords one of the most beautiful water views in 
Virginia. The site is now a cultivated field, and scarcely a vestage re- 
mains to show that it was once the home of a man of large wealth. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 209 

There is in the clerk's office at Lancaster Courthouse a map of the 
great " Corotoman ** estate, which contained more than 8,000 acres. It 
began at the mouth of the Corotoman river, extended far up its bank 
and then into the country a considerable distance above Kilmarock, while 
on the other side it crossed Carter's creek, and appears to have included 
the present site of the town of Irvington. 

Mr. R. S. Mitchell, of Irvington, who has long been a vestryman of 
the parish, and has been indefatigable in his efforts towards the restora- 
tion of the old church, has furnished measurements of the building. It 
is in the form of a Greek cross, the main body of the church and the 
transepts measuring externally sixty-eight feet. As the walls are three 
feet thick, the interior dimensions are sixty-two feet.' The ceiling, which 
forms a groined arch over the intersection of the aisles, is thirty-three 
feet from the floor, and the top of the roof is ten feet higher. The 
flooring of the aisles, of slabs of freestone, is still solid and smooth, 
while the raised plank flooring of the pews is, in most instances, in fair 
condition 

There are three round windows in the gables, and twelve others, 
which are six by fourteen feet. The high pews, of solid black walnut, 
with seats running around them, are still solid and strong, but the 
wood-work is dull from age. There are twenty-five pews, twenty-two 
with a seating capacity of twelve each, and three which .will contain 
twenty persons each. These latter were for the Carter family, and at- 
tendants, and for the magistrates. 

A few years ago the Association for the Preservation of Virginia An-* 
tiquities gave I500 toward the repair of this venerable church, and with 
this and several hundred dollars raised in the parish and by other friends, 
the roof was thoroughly restored, and all the lights replaced in the win- 
dows, which are now guarded by wire screens; a barbed wire fence was 
put around the churchyard, and a person living nearby employed to 
watch the church. Therefore there is no farther danger of the dese- 
cration from which the church has so often suffered. 

Only a few hundred dollars is now required to restore this most inter- 
esting relic of our past to its original condition. The pews and the 
great double doors, each separate door measuring five by twelve feet, 
only need oiling and cleaning to be restored to their original color and 
polish. One gate is missing from the chancel rail, most of the railing 
to pulpit and gallery stairs is gone; as is also one foot of the old com- 
munion table, and, as has been stated, the Creed and Commandments 
have been torn from the frames, which still, however, remain. The rays 
on the sounding-board need re-guilding, and the font, which Bishop 
Meade said was the largest and most beautiful he ever saw, requires a 
skilled hand to place together the four pieces into which some savages 
(said to have been a party of drunken sailors), have broken it. With 



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210 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

these thing^s done, we will have an unchanged example of a colonial 
church of the first class. 

It is hoped that all who may feel an interest in this restoration, whether 
from an antiquarian^ religious, or family point of view, will aid the good 
work. 

Pages 1 15-130, Vol. II, Meade's Old Churches and Families of Vir- 
ginia, are devoted to the parishes of Lancaster county, but there is much 
in the county records which the Bishop might have used. It is stated 
that the parish register of Christ Church was in existence a few years 
ago, and that it is now believed to be in the possession of a gentleman 
living in Washington, D. C. Information in regard to it would be gladly 
received. . 



Samuel Branch.— Information of the name of the parents of Samuel 
Branch, whose will was dated Chesterfield county, Manchester parish, 
Virginia, December nth, 1789, and in which he mentioned his eight 
children, viz: Samuel, Arthur, William, Charles, Thomas, Mary Mar- 
shal, Hannnah Hubbard, and Elijsabeth Harris; will be gratefully re- 
ceived by Mrs. B. P. M. Hutcheson, 

1 41 7 McKinney Avenue, Houston, Texas. 



The Germans of Virginia.*— An Appeal. 

Notwithstanding the fact that Virginia was essentially an English 
Colony from the beginning, the Germans began to come in at an early 
date, and much of the honor that three hundred years have heaped upon 
the head of the Mother of States, has been due to the sturdy, painstak- 
ing, industrious race that came to America from the Fatherland. What 
is also generally admitted and constantly more generally regretted, is 
the fact that so little has been done by the writers of history to place the 
Germans of Virginia iti their proper light, and to give to the world any 
except comparatively brief accounts of their manner of life, character, 
and deeds. The writer of this appeal is well aware that the task of pre- 
paring an adequate history of the German element in Virginia is an un- 
dertaking far too great for him to perform; nevertheless, he is willing 
to do his part towards it, and to that end he earnestly solicits the co-opera- 
tion and help of all who are directly or indirectly interested. Moreover^ 
he has been urgently requested to undertake the work by a member of 
those who have read his essay, now being published in the Virginia 
Magazine of History and 3iography (Richmond), on "The Ger- 
mans of the Valley." 

•We gladly print this circular which has been received from Profesaor Waylaod and 
shall do all in our power to aid him. The spaces for replies to the queries have not been 
given in our reprint. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 2ll 

There are hundreds of old deeds, family Bibles, tombstones, letters, 
and family traditions that will throw floods of light upon the subject be- 
fore us. Much has already been lost through neglect; let us no longer 
allow facts to perish that may be a source of benefit to those who shall 
study history, and of honor to those who have made it. 

Please fill out the blank spaces below, being very carefiil to be accurate 
so far as the facts are known, and return this slip to John W. Wayland, 
Bridgewater, Rockingham county, Va. All facts thus communicated 
that are available for preservation or publication will be credited to the 
I>er5ons giving them. 

If you are notable )rourself to give any facts of the sort desired, please 
hand this slip to someone that you think may be able to do so. 

I. Are you of German descent? 2. When did your family first settle 
in Virginia ? 3. Where ? 4. From what part of Germany did they come ? 
5. Did they come direct to Virginia, or did they first stop somewhere 
else ? 6. How did they spell their name when they first came to America ? 
7. What occupation did most of your ancestors in Virginia follow? 8. 
Has any history been written of your family ? If so, by whom ? When 
and where published? 9. Have any members of your family been 
specially noted in church or State? If so, give brief sketches of them. 
10. Give any interesting facts or historical incidents concerning members 
of your family, or other Germans of Virginia that you may know. 11. 
Do you know of any biographical, genealogical, or historical works, 
dealing with the Virginia Germans in any way? 12. Please sign your 
name, giving address, and send to the name and address given above. 



Stone Family. 

Notes concerning members of the Stone family originating in Mary- 
land and Virginia. E. A. Stone, D. D., Chicago, 111. 

In a genealogical record in the possession of Mrs. Laura Kinkead, of 
Lexington, Ky., there is given the name of Josiah Stone, as one of the 
descendants of David Stone and his second wife, Elizabeth Jemifer. 
This Josiah Stone moved at an early date, or near the close of the i8th 
century, to Culpeper county, Va., from Charles county, Md. He is said 
to have been an Episcopal clergyman. His descendants are quite nu- 
merous in the south and west, and are among the most prominent citi- 
zens. Now none of the published genealogies, such as Hayden's and 
others, make any mention of Josiah as a son of David. Query. What 
relation was Josiah to the Charles county, Md., Stones ? 

About the ^ime that Josiah Stone moved to Culpeper county, Va., 
from Charles county, Md., or perhaps a little earlier, one Thomas Stone, 
with Mary (Butler), his wife, moved into Fauquier county, Va., from 
Charles county, Md. He had five sons:' Benjamin, Spencer, John, 
Thomas and one. name unknown, as he died in the Revolutionary 
army. This Thomas Stone = (Mary Butler) leased or deeded land to Wil- 



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212 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Ham Nelson, Fauquier county, 29 October, 1772, Vol. 7, p. 329, county 
records, Fauquier county, Va. Their son, Benjamin Stone, married 
Anna Asbury, of Culpeper county, Va., about 1770. He lived in Fau- 
quier county, and leased land from JefFery Johnson, 26 October, 1772, 
and again from John MofFett, same county, 24 February, 1783. Deed 
Book No. 5, page 250, and No. 7, page 474. A few years later he 
moved into Hampshire county, where he bought fifty acres of land. He 
was living in Hampshire county in 1789, and became the pastor of a 
little Baptist church called Crooked Run Baptist church. He seems to 
have been a minister of considerable influence in that region for the 
day in which he lived. His descendants are scattered throughout the 
Central and Western States. 

Query. Can any light be thrown on the relation of Thomas Stone= 
Mary Butler, to the Stones of Charles county, Maryland ? The tradi- 
tion in the family is uniform that they were related, called cousins. 

There was a Thomas Stone and wife, Elizabeth, who lived in Fau- 
quier county, Va., and deeded land to Martin Paskett and Co., 22 Sep- 
tember, 1788. This Thomas was probably the son of Thomas and Mary 
Stone above mentioned. If so, he moved soon after to Tennessee and 
settled near Nashville, where he was still living as late as 1830; but no 
trace can be found to-day of his descendants. 

Query. Are any descendants of this Thomas Stone living ? It so, 
where ? 

John James and others sold to William S. Stone, of Fredericksburg, 
Va., 20,500 acres of land in Fayette county, Ky., 24 November, 1797: 
deed recorded in Fauquier county, Va., D. B. 13, 535. How was this 
William S. Stone related to the other Stones ? Are there any other 
records concerning him or his family ? 

Can anyone give the names of any Stones from Fauquier county, who 
ser\'ed in the Revolutionary army? Tradition has it that Benjamin 
Stone and a brother, and at least two brothers-in-law, named Asbury, 
served in this army and were at Valley Forge with Washington. Were 
they in John Marshall's company which was raised in this portion of the 
State? (Rev.) E. A. Stone, D, D., 

177 Wabash Ave., Chicago, III. 



First American-Born Naval Officer in the Philippines? 

There is on record in the clerk's office of Elizabeth City county, at 
Hampton, Va., a power of attorney, dated May 8, 1765, from James 
Wray, of Elizabeth City, mariner, to William Bowden, merchant, of 
London, empowering him to ask of the treasurer of the navy and of the 
commissioners of prize money, all which may be due the said Wray for 
his service as a midshipman on board the Grafton and Panther against 
Pontcherry, and the prize St. Fipineo. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 213 

In January, 1761, Pondicherry, the principal French stronghold in In- 
dia, was captured by an English fleet under Admiral Stevens, and an 
army under Coote. Stevens was succeeded by Vice-Admiral Cornish, 
who in August, 1762, with a fleet composed of the Grafton, Panther, 
and eight other vessels, having on board a land force under General 
Draper, sailed to attack the Philippines. On September 6th, Manilla 
was captured, and the control of the islands passed to the English. 

Mr. Wray appears to have been mistaken in the name of the prize 
referred to. During the progress of the seige the Panther, ship of the 
line, Captain Parker, and the Argo, frigate, were sent to intercept the 
St. Filipino, the annual galleon from Acapulco to Manilla, which it was 
known would contain a cargo of great value. They overhauled a gal- 
leon, which, after it was captured in a stubborn fight, proved to be not 
the St. Filipino, but the Santissama Trinidad, from Manilla to Acapulco, 
which had sailed before the seige but had been driven back by adverse 
winds. This stated to have been a disappointment, yet the value of the 
prize is variously estimated at from $500,000 to |3,ooo,ooj. 

Midshipman James Wray was a member of an old and well known 
family in Elizabeth City county. His father is buried in St John's 
churchyard, Hampton, where his tomb bears the following arms and 
inscription: 

Arms: Az, on a chief or^ three martlets gu. 
Crest: An ostrich or. Motto: Ei Juste et vray. 

Under this Stone 

lieth interred the Body of 

Capt. George Wray, 

Who departed this Life 

the 19th of April, 1758, in the 6ist year 

of his age. 

It appears from the Elizabeth City records that Captain George Wray 
married Helen — ^ • who was probably a daughter of George Walker, 
of Elizabeth City, and his wife Anne Keith (who was a daughter 
of the noted controversialist, George Keith), and had issue : I. Jacob, 
long a merchant at Hampton, whose will, dated February 2, 1797, names 
his sons George and John Ash ton Wray, his granddaughter, the daughter 
of Mr. Charles Stuart, and his grandson, Jacob Wray. He states that 
Mr. John A. Stuart had already been given money. In a codicil it is 
stated that the son, John A. Wray, was dead; II. George; III. Keith, 
mariner; IV. James, the midshipman, who, in 1767, is described as *'of 
Dinwiddle Co., merchant; *' IV. Ann, wife of John Stith, gent., of Staf- 
ford county. 



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214 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



EarlV Presbyterians in Virginia. 

In a volunie of Virginia Council records, now in the Congressional 
Library, under date April 29, 1699, is the following entry: '* Francis 
Mackamie petitions for the benefits of the toleration act." 

And in the Richmond county records, under date April 2, 1729, is the 
following entry: ** Mr. William Dalglish, a Presbitierian Minister, this 
day in open Court took the oaths appointed by Law to be taken instead 
of the oaths of allegiance and Supremecy, Subscribed the Test, and also 
Declared his approbation and Subscribed the articles of Religion com- 
monly called the thirty-nine articles except the 34, 35, 36 ind part of 
the 20 article and that the meeting house is on John Brown's plantation 
in North Farnham parish in this County." 



The Green Family. 

In Volume VIII, at pages 422-423, of the Virginia Historical 
Magazine reference is made to the famiKes of Bayly, Barber and Price, 
whose descendant, Elizabeth Price, married Nicholas, the fifth son of 
Robert Green the immigrant. * 

The following is the genealogy as given, viz: 

Samuel Bayly, of North Farnham His wife was Joyce 
Parish, Richmond county, 
died 1 7 10. 



Joyce Bayly, bom Jan. i7=William Barber, Justice of the 



1677. 



Peace, Richmond County, 
1692. He died 1721. 



Joyce Barber=Aijalon Price, of St. Thomas 
Parish. Died 1773. 



Nicholas Green=Elizabeth Price. 

What was the ancestry of Samuel Bayly, William Barber and Aijalon 

Price, and who was the first wife, Joyce , of Samuel Bayly ? It is 

desired to embrace all possible information about these persons and their 
families in a larger genealogy of the Green family. 

Holdridge O. Collins, 

Los Angeles, California. 



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NOTEiy AND QUERIES. 215 



Virginia Militia Officers, 1699. 

There is in the Congressional Library a manuscript volume containing 
the records of the Virginia Council, December 9, 1698-May 20, 1700. 
This book was of course stolen from the Capitol in Richmond, probably 
in 1865, and should long ago have been returned to the State of Virginia. 
It is hoped that it may yet be. Under date of June 3, 1699, are found 
the following appoiptments of field officers of the Virginia militia: 

Henrico: William Byrd, colonel and commander-in-chief; William 
Randolph, lieutenant-colonel; Peter Feild, major. 

Charles City: Edward Hill, colonel and commander-in-chief; Edward 
Hill, Jr., lieuteiiant<olonel; Charles Goodrich, major. 

Surry: Benjamin Harrison, colonel and commander-in-chief; Henry 
Tooker, major. 

Isle of Wight: Samuel Bridger, lieutenant- colonel and commander-in 
chief; Henry Baker, major. 

Nansemond: George Norsworthy, lieutenant-colonel and commander- 
in-chief; Thomas Swann, major. 

Princess Anne: Anthony Lawson, lieutenant-colonel and commander- 
in-chief; John Thoroughgood, major. 

Norfolk: Lemuel Mason, lieutenant-colonel and commander*! n-chief; 
James Wilson, major. 

Elizabeth City: William Wilson, lieutenant-colonel and commander- 
in-chief; Anthony Armistead, major. 

Warwick: Miles Cary, lieutenant-colonel and commander-in-chief; 
William Cary, major. 

James City: Philip Ludwell, colonel and commander-in-chief; Henry 
Ehike, lieutenant-colonel. 

York: Edmund Jenings, colonel and commander-in-chief; Thomas 
Ballard, lieutenant-colonel; William Buckner, major. 

New Kent: John Lightfoot, colonel and commander-in-chief; Joseph 
Foster, lieutenant-colonel; William Bassett, major. 

King and Queen: William Leigh, colonel and commander-in-chief; 
Joshua Story, major. 

Gloucester! Matthew Page, colonel and commander-in-chief; James 
Ransom, lieutenant-colonel; Peter Beverley, major. 

Middlesex: Ralph Wormeley, colonel and commander-in-chief; Mat- 
thew Kemp, lieutenant-colonel; Robert Dudley, major. 

Essex: Ralph Wormeley, colonel and commander-in-chief; William 
Moseley, lieutenant-colonel; John Catlett, major. 

Lancaster: Robert Carter, colonel and commander-in-chief; Joseph 
Ball, lieutenant-colonel. 

Northumberland: Robert Carter, colonel and commander-in-chief; 
George Cowper, lieutenant-colonel; Rodham Kenner, major. 



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21<} VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Westmoreland: Richard Lee, colonel and commander-in-chief; Wil- 
loughby Allerton, lieutenant-colonel; Francis Wright, major. 

Richmond: Richard Lee, colonel and commander-in-chief; George 
Taylor, lieutenant-colonel; Thomas Lloyd, major. 

Stafford : George Mason, lieutenant-colonel and commander-in-chief; 
Thomas Owsley, major. 

Accomack: Charles Scarborough, colonel and commander-in-chief; 
Richard Bayley, major. 

Northampton: John Custis, colonel and commander-in-chief; Nathan- 
iel Litdeton, lieutenant-colonel; William Waters, major. 

As a rule the colonels were members of the Council. Some of them, 
as Wormeley, Carter and Lee, commanded two counties. It does not 
appear from any extant Council record that William Leigh, of King and 
Queen, was a member of that body. 



Pirates in Virginia. 

(From the records of Elizabeth City county.) 

Deed, Feb. 12, 1721, from Henry Irwin, of Hampton, gent, on the one 
part, and our Sovereign Lord the King on the other, reciting that whereas 
by a power of attorney granted unto the said Irwin by Alexander Spots- 
wood, Governor of Virginia, he had at sundry times received consider- 
able sums of money being the effects of William Farrow. William 
Williams, Toby Butler, Daniel I'gotta and Thomas Hall, pirates, who 
arrived in this colony in January, 1719, on board the ship West River 
Merchant, of London, to be accountable for the same when required by 
the King, and whereas the said Irwin stands indebted to the King in the 
sum of 450/" current money of Virginia for so much of the said piratical 
ejects by him received & yet unpaid & unsatisfied, the said Irwin con- 
veys to the King in lieu thereof a half acre lot in Hampton and other 
lots. 



A Virginia Doctor's Medicines, 1729. 

(From Order Book, Richmond County) 

AugiLst6, 1729. 

The attachment obtained by Docter James Black from Willoughby 
Newton, Gent., one of the Magistrates of this County against the estate 
of Docter Wm. Bruce for one thousand six hundred thirty-eight pounds 
of Tob'co, being returned served on the said Wm. Bruce's estate, and 
the said William Bruce being now called, but not appearing, on the 
moc'on of the pl't Judgement is granted him against the estate of the 
Said Bruce for the fores'd sum of one thousand six hundred thirty-eight 
pounds of Tob'co (makeing oath in court it is Justly due) with costs and 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 217 

one att's fee als Exo. The said Return is admitted to Record as follow- 
eth: A List of Medicines attacht for Docter James Black: 

Aq fort 3 V's, Sp't sal. arm, ol Gary:, Ol Jun, Ol ment, Ol cham ol 
pul, Bals hel Ter, Syr Sp Ceoro, Spt Nit Dul, Spt Vit, Pul Cast Rus, Spt 
Sal, Spt Sal Dule 2 Glass, Lap Contrary, puk [or pub or pul] Lental 
Rubr, Sal am vel. Gull Gamba, Bals Peru 2 viols, Sal mer Glaub:, Sp 
Ceti, Ther Venet 2 Viols, Precip Aur, Arg Vivum, Gum Camp, ol Ther» 
mer Ruper Precip, pul Gasconi, Tine Cath, Bals Copre [or Copsie or 
Capsie] Ol Sue [or Sac] 01 Guf:, Gum Scam, ant Drap, Oc Canororum, 
Torch Echel cane, Alb Rhasis, Fl Benz, Pul grid flors, Turp min'r, Caus 
Lan, Sal vit, Bals Lucat, Ung Newtritum, 01 anisi, Gum Gall Col sptt, 
Emple pie minio. Gum Guiaci Gum My'r, Rad Satery, Lap Calam, Cro: 
mart, asting, Pul Castory, Cro. Argl 3 p'tt, Sal mart, [Books:] Jo. Jon- 
stoni Thaumatographia Naturales, Martin ven Dis:, Sharps Midwifery, 
Shaws Physick 2 vol, Septuagint, Bezas Bible, Burroughs Phys, Bar- 
betts Chirurg: 
January the 27, 1728, Executed ^ me Jno Hammond S [ub] S [henff ] 
[Spelling and punctuation have been exactly followed.] 



Dry Goods, 1767. 

Lately imported by the subscriber, in King 

William county, 

A Genteel assortment of printed calicoes, cottons, and Hollands, to the 

amount of eleven hundred pounds sterling, which are to be disposed 

ofi wholesale or retail, on reasonable terms. 

William Dandridge. 
Virginia Gazette, June 18, 1767. 



Harpsichord, 1767. 

To be Sold for prime cost, 

A Complete Harpsicord, with three stops, just imported from London, 

made by Kirkman, the Queen's instrument maker, and supposed by 

good judges to be the best in the colony. Inquire of the Printer. 

Virginia Gazette, Aug. 6, 1767. 



Lost Steer, 1767. 

Henrico, August i, 1767. 
At Lily Valley a three year old steer. 
His mark is a ruff crop in every ear, 
Hte colour is either brindle or brown. 
And is pobted and praised to two pounds and a crown. 
His belly and thighs are part of them white. 
And the owner may have him on proving his right 
Va, Gazette, Aug. 6, 1767. Leonard Ward. 



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218 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



The True Storv of Captain JohiSi Smith. By Katherine Pearson 
Woods, author of **Metzerott>. Shoemaker." New York: Double- 
day, Page & Co., 1901. Pp. 382. 

(Communicated) 

In The American Historical Review, for July, 1902, is a critique, by 
W. M. West, of **The True Story of Capt. John Smith," by Katherine 
Pearson Woods. Mr. West (p 7631 says: ''Statements that England 
derived her theory of divine right from Spain (p. 91); that Under the 
charter of 1609 the Governor of Virginia was appointed for life (p. 319); 
that when the Pilgrims planned their voyage they intended to settle 
within the limits of the Plymouth Council (p. 357), do not inspire confi- 
dence in the author's historical preparation." 

The theory of ** divine right "in England shall be left to Cromwell 
and the Revolution of 1688. If the history of that great country con- 
tains some notice of James I and Sir Robert Filmer, it also does of 
Hampden and Sidney and Locke. 

As to the tenure for life under the charter of 1609: That charter does 
not expressly say so; but in Articles XIII and XIV, it confers very large 
powers upon the Council resident in London. The King first appointed 
and then enlarged that Council and they commissioned Lord Delaware 
as Governor. Dr. Alexander Brown has, in his Genesis of the United 
States, given us that Commission (printed, as he says, for the first time), 
and in it (p. 378) is the following passage: "Now Know Yee that We 
his Majesties said Councell upon good advise & deliberation & upon 
notice had of the Wisedome, valour, circumspection & of the virtue & 
especiall sufficiencie of the Right Honorable Sir Thomas West, Knight 
Lord La Warr, to be in principall place of authoritie & Government in 
the said Collonie & finding in him the said Lord La Warr propensness 
& willingness to further & advance the good of the said Plantation, by 
virtue of the authoritie unto us given by the said Letters Pattents, have 
nominated, made, ordained & appointed & by these presents do nomi- 
nate, make, ordaine & appoint the said Sir Thomas West, Knight Lord 
La War, to be principall Governor, Commander & Captain Generall both 
by Land & Sea over the said Collonie & all other Collonies planted or 
to be planted in Virginia, * * ♦ * y^r (2f during the term of his 
natural life, & do hereby ordaine & declare that he the said Lord La 
Warr during his life shall be stiled & called by the name & title of Lord 
Governor & Captain Generall of Virginia & of the Collonie & Collonies 
there planted or to be planted," &c , &c. 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 219 

The Council would not have been allowed to contravene the charter 
by this commission. Indeed, they aver that it is by authority given 
them in said charter. Then, was not the author ^ccuratje in her state- 
ment, p. 359 ? 

In regard to the Pilgrim's plan of their voyage, many good authorities 
might be adduced. But one will, from its peculiar character, be suffi- 
cient. In his later work, The First Republic^ Dr. Alexander Brown 
gives, as far as practicable from the existing records, the protracted ne- 
gotiations between the Virginia Company and the agents of the Pilgrims; 
and there were numerous trips, on the subject, between London and 
Leyden. Sir Edwyn Sandys warmly espoused the cause of the Pilgrims 
and tried to get King James and the Archbishop of Canterbury to grant 
them toleration. In about three years all obstacles on both sides were 
removed and Dr. Brown, p. 387, says: 

"The official note of shipping, etc , sent during the first term of the 
Earl of Southampton as treasurer, prepared to be read at the Easter 
term of the Virg'a court, 1621, states that the Bona Nova of 200 tons 
with 120 persons; the Elizabeth of 40 tons, with 20 persons; & the May- 
flower of 140 tons, with foo persons, were sent by the Va. Company to 
Virginia, in August, 1620. The Mayflower sailed Aug. 15, but returned 
& finally put to sea on September 16. In sending the Pilgrims to Vir- 
gina, Sandys was carrying out his plan for setting up a goverment 
founded on civil & religious liberty in the new world." 

If I understand what Mr. West means by '* the limits of the Plymouth 
Council," the Pilgrims did plan their voyage to be within those limits. 
Because they were not within '* the limits of the Plymouth Council," t. e., 
below 45® of north Latitude, they had a difficulty about their lands and 
were compelled to make a new arrangement with the New England 
Company, p. 424. 

In offering the above notes no discourtesy is meant towards Mr. West, 
who, no doubt, intended and desired to be accurate. 

When the foregoing was penned for the American Historical Review ^ 
to correct therein the mistakes which Mr. West had made in his charges 
against the Woods Life of Capt. John Smith, I confess that I knew noth- 
ing of said book or its authoress. My sole object was to vindicate the 
truth of history. But I have since seen the work and learned, from its 
dedication, that the writer of it is the granddaughter of an old friend of 
mine, the Rev. James D. McCabe, D. D., the brother of another friend, 
the Rev. John C. McCabe. 

Mr. West pursues her quite savagely and not only seeks to overthrow 
her history, but berates her style. It is highly probable that she is as 
defensible in some other points as she is in the two presented above- 
The commission of Lord Delaware under the said charter is absolutely 



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220 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

conclusive on the first point, though historians might be cited to the 
same purport. 

In regard to plan of the Pilgrims, the rejection by the American Re- 
mew has induced me to look for other authorities, besides Dr. Alexander 
Brown. 

The Pilgrim Fathers, by Daniel Wilson, F. S. A.. Scot, New York 
and London (and published along with a History of the Puritans) on p. 
356 says: ** It was with the latter (the Plymouth Company) that the Pil- 
grims of Leyden negotiated their scheme of colonization. The enter- 
prize had already been maturely weighed.*' 

Again, on p. 361: '*The place of their destination was the Hudson 
river, which lay to the South and the patent which they had obtained 
under the Virginia Company's seal, at considerable cost and after long 
vexation and delay, was of less value in that northern Latitude than the 
sheep-skin on which it was engrossed." ♦ * * *' The Pilgrims then 
urged the Captain to pursue his course southward. But the Dutch had 
resolved to establish settlements of their own in those parts and had 
bribed the commander to frustrate the colonists in that respect" See 
also Bancroft, I, 304, 5, 9; Fisk's U. S., 88. There is one other thing 
that is irrefragable. The very constitution or covenant which the 
Pilgrims drew up and signed says on its face that they had ** undertaken 
a voyage to plant their first colony in the Northerly parts of Virginia;" 
not the parts north of Virginia, but the northerly parts of Virginia, 
Wilson, p. 363. 

By both charters ( 1607 and 1609) Virginia was limited from 35® to 
45** of north Latitude and the London Company and the Plymouth Com- 
pany were in 1609 to be 200 miles apart. Whatever negotiations the 
Leyden agents may have had with Sandys, of the London Company, 
they knew very well the relations between that and the Plymouth Com- 
pany and the northern boundary of Virginia, and when Pierce, I think, 
took his patent for his fellow Pilgrims, he stipulated that they should be 
"within the limits of the Plymouth Company," as the Wood's book 
avers. 

One word more in regard to the '* Divine Right " of kingship in Eng- 
land: It is not necessary to send any monarch of that country to Spain, 
or any where else, for model or examplar. The theory of '* Divine 
Right " could spring up from the principles in the nature of any monarch 
who overvalued his prerogative and undervalued the rights and privi- 
leges of his subjects. King John and Runymede were anterior to the 
Phillips of Spain. 

Benj. Blake Minor. 
Richmond, Va. 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 221 

Ancestry and Descendants of Lieutenant John Henderson. 
Of Greenbrier county, Va., 1650-1900 From Data Collected and 
Arranged by His Great-Great-Grandson, Joseph Lyon Miller, M. D. 
Richmond: Whittet & Shepperson, General Printers, 1902. Pp. 37. 
Illustrated. 

This little book gives in compact form an account of the family of 
Henderson, which has long been prominent in what is now West Vir- 
ginia. After some brief general remarks on the name, the author takes 
up the particular family in question, and is fortunate to have in his pos- 
sesion an old book, on the blank leaves of which are entered the mar- 
riage of William Henderson, Gent., and Margaret Bruce, in 1705, and 
the statement that he was a son of John Henderson, Gent, of Fifeshire, 
Scotland. It seems probable that this John Henderson was one of the 
sons of Sir John Henderson, of Fordell. 

John, James and Samuel, sons of William Henderson, came to Vir- 
ginia; but it is of the descendants of James that Dr. Miller writes. 
James Henderson, who was bom in 1708, and died in 1784, served as an 
ensign and lieutenant in the French and Indian war. 

The author has with great care compiled from old wills, deeds, letters 
and other documents, a full and interesting account of the branch of the 
family of which he treats. 

The entire book is a thoroughly good example of proper genealogical 
work. 

The Ancestor. A Quarterly Review of County and Family History, 
Heraldry and Antiquities. London: Arnold, Constable & Co., Ltd. 
I. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia. April and July, 1902 (two 
nos. received). 

With quarterly numbers which are in themselves handsome books, 
The Ancestor at once takes a notarble place among kindred publications. 
Though, as its title indicates, it is largely devoted to genealogy, it 
seems there is nothing relating to British mankind in the past, which 
wHl be foreign to its pages. The genealogist, antiquary, and historian, 
will, alike, find matter of interest. 

The genealogical articles are from the pens of men noted for critical 
and thorough learning in all the sources from which material for family 
history can be drawn, and treat of subjects whose interest is by no 
means confined to England. 

The origin of great historic houses, and the history of those of lower 
rank, but frequently of longer lineage, are treated of with the utmost 
thoroughness. 

People in the United Kingdom who like to believe in the old accepted, 
and half-traditional pedigrees, will find but little comfort in the work of 
such men as J. H. Round, W. H. B. Bird and other contributors to The 
Ancestor. These writers demolish with the same ruthlessness and 
deadly array of evidence the stories that the Fitzgeralds were of noble 



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222 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and ancient Italian origin, and that the Grosvenors descended from 
Rollo, the Dane. 

The motto of The Ancestor, in genealogical matters, is that the truth 
must be told if the heavens fall. It is evident that but few pretensions 
as to British family greatness will remain unassailed by the time the 
work of The Ance:>tor is done. Nor is this critical learning applied to 
historic families alone. Whether in asserting the quite brie! ancestry 
of a duke, tracing Browning's ancestry to a footman, and Tennyson's 
to an eighteenth century apothecary, the same measure of evidence 
from the records is applied. 

In connection with Tennyson it is implied that though in verse he 
might with his ** grand old gardiner and his wife " laugh at the claims 
of long descent, yet he was privately a good deal pleased when *' some 
industrious person traced out for him that * royal descent ' of which 
most middle-class Englishmen can boast." This raises a disturbing 
question nearer home. If ''most Englishmen of the middle-class'* 
have this " royal descent," will it not considerably depress the American 
market for such wares ? 

The genealogical work of the The Ancestor, is, however, by no means 
all destructive. It contains a great amount of material from the public 
records and other sources, which will be of value to investigators in 
America as well as in England 

Nor is it alone among the shams of ancestry (and it is to be feared 
that after reading these numbers, our American standard, Burke, must 
be included among them), that the critics of the new quarterly do their 
destructive work. Ancient relics constitute a fruitful field for the icono- 
clast. In the April number (p. 240), an account is given of a hat and 
a pair of shoes recently exhibited in London, which were said to have 
been given by Henry VIII and Anne 'Boleyn to an ancestor of the ex- 
hibitor, as title deeds to an estate '* given to a favorite courtier,'* which 
the exhibitor still owned. The Ancestor calmly pointed out that the 
ancestor of the exhibitor who acquired the estate, did so by purchase in 
1 7 18, that the manor in question did not become the property of the 
Crown until four years after the death of Ann Boleyn. 

The article which has attracted most attention is that by Sir George 
Sitwell, Bart., on **The English Gentleman." The author combats the 
generally received theory as to the rise of the gentry as a distinct class. 
He states that the word ** gentleman," as descriptive of social rank, 
does not appear before 1413, and after much learned argument and cita- 
tion, comes to the conclusion that the gentleman is not and never has 
been **a person of * heraldic status,' Who is * entitled to bear jtrms,' btat 
a freeman whose ancestors have always been free." In support of this 
statement he affirms that there have been many " gentlemen " who did 
not have arms, and ** yeomen " who did. 

This positron has not been universally accepted, and has given rise to 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 223 

considerable discussion. Is it not possible that Sir George Sitwell has, 
in considering the evidences he has found, confused the independent sit- 
uation of the freeman as contrasted with that of the bondsman, with 
actual social rank ? Edmund Burke, in well-known words, has called 
attention to this contrast and the feeling excited by it. *' Freedom is to 
them [freemen living among slaves] not only an enjoyment, but a kind 
of rank or privilege." This state of feeling among all freemen contin- 
ued to exist in the Southern States of the Union until the end of slavery, 
but it was far from placing all free men in the social rank of "gentle- 
men." 

In this notice only a few articles out of two very interesting tables of 
contents have been referred to, but there are many others which attract 
attention. 

Of the appearance of The Ancestor the highest praise can be given. 
Each number is a handsome, well-bound quarto, and with its 240 or 
more pages, good paper and print, wide margins, and numerous and 
handsome illustrations, it easily surpasses any similar periodical which 
reaches us. The wonder is how it can be sold at the low price of $1.50 
a number. 

Gknealogv of the Descendants of John Walker, of Wigton, 
Scotland, with Records of a Few Allied Families, Also War 
Records and some Fragmentry Notes Pertaining to the History of 
Virginia, 1600-1902. By Emma Siggins White, Kansas City, Mo. 
Press of Tibman-Dart Printing Company, 1902. Pp. 722; 70 illus- 
trations. Index. 

The first impression given by this book is of the immense amount of 
work and indefatigable investigation which must have been required to 
compile it. Tracing the genealogy of a family of eastern Virginia, 
which had been resident in one county for generations, and where, when 
the records are preserved, there is generally considerable data, is diffi- 
cult, but to trace down to the present time a family which first settled in 
a frontier county and in a section where new counties were so frequently 
formed, while members of the family constantly emigrated to various 
and distant parts of the West and South, was indeed a difficult task, but 
one which Mrs. White has performed well. 

The families treated of at some length include the names of Walker, 
Rutherford, McPheeters, Stuart, Todd, McClung, Kelso, Irvine, Logan, 
Abemathy, Campbell, Coalter, Moore, Morrison, Bates, Brown, In- 
man. Woodruff, Patterson, Scott, Hindman, Taylor, Hays, Polk, Boone, 
McCrosky, Houston, Bernard, &c., while hundreds of other names have 
a lesser space. 

Most of the families named settled in Virginia in Augusta county or 
more especially in what is now Rockbridge, and the book gives a good 
illustration of what the ** Scotch-Irish " have done in the making of 
America. 



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224 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Of course it is impossible for any one person to make an assertion of 
the accuracy of all parts of Mrs. White's large work, but there is every 
evidence that in the history of the lineage of the families in America 
she has used every effort to secure accuracy. 

The only weak points are in the department of American genealogy, 
in which such mistakes so often occur. The descent from the Rev. Jos- 
eph Alleine, and from Rev. Samuel Rutherford, the royal descent through 
the Logans, and above all, the claim in regard to the Duke of Argyle 
(not by Mrs. White, however, on her own authority), are either unsup- 
ported by proof, or, as in the last-named case, mistakes. These things, 
however, are mere flaws, and in no way affect the great excellence or 
value of the book. 



Donald Robertson and His Wife Rachel Rogers, of King and 
Queen County, Virginia, Their Ancestry and Posterity, Also a Brief 
Account of the Ancestry of Commodore Richard Taylor, of Orange 
County, Virginia, and His Naval History During the War of the 
American Revolution. By William Kyle Anderson. Illustrated. 
Pp. 263, index xxvi. [Preface dated Detroit, Mich., 1900.] Winn 
& Hammond, Printers, Detroit. 

This is a most carefully prepared genealogy of another of the Scotch 
families, which have done so much for Virginia and the country at large. 
Beginning with a Charles Robertson, who is believed to have lived near 
Inverness, and who had a son born in t68i, the account comes down 
through Donald Robertson, who came to Virginia in 1752, and settled 
in King and Queen county, where he was long noted as a teacher. 
Among his pupils were James Madison and George Rogers Clark. 

Among the families treated of in addition to the Robertsons are the 
Rogers, Semples (descended from two sons of Rev. James Semple, min- 
ister of Dreghom, Scotland), Gamer, Taylor, Jacob, Byrne, Anderson, 
Green, Bradford, Clay, and many others. 

On pages 205-224 the mucb disputed question of the marriage of 
John Rogers, of King and Queen, with Mary, daughter of William Byrd, 
ist, of Westover, is considered. Mr. Anderson makes a careful inves- 
tigation and concludes that there is no ground for the assertion, but 
that it is almost certain that Mrs. Rogers was a member of the Bird 
family, of King and Queen. 

The latter part of the book treats of the immediate ancestry and the 
Revolutionary career of Commodore Richard Taylor. In conclusion it 
only need be said that Mr. Anderson's book is handsome in appearance, 
well illustrated, and that the genealogical work is thoroughly well done. 



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PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

Virginia Historical Society. 



New Series. 

"Collections of the Virginia Historical Society. New Series. Edited 
by R. A. Brock, Corresponding Secretary and Librarian of the Society, 
(Seal) Richmond, Va. Published by the Society." Eleven annual 
volumes, uniform. 8vo., cloth, issued 1882-92, carefully indexed, as 
follows : 

The Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant-Goverror of 
the Colony of Virginia, 17 10- 1722. Now first printed from the manu- 
script in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society, with an 
introduction and notes. Vols. I and II. 

Two Volames. Portrait and Anns, pp xxi-i79 <^d vii-368. 8 00 

The Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Colony of Virginia, 1751-1758. Now first prmted from the manu- 
script in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society, with an 
introduction and notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two volumes, pp. Ixiz-ssS and xviii-768. Portraiu, fac-simiU of letters of presentation , 
from W. W. Corcoran, cut of Mace of Borough of Norfolk, Va., and reproduction of the 
Map of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Penns)'lvania, engraved for Jefferson's Notes 
on Virginia, 1787. 5 50 

Documents, Chiefly Unpublished, Relating to the Huguenot Emigration 
to Virginia and to the Settlement at Manakin Town, with an Appen- 
dix of Genealogies, presenting data of the Fontaine, Maury, Dupuy, 
Trabue, Marye, ChastAine, Cocke and other Families. 

Pages xxi-247. ConUins fac-simiU of plan of "King William's Town." 2 60 

Miscellaneous Papers, 167 2-1 865. Now first printed from the manuscript 
in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society. Comprising 
Charter of the Royal African Co., 1672; Report on the Huguenot 
Settlement 1700; Papers of George Gilmer of "Pen Park," 1775-78; 
Orderly Book of Capt. George Stubblefield. 1776; Career of the 
Iron-clad Virginia, 1862; Memorial of Johnson's Island, 1862-4; Beale's 
Cav. Brigade Parole, 1865. 
Pages viii-374* 2 60 

Abstract of the Proceedings of the Virginia Company of London, 1619- 
1624. Prepared from the Records in the Library of Congress by 
Conway Robinson, with an introduction and notes. Vols. I and IL 
Two volumes. Pages xlvii-ai8 and 300. The introduction contains a valuable critical 

«ssay on the sources of information for the student of Virginia History. 5 QO 

The History of the Virginia Federal Convention of 1788, with some ac- 
count of the Eminent Virginians of that era who were members of 
the Body, by Hugh Blair Grigsby, LL. D., with a Biographical 
Sketch of the Author and illustrative notes. Vols. I and IL 
Two volumes. Pages xxvii-37a and 411. Digitized by 



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Proceedings of the Virginia Historical Society at the Annual Meeting 
held December 21-22, 1891, with Historical Papers read on the oc- 
casion and others. 

Pages xix-386. Contains papers on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence and the 
Call for the First Congress ; Historical Elements in Virginia Education and Literary 
Effort; Notes on Recent Work in Southern History; Ancient Epitaphs and Descriptions 
in York and James City Counties, Walshington's First Election to the House of Burgesses ; 
Smithfield Church, built in 1632, Richmond's First Academy; Facts from the Accomac 
County Records, Relating to Bacon's Rebellion ; Thomas Hansford, first Martyr to Ameri- 
can Liberty ; Journal of Captain Charles Lewis in Washington's Expedition against the 
French in 1755; Orderly Books of Major Wm. Heath, 1777, and Capt. Robert Gamble, 1779, 
and Memoir of General John Cropper. 2 GO 

The full set of these publications can be obtained for $3 1 .00, or the separate 
publications, at the prices named. 
Discount allowed to booksellers. 



Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Edited to October 
I St, 1898, by Philip A. Bruce, and since that date by William G. Stanard, 
Corresponding Secretary and Librarian of the Society, (Seal). Pub- 
lished Quarterly by the Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Va. 
House of the Society, No. 707 East Franklin St. 

Volume I— Octavo, pp. 484-viii-x3tvi-x3txii. 

Contains cut of the Society's Building, accounts of the proceedings and transactions of 
the Society for the year 1893, and many exceedingly valuable, original historical documents 
and papers which have never before appeared in print. Among others may be mentioned, 
Discourse of the London Company on its administration of Virginia affairs, 1607-1624: 
Abstracts of Colonial Patents in the Register of the Virginia Land Office, beginning in 1634, 
with full genealogical notes and an extended Genealogy of the Claiborne Family ; The 
Mutiny in Virginia in 1635 ; Samuel Matthew's Letter and Sir John Harvey's Declaration ; 
Speech of Governor Berkeley and Declaration of the Assembly with reference to the change 
of Government in England and the passage of the First Navigatiop Act of 1651 ; Petition 
of the Planters of Virginia and Maryland in opposition to the Navigation Act of 1661 ; 
Bacon's Rebellion, 1676; His three proclamations, Letters of Sherwood and Ludwell, Pro- 
posals of Smith and Ludwell, and Thomas Bacon's Petition ; Letters of William Fitzhogh 
(1650-1701), a Leading Lawyer and Planter of Virginia, with a genenlogical account of the 
Fitzhughs in England ; Lists of Public Officers in the various Counties in Virginia late in 
the 17th and early in the tSth centuries ; Roster of Soldiers in the French and Indian Wars 
under Colonel Washington ; Officers, Seamen and Marines in the Virginia Navy of the 
Revolution ; Roll of the 4th Virginia Regiment in the Revolution ; Diary of Captain John 
Davis of the Pennsylvania Line in the Yorktown Campaign ; General George Rogers 
Clark,— Roll of the Illinois and Crockett's Regiments and the Expedition to Vincennes ; 
Department of " Historical Notes and Queries." containing contributions by Hon. Wm. 
Wirt Henry, and many other items of value; Department of "Book Reviews;" A full 
Index. 00 

VOLUMB II— OcUvo, pp. 48a-ii-xxiv. 

Contains a full account of the proceeding^ and transactions of the Society for .the 
year 1894, and the following list of articles copied from the original documents : Report 
of Governor and Council on the Condition of Affairs in Virginia in 1636 ; Abstracts of Col- 
onial Patents in the Register of the Virginia Land Office, with full genealogical notes and 
extended genealogies of the Fleet, Robins and Thoroughgood Families ; Reports of Griev- 
ances by the Counties of Virginia after the suppression of Bacon's Insurrection ; A full his- 
tory of the First Legislative Assembly ever held in America (that in 16 19 at Jamestown), 
written by Hon. Wm. Wirt Henry ; The concluding list of Virginia Soldiers engaged in 
the French and Indian Wars ; The opening lists of the Virginia Officers and Men in the 
Continental Line, compiled from official sources ; A valuable account of the Indian Wars 
in AngusU County, by Mr. Joseph A. Waddell, with the lists of the killed and wounded 



gle 



3 

Instructions to Governor Yeardley in 1618 and 1626, and to Governor Berkeley in 1641 ; Let- 1 
ters of William Fitzhugh continued, with full genealogical notes ; The Will of William 
Fitzhttgh; A completi' List of Public Officers in Virginia in 1702 and 1714; Valuable ac- 
count of Horse Racing in Virginia, by Mr. Wm. G. Stanard ; The first instalment of an 
article on Robert Beverley and his Descendants ; Wills of Richard Kemp and Rev. John 
Lawrence, both bearing the date of the 17th century ; Short Biographies of all the members 
of the Virginia Historical Society who died in the course of 1894 ; An elaborate Genealogy 
of the Floumoy Family, throwing light on the Huguenot Emigration ; Department of His- 
torical Notes and Queries, containing many valuable short historical papers and also Gene- 
alogical contributions, among which the Carr and Landon Genealogies are of special 
interest ; Department of Book Reviews, containing critical articles by wdU known historical 
scholars. Volume II, like Volume I, has been thoroughly indexed. 6.00 

Volume III— Octavo, pp. 46o-ii-xxviii. 

Contains a full account of the proceedings of the Society for the year 1895, and the follow- 
ing list of articles copied from original documents : Letters of William Fitzhugh con- 
tinued; Instructions to Berkeley, i66a; Virginia under Governors Harvey and Gooch; 
Causes of Discontent leading to the Insurrection of 1666 under Bacon ; Will of Benjamin 
Harrison the Elder ; Culpeper's Report on Virginia in 1683 ; Defense of Col. Edward Hill ; 
A series of Colonial letters vnritten by William Byrd, Jr., Thomas Ludwell, Robert Carter, 
Richard Lee, and Sir John Randolph ; Decisions of the General Court of Virginia, 1626- 
i6a8, first instalment ; Indictment of Governor Nicholson by the leading members of his 
Council; Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents, extending to 1635, with full genealogical 
notes; A History of Robert Beverley and his Descendants, with interesting Wills and new 
matter obtained from England ; Genealogies of the Floumoy, Cocke, Carr, Todd and Chap- 
pell Families ; Voluminous Historical Notes and Queries of extraordinary original value, 
relating to a great variety of subjects ; Department of Book Reviews, containing articles 
from the pens of well known historical scholars. Volume III, like the preceding Volumes, 
has a full index. 6.00 

Volume IV— Octavo, pp 492-i-xxiii. 

Contains \be following general list of Contents: A Marriage Agreement between John 
CvBtis and his wife ; A Perswasive to Towns and Cohabitation by Rev. Francis Mackemie 
1705; Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents for 1635-6; Army Supplies in the Revolution. 
Series of original letters by Judge Innes ; Attacks by the Dutch on Virginia Fleet, 1667 ; 
Boundary Line Proceedings, for Virginia and North Carolina 1710 ; Charges against Spots- 
wood by House of Burgess 1719 ; Council Proceedings, 1716-1717 ; Decisions of Virginia 
General Court, 1626-28 Continued ; Defence of Colonel Edward Hill Continued Depositions 
of Revolutionary Soldiers from County records ; Early Spotsylvania Marriage Licenses ; 
Genealogy — Cocke, Floumoy, Trabue, Jones, and Rootes Families ; Historical Notes and 
Queries ; A full list of House of Burgesses, 1766 to 1775 ; Instructions to Governor Francis 
Nicholson ; Letter and Proclamation of Argall ; Letters of William Fitzhugh ; Narrative of 
Bacon's Rebellion by the English Commissioners ; full abstracts of Northampton County 
Records in i7tb Century ; Ordeal of Touch in Colonial Virginia ; Patent of Auditor and 
Surveyor-General ; Prince George County Records with much information as to its families ; 
Proceedings of Visitors of William and Mary College, 1716; A list of Shareholders in Lon- 
don Company, 1783 ; also of Slave Owners in Spotsylvania County, 1783 ; Vlrgmia Tobacco 
in Russia in 17th Century. Volume IV has a full index. 5.00 

Volume V — Octavo, pp. 472-i-xxiii. 

Contains the following general list of Contents: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents, 
1636 ; and PatenU and GranU, 1769 ; Rappahannock and Isle of Wight Wills. 17th Century ; 
Government of Virginia, 1666 ; Bacon's Men in Surry ; and List of Persons Suffering by the 
Rebellion; Boundary Line Proceedings, 1710; Carter Papers; Case of Anthony Penton; 
Colonial and Revolutionary Letters, Miscellaneous ; Early Episcopacy in Accomac ; Depo- 
sitions of Continental Soldiers ; Families of Lower Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties ; 
Genealogy of the Cocke, Godwin, Walke, Moseley. Markham, fCarr. Hughes, Winston, 
Calvert, Parker and Brockenbrough Families; General Court Decisions, 1640, 1641, 1666; 
Memoranda Relating to the House of Burgesses, 16S5-91 ; Journal of John Barnwell in Yam- 
massee War; Letters of Lafayette in Yorktown Campaign ; Letters of William Fitzhugh ; 
Letters to Thomas Adams, 1769-71 ; Public Officers, 1781 ; Northampton County Records, 
XTtta Century : List, Oath and Duties of Viewers of Tobacco Crop, 1639 ; Petition of John 
Mercer Respecting Marboro Town; Price Lists and Diary of Colonel Fleming, 1788-98; 
Abstract of Title to Greenspring ; Tithables of Lancaster County, 17th Century ; The Me- 
hcrrin Indians : The Trial of Criminal Cases in i8th Century. Volume V has a full index 5.00 



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VoLUMB VI— Octavo, pp. 473-iv-xxiH, 

Contains the following general list of principal Contents: The Acadians in Virginia; 
Letters to Thomas Adams ; Journal of John Barnwell ; Vindication of Sir William Berk- 
eley ; Will of Mrs. Mary Willing Byrd ; Inventory of Robert Carter ; Virginia Society of 
the Cincinnati ; Epitaphs at Brandon ; Trustees of Hampden-Sidney College ; Jacobitism in 
Virginia ; Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents ; Letters of Lafayette ; A New Clue to the 
Lee Ancestry ; Letters of General Henry Lee ; Sir Thomas Smythe's Reply to Bargrave ; 
Virginia in 1633, 1633-4, and 1771 ; Virginia Borrowing from Spain ; The Virginia Company 
and the House of Commons ; Virginia Militia in the Revolution ; Washington's Capitu- 
lation at Fort Necessity; Election of Washington (Poll List), 1758; Burning of William 
and Mary College, 1705; Reminiscences of Western Virginia, 1770-90, &c., &c., &c., with 
fuU index. 5 OO 

Volume VII— Octavo, pp. 476-iv-xix. 

Contains the following general list of principal Contents : An Additional Chapter to 
Waddell's History of Augusta County; Augusta County Marriage Licenses, 1749-73; In- 
ventory of Estate of Hon. Robert Carter: Extracts from Register of Famham Parish, 
Richmond County, Va.; Trustees of Hampden-Sidney College ; Indians of Southern Vir- 
ginia, 1650-171X ; John Paul Jones, as a Citizen of Virginia; AbstracU of Virginia Land 
Patents ; The Case of Captain John Martin ; Papers Relating to the Administration of 
Governor Nicholson and to the Founding of William and Mary College ; Richmond During 
the War of 1812 ; Virginia Census of 1624-5 : Virginia in 1624-30— Abstracts and Copies 
rom the English Public RecoAls ; Virginia Game and Field Sports, 1739; Virginia Militia 
in the Revolution ; Unpublished Letters of Washington ; Wills, Genealogies, Notes and 
Queries, &c., with a full index. 5 . OO 

Volume VIII— Octavo, pp. 481-iv-xxvii. 

Contains the following general list of principal Contents : The Indians of Southern Vir- 
ginia; The Virginia and North Carolina Boundary Line, 171 1 ; Inventory of Lord Fairfax; 
Letters from Mrs. Ralph Izard to Mrs. Wm. Lee; Virginia in 1631-35, from English Public 
Records ; Papers Relating to the Administration of Governor Nicholson and to the Found- 
ing of William and Mary College ; Notes from the Council and General Court Records, 1641- 
77 ; Unpublished Letters of Jefferson ; Extracts from Virginia County Records ; Letters of 
Harrison Gray and Harrison Gray, Jr.; Members of the House of Burgesses, Lists ; Militia 
Companies of Augusta county, 1742 ; Petitions of Virginia Towns for Establishment of 
Branches of the United States Bank, 1791 ; Virginia Newspapers in Public Libraries ; Life 
of General Joseph Martin ; Register of St. Paul's Parish, King George county ; Proceedings 
of the House of Burgesses, 1652-1661 ; Delegates from Kanawha ; Ter-Centenary of James- 
town ; Virginia Militia in the Revolution ; Wills, Epitaphs, Genealogies, Notes and Queries, 
Book Reviews, &c., with a full index. 5.00 

Volume IX— Octavo, pp. 480-iv-xx. 

Contains the following general table of principal Contents : Virginia Newspapers in Pub- 
lic Libraries; Papers Relating to the Administration of Governor Nicholson and the 
Founding of William and Mary College ; Virginia in 1636-38, from the English Public Re- 
cord Office; Notes from the Council and General Court Records, 1641-1678; Virginia As- 
sembly of 1641 ; Selections from the Campbell Papers ; Virginia Militia in the Revolution ; 
Will of William Byrd, 3d; Eastern Shore History; Letters of William Byrd, 2d; Henrj' 
County, Virginia, Records ; Diary of a Prisoner of War at Quebec ; Sainsbury's Abstracts 
and the Colonial History of Virginia ; Abridgment of the Laws of Virginia, 1694 ; The 
Germans of the Valley ; Virginia Legislative Documents ; John Brown Letters; History of 
the Battle of Point Pleasant; Wills, Genealogies, Notes and Queries, Book Reviews, &c., 
with a full index. ^ 6 00 

Discount allowed to booksellers. 



CATALOGUE OF THE MANUSCRIPTS in the Collection of the Virginia Historical Society 
and also of Some Printed Papers. Compiled by order of the Executive Committee. Supplement to 
the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Richmond : Wm. Ellis Jones, Printer. 1901. 

Paper, 120 pp. Price, |i.oo. Sent free to members and subscribers on receipt of 10 cents for post- 
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The Lower Norfolk County Vii^inia Antiquary. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUiiB III. p^QE. 

Land and Slave Owners, Princess Anne Coanty, 1775 i 

Abstracts from Noifolk Marriage Bonds, 1799. 8 

Property Owners, Norfolk County, i860 12 

Princess Anne County Marriages 19 

My Mother 24 

The Church in Lower Norfolk County 29 

Grace Sherwood, the Virginia Witch 34 

Price of Poultry, 1773 and 1774. 38 

Blarriages Performed by Rev. Charles Henley, Princess Anne Co., 39 

Abstracts from Norfolk County Marriage Bonds 40 

Marriages Performed by the Rev. George Norris 43 

My Mother 46 

The Church in Lower Norfolk County ,. 50 

Grace Sherwood, the Virginia Witch 52 

Abstracts from Norfolk County Marriage Bonds. iSoo 57 

Property Owners. Norfolk County, i860 62 

Land and Slave Owners, Princess Anne County, 1775. 69 

Marriages Performed by Rev. Charies Henley 71 

Receipt for the Sale of a Slave 73 

Abstracts from Norfolk Blarriage Bonds 74 

Linhaven Parish, 1704 80 

Marriages Performed by Rev. David Walters, Princess Anne Co. . . 81 

Copy of the Chaner of Norfolk Borough 87 

Abstracts from Norfolk County Marriage Bonds 95 

Land and Slave Owners, Princess Anne County, 1775 100 

Oldest Masonic Lodge 102 

The Church in Lower Norfolk County 103 

Renouncing the Catholic Church 106 

Abstracts from Norfolk Marriage Bonds, 1801 107 

Store Rill. 1769 114 

Princess Anne County Marriages ly 

An Act to Confirm the Chaner of the Borough of Norfolk 122 

Abstracts from Norfolk County Marriage Bonds 124 

Money. Solvent Bonds. Securities and Liquidated Claims in Princess 

Anne County in I S59 129 

Abstracts from Norfolk Marriage Bonds, 1802 133 

The Church in Lower Norfolk County 138 

Marriages Performed by Rev. George Norris 147 

Charles Reid 147 

Price of Com 151 

Witchcraft in Virginia 152 

Land and Slave Owners, Princess Anne County, 1775 152 

Price of a Young Mare, 1741 154 

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$5.00 per Annum. Singl 

THE 

VIRGINIA MAGAZINE 

OF 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE 

VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

RICHMOND, VA. 



VOL. X— No. 3. JANUARY. 1003. 



Batered At the Pottoffice At Richmond, Vft., ti Sccond-cl«^|(f§^^ OOOQIC 



WM. ELLIS JONES, PRINTER, 

*«VT R IfaAMrT.fM At. 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 



ARCHER ANDERSON, CHAS. V. MEREDITH, 
E. W. JAMES, E. V. VALENTINE, 

Rev. W. MEADE CLARK. 



EDITOR OF THE MAGAZINE, 

WILLIAM G. STANARD. 



CONTENTS. 

1. Virginia Newspapers in Public Libraries 225 

2. Slave Owners in Westmoreland co., Va., 1782 229 

3. The House of Burgesses, 1683-4 236 

4. Henry County from its Formation in 1776 to the 

end of the Eighteenth Century, et seg 239 

5. Abridgment of Virginia Laws, 1694 241 

6. Pioneer Days in Alleghany County 254 

7. List of Tithables in Northampton County, Vir- 

ginia, August, 1666 258 

8. Virginia in 1636-8 263 

9. The John Brown Letters 273 

10. Ferrar Papers 283 

11. Virginia Gleanings in England 291 

12. Virginia Militia in the Revolution 295 

13. Letters of William Proctor 298 

14. Genealogy 301 

The Brooke, Hemdon, Cocke, &c., RoBards, Farrar, 
Lindsays and Minor Families. 

15. Notes and Queries 312 

16. Book Reviews 326 

17. List of Members i-x 



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THE 

Virginia Magazine 

OF 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 

Vol. X. JANUARY, 1902. No. 3. 

VIRGINIA NEWSPAPERS IN PUBLIC 
LIBRARIES. 



Annotated List of Virginia Newspapers in the Virginia 
State Library. 



Note. — Vol. and No. are given of the first and last numbers bound in 

each volume. 



(continued from IX, 413.) 
Richmond. 

The Virginia Argus, (s-w.) 
Vol. XI, No. 1 1 14, Feb. 11, 1804— XVIth year, No. 1718, 
Dec. 29, 1809. 5 vols. 
(Numbering by vols, continues until Nov. 28, 1805, when 
numbering by years commences. Later numbering by vol. 
begins again). 
XVIIIth year. No. 1833, Jan. i, 1811— Vol. XX, No. 2041, 

Dec. 23, 18 1 2. I vol. 
Vol. XX, No. 2051, Feb. i, 1813— Vol. XXII, No. 3148, 

Oct. 4, 1814. I vol. 
Vol. XXXIII, No. 3158, Feb. i, 1815— No. 3174, March 29^ 
1815— Vol. I [new series], No. i. May 3, 1815— Vol. II, No! 
60, Oct. 16, 1 8 16. I vol. 



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226 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

At the beginning of this file the Argus was published by 
Samuel Pleasants, Jr., (who later dropped the *7r.*'), and after 
his death, on Oct. 4, 18 r4, by Samuel M. Pleasants. On Feb, 
I, 18 1 5, it was announced that the administratrix of Samuel 
Pleasants had entered into partnership with Philip Du Val, who 
would have entire management of the paper. On March 29, 
18 15, the Argus was sold to John Burk (author of a history of 
Virginia), and on Jan. 31, 1816, L. H. Girardin (who continued 
Burk's history) became a partner. 
Richmond Daily Mercantile Advertiser, (d.) 
Vol. XII, No. 1818, Jan. i, 1822— Vol. XIV, No. 2135, Dec, 

31, 1822. 2 vols. 
Published by W. Ramsay. 
The Commonwealth, (d. and T-w.) 
Vol. I, No. I, Jan. 30, 1880— No. 155, July 28, 1880. 
William L. Royall, owner and editor. 
The Daily Compiler and Richmond Commercial Register, (d.) 
Vol. 13, No. 22, May 25, 1816 — Vol. 14, No. 88, Nov. 14, 
1816. I vol. 
Richmond Commercial Compiler, (d. and t-w.) 
Vol. 15, No. I, Nov. 20, 1816 — No. 153, May 17, 1817. i vol. 
Vol. 19. No. I, Nov. 19. 1818— Vol. XXVI, No. 4184, May 
20, 1823. 9 vols. (During this vol. the 
numbering was changed to a whole number.) 
Vol. XXIII, No. 3646, Aug. 27, 1821, Oct. 27, 29; Nov. 2, 
1821; Feb. 28, March 6, 7, 10-14, 17, 18, 
20-22, 24-31; April 1-5, 8-9, II, 12, 15; 
May I, 8, 10, 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, 23-29, 31; 
June 3-10, 12, 14-18, 24, 27-30; July 3, 7, 
10, 15, 16, 22, 23, 26, 30, 31; Aug. I, 4, 6, 
8. 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21, 22, 25, 27; .Sept. 
I, 2, 3. 5, 8-10, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, 23, 30; 
Oct. 2, 7, 8, 9, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25. 27, 
28, 29; Nov. 4, 5, 14; Dec. 5, 20, 1823; 
Jan. 10; Nov. 6, 1S24; March 28; April 2; 
July 9, 30; Sept. 23; Nov. 29; Oct. 15, 
1825; May 6, 29; June 17, 22, 1826. i vol. 
[Odd numbers bound in one vol.] 



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VIRGINIA NEWSPAPERS IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 227 

Vol. XXJV, No. 3776, Jan. 26, 1822— Vol. XXVI, No. 4119, 
March 5, 1823. i vol. 

Vol. XXIX, No. 4653, Nov. 20, 1824— Vol. XXX, No. 4805, 
May 19, 1825. I vol. 

Vol. XXXI, No. 4810, May 23. 1825— No. 4994, Oct. 29, 
1825. I vol. 

Vol. XXXVI, No. 5739, May 21, 1828— No. 5895, Nov. 20, 
1828. I vol. 

Vol. XXXVII, No. 6020, Feb. 9, 1829— Vol. XXXIX. No. 
6334, Feb. 8, 1830. I vol. 

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 6266. Nov. 19, 1829— Vol. XL, No. 
6732, May 20, 1 83 1. 3 vols. 

New Series, No. i. Vol. XL VI, Feb. 9, 1835— Vol. 49, No. 
34; Dec. 31, 1836. 3 vols. (On May 5, 
1835, the title became until the end of 1836 
The Richmond Courier and Daily Com- 
piler, In 1838 the old title had been re- 
sumed.) 

Vol. 51, No. I, Jan. i, 1838 — No. 166, June 30, 1838. i vol. 

Vol. 53, No. 155, July I, 1839— Vol. 54» No. 150, Dec. 27, 
1839. I vol. 

Vol. 55, No. 148, July I, 1840— Vol. 58, No. 153, Dec. 31, 

1 84 1. 3 vols. 

Vol. 59, No. 157, July I, 1842 — Vol. 60, No. 155, Dec. 31, 

1842. I vol. 

Vol. 63, No. I, July I, 1843— No. 155, Dec. 30, 1843. i vol. 

Vol. 64, No. 156, July I, 1844 — Vol. 65, No. 158, Dec. 31, 
1844. I vol. 
The Times and Compiler, (d. and T-w.) 

Vol. 66, January i, 1845 — Vol. 71, No. 155, December 31, 
1847. 6 vols. 

At the beginning of this file in May, 1816, the Compiler ^^.^ 
published by DuVal, Trueheart & Co., who continued to own it 
until October 28, 18 19, when the firm became Trueheart, Gary 
& Co. On that date Philip DuVal retired from his connection 
with the paper, and was succeeded by Samuel Cary, who had 
purchased his interest. The firm of publishers remained un- 
changed until March 26, 1823, when Daniel Trueheart sold his 
interest to William Pollard, and the firm became Pollard, Cary 



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228 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

& Co. May to October, 1825, the publishers were William 
Pollard & Co., and from May 6, 1826, Pollard, Mosby & Co. 
From the beg^inning of 1828 to the end of 1830 the paper was 
published by Robert Mosby & Co. They were succeeded, from 
March 9, 1831, by John A. Lacy & Co. In the beginning of 
1835 the publishers were Gallaher and Walker, and in June of 
that year William H. Davis purchased the interest of James C. 
Walker, and the firm became Gallaher ( John S. Gallaher) and 
Davis. Mr. Gallaher soon retired, and on November 21, 1836, 
Wm. H. Davis became sole publisher. From the beginning of 
1838 the publishers were James A. Cowardin and Wm. H. Davis, 
under the firm name of Cowardin & Davis. In August, 1844, 
the Compiler abandoned its neutral position in politics and be- 
came a decided supporter of the Whig party. On April 4, 
1845, W. C. Carrington entered the firm, which was thereafter, 
until the end of this file, in 1847, Carrington, Cowardin and 
Davis. 

The Crisis, Devoted to the support of the Deniocratic princi- 
ples of Jeflferson. (w.) 

Vol. I, No. I, March 7, 1840 — No. 35, October 28, 1840. i 
vol. A Van Buren campaign paper. 
The Critic, (w.) 

Vol. I, No. I, September 12, 1887 — Vol. Ill, No. 67, Decem- 
ber 27, 1890. 2 vols. 

See this Magazine, IX, 289. 
The Daily Dispatch, (d. and w.— later also s-w.) 

Vol. 2, No. 73, January 14, 1852— Vol. XXVII, No. 105, 
October 31, 1864. 31 vols. 

Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, January 3, 1865— Vol. XXIX, No. 76, 
April I, 1865. I vol. 

Vol. XXX, No. 152, January i, 1867 — Whole No. 16050, 
September 30, 1902. 96 vols. 

From the beginning of the file to September 5, 1853, theZ>w- 
patchyi^s owned by James A. Cowardin and edited by Hugh 
R. Pleasants. From September 6th it is stated to be ** pub- 
lished by James A. Cowardin,*' with no editor's name given. 
On June 27, 1859, John D. Hammersley purchased an interest 
and the firm became Cowardin & Hammersley. In May, 1862, 



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SLAVE OWNERS, WESTMORELAND COUNTY, VA. 



229 



the names of the publishers cease to appear at the head of the 
paper, and none is given until January 2, 1864, when *'J. A. 
Cowardin & Co." appear as publishers. From about January 
I, 1867, the Dispatch was published by Cowardin & EUyson, 
and from January i, 1880, by the Dispatch Company. 

(to BE CONTINUED.) 



Slave Owners,* Westmoreland County, Va,, 1782. 



Communicated by Edward Wilson James. 



[A transcript from the original in 
Accounts of the State of Virginia, 
of vehicles.] 



the office of the Auditor of Public 
S. indicates slaves and W. wheels 





S. 


W. 


S. W. 


John Ashton, 


5 


George Briscoe, 


5 . 


Richard Atwell, . 


13 


Eleanor Bayne, 


12 


Mary Atwell, 


12 


James Bulger, 


6 


William Anderson, 


I 


Daniel Bennett, 


I 


John Bowcock, 


2 


John Bailey, 


I 


Warner Bashaw, . 


4 


William Bailey. 


2 


John Butler, 


6 


John Ballentine, . 


25 2 


Christopher Butler, 


4 


James Bailey, 


4 


Beckwith Butler, . 


45 


Daniel Bailey, 


I 


Dorcas Buder, 


9 


William Benson, 


I 


Thomas Bowcock, 


4. 


Peter Brickey, 


12 


William Berryman, 


27 


Thomas Beale, 


13 


Newton Berryman, 


3 


George Brinnon, 


3 



♦There were in Westmoreland county in 1790-91, 3,183 white people, 
4,425 blacks, and 114 called all others. The foregoing note is from a 
Topographical Analysis of the Commonwealth of Virginia, printed 
August 2nd, 1792, by William Tatham and reprinted in 1853 i*^ the Rich- 
mond edition of Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, kindly contributed by 
Robert Lee Traylor, Esquire. In 1880, the county contained 8,846 in- 
habitants; in 1890, 8,383; in 1900, 9,243. The names of the slave 
owners are taken from lists by Joseph Fox, Daniel M'Carty, John Roch- 
ester, and Richard Buckner, Gent., justices who were appointed by the 
court to receive them, by Jas. Bland, D. W. C, for R. Bernard, C. W. 
C, July 30th, 1782. 



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230 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 





S. 


w. 


S. 


John Bacchus, 


I 


Elizabeth Brinnon, 


2 


John Berkley, 


12 


John Brinnon, 


5 


William Brown, 


II 


Thomas Butler, Sen*r 


, I 


John Butler, Jun'r, 


4 


William Barecroft, 


7 


William Bussel, 


4 


William Butler, . 


I 


Margaret Bristol, . 


2 


Vincent Brann, 


I 


Margaret Ball, 


13 


Samuel Bailey, 


i6 


James Bankhead, . 


19 


2 Henry Barnett, 


4 


William Bankhead, 


31 


Nathaniel Butler, . 


I 


William Boulware, 


4 


Edmund Bulger, . 


I 


Elizabeth Bayne, . 


2 


Hannah Brinnon, . 


3 


John Bayne . 


2 


Thomas Blundell, Jr. 


7 


James Bland, 


I 


Absalon Blundell, 


3 


Austin Brockenborough, E^t., .... 


33 


Daniel Briscoe, 


6 


Reuben Briscoe, . 


4 


John Brown, . 


4 


William Brown, 


13 


Richard Buckner, 


23 


2 William Blundell, . 


I 


Thomas Chancellor, 


7 


Spencer Carter, 


3 


Richard Dozeir, Sen. 


, 4 


Jeremiah Cloxon, . 


I 


Joseph Dozeir, 


4 


Archibald Campbell, 


8 


Richard Dozer, younger, 


. 


I 


John Campbell, 


6 


William Dozer, 


6 


Mordicai Cooke, . 


17 


James Dozer, 


2 


Andrew Crawford, 


lO 


2 Wm. Robinson Dozer 


» 4 


John Carter, 


19 


Christoph'r Edrington 


, 12 


Robert Carter, The Hon*''*, 


Esq' 


278 


William Edwards, 


20 


Daniel Fitzhugh, 


27 


Fleet Cox, . 


57 


2 Joseph Fox, . 


16 


Hannah Corbin, . 


28 


John Ferguson, Est., 


4 


Charles Carter, 


20 


Philip Rich'd Fendal, 


51 


John Crabb, 


13 


Tho. Fisher, Est., 


20 


John Critcher, 


23 


William Green, 


T 


Christopher Collins, 


12 


William Gray, 


2 


Jane Crabb, 


ID 


Thomas Green, 


I 


William Cecil, . 


4 


Leroy Griffin, Est., 


28 


Rodham Crawley, 


I 


Mary Griggs, 


10 


Charnock Courtney, 


I 


Lee Griggs, . 


5 


George Carey, 


I 


George Gill, 


7 



w. 



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SLAVE OWNERS, WESTMORELAND COUNTY, VA. 



231 



David Crenshaw, . 
William Coward, . 
Thomas Caverder, 
James Cowles, 
Thomas Chandler, 
Benedict Crabb, . 
Thomas Cowles, . 
Presly Crawford, . 
Thomas Chilton, Es 
George Caverder, . 
Isabella Chilton, 
John Dishman, 
William Dishman, . 
Charles Deane, Jr., 
Charles Deane, Sen 
William Drake, 
John Douglas, 
John Dickie, . 
Rose Drake, . 
Peter Davis, . 
James Danbar, 
John Davis, . 
Elizabeth Davis, 
Elias Davis, . 
William Dolman, 
Rich'd Dozier, Jun 
Francis Jackson, 
Catharine Jett, 
Thomas Jett, 
William Jett, 
Samuel Jackson, 
Charles Jones, 
Jonathan Jackson, 
William Jeffries, 
Richard Jackson, 
•Catsby Jones, 
Thomas King, 
IVilliam King, 



S. W. S. W. 

5 Rosanna Garner, . 2 

1 Jeremiah Garner, . i 

5 Nathaniel Garner, i 

2 William Gilbert, . 2 

4 Edward Gill, . i 

6 George Garner, . 31 2 

7 George Gordon, . 7 

1 George Hemage, . i 

15 George Hales, . 7 

5 Richard Hipkins, 38 4 
10 Mary Hilton, . 3 

9 Anne Hungerford, 20 

4 Molly Hodge, . 31 

16 William Holland, . 2 

8 Thomas Hungerford, 12 2 

6 William Harrison, 7 
4 Agness Harrison, . 3 
6 John Hutchins, . 6 
6 Elenor Habron, . i 

3 George Hull, . i 

2 Benjamin Hackney, 16 

2 John Howell, . 2 

4 William Hutt, . 17 

3 John Hutt, . 7 

3 William Hazlerigg, 2 

2 Caty Hall, . . x6 2 
6 Richard Hall, 3 

20 James Monroe, . 3 
53 4 Joseph Mann, i 
10 James Muse, Jun., 8 

4 Thomas Muse, . 6 

3 John Monroe, Jun. , 38 4 

4 Elliot Monroe, . 19 
3 Jemima Monroe, . 9 

21 John Monroe, . 8 
20 William Monroe, . 5 

2 Jn** Monroe (son of 

I George), . . 4 



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232 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



S. W. 



S. W. 



Harrison Lovel, 


2 


Benjamin Monroe, 


II 


Elizabeth Lovell, . 


I 


Jacob Martin, 


19 


Samuel Love, 


5 


David Monroe, 


9 


Phil. Ludwell, Lee Es. 


,61 


Nicholas Muse, 


12 


Ashton Lamkin, 


5 


Samuel Muse, 


4 


Richard Lee, . 


S2 


Charles Monie, 


8 


Geo. Fairfax Lee, . 


43 


2 William Monroe, Jr., 


2 


Richard Lowe, 


8 


Pattey Massey, 


2 


Joseph Lacey, 


I 


Elizabeth Massey, 


5 


Peter Lamkin, 


5 


Richard Moxley, . 


14 


George Lewis, 


6 


Richard Muse, 


10 


Joseph Lane, 


33 


John Mazaret, 


7 


James Lamkin, 


I 


Edward Muse, 


10 


R'd Lee, of Maryland, 


25 


Jeremiah Muse, 


I 


Rich'd Henry Lee, 


43 


6 Rodham Moxley, . 


8 


John Lawson, 


23 


John Moxley, 


2 


Jane Muse, 


23 


Anne Muse, 


2 


William Middleton, 


26 


2 John Muse, 


5 


Daniel Morgan, 


18 


Sanford Muse, 


2 


Magdalen M'Clanaham, 7 


Daniel M'Carty, . 


112 


William M'Clanaham, 


3 


James Muse, 


20 


Mary Mors, 


6 


John Minor, . 


5 


William Middleton, 


2 


George M* Kenny, 


2 


John Middleton, 


6 


Nanny M' Kenny, 


I 


Thomas Middleton, 


I 


Vincent Marmaduke, 


4 


William Morton, . 


2 


John Moxley, 


9 


Thomas Moore, 


2 


Catey Moxley, 


4 


Vincent Moore, 


5 


William Marmaduke, 


5 


Thomas Muse, 


7 


John M'Clanaham, 


6 


Garland Moore, 


4 


Garrard M' Kenny, 


II 


Mary M'Guire, 


I 


George Memory, . 


I 


Samson Marmaduke, 


I 


Robert Moxley, . 


I 


John M'Guire, 


4 


Mary Nelson, 


23 


Benedict Middleton, 


18 


William Nelson, . 


20 


Peter Mullins. 


7 


John Neale, . 


8 


Elizabeth M'farlane, 


4 


Richard Neale, 


7 


John Marmaduke, . 


6 


Rodham Neale, Est. 


► 4 


Dan'l Marmaduke, 


2 


Presly Neale, 


7 



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SLAVE OWNERS, WESTMORELAND" COUNTY, VA. 



233 





S. 


W. 


S. W. 


Augustine Moxley, 


ID 


Willoughby Newton, 


4 


Daniel M' Kenny, 


5 


John Newton, Est, 


12 


William Muse, 


I 


John Norwood, 


2 


John Price, Jun., 


5 


Tarpley Nash, 


2 


William Payton, 


3 


John Nash, . 


6 


John Price, 


5 


Presley Neale, 


3 


William Payne, 


26 


John Omohundro, 


2 


Thomas Peed, 


I 


Thomas Omohundro, 


4 


George Payne, 


. 24 


Anthony Payton, • 


20 


Lawrence Pope, 


6 


William Price, 


2 


Matthew Partridge, 


Est, 8' 


UrsuUa Peirce, 


7 


Demsy Porter, 


4 


John Rust, . 


7 


John Pilsbury, 


2 


William Rue, 


7 


Elizabeth Pratt, 


I 


Vincent Rust, 


7 


William Porter, 


8 


Samuel Rust, 


9 


Edward Porter, 


4 


Rebecca Rust, 


17 2 


Joseph Peirce, 


21 


George Rust, 


17 2 


Daniel Porter, 


I 


James Rust, . 


7 


Sarah Peirce, . 


i8 


John Robinson, . 


4 


Joseph Peirce, Jun. 


5 


Benjamin Rust, . 


6 


Jacob Pumroy, 


I 


Solomon Robinson, 


8 


Richard Parker, 


26 


4 James Robinson, . 


5 


Nicholas Quisenbur 


y» 5 


Jemima Redman, . 


6 


James Quisenbury, 


7 


John Rue, . 


2 


William Quisenburj 


% I 


Anne Redman, 


4 


George Rudolph, 


5 


2 Youel Rust, . 


I 


William Robinson, 


93 


4 Stuart Redman, . 


4 


Benjamin Rogers, 


5 


John Rochester, . 


13 


John Redman, 


2 


Soloman Redman, 


33 


George Robinson, . 


9 


Thomas Randal, . 


4 


Henry Roe, Est., 


9 


Benjamin Rust, . 


5 


William Roe, 


5 


Tho. Redman Robin- 




Elizabeth Rainey, 


3 


son, . 


I 


Thomas Rouand, . 


31 


Andrew Read, 


30 


Elizabeth Rust, 


II 


2 William Smith, 


25 


Thomas Shadrick, , 


I 


Benjamin Steward, 


7 


Elizabeth Smith, 


73 


4 John Simms, 


I 


Alexander Spark, 


49 


Thomas Streshly, 


36 2 



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234 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 





S. 


W. 


S. W. 


Mary Smith, . 


77 


4 Thomas Steel, 


I 


George Steptoe. 


45 


2 Lewis Smith, 


I 


The Rev* Thos. Smith 


. 42 


6 Robert Steel, 


4 


John South, . 


3 


Franklin Simms, . 


2 


James Sorrel! , 


i6 


Geo. Stone, Est., 


4 


John Simpson, 


i8 


2 Benjamin Strother, 


7 2 


Samuel Smith, 


7 


Willoughby Sanford, 


6 


Thomas Sorrell, 


6 


2 Josiah Sutton, 


I 


Stephen Selp, Jun., 


7 


Youel Sanford, 


3 


Elizabeth Smith, . 


I 


Robt. Sanford, Est, 


4 


Thomas Scott, Est, 


3 


Thomas Sanford, . 


7 


Stephen Selp, Sen., 


2 


Thomas Stone, 


7 


George Shoats, 


I 


Uriah Sandy. 


II 


Peter Smith, . 


I 


Patrick Sanford, . 


2 


Moses Selp, . 


2 


James Triplett, 


4 


Reuben Sanford, . 


I 


William Thomson, 


2 


John Skinker, 


ID 


Margaret Thomson, 


2 


Jeremiah Spurling, 


I 


James Taite, 


4 


Mary Settles, . 


14 


John Tarcil, . 


9 


Thomas Sutton, 


I 


John Tinsley, 


I 


Hannah Sturman, . 


14 


2 Alexander Thorn, 


5 


James Sutton, 


I 


Wm. Triplett, 


14 2 


Charles Scott, 


I 


Job Thomas, 


2 


Edward Sanford, . 


17 


Thomas Turner, . 


76 6 


William Storke, 


It 


Stephen TurnbuU, 


4 


Thomas Spence, 


8 


John Turberville, . 


95 6 


Charles Sanford, 


5 


George Turberville, 


26 6 


William Sanford, 


6 


Elizabeth Tebbs, . 


2 


Augustine Sanford, 


3 


W. CarrTidwell, Es. 


16 


John Weedon, 


3 


Daniel Tebbs, Est., 


16 


George Weedon, . 


7 


Thomas Thomson, 


40 


Mildred Weedon, . 


2 


Anne Barbara Tidwel 


, 6 


Jn* August' Wash- 




Sarah Vigor, 


6 


ington, 


56 


4 Benjamin Weeks, . 


36 


George Wilkerson, 


2 


Sukey Washington, 


22 2 


Benjamin Weaver, . 


5 


Rachel Williams, . 


2 


James Wigley, 


I 


Samuel Wood, 


6 


Richard Wroe, 


I 


William White, . 


2 



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SLAVE OWNERS, WESTMORELAND COUNTY, VA. 



235 





S. 


W. 




S. 


John Washington, 


28 


6 


John Ward, . 


3 


The Rev* Francis 






Moore Wilson, 


2 


Wilson, 


I 




Thomas Wright, . 


12 


Wm. Augustine 






John Weaver, 


2 


Washington, 


69 


4 


Thomas Yeatman, 


9 


Presly Wright, 


ID 




John Yeatman, 


8 



w. 



There were in Westmoreland county, in 1782, 410 slave own- 
ers, who owned 4,536 slaves, a fraction more than eleven slaves 
to each owner. There were also in the county 1,889 horses and 
9,886 cattle, and 136 wheels for riding carriages. 



66 owned i each, 66 


50 


owned 2 each. 


100 


^4 * 


' 3 ' 


72 


43 


<i 


4 


(< 


172 


29 ' 


' 5 * 


145 


27 


( ( 


6 


i ( 


162 


29 * 


* 7 ' 


203 


II 


( ( 


8 


1 < 


88 


ID * 


' 9 ' 


90 


ID 


n 


10 


l< 


100 


6 * 


' II ' 


66 


ID 


t i 


12 


< ( 


1 20 


6 * 


' 13 ' 


78 


4 


i i 


14 


n 


56 


I • 


' 15 


15 


8 


1 1 


16 


i i 


128 


5 * 


' 17 ' 


85 


4 


•' 


18 


(( 


72 


4 ' 


' 19 * 


76 


9 


it 


20 


< 1 


180 


2 • 


' 21 • 


42 


I 


1 < 


22 




22 


5 ' 


' 23 * 


115 


I 


< ( 


24 




24 


3 * 


' 25 * 


75 


4 


< % 


26 


(< 


104 


j2 * 


' 27 ' 


54 


3 


i ( 


28 


< 1 


84 


I * 


' 30 


30 


4 


t i 


31 


t i 


124 


3 ' 


' 33 


'* 99 


2 


( { 


36 


( » 


72 


2 ' 


' 38 


- 76 


I 


i < 


40 




40 


1 * 


* 42 


42 


2 


1 ( 


43 


l( 


86 


2 * 


' 45 


- 90 




t ( 


49 




49 


I * 


' 51 


51 




«( 


53 




53 


I ' 


' 56 


56 




( ( 


57 




57 


1 * 


* 61 


61 




(1 


69 




69 


I * 


* 73 


73 




( < 


76 




76 


I * 


' 77 


77 




( ( 


82 




82 


I * 


' 93 


93 




i ( 


95 




95 


I * 


* 112 


112 




i 1 


278 




278 



410 



4.536 



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236 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

THE HOUSE OF BURGESSES, 1683 AND 1684.* 



1683, Nov. 10. Journal of Virginia Assembly, list of mem- 
bers of House of Burgesses. 

Henrico: Colonel William Byrd, Lieutenant-Colonel John 
Farrer. 

Charles City: James Minge, James Bisse. 

James City: Thomas Clayton. 

James City Co.: Colonel Thomas Ballard, William Sher- 
wood. 

Surrey: Colonel William Brown, Major Arthur Allen. 

Isle of Wight: Colonel Arthur Smith, Captain James Powell. 

Nancimond: Colonel James [John?] Lear, John Brashear. 

Lower Norfolk: Colonel Lemuel Mason, Malachi Thurston. 

Elizabeth City: Captain Anthony Armistead, Baldwin Shep- 
herd. 

Warwick: Captain John Langhorne, Captain Miles Cary. 

York: Henry Jenkins, Thomas Barber. 

New Kent: Colonel John West, Charles Turner. 

Gloucester: John Buckner, Major Henry Whiting, 

Middlesex: Christopher Robinson, Abraham Weekes. 

Rappahamock[nn] : Colonel John Stone, Henry Aubrey. 

Lancaster: Captain William Ball, Major Edward Dale. 

Northumberland: Colonel Thomas Brereton, William Presly. 

Westmoreland: Lieutenant-Colonel Isaac Allerton, William 
Hardridge. 

Stafford: William Fitzhugh. 

Accomack: Colonel Daniel Janifer, Edward Reuel [Revel.] 

Northampton: Colonel William Kendal, Thomas Hunt. 
The burgesses being summoned to the Court House, the 
Lieutenant-Governor made them a speech, recommending them, 
in view of the fact that Lord Culpeper was not arrived, to con- 
fine themselves to the discharge of public liabilities. The bur- 
gesses being returned, presented Thomas Ballard as their 



♦ The list of Burgesses here given are not included in ** The Colonial 
Virginia Register.'* 



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HOUSE OF BURGESSES, 1683 AND 1684. 237 

speaker, who was accepted. Councillors appointed to admin- 
ister the oath to the burgesses. 

Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West 
Indies, 1681-1685. Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record 
Office. Edited by the Hon. J. W. Fortescue. London: 1898, 
Pp. 541-542. 

1684, April i6. Journal of Assembly of Virginia. Orders 
of public charge and levy to the sum of 702,432 lbs. of tobacco. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Henrico County: Colonel John Farrar, Captain William 
Randolph. 

Charles City County: Colonel Edward Hill, James Minge. 

James City County : Colonel Thomas Ballard, William Sher- 
wood. 

James City: Henry Hartwell. 

Surrey County: Major Arthur Allen. 

Isle of Wight County: Joseph Woory, Captain Henry Ap- 
plethwaite. 

Nancymond County: John Brassear, .Major Barnard Kearne. 

Warwick County: Captain John Matthews, Captain Miles 
Cary. 

York County: Captain Francis Page, Joseph King [Ring.] 

Gloucester County: Major Henry Whiting, Captain Thomas 
Pate. 

Stafford County: Colonel George Mason, William Fitzhugh. 

Accomack County: Major Charles Scarburgh, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Daniel Jenifer. 

Northampton County: Colonel William Kendall, John 
Custis. 

His Excellency being indisposed, the House adjourned at his 
request till the morrow afternoon. 

April 17. His Excellency bade the House choose its Speaker, 
and it chose Colonel Ballard, who was approved by the Gov- 
ernor. Committee appointed to examine returns of writs and 
elections. The House in a body accompanied the Speaker to 
Church, and on its return passed a vote of thanks to the preacher. 
Two Members of Council brought down the Governor's Com- 
mission and administered the oaths. Address to the Gov- 



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238 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ernor for a new writ for Northampton, Mr. John Custis having^ 
been sheriff when elected. Edward Rosse chosen as drummer 
to the General Court and Assembly. 

April 1 8. Resolved to ask the Governor for a copy of his 
speech; that the Clerks of the Committee shall give assistance 
to the Clerk of Assembly; and that sheriffs who have not made 
due return of the writs be prosecuted. The Address to the 
Governor for a copy of his speech; His Excellency complied 
with its request. Appointment of Robert Bradley to be a Clerk 
of Committee on submitting to a sharp reproof for previous mis- 
conduct. John Custis fined 2,000 lbs. of tobacco for making an 
improper return as Sheriff. The bills concerning escheats and 
compositions, which were passed last Assembly, ordered to be 
examined and redrawn. The Governor sent down his speech, 
and received the thanks of the House for it. 

April 19. Committees appointed to examine the Governor's 
Commission and the records, for propositions and grievances, 
for private causes, for examination of public claims and debts, 
for examination of certificates, for apprehending runaway slaves. 
Order for a congratulatory address to the King on his escape 
from the Popish plot. The list of Committees reported to the 
Governor. Address for Councillors to be added to that for 
public claims. His Excellency summoned the House and made 
a speech, saying that he was sorry to see such obstructions at 
the beginning of the Assembly, as were shown by the request 
for Councillors to be added to the Committees. The King had 
ordered, and Lord Culpeper had already announced, that there 
were to be no appeals from the General Court to the Assembly. 
Finally, he desired the Assembly to proceed to business. Ad- 
dress thanking the Governor, and asking as to his further in- 
structions from the King; mentioning, also, that the House was 
unaware of the King's declaration as to appeals, and that Lord 
Culpeper did not, to their knowledge, enforce it, but rather the 
contrary; and praying for a sight of the former and present in- 
structions. Order for no member to leave James City without 
the Speaker's permission. 

Calendar 0/ State Papers, Colonial Series, America and West 
Indies, 1861-1865. By the Hon. J. W. Fortescue. London : 
1898. Pp. 618-620. 



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HENRY COUNTY, VA. 239 

HENRY COUNTY. 

From its Formation in 1776 to the End of the Eighteenth 
Century, et seq. 



From the records in the clerks office, by C. B. Bryant, Martinsville , Va 



(continued) 

Also ;^4. o. 6. for 360 lbs Beef, 3 Pecks Corn, 12 bundles 
Fodder & 6 diets furnished Jesse Heard, Com' of Provisions. 

John Furguson 20 | for 10 bushels Corn to Continental wagons 
from Charlotte, N. C, to Staunton, Va. — James Wallace, Q. M. 

David Barton 45 | for 225 lbs Beef to Jesse Heard, Com' Pro- 
visions. 

Joseph Shores Price 45 | for 225 lbs Beef to same. 

Daniel Spangler 70 | for 350 lbs Beef to same. 

Peter Saunders 54 | for 270 lbs Beef to same. 

Daniel Smith 5 | for i Peck Corn, & 4 diets to same. 

David Barton 4 | 3 for 2 Gals. Corn, 3 bdls. fodder & 3 diets 
to same. 

Shedrack Turner £1, 15. o. pasturage 4 Beeves, 21 diets & 
2)4 bus. Corn to same. 

Wm. Cook £2, 13. o. for 265 lbs Beef furnished same. 

Daniel Spangler 8 | 6 for ^ bus. Corn & 6 diets to same. 

Also 10 I 6 for 12 diets, 12 bdls. fodder & 3 pecks Corn to 
same. 

Daniel Smith £^, 15. o. for 475 lbs Beef to same. 

John Coger 50 | for 250 lbs Beef to same. 

Bartholemew Folev £2, for 300 lbs do. to do. 

John Alexander 18 | 9 for 12^4 bushels Oats furnished John 
Rowland, Waggon Cond'for Wm. McCraw Cont', A. D. Q. M., 
Peytonsburg. 

Patrick Henry, Esq', 38 | for 228 Sheaves Oats furnished John 
Redd, Waggon Conductor for the said McCraw. 

Also 3 I 4 for 10 lbs Pork to Geo. Elliott, W. C. for same. 

Frederick Fulkerson £1. 3. 4. for 40 lbs Pork furnished John 
Rowland, Waggon Conductor for same. 

Archalaus Hughes, Esq', ^3. 10. 4. for 35 lbs Pork, 15 bushels 
Corn and 200 Sheaves Oats to Geo. Elliott, W. Cond' for same. 



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240 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Marvell Nash £i. 2. 4. for 2 bushels Corn & no Sheaves 
Oats to Wm. Graves, Waggon Conductor for same. 

Joseph Ellis, £1. 8. 6. for 38 lbs Bacon to Gen^ Hospital at 
Henry C. H. 

Stephen Lee £$. 12. 9. for 97 lbs do. to do. 

Jacob Prilliman, Jr., 10 | io}4 for 14 J/^ do. to do. 

Richard Collier 8 | 3 for 11 lbs do. to do. 

Humphry Posey 22 | 6 for 30 lbs do. to do. 

Samuel Huff £1, 4. 9. for 33 lbs do. to do. 

James Cowden £2, 14. o. for 200 lbs Beef to Jesse Heard, 
Com' of Prov. 

John Fontaine ;^2. 3. o. for 215 lbs do to same. 

Robert Cowan ;^3. 15. o. for 375 lbs do to same. 

Frederick Fulkerson 12 | 6 for 5 bushels Meal to Capt. James 
Tarrant, Guarding British prisoners from Southward to Win- 
chester. 

Also /^i. 3. 4. for 70 lbs Pork to Troops under Jos. Marburg, 
D. Q. M. Gen\ 

Also 16 I 6 for 8^ bush. Corn to same. 

Marvell Nash 6 | 4 for 4.J4, bush. Oats to E. Moore, Com'y 
Pub. Stores. 

1782, June. George Waller, Esq' & George Hairston as Col- 
onels, and Brice Martin and Peter Hairston as Majors, produced 
their commissions from the Governor and were qualified. 

Robert Hairston as Sheriff, with Archalaus Hughes, Geo. 
Hairston, Peter Hairston & John Marr, his securities, gave bond. 

1782, July. Peter Saunders produced his commission as 
Lieut. Col. and was qualified. 

The number of Tythables in this county is ascertained to be 
1,863, 2tnd assessed 19 lbs Tobacco each. 

Matthew Small appointed Captain in the room of Thomas 
Henderson, who has removed from the County, Jesse Corn, 2d 
Lieut, and Thomas Morrow, Ensign. 

Wm. Cloud appointed Captain in room of Jonathan Hanby 
resigned. 

1782, Nov. 15. At a court held for adjusting claims of property 
Impressed or taken for Publick service agreeable to an Act of 
Assembly. 

(to be continued) 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 241 

An Abridgement of the Laws of Virginia. 

(concluded) 

Act 9 1664 Ei^^- ^^ ^ct concerning arrests in court time. 

En. y' no arr. 5 daies before a Gen'* Court or assembly be 
served upon any person at James city or 5 daies after Jl^except 
an Inhabitant of Ja. city County. 

Act 24, 1666 Ent. An act for y* better explanacon of y* 46 
act in y" printed Laws. 

En. yt. all sherr. shall take bail of all persons arrested w*** this 
condition to bring forth y* party arrested or perform ye award 
of y* court & so on as in ye 46 act. 

Act 9 1682 Ent. an act repealing an excepcon in y* 9 act of 
Assembly made anno. 1664. 

by this y*" latter clause of y*" sd. act Excepting ye Inhabitants 
of James City County is repealed & they are free from arr. at 
Gen" Courts & assemblies as other y*' Inhabitants of y" country 
but James city inhabitants are not. 

Act 5 1691 Ent. an act directing how Sherr. & Collect" shall 
acco* for pub. dues. 

by this act y* 80 act in ye pr. La. limitting a certaine w" crs. 
shall demand their debts shall extend to Sherr. & Collectors of 
pub. co*^ & p'ish Levies & Sherr. & elk. fees & all pub. debts 
* * * for fees as afore"** shall have y* benefit of y* 2** act 1666 wc** 
admitts of tenders of Tob. to ye Cr. & if a Sherr. or collect' 
distrain for his dues he shall immediately sattisfy y* planter for 
y* over plus or it shalbe taken out of y* hhd. & y* sherr. shall 
sieze no hhd. paid away before if there be good tob' tender by 
y* D' & all Sherr. & Collect" as afore"^ shall on or before y* 31 
Jan'' yearly produce to ye county court his collecting book at 
such times as they shall appoint & a perfect acco' of all upon 
oath of all his tob** rec* as well private debts as others & y* court 
(y' crs. having notice) shall before y" examine y* ace" & propor- 
tion y* crs. their due parts of tobaccos rec'd according to y* 
quallity & Convenience before w*** no sherr. shall convert to his 
own use any Tob* so rec* under y* pain of forfeiting 4 times y" 
vallue, yi to ye King, j^j to ye Gove', ys to y*' Informer, but they 
may discount y* full sum of y*" Levies due from a pub. cr. & all 



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242 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Sherr. etc. shall stand to y* hazard of all tob* rec* by y" & so 
accounted for & ordered by y* Court ten daies. Their maj'**' 
Quit Rents and dues are Excepted out of this act. 



SHIPPS. 

Pr. La. 1 26 Ent. M" of Ships to provide 4 months provisions 

By this Mast" are to provide 4 Moneths victuals for passengers 
from Eng. & to give y" sufficient diet all y* voyage, under pen- 
alty being Censured according to merritt. 

Pr. La. 107 Ent. Concerning passes. 

No Mr. of a vessell Shall export any person w**'out a pass 
under y* hand of y* Sacratary or deputy upon penalty of paying 
his debts & i.ooolb tobo. to y* Sac*, & before such passe issue a 
Cerf* shalbe brought from y* Clk. of y** County Court y' y* party 
hath set up his name upon a Court day ten dayes at least before 
his departure or he give Secur. for y* pay"' of all his debts or 
his name be published at y* Church door 2 Sundaies in every 
parish in y*" County & a Cert, thereof from y*" reader to y* clk. 
& from y* clk. to y' Sacretary, Secur. to be discharge in a year 
& a day. 

Pr. La. 62 Ent. persons removeing into y" bay. 

No person Shall remove him out of his County w'^'out first 
Setting up his name at y^ parish Church door 3 Sundaies, together 
certifying y* place he removes to & take a cert, thereof from y*" 
reader or to ye Clk. of y* County Court, who shall give him 
License to depart, but if ye person so removeing pay not his 
debts according to Specialty his C" by a warr. from ye Sacretary* s 
office may bring him personally before y** Cover' or one of y* 
Councill & y' make him put in Security for ye performance of his 
Obligacon if pay day be not past & if it be to take ex°" against 
body or estate for Sattisfacon. 

& he y* removes cattle before such cert, or after w'^'out Notice 
given to 4 of y* Neerest inhabitents who are required to make a 
list of y" 8c their markes & carry it to y* Clk. of y^ County Court 
to be recorded, Shall forfeit for every beast i,ooolb tob', ^ to 
y'^pub., j4 to ye Informer, & if any Marriner Transport any 
person out of ye County w*''out Cert, as afores'd he shall pay 
all his debts. 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 243 

Pr. La. 134 Ent. privil edges of virg' owners. 

Declared y' virg* owners Shalbe accounted only such as are 
owners & Adventurers in vessells Solely & wholy belonging to 
ye Inhabitants of this Country, Cover* to be Judg & to certify 
y* same to ye Collector to be priviledged accordingly. 

Act 7 1667 Ent. an act for forts to be built in each river. 
The first part of this Law relates to y* building of forts & by y* 
Latter part all ships are to ride under y"" & shall not break bulk 
at coming in before they have road there 5 dales, &c., and if 
they break bulk before License obtained to forfeit 2,000ft) tobo. 
to be recovered by y* Collect' & paid }^ to y*" Informar, 3^ to y* 
fort. 

Act 2 1668 Ent. an act for dispensacon of Ships rideing 
under y* forts. 

This act permits Ships to ride in any part of y" River & Con- 
tinues in force till y* Cover* see Just cause to Comand y* Con- 
trary. 

Act 5 1669 Ent. an act for y*" freeing virg* duties. 

This act's title Speakes it substance. 

Act I 1672 Ent. an act for y* defence of y® Country. 

Latter part of this act y t it shall not be Lawfull for any Canoe, 
boat or slope to go on board any Ship before y* s'd ship send 
on shore & it is known who they are, each Canoe or boat 
amerced 400ft) tob* & Sloop 1,000: yi to y* County, ]4 toy* 
Informer; but if serv^' do it they shall have corporall punish"" of 
40 lashes, but redeemable by y" fine afore***, this to be In force 
dureing y* time of Warr and no longer — The rest of this act is 
about forts. 

Act 60 1676-7 Ent. an act ascertaining y* price of Cocq"; 
part of this Repeals y* act made i66>4, 1666 and 1669 w"* al- 
lows * * 

Import of 2" p' hh** to such owners as reside in virg', & enacts 
y* y* priviledge be given to such as are owners of vessells built 
here & wholly belong bona fide to owners resideing in y* Coun- 
try, y* Rest of this act Considered under titles Collectors. 

Act 9 1679 Ent. an act forbiding Maryland vessels trading 
into this Country w^^out makeing due Entry. 

That no ship, sloop or other vessell belonging to or coming 
lirom Maryland shall come here w'^out Entering w'** y* Collector 



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244 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

under y'' penalty of forfeiting ship & goods So unladen, >^ to y" 
Informer, ^ to y* Country where y* seizure is made, this La: 
to stand in force untill y* Marylanders repeals their Law. 

Act. 4 1691 Ent. an act to prevent y" casting of Ballast into 
Rivers & Creeks. 

After ye 24th June next every M' of a ship, &c., is prohibited 
to cast gravel or Ballast overboard, but is to lay it above high 
water mark upon pain often lb, J^ to y^ King, yi to y*" Informar; 
but if any Court think it wilbe advantagious to a road w'^'in their 
County it shalbe Lawfull for y" to p'mit y^ same by act of Court 
upon request made. 

SUPERSEDEAS. 

Pr. La: 41 Ent. Supersedeas by whom & how grantable. 

Ent: Y' no Supersedeas be granted but by y*" Cover* & two 
of y* Councill nor by y" unless error plainly appear in y** Judgm* 
& y* also upon good Security to make y*" plea & and pay y* 
principal w"* 25 pr. ct. damages, besides costs, if he be cast at 
y^ Gen" Co\ 

TANNERS. 

* * * 1 69 1 Ent. an act declaring y"" duties of Tanners & 
Curri" & Shoomakers by this act, those y* profess y*' Tanners 
Trade shall not let hides lye in y" tunnes too long, nor put hides in 
y* Tann fats before y*' tunne be well soaked out, nor sell any Tan 
Skins before they be sealed upon pain of forfeiting them. 
None shall curry but what's well tan'd & they shall curry w*** 
good stuff nor less of y*t y° y* leather will bare nor curry any 
leather fitt for over leather nor iner Soles, but w"*' good stuff 
fresh under y* penalty of 10" to ye owner of y* skins damnified. 
Every county Court to appoint a fit p'son to try & seal such 
Leather. Whose fee shal be for 10 hides 2-6, to be p** by y* 
owner. Shoemakers shall make no ware of virg' Leather not 
curried except deer skins, calve skins or goat skins made like 
Spanish Leather, but of Leather well tan*d and curried or of 
Leather well tan'd only & Sowed with thread well twisted, 
waxed & drawn with hand leathers. 

The Justices of every county shall sware yearly one or more 
skilful men to search & view & w*^ a seal to be provided by y" 
county to make sufficient Leather & none other, & if these 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 245 

Searchers find any Leather sold or offered to be sold contrary to 
this act or insufficiently taned, Curried or made up, they shall 
seize and keep it untill it be tryed. And y* Justices, w" they 
have notice of any siich seizure & if y* tryers fail in their duty 
they shalbe fined at y* discreation of y' Court & if a Sealer re- 
fuse in Court time to go & seal sufficient leather he shall forfeit 
40' & if he receive a bribe or exact a g^reater fee he shall forfeit 
2o', & if being elect** here to execute his office he shall forfeit 

5 pounds, and it shall not be Lawfull to buy, sell or exchange 
any * * before it be sealed upon paine of forfeiting y* same 

6 y* vallue thereof if any Currier Curry any Leathor not suffi- 
ciently tanned or do not curry it well, or if any Shoemaker use 
any ill tanned or curryed Leather not sealed or saddler they 
shall forfeit for Every default y* wares & y* vallue thereof. The 
forfeitures to be divided into 3 equall parts, i to y" king & queen, 
I to y* Informer, & i to y* Court of y" County for y* building an 
house of correction — & all insufficient wares and Leather seized 
by vertue of this act & forfeited shalbe brought to y' Court house 
there appraised & ye vallue divided, y^ to their Maj**",^ to ye 
first seizer, & ^3 to ye County Court, &c. Declared y* y' hides 
& skins of ox, steer, bull, cow, calf, deer, goats & sheep being 
tan'd shalbe reputed Leather. 



TOBACCOES. 

Pr. La. 117. Size of Virg* hhds. 

Size 43 inches in Lenght & 26 wide in y" head w*^ a propor- 
tionable bulge & he yt. makes Cask of greater Size if he be a 
freeman otherwise his M' shall pay 3,oootb tobo, ]4 to y* Informer 
yi to ye county. 

Pr. La. 80 Ent. w" tob* to be demanded. 

whoso demands not his tobo. debts between y*' lo'** octob' & 
last of Jan' shall not sue for present pay"* & no ex'° shall issue 
for a Tob* debt but against y* person who shall free himself by 
putting in Security to pay y* debt y* following Cropps but y* c' 
may sue his D' security against y" next year. 

* * Ent. no tobo. to be planted after ye 10*'' of July. 
Whoso shall plant or replant any tob* after y' lo** of July shall 
pay io,ooolb tob* to the use of ye publick. 



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246 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Pr. La. 107 EnL no seconds or slips, whoso shall tende or 
cause to be tended any seconds, tops or slips shall forfeit 
JI9* io,ooott> toh* to ye publick & whoso shall pack any ground 
leaves for every hhd tob* haveing ye quantity of 5ft) in it they 
shall pay 5,ooolb tob* to y* use of y* publick. 

The Grandjury to take p'ticular care of y* observacon of this 
act 

Act 3 1664 EnL an act for liberty to planL 

By this all acts & all proclamacons restraining y' Inhabitants 
from makeing their utmost benefit of their Labour y* Insueing 
year are repealed. 

Act 2 1666 Ent. an act concerning tender" of tobacco. 

En. if y* O refuse or omitt to receive his tob* by y* last of Jan'' 
y* D' between yt. & y* 20'** of February may address to 2 Justices 
who are impowered to appoint 3 able men of y* neighborhood 
on their oaths to view y* tob" & if its merchantable new or old 
to mark it for y* c' & y* D'produceing ye certificate of y* tender 
to ye next court they shall discharge him from y* Debt Provided 
ye tender be made according to specialty, And if y* D' & O 
connot agree about y* merchantableness of y*" tob* y* 2 comm" 
shall appoint a 3* person for an umpire. 

Act 8 1666. an act concerning y* property of Tob". 

Marking Transferrs y* property of Tob' & y* for ascertaining 
y" sum over paid if y* receiver have not conveniency to weigh it 
w" he marks it, y° y" payer after tend daies may desire a Com' 
to weigh it or cause it to be weighed, whoso atteste * * or 
y" oath of y* person by him deputed shall oblige y* Cr. to allow 
y* quantity. 

Act 8 1679 Ent. An act prohibiting the Importacon of tob* 
into this country. 

No Tob* w^'^out y* capes shalbe brought heither except by y* 
Inhabitants of Lower Norfolk, who shall make it appear y' it is 
y' growth of y* County upon penalty of forfeiting y" tob', }i to 
ye King, }4 to y* Informer & y' Country. 

Act 9 1680 Ent. an act ascertaining allowances for cask. 

That it be 8 pr. ct. for pub. County & Parish Levies & for 
cl'k & sherr. fees, & the Sherr. & Collect' y' refuses to allow y* 
shall pay loolb tob' to y* party grieved, to be recovered before 
a single Justice if exceed not 20otb tob*. 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 247 

Act 7 1686 Ent. an act declareing y* 107 act of assembly made 
y* 23* March, i66}4 to be in force. 

Doubts being whether y* s* act be not repealed by a late act. 

1664 Ent. An act for liberty to plant. 

It is declared y' y* same is in force & amended — That from 
this Session y* breakers of the s* Law shall forfeit y* same Pen- 
alties there sett down, }4 to y* King, yi to y* Informer, & it is 
Enacted y' y* last day of June annually shalbe y' last of planting 
or replanting upon penalty of io,ooott) tobo. to y* use afore"*. 

And y* Striping of tob* stalks is prohibited upon y* penalty for 
every pound 5otb tob* to y* use afore"*. 



VIRGINIA LAWES. 

Act 8 1682 Ent. an act imposeing further penalties upon any 
person or persons yt shall publish or declare yt y* acts of assem- 
bly of Virg* are not of force. 

By this act every person yt Shall maliciously & advisedly de- 
clare by words or writeing yt y* Virg* Laws not repealed, expired 
or annulled by y* King are not of force shalbe deemed to be 
factious &sedetious & for his first offence fined i,ooolb tob* & 
imprisoned a month w'^'out Bail or maine pris. ; 2* offence 2,ooolb 
& 2 months' imprisonm* & after double, }4 to y* King, }4 to y" 
Informer, &c. 

Act 2 1663 Ent. an act concerning ye bounds of this Colony 
on ye Eastern Shoar. 

By this act Coll. Scarburgh, Survey' Gen", is directed to 
Comand in his Maj**"" name all y* Inhabitants of y" Eastern Shoar 
of virg* from Watking point Southward to render obedience to 
Virg*, &c. 

WEIGHTS & MEASURES. 

Pr. La. 63 Ent. English weights & measures. 

None to make use of any but English weights & measures. 

That ye Com" of Every County at ye County Charge provide 
Sealed weights. Half hundreds, Quarters & half Quarters, 
Seaven pounds, four pounds, two |>ounds, one pound. Measures 
of ell & yard. Bushell, ^ Bushell, peck, & Gallon. Wind- 
chester measure. Gallon pottle, quart & pint wind measure; & 



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248 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

that first in comicon keep y" at his house & mark his stamps for 
all measures & stillards to be their tried & whoso sells by other 
measures & weights shall forfeit i,ooolb tob', ^ to ye pub., >^ 
to ye Complainant, ye Com" failing to provide y" by ye i** De- 
cem', 1669, to be fined 5,ooolb Tob', to y* use or y* publik. 



WIDOWES. 

Act 7 1664 Ent. an act Concerning Widows Thirds, all intes- 
tate estates, or where y* will is doubtfull whether Reall ff^or 
personall shall by this act be devided into thirds according to 
ye quantity & quallity ye widdow to have one. 

Act 1673 Ent. an act for establishing ye Dowers wid'. By 
this act ye widdow is to have one-third of ye Real Esta. dureing 
life & yi of ye personal if but one or two Child", but if more y* 
they are to share alike, the husband may give more by will but 
cannot less. 



WOLVES. 

Act I 1 69 1 Ent. an act giveing reward for killing wolves. 

By this act 20olb tob" is given for killing a wolfe by gun or 
otherwise,t& 30olb by pitt or trap, to be paid by ye County, 
proof to be made before a Justice by oath or other waies at ye 
Justice's discreation, ye head to be brought in & a Certificate to 
be granted by ye Justice to produce to ye Court. 



PRIVATE ACTS. 

* * 1666 Ent. an act declaring y*" people of Lower Norfolk 
to have equall Liberties w"* x>th^r_counties in disposeing their 
Tobacco. 

Act II 1679 Ent. an act for naturalizacon of Joshua Mulder^ 
Henry Weedick & others. 

Act 6 1673 Ent. an act for permitting ye County of Isle of 
weight & Lower Norfolk to erect each of y" a fort. 

Act ye 7 1673 Ent. an act for naturalizacon of John Peterson, 
Rowland Anderson and others. 

Act 8 1674 Ent. an act ascertaining ye bounds of y* Co**" of 
y" Isle of weight & Nanzemond. 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1 694. 249 

Act 9 1674 Ent. an act for y* settlinj? y' Lands, at y" Green 
Spring in y* right hon^** S' Wm. Berkley his heirs & assigns. 

Act 1674 Ent. an act for settling ye Lands Convey* from S' 
W" Berkley & Dame Francis his wife in Coll. W" Cole, his heirs 
& assign es. 

Act 4 1675 Ent. an act for y" naturalizacon of Christian 
Peterson. 

Act 19 1676 Ent. An act of Naturalizacon for Garratt John- 
son. 

Act 10 1679 Ent. an act for y" Naturalizacon of Abraham 
Vinclar, John Michael, John Pincacit, Jacob Johnson & John 
Keeton. 

Act II 1679 Ent. an act Enabling Maj' Law. Smith & Cap. 
W" Byrd to seat certain Lands at y* heads of Rapp* River & 
James River. 

Act 17 1680 Ent. an act restraining Stricking & Killing fish 
at unseasonable times repealed by act 4 1686. 

Act 10 1684 Ent. an act Enabling Rich*d Littlepage, Sen', to 
sell Lands for pay*" of y' Debts of Sam'll Oustin, dec*. 

Act 4 1686 Ent. an act Repealing y" 10'* act of Assembly 
made y* 8*" day of June, 1680. 

Act 5 1686 Ent. an act ascertaining daies for Courts in Acco- 
mack County. 

Act 19 1 69 1 Ent. an act for dividing New Kent County. 

Act 20 1 69 1 Ent. an act for dividing Lower Norfolk County. 

Act 5 1692 Ent. An act for dividing Rappahannock County. 

Act 6 1692 Ent. an act for altering y* day for princess Anne 
County Court. 

Act 3 1663 Ent. an act ascertaining y" place for erecting y* 
colledge of Wm. & Mary in Virginia. 

* * Laws made att an assembly begun at * * * * 23, 
1705, in ye 4"* year of Queen Anne, for Limitation of actions & 
avoyding Suits. 

En. That all actions upon ye case (other than for slander) & 
actions for acco' & for Tresspass, Debts, Detinew & Repleven 
for goods & Cattle, & for Tresspass quare clawsum fregit shall be 
brought within 2 years after this Sess. of assembly or 5 years 
after ye cause of action, and action of tresspass for assault & bat- 
tery; wounding & imprisonm* within i year after the Session or 



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250 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

3 years after cause of action, and actions upon y* case for words 
within I year after ye words spoken. 

Provid: if upon suit brought y* pit. obtaine a judge"' or a ver- 
dict be found for him & aftea wards reversed, or if ye Def * be 
outlawed y* Pit. his E", &c. , shall have i year to bring a new 
suit after such Judg*"' reversed, &c. but in all actions of tres- 
pass, quare clawsum fregit if the Deft, disclaime offered reason- 
able satisfaction before action brought & it be soe found upon 
tryall & ye pit. for ever barred, & in actions upon y' case for 
Slanderous words, if y" damages found is under 40 | noe more 
costs shall be allowed than damages. Pro: that if any person 
shall be non comprs. feme covert, under age, imprisoned or out 
of y" county at ye time y* ye right of any of y* s'* actions accrued 
they shall have the same time after such impediments removed, 
and if any person deft, shall remove all out of y* Country or 
county where they live, abscond or any other indirect ways de- 
feat such persons who have rights thereto from bringing in any 
of ye s** actions, then such deft, not to be allow' d to plead this 
act in bar. 

2"** act for continuing Gen" assemblies in case of y* death of 
ye Q. : his heirs, &c., for 6 months & for making valid all acts of 
ye Gov', &c. , & all proceedings at law which shall happen be- 
twixt y* Demise & the notification here, ye title expresses ye 
substance. 

3"* act for attorneys prosecuting suits for * * * country 
to give security for pay"" of all costs & orders agst. them. 

En. that if any person by virtue of attourney, substitution, 
deputation, &c., from any person dwelling out of the county 
shall prosecute any suit whatsoever & shall faile at his first ap- 
pearance before y*' Court, Judge or Magistrate to enter into bond 
w'" security for ye payment of all costs & damages that shall be 
award ag** him his suit shall be dismiss**. 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS, 1694. 



251 



* * [A Table] Shewing y'' yeare of y* King * * 
to Anno. 1694: 



1661 



i66i 


13 year K. Charles 2d 


1678 


30 


1662 


14 year. 


1679 


31 


1663 


15 


1680 


32 


1664 


16 


1681 


33 


1665 


17 j 


1682 


34 


1666 


18 


1683 


35 


1667 


19 1 


1684 


36 


1668 


20 ; 


1685 


1st year K. James 2na. 


1669 


21 ! 


1686 




1670 


22 ! 


1687 




1671 1 23 ; 


1688 




1672 1 24 1 


1689 


I year K. Wm. & Mary. 


1673 ; 25 


1690 


2 


1674 1 26 


1691 


3 


1675 27 


1692 


4 


1676 


28 ! 


1693 


5 


1677 


29 


1694 


6 



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252 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



A Table Shewing who was Governor From 1661 to y* year 
1694: 



1661 
1662 
1663 
1664 
1665 
1666 
1667 
1668 
1669 
1670 
1671 
1672 

1673 
1674 

1675 
1676 
1677 



1678 



Sr. Wm. Berkley. I 

Id" & Fra. Moryson. || 
S' Wm. Berkeley. I 



S' Wm. Berkley & Some 
part, Herbert Jefferies, 
Esq. 

Herb* Jefferies, Esq', & 
some part S' Hen. 
Chicheley. 



1679 
1680 

1681 
1682 

1683 
1684 
1685 
1686 
1687 
1688 
1689 
1690 
1691 
1692 



1693 
1694 



S' Hen. Chicheley. 

S' Hen. Chicheley, part, 

& Tho. Lo** Culpeper. 
S' Hen. Chicheley. 
S' Hen. Chichley, part, 

& Ld. Culpeper. 
Nicho. Spencer, Presid'. 
Fra. Ld. Howard. 



Nath'l Bacon, Pres't 

j Fra. Nicholson, Esq'. 
I Fra. Nicholson, & y* late 
I part S' Edm'd An- 
! dros. 
S' Edm'd Andros. 



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ABRIDGMENT OF VIRGINIA LAWS. 1694. 



253 



* * Assembly s were held in Virg* at w* time * * * acts 
were made each Assembly from y* year 1661 to y* year 1693. 

Note y* all following Assemblies were held at James City ex- 
cept y* 1676, begun y"" 20*** February at Green Spring, & y* 1676, 
begun y" 10** October at Mr. Otho Thorp's house, Middle 
plantacon. 



Assemblies. Began. Acts. Assemblies. ' Began. 'Acts 



1661 
1662 
1663 
1664 
1665 
1666 

1667 
1668 
1669 
1670 
1671 
1672 

1673 
1674 

1675 
1676 



23 March 
23 Decern. 
ID Septem. 
20 Septem. 
20 October 
nrs 5 June 
2nd I 23 October 
23 Sep' 
12 Sept' 
20 October 
3 October 
20 Sep' 
, 24 Sep' 
I 20 October 
' 21 Sep' 
7 March 
5 June, 
voyd 
20 Feb'y 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
firs 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
2, first 

I 
2nd 



38 
23 

19 

9 

10 

4 
24 
7 
9 
9 
12 

7 
II 

17 

* 

4 
Nul 

20 



I 



1677 I 

1678; 

1679 

1680 

1681 , 

1682 ( 
1683 
1684 
1685 
1686 
1687 
1688 



I 
none 

I 

I 
none 

I 
none 

I 
called 
proro. 
none 
called 



10 October 12 



25 Aug** 
8 June 



* 

* 



1689 none 

1690 none 

1691 i I 

1692 2, first 



1693 I 



10 Novem. I 13 

I 
16 Aug" 10 

but no ses- sioii 
I October 11 

19"' Aprill 
no session 1 



i6Ap'll . 21 

I Aprill : 7 
prorogacon 

2d March 7 

10 October | 5 



First act 1696 repealed 9th act 

lo*"* & y* 12*** act 1662 & y* * 

Enacteth among other things that if y' mas" 



* 



* 
* 



* 

* 
* * 



* 
* 



Serv* 



shall serve J4 year for it & alsoe if a worn, shall bring a bastard 
she shall serve her Mast' i year after her time of service is Ex- 
pired or pay i,ooolb tobo besides ye fine & ye reputed father to 



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254 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

give security to * y*p'sh churches, grand juries * & church 
wardens to make presentment y* fines to goe to y* p*sh towards 
maintenance of minister to y* child to be bond or free according 
to y* condition of y* mother. 

[The entries in regard to acts of 1696 and 1705, are in another 
hand and are not part of the original abridgment.] 



PIONEER DAYS IN ALLEGHANY COUNTY. 



(By W. A. McAllister, Warm Springs, Va.) 



(concluded) 



Mann's Fort. 

This fort was built by William Mann doubtless before the time 
of Fort Young (1756). It was located near the present site of 
the residence now owned and occupied by Mrs, Laura Kyle, at 
Falling Spring Station, on the Hot Springs Branch of the Ches- 
apeake and Ohio Railroad. A portion of the logs from the fort 
were used in the construction of a tenant house and in it the port- 
holes are still visible. Soon after the building of this fort a pow- 
der house was erected and operated by Moses Mann (William's 
son) on the brink of Falling Spring Branch near the Falls and a 
bullet factory was at the same time built at the Falls. The salt- 
petre used at the powder mill was procured from Salt-Petre Cave 
— Mann's former dwelling place. 

In the early part of July, 1763, a band of Shawnee warriors, 
headed by the celebrated Cornstalk, keeping in the wake of Mrs. 
Hannah Dennis, came to Greenbrier county. The settlers, think- 
ing the prolonged cessation of hostilities an indication of peace, 
received the savages in an amicable and hospitable manner. But 
the vicious impulses were only dormant. After despoiling the 
settlement on Muddy creek, the Indians hastened to the home of 
Archibald Clendennin in the Levels. Here they were treated 
to a resplendent feast, but their passions, though unprovoked, 
again knew no mercy. All the men, except one, were killed 
and the women and children taken prisoners and conveyed to 



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PIONEER DAYS IN ALLEGHANY COUNTY. 255 

Muddy creek, where a portion of the Indians were left in charge 
while the others came in the direction of Jackson river. Conrad 
Yolkom, who was in a near by field when the others were mas- 
sacred, escaped and coming over the Alleghany mountains, 
thence down Indian Draft, warned the settlement about Mann*s 
fort. His report was not believed and consequently no precau- 
tion had been taken when the Savages arrived. Then the settlers 
hastily repaired to the fort and withstood the attack until Cap- 
tain George Moffett, with a small garrison from Fort Young (a 
distance of lo miles) could arrive. He followed the course of 
the river, proceeding cautiously along the left bank. A few 
scouts took the advance. The scouts followed the stream all the 
way, while the main division, instead of circumambulating the 
horse-shoe bend below Mann's fort, made directly for their desti- 
nation, thus cutting off some thousand yards, but throwing them- 
selves directly into the trap of the ambushed enemy. The Sav- 
ages, having the advantage of the river bank, poured their 
well-directed shots, with telling effect, into the less prudent com- 
mand. When the battle din had passed, fifteen blood-stained 
and scalpless bodies were left to tell the sad story of the pale- 
face's encounter. 

From thence the Indians again divided their band, one division 
going toward Kerr's creek in Rockbridge while the other crossed 
over Warm Springs mountain to the settlement on Cowpasture, 
where they committed several outrages; thence recrossing the 
mountain they retraced their steps toward the Ohio. A com- 
pany of one hundred and fifty men, raised in a single night, was 
put under command of Capt. Wm. Christian, and sent in search 
of the savages. They were located and encountered on the South 
Branch of the Potomac, where twenty of their number were 
killed without the loss of a single white. This signal battle 
marked the close of Shawnee outrages in what is now Alleghany 
county. After the battle, a scalp was found, which by the shade 
of the flowing locks, was recognized as that of James Sitlington, 
a recent immigrant from Ireland, who had fared the fate of his 
fellows at Mann's. Many years later, a skull, having double 
rows of teeth all around, was washed up by a freshet in Jackson 
river, and identified as that of one who had lost his life in the 
same defeat. 



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256 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

In 1891, when the Hot Springs Railroad was being built, a 
number of skeletons were exhumed in a field near the site of the 
old fort. The arrow-heads, beads, wampum, clay-pipes, etc., 
found in the tomb, bespoke the race of the interred. 

Capt. Moffett became a prominent officer under Greene in 
the Revolution and was a leader in civil and religious affairs in 
Augusta until his death (181 1). 

A notable personage of this county, made pre-eminently con- 
spicuous by her various and extensive exploits of daring and 
adventure, was **Mad Anne." 

This heroine of the Virginia Hills was, as Anne Dennis, born 
in Liverpool, England, in 1742; an immigrant to Augusta at 
thirteen, she became the bride of John Bailey at twenty-three, 
and, as a result of Point Pleasant, his widow at thirty- two. 

One son, William Bailey, survived his father. This youth of 
seven summers was left in charge of Mrs. Moses (Hamilton) 
Mann, a near neighbor of Anne, while his mother sought to avenge 
the husband's ill-timed fate by enlisting for the cause of her color. 
But what could a woman, encumbered with the garb becoming 
her sex, do amid the wilds of mountain passes, against a lurking 
and rapacious foe ? This was a question soon decided by this 
woman of indomitable will. She was ** very masculine in her ap- 
pearance, and seldom or never wore a gown, but usually had on 
a petticoat with a man's coat over it,*' and ** with a rifle over 
her shoulder and a tomahawk and butcher knife in her belt." 
she became a couriess, whose record is unparalleled in the an- 
nals of Virginia. 

No mountain was too steep for her and her unfaltering steed; 
no winter so severe, no summer so hot, no enemy so cunning as 
to prevent the fulfilment of a once formed purpose. Her widow- 
hood was brought to a close in 1785 by her union with another 
valiant frontiersman, John Trotter, of Point Pleasant. 

She spent a year or more during the latter portion of her life in 
a hut, built by herself, on what is now Mad Anne's Ridge. This 
ridge lies at right angles to Warm Springs Mountain and on the 
north side of Falling Spring Branch. 

Her most noteworthy experience was her ride from Fort Lee 
(now Charleston, W. Va.) to Lewisburg, and return, with 
powder for the besieged garrison. For this deed of skill and 



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PIONEER DAYS IN ALLEGHANY COUNTY. 267 

valor she was given a beautiful and spirited horse, which, in 
honor of her native burg, she called ** Liverpool*' — often abbre- 
viated to ** Pool." During the night of one of her trips to 
Mann's powder-house for ammunition, she started across the 
ridge which bears her name, but as a snow was rapidly falling she 
halted on the side of the mountain, and soon fell asleep. Pool, 
becoming restless, retraced his course, and was found next morn- 
ing at the home of Moses Mann. A party was at once dis- 
patched in search of her. Her course and destination being 
well known, her bed was finally located by a hole in the snow, 
made by her warm breath, which furnished an air-passage. 
At another time she aroused the inhabitants at Fort Young by 
her appealing shouts at the gate. She entered, blood-stained 
and haggard, but bearing two Indian scalps, the trophies of a 
recent engagement with her enemies. 

Her choleric temperament and seasons of vengeful intrepid- 
ity, aggravated by a decaying system, gave her, in her latter 
days, the misnomer of **Mad Anne.** Yet, she had a jocular 
turn, and being given to loquacity, she often settled on the 
hearthstone of some worthy frontiersman, recited with unswerv- 
ing elaboration the events of her earlier experience. 

As to her profanity, authorities differ, but that one of her fa- 
vorite enjoyments was the tipping of the glass with some gene- 
rous host, seems to be a fact undisputed, even by her most con- 
servative biographers. The spirit of this eccentric, yet fearless 
character, was wafted to its final home on the 22d of November, 
1825, and left the pulseless corpse in a rail shanty — the product 
of her own hands — on the Ohio River, just below Point Pleasant. 
Thus ended the eventful life of the heroine of Western Virginia, 
whose virtues still echo through the mountain passes where her 
footsteps are a century old. 

W. A. McAllister. 



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258 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



List of Tithables in Northampton County, Virginia, 
August, i666. 



(From the Records in the Clerk's Office.) 



Communicated by F. B. Robertson, Eastville, Va. 



(concluded.) 



Duncan Macknabb. — i. 

John Basy. — i. 

Robt. Harrison, 
Robt. Hopkins. — 2. 



Abraham Sheppard. — i. 



Edw. Cable.— I. 

Will. Lawrence, 
Thos. Berisford. — 2. 



Rich'd Duparke — 
Att Wibly's.— I. 

Will. Kennitt.— I. 

Thos. Dimmer, 
Tho. Nabe.— 2. 



Rich'd Patrick, 
John Denby. — 2. 



Richard Jester. — i. 

Coll. John Stringer, 
John Tatum, 



Joseph Godwin, 
Ceasar * * — 2. 



Abraham Heath. — i. 

Capt. John Savage, 
John Amis, 
Edw. Ashby, 
Robt. Tygar, 
Tempsy Betha, 
Sidney Field. — 6. 

Francis Pettitt, 
Justman ** — 2. 

Christopher Stanley. — i. 

Joseph Parkes, 
Wm. Gilsty, 
Wm. Smart, 
Tho. Claydon. — 4. 



Nath. Wilkins, 

Rich. Cox, 

George — Negro man. —3. 

John Daniel, 
James Bowden, 
Wm. Edmonds, 



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TITHABLES IN NORTHAMPTON, 1666. 



259 



Robt. Chew. 


Black Jack — Negro. — 4. 


David Grim, 




Richd. Curtisse, 


Richard Hanby, — i 


Tho. Oxford.— 6. 






Thomas Harminson, 


John Dorman, 


Daniel Call. 


Roger Kirkman. — 2. 


Geo. Jenkins, 





John Marainge, 


Att Miss Robins' : 


Wm. Sharpe, 


John Margetts, 


John Wills— at mill. 


Richd. Robins, Jun., 


Nan — negro woman. — 7. 


John Symonds, 




John Wooters, 


Att M. Vosses' : 


John Archer — Negro, 


Thos. Loffing, 


Tony — Negro. — 7. 


Nan — negro woman. — 2. 


Robt. Blacks, 


John Francisco. 1 negros 
Arisbian, his wife, j — .2 


John Jackson. — 2. 


Mr. John Robins, 


Lieft. Coll. Wm. Kendall, 


Thp. Parnell, 


Daniel Baker, 


John King — negro, 


Geo. Mortimer, 


3 negros. — 6. 


John Abraham, 




John Parsons, 


Walter Mathews, 


John Harris, 


Andrew Smaw, 


Jeter Morgan, 


Wm. Savage. — 3. 


Morgan Thomas, 




Geo. Massy. 


Wm. Lyne, 


Walter Mannington, 


Wm. Padgett.— 2. 


Mingo — negro. 




Charles. ** 


John Webb, 
John Glassell, 


Aron Franson, ) Sea- 
Mathew Williams, j men- 14 


Hen. Lartin, 




Cornelius Areale, 


Mr. John Michaell, 


Nan, negro woman. — 5. 


Ed. Lockitt, 




Peter Fountaine, 


Francis Jane, negro. — i. 


John Aleworth, 




Rowland Williams, 




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260 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Manuel Drigg — negro. — i. 

Willis Saunders, 
Daniel Keeth. — 2. 



Maj. Wm. Andrews, 
John Andrews, 
John Pirce. — 2. 



Geo. Isdell. — i. 



William Gray, 

Anthony Joanes, 

Antony, ^ 

Banelo, | 

Frank, ^ Negros. — 12. 

Dennisse, ( 

Ann, J 

Wm. Hamon, ) Negros. 
Jane Hamon, ( — 2. 



Nicholas Howell, 
Dexmon Hardlins, 
Richard Williams. — 3. 

Will. Smith, 
Tho. Hennige. — 2. 

John Wilkins, 
John Floyd. — 2. 



John Waterson, 
Jacob Glassfield, 
John Wiltshire, 
John More. — 4. 

Will Starlinge, 
Tho. Turnell, 
Hen. Morgan, 
John Willett.— 4. 

Will Paule.— I. 



Tho. Blacklock.— I. 



Dennis Omalegon. — i. 

Harman Johnson, 
John Mathies. — 2. 



Wm. Millinge, 
Robt. Jilkin, 
Arthur Bowzer, 
Peter Vickar, 
Isaak Venan, 
John Wyer. — 6. 



Joseph Warren. — i. 

Jerom Griffith. — i. 

Tho. Shepperd. — i. 

Pro vice Nelson, 
Daniel Paine. — 2. 

Bartholomew Cosier, 
Francis Roberts. — 2. 

Wm. Geldinge, 
Luke Geldinge, 
Charles Geldinge. — 3. 

Left. Coll. Wm. Waters, 
Peter Bastianson, 
Lawrence Jacobson, 
Tho. Reade, 
Edw. Joanes, 



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TITHABLES IN NORTHAMPTON, 1 666. 



261 



James Walker, 
Hen. Williams, 
Richd. Jacklock. — 3. 

Mr. The. Hunt, 
John Follicome, 
John Darnell, 
Wm. Shore. — 4. 



John Bagwell. — i. 
Thos. Bagwell.— I. 



Capt. John Custis, 
John Robinson, 
Michael Stone, 
Tho. Joanes, 
Chas. Weissell, 
Hen. Foreman, 
Daniel Swindell, 
Benjamin Perry, 
George Lilly, 
John Warppell, 
5 negroes.— 15. 



Robt. Hayes. — i. 

Tenge Odeere. — i. 

Matthew Trippin. — i, 

Jeremia Robinson, 
Robt. Smith, 
Judith — negro — 3. 

John Adolph, 
Wm. Cord, 
Jonas Dixon, 



Jacob Chilton, 

Geo. Treherne, 

Ed. Evans, ak. Hopkins, 

Sam Handee, 

William — negro. 

Bill— ** —10. 

Richard Whitmarsh, 
Wm. Waltum, 
Robt. Holliday, 
Sam. Ames, 
Tho. Davis. — 5. 

Mr. Francis Piggott, 
Peter, ^ 

fcas. Negros.-5. 
Jane, J 



King Tony — negro. — i. 

Bastian Cane — negro. — i. 

Thomas Bell, 
Tho. Coleman. — 2. 



Ellis Ap Hugh. — I. 



Thomas Swendel. — i. 



Bossaur — negro — i . 

Mr. Thomas Harmar. — i. 

Stephen Costin, 
Benoni Ward. — 2. 

Thomas Clay. — i. 



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262 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



Derman Fox. — 4. 

Tho. Scott, 
John Watts. — 2. 



Thomas Moore, 
John Owen, 
John Moore, 
Thos. Somersett, 
James Bookett. — 5. 

Wm. Harper, 
Rich*d Quinch. — 2. 



Geo. Freshwater, 
Die. — negro . — 2. 



John Knight. — i. 



Thos. Poynter, 

John Hankins, 

Tho. Dregue — negro, 

Rich*d Richardson, 

Mary Richardson, his wife, 

Derman Olandum, 

Francis Driggne, ) Negros 

James, j — 8. 



John Stevens. — i. 

Geo. Willis. — i. 

Thos. Hogg, 
Abraham Collins. — 2. 

Att Mathew Gittinge's, Con- 
stable : 
Walter Carter, 
Howell James, 
John Fothery. — 3. 



Francis Harper. — i. 
Geo. Frizzell. — i. 

Darman Lassland. — i. 

Alex. Mills, 
Rich'd Core.— 2. 



George Smith, 
Wm. Lewis. — 2. 



John Allen, 
Edw. Allen. — 2. 



Neale Mackmillins, 
John Jewett. — 2. 

Att the Widow Hall's: 
Hen. Michael. — i. 



Edw. Ennis. — i. 
James Weatherly. — i. 
Wm. Baker. — i. 



Wm. Ennis — i. 



Hen. Marshmant. — i. 



424 



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VIRGINIA IN 1636-8. 263 

[The numbers below the names show the number of tithables 
on each plantation. According to races, the tithables stood 372 
white and 52 negroes. Estimating the tithables at one-third of 
the total population would make Northampton's population in 
August, 1666, 1, 116 white, and 156 negroes — total, 1,272. This 
was about three years after Accomack county was cut off from 
Northampton.] 

F. B. Robertson. 

Easiville, Va, 



VIRGINIA IN x636-*8. 



Harvey's Second Administration. 



(Abstracts by W. N. Sainsbury, and copies in the McDonald and De 
Jarnette Papers, Virginia State Library. ) 



(continued from IX, 410.) 

[The papers published in this instalment, which to some extent 
cover the same period as those in Vol. IX, of this Magazine, 
treat of Governor Harvey's return to Virginia on January 18, 
1636-7; of Lord Baltimore's attempt to obtain control of the 
colony; of Claiborne's claims to what he deemed his rights in 
Maryland, and various orders and petitions in regard to tobacco. 
The Assembly referred to in Harvey's letter of January 27, 
1636-7, met, in accordance with his summons, on February 20, 
1636-37. In a letter dated January 29, 1637-8, (printed in Vir- 
ginia Magazine IX, 272), Harvey refers to ** the ensuing As- 
sembly," which met (see a letter from Harvey, lb, IX, 409) on 
February 20, 1637-38. These two Assemblies, which have es- 
caped particular notice, help to fill up the gap which seemed to 
exist between the sessions of May, 1635, and January, 1639. 
Virginia, therefore, between the years 1629 and 1640. had annual 
meetings of its legislature. 

It is interesting to compare the history of Virginia from the 
accession of Charles I to the year 1640, as shown in these ex- 
tracts from the English public records and other sources, with 



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264 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

that of England during the same period, for it was at this time, 
when the last-named country was being driven into civil war by 
the King's misgovemment, that the foundation of Viginia*s 
steady loyalty to him and his house was laid. 

Not long after the accession of Charles to the throne he had 
restored to the colony the right of holding legislative assemblies, 
which it had lost through the revocation of the charter of the 
Virginia Company, and, shielded by its insignificance and its 
great distance from England, Virginia had no cause, during all 
this troubled time, for any hostility to the King. 

During the period 1629-1640, when liberty in England seemed 
to be in danger of perishing, when there was no Parliament and 
almost no law save the will of the King, Virginia had annual 
sessions of its House of Burgesses. 

While the people at home were oppressed with illegal taxa- 
tion, the Virginia legislature could reaffirm and constantly carry 
out its determination that no taxes should be imposed ** other- 
wise than by the authoritie of the Grand Assembly, to be levyed 
and imployed as by the Assembly shall be appoynted " (1632, 
Hening I, 196). Here the colonists suffered from no illegal im- 
prisonments nor did the failure of the only effort of the King to 
obtain an increased revenue from them induce him, apparently, 
to take any illegal measures. This effort, a somewhat continued 
one, to obtain the consent of the Assembly to a contract for 
a monopoly of tobacco, was unsuccessful, the House of Bur- 
gesses persisting in its refusal to make one. 

Probably the only effect on the colony of the prevailing policy 
at Court is to be seen in the numerous laws relating to religion 
and conformity; but as the great mass of the Virginia people 
were loyal to the established church, this caused but little trouble. 

The causes of discontent in the colony during the period in 
question were mainly local. The settlement of Maryland was at 
first thought to be a most dangerous blow at Virginia; but this 
feeling resulted from wounded pride at loss of territory, and 
a fear of ** Papists,*' rather than from any actual good reason. 

The administration of Governor Harvey became, after a time, 
unbearable, and then the people deposed him and sent him to 
England. This, which was well calculated to rouse the anger 
of a sovereign even less jealous of his prerogative than Charles* 



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VIRGINIA IN 1636-8. 265 

was practically condoned, though Harvey was returned to Vir- 
ginia for a time. 

So the Virginians, living in peace and increasing prosperity, 
taxed only by their own representatives, governed by their own 
laws, busily engaged in opening up new plantations and in the 
increased culture of tobacco, had no feeling to King Charles 
other than that of loyalty and affection.] 



Governor Harvey to . 

(Copy.) 
Most Reverend and Right H**'*. 

After I had found by a dangerous experience the insufficiencye 
of his Ma**** Ship, the Black George, Least by a further delay in 
my stay the service might receive prejudice, I shipped myself 
w'** some few of my Company in a Ship of the Isle of Wight, 
then ready to sett sayle for this Port of Viginia, in w** by God*s 
blessing I arrived in health at Point Comfort the eighteenth day 
of this present January, and the first hower of my arrivall I sent 
out summons for those who are nominated and appointed his 
Ma**** Counsell heere, upon theire repare to mee, I then p'ceeded 
to the reading of my Commission and Instructions at the church 
of Elizabeth Cittie, and after I had taken the Oaths of those of 
the Counsell according to his Ma**** Commands to me and them, 
we published by proclamation his Ma**** Grace and pardon to all 
those who had been ayding and abetting in the late practise 
against me, his Ma'*** Governor, excepting to such who by spe- 
cial mandate were exempted. Before I removed from Elizabeth 
Cittie I appointed Commissioners and Sheriffs for the lower 
Countyes and for the Plantacon of Ackowmack on the other side 
of the Baye. As also I published his Ma**** pleasure for an As- 
sembly w'** I summoned to begin the 20th of February ensuing. 
After I had thus Settled the affaires of Government in the lower 
parts I repaired to James Cittie, where I am now advising w"* 
the Counsell of the like course for this of James Cittie and the 
Upper Countyes. And for all other matters to w** his Ma**** 
Instructions commandes. Of all w*** yo' Hon" shall receive a 
faithfull account as soon as tyme will give us leave to ripen them. 



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266 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

By this first Ship you may please to accept the short summ of 
my proceeding hithherto. Thus humbly resting, 
Yo' Hon" ever to be commanded, 

John Harvey. 
James Cittie, this 27th of January, 1636. 



Lord Baltimore to Secretary Windebanke. 

(Copy.) 

5. P, O, Lord Baltimore's Letter,* 

Col. Vol. 9, No. 42. February 25*^, 1636. 

Right Honorable. 

Since I waited on you I have (heere in the Countrey) further 
considered of the proposition which I made unto your honor 
concerning the advancement of his Majesties service in Virginia, 
and I have desired my Brother Peaseley to acquaint you with 
my resolution in it: which I will infallibly performe, if his Majes- 
tic please to accept of it, for you may be most assured 
that I would not ingage my creditt in a business of such impor- 
tance, and especially to such persons, before I was very well 
assured of my ability to performe with ample satisfaction, what 
I undertake. I do presume, by him also, to propose unto you 
a way of moving the king in this business; such a one as I con- 
ceive may be most likely to take effect, or in case his Majestie, 
for private reasons approve not of the proposition, the refusall 
of it, in that way, will, I conceive, be less prejudiciall to me; but 
this I humbly submitt to your better judgment. If the business 
take effect, as the king will receive a greate benefitt by it, so 
will it be of good consequence to me, which I shall accordiugly 
acknowledge to your honor and besides I shall thereby be ena- 
bled to do you such further service as shall make n)e appeare 
unto you a really grateful man. 

I am much your debtor, Sir, for former favours, and in espe- 
ciall for your present care of my Newfoundland business that 
concerns me very much, which I shall likewise really acknowl- 
edge to you; for I Know by good experience your noble integ- 

* This letter was addressed to Mr. Secty. Windebanke * * ♦ See 
page 216 Post. A. W. McDonald. 



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VIRGINIA IN 1636-8. 267 

rity and favor to me to be such as that you will by the best of 
your endeavours protect and preserve from injury. 

Your honors most affectionate and humble Servant, 

C. Baltimore. 

Warder Castle, 25 February, 1636. 



Lord Baltimore's Memorial in Regard to Va. 

Indorsed March, 1636. 

Memoriall of L*d Baltimore for Mr. Secretary, Touching Vir- 
ginia. 

The Lord Baltimore having considered of the discourse that 
was betwixt Mr. Secretary & himselfe concerning his desire to do 
his Majesty Service in Virginia doth conceive (with submission 
to Mr. Sec" better judgment) this to be a fitt way to propound 
the matter to the King. 

That Mr. Secretary may be pleased to take notice to his 
Maj^*" how sensible he lately often found the Lord Baltimore to 
be for the great favors he hath received from the King in his 
late occasions, and how desirous he is to do him some acceptable 
Service wherein he may expresse his duty & gratitude to his 
Majesty. The consideration whereof hath invited him to take 
some paines to inform himself of ye present State of Virginia, 
whereof he hath acquired so much knowledge as he well under- 
stands the great prejudice the king suffers thereby, not reserving 
so much profitt from thence as he ought to have and is due; 
whereupon hee did assure Mr. Sec', that he would undertake to 
improve his Maj*'* Revenue from thence eight thousands pounds 
yearly more than now he receives for or by reason of that Plan- 
tation, and this his Lop. will do without laying any new or other 
taxes or imposition on the Planters than what they now do & 
will most willingly pay. 

But because this advancement of the King's Revenue in Vir- 
ginia cannot be effected unless the Lord Baltimore do repair & 
reside some time there, which he cannot with his safety well 
do, except hee be authorized & enabled by having the Govern- 
ment of that Country, whereunto though Mr. Secretary per- 
ceives the Lord Baltimore hath no ambition or affection yet for 
the advancement & performance of this service he doth verily 



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268 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

think that upon his Ma*'" Command the L"* Baltimore would 
accept of the Govern"' & two thousand pounds yearly for the 
support thereof, payable out of that improvement of Rent, and 
for that purpose would so accommodate his private occasions 
here as he mought be ready to transport himself thither with as 
much speede as his Ma"' & this Service require. And that if 
his Maj*** were pleased to speak with the L* Baltimore hee would 
upon signification of his pleasure make his present repayre from 
the Country to give him particular & perfect satisfaction of the 
meanes & manner to raise this increase of Revnue. 
Colonial IX, No. 45. 



Richard Kemp to Robert Reade. 

(Copy.) 
Sir: 

Yours of the 1 2th of August are arrived to mee, wherein, 
among other demonstrances of your favour you are pleased to 
impart unto mee My Lord Baltimore, his Honorable friendship 
to mee, in having beene divers times with M' Secretarye con- 
concerniug a Letter to be written from his Majestie to the new 
Governor and Counsell of Virginia, giving mee Lycense to re- 
paire for England, and requiring them to confirme mee in the 
place of Secretarye, and alsoe to settle uppon mee the office of 
certifieing the Invyces of Tobacco. In the first part whereof 
(as you write) M' Secretarye is willinge to doe mee favour, in 
the other he conceives it would be to my prejudice to move. 

I must ever acknowledge M' Secretarye his honorable favour 
towards mee, in that he hath pleased to descend soe farr as to med- 
iate the first part being for my good, and not to move the other 
being to my prejudice, and indeed I never preferred any desire 
to my Lord Baltimore concerning the last clause; however, 
the mistake hath happened, but rather have lycense to depart 
for England, with warrant to receave the fee for those Invoyces, 
I have already certified according to his Majesties Letter on that 
behalfe, dated at Rufford, the 4th of August, in the 12th yeare 
of his Raigne. To this purpose and noe otherwise I was the 
last yeare bould with you by my letter of the 4th of Aprill 
for your furtherance and assistance, the coppie of which letter 



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VIRGINIA IN 1636-8. 269 

from the king as alsoe of my letter of the 4th of Aprill, I have 
sent transcribed for better satisfaction. 

The full effect of which letter of mine (dismissing from my 
place excepted) I now againe crave your ayde, or if it cannot be 
procured with continueing of me in the place I would purchase 
my goeing home att the price thereof* 

My desire of keeping the place (if it may stand with the ef- 
fecting my goeing home) hath (among other too long heere to 
repeate) this reason I would in my absence depute your Brother in 
my place, with helps sufHcient for execution thereof ; I have al- 
ready stated uppon him the proffitt of the warrant and orders of 
Court, an employment will be none of the least of his benefitts, 
if you please att my suite to add your helpe to him in the supply 
of some competent Clothing and lynnen, and to send him over 
two men, I will undertake after arrivall your adventure shall 
turne to good account for him; for. Sir, the estate of those is 
miserable whose dependance is uppon Merchants, in those wayes 
of supply whose intoUerable exactions undoe men, or att least 
keepe them under from raysing a wealthy fortune. By such 
supply of yours to your Brother he iiilbe enabled to send 
for England and thereby make the best advantage of what his 
endeavour shall purchase him, our pay being here, for want of 
coyne, in Tobacco. Thus, Sir, resting. 

Your affectionate friend and Servant, 

Rich. Kemp. 

James Cittye, the 20th March, 1637. 

6". P. a, Colo,, Vol. ID, No. 60. 



William Claibourne's Case. 
(Abstract.) 

Whitehall, April 4, 1638. 

Order of the Lord's Cdmmiss" for Foreign Plantations. 

Upon petition of Capt. W" Claibourne on behalf of himself 

and partners, showing that by virtue of his Maj. Commission 

they divers years past discovered and planted upon an island in 



* Reference to this of the 4th of April shows that this letter of the 
20th of March is addressed to Robert Read, Secretary to Windebank. 



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270 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Chesapeak Bay, named by them the Isle of Kent; that Lord 
Baltimore obtained a patent comprehending said Island, and 
that they had likewise settled another Plantation upon the mouth 
of a river in the bottom of said Bay in the Susquehannas Coun- 
try, which Lord Baltimore's agents sought to dispossess them 
of, pretending great injuries and violence in their trade and kill- 
ing of said Claibourne's men and taking their boats, contrary to 
said Commission, & the express words of his Maj. letter, and 
praying a conformation under the great Seal of his Maj. , said 
Commission and letter for the quiet keeping & governing of 
said Island Plantations & people, and for a reference on said 
wrongs and injuries. 

For as much as said petition was referred to said Lords Com- 
missi by his Maj: at New Market on 26 Feb., 1637-8, and all par- 
ties attending, their Lordships this day, with their Counsel, and 
being fully heard, & said Commission & Letter read. It ap- 
peared clearly to their Lordship**, and was confessed by said 
Claibourne himself, then present, that said Isle of Kent is within 
the bounds and limits of Lord Baltimore's patent, and that said 
Capt. Claiborne's Commission was only a license under the sig- 
net of Scotland to trade with the Indians of America in such 
places where the said trade had not been formerly granted by 
his Maj: to any other. Which Commission their Lordships de- 
clared did not extend or give any warrant to said Claiborne or 
any other, nor had they any right or title thereby to said Island 
of Kent, or to plant or trade there or in any other parts with 
the Indians within Lord Baltimore's patent. And that said 
Commission was grounded upon misinformation by supposing 
that it warranted the plantation in the Isle of Kent which (as 
now appears) it did not. As also, upon consideration of a 
former Order of 3rd of July, 1633, (which see) wherein Lord 
Baltimore was left to the right of his patent and pet" to the 
course of law. Their Lordships halving declared as abovesaid 
the right and title of said Isle of Kent and other places in ques- 
tion to be absolutely belonging to Lord Baltimore, and that no 
Plantation or Trade with the Indians ought to be within the pre- 
cincts of his patent without license from him. Did, therefore, 
likewise think fit and declare that no grant from his Maj: should 
pass to said Claiborne or any others of the said Isle of Kent or 



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VIRGINIA IN 1636-8. 271 

Other parts within said Patent. Whereof his Maj:, Attorney and 
Solicitor General are hereby prayed to take notice. And con. 
cerning the violences and wrongs by said Claiborne and the rest 
complained of in said petition to his Majesty, their Lordships did 
now ako declare that they found no cause at all to relieve them, 
but do leave both sides therein to the ordinary course of justice, 
4 pp. (Two copies. ) 

Colonial Papers y Vol. 9, Nos. 94, 95. 



Richard Kemp to Secretary Windebanke. 
(Abstract.) 

Point Comfort, April 6, 1638. 
Richard Kemp, Secretary of Virginia, to Secretary Sir F. 
Windebank. Incloses the Acts and the whole proceedings 
passed in writing this last assembly. When he first declared 
the King's propositions to them he urged their duty together 
with the necessity of their yielding to them by instancing how 
far their poverty had grown upon them by the continuation of 
their excessive planting of tobacco and the benefit of a contract. 
What could be won upon them, their answer in its natural Col- 
ours will inform. Nor does he conceive a contract will ever be 
brought to effect, if it depends upon the yielding of an assembly; 
and if it pass otherwise without obliging all other English Plan- 
tations he may justly also fear the ruin and unpeopling of the 
Colony. The people of late, given to affect good buildings, 
scarce any inhabitant but hath his garden and orchard planted. 
Few there are but endeavour the raising of Stocks of cattle or 
hogs, or both, with much labour, considering the neighbourhood 
of the Savages, who are ever awake to mischiefs and injuries of 
spoil even in the straightest time of peace. If (say they) our 
tobacco, from whence we yet fetch our maintenance, must fall 
into a Contract, all shipping will desert us excepting some few 
belonging to the Contractors. Where is, then, the encourage- 
ment to the breeding of cattle or hogs when the means whereby 
to vent them is abridged us — And what is worse in consequence 
the Colony will in short time melt to nothing for want of supplies 
in people, for of hundreds which are yearly transported scarce 
any but are brought in as merchandise to make of sale of, nor 



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272 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

can the Planters generally better provide when this year they 
cannot promise to themselves ability to purchase a servant the 
next year, nor until their crops of tobacco be taken down. 
(^Colonial Papers, Vol. 9, No. 96.) 



The King's Proposition Concerning Tobacco. 
(Abstract — Inclosure in Preceding.) 

April 6, 1638. 

The King's Propositions to the Assembly of Virginia. Con- 
cerning a Contract for Tobacco: the excessive rates exacted by 
Merchants & Masters of Ships for their Clothes and provisions, 
and the quantity of farthings necessary for the Province, that 
notice thereof may be given to Henry Lord Matravus, who is 
one of his Maj : patentees, for the making and venting them in 
England, and who shall furnish the colony with the quantities 
required by way of truck or exchange for commodities vendible 
in England. 

{Colonial Papers y Vol. 9, No. 96.) 



Richard Kemp to Robert Reade. 
(Abstract.) 

James City, April 10, 1638. 

Richard Kemp, Secretary of Virginia, to Robert Reade, Sec- 
retary to Sir: F. Windebank. According to his Maj : Instruc- 
tion a levy has been raised of tobaccoes for repairing the fort at 
Point Comfort and building a State House at James City, part 
of which tobaccoes are sent for England by this bearer, George 
Menefie, to sell, and with the proceeds to send over workmen 
to accomplish the said public works. Has received order from 
the Governor & Council, together with the Burgesses of this 
last Assembly, to send a petition which they desire may be pre- 
sented to the King, with instruction to M' Menefie to attend 
Reade for answer. 

{Colonial Papers, Vol. 9, No. 97.) 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 273 

THE JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 



Found in the Virginia State Library in 1901. 
(continued) 



Yrneh to John Brown. 

[Envelope] MS.] John Brown, Charlestown, Va. 

A great favor will be conferred if he is allowed to read this 
[Endorsed] Deciphered. Significant. 

[Deciphered] Boston, Nov. 21st, 69. 

Dear Brown: 

Twenty of them left this morning and thirty-three start thurs- 
day — They will bring you with them or die. Yrs. Henry, 

P. S. I have written on this card: thinking you could conceal 
it, if this is found do not reveal my name. 

Notsob Von, 21st,' 59. 
Read Nworb 

Ytnewt fo meht tfel ereh siht gninrom dna ytriht eerht 
trats yadsruht, Yeht lliw gnirb uoy htiw meht ro eid, 

Sry, 

Yrneh. 
S. P. I evah netitrw no siht drac gnikniht uoy dluoc laecnoc 
ot, fi siht si dnuof od ton leaver ym eman. H. 



RoBT. Stubbs to Postmaster, Charlestown, Va. 

[Envelope] [MS.] To the Post Master, Charlestown, Vir- 
ginia. U. S. A. [Endorsed] Robt. Stubbs, New Brunswick. 
Cowardly bravado ! 

To the Post Master at Charlestown, Virginia: 

Sir, — ** All men are born free & equal " — such is the heading 
of your Charter of Independence — such is no^ your practice now- 
a-days. Witness the hanging of John Brown — for attempting 
to advocate the doctrine asserted in your delaration of indepeyt- 
dence. JVe, born in a free country under laws recognizing 



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274 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the equal rights of every man white or black defy you — May the 
just ruler of the universe punish you as you deserve. 

Robert Stubs, 
Accountant & Notary pubhc, 
St. John, New Brunswick, British 
North America, Dec'r 19th, 1859. 



, to John Brown. 

[Envelope] [MS.] John Brown, Esq., at the Charlestown 
Jail, Charlestown, Jefferson County, Virginia. 
[Endorsed] Contemptible nonsense. 

Phila., Nov. 26th, '59. 
John Brown: 

Dear Sir, — We will assist you on next Friday, As I will at the 
command of 5,000 men arm with Pike's rifles and have four 
pieces of cannon if the Governor resist in us taking you with us 
we will storm the Jail and take you by force; also tell captain 
Cook that he all right the men wont Get hang because Wise is 
afraid remember this is a Secret. 

Yours Truely, 
A friend of yours and enemy of Wise. 



[Endorsed] List of Insurgents as Furnished me by 
Brown & Stephens at Harper's Ferry. 

A. H. 
White men: 
John Brown, N. York. 
Aaron C. Stephens, Connecticut. 
Edwin Coppie, Iowa. 
Oliver Brown, N. York. 
W^atson Brown, Same. 
Albert Haslet, PennV 
W" Leman, Maine. 

John Cooke, got off Connecticut formerly — here lately. 
Stuart Taylor, Canada. 
Chas. P. Tidd, Maine. 
W" Thompson, N. York. 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 275 

Dolph Thompson, Same. 

John Kager, Brought up in Virg*, born in Ohio. 

Jerry Anderson, Indiana. 
Negroes: 

Dangerfield Newly, Virg* formerly — last couple years Ohio. 

O. P. Anderson, Penn'. 

Emperor, N. York, formerly S. Carolina. 

Leary, Oberlin, Ohio — formerly Virg'. 

Copeland, Same do. 
** Our organization had a constitution & ordinances.*' 



A. F. Fogs TO John Brown. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Ossawatomie John Brown, Charlestown 
Jail, Virginia. 

[Endorsed] A. F. Fogs, improper. 

Manchester, Mass., Oct. 31, 1859. 
My dear and much loved friend and Bro. John Brown: 

The following resolutions were drawn and presented by my- 
self to a quarterly meeting of the Essex Co. Anti Slavery Society 
holden yesterday in this town. The resolutions were unani- 
mously passed, and it was voted that they be signed by the 
chairman and secretary and forwarded to you. 

Dear Brown, whatever the political papers may say in ref- 
ference to you, I assure you there is every where a deep sym- 
pathy felt for you. 

You have begun a good work that will be sure to be followed 
up. Yorktown and Saratoga followed Lexington and Bunker 
Hill. Your brave and noble bearing commands the Admiration 
of all brave men and women. 

God bless you, my dear Brother. 

Yours for the freedom of the slave, 

A. F. Fogs. 
Resolutions. 

Resolved, that all those persons, who recognize the right of 
the oppressed white man to rise against his oppressor and to 
break his chains even over the heads of the tyrants, are bound 



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276 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

to recognize the same right in the colored slave of this land and 
to hail with gratitude and joy the recent demonstration of John 
Brown and his associates at Harper's Ferry, which for Heroic 
daring, as well as for moderation and humanity, has never been 
excelled and only in a few instances equalled in the history of 
the world. 

Resolved, that the Heroic bearing of John Brown as he lay 
wounded in that Engine House, and with a calmness and dignity 
truly sublime answered the questions of Governor Wise and his 
associates, who stood in mortal fear before him, challenges and 
will receive the admiration of the world. 

Resolved, that the Courage of John Brown, bleeding in his 
chains before the enslaved Courts of Virginia, and the cowardice 
of these Courts surrounded with Bayonets is illustrative of the 
influence of Freedom and Slavery upon human character. 



P. M. Clark to Gov. Wise. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Hon. Henry A. Wise, Richmond, Vir- 
ginia. 

[Endorsed] Gov. Wise rec'd letter about Tidd. Non action 
Forward this to A. Hunter, Esq', Charlestown, Va. 

Springfield, Me., Nov. 29, 1859. 
Hon. H. A. Wise: 

Dear Sir,— Chas. P. Tidd, reported killed at Harper's Ferry 
Insurrection, formerly resided in this vicinity, and some of his 
relations now live in the adjoining towns of Lee and Prentiss. 
His brother, Wm. P., called on me yesterday, and requested 
me to write to you and ask you, if it be true, as the papers re- 
port, that you have offered a reward of $500 for his arrest. Also, 
to pen a note to Cook, which I herewith enclose, requesting 
him to state whether Tidd was one of the party he is reported to 
have left in the Mountains. 

Will you please forward the enclosed note to Cook. Also, 

answer the question proposed to you, directing your reply to 

Wm. P. Tidd, Prentiss, Maine, and you will confer a great favor 

on Tidd's family, and very much oblige, 

Yours Respectfully, 

P. M. Clark, 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 277 

[Letter to Cook from P. M. Clark.] 

Springfield, Maine, Nov. 29, 1859. 
Mr. Cook: 

Dear Sir, — Wm. P. Tidd, brother of Chas. P. Tidd, called on 
me yesterday, and requested me to write to you, and ask you 
whether said Tidd was or was not killed at Harper's Ferry. 
Also, whether he was one of the party you are reported to have 
left in the Mountains. 

Please direct to Wm. P. Tidd, Prentiss, Maine. 
Very Respectfully, 

P. M. Clark. 



Esther to A. D. Stevens. 

[Envelope] [MS.] A. D. Stevens, Charleston Jail, Virginia. 
In the care of the Jailor. 
[Endorsed] Esther, Tipton, Ohio. 

Tipton, December 11, 1859. 

Dear Friend, — Moses and Charlotte were here yesterday, and 
brought several letters for me to read, one from thee to Ella, 
and also to them. I was glad to hear from thee directly, as 
nothing definite, in regard to thy health had come in the papers. 
I am glad to learn of thy recovery. I think thou must have 
suffered much. O, how I wanted to be with thee in thy cell; 
and extend a sister's hand in thy affliction. But this could not 
be — but, in spirit I was there, trying to comfort thee. 

But I hope there were kind hearts around thee. Many, very 
many there are in this Christian country who profess to be the 
followers of Jesus Christ that can hardly wait for the time to 
come when the rest of those rebels shall meet their death upon 
the gallows. Even here in the north the cry is with some 
**they have been treated to kindly," "they should have been 
strung up without judge or jury." But I say if they deserve to 
die, let them die, but they die in a glorious cause. A colored 
man lectured here a week ago, he said "they had murdered old 
John Brown, simply because he had carried out in practice, the 
sermon on the Mount." 

If this be true, who could wish to die a more glorious death ? 



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278 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

It seems hard to see the noblest of America's sons fall in this 
way; but if their lives will aid the cause of freedom, I have no 
doubt they willingly lay them down. I know I should. When 
we think of the amount of crime, and woe, and wickedness there 
is in our land, does not our heart tremble for the fate of our 
country? I can say with Fred Douglass, " that for shameless 
hypocrisy and shocking barbarity, America lives without a 
rival.'' 

There is a man lecturing in town now upon the fulfillment of 
proficies in the book of Revelations. In the Revelations, 13 
chapt. an II verse, it says, — I beheld another h^2i%\. coming up 
out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he 
spake as a dragon. He represented the United States Govern- 
ment as this beast, one of the horns was the Bible, the other the 
constitution and the declaration of independence, he said these 
were lamb like, but he spake as a dragon. And these were some 

of the words of his mouth (the mouth being W ^n): The 

Fugitive Slave law, Dred Scott decision, and all such like words. 
But this may not interest thee. I tho't I had herd Antislavery 
speeches before, but that black man went ahead of every thing. 

The time will soon be here when John & Edwin will be exe- 
cuted. If this reaches thee in time give my love and sympatha 
to them. I hope we will meet in a better land. 

There is not a day nor an hour passes but what I think of you, 
in your prison home, many, very many here, sympathize with 
you. 

Poor Ann Rarley is almost crazy, some think she will not live 
through it. But I hope she will live through, and see the dawn- 
ing of a brighter day. Though we all may have to suffer much 
ere the dawning of that day. But in the fulfillment of any noble 
cause, there must always be myrters, and the good, the great, 
and the noble are always first to go. Of course we do not be- 
lieve in the way you wished to bring the freedom of the slave 
about, but still we cannot help but sympathize with you, in your 
disappointment and distres. 

I must stop, as I might weary thy patience. Write to me at 
this place if thou feels like it. 

I am going to school here and enjoying myself first rate, only 
when I think of my friends in prison, and I long to see them 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 279 

once more ere they lay down their lives upon the scaffold. But 
this cannot be, but may we all meet on that blissful shore, wher 
no sorrow ever comes. One of my roommates ' * say I dont se 
how they can be so cheerful.** 

Good by, accepting love an sympathy, while I remain as ever 
thy friend, 

Esther . 



G. L. Kile to M. Johnson. 

[Endorsed] Marshal Johnson, Cleveland, Nov. , 1869. 

Names not to be published. 

North Bloomfield, Nov. 11, '59. 
M. Johnson, U. S. Marshal: 

Sir, — I have of late been visiting most of the towns in Ash- 
tabula Co. The excitement is the Harper's Ferry affair. I 
staid last night at Andover, and in conversation with a merchant 
of that place, Mr. Norton, who by the way is a prominent man, 
he told me that he saw John Brown, Jr., the day before, and 
that Brown told him that he had just returned from a trip across 
the water. I suppose this meant Canada, He asked him what 
he thought about his father's being hung; his reply was, that it 
would never be done, and that the end of the Harper's Ferry 
war had not come, and he knew of 9,000 desperate men, well 
armed and equiped ready for any emergency, and it was dread- 
ful to contemplate their action. By men of good standing it is 
thought that there is a secret organization in Ashtabula County 
that would try and capture any one that should be arrested for 
aiding and assisting in the John Brown raid. 

Brown has moved away from Andover. He now lives in 
Dorset, and I was told that some of the knowing ones have ad- 
vised him to leave for parts unknown — but he says that he will 
not, and will never be taken alive. He goes well armed and 
ready for the worst, I am told — I was told at Jefferson that the 
old War Horse was a good deal cast down and seemed to be in 
trouble. I think if all was known he has reason to be. 

You will please to keep this epistle private — as I have seen 
and heard considerable I thought I would just give you a few ot 
ihe outlines, hoping that all who trample upon the laws of the 



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280 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

land may be speedily brought to justice — Any thing that I can 
do to assist in bringing these desperadoes to justice I am at 
all times ready to do. 

Yrs.. G. L. KiLB. 



Copy. Rome, Ashtabula Co., Nov. 8. 

We are on the eve of a Revolution, if the people are gulled 
by such men as Giddings & Co. It becomes the duty of 
every Democrat to encourage the circulation of the Democratic 
papers among the people to warn them against insurrections 
that may take place in the U. States. Many of our sanctified 
priests knew of the Harper's Ferry insurrection a number of 
months before it took place and prayed for it. One of my 
neighbors, a Presbyterian minister, has informed me since the 
insurrection at Harper's Ferry that he knew it two months be- 
fore it took place and gave his word to keep it a secret, which 
he did — No doubt that in this vicinity many others knew it. I 
have been so informed. 

Yours in haste, 

S. Rogers, P. M. 

B. Harrington, Esq., P. M. 



M. Johnson to Andrew Hunter. 

[Printed] United States Marshal's Office, Northern District 
of Ohio. 

Cleveland, O , Nov. 15, 1859. 

Hon. Andrew Hunter: 

Dear Sir, — Your favor of the loth inst. is received — I am sat- 
isfied that some movement is on foot to rescue if possible Brown 
and his Confederates. I enclose you copies of letters which I 
have received from persons in this state which go far to substan- 
tiate the intimations in the one the Copy of which you enclosed 
me — Mark particularly the one from Mr. Kyle. 

I have put a watch upon the depot at Oberlin, and if any of 
the inhabitants of that place leave I will know it — My idea, how* 
ever, is that if any persons go to your region for the purp)Ose of 
a rescue, they will go by way of Cincinnati and go through- 
Pennsylvania. — Confidentially, I desire to call your attention to- 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 281 

the praises which old Brown heaps upon your Jailor. This 
thing has often been remarked upon in my hearing. Brown, to 
me, lavished his enconiums upon Mr. Avis in his presence, and 
numerous letter writers speak of this matter. Brown, in place 
of being crazy, is as shrewd as the d — 1, and knows well how to 
get on the right side of a generous man — 

Without intending wrong, the best of men may be imposed 
upon, and it is very important that those having charge of these 
men should be proof against flattery and as true as steel. Of 
course this is all my own suggestion, not doubting the trustful- 
ness of any Virginian — Copeland told me that he knew that an 
insurrection was to have taken place in Kentucky about the 
same time that the Harper's Ferry affair came off— Of this I 
have no doubt — The men that were to be in Kentucky of course 
are desperate men like those who were with Brown, and if there 
is to be any additional trouble in Virginia, those men will be on 
hand — If any movement, however small, occurs here that will be 
of moment to you, I will instantly communicate by telegraph. 

Amongst the papers which I examined in your office, was anT 
article written by Kagi for one of our Abolition papers in 
this city, commenting upon myself— In the hurry that day I 
failed to get a copy — It is written on the back of two of the 
Commissions in Blank — You will oblige me very much if you 
will enclose me the orifrjnal papers — Kagi, being dead, they are 
of no use to any one — Whilst Kagi was here he wrote several 
editorials for the papers here, as well as corresponded with 
Greely. I want the written proof in his own handwriting for my 
purposes here — All lovers of our Common Country in this state, 
hops that your authorities will not led into the fatal error of 
extending any mercy to the men now under conviction — in the 
way of commutation. 

In the case of parties in this state who were implicated with 
Brown I am unable to furnish as yet any additional evidence to 
what you possess. There is, I understand, a good deal of hard 
feeling at Oberlin against Plumb and those leading men who 
sent forward the ignorant negroes — After Copeland is executed 
we expect some developments from his relatives. We hope a 
Bill will be found against some of these parties, and a requisi- 
tion made upon Gov. Chase. I wish you would obtain from 



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282 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Copeland before his execution another statement confirming the 
one made to me — I desire this especially. 

Yours Very Truly, 

M. Johnson. 

John Gage to John Brown. 

Gage's Lake, Lake Co., 111., Nov. 14, '59. 
Friend John Brown : 

Though unknown to you, I have known & respected you for 
your Courage & humanity in defending the cause of freedom; 
& for your help to stay the hand of the ruffian & assassin in 
Kansas. I always respected your humanity as well as your 
courage, for I know of no case where you have taken life or 
caused pain unnecessarily, & it is therefore a satisfaction to me 
to send you my sympathy; and I thank the Abolitionists & Re- 
publicans in general, and you in particular, for the liberty we 
have still left us in most places in the northern states, of speak- 
ing our sentiments about slavery. 

No man who believes that ** all men are created free & equal,** 
dare go to the southern states & say so, for his life would be in 
danger, and consequently no man of an independent spirit who 
believes in universal freedom dare live south; the consequence 
is that a majority of our people are forever debarred from the 
southern states, or denied the freedom of speech. I want this 
freedom, and am entitled to it as a birthright from the United 
States — but while slavery lives I cannot have it. 

I am ashamed & vexed to say the United States are leagued 
to Slavery — & has lent them its power to conquer a gray-headed 
old man, whose crime was a living zeal for freedom, and she de- 
livers her prisoner to this power for a sacrifice upon the altar of 
slavery. But as sure as God is all powerfuU & just freedom will 
arise from the ashes. 

Sincerely Your Friend, 

John Gage, 
(to be continued) 



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AUTOGRAPHS OF SIR GEORGE YEARDLEY, 

GOVKRNOR OF ViRCilNIA. 

From Ltnters at Magdalone College, Cambridge. 



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THE FERRAR PAPERS. 283 

THE FERRAR PAPERS 
At Magdalene College, Cambridge. 



Communicated by Michael Lloyd Ferrar, Little Gidding, 
Ealing, Eng. 



(continued) 

Sir George Yeardley: John Pory: 1619. 

Of all the remarkable men who were prominently connected 
with the early government of Virginia in the reign of James I, 
none was more remarkable than Sir George Yeardley, who died, 
when Governor for the second time, in November, 1627. In 
his younger days, a Soldier by profession, he had, like his con- 
temporaries in the Virginia government. Sir Thomas Gates and 
Sir Thomas Dale, fought with distinction in the Low Countries. 
In 1609 ^^ accoiiipanied as Commandant of his body guard 
Lieut. Gen* Sir Thomas Gates in the Ship Sea Adventure, one 
of the fleet under Sir George Somers, with settlers and a maga- 
zine — i. e., supplies — for Virginia. Three of the ships were 
wrecked on the Bermudas in the Storm which gave Shakespear 
the basis of his "Tempest," and for ten months the ship- wrecked 
crews and passengers were detained on the island. In that in- 
terval Lady Gates died. In June, 16 10, the survivors having 
succeeded in constructing two sea-worthy crafts, embarked and 
safely arrived in Virginia. Captain Yeardley remained then for 
some years in the Colony, till, having returned to England, he 
was in 16 16 appointed successor to Sir Thomas Gates as Dep. 
Gov'. In 16 19 he was appointed Gov' in succession to Lord de 
la Warr, who had died on his voyage out from England. He 
was appointed for three years by the London Company then in 
the first year of its new Charter under Sir Edwin Sandis, Treas- 
urer, and John Ferrar, Deputy, and he was knighted by the 
King. In 162 1 he was superseded, at his own request, by Sir 
Francis Wyatt, but he remained in the Government as Member 
of the Council. In 1625, after King James had quashed the 
London 'Charter, Sir George was sent home in connection with 
a possible new charter. Before he arrived the King had died. 



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284 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

In the following year King Charles appointed him Governor^ 
and he returned to Virginia, where he died in Nov', 1627. 

His governorship saw the beginning of the Tobacco cultivation 
in Virginia, as well as the beginning of the form of Government, 
which has developed into the present Constitution of the United 
States of America. Arriving as Gov' on April 19th, 16 19, on 
July 30th he convened the first Legislative Assembly of the Col- 
ony. He had various estates bestowed on him on the James 
River, one, the Flower dieu Hundred, having been sold by him 
in 1626 to Abraham Piersey (a photo, copy of a letter from whom 
to Sir Edward Sandys will follow), and is now owned by the 
Willcox family. Another, Wyanoke, is in possession of the 
Douthat family. He was buried in Jamestown on Nov' I3th^ 
1627, and the site of his grave is unnkown. [It is believed that 
the recently discovered tomb in the church, which formerly bore 
a brass of a knight in armor, is Yeardley's.] 

I append verbatim et literatim copies of two holograph letters 
of his to Sir Edwin Sandys, with photographic reproductions of 
the concluding pages of each, as specimens of his handwriting 
and signature. The originals are on full foolscap-size, and were 
written before Sir George gave over the Governorship to Sir 
Francis Wyatt on Nov' i8th, 1621. Addressed to Sir Edwin 
Sandys, who had by that time retired from the London Treas- 
urership, succeeded by Earl of Southampton, John Ferrar being 
still Deputy and the intimate and confidential friend of Sir 
Edwin, who appears to have made over all such letters to him; 
not, of course, as Official letters, but as bearing — privately — on 
Virginia affairs. 

In the earlier of these two letters, May i6th, 1621, he speaks 
of his possible successor, not yet selected; and he mentions sev- 
eral persons — Capt" Nuce, Capt° Weldon, Capt" Thorpe — let- 
ters from whom are among the Ferrar Papers. The ** Most 
Hon**'*' Lorde" is, of course, the Earl of Southampton, the 
Treasurer. Sir George, a most liberal, amiable, and popular 
Governor, had his enemies, as all great men have; vide his re- 
mark as to *'undermyning Machevill villaynes" and ** false 
slanderous reports." That his office was no sinecure, and that 
he had good reason for writing to be relieved of it is clear. 
^'Although," he writes, **it hath pleased god to lay many 



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THE FERRAR PAPERS. 285 

•Crosses and afflictions of this business w"" I know you desire soe 
much to see prosper**; and again, ** That my most Hon**'* Lorde 
doth still to conceave well of me, doth yet in the midst of all 
these Crosses anew revive me," &c., &c. 

The second letter is of June 27, 1621: letter and envelope in 
one in the then usual way: red wax armorial seal: endorsed, 
like the first one, by John Ferrar on receiving it from Sir Edwin. 

In it he has ** heard with great Joy and singular contentment 
♦ * * * of the election of my worthy successor," and 
hopes **that this gentleman, together with your right worthy 
brother, may Safely arrive here." This brother was George 
Sandys, who was going out as local Treasurer, and who is nota- 
ble for his scholarly metrical translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses 
{pi which I possess a contemporary edition), partly written on 
the banks of the James River. There are also mentioned in 
this letter Captain Nuce and M' (Peter) Arondell, a letter from 
whom is among these papers; and Captain Smyth, no doubt the 
famous John Smith, of Pocahontas memory. 

With Yeardly there went out his wife's cousin — german John 
Pory — as Secretary to the local Government, the first Secretary 
appointed by the London Company, previous Secretaries having 
been appointed on the spot. Born in 1570, and a Master of 
Arts of Cambridge (Caius College), he early took an interest 
in the new Colony; so early, at least, as 1606, and he was also 
a Member of the English House of Commons, as both the Ferrar 
Deputies were at one time. He sailed, with Sir George, on 
The George, arriving in Virginia in April, 1619, and at once 
took up vigorously the development of what was then the New 
Dominion. I append a verbatim et literatim copy of one of 
his early letters from James City to Sir Edwin, the newly ap- 
pointed Head of the London Company, dated June 14, 1619. 
It covers one page of a sheet of Foolscap, and I attach a half- 
size photographic representation of it, the letter being Holo- 
graphic. It was sent to England by the George on her return 
journey. 

We see in it his anxiety to promote the silk industry, in which 
thirty and forty years later, at Little Gidding, long after he had 
separated himself officially from the Colony, Deputy John Ferrar, 
and his remarkable daughter, Virginia (born in 1625 and named 



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286 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

after the Colony), took such an active interest. It will be no- 
ticed that voyagers on board the ship were distinguished as 
•'Colony men and passengers/* and that there was a difficulty 
as to who should pay the "passages** of the latter. 

Of these two remarkable men much will be found in the inter- 
esting books of Mr. Alexander Brown, Mr. Tyler, and the late Mr. 
John Fiske, mentioned in a previous article. But such informa- 
tion would be based on public records, which do not always 
show the inner life of the man. That can only be discovered 
from his private and un-official correspondence. As a help to- 
wards this, I think these letters should prove useful; and for 
such of the Society*s members as can discover men*s characters 
from their Hand-writing, the photographic reproductions — half- 
size, but perfectly clear — should be not without interest. 

25 xi, 1902. M. Ll. Ferrar. 



First Letter. 
Noble Sir: 

by you' Last with the Margaret and John I have receaved ex- 
ceeding great content unto my mynde, perceiving thereby how 
that you are pleased still to continew my constant and faythfull 
ffreind, notwithstanding the very many opositions of my eny- 
mies, and that therein you have also bine pleased to suffer much 
for my sake, as I playnly see, ffor w^^ your Love as allso for all 
other your Noble Favors shewed me in all my occassions, I am 
not able in words to expesse my trew thankfullnes, but wil rather 
endeavor by god's grace and assistance, to p* forme yf possible I 
may, some service acceptable, and worthy the requitall of soe 
Noble a Freind as I both doe and shall ever esteeme your selfe 
to be, and withall I humbly beseech you not to suffer any either 
false, slanderous reports or undermyning Machevill villaynes, 
either fro hence by wryghting or at home by malitious reporting 
to your eares any thing w*"" may seeme distastfull, to beget in 
you any ill opinion of me who am and shall ever desire to be a 
faythfull servant unto your selfe. And allthough it hath pleased 
god to lay many Crosses and afflictions of this buisines w** I 
know you desire soe much to see p'sper, yet I doubt not but 
that in dew tyme we may with god's helpe recover whatsoever 



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THE FERPAR PAPERS. 287 

by that meanes we have lost, and soe I rest upon your p'mise 
in your Letter. The great content and beniffitt w** I have by 
the meanes of the Company of these two worthy gen*, Cap' 
Thorpe and Cap* Nuce, doth noe less envite me, then you have 
trusted, to give most harty thanks both to your selfe and to all 
those who were assistant to the sending of them, your Loving 
P'mise of taking care to p*vide me such a sucssesor as may be 
equall to these in the ranke of his place, I must acknowlege 
therein your singular Love to me, but for my part as formerly I 
have desired soe I wish still that one . of these (who either of 
them wil wel deserve it) may have the place, being men all ready 
espetialiy for the one wel seasoned to the Country. 

That my most Hon"" Lorde doth please still to conceave well 
of me, doth yet in the midst of all these Crosses anew revive me, 
and doth me thinks kindell and quicken anew my desire and 
corage to enterprise some what that may be acceptable, wherein 
I beseech almighty god to assist me, what in my letters I wrott 
that myght give less satisfaction then was expected sure I am, 
I was enforced soe to doe, and shall ever desire to wright and 
speak the truth, the w"** I know in the end, when you find it to be 
soe, you will aprove of, yett wil I strive by my actions to ad to 
that satisfaction. I must allso retorne most gratefull thanks unt(» 
my ffreinds who, acording to request, have resolved not to em 
portune me any longer to hould my place of Governor, to heare 
of the Choyse of my sucssessor wil be most welcome newes unto 
me, that order of the Company for an acount of the pececding 
of the Goverment and plantation I shall be obedient unto, and 
have yet hope before my full tyme be expired to heare of some 
thing worth the setting doune, and for this your seasonable 
warning doe rest thankfull to you; I have saluted the gen* in 
your letter named, except Cap* Blewet, and M' Weldon, Francis 
Newman before the receipt of your Letter, as you sha'l under- 
stand by the answer of the petition, I receaved fro you concern- 
ing him, dyed at Henriko, Cap* Nuce having letters fro his 
ffreinds concerning the buisines; I have caused both the servants 
and theire p* visions to be delivered into his possession, who 
promiseth both to be carefull of them and to give account to his 
ffreinds of the sucses thereof, For other matters it will be need- 
less for me to writt unto you, by these seeing you shall under- 



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288 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Stand of all things at full by the genera" dispatch, w*** I hope wil 
give you some satisfaction of most things, for this tyme; there- 
fore I shall cease to troble you any further, humbling, beseech- 
ing Allmyghty god to give you Long Lyfe and hapines, with 
health to the good of this Noble plantation, and soe with myne 
and my wyfe's best service both to yourselfe and your good 
Lady, I humbly take my leave of you, and wil ever rest, 
ready to be comanded by you, 

George Yeardley. 

James Cyty, this 16*'* May, 1621. 

From S' George Yeardley, the 16 of May, 1621, by M. B. N. 

Second Letter. 
Noble Sir: 

though your most weyghty and important affayres, would not 
p'mitt you to wryght otherwise then in breife by this Shyp, the 
Abigail, yett to my great Joy and singular contentment, I have 
heard both fro the Company and by some others of my very good 
ffreinds of the election of my worthy Sucsesor, wherein I doe 
both proave your loving care of me, and how much I am bound 
to your selfe, to whome as for all other your most Noble Favors, 
soe for this Last I doe and shall ever acknowlege my selfe bound, 
and made yours to do you service even to the spending of my 
Lyfe, your freindly advertisement and therein your P'rmise you 
have most faythfully kept, I beseech the Allmighty to give me 
the grace, that I may in all things doe the same to you, and 
that this gentelman, together with your ryght worthy brother 
may safely arive here; in dew tyme I shall dayly pray to god, 
and shall be always ready to serve them with the best of my 
service, and shall never thinke that I have suffitiently requited 
your great Love at all tymes shewed me; but what doe I using 
words, being therein not skilfull, but rather refer my whole tyme 
to endevor by my actions to testify the affections of my harte, 
and after p'senting of my humble thankes to goe on to doe your 
request concerning M^ Roe and Madame Roe, his wife, shall be 
a comand to make me for your sake to doe even what possible 
I can or may in affording them my best helpe and ffurlherance, 
whereof I doubt not but you shall shortly to your content un- 



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THE FERBAR PAPERS. 289 

derstand, M' Arondell I have commended to Cap^ Nuce, and 
have desired him that he will at all tymes certify me what pleas- 
ure or iavor I may doe him for your sake. M' Lapworth, I 
trust, will deserve your comendations, how he is disposed of you 
shall understand by the letter to the Generall company, as allso 
how Cap* Smyth is seated, both whom I will doe my best to 
further in what I may; I shall not neede to certifye you of any 
p'ticulars at this tyme, since I have written at Large both to the 
generall company and to the Society of Southampton hundreth, 
as well as now by the Margaret and John as formerly by other 
Shyps, w** I hope are come to theire hands, and doe now like- 
wise agayne send copies thereof; I must therefore beseech you 
that I may refer you to those, wherein, although you doe not 
receave such satisfaction as I know you have expected and my 
own harte hath desired, yet I humbly entreat you to consider 
ffavorably and Charitably of all matters, wherein you shall doe 
me ryght, and as I know you wil, p'ceave the hand of man hath 
not in many things bine able to p*vail, but nevertheless I doubt 
nothing but that god will be mercifuU to the remnant, and give 
such blessing to the p*ceed of our labors that we shall in the end 
reape yet a Joy full harvest, w*"* I beseech him for his gloryes 
sake to grant; God comending both you and yours with all your 
vertuous p'ceedingsto him who is best able to p'serve you, with 
the Integrity and Zeale of your harte, w*"* you exercise to his 
glory in this Action, 

I rest, ready to be at all tymes commanded by you, 

George Yeardlev. 
James City, this 27th of June, 162 1. 

To my hon*^ friend, Sir Edwin Sandys, knight, one of his 
Ma*** Counsil for Virginia, at London. 



John Porv to Sir Edwin Sandys. 

Hon*** Knight: 

Untill the last moment for sending away, I had forgotten to 
write you a list of their names, both Colony men & passengers, 
that came in the Bona nova, whereby it appeareth there want 
three Colony men of the number of an hundred. Nor doth it 



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290 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

appear whether the passages of all the rest that in the same note 
go under the name of Passengers be payed for, or freely given 
by the Company. Captain Welden saith, the Company gave 
him passage for twoe, Thomas Smyth and Edward Kerby, gen- 
tlemen, w"* the Govern' will not accept of, as a warrant sufficient 
to save him harmeless w^'^out certificat from the Company, w'* 
two, together w^'' Adams, that goes under the name of M' Whit- 
aker's man, the Govern' will not lett passe for England; nor yet 
M' Hansbie's man, in pledge of George Eden, that by your 
order is to go for Smyth's hundred, till such time as he receive 
other order from the Company, or untill there come three others 
in their roome. Of Vignerons*, of those that have skill in breed- 
ing silkworms, and such (to be found in the lowe countries, es- 
pecially about Cambray & Landreckis), as know how to handle 
and dresse flaxe for the managing of our silke grasse. 

If the company will not have most of their ships continually 
to returne home empty, there would be good numbers sought 
out and sent. Because the boat stayes, I must abruptly take 
my leave. Dieu vous guarde de mal Monsieur. 

Votre tres humble & tres affection^ — Serviteur, 

Jo: PoRV. 

James City, Jan. 14, 1619. 

[Endorsed in John Ferraris handwriting]: M' John Pory, from 
Virginia, to . By the George, 14 Jan., 1619. 

^Questions of C. Weldons, M' Whitakers, and M' Hansbie's 
men — vide. 

fOf Vignerons Silkworm-men and dressers of flax — vide. 

To S' Edwin Sandys. 



* Vignerons — /. e*., vine-dressers. 



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VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 291 

VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 



In 1879, Mr. Henry Fitzgilbert Waters, in company with Mr. 
J. A. Emmerton, issued the results of a tour in England, * 'glean- 
ing" notes concerning early New England families. This at- 
tracted so much interest that in 1883, under the auspices of the 
New England Historic-Genealogical Society, a committee was 
formed to support Mr. Waters in a general search in England 
for early New England families. This arrangement with Mr. 
Waters nominally lasted until January, 1899, although for a long 
interval the research was at the sole charge of Mr. James Junius 
Goodwin, who at all times was the leading contributor to the 
fund. To Mr. Goodwin all interested in early American gene- 
alogy owe a debt only second to that due to Mr. Waters. The 
New England Society soon began to reap great credit from the 
remarkable work of Mr. Waters in England, as published in 
their Register, the most striking cases being the settlement of 
the Washington and Harvard pedigrees. Finally, in 1901, two 
years after the conclusion of the work of Mr. Waters in Eng- 
land, the New England Society issued all of the printed "Glean- 
ings" in two bulky volumes. Although credit for the support of 
Mr. Waters* work in England is due to certain leading members 
of the New England Society, especially to the tireless energy of 
Mr. J. T. Hassam, ably sustained by Mr. W. S. Appleton, the 
late John Ward Denand and W. H. Whitmore, the New Eng- 
land Society, as a body, never did anything in the matter, and 
charged the voluntary committee for the expense of printing the 
**Gleanings" of Mr. Waters, now universally acknowledged as 
the most important matter which has appeared in the New Eng- 
land Historical and Genealogical Register since its foundation, 
1847. Early in the period of Mr. Waters' work there arose 
complaints in Boston concerning the space given by him to 
Virginia matters, there being naturally in the early English 
records a richer harvest of such references than to New England. 
Consequently, Mr. Waters was obliged to put aside great num- 
bers of these Virginia references with his mass of unpublished 
notes, exceeding in bulk his published ones some four or ^\^ 



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292 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

fold. These notes, at his departure from London, Mr. Waters 
turned over to me to collate, continue, cross-reference, and util- 
ize in every way for the public benefit. As I began my re- 
searches among English records as a youth in 1874, like him I 
have naturally accumulated a mass of English notes, including 
many Virginia matters. Interested from boyhood in the many 
ramifications of my own ancestry, and in all of the four or 
five hundred pioneer families of Old Newbury, in Massachu- 
setts, I soon found myself extending in all directions, and often 
to Virginia, It is now a great pleasure both to Mr. Waters 
and myself to be able to utilize jointly these Virginia references 
in our notes, which I shall cull out from time to time for the 
Virginia Historical Society. 

LOTHROP WiTHINGTON, 

JO Little Russell Street, IV, C, , Londoti, 



James Ashton, of Stafford county, Virginia, gentleman. 
Will dated 18 August, 1686; proved 8 September, 1686, in 
County Court; proved 14 July, 1687, in Prerogative Court of 
Canterbury. Cosen John Ashton, Haberdasher in Rustall 
Street, Covent Garden, London, that seat or tract of land, un- 
disposed, which formerly belonged to my brother, John Ashton. 
Cosen John Foster, of Wozbridge, Cambridgeshire, gentleman, 
that Plantation called Chatterton on the River side, and that 
tract of land belonging to my 550 acres. Godchildren Sarah 
Mattershed, Rich: Elkin, Eliz: Sabastian and John Rosier's 
daughter, each a heifer with a calf by her side. Rose Fitzhugh, 
daughter of Col. William Fitzhugh, two heifers and two calves. 
William King and his wife two heifers and two calves. William 
Kmg to be employed on the plantation where I live. John 
Harvey two heifers and two calves. Samuel Haywood, ditto. 
Ric : Elkin 100 acres of land adjoining upon John Grigsby of the 
^ Divdt. William Fitzhugh, Samuel Hayward, and John Har- 
vey, executors in trust. Freight taken for me by Mr. Thomas 
Storke of London, merchant. Sarah Fermer, now servant, a 
heifer when free. John Ashton and John Foster, executors. 
To Dr. William Bankes 20s. to buy him a ring. Others. 

Foot, 90. 



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VIRGINIA GLEANINGS IN ENGLAND. 293 

[James Ashton was J. P. for Stafford county, Va., in 1680, and in 
1690 — as appears from the Northern Neck Land Grant Books — owned a 
tract of land which he had inherited as the heir of his brother, John Ash- 
ton, to whom it was bequeathed by Col. Peter Ashton, who nad patented 
it in 1658. 

Col. Peter Ashton was a member of the House of Burgesses for 
Charles City county in 1656, and for Northumberland 1659 and 1660; 
sheriff of the last-named county, 1658, and member of the "Committee 
of the Association of Northumberland, Westmoreland and Stafford ** 
in November, 1667, then having the title "Colonel.** He was very 
probably of the family of Ashton, of Spalding, Lincolnshire, descended 
from the Ashtons of Chaderton or Chatterton, Lancashire. (Hence the 
name of his estate "Chatterton,** King George county, Va., now the 
home of a branch of the Tayloe family.) 

Col. Peter Ashton died in or before 1671, leaving a will dated 1669, 
by which he gave his brother, James Ashton, of Kirby-Underwood, 
County Lincoln, Eng., his estate of Chatterton on the Potomac, and to 
his brother, John Ashton, of Lowth, Lincolnshire, 2,000 acres ad- 
joining Chatterton. 

The will of John Ashton, of Stafford county, was dated September 6, 
1682, and proved in old Rappahannock county January 26, 1682. Gave 
wife Elizabeth his whole estate " if she will come over and live heare'*; 
if not ;f 20 sterling per annum or ;f 150 down, as she might choose. To 
Thos. Bunbery and wife £$. To Capt. John Ashton, 20 shillings. Ap- 
pointed his brother, James Ashton, sole executor, and bequeathed to 
him his whole estate (subject to the provisions made), and if he die 
without heirs, then to his cousin, John Ashton, of Russell Street, "at 
the Adam and Eve," London. 

The Capt. Jno. Ashton. named in Jas. Ashton's will, was son of Charles 
Ashton, who was J. P. of Northumberland at the time Col. Peter AsHi- 
ton was sheriff, and was ancestor of the Virginia family of the name. 

There is on record in Stafford county a deed dated January 12, 1705, 
from John Foster, of Wishback a/s. Woodbridge, in the Isle of Ely, 
county of Cambridge, Eng., to Elisha James, of the City of Bristol, 
mariner, conveying for a consideration of /*i35 sterling, a plantation of 
550 acres in Stafford county, commonly called Chatterton, which was 
devised by Peter Ashton to James Ashton, of Virginia, and by him de- 
vised to the said John Foster ; and also a statement that Mr. John Ash- 
ton, a co-legatee of Chatterton, had renounced his claim. — Editor.] 

Nathaniel Axtell, now or late of St. Peter's, near borough 
of St. Albans, Herts (to travel in New England). Will dated 
17 August, 1639; proved 12 June, 1640. Thomas Buckingham, 
of Queen Epioth, in New England, [i. e., Virginia], husband- 
man. Richard Miles, of Queen Epioth. Mr. Peter Pridden, 



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294 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

minister of God in New England. My two brothers, Thomas 
and Daniel Axtell. My three sisters, Jeane, Anne and Sarah. 

Coventry, 82. 

John Adkins, the elder, of Chard, Somerset, merchant. 
Will dated 16 July, 1636, mentions grandchild born in Virginia. 

Pile, no. 

Samuel Partridge, late at Rapah Hannocks, in Virginia. 
Admon 31 July, 1676, to Sarah Partridge alias Wilson, natural 
and lawfull sistered De bonis grant January, 1689-90. 

1650 John Boys, bound for Verginia. 

59 Pembroke. 

Robert Perry, 1652. Nephew Robert Perry, son of sister 
Elizabeth Perry, living in Virginia. 

243 Bowyer. 

[See Wafers' Gleanings page 921, wilh Mr. Brown's note. The 
above was given Mr. Waters by Mr. Gerald Fothergill.] 

Zachary Custis, late of Kingston Hull, died at Accomack, 
in Virginia. Admon to father Joseph Custis. 

Admon Act Book, 1685, folio 93. 
[See Waters'" Gleanings^ page 700.] 

John Brooks, of Stepney, died in Virginia. Admon 5 July, 
1684, ^o widow Mary. 

Admon Act Book, 1684, folio no. 

William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire. Will dated 
17 June, 1628; proved 1628. Shares in Virginia and Somer 
Islands to wife until son William come to full age of 21 and 

then to him. 

Barrington, 68. 

Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery. Will dated 6 Novem- 
ber, 1728; proved 3 May, 1732; mentions William Bird, of Vir- 
ginia. 

Isham, 236. 

[Wm. Byrd's epitaph refers to his friendship with *' the learned and 
and illustrious Chas. Boyle. Earl of Orrery."— Ed.] 

John Britten, of Hadleigh, clothier. Will dated 17 July, 
1636; proved i Feb., 1636. Wife Elizabeth. Daughter Mar- 



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VIRGINIA MILITIA IN THE REVOLUTION. 296 

garet, wife of George Goodday. Youngest, William Britten, 
all my stock and adventure with the company of merchants 
trading for Virginia and Bermudas. Son Lawrence Britten, 
Daughter Mary Maxie (her children); Daughter Sarah (her 
children); Youngest daughter, Sarah Goodday; Thomas Wel- 
ham, my sister's son; said sister Driver; eldest son, Thomas 
Britten, deceased; his wife Sibill, now wife of John Alablaster; 
eldest son, his son John Britten, Houses, &c., in Debbenham, 
Suffolk. 

14 Goare. 

VIRGINIA MILITIA IN THE REVOLUTION. 



(continued) 

1777. Jan*y 27. Lawrence, John, Major of Isle of Wight 
Milit', for pay & forage to 12th Inst, J[^2(), 5. o. 

Feb'y 3. Lewis, Capt. Nicholas, for pay, forage & Rations 
to Sep' 2** & for use of Guns, 248. 9. 2. 

7. Lawson, Anth^, for Corn & Hay, 8. 5. 

14. Lynch, Col. Charles, for sundry Persons, ^ Acco*, 1089. 
7.8. 

Mar. I. Lock, Alexander, for a Drum furnished Botetourt 
Militia, 2. 10, — . 

Lewis, Cap* Nicholas, for a Rifle for the 2nd Battal" of Min' 
men, 5. — . — . 

Lewis, Col. Charles, for Do., Cap* Nick' Comp', & Do., 

5- — . — 

Lewis, Cap' Nicholas, for pay. Rations & forage of his Min' 
Comp*y to Dec' 5, 250. 3. 51^. 

Mar. 3. Lyie, Samuel, for 20)< lb' Powder, a 18 | f^ lb., 
18. 13. 6. 

6. Love, Philip, for pay, Rations & forage as Brigade Major, 
bal*", 87. II. 10^4. 

7. Lacey. Cap* John, for pay & Rations of his Comp', New 
Kent Militia, to 8*'* March, 117. 10. 3^^. 

12. Lawrence, Mills, for Do., Do., Do., Isle of Wight Do., 
19th Fely, 207. 10. — . 

15. Lee, Cap* Charles, for Do., Do., Do., Northumb* Do., 
i2*Mo., 35. 8. — . 



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296 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

22. Livingston, M", for 45 negro hire on the Barracks at 
Portsmouth, 3. 7. 6. 

Luke, Isaac, for 48 Bush' Lime furnished at Tucker's Mills, 
a 9', I. 16. — . 

April 8. Latimer, George, for 12 Cord of Wood furnished 
the Militia, Hampton, 6. — . — . 

Lewis, Col. Charles, for bal"* of pay, rations & forage, to 
Dec' 4 last, 140. 6. 4>4. 

April 16. Lane, Cap* Joseph, for a Drum & fife furnished his 
Comp^ Westm** Militia, 3. 14. 6. 

Lawrence. Peter, for a Rifle Gun deliv* Lieu' William With- 
ers, 4. — . — . 

Little, Thomas, for Pack horses, &c., in the Carriage of 
Lead, 2. — . — . 

21. Lithgow, Alex' John, for sundries furnished Prince W" 
Militia as ^ acco', 2. 7. 4. 

24. Lucas, Cap' William, for pay, forage & rations of his 
Comp^ Militia to 18 Oct. last, 68. 18. 8, 

June 9. Lite, John, for a pot & blanket furnished Cap' Peter 
Rogers' Min'' Comp^, — . 12. — . 

10. Lynch, Charles, for sundry Persons for Guns, &c., for 
the defence of Frontiers, ^ ace', 249. 15. i. 

Lockhart, Patrick, for sundry Persons for Provisions, &c., 
for Cherokee Exped", 257. 5. iij^. 

June 12. Lyne, Lieu' Henry, for pay, forage. Rations & pro- 
vis"* for his Comp^ Cher. Exp., 189. 12. 10^. 

Do. for pay of self & 5 others omitted in August last, 6. 12. — . 

13, Lumsdale, Jeremiah, for a Rifle furnished Cap' Perkins's 
Comp^ Chero. Exped", 6. — . — . 

16. Lively, Joseph, for 31^ days Waggonage of flour from 
Bedford to Fort Chiswell & ret', 23. 12. 6. 

26. Langley, Lemuel, for Work done at Fort Stephen. 
(See Hardress Waller), 4. 12. 6. 

Sept' 10. Langley, William, for Wood furnished the Militia 
at Hampton, 5. — . — . 

15. Lyne, Cap' John, for provisions furnished, the King & 
Queen Militia, ^ ace', 4. 6. 4j^. 

18. Do., for pay of his Company of King & Queen Militia 
to 21 Ins', 137. 13. 4. 



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VIRGINIA MILITIA IN THE REVOLUTION. 297 

Sept' 30. Lewis, Nicholas, for pay, rations, &c., as Major ol 
Militia. ^ Ace', 24. 3. — . 

Oct' 3. Lyth, John, for pay, Ditto., Chaplain, Ditto., Cher- 
okee Exped", 34. 3. 10. 

7. Lewelling, Christopher, for pay of his Guard of Gloster 
Militia, ^ Ace*, 6. 16. — . 

8. Lamb, John, for moving tents, making Coffins, &c., ^ 
Ace' & Cer*, 34. 19. — . 

22. Ligon, Cap* Joseph, for a Gun furnished Cap* Rogers's 
Min* Comp^ (Cherokee Eped°), i. 10. — . 

Nov' 4. Logwood, Thomas, for Provisions furnished the 
Bedford Militia, ^ Acco', 23. 16. 4. 

5. Lee, Cap* Charles, for pay, &c., of his Comp^ North- 
umberl* Ditto., 29. 12. — . 

Lyne, William, for Waggon hire from King & Queen to 
W-burg, 2. 5. — . 

Nov' 10. Lively, William, for Provisions furnished the War- 
wick Militia, ^ Acco*, 15. 9. — . 

21. Lynch, Charles, for sundry Persons, ^ Acco* & Certifi- 
cate. 193. 6. 3. 

Lockhart, Patrick, for Ditto, Ditto., 72. 19. — . 

26. Lewis, Cap* Aaron, for pay of ranging Comp^ of Wash- 
ington Militia, ^ Acco*, 3. 5. 4. 

Dec' 19. Laughlin, Richard, for Curing his Horse in Cap* 
Johnson's troop, ^ Acco\ i. — . — , 

1778. Jan^ I. Langley, William, for Wood furnished the 
Garrison at Hampton, ^ Cer*, i. 15. — . 

24. Logan, Cap* Benjamin, for pay, &c., of his Comp^ Ken- 
tucky Miitia, ^ Acco*, 421. 16. 4. 

Feb^ 24. Light, Pet«r, for bal*^ of pay for 30 Muskets fur- 
nished, ^ Acco*, 35. — . — . 

April 15. Lacy, Lieut. W", for pay, &c., New Kent Militia, 

37. 15. 8. 

May 25. Laundrum, Tho', for pork for Cap* Roger Thomp- 
son's O, — . II. — . 

June I. Lovell, John. Pay and Rations of his Comp' of 
King George Militia, 19, 7, 4. 

(to be continued.) 



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298 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

LETTERS OF WILLIAM PROCTOR. 



Librarian at Westover. 



(I.) 



[William Proctor, a Scotchman, was tutor and librarian at Westover, 
in the time of Colonel William Byrd 2d. He was a Presbyterian when 
he arrived in Virginia, but became later a minister of the established 
church and had a parish in Amelia county. The letters here printed, 
and some others, were recorded in that county, probably having been 
sent by his relations in Scotland, when claiming his estate after his 
death.] 

At Westover, Upon James River, Virginia, 
Oct. 25th, 1740. 
Dear Brother : 

Yours, dated some time last Winter, I Received in July, with a 
great deal of Pleasure, w'ch your affection bids me expect yearly. Jam 
not a little glad that my Father is so well & that he has now a grandson 
of his own surname to Keep up the Family ; But to counterbalance this, 
as it commonly goes with Human Affairs, I can't help sympathizing at 
the same time with mine affectionate & dear Syster Helena, whom you 
represent as frequently ailing of her wonted Distemper. In sorrow she 
conceives. Poor woman, like her Mother Eve, May There be better 
things next season. What a pity it is that such a Man as John Geddes, 
of superb capacity & good sense, shou'd be digging in Anhuit whilst 
his Humble servant, not daring to compare with him & proud of his 
conversation Enjoys, for the time the conveniences of Life at Ease, 
Tho' for this very reason I could wish very soon to settle in a new way 
for Life; yet I am afraid it may be two or three years hence— let me, 
therefore, presume mean time ever to advise for your Children at least, 
that how soon they are able you would put them out early to learn 
Trades, & it may, perhaps, be in my power to direct them how where 
to * * ♦ good bread; let them. If you can, read, cast up accounts, 
but beware of more least it spoil good Tradesmen. All things consid- 
ered, D'r Sir, I'm well aware how unpromising & unweilding a thing it 
would be for you to fall in with what I proposed with respect to Virginia 
in my last, but were you to prevail with a good number to enter with 
the same design there cou'd no man be fitter to direct & superintend a 
little Colony, & the whole adventure wou'd be the easier & cheaper. 
Here a Man improves his own Land & transmitts it to his Children ; 
& a poor Man, if diligent, may in a short time (less than seven years) 
become able to purchase & set up upon, perhaps a mile square of 
Ground. When I leave this Family, unwilling to part with me, as I'm 



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LETTERS OF WILLIAM PROCTOR. 299 

indeed with them, I may perhaps go directly for London, but am not 
yet determined whether in the same trip shall [go to] Scotland or not, 
unless I cou*d find Hopes of being accompanyed back again by some 
of my honest and Industrious Countrymen lo share with me in a project 
of Husbandry, which I cou^d carry on the more to their & mine own ad- 
vantage, should I have the Happiness of attaining to another Business 
near them. As to the Stain you write of, I'm sorry he's lost & he shou'd 
by a Right be lost to me, & then to John Geddes in Kinermony from 
ivhom » ♦ ♦ one Else. 
Through the Stain, as it is well ' * to most of his Neighbours * 
• particularly * * Stewart Kirk, officer, <fe John Garrow, his 
Brother in Law, tho' I don't believe John Geddes will ever deny it, he 
is too honest for that. By one Mr. Trick,, son to Robert Morriss' former 
wife, I learned a great deal of your News for last year. I heard of Mr. 
Cruickshank, as well as of his faith ful Scholars, Messrs. Thomson & 
Margock, who shou'd Learne Bookkeeping & come to Virginia, &c., &c. 
I wou'd fain know whether my Letter to Mr. Lesly at Torbea, & Craig- 
ouch at Newton-Dunbar, arrived. I intriist you with my best Respects 
to all acquaintances who may ask for me. Offer my Duty to all Rela- 
tions, beg your yearly & timely advice, particularly concerning a change 
of Life, w'ch I must think of shortly, & am with the greatest Respect & 
Sincerity, 

D'r S'r, your affectionate Brother, 

Wm. Proctor. 
P. S. I salute Mr. David Garrow & Mr. Alex. Morr, my dear com- 
rades, & beg they'd write me next shipping for Glasgow. To .Mr. John 
Ceddes, in Rothes, near Elgin of Murray. By way of Glasgow, Capt. 
Oray, Q. D. C. 

(II.) 

Westover Upon James River, in Virginia, 

^ ^ ^ July. 1739. 

Dear Brother : 

Of four letters already wrote you, I understand by your only one 
to me of January, 1738, that the two first arrived, uncertain about the 
date of the other two, & leargen [ ? ] till your ♦ * ♦ Returns come 
up which failing ♦ by the Glasgow Ship to set sail from thence next 
September. After this, therefore, you may only promise your self that 
ril answer all the Epistles you shall^vouchsafe me till I can find a good 
-way of bearing myself the expence of postage twixt Glasgow & Elgin 
I'd fain do, cou'd I find whom to trust for that Purpose. The Satisfac- 
tion of hearing yearly from Relations & Friends I wou'd purchase by 
my labour at any expence ; and pray God they be now no worse than 
yours mentioned representeth them. I am highly obliged to whomso- 
ever contributes the Least to my Dear Father's comfort & instruction, 
to whosoever rightly advises my Brother & Sister in Law, especially in 



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300 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

regard to their & my common Parent, to whomsoever cares for my 
loving Sister & her Offspring, did I not reckon these last are in good 
Hands, & finally to whatsoever Friend, comrade or acquaintance has ever 
done me good or remembers poor Will, who endeavors not to be behind 
the best of 'em, at least in Gratitude and Remembrance, &c. Upon 
the Supposition that even those who disliked my adventure & absence, 
may perhaps suffer to hear, at least, whether I have not repented ; 'Tis 
with the greatest Deference I presume to affirm that had I known be- 
forehand my present condition I wou*d have taken the Trip, at the same 
time I love my Friends & Country like a true Scotchman, & had rather 
serve them, did they need or desire it, rather than India or Italy itself, 
or even Virginia. 

I serve a very Honourable & Virtuous Master, But whether to my 
Philosophy or to have me take that as a favour which I reckoned more 
than equal, or for what ever Reason, matters run as if I shou'd have 
paid my Passage at least, till after a Fruitless conference with his Hon- 
our on that subject I wrote out and presented him with an Humble & 
forcible address, wherein upon a Reading his Honor own 'd I had proven 
beyond answer the Equity, at least, of his paying the money ; the chief 
arguments were : i mo. That I had been sent for and came not to beg 
employment ; 2 o. That Mr. Henry having promised Mr. Buchanan ta 
pay this passage (Mr. Buchanan resting contented herewith, notwith- 
standing I refused him to be any ways obliged for the passage), Mr. 
Henry alone, whether he acted by Commission or not, must have paid 
accordingly without any possible Recourse upon me, who was never ii> 
his council nor ever desired any Favour of him. 3 mo. Mr. Buchanan 
having recovered this Passage to Mr. Henry's Account, the money w ch 
Col. Byrd paid the Captain of the Ship immediately upon my arrival^ 
& which he sent him by me, was returned unto my Hands, so that I was 
at no loss, tho* his Honor made it a part of My Salary; hence I cou*d 
not be brought into Mr. Henry's obligation, who was still supposed to- 
have acted for Col. Byrd. not for me, &c. His Honour was pleased ta 
tell me I deserved the 5 lbs. had it been but for my Spirit & Reasoning, 
but I thought within myself 'tis good to be sure, even with the best & 
to venture upon nothing but a Certainty. I have, however, this to say, 
that for the time I live as happily, if it is not my own fault, as my worthy 
Master; he is very communicative in Conversation & lets me enjoy that 
of Wrangles [ ? ] as much as may well be. I am library keeper & have 
all genteel conveniences ; moreover, to save me a risk, he gives me 
yearly a draught upon his London Factor, & orders my cloathes with his 
own goods at the English Price ; which is cheaper than in Scotland. 
This renders my 20 lbs. English money as good as at Home, and I have 
some small addition of one guinea or two p. annum for my Pupill's 
Companion, besides the kindness of the Family in having my Linen 
made or mended, &c. And then for my future advantage I can only 



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GENEALOGY. 801 

sec that Col: Byrd will certainly procure me a Parish worth loo/* ster'l a 
year, If I can like it, or help me to Commence a Husbandman upon 
Land of my own, w*ch last, if Rightly understood and managed, is the 
best employment in the Collony. My good Master, indeed, frequently 
is pleasant with me, & says why mayn't I be at once Parson & Planter, 
the one assisting the other ; but I never yet believed I cou*d follow two 
things or leave my Book for any thing unless only to aid & countenance 
a skillful manager cou'd I find him. 

Upon my first observations in this Country Husbandry obtruded itself 
into my thoughts and set them a projecting how I might cultivate the 
same ; other things failing or not satisfying, nay in any case I could, 
tho' at last think of no better way for one in my situation, &c., than 
that uncertain one of inviting over a half a dozen, or even dozen (less 
or more) of my Laborers & skillful Country People to a partnership 
with mc in the Produce of a Piece of Land I wou*d obtain by Patent, in 
such manner as that I shou'd contribute my small Money, Interest & 
directions, &c., & they their moderate Labour as they pleased, with 
whatever other assistance in their power; upon this foundation of a 
scheme & contract might be joined that would be the making of all 
concerned, in proportion to their respective skill & Labour, & first 
stock about setling. 

If a Company thro* poor luck have not so much money all together as 
can purchase a piece of good Land & afford Tools for manuring it after 
their cloathes & passage, there is all Human probability of their Suc- 
cess, if diligent for but a few years. 



GENEALOGY. 



THE BROOKE FAMILY OF VIRGINIA. 
By Prof. St. George Tucker Brooke, Morgantown, W. Va. 



(continued) 

In obedience to an order of Essex Co. Court, dated in June, 1768, 
directing us to settle Mr. John Rose's part of the Executorship of Wil- 
liam Brooke, dec*d. It appears that the said Rose proved the last will 
of the said William Brooke and took upon himself the burden of the 
Executorship in May, 1765 ; that some time in May, 1767, the said widow 
likewise proved the said will, and on the fourth day of December last 
intermarried with Mr. Richard Hipkins. We have, therefore, examined 
the books, vouchers and papers relating to the said estate from the time 
of the Testator's death to the loth of December, 1767, in which books 
and particular transactions of each Executor are specified, which will 



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302 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

more fully appear by the Books of Mr. James Anderson Factor for the 
greatest Creditor to the estate, and we have from those extracted and 
annexed a general account of the profits on the whole estate during the 
said time, together with the debts received, the money borrowed and 
the application of all the said articles. We likewise annexed a list of 
Balances due to and from the said estate on the loth day of December, 
1767, as far as accounts have been given in to the said John Rose. We 
are thus particular in stating these affairs because the said John Rose 
informs us that since May, 1767, he has been an inhabitant of a remote 
County, and it is impossible for him duly to attend the business of the 
said estate, and hath therefore left the entire management thereof from 
the loth of Dec. last to them, the said Richard and Anne, and the said 
John Rose in our hearing hath intimated to the said Richard that he is 
resolved in no way to interfere with the management of the said estate 
for the future. It is acknowledged by Mr. John Rose and Mr. Hipkins 
that about two months before the sale of the negroes made by Mr. Hip- 
kins that they and Alexander Rose (one of the Executors named in the 
will, tho* not acting otherwise than as a friend and adviser), that a sale 
of some part of the estate was acknowledged necessary to satisfy the 
Creditors, and that they did not consider that the household furniture 
ought to be sold before the slaves, as it was especially left to the widow. 
That since the sale of the slaves the said Hipkins is advised the house- 
hold furniture ought first to have been sold, which he says he will still 
sell, as a considerable balance is due from the estate, more than the sale 
of such furniture will probably amount to. This we certify at the re- 
quest of Mr. Hipkins, who says all the personal estate except the furni- 
ture aforesaid was sold before the negroes, which Mr. John Rose, who 
was not present, believes to be true. 
Given under our hands the 20th day of Aug., 1768. 

Mi'scoE Garnett, 
James Rose, 
John Lee. 
At a Court continued and held for Essex Co., at Tappahannock, on 
the 2uth day of Sept., 1768. This administration account of the estate 
of William Brooke, dec'd, and the auditor's report was returned and 
ordered to be recorded. 
Contra Cr. with sundries for balance due from them loth of Dec, 1767. 
John Rose, Ex. List as was delivered Mr. Hipkins by Thomas Broad- 
bond : 

Bond and interest, - - - - 7.13.7 

By Edward Merrill, Balance, - - - - 2.15 

ByJohn Benger. Balance of Bond, - - - 95 i5 

By estate of Dorothea Benger, - - - - 4,3 

By Jeremiah Bizewell, 51.12.7 

By John Taliaferro, 2.17. 



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GENEALOGY. 303 

Received Aug. 20th, 1768. of John, a List of Balances due Dec. loth, 
1768, at which time I entered upon the management of the estate. 

Richard Hipkins. 

At a Court continued and held for Essex Co., at Tappahannock, on 
the 20th day of Sept , 1768. This list of balances due the estate of Wil- 
liam Brooke, dec'd, was presented in Court and ordered to be recorded. 

Test: 

John Lee, Cl'k. 

A division of the slaves belonging to the estate of William Brooke, 
dec'd, between Mr. Richard Hipkins, in right of his wife and John 
Brooke, heir-at-law. Lot No. i, to the heir-at-law, and Lot No. 2, to 
Mrs Hipkins, Jan'ry 25th, 1771. 

List of Papers Taken from the wall of Brooke's Bank, the 
Old Colonial House built by Mrs. Sarah (Taliaferro) 
Brooke, widow of Wm. Brooke, who died in 1734. 

One grant of land from George II to one Sarah Brooke, widow, of one 
hundred and eight acres. 1751. 

One indenture between William Brooke and Edward Murra and his 
wife, Martha Murra, in 1727. 

Indenture between Sarah Miller, widow, and William Brooke, Gent 
March 20th, 1758. 

Indenture between William Brooke and Edward Murrough and his 
wife, 15th of November, 1730, being a grant to Isaac Flowers. 1705. 

A receipt to William Brooke, Nov. 17th, 1730. 

Four surveys of plots of land, two by Robert Brooke, one by Caleb 
Lindsay, and one by Edward Nawtey. 

Indenture between John Brooke and Richard Hipkins, his step-father 
(whom Ann Benger Brooke married after the death of Wm. Brooke, her 
first husband;, and the three daughters of Mr. Hipkins. Sept. 29th, 1785. 

With this are three other indentures to a piece of land called "The 
Beaver Dams," to secure the title to Wm. Thornton Brooke, orphan of 
John Brooke. 

Indenture between Phillip Davis and Hannah, his wife, and Sarah 
Brooke, widow. 13th October, 1743. 

Indenture between Phillip Davis and wife, and Mrs. Sarah Brooke, 
widow, Nov. 13, 1746. One receipt from Mrs. Sarah Brooke to Davis, 
I753» and several other papers the private examination of Hannah 
Davis. 

One bundle of small papers and receipts from Mrs. Sarah Brooke, 
'734» to Thomas Gatewood, one from Mr. Wm. Brooke to John Thomas 
and papers of Mr. Gatewood to show a clear title to land purchased 
from him by the Brookes. 

One bundle, date 1702 and 1706, impossible to read. 



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304 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Indenture to lease of land, between Rice Broche and Wm. Brooke, 
1 73 1. One plot of land. In this lease there are papers to secure certain 
privileges to Elizabeth Wilson by William Brooke and Robert Brooke, 
Jr., as witness. 

One paper, date, 1645, impossible to read. 

Copy of grant of land to George Braxton from George II, 1728, sec- 
ond year of his reign. English seal attached to it by a tape. This land 
was purchased by Wm. Brooke. It was in Spotsylvania, now a part of 
Orange County. 

A letter from Mr. Edmund Pendleton to Mr. Rose, in which he asks 
him to let Mr. Robert Brooke and Mrs. Sarah Brooke know that it is to 
be divided, dated July 9th, 1764. This was the Brookesby tract 

Two plots of land. 1728. 

Indenture between Thomas Plummer and Sarah Brooke, 2nd of June, 
1734. A paper dated 1708, in the reign of Anne, showing Mr. Plum- 
mer*s title to land bought by Mrs. Sarah Brooke. 

A paper from Wm. Robinson, making over his right and title to the 
land Wm. Brooke bought 24th April, 1730, and a number of papers 
showing the title to be good. 

Papers showing Mr. Short's title to certain lands described, dated 

1709. 

(to be continued) 



A GENEALOGY OF THE HERNDON FAMILY. 

(Compiled by John W. Herndon, Alexandria, Va.) 

(continued) 

106. William A. 107. Anne Elizabeth, b. February' 17, 1829; d. Septem- 
ber 19, 1 87 1, unm. 108. Virginia Lewis, b. August 29, 183 1; d. October 
16, 1893, unm. 109. Thomas, no. Zachary B. in. Huldah Frazcr, b. 
January 26, 1839; n^-i August 18, 1885, Rev. Edward P. Hawkins, of 
** Maple Grove," lives Post Oak, Va.,* no ch. 

106. Dr. William Alexander Herndon,' of Culpeper, Va., b. Decem- 
ber 3. 1826; d. September 6, 1871; m., September 19, 1849, Elizabeth 
C. George. Ch: 112. Dr. Cumberland George, b. September 19, 1850, 
Surgeon U. S. N.. lives Navy Yard, Washington, D. C. 113. Elizabeth, 
b, January 12, 1852, m.. May, 1874, Chas. Jones Rixey, lives Culpeper, 
Va.; ch: I. Chas. Jones, m , May 24, 1901, Irena Stearns (dau. of Frank- 
lin and Emily Somers (Palmer) Stearns, of Richmond); II. William 
Herndon; III. Presley M.; IV. Elizabeth; V. George (dau.); VI. Lulu 
Henry. 

T09. Dr. Thomas Herndon,' of West Point, Va.; b. February 10, 1834; 
d. September 22, 1873; m., March r, 1865, Nannie Sidney Gregory (dau. 
William W. and Wealthean (Thornton Gregory), b. November 17, 1845; 
d. December 25, 1872. Ch: I. William Gregory, d. yng.; II. Alexander, 



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GENEALOGY. 305 

d. yng.; III. Mary West, d. yng.; IV. Maria Thornton, b. August 28, 
1869; m., July 5, 1898, T. C. Hawkins, d. March, 1899; no. ch.; she lives 
Post Oak, Va. 

no. Dr. Zachary Billingsley Hemdon,^ of Ashland, Va., b. April 8, 
1836; d. February, 1897; m., October 2, 1867, Mrs. Maria (Gilchrist) De 
Vaux. Ch: I. Alexander, d. March, 187 1, aged i yr. 10 days; II. John 
Gilchrist, Presbyterian minister at La Grange, Ga., m. Martha Pierce, 
des. unk.; III. Julia Kane; IV. Anne; V. Maria Gilchrist. The last 
three named unm. and live Ashland, Va. 

loi. Thomas D. Herndon; m. Elizabeth Billingsley (sister of Anne). 
He was a member of the Jackson Committee of Correspondence for 
Spots, in November, 1832. Their only ch: 114. Jane S, m.; September 
2, 1833, John Addison Gordon (No. 115) and had: I. Joseph, m. Hannah 
Willis; II. Bettie, m. John Billingsley, of Lignum, Va.; III. Lucy, m. 
Alexander Spotswood, of Wilderness, Va.; IV. Thomas, lives Washing- 
ton. D. C, m. Lou Bullard; V. Mary Anne, unm., lives Fred.; VI. Jane, 
unm., lives Fred.; VII. Fannie, unm., lives Fred.; VIII. William Armis- 
tead, lives Indiantown, Va., m., ist, Irene Willis, m., 2d, Sallie Willis; 
IX. Eva, unm., lives Fred.; X. Laura, XI. Hannah, XII. Edward, all 
d. yng.; XIII. John, lives Spotsylvania C. H., Va.; m., ist, Fannie Gor- 
don (No. 216); m., 2d, Sallie Lipscomb. 

13. Lucy Herndon* [5-3-2-1], m. August 16, 1804, Rev. John Church- 
hill Gordon (son James and Elizabeth) and had one ch: 115. John Ad- 
di.son, whom. Jane Herndon (No. 114). 

15. Hannah Herndon* [5-3-2-1], d. 1824 (?); m. Anthony Frazer, 
d. 1804, who lived on Gladys Run, six miles from Spot. C. H. Ch. 116. 
Edward, des. unk. 1 17. Rev. Herndon, Baptist minister, and prominent 
ill the early temperance movement; m. Huldah Herndon (No. 102), des. 
unk. 

Descendants of John Herndon. 

6. John Herndon* [3-2-1], d. 1783; m. Mary . He agreed to 

build a bridge over the Po River at Corbin's bridge and keep it in repair 
for seven years from July 19, 1757; from 1762 to 1778 was yearly appointed 
to collect the parish levy for St. George's Church; in 1770 was appointed 
clerk to the vestry, but resigned in 1779; on November 17, 1775, was 
appointed a member of the Committee of Safety for Spots.; in October, 
1780, was appointed commissioner to ascertain the center of Stafford 
CO.; in 1783 owned ir slaves, bore the title of "Captain," though of 
what company it is not known. His will, dated May 11, 1782, proved 
between November 17 and 20, 1783, mentions wife Mary, brothers Ed- 
ward and Joseph, friend James Lewis, and sons John and Joseph. Ch: 
118. Joseph, des unk. 119 Sarah, des. unk. 120. John. 

120. John Herndon,* living September 6, 1796; jailor of Spots, in May, 
1777, and in July, 1777 was sub-sheriff". By his first wife (name unknown) 
he had: 121. Alvin Nutt. After her death, he m., 1781, Mrs. Sarah 

6 



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306 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

(Chapman) Mountjoy, widow of Edward Mountjoy. By her he had 2 
ch., possibly others: 122. John C. 123. William, who went to Ky., des. 
unk. 

121. Alvin Nutt Herndon,* m. Susan Holtzclaw; served in the Revo- 
lution; was sent by Gov. Patrick Henry as surveyor of Kentucky co., 
Va. (now the State) and ran the lines whicli now include the counties of 
Lincoln, Boyle, Mercer, and Anderson; he laid out and assisted build- 
ing McAfee's fort, near Haroldsburg, and after the Indian troubles were 
settled, selected a spot on Hammond's creek, Anderson co., for his 
home, which he surveyed and patented; he came originally from Stafford 
CO., Va.; his half-brother, John C, visited him in Ky. in 1838. Ch.: 124. 
John C. 125. William, des. unk. 126. Lucy, des. unk. 127. Sarah, 
des. unk. 

124. John C. Hemdon,^ of Frankfort, Ky., circuit judge, while lectur- 
ing to a class of law students at " Montrose," his valuable library was 
destroyed by fire, and also a genealogy of the Herndon family on which 
he had spent much time. Ch.: 128. John C, of Louisville, b. Septem- 
ber 23, 1 84 1, m., December 17, 1862, Juliana Whitcroft Dimmitt, b. June 
29, 1846; ch: I. Leonora L., b. March 25, 1867; II. Fannie, b. July 9, 
1872. 129. John B., of Sardis, Ky., des. unk. 130. Susan Mary, m., 
March 29, 187 1, Lewis Castleman, b. October 8, 1828, lives Bunceton, 
Mo.; ch: I. Dayton, b. January 4, 1872, merchant; II. William Herndon, 
b. May 18, 1875. 131. Margaret, m. Dr. Archibald Dixon, of Hender- 
son, Ky., b. March 4, 1844; ch: L Margaret, b. October 11, 1865, m. 
Edward L. Jonas, of London, Eng. and has: Archibald Edward; II. 
Wynn, b. December 27, 1866, m., July 10, 1894, Margaret McCreery, of 
Owensbow, and has: Thomas; III. Dr. Archibald, b. August — , 1868; 
IV. Juha Ballard, b. August—, 1871. 

(to be continued) 



COCKE, GRAY, BOWIE, ROBB, &c. 

By Miss Fanny B. Hunter, Warrenton, Va. 

(continued) 

V. Gertrude married Walter Hamilton, of England, later of New 
Jersey (2d wife). Their 4 children are : Maud, Isabel, wife of Chas. 
Atkinson, of Palmyra, N. J.; Gertrude, wife of Geo. Ricardo, of Hack- 
ensack ; Henry and Agnes Gray. 

VI. Jane Glassell. 

VII. Isabella Bowie. These two last named are residents of Fairfax, 
Va. 

VIIL John Bowie, of Travellers Rest, a graduate of Va. Military In- 
stitute, and participant in the battle of New Market. 

He married Mary, fourth daughter of Maj. Bushrod Washington 



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GENEALOGY. 307 

Hunter, C. S. A., formerly U. S. Navy, of '•Abingdon," Alexandria 
CO., & his wife, Mary Frances, daughter of Col. George Blow, of Sus- 
sex, CO., Va. 

Their children : 

I. Mary Hunter, married to Ernest Deans, of Wilson, N. C, (one 
child, Mary Hunter). 

H. Jane Moore. 

III. Aylmer. 

IV. John Bowie, Jr., of Wilson, N. C. 

Issue of Capt. Paul and Agnes (Gray'» Venable : 

I. Samuel '*Woodson," of Wilson, married Jean Armstead (4 chil- 
dren, Jean St. Clair ; Mary Howard ; Paul Carrington ; Samuel Arm- 
stead). 

II. Wade "Hampton" married Eliza Talbot. 

Issue of Robert Gilchrist* and Nellie (Bankhead) Robb : 

I. Robert Gilchrist,* Capt. U. S. and C. S. Navy, married Fanny 
Lightfoot. 

II. Mary,* died unmarried. 

III. Elizabeth,* married Robert Waring. 

IV. Ellen,* died unmarried. 

V. Lucy,* was first wife of Henry Waring. (By 2d wife): 

VI. Roberta, died young. 

VII. Margaret married Dr. Banum. 

Capt. R. G. Robb* had two sons and one daughter, viz : 
I. Robert Lightfoot,* married ist Augusta Turner, daughter of Caro- 
linus Turner, of King George co., who died, leaving two sons, Robt.* 
and Turner.* His second wife was Mrs. Ada Randolph, daughter of 
Col. Richard H. Stuart, of that county. 

(TO BE continued) • 



THE RoBARDS FAMILY. 

(Compiled by John Lewis RoBards, Hannibal, Mo.) 

(continued) 

III. Captain Lewis RoBards died in Bullitt county, Kentucky, April 
15th, 1814. His widow, Hannah Winn RoBards, and W. Mortimer D., 
George L., James W., Alfred J., and Benjamin F. RoBards, their chil- 
dren, surviving him. 

At a Court held for Goochland county, on Beaverdam, the third 
Monday in July, being the XVI 1th day of the month, Annoque Domini 
MDCCLXXX. 

James Bennett as Lieutenant, Sherod Parish, Edward Redford, and 
Lewis Robards as Second Lieutenants, and Major Hancock as Ensign, 
produce their commissions ; which, being read, the said officers, agree- 



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308 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

able to an Ordinance of the Convention of our Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, take the oaths prescribed, and thereupon are authorized to act in 
their respective office. 

State of Virginia, ) 
Goochland County, j 

I, William Miller, Clerk of the County Court of said County of 
Goochland, do certify that the above orders — one of the 17th day of 
May, 1779, and the other of the 17th day of July, 1780, are truly copied 
from the records of my said office. 

In testimony of which I have hereunto set my hand and annexed the 
seal of the said County and Court this 4th day of April, in the year 1840, 
and the 64th year of the Commonwealth. 

William Miller, C. G. C. 

III. Captain George Robards died, testate, on his farm in Mercer 
county, Ky., July 13, 1833. His widow, Elizabeth Barbara Sampson 
RoBards, died, testate, Nov., 1836, in Palmyra, Mo. They had the fol- 
lowing children : 

IV. Andrew Lewis RoBards, bom Oct. 4. 1787. 

Nancy Porter RoBards, born Jan'y 20th, 1790 : married, 1807, John B. 
Thompson, Sr., of Harrodsburg, Ky., and died in 1870, aged 80 years. 
They had issue : 

John B. Thompson, born 1810, died 1874, was U. S. Senator. 

Henry Thompson, born 1812, died 1900. 

Maria Thompson, born 1814 ; died 1896 : married William Daviess ; 
had daughter, Mrs. H. C. Pittman, of St. Louis, Mo. 

Charles Thompson, bom 1818 ; died 1872 ; has son, Hon. John Charles 
Thompson, lawyer, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

Philip B. Thompson, born 1820, Col. in Confed. Army and lawyer, 
Harrodsburg, Kentucky, has sons Philip B.Thompson, M. C; and John 
B. Thompson, lawyers ; both served in Confederate Army. 

Elizabeth Thompson, born 1822 ; died 1883. 

Ann Thompson, born 1826, married Trimble ; died 1889. 

Susan Burton Thompson, born 1828, married Henry Massie ; has son 
David Mead Massie, lawyer, Columbus, Ohio. 

Katherine Thompson, born 1831, married Dun; died 1894, in 

Ohio. 

(TO BE continued) 



THE FARRAR FAMILY. 
(concluded) 
99. Jesse Carter* Farrar {Abner^), was born July 12th, 1795 ; mar- 
ried first, Sarah Gatewood Shumate ; secondly, Nancy P. Johnson. 

Issue (ist mar.): 142. Catherine, born 1824, married Dr. H. L. Currier; 
143. Laura Elizabeth, Born Aug. 21st., 1826, married John C. White ; 



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GENEALOGY. 309 

144. Abner Mason, born 1829, unmarried; 145. Sarah, bom 1831, mar- 
ried J. T. Whilman ; (2d marriage) ; 146. Lochlin, J.,*® bom 1837, mar- 
ried , and had issue (1) John," (2) Irene". 1 18. Robert M.,'* mar- 
ried in 1863. Frances, daughter of Judge Wilton Harris, and had issue, 
(j) Irine," bom 1864; dead; (2) Robert M.," Jr., bom 1866; (3) 
Aquilla," bom 1867 ; (4) Frank," bom 1869 ; (5) Frederick," bom 1879. 

103. Thomas Prinxk* Farrar ( Thoma^), died Sept. ist, 1880. He 
was the father of Edgar D. Farrar, a distinguished lawyer of New Or- 
leans, La. 

104. Judge Frederick Hillsman* Farrar ( 7%tw«flj*), was living 
in 1898 at St. Francisville, La. 

105. Judge Edgar Douglas* Farrar, was living in 1898 in New 
Orleans, La. 

(The compiler of this genealogy regrets not being able to obtain fuller 
details in regard to this branch of the family. ) 

116. Peter Field* Farrar (Joht^, of Chesterfield co., Va., was 
born Feb. 19, 1778, and married, Jan. 17, 1798, Susanna Tompkins, of 
King William co., Va. He died Sept. 25, 1818. 

Issue : 147. Chastain,** bom Nov. 21, 1798, married Caroline Clopton, 
and had issue, (1) Pocahontas," married Cornelius Lipscomb, of Rich- 
mond, Va,; (2) Virginia," married Scott, of Petersburg, Va.; (3) 

Mary Catherine," unmarried; (4) Chastain," died unmarried, aged 
about 50 years ; 148. Christopher,'^ born Nov. 10, 1799, died in infancy ; 
149. John,'* of Henrico co., Va., born Dec. 22, 1800, married Sallie 

Taylor, of King William co., and had issue, (i) Olivia," married 

Bargamin, of Richmond ; (2) Maria Louise," unmarried ; (3) Jeter," un- 
married; (4) Fuller," unmarried. 150. Catherine,'* bom July ist, 1802, 
died in infancy; 151. Christopher,'* born Aug. 3d, 1804, died, aged 
about thirty years; 152. Robert,'* (twin) born Sept. 4, 1806, married 
Elizabeth Gary, of King William co., and had issue, (1) Dr. Wm. 
Field," of Richmond, Va., married first Cornelia Childrey, of Henrico 
CO., and secondly Victoria Davidson, of Washington, D. C; (2) Eliza- 
beth"; (3) Mary Heth" ; (4) Robert"; 153. Edwin'* (twin), born Sept. 
4, 1806, long a prominent merchant of Richmond, married Martha Ann 
Lewis, and had no issue ; 154. Susan Agnes,'* bom Dec. 9, 1808, died 
unmarried ; 155. Dr. Joseph Cocke,'* of Mecklenburg co., Va., bom 
Feb 27, 1812, married G. Caroline Middagh, and had one child, Mrs. 
M. E. Pace, of King William co.; 156. Martha Elizabeth,** bom Jan. 
30th, 1814, died unmarried. 

122. Dr. Richard* Farrar (SamueP), married Green, and 

had issue : 157. Fernando Richard'*, who married (ist) Nannie Austin, 
(2d) Georgia Bass, 3d Ella Scott, and had issue (by ist m.), (1) William 
A.," married I^ura Scott and had a large family ; (2d m.), (2) Mattie," 
married Peter Shelton ; (3) Lily," married L. Strazier ; (4) Stephen 
Gee"; (5) Fernando R. 



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310 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

We shall be glad to have additions and corrections. In regard to a 
point of much interest to the family, it should be stated that the most 
thorough investigation which has been made, appears to make it improb- 
able that William Farrar, the emigrant to Virginia, was a son of John 
Farrar, of the Virginia Company. 



LINDSAYS IN VIRGINIA. 

(By Armistead C. Gordon, Staunton, Va.) 

(continued) 

Of the three children of Colonel Reuben Lindsay, of Albemarle, by 
his second wife, Hannah Tidwili, William, the son, died in infancy; 
Elizabeth married, January 22, 1813, General William F. Gordon, of 
Albemarle. Their issue as set out in General Gordon's Bible, was as 
follows: 

** James L. Gordon was born the 31 of October, 1813. 

*' Maria L. Gordon was bom 2nd of December, J815, died 29 June, 
»48. 

" Hannah Elizabeth Gordon was born the 28th of September, 1817. 

*' Reuben L. Gordon was born the 15 of January, 1820. 

*' William Gordon was born 6 of March, 1822 — died the 17 of Decem- 
ber, 1822. 

•'William F. Gordon was born November the 26, 1823. 

** Elizabeth Gordon was born the 9th of July, 1826— Died the 21 of 
June, 1827. 

'* George Loyall Gordon and Charles Henry Gordon were bom the 
17 of January, 1829. 

"John Churchill Gordon was born the 2nd of March, 183 1. 

"Alexander Tazewell Gordon was born the 12 of May, 1833. 

" Mason Gordon was born the 17 of September, 1840." 

The third daughter of Colonel Reuben Lindsay's second marriage, 
called '• Mary " in the family Bible, but known to the family as " Maria,'* 
married Captain Meriwether Lewis Walker, of " Logan." Albemarle 
County, Va The issue of this marriage, together with a history of the 
Walker family, may be found in " The Page Family in Virginia." 

Of the other children of Colonel James Lindsay, of Caroline— 

1. Caleb, married and d. s. p. 

2. Elizabeth m James Coleman. 

3. John, probably married, and was last heard of in the early part of 
19th century in Halifax, North Carolina. 

4. William, lost at sea, d. s. p. 

5. Jacob, died before father, probably in Stokes county, N. C. He 
had eight children: 

(a) Polly, married Jacob Michaux, and lived in Patrick county, Va. 



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GENEALOGY. 311 

(b) Judith, married Jarratt Patterson, of Rockingham county, N. C. 

(c) William. 

(d ) Jacob, of Stokes county, N. C. 

(e) Delphia, married Boulware. 

(f) Elizabeth, married Robert Joyce. 

(g) — ■ — married David Powers, 
(h) married Henry Pitts. 

(to be continued) 



FOUR SUCCESSIVE JOHN MINORS. 

By Charles M. Blackford, Lynchburg, Va. 

(continued) 

In 1812 on the breaking out of the war with England Mr. Minor was 
made a General in the Virginia line and did such service as was assigned 
to his corps, being stationed in and around Norfolk, Virginia. On the close 
of the war he returned to the bar where his practice was very extensive 
for he was retained in most of the important cases in all the counties 
within the range of Fredericksburg. 

On one occasion while he was trying a famous case before a jury at 
Culpeper Courthouse, a very handsome and intelligent boy was examined 
as a witness. His evidence was so clear and so well told, that it greatly 
attracted Mr. Minor's attention. That night he sent for the boy to his 
room at the hotel and ascertaining that he was an orphan, offered to 
take him to Fredericksburg into his home and office that he might pre- 
pare himself for the bar. This offer the boy accepted and went down 
with him in his gig to Fredericksburg. Mr. Minor's house became the 
boy's home and his office his study, and in a few years he was admitted 
to the bar and soon took rank at its front. This boy was the Benjamin 
Botts who was selected from the galaxy of Virginian lawyers of that 
day as one of the counsel for Aaron Burr when tried in Richmond for 
high treason. Mr. Botts was much devoted to General Minor and John 
Minor Botts, his oldest son, was named for him. 

0» one occasion when Mr. Wm. Wirt was a very young lawyer he was 
struggling with an adverse bench in the County Court of Culpeper when 
General Minor, as amicus curiae came to his aid and, when the contest 
was successfully over, predicted for the young man a brilliant career. 
After the General's death Mr. Wirt wrote of him, after narrating this 
incident: 

"There was never a more finished and engaging gentleman nor one 
of a more warm, honest, and affectionate heart. He was as brave a 
man and as true a patriot as ever lived. He was a most excellent lawyer 
with a most persuasive flow of eloquence, simple, natural, graceful and 
most affecting when there was room for pathos; and his pathos was not 



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812 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

artificial rhetoric; it was of that true sort which flows from a feeling 
heart and a noble mind. He was my Arm and constant friend from that 
day through a long life; and took occasion several times in after years 
to remind me of his prophecy, and to insist on my obligation to sustain 
his prophetic reputation/' 

(See Life of ]^m. Wtri prefixed to LeiUrs of British Spy). 
(to be continued) 



Historical and Genealogical Notes and Queries. 



An Abridgment of the Laws of Virginia. — Compiled in 1694. 
Printed from the original manuscript in the collection of the Virginia 
Historical Society. 80 pp., paper. 

An addition of 300 copies of this, the first abridgment of the Laws of 
Virginia, has been reprinted from the Virginia Magazine of History and 
Biography, and will be ready early in January. Price, $1.00. 



Genealogy of the Descendants of John Walker of Wigton. 
(Communication from the Author.) 

I would like to call the attention of the readers of this Magazine to a 
mistake which I find in their review of my book, Genealogy of the De- 
scendants of John Walker of Wigton^ Scotland. If you will notice we 
do not claim descent from Rev. Samuel Rutherford, but we do claim 
relationship to this worthy divine, and have many proofs of same. On 
page 489 of his History of Virginia Henry Howe says that James Moore 
(whose mother was Jane Walker, daughter of John of Wigton) was a 
lineal descendant of Rev. Samuel Rutherford; failing to find proof of 
this assertion I only say in my book that he was nearly related to our 
ancestor, John Rutherford. My authority for this was found in a MS. 
left by Rev. William McPheeters of North Carolina, and his authority 
was Joseph G. Walker, son of the emigrant, John. Rev. John S. Grasty 
in his memoir of Rev. S. B. McPheeters gives Rev. Joseph Alleineas the 
father of the wife of John Rutherford, whose daughter married John 
Walker of Wigton. He also says, on page 17 of his memoir^ '* this John 
Rutherford, the g. g. grandfather of Rev. Wm. McPheeters, was either 
the nephew or full first cousin of that distinguished divine. Rev. Samuel 
Rutherford of Scotland." 

In addition to the above there are several old records preserved in the 
family, one of which was compiled by Judge P. H. Walker, Judge of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois for over thirty years. In all of these records 
reference is made to our descent from Rev. Joseph Alleine and relation- 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 313 

ship to Rev. Samuel Rutherford. In several places in my book I quote 
these authorities, as the index will show. 

In reference to the claim of the Logans to royal descent I will say that 
the material for the David Logan chart, appearing in my book, was 
gleaned from various reliable sources. The names of a few of which 
I herewith append: 

••The Scottish Nation," Vol. II, by William Anderson; ••Colonial 
Dames of Royal Descent," '•Jrvines and their Kin," by Boyd; '•Dic- 
tionary of Landed Gentry," by Burke; •* Burke's Peerage; " •* Matthews* 
American Armory; " * 'Americans of Royal Descent," by Browning. 

I will cheerfully furnish pages of reference and other authorities to 
anyone desiring to look the subject up. 

E. S. White, Kansas City, Mo. 



"Lynch Law."— In the Nation of December 4, 1902, pp. 439-441. 
will be found a string of examples of this term, going back to 181 7. In 
that year Judge Spencer Roane, in some recollections of his father-in-law 
Patrick Henry, said: '•In the year 1792, there were many suits on the 
south side of James river, for inflicting Lynch*s Law." (Wirt's Life of 
Henry ^ 18 18, p. 372.) In a note, but whether written by Roane or by 
Wirt is uncertain, we read: •'Thirty-nine lashes, inflicted without trial 
or law, on mere suspicion of guilt, which could not be regularly proven. 
This lawless practice, which, sometimes by the order of a magistrate, 
sometimes without, prevailed extensively in the upper counties on James 
river, took its name from the gentleman who first set the example of it." 
It has frequently been asserted that this gentleman was Charles Lynch, 
of Virginia (born 1736, died 1796), but as yet no proof has been pro- 
duced to connect lynch law with Charles Lynch. Will not some of your 
Virginia scholars take the matter up, search the records, and give us the 
facts about those suits alluded to by Judge Roane? The early history 
of lynch law is very obscure, and I know of no example of the term 
previous to 1817. As I have in preparation an extended paper on the 
subject, I should welcome any information relating to the practice before 
1817. 

Albert Matthews, 
14s Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 



Stephen Lee. — Can any one give any information in regard to the 
ancestry of Stephen Lee, whose wife was a Widow Dunn (her maiden 
name Ann Murphy). He died in Mason county, Ky., in 1791, and she 
died in same county in 1806, having come to Kentucky from Virginia. 
He owned lands in Prince William, Westmoreland and Loudon coun- 
ties, which he disposed of before his removal to Kentucky. He had a 
daughter by his first wife (whose name I do not know), Priscilla, who 
married William Botts, in Prince George county, Maryland, November 



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314 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

9, 1769. Lucy married a man named Bridwell, and Nancy a Lovejoy ; 
one named Ann never married, but lived with her sister in Milton, Albe- 
marle county. 

I would like, also, to ask some questions regarding the family of my 
Grandmother Lee, Avho was a Miss Young. There were two brothers, 
named Richard and Thomas Young. They were both officers in the 
Revolution— Colonels. They came from Fredericksburg, Virginia. 
Richard Young was one of the founders of Versailles, Woodford county, 
Ky. His wife was Mary Moore, of Fredericksburg. They came to 
Kentucky previous to 1786, 23d March.for in that year their daughter Mary 
married Arthur Fox, of Mason county. She became a widow, and mar- 
ried General Henry Lee in 1795, December 10. Richard Young had a 
large family ; one daughter married a Johnson, of Louisville, Ky, an- 
other a Mr. Vance, of Mississippi, and one a Jackson, of Woodford 
county, Ky. There were several sons— Ambrose, Merritt, Lewis, and 
John Robinson. 

Any information regarding these families will be thankfully received 
by a descendant of them both. 

L. C. L., Maysville^ Ky, . 



SiDWELL. — Information is desired concerning the Sid well family, who 
are prominent English people and early settlers in Virginia ; also rela- 
tives of mine, and am quite anxious to locate them. 

Mrs. Dr. Collins, Lindsay^ Ind. Ty, 



Woods.— Elizabeth Woods, wife of James Brooks, of Nelson county, 
Va., and daughter of Richard Woods, of Albemarle county, Va., was 
born February 2, 1759. What was her mother's name? 

The first wife of Richard Woods was thought to be Margaret Paul. 
Is this correct ? 

The second wife of Richard Woods was Elizabeth Stuart. Was Eliz- 
abeth Woods, wife of James Brooks, the daughter of the first wife, 
Margaret Paul, or of the second wife, Elizabeth Stuart? 

Who were the parents of Margaret Paul, the first wife of Richard 
Woods? 

What was the date of the first marriage of Richard Woods ; that is, 
of the marriage of Richard Woods and Margaret Paul ? 

K., Butte, Montana. 



Lewis— Washington— Warner— Waller— Reade— Meriwether 
— Tandy — Beazlev — Boulton — Lampkin-=Mundv — Herndon — 
Brock, &c.— Having information for. and wishing to correspond with, 
all those knowing themselves to be descended or related to the Lewis, 
Washington, Warner, Waller, Reade, Meriwether, Tandy, Estes, 
Beazley, Boulton, Lampkin, Mundy, Pepper, Talley, Taylor, Herndon, 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 315 

Brock', Carter, Hardin, Johnson, Johnston, Rowe, and Watkins families 
of Virginia, I insert this notice, hoping they will send their address at 
once to Mrs. R. T. Tandy, 

70s Tandy Ave., Columbia , Mo. 



MiDDLKTON.— About the year 1750-60, Hugh and Robert Middleton 
removed from Virginia to South Carolina Hugh became a major in 
the South Carolina troops during the Revolution, and Robert a colonel 
in the Georgia troops. I should like to receive a suggestion from any 
kind reader of your publication which might aid me in discovering any- 
thing of the ancestry of these men, or in getting into communication 
with any of the present descendants of any of this ancestry. To that 
end I would be under obligation if you would publish this card. I am 
inclined to believe the family resided originally in Westmoreland or 
one of the eastern counties, though of this I am not at all certain. I 
would be glad to have any information that any one might furnish me 
regarding this family in Virginia, at either a later or an earlier date than 
the years named, as at present I am totally without information further 
than that stated. 

Hugh Middleton, 
Augusta^ Ga., October 28^ igo2. 



Epitaphs at "Salisbury," King George County. 

Near the entrance gate of ** Cedar Grove," the well known estate of 
the Stuart family in King George county, lie several heavy but broken 
slabs, marking the family burying ground of the Alexanders, of "Salis- 
bury," an estate now included in "Cedar Grove." The former site of 
the house can still be seen at a point not far from the graveyard, and 
from it a beautiful view of the Potomac is visible. 

The epitaphs are as follows: 

In Memory ol 

Philip Alexander 

Who departed this life August 

the 10, 1733 in the 13 Year of his Age. 

He was Son of 

Philip Alexander, Gent. 

& Mrs. Sarah Alexander. 



Here lies the Body of 

Philip Alexander, Gent. 

of Stafford County who departed 

this Life on Friday the 19th 

of July 1753 and in the 49th 

Year of his Age. 



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316 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Here lies the Body of 
Sarah Alfxander 

Wife of 

Philip Alexander 

Daughter of Rice Hooe & 

Frances his Wife 

She departed this Life on 

the 14 day of August 1758 

In the 50th Year of her Age. 



Pettus — Wanted names of parents of Thomas Pettus, bom April 
22d, 1 76 1, and Rhoda Dawson his wife, bom November 13th, 1763' 
They were married about 1784, presumably in Virginia. He was a 
Justice of the Peace in Lincoln county. Ky., in 1808, and removed in 
that year to Green county, Ky., near Greensburg, where he died in 1814. 
His widow later removed to Palmyra, Marion county, Mo. Their chil- 
dren were: Stephen-Elizabeth, Nancy D., Judith Dudley, John Dabney, 
Anne, Joseph, Mary, Susannah, Rebecca, and Sarah Pleasant Pettus. 
Either Thomas Pettus or his wife were descended from the Dudley 
family. 

James M. Breckenridge, 
12th and spruce Sts. , St. Louis^ Mo, 



Breckenridge — The undersigned propose compiling the Genealogy 
of the descendants of Alexander Breckenridge, who ** proved his Im- 
portation" at Orange Courthouse, Va., May a2d, 1740; and solicit data 
of any kind bearing upon the subject. Copies of family records and 
papers, or the loan of same, or suggestions as to sources of such infor- 
mation will be appreciated. They desire to learn whether or not the 
following children of Alexander Breckenridge left descendants: John, 
James, Smith, Adam, Jane and Letitia. 

Wm. C. and James M. Breckenridge, 

12th and Spruce Sts^y Si. Louis ^ Mo. 



Indian Troubles in the Northern Neck, 1704. 

It appears from the record of their trial preserved in the court order 
book for the period, at Richmond county C. H. (Warsaw, Va ), that in 1704 
the Nanzatico Indians murdered several persons in that portion of Rich- 
mond county which is now King George, among them a man named Row- 
ley, and his children. The depositions in regard to the affair are in the 
Richmond county records, but no copies of them are accessible at this 
time. This was probably the last time there was any trouble with the 
Indians in the section referred to. The Richmond county order book 
has under date March 6, 1704-5, applications for pay for services ren- 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 317 

dered by the militia at the time. William Tayloe, ** colonel and com- 
mander-in-chief '* of the county, applys in behalf of himself and the 
militia in said county and *'sheweth several charges for services in Au- 
gust and September [ 1 704] . Payments were asked for to Captain Thomas 
Beale, Captain John Craske, Captain William Barber and Captain 
Henry Brereton for their companies on duty 33 days. And for Captain 
John Tarpley and Captain Charles Barber who sent out two squadrons 
of 12 men each under quartermasters. 

Also claims from Wm. Underwood, Captain of a company of foot, 
October, 1704; Captain Alexander Donaphan, Captain of a troop of 
horse in the upper parts of Richmond county, and Captain Nicholas 
Smith for the troops under his command. 



Parker, Charles City County.— I am extremely anxious to know 
who was the first wife, who the father and mother (probably Edward 
and Frances) and who the grand parents of Benjamin Parker of Charles 
city. There is some connection with the Parkers who went to Granville 
county, North Carolina, in 1750. When I followed a clue in Charles 
City I found the ancestors of Colonel Kedar Parker of the Revolution. 
The latter had an uncle, Cador, died 1788, whose executor was Samuel 
Parker, died in 1809. Both apparently sons of Jonathan Parker, will 
dated 1788. I made a lot of Parker notes from 1756 to 1822. in Granville 
county, N. C, if anybody wants them, there is some reference to the 
Northampton county, Va. There are a Thomas and a Jonathan Parker 
in 1756 and a Joel Parker— also written Barker— between 1746 and 1751, 
hailing from Northampton county, Va. The same Thomas Parker seems 
to have taken up land in Rowan county, N. C, recorded at Salisbury. 
Samuel Parker, after representing Granville in the legislature, 1795, 
moved to Wake county and apparently died intestate and unmarried. 
Benjamin Parker of Charles City had a son Samuel apparently barely 
of age in 1727 — who disappears from the Charles City records, having 
been left the ** Bridge field place " bought of Benjamin Harrison. 

* * * ♦, Arden, N. C. 



A Jersey (Channel Islands) Merchant, 1664. 

There is on record in Northumberland county a letter from John Le 
Breton, about to go on a long voyage, to Captain Peter Ashlon. If he 
died during the voyage he requests Ashton to administer on his estate, 
and remit the proceeds to the writer's brother, Edward Le Breton, in 
Jersey. The letter is dated Great Wicomico, May 24, 1664. 

There is also recorded a receipt from Mr. Bertram Servan [of Eliza- 
beth City county] for a sloop and certain goods Le Breton had left in 
his hands. 



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318 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Militia Officers of Richmond County, 1713. 

On October 2, 17 13, Colonel John Tayloe, Lieutenant Colonel Charles 
Barber, Captain John Tarpley, Jr., Captain James Ingo, Captain Robert 
Tomlin, Captain Newman Brockenbrough, Lieutenant James Russell, 
Lieutenant John Morton, Lieutenant Thomas Barber, Lieutenant Francis 
Downman, Cornet Henry Wilson and Cornet Thomas Nash, qualified 
in their respective commissions by taking the required oaths. {Order 
Book. ) 

A Parliamentarian in Northumberland County, 1660. 

On March 9, 1660, acting under the Royal Proclamation of pardon, 
Gervas Dodson, who was a soldier several years in Ireland and England 
for the King and Parliament, 'til the death of King Charles I, when he 
left all and came into this country, petitions for the benefit of the proc- 
lamation. He ever loved the King's person and posterity, and only 
opposed that [which] the Parliament said ruined him and the country — 
evil Council. \ Northumberland County Records.) 



Plan for Free School, Northumberland, 1652. 

In Northumberland county records under date January 20, 1652, is this 
entry: "The Court doth allowe and approve of Mr. Lee's petition con- 
cerning a free school to be set up." 



Parker Family, Eastern Shore. 

You appear to be under the impression that Major George Parker 
who died 1724, was of a different family from Captain (or Major) George 
who died 1674. There was a doubt in my mind in regard to this point, 
caused by letters from • * * « of Baltimore, Md., who 
claimed descent from Thomas Parker, Earl of Macclesfield, and in order 
to satisfy myself as well as my client, and having found in the Eastern 
Shore Virginia records nothing positive in any will, I took the chain of 
titles of the "Poplar Grove" farm in "Parker's Neck," near Onancock 
in Accomac county, and followed it down, step by step, from father to 
son until it became the property of General Severn Eyre Parker, who 
sold it to Mr. Edmund J. Poulson. That place was part of a grant to 
Captain George Parker who died 1674. He bequeathed it to his son 
George, who it appears was the Major who died in 1724 — who bequeathed 
it to his son George, and so it continued to be bequeathed to the son 
George in each generation, until it became the property of Judge George 
Parker, of "Kendall Grove," in Northampton county, whose son 
George died in infancy, and the judge's only son General Severn Eyre 
Parker heired it and sold it. In your January, 1899, number of Maga- 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 319 

zine, p. 301, is mentioned an Alexander Parker, of Tappahannock, as 
having been descended from a George of Accomac. No dates are 
jriven, and as I have only Parker wills prior to 1800, I cannot tell whose 
son he could have been, but there is neither an Alexander nor a Richard 
Parkei; mentioned in any will of which 1 have notes. In October num- 
ber Lieutenant Thomas Parker of 9th Virginia Regiment (Mathews' 
Regiment), is mentioned as being from the Western Shore. General 
Henry A. Wise in his book, Ten Decades of the Union, seems to refer to 
a different man entirely, viz: to Lieutenant (afterwards Colonel) Thomas 
Parker, son of George and Ada (Bagwell) Parker and a brother of Judge 
George Parker previously mentioned in this. Colonel Thomas Parker, 
formerly Lieutenant in Colonel Mathews* Regiment, was known as 
•• Hangman's Tom " Parker, a soubriquet applied to him by the British. 
He was buried at his home on Pungoteague creek where his tombstone 
can yet be found. I have its inscription. 

The Elizabeth Parker who married Knowllon, was, I think, descended 
from George Parker (of Seaside), who was a son of John Parker, of 
*• Mattapony," a brother of Captain George who died in 1674. Of 
course she was several generations removed from George, of Seaside, 
probably his granddaughter or great-granddaughter. The John Parker 
branch of the family not exactly concerning the descendants of Captain 
George, I have not followed them out closely. 

Thomas T. Upshur. 



Woman Whipping, Northumberland County, Va., 1653. 

Under date of November 21, 1653, the following appears in the records 
of Northumberland county: 

" Whereas Mrs. Mary Calvert hath confessed in Court That she had 
called ye States and Keep'r of the Liberty of England rogues, Traytors 
& rebells in Mr. Nicholas Morriss his house, she saith at ye Time of 
speaking such words she was in great danger of her life being taken 
away by her husband & she spoke those words to no other end than to 
have some Magistrate or officer to secure her from her husband. The 
Court doth therefore order that ye said Mrs. Calvert shall personally 
receive thirty stripes upon her bare shoulders for this her offence. Yet 
notwithstanding, upon Mr. Calvert's petition in behalfe of his wife The 
Court doth Ord'r that ye said Mr. Calvert shall pay upon all demands to 
the use of the County one thousand pounds of Tob'co & Caske for ye 
Comuteing of ye Corporall punishment to be inflicted upon his said wife, 
with charges of Court." 

The justices present were Colonel John Mottrom, Mr. John Trussell, 
Mr. Wm. Presley and Mr. Nicholas Morris. 



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320 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Racing in Virginia in 1700-05. 

There is in 1700 mention in the Northumberland county records of a 
place called Coan Race, and in 1704-5, a suit in which it is stated that 
Thomas Pinkard was attached to answer Joseph Humphreys. Where- 
upon the plaintif! answers that about October 16, 1703, at a place called 
Fairfield Race in St. Stephen's parish, Northumberland county, said 
Pinkard challenged to run a horse belonging to the Lower parish of 
Lancaster county, with any horse in this (Northumberland) county, ex- 
cept Major Kenner's horse, whereupon Humphreys, the plaintiff, accepted 
said challenge, and said Pinkard and Humphreys mutually contracted 
that some horse of Lancaster and some horse of this county procured by 
the plaintif! should run at Scotland Race ground in this county, the last 
Thursday in October, for ten pounds, said Pinkard to allow 20 shillings 
to said plaintiff for coming to Scotland race ground, it was agreed by 
both parties that the horses intended to be run should be on the ground 
( whether fair or foul weather) by twelve o'clock and if either party should 
fail to be there at twelve o'clock he should lose the wager. According 
to agreement, plaintif! came with the horse he intended to run and 
was there at twelve, and there stayed some hours, but said Pinkard 
did not meet the plaintiff nor bring a horse to run. Whereupon the 
said plaintif! caused the horse he brought to be rode over the ground 
and departed. The jury gave a verdict for the plaintiff from which 
Pinkard appealed to the General Court. 

It appears from this that there were at the time at least three race 
tracks in Northumberland, Coan, Fairfield and Scotland. 



Throckmorton— I have come across the following will which may 
be of interest to the readers of the magazine, if so you are welcome to it: 

P. C. C. 66 Penn. 

Raphael Throckmorton. 
10 Sept. 1669. 

In perfect health. 

To Nicholas Marreshall son-in-law to my godly master Mr. Ri. Abbot 
dec. ;£'2o— to my deare wives brother Mr. William Walthall, now living 
in Virginia jf 10 in money as a gift and a promise to my deare wife the 
which I entreat my sister Holland if she be living to see it sent him. 
To my wifes sister Mrs. Eliz. Clayton /"lo. To my cosen Mary Throck- 
morton second daughter to Sarah Throckmorton dec. the summe of jf 10 
having formerly given her much more but her late neglect & estrange- 
ment hath caused me to alter my purpose To Mrs. Margt. Eccleston, 
widow, late wife to Mr. Hught dec. who in his life time for an especial 
kindness he did me when the tyme was about abjuring the covenants & 
therefore not forgetting that courtesy I do give unto the widow the sum 
of ;f 10 in money also to her 2 only sonnes £5 apeece. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 321 

To my cozen Martha Holland now second to Solomon Bollton in 

S. Martins in the fields /lo. 

To my old friend Hen. Hamond to Sarah & Hannah Abbots 2 
daughters of my godly master Mr. Ri. Abbott £5. £^ to S. & ;f 2 to H. 

To my father Holland of Islington £^, to my dear sister King 20/—. 

To Mrs. Eliz. Curtle the only dag. Mrs. Mary C. of Olney Spinster 
/*5o. & all my household goods at my lodging in More Lane London or 
left at Islington at my father Hollands at the time of the dreadful fire in 
London also my linen & this I do for my sister her mothers sake* 

To the poor of Warrington where I was borne £s. 

My executors to take the advice of Mr. Henley (Lateman?) of Olney. 

To my sister Mrs. Mary Curtle of Olney £s, charging her daughter 
Eliz. Curtle to whom I have given so considerably that she does not let 
her want. 

Exec. Mr. Edw. Bringhurt, attorney who not long ago .ived at my 
house in Aldermanbury, London. ♦ my cousin Mr. Edward Throck- 
morton upholsterer. They to have the overplus of my estate, my body 
to be buried as near as possible to that of my dear wife in Alderman- 
bury church in the middle aisle. 2 Aug. 1669. 

Pd. in the Strand, London, 3 May, 1670. 

C. WicKLiFFE Throckmorton, 

New York City, 

[Wm. Walthall referred to in the will was an early settler within the 
limits of the present Chesterfield county and has numerous descendants.] 



Jewelry in Virginia, 1706. 

Northumberland county, December 20, 1706. Suit by Daniel McCarty, 
attorney of Frances Spencer, orphan of Nicholas Spencer, in which it 
is recited that her mother Madam Frances Spencer, after her husband's 
death, gave to her daughter Frances, a peal necklace valued at /80, 
and gave it to Madam Mary Hack, wife of Peter Hack, gent., to keep 
until said Frances was of age. Said Madam Spencer and Madam 
Hack are both now dead, and the said Frances of age, and it is con- 
ceived the said necklace is in the hands of Peter Hack. The said Peter 
Hack stated that he had such a necklace, delivered as above said. The 
court ordered it to be delivered to the said Frances Spencer. 



The First Court of Lunenburg County. 

The first court of Lunenburg county assembled on May 5, 1746. The 
justices present were John Hall, William Howard, Matthew Talbot, 
Lewis Deloney, John Phelps, John Caldwell, William Hill, Cornelius 
Cargill, Abraham Cocke, Hugh Lawson, Thomas Lanear, and William 
Caldwell, Gents. 



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322 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

On the same day Clement Read, Gent., produced a commission from 
the Hon. Thomas Nelson, Esq., Secretary of the Colony, appointing 
him clerk of the court. 

On June 2d, 1746, additional justices were present as follows: Liddall 
Bacon, Robert Jones, James Mitchell, David Stokes, and Robert Henry 
Dier. 

On November 12, 1778, "Thos. Tabb, Gent, produced a commission 
from the Governor appointing him Lieutenant of the County "(county 
lieutenant), and qualified, as did Abraham Maury as colonel, and Ben- 
jamin Tomlinson as major. 

On August 14, 1777, there was a recommendation for a lieutenant in 
Captain Blackwell's company. 

On June 14, 1770, Robert Blackwell produced a commission appoint- 
ing him lieutenant of a foot company and took the oaths. 

November 12, 1772, Anthony Street and Stephen Edward Brodnax 
qualified as captains of militia. 



Militia Officers of Charlotte County During the Revolution. 

The following are some notes (not exhaustive) from the records of 
Charlotte: 

November Court, 1777, recommendations were made for subalten offi- 
cers in the companies commanded by Captains Hubard, Goode, VVm. 
Morton, Friend, Brown and Harvey. William Watson qualified as 
ensign and Little Joe Morton as 2nd lieutenant. 

Jan., 1778, Wm. Jameson, Gent, qualified as lieutenant. 

Nov., 1779, Wm. Jimeson qualified as captain, and Jonathan Read as 
ist lieutenant. 

Nov., 1777, Edmund Read qualified as lieutenant. 

March, 1780, Francis Thornton qualified as 2nd lieutenant. 

Dec, 1777, Langston Bacon qualified as lieutenant. 

July, 1779, Jacob Morton qualified as captain and Josiah Morton as 
major. 

June, 1780. William Hubbard qualified as major and Josiah Morton as 
lieutenant-colonel. 

Aug., 1780, Joel Watkins qualified as colonel. 



MiLLER-BoLLiNG.— Mr. William Scot, 15 Clairmont Court, Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, writes: 

'* I should be greatly obliged for any information as to parentage and 
origin of my great-grandmother, ne^ Lillias Miller, thereafter Ravens- 
croft and Stewart. She was the second lawful daughter of Hugh Miller. 

I concluded that her mother's name was probably Boiling ? Her 

sisters, Ann and Jean Miller, successively married Sir Peyton Skipwith, 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 323 

Bart. I have seen a reference to Millers who were clerks of Goochland 
county, Va. Hugh Miller may have been of their family? 

'* My relationship to Lillias Miller is through her second marriage. Her 
son, Mr. James Stewart, of Caimsmore, married Elizabeth Macleod, 
and had Elizabeth, married the late Gen. P. G. Scot— my parents. We 
have letters of Dr. and of Bishop Ravenscroft and of Lady Skipwith, 
but nothing that throws any light on the points I wish to ascertain.** 

Mr, Hugh Miller was sometime a prominent resident and merchant at 
Blandford, Prince George county. He was one of those instrumental 
in getting the charter granted by the Grand Lodge of Scotland to the 
Blandford Lodge, F. and A. Masons, in 1757, and was its first master. 
(See Slaughter's Bristol Parish, p. 82, 83 ) He was also a warden of 
old Bristol parish, 1746-47. As an early Virginian, abstracts from his 
will are of interest. He designated himself as " Hugh Miller late of 
the parish of Bristol, and county of Prince George, in Virginia, mer- 
chant — seated at * Greencrofts, ' and thereafter and now of the city of 
London, in Great Britain, merchant." Will dated i Dec, 1761, provides 
for his daughters Ann, Lillias and Jean, when they come of age or marry, 
and for the education in Edinburgh of his son Hugh when he shall attain 
the age of ten years, to be carried out under the care and direction of 
friends James Guthrie and George Muir. In event of all his children 
dying as minors, then £2^,000 ster. to be divided amongst his three cousins 
in Scotland, to-wit: James, Archibald and Robert Freebairn; £fpo to 
each of his friends Richard Weir, now in Crawford's Dyke, Scotland, 
Alexander Boiling, Boiling Stark and William Stark, now in Virginia, 
a»^d ^500 ^ each George McMurdo, of Galloway, near Kirkcudbright, 
and James Johnson, late of Glasgow, merchant; all the residue of his 
estate, both real and personal, to be equally divided between his brothers 
and sisters-in-law in Virginia, to-wit:* Peter Randolph, Esqr., Alexan- 
der Boiling, John Hall, Robert Boiling, Richard Eppes and Elizabeth 
Bannister, and their heirs forever. Appoints as executors James Guth- 
rie, George Muir, Richard Weir, Alexander Boiling, Boiling Stark, 
William Stark, George Mc Murdo, James Johnson and John Mill. Wit- 
nesses: Charlton Palmer and John Lambert. 

A codicil dated 3 Feb., 1762: "I give to my daughter Ann Miller 
jC^qo more than I have given by the foregoing will. I require my said 
daughter as soon as ever 2 1 years shall release and give up to John Flem- 
ing in Virginia, attorney at law, his heirs, etc , all her right, etc., to a 
negro wench called Jenny and her i.ssue, to which I find she has set up 
some claim." 



•Peter Randolph, of " Chatswortb," John Hall, Alexander Boiling, of "Mitchell's," 
and Richard Eppes, of Bermuda Hundred, married sisters of Mrs. Hugh Miller, Robert 
Boiling, of " Boiling brook," 1730-1775, was her brother. " Elizabeth Bannister " was ? 



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324 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Will proved and filed at Somerset House, London, in March 1762. 
Mr. Miller died 13 February, 1762. 

Lillias Miller married, first, Rev. Dr. John Ravenscroft, of '* Maycox.** 
Their son John Stark Ravenscroft, bom near Blanford, 1772, became the 
first P. E. Bishop of North Carolina. (See Slaughter's Bristol Parish^ 
p. 89.) She married, second, Patrick Stewart, Esqr., of Borness and 
Cairnsmore, in Galloway, Scotland (see Burke's Landed Gentry). 

Robert Boiling, 1646-1709, Virginia immigrant in 1660, had by his sec- 
ond wife, Anne Stith: Robert Boiling, Jr., 1682-1749, who had by his 
wife, Anne Cocke: Jane Boiling, born i April, 1722, who married Hugh 
Miller, aforesaid. Their son, Robert Miller, bom 28, October, 1746 
(Bristol Parish Record). 

C. H. Browning, 
Ardmore, Pa. 



Hand Organ, 1767. 
Just imported from London. 

A very neat Hand Organ, in a mahogany case, with a gilt front, which 
plays sixteen tunes, on two barrels; it has four stops, and every thing 
is in the best order. The first cost was ^16 sterling, and the lady being 
dead it came in for, any person inclining to purchase it may have it on 
very reasonable terms. Inquire at the post office, Williamsburg. 

Virginia Gazette ^ September 17, 1767. 



Boarding Houses in Williamsburg, 1767. 

Williamsburg, September 24, 1767. 
I hereby acquaint those Gentlemen who used to frequent the house 
of Mrs. Mary Page, deceased, and all others who please to favour me 
with their company, that they may depend on the best accommodations, 
and other entertainment, from 

Their humble servant, 

Gabriel Maupin. 

N. B. I still carry on my business of Saddle and Harness making, and 
shall be very much obliged to those who employ me. They may rely 
upon having their work done well, and expeditiously. 

Virginia Gazette, October i, 1767. 

Sarah Coke 

Begs leave to inform those Gentlemen who were so kind as to favour 
her deceased husband with their custom that they may depend on re- 
ceiving the same entertainment as formerly. 

Virginia Gazette, October 15, 1767. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 325 

Cock Fight, 1767. 

On Monday the 4th of April will be fought at Sussex Court-house. 

A match of 

COCKS 

between the Brunswick and Sussex Gentlemen; to show 30 cocks a 

side, for 5 1. a battle, and 50 1. the odd. At night there will be a ball, 

for the reception of the Ladies and Gentlemen. 

Virginia Gazette, March 17, 1768. 



Vessel for Sale, 1767. 
To be Sold 
A Double decked vessel, now on the storks, which can be finished in 
a short time. She is about 1 10 tuns, built by a prime hand from Boston, 
will carry a great burthern and is esteemed a very fine vessel. 

For terms apply to Benjamin Harrison. 

Virginia Gazette, November 3, 1768. 



Vessel Advertised by Washington, 1774. 

To be Sold at publick Auction, on Monday the 28th of this Instant 
(March) at Alexandria, /ttrj«/2«/ to the Condition of Bottomry Bond, 
given to the Subscriber by Mr. Daniel Jenifer Adams. 

The Brigantine Anne and Elizabeth, a strong well built Vessel, about 
four years old, newly repaired, having good Anchors and entire new 
Cables. This Brigantine will carry about 5,000 Bushels of Grain, or 
800 Barrels of Flower. The Terms will be made known on the Day of 
Sale, by George Washington. 

Virginia Gazette, March 10, 1774. 



Dentistry, 1785. 
Doctor Le Mayeur, from the City of New York, Dentist, 

Begs leave to inform the Ladies and Gentlemen that he has arrived 
in the City of Richmond, where he intends to stay a few weeks, 
and will perform any operations on the teeth, hitherto performed in 
Europe, such as transplanting, &c., &c., &c. Besides he puts natural 
teeth instead of false, to people who cannot have naturalties. Dr. Le 
Mayeur may be spoke with at Mrs. Younghusband's. 

October 18, 1785. 

Any person that will dispose of their Front Teeth (slaves excepted) 
may receive Two Guineas for each, by calling on Doctor Laymeur, at 
Mrs. Younghusband's, in the City of Richmond. 

Virginia Gazette, Saturday, December 3, 1785. 



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326 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 



Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, from 1726 to 1871. By [os. 
A Waddell, member of the Virginia Historical Society. Second 
edition, revised and enlarged [county seal]. Staunton, Va., C. Rus- 
sell Caldwell, publisher, 1902, pp. viii, 545. 

To the student of the history of Virginia or of the United States the 
chief interest of the history of Augusta County lies in the fact that the 
latter is, to a great degree, the story of Virginia's Winning of the 
West. 

A county which nominally extended from the Blue R idge to the Mis- 
sissippi and Ohio, and which really exercised some sort of jurisdiction 
over a large part of the present West Virginia, and a portion of Penn- 
sylvania, must have been the scene of the principal events during the 
advance of Virginia to the Westward. 

Outside of the students of history is a vastly larger class, which buys 
and reads historical works because they contain something of personal 
interest, some biographical notice, or some bit of family history. 

The Annals of Augusta County 2^% written by Mr. Waddell contains so 
much of value alike to the student and to the tens of thousands of de- 
scendants of Augusta men, who are now scattered throughout the United 
States, that one edition of his work (which was issued in two forms) has 
been exhausted, and there has been a demand which has called forth 
this new and greatly enlarged and improved one. 

The author is a native and life long resident of the county of which 
he writes, and through a period extending over many years has been a 
loving and most industrious student of her history and antiquities and 
of the genealogy of her families 

The difference between the first and the present edition may be judged 
by the statement that the former contained 492 pages, while the latter has 
563 of considerably larger size. 

An extract from the preface gives some of the scources of the addi- 
tional matter in the new edition : 

*' Since the publication of the first edition of these Annals in 1886, I 
have obtained a large amount of additional and interesting information 
relating to the history of Augusta County. I may refer to the extracts 
from the records of Orange County Court, the journal of Thomas Lewis, 
and the records of baptisms by the Rev. John Craig, the last of which 
also contains other items of interest. The applications for pensions by 
Revolutionary soldiers in 1832, accidentally found, unindexed and un- 
labeled, in the clerk's office of the County Court, has offered much ad- 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 327 

ditional information in regard to the history of the county during that 
war. Having learned that the Historical Society of Wisconsin contained 
two ancient manuscripts relating to the county, part of the collections 
of Dr. Lyman Draper, I applied for and obtained copies. These were 
muster rolls of the officers and men comprising nine companies of militia 
in the year 1742, and a list of persons killed or captured by the Indians, 
in the county, from October, 1754, to May, 1758." 

The scources mentioned in this extract are only a few of the many 
from which the author has derived his information. All through the 
new edition is evidence of wider and more thorough investigation. 

Perhaps there can be no better way of giving, briefly, an idea of the 
contents of the book than by stating the titles of the various chapters. 
They are: The Scotch-Irish, an Introduction; I. From the first settle- 
ment to foundation of the county; II. From 1738 to the first County 
Court; III. From the first court to the first Indian war; IV. Indian wars, 
&c., from 1753 to 1756; V. Indian wars, &c., from 1756 to 1758; VI. In- 
dian wars, &c., from 1758 to 1764; VII. Indian wars, &c., in 1764; VIII. 
Ten years of peace [which, however, includes the battle of Point Pleas- 
ant]; IX. The war of the Revolution, &c., from 1775 to 1779; X. The 
war of the Revolution, &c., from 1779 to 1781; XI. The Revolution, 
&c., from 1 78 1 to the end of the war; XII. Emigration from Augusta 
and some of the emigrants; XIII. From the close of the Revolution to 
the year 1800; XIV. Made up of sundries; XV. From 1800 to 1812; 
XVI. From the year 1812 to the year 1825; XVII. From the year 1825 
to the year 1833; XVIII. From 1835 to 1844; XIX. From 1844 to i860; 
XX. Augusta county and the war of Secession, 1860-2; XXI. .Second 
year of the war, 1862-3; XXII. Third year of the war, 1863-4; XXIII. 
Fourth year of the war, 1864-5; XXIV. After the war. 1865; XXV. Re- 
construction, 1865-71. 

There are numerous appendices to each chapter, giving original doc- 
uments, biographical sketches or compact genealogies. 

Perhaps that almost terra incognita, the earlier history of what is 
now West Virginia, can still be covered more fully by future investigj^ 
tors, especially by the historical societies of that State, but the author 
appears to have used all available means and has made a minute and 
careful study of the period of the Indian wars. 

As the story of the colonial period is of the greatest interest from a 
historical point of view, so it and the time of the Revolution will chiefly 
attract the attention of the many descendants of Augusta ancestors. 
Prior to the Revolution many of the men who had taken part in the 
colonial wars removed to other parts of the country, and after that war, 
a perfect tide of emigration flowed from the county to the South and 
West. There is scarcely one of these descendants, but who will find 
something of personal interest in Mr. Waddell's book. 



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328 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

In addition to the history of the county and of the life of its people 
there will be found numerous genealogies. The families of Borden, 
Craig, Jones (Gabriel), Brown, Hamilton, Breckenridge, Preston. Mc- 
Dowell, Alexander, Christian, Campbell, Smith, Harrison. Allen, Mofiett, 
Trimble, Bowyer, Fleming, Crawford, Floyd, McKee, McNutt, Moore, 
McClanahan, Poage, Cunningham, Bell, Gamble, Mathews, Tate, Estell, 
Robertson, Sevier, Waddell, Anderson, Warwick, Cameron, Stuart, 
and many others are treated of with varying degrees of fullness. 

Coming down from the Revolutionary period until the date he has 
chosen for a conclusion of his work, Mr. Waddell gives a full history 
of the county and the city of Staunton, and is especially valuable as re- 
gards the manner in which they were effected by the Civil War. 

Throughout the book shows careful investigation and desire for ac- 
curacy. 

Space will not permit us to go into a more detailed examination of 
this very interesting history, but a few things may be commented on. 

On page 59 it is said that " in Virginia, during colonial times, little or 
no concern was taken about public roads." Mr. Waddell, of course, is 
authority as to the fact in Augusta, and no doubt our roads were bad 
enough everywhere, but that it was so in Eastern Virginia was not due 
to the fact that there was no concern about them. The county records 
are full of orders in regard to roads, appointment of overseers, opening 
or dosing roads, presenting overseers who did not do their duty, &c. 

On page 61 it is stated that the county records incidentally show Robt. 
Cunningham to have been a member of the House of Burgesses in 1746. 
This explains who was the '* Mr. Cunningham," who appears in the jour- 
nals of the House at the sessions of February, 1745, July, 1746 and March, 
1747. Other burgesses not given in Mr. Waddell's list were: John Wil- 
son and John Madison, October, 1748; the same, April, 1749 (there was 
no session in 1751); November, 1753, ^"d February, 1754; John Madison 
and James Patton (in place of Wilson, who had accepted the office of 
surveyor), August, 1754; Wilson and Patton, October, 1754; the same. 
May, 1755; John Wilson in August, 1755, and a new election ordered to 
fill the place of Patton, who had been killed by the Indians on his re- 
turn from the preceding Assembly; Wilson, October, 1755; Wilson and 
Gabriel Jones, March, 1756, and September, 1756; Wilson and Israel 
Christian, 1760, 1762, 1763, 1764, 1765; Wilson and William Preston, 
1765, 1767; Wilson and Gabriel Jones, 1769 (William Preston was a mem- 
ber for Botetourt at the session of November, 1769) and 1770; Wilson and 
Samuel McDowell, 1772; Samuel McDowell and Charles Lewis (in place 
of Wilson, deceased), March, 1773; the same, 1774. Charles Lewis was 
elected a member of the last House of Burgesses which convened in 
Virginia, but was killed in battle before the Assembly met on June ist, 
1775- George Matthews was elected in his place and he and McDowell 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 329 

were the )ast burgesses for Augusta. Thomas Lewis was never a mem- 
ber of the House from Augusta. 

It is not believed that George Rootes, mentioned in connection with 
the treaty of Fort Pitt (p. 89), was ever a resident in the present Augusta 
county. He represented West Augusta in the convention of July, 1775, 
and Fincastle in that of Decemher in the same year. The fVi/ltam <Sf 
Mary Catalogue is in error in stating that Philip Rootes, the student in 
177 1, was of Augusta. His father (who was a brother of George Rootes) 
lived in King and Queen. 

Mr. Waddell in his treatment of the obscure '* Sandy Creek Voyage " 
in 1756 (pp. 127-129) makes no mention of the fragment of a diary of 
Lieutenant Thos. Morton, published in the Vir^^inia Historical Register, 
IV, 143-147, and Lyman C. Draper's two communications in the same 
work, V, 20-24, and 61-76, giving a synopsis of Captain William Pre.s- 
ton's journal, then and now in the collection of the Wisconsin Historical 
Society. Morton and Preston were officers in this abortive campaign, 
and their diaries throw much light on it. 

The Charles Lewis mentioned on page 146 was, as Mr. Waddell sug- 
gests, not Charles Lewis of Augusta, but a brother of Fielding Lewis. 
Colonel John Chiswell (p. 216) did not die in jail in Cumberland, but as 
is shown by the Virginia Gazette of the time, committed suicide while 
waiting trial in Williamsburg. 

The office of " Presiding Justice *' (p. 535) may have had no legal ex- 
istance, but the title, sometimes rendered "President Justice," is fre- 
quently found in old records. 

We can heartily commend Mr. Waddell's book throughout, with the 
exception of the index. A work of this character, with 535 pages of 
text, should have more than a seven page index. 

The True Thomas Jefferson. By William Eleroy Curtis. Author of 
"The Capitals of Spanish America," "The United States and 
Foreign Powers," &c. Philadelphia and London. J. B. Lippincott 
Company. 1901. 

This irruption of yellow journalism into biography has been so gene- 
rally discredited by the majority of reputable reviewers that it is hardly 
necessary, at this late day, to take it up for examination. It may be 
worth while, however, to point out some of the glaring errors with 
which it is filled. 

The book shows plainly that more than an eye for striking points in 
a story, and an appetite for the sensational, is needed for the proper 
preparation of a biography of one of our great men. 

It is rather a pity, too, for with all its faults, the "True Thomas Jef- 
ferson " is interesting. If it were not for the author's abounding igno- 



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330 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

ranee and his recklessness of statement he might have made a valuable 
work. 

It is true that Jefferson never cared much for ancestry and took no 
special pains to trace his own ; but it is hardly fair to call Jefferson's re- 
mark in reference to the long descent of his mother's family, that '* every 
one might attach what merit to it he pleased," a sneer. 

There is no evidence whatever that the Jeffersons were of Welsh de- 
scent, and his mother's family, the Randolphs, were certainly English 
and not Scotch, as stated by Mr. Curtis. Nor is it true as said (page i8) 
that Jefferson's descendants have *' traced his line with great satisfac- 
tion." What satisfaction it may have given any of them is not known ; 
but certainly they had nothing to do with the tracing. This *' tracing ** 
was simply the discovery by various persons who have of late years 
examined the records of Henrico county, Va., of the existence of one 
generation of the family (a great grandfather) whose existence was un- 
known to the President. As the extant records of the county begin in 
1677, it is impossible to ascertain anything of an earlier date. Cer- 
tainly, if Mr. Curtis ever stops to think, he would not have stated, as he 
does on pages 18 and 19, that John Jefferson, who was a member of the 
House of Burgesses in 16 19, was the father of Thomas Jefferson, who 
died in 1697. Neither the ** descendants," nor those who have traced 
the line, are responsible for this absurdity. 

The fact is, that the Jeffersons, from the time they first api>ear in 1677, 
while not of the first rank in wealth and political influence, held a 
respectable position, and intermarried with families of the same class. 

President Jefferson's paternal grandmother, Mary Feild, was the 
daughter of a man who was a member of the House of Burgesses, and 
who held most of the principal offices of his county, and her grand- 
father, Henry Soane, was Speaker of the House in 1660-61. So much 
for the statements in regard to family. 

On page 29 some doubt is expressed whether " Belinda," as Jefferson 
termed one ot the objects of his youthful adoration, and Rebecca Bur- 
well were the same. There is no doubt whatever that they were ; but 
the story that her father, Lewis Burwell, became impoverished in his 
old age and through Jefferson's influence was appointed tipstaff of a 
court, is utterly false. This Lewis Burwell was Governor of Virginia, 
and died in 1752, possessed of a large estate. As Jefferson was nine 
years old at the time of Burwells death, this furnishes another fine ex- 
ample of Mr. Curtis's methods. 

On the next page, for it seems the author's plan to have an error on 
every one, comes the statement that Mrs. Martha Skelton, Jefferson's 
future wife, was a widow in 1768. In fact, her first husband, Bathurst 
Skelton, did not die until 177 1 (his will was proved in September of 
that year), and most certainly Jefferson never ** mentions his love for 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 331 

her," in 1770, as Mr. Curtis has it. It may be mentioned in this con" 
nection that the picture described as " The Pines, present appearance of 
the house of Mr. VVayles, where Jefferson was married," is a dream of 
the author's. The VVayles house was named "The Forest," and was 
burnt during the Civil War. 

On page 40 it is asserted that John Randolph, of Roanoke, was 
not related to Jefterson. John Randolph's grandfather, Richard Ran- 
dolph, of * 'Curies," and Jefferson's grandfather, Isham Randolph, of 
*' Dungeness," were brothers. Then, as if to compensate for taking 
away a kinsman, the author gives Isham Randolph (on page 41), a de- 
scendant, Thomas Mann Randolph, Jefferson's son-in-law, who was 
really in no way descended from him. 

One of the most serious and unaccountable mistakes in the book is 
the statement on page 50, in regard to the treatment of Jefferson by the 
Legislature of Virginia . The author says that Jefferson applied to the 
Legislature for permission to dispose of his property by lottery ; but 
**the Legislature declined to grant his request." "An attempt was 
made to secure the passage of a bill to loan him eighty thousand dollars 
from the State Treasury. This was defeated also." 

The reader, who has not particularly studied this subject, will have 
difficulty in believing, after such positive assertions, that the Virginia 
Legislature did, without hesitation, pass an act authorizing the lottery, 
and that there is no record of any application for a loan of money. An 
examination of the Journal of the Virginia House of Delegates for the 
session of 1825-26 shows that on Februar>' 8, 1826, Mr. Loyall submitted 
a resolution for leave to bring in a bill " authorizing Thomas Jefferson 
to dispose of his property by lottery"; on the 9th the resolution was 
agreed to by the House ; on the roth ** Mr. Loyall, according to order," 
presented the bill ; on the 16th the bill was reported from committee 
without amendment, on the 17th read a third time, and on the 18th 
passed by a recorded vote of 125 to 62. On the 21st the Senate in- 
formed the House that it had passed the bill. 

There is no doubt that Jefferson had many eneniies in Virginia, and 
his friend, J. C. Cabell, seems to have been somewhat afraid (though, as 
appeared, entirely without reason) that the act might not pass. In 
view of its possible failure he sounded [efferson as to whether he would 
accept a donation from the Legislature. This Jefferson stated he would 
not do. 

The passage of the act by such a decisive majority (it was 13 to 4 in 
the Senate) gave the Ex-President great pleasure He wrote to Thomas 
Ritchie, on March 13, 1826: "The necessity which dictated this expe- 
dient cost me in its early stage unsupportable mortification. The turn 
it has taken, so much beyond what I could have expected, has Counter- 
vailed all I suffered and become a source of pleasure I should otherwise 
never have known. (Ford's IVriHngs 0/ Jefferson, X, 382.) 



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332 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Jefferson evidently did not feel that Virginia had been ungrateful. 
Part of his happiness arising from this affair was due to the fact that 
many meetings were held throughout the State warmly endorsing the 
action of the Legislature and expressing sympathy and esteem for Jef- 
ferson. 

In view of the fact that this whole business is shown at length by- 
Randall, Ford, &c., it is indeed inexplicable how any one could have 
made such a misstatement. This is "true " biography in most strange 
fashion. It may be well to add that the act referred to is the iiith of 
the session of 1825-26, and is to be found in the printed volume. 

Perhaps there is no chapter in the book which more fully shows how 
entirely unfitted Mr. Curtis is to write a life of a great Virginian, or, 
indeed, to do any other historical work, than that entitled "Jefferson 
as a Lawyer." His comparison of Williamsburg to a crude frontier 
town of the present day is, of course, absurd. It was not a Boston, 
New York or Philadelphia, and no one has ever claimed that it equalled 
them in size, but it can be stated with entire confidence that, in propor- 
tion to its population, it contained as many men of education and refine- 
ment as any American city of the present day. 

The number of books in a town is a fair test of the character and cul- 
tivation of its citizens, and it can easily be shown that the private libra- 
ries of Williamsburg surpassed in positive number of volumes those to 
be found in the average small town of to-day, while taken as repre- 
senting the world's best literature up to that time, were beyond com- 
parison. 

The author goes on to repeat the hackneyed charges, now abandoned 
by all who have real knowledge of our past, that most of the Virginians 
of the day were guilty of "drunkenness, debauchery, licentiousness, 
disregard of financial obligations, and other moral delinquencies.** 
They had, however, he says, a code of morals peculiar to themselves. 
All of the crimes indicated might be committed, but a breach of this 
code required reparation in the duel. 

It is hardly worth while at the present day to do more than state 
(what all students know) that every one of these statements, in the ex- 
tent in which they are made, are totally false Virginians were neither 
more debauched nor reckless than the other colonists. The editors of 
this Magazine have never considered that Virginia was put in a better 
light by showing that some other colony was bad ; but it is a perfectly 
legitimate historic comparison to cite investigations which show that 
there was as much immorality in Massachusetts as there was here, and 
that our's was no black exception to the general condition of the col- 
onies. 

In regard to duels, it is known that there is record of only one in Vir- 
ginia prior to 1775, and as to sexual immorality, the county records 
show that the courts took rigid and indiscriminating action whenever a 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 333 

case occurred, and at the same time show that in at least ninety per cent, 
of such cases, indentured servants were the guilty parties. 

Treating of literacy and attention to literature, it can be proved, not 
by any idle guessing, but from the records, that at least as many Virgin- 
ians could write as the inhabitants of any other colony, and that in the 
number of books among the people Virginia equalled, if it did not sur- 
pass, any of the others. 

It is, however, foolish to expect that the author of "The True 
Thomas Jefferson " should know anything about these matters, when 
such a man as Professor Woodberry, of Columbia, is so ignorant 
of the unimpeachable evidences which are being made public month 
after month, as to say, in a recent periodical, that there were few books 
and but little taste for reading in Colonial Virginia. 

Leaving this phase of the subject, and taking up the long line of 
errors which trails from page to page, we find on page 58 that Mr. 
Curtis is ignorant of the fact that the first husband of Mrs. Washington 
was named Daniel Parke Custis and not George. 

Another misstatement on the same page is that any descendant of 
Edmund Randolph still occupies his old home. He is equally incorrect 
in the next succeeding page, where he says Williamburg was founded 
in 1632. 

The same histories which, he says, on page 60, have made every 
American schoolboy familiar with the old " Powderhorn " in Williams- 
burg, would also have shown any one but Mr. Curtis that Dunmore re- 
moved the powder from that building in 1775 and not in 1774. 

Still, keeping up his plan of having at least one error for each page, 
he states, or implies, that Bruton Parish church was built in 1632, and 
that it, ** perhaps with the exception of the little sanctuary at Santa F^, 
is the oldest building now used for religious worship in America." In 
fact, the church was built long after the date named, and several older 
ones are in use in the United States. 

There is a generous provision of error on this page, for a little farther 
on he speaks of '* I^dy Christina Stuart," a "member of the royal house 
of Scotland, who married a Virginia gentleman," and who was **a niece 
of Mary, Queen of Scots." As the lady referred to was a daughter of 
the Earl of Traquair, and wife of Cyrus Griffin, last President of the 
Continental Congress, it is obvious how little the author allows to bother 
him, the small matter of the few hundred years diflference in time be- 
tween Queen Mary and Lady Christina. 

The statement, on page 65, that William and Mary is older than Har- 
vard hardly needs a correction. 

The author's treatment of Virginia laws (pp. 75, 76), shows that he 
has totally misunderstood the subject. The manuscript laws which 
Jefferson collected with so much pains were those of the early colonial 



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334 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

period, most of them only valuable, even in his time, from a historic 
point of view. From 1736 the laws were printed and generally acces- 
sible. Of course it is not intended to imply that codification was not 
needed. 

The law of retaliation ( "an eye for an eye," &c.), was never at any 
time in force in Virginia, nor were any of the laws harsher than those of 
England at that period. 

Some of the author's grossest inaccuracies appear in the discussion 
(pp. 121, &c.) of Virginia's alleged ingratitude to Jefferson. It is said 
that Virginia was one of the most ungrateful of States ; that she per- 
mitted Jefferson to die destitute, and his estates to pass into the hands 
of aliens ; that she never appreciated his greatest gift, the University, 
and allowed his grave to be trampled upon as she allowed the home of 
Washington to pass out of her hands ; the home of Madison to be sold 
under the hammer, and the ruins of Jamestown to be bought by a lady 
of Ohio, and, in conclusion, that the only memorial to Jefferson in Vir- 
ginia is a little post-office in Powhatan county. 

This is a mass of absurdities. Was there any State, or any general 
public feeling in any State, until in quite recent years, which paid any 
regard to the preservation of the homes of historic men? The amount 
of work which the various patriotic societies have found to do is a ready 
answer in the negative. 

Virginia allowed the home of Washington to ** pass out of its hands " 
no more than did Massachusetts or New York when the homes of their 
eminent men had passed from one individual to another. No State con- 
trol could have been as beneficial to Mt. Vernon as that of the Associa- 
tion, chartered by a Virginia law. 

That no lady, but a gentleman, from Ohio purchased the ruins of 
Jamestown, and presented them to an associatian of women is an insig- 
ficant point. This gentleman purchased Jamestown Island as a farm ; 
but great honor is due him for being willing to set aside one portion to 
be sacredly guarded forever. What we of the present age regret as im- 
proper neglect of a historic spot by our forefathers, was simply due to the 
fact that in Virginia, no more than ehewhere in America, was there a 
public sentiment which would induce such care as we wish to give it 
now. 

As to Virginia not commemorating Jefferson except by a post-office 
in Powhatan county, it is remarkable that Mr. Curtis did not also say 
that the State deserved no credit for this, as post-offices are named by 
the U. S. Government. But, while overlooking this obvious detraction, 
Mr. Curtis also overlooked the fact that there is a statue of Jefferson in 
the Capitol Square in Richmond, and that at an early period of the 
State's existence she named a county Jefferson (now in West Virginia). 

In regard to Virginia's indifference to Jefferson's " greatest gift, the 



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BOOK REVIEWS. 335 

University,*' it is sufficient to say that soon after its foundation it became 
the State's greatest educational institution, and a subject of affectionate 
reverence on the part of our people, such as few in any country have 
called forth. If the University represents Jefferson's thought and tireless 
labor, it also represents the financial support of Virginia. The State 
built it, and, until of late years, the State has almost entirely maintained 
it. But this subject will be treated of later. 

Leaving this matter of ingratitude, we must again take up the almost 
endless task of correcting little errors in statements of fact. 

On page 123 the author says that the day after the adoption of Henry's 
resolutions (of 1765) they '*were expunged from the records upon the 
motion of Col. Peter Randolph, an uncle of Jefferson." This extract 
contains almost as many mistakes as words. In the first place, Henry's 
resolutions were not expunged. Only the fifth was. and the other four 
remained in force. Colonel Peter Randolph was a member of the 
Council and could have made no motion in the House of Burgesses. 
He was not an uncle of Jefferson ; but a cousin. 

With his usual fogginess of ideas, Mr. Curtis has not been able to un- 
derstand or remember the account he read describing this matter of the 
resolutions He is evidently quoting Jefferson, who states that on the 
day after the resolutions were adopted, he saw Colonel Peter Randolph 
(before the House met) sitting at the clerk's table and searching the 
journals for a precedent for expunging. Peter Randolph could not have 
made a motion in the House, and no one, before, ever said he did. 
But this is as near as Mr. Curtis usually gets to historical correctness. 

The statement on page 124 that Jefferson, when he was first a candi- 
date for the House, entertained the voters at Shadwell, including in his 
hospitality a punch bowl, and for three days furnished them with drink 
and food, may be derived from tradition ; but is hardly founded on fact. 
The laws of Virginia and the practice, as shown by the journals of the 
House of Burgesses, prove most conclusively that such a violation of 
law would have unseated him. 

Farther down on the same page, the author states that Jefferson and 
Washington took their seats in the House in 1769, and that Washington's 
•'appearance in the House of Burgesses, immediately after Braddock's 
campaign, created a flutter." He then gives the well-known account of 
Speaker Robinson tendering to Washington the thanks of the House- 
Of course everybody, but Mr. Curtis, knows that Braddock's campaign 
was in 1755, so that 1769 can hardly be called "immediately" after- 
wards. Washington was elected to the House and took his seat in the 
fall of 1758. It was then that he received the vote of thanks. 

Another mistake (page 227) which is only worthy of notice as showing 
the author's slovenly methods, is the statement that Jefferson and Mar- 
shall were born and reared in the same neighborhood. 



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336 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Chapter IX, on *'The Founder of the University of Virginia," can 
be commended as an intelligent and appreciative discussion of Jefferson*s 
famous institution. 

But even here, when at his best, Mr. Curtis seems to find it impossible 
to be accurate. He states that, since its organization, the University 
has received gifts and endowments to the amount of |i,393,ioo,of which 
11,038,000 were contributed by people living north of the Potomac, and 
that '' had it not been for the munificence of Northern friends,*' the Uni- 
versity would long ago have perished. 

Virginians feel the deepest gratitude for the magnificent generosity of 
Northern friends of the University, but to say that but for their gifts it 
would "long ago have perished " is sheer madness. 

In the first place nearly all of these gifts have been made since the 
Civil War, and the University had a career of constantly increasing use- 
fulness from its foundation in 1824 to i860, supported entirely by Vir- 
ginia and the tuition fees of Southern students. 

In addition to the cost of building, the State has appropriated at least 
1 1 5,000 a year. This amount, only estimating it for seventy years, is 
11,050,000, and has been totally overlooked by Mr. Curtis. 

Among donors since the war, who lived north of the Potomac, were 
several native Virginians, among them Mrs. Kent (who gave |55,ooo), 
Leander McCormick ($68,ooo) and Douglas H. Gordon ($5,000). These 
amounts, making in all 1 128,000, leave the total gifts by people born and 
reared north of the Potomac at $900,000, of which $470,000 (the Austin 
bequest) has not yet been realized. Thus the amount from this source, 
actually received, has been $430,000, while appropriations from the State 
of Virginia and gifts by natives of Virginia have amounted to upwards 
of $ 1 , 1 78,000. Quite a different matter from the statement by Mr. Curtis. 

It is now full time to bring to an end a notice which has extended 
greatly beyond the writer's expectation. 

There is really no danger that the *' True Thomas Jefferson " will long 
mislead even the most careless reader. Its errors are too numerous and 
the incompetence of its author too manifest. On the contrary, it will 
do much good if it impresses publishers with the knowledge that the 
life of a great statesman or the history of a period full of momentous 
events cannot be '* written up " and made a " good story " (in newspaper 
parlance) by the same men and in the same manner as the last sensational 
murder or divorce. 



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Virginia Historical Society. 



NEW Series. 

*' Collections of the Virginia Historical Society. New Series. Edited 
by R. A. Brock, Corresponding Secretary and Librarian of the Society, 
(Seal) Richmond, Va. Published by the Society." Eleven annual 
volumes, uniform. 8vo., cloth, issued 1882-92, carefully indexed, as 
follows: 

The Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant-Governor of 
the Colony of Virginia, 1710-1722. Now first printed from the manu- 
script in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society, with an 
introduction and notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two*Volumes. Portrait and Arms, pp xxi-179 and vil-368. 8 00 

The Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-Governor of the 
Colony of Virginia, 1751-1758. Now first pnnted from the manu- 
script in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society, with an 
introduction and notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two volumes, pp. Ixix-5a8 and xviii-768. Portraits, fac-simiU of letters of presentation 
from W. W. Corcoran, cut of Mace of Borough of Norfolk, Va., and reproduction of the 
Map of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania, engraved for Jefferson's Notes 
on Virginia, 1787. 6 60 

Documents, Chiefly Unpublished, Relating to the Huguenot Emigration 
to Virginia and to the Settlement at Manakfn Town, with an Appen- 
dix of Genealogies, presenting data of the Fontaine, Maury, Dupuy, 
Trabue, Marye, Chastaine, Cocke and other Families. 
Pages xxi-a47. Contains fac-snmle of plan of "King William's Town." 2 60 

Miscellaneous Papers, 1672-1865. Now first printed from the manuscript 
in the Collections of the Virginia Historical Society. Comprising 
Charter of the Royal African Co., 1672; Report on the Huguenot 
Settlement 1700; Papers of George Gilmer of •Ten Park," 1775-78; 
Orderly Book of Capt. George Stubblefield, 1776; Career of the 
Iron-clad Virginia, 1862; Memorial of Johnson's Island, 1862-4; Beale*s 
Cav. Brigade Parole, 1865. 
Pages viii-374. 2 60 

Abstract of the Proceedings of the Virginia Company of London, 1619- 
1624, Prepared from the Records in the Library of Congress by 
Conway Robinson, uith an introduction and notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two volumes. Pages xlvii-ai8 and 300. The introduction contains a valuable critical 

essay on the sources of information for the student of Virginia History. 5 00 

The History of the Virginia Federal Convention of 1788, with some ac- 
count of the Eminent Virginians of that era who were members of 
the Body, by Hugh Blair Grigsby. LL. D., with a Biographical 
Sketch of the Author and illustrative notes. Vols. I and II. 
Two volnmcs. Pages xxvii-37a and 411. r^ ^-^ ^ C 00 



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Proceedings of the Virginia Historical Society at the Annual Meeting 
held December 21-22, 1891, with Historical Papers read on the oc- 
casion and others. 

Pages xix-386. Contains papers on the Virginia Committee of Correspondence and the 
Call for the First Congress; Historical Elements in Virginia Education and Literary 
Effort ; Notes on Recent Work in Southern History ; Ancient Epitaphs and Descriptions 
in York and James City Counties, Washington's First Election to the House of Burgesses ; 
Smithfield Church, built in 1632, Richmond's First Academy; Facts from the Accomac 
County Records, Relating to Bacon's Rebellion ; Thomas Hansford, first Martyr to Ameri- 
can Liberty; Journal of Captain Charles Lewis in Washington's Expedition against the 
French in 1755; Orderly Books of Major Wm. Heath, 1777, and Capt. Robert Gamble, 1779, 
fcnd Memoir of General John Cropper. 2 50 

The full set of these publications can be obtained for $3 1 .GO, or the separate 
publications, at the prices named. 
Discount allowed to booksellers. 



Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Edited to October 
ist, 1898, by Philip A. Bruce, and since that date by William G. Stanard, 
Corresponding Secretary and Librarian of the Society, (Seal). Pub- 
lished Quarterly by the Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Va. 
House of the Society, No. 707 East Franklin St. 

Volume I— Octavo, pp. 484-vlii-xxvi-xxxii. 

Contains cut of the Society's Building, accounts of the proceedings and transactions of 
the Society for the year 1893, and many exceedingly valuable, original historical documents 
and papers which have never before appeared in print. Among others may be mentioned, 
Discourse of the London Company on its administration of Virginia affairs, 1607-1624; 
Abstracts of Colonial Patents in the Register of the Virginia Land Office, beginning in 1624, 
with full genealogical notes and an extended Genealogy of the Claiborne Family ; The 
Mutiny in Virginia in 1635 ; Samuel Matthew's Letter and Sir John Harvey's Declaration ; 
Speech of Governor Berkeley and Declaration of the Assembly with reference to the change 
of Government in England and the passage of the First Navigation Act of 1651 ; Petition 
of the Planters of Virginia and Mar>land in opposition to the Navigation Act of 1661 ; 
Bacon's Rebellion, 1676; His three proclamations, Letters of Sherwood and Ludwell, Pro- 
posals of Smith and Ludwell, and Thomas Bacon's Petition ; Letters of William Fitzhugh 
(1650-1701), a Leading Lawyer and Planter of Virginia, with a genealogical account of the 
Fitzhughs in England ; Lists of Public Officers in the various Counties in Virginia late in 
the 17th and early in the 18th centuries ; Rosier of Soldiers in the French and Indian Wars 
under Colonel Washington ; Officers, Seamen and Marines in the Virginia Navy of the 
Revolution ; Roll of the 4th Virginia Regiment in the Revolution ; Diary of Captain John 
Davis of the Pennsylvania Line in the Yorktown Campaign ; General George Rogers 
Clark, — Roll of the Illinois and Cro^^kett's Regiments and the Expedition to Vincennes ; 
Department of '* Historical Notes and Queries," containing contributions by Hon. Wm, 
Wirt Hcnr>', and many other items of value; Department of "Book Reviews;" A full 
Index. S 00 

Volume II — Octavo, pp. 482-ii-xxiv. 

Contains a full account of the proceedings and transactions of the Society for the 
year 1894, and the following list of articles copied from the original documents : Report 
of Governor and Council on the Condition of Affairs in Virginia in 1626 ; Abstracts of Col- 
onial Patents in the Register of the Virginia Land Office, with full genealogical notes and 
extended genealogies of the Fleet, Robins and Thoroughgood Families ; Reports of Griev- 
ances by the Counties of Virginia af\er the suppression of Bacon's Insurrection ; A full his- 
tory of the First Legislative Assembly ever held in America (that in 1619 at Jamestown), 
written by Hon. Wm. Wirt Henry ; The concluding list of Virginia Soldiers engaged in 
the French and Indian Wars; The opening lists of the Virginia Officers and Men in the 
Continental Line, compiled from official sources ; A valuable account of the Indian Wars 
in Augusta County, by Mr. Joseph A. Waddell, with the lists of the killed and wounded 

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Instructions to Governor Yeardley in 1618 and 1626, and to Governor Berkeley in 1641 ; Let- 
ters of William Fitzhugh continued, with full genealogical notes; The Will of William 
Fitzhugh; A complete List of Public Officers in Virginia in 1702 and 1714; Valuable ac- 
count of Horse Racing in Virginia, by Mr. Wm. G. Stanard ; The first instalment of an 
article on Robert Beverley and his Descendants ; Wills of Richard Kemp and Rev. John 
Lavrrence, both bearing the date of the 17th century ; Short Biographies of all the raerohers 
of the Virginia Historical Society who died in the course of 1894 ; An elaborate Genealogy 
of the Flournoy Family, throwing light on the Huguenot Emigration ; Department of His- 
torical Notes and Queries, containing many valuable short historical papers and also Gene- 
alogical contributions, among which the Can* and Landon Genealogies are of special 
interest ; Department of Book Reviews, containing critical articles by well known historical 
scholars. Volume II, like Volume I, has been thoroughly indexed. O.OO 

Volume III — Octavo, pp. 460-ii-xxviii. 

Contains a full account of the proceedings of the Society for the year 1895, and the follow- 
ing list of articles copied from original documents : Letters of William Fitzhugh con- 
tinued ; Instructions to Berkeley, 1662 ; Virginia under Governors Harvey and Gooch ; 
Causes of Discontent leading to the Insurrection of 1666 under Bacon ; Will of Benjamin 
Harrison the Elder ; Culpeper's Report on Virginia in 1683 ; Defense of Col. Edward Hill ; 
A series of Colonial letters written by William Byrd, Jr., Thomas Ludwell, Robert Carter, 
Richard Lee, and Sir John Randolph ; Decisions of the General Court of Virginia, 1626- 
162S, first instalment ; Indictment of Governor Nicholson by the leading members of his 
Council; Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents, extending to 1635, with full genealogical 
notes; A History of Robert Beverley and his Descendants, with interesting Wills and new 
matter obtained from England ; Genealogies of the Flournoy, Cocke, Carr, Todd and Chap- 
pcll Families ; Voluminous Historical Notes and Queries of extraordinary original value, 
relating to a great variety of subjects ; Department of Book Reviews, containing articles 
Irom the pens of well known historical scholars. Volume III, like the preceding Volumes, 
has a full index. Q ,00 

VoLUMB IV— Octavo, pp 492-i-xxiii. 

Cootains the following general list of Contents : A Marriage Agreement between John 
Castis and his wife ; A Perswasive to Towns and Cohabitation by Rev. Francis Mackemie 
1705; Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents for 1635-6; Army Supplies In the Revolution, 
Series of original letters by Judge Innes; Attacks by the Dutch on Virginia Fleet, 1667 ; 
Boundary Line Proceedings, for Virginia and North Carolina 1710 ; Charges against Spots- 
wood by House of Burgess 1719 ; Council Proceedings, 1716-1717; Decisions of Virginia 
General Court, 1626-28 Continued ; Defence of Colonel Edward Hill Continued Depositions 
of Revolutionary Soldiers from County records ; Early Spotsylvania Marriage Licenses: 
Genealogy — Cocke, Flournoy, Trabue, Jones, and Rootes Families ; Historical Notes and 
Queries ; A full list of House of Burgesses, 1766 to 1775 ; Instructions to Governor Francis 
Nicholson; Letter and Proclamation of Argall; Letters of William Fitzhugh ; Narrative of 
Bacon's Rebellion by the English Commissioners ; full abstracts of Northampton County 
Records in 17th Century ; Ordeal of Touch in Colonial Virginia ; Patent of Auditor and 
Surveyor-General ; Prince George County Records with much information as to its families ; 
Proceedings of Visitors of William and Mary College, 1716; A list of Shareholders in Lon- 
don Company, 1783 ; also of Slave Owners in Spotsylvania County, 1783 ; Virginia Tobacco, 
in Russia in 17th Century. Volume IV has a full index. 5.00 

VoLUMB V— Octavo, pp. 472-i-xxiii. 

Contains the following general list of Contents : Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents, 
1636 ; and Patents and Grants, 1769 ; Rappahannock and Isle of Wight Wills, 17th Century ; 
Government of Virginia. 1666 ; Bacon's Men in Surry ; and List of Persons Suffering by the 
Rebellion: Boundary Line Proceedings, 1710; Carter Papers; Case of Anthony Penton; 
Colonial and Revolutionary Letters, Miscellaneous ; Early Episcopacy in Accomac ; Depo- 
sitions of Continental Soldiers ; Families of Lower Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties ; 
Genealogy of the Cocke, Godwin, Walke, Moseley, Markham, fCarr, Hughes, Winston, 
CftlTdt, Porker and Brockenbrough Families; General Court Decisions, 1640, 1641, 1666; ' 
Memonmda Relating to tlte House of Burgesses, 1665-91 ; Journal of John BamweU in Yam- 
maascc War ; I^etters of Lafiiyette in Yorktown Campaign ; LeUers of William Fitzhugh ; 
Ltttors to TlK>mas A^ams, 1769-71 ; Public Officers, 1781 : Northampton County Records, 
17th Century ; List, Oath and Duties of Viewers of Tobacco Crop, 1639 ; Petition of John 
Mercer Respecting Marboro Town ; Price Lists and Diary of Colonel Fleming, 1788-98 ; 
Abstract of Title to Greenspring ; Tithables of Lancaster County, 17th Century ; The Me- 
berrin Indians ; The Trial of Criminal Cases in i8th Century. Volume V has a full index 5.00 

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Elete chart of the Royal descent of George Reade through the Dymokes, 
ereditarv champions of England, it can be obtained by addressing' 
R. D. M.,'P.O. Box No. 121, University Station. Charlottesville, Va. The 
lines of descent, comprising over seven hundred names, are fully au- 
thenticated by the National Dictionary of Biography and other standard 
works of reference. They run without a break back to William the 
Conqueror, Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, the Kings of Spain and the 
Emperors of the East. The charts can be made for framing, 4x2 feet, or 
in a number of small charts bound together. Almost every name famous 
in the makine of English History, up to the fifteenth century, appears 
in this genealogy. Many of the most prominent Virginia families are 
descended from George Reade. it. 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 

The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, which is issued 
quarterly by the Virginia Historical Society, will accept for publica- 
tion a limited number of advertisements of a suitable character. 

The special attetition of Schools, Colleges and Booksellers are 
called to these rates. ' , 

The edition of the Magazine is 1,200 copies, and its circulatiop,ia 
constantly increasing among^ foreign and American scholars. ; 

Those who have old books, pamphlets.. antique fumkiire, curibs,' 
etc., for sale will find it of advantageto avail themselves of this medium, 
of advertising them. 

WILLIAM G. STANARD, Edtfor, 

707 E. Franklin, tHchiHOfid, Va. 



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The Lower Norfolk County Virginia Antiquary. 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME III. p^cB. 

Land and Slave Owners, Princess Anne County, 1775 i 

Abstracts from Norfolk Marriage Bonds, 1799 8 

Property Owners, Norfolk County, i860 12 

Princess Anne County Marriages 19 

My Mother 24 

The Church in Lower Norfolk County 29 

Grace Sherwood, the Virginia Witch 34 

Price of Poultry, 1773 and 1774 38 

Marriages Performed by Rev. Charles Henley, Princess Anne Co., 39 

Abstracts from Norfolk County Marriage Bonds 40 

Marriages Performed by the Rev. George Norris 43 

My Mother 46 

The Church in Lower Norfolk County 50 

Grace* Sherwood, the Virginia Witch 52 

Abstracts from Norfolk County Marriage Bonds, 1800 57 

Property Owners, Norfolk County, i860 62 

Land and Slave Owners, Princess Annie County, 1775 69 

Marriages Performed by Rev. Charles Henley 71 

Receipt for the Sale of a Slave 73 

Abstracts from Norfolk Marriage Bonds 74 

Linhaven Parish, 1704 80 

Marriages Performed by Rev. David Walters, Princess Anne Co. . . 81 

Copy of the Charter of Norfolk Borough 87 

Abstracts from Norfolk County Marriage Bonds 95 

Land and Slave Owners, Princess Anne County, 1775 100 

Oldest Masonic Lodge 102 

The Church in Lower Norfolk County 103 

Renouncing the Catholic Church 106 

Abstracts from Norfolk Marriage Bonds, 1801 107 

Store Rill, 1769 114 

Princess Anne County Marriages 117 

An Act to Confirm the Charter of the Borough of Norfolk 122 

Abstracts from Norfolk County Marriage Bonds 1 24 

Money, Solvent Bonds, Securities and Liquidated Claims in Princess 

Anne County in 1859 129 

Abstracts from Norfolk Marriage Bonds> 1802 133 

The Church in Lower Norfolk County 138 

Marriages Performed by Rev. George Norris 147 

Charles Reid 147 

Price of Corn 151 

Witchcraft in Virginia 152 

Land and Slave Owners. Princess Anne County, 1775 152 

Price of a Young Mare, 1741 154 

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Cable address: WilHamson, Richmond, |a.03-iyrO 



The Virginia Historical Society* 



Members are requested to solicit contributions of books, maps, por- 
traits, and manuscripts of historical value or importance, particularly 
such as may throw light upon the political, social or religious life of 
the people of Virginia. 

The Society will become the custodian of such articles of this char- 
acter as the possessors may from any cause be unwilling to give, and 
in the case of family papers or other manuscripts which it may be 
undesirable to publish, it will, upon request, keep them confidential. 

MST'A large ^e proof safe has been secured and placed in the 
Society's building, in which all manuscripts and papers of value are 
carefully preserved by the Librarian. 

In the vicissitudes of war, and the repeated removals to which the 
Society's Library has been subjected, many volumes have been lost 
and the sets broken. Odd volumes from the collections of its mem- 
bers and well-wishers will therefore be gratefully received. 

It is especially desirable to secure as complete a collection as possi- 
ble of early Virginia newspapers, periodicals and almanacs. 

Any book or pamphlet written by a native or resident of Virginia, 
published or printed in Vir(^nia, or in any way relating to Virginia 
or Virginians, will be accepted and preserved. 

The Society requests s^fts of photographs {cahinet size^ of oldpor^ 
traits of Virginians^ or photographs^ drawings^ &c.^ of Coats of 
Arms of Virginia families. Albums have been provided and an in* 
teresting collection has cUready been made. 



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THE 




VIRGINIA MAGAZINE 



OF 



HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY. 




PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE 

VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
RICHMOND, VA. 



VOL. X— No. 4. APRIL. 10O3. 



Botercd mt the Pottoffice mt Richmond, Va., ts Second<UM Matter. 

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PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 



ARCHER ANDERSON, CHAS. V. MEREDITH, 
E. W. JAMES, E. V. VALENTINE, 

Rev. W. MEADE CLARK. 



EDITOR OF THE MAGAZINE, 

WILLIAM G. STANARD. 



CONTENTS. 

1. Proceedings of the Virginia Committee of Cor- 

respondence, 1759-'67 337 

2. Henry County from its Formation in 1776 to the 

end of the Eighteenth Century, et seq 350 

3. The Effect of the Adoption of the Constitution 

upon the Finances of Virginia 360 

4. Some Virginia Colonial Records 371 

5. The John Brown Letters 383 

6. Books in Colonial Virginia 389 

7. Virginia Gleanings in England 405 

8. Ferrar Papers 414 

9. Virginia Militia in the Revolution 419 

10. Virginia Newspapers in Public Libraries 421 

11. Virginia in 1638 423 

12. Notes and Queries 429 

13. Genealogy.. 437 

The Minor, Hemdon and Brooke Families. 

14. Publications Received 446 



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THE 

Virginia Magazine 

OF 

HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY^ 



Vol. X. APRIL, 1903. No. 4. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE VIRGINIA COMMITTEE 
OF CORRESPONDENCE. 1759-67. 



From the Originals in the Virginia State Archives. 



[At the February session, 1759, of the General Assembly of 
Virginia, Edward Montague. Esq. , of the Middle Temple, was 
appointed the agent for the colony in England, and a commit- 
tee, termed the Committee of Correspondence, composed of 
members of the Council and House of Burgesses, was appointed 
to transact all business with him. 

The agent was to support before the English government any 
laws passed in Virginia in regard to which there might be any 
question of approval, and was generally to represent the interests 
of the colony in England. Therefore, the correspondence be- 
tween the committee and the agent must be of value as throwing 
light on the history of the period. 

Two letters from the committee, found among the Legislative 
papers, have been published in Vol. IX of this Magazine, pp. 
353-360. See same Vol., pp. 355-359 and 364, for a note on 
the Committee of Correspondence and biographical sketches of 
its members. 

Francis Fauquier became governor of Virginia on June 7, 
1758, and held the office until his death, on March 3d, 1768. 



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VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Sessions of Assembly were held in September and Novem- 
ber, 1758; February and November, 1759; March, May and 
October, 1760, and March, 1761.] 



Proceedings of the Com. of Correspondence, May 2d, 

1759- 

At a Meeting of the Committee for corresponding with the 
Agent appointed to sollicit the Affairs of this Colony in Great 
Britain, held at the Capitol in Williamsburg, May 2d, 1759. 

Present: The hon*ble William Nelson, Esq', Chairman, the 
hon*ble Thomas Nelson, Philip Grymes & Peter Randolph, 
Esq", John Robinson, Peyton Randolph, Robt. Carter Nicholas, 
and George Wythe, Esq". 

Resolved, That George Davenport be appointed Clerk of this 
Committee. 

Resolved, That a Letter be wrote to Edward Montague, Esq', 
the Agent for this Colony, with a Copy of the Act of Assembly 
appointing him agent: And that a Copy of the Representation 
formerly sent by the Assembly to Mr. Secretary Pitt, be trans- 
mitted to him therewith. 

Resolved, That Application be made to the Governor for 
Copies of the several Letters wrote by Mr. Secretary Pitt, in 
Relation to the Application to be made to Parliament in behalf 
of this Colony, and that they be sent Home to the Agent to en- 
able him to sollicit for the proportion of Money granted, and to 
be granted by Parliament, for reimbursing this Colony the 
Money they have expended. 

Resolved, That the Agent be instructed to use his Endeav- 
ours to get the King's Assent to an Act of Assembly past in the 
22d Year of his Majesty's Reign intituled **An Act for settling 
the Titles and Bounds of Lands, and for preventing unlawful 
hunting and Ranging." And that the Clerk apply to Mr. Pal- 
mer for a Copy of the Reasons that were drawn up in order to 
be sent home, in Support of the said Act of Assembly. 

Resolved, That the Agent be instructed not to shew the Act 
of Assembly for appointing him Agent, before all the Acts passed 
the last Session of Assembly are transmitted by the Governor 
to the Board of Trade. 



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VIRGINIA COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 339 

And as there is some Reason for appi^ehendin^ Attempts may be 
made for repealing the said Act, that the Agent be directed to 
use his utmost Endeavours to prevent the same, and be made 
acquainted with the Reasons of an Agent being appointed by 
this Colony. 

Resolved, That the Agent be instructed to use his utmost 
Endeavours to prevent any additional Duty on Tobacco, and 
that he be furnished with Reasons for opposing the same. 

Resolved, That the Agent be instructed to get a Copy of the 
Account of Mr. Dinwiddie's Disposition of the ;^20,ooo granted 
by his Majesty, for the Use of this Colony, which he says he has 
passed with the Treasury, and that he procure, and send over. 
Copies of the Vouchers by which the same was passed. 

Resolved, That the hon'ble William Nelson and Thomas Nel- 
son, Esq", & John Robinson and Peyton Randolph, Esq", do 
prepare a Letter to be transmitted to the said Agent, in pursu- 
ance of the aforegoing Resolutions. 

A Copy. Geo. Davenport, Clk. Com. 



Proceedings of the Com. of Correspondence Nov'r 7, 

1759. 

At a Meeting of the Com. of Correspondence held at the Capi- 
tal Nov' 7th. 1759. 

Present: The hon'ble William Nelson, Philip Grymes & Peter 
Randolph. Esq", John Robinson, Peyton Randolph, Charles 
Carter, Landon Carter & Rich** Bland, Esq". 

It appearing to this Comittee that a Letter hath not yet been 
sent home to the Agent for this Colony, pursuant to the Reso- 
lutions of the former Committees, it is therefore 

Resolved, That a Letter be prepared to be sent Home to the 
said Agent, by Mr. Speaker. Mr. Attorney, Mr. Charles Carter. 
Mr Landon Carter and Mr. Bland, to he laid before this Com- 
mittee at their next meeting. 

Resolved, That the Gent, appointed to prepare the said Letter 
be instructed to inform the said Agent of the Reasons that pre- 
vailed with the Legislature of this Colony to pass the Act made 
in the thirty second Year of the Reign of his present Majesty, 
intituled An Act to enable the Inhabitants of this Colony to dis- 



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340 Virginia historical magazine. 

charge their public Dues, Officers Fees, & other Tobacco Debts 
in Money for the ensuing Year. 

Resolved, That it be a Direction to the Gent, above appointed 
to prepare the said Letter to the Agent, to omit taking any 
Notice in the said Letter of the Directions of the former Com- 
mittee, whereby the said Agent was required not to shew the 
Act of Assembly of this Colony appointing him to his Office, 
before all the Acts passed at the last Session of Assembly should 
be transmitted by the Governor to the Board of Trade; And 
that they be discharged from furnishing the Agent with Instruc- 
tions to prevent an additional Duty on Tobacco, as was directed 
by this Comittee at their former Meeting, it appearing to this 
Comittee that such a Duty hath already taken place. 

Ordered, That the Committee be adjourned to Wednesday 
next at lo o' Clock. 

A Copy. G. Davenport, Clk. Com. 



At a Committee of Correspondence held at the Capi- 
tol Nov'r 14TH, 1759. 

Present: The hon*ble William Nelson, Thomas Nelson, Philip 
Grymes & Peter Randolph, Esq", John Robinson, Charles Carter, 
Richard Bland, Landon Carter, George Wythe & R. C. Nicholas, 
Esq". 

Mr. Nelson informed the Committee that the Rev** Mr. John 
Camm * Minister of the Parish of York hampton hath lately 
commenced a Suit at Law against the Collectors of that Parish 
to recover his Salary in Tobacco, in Opposition to the Act of 
Ass: made in the xxxiii Year of his Majesty's Reign intituled 
An Act to enable the Inhabitants of this Colony to discharge 
their public Dues, Officer's Fees & other Tob* Debts in Money 
for the ensuing Year. He therefore desired the Opinion of the 
Com. whether this Matter is not of so public a Nature (wherein 
the Power of the Legislature of this Colony in making temporary 
Laws for the public Weal will be called in Question) as to 
merit their particular Attention, and if need be, their Aid & 
Assistance in contributing to the Expences that may accrue in 



* See note at end of article. 



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VIRGINIA COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 341 

defending the said Suit either here [or] in Great Britain, as such 
Expenses may be to heavy to be borne by that Parish. After 
Consideration whereof, it is the Opinion of this Committee, and 
accordingly 

Resolved, That this Matter be proposed to the Consideration 
of the House of Burgesses, and their Opinion desired there- 
upon. 

The Committee appointed to prepare the Letter to the Agent 
in pursuance of the Resolutions of the Com. at their last Meet- 
ing not having compleated the same 

Ord**, That the Com. be adj** to Saturday morning next. 

Saturday Nov'r 17, 1759. 

Present: The hon*ble W. Nelson Thom" Nelson & Ph. Grymes, 
Esq'*, Jno. Robinson, Ch' Carter, R* Bland & R. C. Nicholas, 
Esq". 

The Letter to the Agent not being yet finished pursuant to 
the former Resolut" 

Ord**, That ye Com. be adj** to Monday morning next. 



At a Com. held at the Capitol on Monday 19 Nov'r, 

1759. 

Present: The hon'ble W. Nelson, T. Nelson, P. Grymes & 
Peter Randolph, Esq", John Robinson, Rich'* Bland, G. Wythe 
& R. C. Nicholas, Esq". 

The Com. appointed this day presented a Letter they had 
prepared with Instructions to the Agent agreeable to their former 
Resolutions, to which sev' Amendments being proposed & agreed 
to, Mr. Speaker was desired to reduce the same into form. 

Ord**, That ye Com. be adj** till Tomorrow. 



Nov'r 2oth. 

Present: As before. 

Mr. Speaker informing the Com. that he had not suff' time 
since yesterday to draw up the amendments proposed to the 
Letter to the Agent, 

Ord*, That ye Com. be adj* till Tomorrow. 



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342 virginia historical magazine. 

Letter to the Agent, Dec, 1759. 

Williamsburg, Dec' 12th, 1759. 

Sir, — The General Assembly of Virginia has by an Act passed 
the 14th b( April, 1759. intituled "An Act for appointing an 
Agent*' a Copy of which is herewith inclosed, been pleased to 
appoint you the Agent of this Colony, & directed their Treasurer 
to pay you yearly the Sum of ^^500 sterling, in full for your Ex- 
penses & Trouble in the Execution of your Duty. 

The Appointment of such an Officer to represent the Griev- 
ances of the People, to justify their Conduct to their Sovereign, 
to obtain his Approbation & Assent to such Laws as their Rep- 
resentatives shall think necessary for their Welfare and good 
Government, to implore his Assistance in the time of Danger and 
Calamity, and to protect and explain their Rights & Interest in 
Parliament, seem to be the natural Privilege of all Colonies, so 
far remov'd from their King and Mother Country. Yet the 
People of this Colony have had the Misfortune all ways to be 
disappointed in their Endeavours to attain this Right, tho uni- 
versally claim'd, and enjoy'd by all his Majesty's other Colonies 
and have been obliged to depend for these great and important 
Services on an Agent appointed by the Governor and Council, 
who for want of the Weight which a national Establishment 
would have given him, the Authority which must necessarily be 
derived from every Power of the Legislature, the Instructions 
when and for what Reasons he should interpose, must have been 
very deficient in his Duty, when considered as regarding the 
whole. Besides sometimes difterent Interests arise amongst the 
different Branches of the Legislature, different Instructions then 
become necessary; an Agent so appointed is obliged to obey 
those by whom he is appointed, and by the plainest Consequence 
in Affairs of the greatest Moment, the Body of the people may 
be left without the Shadow of a Representative. 

It is to our not having a Representative properly appointed 
and instructed, that we in a great Measure attribute the passing 
an Act of Parliament for laying a Duty on our Tobacco, the 
Staple of this Colony (in the present State of the Tobacco Tr-^de. 
a great Grievance to the people), and the Repeal of several 



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VIRGINIA COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 343 

Laws, thought to be very salutary. But these are Misfortunes 
which can now perhaps be only lamented and not redressed. 

We being by the same Act apppointed a Committee to cor- 
respond with the Agent, must now desire you to take this Office 
upon you, and that you will take Care allways to be ready to 
prevent the Repeal of Laws passed by the Legislature, the Rea- 
sons for which, will be from time to time transmitted to you by 
us; to support any Representations which it may be necessary 
to make, and for that Purpose will not fail to attend them thro' 
the several Boards to which they may be referred; To give early 
Intelligence of anything that may be moved in Parliament, or 
the Department for American Affairs to this Committee; And in 
all things relative to this Colony, to use your best Endeavours, 
according to your Discretion, to protect her Rights and secure 
her Interest. 

We must desire you immediately to join in any Solicitations 
which may be made, for a Grant of a Sum of Money, to reim- 
burse the Colonies, in some measure, for the great Expence they 
have been at during this War. agreeable to the Promise made 
by Mr. Secretary Pitt, in his Letters of the 9th & 29th of De- 
cember, 1758, to the Governor, and by him laid before the As- 
sembly, Copies whereof are inclosed. And if any such Grant 
shall be made, to endeavour to get as large a proportion of the 
same as the persons appointed to distribute it shall think we de- 
serve; And that you may be able to shew what our Expence has 
been, we have minuted down the several Sums that have been 
raised in this Colony, and the Purposes for which they were raised 
in a particular Account* thereof herewith sent, and to which we 
refer you. 

Also that you use your best Endeavours to get the King's 
Assent to an Act of Assembly passed in the 22d Year of his 
present Majesty's Reign, intit** **An Act for settling the Titles 
and Bounds of Lands and for preventing unlawful Hunting and 
Ranging,'* which having a suspending Clause, cannot take Ef- 
fect till this is done. 

This Act was passed upon the Revisal of all the other Laws of 
this Colony, and the chief Intention of it was to reduce thesev- 

* Not found. 



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844 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

eral Acts relating to the Conveyance, taking up, settling, saving 
& cultivating of Lands, into one Act; and also an Act prescrib- 
ing the method of docking the Intails of Land of no greater 
Value than ;^200 sterling, by a Writ, called a Writ of Ad quod 
Damnum. 

To most of the other Acts passed at the same time his Maj- 
esty was pleased to give his Assent. But this Act was laid by, 
as we imagine, to be considered, whether his Majesty's Right 
of granting Land was affected thereby. And as it will appear 
by the several Amendments hereafter mentioned, that nothing 
of that Sort was intended, or affected by them, we conclude that 
it is entirely owing to a want of a proper Application, that his 
Majesty's Assent has not, long since, been obtained thereto. 

The several Acts it takes in are as follow: 

An Act for settling the Titles and Bounds of Land, and for 
preventing unlawful Shooting & Ranging thereon. 9 Anne^ 
Cap. 13. 

An Act to prevent Land lapsing from an Infant for not seat- 
ing and planting, or not paying Quit Rents, until three Years 
after they come of Age. ri Anne, Cap. 4. 

An Act declaring what shall be accounted a sufficient Seating, 
cultivating & improving of Lands, already granted, or hereafter 
to be taken up and patented. 12 Anne, Cap. 13. 

An Act explaining & further declaring what shall be accounted 
a sufficient Seating & Improvement of to save Lands from laps- 
ing, and for the better Recovery of Lands lapsed from Persons 
living out of the Country. 7 Geo. i. Cap. 3. 

An Act for amending the Act intituled An Act for settling the 
Titles and Bounds of Lands, and for preventing unlawful Shoot- 
ing and Ranging thereupon. 8 Geo. 2, Cap. 6. 

An Act for the better Preservation of the Breed of Deer, & 
preventing unlawful Hunting. 12 Geo. 2, Cap. 14. 

An Act for amending the Act intituled An Act for settling the 
Titles and Bounds of Lands and for preventing unlawful Shoot- 
ing and Ranging thereupon. 18 Geo. 2, Cap. 14. 

By perusing these Acts, you will find that no Alterations are 
made by this Act, except in a few Instances. 

In the Act of the 8 Geo. 2, Cap. 6, which is the Act that 



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VIRGINIA COMMITTEE OF CORR£SPONDENCE, 345 

directs the Method of docking Intails of Land of no greater 
Value than ;^200 Sterling, these are the Alterations made. 

1. It directs that the Surveyor of the County where the Land 
lies, shall survey the Land, in Order to satisfy the Jury, who are 
sworn pursuant to the Directions of the Writ of Ad quod Dam- 
num, what Land precisely they are to value. 

2. It directs that the Heir shall be summoned, to give him an 
Oportunity of detecting any Fraud that may be committed on 
the Execution of this Writ. 

3. It confirms the Title of those who had proved their Deeds 
in the County Court. 

By the Act of the 8th Geo. 2, Cap 6, the Deeds of Convey- 
ance for the intailed Lands docked under said Act were ordered 
to be recorded in the General Court. 

But the Lawyers here were of Opinion, as other Acts gave 
the County Courts full Jurisdiction to receive the Proof or 
Acknowledgement of Deeds of Land within their County, that 
the Purchasers of these intailed Lands might safely prove their 
Deeds in those Courts. The Assembly finding that this might 
occasion many Law-suits, and might possibly defeat the Titles of 
many fair Purchasers, thought it was agreeable to Justice and 
Equity to confirm such Titles. 

This Act of the 8th Geo. 2, was the only Act that had received 
his Majesty's Assent, and was the Reason for adding the sus- 
pending Clause. 

The only Alterations made in any of the other Acts, are in 
the Act of the 7th Geo. ist, Chap. 3, by reducing the sum for 
saving Fifty Acres from Ten pounds to Five, and by limitting 
the time for bringing Petitions to ten Years, which was not men- 
tioned in either of the above Acts. 

By our Instruction sent to the Governor of this Colony, the 
Assembly finds that the Merchants of Great Britain are still dis- 
satisfied with the making Treasury Notes (issued pursuant to the 
several Acts of Assembly for the Defence of the Colony), a 
proper Tender for Sterling Debts. 

Before the Year 1748, there was no Law subsisting to direct 
at what rate of Exchange sterling Debts should be paid. The 
Consequence of this was that the Sherifs when they levied Money 
by Execution on Sterling Judgments demanded of the Debtors 



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348 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

By the Constitution which we have hitherto enjoyed, every 
Act that receives the Consent of the Governor, Council and 
Burgesses of the Colony obtains the Force of a Law amongst 
us, until his Majesty shall think proper by Proclamation to de- 
clare his Disapprobation. And if there are any Acts endeav- 
oured at that interfere wich any general or particular Instruction 
to the Governor, such (if by a Change of Circumstances which 
are ever fluctuating) they are thought beneficial to the Commun- 
ity, are always enacted without any Force or Effect as a Law. 
until his Majesty's Pleasure shall be known, by a suspending 
Clause in the Act. Further, if his Majesty shall at any time 
think proper to give his Assent to any subsisting Act of Assem- 
bly, such Act then obtains such a Degree of Firmness in the 
Constitution, as it cannot be altered by any subsequent Act with- 
out the concurring Consent of all the several Branches that con- 
stituted it. And these Rules of Proceeding have been sacredly 
observed by the Legislature of this Colony, thro' a dutiful Re- 
gard as well to the Royal Authority, as to the Preservation of 
the Constitution. 

Tobacco is the Staple, and indeed only Commodity in the 
Country, from whence any tollerable Profit can arise. To this 
*tis to be presumed it is owing, that most of our Taxes and 
Salaries, &c., of a public Nature were made leviable in Tobacco 
'till the present War, in which as the immediate Want of Money 
made the Emission of a paper Currency unavoidable, the Taxes 
were necessarily laid in Money, that so much of such emitted 
Paper should annually be sunk, by repaying it into, the Treasury 
from whence it was made issuable. 

The several fees therefore due to the Clerks of the Courts of 
Justice, and other Officers in this Colony have been from long 
Continuance paid in Tobacco. 

It must be observed, that when the Salaries of the Clergy were 
first settled at 16,000 lbs. of Tobacco that Commodity was rated 
at 10 s. sterling ^ hundred, which made their Provision Eighty 
Pounds sterling per Annum. In the Year 1748, when the Laws 
of the Country were revised, the Act which established the 
Salaries of the Clergy was re-enacted with such Amendments in 
their favour, that removed all Doubts as to their temporal Rights 
for Want of Induction, and indeed greatly added to the Value 



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VIRGINIA COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 349 

of their Salaries. For as Tobacco was at that time under a pub- 
lic Inspection, and the price of it raised at Market as the neces- 
sary Consequence of burning that which was bad, the Assembly 
gave the Clergy in that Act a further Levy on their Parishioners 
of four Pounds in the hundred, to answer the Deductions then 
thought necessary to be made, between the paying into the 
Warehouses, and receiving the same out again, which you will 
find called in the Act Shrinkage, an Article paid by all other 
Claimers whatsoever from the public, which Act amongst many 
others received the Royal Assent, without any particular Appli- 
cation from this Colony. 

This Act, tho* made so much in Favour of the Clergy it seems 
has been by them construed into a disloyal Attack on his Maj- 
esty's Prerogative, and the Bishop of London, we are informed, 
has in a Letter to the Lords of Trade, been pleased to represent 
it as taking a large Stride that Way, because as he says, the 
Right of Presentation is by the Act taken from his Majesty, and 
declared to be in the Vestries, tho' it is certain the Vestries 
always before the passing of that Act enjoyed that Right, and 
the Design of the Act plainly appears to be, only to extend the 
time of Presentation from Six Months, as it is in England, to 
twelve, and the lengthening the time must appear to be extreemly 
reasonable, when it is considered that from the Scarcity of Clergy- 
men in this Colony, the Parishes generally remain vacant 'til a 
Minister can be procured from England. 

The Crop of Tobacco in 1758 was so universally short that 
Petitions from all Parts of the Country were presented to the 
Assembly, to desire Relief against the possible Exactions of 
Creditors both public and private. 

As this was an Evil justly to be dreaded, the Legislature with 
every prudent Precaution, made all Debts, Fees, Salaries, &c., 
payable in Tobacco, at the Option of the Debtor, after the Rate 
of two pence per pound for transfer Tobacco, provided the same 
were paid within a certain limitted Time, governed by the most 
rarly Expectations of the new Crop. And as the time settled 
by Law for the payment of the Clergymen's Salaries was so 
near at Hand, presuming it consistent with the Principles of 
common Justice, that every Individual of the Community con- 
sidered as a Creditor, whose Debts must really have arisen from 



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350 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the Expectations of common Crops, ought to be under the same 
Restriction, they made no Exception as to the Act in 1748. 
This, we are informed, has been represented by the Clergy 10 
the Lords of Trade, as a Deviation from the before mentioned 
Rule of the Constitution and derogatory to the Royal Authority, 
tho' we can conceive, that on a fair and thorough Examination 
of the matter, the contrary will appear, and in the unhappy 
Circumstances the Country was in at that time, be looked upon 
rather as an Aid to, than a Deviation from that Act. And we 
have the greatest Reason to be confirmed in that Opinion, as 
several Acts have heretofore been passed for the same purpose, 
which have from time to time been regularly transmitted to the 
Lords of Trade, and by them referred to their Solicitor, which 
certainly would [not ?] have been done, had they appeared to 
their Lordships in the Light tjiey are now represented. 

The first of these Acts was passed in the 27th Year of his 
Majesty's Reign, Chap. 8, intituled "An Act for paying the 
Minister in the Parish of Frederick in the County of Frederick, 
and of Aujjusta in the County of Augusta, and of H.-mipshire in 
the County of Hampsh' One hundred Pounds annually, instead 
of the Salaries now allowed." 

Another passed in the same Year Chap. 10. intit* **An Act for 
allowing the Inhabitants of the Counties of Halifax, Hampshire 
and Bedford to discharge their public Dues and Officer's Fees in 
Money instead of Tobacco." 

And another passed in the 28th Year of his Majesty's Reign, 
Chap 17 (1755) intituled "An Act for enabling the Inhabitants 
of the C unities of Princess Anne and Norfolk to pay their pub- 
lic Dues in money." 

These Acts, tho' apparently passed in Favour of the Ministers 
of the several Parishes, and at the Prayer of some of them, have 
been lately represented by some of the Clergy to their Lord- 
ships, in the same unfavourable Li.oht as the Act in 1748, and 
the Repeil of them been obtained by their .Solicitations, tl»o* 
the Mini>ters for whose Benefit they were made, will be great 
Sufferers by such Repeal. 

Another Act also passed in the 29th year of his Majesty's 
Reign (1755 Chap. 7) intituled **An Act to enable the Inhabi- 
tants of this Colony to discharge their Tobacco Debts in Money 



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VIRGINIA COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 351 

for this present Year,** by which the same Provision was made 
for paying the public Tobacco Creditors in Money, as in the 
aforementioned Act in 1758 now complained of. 

The Clergy it seems alledge that the Act in 1758 was made 
only to serve the Rich, and have couloured over their unchari- 
table Clamour by saying that the Poor would have been more 
effectually relieved without the Law, because, that as Clergy- 
men, had they been permitted to receive from the Rich the real 
Value of their Tobacco, they would have been able to have 
taken much less than two pence per pounnd from the poor; But 
as essential as Truth may be to their Order, they have in such 
an Assertion suffered themselves to forget it. 

The General Assembly was composed of many public Officers, 
some Claimers from the public, and many Landlords, whose 
Fees, Claims and Rents were payable in Tobacco, and many 
of them of greater Amount than the Salary of a Clergyman. 
How then can this their Argument be reconciled to Truth ? 
Could not each of these rich Men, as they call them, have de- 
manded of their Debtors in the same exorbitant Proportion, as 
the Clergy should of them, and had they even consulted their 
own Interest in the Affair, would not the Ballance, — had there 
been no regulating Law at all — have been greatly in their favour ? 
And as all other public Officers, Claimers from the public & 
Landlords (tho* not of the General Assembly) to say nothing 
of private Creditors who must generally have contracted their 
Accounts or Bargains under the Probability of usual Crops) 
must have had a right to partake in this grand Scheme of Ex- 
tortion, can it be doubted that the poor alone was the Object of 
the Legislature's Concern ? 

But to go a little further with this Argument of theirs: Sup- 
pose the Clergy alone on Account of the Royal Assent's being 
obtained to the Act in 1748, had been exempted, and there was 
indisputably such a general Piety of Disposition amongst theip, 
how could this Charity have been extended ? 

That Act, at the same .time it gives their Salaries, directs the 
method of levying, collecting, &c., of the same, and to have 
altered it in one Instance must certainly have been as criminal 
as in another. In this Case, they could only have contracted 
with their Collectors at a price for their whole Salaries, and it 



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852 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

would but in most Cases have removed the Method of Exaction 
from the Clergy to the Collectors: For it must be observed, that 
tho' the whole Crop of Tobacco made in the Year 1758, was 
more than sufficient to pay the Ministers' Salaries and other 
Parish Creditors, who have the same Right with the Clergy 
under the Law in 1748, yet there were Multitudes who did not 
make enough to answer that Purpose, and those who did make 
it, could not be compelled to sell to those who had none, the 
Consequence of which (if no Provision had been made) must have 
been, that the Collectors would have made Distress upon the 
poor unhappy Sufferers, and as their Goods & Effects could not 
be sold for anything but Tobacco, and as there were so few that 
had any of that Commodity to purchase with, the Goods and 
Effects must have been either sold at a very low Rate, or remain 
in the Hands of the Collectors for want of Purchasers, whereby 
the Poor would have been great Sufferers, and the Clergy not 
in the least benefited by it. The whole of this therefore is but 
"a thin Varnish, and leaves too much Room to suspect, from the 
very nature of murmuring in such Cases, that they themselves 
rather wanted an Oportunity of feasting as largely as they could 
on all, both rich and poor. 

These are the Arguments that may be justly brought to vindi- 
cate the Legislature, and confute the Complainants; and as it 
is impossible but they must have known that things would ap- 
pear in this Light, when impartially examined into, we cannot 
but think that the Act complained of, is but the studied Occasion 
of Contention to effect some other Purpose, still latent. 

We know not how far the Affair may have been carried, or 
whether the Matter can again be laid before the Lords of Trade 
or any other Board for a Rehearing, but we hope at least, you 
may have an Oportunity of removing any injurious Censure that 
may have been passed, and put a Stop to all future Representa- 
tions till the Country can be heard on the several Matters of 
Complaint; And we doubt not but they will appear to be fully 
justified in their Proceedings both to their King and Country. 

As the Country looks upon it as their Duty (since the Act of 
Assembly complained of by the Clergy hath had its Effect) to 
support the Execution of it, by protecting the Parishes in the 
Suits that may be brought against them on the Act in 1748, We 



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VIRGINIA COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 353 

further direct you to employ proper Persons to defend the Ves- 
tries or Collectors against any Proceedings that may be carried 
to England, in a Suit that is just brought by one Mr. Camm, the 
Minister of York-hampton Parish in the County of York, and the 
Expences attending the same will be remitted to you on the 
first Notice. 

We have nothing further to add, but to desire of you if it 
should not be agreeable to you to engage in this Business as 
Agent, that you will be so kind as to officiate in Behalf of this 
Country, 'till we can have Notice of your Refusal to appoint 
some other Gentleman, and in particular to watch and oppose 
every Attempt that shall be endeavoured at to repeal this Act for 
appointing an Agent, as we have Reason to expect some Efforts 
will be made that Way. 

You are desired to give the earliest Intelligence of any thing 
that may come to your Knowledge, relative to, or in any manner 
affecting the Interest of this Colony, and of all your Proceedings 
in the Execution of the Trust reposed in you, to this Committee, 
in order to which it is recommended to you to send your Dis- 
patches by the Packet to New York, from whence they may be 
safely conveyed hither by the Post, if no better Oportunity should 
offer; And you are further desired to inclose your Dispatches to 
the Hon'ble William Nelson, Esq', at York Town in Virginia, 
by whom they will be communicated to this Committee. We are 
Sir, 

Your most humble Servants, 

Wm. Nelson, 
Thos. Nelson, 
Philip Grymes, 
Richard Bland, 
Ben. Waller, 
Ro. C. Nicholas, 

(to BE continued) 



Note. 



Mr. Camm's suit was caused by the passage of the famous 
*'Two Penny Act," which for a number of years produced so 
much agitation in Virginia. 



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354 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

The General Assembly at the September session, 1755, in- 
duced by the failure of the tobacco crop, and the needs of the 
colony, arising from the French and Indian War, passed an act 
authorizing all debts due in tobacco to be paid either in that 
commodity, or in money at the rate of eighteen shillings and 
eight pence per hundred pounds. Though some complaints 
were made there was no legal opposition to this law. 

Again, in September, 1758, for the same reasons, the law was 
re-enacted, with a provision that it was to be in force for one 
year. The act provided that it should be ** lawful for any per- 
son or persons, from whom any tobacco is due by judgement, 
for rent, by bond, or upon any contract, or for public, county or 
parish levies, or for any secretarys*, clerks*, sheriffs*, surveyors* 
or other officers* fees, or by any other ways or means whatsoever, 
to pay and satisfy the same in tobacco * * * or in money, 
at the rate of sixteen shillings and eight pence for every hundred 
pounds of nett tobacco.*' {Henin^ 7, 240.) As the rate fixed 
was two pence per pound, the law became known as ** The Two 
Penny Act.'* 

The law was general in its provisions; but resistance and ob- 
jection came only from the parish ministers. Since as early as 
1696 the salaries of the clergy had been sixteen thousand pounds 
of tobacco a year, and this amount had been confirmed in 1748 
by an act, which had received the King's assent. 

Two pence per pound was the normal price of tobacco, but in 
1755 and 1758 the crops were very small and the price went \\\^ 
to six pence. The clergy then demanded that they should have 
the advantage of the rise in the market. 

Under the royal instructions no law which had received the 
King*s approbation could be repealed by a colonial assembly 
unless the repealing law contained a clause suspending its action 
until the King*s pleasure should be known. As such a suspen- 
sion would have nullified the purpose of the act of 1758, the 
Virginia Assembly omitted the suspending clause. It was claimed 
by the clergy that the latter act repealed that of 1748, and that 
the violation of the royal instructions in omitting the suspending 
clause rendered the act of 1758 null and void. 

A heated controversy soon began, the leader on the part of 
the clergy being Rev. John Camm, minister of York-Hampton 



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VIRGINIA COMMITTEE OF CORRESPONDENCE. 355 

parish, who was answered by Richard Bland and Landon Carter 
in behalf of the Assembly. Rev. Andrew Burnaby, an English 
clergyman, who was in Virginia at the time, while disapproving 
the conduct of the Assembly, condemned the violence of most 
of the clergy, and their disrespectful treatment of the Governor, 
and of their Commissary, Rev. William Robinson, who had 
urged them to moderate measures. 

A convention of the clergy was held and Mr. Camm was sent 
to England as their representative. On August lo, 1759, he 
obtained an order of the Privy Council declaring the act of 1758 
illegal and was told that this order would make the act void ab 
initio. He thereupon returned to Virginia and brought suit in 
York County Court to recover the full market value of his salary. 
Losing his case in the County Court he appealed to the General 
Court, where he met the same fate, the latter court holding that 
the act of 1758 was in force until the date of the King's veto. 
The persistent clergyman then appealed to the Privy Council in 
England, but when his case was heard in 1767, it was dismissed 
on some technicality. It was a common belief at the time that 
this was a mere pretext, and that the English government was 
unwilling, so soon after the repeal of the Stamp Act. to give 
any Colony further cause for irritation. 

While Mr. Camm's case was pending various other minister's 
sued their vestries with small results. The most celebrated of 
these was the ** Parsons* Cause *' in Hanover county in Decem- 
ber, 1762, when Patrick Henry, as counsel for the defendants, 
first sprung into public note by the eloquence and boldness with 
which he staled the rights of the people. 

The long agitation over the *' Two- Penny Act,** thus ended 
practically in the .entire defeat of the claims of the clergy. It 
was of more momentous importance than this, for Mr. Henry 
{Life of Patrick Henry, I, 46) has well summed up the results 
when he states that not only did the clergy find that ** they had 
greatly weakened their hold upon the public, and had given a 
fresh impulse to the spirit of dissent already grown strong in the 
colony; *' but also that *' the struggle greatly strained the bond 
between the King and the colonists, and was the prelude to the 
combat that snapped that bond asunder.** 

For details of these acts and the connected events, see Henry's 



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356 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Life of Patrick Henry, I, 28-48; Campbeirs History of Vir- 
ginia, 507-518; Cobb's Rise of Religious Liberty in America, 
108-111; Meade's Old Churches and Families of Virginia, I, 
216-225, and (especially for documents showing the clergy's 
side of the case) Perry's Papers Relating to the History of the 
Church in Virginia, 434-448, 458-501, 506-519. 

Rev. John Camm was son of Thomas Carum, of Hornsea, 
Yorkshire, England. Born in 1718, he took his B. A. degree 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1741-42, and came to Virginia 
in or before 1745, when he was minister of Newport Parish, Isle 
of Wight county. In 1749 he was appoined professor of divinity 
in William and Mary College, and was its President from 1771 
to 1777, when he was removed by the Board of Visitors on ac- 
count of his sympathy with England. He died in 1779, and has 
many descendants. 

For account of John Camm and his family see William and 
Mary Quarterly, IV, 61-62, 275-278. 



HENRY COUNTY. 



From its Formation in 1776 to the End of the Eighteenth 
Century, et seq. 



From the records in the clerks office, by C. B. Bryant, Martinsville, Va. 



(continued) 

Marvell Nash, on certificate from Wm. McCraw, A. D. Q. M. 
to the Southern Department for ;^8. 2. 5. specie. 

Ingram Nunn, on same, lor 98 & 60 ninetieths of Dollars in 
specie. 

George Hairston, on same, 93 & 30 90ths of Ditto. 

Stanwix Hord, on same, for 130 ditto in specie. 

John Redd, on same, for 334 & 42 90ths of ditto. 

Brice Martin, on same, for 137 & 60 90ths of ditto. 

John Rowland, on same, for 207 & 45 90ths of ditto. 

Samuel Huff for 33 lbs Bacon to Hospital at Henry C. H. 



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HENRY COUNTY, VA. 3o7 

Robert Cave for i8 lbs do. for ditto. 

John Barksdill for 7 days Waggon & Team for ditto. 

Also £(>, 10. o. for stables 6 months for 6 horses, two rooms 
and one bed for the use of the Hospital at Henry Courthouse. 

Thomas Morrow for 350 lbs Beef to Comm*r of Provisions. 

Thomas Marvel 300 do. to same. 

Edward Pedigoe 250 do. to same. 

Daniel Ross 300 do. , i Peck corn & 3 diets to same. 

Wm. Rentfro 300 do., J^ bus. Corn & 4 diets to same. 

Robert Stockton 2 bush. Corn, 33 diets. Pasturage for 73 days 
of Public Cattle & 12 bundles Fodder to same. 

John Redd for 365 lbs Beef furnished same. • 

James Spencer 3 bush Oats, 12 bun. Fodder & 18 diets to 
same. 

Frederick Fulkerson 440 ll)s Beef to same. 

James Green & Elijah Green 4 days each as Drivers to same. 

Archibald Grayham 1,600 lbs Beef to same. 

Jesse Corn ;^400 for Rifle Gun impressed by Capt. Geo. 
Hairston on march to assistance of Gen* Greene, April, 1781. 

Wm. Blevins ;^200 for Smooth bored Gun on same march. 

Jarrot Patterson for 28 lbs Iron for Col. Lee's Legion Light 
Dragoons. 

Joseph Bouldin 17^ lbs Bacon for Militia in August, 1780. 
Also 14 lbs Bacon & i Peck corn for use of the Botetourt Militia 
on their return from Gen* Greene, April, 1781. Also 9^^ do. 
for Baggage waggons. Also 29 lbs do. to Militia of this county 
in March 1781. Also 2^ Gallons Brandy & 5 lbs good hard 
soap for the Gen* Hospital. 

Alexander Nelson 7 bbls corn Gen* Hospital at Col. Perkins's 
Ap*, 1881. 

John Lindsay 6 bbls corn for same. 

John Rentfro 700 lbs Beef to the Com'mr of Provisions. 

Violet Hill 285 ditto to ditto. 

Also for 30 diets & i bushel meal to Capt. John Donelson's 
Company on his march against the Indians in June, 1778. 

Swinfield Hill 20 lbs Bacon to same. 

Also 365 lbs Beef to the Com'mr of Provisions. 

James Lindsay 185 lbs ditto to same. 



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358 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Harmon Cook for 8 lbs Pork & i Peck of Meal furnished the 
Militia of Henry on return from Gen* Green in Feb'y, 178 1. 

Henry Warren ;^8. for a Rifle Gun impressed for Militia of 
this County ordered to Gen* Greene, March, 1781. 

Thomas Tinch 1 2 Bbls corn to Samuel Moore, Forage Master, 
hauling public stores to Gen' Sumpter in South Carolina. 

Baldwin Rowland purchasing commissary at Hospital at Henry 
C. H. for 2 months & ;6 days services for himseif & one horse 
& forage for said horse from 20th Feb'y till 5 May 1781. 

William Bohanan ;^i,30ofora Rifle Gun impressed for the 
militia from Henry County in April, 1781, & lost. 

John Ranstanton for 375 lbs Beef for Capt. James Tarrant on 
march with British Prisoner from South Carolina to Winchester 
in Nov'r, 1781. 

Swinfield Hill 10 | — for Diets to Capt. John Donelson on his 
return from the Indian Expedition in August, 1778. 

John Cooper 27 J^ lbs Bacon to Hospital at Henry C. H. 

John Watson 200 lbs Beef to Com' of Provisions. 

John Parr 630 lbs ditto furnished same. 

Josiah Smith ;^55ofor Shot Gun impressed for Capt. Hanby's 
Company of Militia, April 20, 1781. 

Abraham Penn, Esq^ 1,925 lbs Beef to Com', Jan'y, 1780. 

Mary Hickey for 2 Gallons Brandy to Capt. Alexander Hen- 
ley's Comp'y Volunteers & i Diet on march to the southward. 

1782, Nov. 29. Wm. Smith, Pasturage for 2 Beeves 6 days, 
2 diets & forage for two horses furnished the Com' of Provisions. 

Also four Diets & forage for 4 Horses furnished same. 

Jesse Atkinson for 375 lbs Beef furnished same. 

Woody Burdge for 270 lbs ditto to same. 

Henry France 6 Diets & forage for 5 Horses for same. 

Wm. Mitchell 40 diets & one bushel corn furnished the militia 
of Washington (co.) on their return from Camp, March, 1781. 

Robert Baker is allowed 325 lbs Beef to Henry Lyne, Com', 
Nov'r, 1780. 

David McGown 120 lbs Pork to Capt. Shelton's Company 
ordered out against an Insurrection of the Tories. 

Woody Burdge ;^40 for a Sheep to Capt. Hanby, same expe- 
dition. 



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HENRY COUNTY, VA. 359 

Also 17 lbs Bacon for the Militia against the British. 

Henry France allowed 120 bundles Double banded Sheaves 
of Oats for Horses employed in transporting Cloathing to the 
So. Army. Also 14 lbs nett Pork for Waggoners & Guards. 

Also for 30 Sheaves Oats, 24 bundles fodder, ^ bushel corn 
& one horse shod for Capt. Cowans guards over Prisoners. 

Also 8 lbs Dryed Beef to John Rowland, Waggon Conductor 
for Wm. McCraw, A. D. Q. M., on return from Charlotte. 

Also 231 Sheaves Oats to John Redd, Wagon Conductor for 
the said McCraw, August, 178 1. 

Also 3 Diets & 2 forages for i Horse to Capt. James Tarrant 
on his march with British Prisoners, Nov., 1781, to Winchester. 

Frederick Fulkerson 21 bushels Corn to Sam' Moore, Forage 
Master to Gen* Sumpter, of South Carolina. 

Also 3 bushels corn for waggon Horses of the Virginia Militia 
on their return from the Southern Army. 

Joseph Anthony ^200 for a pair of Stillards impressed for the 
militia when ordered to join Gen' Greene, March, 1781. 

David Lanier for i yi Barrels corn for waggons of So. Carolina. 

Jesse Chandler ;^i5o for a Gun for public use, March, 1781. 

Lamuel Lanier 20 lbs Bacon agreeble to certificate. 

John Hickey 2 Gals. Cyder for Botetourt Militia, Mch.. 1781. 

Also ^2 bushel Corn for Capt. Gilmore*s Company. 

Also 7 Diets for the Militia discharged Jan*y, 1781. 

John Minter 86 lbs Pork to Hospital at Henry Courthouse. 

Charles Finch 1 1 Bus. Corn for Teams on their return from 
Peytonsburg to Salisbury. 

John George 5 bushels corn for same. 

John East 11 ditto for ditto. 

Jacob McCraw, wagon & Team 5 days for the Militia of this 
county on their march to join the Marquis D. L. Fayette. 

James Spencer ;^7oo. o. o. for one Rifle Gun & one Shot Gun 
impressed for the militia of the county agreeable to certificate. 

Samuel Walker 3 diets, i peck corn & 10 bundles fodder to 
Hugh Armstrong while conveying Lead to Gen' Greene's Head 
Quarters. 

Henry France for 100 Double banded sheaves of Oats as per 
certificate of Will. Graves, W. Conductor. 

Henry Harris ;^200. for Shot Gun impressed in May, 1781. 



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860 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Joseph Anthony 15 Bushels Corn & 500 lbs Fodder for the use 
of Col. Crockets Light Horse, March 7th, 1781. 
Also for 16 Bushels Corn & 700 lbs Fodder, March 8th, 1781. 
Also 500 lbs Fodder for the same, March 9th. 1781. 
Also 500 lbs Fodder for same, March loth, 1781. 

(to be continued) 



The Effect of the Adoption of the Constitution upon 
the Finances of Virginia.* 



By W. F. DoDD, University of Chicago. 



In the first years of the colony of Virginia all revenue was 
raised by tithes, which though comparatively just at that time 
became more and more unequal with the growing complexity of 
society. The imposition of other taxes was a result of struggle 
between the rich landlords and the poorer classes. 

Customs and tonnage taxes were imposed by acts of 1705, 
1726 and 1742, and these were continued with little alteration 
down to the Revolution. They had become an important 
source of revenue, the export tax on tobacco alone yielding 
;^7,ooo in 1770. Though tobacco exports declined after 1770, 
over 40,000 hogsheads were shipped in 1775, and the trade of 
Virginia was constantly increasing. The total imports of Vir- 
ginia and Maryland in 1769 were ;^85i,i40, of which ;^774,943 
was from Great Britain. With the beginning of the Revolution 



* This paper was prepared in a Seminar on Constitutional History at 
the University of Chicago. The principal sources of information were: 
Hening, Statutes of Virginia; Calendar of Virginia State Papers, Vols. 
IV, V; Senate Journal of Virginia, 1785-90: American State Papers, 
Finance I; Journal of Congress, Vol. IV; MacPherson on Commerce, 
Vol. Ill; Ripley, Financial History of Virginia; Madison's Debates of 
Constitutional Convention; Works of Madison and Jefferson; Ford's 
Pamphlets on the Constitution; Elliott's Debates; Annals of Congress, 
1789-91; U. S. Statutes at Large, Vol. I; and Hill, Early Tariff Policy 
of the United States, Pub. American Economic Association, Vol. VIII. 



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VIRGINIA FINANCES I776-179O. 361 

this trade was cut off, and as a consequence the provisional 
government levied only internal taxes on land and polls, build- 
ing up also a system of fees and licenses, which played an im- 
portant part in the subsequent financial development of the State. 
While many of the colonies in their zeal for free and unrestricted 
trade abolished their custom duties, Virginia retained hers al- 
most unchanged, but as an evidence of the unimportance of 
revenue from this source no mention is made of duties and ton- 
nage, in the statutes from 1777 to 1780.* 

Licenses, court fees, poll and property taxes were the reliance 
during the Revolutionary struggle. Revenue was hard to secure 
for taxes bore very heavily upon those who had the one source 
of their greatest wealth cut off. Virginia made several efforts to 
secure foreign loans but failed, her representatives being dis- 
couraged by Franklin, who says the States complicated the 
affairs of the Union by their vain efforts in this direction. She 
had tried paper issues at the very beginning of the war, and the 
rapid depreciation of the currency led to uncertainty as to what 
any tax might produce. Salaries of officers were made payable 
in tobacco so as to free them as much as possible from fluctua- 
tion, and by the scale of depreciation adopted in 1781, all sol- 
diers of the army were to be paid in specie value. 

The comprehensive scheme of taxation adopted in 1777 was 
changed very little during the period of actual war, except by 
increasing rates in the attempt to keep pace with currency de- 
preciation. Owing to the hardship of heavy taxes, the legisla- 
ture permitted tithes to be paid in commodities by a law of 1779, 
and continued this in 1780. Shortly before this it had imposed 
a prohibitive export tax on tobacco in the attempt to encourage 
the culture of necessary commodities. Payment in kind was first 
suggested by Robert Morris, but its failure soon caused its 
abandonment. The greater part of the supplies of the army in 
the field was obtained by giving certificates of indebtedness for 
supplies received [taken], which were made receivable for taxes 
by several measures. 

From what has been said it may be seen that Virginia's means 
of carrying on the war were internal taxes dLtnl forced loans in 



* Export tax on tobacco was changed several times from 1775 to 1780. 



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362 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

the two forms of paper emissions and certificates of indebted- 
ness. Confiscated estates do not seem to have yielded a great 
sum, and quit rents were completely abolished in 1778 as con- 
trary to the genius of a free people. 

Some evidence exists of struggle between the property owning 
and poorer classes during this period, and it is safe to say that 
tithes bore the heavier proportionate burden ; but the democracy 
gradually became ascendant, and in 1787 the poll tax was finally 
abandoned because of its oppressive and inequitable nature. 
The taxes upon carriages, money, property, income and cattle 
fell most heavily upon the richer classes, and the inequality of 
the tithes was somewhat exaggerated, for all female slaves as well 
as male freemen were lithable. In the land tax there was no 
approach to equality, each hundred (100) acres being taxed re- 
gardless of location or value. 

Virginia From the End of War to the Constitution. 

The great burden of debt forced the State to use the new 
source of revenue opened to it by reviving trade, to meet the 
heavy expenses of the several years following the war. 

The first act of importance to this period is that of 1781 re- 
vising the tax system of the State, and, besides internal taxes 
imposing tonnage duties; import duties specific on sugar and 
coffee, and one per centum (i %) ad valorem upon all other goods. 
The act of 1782, increasing all taxes for the payment of certifi- 
cates of indebtedness, also increased duties on imports and ton- 
nage taxes, and in the following year four pence additional export 
duty per hogshead was laid upon tobacco. These acts continued 
unchanged until 1787, except in lower rates given to French 
imports, and a discriminating duty of 2% ad valorem upon all 
English goods. 

The act of 1787 repealed the certificate tax of 1782 and re- 
vised the whole system of customs. It will be best to describe 
with it the whole revenue system of the State in 1787. 

(i) Duties and tonnage: 

(a) Thirty-nine (39) of the most important articles of import 
were taxed specifically, wearing apparel 10% ad valorem, and 
all unenumcrated articles 3%. All products of the States were 



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VIRGINIA FINANCES I776-I79O. 363 

exempt from these duties, except liquors which were also inter- 
nally taxed. 

(b) Tonnajfe. Six (6) shillings per ton on all vessels entering 
and clearing, and one (i) shilling additional for each sailor on 
board. 

(2) Tobacco: 

(a) An inspection fee of six (6) shillings per hogshead. An 
inspection fee had been charged since early in the century and 
this rate fixed in 1779 yielded much more than the expense of 
inspection. 

(b) Four (4) shillings per hogshead export duty imposed in 

1783. 

(c) Six (6) shillings additional export duty on tobacco, im- 
posed in 1786, two and one-half (2^) per cent, to go to inspec- 
tor for expense of collection. 

(3) Revenue tax: 

This was the name given to the annual tax levied in Virginia 
for current expenses, first upon tithes alone, but later extended 
to land and other property, becoming mdre complex from 1777 
to 1783. The inequitable method of taxing land at so much 
per hundred (100) acres had given place to the property tax 
based on valuation. 

;^5 upon every ;^ioo of rental. 

1 % upon value of land and lots. 

10 s. upon every free male above twenty-one years of age. 

2 s. upon every mare, colt, horse. 

3 d. per head upon all cattle. 

18-30 s. per wheel upon four (4) wheeled carriages. 
6 s. per wheel upon every two (2) wheeled carriage. 
j^i5 upon every billiard table. 

(4) Certificate tax : 

This was the name given to an additional tax, imposed in 
1782, continued in 1784, and repealed in 1787: It was imposed 
for the purpose of redeeming outstanding certificates of indebt- 
edness, and cannot really be called a separate tax because in 
most cases it simply increased existing taxes. 

5% additional upon land and lots. 

10 s. additional upon all free males of twenty-one or over. 



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864 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

1 s. (new) upon slaves over sixteen (i6). 

2 s. additional upon every mare, colt, horse. 
j^i5 additional upon every billiard table. 

Fees and import duties were also increased by the act. This 
act having been repealed in 1787 would not be of very great 
importance here were it not that it was suspended in some cases, 
and arrearages became of importance even after 1787. The tax 
was payable in the certificates to the extinction of which its re- 
ceipts were to be applied, and certificates so received were de- 
stroyed. 

(5) Fees and licenses: 

5 s. for marriage licenses. 

50 s. for ordinary license (;^5 additional by certificate tax, £^ 
after 1784). 

5 s. upon every 100 acres of land above 1,400 acres patented 
except in cases of grants to soldiers. 

;^5 annually upon every physician, surgeon, apothecary. 

£^ annually upon every retail merchant. 

;^2o annually upon every retail merchant from country not 
having commercial treaty \*ith the United States. 

There were also many court fees fixed before the war of which 
clerks of court paid one-third (^3) of fees they received ; lawyers 
one-tenth (i-io) of fees when taxed in bill of costs. 

(6) Miscellaneous revenue derived from sale of land, public 

property, and other sources. 
The receipts in 1787 from these sources were: 

£ s. 

Revenue tax, 

Certificate tax. 

Customs and tonnage, 

Tobacco, 

Fees, 

Miscellaneous,* 

From this sketch it may be seen that taxes were being in- 
creased during the period 1782-87, and in fact Virginia was 
straining every nerve to pay off the enormous debt of the Rev- 
olutionary struggle. As the increasing trade gave a ready 

• Fees from land office here classed as miscellaneous. 



41.541 


19 


74.029 


18 


24,237 


16 


10,685 


7 


11,632 


II 



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VIRGINIA FINANCES I776-I790. 365 

source of revenue, greater and greater dependence came to be 
placed upon tobacco taxes, customs and tonnage. This is seen 
in the increase of duties from 1781 to 1787, and still more in the 
general tariff measure of that year. The accompanying table 
gives the relative amounts derived from different sources from 
1785 to 1790. (See next page.) 

Separate Federal Revenue. 
So well had the necessity for a separate federal revenue been 
recognized that the revenue measure of 1781 encountered no 
very severe opposition in Virginia. An act of the legislature 
enabled Congress to collect the five per cent. (5%) ad valorem 
duty, but the opposition secured its repeal in 1783, when all of 
the States but Rhode Island had consented and Congress was 
preparing to send a delegation to secure its adhesion. Through 
the failure of this measure, Congress was led to the considera- 
tion of another measure which might secure more general sup- 
port. On the question of specific duties limited to twenty-five 
(25) years, Virginia's vote in Congress was divided, Madison 
and Arthur Lee voting Aye; Mercer and Bland, Nay. This 
measure not having been acceded to by all of the States, Mr. 
Monroe brought forward in 1785 the proposal for Congressional 
regulation of trade. This scheme also failed through the oppo- 
sition of New York. State jealousies, tariff wars, refusal of the 
States to execute treaty stipulations and lack of revenue, placed 
Congress during this period in a very poor plight. The whole 
period showed clearly the weakness of the federal government 
and that its difficulties both at home and abroad were due to its 
lack of powers, especially in securing revenue * and regulating 
trade. 



* Much has been made of the difficulties of the confederation in secur- 
ing revenue, of the recalcitrancy of the States in responding to requisi- 
tions; but little has been said of the heavy burdens borne by many of 
these States in supporting armies within their borders, and their diffi- 
culties in securing revenue, especially when, as in the case of Virginia 
and South Carolina, the one great source of their wealth was cut off 
during the actual contest of war. After the war the debts accumulated 
in its conduct were a heavy charge upon the States. The complete 
failure of the requisition system resulted not so much from its defects as 
a system, as from the financial condition of the States. 



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366 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 






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VIRGINIA FINANCES 1776-I79O. 367 

The leading men of every State realized the causes of the 
difficulties of the national government, and when the convention 
met at Philadelphia there was comparative unanimity as to the 
need of the power of regulating commerce, and of separate fed- 
eral revenue, though much difference of opinion as to how these 
ends might be attained. It is not necessary to go into the pro- 
ceedings of the Convention, and the compromises which gave 
Congress exclusive power over duties and tonnage, forbidding 
duties or fees by any State, except what might be necessary for 
the execution of the inspection laws; and the absolute prohibi- 
tion of any export tax. This last provision was urged by George 
Mason as necessary to protect the staples of the South. 

When the Constitution came before the Virginia Convention, 
Mason rested much of his opposition upon the revenue clauses, 
claiming that the people would not bear a double burden of di- 
rect taxation, and that the federal government by its greater 
power would crush the States. Again the incidental revenue 
arising from the tobacco inspection fee must go to the federal 
treasury. 

When Congress met in 1789 one of the first matters to be 
taken up was that of revenue. A committee was appointed on 
June 29th, which requested the States to send information re- 
garding imports, exports and shipping, upon which to base a 
law. But they did not wait for such information, for the tariff" 
measure was passed on July 4, and the tonnage measure bears 
date of July 30. The tariff act is somewhat similar to that of 
New York, and that its purpose was partially protective is indi- 
cated by the debates. President Washington immediately trans- 
mitted this act to Governor Beverley Randolph, who on July 21st 
issued his proclamation: * * **Ihave, * * * thought fit, 
in obedience to the act of the General Assembly entitled *An 
Act Concerning Certain Public Establishments,* to issue this my 
proclamation requiring all naval officers, collectors of duties, and 
searchers to cease to execute the powers vested in them by vir- 
tue of their respective officers, from and after the ist day of 
August next, except so far as relates to the collection of a duty 
of six (6) shillings per hogshead on tobacco exported." 

Virginia was thus deprived of the source of more than one- 
third {yi) of her revenue in 1788-9, and one upon which she 



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368 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

had placed increasing dependence during the years immediately 
preceding the Constitution. The tobacco inspection fee was 
continued, yielding, according to the statements of Secretary 
Wolcott, only an occasional surplus. 

Despite the fact that Virginia was thus cut off from a profit- 
able source of revenue, no change of any importance was made 
in her financial system until 1792. It is true that a five (5) shill- 
ing tax was imposed upon all final judgments of courts in 1788, 
but this was counterbalanced by the removal of the tax on at- 
torneys, merchants, apothecaries, physicians, and surgeons in 
1790. Indeed the law of 1792 reduced existing taxes. 

1789. 1792. 

Carriages, . . . 30, i8&6s. 6, 4&2S. (1794) 

Land and lots, ... 1% i -4 % (5s. per j^ 100) 

Lots & houses in town-rental, ;^5 per ;^ioo 16 s. 8 d. per j^ioo 

Horses, mules, colts, . 2s. 4d. 

Ordinary license, . . 50 s. 40 s. 

Marriage license, . . 5 s. 5 s. 

Cattle per head, . . 3d. 

Billiard tables, . . . /15 ^^15 

Merchants, . . . ;^5 

Slaves (1787), . . . IDS. is. 8d. 

Though the rates were lowered in almost every particular, fees 
were extended to every action in court or act of public officers, 
and yielded a greater proportional revenue.* The sources and 
sums received as gross revenue in 1794 are here given: 

Land, houses, lots, . . . $57,636.58 

Slaves, 47,007.78 

Horses and mules (estimated), . 15, 154-95 

Carriages, licenses, etc., . . 9.954-47 



Total, .... $i29,753.78t 

* Many officers were made payable by fees and the whole receipts do 
not appear in the revenue accounts. 

t Total is not that given by Secretary Wolcott, which is slightly 
inaccurate. 



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VIRGINIA FINANCES I776-I79O. 



369 



Expenditure. 

In order to appreciate the effect of the diminution of revenue 
under the Constitution upon the finance of Virginia, we must 
consider the nature of the State finances and expenditure in the 
years 1783-88, and also the federal measures of the few succeed- 
ing years. 

The revenue from 1785 to 1789 was too great for the then 
heavy expenses of the State, as is clearly indicated by the con- 
stant surplus during the period.* This was one cause of the 
repeal of the certificate tax in 1787. 

Many of the expenditures of this period were extraordinary, 
and the necessary expenses of the State were decreasing. 

(i) Extraordinary expenses, 1785-90. The payment of debt 
principal, 
(a) The certificate tax of 1782 was made payable in certifi- 
cates of indebtedness for the redemption of which it was levied, 
and one tenth (i-io) of the land tax was payable in paper issues 
of 1780, at one-fortieth (1-40) their face value. Certificates and 
paper thus received were destroyed. The reduction of the 
floating debt in this way for the five years 1785-90, was: 



1785-86, 

1786-7, 

1787-8, 

1788-9, 

1789-90, 



Total, 



I 


s. 


130,937 


I 


133.634 




34.640 


9 


14.609 


II 


14.872 


17 



18 



328,693 

The certificate tax was abolished in 1787 as having accom- 
plished its purpose. 

(b) The ** regular disbursements*' for this period were very 
much greater than the ordinary necessary expenses of the State, 
and their diminution in 1788 and 1789 would indicate that some- 
thing of the principal of the interest bearing debt had also been 
paid. 



* Balances, 1785-90: 1785-6, ^25,905, 13 s.; 1786-7, /54.178, 6 s.; 1787- 

8, /i22,342, 4S.; 1788-9, /43.577, 6s.; 1789-90, /i3.73i, 15s. 
s 



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870 



VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 



£ 


s. 


182,746 


18 


202,972 


13 


328.961 


10 


280,230 


19 


177.242 


9 



** Regular Disbursements 

1785-6, 

1786-7, 
1787-8, 

1788-9. 
1789-90, 

This view is strengthened by the act of the Virginia Assembly 
of November, 1790, protesting against the Congressional act 
assuming State debts, as unconstitutional and unjust, because not 
assuming quotas of debt according to population, and ** be- 
cause a large proportion of the debt contracted by this Com- 
monwealth has already been redeemed by the collection of heavy 
taxes levied on its citizens. ' * 

(2) Expenses disappearing with the change of system. 

(a) Defense of frontier. Virginia maintained troops for this 
purpose at quite heavy cost. 

(b) Payment of members of Congress. Jefferson places this 
as an annual expense of £^,000, 

(c) Requisitions disappear with the adoption of the Constitu- 
tion.* 

(3) The assumption b'' federal law of 1790, of $3,500,000 of the 
debt of Virginia. This removed almost the whole of her 
outstanding debt. 

Jefferson in 1781 placed the normal expenses of the State 
government of Virginia at or\e hundred and eighty-five thousand 
dollars ($185,000). When many of the expenses under the 
Confederation were removed, the necessary expenses sank easily, 
and in 1793, with a revenue of $132,978.31 there was a surplus 
of over $5,000. The transition to the constitutional system was 
rendered easy because expenses were reduced to a greater ex- 
tent than was revenue. 



• 1781-1785, 
I 785- (788, 



Specie. 

I533.096.38 
178,423.21 



Facilities or indent*;. 
I 29,919 
391.131-23 



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SOME VIRGINIA COLONIAL RECORDS. 371 



SOME VIRGINIA COLONIAL RECORDS. 



From the Originals, Virginia State Library. 



[During the course of publication of the Calendar of Virginia 
State Papers, 1 1 Vols. , various papers were discovered by the 
editors after the volumes covering the dates of the papers had 
been published. These were put aside for printing in a supple- 
mentary volume which, however, was never issued. While of 
no very great importance it has been thought proper to print in 
this Magazine these omitted papers, as they complete the set of 
** Executive Documents ** which were intended for the Calefidar. 
Later the ** Legislative Documents ** will be continued.] 

Boundaries of Essex and King and Queen* Counties, 

1708. 

Att a grand assembly held at James City Sept' ye loth, 1693. 

Ordered that Piankitank swamp and that branch of it running 
to Bestland shall part New Kent County, and the County now 
nominated Essex in Rappahannock, from thence Including the 
branches running into Matlapony River into Kent County and 
the branch running into Rappahannock River, into Essex County 



* About the middle of the seventeenth century the movement of pop- 
ulation northward from the James river peninsula became so extensive 
that two new counties of great size were organized. These were Lan- 
caster, formed in 1652, and New Kent in 1654. The first named included 
both sides of the Rappahannock from the mouth indefinitely westward. 
The latter, New Kent, adjoined Lancaster on the south and included the 
present counties of New Kent, King William, King and Queen, &c. 

In December. 1656, Lancaster was divided by a line corresponding to 
the western boundaries of the present l^ncaster and Middlesex, and all 
the county westward of this line on both sides of the Rappahannock 
was formed into a new county named after the river. The order for 
organizing this county and a list of its first officers was published in this 
Magazine, VII I, 176. 177. 

In 1692 the name Rappahannock was abandoned and that portion of 
the county south of the river became the county of Essex, which was 
bounded on the South by King and Queen, which had been formed from 
New Kent. 



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872 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

and accordingly Middlesex ridge to be equally Divided between 
those two Countys provided that no Intrenchment be made upon 
Gloucester County. 

The Upper County upon the Southside of Rapp' River to be 
called Essex, & beginning at the upper bounds of Lancaster and 
running up to the heads of the River backward as far as the 
Branches and runs off the creekes running in the said Rivers 
will p'mitt. 

Test: William Randolph, 

CI. Ho. Burg". 

At a Court held for King & Queen County the 12th day 8*^, 
1706. 

Upon ye motion of James Taylor,* gent", The above ord' of 
assembly was admitted to record. 

Test: Will. Stanard, D. Q. Cur. 

Ord' Assembly Settling bounds Essex & King & Queen 12th 
Octo', 1708. 

W. S., D. CI. Cur. 



Petition of Mrs. Anna Bland,! About 1670. 

To the R' Hon*'' S' William Berkeley Ka' Govern' & Cap* 
Gen" of Virginia with the Hon**'* Councill of State. 

The petition of Anna Bland, Widd. & Executrix of the last 

* James Taylor, of King and Queen county, bom 1674, died 1729, was 
long a surveyor in extensive practice, and was member of the House of 
Burgesses in 1702. He married Martha, daughter of Roger Thompson, 
of New Kent county, and has many descendants. For accounts of the 
Taylor family see Hayden's Virginia Genealogies ^ 671-684; Some Nota- 
ble Families of America, by A. R. Watson, 1-37; Green's Cuipeper 
County , Virginia, 74, and Descendants of Donald Robertson, &c. 

t Anna, wife of Theoderick Bland, was daughter of Richard Bennett, 
Governor of Virginia. She is named in her father's will, as is her hus- 
band Theoderick Bland ( William and Mary Quarterly, VII, 307-309^. 
Anna Bennett and Theoderick Bland were married in 1660 (Virginia 
Magazine of History and Biography, VIII, 73). Theoderick Bland was 
speaker of the House of Burgesses in 1659 and 1661, and a member of 
Council 1665-1671. He was buried in the church at Westover, Charles 
City county, and though the building has long since disapF>eared, his 
tomb remains, bearing arms of Bland and Bennett empaled: ar. on a 



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SOME COLONIAL VIRGINIA RECORDS. 873 

will of Thedorick Bland Esq' dec'd who was Adm' of Mr. John 
Holmewood*s estate, Humbly sheweth 

bend sa. three pheons of the field for Bland, and three demi lions for 
Bennett, and the following inscription: 

»*S. M. 
Prudentis & Eruditi Theodorici 
Bland Arniig. qui obiit Aprilis 

23d A. D., 167 1 iCtatis 41 

Cujus vidua Moestissima Anna 

Filia Richard Bennett Arniig. 

hoc Marmor Posuit." 

Motto: ** Sperate et virile fortis'' 

The extensive pedigree of the Blands, published in the Harleian So- 
ciety's *' Familiae Minorum Gentium,** gives the following in regard to 
Theoderick and Anna Bland and their descendants: 

Theoderick Bland, 9th son, = Anna, dau. of Col.=Col.St. LegerCodd 
bp. at St A[ntholins, Lon- ' Richard Ben net of | of Wickacoma, 2d 
don] i6Jan., 1629, amerch't | Wyannock on James | husband, 
at St. Lucar in Spain, & River, some time . 
after in Virginia, where he Governor of Virginia, 
lived at Westover on James | She d. at Warton | 
River in Charles City j Creek in Maryland, , 
County; d. 23 April, 167 1, ! Nov., 1687. , 



& was buried in Westover 
Ch. which he had built. 



St. Leger Codd of Warton Creek, 
Maryland, only son. 



Thomas, eldest son = Margaret, 
b. at Westover in relict of 



Mary Breckon=Jonn B. of=Eliz. 
Scarboro, Dale. 



F*eb., 1663, d. there Man. York [Eng.] 

in Nov., 1700. I 3d son. 

Mary, ist wife, dau.=Ricnard, 2d son, b. at=Elizabeth, 2d wife, 

of Thos. Swan of Berklys nearWestover dau. of Col. Wil. 

Swan's Point on 11 Aug., 1665; of Jor- Randolph of Turkey 

James River in dans on James River, Island on James River, 

Virginia, one of the where he d. 6 April, m. 11 Feb., 1701, 

Council; d. s. p. at 1720. d. 22 Jan., 1720. 
Jordans on James River 
in Sept., 1700. 

Richard Bland of "Jordans," was a member of the House of Bur- 
gesses for Charles City at the sessions of December, 1700, August, 1701, 
and May and June, 1702, and for Prince George at the sessions of April, 
1706. 



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374 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

That William Browne standeth indebted to yo' pet' in the 
quality aforesaid the sume of Eighteen hundred pounds of to- 

His will dated February 4, 1719, and proved April 12. 1720, is on 
record in Prince George county. The following is an abstract: to my 
son Theoderick the land I purchased of Mr. Wm. Randolph at Pigeon 
Swamp, and also all lands and tenements at Jones's Hole, and Buckskin 
creek on Nottoway river — all residue of lands to son Richard — to 
daughter Mary /500 sterling, one feather bed, one dozen silver spoons 
and two negroes— to daughter Elizabeth /500 sterling, one feather bed. 
one dozen silver spoons and two negro girls — to daughter Ann the same 
legacies — their mother's wearing apparel and ornaments to be equally 
divided between the three girls and each to have a horse— all other 
negroes to sons — mourning rings to each of my deceased wife's brothers 
and their wives, and to her own sister and her children— commit guar- 
dianship of my children to my brothers-in-law William and Richard 
Randolph. 

The son Richard, who succeeded at ** Jordan's" was the distinguished 
member of the Virginia Revolutionary Conventions and of the old Con- 
gress, and the other son, Theoderick, of '*Cawsons," Prince George 
county, was the father of Colonel Theoderick Bland of the Revolution. 

For the Blands see The Bland Papers^ 2 vols., Petersburg, Va., 1840; 
Familiae Minorum Gentium (Harleian Society), Vol. II, 421-427; Rich- 
mond Critic y Vol. I, Nos. 43, 45, 46; Grigsby's Virginia Convention of 
1776; Virginia Magazine of History and Biography^ IX, 60-77; and 
Waters's "Gleanings" (Bland wills). 

Codd: Colonel St. Leger Codd, of Wicomico, Northumberland county, 
Va., the second husband of Mrs. Bland, was, no doubt, son of William 
Codd, of Pelicans Kent, (England), Esq., who married, in 1632, Mar>-, 
daughter of Sir Warham St I.eger, of Ulcombe, Kent. It appears from 
the records of Northumberland county that in 1671 Colonel St. Leger 
Codd was appointed one of the commissioners to superintend the build- 
ing of a fort on the Potomac, and on July 4, 1676, men were detailed 
from his company to join a force to serve against the Indians. He was 
a justice of Northumberland 1677, presiding justice in 1680, and member 
of the House of Burgesses for that county in 1680 and 1682 {Colonial 
Virginia Register, 82, 83). Not long afterwards he removed to Mary- 
land, for there is recorded in Lancaster county, Va , August 11, 1687, an 
attachment against the estate of Colonel St. Leger Codd, in this county, 
who "in a private clandestine manner had moved his family away " 
The attachment was on account of a debt of ;f 120 due John Jeffer>s 
and another of £^i. 6. due William Sherwood. 

That his wife was named Anna is shown by a power of attorney, dated 
June 27, 1684, and recorded in Lancaster, from St. Leger Codd, of Lan- 



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SOME COLONIAL VIRGINIA RECORDS. 375 

bacco & Caske, as by bill under his hand w*** yo' pet' hath ready 
to p'duce to this hon*"* Court may appearand refuseth payment. 



caster, gent., to his wife Anna, and a deed, dated October 6, 1693, and 
recorded in Lancaster, from St. Leger Codd, of Kent county, Md., to 
William Tayloe, in which his wife Anna Codd joins. 

Colonel St. Leger Codd was a member of the Maryland legislature 
from Cecil county, in 1694 and 1702. It seems that Colonel Codd was 
married twice, and that by his second wife, Mrs. Anna Bland, he had 
one son, St. Leger. By the first marriage he had two sons, James and 
Berkeley (or Barclay, as it was sometimes spelled). His first wife was 
probably a daughter of Richard Perrott, of Lancaster county, Va. 

A copy of the will of Colonel Codd is recorded in Lancaster county 
and the following is an abstract: 

Will of Colonel St. Leger Codd, of Cecil county, Mar>'land. 
To son James all his lands in the parishes of Wateringbury, Lenham 
and Wetchlin [?] in the county of Kent in Old England, and failing his 
heirs, to testators sons Berkeley Codd, and St. Leger Codd— to son 
Berkeley Codd the plantation in Lancaster county, Va., which testator 
bought of Pensax — to son St. Leger Codd the tract of land in Cecil 
•county, Md., which testator bought of Salisbury — to daughter Beatrix 
£s sterling— to daughter Sarah Paddison* *— all rest of personal estate 
to sons Berkeley and St. Leger. Dated November 7, 1706, proved in 
Maryland, February 9, 1707-8, and in Lancaster, April 8, 1708. 

The son. Captain St. Leger Codd, was a member of the Maryland 
legislature from Cecil county, in 171 2, 1713, 17 14, 1715, 1716, 1719, and 
1720. He married Mary, daughter of Colonel Hans Hanson and had 
two daughters, xMary and Beatrice. The latter married, June 6, 1731, 
Gideon Pearce, of Maryland. 

The other son, Barclay or Berkeley Codd, settled in Delaware and was 
on April 11, 1710, and again on March 9, 1723, commissioned associate 
Justice of the provincial court of that colony. He was appointed a 
justice of the peace for Sussex county in 1717. 

On June 21, 1671, Governor Lovelace granted 3,odo acres in Cedar 
Creek Hundred, Sussex county (Delaware), to Richard Perrott, of Vir- 
ginia. Scharff 's History of Delaware states that Richard Perrott set- 
tled here (which is believed to be a mistake) and that the land was held 
by his family for three generations. There is in the book referred to 
(Vol. II, p. 1201) a letter, dated 1672, from Richard Perrott to Governor 
Lovelace. The fact that Virginians patented land and settled in Dela- 
ware is not generally known. Scharff states that on October 29, 17 18, 
Richard Perrott, grandson of the patentee, conveyed the large tract of 
land to Barclay Codd, who was also a descendant of the elder Perrott. 



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376 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

She therefore humbly prayed Judgm' ag' the said Brown for 
paym' of the said sume, with costs. 
And she shall pray, &c. 

[Endorsed]: Mrs. Bland vs. Browne (for debt of 1800 pds. 
Tobacco). 



Petition of John Edwards, 1670? 

To the Right Hon"* S' William Berkeley K"' Govern' and 
Cap' Gen" of Virginia and to the Hon**** Counsell of State. 

John Edwards humbly sheweth 

That as the fruits and effects of Corrupt and Vile principalis 
are all impieties towards God, soe they are the Cause of all 
originall Unrighteousness and basenesse towards men, For the 
verrity whereof yo' Petition' doth hereby instance in John Biggs, 
a p*son wellknowne in the County of Lower Norfolke, whoe be- 
fore his undertaking to serve the publique in the place of a Sur- 
veyor of the high wayes, did very ingeniously confesse (what 
others did thinke of him) hee did it to serve his owne p*ticular ends 
and purposes, y* he might obteyne ways for his own conveniency 
(which truth) is rather to be believed, in y* the said Biggs for 
many years as is well knowe in the said County, hath beenc 
averse to, and Neglective of, the p'formance of the publique 
dutyes, and as his ends were (base and selfish) such was the 
p'formance of his worke which hee undertooke, p** of the wayes 
w'^'in his limitts which hee had occasion to use is sufficiently 
donn, the rest left undonne to the great annoyance, hinderance, 
danger and abuse of his Maj*'*" Good subjects. 

Y' Petition' therefore humbly prayes y' since the said Biggs 
hath herin neglected the p'formance of his duty (unbecoming a 
good Christian, a loyall subject, & a true Englishman) Hee may 
susteyne the penalty which the law Imposes upon all such p'sons 
soe offending, thereby Justice shall take place, w'** which God is 
well pleased, his default expiated, and others deterred from run- 
ning into the like offense. 

And yo' Petition' as in duty bound shall ever pray, &c. 

[Endorsed]: Mr. Edwards Petition. 



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SOME COLONIAL VIRGINIA RECORDS. 377 

Petition of John Hoskis, A Servant, 1670? 

To ye Right hon*^ S' William Barkley Knight, Govern', &c., 
& ye hon""* Councell of State ye humble peti. of John Hoskis 
humbley sheweth 

That whereas y' petis' Lately serv'd Henry Sprat* of ye 
County of Lower Norff., who refuseth to pay him Corn & Cloths 
according to Custome, for w'** y' petis' obtained order of ye 
foresaid Conrt against ye s* Mr. Sprat who hath apeal* to ye 6th 
day of ye Last gen" Court thereby Causing ye poore petis' to 
attend at his great Charge & trouble & could not finde any dec- 
laration of ye s* Sprat in ye office. 

The petis' therefore humbley prays y' hon" y* ye fores* order 
May be confermed w*** such other damages for y' petis" trouble 
& Lose of time it being Extreemly Injurious to him in his Crop 
as to y' hon" shall seem Just & y' petis' as bound in Duty shall 
pray, &c. 

[Endorsed]: Hoskis past. 



Petition of John Mead, 1675. 

To the R' Hon**'* S' William Berkeley Kn* Govern' & Cap* 
Gen" of Virg^ with the Hon*"" Councell of State. 
The petition of John Mead Carpenter, Humbley Sheweth, 
That Edward Diggs t Esq' dec*d being indebted to y' pet' the 

* Henry Spratt was a justice of Lower Norfolk county 1677, 1686. 
There is on record a deed dated Lower Norfolk, January 11, 1688-9, 
from Isabella Spratt, widow of Mr. Henry Spratt, and her son Henry 
Spratt, conveying land. Major Henry Spratt was a justice of Princess 
Anne in 1705. Henry Spratt was a member of the House of Burgesses 
for Princess Anne at the sessions of May, 1723, and May, 1726. 

t Edward Digges, son of Sir Dudley Digges, Master of the Rolls, was 
bom about 1621, and died March 15, 1675-6. He entered Grays Inn 
May 19, 1637, and emigrated to Virginia about 1650, when he settled at 
**Belfield *' on York river. He was chosen member of the Council in 
1654, was Auditor-General 1670-1675, and Governor of Virginia from 
March 31, 1655, to March 13, 1657-8, when he was sent to England as 
the colonial agent. His wife Elizabeth, who died about 1691, is believed 
to have been a sister of Colonel John Page, of York county, Va. 

The tomb of Edward Digges is at *' Belfield " with the family arms 
(with a crescent for difference) and the following epitaph: 



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378 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

sume of three hundred & one pounds, six shillings; Eleven 
pence ster. due part by agreement under the hand & seale of the 
said Edw** Diggs Esq' and th' other part for worke don above y* 
agreement: Which sume being denyed to be paid by the said 
Ew* Diggs Esq' yo' pet' comenced an action ag' him the last 
Gen" Court, and yo' hon" orderd that the worke don should be 
viewed by some of the hon**'" Councill, who were pleased (by 
the consent & desier of Cap' Will" Diggs son & heire of the said 
Edw** Diggs Esq' after the decease of the said Edw* Diggs Esq') 
to view the worke don by agreement, and y' pet' humbly con- 
ceiveth that the said hon**'" p'sons who were so appointed will 
report of the same to this hon*"* Court. 

Yo' pet' therefore humbly prayes Judgm' for paym* of ye money 
due to him, with Costs. 

And he shall pray, &c. 

[Endorsed]: Mead v' Esq. Diggs. 



Petition of Mrs. Mary Culpeper, 1670? 

To the Right hon*»'* S' William Berkely Knight, Cover' and 
Cap* Generall of Virginia and the hon"" Councill of State at James 
Citty. 

The humble petition of Mary Culpeper Relict and Adm. of 
the estate of Mr. Jno. Culpeper* dec*d. 

Whereas y' hon" was pleased to grant y' humble petio' an 
Order for ye some of Fifty pounds sterling out of her husbands 
estate in the nature of a paraphanailia. 



"To the memory of Edward Digges, Esquire, sonne of Sir Dudley 
Digges, of Chilham, in Kent, Knight, and Baronett [an error]. Master 
of the Rolls in the reign of King Charles the ist. He departed this life 
the 15th of March, 1675, in the 55th year of his age, one of his Majestey's 
Councill for this his Colony of Va. A gentleman of the most commend- 
able parts and ingenuity, and the only introducer and promoter of the 
silk manufacture in this Colonie, and in everything else a pattern worth 
of all pious imitation. He had issue six sonnes and seven daughters by 
the body of Elizabeth his wife, who of her conjugal affection hath dedi* 
cated this memorial." 

F'or a genealogy of the Digges family see the Wiiiiam and Mary 
Quarterly, Vol. I. 

*John Culpeper was clerk of Northampton county, 1671-1674. 



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SOME COLONIAL VIRGINIA RECORDS. 379 

And whereas her said husbands Inventory of estate was ap- 
praised and reduced into tobacco. 

Y' humble petic' therefore humbly prayeth that y' Hon" wilbee 
pleased to ascertayne her a certaine Some of tobacco in the lieu 
of her fifty pounds sterling. 

And y' petic' as in duty bound shall pray. 

Grtd. 

[Endorsed]: Mrs. Culpeper Pet". Past. 

Petition of Charles Rone,* 1670? 

To the R' Hon**" S' William Berkeley Kn' Govern' & Cap* 
Gen" of Virginia, with the Hon"** Councill of State: 

The peticon of Charles Rone Attorney of Cap* Humphrey 
White, Most humbly Sheweth, 

That the said Cap* White recovered an order of this hon**** 
Court of the 18th day of Aprill, 1670, for the payment of ten 
thousand one hundred twenty seven pounds of tobacco & Caske, 
to be paid out of the estate of Mr. Thomas Loveingf dec'd in 
whose hand soever the same should be found. And Mr. Edward 
Thurston J who married one of the daughters & heires of the 
said Mr. Loveing possessed himselfe of a very considerable estate 
both real! & p'sonall belonging to the said Mr. Loveing part of 
which estate the said Edward Thurston hath left in the hands of 
his Brother Mr. Malacha Thurston his Attorney, but the said 



* Probably the ancestor of the well known family of Roane, though 
the connection has not been traced. 

t Thomas Loving was surveyor-general of Virginia until his death in 
1665, and was member of the House of Burgesses for James City at the 
sessions of October, 1644, October, 1646, and March » 1657-8 He mar- 
ried, in or before 1639, the widow of Thomas Kingston. His daughter 
Ann Loving married, October 28, 1666, at Martin's Hundred, Va., 
Edward Thruston. 

X Edward Thruston, son of John Thruston, Chamberlain of Bristol, 
England, was born January 30, 1638. He lived at times both in Virginia 
and England. In 1696 there is on record in Norfolk county, a power of 
attorney from him in which he styles himself ** Edward Thruston, of 
Long Ash ton, in the county of Somersett, Chyrurgeon." 

An elaborate account of the Thurstons in Virginia can be found in the 
IViiliam and Mary Quarterly, Vol. IV. 

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380 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Edward and Malacha or either of them have not sattisfied the 
said sume. 

Y' pet' therefore humbly prayes yo' Hon" to confirme ye afore- 
said order of ye i8th of Aprill 1670, as alsoe to revive an order 
of this hon"* Court of the 28th of October, 1670, by which an 
extent is granted ag' the Land of the said Edward Thurston in 
Martin's hundred, with costs. 

And he shall pray, &c. 

[Endorsed]: Mr. Rone v' Mr. Thurston. 



Petition of Lt. Col. Geo. Jordan, 1670? 

To the Right Hono'able Sr. William Berkeley kn' Govern' of 
Virginia with the Hono'able Councell of State. 

The petition of Le' Coll. George Jordan * Executor of Mr. 
Thomas Hunt, most humbly sheweth 

That Mr. Mathew Page dec* Remaineth Indebted unto the 
Estate of the said Mr. Hunt the sum of 3,146 lbs. of tobaco & 
Caske being due by bill & for goods deliver* a short time before 
the said Mr. Hunt dyed. 

Y' petion' humbly prayeth order against Mr. John Page the 
Executor of the sd. Mathew Page for the .sd. 3, 145 lbs. tobb. 
with Costs, & y' pet' shall pray. 

[Endorsed]: Jordan ag" Page due 21st October, past. 



Petition of Christopher Robinson. 

To the Right Hon*'' S' William Berkley Kn' Governo' & Cap' 
GennMl of Virginia & ye Hon*'*'' Councell of State. 

The humble Petition of Christopher Robinson f Sheweth 



* Colonel George Jordan, of Surry county, who was appointed Attor- 
ney-General of Virginia April 12, 1670, and died in 1678. 

For a note on George Jordan and his family see this Magazine IV, pp. 
2-4. The tomb of his first wife, Alice Miles, is probably the oldest in 
Virginia, bearing a legible inscription. It is at*' Four Mile Tree,'* 
Surry. 

t Christopher Robinson, of Cleasby, Yorkshire, England, brother of 
John Robinson, Bishop of London, came to Virginia about 1666, and 
settled on an estate in Middlesex" county, which was afterwards called 
" Hewick." He was member of the Council and Secretary of State at 



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SOME COLONIAL VIRGINIA RECORDS. 381 

That Bartram Obert Dec*d the Father of yo' Pet" Wife was 
Possessed in his life time of a Ccrtaine parcell of Land situate 



the time of his death in 1693. He married, first, Agatha, daughter of 
Bertram Obert, of Middlesex, and second, Catherine, widow of Robert 
Beverley. For a note on Christopher Robinson, and his immediate 
descendants (derived chiefly from the records of Middlesex) see this 
Magazine, III, 2-5. 

The following additional notes have been made from the Middlesex 
records since the publication in Vol. Ill: 

(i) Will of Judith, wife of Christopher Robinson, dated November 
15, and proved December 6, 1720— gives to her husband Christopher 
Robinson all of her estate including all of her lands in Middlesex, James 
City and Essex counties. (She was daughter of Christopher Wormeley, 
of Middlesex, and wife of Christopher Robinson, 2d, who died in 1727). 

(2) Will of Christopher Robinson, Esquire (3d). He directs that his 
estate in Yorkshire be sold and the proceeds laid out in land and negroes 
in Virginia, for his son Christopher. To his wife Sarah one-third of all 
his estate, real and personal, in England and Virginia (except the parts 
he had given to his daughters Mary and Betty) for her life. To his 
daughter Mary Robinson all his land in James City couny and certain 
negroes. To his daughter Betty Robinson certain negroes and /800 
sterling. Rest of estate to son Christopher. Dated July 17, and proved 
in Middlesex, December 6, 1768. 

(3) In 1774 recorded in Middlesex, account with the estate of Chris- 
topher Robinson, deceased, for 1769 The rents of He wick, Yorkshire, 
Eng. (an estate which Bishop Robinson had left to Christopher Robin- 
.son, 2d.), stated to have been as follows: in the year 1771, ^"415; in 1772, 
^425. 17. 9; in '773, /433- M- "» and in 1774, ^424. 14. 6 sterling. 

(4) Will of Sarah, widow of Christopher Robinson, dated December 
6, 1771, proved in Middlesex, February 25, 1772, leaves her estate to her 
daughter Elizabeth and son Christopher Robinson. 

(5) Will of John Robinson, dated February 21, 1785, and proved in 
Middlesex, July 23d, 1787. His home plantation in Middlesex to his 
daughters Judith, Mary and Priscilla Robinson for their lives, with rever- 
sion to son William. Quarter plantation in Middlesex to son William. 
The plantation called Green Branch, which he purchased from Colonel 
William Churchill, to son John. The lands, negroes, furniture, stocks, 
&c., he purchased of Jonathan Watson, Esq., to son Christopher. To 
daughter Mary certain negroes. To daughters Judith Robinson, Kath- 
erine Robinson, Priscilla Robinson, and to sons John, Robert, William 
and Peter certain negroes. The money he has in the British funds to 
daughters Mary, Judith, Katherine and Priscilla. ^300 sterling to Eliz- 
at>eth Whiting, and ;f 300 sterling to purchase a tract of land to be held 



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382 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

in Middlesex County, w*'*' said Land he by his last Will Divided 
into parcells and Sett to his children, But he ye s* Bartram Obert 
being an Allien borne ye aforesaid land was imediately after his 
Decease found to Escheate to ye King. The Benefitt whereof Yo' 
Hon' was pleased to Grant to the Orphans of the said Bartram 
Obert, And ye said Grannt being expressed in Gen' 11 termes as 
by ye same may appeare; yo' Petio' Doth humbly thinke thai 
yo' Hon'* intent & meaning by ye Same was, That the Said Or- 
phants should severally enjoy ye aforesaid Land or such propor- 
tion as there Father by his last will Desired, and there being now 
noe more liveing of ye said Orphants But Agatha (yo' Pet" wife) 
and Elizabeth Obert her sister. 

Yo' Petio' therefore humbly prayes y' Hon" will please to ex- 
plaine ye meaning of ye afores** Grannt as alsoe to Order parti- 
tion to be made Betweene yo' Petio' (in right of his s"* wife) and 
Elizabeth Obert aforesaid, not only of ye afore recited pr'mises 
But alsoe of a Certaine parcell of Land Comeing to them as Co- 
heires of there Brother Chichester Obert Dec'd. 

And yo' Pet' as in Duty bound shall ever pray, &c. 

[Endorsed]: Robinson's Pet'n. 

in trust by his nephew Benjamin Robinson. To Mary Robinson Whit- 
ing, eldest daughter of Matthew Whiting, and testator's sister Elizabeth 
Whiting, his wife, /"300 sterling. To testator*s son John, ;f 800 sterling. 
To son Robert, ;f 1,200 sterling. To son William, ;f3oo sterling. To 
son Peter, /r 000 sterling. To Elizabeth, daughter of nephew Benjamin 
Robinson, /loo sterling, and the remainder of money to testator's son 
Christopher. 

Legacies of horses, cattle, furniture, &c. Appoints P. L. Grymes, 
Benjamin Robinson, sons Christopher and William, and daughters |udith 
and Mary, executors. 

[John Robinson, born 1707, died 1787, was son of Christopher Rob- 
inson, 2d. He is stated to have married, first, Yates, and second, 

Churchill, of " Bushy Park."] 

(6) Will of Christopher Robinson, dated November 20, 1784, and 
proved in Middlesex, July 23d, 1787. Legatees: wife Ann, sons .William 
and Charles, daughters Elizabeth, Aisly [?], and Nancy Robinson, 
brother Benjamin Robinson, and son-in-law William Robinson, executors. 

No complete genealogy of the Robinsons has ever been published. 
The only one approaching completeness is in the Richmond Standard, 
III, 29, 30. 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 383 



THE JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 



Found in the Virginia State Library in 1901. 



(continued) 

J. A. COPELAND TO ElIAS 



Charleston, Va., Dec. 1859. 

Dear Elias: 

I have just received your kind and affectionate letter of the 
7 Inst, and I now take my pen to answer you which may be the 
last time that I shall be able to write you. 

Ah my dear fried if you could but know and feel the pleasure 
and comfort which your letter brought me, you would thank 
God that you had written. It came to me bringing in its words, 
light to my heart, and consolation to my mind which makes the 
Gallows, the dark and gloomy gallows, with all it** terrors, ap- 
pear in more glorious and resplendent light than that which 
surrond the throne of a king. For the throne presents onely 
worldly happiness and Glory mix thourily with the bitterest 
dreegs of wo and misery to him who ascends it to weild the 
kingly scepter. Whill the gallows presents to those who die 
upon it for having don their duty to both God and man not only 
glory and renown in this world but opens the road to bliss and 
happiness above with angels in heaven where sorrow and misery 
is not known, and where cruel and unjust men do not exist. 

It is true that when I think of the dear, dear friends that I 
must leave behind that I long to live that I may be with them a 
little while longer, and when I think of my poor mother and 
father whos hearts is filled with sorrow at the fate of their poor 
son, I cannot, let me try as hard as I may, keep from droping 
tears, knowing that I might have saved them the misery and wo 
with which their hearts are wrong, but knowing that they have 
the simpithy of hundreds who will do all in their power to con- 
sole them and feeling that they must see that God has ordained 
it for me to suffer in the caus that I now do suffer in, and knowing 
that they put their trust in him that they will feel reconciled 
when I say *' Gods will be don not mine/* 



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384 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Dear friend it is true that the outbak at Harper's Ferry did 
not give immediate freedom to the slaves of this cuntry but it is 
the prelude to that great event. For remember at the first com- 
mencement of the strugle for the Indipedence of this cuntry, that 
the Harper's Ferry outbreak is in every point of view the same. 
For at the commencement of that strugle the first blood spilt to 
freedom the American people was that of a negro, poor Cyrus 
Attuc, and in this the commencement of the strugle for the free- 
dom of the negro slave the first blood spilt was that of a 
Negro (one who had come to try to free his wife from the cruel 
hands of her master), Dangerfield Newby. But I will say no 
more on this point. Now dear fried though in all human prob- 
erbility I will never see you mor on this earth, I preay God we 
may meet in heaven. I bid you strgle on in the good caus never 
give up. Give my love to all my friend. To your father, sister 
and brothers and except the same for youself. I remain now as 
ever, Yours 

sincerly, 

J. A. COPELAND. 

You must excuse this writing, I write on the back of a book 
on my knee. 



A. R. Allen to Governor Wise. 

[Endorsed] A. R. Allen, detective. Telegram. 

[Printed heading] Western Independent Telegraph Line, 
from Baltimore to Cincinnati, via Baltimore and Ohio R, R. & 
Marietta and Cincinnati R. R. 

This line works directly through to Cincinnati, Sun Iron Build- 
ing, Corner of Baltimore and South Sts., Baltimore. 

Washington, Nov. 12, 1859. 
Andrew Hunter, Charlestown: 

Arrested man supposed Insurgent, In jail, waiting identifi- 
cation. Governor requested me to telegraph you. 

A. R. Allen, 

Detective Officer. 



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john brown letters. 385 

Marie G. Sterns to Governor Wise. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Governor Wise, Charlestown, Va. 
[Endorsed] Sterns delivered. 
[Post marked] Springfield, Mo. 

Springfield, 1859, November 19th. 
Gov. Wise: 

Dear Sir, — May I ask of you, the favor, of sending to my 
friend John Brown the enclosed letter, which is merely one, ex- 
pressive of my sympathy for him, in his present trying situation — 
if you wish, you can open & read it, but I earnestly beg you, to 
send the letter to him & oblige, yours 

very sincerely, 

Marie S. Sterns. 
Gov. Wise, Charlestown, Va. 



John L. Snow to Thomas C. Green. 

[Endorsed] John L. Snow, Detroit. Copy made. Sent Gov,, 
important. 

Detroit, Michigan, November 17th, 1859. 

Thomas C. Green, Esqr., Mayor Charlestown, Va: 

Dear Sir, — A knowledge of certain plans which are likely 
to affect the peace and well being of our community having come 
into my possession, I feel it my duty to impart the same to you in 
order that you may take such precautions as in your judgement 
you may think proper. Within the last 3 weeks there has been 
a party of men organizing here for the rescue of old John Brown 
and his fellow traitors — this being on the borders of Canada is a 
fit place for such an organization as they have the means of safety 
at hand by crossing the River also a convenient place for accum- 
ulating and storing arms. This party is under the lead of reck- 
less and dareing men, some of whom played a prominent part 
in Kansas, others have served with Walker in Nicuraga, they 
have a regular and most complete Military organization. And 
I have the most reliable proof that they now have between 7,500 
and 8,000 men enrolled all of whom are sworn to rescue old 
Brown and his fellow prisoners or die in the attempt. So far as 
I can judge they are a most resolute and determined body of 
men and will hesitate at no crime in order to accomplish their 



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386 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

nefarious ends, even the overthrow of the Federal Government 
has been determined upon should such an act be necessary in 
order to accomplish their object. The leaders expect to have at 
least 10,000 reliable men by the 20th of this month and expect 
to rendezvous near Charlestown on or about the 30th of this 
month and then and there effect their purpose. They will not 
travel in a body but like ordinary travelers untill they arrive at 
or near their destination, when they will form themselves into 
bodies sufficiently large to resist any force which they suppose 
the authorities will be prepared to bring against them. Each 
man is provided with two Revolvers with an extra cylinder each, 
which gives each man 24 pistol shots, a large Bowie knife and 
a short Breech Loading, self capping & priming Carbines which 
can be loaded and discharged 10 times in a minute. These Car- 
bines are made so as to take to pieces and put together with 
great rapidity and facility, the Barrels being only 18 inches long 
are taken off and packed in trunks or Carpet Bags, the Stocks 
are made with hinges so as to fold up in a very small compass 
and thus enable these men to pack them with their ordinary 
Baggage. The whole Carbine being so well made and the parts 
fitting each other so well and going together with springs that 
one accustomed to their use can adjust them in 30 seconds. 
These Carbines were manufactured for Old Brown's expedition, 
but were not delivered as the pay was not forthcoming. Since 
Old Brown's Capture the wealthy Abolishonists of the north have 
come forward and paid for them and placed them in the hands of 
Brown's would be rescuers. I also know that the leaders of this 
present expedition have been furnished by the same guilty parties 
with any desirable amount of money for the purpose of carrying 
out their plans. Their object now seems to be only the rescue of 
Old Brown and party but being successful in this and with arms in 
their hands who will for one moment imagine that they will stop 
short of the liberation of all our slaves. I say our slaves as I 
am a citizen and native of Kentucky and an owner of slaves, 
and am only here by the imperative calls of my private business, 
you nor any other Southerner can imagine the deadly hostility 
which the majority of these fanatics feel for our institutions. 
God forbid that they should ever be successful! in their incendiary 
object. These men are being drilled nightly in the use of their 



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JOHN BROWN LETTERS. 387 

arms and parties are leaving by every train (as fast as they be- 
come expert in the use of the arms) in order not to draw too 
much attention. I can vouch for all the foregoing facts having 
visited their depots and seen the men going through their exer- 
cises, but I cannot vouch for the following which was told me 
last evening, that is that there is an organization here in the 
north now numbering 80,000 who are sworn to know no rest 
untill they see an end of slavery in all the States of this Union. 
I give this for what it is worth but from what I know of the feel- 
ing of the people of these Northern States I am much more than 
half inclined to believe that it is true. I know that there is Mad- 
ness enough here to form ten such organizations and I fear un- 
less the South is warned and armed in time that we shall have 
one of the most teriffic civil wars that ever disgraced the annals 
of history ancient or modern. 

Hoping that you will be able to defeat the present expedition 
and bring its leaders & projectors to condign punishment, I 
remain. 

Yours Very Respectfully, 

John L. Snow. 

S. A. B. TO John Brown. 

[Envelope] [MS.] Capt. John Brown, Charlestown Jail, S. 
C. Care of Capt. Avis, Jailor. Postmarked Rochester, N. Y. 
Forwarded from Charleston, S. C. 

[Endorsed] S. A. B. 

Rochester, Nov. 27, '59. 
Dear Brother: 

A woman's heart beats in sympathy with thine — I picture to 
myself your once happy home — I see you at the head of a 
family — I behold you on the bended knee lifting your heart in 
prayer to the Most high — I hear your paternal voice — It has 
l>een your highest thought to instil into the hearts of your chil- 
dren a sense of Justice — That has been a prevailing trait of your 
life — I have seen the storm which has gathered about you — At 
times the clouds have been dark & tempestuous, — your home 
has been pillaged — your children taken from your embrace — & 
yet as I have felt you — your strength has accumulated in pro- 
portion to the increase of your labors. — Oppression has presented 



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388 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

itself in its various phases, to your mind, until you have deter- 
mined to consecrate yourself to the service of bleeding human- 
ity — Nobly I feel you have done your work — You may have 
misjudged in respect to the strength of the slave power — ^yet I 
care not your measures, so long as I feel that your heart was 
right. — I have watched you, Dear Brother, with more than a 
Sister* s Love — as you were taken from your cell to the place 
where the judgment Hall sh'd be — The sentence has been 
passed — The work has been done — I see you wounded, weak in 
body, yet strong in trust — I invoke upon you the choicest of 
Heaven's benefactions. 

Were it within the circle of my labors I sh*d now be by your 
side— but I feel that I am at work in the best way to aid my 
kind — I w*d however as a Sister suggest a few considerations — 
First I would have you employ an able Amanuensis, that you 
may give a sketch of your noble life. — I would have you place 
that manuscript in hands, that would spread it before the public 
eye— If the Oppressor deny you these privileges, so let it be. — I 
would have you select your own Robes for the last fatal hour. — 
I would have you clothe yourself in pure white garments indica- 
tive of your internal condition. If this reasonable request were 
refused, so let it be. — I would have you prepare for the occasion 
an Address somewhat as follows — 

To My Country Men. 

I die for you — I have finished my mortal work — I leave this 
form with a firm trust in the justice of the Cause for which I am 
now to suffer. — In the sight of God & Holy Angels, I declare I 
am at peace — I love my kind and for my race I have given my 
all — Oppression may crush me as an individual. But the ' ' Truth 
tho* crushed to Earth shall rise again — The Eternal years of God 
are hers*' — Let me say to my executioners I am immortal. 
Over my mortal body you have power — but my spirit is beyond 
your control, & I now declare to you in the presence of this 
vast assembly, that . Heaven helping me I will instantly return 
with new powers & increased vigor to demolish an institution 
which is the ''Sum of all Villanies " — You cannot kill me, but 
it will be within my reach to kindle a fire which shall bum and 
which shall cbnsume the evils under which my country is now 



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BOOKS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 389 

groaning. I advertise you then today of my intentions. My 
murdered Sons still live — My acquaintances are numerous — and 
thro* this days act you are to help break the fetter which binds 
my kind. — Farewell I leave you — but I leave you only speedily 
to return — 

A Sisters holy sympathy be with you to the portals of Heaven. 

Yours 

S. A. B. 
(to be continued) 



BOOKS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 



On pages 299-303, Vol. VII, of this Magazine, was published 
a list of inventories and wills from various Virginia county 
records, which contained references to books, and which had 
not before been noticed in print. One of the principal objects 
of that publication was to show that not only were there some 
large libraries in the colony; but to demonstrate the fact that the 
possession of a small number of books was a very common 
thing. 

In regard to the additional list, here printed, it may be stated, 
as was done in regard to the former one, that it is the result of 
no exhaustive examination of the records of any county except 
perhaps Albemarle. 

It should also be remembered in considering the subject of 
books in Colonial Virginia, that the records of a number of the 
old counties have been entirely destroyed, and that the same fate 
has occurred to large portions of the records of others. 

The names of owners, the counties and the dates are given. 
The dates are those of recordation of inventory or probate of 
will. 

On page 303, of the article in Vol. VII, was given a number 
of references to notices of books in Colonial Virginia, which 
have appeared in print. The following references are additional: 
William aud Mary Quarterly, VIII, 18-22, 61, 77-79, 128, 145- 



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390 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

150; IX, 61, 164, 165, 241; X, 1 10, 232-241; Virginia Maga- 
zine of History and Biography, VII, 65, 66, 109, no, in, 194, 
318, 359; VIII, 12, 59,61, 93, 207; IX, 82, 86; Lower Norfolk 
County Virginia Antiquary, I, 52, 91, 704-106, 1 21-123, 124; 
n, 33-36; III, 144. 

Among the Virginia book-plates named in Dexter' s work on 
the subject, are fifty-two which can be safely asserted to be colo- 
nial. They are as follows: Ambler, Andrews, William Archer, 
William Armistead, John Banister. Bathurst, Bayley, Harry 
Beverley, Robert Beverley, William Beverley, Robert Boiling, 
Wm. Brimage, Wm. Byrd, Miles Cary, Gabriel Cay, Davenport, 
Bryan Fairfax, Fitzhugh, Wm. Fitzhugh, Jr., Gilmer, Peter 
Hay, James Henderson, James Hubard, George Inglis, Gabriel 
Jones, Miles King, Lee, Philip Ludwell Lee, Philip Lightfoot, 
William Lightfoot, Philip Ludwell, Hugh Mercer, John Mercer, 
James Milner, James Murray, Frances Page, John Randolph, 
Middle Temple, Peyton Randolph, Semple, Fulwer Skipwith, 
Robert Smith, Thomas Smith, Spotswood, Wm. Stith, John 
Tayloe, John Tazewell, Thompson, Wm. Thornton, Thruston, 
George Lee Turberville, Benj. Waller, George Washington, 
Ralph Wormeley and Henry Chinn. 

Mr. Dexter states that this list is not complete, and among 
others which might be added are Landon Carter, Sabine Hall, 
Philip Rootes, Le Roy Griffin (label), Ryland Randolph, James 
Power, Reuben Skelton, Wm. McKenzie, George Wythe, James 
Hubard, of Gloster, James Skelton, Peter Lyons, Hugh Orr, • 
and John Camm. There is no doubt a number of others exist. 

William Moull, Albemarle, 1753 — An Arithmetick book, 2sh. 
6d., XViO Bibles, 5sh. 

William Phelps, Albemarle, 1749— One Testament, a Prayer 
book and some writing books, 4sh. 

Bernard Gaines, Albemarle, 1749 — 3 vols. Don Quixote, £\, 6. 

Robert Hamner, Albemarle, 175 1 — Bible and Prayer Book, 
4sh. 

William Spurlock, Albemarle, 1751 — Two books, 2sh. 6d. 

Thomas Phelps, Albemarle, 1751 — Two old Bibles, 5 Testa- 
ments, I Duty of Man, 3 **Salters," i Spelling book, i Prayer 
Book. 



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BOOKS !N COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 391 

Robert McAnnally, Albemarle, 1757 — 6 Bibles, 16 old divinity 
books. 

John McWhorter, Albemarle, 1757 — i small Bible and oth^r 
books, 6sh. 

Peter Jefferson, Albemarle, 17 — Rapin's History of Eng- 
land, 2 vols. , and 2 vols, of the continuation thereof, £6, Solo- 
man's State Trials, 26 sh. Laws of Virginia, 7 sh. 6 d. Ogilvie's 
Description of America, 15 sh. i Quarto Bible with Book of 
Common Prayer, £1, 3. Nelson's Office of a Justice, 15 sh. 
Scrivenor's Guide, 2 vols., 8sh. The Present State of Great 
Britain, 3sh. The Lond° & Country brewer, 3sh. Trent's 
Dictionary, 5 sh. A Secret History of Queen Ann's Minister's, 

1 sh. 8d. Switzer's huolander [?], 2sh. 6d. Virginia Justice, 
3sh. 6d. Anson's Voyage round the world, 4§h. A Large 
Prayer Book, 8sh. id. Three old books, 3sh. Bishop of 
Sodor and Man's Instruction for indians, 2sh. Spect" [Specta- 
tors], IX volumes, Tader, 5 vols.. Guard", 2 vols., Addis" Works, 
3 vols., ® 4sh. 6d.=^4. 5. 6. Maps of the 4 Quarters of the 
World, £2, 10. A Map of the City of London, 4sh. Do. of 
Virginia, 7sh. 6d. Four old maps, iish. 6d. 

Joseph Thompson, Albemarle, 1759— Two books, 2sh. 

Joshua Fry, Albemarle, 1754 — '* i Parcell of Books in ye out 
Room," £^ 17. 6. Ditto, ditto, "in the back room," 26sh. 
Ditto, ditto, "in the out shed," Ssh. 6d.=/5. 12. 

William Spurlock, Albemarle, 1759 — i Testament, i sh. 3d. 

William Allen, Albemarle, 1760 — A parcel of old books, 2sh. 

Thomas Hardwick, Albemarle, 1760 — Two Testaments. 

William Reid, Albemarle, 1760 — One Bible, 4sh. 6d. 

Anthony Hoggatt, Albemarle, 1755 — i old Bible and a parcel 
of other old books, £2, 10. 

Charles Ellis, Albemarle, 1760 — A parcel of books, 30 sh. 

Tandy Holeman, Albemarle, 1760 — i book, ish., i Bible and 

2 pocket books, 6sh. 

James Spears, Albemarle, 1761 — A parcel of books, &c., 6sh. 

James Daniel, Albemarle, 1761 — Burket's Explanation of the 
New Testament, ;^ I. 10. Havel's first vol., Ssh. Parcel of old 
books, 18 sh. 6d. And in Lunenburg Co., a parcel of books, 
4sh. 

David Woddrop, Albemarle, 1761 — Old books, 6 sh. 



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392 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Davis Stockton, Albemarle, 1762 — 2 books, 5sh. 

Thomas Cobbs, Albemarle, 1761 — A parcel of books. 
. Joseph Martin, Albemarle, 1762 — A parcel of books, £1. 10. 

Philip Joyner, Albemarle, 1762— A parcel of old books. 

Charles Harrison, Albemarle, 1762 — 8 books. 43 sh. 

Benjamin Brown, Albemarle, 1762 — i law book and a parcel 
of old books. 

Larkin Smith, Albemarle, 1764 — A parcel of books, 9sh. 6d. 

John Foster, Albemarle, 1764 — A parcel of books, 7sh. 

John McCord, Albemarle, 1764 — Books, 40 sh. 

David Mills, Albemarle, 1765 — A parcel of books, £^, 5; a 
parcel of Latin books, /^2. 15. 

Samuell Arnall, Albemarle, 1765 — One Bible. 

Charles Smith, Albemarle, 1765 — One Bible and Testament 
and one sermon book. 

Joseph Thompson, Albemarle, 1766 — A parcel of books, &c., 

William Ewen, Albemarle, 1766 — A prayer-book and old Bible, 
and 2 other books, 3 sh. 

Robert Harris, Albemarle, 1766 — A parcel of old books, losh. 

Joseph Sowell, Albemarle, 1766 — 2 books. 

Michael Daugherty, Albemarle, 1767 — Old books, 3sh. 

Arthur Hopkins, Albemarle, 17 — One great Bible & Testa- 
ment, £1; a parcel of books, ;^i2. 

Charles Christian, Albemarle, 1760 — 4 books, 12 sh. 6d. 

Jane Jefferson, Jr., Albemarle, 1768 — 6 books, 12 sh. 

John Harvie, Albemarle. 1769 — 189 titles, books and a '* parcel 
of French and Latin books,*' and "a number of Books about 
the Country in different hands, the tides unknown.'* 

James Maury, Albemarle, 1770 — 400 titles books and 44 
pamphlets. 

John Farrar, Albemarle, 1770 — 3 books. 

David Thomson, Albemarle, 1770 — '*Some books.** 

John Ramsay, Albemarle, 1770 — A parcel of books, ;^5. 

John Hudson, Albemarle, 1770 — A parcel of books, 37 sh. 

William Venable, Albemarle, 1772 — "A quantity of books," 
I3sh. 

William Milton, Albemarle, 1772 — Sundry books, 18 sh. 

Nicholas Merriweather, Albemarle, 1772 — A book case, 18 sh. 



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BOOKS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 393 

James Wheary, Albemarle, 1772 — A parcel of books. 

Philip Thurmond, Albemarle, 1774 — A parcel of old books, 
10 sh. 

Micajah Clark, Jr., Albemarle, 1774 — 3 Bibles, 2 Testaments, 
I Prayer Book, i Book of Hymns, 2 Psalters, 2 spelling books. 

Josiah Huckstep, Albemarle, 1775 — Books, 8 sh. 

Joel Terrell, Albemarle, 1774 — i parcel of books, 30 sh.; i do. 
of do., ;^i7. 6; 2 vols. Harvey's works, 8sh. 

John Rodes, Albemarle, 1775 — i large Bible, and other books, 
27 sh. 6d. 

John Watts, Albemarle, 1775 — A parcel of books, 10 sh. 

Wm. Blackwell, Albemarle, 1776 — **A quantity of books,*' 
22 sh. 6d. 

Mourning Harris, Albemarle, 1776 — A parcel of books. 

Robert Rose, Albemarle, 1752 — A book case. 

John Spencer, Albemarle, 1754 — Parcel of books, £1, 

Wm. Miller, Albemarle, 1753 — i Bible, 2sh. 4d. 

John Wright, Albemarle, 1754 — i Bible, xsh. 

Thos. Ballow, Albemarle, 1754 — **A few books.** 

Bennett Ballow, Albemarle, 1754 — Books, 4sh. 

Wm. Witt, Albemarle, 1754 — i book, 2sh. 6d. 

Wm. Allen, Albemarle, 1754 — A parcel of books. 

Robert White, Albemarle, 1755 — Books, 8 sh. 

Fargus Reay, Amherst, 1763 — A parcel of books, £1. 9. 

David Crawford, Amherst, 1763—2 Books, jQi, 

John Berasford. Amherst, 1763— Books, 7sh. 

Thomas Jameson, Amherst, 1764 — 4 books, 5sh. 

John Ray, Amherst, 1764 — i book, 3sh. 6d. 

Ambrose Lee, Amherst, 1764 — 23 books, £2, 16. 

Andrew Reid, Amherst, 1766 — A parcel of old books, £1. 
15.6. 

David Crawford, Amherst, 1767 — A parcel of books, £S. 

Charles Carter, Amherst, 1767 — A parcel of books, iish. 

John Elliott, Amherst, 1768 — Markham's Farriery, Seneca's 
Morals, and The Secretary's Guide, 6sh. 

MichoU Montgomery, Amherst, 1768 — Books, 20 sh. 

Robert Warren, Amherst, i770^0ne old book, 7^ d. 

Pearce Wade, Amherst, 1770 — 3 books, 2sh. 6d. 



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394 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Rachel Blair, Amherst, 1770— i Bible & Prayer Book, 7sh. 
10 d. 

Valentine Ball, Amherst, 1770 — A parcel of books. 

Samuel Murphy, Amherst, 1770 — 17 books, £2, 11. 

Robert Weir, Amherst, 1772 — Books. 

Elizabeth Cox, Amherst, 1774 — i Bible. 

Richard Powell, Amherst, 1775 — A parcel of books, 4sh. 

Cornelius Thomas, Amherst, 1775 — 12 vols Smollett's History 
of England, £2>' Conquest of Mexico, 2 vols., 8sh. Clark's 
Justice, 6sh. A Latin Dictionary, losh. An English Dictionary 
and sundry old books, 17 sh. 6d. Sundry old Latin books, 
15 sh. 

George Johnston, Fairfax, 1767 — 186 vols, books. 

Nathan Underwood, Middlesex, 17 17 — A parcel of old books, 
5sh. 

Matthews Kemp, Middlesex, 17 17 — 24 tides of books, includ- 
ing " Capt. Smith's History of Virg'a old, torn & p'h lost,'' and 
Purvis's Virginia Laws. 

James Reake, Middlesex, 17 17 — A parcel of books, 10 sh. 

Edward Hamerton, Middlesex, 1717 — 6 titles books @ 15 sh., 
and a parcel of old books @ 3 sh. 

William Kilpin, Middlesex, 17 17 — 20 books, £1. 3. 

John Bristow, Middlesex, 1716 — A parcel of old books, 28 sh. 

Hezekiah Roods, Middlesex, 1717 — A parcel of books, 7sh. 

Henry Nicholls, Middlesex, 1718 — Some old books, 2sh., and 
a Common Prayer Book, 6sh. 

Mary Warwick, Middlesex, 1720 — A parcel of old books, i sh. 

William Brookes, Middlesex, 1720 — A parcel of old books. 

Garrett Minor, Middlesex, 1720 — A parcel of books, £1, 5. 

John Pace, Middlesex, 1721 — A parcel of old books, 2sh. 

Robert Daniel, Middlesex, 1724 — 22 books. 

George Freeston, Middlesex, 1721 — Books, 4sh. 

Edward Cambridge, Middlesex, 1721 — A parcel of books. 

James Walker, Middlesex, 1721 — A parcel old books, £2, 10. 

John Vivian, Middlesex, 1722 — A parcel of books, £1, 15. 

John Smith, Middlesex, 1722 — A parcel of old books. 

William Davis, Middlesex, 1724 — 16 books, 13 sh. 

Thomas Smith, Middlesex, 1723 — 12 books. 

John Rowe, Middlesex, 1724 — A parcel of old books, 5sh. 



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BOOKS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 395 

William Anderson, Middlesex, 1724 — A parcel of old books, 
2sh. 

Robert Williamson, Middlesex, 1726 — A parcel of old books, 
10 sh. 

John Price, Middlesex, 1726 — A parcel of new and old books 
of several sorts. 

John Berry, Middlesex, 1726 — A parcel of old books, 12 sh. 

Joseph Goare, Middlesex, 1727 — A parcel of books, 15 sh. 

William Batchelder, Middlesex, 1727— A parcel of old books, 
2sh. 

John Allden, Middlesex, 1727 — A parcel of old History books, 
2sh. 6d. 

Powel Stamper, Middlesex, 1727 — A parcel of old books, 
3sh. 

John Degge, Middlesex, 1726 — Books, 6sh. 

Richard Walker, Middlesex, 1728 — 15 vols., £^. 13. 6; 32 
vols., £6, 6. 

Mark Bannerman, Middlesex, 1728 — 53 English and Latin 
books. ;^5. 9. 

William Gordon, Middlesex, 1728 — 40 books English, Latin, 
Spanish, and French (many of the titles suggest that the donor 
was a Catholic), 

John Smith, Middlesex, 1728 — 43 books of several sorts. 

Thos. Haslewood, Middlesex, 1728 — A parcel of old books, 
6sh. 

John Marston, Middlesex, 1729 — A parcel of old books, i sh. 
3d. 

Thomas Tuke, Middlesex, 1729 — A parcel of old books, 10 sh. 

Paul Thilman, Middlesex, 1731 — A parcel of old books, 6sh. 

John Price, Middlesex, 1731 — A parcel of books, £1. 

Robert Hill, Middlesex, 1732 — A parcel of old books, 7sh. 

Hugh Stewart, Middlesex, 1733 — Books, £^. i. 6. 

James Walker, Middlesex, 1733 — A parcel of books, 5sh. 

William Stanard, Middlesex, 1733 — A parcel of old books, 
losh. 

John Hay, Middlesex, 1709 — 77 books, Latin and English, Q} 
£'], 12. 6; and a parcel of old books. 

Thos. Chilton, Middlesex, 1711 — A parcel of books, £\, 14. 

Thos. Kemp, Middlesex, 1773 — A parcel of books, ^i. 



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396 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

George Davis, Middlesex, 1773 — A parcel of books, jQi. 

James Patterson, Middlesex, 1772 — A parcel of old books, 3 sh. 

John Montague, Middlesex, 1774 — A parcel of books, losh. 

Augustine Smith, Middlesex, 1774 — Old books, ;^i. 5. 

William Taylor, Middlesex, 1775 — A parcel of old books, 
18 sh. 

Lodo wick Jones, Middlesex, 1777 — Books, £2, 9. 

Wm. Owens, Middlesex, 1776 — A parcel of books, 12 sh. 

Hannah Churchill, Middlesex, 1777— A parcel of books. 

John Cleare, Middlesex, 1777 — A parcel of books, 2sh. 

John Smart, Middlesex, 1779 — A parcel of books, 6 sh. 

Wm. Daniel, Middlesex, 1778 — A parcel of books, £2. 10. 

Beverley Daniel, Middlesex, 1783 — 35 vols. 

George Lorimer, Middlesex, 1783 — *'A library of books," 92 
titles, English, Greek, Latin and French. 

David Ker, Middlesex — 99 titles, chiefly law, and a parcel of 
old books, the latter valued at ;^5. 

John Montague, Middlesex, 1760 — A parcel of books, 10 sh. 

Wm. Johnson, Middlesex, 1760 — A parcel of old books, 5sh. 

Mailana Drayton, Middlesex, 1760 — 8 vols., @ £^, 7. 4; 
French books, 11 vols., @ £3- 2. 4; a parcel of novels, @ 2sh. ; 
a parcel of Latin books, @ i sh, ; 6 picture books, @ £1. 10. 

Ann Yarrington, Middlesex, 1760 — A parcel of old books. 

John Bream, Middlesex, 1760 — A parcel of old books, i sh. 6d. 

James Richeson, Middlesex, 1760 — Books, 6sh. 3d. 

George Blake, Middlesex, 1760 — A parcel of old books, 8sh. 

John Humphreys, Middlesex, 1761 — A parcel of books, i sh. 
6d. 

Thos. Berry, Middlesex, 1761 — Books, 18 sh. 

Wm. Brooks, Middlesex, 1761 — Books, 7sh; A parcel of old 
books, 3sh. 6d. 

George Chowning, Middlesex, 1763 — A parcel of old books. 

Jacob Stiff, Middlesex, 1763 — A parcel of books. 

Andrew Davis, Middlesex, 1759 — A parcel of books, 14 sh. 

Alexander Reade, Middlesex, 1760 — 200 titles, books and a 
parcel of pamphlets and magazines, all valued at jQ6i, 

Henry Shephard, Middlesex, 1763 — A parcel of books, ;^i. 

Henry Thacker, Middlesex. 1765 — 42 books. 



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BOOKS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 397 

Armistead Churchill, Middlesex, 1763— A parcel of books, 

Edmund Berkeley, Middlesex, 1760 — A parcel of books, £4, 
Bartholomew Yates, Middlesex, 1769 — A library of books, 

John Marshall, Middlesex, 1740 — A parcel of old books, 2sh. 
6d. 

Joseph Sears, Middlesex, 1740^ A parcel of old books. 

Oliver Segar, Middlesex, 1741 — 21 books, £1, 13. 6. 

John Carter, Middlesex, 1742 — A parcel of books, £1. 

Anthony Collins, Middlesex, 1742 — A parcel of old books, 
12 sh. 6 d. 

Robert Daniel, Middlesex. 1742 — A parcel of old books, ;^i. 

Mary Marshall, Middlesex, 1742 — A parcel of old books, 2sh. 
6d. 

John Feam, Middlesex, 1743 — A parcel of books, £2. 2. 

Cary Smith, Middlesex, 1743 — A parcel of books, 10 sh. 

James Dudley, Middlesex, 1744 — A parcel of books, 6sh. 

George Chowning, Middlesex, 1744 — A Bible and a parcel of 
old books, 12 sh. 

John Blake, Middlesex, 1744 — A parcel of books, ;^i. 5. 

Patrick Cheap, Middlesex, 1745 — 62 titles books and a parcel 
of old pamphlets, ;^32. 8. 8. 

George Hardin, Middlesex, 1745 — A parcel of old books and 
a parcel of new books. 

Garrot Daniel, Middlesex, 1745 — A parcel of old books, 3sh. 

Wm. Thurston, Middlesex, 1745 — A parcel of old books, 2sh. 

Wm. Hammet, Middlesex, 1745— A parcel of books, 19 sh. 

Robert Dudley, Middlesex, 1745 — Books, /^i, 2. 

Lewis Berkeley, Middlesex, 1745 — 23 books, £4. 17. 

Edwin Thacker, Middlesex, 1746 — 25 titles books. 

Wm. Daniel, Middlesex, 1747 — Books, £2. 9. 

John Warnock, Middlesex, 1747 — 78 titles books, j^^. 7. 

Robert Dudley, Middlesex, 1747 — Books, 13 sh. 6d. 

Elizabeth Stanard, Middlesex, 1747 — A parcel of old books. 

Robert Dorset, Middlesex, 1747 — A parcel of books, 9sh. 

Edward Clark, Middlesex, 1748 — A parcel of books, £2, i. 

Thos. Kirton, Westmoreland, 1690 — A small parcel of books 
(ot 250 lbs. tobacco. 



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398 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

James Hardwick, Westmoreland, 1698 — A parcel of books, @ 
300 lbs. tobacco. 

John Washington, Westmoreland, 1698 — A parcel of old 
books, @ 200 lbs. tobacco. 

Thos. Pennell, Westnioreland, 1698 — A parcel of very old 
books, @ 20 lbs. tobacco. 

Wm. Clark, Westmoreland, 1698 — A parcel of books, @ 250 
lbs. tobacco, 

Francis Lynch, Westmoreland, 1709 — A dozen small, old 
books, @ 200 lbs. tobacco. 

John Brown, Westmoreland, 17 12 — A parcel of books, ©150 
lbs. tobacco. 

Vincent Cox, Westmoreland, 17 13 — A walnut table and form 
and 54 books, @ 1,088 lbs. tobacco. 

Thomas Marson, Westmoreland, 17 13 — Two Bibles and a 
parcel of other books. 

David Clements, Westmoreland, 1713 — A parcel of old books, 
(a^ 100 lbs. tobacco. 

Francis Wright, Westmoreland, 1713 — A parcel of old books, 
£2. 10. 

John Allwell, Westmoreland, 17 13 — Some books. 

John Washington, Westmoreland, 171 2 — A parcel of old 
books, £1. 

George Harrison, Westmoreland, 1713 — One great book, (a 
50 lbs. tobacco; a parcel of old books, @ 200 lbs. tobacco; a 
Bible and Prayer Book, @ 50 lbs. tobacco. 

David Neale, Westmoreland, 17 13 — A parcel of old books, 
(5 60 lbs, tobacco. 

John Smith, Westmoreland, 17 14 — i small Bible and a parcel 
of old books, (g: 150 lbs. tobacco. 

George Aldenson, Westmoreland, 17 14 — A parcel of old 
books. 

Katherine Benam, Westmoreland, 17 17 — A large old Bible. 
6sh. ; a parcel of old books, i sh. 

James Johnson, Westmoreland, 17 15 — A parcel of old books. 

Thomas Thompson, Westmoreland, 17 16 — A small singing 
book; A Testament and Bible; Phillips Seamans Callender; 
Sheppard's Justice, 3 parts; Gloria and Narcissus Concordance 
[the spelling of the originals has been followed]. Burrows -^ 



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BOOKS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 399 

* * [illegible]; 12 Caesars; Book of Rates; Mariners Jewell; 
Epitome Navigation; Controverser Pamphlett; Several written 
account books; A folio book, part written with surveys, ;^i. 5; 
Glanceck of Witches Observances on ellected formerly Ist'c] by 
Temple; Clerk's Guide; Introduction to Grammer; Conchees 
Orrack; Lubavin's Surveyor; Old piece of paper book; Nathin 
& Use of Lotts; Do. four second part; Civil right of tythes; 
Stenvey's Magazine; Baker* s Chronicle; Book of Surveying on 
parchment; Christian Sacrifice; Dictionary; Hutton's Magazine; 
Maxons Use of the Globes; Weeness of law moral expbacr", 
/2. 10. 

James Westcombe, Westmoreland, 17 16 — A parcel of books, 
&c., £1. 10. 

Thos. Walker, Westmoreland, 17 16 — Books, 5sh. 

Benj. Blanchflower, Westmoreland, 1701 — A parcel of old 
books. 

Henry Pickerell, Westmoreland, 1703 — 2 Bibles and some old 
books. 

Wm. Carr, Westmoreland, 1703 — A parcel of books and a 
book case, 300 lbs. tobacco. 

Thos. At well, Westmoreland, 1703 — A parcel of old books. 

Robb Foster, Westmoreland, 1703 — A parcel of old books @ 
100 lbs. tobacco. 

James Orchard, Westmoreland, 1703 — A parcel of old books, 
I5sh. 

George Weedon, Westmoreland,' 1704 — A parcel of books. 

George Thome, Westmoreland, 1705 — A parcel of old books. 

John Rozier, Westmoreland, 1705 — A parcel of books @ 100 
lbs. tobacco. 

John Middleton, Westmoreland, 1706 — A parcel of books @ 
160 lbs. tobacco. 

Richard Watts, Westmoreland, 1716 — "One blank book and 
a parcel of good books," ^^i. 

Mary Baxter, Westmoreland, 17 16 — A parcel of old books, 
I sh. 

William Graham, Westmoreland, 1716 — A parcel of books, 
losh. 

John Worden, Westmoreland, 17 16 — A parcel of physical 
books, ;^2, and a parcel of old books, ^i. 



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400 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Jordan Weedon, Westmoreland, 17 16 — A parcel of old books, 
2sh. 6d. 

Joseph Weekes, Westmoreland, 17 16 — A parcel of books, 
some Greek, some Latin and some English, ;^i. 5. 

John Summerville, Westmoreland, 1717 — 12 old books, 12 sh. 

John Quisenberry, Westmoreland, 17 17 — ^A parcel of old 
books, 9sh. 

Joseph Bayly, Westmoreland, 17 17 — A parcel of books. 

Joseph Heenning, Westmoreland, 1718 — 15 books of the laws 
of England, ;^io; i large Bible, 10 sh.; i small book of slate, 
4 d. ; 32 books of divinity, ;^8; A parcel of small old books, 3 sh. 

John Higdon, Westmorland, 1718 — A parcel of books, 6sh. 
6d. 

Rice Williams, Westmoreland, 1718 — 7 old books, i sh. 8d. 

St. John Shropshire, Westmoreland, 17 18 — A large library of 
books, £60, 

Dunn, Westmoreland, 17 18 — A parcel of old books, 

8sh. 

Richard Kenner, Westmoreland, 1718 — A parcel of old books, 
7sh. 

Thos. Woodier, Westmoreland, 17 19 — A parcel of books, 
10 sh. 

Nathaniel Pope, Westmoreland, 17 19 — A parcel of new &old 
books, £2. 

Anthony Beard, Westmoreland, 1707 — A parcel of old books 
(5 30 lbs. tobacco, 

John Spencer, Westmoreland, 1708 — A parcel of old books. 

Osmun Crabb, Westmoreland, 17 19 — A parcel of books. 

Augustine Higgins, Westmoreland, 1720 — A parcel of old 
books, 2 sh. 

John Pope, Westmoreland, 1722 — A parcel of books, 7sh. 

Samuel Demmorel, Westmoreland, 1723 — loi books and 23 
pamphlets. 

John Shand, Westmoreland, 1721 — A parcel of old books. 

Charles Taylor, Southampton, 1773 — ** My library of books." 

John Edmunds, Sussex, 1770 — 100 titles books, 20 titles pam- 
phlets. 

Robert Tucker, Norfolk Borough, 1723 — 34 divinity books 



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BOOKS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 401 

@ ;^3. lo; i6 history do. @ £i, 5; 13 law do. @ ;^3; a parcel 
of Navigation books and 2 of history, £1. 

Richard Chichester, Lancaster, 1744 — 200 books, divinity, 
law, physic, history, &c., &c. 

James Philips, Lancaster, 1690 — Mentions in will several Bibles, 
a great sermon book in folio, the Practice of Piety, catechisms, 
and **The Exposition of the Assembly of Divines.*' 

Richard Perrott, Middlesex, 1723 — A parcel of books. 

Henry Thacker, Middlesex, 17 14 — Some books. 

Humphrey Jones, Middlesex, 1726 — Books. 

Thos. Warwick, Middlesex, 1718 — A parcel of books, iish. 

Elizabeth Banks, Northumberland, 1720 — 28 books. 

Corbin Griffin, Middlesex, 1701 — 7 books nearly new and a 
parcel of old books. 

Andrew Jackson, Lancaster, 17 10 — Leaves all his books to the 
parish of Christ Church, Lancaster, for the use of the incumbent. 

George Heale, Lancaster, 1736 — 16 Latin books & 12 others, 
chiefly religious. 

Hancock Lee, Northumberland, 17 10 — 4 Common Prayer 
Books, 6 d. ; 2 old Bibles, 4 sh. ; i small do. ,3d.; 7 Whole Duty 
of Man, old, 2sh. ; ist, 2d & 3d parts of Pilgrims Progress, 
3sh.; 12 old books, I5sh.; 7 do., I2sh.; 3 do, 3sh.; i book 
** Writt by Purchase,'* 5 sh. ; 2 old ** histories," 6sh. ; i Physick 
Dictionary, losh. ; i book *' Intituled the disruption of Africa," 
2sh. 6d. ; 3 old law books, losh.; 5 Physick books, ;^i; i Pic- 
ture of Piety and the Touchstone wills and Testaments, 2 sh. 6 d. 

Charles Lee, Northumberland, 1741 — 20 books. 

David Myles, Lancaster, 1674— A parcel of books. 

John Swan, Lancaster, 1721 — A parcel of old books, maps, 

&c.,/5. 

Mary Swan, Lancaster, 1724 — 32 old books, 15 sh. 

Christopher Kirk, Lancaster, 1722 — 2 Bibles; 2 sermon books 
and a parcel of old books. 

Charles Burgess, Lancaster, 1733 — 160 books. 

Barbara Tayloe, Lancaster, 1726 — 3 Bibles and a parcel of old 
books. 

Christopher Robinson, Middlesex, 1727 — 16 titles books and 
a parcel of old books, @ 10 sh. 



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402 VIRGINIA HISTORICAL MAGAZINE. 

Peter Cotanceau, Northumberland, 1709 — Old books, @ 480 
lbs. tobacco. 

Wm. Dare, Lancaster, 172 1 — 9 law books, /^i, 5. 3; small 
Latin books. 7 sh. 6 d; 3 vols. Keeples Reports; i Prayer Book, 
and 4 small old books. 

John Haynie, Northumberland, 1722 — 5 books of Roman his- 
tory; Josephus, and a parcel of old books. 

John Eustace, Northumberland, 1702 — 20 law books, &c., &c. 

Wm. Eustace, Northumberland, 1740 — 50 books and a par- 
cel of play books. 

John Mottrom, Northumberland, 1657 — Ambrose Parry's Chy- 
rurgery; Treatise on ye Laws of God; Rider's Dictionary; 
English Housewife; Treatise of Wills and Testaments; New 
Testament; French Dictionary; Rastell Sergeant at Law; Godly 
Observations; ** Roman history in lattin"; Statute Eliz. Regina 
A* I et 5'; Parliamen' of Christ; A Disquisition of the Church; 
** Boulson difference betwixt Religion," and 39 small books. 

Samuel Fox, Lancaster, 1723 — i old Bible; Rider's Diction- 
ary; I Book of Virginia Laws, and a parcel of old books. 

David Fox, Lancaster, 1669 — 26 books. 

Raleigh Travers, Lancaster, 167 1 — Bishop Andrews's Works, 
@ 150 lbs. tobacco; 6 small books of divinity, @ 100 lbs. to- 
bacco; I Bible, @ 40 lbs. tobacco; 2 other books in quarto, @ 
60 lbs, to'oacco. 

John Bell, Lancaster, 1745 — 146 books, theological, Latin, 
history, law, sermons, &c.,and "a parcell of old small latin 
books." 

William Fox, Lancaster, 1718 — A Bible and a parcel of old 
books. 

Griffin Fauntleroy, Northumberland, 1750 — Books, ;^3. 

Wm. Downman, Lancaster, 1718 — A parcel of books, /^i. 

James Rogers, Northumberland, 17 12 — A parcel of old books, 
100 lbs. tobacco. 

Wm. Brocas, Lancaster 1655 — **A parcel of old books, most 
of them Spanish, Italyanand Latin," @ 100 lbs. tobacco. 

Benjamin Doggett, Lancaster, 1682 — *' My books to be ap- 
praised, a great chest to be bought, ye books to be packed up 
and sent for England to be sold." 



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BOOKS IN COLONIAL VIRGINIA. 403 

John HoUoway, Northampton, 1643— To Mr. James Burnaby, 
books, to John Tilney all my physical and chirurgical books, 
Latin and English; Mr. John Rosier, my Greek Testament in 
folio; Mr. Philip Taylor, Ursine's Catechisme; Mr. Wm. Jones 
the rest of my books. 

Arthur Bridgman, Northumberland, 171 1 — A parcel of old 
books, @ 100 lbs. tobacco. 

Thos. Fitzhugh, Richmond county, 1720 — A parcel of books, 

£^5' 7. 

Peter Presley, Northumberland, 1719 — A parcel of books. 

Wm. Kennon, Chesterfield, 1759— Sundry books, ;^io. 

Nathaniel Harrison, Surry, 1728—** In the study books of sev- 
eral sizes and sorts." 

Kenneth McKenzie, Surry, 1769 — 91 books, ;^5. 10. 

Wm. Browne, Surry, 1748 —