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In the years 1805 and 1806, 1 paUished tht 
First Part of the following Translation, with the 
Text of the Original. Since that period, two 
impressions of the whole of the Dirina Comme- 
dia, in Italian, have made their appearance in 
this country. It is not necessary that I should 
add a third : and I am induced to hope that the 
J'oem, even in the present version of it, may not 
be without interest for the mere English reader. 

The translation of the Second and Third PartSt 
" The Purgatory" and " The Paradise," was be- 
gun long before the First, and as early as the 
year 1797; but, owing to inany interruptions, 
not concluded till the summer before last. On 
a retrospect of the time and exertions that have 
been thus employed, I dd not regard those hours 
as the least happy of my life, during which (to 
use the eloquent language of Mr. Coleridge) 
^my individual recollections have been fob* 
pended, and lulled to sleep amid the music of 
nobler thoughts ;" nor that study misapplied, 
which has familiarized me with one of the sub- 
limest efforts of the human invention. 

To those who shall be at the trouble of exam^ 
ining into the degree of accuracy with which 
the. task has been executed, I may be allowed 
to suggest, that their judgment idiould not be 
fiumed on a comparison with any single text 

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of my Author ; since, in more instances than I 
have noticed, I have had to make my choice 
out of a Tariety of readings and interpretations 
presented by different editions and commenta- 

In one or two of those editions is to be fonnd 
the title of " The Vision ;" which I hare ad5i>t- 
ed, as more conformable to the genius of oux 
language than that of " The Diyine Comedy." 
Dante himself,! belieye, termed it simply '* The 
Comedy ;" in the first place, because the style 
was of the middle kind ; and in the next, be- 
cause the story (if story it may be called) ends 

January^ 1814. 

The above Advertisement was prefixed t» an 
edition of the following Translation, printed in 
so small a character as to deter a numerous 
class of readers from perusing it. Among the 
few into whose hands it fell, about two years 
ago, Mr. Coleridge became one ; and I have 
both a pride and a pleasure in acknowledging 
that it has been chiefly owing to the prompt and 
strenuous exertions of that Gentleman in rec- 
ommending the book to public notice, that the 
opportunity has been afforded me of sending it 
forth in its present form. 

Jvly, 1819. 

When a Third Edition was called for in 1831, 
my duties as an Assistant Librarian in the Brit- 
ii^ Museum were such as to prevent me from 
engaging in any task that would have required 
an increase of sedentary labor. I was thus 

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PRE]? ACE. 5 

hindered not only from attending to the scou- 
racy of the press, (which indeed the care of 
my Publisher rendered almost mmecessary,) but 
from collecting and putting in order the soTeral 
corrections and additions, which I had occasion- 
ally noted with the purpose of introducbg them 
into that edition. 

A long interval of leisure may since have 
enabled me to do more effectually what I ^vas 
before compelled to leave undone. In the hope 
of rendering the Life of Dante and the Notes on 
the Poem less imperfect, I have consulted most 
of the writers by whom my Author has been 
recently illustrated. Wherever an omission or 
an error in the tianslation has been pointed out 
to me, I have done my best to supply the ouh 
and to correct the other ; and my obligations in 
all these instances are acknowledged in the 
Notes. Among those who have not thoaght a 
few hours thrown away in noticing such over- 
sights, it is gratifying to me to mention the 
names of Mr. Carlyle, one of the most origi 
nal thinkers of our time ; my long-experienced 
fiiend, Mr. Darley, one of our most genuine 
poets; and Mr. Lyell, my respected fellow- 
laborer in the mine of Dante. At an advanced 
age, I do not imagine myself capable of other- 
wise improving an attempt which, however de- 
fective, has at least the advantage of having had 
my earlier days bestowed on it. 

February^ 1844. 

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Hkll, Canto l—XXXIV i\ 


Paradbb, Caxto I— XXXin 4M 

MiifiF : sn 

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Dante,^ a name al>breyiated, as was the ouilaai 
In those days, firom Durante or Durando, was of a 
very ancient Florentine family. The first of his 
ancestors,' concerning whom any thin^ certam is 
known, was Cacciagoida,' a Florentine knight, who 
died fightmg in the holy war, under the Emperor 
Conrad III. Cacciaguida had two brothers, Moronto 
and Eliseo, the former of whom is not jrecorded to 
have left any posterity ; the latter is the head of 
the family of the Eiisei, or perhaps (for it is doubt- 
ful which is the case) only transmitted' to his de- 
scendants a name which he had himself inherited. 
From Cacciaguida himself were sprung the Ali- 
ghieri, so called firom one of his sons, who bore the 
appellation firom his mother's fisunily,^ as is affirmed 
by the Poet himself, under the person of Cacda- 

> A note by Salvinl, on Mantori della Ferf. Pees. Ital., lib 
m.cap.a ' 

* Leonardo Aretino, Vita di Dante. 

* Far. XV. He was born, as most have supposed, in 1106^ 
and died about 1147. Bat Lombardi compntes liis birth to 
have happened about 1090. See note t) Par. zri. 31. For 
wtutt is known of Us descendants till the birth of Dante, see 
note to Par. xv. 86. 

« Vellutello, Vita di Dante. There is reason to suppose 
that she was the daughter of Aldigerio, who was a lawyer of 
Verona, and brother of one of the same name, bishop of that 
city, and aath<« of an epistle addressed to his mother, a reli- 
idons recluse, with the title of Tractatos Adalgerl Epise. nd 
Roeuvidam reclausam (or, ad Orismundam matrem inelusam) 
de Rebus moralibas SeeCanceilieriOsservaziooi fcc BomSi 
1818, r- 119- 

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guidft, in the fifteenth canto of the Paradise. Thii 
name, Aligtiieri, is derived from the coat of anns,' 
a wing or, on a field azure, still borne by the de- 
scendants of our Poet at Verona, in the days of 
Leonardo Aretino. 

Dante was bom at Florence in May, 1265. His 
mother's name was Bella, but of what family is no 
longer known. His father" he had the misfortune 
to lose in his chUdhood ; but by the advice of his 
surviving relations, and with the assistance of an 
able preceptor, Brunette Latini, he applied himself 
closely to poKte literature and other liberal studies, 
at the same time that he omitted no pursuit neces- 
sary for the accomplishment of a manly character, 
and mixed with the youth of his age in fdl honorable 
and noble exercises. 

In the twenty-fourth year of his age, he was 
present at the memorable battle of Campaldino,* 
where he served in the foremost tnx^ of cavalry, 
and was exposed to inmiinent danger. Xiconardo 
Aretino refers to a 'letter of Dante, in which he 
described the order of that battle, and mentioned 
his having been engaged in it The cavalry of the 
Aretini at the first onset gained so great an advan- 
tage over the Florentine horse, as to compel them 
to retreat to their body of infantry. This circum- 
stance m the event proved highly fortunate to the 
Florentines ; for their own cavalry being thus joined 
to their foot, while that of their enemies was led 
by the pursuit to a considerable distance from theirs, 
they were by theso means enabled to defeat with 
ease their separate forces. In this battle, the Uber- 
ti, Lamberti, and Abati, with all the other ex- 
citizens of Florence who adhered to the Ghibel« 

■ Pelll describes the arms diflferently. Memorie per la Vita 
di Dante. Opere dl Dante. Ediz. Zatta, 1758. torn. iv. part, 
tt. p. 16. The male line ended in Pletro, the sixth in descent 
from oar Poet, and fitther of Ginevra. married in 1548 to the 
Conte Marcantonio 8arego« of Verona. PeUi, p. 19. 

s His fkther AUghiero had been before married to Lapa, 
daughter of Chiarissimo Cialnffi ; and by her had a son 
named Francesco, who left two daughters, and a son, whom 
he named Durante aftn his bn)ther. Francesco appears to 
Jiare been mistaken for a son of our Poet^s. Boccaccio men- 
tions also a sister of Dante, who was married to Poggi. and 
was the mother of Andrea Poggi, Boccaccio*s intimate. PeUi, 
p. 917. 

* G. VUlaoi describes this engagement, lib. viL csfk 330. 

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fine' interest, were with the Aretini ; while thoe^ 
inhahitaiits of Arezzo, who, owing to their attach* 
• ment to the Gueiph' party had been banished from 
their own city, were ranged on the nde of the 
. Florentines. In the foUowmg year, Dante took 
part in another engagement iMtween his comitry- 
inen and the citizens of Pisa, from whom they took 
the castle of Caprona,' situated not far from that 

From what the Poet has told us m his Tteatise, 
entitled the Vita Nnova, we learn that he was a 
lover long before he was a soldier, and that his pas* 
sion for the Beatrice whom he has immortalized, 
commenced* when she was at the becrmning and he 
near the end of his ninth year. Their firrt meeting 
was at a banquet in the house of Folco Portinaii, 
her father; and the impression then made on the 
susceptible and constant heart of Dante was not 
obliterated by her death, which happened after an 
interval of sixteen years. 

But neither war, nor love, prevented Dante from 
gratifying the earnest desire which he had of know- 
ledge and mental improvement By Benvenuto 
da Imola, one of the earliest of his commentators, 
it is related, that he studied m his youth at the 
universities of Bologna and Padua, as well as m 
that of his native city, and devoted hunself to the 
pursuit of natural and moral philosophy. There is 
reason to believe that his eagerness for the acqui- 
sition of learning, at some time of his life, led him 
as far as Paris, and even Oxford ;* in the former 

1 Tot the supposed origin of these denomhuttions, see note 
to Par. vi. 107. 

« Hell, xxi. 92. 

s See also the beginning of the Vita Nnova. 

* Folco di Ricovero Portlnari was the founder of the hos 
pital ofS. Maria Nnova, in 1380, and of other charitable insti- 
tntions, and died in 1389, as appeared from his epitaph. PeUi^ 

B Giovanni Yillani, who was his contemporary, and, as 
Yiilani himself says, his neighbor in Florence, Informs as, 
that ** he went to stndy at Bologna, and then to Paris, and to 
many ^trts of the world,** (an exj^esslon that may well In 
clnde England,) ** subsequently to his banishment.** Hi»t^ 
lib. ix. cap. 135. Indeed, as we shall see, it is uncertain 
whether he might not have been more than once a student 
at Paris. 

Bat the fitct of his ha^ng visited England rests on a i 
sage aUndlng to it in the Latin poems of Boccaodo^a 

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of wfaicfa umveraities ho is iaid to have takea tlM 
degree of a Bachelor, and distingoiahed himself 
in the theological deputations ; but to have been 
hindered from commencing Master, by a failure in 
his pecuniary resources. Francesco da Buti, an- 
other of his commentators in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, asserts that he entered the order of the Frati 
Minori, but laid aside the habit before he was pro- 

In his own city, domestic troubles, and yet more 
serere public calamities, awaited him. In 1291, 
he was induced, by the solicitation of his friends, 
to console himself for the loss of Beatrice by a 
matrimonial connection with Gemma, a lady of 

the authority of Giovanni da Serravalle, Bishop of Fermo, 
who, as Tiraboschi observes, though he lived at the distance 
of a century from Dante, might have known those who were 
contemporaries with him. This writer, in an inedited com 
mentary on the Commedia, written while he was attending 
the council of Constance, says of our Poet : " Anagorice dl- 
iexit theologiam sacram, in quft din studuit tam in Oxoniis 
in regno Angliae, quam Parisils in regno Francis,'* Ace. And 
again: "Dantes se in Juventnte dedit omnibus artibus libe- 
raiibns, studens eas Paduae, Bononis, demum Oxoniis et 
Farisiis, ubi fecit multos actus mirabiles, infantum quod ab 
aiiquibus dicebattir magnus phitosophus, ab aiiqnibus mag 
nus Theologus, ab aiiquibus magnus poeta." Tiraboseki 
Star. deUa Poes, Ital^ voi. ii. cap. iv. p. 14, as extracted from 
Tiraboschi^s great work by Mathias, and edited by ^t gen- 
tleman. Lond. 1803. 

The bishop translated the poem itself into Latin prose, at 
the instance of Cardinal Amedeo di Saluzzo,and of two Eng- 
lish bishops, Nicholas Bubwith, of Bath, and Robert Halam, 
of Salisbury, who attended the same council. One copy only 
of the version and commentary is known to be in^served, 
and that is in the Vatican. I would suggest the probability 
of others existing in this country. StilUngfleet, in the Ori- 

gnes Sacne, twice quotes passages from the Paradise, " ren- 
sred into Latin," (and it is Latin prose,) as that learned bishop 
says, *' by F. S.** Orig. Sacr^ b. ii. chap. ix. sect xviii. $ 4, 
and chap. x. sect v. Edit Cambridge, 1701. See notes to 
Par. xxiv. 86 and 104. This work was begun in Febmary, 
1410, and finished in the same month of the following year. 

The word ** anagorice," (into which the Italians altered 
**anagogice,") which occurs in the former of the above ex- 
tiacts, is explained by Dante In the Convito. Open di DanU, 
torn. L p. 43. Ediz. Venes. 1793 ; and more briefly by field. 
Of the Church, b. Ui. cap. 26. ''The Anagogicall'* sense is, 
"when the things literally expressed unto us do signifie 
■omething in the state of heaven's hapitiness.** It was used 
by the Greek Fathers to signify merely a more recondite 
sense in a text of Scripture than chat which the plain woide 
oOenA: 8oe Origen in Booth's Beliquis Bacm, vol. Iv. p. 

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Che noble famfly c£ the Doni^, by whom he had 
a numerooe o&pnng. Bat the yiolence of hei 
temper proved a source of the bitterest suflfering t« 
him ; and in that passage (rf the Inferno, where (me 
of the characters says/ 

La fiera nu^He plu ch* altro, ml iraoee. 

— me, my wife 
Of sava^ temper, more than aught beside. 
Hath to this eyil brought, 

bis own conjugal unhappiness must have recurred 
forcibly and painfully to his mind.' It is not im« 
probaUe that political animosity might have had 
some share in these dissensions; for his wife was 
a kinswoman of Corso Donati, one of the most formi- 
dable, as he was one of the most inreterate of his 

In 1300 he was chosen chief of the Prion, who 
at that tune possessed the supreme authority in the 
state; his colleagues being Falmieri degii Altoviti 
and Neri di Jacopo degii Aiberti. From this exalta- 
tion our poet dated the cause of all his subsequent 
misfortunes in life.^ 

In order to show jthe occasion of Dante's exile, it 
may be necessary to enter moro particularly into 
the state of parties at Florence. The city, which 
had been disturbed by many divisions between the 
Guelphs and Ghibellines, at length remained in 
the power of the former ; but after some time these 
were again split into two factions. This perverse 
occurrence originated with the inhabitants of Pis- 
toia, who, from an unhappy quarrel between two 
powerful families m that city, were all separated 
into parties known by those denommations. With 
the intention <^ compomng their differences, the 
>rincipals on each side were summoned to the city 

> Yet M. Artand, in his *«HUtoire de Dante," (6vo. Paris, 
1841, p. 85,) represents Gemma as a tender, faithml, and af- 
fiectiooate wife. I certainly do not find any menti<m of ha 
onbappy temper in the early biographers. Begard for her or 
for her children might have restrained tliem. But in the next 
century, Landino, though commending her good qualities, 
does not st^uple to assert tliat in this respect she was more 
than a Xanth^pe. 

* I^ecmardo Aretino. A late biccrapher, on the authority 
of M^rclilonne Stefkni, assigns difierent colleagues to Dante 
la his office of PriiY. See Balbo. Vita di Dante, vol. i. p^ 91A 

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of Florence ; but this measure, instead of remedyfng 
the evil, only contributed to increase its yirulence, 
by communicating it to the citizens of Florence 
themselves. For the contendmg parties were so 
far from being brought to a reconciliation, that each 
contrived to gain fresh partisans among the Floreu" 
tines, with whom many of them were closely con- 
nected by the ties of Uood and friendship ; and who 
entered into the dispute with such acrimony and 
eagerness, that the whole city was soon engaged 
either on one part or the other, and even brothers 
of the same family were divided. It was not long 
before they passed, by the usual gradations, from 
contumely to violence. The factions were now 
known by the names of the Neri and the Bianchi, 
the former generally siding with the Guelphs, or 
adherents of the papal power, the latter with the 
Ghibellines, or those who supported the authority of 
the emperor. The Neri assembled secretly in the 
church of the Holy Trinity, and determined on in- 
terceding with Pope Boniface VIII. to send Charles 
of Valois to pacify and reform the city. No sooner 
did this resolution come to the knowledge of the 
Bianchi, than, struck with apprehension at the con- 
sequences of such a measure, they took arms, and 
repau*ed to the Priors; demandmg« of them the 
punishment of their adversaries, for having thus 
entered .into private deliberations concerning the 
state, which they represented to have been dono 
with the view of expelling them from the city 
Those who had met, bemg alarmed in their turn, 
had also recourse to arms, and made theu: complaints 
to the Priors. Accusing then: opponents of having 
armed themselves without any previous public dis- 
cussion ; and affirming that, under various pretexts, 
they had sought to dnve them out of their country, 
they demanded that they might be punished as dis- 
turbers of the public tranquillity. The dread and 
danger became general, when, by the advice of 
Dante, the Priors called in the multitude to their 

Ctection and assistance ; and then proceeded to 
lish the principals of the two factions, who were 
these: Coiso Donati,^ Geri Spini, Giachonotto de' 
Pazzi, Rosso della Tosa, and others of the Nera 

I or tiiig ramarkaUe man, see move in the Pnrg. xxIt. 

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MTty, who were exiled to the Casteho delle Piev« 
A Parngia; and of the Bianca party» who were 
bauished to Serrazana, Gentile and TQmg;iano de' 
Cerchi, Gnido Cayalcanti>* Baschiera deUa Toea, 
Baltlinaccio Adimari, Naldo, son of Lottino Ghe- 
rardini, and others. On this occasion Dante was 
accused of favoring the Bianchi, though he ap- 
peals to haye conducted himself with impartiality ; 
and the deliberation held by the Neri for intro- 
ducing Charles of Valois' might, periiaps, haye jus- 
tified him in treatmg that party with yet greater 
rigor. The suspicion against lum was increased, 
when those, whom he was accused of favoring, were 
soon after allowed to return from their banishment, 
while the sentence passed upon the other faction 
still remained in full force. To this Dante replied, 
that when those who had been sent to Serrazana 
were recalled, he was no longer in office ; and that 
their return had been permitted on account of the 
death of Guide Cavalcanti, which was attributed to 
the unwholesome aur of that place. The partiality 
which had been shown, however, affi>rded a pretext 
to the Pope' for dispatching Charies of Valois to 
Florence, by whose influence a great reverse was 
soon produced m'the public affairs ; the ex-citizens 
being restored to their place, and the whole of the 
Bianca party driven into exile. At this juncture, 
Daute was not in Florence, but at Rome, whither 
he had a short time before been sent ambassador to 
the Pope, with the offer of a voluntary return to 
peace and amity among the citizens. His enemies 
had now an opportunity of revenge, and during his 
absence on this pacific missicm, proceeded to pass an 
iniquitous decree of banishment against him and 
Palmieri Altoviti ; and at the same time confiscated 
his possessions, which indeed had been previously 
given up to pillage.^ 

> See notes to He\l, x. 59, and Pnrg. zL 96. 

• See Pnrg. xx. 69. 

s Bonifiice Vin. had before sent the Cardinal Matteo d*Ae- 
qnasparta to Florence, with the view of supporting his ow« 
adherents In that city. The cardinal is supposed to lie al- 
luded to in the Paradise, xii. 115. 

* On the 27th of January, 1302, he was mulcted 8000 lire, 
and condemned to two years' banishment ; and in case the 
fine was not iiaid, his goods were to be confiscf^ed. On ^the 
16th of March, the same y^, he was sentenced to a pmnish- 
Beat due only to the most desperate of maleikctocs. The 

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On hearing the ti^gs of his ruin, Dan^ m« 
fltantly quitted Rome, and passed with all poesible 
expedition to Sienna. Here bein^ more fully ap* 
prized of the extent of the calamity, for which hs 
could see no remedy, he came to the desperate 
resolution of joining hunself to the other exiles. 
His first meeting with them was at ft consultation 
which they had at Gor^onza, a small castle subject 
to the jurisdiction of Arezzo, in which city it was 
finally, after a long deliberation, resolved that they 
should take up their station.* Hither they accord- 

decree, that Dante and his associates in exile should be 
burned, if they fell into the hands of their enemies, was first 
discovered in 1772, by the Conte Lodovico Savioli. See H- 
raboschi, where the document is given at iength. 

I At Arezzo It was his fortune, in 1303, to meet with 
Busone da Giibbia, who two years before had been expelied 
fh>m his country as a Ghibelline, in about the twentieth year 
of his age. Busone, himself a cultivator of the Italian poetry, 
here contracted a friendship with Dante, which was after- 
wards cemented by the reception afforded him under Busone*s 
roof during a part of his exile. He was of the ancient and 
noble family of the Rafaelll of Gubbio^ and to his banish- 
ment owed the honorable offices which he held of govemoi 
of Arezzo in 1316 and 1317; of governor of Viterbo in the 
latter of these years ; then of captain of Pisa ; of deputy to 
the Emperor in 1337 ; and finally of Roman senator in 1337. 
He died probably about 1350. The historian of Italian litera- 
ture speaks slightly of his poetical productions, consisting 
chiefly of comments on the Divina Commedia, which were 
written in terza rima. They have been published by Sig. 
Francesco Maria Rafiielli, who has collected all the informa- 
tion that could be obtained rcspecUng them. DelieuB ErutU- 
for, V. xvil. He wrote also a romance, entitled L^Jlvventuroso 
CieUianOy which has never been printed. THraboBchi^ Star, 
delta Poe». Ital., v. ii. p. 56. In AUaccl's Collection, Ediz. Nar 
poll. 1661, p. 112, is a sonnet by Busone, on the death of a lady 
and of Dante, which concludes, 

Ma i mi conforto ch' to credo che Deo 
Dante abbia posto in glorioso scanno. 

At the end of the Divina Commedia, in No. 3581 of the 
Harleian MSS in the British Museum, are four poems. The 
first, beginnmg, 

O voi che siete nel verace Inme, 

is attributed, as Vfoal, to Jacopo Dante. The second, which 

Ado thn sia piu frutto e piu diletto 
A qu )i che si diiettan di sapere 
DeU alta comedia vero inteiletto, 

and proceeds with a brief explanation of the principal 
of the poem, is here attributed to Messer Busone d*Ar 
B is also, inserted in Nos 3450 and 3460 of the same 

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ngly repaired in a numeronB body, made the CSooni 
Alessandro da Romena their leader, and af^inted 
a council of twelve, of winch nomber Dante waa 
one. In the year 1304, having been joined by • 
very strong force, which was not only furnished 
them by Arezzo, but sent from Bologna and Pistoia, 
they made a sudden attack on the city of Florence, 
gained possession of one of the gates, and conquered 
part of the territory, but were finally compelled t* 
retreat without retaining any of the advantages they 
had acquired. 

Disappointed m this attempt to remstate himself 
in his coun\ry, Dante quitted Arezzo ; and his course 
is,^ for the most part, afterwards to be traced <m]y 
by notices, casually dropped in his own writings, 
or discovered in documents, which either chance or 
the zeal of antiquaries may have broii|fat to light 
From an instiiraent' in the possession of the Marchesi 
Fapafavi, of Padua, it has been ascertained that, 
in 1306, he was at that city and with that family. 
Shnilar proof exists of his having been present in 
the following year at a congress of the Ghibellines 
and the Bianchi, held m the sacristy of the church 
belonging to the abbey of S. Gaudenzio in Mu- 
gello; and from a passage in the Purgatory^ we 
collect, that before the expiration of 1307 he had 
found a refuge in Lunigiana, with the Marchese 

and I have had occasion to refer to it in the notes to Parg. 
sxix. 140. The third is a sonnet by Cino da Pistoia to Ba- 
8one ; and the ibnrth, Basone*s answer. Since this note was 
written, Bosone's Romance, above mentioned, has been edit- 
ed at Florence in the year 1832, by the late Doctor Nott. 

1 A late writer has attempted a recital of his wanderings. 
For this purpose, he assigns certain arbitrary dates to the 
completion of the several parts of the Divina Commedia ; and 
selecting from each what lie supposes to be reminiscences of 
particular places visited by Dante, together with allusions to 
events then passing, contrives, by the help of some question- 
able doctunents, to weave out of the whole a continued 
narrative, which, though it may pass for current with tlie 
unwary reader, will not satisfy a more diligent inquirer after 
the truth. See Troya*8 Veltro Allegorico di Dante. Flo- 
lence, 1826. 

* Millesimo trecentesimo sexto, die vigesimo septlmo men- 
sis Augusti, Padue in contrata Sancti Martini in domo Domino 
Amate Domini Papafave, prcesentibus Dantino quondam Al- 
Ugerii de Florentia et nunc stat Padue in contrata Sanetl 
Laurentii, ^. Pe^/t, p.83. 

* Pelll, p. 85, where the document is given 

* Ctoto viU. 133. 

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Morello or Mai cello Malaspina, who, thoagh ibr 
roerly a supporter' of the opposite party, was iioii 
magnanimous enough to welcome a. noble enemy in 
his misfortmifi. 

The time at which he sought an asylum at Ve- 
rona, under the hospitable roof of the Signori della 
Scala, is less distinctly marked. It would seem as 
if those yerses in the Paradise, where the shade of 
his ancestor declares to him, 

Lo primo tao riftig^o e*l prime ostello 
Sara la cortesia del gran Lombardo, 
Firsts reftige thou most find, first place of mat 
In the great Lombard's courtesy, 

should not be interpreted too strictly : but whether 
he experienced that courtesy at a very early period 
€i his banishment, or, as others have imagined, not 
till 1308, wllen he had quitted the Marchese Mo- 
rello, it is believed that he left Verona in disgust at 
the flippant levity of that court, or at some slight 
which he conceived to have been shown him by his 
munifioent patron Can Grande, on whose UbenJity 
he has passed so high an encomium.' Supposing 
the latter to have been the cause of his departure, 
it must .necessarily be placed at a date posterior to 
1308 ; for Can Grande, though associated with his 
amiable brother Alboino^ in Uie government of Ve- 
rona, was then only seventeen years of ace, and 
therefore incapable of giving the alleged o&nce to 

The mortifications which he underwent during 
these wanderings, will be best described in his own 
language. In his Convito he speaks of his banish- 
ment, and the poverty and distress which attended 
it, m very affectmg terms. " Alas !"* said he «* had 

> Hell, xiiv. 144. M<nv11o*8 wife Alagia Is hcmorably men- 
tioned in tLd Pnrg. xiz. 140. 
s Canto zvii. 68. 

* Hell, i. 98, and Par. xvii. 75. A Latin Epistle dedicatory 
of the Paradise to Can Grande is attributed to Dante. With 
oat better proof than has been yet addnced, I cannot con- 
clndo it to be genuine. See the questiou discnssed by Fra- 
ticelll, in the Opere llinori di Dante, torn. ill. p*« ii. 12", Fir 

* Alboino is spoken of in the Convito, p. 179, in such a 
mannw, tliat it is not easy to say wheUier a ccnnpliment 
or a refieetion is intended ; but I am inclined to thinlc the 

* ' Ahi piaccinto Ibsse al Dispensatme dell* Umverso^** Ibc 
p II. 

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H pleMed the DkpoiMwr of the Unirene, that Um 
occasion of this excuse had never existed ; that nei* 
ther others had committed wrong agrainst me, nor I 
Buffered imjnstiy ; sufiered,. I say, the punishment 
of exile and of poverty ; since it was the pleasure 
of the citizens of that fairest and most renowned 
daughter of Rome, Florence, to cast me forth out 
of her sweet bosom, in which I had my birth and 
nourishment even to the ripeness of my age ; and 
in which, with her good will, I desire, with aU my 
heart, to rest this wearied spirit of mine, and to ter- 
minate the time allotted to me on earth. Wan- 
dering over almost every part, to which this our 
language extends, I have gone about like a mendi- 
cant; showing, against my will, the wound with 
whioh fortune has smitten me, and which is often 
imputed to his ill-deserving on whom it is inflicted. 
I have, indeed, been a vessel without sail and with- 
out steerage, carried about to divers ports, and roads, 
and shores, by the dry wind that spnngs out of sad 
poverty ; and have appeared before the eyes of 
many, who, perhaps, from some report that had 
reached them, had imagined me of a different form ; 
in whose sight not only my person was disparaged, 
but every actipn of mine became of less value, as 
well abready performed, as those which yet remained 
for me to attempt" It is no wonder that, with 
feelings like these, he was now willing to obtain by 
humiliation and entreaty, what he had before been 
unable to effect by force. 

He addressed several supplicatory epistles, not 
only to individuals who composed the government, 
but to the people at larger particulari^ one letter, 
of consider8j[>le length, which Leonardo Aretino re- 
lates to have begun with this expostulation * " Po- 
pule mi, quid feci tibi ?" 

While he anxiously waited the result of these 
endeavors to obtain his pardon, a different com- 
plexion was given to the face of public afiaira by 
the exaltation <^ Henry of Luxemburgh* to the 
imperial throne ; and it was generally expected 
that the most important political changes would 
follow, on the arrival of the new sovereign in Italy. 
Another prospect, more suitable to the temper of 
i)ante, now disclosed itself to his hopes : he onco 

> Par. xtU.80. and zzz. 141. 

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more anumed a lofty t<me of defiance ; and, as il 
should seem, without much regard either to cou- 
sistency or prudence, broke out into bitter invec- 
tives against the rulers of Florence, threatening 
them with merited vengeance from the power of 
the Emperor, which he declared that they had no 
adequate means of opposing. He now decidedly 
relinquished the party of the Guelphs, which had 
been espoused by his ancestors, and under whose 
banners he had served in the earlier part of his 
life on the plains of Campaldino; and attached 
hunself to the cause of their opponents, the Ghibel- 
lines. Reverence for his country, says one of his 
biographers,^ prevailed on him to absent himself 
from the hostile army, when Henry of Luxem- 
burgh encamped before the gates of Florence^ 
but it is difficult to give him credit for being now 
much influenced by a principle which had not for- 
merly been sufficient to restrain him from similar 
violence. It is probable that he was actuated by 
some desire, However weak, of preserving appear- 
ances ; for of his personal courage no question can 
be made. Dante was fated to disappointment 
The Emperor's campaign ended m nothmg; the 
Emperor himself died the following summer, (in 
1313,) at Buonconvento ; and, with him, all hopes 
of regammg his native city expired in the breast 
of the unhappy exile. Several of his biographerBp 
affirm that he now made a second journey to raris, 
where Boccaccio adds that he held a public dis- 
putation' on various questions of theology. To 
what other places^ he might have roamed during 
his banishment, is very uncertain. We are told 
that he was in Casentino, with the Conte Guide 

> Leonardo Aretino. 

s Benvenuto da Imola, Filippo Villanl, and Boccaccio 

* Another public philosophical disputation at Verona, la 
1320, published at Venice in 1508, seems to be regarded by 
Tiraboschi with some suspicion of its authenticity. It is en- 
titled, '* Questio florulenta et perutilis de duobus elemenUs 
aquae et term tractans, nuper reperta, qus olim Mantue 
auspicata, Veronae vero disputata et decisa, ac manu propriH 
•cripta a Dante Florentino Poet& clarissimo, quae diligenter et 
accurate correcta fuit per Rev. Magistrum Joan. Benedic 
turn Moncettum de Castilicme Aretino Regentem Patavinum 
Ordinis Eiemltarum Divi Augostinl, sacrcque Theologias 
Doctorem excellentissimum.** 

* Vellntellf sayr that he was also in Gennany. Vita del 

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Lira OF DANTE. gi 

Sahratico,^ at one time; and, at another, in the 
mountains near Urbino, with the Si^n^oii della Fag- 
giola. At the monastery of Santa Cpoce di Fonte 
Avellana, a wild and soUtary retreat in the territory 
of Gubbio, was shown a chamber in which, as a 
Latin inscription' declared, it was believed that he 
had composed no small portion of his divine work. 
A tower,* belongmg to the Conti Falcacci, m Gub- 
bio, claims for itse& a similar honor. In the casllo ■ 
of Cohnollaro, near the river Saonda, and about 
six miles from the same city, he was courteously 
entertained by Busone da Gubbio,* whom he had 
formerly met at Arezzo. There are some traces 

1 He was grandson to the valiant Gnidofnienra PtUi, f 
95. SeeH.xvi.38. 
' fiooce cabienlnm hospes 

In qno Dante* Aligherias habitasse 
la eoqoe non minlmam imBclaii ac 
, Pene divint opet\M partem c(Mn- 
posniase dicitor nndique fiitiscens 
Ac tantnm non solo cqnatom 

Philippns Rodnlphins 

Lanrentti Nieolai Caidinalis 

Aroplissimi Fiatris Fillns sonunns 

ColiegU Prases pro ezlmia erga 

CivenLsnnm i^etate refid haneqne 

niios efllgieni ad tanU viri memo- 

riam revoeandam Antonio Petreio 

Canon. Floren. procnrante 

Collocari mandavit 

Kal. Mali. M J).L.YIL PeOi, p. W. 

• la this U Inscribed, 

Hie mansit Dantes 
Al^hierius Poeta 
Et carmlna scripsit PeUit p. 97. 

« The following sonnet, said to be addressed to him by 
Dante, was published in the Delitic Eruditoram, and is in* 
■erted in the Zatta edition of our Poet's Worlcs, tom.iv.^pail 
J. p. 5i64, in which alone I have seen it : 

Tn, che stampi lo coUe ombroso e fresco, 
Ch' ^ CO lo Flume, che non e tonrente, 
Unci moUe lo chiama qnella gente 
In nome Italians e non Tedesco: 
Ponti, sera e mattln, contento al desco, 
• Perchd del car figliuol vedi presente 
£1 frutto che sperassi, e si repente 
S* avaccia nello stil Greco e Francesco 
Perphd cima dUngegno non s'astalla 
In quella, Italia di dolor ostello, 
Dl cui si speti gi& cotanto frutto ; 
Gavazsi pur el inrimo Raffitello, 

Che tra dotti vedrallo esser vednto, 
Come sopr* acqna si sostien 1% galU. 

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of his having made a temporary abode at Udine, 
aiid particularly of his having been in the FriuU 
with Pagano della Torre, the patriarch of Aquileia, 
at the castle of Tolmino, where he is also said to 
have employed himself on the Divina Commedia, 
and .where a rock was pointed out that was called 
the Seat of Dante.* What is known with greater 
certainty is, that he at last, found a refuge at Ra/- 
•venna, .with Guide Novello da Polenta;* a splendid 
protector of learning ; himself a poet ; and the kins- 
man of that unfortunate Francesca,* whose story had 
been told by Dante with such unrivalled pathos. 


Thou, who where Linci sends his stream to drench 
The valley, walk'st that fresh and shady hill 
(Soft liinci well they call the gentle rill, 
Nor smooth Italian name to German wrench) 

Evening and morning seat thee on thy bench, 
Content ; beholding fruit of knowledge fill 
So early thy son*s branches, that grow still 
EnrichM with dews of Grecian lore and French. 

Though genius, with like hopefril fruitage hung, 
Sinread not aloft in recreant Italy, 
Where grief her home, and worth has made his grave . 

Yet may ttie eider Rafihello see. 
With joy, nis ofl&i»ing seen the leamM among. 
Like buoyant thing that floats above the wave. 

I The considerations which induced the Cavalier Vannettl 
to conclude that a part of the Commedia, and the Cansone 

Canzon, da che convien pur, ch* io mi dogUa, 

were written in the valley Lagariiia, in the territory of 
Trento, do not appear entitled to much notice. Vannetti's 
letter is in the Zatta edition of Dante, tom. iv. part ii. p. 143. 
There may be better ground for concluding that he was, 
sometime during his exile, with Lanteri Paratico, a man of 
anclbnt and noble fitmily, at the castle of Paratico, near Bres 
cia, and that he there employed himself on his poems. The 
moof of this rests upon a communication made by the Abate 
Kodella to Dionisi, of an extract from a chronicle remaining 
at Brescia. See Cancellieri. Osservazioni intomo alia ques- 
tione sopra Toriginalitd della Divina Commedia, &c. Roma, 
1814, p. 125. 

a See Hell, xxvii. 38. 

* Hell, V. 113, and note. Former biographers of Dante have 
represented Guido, his last patron, as the father of Francesca 
Troya asserts that he was her nephew. See his Yeltro Alle* 
gorico di Dante. Ed. Florence, 1826, p. 17G. It ft to be re- 
.fretted that, in this instance, as in others, he gives no au- 
thority for his assertion. He is, however, followed by Balbo, 
Vita di Dante, Torino, 1839, v. ii. p. 315; and Artand, His- 
toire de Dante, Paris, 1841, p. 470. 

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tIFE (^ DANTE. 8a 

tt would appear finnn (me of hie Epietlea, that 
about the year 1316 he had the option given him of 
returning to Florence, on the ignominioue terms of 
paying a fine^ and of making a public avowal of hie 
ofifence. It may, perhaps, be in reference to this 
offer, which, for the same reason that Socrates re- 
fused to save hie life on similar conditions, he indig- 
nantly rejected, that he promises himself he shall 
one day return " in other guise," 

and standing up 
At his bai^mal font, shail claim the wreath 
Due to the poet's temples. •PkT* zxv. 

Such, mdeed, was the glory which his compositions 
in his native tongue had now gained him, that he 
declares, m the treatise De Vmgari Eloquentia,' it 
had in some measure reconciled iSxa even to his ban- 

In the service of his last patron, in whom he 
seems to have met with a more congenial mind 
than in any of the former, his talents were grate- 
fully exerted, and his affections interested but too 
deeply ; for having been sent by Guido on an em- 
bassy to the Venetians, and not being able even to 
obtain an audience, on account of the rancorous 
animosity with which they regarded that prince, 
Dante returned to Ravenna so overwhelmed with 
disappointment and grief, that he was seized by an 
iUness which terminated fatally, either ui'July ot 
September, 1321.* Guido testified his sorrow and 
respect by the sumptuousness of his obsequies, and 
by his intention to erect a monument, which he did 
not live to complete. His countrymen showed, too 
late, that they knew the value of what they had 
•lost At the beguming of the next century, their 
posterity marked their regret by entreatmg that the 
mortal remains of their illustrious citizen might be 
restored to them, and deposited among the tombs of 
their fathers. But the people of Ravenna were un« 

1 Quantum vero saos fkmilfares gloriosos efficiat, bos ipsi 
novimns, qni hnjns dolcedine glwin nostnun exilium pester* 
gamns. Lib. i. cap. 17. 

>Filippo Yillani; Domenlco di Bandino d*Arezxo; and 
Giov. VUIani, Hist. Ub. he. cap. 135. The last writer, whose 
authority is perhaps tlie best on this point, in the Ginntl edi- 
tion of 1559, mentions Joly as the month in which he died; 
bat there is a MS. of VUlani*s history, it is said, in the library 
of St. Mark, at Venice, in which his death is placed in Sep- 

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willm|f to part with the nd and honorable memorial 
of their own hoi^itality. No better success attended 
the subsequent negotiations of the Florentines fur 
the same purpose, &ough renewed under the auspi- 
ces of Leo X., and conducted through the poweiful 
mediation of Michael Angelo.^ 

The sepulchre, designed and commenced by Guide 
da Polenta, was, in 1&3, erected by liemardo Bem- 
bo, the father of the Cardinal ; and, by him, decora- 
ted, besides other ornaments, with an effigy of the 
poet in bas-relief, the sculpture of Pietro L^mbaido, 
and with the following epitaph : 

Exlgnft tnnrali, Danthes, hie sorte Jacebas, 

Sqnalenti nalli cognite penA slta. 
At nuiic mannoreo sabnlxns conderis arcQ, 

Omnibus et culm splendidiore nites. 
Nimirum Bembns Musis incensus Etroscis 

Hoc tibi, quern imprimis he coluere, dedit. 

A. yet more magnificent memorial was raised so 

lately as the year 1780, by the Cardmal Gonzaga,* 

Hu children consisted of one daughter and five 

sons, two of whom, Pietro* and Jacopo,^ inherited 

1 PelU, p. 104. 

• TiraboschL 

In the Literary Journal, Feb. 16, 1804, p. 193, is the follow 
ing article :— '* A subscription has been opened at Florence 
fcNT erecting a monument in the cathedral there, to the mem 
qry of the great poet Dante. A drawing of this monument 
has been submitted to the Florentine Academy of the Fine 
Arts, and has met with universal approbation.'* A monu- 
ment, executed by 8tefkno Ricci of Arezzo, has since been 
erected to him in the Santa Cfoce at Fl<»ence, which I had 
the gratification of seeing in the year 1833. 

* Pietro was also a poet His commentary on the Divina 
Commedia, which is in Latin, has never been published. 
Lionardo, the grandson of Pietro, came to Florence, with . 
other young men of Verona, in the time of Leonardo Are- 
tino, who tells us that he showed him there the house of 
Dante and of his ancestors. Vita di Dante. To Pietro, the 
son of Lionardo, Mario Filelfo addressed his life of our Poet. 
The son of this Pietro, Dante UI^ was a man of letters, and 
an elegant poet Some of his worits are presierved in collec- 
tions : he is commended by Yalerianus de Infelicitate Literat 
lib. 1, and is, no doubt, the same wh(nn Landino speaks of as 
living in his time at Ravenna, and calls '* uomo molto Ute- 
rato ed eloquente e degno di tai sangue, e quale meritamente 
•I dovrebbe rivocar nella sua antica patria e nostra repub- 
Uca.** In 1495, the Florentines took Landlno*s advice, and 
Invited him back to the city, offering to restore all they could 
of the property that had belonged to his ancestors ; but he 
would not quit Verona, where he was established in much 
opulence. VelltUeUo, Vita. He afterwards ezparieoced a sad 
reverse of fortune. He had three sons, one of whoa, Fian- 


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■ome portioH oi their father's abilities, which they 
employed chiefly in the pious task of illustrating his 
Dirina Commedia. The former of these poes^sed 
acquirements of a more profitable kind ; and obtain- 
ed considerable wealth at Verona, where he was 
settled, by the exercise of the legal profession. He 
was honored with the friendship of Petrarch, by 
whom some verses were addressed to him' at Tre- 
vigi, in 1361. . . 

His daughter Beatrice^ (whom he is said to have 
named after the daughter of Folco Portinari) became 
a nun in the convent of S. Stefano dell' Uliva, at 
Ravenna ; and, among the entries of expenditure by 
the Florentine Republic, appears a present of ten 
golden florins sent to her in 1350, by the hands of 
Boccaccio, from the state. The imagination can 
picture to itself few objects more interesting, than 
the daughter of Dante, dedicated to the service of 
religion in the city where her father's ashes were de» 
posited, and receiving from his countrymen this tardy 
tribute of their reverence for his divine genius, and 
her own virtues. 

It is but justice to the wife of Dante not to omit 
what Boccaccio* relates of her ; that after the ban- 
ishment of her husband she secured some share of 
his property from the popular fury, under the name 
of her dowry; that out of this she contrived to 
support theur little family with exemplary discre- 

cesco, made a translation of Vltniviiis, which is supposed to 
have perished. A better fate has befallen an elegant dia- 
logue written by him, which was published, not many years 
agorin the Anecdota Literaria, edit. Roma, (no date^ vol. ii. 
p. 307. It is entitled Francisci AligerU Dantis m. Fllii Dia- 
logns Alter de Antiqnitatibos Valentinis ex Cod. MS. Mem 
branaceo. Ssc. xvi. nunc primnm in Incem edit!28. Pietro, 
another son of Dante III., who was also a scholar, and held 
the office of Proveditore of Verona in 1539, was the father 
of Ginevra, mentioned above in the note to p. 10. See Pelli, 
p. S28, &«. Vellutello, in his life of the Poet, acknowledges 
iklB obligations to this last Pietro for the information he had 
given him. 

* Jacopo is mentioned by Bembo among the Rimatorl, 
lib. ii. delia Volg. Ling, at the beginning ; arjd some of his 
verses are {ureserved in MS. in the Vatican, and at Florence. 
He was living in 13^ and had children, of whom littie is 
known. The names of our Poet's other sons were (rabriello, 
Aligero, and Eliseo. The last two died in their childhood. 
Of Gabriello, nothing certain is known. 

I Carm. Ub. iii. ep. vii. 

* Vita di Dante, p 57, ed. tlienxe, 1576 


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96 UFE: of DANTE 

tioii; and that she even removed from them th« 
preasure of poverty, by such mdustrious efforts as m 
her former affluence she had never been called 
on to exert Who does not regret, that with qual- 
' ities so estimable, she wanted the sweetness of tem- 
per necessary for riveting the affections of her 

Dante was a man of middle stature and grave 
deportment ; of a visage rather long ; large eyes ; 
an aquiline nose ; dark complexion ; large and 
prominent cheek-bones; black curling hair and 
beard; the imder lip projecting beyond the upper* 
He mentions, in the Convito, that his sight had 
been transiently impaired by intense application to 
books.^ In his dress, he studied as much plainness 
as was suitable with his rank and station in life ; 
and observed a strict temperance in his diet He 
was at times extremely absent and abstracted ; and 
i^pears to have indulged too much a disposition to 
sarcasm. At the table of Can Grande, when the 
company was amused by the conversation and tricks 
of a bufiS>on, he was asked by his patron, why Can 
Grande himself, and the quests who were present, 
failed of receiving as much pleasure from the ex- 
ertion of his talents, as this man had been able to 
give them. *' Because all creatures delight in their 
own resemblance," was the reply of Dante.' In 
other respects, his manners are said to have been 
dignified and polite. He was particularly careful 
not to make any approaches to flattery, a vice 
which he justly held in the utmost abhorrence. He 
spoke seldom, and in a slow voice; but what he 
said derived authority from the subtileness of 'his 
observations, somewhat like his own poetical heroes, 

1 *' Per aflhticare f o vise molto a stadio di leggere, intanto 
debilitai gli spiritl vislvi, ehe le stelle mi pareano tatte d'aU 
enno albnre ombrate : e per longa riposanza in laoghl acxaA, 
e fireddi, e con affipeddare lo corpo dell' occhio con acqoa pore, 
rivinsi la virtt disgregata, che tornal nel prioia bnono state 
della vista." Qmvito, p. 108. • 

s There is here a point of resemblance (nor is it the only 
one) in the ehaiacter of Hilton. ** I had mther/* says tlie 
author of Pandise Lost, ** since the life of man is likened toa 
scene, that all my entrances and exits might mix with such 
persons only, whose worth erects them and their actions to a 
grave and tragic deportment, and not to have to do with 
clowns and vices.'* ColatUrwHt. Pr»$9 Jforkt, vol. i. p. 33B. 
Edit London, 1758. 

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Fturiayan rado con tocI soavL 


fleldom, but all their words were toneftil iweet 

Hb was connected in habits of intimacy and friend* 
■hip with the most uigenious men of his time; 
with Guido Cavalcanti ;* with Buonaggiunta da 
Lucca ;• with Forese Donati ;• with Cino da 
Pistoia ;* with Giotto,* the celebrated painter, by 
whose hand his likeness* was preserved ; wiu 

2 See HelU z. and notes. 

s See Purg. xzlv. Yet Tiraboschi observes, that bhongh it 
is not improbable that Buona^anta was the contemporary 
andfiriendofDante, it cannot be considered as certain. Stor. 
della Poes. Ital^ torn. L p. 109, Mr. Mathias*s Edit 

s See Purg. zxiii. 44. 

4 Guittorino de* Sigiboldi, commonly called Clno da Pistoia, 
^besides the passage that will be cited in «. following note 
nrom the De Volg. Eioq.,) is again spoken of in the same 
treatise, lib. i. c. 17, as a great master of the Temacnlar dic- 
tion in his Canzoni, and classed with our Poet himself, who 
is termed ** Amicus ejus ;" and likewise in lib. iL c. S, where 
he is said to have written of «^' Love." His verses are cited 
too in other chapters. He addressed and received sonnets 
from Dante; and wrote a sonnet, ot canzone, on Dante's 
dcHBith, which is preserved in the library of St Marie, at Yen- 
ice. 'Hraboechi, della Poes. ItaU v. i. p. 116, and v. ii. p. 60. 
The same honor was done to the memory of dno by Pe 
trarch, son. 71, part L ^ Celebrated both as a lawyer and a 
poet he is better known by the writings which he has left in 
the latter of these characters," insomuch that Tiraboschi has 
observed, that among those who preceded Petrarch, there is, 
perhaps, none who can be compared to him in elegance and 
sweetness. "There are many editi<Mis of his poems, the 
most callous being that published at Venice in 1580, by P. 
FaustinoTasso; In which, however, the Padre degli Agoe- 
tini, not without reason, suspects that the second book is by 
later hands." Tirabosehiy ibid. There has been an editioii 
by Seb. Clampi, at Fisa, in 1813, &c. ; but see the remarks on 
it in Gamba's Testi di Lingua Ital. S94. He was interred at 
Pistoia, with this epitaph : " Cino ezimio Juris Interpret! Bar- 
tolique prsceptori dignissimo populus Pistcnriensis Civl sno 
B.M. fecit Obiit anno 1336." Guidi Pamiroli de CUrit Le- 

Cum JnterpretilntSf lib. ii. cap. xxlx. Lips. 4to. 3721. A Latin 
tter supposed to be addressed by Dante to Cino was pub- 
lished for the first time from a MS. in the Laurentian library, 
by M. Witte. 

* See Pure. xL 

< Mr. EasUake, In a note to Kugler's Hand-Book of Paint' 
img, traiulaUd by a Lady, Land. 1843, p. 50, describes the 
discovery and restoration, in July, 1840, of Dante's portrait 
by Giotto, in the chapel of the Podest& at Florence, where it 
had been covered with whitewash m plaster. But it could 
scarcely have been concealed so soon as our distinguished 
artist supposes, since Landino speaks of it as re m aining in 
his time, and Vasaii says it was still to be seen when he wrote. 

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Oderigi da Gubbio/ the illuminator ; and inth an 
eminent musician* — 

his Casella, whom he wooed to sing. 

Met in the milder shades of Purgatory. JiitltorCa SonneU. 

Besides these, his acquaintance extended to some 
others, whose names illustrate the first dawn of 
ItaUan literature. Lapo degli Uberti f Dante da 
Majano •* Cecco AngioUeri f Dino Frescobaldi ;* 

X See Purg. xi. 
> Ibid, canto U. 

* Lapo is said to have been the son of Farinata degli Ubcrti» 
(see Hell, x. 32, and Tiraboschi della Poes. Ital., ▼. i. p. 116,) 
and the fother of Fazio degli Uberti, author of the Dittamondo, 
a poem which is thought, in the energy of its style, to make 
some approaches to the Divina Commedia, (ibid. v. ii. p. 63,) 
though Monti passes on it a much less favorable sentence, (see 
his Proposta, v. ill. p^" % p. ccx. 8vo. 1824.) He is probably the 
Lapo mentioned in the sonnet to Guido Cavalcanti, begin- 

Guido voirei che tn e Lapo ed io, 

which Mr. Hayley has so happily translated, (see Hell, x. 62 ;) 
and also in a passage that occurs in the De Vulg. Eloq. ▼. i. 
p. 116, *' duanqnam fere omne»^Tnsci in suo turplloquio sint 
obtnsi, nonnnllos Vulgaris excellentiam cognovisse sentimus, 
scilicet Guidonem Lapum, et unum alinm, Florentinos, et 
Cinum Pistoriensem, quem nunc indigne postponimns, non 
Indigne coacti." "Although almost all the Tuscans are 
marred by the baseness of their dialect, yet I perceive that 
some have known the excellence of the vernacular tongue, 
namely, Guido Lapo," (I suspect Dante here means his two 
firiendtf Cavalcanti and Uberti, though this has hitherto been 
taken ftir the name of one persfii,> " and one other," (who Is 
supposed to be the author himself,) '* Florentines ; and last, 
though not of least regard, Cino da Pistoia.** 

* Dante da Majano flourished about 1290. He was a Flo- 
rentine, and composed many poems in praise of a Sicilian 
lady, who, being herself a poetess, was insensible neither to 
his verses nor his love, so that she was called the Nina of 
Dante. Pellijp. 60, and Tiraboschi, Storia della Poes. Ital., 
y. i. p. 137. lliere are several of his sonnets addressed to 
our Poet, who declares, in his answer to one of them, that^ 
although he knows not the name of its author, he discoven 
in it the traces of a great mind. 

* Of Cecco Angiolieri, Boccaccio relates a pleasant story in 
the Decameron, G. 0, N. 4. He lived towards the end of the 
thirteenth century, and wrote several sonnets to Dante, which 
are in Aliacci's collection. In some of them he wears the sem^ 
blance of a firiend ; but in one the mask drops, and shows that 
he was well disposed to be a rival. See Crescimbeni, Com. alia 
Btoria di Volg. Poes., v. ii. par. U. Ub. U. p. 103; Pelli, p. 61. 

< Dino, son of Lambertucclo Frescobaldi. Crescimbeni (ibid, 
lib. ill. p. 120) assures us that he was not inferior to Cino da 
Plstoia. Pelli, p. 61. He is said to have been a firiend of 
Dante*s, in whose writings I have not observed any mention 
of him. Boccaccio, in his Life of Dante, calls Dino '* in quo* 
tempi fomotissimo didtore in ilma in FIrenie." 

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Gioranni di Virgilio ;' Giovanni Qoirino ;' and 
Francesco Stabili,* who is better known by tho 
appellation of Cecco d'Ascoli ; most of them either 
honestly declared their sense of his superiority, or 
betrayed it by their vain endeavors to detract from 
the estimation in which he was held. 

He is said to have attained some Acellence in 
£he art of designing ; which may easily be believed, 
when we consider that no poet has afforded more 
lessons to the statuary and the painter,* in the va- 
riety of objects which he represents, and in the 
accuracy and spirit with which they are brought 
before the eye. Indeed, on one occasion,* he men- 
tions that he was employed in delineating the fi^rure 
of an angel, on the firat anniversary of Beatnce*! 
death. It is not unlikely that the seed of the Pa- 
radise was thus cast into liis mind ; and that he 
was now endeavoring to express by the pencil an 
idea of celestial beatitude, which could only be con- 

1 Giovanni di Virgilio addressed two Latin eclognes to 
Dante, which were answered in similar compositions ; and is 
said to have been his friend and admirer. See Boccaccio, 
Vita di Dante ; and Pelli, p. 137. Dante's poetical Kenios 
sometimes breaks through the rudeness oC style in hui two 
Latin eclogues. 

* Muratcffi had seen several sonnets, addressed to Giovanni 
Quirino by Dante, in a MS. preserved in the Ambrosian 11- 
hrary. Delia Perfetta Poesia ItaL Ediz. Venezia, 1770, torn 
I. Ub. 1. c iii. p. 9. 

* For the correction of many errors respecting this writer, 
see Tiraboschi, Stor. della Lett. Ital., tom. v. lib. iL cap. ii. 
^ 15, &c. He was burned in 1317. In his Acerba, a poem 
in sesta rima, he has taken several occasions of venting his 
spleen against his great contemporary. 

* Besides Fllippo Brunelleschi, who, as Vasaii tells us, 
diede molta opera alle cose di Dante, and Michael Angelo, 
whose Last Judgment is probably the mightiest effort of 
modem art, as the loss of his sketches on the margin of the 
Divina Commedia may be regarded as the severest loss the 
art has sustained ; besides these, Andrea Orgagna, Gio. Aa« 
gelico di flesole, Lnca Signorelli, Spinello Aretino, Giacomo 
da Pontormo, and AurelioLomi, have been recounted among 
the many artists who have worked on the same originaL 
See Cancellieri, Osservationi, &c. p. 75. To these we may 
justly wide ourselves in being able to ndd the names of Rey- 
nolds. Fuseii, and Flaxman. The firescoes by Comelitu in 
the Villa Masslml at Rome, lately executed, entitle the Ger- 
mans to a share in this distinction. 

* " In quel giomo, nel quale si compieva Panno, che qu«s« 
ta donna era fatta delle clttadine di vita eterna, io mi sedeva 
in parte, nella quale, ricordandomi di lei, io disegnava ano 
Angelo sopra certe tavolette, e mentre io il disegnava, volrt 
gli occhi, 6x," Vita JSTuova, p. 268. 

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yeyed in its full perfection through the medium fd 

As nothing that related to such a man was 
thought unworthy of notice, one of his biographers,^ 
who had seen his hand-writmg, has recorded that 
it was of a long and delicate character, and re 
markable for neatness and accuracy. 

Dante wrote in Latin a Treatise de Monarchic, 
and two books de Vulgar! Eloquio.^ In the former, 
he defends the Imperial rights against the preten- 
sions of the Pope, with arguments that are some* 
times chimerical, and sometimes sound and con- 
clusive. The latter, which he left unfinished, con- 
tains not only much information concerning the 
progress which the vernacular poetry of Italy had 
then made, but some reflections on the art itself, 
that prove him to have entertained large and philo- 
sophical principles respecting it 

His Latin style, however, is generally rude and 
unclassical. It is fortunate that he did not trust to 
it, as he once intended, for the work by which his 
name was to be perpetuated. In the use of his 
own language he was, beyond measure, more suc- 
cessful. The prose of his Vita Nuova and his Con- 
vito, although five centuries have intervened since 
its composition, is probably, to an Italian eye, still 
devoid neither of freshness nor elegance. In the 
Vita Nuova, which he appears to have written about 
his twenty-eighth year, he gives an account of his 
youthful attachment to Beatrice. It is, according 
to the taste of those times, somewhat mystical : yet 
there are some particulars in it which have not 
at all the air of a fiction, such as the death of 
Beatrice's father, Folco Portinari; her relation to 
the friend whom he esteemed next after Guide Ca- 

> Leonardo Aretino. A specimen of it was believed to 
exist when Pelll wrote, about sixty years ago, and perhatw 
still exists in a MS. preserved in the archives at Gabble, at 
the end of which was the sonnet to Bosone, said to be in the 
hand-writing of Dante. Pelli, p. 51. 

« These two were first published in an Italian transla- 
tion, supposed to be Trlssino's, and were not allowed to 
be genuine, till the Latin original was published at Paris 
in 1577. Tirabosehi. A copy, written in the fourteenth 
eentnry, is said to have been lately found in the public U- 
brary at Grenoble. See Fraticelli's Opere mlnori dl Dante, 
IS> fir. 1840, v. 3. pt* ii. p. xvL A collation of this BIS. is 
very desirable 

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▼4canti; his own attempt to conceal his 

by a pretended attachment to another lady; and 
the anguish he felt at the death of his mistren.' 
He tells ns too, that at the time of her decease, 
he chanced to be composing a canzone in her praise, 
and that he was interrupted by that event at the 
conclusion of the first stanza ; a circumstance which 
we can scarcely suppose to have been a mere in- 

Of the poetry, with which the Vita Nuova is 
plentifully mterspersed, the two sonnets that follow 
may be taken as a specimen. Near the beginning 
he relates a marvellous vision, which appeared to 
him in sleep, soon after his mistress had for the first 
time addressed her speech to him ; and of this dream 
he thus asks for an interpretation >^ 

To every heart that feels the gentle flame, 
To whom this present sayiiq^ comes in sight, 
In that to me their thooghta they may indite, 
All health ! in Love, our lord and master*s name. 

Now on its way the second quarter came 
Of those twelve hours, wherein the stars are bright. 
When Love was seen before me, in such might, 
As to remember shakes with awe my frame. 

Suddenly came he, seeming glad, and keeping 
My heart in hand ; and in*his arms he had 
MJjl Lady in a folded garment sleeping : 

I^e waked her ; and that heart all burning bade 
Her feed upon, in lowly guise and sad : 
Then from my view he turned ; and parted, weeping. 

To this sonnet. Guide Cavalcanti, among others, 
returned an answer in a composition of &q same 
form; endeavoring to give a happy turn to the 
dream, by which the mmd of the Poet had been so 
deeply impressed. From the intorcouise thus begun, 
when Dante was eighteen years of age, arose that 
friendship which terminated only with the death of 

The other sonnet is one that was written after the 
death of Beatrice : — 

Ah pilgrims ! ye that, haply musing, go, 
On aught save that which on your road ye meet, 
From land so distant, tell me, I entreat. 
Come ye, as by your mien and looks ye show 1 

1 Beatrice*! marriage to Simone de' Bardi, which is t«A 
lected from a cbiuse in her father's will dated January t&, 
1387, would have been a &ct too wuentlmental to be intio- 
dooed into the Vita Nuova, and is not, I believe, noticed liy 
any of the early biographers. 

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Why rooDm ve not, as through these gates of wo 
Ye wend along our city's midmost street, 
Even like Uiose who nothing seem to weet 
What chance hath fairn, why she is grieving sot 

If ye to listen but awhile would stay, 
Well knows this lieart, which inly sigheth sore, 
That ye would then pass, weeping on your way. 

Oh hear : her Beatrice is no more ; 
And words there are a man of her might say. 
Would make a stranger's eye that loss deplore. 

In the Convito,* or Banquet, which did not fol- 
low till some time after his banishment, he ex- 
plains very much at large the sense of three, out 
of fourteen, of his canzoni, the remainder of which 
he had intended to open in the same manner. 
" The viands at his Beuiquet," he tells his readers, 
quaintly enough, " will be set out in fourteen dif- 
ferent manners; that is, will consist of fourteen 
canzoni, the materials of which are love and virtue. 
Without the present bread, they would not be free 
from some shade of obscurity, so as to be prized 
by many less for their usefulness than for their 
beauty ; but the bread will, in the form of the 
present exposition, be that light, which will bring 
forth all their colors, and display their true mean- 
ing to the view. And- if the present work, which 
is named a Banquet, and I wish may prove so, be 
handled after a more manly guise than the Vita 
Nuova, I intend not, therefore, that the former 
should in any part derogate from the latter, but 
that t^e one should be a help to the other : seeins 
that it is fitting in reason for this to be fervid and 
impassioned; uiat^ temperate and manly. For it 
becomes us to act and speak otherwise at one age 
than at another; since at one age, certain man- 
ners are suitable and praiseworthy, which, at an- 
other, become disproportionate and blameable." He 
then apologizes for speaking of himself ^* I fear 
the di^race," says he, " of having been subject to 
80 mudi passion, as one, reading these canzoni, 
may conceive me to have been ; a disgrace, that 
is removed by my speaking thus um-eservedly of 

1 Perticari Pegli Scrittori del trecento, lib. iL c v.) speak- 
ing of the Convito, observes that Salviatl himself has termed 
it the most ancient and principal of all excellent prose works 
In Italian. On the other hand, Balbo (Yita di JDante, v. iL 
pii 86) pronounces it to be, on the whole, certainly the lowest 
among Dante's writiuffs. In this difference of opinion, a 
fbralgner may be pemdtted to judge for himself 

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myself, shows not passion, but virtue, to 
have been the moving cause. I intend, moieover, 
to set forth their true meaning, which some may 
not perceive, if I declare it not^ He next pro- 
ceeds to give many reasons why his commentary 
was not written rather in Latin than in ItaUan; 
for which, if no excuse be now thought necessary, 
it must be recollected that the Italian language 
was then in its infancy, and scarce supposed to 
possess dignity enough for the purposes of instruc- 
tion. "The Latin," he allovps, *< would have ex- 
plained his canzoni better to foreigners, as to the 
Germans, the English, and others ; but then it 
must have expounded their sense, without the 
power of, at the same time, transferring their 
beauty:" and he soon after tells us, that many 
noble persons of both sexes were ignorant of the 
learned language. The best cause, however, which 
he assigns for this preference, was his natural love 
of his native tongue, and the desire he felt to exalt 
it above the Proven9aI, which by many was said 
to be the more beautiful and perfect language ; and 
against such of his countrymen as maintained so 
unpatriotic an opinion he inveighs with much 
warmth. ^ 

In his exposition of the first canzone of the three, 
he tells his reader, that " the Lady, of whom he 
was enamored after his fiist love, was the most 
beauteous and honorable daughter of the Emperor 
of the universe, to whom Pythagoras gave the name 
of Philosophy :" and he applies the same title to the 
object of his afiections, when he is commenting on 
the other two. 

The purport of his thurd canzone, which is less 
mysterious, and, therefore, perhaps more likely to 
please than the others, is to show that " virtue only 
is true nobiUty.*' Towards the conclusion, after 
having spoken of virtue itself, much as Pindar would 
have spoken of it, as being << the gift of God only ;" 

Che solo Iddlo all' anima la dona, 
he thus describes 't as acting throughout the several 
stages of life. 

L'anima, cui adorna, &c. 

The soul, that goodness like to this adorns, 
Holdeth it not conceal'd ; 
But, from her first espousal to Uie firame, 
Bhows it, till death, xeveal'd. 

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Obedient, sweet, and tail of seemly shame^ 

She, in the primal age. 

The person decks with beanty ; moulding it 

Fitly throngh^every part 

In riper inanlTood, temperate, firm of heart. 

With love replenished, and with coorteoos pniM 

In loyal deeds alone she hath delight 

And, in her elder days. 

Fat prudent and jftst largeness is she known ; 

Rejoicing with herself, 

That wisdom in her staid discourse be shown. 

Then, in life's fourth division, at the last 

She weds with God acain. 

Contemplating the end she shall attain ; 

And looketh back ; and blesseth the time past. 

His lyric poems, indeed, generally stand much, la 
need of a comment to explain them ; but the diffi- 
culty arises rather from the thoughts themselves, 
than from any imperfection of the language in which 
those thoughts are conveyed. Yet they abound not 
only in deep moral reflections, but in touches of 
tenderness and passion. 

Some, it has been already mtimated, have sup* 
posed that Beatrice was only a creature of Dante's 
imagination ; and there can be no question but that 
he has invested her, in the Divina Commedia, with 
the attributes of an allegorical being. But who can 
doubt of her having had a real existence, when she is 
spoken of Si such a strain of passion as in these lines ? 

Quel ch* ella par, qnando on poco sorride, 

Non si pub dicer ne tenere a mente, 

Si 6 nnovo miracolo e genUle. Fita AWoo. 

Mira ehe qnando ride 

Passa ben di dolcezza ogni altra cosa. Cam, xr. 

The canzone, from which the last couplet is taken, 
presents a portrait which might well supply a pahitei 
with a far more exalted idea of female beauty, than 
he could form to himself from the celebrated Ode of 
Anacreon on a similar subject. After a minute de- 
scription of those parts of her form, which the gar- 
ments of a modest woman would sufier to be seen, 
he raises the whole by the superaddition of a moral 
grace and dignity, such as the Christian religioD 
alone could supply, and such as the pencil of Raphael 
afterwards aimed to represent 

Umile vergognoea e temperata, 

£ sempre a vend grata, 

Intra suoi be* eostnmi nn atto regna, 

Che d* ogni rivevenza la & degna.^ 

a t am aware that this canzone is not ascribed to Dante. 
In the collection of S^nettl e Canzoni printed by the Ginntt 

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One or two of the sonnets prove tiiat he could at 
times condescend to sporttveness and pleasantry. 
The following to Brunetto, I should conjecture to 
have been sent with his Vita Nuova, wiiich was 
written the year before Brunette died. 
1 Master Branetto, this I send, entreatiiig, 

Ye*U entertain this lass of mine at Eastor ; 
She does nel-come amons yon as a feaster ; 
No : she has need of reaoing, not of eating. 
Nor let her find yon at some merry meeting, 

Laugtiing amidst buffoons and droUers, lest her 
Wise sentence should escape a noisy jester: 
She must be wooed, and is well worth the weeting. 
If in this sort yon fail to make her oat. 

Yon have amongst you many sapient men, 
All famous as was Albert of Cologne. 
I have been posed amid that learned rout. 

And if they cannot spell her right, why then 
Call Master Giano, and the deed is done. 

Another, though on a more serious subject, is yet 
remarkable for a fancifulnees, such as that with 
which Chaucer, by a few ^irited touches, often 
conveys to us images more strUdng than others ha^e 
done by repeated and elaborate em)rts of skilL 

Came Melancholy to my side one day, 

And said : ** I must a little bide with thee :** 

And brought along with her in ctHnpany ^ 

Sorrow and Wrath.->auoth I to her, " Away : 

i will have none of you : make no delay.** 

And, like a Greek, she gave me stout reply. 
Then, as she talk'd, I lookM and did espy 
Where Love was coming onward on the way. 

A garment new of cloth of black he had. 
And on his head a hat of mourning wore ; 
And he, of truth, unfelgnedly was crying. 

Forthwith I askM: *' What ails thee, caitiff bid r* 
And he rejoined : " Sad thought and anguish sore, 
Sweet brother mine ! our laay lies a-dying.** 

For purity of diction, the Rime of our author 
are, I think, on the whole, preferred by Muratori 

In 1527 Monti, in his Proposta, under the word " Induare," 
remarks that it is quite in the style of Fazio degli Ubertl ; 
and adds, that a very rare MS. possessed by Perticiuri restores 
it to that writer. On the other hand, Missirini, in a lata 
treatise *'On the Love of Dante and on the P<Nrtrait of Bear 
trice,** printed at Florence in 1832, makes so little doubt of its 
being genuine, that he founds on it the chief argoment to 
prove an old picture in his possession to be intended for a 
representation of Beatrice. See Fraticelli*8 Opero Min(»i A 
Dante, tom. i. p. cciii. 12<>, Fir. 1834. 

1 Fraticelli (Ibid., p. cccU. ccciii.) questloos the genuine 
ness of this sonnet, and decides on the spurionsness of that 
which follows. J do not, in either instance, feel the jastnew 
of his reasons. 

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to his Divina Commedia, though that abw is al> 
lowed to be a model of the pure Tuscan idio^n. 
To this singular production, which has not only 
stood the test of agiMs, but given a tone and color 
to the poetry of modem Europe, and even ani- 
mated the genius of Milton and of Michael Angelo, 
it would be difficult to assign its place according 
to the received rules of criticism. Some have 
termed it an epic poem ; a;id others, a satire : but 
it matters little by what name it is called. It suf- 
fices that the poem seizes on the heart by its two 
great holds, terror and pity; detains the fancy by 
an accurate and lively delineation of the objects 
it represents ; and displays throu^out such an 
originality of conception, as leaves to Homer and 
Shakspeare alone the power of challenging the 
pre-emmence or equality.* The fiction, it has 

1 Yet his pretensions to wiginality have not been wholly 
xmqnestioned. Dante, it has lieen supposed, was more im- 
mediately influenced in his choice of a snbject by the Yisicm 
of Alberico, written in barbarous Latin prose abont the be- 
ginning of the twelfth century. The incident, which is said 
to have given birth to this composition, is not a little mar- 
vellous. Alberico, the son of noble parents, and bom at a 
cAtle in the neighborhood of Alvito, in the diocese of Sora> 
in the year 1101, or soon after, when he had cmnpleted his 
ninth year, was seized with a violent fit of illness, which de- 
inrived him of his senses for the space of nine days. During 
the continuance of this trance, he had a vision, in which he 
seemed to himself to be carried away by a dove, and con- 
ducted by St Peter, in company with two angels, through 
Purgatory and Hell, to survey the torments of sinners ; the 
saint giving him infcwmation, as they proceeded, respecting 
what he saw: after which they were transported together 
through the seven heavens, and taken up into Paradise, to 
behold the glory of the blessed. As soon as he came to him- 
self again, he was permitted to make profession of a religious 
life in the Monastery of Monte Cassino. As the account he 
gave of his vision was strangely altered in the reports that 
went abroad of it, Girardo the ablrat employed one of the 
monks to take down a relation of it, dictated by the mouth 
o{ Alberico himself Senioretto, who was chosen abbot in 
1137, not contented with this narrative, although it sieemed 
to have every chance of being authentic, ordered Alberico 
to revise and correct it, which he accordingly did, with the 
assistance of Pietro Diacono, who was his associate in th^ 
monastery, and a few years younger than himself; and whose 
testimony to his extreme and perpetual self-mortification, 
and to a certain abstractedness of demeanor, which showed 
him to converse with other thoughts than those of this life, 
Is still on record. The time of Alberico*8 death is not known ; 
but it is conjectured that he reached to a good old age. His 
Visi(m, with a iwefiice by the first editor, Guido, and prece- 
ded by a letter firom Alberico himself is preserved in a Ma 

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been remariEed,' is admirable, and the woriE of 
an inventive talent truly great. It comprises a 

numbered 257 in the archives of the monastery, which con- 
tains the works of Pietro Diacono« and which was written 
between the years 1159 and 1181. The probability of our Po- 
et's having been indebted to it, was first remarked either by 
Giovanni Bottari in a letter inserted in the Deca di Simboli, 
and printed at Rome in 1753 ; or, as F. Caneellieri conijectares; 
Id the {nreceding year by Aieasio Simmaco Bfazzocchi. In 
1801, extracts tma Alberico's '^^sion were laid before the pub- 
lic in a quarto pamphlet, inrinted at Rome with the title of 
Lettera di Eustaxio Dicearcheo ad Angelio Sidicino, under 
which appellations the writer, Giustino di Costanzo, con- 
cealed his own name and that of his fHend Lulgi Anton. 
Sompano ; and the whole has since, in 1814, been edited in 
the same city by Francesco Caneellieri, who has added to the 
original an Italian translation. Such parts of it as bear a 
marked resemblance to passages in the Divina Commedia, 
will be found distributed in their proper places throughout 
the following notes. The reader will in these probably see 
enough to convince him that our authw had read this singu- 
lar work, although nothing to detract from his claim to origi- 

Long before the public notice had been directed to this 
supposed imitation, Malatesta Fcnrta, in the Dialogue entitied 
Rossi, as referred to by Fontanini in his Eloquenasa Italiana, 
had suggested the probability that Dante had taken his plan 
from an ancient romance caUed Guerrino di Durazzo 11 Mes- 
chino The above-mentioned Bottari, however, adduced rea- 
sons for concluding that this book was written origincmy in 
Provencal, and not translated into Italian till after the time 
of our Poet, by one Andrea di Barberino, who embellished it 
with many images, and particularly with similes, borrowed 
firom the Divina Ckimmedia. 

Mr. WartoD, in one part of his History of English Poetry, 
(vol. i. s. xviii. p. 463,) nas observed, that a poem, entitied La 
Voye on le Songe d'Enfer, was written by Raoul de Houdane, 
about the year 1180 ; and in another part (vol. ii. s z. p. 319) 
he has attributed the origin of Dante's Poem to that " favw- 
ite apologue, the Sonmium Scipionis of Cicero, which, in 
Chaucer's words, treats 

of heaven and hell 
And yearth and souls that therein dwell." 

A»»e$Mji of FbuUt. 

It is likely that a litde research nright discover many other 
■ow^es, firom which his invention might with an equal ap- 
pearance of truth be derived. The method of conveying in- 
striction or entertitinment under the form of a vision, in 
which the living should be made to converse with the dead, 
was so obvious, that it would be, perhaps, difficult to mention 
any country in which it had not been employed. It is the 
scale of magnificence on which this conception was framed, 
and the wonderful development of it in all its -parts, tha 
may Justiy entitie our Poet to rank among the row minds, 
to^whom the power of a great creative foculty can be as« 

' Leorardo Aietino, Vita di Dante 

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desciiptioii of the heayens and heavenly bodies ; 9 
description of men, their deserts and pnnishments, 
of supreme happiness and utter misery, and of the 
middle state between the two extremes : nor, per- . 
haps, was there ever any one who chose a more am- 
ple and fertile subject ; so as to affi>rd scope for the 
expression of all hu ideas, from the yast multitude of 
spirits that are introduced speakingr on such different 
topics ; who are of so many difierent countries and 
ages, and under circumstances of fortune so striking 
and so diyeisified ; and who succeed, one to another, 
with such a rapidity as neyer sufien the attention for 
an instant to pall. 

His solicitude, it is true, to define all his images 
in such a manner as to bring them distinctly within 
the circle of our yision, and to subject them to the 
power of the pencil, sometimes renders him Uttle 
better than grotesque, where Milton has since 
taught us to expect sublimity. But his faults, in 
general, were less those of the poet than of the age 
in which he hyed. For his haying adopted the pop- 
ular creed in all its extravagance, we have no more 
right to blame him than we should have to blame 
Homer because he made use of the heathen dei- 
ties, or Shakspeare on account of his witches and 
fairies. The supposed influence of the stars on the 
disposition of men at their nativity, was hardly sep- 
arable from the distribution which he had made 
of the glorified spirits through the heavenly bodies, 
as the abodes of bliss suited to their several endow- 
ments. And whatever philosophers may think of 
the matter, it is certainly much better, for the ends 
of poetry at least, that too much should be believed, 
rather than less, or even no more than can be jnoved 
to be true. Of what he considered the cause of 
civil and religious liberty, he is on all occasions tho 
zealous and feariess advocate ; and of that higher 
freedom, which is seated in the will, he was an 
assertor equally strenuous and enhffhtened. The 
conteiiiporary of Thomas Aquinas, it is not to be 
wondered if he. has given his poem a tincture of 
the scholastic theology which the writings of that 
extraordinary man had rendered so prevalent, and 
without which it could not perhaps have been made 
acceptable to the generality of his readers. The 
I^iraseology has been accused of bemg at times hiUnd 
and micouth; but, if this is acknowledged, yet it 

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most be remembered that he gave a permanent 
stamp and character to the language in whi<;h he 
wrote, and m which, before him, nothing great had 
been attempted ; that the diction is strictly vemacu- 
lar, without any debasement of foreign idiom ; that 
his numbers have as much variety as the Italian 
tongue, at least in that kind of metre, could supply ; 
and that, although succeeding writen may have sur- 
passed him in the lighter graces and embellishments 
of style, not one of them has equalled him in sue- 
cinctness, vivacity, and strength. 

Never did any poem rise so suddenly mto notice 
after the death of its author, or engage the public 
attention more powerfully, than the Divina Com- 
media. This cannot be attributed solely to its intrin- 
sic excellence, 'the freedom with which the writer 
had 'treated the most distinguished characten of ha 
time, gave it a further and stronger hold on the cu- 
riosity <^ the age : many saw in i^ their acquaint- 
ances, kinsmen, and friends, or, wnat scarcely touch- 
ed them less nearly, their enemies, either consigned 
to infamy or recorded with honor, and represented in 
another world as tasting 

Of heaven's sweet cup, oi poisonous drug of hell; 

so that not a page could be opened without exciting 
the strongest personal feelings in the mind of the 
reader. These sources of interest must certainly 
be taken into our account, when we consider the 
rapid diffusion of the work, and the unexampled 
pams that were taken to render it universally in-' 
telligible. Not only the profound and subtile alle- 
gory whidi pervaded it, the mysterious style of 
|NX>i^cy which the writer occasionally assumed, 
the bold and unusual metaphors which he every- 
where employed, and the great variety of know- 
ledge he (Hsplayed ; but his hasty allusions to pass- 
ing events, and his description of persons by acci- 
dental circumstances, such as some peculiarity of 
form or feature, the place of their nativity or abode, 
some office they held, or the heraldic insignia they 
bore — all asked for the help of commentators and 
expounders^ who were not long wanting to the task. 
Besides his two sons, to whom that labor most prop- 
erly belonged, many others were found ready to 
engage in it Before the century had expired, 
there appeared the commentaries of Acc<»bo do' 

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B<mfantiiii,^ a Franciscan; of Micchino da Mez- 
zano, a canon of Ravenna; of Fra. Riccardo, a 
Carmelite ; of Andrea, a Neapolitan ; of Gniniforte 
Bazzisio, a Bergamese ; of Fra. Paolo Albertino ; 
and of several writers whose names are unknown, 
and whose toils, when Pelli wrote, were concealed 
in the dust of private libraries.' About the year 
1350, Giovanni Visconti, archbishop of Milan, se* 
lected six of the most learned men in Italy, two 
divines, two philosophers, and two Florentines; 
and gave it them in charge to contribute theur joint 
endeavors towards the compilation of an ample 
comment, a copy of which is preserved in the Lau- 
rentian library at Florence. Whose these were 
is no longer known; but Jacopo.della Lana,* and 
Petrarch, are conjectured to have been among the 
number. At Florence, a public lecture was found- 
ed for the purpose of explaining a poem, that was 
at the same tim%the boast and the disgrace of the 
city. The decree for this institution was passed 
in 1373 ; and in that year Boccaccio, the first of 
their writers in prose, was appointed, with an an- 
nual salary of a hundred florins, to deliver lectures 
in one of the churches, on the first of their poets. 
On this occasion he wrote his comment, which ex- 
tends only to a part of the Inferno, and has been 
printed. In 1375 Boccaccio died; and among his 
successors in this honorable employment we find the 
names of Antonio Piovano in 1381, and of Filippo 
ViUani in 1401. 

The example of Florence was speedUy followed 
by Bologna, by Pisa, by Piacenza, and by Venice. 
Benvenuto da Imola, on whom the office of lec- 
turer devolved at Bologna, sustained it for the 

1 TiraboscH, Stor. deUa Poes. Ital., vol. ii. p. 39 ; and Pelll, 
p. 119. 

* The Lettera di Enstazio Dicearcheo, &c., mentioned above, 
p 37, contains many extracts from an early MS. of the Diviua 
Ck)mmedia, with marginal notes in Latin, preserved in the 
m>-ma8tery of Monte Cassina To these extracts I shall have 
txeqnent occasion to refer. 

* Pelll, p. 119, informs us, that the writer, who is termed 
8<nnetimes " the good," sometimes the " old commentator,** 
by those depnted to correct the Decameron, in the preface to 
their explanatory notes, and who began his w^wk in 1334, ia 
known to be Jacopo della Lana ; and that his commentary 
was translated into Latin by Alberigo da Rosada, Doctor <» 
Laws at Bologna 

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Bpac6 of ten yeaiB. From the comment, which he 
compoeed for the puipoBo, and which he sent abroad 
in 1379, those pasaages that tend to illustrate the 
history of Italy, have been published by MuratorL' 
At Fisa, the same charge was committed to Fran- 
cesco da Buti about 1386. 

On the invention of printing, in the succeeding 
century, Dante was one of those writers who were 
first and most frequently given to the press. But I 
do not mean to enter on an account of the numerous 
editions of our author, which wertf then, or have 
since been published ; but shall content myself with 
adding such remarks as have occurred to me on 
reading the principal writers, by whose notes those 
editions have been accompanied. 

Of the four chief commentators on Dante, name- 
ly, Landmo, Vellutello, Venturi, and Lombardi, the 
6i8t appears to enter most thoroughly into the mind 
of the Poet. Within little more than a century of 
the time in which Dante had lived ; himself a Flo- 
rentine, while Florence was still free, and still re- 
tained something of her ancient simplicity; the 
associate of those great men who adorned the age 
of Lorenzo de' Medici ; Landino" was the most 
capable of forming some estimate of the mighty 
stature of his compatriot, who was indeed greater 
than them alL His taste for the classics, which 
were then newly revived, and had become the prin- 
cipal objects of public curiosity, as it impaired his 
relish for what has not inaptly been termed the ro^ 
mantic literature, did not, it is true, improve him for 
a critic on the Divina Commedia. The adventures 
of King Arthur, by which* Dante had been de- 
lighted, appeared to Landino no better than a fabu- 
lous and inelegant book.^ He is, besides, sometimes 
unnecessarily prolix ; at others, silent, where a real 

1 Antlq. ItaL v. 1. The Italidn comment published under 
the name of Benvenuto da Imola, at Milan, in 1473, and at 
Venice in 1477, is altogether different f>om that which Mora' 
twi has brought to light, and appears to be the same as the 
Italian comjnent of Jacopo della Lana before mentioned. 
See Tiraboschi. 

* Cristofibro Landino was bom in 1434, and died in 1504 01 
1506. See Bandini, Specimen Litteiat. Florent. Edit Flo- 
rence, 1751. 

* Sec note to Purgatory, XTvl. 132. 

^ " 1 . favoloso, e non molto elegante libro della Tavola Ro 
kmda. Landino^ in the notes to the Paradise^ xvl. 

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difficulty asks for solution; and, now and then, a 
little visionary in his interpretation. The commen- 
tary of his successor, Vellutello,^ is more evenly 
dlfl^ised over the text; and although without pre- 
tensions to the higher qualities, by which Landino 
is distmguished, he is generally under the mfluence 
of a sober good sense, which renders him a steady 
and useful guide. Venturi,' who followed after a 
long interval of time, was too much swayed by his 
principles, or his prejudices, as a Jesuit, to sufl^ 
him tc judge fairly of a Ghlbelline poet ; and either 
this h'as, or a real want of tact for the higher 
excellence of his author, or, perhaps, both these im- 
perfections together, betray him into such imperti- 
nent and injudicious sallies, as dispose us to quarrel 
with our companion, though, in ihe main, a very 
attentive one, generally acute and lively, and at 
times even not devoid of a better understanding for 
the merits of his master. To him, and in our own 
times, has succeeded the Padre Lombcuxii.' This 
good Franciscan, no doubt, must have given him- 
self much pains to pick out and separate those ears 
of grain, which had escaped the nail of those who 
had gone before him in that labor. But his zeal 
to do something new often leads him to do some- 
thing that is not over wise ; and if on certam occa- 
sions we applaud his sagaciousness, on others we do 
not less wonder that his ingenuity should have been 
so strangely perverted. l£s manner of writing is 
awkward and tedious; his attention, more than is 
necessary, directed to grammatical niceties ; and his 
attachment to one of the old editions, so excessive, 
as to render him disingenuous or* partial in his repre- 
sentation of the rest But to compensate this, he is 
a good Ghibelline; and his opposition to Venturi 
seldom fails to awaken him into a perception of 
those beauties which had only exercised the q[>leen 
of the Jesuit 

He who shall undertake another commentary on 
Dante,^ yet comj^eter than any of those which havd 

1 Alessandro Vellutello was bora in 1519. 

s Pompeo Venturi was born in 1693, and «lied in 1753. 

* Baldassare Lombardi died January 3, 1808. See Cancel- 
Ueri. Osservazioni, Ax. Roma, 1814, p. 112. 

* Francesco Cionacci, a noble Florentine, projected an edi- 
tion of the Divina Conunedla in one hundred volumes, each 
containing a single canto, followed by all the commentaries, 

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hitherto appeared, must make use of these four, but 
depend on 'none. To them he must add several 
others of mmor note, whose diligence will neverthe- 
less be found of some advantage, and among whom 
I can particularly distinguish VolpL Besides this, 
many commentaries and marginal annotations, that 
are yet inedited, remain to be exaimined ; many 
editions and manuscripts^ to be more carefully col- 
lated; and many separate dissertations and works 
of criticism to be considered. But this is not all. 
That line of reading which the Poet himself appears 
to have pursued (and there are many vestiges m his 
works by which we shall be enabled to discover !t) 
must be diligently tracked ; and the search, I have 
little doubt, would lead to sources of information, 
equally profitable and unexpected. 

If there is any thing of novelty in the notes 
which accompany the following translation, it will 
be^ found to consist chiefly in a comparison of the 
Poet with hunself, that is, of the Divina Commedia 
with his other writings f a mode of illustration so 
obvious, that it is only to be wondered how others 
should happen to have made so little use of it. As 
to the imitations of my author by later poets, Italian 
and English, which I have collected in addition to 
those few that had been already remarked, they 
contribute littie or nothing to the purposes of illus- 
tration, but must be considered merely as matter of 
curiosity, and as instances of the manner in which 
the great practitioners in art do not scruple to profit 
by £eir piedecessors. < 

accordiiig to the order of time in which they were written, 
and accompanied by a Latin translation for the use of for- 
eigners. CancMier% ibid, p. 64. 

^ The Connt Mortara has lately shown me many various 
leadings he has remarked on collating thp nomerons MSS. 
of Dante in the Canonici collection at the Bodleian. It is ta 
be hoped he will make them pablic. TJan. 1843.J 

> Ilie edition which is referred to In the following i 
Is that printed at Venice in 2 vols. 8vo. 1793. 

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1265 May.-— DANTE, son of Alighieri degli Ali- 

ghieri and Bella, is bom at Florence. Of 
his own ancestry he speaks in the Paradisoj 
Canto XV. and xvi. 

In the same year, Manfredi, kmg of Naples 
and Sicily, is defeated and slain by Charles 
of Anion. H. xxviii. 13, and Purg. iii. IIQ. 

Guido Novello of Polenta obtains 5ie sovoi- 
eignty of Ravenna. H. xxvii. 38. ^ 

Battle of Evesham. Simon de Montfort, lead- 
er of the barons, defeated and slain. 

1266 Two of the Frati Godenti chosen arbitrators of 

the differences of Florence. H. xxiii. 104. 
Gianni de' Soldanieri heads the populace in 

that city. H. xxxii 118. 
Roger Bacon sends a copy of his Opus Majus 
to Pope Clement IV. 
1268 Charles of Anjou puts Conradine to death, 
and becomes king of Naples. H. xxviiL 16, 
and Purg. xx. 66. 
1270 Louis IX. of France dies before Tunis. His 
widow Beatrice, daughter of Raymond Be- 
renger, hved till 1295^ Purg. vii. 126. Par. 
vL 135. 
1272 Henry III. of England is succeeded by Ed- 
ward I. Purg. viL 129. 
Guy de Montfort murders Prince Henry, son 
of Richard, king of the Romans, and ne- 
phew of Henry III. of England, at Viterbo 
H. xii. 119. Richard dies, as is supposed^ 
of grief for this event 
Abulfeda, the Arabic writer, is bom. 
1274 Our Poet first sees Beatrice, daughter of F(do6 
Rodolph acknowledged emperor. 
Philip III. of France marries Mary of Bra- 
bant, who lived till 1321. Purg. vL 24 

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A. D. • . 

1274 Thomas Aquinas dies. Porg. zx. 67, and Par 

Buonaventura dies. Par. xil 25. 

1275 Pierre de la Brosse, secretary to Philip III. of 

France, executed. Purg. vL 23. 

1276 Giotto, the painter, is bom. Purg. xL 95. 
Pope Adrian V. dies. Purg. xix. 97. 

Guido Guinicelli, the poet, dies. Purg. xL 96, 
and xxvL 83. 

1277 Pope John XXL dies. Par. xii. 126. 

1278 Ottocar, king of Bohemia, dies. Purg. yii. 

97. Robert of Gloucester is living at this 

1279 Dionysins succeeds to the throne of Portugal. 

Par. xix. 135. 

1280 AJbertus Magnus dies. Par. x. 95. 

Our Poet's Send, Busone da Gubbio, is bom 
about this time. See the Life of Dante pre- 

William of Ockham is bom about this time. 

1281 Pope Nicholas IIL dies. H. xix. 71. 

Dante studies at the universities of Bologna 
and Padua. 

About this time Ricordano Malaspma, the Flo- 
rentine annalist, dies. 

1282 The Sicilian vespers. Par. viil 80. 

The French defeated by the people of Forli. 

H. xxviL 41. 
Tribaldello de' Manfredi betrays the city of 

Faenaa. H. xxxii. 119. 
\3S4 Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated, and made 

prisoner by Rugier de Lauria, admiral to 

Peter III. of Aragon. Purg. xx. 78. 
Charles I. king of Naples, dies. Purg. vii. 111. 
Alonzo X. of Castile, dies. He caused the 

Bible to be translated into Castilian, and all 

legal instruments to be drawn up in that 

language. Sancho IV. succeeds lum. 
Philip (next year IV. of France) marries Jane, 

daughter of Henry of Navarre. Purg. vii. 

1285 Pope MarUn IV. dies. Purg. xxiv. 23. 

Piulip III. of France and Peter III. of Aragon 

die. Purg. viL 101 and 110. 
Henry II. kmg of Cyprus, comes to the thron» 

Par. xix. 144. 

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A.D. . 

12^5 Simou Memmi, the painter, celebrated by Pe« 
trarch, is bom. 

1287 Guide dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in 

his De Vulgar! Eloquio) writes " The War 
of Troy." 
. Pope Honorius IV. dies 

1288 Haquin, king of Norway, makes war on Den- 

mark. Par. xix. 135. 

Count Ugolino de' Gherardeschi dies of famine. 
H. xxxiii. 14. 

The Scottish poet, Thomas Learmouth, com- 
monly called Thomas the Rhymer, is living 
at thu time. 

1289 Dante is in the battle of Campaldino, where 

the Florentines defeat the people of Axezzo, 
June 11. Purg. v. 90. 

1290 Beatrice dies. Purg. xxxiL 2. 

He serves in the war waged by the Floren- 
tines upon the Pisans, and is present at 
the surrender of Caprona in the autumn. 
H. xxL 92. 

Guide dalle Colonne dies. 

William, marquis of Montferrat, is made pris- 
oner by his traitorous subjects, at Alessan^ 
dria m Lombardy. Purg. vil 133. 

Michael Scot dies. H..xx. 115. 

1291 Dante marries Gemma de' Donati, with whom 

he lives unhappily. By this marriage ho 

had five sons and a daughter. 
Can Grande della Scala is bom, March 9. 

H. L 98. Purg. XX. 16. Par. xviL 75, and 

x.wii. 135. 
The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to 

recover St John D'Acre. H. xxviL 84. 
The Emperor Rodolph dies. Purg. vi. 104, 

and vii. 91. 
Alonzo III. of Ari^n dies, and is succeeded 

by James IL rurg. viL 113, and Par. xix 

. Eleanor, widow of Henry IIL dies. Par. vL 135. 

1292 Pope Nicholas IV. dies. 
Rc^r Bacon dies. 

Jo^ Balid, king of Scotland, crowned. 
1294 Clement V. abdicates the papal chair. H. 
Dante writes his Vita Nuova. 

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1294 Fra Gnittone d'Arezzo, the poet, diet. Fvaeg, 
xxiv. 56. 

Andreli Taffi, of Florence, the wwker in Mo- 
saic, dies. 
15^5 Dante's preceptor, Brunette Latini, diet. H. 
XV. 28. 

Charles M artel, king of Hongary, visits Flo- 
rence. Par. viiL 57, and dies in the same 

Frederick, son of Peter III. of Aragon, he- 
comes king of Sicily. Purg. viL 117, and 
Par. xix. 127. 

Taddeo, the physician of Florence, called the 
Hippocratean, dies. Par. xii. 77. 

Marco Polo, the traveller, returns from the 
East to Venice. 

Ferdinand IV. of Castile .comes to the throne. 
Par. jdx. 122. 
1296 Forese, the companion of Dante, dies. Purg 

Sadi, the most celebrated of the Peisian wri- 
ters, dies. 

War between England and Scotland, which 
terminates in ihe submission of the Scots to 
Edward I. ; but in the following year. Sir 
William Wallace attempts the deliverance 
of Scotland. Par. xix. 121. 
1298 The Emperor Adolphus falls in a battle with 
his rival, Albert I., who succeeds him in the 
Empire. Purg. vL 98. 

Jacopo da Varagine, archbii^op of Genoa, 
author of the Legenda Aurea, dies. 

1300 The Bianca and Nera parties take their rise 

in Pistoia. H. xxxii. 60. 
This is the year in which he supposes him- 
self to see his vision. H. L 1, and xxi 

He is chosen chief magistrate, or first of the 

Priors of Florence : and continues in office 

from June 15 to August 15. 
Cimabue, the painter, dies. Purg. xi. 93. 
Guide Cavalcanti, the most beloved of oui 

Poet's Mends, dies. H. x. 59, and Purg. 

XL 96. ■ 

1301 The Bianca party expels the Nera from Pistoia^ 

H. xxiv. 142. 

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1302 January 27. Duriiig his absence at Romei 

Dante is mulcted by his fellow-citizens in 

the sum of 8000 lire, and condenmed to two 

years* banishment 
March 10. He is sentenced, if taken, to be 

Fulcieri de' Calboli commits great atrocities 

on certain of the Ghibelline party. Purg. 

xiv. 61. 
Carlino de' Pazzi betrays the castle di Piano 

Travigne, m Valdamo, to the Florentines. 

H. xxxii. 67. 
The French vanquished in the battle of Cour- 

traL Purg. xx. 47. 
James, king of Majorca and Minorca, dies 

Par. xix. 133. 

1303 Pope Boniface. VIIL dies. H. xix. 55. Purg 

XX. 86 ; xxxii. 146, and Par. xxviL 20. 
The other exiles aj^xtint Dante one of a 
council of twelve, under Alessandro da 
Romena. He appears to have been much 
dissatisfied with his colleagues. Par. xvii 

Robert of Brunne translates into English verse 
the Manuel de P«ch^, a treatise written in 
French by Robert Grosseteste, bishop of 

1304 Dante joins with the exiles in an unsuccessful 

attack on the city of Florence. 
May. The bridge over the Amo breaks 

down during a representation of the infer- 

nal torments exhibited on that river. H 

xxvi. 9. 
July 20. Petrarch, whose father had been 

banished two years before from Floienco, it 

bom at Arezzo. 

1305 Winceslaus II. king of Bohemia, dies. Purg 

viL 99, and Par. xix. 123. 
A conflagration happens at Florence. H 

xxvi. 9. 
Sir William Wallace is executed at London. 

1306 Dante visits Padua. 

1307 He is m Lunigiana with the Marchese Mar 

cello Malaspina. Purg. viii. 133 ; xix. 140 
Dolcino, the fanatic, is burned. H. xxviiu 5J 
Edward II. of England comes to the throne. 

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A. D. 

1308 The Emperor Albert I. murdered. Ptarg. tI 

98, and Par. six. 114. 
Corso Douati, Dante's political enemy, slain. 

Purg. xxiv. 81. 
He seeks an asylnm at Verona, under the roof 

of the Signori della Scala. Par. xvii. 69. 
He wanders, about this time, over various parts 

of Italy. See his Convito. He is at Paris 

a second time ; -and, according to one of the 

early commentaton, visits Oidbrd. 
Robert, the patron of Petrarch, is crowned 

king of Sicily. Par. ix. 2. 
Duns Scotus dies. He was bom about the 

same time as Dante. 

1309 Charles II. kmg of Naples dies. Par. zix. 


1310 The Order of the Templais abolished. Purg. 

XX. 94. 
Jean de Meun, the continuer of the Roman 

de la Rose, dies about this time. 
Pier Cresoen2i of Bologna wcites his book on 
agriculture, in Latin. 
• 1311 Fra Giordano da Rivalta, of Pisa, a Domi- 
nican, the author of sermons esteemed for 
tiv) purity of the Tuscan language, dies. 

1312 Robert, king of Sicily, opposes the corona 

tion of the Emperor Henry VII. Par. viii. 

Ferdinand IV. of Castile, dies, and is succeed- 
ed by Alonzo XI. 

Dino Compagni, a distinguished Florentine, 
concludes &i history of his own time, writ- 
ten in elegant Italian. 

Gaddo Gaddi, the Florentine artist, dies. 

1313 The Emperor Henry of Luxemburgh, by 

whom he had hoped to be restored to Flor- 
ence, dies. Par. xviL 80, and xxx. 135 
Henry is succeeded by Lewis of Bavaria. 

Dante takes refuge at Ravenna, with Guido 
Novello da Polenta. 

Giovanni Boccaccio is bom. 

Pope Clement V. dies. H. xix. 86, and Par 
xxvii. 53, and xxx. 141. 

1314 Philip IV. of France dies. Purg. vii 108, and 

Par. xix. 117. 
Louis X. succeeds 


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A. D 

1314 Ferdinand IV. of Spain, dies. Par. six. I:S9L 
Giacopo da Carrara defeated by Can Graadoi 

who makes himself Master of Vicenza. 
Par. ix. 45. 

1315 Louis X. of France marries Clemenza, sister 

to our Poet's friend, Charles Martol, king 
of Hungary. Par. ix. 2. 

1316 Louis X. of France dies, and is succeeded by 

Philip V. 
John ^UCII. elected Pope. Par. xxviL 53. 
loinville, the French historian, dies about this 

1.^20 About this time John Gower is bom, eighl 
years before his friend Chaucer. 

1321 July. Dante dies at Ravenna, of a complain* 
brought on by disappointment at his failure 
in a negotiation which he had been con 
ductin? with the Venetiafis, for hid patron 
Guido Novello da Polenta. 
His obsequies are sumptuously performed at 
Ravenna by Guido, who hiii^lf died in the 


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The writer, having loit his way in a gloomy forest, and betsf 
hindered kv certain wild I>ea8t8 firom ascending a mountain 
is met by Yirgil, who promises to show him the punish- 
ments of Hell, and afterwards of Purgatory : and that he 
shall then lie conducted by Beatrice into FaiadiM. He 
follows the Boman poet. 

In the midway' of this our mortal life, 
I found me in a gloomy wood, astray 
Gone from the path direct : and e'en to teU» 
It were no easy task, how savage wild 
That forest, how robust and rough its growth* 
Which to remember' only, my £nnay 
Benews, m bitterness not far from death. 
Tet, to discourse of what there good befell. 
All else will I relate discovered Siere. 

How first I entered it I scarce can say. 
Such sleepy dulness in that instant weigh'd 

> Intkemidwuf.} That the era of the Poem Is intended by 
tliese words to be fixed to the thirty-fifth year of the poefs 
age, A. D. 1300, will appear mora plainly in Canto zzi., where 
that date is explicitly marlced. 

In his Ckmvito, human life is compared to an arch or bow, 
the highest point of which is, in tluMe well fi-amed by ndtnre, 
at their thirty-fifth year. Opera dl Dante, ediz. Yen. 8vo, 
17S3. t. L p. 195. 

* JTkieh to remember.] "Even when I remember I am 
afinid, and trembling talceth hold on my flesh/* Job xxl 6. 

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52 THE VISION. 13-3li 

My senses down, when the true path I left ; 

But when a mountam's foot I reach'd, where closed 

The valley that had pierced my heart with dread, 

I look'd aloft, and saw his shoulders broad 

Already vested with that planet's beam,^ 

Who leads all wanderers safe through every way 

Then was a little respite to the fear, 
That in my heart's recesses' deep had lain 
All of that night, so pitifully pass'd : 
And as a man, with difficult short breath, 
Forespent with toiling, 'scaped from sea to shore, 
Turns' to the perilous wide waste, and stands 
At gaze ; e'en so my spirit, that yet fail'd, 
Strugglmg with terror, tum'd to view the straits 
That none hath pass'd and lived. My weary frame 
After short pause recomforted, again 
I joumey'd on over that lonely steep. 
The hinder foot still firmer.^ Scarce the ascent 
Began, when lo ! a panther,* nimble, light. 
And cover'd with a speckled skin, appear'd ; 
Nor, when it saw me, vanish'd ; rather strove 
To check my onward gomg ; that oft-times, 
With purpose to retrace my steps, I tum'd. 

The hour was mommg|s prime, and on his way 
Aloft the sun ascended with those stars,* 
That with him rose when Love divine first moved 
Those its fab: works : so that wHh joyous hme 
All things conspired to fill me, the gay skin^ 

^ That planet^ § beam.] The son. 

* Jfy kearfg recesses.} Nel lago del cnor. 

Lombardi cites an Imitation of this by Sedi in his Dltirambo i 
Imon vinl son qn^H, che acqaemno 
Le procelle si fosche e mbelle, 
Che nel lago 4el cnot Tanime Lnqoietano 

* Turns.] Bo in onr Poefs second psalm : 

Came colui, che andando per lo bosco, 

Da si^o panto, a qnel si volge e goarda 
Even as one, in passing throogfa a wood, 
Pierced by a thorn, at which he tains and looks. 
< TIU kinder foot.] It is to be remembered, that in as* 
tending a hill the weight of the body rests on the hinder 
» .Opanther.} Pleasure or laxary. 

* frith those stars.] The san was In Aries, in which sign 
he sapposes it to have begun its coarse at the creation. 

* 7%egay skin.] A late editor of the Divina Coounedia, 
Mgnor ZotUj has spt^n of the {nnesent translation at the 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

Mhsa, HELL, Canto L SI 

Of that swift animal, the matin dawn. 
And the sweet season. Soon that joy was chaieA. 
And by new dread succeeded, when in yiew 
A lion^ came, 'gainst me as it appeared. 
With his head held aloft and hunger-nxid, 
That e'en the aur was fear-strnck. A she-wolf* 
Was at his heels, who in her leanness seem'd 
Full of all wants, and many a land hath made 
Disconsolate ere now. She with such fear 
Overwhelmed me, at the sight of her appall'd. 
That of the height all hope I lost As one, 
Who, with his gain elated, sees the time 
When all unwares is gone, he inwardly 

only one that has rendered this passage rightly: bnt Mr. 
Hayley had shown me the way, in his very sldlfoi version of 
the first three Cantos of the Inferno, inserted in the notes to 
his Essay on Epic Poetry : 

I now was raised to hope sublime 
By these bright omens of my &te benign, 
The beaateous beast and the sweet hoar of prime. 

All the C(nnmentat(Mrs, whom I have seen, oncterstand our 
Poet to say that the season of the year and the hour of the 
day induced him to hope for the gay skin of the panther ; and 
there is something in the sixteenth Canto, verse 107, which 
countenances their interi»etation, although that which I have 
followed still appears to me the more probable. 

> jS lion.] Pride or ambition 

> j9 «JU-«cMrf/.J Avarice 

It cannot be doubted that the image of these three beasts 
coming against him is taken by our authw ftom the prophet 
Jeremuh, v. 6 : '* Wherefore a lion out of the forest slwll slay 
them, and a wolf of the evenings shall spoil them, a leopard 
shall watch over their cities." Bossetti, following Dionisi 
«nd oJier later CommentaUNrs, interprets Dante*s leopard to 
denote Florence, his lion the king of France, and his wolf the 
Court of Rome. It is far from improbable that our author 
might have had a second allegory of this sort in his view; 
even as Spenser in the introductory letter to his poem, tells us 
that *' in the Faery Q,ueen he meant Glory in his general in- 
tention, but in his particular he conceived the most excellent 
and glorious person of his sovereign the Queen." " And yet," 
he adds, " in some places else I do otherwise shadow her." 
Such involution of allegorical meanings may well be supposed 
to have been firequently present to the mind of Dante ttirough- 
out the composition of this poem. Whether his acute and 
eloquent interi»eter, Rossetti, may not have been ca^ed 
much too fiir in the ponoit of a &vorite hypothesis, is another 
question ;* and I must avow my disbelief of the secret jargon 
imputed to our poet and the other writers of that time in the 
Comment on the Divina Commedia and in the Spirito Antipa- 
pale, the latter of which works is familiarized to the English 
leader in Miss Ward's faithfbl translation. 

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54 THE VISION. 53-M 

Monnis with heart-gri|Hng anguuh ; sach wem J, 
Haunted by that fell beast, never at peace. 
Who coining o'er against me, by degrees 
Impeird me where the sun in silence rests.^ 

While to the lower space with backward step 
' f fell, my ken discem'd the form of one [c^»eech 
Whose voice seem'd faint through long disuse of 
When him in that great desert I espied, 
** Have mercy on me," cried I out aloud, 
** Spirit ! or livmg man ! whate'er then be." • 

He answered: " Now not man, man once I waS} 
And bom of Lombard parents, Mantuans both 
By country, when the power of Julius" yet 
Was scarcely firm. At Rome my life was pass'd, 
Beneath the mild Augustus, in the time 
Of fabled deities and false. A bard 
Was I, and made Anchises* iq>right son 
The subject of my song, who came from Troy, 
When the flames preyed on Ilium's haughty towem.* 
But thou, say wherefore to such perils past 
Retum'st thou? wherefore not tlus pleasant mount 
Ascendest, cause and source of all delight?'* 
** And art thou then that Virgil, that well-spring 
From which such copious floods of eloquence 
Have issued?" I with front abash'd replied. 
" Glory and light of all the tuneful train ! 
May it avail me, that I long with zeal 
Have sought thy volume, and with love immense 

* FFkere tk» tun in tiletue rests.} 

The sun to me is dark, 
And silent as the moon, 
When she deserts the night. 
Hid in her vacant interiunar cave. 

JdUton^ Sam Jigsn, 

The same metaphor will recur. Canto v. verse 29. 
Into a place I came 
Where light was silent all. 

* ffhem the power of JvliusJ] 

Nacqni sab Julio, ancorchd fosse tardL 

This is explained by the Commentators: '^Although it were 
rather late with respect to my birth, before Julias Cesar as- 
sumed the supreme anthority, and made himself perpetual 
dictator.** Virgil, indeed, was bom twenty-five years before 
that event. 

* Jltum*s hatighty towers.\ 

Cecilitque supertram 
niom. FirgUt JEs. ilL 9 

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Bl-IOSL HELL, Canto I. 55 

Haye coim'd it o'er. My master thoo, and goUU 2' 

Thou he from whom alone I have deriyed 

That style, which for its beauty into fame 

Exalts me. See the beast, from whom I fled. 

O save mo from her, thou illustrious sage ! 

For every vein and pulse throughout my frame 

She hath made tremble." He, soon as he saw 

That I was weeping, answer'd, ** Thou must needs 

Another way pursue, if thou wouldst *scape 

From out that savage wilderness. This beast. 

At whom thou criest, her way will suffer none 

To pass, and no less hind'rance makes than death 

So bad and so accursed in her kind, 

That never sated is her ravenous will, * 

Still after food* more craving than before. 

To many an animal m wedlock vile 

Sho fastens, and shall yet to many more, 

(Jntil that greyhound' come, who shall destroy 

Her with sharp pain. He will not life support 

By earth nor its base metals, but by love. 

Wisdom, and virtue ; and his land shall be 

The land 'twizt either Feltro.^ In his might 

^ Jtfy master tkouy arid guide.] 

Tn 86* lo mio maestro, e*l mio aaUue, ' 
Ta se* solo c<diii. 

Thou art my father, thoa my aathor, thoa. 


* StiU after food,]. SoFrozzl: 

La Toglia sempre ha<lkroe, e mtd non s'empie. 
Ed al pin puto piu riman digiona. 

Jl QuadririgiOt lib. 11. cap. zl 
Venturi observes that the verse in the original is borrowed by 

* That grejfkound.] This passage has been commonly xat- 
derstood as a eologiom on the liberal sj^t of his Yenmeso 
patnm, Can Grande della Scala. 

* ^Twixt either Feltro.] Verona, tl^e conntry of Can della 
Scala, is situated between Feltro, a city in the Marea Trivi- 
giana, and Monte Feltro, a city in the territory of Urbino. 

Bat Dante perhaps does not merely poiht oat the place of 
Can Grande's nativity, for he may allnde farther to a pro- 
fdiecy, ascribed to Michael Scot, which imported that the 
** Doe of Verona would be lord of Padoa and of all the Marca 
Trivii^na.** It was fulfilled in the year 1329, a little before 
Can Grande's death. See G. Villanl Hist ll x. cap. cv. and 
czli. and some lively criticism by Gaspare Gozzi, entitled Gin- 
dido degli Antichi Poeti, frc., printed at the end of the Zatta 
edition of Dante, t iv. part 11. p. 15. The prophecy, it is 
likely, was a forgery; for Michael died before 1900, whea 

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66 THE VISION. l(»-ir 

Shall safety to Italia's plains' arise, 

For whose fair realm, Camilla, virgin pore, 

Nisus, Euryalus, and Tumus fell. 

He, with incessant chase, through every town 

Shall worry, until he to hell at length. 

Restore her,, thence by envy first let loose. 

I, for thy profit pondering, now devise 

That thou mayst follow me ; and I, thy guide, 

Will lead thee hence through an eternal space. 

Where thou shalt hear despairing shrieks, and see 

Spirits of old tormented, who invoke 

A second death f and those next view, who dwell 

Content in fire,* for that they hope to come. 

Whene'er the time may be, among the blest. 

Into whose regions if thou then desire 

To ascend, a spirit worthier* than I 

Must lead thee, in whose charge, when I depart 

Thou Shalt be left: for that Ahnighty King, 

Who reigns above, a rebel to his law 

Adjudges me ; and therefore hath decreed 

That, to his city, none through me should come. 

He in all parts hath sway ; mere rules, there holds 

His citadel and throne. O happy those. 

Whom there he chooses !" I to hun in few : 

** Bard ! by that God, whom thou didst not adore. 

Can Grande was only nine years old. See Hell, xx. 115, and 
Par. xvii. 75. Troya has given a new interpretation to Dante's 
prediction, which he applies to Uguccione della Faggiola, 
whose country also was situated between two Feltros. See 
the Veltro Allegorico di Dante, p. 110. Bat after all the pains 
he has taken, this very able writer fails to make it clear that 
Uguccione, though he acted a prominent part as a Ghibeline 
leader, is intended here or in Pui^tory, c. xxxili. 38. The main 
proofe rest on an ambiguous reiKMrt mentioned by Boccaccio of 
the Inferno l)eing dedicated to him, and on a snspicioos letter 
attributed to a certain fMar Ilario, in which the friar describes 
Dante addressing him as a stranger, and desiring him to con> 
vey that portion of the poem to Uguccione. There is no di- 
rect allusion to liim throughout the Divina Comroedia, as 
mere is to the other chief public protectors of our poet during 
his exile. 

1 Italia: $ plaifu.] "Umile Italia," from Virgil, JEn., lib 

Humilemque yidemus 

s A second death.] " Aiid in these da3rs men shall seek 
death, and shall not find it; and shall desire to die, and death 
shhll flee from them.** Rev. ix. 6. 

* Content in fire.] The spirits in Purgatory. 

* A gpirit worthier.] Beatrice, who conducts the foet 
flurongh Paradise 

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196-133. HELL, Caicto IL 57 

I do beseech thee (that this ill and wone 
I may escape) to lead me where thou saidst, 
That I Saint Peter's gate^ may yiew, and ihotp 
Whs, as thou tell'st, are m such dismal plight" 
Onward he moved, I close his steps punaed. 


After the invocation, which poets are nsed to prefix to their 
worlcs, he shows, that, on a consideration of his own 
strength, he donbted whether it sufficed for the jonmey 
propmed to him, but that, being comforted by Virgil, he 
at last toolc courage, and followed him as his guide aiMl 

Now was the day departing,* and the air, 
Lnbrown'd with shadows, from their toils releasecl 
All animals on earth ; and I alone 
Prepared myself the conflict to sustam. 
Both of sad pity, and that perilous road. 
Which my unerring memory shall retrace 

Muses ! O hi^ genhis ! now vouchsafe 
Tour aid. O mind !' that all I saw hast kept 
Safe in a written record, here thy worth 
And eminent endowments come to proo£ 

1 thus began : ** Bard ! thou who art my guide* 
Consider well, if virtue be m me 

Sufficient, ere to this high enterprise 

Thou trust me. Thou hast told that Silvius* sire/ 

Yet clothed in corruptible flesh, among 

The immortal tribes had entrance, and was there 

Sensibly present Yet if heaven's great Lord, 

1 Saint PeUr** gate.] The gate of Purgatory, which the 
poet feigns to Iw guarded by an anger placed on that station 
by St. Peter. 

s Kbw vmu the day.] A compendium of Virgil's de8crlp> 
tion, iEn., Ub. iv. 522. Compare Apollonius Rhodios, lib. ilL 
744, and lib. iv. 1058. 

The day gan failin ; and the darke night, 
That revith bestis fh>m their businesse, 
Berafle me my l>ooke, &c 

Chaucer. The AeeenMe qf S^ndea. 

O thought ! that write all that I met. 
And in the tresoiie it set 
Of my braine, now shall men see 
If any virtue in thee be. 

Chaucer. Temple of FasM b. liv.tfL 
* BSvUu* §ir$ I JEneas 

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58 TH£ VISION. Ifr^ 

Almighty lc^^ to ill, saeh favor ahow'd 

In contemplation of the high effect, 

Both what and who from him should issue forth. 

It seems in reason's judgment well deserved ; 

Sith he of Rome and of Rome's empire wide, 

In heaven's empyreal height was chosen sire : 

Both which, if truth be spoken, were ordain'd 

And stablish'd for the holy place, where sits 

Who to great Peter's sac^d chair succeeds. 

He from this journey, in thy song renown'd, 

Leam'd things, that to his victory gave rise 

And to the papal robe. In after-times 

The chosen vessel' also travell'd there,* 

To bring us back assurance in that faith 

Which is the entrance to salvation's way 

But I, why should I there presume? or who 

Permits it? not ^neas I, nor Paul. 

Myself I deem not worthy, and none else 

Will ddem me. I, if on this voyage then 

I venture, fear it will in folly end. 

Thou, who art wise, better my meaning know'st, 

Than I can speak." As one, who unresolves 

What he hath late resolved, and with new thougbta 

Changes his purpose, from his first intent 

Removed ; e'en such was I on that dun coast, 

Wasting in thought my enterprise, at first 

So eagerly embraced. " If right thy words 

I scan," replied that shade magnanimous, 

** Thy soul is by vile fear assail'd,' which oft 

So overcasts a man, that he recoils 

From noblest resolution, like a beast 

At some false semblance in the twilight gloom 

That from thia terror thou mayst free thyself, 

I will instruct thee why I came, and what 

I heard in that same instant, when for thee 

Grief touch'd me first. I was among the tribe. 

Who rest suspended,* when a* dame, so blest 

I The chosen ve»»et,l St. Paal. Acts ix. 15. " Bat the Lori 
said unto bim. Go thy way ; f<Hr he is a chosen vessel unto me.** 

> There.} This refers to " the immortal tribes,** v. 15. BU 
Paul haviog been caught np to heaVen. 3 Cat, zii. S. 

* ThfftoulubfvtiefearaeeaiPd,} 

L*anima toa i da viltate offesa 
So .a Benii, OrL Inn. lib. iU. c i. st. 53. 

Se Talma avete offesa da viltate. 

* Wk§ ffwtl 9u$peMdei.'\ The spirits in Umbo, neither ad 
altted to a state of gl)ry nor doomed to ponishmaat. 

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a^Bi. HELL, Camto II. 59 

And lovely I bosoagfat her to command, 
Call'd me ; her eyes were brighter than the star 
Of day ; and she, with gentle voice and soft, 
Angelically tuned, her speech address'd : 
' O courteous shade of Mantua ! thou whose fame 
' Yet lives, and shall live long as nature lasts !' 
' A friend, not of my fortune but myself,* 

< On the wide desert in his road has met 

' Hind'rance so great, that he through fear has tum'd. 

* Now much I OTead lest he past help have stray'd, 
' And I be risen too late for his relief, 

* From what in heaven of him I heanL Speed now, 

* And by thy eloquent persuasive tongue, 

*■ And by all means for his deliverance meet, 

< Assist hun. So to me will comfort spring. 
' It who now bid thee on this errand forth, 

< Am Beatrice ;' from a place I come 

* Revisited with joy. Love brought me thence, 

* Who prompts my speech. When in my Master's 
' I stand, thy praise to him I oft will tell.' [sight 

*' She then was silent, and I thus began : 

< O Lady ! by whose influence alone 

< Mankind excels whatever is contain'd^ 

< Within that heaven which hath the smallest orb, 
' So thy command delights me, that to obey, 

< If it were done already, would seem late. 

' No need hast thou farther to speak thy will: 

* Yet tell the reason, why thou art not loth 

* To leave that ample space, where to return 
' Thou bumest, for this centre here beneath.' 

1 ^» luUure lasts.] Quanto *1 motd lontana. '* Mondo," 
Instead of "moto,^* which Lojnbardi claims as a reading pe- 
culiar to the Nidobeatina edition and some MSS., is also in 
Landino's edition of 1484. Of this Monti was not aware. 
See his Proposta, nnder the word " Lontanare.*' 

* ji friendy not of my fortune but myself.] Be non fortunn 
fed hominibns solere esse amicnm. 

Gomelii J^epotis Attici Fitm^ ». ix. 
Cetera fiurtiuie, non mea tnrba, fait. 

Ovid, Trist. Ub. i. el. v. 34. 
My fortune and my seeming destiny 
He made the bond, and Inrolce it not with me. 

CoUridge*s Death of WaUenstein, act i. sc 7 

* Beatriee.] The daughtmr of Foico Portinari, who is here 
Invested with the character of celestial wisdom or theology. 
See the IMe of Dante prefixed. 

* Wkattmer is eOftt«En*i.] Every other thing comprised 
within the lunar heaven, which, being the lowest of aU, has 
the nuallest dide. 

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^ •• THE > ISION. 8ft-]Al 

** She then ; < Since thou so deeply wonldst mqniiief 
I will instruct thee briefly why no dread 
Hinders my entrance here. Those things alone 
Are to be fear'd whence eyil may proceed ; 
None else, for none are terrible* beside. 
I am so framed by God, thanks to his grace I 
That any suflSsrance of your misery 
Touches me not, nor flame of that fierce fire 
Assails me. In high heaven a blessed damo' 
Reades, who mourns with such effectual grief 
That hind'rance, which I send thee to remore. 
That Grod*s stem judgment to her will inclineih 
To Lucia' calling, her she thus beq>ake : 

* Now doth thy faithful servant need thy aid, 

* And I commend him to thee." At her word 
Sped Lucia, of all cruelty the foe. 

And coming to the place, where I abode 
Seated with Rachel, her of ancient days. 
She thus addressed me : " Thou true praise of God ' 
' Beatrice ! why is not thy succor lent 
' To him, who so much loved thee, as to leave 
' For thy sake all the multitude admires? 
' Dost thou not hear how pitiful his wail, 
' Nor mark the death, which in the torrent flood, 
'* Swoln mightier than a sea, him struggling holds f " 
Ne'er among men did any with such speed 
Haste to their profit, flee from their annoy, 
As when these words were spoken, I came here, 
Down from my blessed seat, trusting the force 
Of thy pure eloquence, which thee, and all 
Who well have mark'd it, into honor brin^p.' 
** When she had ended, her bright beammg eyes 
Tearful she tum'd aside ; whereat I felt 
Redoubled zeal to serve thee. As she wiU'd, 
Thus am I come : I saved thee from the beast, 
Who thy near way across the goodly mount 
Prevented. What is this comes o*er thee then? 
Why, why dost thou hang back ? why in thy breasi 
Harbor vile fear? why hast not courage thtre. 

» 4 hlestied dameJ] The Dtvine Mercy. 

9 Lu^ia.] The enlightening Grace of Heaven; as it is 
e<MDnionly explained. Bat Lombardi has well observed, that 
as oar poet places her in the Paradise, c. xxxii., among the 
souls of the blessed, so it is probable that she, like Beatrice, 
had a real existence ; and he accordingly supposes her to 
have been Saint Lucia the martyr, although she is heie 
reiffesentative of an abstract idea 

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J34-14L HELL, Canto III. §i 

And noble daring ; nnce three maids/ 00 Uest, 
Thy safety plan, e'en in the court of heaven ; 
And so much certain good my words forebode V* 

As florets,' by the frosty air of night [leaves. 

Bent down and closed, when day has blanch'd their 
Rise all unfolded on their spiry stems ; 
So was my famting vigor new restored, 
And to my heart such kindly courage ran, 
That I as one undaunted soon repU^ : 
" O full of pity she, who undertook 
My succor ! and thou kind, who didst perfoim 
So soon her true behest ! With such desire 
Thou hast disposed me to renew my voyage, 
That my first purpose fully is resuined. 
Lead on : one only will is in us both. 
Thou art my guide,*my master thou, and lord." 

So spake I ; and when he had onward moved, 
I entePd on the deep and woody way. 


Dante, following Virgil, conies to the gate of Hell ; where, 
after having read the dreadful words that are written 
thereon, they both enter. Here, as he understands Arom 
Virgil, those were punished who had passed their time 
(for living it could not be called) in a state of apathy and 
indifference both to good and evil. Then pursuing their 

> Three maids,] The Divine Mercy, Lucia, and Beatrio 
» Jls florets.] 
Come fioretto dal nottumo gelo 
Chinato e chiuso, poi che il sol I'imbianca, 
S^apre e si leva dritto sopra 11 stelo. 

Boccaccio. Il FUostrato, p. ill. st. xiii 
But rieht as floures through the cold of night 
Iclosed, stoupen in her stalkes lowe, 
Sedressen hem agen the sunne bright. 
And spreden in her kinde course by r owe, &c. 

Chaucer. TVoUus and Creseide, b. ii. 
It is from Boccaccio rather than Dante that Chaucer ha^ 
taken this simile, which he applies to Troilus on the same 
occasion as Boccaccio has done. He appears indeed to have 
Imitated Gt rather paraphrased the Filostrato in his Troilus 
and Creseide ; for it is not yet known who that Lollius is, 
from whom he lurofesses to take the poem, and who Is again 
mentioned in the House of Fame, b. lii. 

The simile in the text has been imitated by many others ; 
among whom see Bemi, Orl. Inn., lib. 1, c. xil. st. 86. Marino, 
Adone, c. xvii. st. 63, and Son. " Donna vestita di nero," and 
Spenser's JPaery Uueen, b. Iv. c. xii. st. 34, and b. vi. c. ii. st 
35) and Boccaccio again in the Teseide^ lib. 9, st. 28. 

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way, Uwy MTlve at tbe riv«r Aeberoa ; and th«n find Um 
old ferryman Charon, who takes the spirita over to tha 
opposite shore ; which as soon as Dante reaches, he ia. 
seized with terror, and falls hito a trance. 

** TBAOuaH me you pass into the city of wo: 
Through me you pass into eternal pain : 
Tlirough me among the people lost for aye. 
Justice the founder of my fabric moved : 
To rear me was the task of power divine, 
Supremest wisdom, and primeval love.* 
Before me things create were none, save thingi 
£temal, and eternal I endure. 
All hope abandon,^ ye who enter here." 

Such characters, in color dun, I marked 
Over a portal's lofty arch inscribed. 
Whereat I thus : " Master, thecte words import 
Hard meaning." He as one prepared replied : 
** Here thou must all distrust behind thee leave ; 
Here be vile fear extinguished. We are come 
Where I have told thee we shall see the souls 
To misery doom'd, who intellectual good [forth 

Have lost" And when his hand' he had stretch'd 
To mine, with pleasant looks, whence I was cheer'd, 
Into that secret place he led me on. 

Here sighs,^ with lamentations and loud moans. 
Resounded through the air pierced by no star, 
That e'en I wept at entering. Various tongues, 
Horrible languages, outcries of wo, 
Accents of anger, voices deep and hoarse, 
With hands together smote that swell'd the sounds. 
Made up a tumult, that for ever whirls 
Round through that air with solid darkness stam'd, 

> Power divine^ 

Svfreaust wisdom, and primeval love.} 
The three Persons of the Blessed Trinity. 

* All hope abajido*.l 

Lasciate ogni speranza vol ch* entrato 
80 Bemi, Orl. Inn., lib. 1, c. 8, st. 53. 
Lascia pur della vita ogni speranza. 

* Jtnd when kit hand.] 

With that my hand in his he caught anone ; 
On which I comfort caught, and went in fast. 

Chaucer. TTie Assemble of UnUes. 
« Here sighs.] " Post hec omnia ad loca tartarea, et ad oa 
infemalis baratri dednctos sum, qui simile iddebatur pnteo, 
loca vero eadem horridis tenebris, fstoribus exhalantibns, 
Btridoribns quoqie et nimiis plena erant ejnlatibus, juxta 
quern infemum vermis erat infinitse magnitodinis, ligatiu 
maxima catena.' Alkeriei FtriOf $ 9. 

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W-f3. HELL, Camto m. es 

Like to the sand^ that m the whirlwind fliea. 

I then, with erroi* yet encompaae'd, cried : 
<* O master ! what is this I hear 7 what race 
Are these, who seem so overcome with wo?" 

He thus to me : " This miserahle fate 
Suffer the wretched souls of those, who lived 
Without or praise or blame, with that ill band 
Of angels mix'd, who nor rebellious proved, 
Nor yet were true to God, but for themselves 
Were only. From his bounds Heaven crove them 
Not to impabr his lustre ; nor the depth [forth, 

Of Hell receives them, lest the accuned tribe* 
Should glory thence with exultation vain." 

I then : *< Master ! what doth aggrieve them thus, 
That they lament so loud ?" He straight replied : 
« That will I tell thee briefly. These of death 
No hope may entertain : and their blmd life 
So meanly passes, that all other lots 
They envy. Fame^ of them the worid hath none. 
Nor suffers ; mercy and justice scorn them both. 
Speak not of them, but look, and pass them by." 

And I, who straightway look'd, beheld a flag,* 
Which whirling ran around so rapidly. 
That it no pause obtam'd : and following came 
Such a l<mg tram of spirits, I should ne'er 

^ Like to the §amdJ] UnnnmberM as the sands 

Of Barca or Cyrene^s torrid soil. 

Levied to side with warring winds, and poise 

Their lighter wings. MUton. P. X.., b. iL 903. 

With error,] Instead of *' errw,** VeUnteUo*s edition of 
1544 has ** omTt** a reading remarked also by Landino, in hit 
notes. So mnch mistaken is the collator of the Monte Casslno 
MS. in callins it **lezione da ninno notata;*' **a reading 
which no one has observed." 

* Lest the aeeursed tribal Lest the rebellions angels shoold 
exalt at seeing those who were nentral, and therefcnre less 
£ailty, condemned to the same panishment with themselves. 

Rdssetti, in a long note on this passage, has ably exposed 
the idansible interpretation of Monti, who wonld have "alcu- 
na gloria** mean *' no glory,** and thns make Viigil say '* that 
the evil ones wonld derive no honor ftom the TOciety of the 
aentral.** A similar mistake in the same word is made else* 
where by L(»nbardi. See my note on c. zii. v. 9. 

* Ibme ] CanceU*d Aom hc»iven and sacred memory, 

Nameless in dark oblivion let them dwell. 

Jlfi/ton. P.ZM, 
Therefore eternal silence be their doom. 


* ^ AvO All the grisly legions that troop 

Under the sooty mg of Acheron. 

MiUem. GpMtw 

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04 ' THE VISION M-n 

Have thou^ that death so many had deqpoird. 

When som^ of these I recognisedj I saw 
And knew the shade of him, who to base feaH 
Yielding, abjured his high estate. Forthwith 
I understood, for certain, this the tribe 
Of those ill spirits both to God displeasing 
And to his foes. These wretches, who ne'er lived, 
Went on in nakedness, and sorely stung 
By wasps and hornets, which bedew'd their cheeks 
With blood, that, mix'd with tears, dropp'd to their 
And by disgustful worms was gather'd there, [feet. 

Then looking farther onwards, I beheld 
A throng upon the shore of a great stream : 
Whereat I thus : " Sir ! grant me now to know 
Wh(Hn here we view, and whence unpell'd they seem 
So eager to pass o'er, as I discern 
Through the blear light 1" ^ He thus to me in few : 
** This shalt thou know, soon as our steps arrive 
Beside the woful tide of Ashero^." 
Then with dyes downward cast, andfill'd with shame, 
Fearing my words offensive to his ear. 
Till we had reached the river, I from speech 
Abstam'd. And lo 1 4oward us in a bark 
Comes on an old man,' hoary white with eld, 

■ Wkoto hose fear 

Yielding^ abjured his high estate. J 

This is commonly imderstood of Celestine the Fifth, who ab< 
dicated the papal power in 1394. Ventuii mentions a work 
written by Innocenzio Barcellini, of the Celestine order, and 
printed at Milan in 1701, in which an attempt is made to pat 
a different interpretation on this passage. 

Lombard! would apply it to some one of Dante's fellow- 
citizens, who, refusing, through avarice or want of spirit, to 
support the party of the Bianchi at Florence, had been the 
main occasion of the miseries that befell them. Bat the tes- 
timony of Fazio degli Uberti, who lived so near the time of 
our author, seems almost decisive on this point. He expressly 
speaks of the Pope Celestine as being in hell. See the Ditta- 
mondo, L. iv. cap. xzi. The usual interpretation is farther 
confirmed in a passage in Canto xxvii. v. 101. 

Petrarch, while he passes a high encomium on Celestine 
for his abdication of the papal power, gives us to understand 
that there were others who thought it a disgraceful act. See 
the De Vitft SoUt, b. ii. sect. iii. c. 18. 

s Through the blear light.] Lo fioco lume. . 
SoFiMcaja, canz. vL st 12: dual fioco lume. 

* An old man.} 

Portitor has horrendns aquas et flumina servat 
Terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento 
Canities incoltajacet: stant lumina fiamma 

Virg. JEn., Ub. vi. 998. 

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TS-ltS. HELL, Curro III. ff 

Crying, '' Wo to yon, wicked spirits ! hope not 

Ever to see the sky aj^ain. I come 

To take you to the other shore across, 

Into eternal darkness, there to dwell 

In fierce heat and m ice.^ And thou, who them 

Standest, Hye spirit ! get thee hence, and leare 

These who are dead." But soon as he beheld 

I left them not, " By othet way," said he, 

*' By other haven shalt thou come to shore, 

Net by this passage ; thee a nimbler boat' 

Must carry." Then to him thus spake my guide : 

" Charon ! thyself torment not : so *tis will'd, 

Where will and power are one : adL thou no mocv." 

Straightway in silence fell the shasgy cheeks 
Of him, the boatman o'er the liyid lake,' 
4round whose eyes glared wheeling flames. Mean- 

Those qiirits, faint and naked, color changed, 
And gnash'd their teeth, soon as the cruel wonb 
They heard. God and their parents they blaspheroedy 
The human kind, the place, the time, and seed, 
That did engender them and giro them birth. 

Th^i all together sorely wailing drew 
To the cursed strand, that every man must pass 
Who fears not God. Charon, demoniac form. 
With eyes of burning coal,^ collects them all. 
Beckoning, and each, that lingers, with his oar 

* Infiereeheatandinice.'] 

^The bitter change 

Of fierce extremes, extremes by chango more fierce, 
From beds of raging fire to starve in ice 

Their soft etheteal warmth. 

Milton, P. l.^ b. IL 601. 

^The delighted spirit 

To bathe in fiery floods^ cmt to reside 
In thrilling regions of thick-ribbed ice. 

Shaksp. Measure for Measure^ a. lU. s. 1. 
flee note to C. xxxil. 83. 

* A nimbler boat.] He perhajM allndes to the bark ** swift 
and light,** in which the Angel conducts the spirits to Pur- 
gatory. See Ptcr^M c. ii. 10. 

» The livid lake.] Vada livida. FiVr. JEn., lib. vl. 330. 

^Totins at lacAs pntideqne palndis 

Lividisdma, maximeque est profunda vorago. 

CatHlluSj zviU. 10. 

* With offes of burning eo(U.\ 

His looks were dreadful, and his fiery eyes, 
like two great beacons, glared bright and wide. 

l^nser, F.Q^h vi. c vU. st. 48. 

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66 THE VJ810N. 104 .m 

Strik6]. As fall off the light autumnal leaves,^ 
One still another following, till the bough 
Strews all its honors on the earth beneath ; 
E'en in like manner Adam's eyil brood 
Cast themselves, one by one, down from the abon 
Each at a beck, as falc(m at his call.* 

Thus go they over through the umber'd wigre ; 
And ever they on the opposmg bank 
Be landed, on this side another throng 
Still gatheis. " Son," thus spake the courteous guid% 
** Those who die subject to the wrath of Grqd 
All here together come from every clime, 
And to overpass the river are not loth : 
For so heaven's justice goads them on, that feai 
Is tum'd into desire. Hence ne'er hath pass'd 
Good spirit If of thee Charon complam, 
Now mayst thou know the import of his words." 

This said, the gloomy region trembling shook 
So terribly, that yet with clammy dews 
Fear chills my brow. The sad earth gave a blast. 
That, lightening, shot forth a vermilion flame, 
Which all my senses couquer'd quite, and I 
Down dropp'd, as one with sudden slumber seized 



The poet, being roused by a clap of Uiander, and following 
his guide onwards, descends into Limbo, which is the first 
circle of Hell, where he finds the souls of those, who, Al- 
though they have lived virtnoiisly, and have not to suuor 
for great sins, nevertheless, through lack of baptism, merit 
not the bliss of Paradise. Hence he is led on by Virgil to 
descend into the second circle. 

Broke the deep slumber in my bruin a oradi 
3f heavy thunder, that I shook myself, 
As one by main force roused. Risen upright, 

1 jlMfall off the light aMtumnal leaves.} 

Qunra multa in silvis actomni fr^re primo 

Labsa cadont folia. Virg, JEn., lib. vL 300 

Thick as automnal leaves, that strew the brooks 
In Vallombrosa, where th* EtroriaA shades 
High over-arch*d imbower. Milton^ P, Z.., b. i. 3M. 
Compare Apoll. Rhod., lib. iv. p. 814. 

s jSs falcon at his call,} This is VeUateIlo*8 explanation, 
and seems preferable to that commonly given: **as a Urd 
t»«t it enticed to the cage by the caU of another ** 

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4^ HELL, Canto IV. o7 

My mtod eyes I moved aioimd, and ■eaieh'ck 
With fixed ken. to Irnow what place it was 
Wherein I stood. For certain, on the brink 
I found me of the lamentable yale, 
The dread abyss, that joins a thundroos soitfid' 
Of plaints innumerable. Dark and deep, 
Andihick with clouds o'erspread, mine eye in vain 
Explored its bottom, nor could aught discern. 

** Now let us to the blind world there beneath 
Descetid ;" the bard began, all pale of look : 
" Igo the first, and thou shalt follow next" 

Then I, his altered hue perceiving, ^us : 
** How may I speed, if thou yieldeet to dread. 
Who still art wcmt to comfort me in doubt?" 

He then : ** The anguish of that race below 
With pity stains my cheek, which thou for fear 
Mistakest Let us on. Our length of way 
Urges to haste." Onward, this said, he moved ; 
And entering led me with him, on the bounds 
Of the first circle that surrounds the abyss. 

Here, as mine ear could note, no plaint was heard 
Except of sighs, that made the eternal air 
Tremble, not caused by tortures, but from grief 
Felt by those multitudes, many and vast. 
Of men, women, and infants. Then to me 
The gentle guide : " Inquirest thou not what spirits 
Are &ese which thou beholdest? Ere thou pass 
Farther, I would thou know, that these of sin 
Were blameless ; and if aught they merited. 
It profits not, since baptism was not theirs. 
The portaP to thy faith. If they before 
The Gospel lived, they served not God aright ; 
And among such am L For these defects, 
And for no other evil, we are Ibst ; 
Only so far afflicted, that we live 
Desiring without hope."* Sore grief assail'd 

^ A ^undrous toitnd ] Imitated, as Mr. Thyer has re- 
suurked, by Milton, P. L., b. viii. 242: 

^But long, ere our approaching, heard 

Noise, other than the sound of dance or song, 
Torment, and iond lament, and fnrioiis rage. 
> PorUd.] « Porta della fede/* This was an alteration 
made in the text by the Academicians della Cmsea, on the 
anthoritv, as it would appear, of only two MSS. The other 
reading is *< parte della fede ;*' ** part of the &ith.** 
* DeairiMg wWumt hope.] 

And with d uriie to languish without hope. 

MUUnhP-L^h,! 998. 

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My heart at Jheariiig this, for well I know 

Suspended in that Limbo many a soul 

Of mighty worth. " O tell me, sire revered ! 

Tell me, my master !" I began, through wish 

Of full assurance in that holy faith 

Which vanquishes all error ; " say, did e'er 

Any, or through his own or other's merit, 

Come forth from thence, who afterwards was bless'd f 

Piercing the secret purport^ of my speech. 
He answered : " I was new to that estate. 
When I beheld a puissant one* arrive 
Among us, with victorious trophy crown'd 
He forth' the shade of our first parent drew, 
Abel his child, and Noah righteous man, 
Of Moses lawgiver for faith approved. 
Of patriarch Abrahcun, and David king, 
Israel with his sire and with his sons. 
Nor without Rachel whom so hard he won, 
•And others many more, whom he to bliss 
ExaltcAi Before these, be thou assured. 
No spirit of human kind was ever saved." 

We, while he spake, ceased not our onward road • 
Still passing through the wood ; for so I name 
Those spuits thick beset We were not far 
On this side from the summit, when I kenn'd 
A flam9, that o'er the darken'd hemisphere 
Prevailing shmed. Yet we a httle space 
Were distant, not so far but I m part 
Discover'd that a tribe in honor high 

1 Secret purport,] Lombardl well observes, that Dante 
seems to have been restrained by awe and reverence fr^ 
uttering the name of Christ in this place of torment ; and 
that for the same cause, probably, it does not occor once 
throughout the whole of this first psirt of the poem. 
9 A puissant one.] Our Saviour. 

s He forth.] The author of the Cluadriregio has intradnced 
a sublime description into his imitation of this passage : 
Pose le rcni li dove si serra ; 

Ma Cristo lui e *1 catarcion.d* acciajo 
£ queste porte allora gettb a terra. 
Qnando in la grotta entib '1 lucido rajo, 
Adamo disse : questo ^ lo splendore 
Che mi spirb in faccia da piimajo. 
Yenuto se* aspettato Signore. L. ii. cap. 3. 

Satan hung writhing round the bolt ; but him, 
The huge portcullis, and those gates of brass, 
Christ threw to earth. As down the cavern streamM 
The radiance : "Light,** said Adam, *'this, that breathed 
First on mo. Thou art come, expected Lord !** 
JHfoch that follows is closely copied by Frezzl firom our poet 

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09HW. HELL, Canto IV. 69 

That place possessed. " O thou, who every art 
And science vainest ! who are these, that boast 
Such honor, separate from all the rest 7" 

He answered : " The renown of their great namei; 
That echoes through your world above, acquires 
Favor in heaven, which holds them thus advanced." 
Meantime a voice I heard : " Honor the bard 
Sublime !^ his shade returns, that left us late '." 
No sooner ceased the sound, than I beheld 
Four mighty spirits toward us bend their steps. 
Of semblance neither sorrowful nw glad.' 

When thus my master kmd began : " Mark him. 
Who in his right hand bears that falchion keen, 
The other three preceding, as their lord. 
This is that Homer, of aU bards supreme: 
Flaccus the next, in satire's vein excelling ; 
The third is Naso ; Lucan is the last. 
Because they all that appellation own, 
With which the voice smgly accosted me, 
Honoring they greet me thus, and well they judge.'* 

So I l^held united the bright school 
Of him the monarch of sublimest song,' 

- Honor the bard 


Onorate V altissimo poeta. 
So Chiabrera, Canz. Brioche. 32. 

Onorando 1' altissimo poeta. 

• Of semblance neither sorrowful nor glad.] 

She nas to sober ne to glad. Chaucer's Dreawt. 

* The monarch of sublimest «oit^.] Homer. 

It appears from a passage in the Convito, that there was 
nu Latin translation of Homer in Dante*s time. "Sappia 
'/ascnno, &c.** p. 20. *' Every one should know, that noth^ 
in^, harmonized by musical enchainment, can be tmnsmnted 
^om one tongue into another without breaking all its sweet- 
ness and harmony. And this is the reason why Homer has 
never been turned from Greek into Latin, as the other wri- 
ters we have of theirs." This sentence, I fear, may well be 
regarded as conclusive against the present undertaking. Yet 
would I willingly bespeak for it at least so much indulgence 
as Politian claimed for himself, when in the I^tin transla- 
tion, which he afterwards made of Homer, but which has 
since unfortunately perished, he ventured on certain liberties 
both of phraseolc^ and metre, for which the nicer critics of 
his time thought fit to call him to an account: "Egovero 
tametsi rudis in primls non adeo tamen obtusi sum pectoris 
in versus maxime fkciundis, nt spatia ista morasque non 
sentian^'. Vero cum mihi de Gneco pene ad verbum forent 
antiquissima interpretanda carmlna, fateor affectavi equidem 
at in verbis obsoietam vetustatem, sic in mensilrft ipsft et 
numero gratam quandam nt speravi novitatem." Ep. lib. i 
Baptists Gaarino. 

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70 THE VISION. M-in 

That o'er the others like an eagle eoan. 

When they together short discourse had held. 
They tum'd to me, with salutation kind 
Beckoning me ; at the which my master smiled : 
Nor was Uiis aU ; but greater honor still 
They gave me, for they made me of their tribe ; 
And I was sixth amid so leam'd a band. 

Far as the luminous beacon on we passed, 
Speaking of matters, then befitting well 
To speak, now fitter left untold.^ At foot 
Of a magnificent castle we arrived, 
Seven times with lofty walls begirt, and round 
Defended by a pleasant stream. 0*er this 
As o'er dry land we passed. Next, through seven gates^ 
I with those sages enter'd, and we came 
Into a mead with lively verdure fresh. 

There dwelt a race, who slow their eyes around 
Majestically moved, and in their port 
Bore enunent authority : they spake 
Seldom, but all their words were tuneful sweet 

We to one side retired, into a place 
Open and bright and lofty, whence each one 
Stood manifest to view. Incontinent, 
There on the green enameP of the plain 
Were shown me the great spirits, by whose 8i|^t 
I am exalted in my own esteem. 

Electra' there I saw accompanied 

1 Fitter l^ wU4ild,'\ 

Che *1 tacere h bello^ 
So ourpoet, in Canzone 14 : 

La vide In parte che *1 tacere h bello. 
Raccellai, Le Api, 789: 

Ch' a dire d bmtto ed a tacerlo h bello 
And Bembo: 

Vie piik bello h il taccrle, che il favellame. 

Oli A96l,y lib. 1. 
s Chreen enanui'.^ "Verde smalto.** Dante here ases • 
metaphor that has since become very common in poetry. 
0*er the smooth enamelled green. Milton^ Arcadet. 
'* Enamelline, and perhaps pictures in enamel, were com- 
mon in the middle ages, &,c." IVarUm^ Hist, of Eng, Poetrft 
V. i. c. ziii. p. 376. ** This art flourished most at Limoges, in 
France. Bo early as the year 1197, we have duas tabulas 
cneas superauratas de labore Limogiae. Chart, ana 1197 
apnd Ughelin. tom. vii. Ital. Sacr. p. 1374.** Warten. Ibid. 
Additions to v. 1. printed in vol. ii. Compare Walpole*f 
Anecdotes of Painting in England, vol. 1. c ii. 

* Electro.] The daughter of Atlas, and mother of Darda- 
nus the founder of Troy. See Virg. iEn., 1. viii. 134, as ra- 
ferred to by Dante in the treatise ** De MonarchiA,*' lib. tt. 

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118-1S9 HELL. Cajito IV. 71 

By many, among whom Hector 1 knew* 
Anchiaes' pkraB son, and with hawk'» eyo 
CflBsar all arm'd, and by Camilla thero 
Penthesilea. On the other side, 
Old king Latinos seated by his child 
Layinia, and that Bratus I beheld 
Who Tarqnin chased, Lucretia, Gate's wife 
Marcia, with Julia^ and Cornelia there ; 
And sole apart retired, the Soldan fierce.* 

Then when a little more I raised my brow, 
I spied the master of the sapient thnmg,' 
Seated amid the philosophic tram. 

** Eleetra, scilicet, nata magnl nominis regis Atlantis, at d« 
ambobus testimonium reddit poeta noster in octavo, uU 
JSneas ad Evandnim sic ait, 

" Dardanus Iliacs," &c. 

1 Julia.} The daughter of Julius Ceesar, and wife of Pompey. 

s Tke Soldan fierce.] Saladin, or Salaheddin, the rival of 
Bichard Coeur-de-Lion. See D^Herbelot, Bibl. Orient, the 
Life of Saladin, by Bohao*edin Ebn Shedad, pnblUhed by 
Albert Schultens, with a Latin translation, and Knolles*s 
Hist, of the Turks, p. 57 to 73. " About this time (1193) 
died the great Sultan Saladin, the greatest terror of the 
Christians, who, mindful of man's fragility and the vanity 
of WiHTldly honors, commanded at the time of his death no 
solemnity to be used at his burial, but only his shirt, in man- 
ner of an ensign, made fost unto the point of a lance, to be 
carried before his dead body as an ensign, a plain inriest going 
before, and crying aloud unto the people in this sort, ' Sala- 
din, Conqueror of the East, of all the greatness and riches 
he had in his life, carrieth not with him any thing more than 
his shirt* . A sight worthy so great a king, as wanted noth 
ing to his eternal commendation more than the true know- 
ledge of his salvation in Christ Jesus. He reigned about 
sixteen years with great honor." He is introduced by Pe 
trarch in the Triumph of Fame, c. il. ; and by Boccaccio in 
the Decameron, 6. x. N. 9. 

* T%e master of the tapient throng.] 
Maestro di color che sanno. 

Aristotle.— FjBtnurch assigns the first place to Plato. Sea 
niimiph of Fame, c ill. 

Volsimi da man manea, e vidi Plato 
Che 'n quella schicra andb piu presso al segno 
A qual agginnge, a chi dal cielo d dato 
Aristodle pM pien d* alto ingegno. 
Pnlci, in his Morgante Maggiore, c. xviii., says, 
l^u se' U maestro di color che sanno. 

The reverence in which the Stagirite was held by our 
Author, cannot be better shown than by a passage in his 
Convito, p. 143 : " Che Aristotile sia degnissimo, 4cc.** " That 
Aristotle is most worthy of trust and obedience, may be thus 
IKoved. Among the workmen or artificers of diflforent arts 
and operations, which are in order to some final art or opera- 
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72 THE VISION. 190-141 

Him all admirer all pay him reverence due 
There Socrates and Plato both I mark'd 
Nearest to him in rank, Democritus 
Who sets the world at chance,^ Diogenes* 
With^ Heraclitus, and Empedodes, 
And Anaxagoras, and Thales sage, 
Zeno, and Dioscorides well read 
In nature's secret lore. Orpheus I mark'd 
And Linus, Tully and moral Seneca, 
Euclid and Ptolemy, Hippocrates, 
Galenus, Avicen,' and him who made 
That commentary vast, Aveiioes * 

to be obeyed and trasted by the rest, as being the one who 
alone considers the ultimate end of all the other ends. Thai 
he, who exercises the occupation of a knight, ought to be 
obeyed bv the swrnd-cutler, the bridle-maker, the armorer, 
and by all those trades which are in order to Uie occupation 
of a knight. And because all human operations respect a 
certain end, which is that of human life, to which man, in- 
asmuch as he is man, is ordained, the master or artist, who 
considers of and teaches us that, ought chiefly to be obeyed 
and trusted : now tliis is no other than Aristotle ; and he is 
therefore the most deserving of trust and obedience." 

1 Demoeritua, 

Who sets the world at ehanee.\ 
Democritus, who maintained the world to have been formed 
by the fortuitous concourse of atoms. 

s Jlvieen.] See D*Herbelot, Bibl. Orient, article Sina. He 
died in 1050. Pulci here again imitates our poet : 
Avicenna quel che 11 sentimento 
Intese di Aristotile e i segreti^ 

Averrois che fece 11 gran comento. Morg. Mag.t c zxr. 
Chancer, in the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, makM 
the Doctonr of Phisike fomiliar with 



Sgnarda Avicenna mio con tre corone, 
Ch* egli fii Prence, e di scienza pieno, 
£ ntii tanto all' umane pers<me. 

F^ezzi. Jl Quadrir.t 1. Iv. cap. 
Fait Avicenna vir summi ingenii, magnus Philosophns, 
excellens medicus, et summus apud sues Theologus. Sebas- 
tian Scheffer, Introd. in Artem Medicam, p. 63, as quoted in 
the Historical Observations on the Quadriregio. Eoiz. 1735. 

» Him who made 

That eommentar% vast^ Averroe».'\ 
n nan Platone, e V altro che sta attento 
Mirando ii cielo, e sta a lui a lato 
Averrois, che fbce 11 gran c<»nento. 

JiVezzi. B Quadrir.f I. iv. cap. 9. 
Averroes, called by the Arabians Roschd, translated and 
eommentBd the works of Aristotie According to TiraboschI 
OMofia delU Lett. Ital., t v. 1. iL c U. se«t. 4) he was thu 

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1«^148. HELL, Canto>. 73 

Of all to tpewk at full wtan yain attempt ; 
For my wide theme bo urges, that oft-tunes 
My words fall short of what hechanced. In two 
'Die six associates part Another way 
My sage guide leads me, from that air serene. 
Into a climate ever yex'd with storms : 
And to a part I come, wheVe no light slunes 



Camins into th€ second circle of Hell, Dante at the entnuies 
beh«MdB Minos the Infernal Judge, by whom he is admon* 

' ished to beware how he enters those regions. Here he wit' 
nesses the punishDient of carnal sinners, who are tossed 
*abont ceaselessly in tlys dark air by the most farious winds. 
Among these he meets with Francesca of Rimini, through 
pity at whose sad tale he foils &inting to the ground. 

From, the first circle' I descended thus 
Down to the second, which, a lesser quice 

source of modem philosophical impiety The critic quotes 
8(Mne passages from Petrardi (Senil, I. v. ep. iil. et Oper., v. U. 
p. 1143) to show how strongly such sentiments prevailed in 
the time of that poet, by whom they were held in horror and 
detestation. He adds, that this fanatic admirer of Aristotle 
translated his writings with that felicity which nright be ex- 
pected from one who did not know a syllable of Greek, and 
who was therefore compelled to avail himself of the unfaith- 
fol Arabic versions. D^IIerbelot, on the other hand, Informs 
us, that "Averroes was the first who translated Aristotle 
from Greek into Arabic, before the Jews had made their 
translation ; and that we had for a long time no other text 
of Aristotle, except that of the Latin translation, which was 
made from this Arabic version of this great« philosopher, 
(Averroes,) who afterwards added to it a very ample com- 
mentary, of which Thomas Aquinas, and the other scholastic 
writers, availed themselves, before the Greek ori^als of 
Aristotle and his commentators were known to us in Europe." 
According to D'Herbelot, he died In 1198; but Tiraboschi 
places that event about 1206. 

" Averroes," says Warton, " as the Asiatic schools decayoc] 
by »he indolence of the Caliphs, was one of those philosophers 
who adorned the Moorish schools erected in Africa and Spain 
He was a professor in the University of Morocco He wrote 
a commentary on all Aristotle's works. He was styled the 
most Peripatetic of all the Arabian writers. He was bom at 
Cordova, of an ancient Arabic family." Hist. Eng^. Poetrf^ 
vol. i. sect. xvii. p. 441. 

1 FVom the first cirele.} Chiabrera*s twenty-first sonnet it 
on a painting, by Cesare Corte, from this Canto. Mr. Fuseli, 
a muck greater name, has lately employed his wonder-%vork 
Ing pencil on the sante subject. 

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t4 THE VISION. 3-tt 

Embracing^ bo much more of grief contains, 

Provoking bitter moans. There Minos stands, 

Grinning with ghastly feature :^ he, of all 

Who enter, strict examining the crimes, 

Gi^es sentence, and dismisses them beneath, 

According as he foldeth him around : 

For when befcnre him copies the ill-fated soul, 

It all confesses ; and that judge severe 

Oi sins, considering what place in hell 

Suits the transgression, with his tail so oft 

Himself encircles, as degrees beneath 

He dooms it to descend. Before him stand 

Aiway a numerous throng ; and in his turn 

Each one to judgment passing, iq>eaks, and hean 

His fate, thence downward to his dwelling hurl'd. 

" O thou ! who to this residence of wo 
Approachest !" when he saw nfe coming, cried 
Minos, relinquishing his. dread employ, 
" Look how thou enter here ; beware in whom 
Thou place thy trust ; let not the entrance broad 
Deceive to thy harm." To him my guide : 
" Wherefore exclaimest ? Hmder not his way 
By destiny appointed ; so 'tis will'd. 
Where will and power are one. A^ thou no more.^ 

Now 'gin the rueful wailings to be heard. 
Now am t come where many a plaining voice 
Smites on mine ear. Into a place I came 
Where light was silent all. Bellowing* there groan'd 
A noise, as of a sea in tempest torn 
By warrmg winds. The stormy blast of hell 
With restless fury drives the spirits on, 
Whirrd round and dash*d amain with sore annoy. 
When they arrive before the ruinous sweep, 
There shrieks are heard, there lamentations, moans. 
And blasphemies 'gainst the good Power in heaven. 

I understood, that to this torment sad 
The carnal sinners are condemnM, in whom 
Reason by lust is sway'd. As in large troops 
And multitudinous, when winter reigns, 
The starlings on their wings are borne abroad ; 
So bears the tyrannous gust those evil souls. 
On this side and on that, above, below. 

Of nmUig' with ghatUy /eaeure. J Hence HUton : 


Grina'd hoirible a ghastly smile. 


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iS-tt. HELL, Cuno V. 75 

It driyes them : hope oi rest to solace them 

Ts none, nor e'en of milder pang. As cranes,' 

Chanting their dolorous notes, traverse the sky, 

Stretch'd out in long array ; so I beheld 

Spirits, who came loud w4iling, hurried on 

fiy their dire doom. Then I : << Instructor I who 

Are these, by the black air so scourged ?" — ** The fiist 

'Moug those, of whom thou question'st," he repUed, 

*< O'er many tongues was empress. She in vice 

Of luxury was so shameless, that die made 

Liking^ be lawful by promulged decree, 

To clear the blame she had herself incurr'd 

This is Semiramis, of whom 'tis writ, 

That she succeeded Ninus her espoused ;' 

And held the land, which now the Soldstn rules. 

The next in amorous fury ijlew herself. 

And to Sicheus' ashes broke her faith : 

Then follows Cleopatra, lustful queen." 

There mark'd I Helen, for whose sake so long 
The time was fraught with evil ; there the great 
Achilles, who with love fought to the end. 

> As cranes.^ This simile is imitated by Lorenzo de Me 
dici, in his Ambra, a poem, first pobiished by Mr. Roscoe, in 
the Appendix to his lofe of Lorenzo : 
. Marking the tracts of air, the clamorqas cranes 
Wheel -their dne flight in varied ranlos descried ; 
And each with ontstreteh'd neck his rank maintaiiis, 
In marsliallM order through th* ethereal void. 

RoscoCf V. i. c. v. p. 257, 4to. edit. 
Compare Homer, H., ill. 3. Virgil, ^n., 1. x. 264. Oppian 
Halieut., lib. 1. 620. Rnccellai, Le Api, 942, and Dante's ho' 
gatory, xxiv. G3. 
3 Liking.l His lostes were as law in his degree. 

C%aMc«r, Monkeys Tale. J^ero. 
* Thai the jueeeeded JVtn«« her espoused.] 

Che succedette a Nino e fa sua sposa. 
M Artand, in his Histoire de Dante, p. 589, mentions a 
manoscript work called Attacanti's Qnadragesimale de redita 
peccatOTis ad Denm, in which the line is thus cited : 
Che sngger dette a Nino e fti sua sposa. 
" Who suckled Ninus, and was his wife." 
This remarkable reading had been before noticed by Federlcl 
Intomo ad alcune varianti nel teste della Divina Commedia* 
Ed. Milan. 1836. See the Biblioteca Italiana, torn. 82, p. 282> 
It appears from the treatise De Monarchic, (1. ii.) that Dante 
derived his knowledge of Assyrian liistory from his fieivorite 
author Oroslus, (1. i. c. iv.) who relates that Semiramis both 
succeeded Ninus tlirough the artifice of personating her son, 
and that she committed incest with her son ; but as the name 
of hex husband Ninus only is there recorded, and as other his- 
torians call the son Ninias, it is probable tliat the common 
leading is right. . 

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Pans I saw, and TriBtan ; and beside, 

A thousand more he show'd me, and by ni^e 

Pointed them out, whom love bereaved of life. 

When I had heard my sage instructor name 
Those dames and knights of antique days, o'eipowei'd 
By pity, well-nigh in amaze my mind 
Was lost ; and I began : ** Baid ! willingly 
I would address those two together coming, 
Which seem so light before the wind." He thus: 
«* Note thou, when nearer they to us approach. 
Then by •that love which carries them along. 
Entreat ; and they will come." Soon as the wind 
Sway'd them towards us, I thus framed my q>eech 
" O wearied spuits ! come, and hold discourse 
With us, if by none else restrained." As doves 
By fond desire invited, on wide wings 
And firm, to their sweet nest returning home, 
Cleave the air. Wafted by their will along ; 
Thus issued, from that troop where Dido ranks, 
They, through the ill air speeding : with such force 
My cry prevail'd, by strong affection urged. 

** O gracious creature and benign ! who go'st 
Visiting, through this element obscure,^ 
Us, who the world with bloody stain imbrued ; 
If, for a friend, the King of all we own*d. 
Our prayer to him should for thy peace arise, 
Since thou hast pity on our evil plight. 
Of whatsoe'er to hear or to discourse 
It pleases thee, that will we hear, of that 
Freely with thee discourse, while e'er the wind, 
As now, is mute. The land,' that gave me birtbi 
Is situate on the coast, where Po descends 
To rest m ocean with his sequent streams. 

" Love, that in gentle heart is quickly leam'd,* 

> Element obscure ] " L*aer perso.** Much is said by tb« 
commentators concerning the exact sense of the word '* perso.** 
It cannot be explained in clearer terms than those used by 
Dante himself in his Convito : " D perso i nn colore misto m 
purpureo e nero, ma vince 11 nero." p. 185. " It is a color 
mixed of purple and black, but the black prevails." The 
word recurs several times in this poem. Chaucer also uses 
it in the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, Doctoor of Phis 

In sangnin and in perse he clad was alle. 

* TTieland.] Ravenna. 

* Lovef that in gentle heart is quickly teanCd.} 

Amor, ch* al cor gentil ratto 8*appvends. 
A line taken by Marino, Adone, c. cxli. st. 351. 

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100-114. H£LL, Canto V. 77 

Entan^ed him by that fair fonn, from me 
Ta'en in such cruel sort, as grieves me still : 
Love, that denial takes from none beloved,' 
Caught me with pleasing him so passing well. 
That, as thou seest, he yet deserts me not 
Love brought us to one death : Calna' waits 
The soul, who spilt our life." Such were their words ] 
At hearing which, downward I bent my looks. 
And held them there so long, that the bard cried : 
** What art thou pondering?" I in answer thus : 
" Alas ! by what sweet thoughts, what fond desire 
Must they at length to that ill pass have reached !" 

Then turning, I to them my speech addressed, 
And thus began : " Francesca !' your sad fate 
Even to tears my grief and pity moves. 

That the reader of the original may not be misled as .to the 
exact sense of the word " s'apprende/' which I have rendered 
** is leani*d,*' it may he right to apprize him that it signifies ** is 
caught," and that it is a metaphor from a thing taking fire. 
Thos it is Qsed by Gnido Golnicelli, whom indeed our poet 
seems here to have had in view : 

Fnoco d* Amore in gentil cor s'apprende, 
Come vertate in pietra preziosa. 

Sonetti, Sre., di diversi Antichi Toseani. Edix» 
Oiuatif 1537, 1. iz. p. 107 
The fire of love in gentle heart is caught, 
As virtue in the precious stone. 
^ Lovcy that denial takes from none beloved,] 
Amor, ch* a null' amato amar perdona. 
80 Boccaccio, in his Filocopo, 1. 1. 

Anu^e mai non perdonb Tamore a nnllo amato 
And Pnlci, in the M<»rgante Ma^iore, c. iv. 
£ perch^ amor mai volontier perdona,- 
Che non sia al fin sempre amato chi ama. 
buleed, n.any of the Italian poets have repeated this verse, 
s Caina.] The place to which murderers are doomed, 
s Francesea.] Francesca, daughter of Goido da Polenta, 
lord of Ravenna, was given by her fkther in mirriage to 
Lanciotto, son of Malatesta, lord of Rimini, a man of extra- 
ordinary courage, bat deformed in his person. His brother 
Paolo, who unhappily possessed those graces which the 
husband of Francesca wanted, engaged her affections ; and 
being taken in adultery, they were both put to death by 
the enraged Lanciotto. See notes to Canto xxvii. v. 38 and 
43. Troya relates, that they were buried together ; and that 
three centuries aAer, thi, bodies were found at Rimini, 
thither they had been removed fhnn Pesaro, with the silkeu 
garments yet fresh. Veldro Allegorico di Dante. Edix. 189^ 
p. 33. 

The whole of this passage is alluded to by Petrarch, in hit 
Trtamph of Lovo, c ill. : 

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tS THE VISION. 115-191 . 

But tell me ; in the time of your sweet sighs, 
By what, and how Love granted, that ye knew 
Your yet uncertain wishes?" She rephed : 
" No greater grief than to remember days 
Of joy, when misery is at haud.^ That kens 
Thy ieam'd instructor. Yet so eagerly 
If thou art bent to know the primal root, 
F'^m whence our love gat being, I will do 
A 3 one, who weeps and tells his tale. One day, 
i or our delight we read of Lancelot,' 
How him* love thrall'd. Alone we were, and no 
Suspicion near us. Oft-times by that reading 
Our eyes were drawn together, and the hue 
Fled from our altered cheek. But at one pomt' 
Alone we fell. When of that smile we read, 

Ecco qnei che le carte empion dl sogni 
- Lancilotto Tristano e gli a tri eiranti : 
Onde convien che *1 vnlgo errante ugogni ; 
Vedi Giiievra, Isotta e Taltre amanti ; 
£ la coppia d*Arimino che* nsieme 
Vanno facendo dolorosi plant!. 
Mr. Leigh Hnnt has expanded the present episode into • 
•eautiful poem, in his ** Story of Rimini." 

* JVo p'eaUr grief than to remember day» 
Ofjoy^ when misery is at hand.] 

Imitated by Cliancer : 

For of Fortnnis sharp adversite 
The worste kind of infortune is this, 
A man to have been in prosperite, 
And it reniembir when it passid is. 

Troilus and Creseide, b. iii 
By Marino: 

Che non ha doglia il misero maggiore, 
Che ricordar ia gioia entro il dolore. 

JldonSf c. xiv. st. 100 
And by Fortignerra : 

Rimembrare il ben perdnto 

Fa piu meschino io {nresente stato. 

RiceiardettOt c. xl St. 83 
The original, perhaps, was in Boutins de Consol. Phllosoph. 
^'In omni adversitate fortans infelicissimom genus est intuT' 
tonil Aiisse felicem et non esse.*' 1. 3, pr. 4. 

Bofitins, and Cicero de Amicitift, were the two first books 
that engaged the attention of Dante, as he himself teili us in 
the Convito, p. 68. 

s Lancelot.] One of the Knights of the Round Table, and 
the lover of Ginevra, or Goinever, celebrated in romance. 
The incident alluded to seems to have made a strong impies- 
lion on the imagination of Dtmte, who introduces it a^Biin, in 
the Pftntdise, Canto zvL 

* M one point,] 

Qoesto quel punto fVi, che sol mi vinse. 

TassOf U Torrismondo a. 1. 8. 3. 

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13IK138. HEIX, Camto VL 70 

The wished smile, so rapturously kiss'd 
By one so deep in love, then he, who ne'er 
From me shall separate, at once my lips 
All trembling kiss'd. The book and writer both 
Were love's purveyors. In its leaves that day 
We read no more."^ While thus one spuit spake. 
The other wail'd so sorely, that heart-struck 
I, through compassion fainting, seem'd not far 
From death, and like a corse fell to the ground.' 



On his racovery, the Poet finds himself in the third cifde. 
where the glattonons are ponished. Their tonnent is, to 
lie in the mire, under a continual and heavy storm of hail, 
snow, and discolored water ; Cerberus meanwhile BarUng 
over them with his threefold throat, and rending them 
piecemeal. One of these, who on earth was named Ciacco, 
foretells the divisions with which Florence is about to be. 
distracted. Dante proposes a question to his guide, who 
solves it ; and they proceed towards the fourth circle. 

My sense reviving,* that erewhile had droop'd 
With pity for the kmdred shades, whence grief 
O'ercame me wholly, straight around I see 
New torments, new tormented souls, which way 
Soe'er I move, or turn, or bend my sight ^ 
In the third circle I arrive, of showers 
Ceaseless, accursed, heavy and cold, unchanged 
For ever, both in kind and in degree. 
Large hail, discolor'd water, sleety flaw 

» — — — In its leave* that day 
We reaa no more.] Nothing can exceed the dellcacj with 
which Francesca in these words intimates her guilt 

• ,9nd like a eoraefdl to the ground.] 

E caddi, come corpo morto cade. 

E cadde come morto in terra cade. 

JdorganU Maggiore, c zzii. 
And Ariosto : 

E cada, eome corpo morto cade. 

Orl. FHr.j c ii. St 55. 
" And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead.'* Reve 
lation, i. 17. 

* Jig senoe reviving.] 

Al tomar deUa mente, che si ehluse, 
Dinanfi alia pieti de* duo cognati. 
Bemi has made a sportive application of these lines, in his 
OH. Inn., Ub. ilL c ^ st 1. 

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80 THE VISION. 10-44 

Through the dun midnight air stream'd down amain 
Stank all the land whereon that tempest fell. 

Cerberus, cruel monster, fierce and strange, 
Through his wide threefold throat, barks as a dog 
Over the multitude immersed beneath. 
His eyes glare crimson, black his unctuous beard, 
His belly large, and claw'd the hands, with which 
fle tears the spirits, flays them, and their limbs , 
Piecemeal disparts. Howling there spread, as curs. 
Under the rainy deluge, with one side 
The other screening, oft they roll them round, 
A wretched, godless crew. When that great worm* 
Descried us, savage Cerberus, he oped 
His jaws, and the fangs show'd us ; not a limb 
Of him but trembled. Then my guide, his palms 
Expanding on the ground, thence fill'd with earth 
Raised them, and cast it in his ravenous maw. 
E'en^ a dog, that yelling bays for food 
His keeper, when the morsel comes, lets fall 
.His fury, bent alone with eager haste 
To swallow it ; so dropp'd the loathsome cheeks 
Of demon Cerberus, who thundering stuns 
The spirits, that thciy for deafness wish in vain. 

We, o^er the shades thrown prostrate by the brunt 
Of the heavy tempest passing, set our feet 
Upon their emptiness, that substance seem*d. 

They all along the earth extended lay, 
Save one, that sudden raised himself to sit. 
Soon as that way he saw us pass. " O thou !** 
He cried, " who through the infernal shades art led. 
Own, if again thou know'st me. Thou wast framed 
Or e'er my frame was broken." I replied : 
" The anguish thou endurest perchance so takes 
Thy form from m}' remembrance, that it seems 
As if I saw thee never. But inform 

1 7%^t great worm.] Juxta— infernmn vermis erat infinttn 
magnitudinls ligatus inaxiin& caten&. Alberici Visio, $ 9. 

In Canto xxjdv., Lucifer is called 
The abhorred worm, that boreth through the world. 

This is imitated by Aiiosto, Orl. Fur., c. xlvi. st 76. 

8hakspeare,Milt<m, and Cowper, who well understood that 
the most common words are often the most impressive, have 
used the synonymous term in our language with the best 
effect ; as Pindar has done in Greek : 

*Axd Tavyirov iiiv Adxatvav 
iwi 6i|fMr2 Kdva rpix^tv miuviirarov ipwtrdv* 
Heyne^a Pindar. Fragm, Epinic. ii. 2, /n J 

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0-73. HELL, Gai«to VL Q 

Me who thoa art, that in a place so sad 
Art set, and in such torment, that although 
Other be greater, none disguiBteth more." 
He thus in answer to my words rejom'd i 
« Thy city, heapM with envy to the brim, 
iiye, that the measure overflows its boundi. 
Held me in brighter days. Ye citizens 
Were wont to name me Ciacco.' For the sin 
Of gluttony, damned vice, beneath this rain» 
E'en as thou seest, I with fatigue am worn : 
Nor I sole spirit in this wo : all these 
Have by like crime incurr'd like punishment*' 

No more he said, and I my speech resumed* 
*' Ciacco ! thy dire affliction grieves me much. 
Even to tears. But tell me, if thou know'st, 
What shall at length befall the citizens 
Of the divided city f whether any 
Just one inhabit there : and tell the cause, 
Whence jarring Discord hath assail'd it thus." 

He then : ** After long striving they will come 
To blood ; and the wild party from the woods* 
Will chase the other* with much injury forth. 
Then it behooves that this must fall* within 
Three solar circles ;• and the other rise 
By borrowed force of one, who under shore 
Now rests.^ It shall a long space hold aloof 
Its forehead, keeping under heavy weight 
The other oppressed, indignant at the load. 
And grieving sore. The just are two in number,* 

> Ciaeeo.] So called firom his inordinate appetite ; Ciacco, 
la Italian, signifying a pig. The real name of this glnttiMi 
has not been transmitte<l to us. He is introduced in Boccac- 
cio's Decameron, Giom. ix. Nov. 8. 

) Tke divided city.] The city of Florence, divided in to the 
Bianchi and Neri /actions. 

* T\4 wild partvfrom the woods.] So called, because it waa 
headed by Yeri de' Cerchi, whose family had lately come 
Into the city from Acone, and the woody country of the Val 
di Nievole. 

* Th$ other.} The opposite party of the Neri, at the head 
of which was Corso Donati. 

» T^is vnutfall.} The Bianchi. 

* Three eolar eireles.] Three years. 

* ■ Of 01U, who under shore 
JiTow rests.] 

Charles of Valois, by whose means the Neri were replaced 

* The just are two in number.] Who these two were, the 
tommentators are not agreed. Some understand them to be 
Dante himself and his mend Ouido CavalcantL Bat this 

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S3 THE VISION. 74-«e 

But they neglected. Ayarice, envy, pride,' 

Tliree fatal sparks, have set the hearts of all 

On fire.*' Here ceased the lamentable sound ; 

And I continued thus: " Still would I learn 

More from thee, farther parley still entreat 

Of Farinata and Tegghiaio^ say, 

They who so well deserved ; of Giacopo,' 

Anigo, Mosca,^ and the rest, who bent 

Their minds on workmg good. Oh ! tell me where 

They bide, and to their Imowledge let me come. 

For I am press'd with keen desire to hear 

If heaveh's sweet cup, or poisonous drug of hell. 

Be to theur lip assignU'* He answered straight : 

** These are yet blacker spurits. Various crimes 

Have sunk them deeper m the dark abyss. 

If thou so far descendest, thou mayst see them. 

But to the pleasant world, when thou retum'st. 

Of me make mention, I entreat thee, there. 

No more I tell thee, answer thee no more." 

This said, his fixed eyes he tum'd askance, 
A little eyed me, then bent down his head, 
And 'midst his blind companions with it fell. 

When thus my guide : *^ No more his bed he leaveti 

would aigae a presumption which oar Poet hilnself else- 
where contradicts ; for, in tbo Purgatory, he owns his con- 
sciousness of not being exempted £rom one at least of **tho 
three fatal sparks, which' had set the hearts of all on fire.** 
Bee Canto xiii. 126. Others refer the encominm to Bardnccio 
and Giovanni Vespignano, adducing the following passage 
fnnn Villani in support of their oi^nion : " In the year 1^1 
died in Florence two just and good men, of holy life and con- 
versation, and bountiful in almsgiving, although lay 

The one was named Bardnccio, and was buried in S. Spirito, 
in the place of the Frati Romitani : the other, named Gio- 
vanni da Vespignano, was buried in 8. Pietro Maggiore. And 
by each, God showed open miracles, in healing the sick and 
lunatic after divers manners; and for each there was or* 
dained a solemn funeral, and many images of wax set up is 
discharge of vows that had been made/' G. Villani, lib. z 
cap. 179. 

» Avarice^ envy, pride.} 

Invidia, superbia ed avarizie 
Vedea moltiplicar tra mici figliuoli. 

Ihzio degli Ubertiy Dittamondo, lib. i. cap. zxlx. 
3 Of Fhrinata and Teffghiaio.] See Canto x.'and Notes, and 
Canto xri. and Notes. 

* Oiaeopo.] Giacopo Rusticucci. See Canto zvi. and Notes. 

* JhrifOy Mo»ea,'\ Of Afrigo, who Is said by the e<Mnmenta< 
ton to have been of the noble fltmlly of the FifiuitL no men- 
tion afterwards oeenrs. Mosca degU Ubertl, or de* Lambefd» 
If Introduced in Canto zzviii. 

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07*117. HELL, Camto VU. 8S 

Ere the last angel-tnimpet blow. The Powet 
Adverse to these shall then in glory come, 
Each one forthwith to his sad tomb repair, 
Resume' his fleshly vesture and his form. 
And hear the eternal doom re-echoing rend 
The vault" So pass'd we through that mixture fou] 
Of spirits and rain, with tardy steps ; meanwhile 
Touching,' though slightly, on the life to come. 
For thus I questioned : ** Shall these tortures, sir I 
When the great sentence passes, be increased. 
Or mitigated, or as now severe V* 

He then : " Consult thy knowledge ;' that decides, 
That, as each thing to more perfection grows, 
It feels more sensibly both gMxl and pain. 
Though ne'er to true perfection may arrive 
This race accursed, yet nearer then, than now. 
They shall approach it" Compassing that path, 
Circuitous we joumey'd ; and discourse, 
Much more than I relate, between ns passed : 
Till at the point, whence the steps led below. 
Arrived, there Plutus, the great foe, we found. 



In the present Canto, Dante describes his descent into the 
fonrth circle, at the beginning of which he sees Plntos sta- 
tioned. Here one like doom awaits the prodical and the 
avaricious; which is, to meet in direful conflict, rolling 
great wei^^hts asainst each other with mntoat upbraidings. 
From hence Virgil takes occasion to show how vain fbe 
goods that are committed into the charge of Fortune; and 
this moves oar auth<»r to inqoire what being that Fortune 
is, of whom he speaks : which question being resolved, they 
go down into the fifth circle, where they find the wrathlnl 
and gloomy tormented in iihe Stygian lake. Having made 
a compass round great part of this lake, they come at last to 
the base of a lofty tower. 

1 RetumeJ] Imitated by Frezzi : 

Allor rii^lieran la came e Tossa ; 
Li rei oscnri, e i buon con splendoii 
Per la virtu della dlvina poMa. 

n Quadr.t lib. iv. cap. zv. 
s Touching.'] Conversing, though in a slight and superfidal 
manner, on this life to c<m)e. 

* QnuvU th^ knotoledge.] We are referred to the following 
passage in St. Angu8tin:~**Cum fiet resurroetio camls, et bo- 
Dornm gaudia et malortim tmnaenta majora erant.**— ^* At the 
lesnixeotion of the flesh, both the ha pi ^ n ess of the good and 
the torments 6f tho wicked will be incnased.** 

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84 THE visicn:*!. hm 

"Am me I O Satan ! Satan !*'* loud ezclaim'd 
Flatus, in accent hoarsi3 of wild alann : 
And the kind sage, whom no event surprised, 
To comfort me Uras spake : " Let not thy fear 
Harm thee, for power in him, be sure, is none 
To hinder down this rock thy safe descent" 
Then to that swohi lip turning, " Peace !" he cried, 
" Curst wolf! thy fury inward on thyself [founds 
Prey, and consume thee I Through the dark pro* 
Not without cause, he passes. So 'tis willed 
On high, there where the g;reat Archangel pour'd 
Heaven's vengeance on the drst adulterer proud.*^ 

As sails, fuU spread and bellying with the wind. 
Drop suddenly coll^ised, if the mast split ; 
So to the ground down dropped the cruel fiend. 

Thus we, descendmg to the fourth steep ledgOy 
Gain'd on tiie dismal shore, that all the wo 
Hems in of all the universe. Ah me ! 
Almighty Justice ! in what store thou heap*stP 
New pains, new troubles, as I here beheld. 

^Jlhmel O Satan I Satan!} 

Pape Satan, Pape Satan, aleppe. 

Pqjte is said by the commentators to be the same as the 
Latin word ptqta I ** strange !" Of aleppe they do not give a 
more satisfactory account. 

See the Life of Ben vennto Cellini, translated by Dr. NogenL 
V. ii. b. iii. c vii. p. 113, where he mentions ** having heard 
the words Potx, paixt Satan 1 aUeiy paixl in the courts of jus- 
tice at Paris. I recollected what Dante said, when he with 
his master Virgil entered the gates of hell : for Dante, and 
Giotto the painter, were together in France, and visited Paris 
with particular attention, wh«re the court of Justice may be 
considered as hell. Hence it is that Dante, who was like- 
wise perfect master of the French, made use of that expres- 
sion ; and I have often been suriHised that it was never un- 
derstood in that sense." 

» The first adulterer proud.} Satan. The word "fornica- 
tion," or *• adultery," " strupo," is here used for a revolt of 
the affections from God, according to the sense in which it is 
often applied in Scripture. But Monti, following Grassi's 
" Essay on Synonymes," supposes " strupo" to mean " troop ;" 
the word '^stmp" being still used in the Piemontese dialect 
f<»r "a flock of sheep," and answering to **troupeau" in 
French. In that case, '* superbo strupo" would signify " the 
troop of rebel angels who sinned through pride." 

^ In what store thou heapht.} Some understand " chi stipa** 
to mean either "who can imagine," or "who can describe 
the torments," 4c«. I have followed Landino, whose words, 
though very plain, seem to have been mistaken by Lombar- 
di: "Chi stipa, chi accnmula, ed insleme ivicoglie; quail 
dica, la giosuzia adoni tanti snpfpUdi." 

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»-6«. HELL, Canto VJL $§ 

Wherefore doth fault of oun bring us to this? 

E'en as a billow,' on Charybdis rising, 
Against encountered billow dashing breaks ; 
Such is the dance this wretched race must lead, 
Whom more than elsewhere numerous here I found 
From one side and the other, with loud voice. 
Both rolled' on weights, by main force of their breasts^ 
Then smote together, and each one forthwith 
Roll'd them back voluble, turning again ; 
Exclahning these, " Why boldest thou so fast V 
Those answering, " And why castest thou away 7" 
So, still repeating their despiteful sonflf. 
They to the opposite point, on either hand. 
Traversed the horrid circle ; then arrived, 
Both tum'd them round, and through the middle space 
Conflicting met again. At sight whereof 
I, stung with grief, thus spake : ** O say, my guide ! 
What race is this. Were- these, whose heads are shorn. 
On our left hand, all separate to the church?" 

He straight replied : ** In their first life, these all 
In mind were so distorted, that they made. 
According to due measure, of their wealth 
No use. This cleariy from their words collect, 
Which they howl forth, at each extremity 
Arriving of the circle, where their crime 
Contrary m kind disparts them. To the church 
Were separate those, that with no hctiry cowls 
Are crowned, both Popes and Cardinals,' o*er whom 
Avarice dominion absolute maintains." 

I then : " 'Mid such as these some needs must b^ 
Whom I shall recognise, that with the blot 
Of these foul sins were stain'd." He answering thus : 
** Vain thought conceivest thou. That ignoble life. 
Which made them vile before, now makes them dark, 

1 JE'en as a billow.] 

As when two billows In the Irish sowndes, 
Forcibly driven with c<mtrarie tides, 
Do meet together, each aback relwnnds 
With roaring rage, and dashing on all sides, 
That fiUeth all the sea with foam, divides 
The doubtAil current into divers wayes. 

Spenser^ F. ^., b. iv. e. i. st 4S. 
* Popes and Cardinals.l Ariosto having personified Ava* 
tiee as a strange and hideons monster, says ofher : 
Pe^o &cea nella Romana corte, 
Che v*avea ncdsi Cardinali e'^jrf. 

Orl. Far., e. JcxvL tt 39; 
Worse did she in the Court of Rome, for there 
She had slain Popes and Cardinals. 

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And to all knowledge indiscemible. 
For ever they shall meet in this rude shock : 
These from the tomb with clenched grasp shall risoi 
Those with close-shaven locks. That ill they gave^ 
And ill they kept, hath of the beauteous world 
Deprived, and set them at this strife, which needs 
No labored phrase of mine to set it o& 
Now mayst thou see, my son ! how brief, how mint 
The goods committed into Fortune's hands. 
For which the human race keep such a coil ! 
Not all the gold* that is beneath the moon. 
Or ever hath been, of these toil-worn souls 
Might purchase rest for one." I thus rejoined: 
" My guide ! of thee this also would I learn ; 
This Fortune, that thou speak'st of, what it is, 
Whose talons grasp the blessings of the world." 
He thus : " O beings blind ! what ignorance 
Besets you ! Now my judgment hear and mark. 
He, whose transcendent wisdom^ passes all, 
The heavens creating, gave them ruling powers 
To guide them ; so that each part* shines to eaoh. 
Their light in equal distribution pour'd. 
By similar appointment he ordain'd, 
Over the world's bright images to rule, 
Superintendence of a guiding hand 
And general minister,^ which, at due time, • 
May change the empty vantages of life 
From race to race, from one to other's blood, 
Beyond prevention of man's wisest care : 
Wherefore one nation rises into sway, 
Another languishes, e'en as her will 
Decrees, from us conceal'd, as in the grass 
The serpent tram. Against her naught avails 
Tour utmost wisdom. She with foresight plans, 

1 J^ot all the gold,} Tatto roro ch' i sotto la luna 
For all the gode under the ccdde mone. 

Ckaueert Legende of Hypermnutf, 
^ Heywhoae tranacenimt wisdom.] Compare Frezzi: 

Die i prime' prince in ogni parte 

Sempro e m tatto, &c. 

n Quadrir.y lib. ii. cap. it. 
> Each part.] Each hemisphere ofthe heavens shines npMi 
that hemisphere of the earth which is placed under it. 

* Oeneral minister.] Lombard! cites an apposite passage 
flpom Augnstin* D4 Civitate Dei, lib. v. :— " Nos eas caasaa, 
41UB dicuntor fortaitaB (unde etiam fortona nomen accept^ 
Bon didrnns nallas, sed latentss, easque triboimns, vel ved 
Dei, vel qoommlibet kpiritmim volontatL** 

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8»^U7. HELL, Canto VIL (ff 

Jodgee, and carries on her reign, as theirs 

The other powers divine. Her changes know 

None intermission : by necessity^ 

She is made swift, so frequent come who claim 

Succession in her fayors. This is she, 

So execrated e>n by those whose debt 

To her is rather praise : they wrongfully 

With blame requite her, and with evil word ; 

But she is blessed, and for that recks not : 

Amidst the other primal beings glad, 

Rolls on her sphere, and in her bliss exults. 

Now on our way pass we^ to heavier wo 

Descending: for each star^ is falling now, 

That mounted at our entrance, and forbids 

Too long our tarrying." We ihe drcle croBB*d 

To the next steep, arriving at a well, 

That boiling pours itself down to a foss 

Sluiced from its source. Far murkier was the wave 

Than sablest grain : and we in company 

Of the inky waters, journeying by tiieir side. 

Entered, though by a different track,' beneath. 

Into a lake, the Stygian named, expcmds 

The dismal stream, when it hath reached the foot 

Of the gray withered cli£5s. Intent I stood 

To gaze, and in the marish sunk descried 

A miry tribe, all naked, and with looks 

Betokening rage. They with their hands alone 

Struck not, but with the head, the breast, the feet, 

Cuttmg each other piecemeal with their fangs. 

> By necessity.} This sentiment called forth the Femehen 
■ion of Francesco Stabili, commonly called Cecco d^AseoB 
in his Acerba, lib. i. c. i. 

In cib peecasti, O Fiorentin poeta, 

Ponendo cbe li ben della fortuna^ 

Necessitati sieno con lor meta. 

Non h forttma, cni ragion non vinca. 

Or pensa Dante, se prova nessnna 

Si pab piu fare che qaesta convinca. 

Herein, O bard of Florence, didst thou err, 

Laying it down that fortune's largesses 

Are fated to their goal. Fortune is none, 

That reason cannot conqacr. Mark thoa, Dante, 

If any axgoment may gainsay this, 
s Eeuih star.] So Boccaccio : " Giu ogoi Stella a cader co- 
nincib, che salia." Dec. G. 3, at the end. 

* ^ digsrent track.\ Una via diversa. Some uodentaiid 
this *'a strange path;*' as the word is ased in the prece- 
ding. Canto; "fiera cradele e diverse,** ** monster fierce and 
strange :** and In the Vita Naova, "visi divers! ed oniUlfa 
vedere," " visages Btranffft and horrible to see.'* 

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fi6 THE VISION. ll»-]3t 

The good instractor spake : *' Now leett thoa, ma 
The sonb of those, whom anger overcame; 
This too for certain know, that underneath 
The water dwells a multitude, whose sighs 
Into these bubbles make the surface heave. 
As thine eye tells thee wliereeoe'er it turn. 
Fix'd in the slime, they say : * Sad once were W6» 
* In the sweet air made gladscmie by the sun, 
' Carrying a foul and lazy mist within : 
< Now in these murky settlings are we sad.' 
Such dolorous stram they gurgle m their throats, 
But word distmct can utt«r none." Our route 
Thus compAss'd we, a segment widely stretoh'd 
Between tiie dry embanlunent, and the core 
Of the loath'd pool, tummg meanwhile our eyes 
Downward on those who ^p*d its muddy lees ; 
Nor stopp'd, till to a towePs low base we came. 



A signal havhig been made from the tower, Phlegyas, the 
ferryman of the lake, speedily crosses it, and conveys Vir- 
gil and Dante to the other side. On their passage, they 
meet with Filiiqpo Argenti, whose Airy ana torment are 
described. They then arrive at the city of Dis, the en- 
trance whereto is denied, and the portals closed against 
ttiem by many Demons. 

My theme pursuing,* I relate, that ere 
We reach'd the lofty turret's base, our eyes 
Its height ascended, where we marked uphung 
Two cressets, and another saw from far 

> Mf theme pureiung.} It is related by some of the earl; 
commentators, that the seven preceding Cantos Were found 
at Florence after oar Poet's banishment, by some one, who 
. was searching over his papers, which were left in that city : 
that by this person they were taken to Dino Frescobaldi ; and 
that he, being much delighted with them, forwarded them to 
the Marchese Morello Malaspina, at whose entreaty the poem 
was resmned. This account, though very circumstantially 
related, is rendered improbable by the prophecy of Ciacco in 
the sixth Canto, which must have been written after the 
events to which it alludes. The manner in which the pres- 
ent Canto opens furnishes no proof of the truth of the report ; 
for, as Maflei remaiks in his Osservazloni Letterarie, tom. IL 
p. 249, refeired to by Lombardi, it might as well be affirmed 
that Ariotto was intenupted in his Orlando FurioeOi because 
he begins c xvin 

Dico la bella storia ripigllando 
Xadc xxU. 

Ma tonaado al lavar« che vario onUseo 

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»>4S. HELL, Cakto VIIL 89 

Retvm tfao tigna], so remote, that scaiee 
The eye could catch its beam. I, turning roond 
To the deep source of knowledge, thus mquired : 
*' Say what this means ; and what that other light 
In answer set : what agency doth this ?" 

" There on the filthy waters," he replied, 
«< E'en now what next awaits us mayst thou see. 
If the niarsh-gender'd fog conceal it not." 

Never was arrow from the cord dismissed, 
That ran its way so nimbly through the air. 
As a small bark, that through the waves I spied 
Toward us coming, under the sole sway 
Of one that ferried it, who cried aloud : [gya«>' 

"Art thou arrived, feU spirit ?"—" Phlegyas, Phle« 
This time thou criest in vain," my lord r^ied ; 
" No longer shalt thou have us, but while o'er 
The slimy pool we pass." As one who hears 
Of some great wrong he htith sustain'd, whereat 
Inly he pmes ; so Phlegyas inly pined 
In his fierce ire. My guide, descendmg, stepped 
Into the skifi^ and bstde me enter next. 
Close at his side ; nor, till my entrance, seem'd . 
The vessel freighted. Soon as both embark'd, 
Cutting the waves, goes on the ancient prow. 
More deeply than with others it is wont. 

While we our course^ o'er the dead channel held. 
One drench'd in mire before me came, and said : 
" Who art thou, that thus comest ere thine hour?" 

I answer'd : " Though I come, I tarry not ; 
Bnt who art thou, that art become so foul?" 

" One, as thou seest, who mo^un :" he straight 

To which I thus : " In mounung and m wo. 
Curst spirit I tarry thou. I know thee well. 
E'en thus in filth disguised." Then stretch'd he forth 
Hands to the bark ; whereof my teacher sage 
Aware, thrusting him back : " Away ! down there 
To the other dogs !" then, with his arms my neck 
Encircling, kiss'd my cheek, and spake : ** O soul, 
Justly disdainful ! blest was she in whom 

^ Phl^at.] Phlegyas, who was so incensed againaC Apol- 
lo, for having violated his daughter Coronis, that he set fire to 
the temple of that deity, by whose vengeance he was cast 
Into Tartams. See Virg. iEn., 1. vi. 618. 
- * JVkiU we our course.} 

Solcando noi per quella morta gora. 

JFWzzi // Q:iutdnr.t lib. it cap. 7. 

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Thou wast ccmoeived.^ He in the world i«m odo 

For arrogance noted : to his memory 

No virtue lends its lustre ; even so 

Here b his shadow furious. There above, 

How many now hold themselves mighty kings. 

Who here like swine shall wallow in the mire, 

leaving behind them horrible dispraise." 

I then : '* Master ! him fain would I beheld 
Whelm'd in these dregs, before we quit the lake " 
' He thus : " Or ever to thy view the shore 
Be offered, satisfied shall be that wish. 
Which well deserves completion." Scarce his wordf 
Were ended, when I saw the miry tribes 
Set on him with such violence, that yet 
For that render I thanks to Grod, and praise 
« To Filippo Aigenti !"* cried they all : 
And on himself the moody Florentine 
Tum*d his avenging fangd. Him here we 1^, 
Nor speak I of i^m more. But on mine ear 
Sudden a sound of lamentation smote, 
Whereat mine eye unbarr'd I sent abroad. 

And thus the good instructor : " Now, my sou. 
Draws near the city, that of Dis is named,' 
With its grave denizens, a mighty throng." 

I thus : " The minarets already. Sir ! 
There, certes, in the valley I descry, 
Gleaming vermilion, as if they from fire 
Had issued." He replied : " £t3mal fire, 
That inward bums, ^ows them with ruddy flame 
Illumed ; as in this nether hell thou seest" 

We came within the fosses deep, that moat 
This region comfortless. The walls appeared 
As' they were framed of uron. We had made 
Wide circuit, ere a place we reached, where loud 
The mariner cried vehement : " Gro forth : 
The entrance is here." Upon the gates I spied 

Thou toast conceived.} " Che 'n te s'incinse." Several (tf 
the commentators have stumbled at this word, which is the 
same as *' enceinte'* in French, and " inciens*' in Lato. For 
Diany instances in which it is thns used, see the notes on 
Bocca<xio's Decameron, p. 101, m the Ginnti edhion, 1573. 

* FUivpo ^rgenti.] Boccaccio tells us, ** he was a man re- 
markable for the large proportions and extraordinary vigor of 
his bodily firame, and the extreme waywardness and irascibil- 
ity of his temper." . Decam., g. ix. n. 8. 

> TVUeitify that of Dis is named.] SoAriosto. Oil.For.,c. 
tL St 33: Fatto era an stagno piii aicuro e bnMo, 
Pi quel ohe dnge la citt4 dl Dite. 

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fit-iet. HELL, Canto VUL 9| 

More than a thotuand, -vdio of old from heaven 
Were showered.* With ireful gestures, «*Who it 
this/* [through 

They cried, "that, without death first felt, goes 
The regions of the dead ?" My sapient goide 
Made sign that he for secret purley wi^'d ; • 
Whereat their angry scorn abating, thus 
They spake : " Come thou alone ; and let him go. 
Who hath so hardily enter*d this realm. 
Alone return he by his witless way ; 
If well he know it, let him prove. For thee, 
Here sha^t thou tarry, who through clime so dark 
Hast been his escort." Now bethink thee, reader ! 
What cheer was mine at sound of those curst words 
I did believe I never should return. 

" O my loved guide ! who more than seven timee^ 
Security hast render'd me, and drawn 
From peril deep, whereto I stood exposed. 
Desert me not," I cried, " in this extreme. 
And, if our onward going be denied. 
Together trace we back our steps with speed." 

My liege, who thither had conducted me. 
Replied ; " Fear not : for of our passage none 
Hath power to disappoint us, by such nigh 
Authority permitted. But do thou 
Expect me here ; meanwhile, thy wearied spirit 
Comfort, and feed with kindly hope, assured 
I wjU not leave thee in this lower world." 

This said, departs the sire benevolent. 
And quits me. Hesitating I remain 
At war, 'twixt will and will not,* in my thoughts. 

- From neaven 

Were shotDer'd.} Da ciel piovatl. 
Thus Frezzi : 

li maladetti piovntl da clclo. 

// Quad., lib. iv. cap. 4 
And Puici, in the passage cited in the note Uf C. xzi. 117. 

• Seven times.] The commentators, says Ventnri, perplei 
themselves with the inquiry, what seven perils these were 
f^ora which Dante had been delivered by Virgil. Reckoning 
the beasts in the first Canto as one of them, and adding Cha 
ron, Minos, Cerberus, Plntns, Phlegyas, and Filippo Argenti, 
as so many others, we shall have the number ; and if ttads be 
not satisfactory, we may suppose a determinate to have beea 
put for an- indeterminate number. 
» ^t war Hwixt vUl and will not,\ 

Che si, e nb nel capo mi tenzona. 
Thus our Poet in his eighth Canzone : 

Ch* il si, eU nb tiitutto in vostra mano 
Ha posto taaoxe 

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I could not hear what terms he o^r'd them, 
But they conferred not long, for all at once 
Pellmell' rush'd back withm. Closed were the gateOi 
By those our adversaries, on the breast 
Of my liege lord : excluded, he retum'd 
To me with tardy steps. Upon the ground 
His eyes were bent, and from his brow erased 
All confidence, while thus in sighs he spake : 
** Who hath denied me these abodes of wo?" 
Then thus to me ; " That I am anger'd, think 
No ground of terror : m this trial I 
ShaU vanquish, use what arts they may within 
For hind'rance. This their msolence, not new..* 
Erewhile at gate less secret they di^la/d, 
Which still is without bolt ; upon its arch 
Thou saw'st the deadly scroll : and even now, 
On this side of its entrance, down the steep. 
Passing the circles, unescorted, comes 
One whose strong might can open us this land." 


After some hinderances, and having seen the hellish fVuiet 
and other monsters, the Poet, by the help of an angel, 
enters the city of Dis, wherein he discovers that the hero- 
tics are punished in tombs burning with intense fire : and 
he, together with Virgil, passes onward between the sep 
uichres and the walls of the city. 

The hue,* which coward dread on my pale cheeks 
Imjmnted when I saw my guide turn back, « 
Chased that from his which newly they had worn. 

And Boccaccio, Ninf. Fiesol., st. 233 : 

II 81 e il nb nel capo gll contende. 

The words I have adopted as a translation, are Sbak 
8peare*s, Measure for Measure, a. ii. s. 1. 

» PelltiulLt «Apruova. "Certatim." "ATenvl." I had 
before translated, '* To trial ;** and have to thank Mr. Carlyle 
for detecting the error. 

3. This their insolence^ not new."] Virgil assures our Poet, 
that these evil spirits had formerly shown the same insolence 
when our Saviour descended into hell. They attempted to 
prevent him from entering at the gate, over which Dante had 
read the fatal inscription. "That gate \\hich,** says the 
Roman poet, ** an angel had just pawed, by whose aid we 
shall overcome this opposition, and gain admittance into the 

* The hue,] Virgil, perceiving that Dante was pale with 
fear, restrained those outward t<dcens of displeasiire whlek 
hit own coontenance had betrayed. 

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«-3d HELL, Cakto DC M 

And inwardly reetrain'd it He, as one 
Who listens, stood attentive : for his eye 
Not far could bad him through the sable air, 
And the thick-gathering cloud. <* It yet behooret 
We win this fight ;" thus he began : " if not. 
Such aid to us is olSferU — Oh ! how long 
Me seems it, ere the promised help arrive." 

I noted, how the sequel of his words 
Cloaked their beginnmg ; for the last he spake 
Agreed not with the firat. But not the less 
My fear was at his saying ; sith I drew 
To import worse, perchance, than that he held, 
H» mutilated speech. " Doth ever any 
Into this rueful concave's extreme depth 
Descend, out of the first degree, whose pain 
Is deprivation merely of sweet hope V 

Thus I inquiring. " Rarely," he replied, 
" It chances, that among us any makes 
This journey, which I wend. Erewhile, 'tis true, 
Once came I here beneath, conjured by fell 
Erictho,^ sorceress, who compell'd the shades 
Back to their bodies. No long space my flesh 
Was naked of me,' when within these walls 
She made me enter, to draw forth a spirit 
From out of Judas' circle. Lowest place 
Is that of all, obscurest, and removed 
Farthest from heaven's all-circling orb. The road 
Full well I know : thou therefore rest secure. 
That lake, the noisome stench exhaling, round 
The city of grief encompasses, which now 
We may not fenter without rage." Yet more , 

He added : but I hold it not in mind. 
For that mme eye toward the lofty tower 
Had drawn me wholly, to its burning top , 
Where, in an instant, I beheld uprisen 

1 ErietAo.] Erictho, a Thessalian sorceress, according to 
Lnean, Pharsal., I. vi., was employed by Sextus, son of Pom- 
pey the Great, to conjure up a spirit, who should inform him 
of the issue of the civil wars between his father and Cesar. 

> ^o long 8pae4 myfieth 

Was naked of me.] 

Qus corpus complexa anime tarn fortis inane. 

Ovid, Met., 1. ziii. fab. 2. 
Dante appears to have fallen into an anachronism. Virgirs 
death did not happen till long after this period. But Lom< 
bardi shows, in opposition to the other commentators, that 
the only apparent. Erictho might well have 
survived the battle of Pharsalia long enough to be employed 
In her magical pnc¥ces at the time of Vu^U's decease. 

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94 THE VISION. 30-« 

At unce three hellish furies stain'd with hhjodt 
In limb and motion feminine they seem'd ; 
Around them greenest hydras t^nsting roU*d 
Their volumes ; adders and cerastes^ crept 
Instead of hair^ and their fierce temples bound. 

He, knowing well the miserable hags 
Who tend the queen of endless wo, thus spake: 
" Mark thou each dire Erynnis. To the left. 
This is Megiera ; on the right hand, she 
Who wails, Alecto ; and Tisiphone 
r th' midst" This said, in silence he remain'd. 
Their breast they each one clawing tore; them- 
selves raised «] 
Smote with their palms, and such thrill clamot 
That to the bard I clung, suspicion-bound. 
** Hasten Medusa : so to adamant 
Him shall we change ;*' all looking down exclaimed: 
" E'en when by Theseus* might assailed, we took 
No ill revenge." " Turn thyself round, and keep 
Thy countenance hid : for if the Gorgon dire 
Be shown, and thou shouldst view it, thy return 
Upwards would be for ever lost" This said, 
Himself, my gentle master, tum*d me round ; 
Nor trusted he my hands, but with his own 
He also hid me. Ye of intellect 
Sound and entire, mark well thr ore' conceal'd 
Under dose texture of the mystic strain. 

And now there came o*er the perturbed waves 
Loud-crashing, terrible, a sound that made 

1 Adders vui cerastes.] 
Vipereom crlnem vittis innexa craentis. 

Firg. JEn., 1. vl. 381. 

spin&qae vasi torqnente cerasts 

• * '^ * ^* * * 

♦ ♦ ♦ et torrida dipsas 

Et gravis in geminiun vergens caput amphisbaena. 

Zucan, Phars(U.t 1. ix. 710 
go Milton : 

Scorpion and asp, and amphisbaena dire, 
Cerastes homM, hydras and elops drear, 

And dipsas. P. Z,., b. x. 5S4 

s The lore.} The poet probably intends to call the reader • 
attention to the allegorical and mysUc sense of the present 
Canto, and not, as Ventnri supposes, to that of the whole 
work. Landino supposes this hidden meaning to be, that in 
the case of those vices whicb proceed from incontinence and 
Intemperance, reason, which Is figured under the person of 
Virgil, with the ordinary grace of God, may be a sufficient 
sa^Suard ; but that in the instance of more heinous crimes, 
such at those we shall hereafter see punished, a special 
grace, represented by the angel, is requisite for our defence. 

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WMI7. HELL, Canto IX. 9^ 

Either shore tremble, as if of a wind' 
Impetuous, from conflicting vapors sprung, 
That 'gainst some forest driving all his mig^t, 
Plucks off the branches, beats them down, and hutlt 
Afar f then, onward passing, proudly sweeps 
His whirlwind rage, while beasts and shepherds fly. 

Mine eyes he loosed, and spake : ** And now direct 
Thy visual nerve along that ancient foam. 
There, thickest where the smoke ascends." As frogs 
Before their foe the serpent, through the wave 
Ply swiftly all, till at the ground each one 
Lies on a heap ; more than a thousand spirits 
Destroy'd, so saw I fleeing before one 
Who pass'd with unwet feet the Stygian sound 
He, from his face removing the gross air. 
Oft his left hand forth stretch'd, and seem'd alone 
By that annoyance wearied. ' I perceived 
That he was sent from heaven ; and to my guide 
Tum*d me, who signal made, that I should stand 
Quiet, and bend to him. • Ah me ! how full 
Of noble anger seem'd he. To the gate 
He came, and with his wand* touched it, whereat 
Open without unpedunent it flew. 

" Outcasts of heaven ! O abject race, and scornM !** 
Began he, on the horrid grunsel standing, 
" Whence doth this wild excess of insolence 
Lodge in you? wherefore kick you 'gainst that will 
Ne'er frustrate of its end, and which so oft 
Hath laid on you enforcement of your pangs? 
What profits, at the fates to butt the horn? 
Your Cerbertis,* if ye remember, hence 

^jSwind.\ Imitated by Bemi: 

Com' un grappo di vento in la marina 

L* onde, e le navi sottosopra caccia, 

Ed in terra con fniia repentina 

Gli arbori abbatte, svegiie, sfronda e straccia. 

Smarriti fuggon i lavoratori 

£ per le selve le fiere e' pastori. Orl, Inn^ lib. i. c. ii. st & 
« ^far.] *' Porta i fiori," " carries away the blossoms," is 
the common reading. "Porta Aiori," which is the right 
reading, adopted by Lombardi in his edition from the Nido* 
beatina, for which he claims it exclusively, I had also seen - 
in LandiBo's edition of 1^84, and adopted from thence, long 
before it was my chance to meet with Lombardi. 

* With his toand.] 

She with her rod did softly smite the raile,* 

Which straight flew ope. Spenser, F. Q., b. iv. c. iii. st 4& 

* Tour Cerberus.'] Cerberus is feigned to have been dragged 
by Hercules, bound with a threefold chain, of which, sayt 
the angel, he still bears the marks. 

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Bean iitill, peePd of their hair, hb throat and maw** 

This said, he tum'd back o*er the filthy way, 
And syllable to ua spake none ; but wore 
The semblance of a man by other care 
Beset, and keenly press'd, than thought of him 
Who in his presence stands. Then we our step* 
Toward that territory moved, secure 
After the hallow'd words. We, unopposed, 
There enter'd ; and, my mind eager to learn 
What state a fortress like to that might hold, 
1, soon as enter'd, throw mine eye around, 
And see, on every part, wide-stretching space, 
Replete with bitter pam and torment ill. 

As where Rhone stagnates on the plahis of Arlee, 
Or as at Fola,* near Quarnaro's gulf. 
That closes Italy and laves her ^unds. 
The place is all thick spread with sepulchres ; 
So was it here, save what in horror here 
ExceU'd : for *midst the graves were scattered flames. 
Wherewith intensely all throughout they bum*d,* 
That iron for no craft there hotter needs. 

Their lids all hung suq>ended ; and beneath, 
From them forth issued lamentable moans. 
Such as the sad and tortured well might raise. 

I thus : " Master ! say who are these, interred 
Within these vaults, of whom distmct we hear 
The dolorous sighs." He answer thus retum'd : 

Lombardl blanies the other interpreters for having rap- 
posed that the angel attributes this exploit to Hercules, a 
fabulous hero, rather than to our Saviour. It would seem as 
if the good father had forgotten that Cerberus is himself no 
less a creature of the imagination than the hero who en 
countered him. 

» The plains of Arle*.] In Provence. See Ariosto, OrL 
Fur.,c. xxxix. st.73: 

Fu da ogni parte in quest* ultima guerra 
(Benche la cosa non fu ngual divisa, 
Ch* assai piu andar dei Saracin sotterra 
Per man di Bradamante e di Marfisa) 
Se ne vede ancor segno in quella terra, 
Che presso ad Arii, ove 11 Rodano stagna, 
Plena di sepolture 6 la campagna. 
Iliese sepulchres are mentioned in the Life of Charlemagne, 
which goes under the name of Archbishop Tnrpin, cap. 28 and 
30, and by Fazio degli Uberti, Dittamondo. L. iv. cap. xxi. 

s .at Pola.i A city of Istria, situated near the gulf of 
Qnarnaro, in the Adriatic sea. 

s T^ bum'd.] Mr. Darley observes, that in the Incanta« 
tion of Her\'or (vide Northern Antiguitles, vol. ii.) the spUrll 
uf Angantyr lies in a tomb '* all on fire.** 

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lSS-131. HELL, Canto X. 07 

** The arch-heretics are here, accompanied 
By every sect their followers ; and much more, 
Than thou helieyest, the tombs are freighted : lik« 
With like is buried ; and the monuments 
Are different in degrees of heat" This said. 
He to the right hand turning, on we pass'd 
Betwixt the afflicted and the ramparts high. 


Dante, haviag obtained permission from his guide, .lolds dt^^ 
coarse with Fafinata degli Uberti and Cavalcante Caval- 
canti, who lie in their Ifery tombs that are yet open, and 
not to be closed np till after the last judgment. Farinata 
predicts the Poet*s exile from Florence;. and shows him 
that the condemned have knowledge of future things, but 
are ignorant of what is at present passing, unless it be re^ 
veal^ by s<Hne new-comer uom earth. 

Now by a secret pathway we proceed, 
Between the walls, that hem the region round, 
And the tormented souls : my master first, 
I close behind his steps. ** Virtue supreme !" 
I thus began : " who through these ample orbs 
In circuit lead'st me, even as thou will'st ; 
Speak thou, and satisfy my wish. May those, 
Who lie within these sepulchres, be seen 7 
Already all the lids are raised, and none 
O'er them keeps watch." He thus in answer spake i 
'< They shall be dosed all, what-time they here 
From Josaphat* returned riiall come, and bring 
Their bodies, which above they now have left. 
The cemetery on this part obtain, 
With Epicurus, all his followers. 
Who with the body make the roirit die. 
Here therefore satisfaction shall be soon, 
Both to the question ask*d, and to the wish* 

^ JosttphatJ] t seems to have been a common opinion 
among the Jew&. as well as among many Christians, tliat the 

Seneral Judgment will be held in the valley of Josaphat, or 
ehoshaphat : *' I will also gather all nations, and will bring 
them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat, and will plead 
with them there for my people,, and for my heritage Israel, 
whom they have scattered among the nations, and parted my 
Iand.»' Joel,iii. 2. 

s T%e with.] The wish, that Dante had not expressed, was 
to see and converse with the followers of Epicurus; among 
whom, we shall see, were Farinata degU Uberti and Caval* 
cante Cavalcanti. 


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WhiCQ thoa oonoeal'st in silence." I replied : 
" I keep not, guide beloTed ! from thee my heart 
Secreted, but to shun vain length of words ; 
A lesson erewhile taught me by thyselfl" 

» O Tuscan ! thou, who throuj^ the city of fira 
Alive art passing, so discreet of speech : 
Here, please thiM, stay awhile. Thy utteranee 
Declares the place of thy nativity 
To be that noble land, with which perchance 
I too severely dealt." Sudden that sound 
Forth lEBued from a vault, whereat, in fear, 
I somewhat closer to my leader's side [Turn 

Approaching, he thus spake: <<What dost thoul 
Lo ! Farinata^ there, who hath himself 
Uplifted : from his girdle upwards, all 
Exposed, behold him." On his face was mine 
Already fix'd : his breast and forehead there 
Erectmg, seem'd as in high scorn he held 
E'en hell. Between the sepulchres, to him 
My guide thrust me, with fearless hands and prcnnpC j 
This warning added : '* See thy words be clear." 

He, soon as there I stood at the tomb's foot. 
Eyed me a space ; then in disdamful mood 
Address'd me : *' Say what ancestors were thme.** 

I, willing to obey him, straight reveal'd 
The whole, nor kept back aught : whence he, his 

Somewhat uplifting, cried : '* Fiercely were they 
Adverse to me, my party, and the blood 
From whence I sprang : twice,* therefore, I abroad 
Scattered them." " Though driven out, yet they 

each time 
From all parts," answer'd I, '* retum'd ; an art 
Which yours have shown they are not skill'd to learn.* 

1 Fbrinata.] Fuln&ta degli TJbertI, a noUe Flovontine^ 
was the leader of the GhibelUiie fkctkm, when they obtained 
a ilsnal victory over the Gnelfi at Montaperto, near the liver 
Arbia. BlacchiavelU calls him " a man .of exalted soul, and 

Kat military talents.*' Hist, of Flor^ b. 11. His nandsoa, 
nifado, or, as be is commonly called, Fazio degu Ubertl, 
wrote a poem, entitled the IMttamondo, in imitation of Dante. 
I shall have Oequent occasion to refer to it throaghoat 
those notes. At the conclusion of cap. 97, 1, ii, he makes 
menticHi of his ancestor Faiinata. See note to life of Dante, 
p. S8. 

• T»nee.\ The first time in 1248, when they wero drivea 
oat by Frederick the Second. See G. VUlani, lib. vi. e 34* 
and tho second time in 1960. See note to v. 83. 

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tt-64. HELL, Camto X. 9t 

Then, peering forth from the unckwed jaw, 
ftoee from his side a shade/ high as the chin, 
Leaning, methought, upon its knees upraised. 
It look'd around, aa eager to exi^ore 
If there were other with me ; but perceiving 
That fond imagination quench'd, with tears 
Thus spake : " If thou through this blind prison go'st, 
Led by thy lofty genius and profound. 
Where is my son !* and wherefore not with thee Y* 

I straight replied : " Not of myself I come ; 
By him, who thero expects me, throi^h this clime 
Conducted, whom perchance Guide thy son 
Had m contempt"^ Already had his words 
And mode of punishment resui me his name, 

1 jS shade.'] The spirit of Cavalcante Cavalcantl, a noble 
Fknentine, of the Goelph party. 

s Jfy tonJ] Guido, the son of Cavalcante CavalcantI ; *' he 
whom I call the first of my (Heads,** says Dante in his Vita 
Nuova, where the commencement of their friendship is re- 
lated. From the character given of him by contemporary 
writers, his temper was weii formed to assimilate with that 
of oar poet. "^He was,** according to 6. Viliani, lib. tIU. c. 
41, "of a philosophical and elegant mind, if he had not been 
too delicate and fostidious.** And I^o Oompagni terms him 
** a young and noble knight, brave and coorteoos, bat of a 
lofty, acfxnftd spirit, much addicted to solitude and study.*' 
Moratori, Ber. Ital. Script, t 9, Ub. i. p. 481. He died, either 
in e^e at Serrazana, or soon after his retnm to Florence, 
December, 1900, daring the spring of which year the action 
of this poem is supposed to be passing. 

* Outdo thy son 

Had in contempt.'] 

Guido CavalcantI, being more given to philosophy than 
poetry, was, perhaps, no ereat admirer of Virgil. Some po- 

his repntauon for sUU in the art was such as to eclipse that 
of his predecessor and namesake, Guido Guinicelli ; as we 
shall see in the Purgatory, Canto xi., in the notes to which 
the reader will find specimens of the poems that have been 
left by each of these writers. His " Canzone sopra U Ter* 
reno Amore*^ was thought worthy of being illustrated by nu- 
merous and ample commentaries. Cresclmbeni, 1st della 
Volg. Foes., lib. V. 

Our Author addressed him in a playful sonnet, of whieh 
the fUlowing spirited translation is found In the notes ts 
Hayley*s Essay on Epic Poetry, Ep. ilL : 
Henry! 1 wish that yon, and Charles, and I, 

By some sweet spell within a bark were placed, 

A gallant bark with magic virtue graced. 

Swift at our will with every wind to fly ; 
00 that no changes of the shitting sky. 

No stormy tenKws of the watery waste, 

IQjght bar our course, but heighten still our taste 

Ofsprightly joy, and of our social tie : 

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Whence I so fully aii8wer*d. He at once 
Excl&imM, npetarting : " How ! said'st thou, he had 7^ 
No longer lives he ? Strikes not on his eye 
The blessed daylight ?" Then, of some delay 
I made ere my reply, aware, down fell 
Supine, nor after forth appeared he more. 

Meanwhile the other, great of soul, near whom 
I yet was station*d, changed not countenanco steiq« 
Nor moved the neck, nor bent his ribbed side. 
" And if,'' continuing the first discourse, 
" They in this art," he cried, ** small skill have shown ; 
That doth torment me more e'en than this bed. 
But not yet fifty times' shall be relumed 
Her aspect, who reigns here queen of this realm,' 
Ere thou shalt know the full weight of that art 
So to the pleasant world mayst thou return,^ 

Then that my Lucy, Lucy &ir and fi-ee, 

With those soft nymphs, on whom year souls are bent, 

The kind magician might to us convey, 
To talk of love throughout the live-long day; 

And that each fair might be as well content, 

As I in truth believe our hearts would be. 

The two friends, here called Henry and Charles, are, in the 
original, Gnido and Lapo, concerning the latter m whom, see 
the Life of Dante prefixed ; and Lucy is Monna Bice. 

A more literal versicm of the sonnet may be found in the 
**Canzonlere of Dante, translated by Charles Lyell, Esq.'* 
dvo, London, 1835, p. 407. 

1 Said^st thou^ he had? I In .£schylus, the shade of Darius 
Is reixesented as inquiring with similar anxiety after the fiite 
of his son Xerxes : 

AtosMCk, "iHovdia ii H/pftfv f/My^itfy ^eiv oh roXXCiv iiha-^ 

Darius, Ilfi; it S^ Kai trot riXwr^v ; hrri ris ournpfa ; 

II£P2!AI. 741, Btootn/ieUPs EdiL 

Jltossa. Xerxes astonishM, desolate, alone [safel 

OhettofDar. How will this end 1 Nay, pause not Is he 
The Persians. PoUei's Translation, 

* JTot yet fifty tinus.'\ *' Not fifty months shall be passed 
before thou shalt learn, by wotol experience, the difficulty 
of returning firom banishment to thy native city.** 

* Quem of this realm.\ The moon, one of whose titles in 
heathen mythology, was Proserpine, queen of the shadae 

* So to the pleasant world mayst thou return.] 

E se tu viai nel dulce nK»ndo reggi. 
Lombard! would construe this : ** And if thou ever remain 
In the pleasant worid.** His chief reasons for thus deparUng 
from the common interpretation, are, first, that **se'* in the 
sense of "so** cannot be followed by **mai,*' any more than 
In Latin, ''sie** can be followed by ''unquam y* and next, 
that "leggl** Is too nnlUn "riedi** to be put for it A mora 

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i I 

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61-«3. HELL, CAirre X £01 

As thoQ flhalt tell me why, in all their laws, 
Against my kin this people is so fell." 

« The slaughter^ and great hayoc,** I replied, 
*' That colored Arbia's flood with crimson staiiv— 
To these impute, that in our hallowed dome 
Such orisons' ascend." Sighing he shook 
The head, then thus resumed : " In that affiuy 
I stood not singly, nor, without just cause. 
Assuredly, should with the rest have stirr'd ; 
But singly there I stood,* when, by consent 
Of all, f'lorence had to the ground been razed. 
The one who openly forbade the deed." 

** So may thy lineage^ find at last repose," 

intimato aemiaiiitence with the early Florentine writers waold 
have tanghthUn that "maLV is'osed in other senses than those 
which '' nnquani*' appears to have had, particolarly in that 
of " pur," " yet;** as may be seen in the notes to the Decam- 
eron, p. 43, Ed. Gionti, 1573 ; and that the old writers both ol 
prose and verse changed *' riedo** into " reggio,*' as of ** fiedo** 
they made ** feggio.*' Inf., c. xv. v. 39, and c. xvii. v. 75. See 
paae 98 of the same notes to the Decameron, where a poet 
before Dante*s time is said to have translated "Redeunt 
flores,** " Reggiono i fiorL** 

1 The slaughter.] " By means of Farinata degli Ubertl, 
the Gnelfi were conquered by the army of king Manfiredi, 
near the river Arbia, with so great a slaughter, that those 
who escaped from that defeat took refuge, not in Florence, 
which city they considered as lost to them, but in Lucca.*' 
Hacchiavelli, Hist of Flor., b. ii., and G. Viliani, Ub. vi. c* 
Izzx. and Ixxxi. 

s Sneh orisons.] This appears to allude to certain prayers 
which were offered up in the churches of Florence, for delir- 
erance from the hostile attempts of the Uberti : or, it may be, 
that the public councils being held in churches, the speeches 
delivered in them against the Uberti are termed " orisons,** or 

' Sifurly there I stood.] Guido Novello assembled a council 
(tf the Ghibeliini atEmpoli ; where it was agreed by all, that, 
in order to maintain the ascendency of the Ghibelline party 
in Tuscany, it was necessary to destroy Florence, wliich could 
serve only (the people of that city being Gnelfi) to enable the 
partv attached to the church to recover its strength. This 
cruel sentence, passed upon so noble a city, met With no op- 
position from any of its citizens or friends, except Farinata 
degli Ul)erti, who openly and without reserve forbade the 
measure ; affirming, that he had endured so many hardships, 
and encountered so many dangers, with no other view than 
that of being able to pass his days in his own country. Mao* 
ehiavelU, Hist, of Flor., b. ii. 

* 5.' may thy lineage.] 

Deh se riposi mal vostra semensa. 

Hero Lombanli is again mistaken, as at v. 80, above. Let 
ne take this occasion to api^ze the reader of Italian poetry, 
that one not well versed in it is very apt to misapprehend 

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103 THE VISION. y4-13i 

I thus adjured him, " as thou solve this knot, 
Which now involves my mind. If right I hear, 
Ye seem to view beforehand that which time 
Leads with him, of the present uninform d." 

" We view,* as one who hath an evil sight," 
He answered, " plamly, objects far remote ; 
So much of his large splendor yet imparts 
The Almighty Ruler : but when they appro&^» 
Or actually exist, our intellect 
Then wholly fails ; nor of your human state, 
Except what others bring us, know we aught 
Hence therefore mayst thou understand, that all 
Our knowledge in that instant shall expire, 
When on futurity the portals close." 

Then conscious of my fault,' and by remorse 
Smitten, I added thus : " Now shalt tiiou say 
To him there fallen, that his offspring still 
Is to the living join'd ; and bid him Imow, 
That if from answer, silent, I abstained, 
*Twas that my thought was occupied, intent 
Upon tliat error, which thy help hath solved." 

But now my master summoning me back 
I heard, and with more eager haste besought 
The spirit to inform me, who with him 
Partook his lot He answer thus returned : 
" More than a thousand with me here are laid. 
Within is Frederick,* second of that name, 

the word "sc,"as I think Cowperhas done in translaitog 
Milton*s Italian verses. A good instance of the diffei..nt 
meanings In which it is ns^ is afforded in the foUowtng 
lines by Bernardo Capello : 

E to, che dolcemente i fiori e 1* erba 

Ck>n licve corso mormorando bagni, 

Tranqulllo finme di vaghezza pieno ; 
Se'l clelo al mar si chiaro t' accompagni ; 

8e panto di pietade in te si serlui : 

Le mie lagrlme accogli entro ai tuo seno. 
Here the first *' se*' signifies '* so," an4 the second, ** if.*' 

* We vieio.] The departed spirits know things past and 
to come ; yet are Ignorant of things present. Agamemnon 
foretells what should happen unto Ulysses, yet ignorantly 
inqnires what is become of his own son." Brovn on Ume 
Burial, ch. iv. 

* My fattlt.] Dante felt remorse for not having returned an 
hnmediate answer to the inquiry of Cavalctmte, flrom which 
delay he was led to believe that his son Guido was no longer 

* I'Wderiek.i The Emperor Frederick the Second, w ho died 
kiiaSO. See notes to On ito xiii. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

lfU-138. HELL, Cabto XL 10| 

And the Lord Cardinal ;^ and of the rest 

I speak not** He, this said, firom sight withdrew. 

But I my steps toward the ancient bard 

Reverting, ruminated on the words 

Betokening me such ilL Onward he moved. 

And thus, in gomg, question'd: "Whence the amaz« 

Thatholdsthy senses wrapt?*' I satisfied 

The inquiry, and the sage enjoinM me straight : 

** Let thy safe memory store what thou hast heard 

To thee importing harm ; and note thou this," 

With his raised miger bidding me take heed, 

*< When thou shalt stand before her gracious beams 

Whose bright eye all surveys, she of thy life 

The future tenor will to thee unfold." 

F;«rthwith he to the left hand tnm'd his feet ; 
We left the wall, and towards the middle space 
Went by the patii that to a valley strikes, 
Which e'en thus high exhaled its noisome steam 



Dante arrives at the vene of a rocky precifdce which enckMes 
the seventh circle, where he sees the sepulchre of Anas- 
tasins the Heretic; behind the Ud of which pausing a 
little, to make himself capable by degrees of enduring the 
fetid smell that steamed upward firom the abyss, he b 
instructed by Virgil concenUng the manner in which the 
three {oMoynng curcles are disposed, and what description 
of sinners is punished in each. He then inquires the 
reason why the carnal, the cluttonous, the avaricious 
and prodigal, the wrathftd and jloomy, nfBdi not their 
punishments within the city of Sis. He next asks how 

X The Lord Cardinal,] Ottaviano Ubaldini, a Florentine, 
made cardinal in 1345, and deceased about 1S73. On account 
of his great influence, he was generally known by the appel- 
lation of "* the Cardinal.'* It is reported of him, that he de 
dared, if there were any such thing as a hxunan soul, he had 
lost his for the Ghibelllni. 

" I know not," says Tiraboschi, " whether It is on sufficient 
grounds that Crescimbeni numbers among the Poets of this 
age the Cardinal Uttaviano, cnr Ottaviano degli Ubaldinl, a 
Fl<Nrentine, archdeacon and procurator of the church of Bo- 
logna, afterwards made Cardinal by Innocent IV. in 1245, and 
employed in the most important public aflkirs, wherein, how- 
ever, he showed himself, more than became his character, a 
(kvorer of the Ghibellines. He died, not in the year 1272, as 
Claconio and other writers have reported, but at soonest aflef 
the July of 1273, at which time he was in Mugello with Pops 
Gregory X.** THrdbosehi Delia Poee, iLt Mr Mathiae* Editt 
tip. 140. 

* Mar graeiout beam.} Beatrice. 

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i04 THE VISION. l-» 

the crime of usury is an offence against God; and at 
length the two Poets go towards the place from whenee 
a passagis leads down to the seventh circle. 

Upon the utmost verge of a high bank, 
By craggy rocks enTiron*d round, we came, 
Where woes beneath, more cruel yet, were stow'd : 
And here, to shun the horrible excess 
Of fetid exhalation upward cast 
From the profound abyss, behind the lid 
Of a great monument we stood retired. 
Whereon this scroll I marked : " I have in eharge 
Pope Anastasins,' whom Photinus drew 
From the right path.'* — ** Ere our descent, behooves 
We make delay, that somewhat first the sense, 
To the dire breath accustomed, afterward 
Regard it not." My master thus ; to whom 
Answering I spake : " Some compensation find, 
That the time pass not wholly lost." He then : 
" Lo ! how ray thoughts e*en to thy wishes tend. 
My son ." Within these rocks," he thus began, 
" Are three close cu-cles in gradation placed. 
As these which now thou leavest Each one is full 
Of spirits accursed ; but that the sight alone 
Hereafter may suffice thee, listen how 
And for what cause in durance they abide 

" Of all malicious act abhorr'd in heaven. 
The end b injury ; and all such end 
Either by force or fraud* works other's wo 
But fraud, because of man peculiar evil, 
To God is more displeasing ; and beneath, 
The fraudulent are therefore doom'd to endure 
Severer pang. The violent occupy 

1 Pope ^nastaitius.] The commentators are not agreed 
concerning the person who is here mentioned as a foilowei 
of tl^ heretical Photinns. By some he is supposed to have 
been Anastasids the Second ; by others, the Fourth of that 
name ; while a third set, jealous of the Integrity of the papal 
faith, contend that our poet has confounded him with Anasta* 
slus I., Emperor of the East. Fazio degli Uberti, like oui 
author, makes him a pope : 

Anastasio papa in quel tempo era, 
Di Fotin vago a mai gradn de sul. 

Dittamondo, I. ii. cap. xiv. 

s My MM.] The remainder of the present Canto may be 
considered as a syllabus of the whole of this part of the 

3 Either by force or fraud.} "Cum antem duotnis modis, 
id est, tfnt vi, aut firaude fiat injuria . . . ntmmqiie homlnl 
alienissinnm ; sed firans odio digna majore." Cic. de Qf*, Itt 

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aMM. HELL, Camto XI 105 

AH the fint circle ; and because, to force, 

Three persons are obnozioas, in three rounds, 

Each withm other separate, is it framed. 

To God, his neighbor, and himself, by man 

Force may be offer'd ; to himself I say, 

And his possessions, as thou soon shalt hear 

At fulL Death, violent death, and painful wdundf 

Upon his neighbour he inflicts ; and wastes, 

By devastation, pillage, and the flames, 

tiis Tubstance. Slayers, and each one that smitM 

In malice, plunderers, and all robbers, hence 

The'torment undergo of the first round. 

In different herds. Man can do violence 

To himself and his own blessings : and for this, 

He, in the second round must aye deplore 

With unavailing penitence his crime, 

Whoe'er deprives himself <tf life and light. 

In reckless lavishment his talent wastes. 

And sorrows* there where he should dwell in joy. 

To God may force be ofier'd, in the heart 

Denying and blaspheming his high power. 

And Nature with her kindly law contemning. 

And thence the inmost round marks with its seal 

Sodom, and Cahors,' and all such as speak 

Contemptuously of the Godhead in their hearts. 

<* Fraud, that in every conscience leaves a stingi 
May be by man employ'd on one, whose trust 
He wins, or on another who withholds 
Strict confidence. Seems as the latter way 
Broke but the bond of love which Nature makes. 
Whence in the second circle have their nest, 
Dissimulation^ witchcraft, flatteries. 
Theft, falsehood, simony, all who seduce 
To lust, or set their honesty at pawn, 
With such vile scum as these. The other way • 
Forgets both Nature's general love, and that 
Which thereto added ^Iterward gives birth 
To special faith. Whence m the lesser circb, 
Point of the universe, dread seat of Dis, 

1 And $omnD9.'\ This fine moral, that not to enjoy onr be- 
log is to be UDcrateful to the Author of it, is well exi>resse4 
in Spenser, F. 4^ b. iv. c. viiL st 15. 

For he whose dales in wilf\il woe are wome, . 
The grace of his Creator doth despise. 
That will not nse his gifts for thankless nigardlse. 
* Cdkor^.l A city (j€ Gnienne, much teqnented by nstixen 

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106 THE VISION. 60-ltl 

The traitor is eternally consumed.*' 

I thus : ** Instructor, clearly thy discooTBo 
Proceeds, distinguishing the Mdeous chami 
And its inhabitants wiSi skill exact 
But tell me this : they of the dull, fat pool, 
Whom the rain beats, or whom the tempeot drnrei» 
Or who with tongues so fierce conflicting meet. 
Wherefore within the city fire-illumed 
Are not these punish'd, if God's wrath be on them f 
And if it be not, wherefore in such guise 
Are they condenm'df He answer thus retom'd: 
" Wherefore in dotage wanders thus thy mind. 
Not so accustomed? or what other thoughts 
Possess it ? Dwell not in thy memory 
The words, wherein thy ethic page* describes 
Three dispositions adverse to Heaven's will, 
Inccntinence, malice, and mad brutishness, 
And how incontinence the least ofl^nds 
Grod, and least guilt incurs? If well thou note 
This judgment, and remember who they are. 
Without these walls to vain repentance doom'd. 
Thou shalt discern why they apsut are placed 
From these fell spirits, and less wreakful pours 
Justice divine on them its vengeance do¥m." 
" O sun ! who healest all unperfect sight, 
Thou so content'st me, when thou solvest my doubtj 
That ignorance not less than knowledge charms. 
Yet somewhat turn thee back," I in these words 
Contmued, '* where thou said'st, that usury 
Ofiends celestial Groodness ; and this knot 
Perplex'd unravel." He thus made reply: 
** Philosophy, to an attentive ear. 
Clearly points out, not in one part alone, 
How imitative Nature takes her course 
From the celestial mind, and from its art : 
And where her laws' the Stagirite unfolds, 

1 Thy ethic page."] He refers to AristotIe*8 Ethics : '* Mcrd 
ii radraXcKriov SWijv roinoaiiivovs ipx^^ ^'''t fHv fcspl ri 
109 ^KT&p Tfta ierlv Mn Kaxla ixpoffla ^npi^Tiju" 

Ethie. J<neomaeh^ lib. vfl. c. 1. 

** In the next place, entering on another division of the sub- 
ject, let it be defined, that resTiecting morals there are three 
sorts of things to be avoided, 'malice, incontinence, and tira 

• Her laws.} Aristotle^s Physics.—** 'H Tix?ni lUfittr&i 
r^v 66aiv.'' Aristot ^YZ- AKP. Ub. ii. c. 2. '* Art imitatM 
ttatnre.*'— flee the Ooitlvatloiie of Alamamii, Ub. 1. 

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105-121. HELL, CAirro XI. 107 

Not many leaves scann'd o'er, observing well 
Thou shsdt discover, that your art on her 
Obsequious foUows, as the learner treads 
In his instructor's step ; so that your art 
Deserves the name of second in descent' 
From Grod. These two, if thou recall to mind 
Creation's holy book»' from the beginning 
Were the right source of life and ezceUenc* 
To human £md. But in another path 
The usurer walks ; and Nature in herself 
And in her follower thus he sets at naught, 
. Placing elsewhere his hope.* But follow now 
My steps on forward journey bent ; for now 
The Pisces play with undulating glance 
Along the horizon, and the Wain^lies all 
O'er the n(Mth-west ; and onward there a space 
Is our steep passage down the rocky height" 



Descendhig by a very nigged way Into the seventh circl^ 
where the violent are punished, Dante and hi* leader find 
it guarded by the Bfinotaur ; whose fory being pacified by 
"^^rgil, they step downwards from erag to crtig ; till, draw- 
ing near to the bottom, they descry a river of blood, wherehi 
are tormented such as have committed violence against 

l*arte umana 

Altro non d da dir ch' un dolce sinrone, 
Un correger soave, un pio sostegno, 
Uno esperto imitar, comporra accorto 
Un soUecito attar eon studio e'ngegno 
La cagion natural, V effetto, e *1 opm, 
1 Second in dtsentt.} 

Si che vostr* arte a IMo quasi d nipote. 

Giustizia ta da cielo, e di Dlo d flglia, 
E ogni bona legge a Dlo 6 nipote. 

Jl Ovodrtr., lib. iv. cap. 8. 
s CrealunCa holy book.l Genesis, c. ii. v. 15 : '* And the Loid 
God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden, to 
dress it, and to keep it." And, Genesis, c. lii. v. 19 : *' In the 
sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread." 

> Plaehur dtewktre his hope.] The usurer, trusthig in the 
produce of his wealth lent out on usury, deniises nature dl- 
redly, because he does not avail himself of her means for 
maintaining or enriching himself; and indirectly, because he 
does not avail himself of the means which art, the follower 
and imitator of nature, would afford him for the same pnr> 


Tk» IFsNi.] The constellation Bo6tes, or Chaites's Wafak 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


their neighbor. At these, when they strive to emerge ttom 
the blooiH a troop of Centaurs, running along the side of tht 
river, aim their arrows ; and three of their band opposing 
oar travellers at the foot of the steep, Virgil prevails so fiur, 
thai one consents to carry them both across the stream ; 
riad on their passage, Dante is informed by him of the 
coarse of the nver, and of those that are punished therein 

The place, where to descend the precipice 
We came, was rough as Alp ; and on its verge 
Such object lay, as every eye would shun. 

As is that ruin, which Adice's stream' 
On this side Trento struck, shouldering the wave, 
Or loosed by earthquake or for lack of prop ; 
For from the mountain's summit, whence It moved 
To the low level, so the headlong rock 
Is shiver'd, that some passage' it might give 
To him who from above would pass ; e'en such 
Into the chasm was that descent : and there 
At point of the disparted ridge lay stretch'd 
The infamy of Crete,* detested brood 
Of the feign'd heifer ^ and at sight of us 
It gnaw'd itself, as one with rage distract, [deem'st 
To him my guide exclaim'd: "Perchance thou 
The King of Athens* here, who, in the world 

> Mice^a ttream.'] After a great deal having been said on 
the subject, it still appears verv uncertain at wliat part of the 
river this fall of the mountain happened. 

s Some piutage.] Lombardi erroneously, I think, under- 
stands by ** alcuna via** ** no passage ;'* in which sense " al- 
cuno** is certainly sometimes used by some old writers. Mon- 
ti, as usual, agrees with Lombardi. See note to c. iii. v. 40. 

* The infamjf of Crete.} The Minotaur. 
« The feign'd hetfer.] PaslphaS. 

• The king of^atkena.] Theseus, who was enabled by the 
mstruction of Ariadne, the sister of the Minotaur, to destroy 
that monster. **Ducad*Atene.** So Chaucer calls Theseoi 

Whilom, as olde stories tellen us. 
There was a duk, that highte Theseus. 

The KnighWe TaU 


Happy be Theseos, our renowned Duke. 

Midsummer J^kt'e Dreamy a. 1. s. 1. 

««This Is in reality,** observes Mr. Douce, " no misappli^ 
tion of a modem title, as Mr. Stevens conceived, but a legitl* 
mate use of the word in its wimitive Latin sense of lead^, 
and so it is often used in the Bible. Shakspeare might liave 
found l>ike Theseos in ttie Book of Troy, or in TarberviUe*s 
Ovid*s Ei.istle8. flee the aigoment to that of Phaedra and 
Hippolytas.'* VoueeU JUuitratiotu 9f Shak§f9ar§t 8vo. 1807 

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18-44. HELL, Gamto XIL 100 

Abore, thy death contrhred. Monster! aywmt! 
He comes not tutor'd by thy sister's art,' 
But to behold your torments is he come." 

Like to a bull,' that with impetuous spring 
Darts, at the moment when the fatal blow 
Hath struck him, but unable to proceed 
Hunees on either side ; so saw I plunre 
The Minotaur ; whereat the sage ezcTaim'd : 
** Run to the pasisage ! while he storms, *tis well 
That thou descend." Thus down our road we took 
Through those dilapidated crags, that oft 
Moved underneath my feet, to weight* like thein 
Unused. I pondering went, and thus he spake : 
" Perhaps thy thoughts are of this ruin'd steep, 
Guarded by the brute violence, which I 
Have vanquished now. Know then, that when I ent 
Hither descended to the nether hell, 
This rock was not yet fallen. But past doubt, 
(If well I mark) not long ere He arrived,* 
Who cairied off from Dis the mighty spoil 
Of the highest circle, then through all its bounds 
Such trembling seized the deep concave and fool, 
I thought the univene was thnll'd with love, 
Whereby, there are who deem, the world hath oft 
Been into ehaos tum'd :* and in that point. 
Here, and elsewhere, that old rock toppled down. 
But fix thme eyes beneath : the river of blood* 

> Tkf nster** art.] Ariadne, 
s Like to a bull.] 

'SLi i* Brav i^vv Ix"*^ n(\sKvv aJ^ijtos Avi^fj 

K4t//a( i^SviOtv csp<f«v 0o6i iypaiXoiOf 

Homer, U., 1. zvU. JSSSL 
As when some vigorous youth with sharpened axe 
A pastured bnllock smites behind the horns, 
And hews the muscle through ; he at the stroke 
Springs forth and falls. Ottoper't TrwMlativtu 

* To weight I 

«— — Incimibent on the dusky air 

That felt unusual weight. Milton^ P. L^ b. i. 227. 

* He arrived.] Our Saviour, who, according to Dante, 
when he ascended firom hell, carried with him the souls of 
the Patriarchs, and of other just men, out of the first cirelew 
Bee Canto iv. 

• Bee» into ehaoo turn'd.] This Ofdnion is attributed to 

• 7%« river ef Nood.] Delude vidi locum (Clu. lacum 1) 
— ignom totnm, ut mihi videbatur, plenum sanguine. Sed 
Mm mihi Apostolus, sed non lacgnis, sed ignis est ad cofti 

Digitized byLjO'OQlC 

110 THE VISIt/N. 

ApproaobeSj in the which all those are tteep*d» 
Who have by violence injured." O blind lost ! 
O foolish wrath ! who so dost goad us on 
In the brief life, and in the eternal then 
Thus miserably o'erwhelm us. I beheld 
An ample foas, that in a bow was bent, 
As circling all the plain ; for so my guide 
Had told. Between it and the rampart's base, 
On trail ran Centaurs, with keen arrows ann'd. 
As to the chase they on the earth were wont 
• At seeing us descend they each one stood ; 
And issuing from the troop, three sped with bows 
And missile weapons chosen first ; of whom 
One cried from far : " Say, to what pain ye come 
Condemn'd, who down this steep have joumey'd 

From whence ye stand, or else the bow I draw." 

To whom my guide : ** Our answer shall be made 
To Chiron, there, when nearer him we come. 

111 was thy mmd, thus ever quick and rai^" 
Then me he touched, and spake : << Nessus is this, 
Who for the fair Delanira died, 

And« wrought himself revenge^ for his own fate. 
He in the midst, that on his breast looks down, 
Is the great Chiron who Achilles nursed ; 
That other, Pholus, prone to wrath." Ajound 
The foss these go by thousands, aimmg shafts 
At whatsoever spirit dares emerge' 
From out the blood, more than his guilt, allows. 
We to those beasts, that rapid strode along. 
Drew near ; when Chiron took an arrow forth, 
And with the notch push'd back his shaggy beard 
To the cheek-bcm^, then, his great mouth to view 

eremandos homicidas, et odiosos depntatas. Hane tamen 8i> 
militndinem propter sanguinis efiusionem TetineL JUberid 
Fitio, $ 7. 

i ^M icrowht himself revenge.] Nessus, when dying by 
the hand of Hercules, chaived De'ianira to preserve the gore 
firom his woand ; for that if the auctions ot Hercules should 
at any time be estranged firom her, it would act as a charm, 
and recall them. Deianira had occasion to try the experi- 
ment; and the venom acting, as Nessus had intended, 
caused Hercules to expire in torments. See tiie Trachinia 
of Sophocles. 

s Emerg'e.} Muitos in eis vidi usque ad talos demeigi, 
alios usque ad genua, vel femora, alios usque ad pectu 
Jnxta peco^ vkfi modum : aUos vero qui majoris enminia 
noxa tenebantnr in Ipsis sanunltatibas snperMdBn coipert 

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7$-vm, HELL, Canto XIl. m 

Exposing, to k is fellows thus exclsim*d : 

" Are ye aware, that he who oiMnes behind 

Moves what he touches? The feet of the de%d 

Are not so wont" My trusty gruide, who now 

Stood near his breast, where the two natures join» 

Thus made reply : " He is indeed alive. 

And solitary so must needs by me 

Be shown the gloomy vale, thereto induced 

By strict necessity, not by delight 

She left her joyful harpings in the sky, 

Who this new office to my care consigned. 

He is no robber, no dark spirit L 

But by that virtue, which empowen my step 

To tread so wild a path, grant us, I pray, 

One of thy band, whom we may trust secure^ 

Who to the ford may lead us, and convey 

Across, him mounted on his back ; for he 

Is not a spirit that may walk the air." 

Then on his right breast turning, Chiron thuf 
To Nesius^ spake : ** Return, and be their guide. 
And if ye chance to cross another troop. 
Command them keep aloof." Onward we moved, 
The faithful escort by our side, along 
The border of the crimson-seething flood. 
Whence, from those steep*d within, loud shrieks arose 

Some there I mark'd, as high as to their brow 
Immersed, of whom the mighty Centaur thus : 
" These are the souls of tyrants, who were given 
To blood and rapine. Here they wail aloud 
Their merciless wrongs. Here Alexander dwells, 
And Dionysius fell, who many a year 
Of wo wrought for fair Sicily. That brow. 
Whereon the hair so jetty clustering hangs. 

> Jfesaus.] Oar Poet was probably induced, by the follow- 
ing line in Ovid, to assign to Nessos the task of condacting 
diem over the f<ml : 

Nessus adit membrisqne valens scitosqne vad(mun. 

Jlfetom., 1. iz. 
And Ovid*s authority was Sophocles, who says of this 

*Oj rhv fiaOii^jtovv noranii ESitvov jSporodf 
Wtodod ir6peve xepo-tv oUre iroitirtnotf 
Kwratf ipiaffiavy oUre Xat^cciv vttii, 

I 7V«dl.57Ql 

He in his arms, across Evenus* stream 
Deep-flowing, bore the passenger for hkn. 
Without or sail or Ullow-cleaving oar. 

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113 THE VISION. lltt-ltt 

Is Azzolino ;^ that with flaxen locks 

Obizzo* of Este, in the world destioy'd 

By his foul step-son." To the bard revered 

I tum'd me round, and thus he spake : " Let him 

Be to thee now first leader, me but next 

To him in rank." Then farther on a space 

The Centaur paused, near some, who at the throat 

Were extant from the wave ; and, showing us 

A spirit by itself apart retired, 

ExciaimM : <*«He* in God's bosom sDiote the heaitf 

Which yet is honor'd on the bank of Thames " 

A race I next espied who held the head, 
And even all the bust, above the stream.. 
Midst these I many a face remember'd welL 
Thus shallow more and more the blood became, 
So that at last it but imbrued the feet ; 
And there our passage lay athwart the foes. 

^ Azzolino.] Azzolino, or EzzoHno di Romano, a most 
cruel tyrant in the Marca Trivigiana, Lord of Padua, Vicen 
za, Verona, and Brescia, who died in 1260. His atrocitim 
form the subject -of a Latin tragedy, called Eccerinis, by Al 
bertino Mossato, of Padua, the contemporary of Dante, and 
the most elegant writer of Latin verse of that age. See also 
the Paradise, Canto ix. Bemi, Orl. Inn., lib. ii. c^ xzv. st. 50. 
Ariosto, Orl. Fur., c iii. st. 33; and Tassoni, Secchia Rapita, 
c. viii. St. 11. 

s Obizzo of Este.l Marquis of Ferrara and of the Marca 
d*Ancona, was murdered by his own son (whom, for that 
most unnatural act, Dante calls his step-son) for the sake of 
the treasures which his rapacity had amassed. See Ariosto, 
Orl. Fur., c. iii. st. 32. He died in 1293, according to Gibbon, 
Ant. of the House of Brunswick, Posth. Works, v. ii. 4to. 

* He.] " Henrie, the brother of this Edmund, and son to 
the foresaid king of Almaine, (Richard, brother of Henry III 
of England,) as he returned from Affrike, where he had been 
with Prince Edward, was slain at Viterbo in Italy (whither 
he was come about business which he had to do with the 
Pope) by the hand of Guy de Montfort, the son of Simon de 
Montfort, Esal of Leicester, in revenge of the same Simon's 
death. The murther was committed afore the high altar, as 
the same Henrie kneeled there to hear divine service.** A D. 
1273. Holinsked's Chron^p.^5. See also Giov.Villanl Hist, 
lib. vii. c. 40, where it is said " that the heart of Henry was 
pat into a golden cup, and placed on a pillar at London 
bridge over the river Thames, for a memorial to the English 
of the said outrage.'* Lombardi suggests that "ancor si 
cola" in the text may mean, not that ''the heart was still 
honored," but that it was put into a perforated cup in order 
that the blood dripping from it might excite the spectators to 
revenge. This is surely too improbable. 
Un poco prima dove piu si stava 
Sicuro Enrico, il conte di-Monforte 
L*alma del corpo col coltel gli cava. 

AuM tUgli Dberti, DiUamemdOf 1. ii. capi. niS 

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117-140. H£LL» Camio XIII. 118 

" As ever on this side the boiling wave 
Thou seest diminishing," the Centaur sai^, 
" So on the other, be thou well assured, 
It lower still and lower sinks its bed, 
Till in that part it re-uniting join, 
Where 'tis the lot of tyranny to mourn. 
There Heaven's stem justice lays chastising hand 
On Attila, who was the scourge of earth. 
On Sextus and on Pyrrhus,* and extracts 
Tears ever by the seething flood unlocked 
From the Rinieri, of Cometo this, 
Pazzo the other neuned,' who fill'd the ways 
With violence and war." This said, he tum'd. 
And quitting us, alone repassed the ford 



Still ia the seventh circle, Dante enters its second compart- 
ment, which contains both those who have done videnoe 
on their own persons and those who have violently con- 
smned their goods ; the first changed into rough and knot- 
ted trees whereon the harpies build their nests, the latter 
chased and torn by black female mastifis. Among the for 
mer, Piero delie Vigne is one who tells him the cause of 
his having committed suicide, and moreover in what man 
ner the souls axe transformed into those trunks. Of the 
latter crew, he recognises Lano, a Siennese, and Giacomo, 
a Paduan : and lastly, a Florentine, who had hung himself 
from his own roo^ speaks to him of the calamities of his 

Ers Nessus yet had reach'd the other bank, 
We enter'd on a forest," where no track 
Of steps had worn a way. Not verdant there 
The foliage, but of dusky hue ; not light 
The boughs and tapering, but with knares deform'd 
And matted thick : fruits there were none, but thomf 

i On Sextus and on Pyrrh%u.\ Sextus, either the son of 
Tarquin the Proud, or of Poropey the Great ; and Pynrhns 
ktnc of Epiras. 

» The Rinieri, of Cometo «Am, 

Paxzo the other named. ] 

Two noted marauders, by whose depredations the public 
ways in Italy were infested. The latter was of the noble 
fiunily of Pazzi in Florence. 

* A forest.} Inde In aliam vallem nimis terribiliorem 
deveni plenam subtilissimis arboribus in mod\mi hastarum 
sezaginta brachiorum longltudinem habentibus, quanmi om 
ninm capita, ac si sudes acutissima erant, et spinosa Jilberiet 


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114 THE VISION. >» 

Instead, with yenom fiU'd. Leas shaip than thaM* 
Less intricate the brakes, wherein abide 
Those animals, that hate the cultured fields, 
Betwi:it Cometo and Ceoina's stream.' 

Here the brute Harpies make their nest, the saoM 
Who from the Strophadee^ the Trojan band 
Drove with dire boding of their future wo. 
Broad are their pennons,* of the human form 
Their neck and countenance, arm'd with talons keen 
The feet, and the huge belly fledged with wings. 
These sit and wail <m the drear mystic wood. 

The kind instructor in these words began : 
** Ere farther thou proceed, know thou art now 
I' th' second round, and shalt be, till thou como 
Upon the horrid sand : look therefore well 
Around thee, and such things thou shalt behold. 
As would my speech discreSt" On all sides 
I heard sad plqiiiingB breathe, and none could see 
From whom they might have issued. In amaze 
Fast bound I stood. He,^ as it seemed, believed 
That I had thought so many voices come 
From some amid those thicKets dose concealM, 
And thus his speech resumed : " If thou lop off 
A single twig from one of those ill plants,. 
The thought thou hast conceived shall vanish quite." 

Thereat a little stretching forth my hand. 
From a great wildmg gathered I* a lu-anch, 
And straight the tnmk exclaimed ; << Why pluck'st 

thou me?" 
Then, as the dark blood trickled down its side. 
These words it added: "Wherefore tear'st m© thus? 
Is there no touch of mercy in thy breast ? 
Men once were we, that now are rooted here. 

1 Bettrixt Cometo and Cedna'a stream.] A wild and woody 
tract of countiy, aboonding in deer, goats, and wild boars. 
Cecina is a river not far to the soath of Leghorn; Cometo, 
a small city on the same coast, in the patrimony of the 
s The Strophadee.j See Virg. JEn., lib. iii. 310. 
* Broad are their pennotu.] 

Virginei volucnun vnltos, foedissima ventris 
Prolavies, nncsqae manus et pallida semper 

Ora fame. Firg. JEn., lib. liL 218. 

« Gathered I.] SoFrezzi: 

A quelle fhtsche stesi sn la mano, 
E d*iuia vetta nir ramnscel ne colsi ; 
Allora ella gridb : oim^, & piano, 
S sangue y'vo nsci, ond' io lo tolsl. 

II Qttodrtr , lib. i. cap. 4 

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HELL, Canto XIIL 114 

Thy hand mig^ht well have spared na, had we bees 
The souls of serpents." As a brand yet ffceen, 
That burning at one end from the other sends 
A groaning sound, and hisses with the wind 
That forces out its way, so burst at once 
Forth from the broken splinter words and blood. 

I, letting fall the bough, remain'd as one 
Assail'd by terror ; and the sage replied : 
" If he, O injured spirit ! could have believed 
What he hath seen but in my verse described,^ 
He never against thee had stretch'd his hand. 
But I, because thethmg surpass'd belief, 
Prompted him to this deed, which even now 
Myself I rue. But tell me, who thou wast ; 
That, for this wrong to do thee some amenda^ 
In the upper world (for thither to return 
Is granted him) thy fame he may Tevive." 
" That pleasai t word of thine,*** the trunk replied, 
" Hath so inveigled me, that I from speech 
Cannot refrain, wherein if I indulge 
A little longer, in the snare detained. 
Count it not grievous. I it was,* who held 

1 In my verse described.] The commentators explain this, 
" If he could have believed, in consequence of my assurances 
alone, that of which he hath now had ocular (voof, he would 
not have stretched forth his hand against thee." But I am 
of opinion that Dante makes Virgil allude to his own story of 
Polydorus, in the third book of the i£neid. 

3 That pleasant word of thine.] " Since you have inveigled 
me to speak by holding forth so gratifying an expectation, let 
it not displease yon if I am as it were detained in the tnare 
you have spread for me, so as to be somewhat prolix lu my 

» / it was.] Piero delle Vigne, a native of Capua, who 
firom a low condition raised lOmself, by his eloquence and 
legal knowledge, to the office of Chancellcnr to the Emperor 
Frederick U. ; whose confidence in him was such, that his 
Influence in the empire became unbounded. The courtiers, 
envious of his exalted situation, contrived, by means of forged 
letters, to make Frederick believe that he held a secret and 
traitorous intercourse with the Pope, who was then at enmity 
with the Elmperor. In consequence of this supposed crime, 
he was cruelly condemned, by his too credulous sovereign, to 
lose his eyes^ and being driven to despair by his unmerited 
calamity and disgrace, he put an end to his life by dashing 
out his brains ag^nst the walls of a church, in the year 1245. 
Both Frederick and Piero delle Vigne composed verses in the 
Sicilian dialect, which are now extant. 

A canzone by each of them may be seen in the ninth book 
of the Sonetti and Canzoni di diversi Autorl Toscanl, pub- 
lished by the Giusn in 1527. See ftirther the note on Pog., 
Canto iii. 130. 

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116 THEVISIOiN. W-lOl, 

Both keyH to Frederick's heart, and tum'd the la^^ndni 

Opening and shutting, with a skill so sweet. 

That brides me, into his inmost breast 

Scarce any other could admittance find. 

The faith I bore to my high charge was such^ 

It cost me the life-blood that warm'd my veiav 

The harlot,* who ne'er tum'd her gloating eyes 

From Cesar's household, common vice and pest 

Of courts, 'grainst me inflamed the minds of all ; 

And to Augustus they so spread the flame, 

That my glad honors changed to bitter woes 

My soul, disdainful and di^usted, sought 

Refuge in death from scorn, and I became, 

Just as I was, unjust toward myself. 

By the new roots, which fix this stem, I swear, 

That never faith I broke to my liege lord. 

Who merited such honor ; and of you. 

If any to the world indeed return, 

Clear he from wrong my memory, that lies 

Yet prostrate under envy's cruel blow.'* 

First somewhat pausmg, till the mournful words 
Were ended, then to me the bard began : 
" Lose not the time ; but speak, and of him ask. 
If more thou wish to learn." Whence I replied : 
'' Question thou him again of whatsoe'er 
Will, as thou think'st, content me ; for no power 
Have I to ask, such pity is at my heart" 

He thus resumed : " So may he do for thee 
Freely what thou entreatest, as thou yet 
Be pleased, imprison'd spirit I to declare, 
How in these gnarled joints the soul is tied ; 
And whether any ever from such frame 
Be looseu'd, if thou canst, that also telL" 

Thereat the trunk breathed hard, and the wind soon 
Changed into sounds articulate like these : 
" Briefly ye shall be answer'd. When departs 
The fierce soul from the body, by itself 
Thence torn asunder, to the seventh gulf 
By Minos doom'd, into the wood it falls. 
No place assign'd, but wheresoever chance 
Hurls it ; there sprouting, as a grain of spelt, 

I The harlot.] Envy. Chancer alludes to this, In thfl Pl» 
logiie to the Lc^ade of Good Women : 

Eavle is lavender to the court alway, 
For she ne parteth neither night ne day 
Out of tha house of Cesar : thos saith DuL 

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109-135 HELL, Canto Xm. 117 

It rises to a sapUng^ growing thence 

A savage plant The Harpies, on its leaves 

Then feeding, cause both pain, and for the pain 

A vent to griet We, as tjie rest, shall come 

For our own spoils, yet not so that with them 

We may again be clad ; for what a man 

Takes from hunself it is not just he have. 

Here we perforce shall drag them ; and throughout 

The dismal glade our bodies shall be hung. 

Each on the wild thorn of his wretched shade.* 

Attentive yet to listen to the trunk 
We stood, expecting farther speech, when us 
A noise surprised ; as when a man perceives 
The wild boar and the hunt approach his place 
Of stationed watch, wha of the beasts and boughs 
Loud rustling round him hears. Andio! there camt 
Two naked, torn with briers, in headlons^ flight, 
That they before them broke each fan o th' wood. 
" Haste now," the foremost cried, " now haste thee 
The other, as seem'd, impatient of delay, [death !" 
Exclaiming, ** Lano !* not so bent for speed 
Thy smews, in the lists of Toppo*8 field." 
And then, for that perchance no longer breath 
Sufficed him, of himself and of a bush 
One group he made. Behind them was the wood 
Full of black female mastiffii, gaunt and fleet. 
As greyhounds that have newly slipp'd the leash. 
On him, who squatted down, they stuck their fangs, 
And having rent him piecemeal, bore away 
The tortured limbs. My guide then seized my hand, 
And led me to the thicket, which in vain 
Moum'd through its bleeding wounds : " O Giacomo 
Of Sant* Andrea !" what avails it thee," 
It cried, " that of me thou hast made thy screen 7 

Etch fan 0'* tk* toood,'\ Hence perhaps Milton : 
Leaves and fuming rills, Anrora^s fan. P. X., b. v. 6. 
Some have translated '* rosta,*' ** Impediment," instead of 

s Lano.l Lano, a Biennese, who, being reduced by prodi- 
gality to a state of eztireme want^ found his existence no longer 
supportable ; and having been sent by his countrymen on a 
mtlitary expedition to assist the Florentines against the Are- 
tini, toulc that opportunity of exposing himself to certain death, 
in the engagement which toolc place at Toppo near Arezso 
Bee 6. YUiani, Hist, Ub. 7, c. cxix. 

■ • O CHaeomo 

Of Sani* Andrea I] Jacopo da Sant* Andrea, a Padnan 
who, having wasted his iMPoperty In the most wanton acts ot 
proAision, UUod himself in despair. 

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118 THE VISION. 136-ltt 

For thy ill life» what blame on me recoils?" 

When o'er it he had paused, my master sjiake : 
** Say who wast thou, that at so many points 
Breathest out with blood thy lamentable q>eeoh ?** 

He answer'd : " O ye spirits ! arrived in time 
To spy (he shameful havoc that from me 
My leaves hath sever'd thus, gather them up, 
And at the fc^t of their sad parent-tree 
Carefully lay them. In that city^ I dwelt. 
Who for the Baptist her first patron changed, 
Whence he for this shall cease not with his art 
To work her wo : and if there still remain'd not 
On Amo's passage some faint glimpse of him. 
Those citizens, who rear'd once more her walls 
Upon the ashes left by Attila, 
Had labored without profit of their toiL 
I slung the fatal noose' from my own roofL" 



They arrive at the beginninf (^ the third of those compart- 
ments into which tliis seventh circle is divided. It is a 
irtain of dry and hot sand, where three kinds of violence 
are ponished ; namely, against God, against Natore, and 
against Art ; and those who have thus sinned, are tw- 
mented by flakes of fire, which are eternally showering 
down upon them. Among the violent against God is 
found Capaneus, whose blasphemies they hear. Next, 
taming to the left along the forest of self-slayers, and 
having jonmeyed a litUe onwards, they meet with a 
streamlet of blood that issues f>om the forest and tra- 
verses the sandy plain. Here Virgil speaks to our Poet 
of a huge ancient statue that stands within Mount Ida 

1 /tt that city.] "I was an inhabitant of Florence, that 
city which changed her first patron Mars for St. John the 
Baptist ; for which reason the vengeance of the deity thus 
slighted will never be appeased ; and if some remains of his 
statue were not still visible on the bridge over the Amo, she 
would have been already levelled to the ground ; and thus 
the citizens, who raised her again fnm the ashes to which 
Attila had reduced her, would have iabcured in vain.*' See 
Paradise, Canto xvi. 44. 

The relic of antiquity, to which the superstition of Florence 
attached so high an importance, was carried away by a flood, 
that destroyed the bridge on which it stood, in the year 1337, 
but without the ill efiects that were apprehended from the 
losTof their fimded Palladium. 

s I slung the fatal nooseJ] We are not informed who this 
suicide was ; s<Niie calling him Rooco de' Moazi, and othen 
Lotto degU AgU. 

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b^ HELL, Canto XIY. 119 

in Crete, fhMn a fiuiire in which statue thme ii a drip 
pine of tears, from which the said streualet, togethel 
with the three other infernal rivers, are formei^ 

Soon as the charity of native land 
Wrought in my bosom, I the scattered leaves 
Collected, and to hun restored, who now 
Was hoarse with utterance. To the limit thence 
We came, which from the third the second round 
Divides, and where of justice is displayed 
Contrivance horrible. Things then fijst seen 
Ciearlier to manifest, I tell how next 
A plain we reach'd, that from its steril bed 
Each plant repeU'd. The mournful wood waves round 
Its garland on all sides, as round the wood 
Spreads the sad foss. There, on the very edge. 
Our steps we stayed. It was an area wide 
Of arid sand and thick, resembling most 
The soil that erst by Gate's foot* was trod. [fear'd 

Vengeance of Heaven ! Oh! how shouldst thou be 
By all, who read what here mine eyes beheld. 

Of naked spirits many a flock I saw, 
All weeping piteously, to different laws 
Subjected ; for on the earth some lay supine, 
Some crouching close were seated, others paced 
Incessantly around ; the latter tribe 
More numerous, those fewer who beneath 
The torment lay, but louder in their gribf. 

O'er all the sand fell slowly wafting down 
Dilated flakes of fire,* as flakes of snow 
On Alpine summit, when the wind is hush'd. 
As, in the torrid Indian clime," the son 
Of Ajnmon saw, upon his warrior band 
Descending, solid flames, that to the grouifd 
Came down ; whence he bethought him with his troop 
To trample on the soil ; for easier thus 
The vapor was extinguish'd, while alone : 
So fell the eternal fiery flood, wherewith 
The marl glow'd underneath, as under stove* 

i By Caio^s foot.} See Lucan, Phars., lib. ix. 

a Dilated fidkea of fire."] Compare Tasso, 6 L., c. x. st 61 

Al fin ginngemmo al loco, ove gi& scese 

Fiamma del cielo in dilatate falde, 

E di natura vendicb l*ofifese 

Sovilt la gente in mai oprar si salde. 

* A9 in the torrid Indian clime.^ Landlno refers to AlbertM 
liagniu fox the circomstance here alluded to. 

* At under atove.^ So Frezad : 

Bi come 1' esca al foco del focile. Lib. i. cap. 17. 

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12C THE VISION. 3«-T» 

The viands, doubly to augment the pain. 
Unceasing was the play of wretched hands, 
Now this, now that way glancing, to shake oflf 
The heat, still falling fresh. I thus began : 
" Instructor ! thou who all things overcomest, 
Except the hardy demons that rush'd forth 
To stop our entrance at the gate, say who 
Is yon huge spirit, that, as seems, heeds not 
The burning, but lies writhen in proud scorn, 
As by the sultry tempest immatured?" 

Straight he himself, who was aware I ask*d 
My guide c^" him, exclaim'd : " Such as I was 
When Hving, dead such now I am. If Jove 
Weary his workman out, from whom m ire 
He snatch'd the lightnings, that at my last day 
Transfix'd me ; if the rest he weary out, 
At their black smithy laboring by turns. 
In Mongibello,* while he cries aloud, 
* Help, help; good Mulciber !' as erst he cried 
In the Phlegrcean warfare ; and the bolts 
Launch he, full aim'd at me, with all his might ; 
He never should enjoy a sweet revenge." 

Then thus my^ide, in accent higher raised 
Than I before had heard him : " Capaneus ! 
Thou art more punish'd, in that this thy pride 
Lives yet unquench'd : no torment, save thy rage. 
Were to thy fury pain proportioned full." . 

Next turning round to me, with milder lip 
He spake : " This of the seven kings wus one,' 
Who girt the Theban walls with siege, and held. 
As still he seems to hold, God in disdain, 
And sets his high omnipotence at naught. 
But, as I told lum, his despiteful mood 
Is ornament well suits the breast that wears it. 
Follow me now ; and look thou set not yet 

1 TnMon^ello.] 

More hot than iBtn* or flaming Mongibell. 

Spenser, F, Q., b. ii. c. ix. at SO. 
Siccome alia Aicina hi Mongibello 
Fabrica tuonoil demonio Vulcano, 
Batte folgorie focn col martello, 
£ con esso 1 suoi fabri ia ognl mano. 

Bemiy Ori. Inn^ lib. 1. c xvl. it SI. 
See Vlrg.iEn.,llb vlU. 416. It woold be endless to refer to 
panllel passages in the Greek writers. 

s 7TU$ of the seven kinga was one.] Ck>mpaie .£sch. Seven 
Chieft, 425. Euripides, PbiBn., 1179, and Slatiiia, Theb., lib 

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Tl-MB HELL, Clnto XIV. 121 

Thy foot in the hot sand, bat to the wood 

Keep ever close." Silently on we passed 

To where there gushes from the forest's bound 

A little brook, whose crimson'd wave yet lifts 

My hair with horror. As the rill, that runs 

From Bulicame,^ to be portion*d out 

Amom^ the smful women, so ran this 

Down through the sand ; its bottom and each bank 

Stone-built, and either margfin at its side, 

Whereon I straight perceived our passage lay. 

** Of all that I have shown thee, since that gate 
We enter'd first, whose threshold is to none 
Denied, naught else so worthy of regard. 
As is this river, has thine eye discem'd. 
O'er which the flaming volley all is quench'd." 

So spake my guide ; and I him thence besonghty 
That having given me appetite to know. 
The food he too would give, that hunger craved. 

" In midst of ocean," forthwith he began, 
" A desolate country lies, which Crete is named : 
Under whose monarch,' in old times, the world 
Lived pure and chaste. A mountain rises there, 
Call'd Ida, joyous once with leaves and streams, 
Deserted now like a forbidden thing. 
It was the spot which Rhea, Saturn's spouse. 
Chose for the secret cradle of her son ; 
And better to conceal him, drown'd m shouts 
His infant cries. Within the mount, upright 
An ancient form there stands, and huge, that turns 
His shoulders 'towards Damiata ; and at Rome, 
As in his muror, looks. Of finest gold 
His head* is shaped, pure silver are the breast 

^ Bulicame.) A warji mediciiial spring near Viterbo ; ths 
waters of which, as Landino and Vellutelli affirm, passed by 
a place of ill fame. Venturi, with less probability, conjee- 
tores that Dante would imply that it was the scene of ma^ 
Ucentioiis merriment among those who treqaented its baths 

* Under whose numareh.] 

Credo pudicitiam Satomo lege moratam 

In terns. Juv, Satir. vi. 

in Saturn's reign, at Nature's early birth. 

There was a thing callM chastity on earth. Drydem. 

* me head.} This is imitated by Frezzi, in the aiiadriieglo» 
io. ir. cap. 14: 

La statoa grande vidi in an gran piano, &c. 
*Thi8 image's head was of fine gold, his breast and hta 
anas of silV'sr, lils belly and his thighs of brass : 
"His legs of iron, his feet pail of Iron and part of clay." 
Daniel, ch. IL 32. 33. 


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139 THE VISION. l«3-m 

And aims, thence to the middle is of brass. 
And downward all beneath well-temper'd steeU 
Save the right foot of potter's clay, on which 
Than on the other more erect he stands. 
Each part, except the gold, is rent throughout ; 
And from the fissure tears distU, which joined 
Penetrate to that cave. They in their course, 
Thus far precipitated down the rock. 
Form Acheron, and Styx, and Phlegethon ; 
Then by this straiten'd channel paasmg hene» 
Beneath, e'en to the lowest depth of aU, 
Form there Cocytus, of whose lake (thyself 
Shalt see it) I here give thee no account" 

Then I to him : " If from our worid this duioe 
Be thus derived ; wherefore to us but now 
Appears it at this edge ?" He straight replied : 
*' The place, thou know'st, is round ; and though ffreaft 
Thou have already pass'd, still to the left [pt^ 

Descending to the nethermost, not yet 
Hast thou the circuit made of the whole orb^ 
Wherefore, if aught of new to us appear. 
It needs not bring up wonder in thy looks." 

Then I agam inquired: " Where flow the stream* 
Of Phlegethon and Lethe ? for of one 
Thou tell'st not ; and the other, of that Grower, 
Thou say'st, is form'd." He answer thus retum'd* 
" Doubtless thy questions all well pleased I hear. 
Yet the red seething wave^ might have resolved 
One thou proposest Lethe tl]^ushalt see. 
But not withm this hollow, in the place 
Whither,^ to lave themselves, the spirits go, 
Whose blame hath been by penitence removed." 
He added : « Time is now we quit the wood. 
Look thou my steps pursue : the margins gtvo 
Safe passage, unimpeded by the flames ; 
For over them all vapor is extinct" 



TUdag their way upon one of the mounds by which IW 
■tieamlet, spoken of in the last Canto, was embanked, and 
having gene so fiur that they conld no longer have diseemedl 

1 Tk« rtd »e$tki$i£ irovs.] This he might have known wis 
• WkUkmr,} On the other side ofPnigatory 

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l-sa HELL, CiNTo XV 133 

the forest if they had tamed round to look for it, they meet 
a troop of spirits that come along the sand by the side of the 
pier. These are they who have done violence to Nature ; 
and among them Dante distinguishes Brunetto Latinl, who 
had been formerly his master ; with whom, turning a little 
backward, he holds a discourse which occupies the remain 
der of this Canto. 

One of the solid marginB bears ns now 
Envolop'd in the mist, that, from the stream^ 
Arising, hovers o'er, and saves from fire 
Both piers and water. As the Flemings rear 
Their mound, Hwixt Ghent and Bruges, to chase Mck 
The ocean, fearing his tumultuous tide 
That drives toward them ; or the Paduans theirs 
Along the Brent&, to defend their towns 
And castles, ere the genial warmth be felt 
On ChiarentanaV top ; such were the mounds. 
So framed, though not in height or bulk to these . 
Made equal, by the master, whosoe'er 
He was, that raised them here. We from the wood 
Were now so far removed, that turning round 
I might not have discem'd it, when we met 
A troop of spirits, who came beside the pier. 

They each one eyed us, as at eventide 
One eyes another under a new moon ; 
And toward us sharpen'd their sight, as keen 
As an old tailor ^t his needle's eye.' 

Thus narrowly explored by all the tribe, 
1 was agnized of one, who by the skirt 
Caught me, and cried, " What wonder have we here V 

And I, when he to me outstretch'd his arm, 
Intently fix'd my ken on his parch'd looks. 
That, although smirch'd with fire, they hinder*d not 
But I remember'd him ; and towards his face 
My hand inclining, answer'd, " Ser Brunetto !* 

Cftiarentoiuz.] A part of the Alps where the Brenta rises ; 
Vhich river is much swollen as soon as the snow begins to dis* 
solve on the mountains. 

^ Jit em old tailor at his needless eve.] In Fazio degU Uber^ 
tTs Bittamondo, 1. iv. cap. 4, the tailor is introduced m a sim 
Ito scarcely less picturesque : 

Perchd tanto mi stringe a questo punto 
La lunga tema, ch* lo fo come 11 sarto 
Che quando affietta spesso passa 11 punto. 
* Brunetto.] "Bet Brunetto, a Florentine, the secretarv 
or chancellor of the city, and Dante*s preceptor, hath left 
us a work so little read, that both the subject of It and the 
lansoage of it have been mistaken. It is in the French 
spoken in the leign of St Louis, under the title of Treeor: 
tnd eontains a spedet of philosophical cooise of leetnrei 

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134 THE VISION. 3&-ai 

And are ye here V* He thus to me : " My son I 
Oh let it not displease thee, if Brunetto 

divided into theory and practice, or, as he expresses it, urn 
enekausaement des ehoses divines et humainet, Bcc SirR 
Clayton's Translation of Tenhove*s Memoirs of the Medici, 
▼ol. L cti. iL p. 104. Ttie Treaor has never l)een printed in 
the original langnaee. There is a fine manuscript of it in the 
British Mosemn, with an illuminated portrait of Brunetto in 
his study, prefixed. Mus. Brit MSS. 17. K 1, Tesor. It &• 
divided into four books : the first, on Cosmocony and Theol- 
ogy ; the second, a translation of Aristotle^s Ethics ; the third, 
on Virtues and Vices ; the fourth, on Rhetoric. For an in- 
teresting memoir relating to this work, see Hist, de TAcad. 
des Inscriptions, tom. vii. 296. 

His Tesoretto, one of the earliest productions of Italian 
poetry, is a curious work, not unlike the writings of Chaucer 
in style and numbers ; though Bembo remarks, uiat his pupil, 
however largely he had stolen firom it, could not have much 
enriched himself. As it is, perhaps, but little known, I will 
here add a slight sketch of it 

Brunetto describes himself as returning firom an embassy to 
the king of Spain, on which he had been sent by the Guelph 
party f>om Fl<N«nce. On the plain of Roncesvailes he meets 
a scholar on a bay mule — 

un scolaio 

Sur un muletto baio. 

There a scholar I espied 
On a bay mule that did ride— 

who tells him that the Guelfi are driven out of the city 
with great loss. Struck with grief at these moumAil tidings, 
and musing with tiis head bent downwards, he loses his 
road, and wanders into a wood. Here Nature, whose figure 
Is described with sublimity, appears, and dlsciosei to him 
ihe secrets of her operations. After this, he wanders into a 

Deh che paese fiero 
Trovai in quella parte. 

Che •'to sapesa d*arte 
Qulvi mi Usognava. 

Che quanto piu mirava 
nu mi parea selvaggio. 

Quivi non a via^o, 
Quivi non a persone, 

Q,ui%i non a magiona. 
Non bestia non uccello, 

Non fiume non ruscello, 
Non formica non mosca, 

Non cosa ch*io conosca. 
Ed io pensando forte 

Pottai ben della morte, 
£ non h maraviglia, 

Che ben trecento migUa, 
IHirava d*ogni lato, 

Quel paese snuigato. 

Well-away! whatfearlhlgroiini 
In ihat aavafe part 1 1tmm£ 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

ai-3a. HELL, Canto XV. 135 

Latini but a little space with thee 

Turn back, and leave his fellows to proceed ** 

If of art I anght conld ken, 

Well behooved me use it then. 

More I look'd, the more T deemed 

That it wild and desert seem*d. 

Not a road was there in sight, 

Not a house, and not a wight ; 

Not a bird, and not a brute, 

Not a rill, and not a root ; 

Not an emmet, not a fly, 

Not a thing I mote descry. 

Sore I doubted therewithal 

Whether death would me befall : 

Nor was wonder, for around 

Full three hundred miles of ground 

Right across on every side 

La,y the desert bare and wide 
'-and proceeds on his way, under the protection of a banner 
with which Nature had furnished him, till on the third day 
he finds himself in a pleasant champain, where are assem- 
bled many emperors, kings, and sages : 
Un gran piano glocondo 
Lo piu gajo del mondo 
E lo piu degnitoso. 

Wide and far the champain lay, 

None in all the earth so gay. 
It is the habitation of Virtue and her daughters, the four 
Card'nal Virtues. Here Brunetto sees also Courtesy, Bounty, 
Loyalty, and Prowess, and hears the instructions they give 
to a knight, which occupy about a fourth part of the poem. 
Leaving this territory, ne passes over valleys, mountains, 
woods, forests, and bridges, till he arrives in a beautiful val- 
ley covered with flowers on all sides, and the richest in the 
WOTld; but which was continually shifting its appearance 
from a round figure to a square, from obscurity to light, and 
from popnlousness to solitude. This is the region of Pleas- 
ure, or Cupid, who is accompanied by four ladies, Love, 
Hope, Fear, and Desire. In one part of it he meets with 
Ovid, and is instructed by him how to conquer the passion 
of love, and to escape firom that place. After his escape, he 
makes his confession to a friar, and then returns to the 
foest of visions ; and, ascending a mountain, meets with 
Ptolemy, a venerable old man. Here the narrative breaks 
vS. The poem ends, as it began, with an address to Rustico 
di Ulippo, on whom he lavishes every sort of praise. 

It has been observed, that Dante derived the idea of open- 
ing his poem by describing himself as lost in a wood, from 
the Tetoretto of his master. I know not whether it has been 
remarked, that the crime of usury is branded by both these 
poets as oUSensive to God and Nature :~ 
Un altro, che non cura 
Di Dio ne di Natnra, 
Si diventa usuriere. 
One, that holdeth not in mind 
I^aw of God or Nature^s kind. 
Taketh him to usury. 

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I thus to him replied : " Much as I crai, 
1 thereto pray thee ; and if thou be willmg 
That I here seat me with thee, I consent ; 
His leave, with whom I journey, first obtam'd.'* 

" O son !" said he, " whoever of this throng 
One instant stops, lies then a hundred years, 
No fan to ventilate him, when the fire 
Smites sorest. Pass thou therefore on. I close 
Will at thy garments walk, and then rejoin 
My troop, who go mourning their endless doom." 

I dared not fi^m the path descend to tread 
On equal ground with him, but held my head 
Bent down, as one who walks in reverent guise. 

" What chance or destmy," thus he began, 
" Ere tne last day, conducts thee here below? 
And who is this that shows to thee the'-way?" 

" There up aloft," I answered, " in the Ufe 
Serene, I wandered in a valley lost. 
Before mine age' had to its fulness reached. 
But yester-morn I left it : then once more 
Into that vale returning, him I met ; 
ajid by this path homeward he leadis me back." 

" If thou," he answered, «< follow but thy star, 
Thou canst not miss at last a glorious haven ; 
Unless in fairer days my judgment err'd. 
And if my fate so early had not chanced. 
Seeing the heavens thus bounteous to thee, I 
Had gladly given thee comfort in thy 'work. 
But that ungrateful and malignant race, 
Who in old times came down from Fesole,' 

—or that the sin for which Bmnetto is condemned by hi» 
papii is mentioned in his Tesoretto with great horror. Bat 
see what is said on this subject by Perticari, Degli Scrittori 
del Tr»cento, 1. i. c. Iv. Dante's twenty-fifth sonnet is a io- 
cose one, addressed to Branetto, of which a translation is in- 
serted in the Life of Dante prefixed. He died in 1395. 6 
Viliani stuns up his account of him by saying, that he was 
himself a worldly man ; but tliat he was the first to refine 
^e Florentines nrom their grossness, and to instruct them in 
speaking fwoperly, and in conducting the aflhirs of the re- 
public on principles of policy. 

i Brfore viine a^e,] On the whole, Vellutello^s explana. 
tion of this is, I tliink, most satis&ctory. He supposes it tc 
mean, "before the appointed end of his life was arrived— 
before his days were accomplished.'* Lombardi, conciudinc 
that the fblness of age must be the same as '* the midway of 
this our morta* life," (see Canto i. v. 1,} understands that he 
had \oit himself in the wood before that time, and that he 
Uien only discovered his having gcme astray. 

* fVho in old timet came down prom Feeole,] See G. VUlani, 
Hist., Ub iv. cap. v. ; and Macchiav. Hist of Flor., b. iL 

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63-103. HELL» Canto XV. m 

Ay and still smack of their rough moimt&ui-fliiit» 

Will for thy good deeds show thee enmity. 

Nor wonder ; for among ill-savor'd crabs 

It suits not the sweet fig-tree lay her fruit. 

Old fame reports them in the world for blind,' 

Covetous, envious, proud. Look to it well : 

Take heed thou cleanse thee of their ways. For thee^ 

Thy fortune hath such honor in reserve. 

That thou by either party shalt be craved 

With hunger keen : but be the fresh herb far 

From the goat's tooth. The herd of Fesole 

May of themselves make litter, not touch the plant* 

If any such yet spring on their rank bed, 

In which the holy seed revives, transmitted 

From those true Romans, who still there remained. 

When it was made the nest of so much ill." 

« Were all my wish fulfiUM," I straight replied, 
" Thou from the confines of man's nature yet 
Hadst not been driven forth ; for in my mind 
Is fix'd, and now strikes full upon my heart, 
The dear, benign, paternal image, such 
As thine was, when so lately thou didst teach me 
The way for man to win eternity : 
And how I prized the lesson, it behooves, 
l*hat, long as life endures, my tongue should speak 
What of my fate thou tell'st, that write I down ; 
And, with another text' to comment on, 
For her I keep it, the celestial dame. 
Who will know all, if I to her arrive. 
This only would I have thee clearly note : 
That, so my conscience have no plea against me, 
Do fortune as she list, I stand prepared. 
Not new or strange such earnest to mine ear. 
Speed Fortune then her wheel, as likes her best ; 
iTie clown his mattock ; all thmgs have their couiso ** 

Thereat my sapient guide upon his right 
Tum'd himself back, then look'd at me, and spake : 
•* He listens to good purpose who takes note." 

I not the less still on my way proceed, 
Discoursing with Brunette, and inquire 
Who are most known and chief among his tribe. 

1 Blind.} It is said that the Florentines were thus called, 
In consequence of their having beisn deceived by a shallow 
urtifice practised on them by the Pisans, in the year 1117 
Bee G. Villani, lib. iv. cap. xxx. 

s fFith another Uxt.] He refers to the prediction of Fall' 
■Ma, in Canto z. 

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138 THE VISION. 104-19t 

", To know of some is well ;" he thus replied, 
" But of the rest silence may best beseem. 
Time would not serve us for report so long. 
In brief I tell thee, that all these were clerks, 
Men of great learning and no less renown, 
By one same sin polluted in the world. 
With them is Priscian ;' and Accorso's son, 
Francesco,' herds among that wretched throng: 
And, if the wish of so hnpure a blotch 
Possessed thee, him' thou also might'st have seen, 
Who by the servants' servant* was transferred 
From Amo's seat to Bacchi|^ione, where 
His ill-strain'd nerves he left I more would add. 
But must from farther speech and onward way 
Alike desist ; for yonder I behold 
A mist new-risen on the sandy plain. 
A company, with whom I may not sort. 
Approaches. I commend my Treasure to thee,* 
Wherein I yet survive ; my sole request." 

This said, he tum'd, and seem'd as one of thoee 
Who o'er Verona's champain try their speed 
For the green mantle ; and of them he seem'd, 
Xot he who loses but who gains the prize. 

1 Priseian.] There is no reason to believe, as the coin 
mentators observe, that the grammarian of this namo was 
stained with the vice imputed to him ; and we must there- 
fore suppose that Dante puts the individual fw the species, 
and implies the frequency of the crime among those who 
abused the opportunities which the education of youth af- 
forded them, to so abominable a purpose. 

> FVanceaee.} Accorso, a Florentine, interpreted the Ro 
man law at Bologna, and died in 1229, at the age of 78. His 
authority was so great as to exceed that of all the other in- 
terpreters, so that Cino da Pistoia termed him the Idol of 
Advocates. His sepulchre, and that of his son Francesco 
here spoken of, is at Bologna, with this short epitaph : ** Se- 
pulcruni Accursii Glossatoris et Francisci ejus Filli." See 
Gnidi Panziroii, l>e Claris Legum Interpretibus, lib. ii. cap. 
xzix. Lips. 4to. 1721. 

. ' Him.] Andrea de* Mozzi, who, that his scandalous life 

might bo less exposed to observation, was translated either 

by Nicolas III. or Boniface VIII. from the see of Florence to 

that of Vicenza, through which passes the river Bacchiglione 

At the latter of these places he died. 

* * The seroantt* tenant.] Servo de* servi. So Ariosto, Sat iii- 

Degli servl - 

lo sia 11 gran servo. 

* I comment my Treasure to thee.] Bnuietto*s great work, 
the Treeor: 

Sieti raecomandato M mio Tesoro. 

Bo Ginsto de* Conti, in his Bella Mano, Son. " Occhi :** 

Siavi raecomandato il mio Tesoro 

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KO. HELL, Canto XVL l$$ 



Journeying along the piw, which crosses the sand, they an 
now so near the end of it as to hear the noise of the 
stream falling into the eighth circle, when they meet the 
spirits of three military men . who judging IHinte, fh>m 
his dress, to be a conntrymun of theirs, entreat him to 
stop. He complies, and speaks with them. The two 
Poets then reach tlie place where the water descends, 
being the termination of this third compartment in the 
seventh circle ; and here Virgil having thrown down into 
the hollow a cord, wherewith Dante was girt, they be- 
hold ^t that signal a monstrous and horrible figure come 
swimming up to them. 

Now came I where the water's din was heard. 
As down it fell into the other round, 
Resounding like the hum of swarming bees : 
When forth together issued from a troop, 
That pass'd beneath the fierce tormentmg storm, 
Three spirits, running swift. They towards us camoi 
And each one cried aloud, " Oh ! do thou stay, 
Whom, by the fashion of thy garb, we deem 
To be some inmate of our evil land." 

Ah me ! what wounds I mark'd upon their limbii 
Recent and old, inflicted by the flames ! 
E'en the remembrance of them grieves me yet 

Attentive to their cry, my teacher paused, 
And tum'd to me his visage, and then spake : 
" Wait now : our courtesy these merit well : 
And were 't not for the nature of the place. 
Whence glide the fiery darts, I should have said. 
That haste had better suited the6 than them." 

They, when we stopp'd, resumed their ancient wail 
And, soon as they had reached us, all the three 
Whirl'd round together in one restless wheel 
As niked champions, smear'd with slippery oil, 
Are wont, intent, to watch their place of hold 
And vantage, ere in closer strife they meet ; 
Thus each one, as he wheel'd, his countenance 
At me directed, so that opposite 
The neck moved ever to the twinkling feet. 

" If wo of this unsound and dreary waste," 
Thug one began, " added to our sad cheer 
Thus peelM with flame, do call forth scorn on Uf 
And our entreaties, let our great renown 
Inclme thee to inform us who thou art, 
That dofit imprint, with Uvmg feet unharmed. 

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13a THE VISION. 34*4 

The 890 of HelL He, in whose tracit tl ou Meit 
My steps puraumg, naked though he be 
And reft of ail, was of more high estate 
Than thou beiievest ; grandchild of the chaite 
Gualdrada/ him they Goidoguerra call'd. 
Who in his lifetime many a noble act' 
Achieved, both by his wisdom and his sword. 
The other, next to me that beats the sand. 

1 Chutldrada,} Gnaldradawas the datwht^ of BelUndonC 
Berti« of whom mention is made in the Paradise, Canto xv 
and xvi. He was of the family of Ravignani, a branch of 
the Adimari. The Emperor Otho IV. being at a festival in 
Florence, where Goaldrada was present, was stmek with hei 
beanty ; and inqniring who she was, was answered by ))el- 
lincione, that she was the daughter of one who, if it was his 
majesty's pleasure, would make her admit the honor of his 
salute. On overhearing this, she arose ftom her seat, and 
blushing, in an animated tone of voice, desired her father 
that he would not be so liberal in his offers, for that no man 
should ever be allowed that freedom except him who should 
be her lawful husband. The Emperor was not less delighted 
by her resolute modesty than he had before been by the 
loveliness of her person ; and calling to him Guido, one of hit 
barons, gave her to him in marriage ; at the same time rais 
ing him to the rank of a count, and bestowing on her the 
whole of Casentino, and a part of the territory of Romagna, 
as her portion. Two sons were the ofisinring of this union, 
Guglielmo and Buf^eri ; the latter of whom was fisither of 
Guidoguerra, a man of great military skill and prowess ; who, 
at the head of four hundred Florentines of the Gnelph purty, 
was signally instrumental to the victory obtained at Bene 
vento, by Charles of Ai\Jou, over Manfiredi, King of Naples, 
In 1265. One of the consequences of this victory was the 
expulsion of the Ghibellini, and the re-establishment of the 
Guelfi at Florence. 

Borghini, (Disc, deli' Orig. dl Firenze, ediz. 1755, page 6,) 
as cited by Lombardi, endeavors, by a comparison of dates, 
to throw discredit on the above relation of Gualdrada's an- 
swer to her fother, which is found in G. ViUani, lib. v. cap. 37 ; 
and Lombardi adds, that if it had been true, BelUncione 
would have been worthy of a place In the eighteenth Canto 
of Hell, rather than of being mentioned with praise in the 
Paradise : to which it may be answered, that the proposal of 
the father, however Irreconcilable it may be to our notioos 
of modern refinement, might possibly in those times have 
been considered rather as a sportive sally than as a serious 
exposure of his daughter's innocence. The incident is re- 
lated in a manner very nn&vorable to Berti, by Francesco 
Sansovino, in one of his Novelle, inserted by Mr. Thomas 
Boscoe in his entertaining selection firom the Italian Novel- 
Uts, V liL p 137. 

* Mamif a noble act] 

Molto egU opA col senno e con la mano. 

Tus0, 0. Zn, e. i. St !• 

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iM-m. HELL, Cakto XVh |S| 

Is Aldobrandi,' name deserving well, 
In the upper world, of honor ; and myself. 
Who m this torment do partake with them. 
Am Rnsticucci,' whom, past doubt, my wife, 
Of savage temper, more than aught beside 
Hath to this evil brought.*' If from the fire 
I had been sheltered, down amidst them straight 
I then had cast me ; nor my guide, I deem. 
Would have restrained my going : but that fear 
Of the dire bumuig vanquished Uie desire. 
Which made me eager of their wishM embrace. 

I then began : << Not scorn, but grief much more 
Such as long time alone can cure, your doom 
FixM deep within me, soon as this my lord 
Spake words, whose tenor taught me to expect 
That such a race, as ye are, was at hand. 
I am a countryman of yours, who still 
Afiectionate have uttered, and have heard 
Your deeds and names renowned. Leaving the galli 
For the sweet fruit I go, that a sure guide 
Hath promised to me. But behooves, that far 
As to the centre first I downward tend." 

" So may long space thy spirit guide thy limbs," 
He answer straight returned ; " and so thy fame 
8hme bright when thou art gone, as thou shalt tell, 
If courtesy and valor, as they wont, 
Dwell in our city, or have vanish'd clean : 
For one amidst us late condemned to wail, 
Bondere,' yonder walking with his peers. 
Grieves us no little by the news he brings." 

" An upstart multitude and sudden gains, 
Pride and excess, O Florence ! have in thee 
Engendered, so that now in tears thou moum'sf. !" 

Thus crieid I, with my face upraised, and they 
All three, who for an answer took my words, 
Look'd at each other, as men look when truth 

1 Aldobrandi.} Tegghiaio Aldolnrandi was <^ the noble 
Amily of Adimari, anoinach esteemed for his military talents. 
Be endeav(Nml to dissuade the Fiorentines from the attacic 
which they meditated against the Siennese ; and the rejeo* 
lloa of his cooasel occasioned the memorable defeat wmeh 
the former sustained at Montaperto, and the conseqaent kmn- 
Ishment of the Goelfi from Florence. 

* Rustieucei.] Giacopo Rnsticuccl, a Florentine, remark- 
able for his opulence and the generosity of his spirit 

* Borsitre.) GnglielmoBorsiere, another Florentine, whom 
Boccaccio, in a 8t<^ which he relates of him, terms ** a maa 
of conrteons and elegant manners, and of great readiness la 
•QBvenation.*' D$e. Oiom*, i. JVov. 8. 

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133 . IHE VISION. 78-iei 

Comes to their ear. ** If at so little cost/*' 
They all at once rejoin'd, " thou satisfy 
Others who question thee, O happy thou ! 
Gifted with words so apt to spesjc thy thought. 
Wherefore, if thou escape this darksome clmie^ 
Returning to behold the radiant stars, 
When thou with pleasure shalt retrace the past/ 
See that of us thou speak among mankind." 

Tlus said, they broke the circle, and so swift 
Fled, that as pinions seem'd their nimble feet. 

Not in so short a time might one have said 
' Amen," as they had vanish'd. Straight my guide 
Pursued his track. I follow'd: and small space 
Had we pass'd onward, when the water's sound 
Was now so near at hand, that we had scarce 
Heard one another's speech for the loud din. 

E'en as the river,' that first holds its course 
Unmingled, from the Mount of Vesulo, 
On the left side of Apenniue, toward 
The east, which Acquacheta higher up 
They call, ere it descend into the vale. 
At Forli,^ by that name no longer known, 
Rebellows o'er Saint Benedict, roU'd on 
From the Alpme summit down a precipice. 
Where space* enough to lodge a thousand spreads ; 
Thus downward from a craggy steep we found 

1 At so Uttl8 eo8t] They intimate to our Poet> (as Lran- 
bardi well observes) the inconveniencea to which his fkeedom 
of speech was about to expose him in the fVitore coarse oi 
his life. 
3 TVhen thou with pleasure shalt retrace the past.} 
Qaando ti glover& dicere io fed. 
So Tasso, G. L., c. xv. st. 38: 

duandn mi giover& narrar altmi 
Le novit& veditte, e dire ; io Aii. 

* E'en as the river.} He compares the &11 of PUegethon 
to that of the Montone (a river in Romagna) Arom the Apea 
nine above the Abbey of St. Benedict All the other streams, 
that rise between the sources of the Po and the Montone, and 
fiill firom the leA fide of the Apennine, join the Po, and ac- 
eompany it to the sea. 

* At JbrZiJ Because there it loses the naaie of Acqua- 
ebete, and takes that of Montone. 

* Vfhere space.} Either because the abbey was capable of 
containing more than those who occupied it, or because (says 
lAnd^o) the lords of that territory, as Boccaccio relate on 
the anthority of the abbot, had intended to build a castle near 
the water-fiai, and to collect withjin its walls the popolatkNi 
tf the naighbociiif viUagef 

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Ifitr}»i. HELL, Canto XVI. ISI 

That this daik wave resounded, roarinsr loud, 
So that the ear its clamor soon had stunned. 

I had a cord^ that braced my girdle round, 
Wherewith I erst had thought fast bound to tak* 
The painted leopard. This when I had all 
Unlooeen'd from me (so my master bade) 
I gathered up, and stretch'd it forth to him. 
Then to the right he tum'd, and from the brink 
Standing few paces distant, cast it down 
Lito the deep abyss. '< And .somewhat strange," 
Thus to myself I spake, <* signal so straiige 
Betokens, which my guide with earnest eye 
Ihus follows." Ah ! what caution must men use 
With those who look not at the deed alone. 
But ^y into the thoughts with subtle skilL' 

" Quickly shall come," he said, " what I expeot ; 
Thine eye discover quickly that, whereof 
Thy thought is dreammg." Ever to that truth,* 
Which but the semblance of a falsehood wears, 
A man, if possible, should bar his lip ; 
Since, although blameless, he incurs reproach. 

1 j9 eord.] This passage, as it is confessed by Landino, 
Involves a fiction sufficiently obscure. His own attempt to 
unravel it does not mucli lessen the difficulty. That which 
Lombardi has made is something better. It is believed that 
our Poet, in the earlier part of his life, had entered into the 
order of St. Francis. By observins the rules of that profes- 
sioo, he had designed to mortifV his carnal appetites, or, as 
he exfunesses it, '* to take tlie painted leopard" (that animal, 
which, as we have seen in « note to the first Canto, repte- 
sented Pleasure) " with this cord.** This part of the habit be 
is now desired by Virgil to take ofi"; and it is thrown down 
the gulf, to allure Geryon to them with the expectation (^ 
eaMying down one who had cloaked Ids iniquities under the 
garb of penitence and self-mortification ; and thus (to apply 
to Dante on this occasion the words of Milton) 

He, as Franciscan, thought to pass disguised 

* But spy into thi thoughts with subtle skiil.} 

Sorrise Uranio, che per entro vede 
Gli altrui pensier col senno. 

Jlfeiutiii. Sonetto. Mtntre io dsrwua. 

* Ever to that truth.] This memorable apophthegm is re 
foaled by I,^nigl Polei and Triaaino : 

Sempre a quel ver, ch* ha fkceia di menzogna, 
E piu senno tacer la lingua cheta, 
Che spesso senza colpa £i vergogna. 

Morifante Magg^ c. xziv. 
La verity, che par mensogna, 
J a doviebbe tacer dall* uom ch* h saggio. 

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134 THE VISION. iStS-tH 

But silence here were vain ; and by these notes,' 
Which now I sing, reader, I swear to thee, 
So may they favor find to latest times ! 
That through the gross and murky air I spied 
A shape come swimming up, that might have quell'd 
The stoutest heart with wonder ; m such guise 
As one returns, who hath been down to loose 
An anchor grappled fast against some rock. 
Or to aught else that in the salt wave lies. 
Who, upward springing, close draws in hia feet 


Tli.e monster Geryon is described; to whom while Virgil is 
speaidng in order that he may carry them both down to 
tho next circle, Dante, by permission, goes a little farther 
along the edge of the void, to descry the third species of 
sinners contained in this compartment, namely, those who 
have done violence to Art ; and then retmming to his mas- 
ter, they both descend, seated on the back of Geryon. 

" Lo ! the fell monster^ with the deadly stmg. 
Who passes mountains, breaks through fenced walla 
And firm embattled spears, and with his filth 
Taints all the world." Thus me my guide addressed. 
And beckon'd him, that he should come to shore, 
Near to the stony causeway's utmost edge. 

Forthwith that image vile of Fraud appeared, 
His head and upper part exposed on land, 
But laid not on the diore his bestial train. 
His face the semblance of a just man's wore, 
So kind and gracious was its outward cheer ; 
The rest was serpent all : two shaggy claws 
Reach'd to the arm-pits ; and the back and breafltf 
And either side, were painted o'er with nodes 
And orbits. Colors variegated more 
Nor Turks nor Tartars e'er on cloth of state 
With interchangeable embroidery wove, 

1 By these notes.] So Frezzi : 

Per qneste rime mie, lettor, ti ginro. 

Jl Quadrir^ Ub. Ui. ca^ Iff 
In like manner, Pindar confirms his veracity by an oath : 
Nal fii ydp *Opicov, ifiav id^av, 
J^em.t xL 30. 
which is imitated, as usual, by Chiabrera : 
Ed io lango il Permesso 
Sacro alle Mose obligherb mia fede. 

Ctmz. £rtoeA«, 3diiL 7iw 
• 7%» fsU m»nH9r.] Fraud. 

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10-61 HELL, Canto XVn. lU 

Nor qpread Arachne o'er her curkms loom. 
As oft-times a light skiff, moorM to the shore. 
Stands part in water, part upon the land ; 
Or, as where dwells the greedy German boor. 
The beaver settles, watching for his prey ; 
So on the rim, that fenced the sand with rock, 
Sat perch'd the fiend of eviL In the void 
Glancmg, his tail upturned its venomoos fork, 
With sting like scorpion's arm'd. Then thus mf 

guide : 
*' Now need our way must turn few steps apart, 
Far as to that ill beast, who couches there." 

Thereat, toward the right our downward course 
We shaped, and, better to escape the flame 
And burning marl, ten paces on the verge 
Proceeded. Soon as we to him arrive* 
A little farther on mine eye beholds 
A tribe of spirits, seated on the sand 
Near to the void. Forthwith my master spake : 
" That to the full thy knowledge may extend 
Of all this round contains, go now, and mark 
The mien these wear : but hold not long discouiM. 
Till thou retumest, I with him meantime 
Will parley, that to us he may vouchsafe 
The aid of his strong shoulders." Thus alone. 
Yet forward on the extremity I paced 
Of that seventh circle, where the mournful tribe 
Were seated. At the eyes forth gush'd their pangA 
Agamst the vapors and the torrid soil 
Alternately their shifting hands they plied. 
Thus use the doss m summer still to ply 
Their jaws and feet by turns, when bitten sore 
By gnats, or flies, or gadflies swarming round. 

Noting the visages of some, who lay 
Beneath the pelting of that dolorous fire. 
One of them all I knew not ; but perceived. 
That pendent from his neck each bore a pouch* 
With colors and with emblems various mark'd. 
On which it seem'd as if their eye did feed. 

And when, among them, looking round I came, 
A yellow purse* I saw with azure wrought, 

1 ^ pouch.\ A purse, whereon the armorial bearings of 
each were emblazoned. According to Landlno, oar poet 
implies that the usurer can pretena to no other honor ttiao 
such as he derives from his parse and his family. The de- 
•cripUon of persons by their heraldic insignia is remarkable 
teth'on the present and several other occasions In this poemi 

^Jiftlhwyurte.] ThearmsoftheGlanflgllazziofFloraae* 

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196 THE VISION 8&^ 

That wore a lion's countenance and port 

Then, still my sight pursuing its career, 

Another* I beheld, than blo^ more red, 

A goose display of whiter wmg than curd. 

And one, who bore a fat and azure swine' 

Pictured on his white scrip, address'd me thus : 

<< What dost thou in this deep 7 Go now and knoWf 

Sin€« yet thou livest, that my neighbor here 

Vitaliano' on my left shall sit. 

A Paduan with these Florentines un L 

Oft-times they thunder in mine ears, ezclaimingt 

' Oh ! haste that noble knig^t,^ he who the pouch 

' With the three goats' will bring.' " This said, he 

The mouth, and loll'd the tongue out, like an ox 
That licks his nostrils. I, lest longer stay 
He ill might brook, who hade me stay not long, 
Backward my steps from those sad ^irits tum'd. 

My guide abready seated on the haunch 
Of the fierce animal I found ; and thus 
He me encouraged. '* Be thou stout : be bold. 
Down such a steep flight must we now descend. 
Mount thou before : for, that no power the tail 
May have to harm thee, I will be i* th* midst" 

As one,' who hath an ague fit so near. 
His nails already are tum'd blue, and he 
Quivers all o'er, if he but eye the shade ; 
Such was my cheer at hearing of his words. 
But shame'' soon interposed her threat, who makes 

1 Another.} Those of the Ubbriachi, another Florentine 
fiunily of high distiDction. 

« ^ fat and azure swine.\ The arms of the Scrovignl, a 
noble family of Psidna. 

* Vitaliano.] Vitallano del Dente, a Paduan. 

4 That noble knifht,\ Giovanni Bujamonti, a Florentine 
usurer, the most infamous of his time. 

ft Goats.\ Monti, in his Pmposta, had introduced a foce 
tions dialogue on the supposed mistake made in the interpre 
tation of this word ** Becchi" by the con^pUers of the Delia 
Crusca Dictionary, who translated it "goats,*' instead of 
*' beaks.** He afterwards saw his own error, and had the 
ingenuousness to confess it in the Appendix, p. 274. Hav- 
ing in the former editions of this work been betrayed into 
the same misunderstanding of my author, I cannot do less 
than follow so good an example, by acknowledging and cor- 
recting it. 

9 As o%e.\ Dante trembled with fear, like a man who, ex- 
pecting the return of a quartan ague, shakes even at the 
sight of a place made cool by the shade. 
^ Ifvt $kamt,\ I have ftnUowed the reading in Vellolello^ 

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8^187. HELL, Lmstto XVIL 137 

The serFant bold in presence of his lord 

I settled me upon those shouldeis huge. 
And would have said, but that the words to aid 
My purpose came not, " Look thou clasp me fins " 

but he whose succor then not first I proved, 
Soon as I mounted, in his arms aloft. 
Embracing, held me up ; and thus he spake : 
" Geryon ! now move thee : be thy wheeling gyrm 
Of ample circuit, easy thy descent 
Thmk on the unusual burden thou su8tain*st " 

As a small vessel, backening out from land, 
Her station quits ; so thence the monster loosed. 
And, when he felt himself at large, tum'd round 
There, where the breast had been, his forked tail. 
Thus, like an eel, outstretch^ at length he steered* 
Gathering the air up with retractile claws. 

Not greater was the dread, when Phaeton 
The reins let drop at random, whence hiffh heaven, 
Whereof signs yet appear, was wrapt in flames ; 
Nor when ill-fated Icarus perceived, 
By liquefaction of the scalded wax. 
The trusted pennons loosen'd from his loins, 
His sire exclaiming loud, ** III way thou keep'st," 
Than was my dread, when round me on each part 
The air I view'd, and other object none 
Save the fell beast. He, slowly sailing, wheels 
His downward motion, unobserved of me. 
But that the wind, arising to my face, 
Breathes on me from below. ^T ow on our right 
I heard the cataract beneath us leap [plore, 

With hideous crash ; whence bending down to ex* 
New terror I conceived at the steep plunge ; 
For flames I saw, and wailings smote mine ear : 
60 that, all trembling, close I crouch'd my limbs, 
And then distinguish d, unperceived before, 
By the dread torments that on every side 
Drew nearer, how our downward course we wound. 

As falcon, that hath long been on the wmg. 
But lure nor bird hath seen, while in despair 
The falconer cries, " Ah me ! thou stoop'st to earth,** 
Wearied descends, whence nimbly he arose 
In many an airy wheel, and lighting sits 

Ma vergogna mi fe le sue minacce , 
which appears preferable to the common one. 

Ma vergogna mi fer, &c. 
It is necessary that I should observe this, because i has 
been imputed to me as a mistalce. 

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138 THE VISION. n^U%, 

At distance from his lord in angry mood ; 
So Geryon lighting places us on foot 
Low down at base of the deep-fiirrow*d rock, 
And, of his burden there discharged, forthwitii 
Sprang forward, like an arrow from the string 



The Poet describes the sitaation and fonn of the eifhth circle 
divided into ten gnlfs, which contain as many (Ufferent de- 
scripti(ms of fraudulent sinners ; but in the present Canto 
he treats only of two sorts : the first is of those who, either 
for their own pleasure, or for that of another, have seduced 
any woman from her duty; and these are scourged of 
demons in the first gulf: the other sort is of flatterers, wha 
in the second gulf are condemned to remain immersed in 

There is a place within the depths of hell 
Call'd Malebolge, all of rock dark-stain'd 
With hue ferruginous, e'en as the steep 
That round it cu-cling wmds. Right in the midst 
Of that abominable region yawns 
A spacious gulf profound, whereof the frame 
Due time shall tell. The circle, that remams. 
Throughout its round, between the gulf and base • 
Of the high craggy banks, successive forms 
Ten bastions, in its hollow bottom raised. 

As where, to guard the" walls, full many a foss 
Begirds some stately castle, surs defence* 
Afrording to the space within ; so here 
Were modell'd these : and as like fortresses, 

1 Sure defence.] La parte dov' e* son rendon sicura. 
This is the common reading; besides which there are two 
others : 

La parte dove il sol rende figura ; 

La parte dov* el son rende figura : 
the former of which two, Lombardi says, is found in Daniello*8 
edition, printed at Venice, 1568 ; in that printed in the same 
city with the commentaries of Landino and Vellutello, 1572 ; 
and also in some MSS. The latter, which has very much the 
appearance of being genuine, was adopted by Lombardi him- 
self, on the authority of a text supplied to be in the hand 
writing of FUippo Villani, but so defaced by the alterations 
made In it by some less skilful hand, that the traces of the 
old ink were with diflUculty recovered ; and it has, since the 
publication of Lombardi*s edition, been met with also in the 
Monte Cassino MB. 

Monti is decided In fttvor of Lombardl's reading, and BiagloU 
opposed to it 

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15-46. HELL, Canto XVUL l^d 

K'en from their threshold to the brink with Kit, 
Are flank'd with bridges ; from the rock's low base 
Thus flinty paths advanced, that 'cross the moles 
And dikes struck onward far as to the g^alf. 
That in one bound collected cuts them off. 
Such was the place, wherein we found ourselves 
From Geryon*s back dislodged. The bard to left 
Held on hss way, and I belund him moved. 

On our right hand new misery I saw, 
New pains, new executioners of wrath, 
That swarming peopled the first chasm. Below 
Were naked sinners. Hitherward they came, 
Meeting our faces, from the middle point ; 
With us beyond,* but with a larger stride. 
E'en thus the Romans,* when the year returns 
Of Jubilee, with better speed to rid 
The thronging multitudes, their means devise 
For such as pass the bridge ; that on one side 
All front toward the castle, and approach 
Saint Peter's fane, on the other towards the mouit 

Each diverse way, along the grisly rock, 
Hom'd demons I beheld, with lashes huge, 
That on their back unmercifully smote. 
Ah ! how they made them bound at the first stripe I 
None for the second waited, nor the third. 

Meantime, as on I pass'd, one met my sight, 
Whom soon as view'd, " Of him," cried I, " not yet 
Mine eye hath had his fill." I therefore stay'd* 
My feet to scan him, and the teacher kind 
Paused with me, and consented I should walk 
Backward a space ; and the tormented spirit. 
Who thought to hide him, bent his visage down. 

1 With us beyond.] Beyond the middle point they tended 
the same way with ns, but their pace was quicker than 

* E'en thu9 the Romans.] In the year 1300, Pope Bbniface 
VUL, to remedy the inconvenience occasioned by the press 
of people who were passing over the bridge of dt. Angelo 
dnitng the time of the Jubilee, caused it to be divided length- 
wise by a partition ; and ordered, that all those who were 
going to St. Peter's should keep one side, and those returning, 
the other. 6. Villani, who was present, describes the order 
that was preserved, lib. viii. cap. 36. It was at this time, and 
on this occasion, as the honest historian tells us, that ho first 
conceived the design of " compiling his book." 

s / therefore stayed.] ** I pled! aflissi*' is the reading of the 
Nidobeatina edition ; but Lombardi is under an error, when 
he tells ns that the other editions have "gll occhi affissi;»* 
for Yellatello's, at least, printed in 1544, agrees with the 
Nidobeatina. ■ 

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140 TIIE VISION. 4T-8i 

But it avaHM liim naught ; for I excIaimM : 
<* Thou who dost cast thine eye upon the groundy 
Unless thy features do belie thee much, 
^Venedico* art thou. But what brings thee 
*Into this bitter seasoning?'" He replied: 
" Unwillingly I answer to thy words. 
But thy clear speech, that to my mind recalk 
The world I once inhabited, constrains me. 
Know then 'twas I who led fair Ghisola 
To do the Marquis' will, however fame 
The shameful tale have bruited. Nor alone, 
Bologna hither sendeth me to mourn. 
Rather with us the place is so o'erthrong'd, 
That not so many tongues this day are taught, 
Betwixt the Reno and Savena's stream, 
To answer Sipa^ in theu* country's phrase. 
And if of that securer proof thou need, 
Remember but our craving thirst for gold.** 

Him speaking thus, a demon with his thong 
Struck and exclahn'd, " Away, corrupter ! hero 
Women are none for sale." Forthwith I join'd 
My escort, and few paces thence we came 
To where a rock forth issued from the bank. 
That easily ascended, to the right 
Upon its splinter turning, we depart 
From those eternal barriers. When arrived 
Where, underneath, the gaping arch lets pass 
The scourged souls : " Pause here," the teacher said, , 
" And let these others miserable now * * 

Strike on thy ken ; faces not yet beheld, 
For that together they with us have walk'd.** 

From the old bridge we eyed the pack, who came 
From the other side toward us, like the rest, 
Excoriate from the lash. My gentle guide. 
By me unquestion'd, thus his speech resumed : 

1 Venedico.] Venedico Caccianimico, a Bolognese, who 
prevs^led on his sister Ghisola ti prostitute herself to Obizzo 
da Este, Marqais of Ferrara, whom we have seen among the 
tyrants, Canto xii. 

3 Seaaoninff.] Salse. Monti, in his Proposta, following 
Benvenuto da Imola, takes this to be the name of a place. If 
so, a play must have been Intended on the word, which can- 
not be preserved in English. 

s 7b answer Sipa.] He denotes Bologna by its situation 
between the rivers Savena to the east, and Reno to the west 
»f that city ; and by a peculiarity of dialect, the use of the 
affirmative «^a instead either of si, or, as Monti will have M, 
of sia. 

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8I*1«, HELL, Canto XVIIL 14| 

'* Behold that lofty shade, who this way tendi, 

And seems too wo-begone to drop a tear. 

How yet the regnal aspect he retains ! 

Jason is he, whose skill and prowess won 

The ram from Colchus. To the Lemnian isle 

His passage thither led him, when those bold 

And pitiless women had slain all their males. 

There he with tokens and fair witching words 

Hypsipyle' beguiled, a virgin young, 

Who first had all the rest herself beguiled 

Impreg;nated, he left her there forlorn. 

Such is the guilt condenms him to this pain. 

Here too Meidea*s ii^uries are avenged. 

All bear him company, who like deceit 

To his have practised. And thus much to know 

Of the first vale suffice thee, and of those 

Whom its keen torments urge." Now had we oonM 

Where, crossing the next pier, the straiten'd path 

Bestrides its shoulders to another arch. 

Hence, in the second chasm we heard the ghosts. 
Who gibber in low melancholy sounds, 
With wide-stretch'd nostrils snort, and on themselvft 
Smite with their palms. Upon the banks a scurf, 
From the foul steam condensed, encrusting hung, 
That held sharp combat with the sight and smelL 

So hollow is the depth, that from no part. 
Save on the summit of the rocky span, 
Could I distinguish aught Thus far we came ; 
And thence I saw, within the foes below, 
A crowd immersed in ordure, that appear'd 
Draff of the human body. There beneath 
Searching with eye irtjuisitive, I mark'd 
One with his head so grimed, 'twere hard to deem 
If he were clerk or layman. Loud he cried : 
" Why greedily thus bendest more on me. 
Than on these other filthy ones, thy ken V* 

" Because, if true my memory/* I replied, 
« I heretofore have seen thee with dry locks ; 
And thou Alessio'' art, of Lucca sprung. 
Therefore than all the rest I scan thee more.*' 

Then beating on his brain, these words he spake : 

^ Mypsipyle.] See Apollonins Rhodios, 1. i., and Valeritifl 
Flaccns, 1. li. Hypsipyle deceived the other women, by ccm 
cealing her father Thoas, when they had agreed to put all 
their males to death. 

* Meano.] Alessio, of an ancient and considerable fomilf 
\n Lnosa, called the Interminei 

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143 THE VISION lS3-im 

'* Me thus low down my flatteries have sunk. 
Wherewith I ne'er enough could glut my tonguo.** 

My leader thus : " A little further stretch 
Thy face, that thou the visage well may'st note 
Of that besotted, sluttish courtesan, 
Who there doth rend her with defiled naik, 
Now crouching down, now risen cm her feet. 
Thals^ is this, the harlot, whose fcdse lip 
Answered her doting paramour that aak*d, 
* Thankcst me much !' — * Say rather, wondrously.* 
And, seeing this, here satiate be our view." 



They come to the third gulf, wheretn am panished those 
who have been guilty of simony. These era fixed with 
the head downwards in certain apertures, so that no more 
of them than the legs appear withont, and on the soles of 
their feet are seen burning flames. Dante is taken down 
by his guide into the bottom of the gulf; and there finds 
Pope Nicholas the Fifth, whose evU deeds, together with 
those of other pontifis, are bitterly reprehended. l^rgU 
then carries him up again to the arch, which aflbrds thuB 
a passage over the following gulf. 

Wo to thee, Simon Magus ! wo to you. 
His wretched followers ! who the things of GJod, 
Which should be wedded unto goodness, them. 
Rapacious as ye are, do prostitute 
For gold and silver in adultery. 
Now must the trumpet sound for you, since youn 
Is the third chasm. Upon the following vault 
We now had mounted, where the rock impends 
Directly o'er the centre of the foes. . 

Wisdom Supreme ! how wonderful the art. 
Which thou dost manifest in heaven, in earth. 
And in the evil world, how just a meed 
Allotting by thy virtue unto all. 

I saw the livid stone, throughout the sides 
And in its bottom full o^ apertures. 
All equal in their width, and cu:cular each. 
Nor ample less nor larger they appeared 

1 Tkais.] He alludes to that passage in the Eunuehm ct 
Terence, where Thraso asks if Thais was obliged to him for 
the present he had sent her; and Gnatho replies, that she 
had expressed her obligation in the most forcible terms. 
T. Magnas veto agere gratias Thais mihi 1 
O. Ingentei Eun^ a. iil. ■. 1. 

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HELL, Caiito XIX. 143 

Th«B, in St John'i fair dome' of me beknred, 

Those framed to hold the pure baptismal streams. 

One of the which I brake, some few years past. 

To save a whehnin^r infant : and be ttiis 

A seal to undeceire whoever doubts 

The motive of my deed. From out the mouth 

Of every one emerged a sinner's feet. 

And of the legs high upward as the calfl 

The rest beneath was hid. On either foot 

The soles were burning ; ndience the flexile joints 

Glanced wkh such violent motion, as had snapp'd 

Asunder cords or twisted withs. As flame. 

Feeding on unctuous matter, glides along 

The simace, scarcely touching where it moves ; 

So here, from heel to point, glided the flames. 

** Master ! say who is he, than all the rest 
Glancing in fiercer agony, on whom 
A ruddier flame doth prey ?" I thus inquired. 

« If thou be willing," he replied, « that I 
Carry thee down, where least the slq>e bank falls. 
He of hnnself atM tell thee, and his wrongs." 

I then : '* As pleases thee, to me is best 
Thou art my lonl : and knoVst that ne'er I quit 
Thy will : what silence hides, that knowest thou.'* 

Thereat on the fourth pier we came, we tum'd. 
And on our left descended to the depth, 
A narrow strait, and perforated close.' 
Nor from his side my leader set me down, . 
Till to his orifice he brought, whose limb 
Quivering expressed his pang. " Whoe'er thou art. 
Sad spirit ! thus reversed, and as a stake 
Driven in the soil," I in Uiese words began ; 
" If thou be able, utter forth thy voice." 

There stood I like the frtar, that doth shrive 
A wretch for murder doom'd, who, e'en when fix'd,* 

1 SaiRt JohfCt fair dome.'\ The apertures in the rock wero 
of the same dimensions as the fonts of St. John the Baptist 
at Florenee; one of which, Dante says, he had broken, to 
rescue a child that was playing near and fell in. He inti- 
mates, that the motive of his breaking the font had been ma- 
liciously represented by his enemies. 

9 }Fhenfix*d.} The commentators on Boccaccio's Decame- 
ron, p. 73, ediz. Giunti, 1573, cite the words of the statute by 
which morderers were sentenced thns to snfier at Florence. 
** AssBssinns trahator ad caudam mnli sen asinl nsqne ad lo- 
cum jastitie ; et ibidem plantetor, caplte deorsnm, ita qnod 
moriatnr." " Let the assasshi be drasged at the tail of a 
male or ass to the place of justice ; and there let him be set 
In the ground with his face downward, so that he die *' 

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Calleth him back, whence death awhSe delayi. 

He shouted: " Ha! already standest there? 
Already standest there, O Boniface !^ 
By many a year the writing play'd me false. 
So early dost thou surfeit with the wealth, 
For wtuch thou fearedst not in guile^ to take 
The lovely lady, and then mangle her?" 

I felt as those who, piercing not the drift 
Of answer made them, stand as if exposed 
In mockery, nor know what to reply ; 
When Virgil thus admonished : " Tell him quick, 
' I am not he, not he whom thou believest' " 

And I, as was enjoin'd me, straight replied. 

That heard, the spirit all did wrench his feet, 
And, sighing, next in woful accent spake : 
" What then of me requirest ? If to know 
So much imports thee, who I am, that thou 
Hast therefore down the bank descended, leara 
That in the mighty mantle I was robed," 
And of a she-bear was indeed the son. 
So eager to advance my whelps, that there 
My haying in my purse above I stow'd. 
And here myself. Under my head are dragged 
The rest, my predecessoi:^ in the guilt 
Of simony. Stretch'd at theu: length, they lie 
Along an opening in the rock. Midst them 
I also low shall fall, soon as he comes. 
For whom I took thee, when so hastily 
I questioned. But already longer time 
Hath pass'd, since my soles kindled, and I thus 
Upturned have stood, than is his doom to stand 
Planted with fiery feet, for after him. 
One yet of deeds more ugly shall arrive. 
From forth the west, a shepherd without law,^ 

. 1 O Ben\,'aee !\ The spirit mistakes Dante for Boniface 
VIII. who was then alive ; and who he did not expect wodid 
have arrived so soon, in consequence, as it should seem, of a 
prophecy, which predicted the death of that pope at a lat^ 
period. Boniface died in 1303. 

9 InguUeJ] "Thoa didst presume to arrive by fraudulent 
means at the papal power, and afterwards to abuse it." 

* In the mighty mantle I toa» robed.] Nicholas III. of the 
Orsini family, whom the Poet therefore calls " figliuol dell* 
ofsa," •• son of the she-bear.'* He died in 1281. 

* jFVotn forth the vest, a shepherd vithout law.] Bertrand 
de Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, who succeeded to the pontic 
ficate in 1305, and assumed the title of Clement V. He trans- 
fenred the holy see to Avignon in 1308, (where it remained 
tUl 1376,) and died in 1314 

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tV-M0. HELL, Canto XIX. 145 

Fated to cover both hk fonn and mine. 
He a new Jason^ ahall be call'd, of whom 
In Maccabees we read ; and ^yor such 
As to that priest his king indulgent show'd, 
Shall be of France's monarch* shown to him." 

I know not if I here too far presumed, 
But in this strain I answer'd : " Tell me now, 
What treasures from St Peter at the first 
Our Lord demanded, when he put the keys 
Into his charge ? Surely he ask'd no more 
But * Follow me !* Nor Peter,' nor the rest. 
Or gold or silver of Matthias took, 
When lots were cast upon the forfeit place 
Of the condemned soul.* Abide thou then ; 
Thy punishment of right is merited : 
And look thou well to that ill-gotten coin. 
Which agamst Charlei^ thy hcodihood mspired. 
If reverence of the keys restrain'd me not. 
Which thou in happier times didst hold, I yet 
Severer q>eech might use. Your avarice 
O'ercasts the world with mourning, under foot* 
Treading the good, and raising bad men up. 
Of shepherds like to you, the Evangelist^ 

1 ^ new Jason.] ^'But after the death of Seleucus, when 
Antiochus)- called Eplphanes, took the kingdom, Jason, the 
brother of Onias, labored underhand to be hlgh-prlest, prom- 
ising onto the king, by intercession, thrqe hundred and tluree- 
score talents of silver, and of another revenue eighty talents.* 
Maceab., b. 11. ch. iv. 7, 8. 

« Of Franee't monarch.] Philip IV. of France. See G 
Villanl, Ub. viii. c Ixxx. 

* JVor Peter.] Acts of the f^'^i ties, ch. i. 96. 

* The condemned eonl.] Jvtm b 

• Jlfainst Charles.] Nicholas III. was enrAged against 
Charles I. King of Biclly, because he rciected with scorn a 
proposition made by that pope for an alliance between their 
families. See a ViUani, Hist., lib. vU. c. Uv. 

• Under fooU, 

So shall the worid go on. 

To good malignant, to bad men benign. 

» The Evangelist.] Eev. c. xvli. 1, 2, 3.— Petrarch, In one 
of his Epistles, had his eye on these lines : ** Oaude {inmuun) 
et ad aliquid utilis inventa ^loriare bonorum hostis et nuuorum 
hospeSy atque asylum pesstma rerum Bahfflon feris^'Rhodan* 
rypis imposita^famosa dieam an infamis meretriXyfomicata cum 
rwibus terra. Ilia equldem ipsa es quam in spiritu sacer 
Vidlt Evangellsta. JUa eadem^ iatquam^ es, non alia, sedens 
svper aquas mulias,sive ad littora tribus einctafiuminibus sivs 
rerum atque. divittaiiim turba mortalium quibus losciviens ac 
secura insides opwn immemor mtemarum sive ut idem qui vidit, 
nposiiU. Populi et gentes et Ungofls a que sunt, super qoas 


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146 THE VISION. llO-lia 

Was ware, when her, who sits upon the wavef, 
With kmgB m filthy whoredom he beheld ; 
She who with seven heads towered at her birthy 
And from ten horns her proof of glory drew, 
Long as her spouse in virtue took dehght. 
Of gold and silver ye have made your god, 
Dinering wherein urom the idolater, 
But that he worships one, a hundred ye? 
Ah, Constantme !^ to how much ill gave birth, 

meretrix sedes, reeognosce baUtmn,** &c Petrarckm Q^era, lA 
fol, Basil., 1554. EpUt sine titulo Liber, ep. xvi. p. 729. Tlw 
text is here probably corrapted. The constnictiun certainly 
may be rendered easier by (nnitting the ad before /tttom, and 
tc^-stitutlng a comma for a Ml stop after expotvit. With 
all the respect that is due to a venerable prelate and truly 
learned critic, I cannot but point out a mistake he has fallen 
into, relating to this passage, when he observes, that "Num- 
beriess passages in the writings of Petrarch speak of Rome 
under the name of Babylon. But an equal stress is not to be 
laid on all these. It should be remembered, that the popes, in 
Petrarch's time, resided at Avignon, greatly to the disparage- 
ment of themselves, as he thought, and especially of Rome ; 
of which this sinsular man was a little less than idolatrous. 
The situation or the place, surrounded by waters, and his 
splenetic concern for the exUed church, (for under this idea 
he painted to himself the pope's migration to the bonks of 
Avignon,) brought to his mind the condition of the Jewish 
church in the Babylonian captivity. And this parallel was all, 

gsrhaps, that he meant to insinuate in most of those passages, 
ut when he applies the prophecies to Rome, as to the 
Apocalyptic Babylon, (as he clearly does in the epistle under 
. consideration,) his meaning is not equivocal, and we do him 
but justice to give him an honorable place among the 
TBSTK8 VBRiTATis." An tutroduction to the etudvof the 
Propheeiea, ^, by Richaid^^, D. D., serm. vii. p. 239, note 
y, ed. 1772. r^ *■ 

Now, a reference to the fj^^is printed in Italics, which the 
Bishop of Worcester has omitted in his quotation, will m ike 
it sufficiently evident, that Avi^nonf and not Rome, is here 
alluded to by Petrarch. 

The application that is made of tliese prophecies by two 
men so eminent for their learains and sagacity as Dante and 
Petrarch is, however, very remarkable, and must be satis&c- 
tory to those who have renounced the errors and conraptions 
of the papacy. Such applications were indeed firequent in 
the middle ages, as may be seen in the ''Sermons" above 
referred to. Balbo observes, that it is not Rome, as most 
erroneously interraeted, but Avignon, and the court there, 
that is termed Babylon by Dante and Petrarch. \lta dl 
Dante, v. ii. p. 103. 

1 Ah, Constamtinel} He alludes to the pretended cUt of 
the Lateran by Ck>nstantine to Sylvester, of which Dante 
himself seems to imply a doubt, in his treatise "De Mo- 
narchic." — ^"Ergo scindere Imperium, Imperatori non licet 
St ergo allqusB dignitates per Constantinum essent alienata 
'ut dicunt) ab Im^o," 4cc, lib ili ** Therefore to make a 

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119-135. HELL, Canto XX. 147 

Not thy conversion, but that plenteons dower. 
Which the first wealthy Father gain'd from thee** 

Meanwhile, as thus I siing, he, whether wrath 
Or conscience smote him, violent npsprang 
Spinning on either sole. I do believe 
My teacher well was pleased, with so composed 
A lip he listened ever to the somid 
Of the truo words I utter'd. In both arms 
He caught, and, to his bosom lifting me. 
Upward retraced the way of his descent 

Nor weary of his weight, he press'd me clcie, 
Till to the summit of the rock we came, 
Our passage from the fourth to the fifth pier. 
His cherishM burden there gently he placed 
Upon the rugged rock and steep, a path 
Not easy for the clambering goat to mount. 

Thence to my view ano^er vale appeared. 



The Poet relatef the pnnishinent of snch as presumed, whUe 

living, to predict future events. It Is to have their &ces 

reversed and set the contrary way on their limbs, so that, 

rent In the empire exceeds the lawful power of the emperor 
himself. If, then, some dignities were by Ck>n8tantine alien- 
ated (as they report) from the empire, Au;/' In another part 
of the same treatise he speaks of the alienation with lest 
doubt. Indeed, but not with less disapprobation : ** O fellcem 
popnlum ! O Ansonlam te gloriosam I si vel nunqnam infir- 
mator Imperii tui extltlsset ; vel nunqnam sua pia intentlo . 
Ipsum fefelllsset."— *' O happy people ! O glorious Italv ! if 
either he who thus weakened thine empire had never been 
* Iwm, or had never suffered his own pious intentions to mis- 
lead him.** Lib. IL od jinm. 

The gift is by Ariosto very humorously placed in the mooa, 
among the things lost or abused on earth : 
Di vaij fieri ad un gran monte passa, 
Ch* ebber*gik buono odore, or puzzan forte, 
Questo era 11 dono (se pei^ dlr lece) 
Che Costantlno al buon Silvestro fece. 

Orl. Fur^ c zxxiv. st 80. 
Milton has translated both this passage and that in the 
text Proge Works, vol. i. p. 11, ed. 1753. 

Ah, Ck>nstantlne ! of how much ill was rai|se 
Not thy conversion, but those rich domains 
That the first wealthy pope received of thee. 
Then pass*d he to a flowery mountain green. 
Which once smelt sweet, now stinks as odiously ; 
This was that gift. If you the truth will have, 
That Ponstantlne to good BilvMter gave. 

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148 THE VISION. l-n 

being deprived of the power to eee befim them, they ait 
constrained ever to walk backwards. Among these Virgil 
points out to him AmphiaraUs, Tiresias, Amns, and Manto. 
(from the mention of whom he takes occasion to speak of 
the <nrigin of Bfantna,) together with several others, who 
had practised the arts of divination and astrpiogy. 

And now the verse proceeds to torments newi 
Fit argument of this the twentieth strain 
Of the first song, whose awfid theme records 
The spirits whelmM in wo. Earnest I looked 
Into Uie depth, that open'd to my view, 
Moistened with tears of anguish, and beheld 
A tribe, that came along the hollow vale. 
In silence weepmg : such their step as walk 
Quues, chanting solemn litanies, on earth. 

As on them more direct mine eye descends, 
Each wonderously seem'd to be reversed^ 
At the neck-bone, so that the countenance 
Was from the reins averted ; and because 
None might before him look, they were compeird 
To advance with backward gait Thus one perhaps 
Hath been by force of palsy clean transposed, 
But I ne*er saw it nor believe it so. 

Now, reader ! think within thyself, so God 
Fruit of thy reading give thee ! how I long 
Could keep my visage dry,* when I beheld 
Near me our form dutorted in such guise, 
That on the hinder parts fallen from the face 
The tears down-streammg rolled. Against a rock 
I lean'd and wept, so that my guide exclaim*d : 
*' What, and art thou, too, witless as the rest? 
Here pity most doth show herself alive, . 
When she is dead. What gruilt exceedeth his, 
Who with Heaven's judgment m his passion strives ? . 
Raise up thy head, raise up, and see the man 
Before whose eyes' earth gaped m Thebes, when all 

i Reverged.] 

But very unconth slriit was to behold • 
How he did fashion his nntoward pace ; 
For as he forward mov*d his footing old, 
80 backward still was tum'd his wrinkled &ce : 
Unlike to men who ever as they trace, 
Both feet and fece one way are wont to lead 

Spnuer, Faery ^futn, b. i. c viiL st SI 

• — — — Hoap / lof^ 
Could ketp my vUagt dry.1 

Sight so deform what heart of man coald long 
Dnr-eyed behold 1 Adam could not, bat wei^ 


• Btf^re tniUM ^<s.J Amphiumfis, one of the sevea Usp 

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31-40. HELL, Canto XX. |4f 

Cried out, < Axnphiarails, whither nuhest? 
Why leavest thou the war 7* He not the lets 
Fell mmingi far as to Mhios down. 
Whose grapple Bone eludes Lo ! how he makes 
The breast his shoulders ; and who once too far 
Befoie him wish'd to see, now backward looks. 
And treads reverse his path. Tiresias^ note. 
Who semblance changed, when woman he became 
Of male, through every limb transformed ; and then 
Once more behooved him with his rod to strike 
The two entwining serpents, ere the plumes. 
That marked the bnetter sex, might shoot again. 

** Aruns,^ with rere his belly facing, comes. 
On Luni's mountams midst the marbles white. 
Where delves Carrara's hind, who wons beneath, 
A cavern was his dwelling, whence the stars - 

who besieged Thebes. He is said to have been swallowed ii|. 
by an opening of the earth. See Lidgate's Storie of Thebes, 
part iii., where it is toid how the " Bishop Amphiaraiis*' &U 
down to heil : 

And thus the derill, for his oatrages, 

Like his desert payed him his wages. 
A diflforent reascm, for his being doomed thus to pedsh, Is 
assigned by Pindar : 

h 6* *A,fi(pidpiitf &c JWm. is 
For thee, Amphlaraiis, earth, 
By Jove's all-riving thunder cleft, 
Her mighty bosom openM wide, 
Thee and thy plunging steeds to hide, 
Or ever on thy back the spear 
Of Periclymenus impressed 
A woond to shame thy wariike breast 
For struck with panic fear 
The gods' own children flee. 
1 Ruininf.] *' Suinare.** Hence, perhaps, Bliltcm, P. L., b.vt. BUHL 

Heaven mining from heaven. 
« Ttretias.] 

— — Dno magnOTum viridi cofinntia sylvft 
Ckirpora serpentam baeuli violaverat ictn. 
Deque viro &ctns (mirabtle) fosmina, septem 
Egerat autumnos. Octavo mrsns eosdem 
Yidit. Et, est vestrs si tanta potentia plage. 
Nunc quoque vos ferlam. Percussis angnibus isdem 
Forma prior rediit, genitivaque venlt imago. 

Ovid, Met., lib. ill. 
* Arun$.\ Amns is said to have dwelt in the mountiUns 
of Luni, (from whence that territory is still called Lunigiana,) 
above Carrara, celebrated for its marble. Lncan. Phan., lib. 
'. 575. So Boccaccio, in the flammetta, lib. iii.: "Quale 
Arunte,** fee. ** Like Aruns, who amidst the white marbles 
of Luni contemplated the celestial bodies and their motions.** 
I Fas&o degU Ubertt, Dittamondo, 1. iii. cap. vi. 

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150 THE VKION. 47Hift 

And main-sea wide in boundless view he held 

** The next, whose loosen'd tresses overspread 
Her bosom, which thou seest not (for each hair 
On that side grows) was Manto,' she who search*d 
Through many regions, and at length her seat 
Fix'd in my native land : whence a short space 
My words detain thy audience. When her sire 
From life departed, and in servitude 
The city dedicate to Bacchus moumM, 
Long time she went a wanderer through the world 
Aloft in Italy's delightful land 
A lake there lies, at foot of that proud Alp 
That o*er the Tyrol locks Germania in, 
Its name Benacus, from whose ample breast 
A thousand springs, methinks, and more, between 
Camonica' and Garda, issuing forth. 
Water the Apennine. There is a spot' 
At midway of that lake, where he who bears 
Of Trento's flock the pastoral staff, with him 
Of Brescia, and the Veronese, might each 
Passing that way his benediction give. 
A garrison of goodly site and strong 

1 Manto.] The daughter of Tiresias of Thebes, a city dedl 
eated to Bacchus. From Manto, Mantua, the country of viiq|ii 
derives its name. The Poet proceeds to describe the situation 
of that place. But see the note to PurgaUnry, Canto zzii. 
V. 112. 

* Camoniea.] Lombardi, instead of 

Fra Garda, e val Camoniea e Apennlno, 

Fra Garda e val Camoniea Pennino, 
from the Nidobeatina edition, (to which he might have added 
that of Vellntello in 1544,) and two MSS., all of which omit 
the second conjunction, the only part of the alteration that 
affects the sense. I have re-translated the passage, which la 
the former editions stood thus : 

which a thousand rills 

Methinks, and more, Mrater between the vale 

Camoniea and Garda, and the height 

Of Apennine remote. 
It should be added that Vellutello reads "Yaldhnonica»* fiv 
^ Val Camoniea;" but which of these is right remains to be 
determined by a collation of editions and MSS., and still more 
perhaps by a view of the country in the neighborhood of ihe 
take, (now called the Lago di Garda,) wiUi a reference to 
this passage. 

* There is a epot] Prato di Fame, where the dioceses of 
Tranto, Verona, and Brescia meet. 

* jSgarrison of goodly eite and atrong.] 

Gaza, bello e forte amese 
IH ftonteggiar i regni di Soria. 

Taeeo^ Oer. Lib^ c. L st 67. 

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tthioa. . HELL, Canto XX. I5i 

Pesohiera' stoiids, to awe with front opposed 
The Bergamese and Brescian, whence the shore 
More slope each way descends. There, whalsoe'er 
Benacus' bosom holds not, tumbUng o'er 
Down falls, and winds a river flood beneath 
Through the green pastures. Soon as in his cooiw 
The stream makes head, Benacus then no man 
They call the name, but Mincius, till at last 
Reaching Govemo, into Fo he falls. 
Not far his courpe hath run, when a wide flat 
It finds, which overstretching as a marsh 
It covers, pestilent in summer oft. 
Hence journeying, the savage maiden saw 
Midst of the fen a territory waste 
And naked of inhabitants. To shun 
All human converse, here she with her slaves, 
Plying her arts, remam'd, and lived, and left 
Her lK>dy tenantless. Thenceforth the tribes. 
Who round were scatter'd, gathering to that place, 
Assembled ; for its strength was great, enclo^ 
On all parts by the fen. On those dead bones 
They reared themselves a city, for her sake 
Calling it Mantua, who first chose the spot. 
Nor ask'd another omen for the name ; 
Wherein more numerous the people dwelt, 
Ere Casalodi's madness* by deceit 
Was wrong'd of Pinamonte. If thou hear 
Henceforth another origin* assigned 
Of that my country, I forewarn thee now. 
That falsehood none beguile thee of the truth.*' 
I answer'd, '* Teacher, I conclude thy words 
So certain, that all else shall be to me 
As embers lacking life. But now of these, 
Who here proceed, instruct me, if thou see 
Any that merit more especial note. 

t Peaehiera.'] A garrison sitaated to the south of Ihe lake, 
where it empties itself and forms the Mincius. 

* OualodPa madnett.] Alberto da Casalodi, who had got 
possession of Mantua, was persuaded, by Pinamonte Bnona- 
cossi, that he might ingratiate himself with the people, by 
banisliing to their own castles the nobles, who were obnox- 
ious to them. No sooner was this done, than Pinamonte put 
himself at the head of the populace, drove ont Casalodi and 
his adherents, and obtained the sovereignty for himself. 

* Another origin.} Lombardi refers toServios on the Tenth 
Book of the iEneid. Alii a Tarchone Tyrrheni firatre condi- 
tam dicunt Mantuam autem ideo nominatam quia Etrosca 
Ungoa Mantom ditem patrem appellant. 

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159 THE VISION. 104-lU 

For thereon is my mind alone intent" [cheek 

He straight replied: <*That spirit, from whose 
The beard sweeps o'er his shoulders brown, what tim« 
Grscia was emptied of her males, that scarce 
The cradles were supplied, the seer was he 
In Aulis, who with Calchas gaye the sign 
When first to cut the cable. Him they named 
Eurypilus : so sings my tragic strain,' 
In whish majestic measure well thou know*st, 
Who know'st it all. That other, round the loins 
So slender of his shape, was Michael Scot,' 

1 So sings my tragic strain.^ 

Suspensi Eurypilnm scitatiun oracula Phoebi 
Mittimus. rirg. JEneid.y ii. 14. 

> Michael Scot.'\ " Egli non ha ancora guari, che in qnesta 
citt& fn un gran maestro in negromanzia, il quale ebbe nome 
Michele Scotto, percib che di Scozia era." Boccaccio, Dec. 
Oiom.., viii. nov. 9. 

** It is not long since there was in this city (Fioronce) a 
great master in necromancy, who was failed Michele Scotto, 
because he was from Scotland." See also Giov. Villani, HisU, 
lib. X. cap. cv. and cxli. and lib. xii. cap. xviii., and Fazio degli 
Ubcrti, Dittamondo, 1. ii«.cap. xzvii. 

I make no aaptogy for adding the following curious particu< 
lars extracted trom the notes to Mr. Scott's Lay of the Last 
Minstrel, a |ipem in which a happy use is made of the snper- 
stitions relating 'to the subject of this note. "Sir Michael 
Bcott, of Balwearie, flourished during the thirteenth century, 
and was one of the ambassadors sent to bring the Maid of 
Norway to Scotland upon the death of Alexander III. He 
was a man of much learning, chiefly acquired in foreign 
countries. He wrote a commentary upon Aristotle, printed 
At Venice in 1496, and several treatises upon natural philo- 
sophy, from which he appears to have been addicted to the 
abstruse studies of judicial astrology, alchymy, physii^nomy, 
and chiromancy. Hence he passed among his contempora- 
ries for a skilful magician. Dempster infonns us, that he re- 
members to have heard in his youth, that the magic books 
of Michael Scott were still in existence, but could not be 
opened without danger, on account of the fiends who were 
thereby invoked. Dempsteri Historia Ecclesiastica, 1627, 
lib. xii. p. 495. Leslie characterizes Michael Scott as ' Singu- 
lar! philosophis astronomie ac medicinie lande pmtans, 
dicebatur penitissimos magice recessus indagasse.* A per- 
sonage thus spoken of by biographers and historians lose^ 
little of his mystical fame in vulgar tradition. Accordingly, 
the memory of Sir Michael Scott survives in many a legend; 
and in the south of Scotiand any work of great labor and 
antiquity is ascribed either to the agency of Auld Michael, of 
Sir William Wallace, or of the devil. Tradition varies con- 
cerning the place of his burial: some contend for Holme 
Coltraiue In Cumberland, others for Melrose Abbey : but all 
agree that his books of magic were interred in his grave, of 
preserved in the convent where he died." 7%e Lajf of tlU 
Laai JUhtstrelt b]f Walter Scott, Esq^ Lond. 4to. 1805, p. 23^ 

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I15-1S6. HELL, CAino XX, 159 

Rractised in every slight of magic wile* 

** Guido Bonatti^ see : Asdente' mark, 
Who now were willing he had tended still 
The thread and cordwain, and too late repents. 
** See next the wretches, who the needle left* 
The shuttle and the spindle, and became 
Diviners : baneful witcheries they wrought 
With images and herbs. Btit onward now : 
For now doth Cain with fork of thorns* con&e 
On either hemisphere, touching the wave 
Beneath the towers of Seville. Yesternight 
The moon was roimd. Thou mayst remember well 

Mr. Warton, speaking of the new translations of Aristotle, 
frran the original Greek into Latin, about the twelfth cen- 
tnrv, observes: **I believe the translators understood very 
little Greek. Our countryman, Michael Scotus, was one of 
the first of them; who was assisted by Andrew, a Jew. 
Michael was astrologer to Frederic II. Emperor of Germany, 
and appears to have executed his traiislaticms at Toledo in 
Spain, about the year 1290. These new versiohs were per- 
haps little more than corrections from those of the early 
Arabians, made under the inspection of the learned Spanish 
^racens." History of Engligh Poetry, vol. U dissert. iL and 
sect ix. p. 392. 

Among the Canonic^ MBS. in the Bodleian, Xhave seen 
(No 520) the astrolc^cal works of Michael Scot, on vellum, 
with an illuminated portrait of him at the be^ning. 

1 Ouido Bonatti.] An astrologer of Forli, on whose skill 
Guido da Montefeltro, lord of that place, so much relied, that 
he is reported never to have gone into battle, except in the 
hour recommended to him as fortunate by Bonatti. 

Landino and Vellutello speak of a book which he com- 
posed on the subject of his art. Macchiavelli mentions him 
in the History of Florence, 1. i. p. 24, ed. 1550. '* He flourished 
about 1330 and 1260. Though a learned astronomer, he was 
seduced by astrology, through which he was greatly in favor 
with many princes of that time. His many works are mis- 
erably spoiled by it.** BettineUh Ritorgimento tTfttUiOt t. i. 
p. 118, 8vo. 1786. He is referred to in Brown's Vulgsr Er- 
n»8, b. 4, c. 13. 

' Aadente.l A shoemaker at Parma, who deserted his busi- 
ness to imtctise the arts of divination. How much this man 
had attracted the public notice appears from a passage in 
our author's Convito, p. 179, where it is said, in speaking of 
the derivation of the word " noble," that " if those whoju^re 
best known were accounted the most noble, Asdehte, tiie 
shoemaker of Parma, would be more noble than any one in 
tiiat dty." 

* Coin with fork of thoms.1 By Cain and the thorns, or 
what is still vulgarly called the Man In the Moon, the Poet 
denotes that luminary. The same superstition is alluded to 
in the Paradise, Canto ii. 52. The curious reader may con- 
salt Brand on Popular Antiquities, 4to. 1813. vol. ii. p. 476; 
■M Doace*s lilustratioils of Shakspeare, 8vo. 1807, v. L p. 16 

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154 THE VISION. 1S7-1M 

For she good aBrvice did thee in the gloom 

Of the deep wood." This said, both onward moved 



Btill in the eighth circle, which bean the name of MalebolM, 
they look down from the bridce that passes over its filth 
gulf, upon the biurterers or public peculators. These are 
plunged in a lake of boiling pitch, and guarded by Demons, 
to whom Virgil, leaving Dante apart, presents himself; ana 
license being obtained to paJM onward, both pursue their 

Thus we from bridge to bridge, with other talk. 
The which my drama cares not to rehearse, 
PassM on ; and to the summit reaching, stood 
To view another gap, within the round 
Of Malebolge, other bootless pangs. 

Marvellous darkness shadow'd o'er the place. 

In the Venetians' arsenal^ as boils 
Through wintry months tenacious pitch, to smear 
Their unsound vessels ; for the inclement time 
Sea-faring men restrains, and in that while 
His bark one builds anew, an<fther stops 
The ribs of his that hath made many a voyage, 
One hammers at the prow, one at the poop. 
This shapeth oars, that other cables twirls. 
The mizen one repairs, and main-sail rent ; 
So, not by force of fire but art divme, 
Boird^ here a glutinous thick mass, that round 
Limed all the shore beneath. I that beheld. 
But therein naught distmguish'd, save the bubbles 
Raised by the boiling, and one mighty swell 
Heave,* and by turns subsidmg faU. While there 

^ In the Venetian** artenal.} 

Come dentr'ai Naval della gran terra, 
Tra le lacune del mar d*Adria posta, 
Serban la pece la togata gente, 
Ad nso dl lor navi e dl lor triremi ; 
• Per solcar poi sicuri il mare ondoso, 8lc. 

Rueeellai^ Le Jipi^ v. 165. 
Dryden seems to have had the passage in the text before 
him in his Annus Mirabilis, st. 146, &c. 

s BoiPd.] "^di flumen magno de Inferno procedere ardent 
atque piceum. Mheriei FieiOf ^ 17 

• One mighty etoeU 

Vidi etiam os pntei magnum gammas emittentem, et nimf 
sonom nnrc deorsnm descendentem. jUUriei FUm % IL 

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|»-M. HELL, Canto XXI. 155 

I fixM my kea bdow, " Maik ! maik V* my guide 
Exclaimiag, drew me towards him from the place 
Wherein I stood. I tum*d myself, as one 
Impatient to behold that which beheld 
He needs must shun, whom sudden fear unmans. 
That he his fli^rht delays not for the view. 
Behind me I discem'd a devil black, 
That running up advanced along the rock. 
Ah ! what fierce cruelty his look bespake ! 
In act ho>7 bitter did he seem, with wmgs 
Buoyant outstretch'd and feet of nimblest tread. 
His shoulder, proudly eminent and sharp, 
Was with a sinner charged ; by either haunch 
He held him, the foot's sinew griping fast 

'* Ye of our bridge !" he cried, ** keen-talon'd fiends I 
Lo ! one of Santa Zita's elders.^ Him 
Whelm ye beneath, while I return for more. 
That land hath store of such. All men are there, 
Except Bouturo, barterers .** of * no' 
For lucre there an * aye' is quickly made." 

Him dashing down, o'er the rough rock he tum'd ; 
Nor ever after thief a mastiff loosed 
Sped with like eager haste. That other sank. 
And forthwith writhing to the surface rose. 
But those dark demons, shrouded by the bridge, 
Cried, " Here the hallow'd visage* saves not : here 
Is other swimming than in Serchio's wave,* 
Wherefore, if thou desire we rend thee not. 
Take heed thou mount not o'er the pitch." This naid, 
They grappled him with more than hundred hooks. 
And shouted : " Cover'd thou must sport thee here ; 
So, if thou canst, in secret mayst thou filch." 
E'en thus the cook bestirs him, with his grooms, 

^ One of Santa Zita*t ader§.] The elders or chief ma^ 
bates of Lucca, where San.ta Zita was held in especial ven- 
eration. The name of this sinner is supposed to have been 
liartino Botaio. 

s Exf^t SonturOj harierera.] This is said ironically of 
Bontoro de' Dati. BYharUrera are meant pecnlativs, of 
every description; all who traffic the interests of the pat lie 
for their own private advantaga 

* The haUoto^d vi«age.\ A representation of the head of ooi 
Saviour worshipped at Lucca. 

* Is other etrimming than in Serehie'e wave.] 

Qui si nuota altrimenti che nel Serchio. 
Serchio is the river that flows by Lucca. So Puld, Bloig 
Magg., c xziv. 

Uoi si nuota nel sangue, e son nelSerehio. 

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To thrust tho fleah^ into tho caldron down 
With flesh-hooks, that it float not on the topi. 

Me then my guide bespake : " Lest they d30er^ 
That thou art here, behind a craggy 'rock 
Bend low and screen thee : and whatever of force 
Be offer'd me, or insult, fear thou not ; 
For I am well advised, who have been erst 
In the like fray." Beyond the bridge's head 
Therewith he pass*d ; and reaching the sixth pier. 
Behooved him then a forehead terror-proofl 

With storm and fury, as when dogs rush foith 
Upon the poor man's back, who suddenly 
From whence he standeth makes his suit ; so rushM 
Those from beneath the arch, and against him 
Their weapons all they pointed. He, aloud : 
" Be none of you outrageous : ere your tine 
Dare seize me, come forth from among you onO) 
Who having heard my words, decide he then 
If he shall tear these limbs." They shouted loud, 
" Gro, Malacoda !'* Whereat one advanced. 
The others standing firm, and as he came, 
" What may this turn avail him ?" he exclaim'd. 

"Believest thou, Malacoda I I had come 
Thus far from all your skirmishing secure," 
My teacher answer'd, " without will divine 
And destiny propitious ? Pass we then ; 
For so Heaven's pleasure is, that I should lead 
Another through this savage wilderness:" 

Forthwith so fell his ]Mide, that he let drop 
The instrument of torture at his feet. 
And to the rest exclaun'd ; " We have no power 
To strike him." Then to me my guide : " O thou ! 
Who on the bridge among the crags dost sit 
Low crouching, safely now to me return." [fiendf 

I rose, and towards him moved with speed ; the 
Meantime all forward drew : me terror seized. 
Lest they should break the compact they had madew 
Thus issuing from Caprona,' once I saw 
Th' infantry, dreading lest his covenant [round. 

The foe should brea^; so close he hemm*d them 

1 The JU»h.\ In eitndem flmnen connnnt: mrsnmqne 
asffnrgeates, ac denno recidentes, tamdin ibidem cruciantur, 
donee in morero carniam excocti, Idc. jUberiei Fuio^ ^ 17. 

s fV<m CsvrojM.} The surrender of the castle of Caprona 
to the combined f<»rees of Florence and Lncca, on condition 
^at the garrison should march out in safety*, to which even 
Dante was a witness, took place in 1290. See 6. Villan^ 
Hist, Ub v& e. 198. 

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Mkll7. HELL, CAMTa XXL 157 

I to my leader's nde adhered, mine eyes 
With fix'd and motionleoB obsenrance bent 
On their unkindly visage. They their hooks 
Protrudmg, one the other thus bespake : 
<* Wilt thbn I touch him on the hip?" To. whom 
Was answered : " Even so ; nor miss thy aim." 

But he, who was in conference with my gnide» 
Tum'd rapid round ; and thus the demon spake : 
" Stay, stay thee, Scarmiglione !" Then to os 
He added : ** Farther footing to your step 
This rock aflSirds not, shiverd to the base 
Of the sixth arch. But would ye still proceed, 
Up by this cavern go : not distant far. 
Another rock will yield you passage safe. 
Yesterday,' later by five hours than now, 
Twelve hundred tlureescore years and six had fill'd 
The circuit of their course, since here the way 
Was broken. Thitherward I straight dispatch 
Certam of these my scouts, who shall espy 
If any on the surface bask. With them 
Go ye : for ye shall find them nothing fell. 
Come, Alichmo, forth," with that he cried, 
** And Calcabrina, and Cagnazzo' thou ! 

1 Tetterday.] This passage fixes tbe era of Duite*8 descent 
at Good Friday, in the year 1300, (34 vears firom oar blessed 
Lord's incarnaUon being added to 1S66,) and at the thirty- 
fifth year of oar Poet*8 age. See Canto i. v. 1. 

Tlie awful event alluded to, the Evangelists inform as, 
happened *'at the ninth hour," that is, oar sixth, when " the 
rocks were rent,'* and the convalsi(», according to Dante, 
was felt even In the depths of Hell. See Canto xli, v. 3& 

s Ctt£jiazio.] Palci introduces some of these demons in a 
very pleasant adventure, related near the beginning of the 
•econd Canto of his Morgante Maggioce : 

Non senti to, Olando, in qnella tomba 

Qaelle parole, che colui rimbombal 

lo voglio andar a scoprir qoello avello, 

LA doVe e' par che qnella voce s'oda, 

Ed eseane Cagnazzo, e Farfarello, 

O LiUcoeco, col soo Malacoda ; 

E finalmente s'accostava a qoello, 

Perb che Orlando questa impresa loda, 

E disse ; scooprl, se vi Aissi dentro 

Qnanti ne piovon mai dal del nel centro. 


** Perceivest the words, Orlando, which this fellow 

Doth in our ears out of tliat tomb rebellow? 

"ni go, and straight the sepulchre uncase, 

Ttam whence, as seems to me, that voice was besilt 

Be Farflurel and Cagnazzo to my ftice, 

Or lihleoe with l^Seo^ stiR^d :** 

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158 THE VISION. 118-111 

The troop of ten let Barbuicoia lead. 

With Libicocco, Draghmazzo haatOj 

Fan^d Ciriatto, Gramacane fierce, 

And Farfarello, and mad Rubicant 

Search ye around the bubblmg tar. For theM, 

In safety lead them, where the other cng 

Unmtemipted traverses the dens." 

I then : ** O mabter !' what a si^t is there ! 
Ah ! without escort, journey we alone, 
Which, if thou know the way, I covet not 
Unless thy prudence fail thee, dost not mark 
How they do gnarl upon us, and their scowl 
Threatens us present tortures V* He replied : 
** I charge thee, fear not : let them, as they will, 
Gnarl on : 'tis but in token of their qpite 
Against the souls who mourn in torment steep'd.*' 

To leftward o'er the pier they tum'd ; but each 
Had first between his teeth press'd close the tongrue« 
Toward their leader for a signal looking. 
Which he with sound obscene' triumpluuit gave. 



Vligil and Dante proceed, accompanied by the Demons, and 

see other sinners of the same description in the same gidf. 

The device of Ciampolo, one of these, to escape firom the 

Demons, who had laid hold on him. 

It hath been heretofore my chance to see 
Horsemen with martial order shifting camp. 
To onset sallying, or in muster ranged. 
Or in retreat sometimes outstretch'd for flight : 
liight-armed squadrons and fleet foragers 
Scouring thy plains, Arezzo ! have I seen. 
And clashii^ tournaments, and tilting jousts. 
Now with the sound of trumpets, now of beUs, 

An.1 finally he drew near to the place ; 
Th' emprize Orlando praising with this word: 
** Uncase it, though within as many dwell. 
As ever were from heaven rain'd down to hell.** 
1 Owtagter!] Lombardl tells ns that every edition, ezcepi 
his &vorite Nidobeatina, has " O me" printed separately, in* 
Jtead of " Omh.*' This is not the case at least with Landi* 
lio*s of 1484. But there is no end of these inaccuracies. 

s With sound obscene.] Compare the original with Aiistih 
phaaes, Nubes. 165 :— 

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^•M. HELL, Canto XXIL 150 

Tabon,^ or aignab made from castled heig^ta. 

And with inventions moltiform, our own, 

Or introduced from foreign land ; but ne'er 

To such a strange recorder I beheld, 

In evolution moving, horse nor foot, 

Nor ship, that tackM by sign from land or star. 

With the ten demons on our way we went ; 
Ah, fearful company ! but in the church* 
With saints, with gluttons at the tavern's meM. 

Still earnest on the pitch I gazed, to mark «• 

All things whate'er the chasm contained,* and those 
Who bum'd within. As dolphins* that, in sign 
To manners, heave high their arched backs. 
That thence forewam'd they may advise to save 
Their threaten'd vessel ; so, at intervals. 
To ease the pain, his back some sinner showed, 
Then hid more nimbly than this lightnmg-glance. 

E'en as the frogs, that of a watery moat 
Stand at the brink, with the jaws only out. 
Their feet and of the trunk all else conceal'd, 
Thus on each part the sinners stood ; but soon 
As Barbariccia was at hand, so they 
Drew back under the wavew I saw, and yet 
My heart doth stagger, one, that waited thus, 
As it befalls that oft one frog remains. 
While the next springs away : and Graffiacan,* 

1 T\ibor$.'] " Tabor, a dram, a common accompaniment of 
war, is mentioned as one of the instraments of martial mosie 
in this battle (in Richard Cceor-de-Lion) with characterisU 
cal {HTopriety. tt was imported into the European armies 
firom the Saracens in the holy war. Joinville describes a 
snperb bark or galley belonging to a Saracen chief which, be 
says, was filled with cymbals, tabors, and Saracen horns. 
Hist de S. Loys, p. 30." fVarton'* Hist, of Engluh Poetry, 

* In the church.} This proverb is repeated by PnlcL Moig« 
Magg., c. xvU. 

* Whai£eT the chasm eontaiii'd.] Monti, in his Proposta, 
Interprets " contegno" to mean, not " contents** but " state,** 
** condition.*' 

< Jis dolphins."] 

li lieti delfinl 

Givan saltando sopra Tonde chiare, 
Che 8<^lion di fortnna esser divini. 

Freizi. tt quadrvr.^ lib. i. cap. 15. 

* Oraffiacan.'] Fnseli, in a note to his third Lecture, ob- 
serves, that " the Minos of Dante, in Messer Blagio da Cesc 
na, and his Charon, have been recognised by all ; bat lesi 
tiie shivering wretch held over the barge 4>y a hook, and evi- 
dently taken firom this passage.*' He is speaking of Michael 
Angelo*8 Last Jac^^ment 

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Who of the fiendi was neareit, grapplmg seized 
His clotted locks, and dragg'd hun sprawling iip> 
That he appeared to me an otter. Each 
Already by their names I knew, so well 
When they were chosen I observed, and marit'd 
How one the other call'd. ** O Rubicant I 
See that this hide thou with thy talons flay,*' 
Shouted together all the cursed crew. 
Then I : ** Inform thee. Master ! if thou may, 
^What wretched soul is this, on whom their hands 
tlis foes have laid." My leader to lus side 
Approached, and whence he came inquired ; to whom 
Was answer*d thus : ** Bom in Navarre's domain,' 
My mother placed me in a lord's retinue ; 
For she had .borne pie to a losel vile, 
A spendthrift of his substance and himself 
The good king Thibault' after that I served :* 
To peculating here my thoughts were tum'd. 
Whereof I give account in this dire heat" 
Straight Uiriatto, from whose mouth a tusk 

1 Bom in Jfavarre^s domain.] The name of this pecolafor 
Is said to have been Ciampolo. 

« Th« good king TMbavIU " Thibanlt I. King of Navane, 
died on the 8th of June, 13^ as much to be commended for 
the desire he showed of aiding the war in the Holy Land, as 
reprehensible and faulty for his design of oppressing the 
lights and privileffes of the church ; on which account it is 
said that the whole kingdom was under an interdict for the 
space of three entire years.— Thlbaolt undoubtedly merits 
praise, as for his other endowments, so especially for his cul- 
tivation of the liberal arts, his exercise and knowledge of 
music and poetry, in which he so much excelled, that he was 
accustomed to compose verses and sing them to the viol, and 
to exhibit his poetical compositions publicly in his paiace, 
that they might be criticised by alL" Mariana^ Hittorjf of 
Spainy b. xiii. c. 9. 

An account of Thibault, and two of his songs, with what 
were probably the orisinal melodies, may be seen in Dr. 
Bumey's History of Music, v. ii. c. iv. His poems, which 
are in the French language, were edited by M. TEv^que de 
la Ravalli^re. Paris, 1742, 2 vol. ISmo. Dante twice quotes 
one of his verses in the Treatise de Vulg. £loq., lib. i. c. ix. 
and lib. ii. c. v., and refers to him again, lib. ii. c. vi. 

From ** the -good king Thibault*' afe descended the good. 
but more unfortunate monarch, Louis XVL of France, and 
eonsequently the present legitimate sovereign of that realm. 
Bee Henault, Abr«g6 Chron. 1358, 3, 4. 

* / torved.] Again Lombardi misrepresents the readings 
of other editions, as he does throughout this Canto in several 
instances, wherein he professes to follow that which he has 
•elected for his aodel ; but, as these varieties regard certain 
dellcaeies o€ thp origiiial langnago, and do not afibct the 
■aaae, I shall not trouble my leaden by aotldiig them. 

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S5-93. HELL, Canto XXII. 151 

Issued on either side, as from a boar, 

Ripp*d him with one of these. 'Twixt evil claws 

The mouse had fallen : but Barbariccia cried, 

Seizing him with both arms :' " Stand thou ^art, 

White I do fix him on my prong transpierced." 

Then added, turning to my guide his face, 

" Inquire of him, if more thou wish to learn, 

Ere he again be rent." My leader thus : 

** Then tell us of the partners in thy guilt ; 

Knowest thon any sprung of Latian land 

Under the tar?" — " I parted," he replied, 

** But now from one, who sojoum'd not far thenoe : 

So were I under shelter now with him. 

Nor hook nor talon then should scare me more." 

" Too long we suffer," Libicocco cried ; 
Then, darting forth a prong, seized on his arm, 
And mangled bore away the sinewy part 
Him Draghinazzo by his thiffhs beneath 
Would next have caught ; ■ whence angrily their chiefj 
Turning on all sides round, with threatening brow 
Restrain'd them. When their strife a little ceased, 
Of him, who yet was gazing on hffl wound, 
My teacher thus without delay inquired : 
** Who was the spirit, from whom by evil hap 
Parting, as thou hast told, thou camest to shore?"-— 

" It was the friar Gomita,"* he rejoined, 
'' He of Gallura, vessel of all guile. 
Who had his master's enemies in hand. 
And used them so that they commend him well. 
Money he took, and them at large dismissed ; 
So he reports ; and in each other charge 
Committed to his keeping play'd the part 
Of barterer to the height. With him doth herd 
The chief of Logodoro, Michel Zanche.' 
Sardinia is a theme, whereof their tongue 
Is never weary. Out! alas! behold 
That other, how he grins. More would I say. 
But tremble lest he mean to maul me sore." • 

> The friar Gomita.^ He waa intrusted by Nino de' VI *• 
oonti with the government of Gallnra, one of the foor jurlsdle • 
tions into which Sardinia was divided. Having his master's 
enemies in his ix>wer, he took a bribe from them, and allowed 
them to escape. Mention of Nino will recur in the notes to 
Oaoto xzziii., and in the Purgatory, Canto viiL 

s Michel Zanehe.} The president of Logodoro, another of 
Ihe four Sardinian jurisdictions See Canto xzxili. Note to 

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199 THE VISION. 99»ll» 

Their captain then to Farfarello tunun^, 
Who roll'd his moony eyes m act to strike. 
Rebuked him thus : " Off, cursed bird ! ayaont V* 

*' If ye desire to see or hear," he thus 
Quaking with dread resumed, ** or Tuscan spirits 
Or Lombard, I will cause them to appear. 
Meantime let these ill talons bate their fiiry. 
So that no yengeance they may fear from them. 
And I, remaining in this self-same place, 
Will, for myself but one, make seven appear. 
When my shrill whistle shall be heard : for so 
Our custom is to call each other up." 

Cagnazzo at that word deriding grinned. 
Then wagg'd the head and spake : ** Hear his devico. 
Mischievous as he is, to plunge him down." 

Whereto he thus, who fail'd not in rich store 
Of nice-wove toils : " Mischief, forsooth, extreme i 
Meant only to procure myself more wo." 

No longer Alichino then refrain'd. 
But thus, the rest gainsaying, him bespake : 
** If t]}ou do cast thee down, I not on foot 
Will chase thee, but above the pitch will beat 
My plumes. Quit we the vantage ground, and let 
The bank be as a shield ; that we may see, 
If singly thou prevail against us all." 

Now, reader, of new sport expect to hear. . 

They each one tum'd his eyes to the other shore. 
He first, who was the hardest to persuade. 
The spirit of Navarre chose well his time, 
Planted his feet on land, and at one leap 
leaping, disappointed their resolve. 

Them quick resentment stung, but him the most, 
Who was the cause of failure : in pursuit 
He therefore sped, exclaiming, " Thou art caught'* 

But little it avail'd ; terror outstripp*d 
His following flight ; the other plunged beneath, 
And he with upward pinion raised hu breast : 
E'en^us the water-fowl, when she perceives 
The falcon near, dives instant down, while he 
Enraged and spent retires. That mockery 
In Calcabrina fury stirr'd, who flew 
After him, with desire of strife inflamed: 
And, for the barterer had 'scaped, so tum*d 
His talons on his comrade. O'er the dike 
In grapple close they join'd ; but the othei proved 
A goshawk able to rend well his foe ; 
And in the boilmg Isike both fell. The heat 

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14&148. HELL, Canto XXm. 1$% 

Was umpire' soon between them ; but in ^-ain 
To Jift themselves they strove, so fast were glued 
Their pennons. Barbariccia, as the rest, 
That chance lamenting, four in flight diq>atch'd 
From- the other coast, with all their weapons arm'dt 
They, to their post on each side speedily 
Descendmg, stretch'd their hooks toward the fiendi% 
Who floundered, inly burning from their scam : 
And we departing left them to that broiL 


The enraged Demons pursue Dante, bnt he is preserved from 
them by Virgil. On reaching the sixth gaif, he beholds 
the punishment of the hypocrites ; which is, to pace cmi- 
tinually round the gulf under the pressure of caps and 
hoods, that are gilt on the outside, but leaden within. He 
is addressed by two of these, Catalano and Loderingo, 
knights of Saint Mary, otherwise called Joyous Friars of 
Bologna. Caiaphas is seen fixed to a cross on the ground, 
and lies so stretched along the way, that all tread on Mm 
in passing. 

In silence and in solitude we went, 
One first, the other following his steps. 
As minor friars journeying on their road. 

The present fray had tum'd my thoughts to muse 
Upon old jEsop's fable,' where he told 
What fate unto the mouse and frog befell ; 
For language hath not sounds more like in sense. 
Than are these chances, if the origin 
And end of each be heedfully compared. 
And as one thought bursts from another forth, 
So afterward from that another sprang. 
Which added doubly to my former fear. 
For thus I reasoned : " These through us have been 
So foil'd, with loss and mockery so complete. 
As needs must sting them sore. If anger then 
Be to their evil will conjoin'd, more fell 
They shall pursue us, than the savage hound 
Snatches the leveret panting 'twixt his jaws." 

Already I perceived my hair stand all 

1 Umpire. \ Schermidor. The reader, if he thinks It worth 
while, may consult the Proposta of Monti on this word, which 
With Lombard!, he would alter to sghermitor. 

a JSlgop^s fable.} The fable of the firog, who ofiered to car 
ly tiie mouse across a ditch, with the intention of drowning 
bim, when bothwere carried off by a kite. It Is not among 
hose Greek &ble8 which go onde : the name of MBOp. 

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On end with terror, and look'd eager liack. 

*' Teacher/' I thus began, ** if speedily 
Thyself and me thou hide not, much I dread 
Those evil talons. Even now behind 
They urge us : quick imagination works 
So forcibly, that I already feel them." 

He answerM : « Were I form'd of leaded glaw, 
I should not sooner draw unto myself 
Thy outward image, than I now imprint 
That from within. This moment came thy thougbis 
Presented before mine, with similar act 
And countenance similar, so that from both 
I one design have framed. If the right coast 
Incline so much, that we ms^ thence descend 
Into the other chasm, we shall escape 
Secure from this imagined pursuit" 

He had not spoke^ his purpose to the end, 
When I from far beheld them with spread wings 
Approach to take us. Suddenly my guide 
Caught me, even as a mother that from sleep 
Is by the tioise aroused, and near her sees 
The climbing fires, who snatches up her babe 
And flies ne'er pausing, careful more of him 
Than of herself, that but a single vest 
Clings roimd her limbs. Down from the jutting beach 
Supine he cast him to that pendent rock, 
Which closes on one part the other chasm. 

Never ran water with such hurrying pace 
Adown the tube to turn a land-mill's wheel. 
When nearest it approaches to the spokes, 
As then along that edge my master ran, 
Canying me in his bo^m, as a child, 
Not a companion. Scarcely had his feet 
Reach'd to the lowest of the bed beneath. 
When over us the steep they reach'd : but faac 
In him was none ; for that high Providence 
Which placed them ministers of the fifth foss. 
Power of departing thence took from them alL 

There in the depth we saw a painted tribe, 
Who paced with tardy steps around, and wept. 

1 He had not ^poke.\ Ciunqae ego cnm angelis relietns 
Btarem pavidas, nnus ex illis tartareis minlstris horridis (Qu 
nonridns 1} hispidU (Qa. hispidos ?) aspectnqae proceras fet- 
tiniu adveniens me impellere, et quomodocmnqae nocera 
conabatur: earn ecce apostoliu velocius accnnrens, meqne 
•iiblto arriiriens in qaendiun loeom gloiioM.projecit vialonis. 
jUkmiei Viaw, % 15 

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Faint in appeannce and o'ercome with tofl. 
Caps had they on, with hoods, that fell low down 
Before their eyes, in fashion like to those 
Worn by the monks in Cologne.* Their outside 
Was OYerlaid with gold, dazzling to view, 
But leaden all withm« and of such weight, 
That Frederick's* compared to these were straw. 
Oh, everiasting wearisome attire ! 

We yet once more with them together tum*d 
To leftward, on their dismal moan intent 
But by the weight oppressed, so slowly came 
The fainting people, that our company 
Was changed, at every moYement of the step. 

Whence I my guide address'd : " See that thoQ 
Some epirit, whose name may by his deeds be known ; 
And to that end look round thee as thou go*st.** 

Then one, who understood the Tuscan voice. 
Cried after us aloud : " Hold in your feet. 
Ye who so swiftly speed through the dusk air. 
Perehance from me thou shaft obtain thy wish." 

Whereat my leader, turning, me bespake : 
** Pause, and then onward at Uieir pace proceed.** 

I stay'd, and saw two spirits in whose look 
Impatient eagerness of mind was mark'd 
To overtake me ; but the load they bare 
And narrow path retarded their approach. 

Soon as arrived, they with an eye askance 
Perused me, but spake not : then turning, each 
To other thus conferring said : ** This one 
Seems, by the action of his throat, alive ; 
And, be they dead, what privilege allows 
They walk unmantled by the cumbrous stole?" 

Then thus to me : " Tuscan, who visitest 
The college of the mourning hypocrites. 
Disdain not to instruct us who thou art" 

** By Amo's pleasant stream," I thus repliedy 
" In the great city I was bred and grew, 
And wear the body 1 have ever worn. 
But who are ye, from whom such mighty grief, 
As now I witness, courseth down your cheeks? 
Wha^ torment breaks forth in this bitter wo?" 

> Monks in Cwogne.1 They wore their cowls nniuaally 

s R^ederi6k*9.l The Emperor Frederick II. is said to have 
puDished those who were guilty of high treason by wrapping 
theoi up in lead, and oasti^ them into a Aimace. 

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166 THE VISION. lOi-U^ 

« Oar bonnets gleaming^ bright with orange hue," 
^One of them aniwer^d, « are so leaden groes. 
That with their weight they make the balances 
To crack beneath them. Joyous friatB* we wers* 
Bol<^a's natiYes ; Catalano I, 
He Loderinffo named ; and by thy land 
Together taken, as men use to take 
A single and indifferent arbiter, 
To reconcile their strifes. How there we spedy 
Gardingo*s vicmage* can best declare." 

" O friars !" I began, «* your miseries—" 
But there brake off, for one had caught mine eye» 
Fix'd to a cross wiUi three stakes on the ground : 
He, when he saw me, writhed himself, t^ughoat 

1 Our hennett gleaming bright wUk orangt ku».'\ It It ob 
served by Ventun, that the word " ranee" does not here sig- 
nify " rancid or disgostftil,** as it is explained by the old com- 
mentators, but *' <ntuige-colored,** in which sense it occurs in 
the PniKatory, Canto iL 9. 

By the erroneoos intenwetation Milton appears to have 
been misled ; *' Ever since the day peepe, till now the sua 
was grown somewhat ranke:* Prose Worke^ v. i. p. 160, ed. 

• Joy OU9 friar §.} "Those who ruled 'the citv of Ftorence 
on the part of the Ohibellines, perceiving this discontent and 
murmuring, which they were feurflil might produce a rebel- 
lion against themselves, in order to satisfy the people, made 
choice of two knights, Frati Godentl (joyous friars) of Bo- 
logna, on whom they conferred the chief power in Florence ; 
one named M. Catalano de* Malavolti, the other M. Loderingo 
dl Liandolo ; one an adherent of the Guelph, the other of the 
Ghibelline pojrty. It is to be remarked, that the Joybus 
Friars were called Knights of St Mary, and became knights 
on taking that habit: their robes were white, the mantle 
sable, and the arms a white field and red cross with two stars : 
their office was to defend widows and orphans ; they were to 
act as roediaton ; they had internal r^nlations like other 
religions bodies. The above-mentioned M. Loderingo was 
the founder of that order. But it was not long before they 
too well deserved the appellation given them, and were 
found to be more bent on enjoying themselves than on any . 
other ol^t These two friars were called in by the Floren 
tines, and had a residence assigned them in the palace be 
longing to the people, over against the Abbey. Such was 
the dependence placed on the character of their <urder, that 
it was expected they would be impartial, and would save the 
etunmonwealth any unnecessary expense ; instead of which, 
though inclined to opposite parties, they secretly and hypo- 
critically concurred in promoting their own advantage rather 
than the public good.*' O. ViUani, b. vi^. 13. This hap 
pened in 1366. 

* Oardingo's vieinage.\ The name of that part of the city 
which was inhabited by the powerfril Ghibelline fiunily of 
the Uberti, and destroyed under the partial and iniqoltooa 
Administration of Catalano and fcoderinigo. 

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II9>I51. HELL, Canto XXUL ]67 

t>uioited, nifflmg with deep fighs his beard. 

And Catalano, who thereof was 'ware, 

Thus spake : ** That pierced spirit,' whom intent 

Thoa view'st, was he who gave the Pharisees 

Counsel, that it were fitting for one man 

To suffer for the people. He doth lie 

Transverse ; nor any passes, but him fint 

Behooves make feeling trial how each weiriis. 

In straits like this along the foss are placed 

The father of his consort,* and the rest 

Partakers in that council, seed of ill 

And soRow to the Jews." . I noted then 

How Virgil gazed with wonder upon him, 

Thus abjectly extended on the cross 

In banidbment etemaL To the friar 

He next his words address'd : " We pray ye lell, 

If so be lawful, whether on our right 

Lies any opening in the rock, whereby 

We both may issue hence, without constraint 

On the dark angels, that compeird they come 

To lead us from this depth." He thus replied : 

** Nearer than thou dost hope, there is a rock 

From the great* circle moving, which o'ersteps 

Each vale of horror, save that here his cope 

Is shattered. By the -ruin ye may mount : 

For on the side it slants, and most the height 

Rises below." With head bent down awMe 

My leader stood ; then spake : " He wam*d us ill,^ 

Who yonder hangs the sinners on his hook." 

To whom the mar : " At Bologna erst 
I many vices of the devil heard ; 
Among the rest was said, < He is a liar,* 
* And the father of lies !' " When he had spoke, 
My leader with large strides proceeded on. 
Somewhat disturb'd with anger in his look. 

I therefore left the spirits heavy laden. 
And, following, his beloved footsteps marked. 

> That pierced spirit.] Ca'iaphas. 

* The father of hie eoneort.] Annas, fiither-in-law to Cal* 

* Great.] In the former editions it was printed '*next** 
The oRor was observed by Mr. Carlyle. 

* He wam'd ua ill.] He refers to the falsehood told him 
by the demon. Canto zxi. 108. 

^ He tea liar.] "* He is a liar and the father of it." Johnt 
c viii. 44. Dante had perhaps heard this text from one of the 
pulpitB in Bologna. 

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168 THE VISI0I4. l-ti 


Under the etcort of his faithful master, Dante not wlthou 
difficulty makes his way out of the sixth gulf: and In the 
seventh, sees the robbers tormented by venomovu and pes- 
tilent serpents. The soul of Vanni Fncci, who had piilaffed 
the sacristy of Saint James tn Pistoia, predicts some ca>* 
lamities that impended over tnat city, and over the Floren 

In the year's early nonage/ when the sum 
Tempers his tresses in Aquarius* urn, 
And now towards equal day the nights recede ; 
When as the rime upon the earth puts on 
Her dazzling sister's image,' but not long 
Her milder sway endures ; then riseth up 
The village hmd, whom fails his wmtry store,* 
And looking out beholds the plain around 
All whiten'd ; whence impatiently he smites 
His thighs, and to his hut returning in, 
There paces to and fro, wailing his lot. 
As a discomfited and helpless man ; 
Then comes he forth again, and feels new hope 
Spring in his bosom, finding e'en thus soon 
The world hath changed its countenance, grasps his 
And forth to pasture orives his little flock : [crook, 
So me my guide disheartened, when I saw 
His troubled forehead ; and so speedily 
That ill was cured ; for at the fallen bridge 
Arriving, towards me with a look as sweet. 
He tum'd him back, as that I first beheld 
At the steep moimtain's foot. Regarding well 
The ruin, and some counsel first maintained 
With his own thought, he open'd wide his arm 

^ IntJU fear't earlf nonage,] '* At the latter part of Jaa 
•ary, when the sua enters Into Aquarius, and the equinox It 
drawing near, when the hoar-frosts in the morning oAen wear 
the appearance of snow, but are melted by the rising sun." 
• Htr dattling tister't ima£e.] 

Xiyviv fiiXatvav, aitfXify wpd; Kdciv. 
JEsdk^, Septem Contra TMas, v. 490, BUmfid^* «^ 


«vXoO ^(/rovpos, U\\fla k6vis, 

JEtckfl. J3/roniemnonj v. 478, Blmi^iML 
WTumfailt his wintrff store,] 
A cui la roba manca. 
■o in the Purgatorio, c. xiii. 61. 

Cosi gli dechi a cui la roba maiMa 

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tS-M. HELL, Camto XXIY. lag 

And took me up. As one, who, while he workiy 
Coiiiputes his labor's issue, that he seems 
Still to foresee the effect ; so lifting me 
Up to the summit of one peak, he fix'd 
His eye upon another. " Grapple that,** 
Said he, " but first make proof, if it be such 
As will sustain thee." For one capp'd with lead 
This were no journey. Scarcely he, though light» 
And I, though onwud push'd from crag to crag. 
Could mount. And if the precinct of this coast 
Were not less ample than the last, for him 
I know not, but/ny strength had surely fail'd. 
But Malebolge all toward the mouth 
Indinmg of the nethermost abyss. 
The site of every valley hence requires, 
7hat one side upward slope, the other falL 

At length the point from whence^ the utmost stonA 
Juts down, we reach'd ; soon as to that arrived. 
So was the breath exhausted ]&om my lungs, 
I could no further, but did seat me there. 

" Now needs thy best of man ;" so spake my guide t 
" For not on downy plumes,^ nwr under shade • 
Of canopy reposing, fame is won ; 
Without which whosoe'er consumes his days, 
Leaveth such vestige of himself on earth. 
As smoke in air, or foam upon the wave. 
Thou therefore rise : vanqinsh thy wearinesG^ 
By the mind's effi>rt, in each struggle form'd 
To vanquish, if she suffer not the weight 
Of her corporeal frame to crush her t^wn. 

1 F)rom tohenee.] Mr. Carlyle notes the mistake in my fi» 
ner translation ; and I have corrected it accordingly. 

* JVbt on dotony plumes.] 

Lettor, tu del pensar che, senza ardire, 
Senza afianno soffirir, raomo non paotf 
Fama acqnistar, ne gran cose fomlre. 

fhiio degli Uberti^ DittamofldOf lib. 1^ cap. iv. 
Nessnn mai per foggir, o per riposo, 
Venne in altezza fama ovver in gloria. 

Frettit U Quadrir^ lib. iL cap. it. 
Signor, non sotto Tombra in piaggia moUe 
Tra font! e fior, tra NInfe e tra Sirene, 
Ma in cima aU'erto e faticoso colle 
Delia virtu riposto £ il nostro bene. 

Taasoj O, Z., c. xvii. %t. 9L 

* FianquUh thy ioeariness.\ 

Qiiin corpus onostnm 

Hestemis vitiis animum quoqne pnegravat uni, 
4tnie affi^t humi divinn particaiam anne. 

JBor. 54*., IL Ub. U m 


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170 THE VISION. sym 

A longer ladder yet remaini to scale 
From these to have escaped sufficeth not 
If well thou note' me, profit by my words." 

I straightway rose, and show'd myself less spent 
Thau I in truth did feel me; « On," I cried, 
" For I am stout and fearless." Up the rock 
Our way we held, more nigged than before. 
Narrower, and steeper far to climb. From talk 
I ceased not, as we joiumey'd, so to seem 
Least faint ; whereat a voice from the other foss 
Did issue forth, for. utterance suited ilL 
Though on-the arch that crosses there I stO'Xl, 
What were the words I knew not, but who sp«ke 
Seem'd moved m anger. Down I stoop'd to look ; 
But my quick eye might reach not to the depth 
For shrouding darkness ; wherefore thus I spake : ' 
'* To the next circle, teacher, bend thy steps, 
And from the wall dismount we ; for as hence 
I hear and understand not, so I see 
Beneath, and naught discern." — " I answer not," 
Said he, << but by the deed. To faur request 
Silent performance maketh best return." 

We from the bridge's head descended, where 
To the eighth mound it joins ; and then, the chasm 
Opemng to view, I saw a crowd within 
Of serpents* terrible, so strange of shape 
And hideous, that remembrance in my veins 
Yet shrinks the vital current Of her sands^ 
Let Lybia vaunt no more ; if Jaculus, 
Pareas and Chelyder be her brood, 
Cenchris and Amphisbena, plagues so dire 
Or in such numbers swarming ne'er she show'd. 
Not with all Ethiopia, and whatever 
Above the Erythrsan sea is spawn'd. 

Amid this dread exuberance of wo 
Ran naked sphits wmg'd with horr'd fear, 
Nor hope had they of crevice whero to hide, 
Or heliotrope* to charm them out of view. 

1 SerpeiUs.} Vldi locum horridum teDebrosom fflBUnllNH 
exhalantibas flammis crepitantibns serpentibus, draconibos 
repletam. Alherict Fisio, $ 12. 

* Of her tandt.] Ck>mpare Lncan, Ph&rs., lib. ix. 703. 

* Miotrope.] Viridl colore est (gemma heliotropion) non 
ita acuto sed nubilo magis et represso, stellis puniceis snper- 
spersa. Causa lUMninis de eflfectu lapidis est et potestate. 
Dejecta in labris eneis radios soils mntat sanguineo reper* 
cnssu, utraque aquft splendorem a^ris abjlcit et avertlt 
Etiam iUnd posse dicltnr, ut herbA ejnsdem nominis mixta 
•t pneeantatlonibus legitimis conseciata, enm, a quocunqoe . 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

•S-111, HELL, Cantd XXIV. I7i 

With serpents were their hands behind them bomid. 

Which through their reins infixM the tail and head, 

Twisted in fdds before. And lo ! on one 

Near to our side, darted an adder up, 

And, where the neck is on the shoulders tied. 

Transpierced him. Far more quickly than e'er pen 

Wrote O or I, he kindled, bum'd, and changed 

To ashes all, pourM out upon the earth. 

When there dissolved he lay, the dust again 

Uproll'd spontaneous, and the self same form 

Instant resumed. So mighty sages tell, 

The Arabian Phoenix,^ when five hundred yean 

Have well-nigh circled, dies, and springs forthwith 

Renascent : blade nor herb throughout his life 

He tastes, but tears of frankincense' alone 

And odorous amomum : swaths of nard 

And myrrii his funeral shroud. As one that falls, 

He knows not how, by force demoniac dragg'd 

To earth, or through obstruction fettering up 

gestabitur, snbtrahat visibns obvionun. Solinui, e. xl. '' A 
stone,'* says Boccaccio, in his humorous tale of Calandrino, 
** which we lapidaries call heliotrope, of such extraordinary 
virtue, that the bearer of it is effectually concealed from the 
sight of all present." Decam., G. viii. N. 3. 

In Chiabrera's Ruggiero, Scaltriroento begs of Sofia, who is 
sending him on a perilous errand, to lend him the heliotrope 

In mia man fida 

L*eIitropia, per cui possa involarmi 
Secondo il mio talento agli occhi altruL c vL 

Trust to my hand the heliotrope, by which 
I may at will from others' eyes conceal me. 
Compare Ariosto, II Negromante, a. 3, s. 3. Pnlci, Morg. 
Magg., c. xxv., and Fortiguerra, Ricciardetto, c. x. st 17. 

Ck)wer, in his Confessio Amantis, lib. vii. enumerates it 
among the Jewels in the diadem of the sun : — 
Jaspis and helitropius.. 
1 The Arabian Phanix.} This is translated from Ovi<^ 

Una est qnse reparat, seque ipsa reseminat ales ; 
Assyrii Phoenica vocant. Nee fruge neque herbis, 
Sed thuris lacrymis, et succo vivit amomi. 
Hffic ubi quinqne sue complevit secuia vits, 
Ilicis in ramis, tremuleve cacumine palms, 
Unguibus et pando nidum sibi construit ore. 
Qua simul ut casias, et nardi lenis aristas, 
Quassaque cum fulvd snbstravit cinnama mynrhft, 
Be super imponit, finitque in odoribus evum* 
Bee also Petrarch, Canzone : — 
Qual piu, &c. , 
■ Tears of frankincense."] 

Incense e minra ^ quello onde si paspe, 
Facio degli Ubertl, Dittamondo, in a gorgeous descriptiim el 
the f hoBuix, lib II. cap. r. 

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179' THE IflSION. 11»-14» 

In ehaiift invisible the powen of man, 
Who, risen from his trance, gazeth around,^ 
Bewildered with the monstrous agony 
Hh hath endured, and wildly staring sighs ; 
So stood aghast the sinner when he rose. 

Oh ! how severe Grod's judgment, that deals a«t 
Such blows in stormy vengeance. Who he was. 
My teacher next inquired ; and thus in few 
He answered : ** Vanni Fucci* am I called, 
Not long smce rained down from Tuscany 
To this dire gullet Me the bestial life 
And not the human pleased, mule that I was. 
Who in Pistoia found' my worthy den.** 

I then to Virgil : << Bid him stir not hence ; 
And' ask what crime did thrust him hither : once 
A man I knew him, choleric and bloody.** 

The sinner heard and feign'd not, but towards dm 
His mind directing and his face, wherein 
Was dismal shame depictured, thus he spake : 
" It grieves me more to have been caught by thee 
In this sad plight, which thou beholdest, than 
When I was Uken from the other life. 
I have no power permitted to deny 
What thou inquirest I am doom'd thus low 
To dwell, for that the sacristy by me 
Was rifled of its goodly ornaments. 
And with the guilt another falsely charged. 
But that thou mayst not joy to see me thus. 
So as thou e'er shalt *scape this darksome realm, 
Open thine ears and hear what I forebode. 
Reft of the Neri first Pistoia* pmes ; 
•Then Florence^ changeth citizens and laws; 

> Oaitth around,\ • 

Bn ml leva! senza far piik parole, 

Cogli occhi intomo stupido miiando, 
81 eome i'E^entico far vaxAe. 

FVetzi, 11 Qnadrir^ lib, ii. cap. liL 
I Fanni Fiteei.} He is said to have been an illegitimata 
offitpring of the family of La^ari in Pistoia, and, having robbed 
the sacristy of the chnrch of St. James in that city, to have 
charged Vanni della Nona with the sacrilege ; in consequence 
of which accusation the latter suffered death. 

> Putoia.\ " In May, 1301, the Blanchi party of Pistoia, 
with the assistance and &vor.of the Blanchi, who ruled Flor 
ence, drove out the party of the Neri f^fom the former plaee, 
destroying their houses, palaoes, and &mis." Oiov, FtUani, 
Bi9t^ lib. viU. c. xliv. 

« Then JXorenM.] ** Boon after the Blanchi will be ex- 
pelled ftom Florence, the Neii will pMvail, and the lawn aa4 
People will be changed." 

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144-lM. HELL. Canto XXV. 171 

From Valdimagra,^ drawn by wrathful Ma^ 
A trapor rises, wrapt in turbid mists. 
And sharp and eager drtyeth on the storm 
With arrowy hnrtEng o'er Piceno*s field, 
Whence suddenly the cloud shall burst, and stiiko 
Bach helpless Bianco prostrate to the ground. 
This have I told, that grief may rond Siy hearts* 


l*he St crilegioas Facci vents his ftiry in blasphemy, is seised 
by serpents, and flying is pnrstied by Uacus in the fonn of 
a Centaor, who is described with a swarm of serpents on 
his hannch, and a drafon on his shoulders breathing forth 
fire. Oar Poet then meets with the spirits of three of his 
countrymen, two of whom undergo a marvellous trantfor- 
mation in his jHresence. 

When he had spoke, the sinner raised his hands' 
Pointed in mockery, and cried : *< Take them, God ! 

1 FVom raldimat^a.] The commentators explain this pro- 
phetical threat to aiiude to the victory obtained by the Mar- 
quis Morello Malaspina of Valdimagra, (a tract of country 
now called the Luiugiana,) who put himself at the head of 
the Neri, and defeated their opponents, the Bianchi, in the 
Campo Piceno, near Pistoia, soon after the occurrence related 
in the preceding note on v. 142. Of this engagement I find no 
mention in Villani. Balbo (Vita di Dante, v. ii. p. 143) refers 
to Gerini, Memorie Storiche di Lunigiana, tom. ii. p. 133, for 
the whole history of this Morello, or Moroello. Currado Ma- 
laspinlt is introduced in the eighth Canto of the Purgatory « 
where It appears, that although on the present occasion they 
espoused contrary sides, most important favors were never- 
theless conferred by tliat family on our Poet, at a subsequent 
period of his exile, in 1307. 
9 Hi* hands.] 

Le mani alxb, con ambeduo le fiche. 

. £ fe le fiche a Dio *1 snperbo vermo. 

Jl Q^adrir^ lib. IL ea^ xix. 
lo vidi rira poi con crudel faccia ; 
E fe le nche a Dio il mostro rio, 
Strlngendo i dentl ed alzando le braecia. 
lb. lib. ili. cap. z. 

Poi focea con le man le fiche al cielo 
Dicendo: Togli, Iddio ; che pnol piu farmll 

L* Ral. LiberaU, e. ztL 
** The practice of thrusting out ttie thumb between the first 
and second fingers, to express the feelings of insult and eon- 
tempt, has prevailed very ^nerally amcmg the nations of 
Europe, and for many ages nad been denominated * itaaking 
the fig,* or described at least by some equivalent expression/ 
D9ue^9 lUuatraUont of Skakspeore, vol. i. p. 493, ed. 180T 
The passage in the original text has not escaped this diligent 

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41-65. H£XU Canto XXV. |7j 

The finger lifted. If, O reader ! now 
Thou be not apt to credit what I tell,^ 
No marvel ; for myself do scarce alloiv 
The witness of mine eyes. But as I look'd 
Toward them, lo ! a serpent with six feet 
Springs forth on one, and fastens full upon him : 
His midmost grasp'd the belly, a forefoot 
Seized on each arm (while deep m either cheek* 
He flesh'd his fangs) ; the hinder on the thighs 
Were spread, 'twixt which the tad inserted curl'd 
Upon the reins behind. Ivy ne er clasp'd* 
A dodder'd oak, as round the other's limba 
The hideous monster intertwined his own. 
Then, as they both had been of burning ^ax. 
Each melted into other, mingling hues. 
That which was either now was seeoi no more. 
Thus up the shrinking paper, ere it burns, 
A- brown tint glides, not turning yet to black, 
And the clean white expires. 1 he other two 
Look'd on, exclaimmg, " Ah .how dost thou change, 
Agnello!* See ! Thou art nor double i^ow. 
Nor only one." The two heads no^becan^e 
One, and two figures blended m one fo^ 
Appeared, where boUi were lo«t Of th^ four length- 
Two arms w ere ma de^Jh e belly a^ dth^ chest, 

magnum tetnim, et a*!'^® f „fennm serneillS' ^»> q«o anlma- 
mm mnimndo demer» est^^len^°i^»^^Ubus a? ,corpioni- 
bus; .tabant verp ibi e* d«roo ^^j^^^^ Unentea et ore 
vultus et capita hominom cum « '^P^iitlbus percutien- 

tes. Jllberici Ftsto, '^ 23. »~ 

Owout Ktaads ApvH ''^"'^ HuHpides^^ 

Likei^T to an ofik. ""^^ ManvQf ^'^'■ 

appose that by '^ papl^^ ^*j^,„ces on ejtr,;^ ^^_ic^t nf a |^n,p 
w candle, aisfTLomlJi^rdi otia ^^ ^^^^^ thL*?'" ^^^f^r^- 

wenzio (Agricdt. ni>- y»- ^^t Tiralmschi lm?^V^'^ ^^"^ was 
wen made or tJio rl^"*:„*„ use tow^r^h thelftV''^';*^ ^^^^ n^- 
prinadeofJincnc^irie ^"\*^; tb«? tnvi^ntor of i?*' ^^'^"J^rthe 
g>'«eenthcpTitur>% """^ nla in(vnuf»<:lor5r it,\.Y„^ Pier *la 

Ji«ed, was u^e/Tlurin^ t^^^J^t, 4. "^'^'■^ ^'^^f* Utu 

"^^ torn. V. lib. L <i^*r- *_ ^^ble BP todu^t. 

All my *»<'T^^ ^ drawn with a pen 

Upon a parcHment , ^^i^gpeare, K. John, aot v ^ ^ 

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174 THE VISION. »-4» 

I level them at theeu" From that day forth 

The serpents were my friends ; for round his ne4k 

One of them rollmg twisted, as it said, 

" Be silent, tongue !" Another, to his arms 

Upglidmg, tied them, riveting itself 

So close, it took from them the power to move. 

Pistoia ! ah, Pistoia ! why dost doubt 
To turn thee into ashes, cumbering earth 
No longer, since in evil act so far 
Thou hast outdone thy seed ?* I did not mark, 
Through all the gloomy circles of the abyss, 
Spirit, that swell'd so proudly 'gainst his God ; 
Not him," who headlong fell from Thebes. He lied^ 
Nor utter*d more ; and after him there came 
A. centaur full of fury, shouting, " Where, 
Where is the caitiiT?" On Marenmia's marsh* 
' Swarm not the serpent tribe, as on his haunch 
They swarm*d, to where the human face begins 
Behind his head, upon the shoulders, lay 
With open wings a dragon, breathing fire 
On whorasoe'er he met. To me my guide : 
*.* Cacus* is this, who underneath the rock 
Of Aventine spread oft a lake of blood. 
He, from his brethren parted, here must tread 
A different journey, for his fraudful theft 
Of the great herd that near him stall'd ; whence foujid 
His felon deeds their end, beneath the mace 
Of stout Alcides, that perchance laid on 
A hundred blows,* and not the tenth was felt" 

While yet he spake, the centaur sped away . 
And under us three spirits came, of whom 
Nor I nor he was ware, till they exclaim'd, 
'" Say who are ye !" We then brake off discoune. 
Intent on these alone. I knew them not : 
But, as it chanceth oft, befell, that one 
Had need to name another. " Where,** said he, 
** Doth Cianfa* lurk Y* I, for a sign my guide 
Should stand attentive, placed against my lips 

* Thfseed.] Thy ancestry. 

s JVotAm.] Capaneus. Canioziv. 

* On Maremma^s marsh.] An extensive tract near the sea* 
shore of Toscany. 

* Caeus.] VirgU, JEn., lib. viil. 193. 

^ Ji hundred bhw*.} Less than ten blows, oat of the him* 
dnd Hercules gave him, had deprived him of feeling. 

* Cianfa.'] He is said to have been of the flunily of Dnnatf 
v< Florence. 

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♦l-es. HELL* Canto XXV. 17ft 

The finger lifted. If, O reader ! now 
Thou be not apt to credit what I tell, 
No marvel ; for myself do scarce allow 
The witness of mine eyes. But as I lookM 
Toward them, lo ! a serpent with six feet 
Springs forth on one, and fastens full upon him : 
His midmost grasp'd the belly, a forefoot 
Seized on, each arm (while deep in either cheek' 
He flesh'd his fangs) ; the hinder on the thighs 
Were spread, 'twixt which the tail inserted curi'd 
Upon the reins behind. Ivy ne'er claspM' 
A dodder'd oak, as round the other's limbs 
The hideous monster intertwined his own. 
Then, as they both had been of burning wax, 
Each melted into other, mingling hues, 
That which was either now was seen no more. 
Thus up the shrinking paper,' ere it burtas, 
A> brown tint glides, not turning yet to black. 
And the clean white expires. The other two 
Look'd on, exclaiming, *< Ah ! how dost thou chaugOi 
Agnello !^ See ! Thou art nor double now. 
Nor only one." The two heads now became 
One, and two figures blended in one form 
Appeared, where both were lost Of the four lengths 
Two arms were made : the belly and the chest, 

1 In either cheek.] Ostendit mihi post hoc apostolot lacam 
magnom tetnim, et aqae salphures plenum, in quo anima- 
ram mnltitado demena est, plennm serpentibns ac scorpion!- 
bos ; stabant vero ibi et dsmones serpentes tenentes et ora 
vnlttis et capita homlnam cum eisdem serpentibos percntien- 
tes. Alberiei Visio^ ^ 23. 
« Ivy ne^er clasp* d.] 

'Ovoia Kicabs ipvbs Sirui T9icS* 2|o^ai. 

EuripideSf ffeeubOy v. 103. . 
like ivy to an oak, how will I cling to her! 
• 7%us vp the thrinkiTut paper.\ Manyof the commentators 
suppose that by ** papijro" is here meant the Wick of a lamp 
or candle, afad Ltnnbardi adduces an extract from Pier Cre- 
icenzio (Agricolt., lib. vi. cap. ix.) to show that this use was 
then made of the plant But Tiraboschi has proved that pa- 
per made of linen came into use towards the latter half of the 
foorteenth centory, and that the inventor of it was Pi^r da 
Fabiano, who carried on his manufactory in the city of Tre- 
vigi; whereas paper of cotton, with, peniaps, some linen 
v^ed, was used during the twelfth century. Star, della Lett, 
HmI^ tom. V. lib. i. cap. iv. sect 4. 

All my bowels crumble up to dust 

I am a scribbled form, drawn with a pen 
Upon a parchment ; and against this fire 
Do I shrink up. Shakepeare, K, Jokn^ act v. sc. 7. 
^ .Agnello.] Agnello Brunelleschl. 

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The thighs and legs, mto such memben changed 

As ueveir eye hath seen. ■ Of fonner shape 

All trace was vanished. Two, yet neither, seem'd 

That image miscreate, and so pass'd on 

With tardy steps. As underneath the scourge 

Of the fierce dog-star that lays bare the fiel£i, 

Shifting from brake to brake the lizard seems 

A flash of lightning, if he thwart the road ; 

So toward the entraib of the other two 

Approaching seem'd an adder all on fire, 

As the dark pepper-grain livid and swart 

In that part,^ whence our life is nourished first. 

One he transpierced ; then down before him fell 

Stretch'd out The pierced spirit lookM on him, 

But spake not ; yea, stood motionless and yawn'd, 

As if by sleep or feverous fit assail'd.* 

He eyed the serpent, and the serpent him. 

One from the wound, the other from the mouth 

Breathed a thick smoke, whose vapory columns K>f.n*d. 

Lucan' in mute attention now may hear, 
Nor thy disastrous fate, Sabellus, teU, 
Nor thine, Nasidius. Ovid^ now be mute 
What if in warbling fiction he record 
Cadmus and Arethusa, to a snake 
Him changed, and her into a fountain clear, 
I envy not ; for never face to face 
Two natures thus transmuted did he sing, 
Wherein both shapes were ready to assume 
The other's substance. They in mutual guise 
So answerM, that the serpent split his train 
Divided to a fork, and the pierced spirit 
Drew close his steps together, legs and thighs 
Compacted, that no sign of juncture soon 
Was visible : the tail, disparted, took 
The figure which the spirit lost ; its skin 
Softening, his indurated to a rind. 
The shoulders next I marii'd, that entering Join'd 

i In that part.] The navel. 

^ JItifhf aleef or fmerems JU aataS'd.l 

O Rome ! thy head 

Is drowned in sleep, and all thy txidy fev*ry. 

Bm Jonson't CaUUiiu* 
s Luam.] Phan., lib. ix. 766 and 793. 
Lncan di aicnn di qoesti poetando 
Conta si come Sabello e Nasidio 
Fu pnnti e trasformati ivi passando. 

Fittio degli Uberti, DittavMndo^ 1. v eap. XfIL 
« Ovid.] Metam., lib. iv. ^ind v 

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HI9-138. HELL, Canto XXV. 177 

The monslerVi ann-pits/ whose two shorter feet 

So lengthened, as the others dwmdling shrank. 

The feet behmd them twisting up hecaite 

That part that man conceals, which m the wretch 

Was cleft in twain. While both the shadowy smoikt 

With a new color veils, and generates 

The excrescent pile on one, peeling it off 

From the other body, lo ! upon his feet 

One upright rose, and prone the other fell 

Not yet their glaring and malignant lampe 

Were shifted, though each feature changed beneath. 

Of him who stood erect, the mounting ftu;e 

Retreated towards the temples, and what there 

Superfluous matter came, shot out in ears [dragg'ciy 

From the smooth cheeks; the rest, not backward 

Of its excess did shape the nose ; and swell'd 

Into due size protuberant the lips. 

He, on the earth who lay, meanwhile extends 

His sharpened visage,^ and draws down the ears 

Into the head, as doth the slug his horns. 

His tongue, continuous before and apt 

For utterance, severs ; and the other's fork 

Closing unites. That done, the smoke was laid. 

The soul, transformed into the brute, glides off, 

Hissmg along the vale, and after him 

The other taUdng sputters ; but soon turn'd 

His new-grown shoulders on him, and in few 

Thus to another spake: " Along this path 

Crawling, as I have done, speed Buoso' now !'' 

So saw I fluctuate in successive change 
The unsteady ballast of the seventh hold : 
And here if aught my pen* have swerved, events 
So strange may be its warrant O'er mine eyes 
Confusion hung, and on my thoughts amaze. 

Yet scaped they not so covertly, but well 
I mark'd Sciancato :* he alone it was 

> His thMTpen*dvuajfe,\ Compare Milton, P. L., b. x. 511, &e. 
s Buoso.] He is also said by some to have been of the 
Donati fiimily; but by others of the Abbatt. 

* Mjf pern.} Lombardi jnst-y prefers **la peuia" to *Ma 
linnia;** but, when he tells us that the former is in the 
NIdobeatina, and the latter in the other editions, he ought to 
have excepted at least Landino*s of 1484, and VellnteUo's of 
1544, and, perhaps, many besides these. 

* Seimmemto.] Fnccio Scianeato, a noted robber, whose fiun* 
ily, Ventori says, he has not been able to discover. The 
I^lin annotate on the Monte Caasino MB. iiifonns us that he 
was one of the Oaligai of Florence, the decline of whith 
house is mentioned in the Paradise, Canto-xri. 96. 

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178 THE VISION. 130, 14». 

Of the three fimt that came, who changed not : tlioa 
The other's fate, Gaville !^ still dost me. 


Semonnting by the steps, down which they had descended to 
the seventh gnl^ they go forward to the arch that stret^Mf 
uver the eSghth, and from thence behold nomberless flames 
wherein are punished the evil counsellors, each flame coor 
taining a sinner, save one, in which were Diomede aai 
Ulysses, the latter of whom relates the manner of liis leath. 

Florence, exult ! for thou so mi|htily 
Hast thriven, that o*er land and sea? thy wings 
Thou beatest, and thy name spreads over helL 
Among the plunderers, such the three I found 
Thy citizens ; whence shame to me thy son, 
And no proud honor to thyself redounds. 

But if our minds,' when dreaming near the dawn, 
Are of the truth presageful, thou ere long 
Shalt feel what Prato* (not to say the rest) 
Wou^d fain might come upon thee ; and that chance 
Were in good time, if it befell thee now. 
Would so it were, since it must needs befall'! 
For as time' wears me, I shall grieve the more. 

We from the depth departed ; and my guide 

1 OaviUe.] Francesco Gnercio Cavalcante was killed at 
Gaville, near Florence ; and in revenge of his death several 
inhabitants of that district were pat to death. 

s 0*er land and seaJ] 

For he can spread thy name o*ei lands and seas. 

Milton, Sm. viiU 

> But if our mind$.\ 

Namqne sab Aaroram, jam dormitante lacemft, 
Somnia qao cemi tempore vera solent. 

Ovid, EpisL zlx. 

The same poetical snpcrstition is alladed to in the Porga 
lory. Canto ix. and zxvil. 

* Skalt feel what Prato.] The poet prognosticates the ca 
lamlties which were soon to befkll his native city, and Which, 
he says, even her nearest neighbor, Prato, woald wish her 
The calamities more particalarly pointed at are said to be the 
fall of a wooden bridge over the Arno, in May, 1304, where a 
large multitude were assembled to witness a representatioa 
of hell and the infernal torments, in consequence of which 
accident many lives were lost; and a conflagration, that in 
the following month destroyed more than seventeen hun- 
dred houses, many of them sumptuous buildings. See G. 
VUlani, Hist., lib. viU. c. Ixz. and Ixxi. 
' ^Ji» time.1 ** I shall feel all calamities more senaiUy at I 
■m farther advanced in life.* 

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15-47 HEXX. Carto XXVI. I7f 

Remounting scaled the flinty stepe,^ wh-ch late 
We downward traced, and drew me up the steepw 
PuTBumg Jius our solitary way 
Among the crags and splinteis of the rock, 
8yed not our feet without the help of hands. 

Then sorrow.seized me, which e'en now revtves, • 
As my thought turns again to what I saw, 
And, more than I am wont,' I rein and cuih 
The powers of nature in me, lest they run 
Where Virtue guides not ; that, if aught ci good 
My gentle ^tar or something better gave me, 
I envy not myself the precious boon. 

As in that season, when the sun least veiJb 
His face that lightens all, what time the fly 
Gives way to the shrill gnat, the peasant then, 
Upon some cliff reclined, beneath him sees 
Fire-flies innumerous spangling o'er the vale. 
Vineyard or tilth, where his day-labor lies ; 
With flames so numberless throughout its space 
Shone the eighth chasm, apparent, when the depth 
Was to my view exposed. As he, whose wrongs^ 
The bears avenged, at its departure saw 
Elijah's chariot, when the steeds erect [while, 

Raised their steep flight for heaven ; his eyes, mean- 
Straining pursued them, till the flame alone, 
Upsoaring like a misty speck, he kenn'd : 
E'en thus along the fulf moves every flame, 
A sinner so enfolded close in each. 
That none exhibits token of the theft. 

Upon the bridge I forward bent to look, 
And grasp'd a flmty mass, or else dad fallen. 
Though push'd not from tiie height The guide, who 
How I did gaze attentive, thus began : [mark'd. 

» Tke flinty st^s^ Venturi, after Danielio and Volpl, ex- 
^ns the word in the original, ** borai,'* to mean the stones 
that project from a wall, for other buildings to be joined to^ 

which the workmen call " toothings.** 

*JHore than I am vontJ] "When I reflect on the pvuiish- 
ment allotted to those who do not give sincere and npright 
advice to others, I am more anxious than ever not to abase 
to so bad a purpose those talents, whatever they may be, 
which Nature, or rather Providence, has conferred on me.** 
It is inrobable that this declaration was the result of real 
feeling in the mind of Dante, whose political character would 
have given great weight to any opinion or party he had es- 
poused, and to whom indigence and exile might have ofibred 
strong traaptations to deviate from that line of conduct which 
a strict sense of duty prescribed. 

* wf « JU wJkot* wrtm^*} Kings, b ii. c il. 

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180 THE VISION. 48^ 

<< Within theie ardors are the spirits, eaea 

Swathed in confining fire." — ** Master ! thy word** 

I answered, " hath assured me ; yet I deem'tf 

Already of the truth, already wished 

To ask thee who is in yon fire, that comee « 

So parted at the summit, as it seem'd 

Ascending fiorn that funeral pile^ where lay 

The Theban brothers." He replied: " Within 

Ulysses there and Diomede endure 

Their penal tortures, thus to vengeance now 

Together hasting, as erewhile to wrath. 

These in the flame with ceaseless groans deploro 

The ambush of the horse,' that open'd wide 

A portal for that goodly seed to pass, 

Which sow'd imperial Rome ; nor less the gail« 

Lament they, whence, of her Achilles *reft, 

Deldamia yet in death complains. 

And there is rued the stratagem that Troy 

Of her Palladium spoil'd." — ^* If thev have power 

Of utterance from withm these sparks," said I, 

'*.0, master ! think my prayer a thousand fold 

In repetition urged, that thou vouchsafe 

To pause till here the homed flame arrive 

See, how toward it with desbe I bend." 

He thus : " Thy prayer is worthy of much praise^ 
And I accept it therefore ; but do thou 
Thy tongue refrain : to question them be mine ; 
For I divine thy wish ; and they perchance, [Uiee." 
For they were Greeks,' might shun discourse with 

When there the flame had come, where time and 
Seem'd fitting to my guide, he thus begran: [place 

1 Ateending from, HuU funeral pile.] The flame Is said to 
have divided on the fanerai pile which consumed the bodies 
of Eteocies and Poiynices, as if conscious of the enmity that 
actuated them while living. 

Ecce iterum fratris primos ut contigit artns 
Ignis edax, tremuere rogif et novus advena busto 
Pellitnr, exundant diviso \ertice flammc, 
Altemosque apices abrapti luce comscant. 

$UUiu9, 7Ae»., Ub. xiL 
Coin^re Lncan, Pharsal., lib. 1. 145. 

s Tks ambutk of the horse,] " The ambush of the wooden 
horse, that caused iEneas to quit the city of Troy and seek 
bis finrtnne in Italy, where his descendants fbunded the Ro* 
maa empire.*' 

> fbr theg toere Greek*.] By this it is, perhaps, Implied 
that they were hanghtjr and arrogant. So, in our Poet*s 
twenly-ronrth Sonnet, of which a traoslatioa is inserted ia 
the Lub prefixed, he says, 

Bd ella mi rispose, some un Oieoo 

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lt-113. HELL, CiNTO XXVI. Ml 

" O ye, who dwell two spirits in one fire I 

If, uVing, I of you did merit aught, 

Whatever the measure were of that desert, 

When in the worid ray lofty strain I ponr'd, 

Move ye not on, till one of you unfold 

In what clime death o*ertook him self-destroy'd." 

Of the old flame forthwith the greater horn- 
Began to roll, murmuring, as a firo 
That labors with the wind, thein to and fro 
Wagging the top, as a tongue uttering soundly 
Threw out its voice, and spake : " When I escaped 
From Circe, who beyond a circling year 
Had held me near Caieta^ by her charms, 
Ere thus ^neas yet had named the shore ; 
Nor fondness for my son,' nor reyerence 
Of my old father, nor return of love. 
That should have crown'd Peneh^ with joy, 
Could overcome m me the zeal I had 
To explore the world, and search the ways of life* 
Man's evil and his virtue. Forth I sailed 
Into the deep illimitable main. 
With but one bark, and the small faithful band 
That yet cleaved to me. As Iberia far, 
Far as Marocco, either shore I saw, 
And the Sardinian and each isle beside 
Which round that ocean bathes. Tardy with age 
Were I and my companions, when we came 
To the strait pass,* where Hercules ordain'd 
The boundaries not to be o'erstepp'd by man. 
The walls of Seville to my right I left, 
On the other hand already Ceuta pass'd. 

* O brothers !* I began, • who to the west 

* Through perils without number now have reached ^ 

* To this the short remaining watch, that yet 

* Our senses have to wake, refuse not proof 

1 Caieta.] Virgil, iBneid, lib. vii. 1. 

• JVVw fondness for my son.] Imitated by Taaso, G. L., c. 
viU. St 7. 

Ne timer dl fttica b di periglio, 

Ne vagtiezza del regno, ne pietade 

Del vecchio EenittNr, si degno a^tto 

Intiepedir nel generoso petto. 
This imagined voyage of Ulysses into the Atlantic is allii* 
4ed to by Paid : 

E sopvatotto eomioendava Ulisse, 

Che per veder nell* altro mondo gisse. 

Jlor£,Maggn^ JQtv 
And by Tasso, G. L^ c xv. 25. 

* The sUmU p€$s.] The stnits of Glbnltar 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

189. THE VISION. x^4-l» 

' Of the unpeopled world, following the track 
Of Phoebiis. Cairto mind from whence ye sprang 
' Ye were not form'd to live the life of brutes, 
But virtue to pursue and knowledge high.' 
With these few words I sharpened for the voyage 
The mind of my associates, that I then 
Could scarcely have withheld them. To the dawm 
Our poop we tum'd, and for the witless flight 
Made our oars wings,' still gaining on the left 
Each star of the other pole night now beheld,' 
And ours so low, that from the ocean floor 
It rose not Five times re-illumed, as oft 
Vanish'd the light from underneath the moon, 
Since the deep way we entered, when from far 
Appear'd a mountain dim,* loftiest methoug^t . 
Of all I e'er beheld. Joy* seized us straight'; 
But soon to mourning changed. From the new land 
A whirlwind sprung, and at her foremost side 
Did strike the vessel Thrice* it whirled her round 
With all the waves ; the fourth time lifted up 
The poop, and sank the prow : so fate decreed : 
And over us the booming billow closed."' 

1 Madt our oars wing's.] 

0Z6* tkfjpt* ipcruH, rd re irrcpd vnvtrl iriXorreu. 

Horn. Od., xL 194 
So Chiabrera, Cans. Etoiche., ziii. 

Farb de* remi un volo. 
And Tasso, Ibid., 26. 

* J^kt now beheld.] Petrarch is here cited by Lombardl : 

Ne \k sn sopra il cerchio della Inna 

Vide mai tante stelle alcana notte. Canx, xxxvii. 1. 

Nor there above the circle of the moon 

Did ever night behold so many stars. * 

> jt mountain dim.] The mountain of Pnrgatory.— Amosf 
the various opinions of theologians respecting the sitoatioa 
of the terrestrial paradise, Pietro Lombardo relates, that **it 
was separated by a long space, eitlier of sea or land fron the 
legions inhabited by men, and placed in the ocean reaching 
as far as to the Innar circle, so that the waters of the delogo 
d'd not reach it*' 5«nt., lib. iL dist 17. ThnsLombardL 

* Tl&ice.] 

Ast ilium ter fluotus Ibide^i 

Torquet agens dream, et rapidus vorat ttquore vortex. 

Fir/, ^tt., lib. i. IK 

* Closed.] Venturl refers to Pliny and Bolinus for the 
cqirinion that Ulysses was the founder of Lisbon, from whence 
he thinks it was easy for the fancy of a poet to send him on 

' yet Amber enterjprises. Perhaps the story (which it is not 
vnUkely that our author will be found to have borrowed 
ftom some legeiul ot the middle aces^ may have taken its 

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1-31 HELL, Canto XXVll |83 


Th0 Poet, treating of the same punishment as in the last 
Canto, relates that he turned towards a flame In which \pM 
the Ck>nnt Gnido da Montefeltro, whose inquiries respectinf 
the state of Romagna he answers ; and Guide is thereby 
induced to declare who he is, and why condemned to that 

Now upward rose the flame, and stili'd its light 
To speak no more, and now passM on with leave 
From the mild poet gain'd ; when following came 
Another, from whose top a sound confused, 
Forth issuing, drew our eyes that way to look. 

As the Sicilian bull,* that rightfully 
Hif cries first echoed who had shaped its mould, 
Did so rebellow, with the voice of him 
Tormented, that the brazen monster seemed 
Pierced through with pain ; thus, while no way they 
Nor avenue inmiediate through the flame, [found, 
Into its language tum'd the dismal words : 
But soon as they had won their passage forth. 
Up from the point, which vibrating obey*d 
Their motion at the tongue, these sounds were heard : 
" O thou ! to whom I now direct my voice. 
That lately didst exclaun m Lombard phrase, 
* Depart thou ; I solicit thee no more ;' 
Though somewhat tardy I perchance arrive, 
Let it not irk thee here to patise awhile, ^ 
And with me parley : lo ! it irks not me. 
And yet I bum. If but e'en now thou fall 
Into this blind world, from that pleasant land 
Of Latium, whence I draw my sum of guilt, 
Tell me if those who in Romagna dwell 
Have peace or war. For of the mountains thero* 
Was I, betwixt Urbino and the height 
Whence Tiber first unlock« his mighty flood.*' 

Leaning I listened, yet with heedful ear. 
When, as he touch*d my side, the leader thus : 
*' Speak thou : he is a Latian." My reply 

rise partly from the obscure oracle returned by the ghost of 
Tiresias to Ulysses, (see the eleventh book of the Odyssey,) 
and partly from the fote which there was reason to suppose 
had befallen some adventurous explorers of the Atmntie 

1 Tke SteUian bull.] The engine of torture invented b| 
P^Uns, for the tyrant Phalaris. 

t Of tke mowUaint tkere.] Montefeltro 

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184 THE VISfON. 39^ 

Was ready, and I spake without delay : 
« O spirit ! who art hidden here below, 
Never was thy Romania without war 
In her proud tyrants' bosoms, nor is now : 
But open war there left I none. The state, 
Ravenna hath maintain'd this many a year. 
Is steadfast There Polenta's eagrle* broods ; 
And in his broad circumference of {^nme 
O'ershadows Cervia. The green talons grasp 
The land,' that stood erewhUe the proof so l<mg. 

1 Polenta* § eagle.l Goido Novello da Polenta, who >ore an 
eafle for his coat of arms. The name of Polenta was de 
rived from a castle so called, in the nelghborihood of Brlt- 
tonoro. Corvia Is a small maritime city, about fifteen miles 
to the south of Ravenna. Guido was the son of Ostaisio da 
Polenta, and made himself master of Ravenna in 1265. In 
1322 he was de|Nrived of his sovereignty, and died at Bologna 
in the year following. This last and most munificent patron 
of Dante is himself enumerated, by the historian of Italian 
literature, among the poets of his time. Tiraboschl, Storia 
della Lett. Ital., torn. v. lib. ill., c. ii. sect. 13. The passaire in 
the text might have removed the uncertainty which Tira- 
boschl expressed, respecting the duration of Gnldo*s absence 
from Ravenna, when he was driven from that city in 129S, by 
the arms of Pietro, archbishop of Monreale. It must evidently 
have been very sliort, since his government is here rej^- 
sented (in 1300) as not having sufEered any material disturb 
ance for many years. 

In the Pro^mium to the Annotations on the Decameron ol 
Boccaccio, written by thoee who were deputed to th«t work, 
Edlz. Giunti, 1573, it is said of Guido Novello, "del quale si 
leggono ancora alcune composizioni, per poche che elle sieno, 
secondo quella eti, belie e leggiadre :** and in the collection 
edited by Allacci at Naples, 1661, p. 382, is a sonnet of his, 
which breathes a high and pure spirit of Platonism. 

Among the MSS. of the Iliad in the Ambrosian library at 
Milan, described by Mai, there is one that was in the posses- 
sion of Guido. Jliadis FtagmeiUa^ Sr^ fol. Medial.^ 1819 
PnxBmium, p. xlviii. It was, perhaps, seen tfy Dante. 

To this account I must now subjoin that which has since 
been given, but without any reference to authorities, by 
Troya : " In the course of eight years, from 1310 to 131^ 
Guido III. of Polenta, father of Francesca, togetier with his 
sons Bernardino and Ostasio, had died. A third son, named 
Bannino, was father of Guido IV. Of these two it is not 
known whether they held the lordship of Ravenna. But it 
came to the tons or Ostasio, Guido Vl, called Novello, and 
Rinaldo, the archbishop: on the sons of Bernardino devolved 
the sovereignty of the neighboring city of Cervia." 

Vdtro AUegorico d DcnUf ed. 1826, p. 17& 

> 7^ l*»dA The territory of Forli, the inhabitants of 
which, in 128^ were enabled, by the stratagem of Guido da 
Montefeltro, who then governed it, to defeat with great 
slaughter the French army by which it had been besieged 
See G. Villani, lib. vli. c 81. The Poet informs Gnido, its 
ibnner ruler, that it is now in the po tscai ton of fflnihftlds 

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HELL, CANfo XXVn. 186 

And piled in bloody heap the hoit of France. 

" The old mastiff of Vemichio and the yonng^/ 
That tore Montagna^ in their wrath, still make, 
Where they are wont, an augre of their fanga. 

" Lamone's city, and Santemo's,* range 
Under the lion of the snowy lair,^ 
Liconstant partisan, that changeth aides. 
Or ever summer yields to winter's frost 
And she, whose flank is wash'd of Saviors waye,* 
As *twixt the level and the steep she lies, 
Lives so 'twixt tyrant power and liberty. 

" Now tell us, I entreat thee, who art thou : 
Be not more hard than others. Li the world, 
So may thy name still rear its forehead high." 

Then roar'd awhile the fire, its sharpen'd pomt 
On either side waved, and thus breathed at last : 
" If I did think my answer were to one 
Who ever could return unto the world, 
This flame should rest unshaken. But smce ne'er 
If true be told me, any from this depth 
Has found his upward way, I answer thee, 
Nor fear lest infamy record the words. 
' ** A man of arms' at first, I clothed me then 
In good Saint Francis' girdle, hoping so 
To have made amends. And certainly m^ hope 
Had faird not, but that he, whom curses light on. 
The high priest,^ again seduced me into sin. 

Ordolaffi, at Ardelaffi, whom he designates by his coat of 
anns, a lion vert. 

> 7%e old mattiff of Vormehio and the youm^.j Malatesta, 
and Malatestino his son, lords of Rimini, called, from their 
ferocity, the mastifis of Vermchio, which was the name of 
their castle. Malatestino was, perhaps, tlie husband of Fran- 
cesea, daughter "aC Gnido da Polenta. See Notes to Canto 

s MoiUagrnaJ] Montagna de' JParcitati, a noble kni^t, and 
leader of the GhibelUne party at Rimini, murdered by Mala- 

> LMmone*s eit^ and Santemo^s.] Lamone is the river at 
Faenza, and Santemo at Imola. 

* 7%e lion of the snowy lair.] Machinardo Pagano, whose 
arms were a lion azure on a field argent ; mentioned again in 
the Purgatory, Canto xiv. 122. See G. Villanl passim, where 
he is called Machinardo da Suslnana. 

* Whose flank is wasVd of Saviors wave.} Cesena, situated 
at the foot of a mountain, and washed* bv the river Savio, 
that often descends with a swollen and rapid stream from the 

* A man of arms.] Guido da Montefeltro. 
' TUkigkpriesL} Boailkce YIIL 

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And how, and wherefore, listen while I telL 
Long as this spirit moved the bones and pulp 
My mother gave me, less my deeds beiq>ake 
The natm« of the lion than the fox.' 
All ways of winding subtlety I knew, 
And with such art conducted, that the sound 
Reached the world's limit. Soon as to that pari 
Of life I found me come, when each behooves 
To lower sails' and gather in the lines ; 
That, which before had pleased me, then I rued, 
And to repentance and confession tum'd. 
Wretch that I was ; and well it had bestead «ne. 
The chief of the new Pharisees* meantime, 

I The nature of the lion than the fox.] 

Non ftiron leonine ma di volpe. 
So Paid, Morg. Magg., c. xii. :— 

£ furon le sue opre e le sue coipe 
Non creder leonine ma di volpe. 

Fraiis quasi vulpecule, vis leonis videtnr. Cicero it Qfieiia 
Ub. i. c. 13. 

9 7b lower saUs.] Our Poet had the same train of thought 
as when he wrote that most beautifiil passage in his ConviU\ 
beginning " £ qui 6 da sapere, che siccome dice Tnllio in 
quelle di Senettute, la naturale morte," &c., p. 909. " As it 
hath been said by Cicero, in his treatise on old age, natural 
death is like a port and haven to us alter a long voyage ; and 
even as the good mariner, when he draws near the port, 
lowers his sails, and enters it softly with a weak and inof- 
fensive motion, so ought we to lower the sails of our worldly 
operations, and to return to God with all our understanding 
and heart, to the end that we mav reach this haven with all 
quietness and with all peace. And herein we are mightily 
instructed by nature in a lesson of mildness ; for in such a 
death itself there is neither pain nor bitterness ; but, as ripe 
fruit is lightly and without violence loosened from its branch, 
80 our soul without grieving, departs firom the body in which 
it hath been.** 

So mayst thou live, till like ripe fruit thou drop 
Into thy mother's lap, or be with ease 
GatherNd, not harshly pluck'd, for death mature. 

Milton, P. i., b. xi. 537. 

• The ehi^of the new Pharisees.] Boniface VIIJ., whose 
enmity to the family of Colonnaf-prdmpted him to destroy 
their houses near the Lateran. Wishing to obtain possessioa 
of their other seat, Penestrino, he consulted with Guide da 
Montefeltro how he might accomplish his purpose, oftbring 
him at the same time absolution for his past sins, as well 
as for that which he was then tempting him to commit. 
Guide's advice was, that kind words and fair promises would 
put his enemies into his power ; and they accordiiu^ soon 
afterwards fell mto the snare laid for them, A. D. 11N6. See 
G. Villanl, lib. viU. c. 23. 

There is a relation similar to this In the history of Ferreto 
Vincentlno, lib. iL anno 1294; and the writnr adds, that our 
Poet had Justly condemned Guido to the tonnenta he has 

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»-08. HELL, Canto XXVU. 187 

Waging his warfare near the Lateran, 

Not with the Saracens or Jews, (his foes 

All Christians were, nor against Acre one 

Had fought,^ nor traffick'd in the Soldan's land) 

He, his great charge nor sacred ministry, 

In himself reverenced, nor m me that cord 

Which used to mark with leanness whom it girded. 

As in Soracte, Constantino besought,' 

To cure his leprosy, Sylvester's aid ; 

So me, to cure the fever of his pride, 

This man besought : my counsel to that end 

He ask'd ; and I i^as silent ; for his words 

Seem'd drunken : but forthwith he thus resumed: 

' From thy heart banbh fear : of all aSence 

* I hitherto absolve thee. In return, 

* Teach me my purpose so to execute, 

* That Penestnno cumber earth no more. 

allotted him. See Maratori, Script Ital., torn. ix. p. 970^ 
where the editor observes: **Probosi hujas facinoris narra- 
tionl fidem adjangere nemo probas velit, quod facile confinxer- 
int Bonifacii smoli,'* &c. And indeed it woald seem as if 
Dante himseif had either not heard, or had not believed, the 
report of Guido's having sold himself thns foolishly to the 
Pope, when he wrote the passage in the Convito cited in the 
note to V. 76 ; for he soon after speaJcs of him as one of those 
noble spirits " who, when they approached the last haven, 
lowered the sails oi* their worldly operations, and gave them- 
selves np to religion in their old age, laying aside every world- 
ly delight and wish.*' 

> ■ JWr against Acre one 
Had fought.] He alludes to the renegade Christians, by 
whom the Saracens, in April, 1291, were assisted to recover 
St John d'Acre, the last possession of the Christians in the 
Holy Land. The regret expressed by the Florentine annalist, 
6. vlllani, for the loss of this valuable fortress, is well worthy 
of obser\'sti ^n, lib. vii. c. 144. ** From this event Christendom 
■nfiered the greatest detriment: for by the loss of Acre there 
no longer remained in the Holy Land any footing for the 
Christians ; and all our good maritime places of trade never 
aftenvards derived half the advantage fh>m their merchan- 
dise and manufactures ; so favorable was the situation of Ihe 
city of Acre, in the very firont of our sea, in the middle of 
Syria, and as it were in the middle of the inhabited world, 
seventy miles from Jerusalem, both source and receptacle of 
every kind of merchandise, as well from the east as firom the 
west; the resort of- all pecmle from all countries, and of the 
eastern nations of every dinerent tongue ; so that it might be 
considered as the aliment of the world." 

s A» in Soracte, Ckmetantine hesovght.] So in Dante's trea- 
tise De Monarchic: "Dicunt quidam adhuc, quod Constan- 
tinns Imperator, mundatus a lepr& intercessione Sylvestri, 
tone sommi pontificis, imperii sedem, scilicet Romam, donavit 
ecclesis, cum mnltis aliis imperii dignitatibus." Lib. iii. Com 
pare Fiuio d^li Uberti, DitUmondo^ lib. ii. cap. xii. 

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' Heaven, as thra knowest, I -haye no powei to ahiil 
' And open . and the keys are .therefore twain, 

* The which my predecessor* meanly prized.' 

** Then, yielding to the forceful arguments. 
Of silence as more perilous I deem'd, 
And answered : * Father ! since thou washest me 

* Clear of that guilt wherein I now must fall, 

< Large promise with performance scant, be sure, 

* Shall make thee triumph in thy lofty seat* 

** When I was numbered with the dead, then came 
Saint Francis for me ; but a cherub dark 
He met, who cried : * Wrong me not ; he is mJie, 

* And must below to join the wretched crew, 

< For the deceitful counsel which he gave. 

* E'er smce I watch'd him, hovering at his haur 

< No power can the impenitent absolve ; 

' Nor to repent, and wUl, at once consist, 

< By contradiction absolute forbid.' 

Oh misery ! how I shook myself, when he 

Seized me, and cried, < Thou haply thought'st me not 

* A disputant in logic so exact !' 

To Minos down he bore me ; and the judge 
Twined eight times rouncl his callous back the tail, . 
Which biting with excess of rage, he spake : 

< This is a guilty soul, that in the fire 

* Must vanish.* Hence, perdition-doom'd, I rove 
A prey to rankling sorrow, in this garb." 

When he had thus fulfiU'd his words, the flame 
In dolor parted, beating to and fro, 
And writhmg its sharp horn. We onward went, 
I and my leader, iip along the rock, 
Far as another arch, that overhangs 
The foss, wherem the penalty is paid 
Of those who load them with -committed sm. 


Thev arrive in the ninth golf, where the sowers of scandal, 
schismatics, and heretics, are seen with their limbs misera 
bly maimed or divided in different ways. Among these the 
Poet finds Mahomet, Piero da Medicini, Curio, Mosca, and 
Bertrand de Bom. 

Who, e'en in words nnfetter*d, might at full 
Tell of the wounds and blood that now I saw. 
Though he repeated oft the tale? No tongue 

i JUjf predeees$ar,] Celestine V. See Notes to Canto UL 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

4-17. HELL, Canto XXYIIL 189 

So yast a theme could equal, speech and thougbi 
Both impotent alike. If in one band 
Collected, stood the people all, who e'er 
Pour*d on Apulia's happy soil^ their blood, 
Slain by the Trojans,' and in that long war,* 
When of the rings^ the measured booty made 
A pile so high, as Rome's hktorian writes 
Who errs not ; with the multitude, that felt 
Th«> griding force of Guiscard's Norman steel,* 
And those the rest," whose bones are gather'd yet 
At Ceperano, there where treachery 
Branded the Julian name, or where beyond 
Thy walls, O Tagliacozzo,^ without arms 
The old Alardo conquer'd ; and his limbs 

1 Happjf BoU.I There is a strange discordance here anumf 
the expounders. ^ Fortnnata terra.'* Because of the vicUi- 
sltndes of fortane which it experienced : Landino. Fortu- 
nate, with respect to those who ccmquered in it : Vellutelio. 
Or on account of its natural fertiJity : VenturL The context 
requires that we should understand, by " fortunata,** "ca- 
lamitous,** **disgraziata," to which sense the word is extended 
in the Vocabulary of La Crusca : L(»nbardl. Vol[rt is silent. 

On this note the late Archdeacon Fisher favored me with 
the following remark : *' Volpi is, indeed, silent at the pas- 
sage; but in the article *Puglia,* in his second Index, he 
writes, Dante la chiama fortunata, ciod pingue e feconda. 
This is your own translation r and is the same word in mean- 
ing with sMalnuv and felix, ia Xenophon's Anabasis and 
Horace passim.** 

' 7^ IVmant.] Some MSS. have ** Romani ;** and Lom- 
bardi has admitted it into the text. Venturi bad, indeed, be- 
fine met with the same reading in some edition, but he has 
not told us in which. 

a In that long toar,] The war of Hannibal in Italy. ^ When 
]f ago brought news of his victories to Carthage, in order to 
make his successes more easily credited, he commanded the 
golden rings to be poured out in the senate-house, which 
made so large a heap, that, as some relate, they filled three 
fnodii and a half. A more probable account represents them 
■ot to have exceeded one vMdiiu,*^ JLa^Vi Hitt^ lib. xxiii. 13. 

* The rings.} So Frezzi : 

Non quella, che riempid i moggi d*anella. 

R Quadrir^ lib. ii. cap. 9. 

• OuUeartTa Jibrntan steel.] Robert Guiscard, who con 
quered the kingdom of Naples, and died in 1110. 6. Villani, 
lib. iv. cap. 18. He is introduced in the Paradise, Canto xviii. 

" ^nd those the rest.] The army of Manfredl, which, through 
the treachery of the Apulian troops, was overcome by Charles 
of Aigon in 1365, and fell in such numbers, that the bones ol 
the slain were still gathered near Oeperano. G. Villani, lib. 
Tii. cap. 9. See the Purgatory, Canto iii. 

T o Tagliaeotzo.] He alludes to the victtnry which Charles 
gained over Conradino, by the sage advice of the Keur de 
VfOeri, in lS6a d. ViUanl, Ub. viL e. 37. 

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too THE VISION. 18-ft> 

One were to show transpierced, another his 
Clean lopp'd away ; a spectacle like this 
'Were but a thing of naught, to the hideous sight 
Of the ninth chasm. A rundlet, that hath lost 
Its middle or side stave, gapes not so wide 
As one I mark'd, torn from the chin throughout 
Down to the hinder passage : *twixt the legs 
Dangling his entrails hung, the midriff lay 
Open to view, and wretched ventricle. 
That turns the en?Iutted aliment to dross. 

While eagerly I fix on him my gaze. 
He eyed me, with his hands laid lus breast bare, 
And ^ried, " Now mark how I do rip me: lo J 
How is Mahomet mangled : before me 
Walks Ali^ weeping, from the chin his face 
Cleft to the forelock ; and the others all. 
Whom here thou seest, while they lived, did sow 
Scandal and schism, and therefore thus are rent 
A fiend is here behind, who with his sword 
Hacks us thus cruelly, slivering again 
Each of this ream, when we have compass'd round 
The dismal way ; for first our gashes close 
Ere we repass before him. But, say who 
Art thou, that standest musing on the rock, 
Haply so lingering to delay the pain 
Sentenced upon thy crimes." — " Him death not ^et," 
My guide rejoin'd, " hath overta'en, nor sm 
Conducts to torment ; but, that he may mahe 
Full trial of your state, I who am dead 
Must through the depths of hell, from orb to orb. 
Conduct him. Trust my words ; for they are true." 

More than a hundred spuits, when that they heard, 
Stood in the foss to mark me, through amaze 
Forgetful of their pangs. " Thou, who perchance 
Shalt shortly view the sun, this wammg thou 
Bear to Dolcino .-* bid hun, if he wish not 

1 Mi.] The disciple of Mahomet. 

a Dolcino.] ** In 1305, a friar, called Dolcino, who belonged 
to no regular order, contrived to raise in Novara, in "Lom- 
hardy, a larce company of the meaner sort )f people, decla- 
ring himself to be a true apostle of Christ, and promulgating 
a community of property and of wives, with many othw 
such heretical doctrines. He blamed the pope, cardinals, 
and other prelates of the holy church, for not observing theli 
duty, nor leading the angelic life, and affirmed that he ought 
to be pope. He was followed by more than three thousand 
ndwc ' '• » • 

men and women, who lived promiscuously on the mountains 

together, like beasts, and, when they wanted jMv>visioB 

mpplled themselves by depredation and mpine. This lute 

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HELL, Canto XXVm. 


Here soou to follow me, that with good store 

Of food he arm him, lest unprisonmg snows 

Yield him a victim to Novara*B power ; 

No easy conquest else :" with foot upraised 

For stepping, spake Mahomet, on the grpmid 

Then fix'd it to depart. Anollier shade, 

Pierced in the throat, his nostrils mutilate 

E'en from beneath the eyebrows, and one ear 

Jjopp'd off, who, with the rest, through wonder stood 

Gazing, before the rest advanced, and bared 

His T^d-pipe, that without was all o'ersmear'd 

With crimson stam. " O thou !" said he, " whom sin 

Condemns not, and whom erst (unless too near 

Resemblance do deceive me) I aloft 

Have seen on Latian ground, call thou to mind 

Piero of Medicina,' if again 

Returning, thou behold'st the pleasant land' 

That from Vercelli slopes to Mercab6 ; 

And there instruct the twain,* whom Fano boasts 

Her worthiest sons. Guide and Angelo, 

That if 'tis given us here to scan aright 

The future, they out of life's tenement* 

for two years, till many being struck with compunction at 
the dissolute life they led, liis sect was much diminished ; 
and, through failure of food and the severity of the snows, 
he was taken by the people of Novara, and burnt, with Mar- 
garita, his companion, and many other men and women 
whom his errors had seduced." O. Villani, lib. viii. c. 84. 

Landino observes, that he was possessed of singular elo* 
qnence, and that both he and Maj^arita endured their fata 
with a firmness worthy of a better cause. For a further ae- 
eonnt of liim, see Muratori, Rer. Ital. Script., torn. ix. p. 4S7. 

Fazio degli Uberti, speaking of the polygamy allowed by 
Mahomet, adds : 

£ qui con fra DOIcin par che s'intenda. 

DiUamondo, lib. v. cap. zii. 

1 Medicina.] A place in the territory of Bologna. Piero 
fomented dissensions among the inhabitants of that city, and 
among the leaders of the neighboring states. 

s 7%e pleasant land.] Lombardy. 

* 7%e twain.] Guide del Cassero and Angiolello da Ca^ 
gnano, two of the w(»rthiest and most distinguished citizens 
of Fano, were invited by Malatestino da Rimini to an enter- 
tainment, on pretence that he had some important business 
to transact with them ; and, according to instructions given 
by him, they were drowned in their passage near Cattolica, 
between Rimini and Fano. 

* Out of lifers tenement.] "Fuor dl lor vasello," is con- 
strued by the old Latin annotator on the Monte Cassino MS. 
and by Lombard!, **out of the ship." Volpi understands 
** vasello" to mean " their city or country." Others take the 
word in the sense according to which, though not withcm 
■ome doubt, it is rendered in this translation. 

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109 THE VISION. 76-10^ 

Shall be east forth, and whelm'd under the waves 

Near to Cattolica, tbnmgh perfidy 

Of a^ell tyrant *Twixt the Cyprian isle 

And Balearic, ne'er hath Neptune seen 

An injury so foul, by pirates done. 

Or Argive crew of old. That one-eyed traitor 

(Whose realm, there is a spirit here were fain 

His eye had still lacked sight of) them shall bring 

To conference with him, then so shape his end. 

That they shall need not 'gamst Focara's wind* 

Offer up vow nor prayer." I answering thus : 

** Declare, as thou dost wish that I abOve 

May carry tidings of thee, who is he, [brance.** 

In whom that sight doth wake such sad remem* 

Forthwith he laid his hand on the cheek-bone 
Of one, his fellow-spirit, and his jaws 
Expanding, cried : " Lo ! this is he I wot of: 
He speaks not for himself: the outcast this. 
Who overwhelm'd the doubt in Cesar's mind,* 
Affirming that delay to men prepared 
Was ever harmful." Oh I how terrified 
Methought was Curio, from whose throat was cut 
The tongue, which spake that hardy word. Then one, 
Maim'd of each hand, uplifted in the gloom 
The bleeding stumps, that they with gory spots 
Sullied his face, and cried : <* Remember thee 
Of Mosca* too*; I who, alas ! exclaun*d, 

1 Fheara's wind.] Focara is a mountain, from which a 
wind blows that Is peculiarly dangerous to the navigators of 
that coast 

s The doubt in Casar's mind,] Curio, whose speech (ae- 
eordlng to Lncan) determined Julius Cesar to proceed when 
he ha^ arrived at Rimini, (the ancient Ariminum,) and 
jdonbted whether be should prosecute the civil war. 
ToUe moras : semper nocult dlfferre paratls. 

Phargal., I. i. S8L 
Haste then thy towering eagles on their way ; 
When fair occasion calls, 'tis fatal to delay. Roioe. 

s Mosea.] Bnondelmonte was engaged to marry a lady of 
the Amidei family, but broke his promise, and united himself 
to one of the Donati. This was so much resented by the 
forftier, that a meeting of themselves and their kinsmen was 
held, to consider of the best means of revenging the insult, 
liosca degli Uberti, or de* Lrfunberti, persuaded them to re- 
solve on the assassination of Bnondelmonte, exclaiming to 
them, " the thing once done, there is an end.** The counsel 
and its effects were the source of many terrible calamities to 
the state of Florence. •* This murder.'^ says G. Villani, lib. v. 
cap. 38, "was the cause and beginning of the accursed 
Gnelph and Ghibelline parties in Florence." It happened in 
1S15. See the Paradise, Oauto xvi. 139. 

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lCk3-130. HELL, Canto XXVID. ]|a 

' The deed once done, there is an end,' that proved 
A seed of sorrow to the Tuscan race." 

I added : " Ay, and death to thine own tribn " 
Whence, heaping wo on wo, he hurried off^ 
As one grief-stung to madness. But I there 
Still lingered to hehold the troop, and saw 
Thing, such as I may fear without more proof 
To tell of. hut that conscience makes me firm. 
The boon companion,^ who her strong breast-plat* 
Buckles on him, that feels no guilt within, 
And bids him on and fear not Without doubt 
I saw, and yet it seems to pass before me, 
A headless trunk, that even as the rest 
Of the sad flock paced onward. By the hair 
It bore the sever'd member, lantern-wise 
Pendent in baud, which look'd at us, and said, 
« Wo 's me !" The spuit lighted thus hunself ; 
And two there were in one, and one in two. 
How that may be, he knows who ordereth so. 

When at the bridge's foot direct he stood, 
His arm aloft he reax'd, thrusting the head 
Full in our view, that nearer we might hear 
The words, which thus it utter'd ; " Now behold 
This grievous torment, thou, who breathing go'st 
To spy the dead : behold, if any else 
Be terrible as this. And, that on earth 
Thou mayst bear tidings of me, know that I 
Am Bertrand,' he of Bom, who gave kmg John 

> TTU boon eompanion.l 

What stronger breastplate than a heart nntainted ? 
Shakspeare, 3 Hen. r/.,*act ill. sc. 3. 

> Bertrani.\ Bertrand de Bom, Vicomte de Hante&rt, near 
Perigoeux in Guienne, who incited John to rebel a^nst his 
&ther, Henry II. of England. Bertrand holds a distinguished 
p^ace among the Provencal poets. He is quoted in Dante, de 
vnlg. Bl3q., lib. ii. cap. 3, where it is said, ** that he treated 
of war, which no Italian poet had yet done." " Arma vero 
nnllum Italnui adhnc poetasse invenio.** The triple division 
of subjects for poetry, made in this chapter of the de Vulg. 
Eloq., is very remarkaUe. It will be found in a note on Pur- 

Story, C^nto zxvi. 113. F<Nr the translation of some extracts 
»m Bertrand de Bom*s poems, see Millet. Hist. Litteraire 
des Troubadours, torn. i. p. 210 ; but the historical parts of 
that worlc are, I believe, not to be relied on. Bertrand had a 
son of the same name, who wrote a poem against John, king 
t^ England. It is that species of composition called the ser^ 
ventese: and is in the Vatican, a MS. In Ck)d. 3304. See Ba- 
stero. La Crusca Provenzale. Roma, 1734, p. 80. For many 
parttculars respecting both Bertnnds, consult Raynouard*s 
Poesies des Troubadours ; in which excellent work, and in 
his Lexique Roman, Paris, 1838, several of their poems, in the 
ftoveafal language, may be seen 


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194 TEE VISION. 131-: 

The cmiQflel mischieTous. Father anc son 
I set at mutual war. For Absalom 
And David more did not Ahitophel, 
Spurring them on maliciously to strife. 
For parting those so closely knit, my brain 
Parted, alas ! I carry from its source. 
That in this trunk inhabits. Thus the law 
Of retribution fiercely works in me." 



Dante, at the desire of Virgil, proceeds onward to the bridge 
that crosses tlie tenth gulf, from whence he hean the cries 
of the alchemists and forgers, who are tormented therein ; 
bnt not being able to discern any thing on account of the 
darkness, they descend the rock, that bounds this the last 
of the compartments in which the eighth circle is divided, 
and then behold the spirits who are aflUcted bv divers 
plagues and diseases. Two of them, namely, Grifolino of 
Arezzo and Capocchio of Sienna, are introduced speaking. 

So were mine eyes inebriate with the view 
Of the vast multitude, whom various wounds 
Disfigured, that they long'd to stay and weep. 

But Virgil roused me : " What yet gazest on 1 
Wherefore doth fasten yet thy sight below 
Among the maim'd and miserable shades? 
Thou hast not ^own in any chasm beside 
This weakness. Know, if thou wouldst number themv 
That two and twenty miles the valley winds 
Its circuit, and already is the moon 
Beneath our feet : the time permitted now 
Is short ; and more, not seen, remains to see.*' 

" If thou," I straight repUed, " hadst weigh'd ih« 
For which I look'd, thou hadst perchance excused 
The tarrying still." My leader part pursued 
His way, the while I foUow'd, answering him. 
And adding thus : " Withm that cave I deem, 
Whereon so fixedly I held my ken. 
There is a spirit dwells, one of my blood. 
Wailing the crime that costs him now so dear." 

Then spake my master: " Let thy soul no more 
Afflict itself for him. Direct elsewhere 
Its thought, and leave him. At the bridge's foot 

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SM'4JS. HELXi, Canto XXIX. 1|5 

I mark*d honr he did point with menacinjr look 
At thee, and heard him by the otheis named 
Geri of Bello.^ Thou so wholly then 
Wert busied with his spurit, who once ruled 
The towers of Hautefort, that thou lookedst not 
That way, ere he was gone."-—*' O guide beloved 
His violent death yet unavenged," said I, 
*< By any, who are partners in hk shame, 
Made him contemptuous ; therefore, as I think. 
He pass'd me speechless by ; and, doing so, 
Hath made me more compassionate his fate." 

So we discoursed to where the rock first show'd 
The other valley, had more light been there, 
£*en to the lowest depth. Soon as we came 
O'er the last cloister in the dismal rounds 
Of Malebolge, and the brotherhood 
Were to our view exposed, then many a dart 
Of sore lament assail'd me, headed all - 
With points of thrilling pity, that I closed 
Both ears agamst the volley with mine hands. 

As were the torment,^ if each lazar-house 
Of Valdichiana,' in the sultry time 

1 OeriofBdlo.] A kinsman of the Poet's, who was mur- 
dered by one of the Saifchetti family. His being placed here, 
may be considered as a proof that Dante was more impartial 
in Uke allotment of his punishments than has generally been 
supposed. He was the son of Bello, who was brother to Bel- 
linclone, oar Poefs grandfather. Felll, Mem. per la Vita dl 
Dante. Opere di Dante. Zatta ediz., torn. iv. part ii. p. S3. 

> Jls vere the torment.] It is very probable that these lines 
gave Milton the idea of his celebrated description: 
Immediately a place 
Before their eyes appeared, sad, noisome, dark. 
A lazai^honse it seem*d, wherein were laid > 
Numbers of all diseased, all maladies, &c. 

P. i., b. xl. 477. 
Tet the enumeration of diseases, which folIo\v8, appears to 
have been taken by Milton firom the Quadriregii : 
Quivi eran zoppi, monchi, sordi, e orbi, 
Quil^ era il mal podagrico e di fianco, 
Q,nivi la frenesia cogli occhi torbi. 
Qnivl 11 dolor gridante, e non mai stance, 
Qnivi il catarro con la gran cianfarda, 
L*asma, la polmonia quivl eran* anco 
L*idroplsia qnivi era grave e tarda, 
Di tutte febbri quel piano era pieno, 
Quivl quel mal, che par che la carne arda. 

Lib. ii. cap. a 

s Of Vdldiehiana.) The valley through which passes the 

fiver Chinna, bounded by ArezEO, Cortona, Montepulciano. 

and ChiusL In the heat of autumn it was formerly rendered 

mwholesome by the stagnation of the water, but has shiee 

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196 THE VISION. 4&^% 

'Twixt July and September, with the nle 
Sardinia and Maremma's pcKstilent fen,* 
Had heapM their maladies all in one foes 
Together ; sach was here the torment : dire 
The ftench, as issaing streams fr<Hn fester'd liokhs. 

We on the utmost shore of the long rock 
Descended still to leftward. Then my sight 
Was livelier to explore the depth, wherein 
The minister of the most mighty Lord, 
All-searching Justice, dooms to punishment 
The forgers noted on her dread record. 

More rueful was it not methmks to see 
The nation in iBgina* droop, what time 
Each living thmg, e'en to the little woim, 
AH fell, so full of malice was the air, 
(And afterward, as bards of yore have told. 
The ancient people were restored anew 
From seed of emmets) than was here to see 
The spirits, that languished through the muricy vale* 
Up-piled on many a stack. Confused they lay, 
One o'er the belly, o'er the shoulders one 
Roird of another ; sideling crawl'd a third 
Along the dismal pathway. Step by step 
We joumey'd on, in silence looking round, 
And listening those diseased, who strove in vain 
To lift their forms. Then two I mark'd, that sat 
Propp'd 'gainst each other, as two brazen pans 
Set to retain the heat From head to foot, 
A tetter bark'd them roimd. Nor saw I e'er 
Groom currying so fast, for whom his lord 
Impatient waited, or himself perchance 
Tired with long watching, as of these each one 
Plied quickly his keen naUs, through furionsness 
Of ne'er abated pruriency. The crust 
Came drawn from underneath in flakes, like scales 
Scraped from the bream, or fish of broader mail 

" O thou ! who with thy fingers rendest off 
Thy coat of proof," thus spake my guide to one, 
*' And sometimes makest tearing pincers of them, 
Tell me if any bom of Latian land 
Be among these within : so may thy nails 

been drained by the Emperor Leopold U. The Chiana If 
mentioned as a remarkably sluggish stream, in the Paradise, 
Canto ziiL 31. 

> Marenma*g pestilent fen,] 8ee Note to Canto xxv. v. 18. 

• Jk JSS^ina.] He allndes to the flOde of the ants eba&fed 
Into Myrmidons. Ovid. .¥«<., Ub. vU. 

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«7 131 HELL, Canto XXtiC. 197 

Serve thee for everlasting to this toU.^ 

'-* Both are of Latium^^ weeping he replied, 
'* Whom tortured thus thou seest : but who art thott 
That hast inquired of us V* To whom my guide . 
. " One that descend with this man, who yet lives. 
From rock to rock, and show him hell's abyss " 

Then started they asunder, and each tum'd 
Trembling toward us, with the rest, whose ear 
Those words redounding struck. To me my lieffe 
A^dress'd him . ** Speak to them whatever thoa Ust" 

And I ^herewith began : " So may no time 
Filch your remembrance from the thoughts of men 
In the upper world, but after many suns 
Survive it, as ye tell me, who ye are, 
And of whal race ye come. Your punishment, 
Unseemly and disgustful in its kind, 
Deter you not from opening thus much to me." 

" Arezzo was my dwelling,'** answered <me, 
** And me Albero of Sienna brought 
To die by fire : but that, for which I died. 
Leads me not here. True is, in sport I told him. 
That I had leam'd to wing my flight in air ; 
And he, admiring much, as he was void * 
Of wisdom, will'd me to declare to him 
The secret of mine art : and only hence, 
Because I made him not a Deedalus, 
Prevail'd on one supposed his sire to bum me. 
But Minos to this chasm, last of the ten, 
For that I practised alchemy on earth, 
Has doom'd me. Him no subterfuge eludes." 

Then to the bard I spake : " Was ever race 
Light as Sienna's ?* Sure not France herself 
Can show a tribe so frivolous and vain." 

The other leprous spirit heard my words. 
And thus retum'd : " Be Stricca' from this charge 

1 Jlreito was my dtodling.] Grifolino of Arezzo, who prom* 
iaed Albero, son of the Bishop of Sienna, that he would teach 
him the art of flying; and, because he did not keep his prom- 
ke, Albero prevailed on his father fo have him burnt for a 

• Was ever race 

LigjU as Sienna's ?] The same Imputation is again east 
en the Siennese, Porg., Canto ziii. 141. 

* Strieca.} This is said ironically. Stricca, Niccolo Salim- 
beni, Caccia of Asciano, and Abbagliato, or Meo de* Folcao- 
chieri, bel<niged to a company of prodigal and luxuriont 
young men in Sienna, called the ** brijfata godereccia,^^ Nic- 
folo was tlie inventoi of a new manner of using cloves la 

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198 THE VISION. 18»-13I 

Exempted, he who knew so temperately 
To lay oat fortmie's gifts ;- and Nicoolo, 
Who first the spice's costly loxnry 
Discoyer'd in that garden,^ where such seed 
Roots deepest in the soil : and be that troop 
Exempted, with whom Caccia of Asciano 
Lavish'd fais vineyards and wide-spreading woodsy 
And his rare wisdom Abbagliato* show'd 
A spectacle for alL That thou mayst know 
Who seconds thee against the Sicnnese 
Thus gladly, bend this way thy sharpened fught, 
That well my face may answer to thy ken ; 
So shalt thou see I am Capocchio's ghost,' 
Who forged transmuted metals by the power 
Of alchemy ; and if I scan thee right, 
Thou needs must well remember how I aped 
Creative nature by my subtle art." 

cookery, not very well nndentood by the conunentatcHri, and 
which was termed the " eostuma ricca.*^ 

Pagliarini, io his Historical Observations on the Qoadri- 
regio, lib. UL cap. 13, adduces a passage from a B18. History ol 
Sienna, in which it is told that these spendthrifts, out of the 
snm raised for the sale of their estates, built a palace, which 
they inhabited in common, and made the receptacle of their 
apparatus for luxurious enjoyment; and that among their 
other extravagances, they had their hcurses shod with silver, 
and forbade their servants to pick up the jnecious shoes if 
they dropped off. The end was, as might be expected, ex- 
treme poverty and wretchedness. LaniUno says, they spent 
two hundred thousand florins in twentv months. 

Horses shod with silver are mentioned by Fazio deril 

Ancora in questo tempo si fu vlsto 
Quel Roberto Gniscardo, che d*argento 
I cavagli ferri> per far Tacqulsto. 

Dittamondot 1. ii. c 34, as conected by Pertlcaii. 

1 J» tkmt farden,] Sienna. 

s Mba/rluUo.] LomlMtrdl understands '* Abbagliato** not to 
be the name of a man, but to be the epithet to **senno,** and 
construes ** B l*abbagliato suo senno proferse,*' ** and mani- 
fested to the world the blindness of their understanding.** 
So little doubt, however, is made of there being such a per- 
son, that Allacci speaks of his grandfather Folcacchiero de* 
Folcacchieri, of Sienna, as one who may dispute with the 
Sicilians the praise of being the first inventor of Italian po- 
etry. Tiraboschi, indeed, observes, that tliis genealogy is not 
authenticated by Allacci ; yet it is difficult to suppose that he 
should have mentioned it at all, if Heo de* Fokaccliieri, ta 
Abbagliato, as he was called, had never existed. Vol. i. p. 
05. Mr. Mathlas* edit. 

* Cofoeekio't gkott.) Capoccliio of Sienna, who Is said to 
teve been a fellow-stndent of Dante*B, in natural philoewphy. 

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HM HELL, Canto XXX. lOS 


In the same golf, other kindi of imposton, u thoee who have 
counterfeited the persons of others, or debased the current 
coin, or deceived by speech under fklse pretences, are de- 
sorilied as snflering ^rauious diseases. Binon of Troy and 
Adamo of Brescia mutually reproach each other with their 
several impostures. 

What time resentment bum'd in Juno's breast 
For Semele against the Theban blood, 
As more than once in dire mischance was rued ; 
Such fatal phrensy seized on Athamas,^ 
That he his spouse beholding with a babe 
Laden on either arm, " Spread out," he cried, 
** The meshes, that I take the lioness 
And the young lions at the pass :** then forth 
Stretch'd he lus merciless talons, grasping one, 
One helpless innocent, Learchus named. 
Whom swinging down he dash'd upon a rock ; 
And with her other burden,' self-destroy'd, 
The hapless mother plunged. And when the prid« 
Of all-presuming Troy fell from its height, 
By fortune overwhelm'd, and the old king , 
With his realm perish'd ; then did Hecuba,' 
A wretch forlorn and captive, when she saw 
Polyxena first slaughtered, and her son, 
Her Polydorus,^ on the wild sea-beach 
Next met the mourner's view, then reft of sense 
Did she run barking even as a dog ; 
Such mighty power had grief to wrench her soiiL 
But ne'er the Furies, or of Thebes, or Troy, 
With such fell cruelty were seen, theur goads 
Infixing in' th3 limbs of man or beast, 
As now two pale and naked ghosts I saw, 
That gnarling wildly scampePd, like the swine 
Excluded from his stye. One reach'd Capocchio, 
And m the neck-jomt sticking deep his fangs, 
Dragg'd him, that, o'er the solid pavement rubb'd 

> Jitkamas.} From Ovid, Metam., lib. iv. 

Protiniu iEk>lides, &o. 
s mth her other bwrdeii.} 

Seque super pontnm nullo tardata timore 
Mittit, onusque snum. Oriel, MeUun^ lib. vt 

s Hecuba.] See Euripides, Hecuba; and Ovid, Metam^ 
« HerPoi^donu.] 

Aspiclt ejectnm PoUdori in Uttore carpus, (hid. tkU 

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BOO THE yiSION. 3]<4ft. 

His belly streteh'd out prone. The other ^ape» 
He of Arezzo, there left tremblmg, spake : 
" That sprite of air is Sehicchi ;' in like mood 
Of mndom mischief vents he still his spite.*' 

To whom I answering^ : <* Oh ! as thou dost hope 
The other may not flesh its jaws on thee. 
Be patient to inform us, who it is. 
Ere it speed hence." — ** That is the ancient soul 
Of wretched Myrrha,'** he replied, V who bum'd 
With most unholy flame for her own sire, 
And a false shape assummg, so perfonn'd 
The deed of sin ; e'en as the other there, 
That onward passes, dared to couaterfelt 
Ponati's features, to feign'd testament 
The seal affixing, that himself might gain, 
For his own share, the lady of the henL" 

When yanish'd the two furious shades, on rhom 
Mine eye was held, I tum'd it back to yiew 
The other cursed spuits. One I saw 
In fashion like a lute, had but the groin 
Been severed where it meets the forked part 
Swoln dropsy, disproportioning the limbs 
With ill-converted moisture, that the paunch 
Suits not the visage, open'd wide his lips, 
Gasping as in the hectic man for drought. 
One towards the chin, the other upws^ curl'd. 

" O ye ! who in this wcHrld of misery. 
Wherefore I know not, are exempt from pain,*' 
Thus he began, " attentively regard 
Adamo's wo.* When living, full supply 
Ne*er lack*d me of what most I coveted ; 
One drop of water now, alas ! I crave. 
The rills, that glitter down the grassy slopes 
Of Casentino,^ making fresh and soft 

1 Sekieehi.] Gianni Sehicchi, who was of the family of 
Cavalcanti, possessed such a focnlty of monlding his features 
to the resemblance of others, that he was employed by Simon 
Donati to personate Bnoso Donati, then recently deceased, 
and to make a will, leaving Simon his heir ; for which service 
he was remunerated with a mare of extraordinary value, here 
called '* the lady of the herd.*' 

s Myrrka.] See Ovid, Metam., lib. x. 

* JidaiM*t Kw.J Adamo of Brescia, at the Instigation of 
Gnido, Alessandro, and their brother Aghinnlfo, lords of R >- 
mena, counterfeited the coin of Florence ; tat which crime 
he was burnt. Landlno says, that in his time the peasants 
still pointed out a pile of stones near Romena, as die placs 
•f his execution. See Troya, Veltro Allegorloo, p. 8S. 

« GMoUtM.] BomenaisapartofCaieatliio. 

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•9-98. HELL, GiMTO XXX. M|] 

Tbe banloi whereby they glide to Amo's stream. 

Stand ever in my view ; imd not in vain ; 

For moce the pictured semblance dries me up, 

Much more than the disease, which makes the flesh 

Desert these shrivelled cheeks. So front the place. 

Where I transgressed, stem justice urging me, 

Takes means to quicken more my laboring sighs 

There is Romena, where I falsified 

The metal with the Baptist's form impress'd, 

For which on earth I left my body burnt 

But if I here might see the sorrowing soul 

Of Guide, Aleesandro, or their brother. 

For Branda's Qmpid spring* I would not change 

The welcome sight One is e'en now within. 

If truly the mad spirits tell, that round 

Are wandering. But wherein besteads me thatt 

My limbs are fettered. Were I but so light, 

That I each hundred years might move one inch, 

I had set forth already on this path, 

Seeking him out amidst the shapeless crew. 

Although eleven miles it wind, not less* 

Than half of one across. They brought me down 

Among this tribe ; induced by them, I stamp'd 

The florins with three carats of alloy."' 

" Who are that abject pair," I next inquired, 
** That closely bounding thee upon thy right 
Lie smoking, like a baud in winter steep'd 
In the chiU stream ?"— " When to this gulf I dropp'd," 

> Branda'$ limpid spriiu^.l A foantain in Sienna. 

3 /..ess.] Lombardljostly ccmclndes that as Adamo vdshes 
to ezacgerate the difficulty of finding the spirit whom he 
wishedto sec, " men,** and not " jrfu** (" less,** and not " more** 
than tbe half of a mile) is probably the true reading ; fof 
tiiere are authorities for both. 

> 7%« Jtbrins with three carats of alloy.] The florin was a 
coin that ought to have had twenty-four carats of pure gold. 
Villani relates, that it was first used at Florence in 1253, an 
era <^great prosperity in the annals of the republic ; before 
which time dieir most valuable coinage was uf silver. Hist, 
Ub. vi. c. liv. 

Fasio de^i Uberti uses the word to denote the purest gold 
Pure era come l*oro del fi<»rino. 

Dittamoniot L. iL cap. ziv. 
*' Among the ruins of Chaucer's house at Woodstock the> 
found an ancient coin of Florence ; I think, a Florein, anr 
cieatly common in England. Chaucer, Pardon, Tale v. 3390 

For that the Floraines been so <Ur and bright 
Edward the Tliird, in 1344, altered it flrom a lower value to 
ft*. 9tL The particular piece I have mentioned seems aboot 
that value.'* Wartoih Mitt, tf Bug, PoOnh v. iLsect. iL^U, 

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He aii8A'*er'd, "' here I found them ; anee that hour 
Mlioy have in>t tum'd, nor ever shall, I ween. 
Till time hath run hjs course. One is that dame. 
The false accuser* of the Hebrew yeuth ; 
Sinon the ot&er, that false Greek from Troy* 
Sharp fever drains the reeky moistness out, 
In such a' cloud upsteam'd." When that he heaiid« 
One, gaird perchance to be so darkly named, 
With clench'd hand smote him on the braced paunch, 
That like a drum resounded : but forthwith 
Adamo smote him on the face, the blow 
Returning with his arm, that seem'd as hard. 

** Though my o'erweighty limbs have ta*en from mo 
The power to move," said he, " I have an arm 
At liberty for such employ." Tc whom 
Was answered ; " When thou wentest to the fire, 
Thou hadst it not so ready at command. 
Then readier when it coin'd the impostor gold." 

And thus the dropsied : *< Ay, now speak'st thou 
But there thou gavest not such true testimony, [true : 
When thou wast question'd of the truth, at Troy." 

" If I spake false, thou falsely stamp'dst the coin," 
Said Sinon ; " I am here for but one fault. 
And thou for more than any imp beside." 

" Remember," he replied, " O perjured one ! 
The horse remember, tiiat did teem with death ; 
And all the world be witness to thy guilt." 

" To thme," returned the Greek, " witness the thirat 
Whence thy tongue cracks, witness the fluid mound 
Rear'd by thy belly up before thine eyes, 
A mass corrupt." To whom the coiner thus : 
" Thy mouth gapes wide as ever to let pass 
Its eyil saying. Me if thirst assails. 
Yet I am sti^d with moisture. Thou art parch'di 
Pains rack thy head : no urging wouldst thou need 
To moke thee lap Narcissus' mirror up." 

I was all fix*d to listen, when my guide 
Admonish'd : " Now beware.* A little more. 
And I do quarrel with thee." I perceived 
How angrily he spake, and towards him tum'd 
With shame so poignant, as remember'd yet 
Confounds me. ^ a man that dreams of harm 
Befallen him, dreammg wishes it a dream. 
And that which is, desires as if it were not ; 
Such then was I, who, wanting power to speak, 

^ T%o fal— «eeii««r.] Potlphu** wi& 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

iaB-l«^ HELL, Canto XXXI. 90s 

Wirii'd to excuse myself, and all the while 
Excus^ me, though miweetmg that I did. [shame,*' 
'* More grievous fault than thine has been, less 
My master cried, ** might expiate. Therefore cast 
All sorrow from thy soul ; and if ajpain 
Chanoe bring thee, wh^re like con&rence is held. 
Think I am ever at thy side. To hear 
Such wrangling is a joy for vulgar minds." 


The Poets, followil^; the sound of a load hom, are led by It 
to Uie ninth circle, in which there are four ronnds, one en- 
closed within the other, and containing as many »(»ts of 
Traitors ; but the present Canto shows only that4he circle 
is encompassed with Giants, one of whom, Antens, takes 
them both In his arms and places ^em at the bottom ot 
the circle. 

The very tongue,* whose keen reproof before 
Had wounded me, that either cheek was stain'd, 
Now minister'd my cure. So have I heard, 
Achilles' and his father's javelin caused 
Pam first, and then the boon of health restored. 

Turning our back upon the vale of wo. 
We cross'd the encircled mound in silence. Thero 
Was less than day and less than night, that far 
Mine eye advanced not : but I heard a hom 
Sounded so loud, the peal it rang had made 

1 TTU very tongue.] 

Vnlniu in Hercaleo qne qnondam fecerat hoste 
Vnlneris aozilinm Fellas hasta fait. 

Ovidf Rem, Amor^ 47. 
The same allusion was made by Bernard de Ventadoiu', a 
Provencal poet in the middle of the twelfth century ; and 
MUlot observes, that " it was a singular instance of erudition 
In a Troubadour." But it is not impossible, as Warton re- 
marks, (Hist of Engl. Poetry, vol. ii. sect z. p. 215,) but that 
he might have been indA>ted for it to some of the early ro- 

In Chaucer's Squier's Tale, a sword of similar quality is 

introduced : 

And other fblk have wondred on the sweard. 
That could so piercen through every thing; 
And fell in speech of Telephns the king, 
And of Achilles for his queint spere. 
For he couth with it both heale and dere. 

80 Bhakspeaie, Henry VL P. IL act v. sc. 1. 

Whose smile and frown I ke to Achilles* tpeai 
Is able with the ebangs to kill and cure. 

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The thunder feeble. FoUowing its eoune 
The adyerse way, my strained eyes were bent 
On that one spot So terrible a blast 
Orlando* blew not, when that dismal rout 
O'erthrew the host of Charlemam, and quenohM 
His saintly warfare. Thitherward not long 
My head was raised, when many a lofty tower 
Methought I spied. " Master," said I, » what land 
Is this 1" He answer'd straight : " Too long a %NU)t 
Of intervening darkness has thine eye * 
To traverse : thou hast therefore widely err'd 
In thy imagining. Thither arrived 
Thou well shalt soe, how distance can delude 
. The sense. A little therefore urge thee on." 

Then tenderly he caught me by the hand: 
« Yet know," said he, ** ere farther we advancot 
That it less strange may seem, these are not towent 
But giants. In the pit tfiey stand immersed. 
Each from his navel downward, round the bank.'* 

As when a fog disperseth gradually, 
Our vision traces what the mist involves 
Condensed m air ; so piercing through the gmtft 
And gloomy atmosphere, as more and more 
We nearM toward the brink, mine error fled. 
And fear came o'er me. As with circling roaiM^ 
Of turrets, Montereggion* crowns his walls ; 
£*en thus the shore, encompassing' the abyss^ 
Was turreted with giants,* half their length 
Uprearing, horrible, whom Jove from heaven 
Yet threatens, when his muttering thunder rolls 

Of one already I descried the face, 
Shoulders, and breast, and <^ the belly huge 
Great part, and both arms down along his ribs. 

All-teeming Nature, when her plastic hand 
Left framing of these monsters, did display 
Past doubt her wisdom, taking from mad War 

I Orlando.} 

When Charlemain with all his peerage fell 
At Fontarabia. Jdtlton, P. L^ b. i. 588. 

See Warton*s Hist, of Eng. Poetry, vol. i. sect. Ui. p. ISi 
**Thi8 is the horn which Orlando won firooi the giant Jat- 
mnnd, and which, as Turpin and the islandic bards report, 
was endued with magical power, and might be heard at the 
distance of twenty miles.** Charlemain and Orlando are in- 
troduced in the Paradise, Canto zviii. 

• MtnUreggU*.} A castle near Sienna. 

* OitmU.l The giants round the pit, it is lemaiked by 
Warton, are in the Arabian vein of &bUog. Bee ]>*lierbek)V 
BiU. Oiientato. V. Rocail, p. 717, a. 

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4lhn HELL, Cakto XXXL t09 

Such flaTQi to do his biddmg ; and if she 
Repent her not of the elephant and whale. 
Who ponden well confeoeee her therein 
Wiser and more discreet ; for when brute fovo« 
And evil will are back'd with subtlety, 
Resistance none avails. His yisa|^ seem'd 
In length and bulk, as doth the pine' that tops 
Saint Peter's Roman fane ; and the other booes 
Of like pnqportion, so that from above 
The bank, which girdled him below, such height 
Arose his stature, that three Friezelanders 
Had striven in vain to reach but to his haur. 
Full thirty ample palms was he exposed 
Downward from whence a man his garment loopi. 
" Raphel' bal ameth, sabl ahnl :** 
So shouted his fierce lips, which sweeter hymns 
Became not ; and my guide addressed bun thus : 
" O senseless spirit ! let thy horn for thee 
Interpret : therewith vent thy rage, if rage 
Or other passion wring thee. Search thy neck. 
There shalt thou find the belt that binds it on. 
Spirit confused !' lo, on thy mighty breast 
Where hangs the baldrick !" Then to me he spake 
** He doth accuse himself! Nimrod is this. 
Through whose ill counsel in the world no more 
One tongue prevails. But pass we on, nor waste 
Our words ; for so each language is to him, 
As his to others, understood by none." 

Then to the leftward tunung sped we forth. 
And at a sling's throw found another shade 
Far fiercer and more huge. I cannot say 
What master hand had girt him ; but he held 
Behind the right arm fetter'd, and before, 

1 7%e pine.] "The large pine of bronze, which once (>ma 
mented the top of the mole of Adrian, was aAerwards em* 
ployed to decorate the top of the belfiry of St. Peter ; and having 
(according to Bnti) been thrown down by lightning, it was, 
after lying some time onihe steps of this palace, transferred 
to the place where it now is, in the Pope's garden, by the 
side of the great corridor of Belvedere. In the time of our 
Poet, the pine was then eiOier on the belfry or on the steps ot 
St. Peter.** Lombard*. 

* Rapkd, l-c,] lliefle anmeaning soands, it is supposed, are 
meant to express the eonftuioa of laogoages at the boilding 
of the tower of Babel 

» Brn'mt Mi0(««d. J I had befine translated "■ Wild spirit V* 
aad nave altered it at the suggestion of Mr. Darley, who well 
li^serves, that *«anima eonftisa'* is peculiarly appropriate ts 
ViBUod. the author of the conftaskm at BabeL 

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te6 TKE VISION* . 8i>-lSti 

The other, with a chain, that fasten'd hun 

From the neck down ; and five times roond his foim 

Apparent met the wreathed links. ** This proud an# 

Would of his strength against almighty Joto 

Make trial/' said my guide : ** whence he is thus 

Requited : Ephialtes Um they call. 

Great was his prowess, when the giants brongfat 

Fear on the gods : those arms, which then he jitiod^ 

Now moves he never." Forthwith I returned : 

** Fam would I, if 't were possible, mine eyes, 

Of Briareus immeasurable, gain'd 

Experience next" He answer'd : *' Thou shalt see 

Not far from hence Antseus, who both speaks 

And m unfettered, who shall place us there 

Where guilt is at its depth. Far onward stands 

Whom thou wouldst fain behold, in chains, and made 

Like to this spirit, save that in his looks 

More fell he seems." By violent earthquake rock'd 

Ne'er shook a tower, so reeling to its base. 

As Ephialtes. More than ever then 

I dreaded death ; nor than the terror more 

Had needed, if I had not seen the cords 

That held him fast We, straightway journeying om^ 

Came to Antieus, who, five el& complete 

Without the head, forth issued from the cave. 

"O thou, who in the fortunate vale,' that made 
Great Scipio heir of glory, when his sword 
Drove back the troop of Hannibal in flight, 
Who thence of old didst carry for thy qx>il 
An hundred lions ; and if thou hadst fought 
In the high conflict on thy brethren's side. 
Seems as men yet believed, that through thme ana 
The sons of earth had conquered ; now vouchsafe 
To place us down beneath, where numbing cold 
liocks up Cocytus. Force not that we crave 
Or Tityus' help or Typhon's. Here is one 
Can give what in this realm ye covet Stoop 
Therefore, nor scornfully distort thy lip. 
He in the upper world can yet bestow 
Renown on thee ; for he doth live, and looks 
For life yet longer, if before the time 
Grace call him not unto herself" Thus spake 
The teacher. He in haste forth stretch'd his hands, 

^ 7%$fortunaU val».\ The coantry near Curthage. See 
liv. Hist, 1. xxxn and Loean, Phan^ 1. iv. 500, 4eo. Dants 
hat kept the latter of these writers in his eye throughout all 

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I9»-136. . HELL, Canto XXXI. 5M)7 

And caught my ^de. Alcides^ whilom felt 
That grapple, straiten'd sore. Soon as my guid« 
Had folt it, he bespake me thus : " This way. 
That I may clasp thee ;" then so caught me up, 
That we were both one burden. As appears 
The tower of Carisenda,' from beneath 
Where it doth lean, if chance a passing cloud 
So sail across, that opposite it hangs ; 
Such then Antaeus seem*d, as at mine ease 
I mark'd hun stooping. I were fain at times 
To have pass'd another way. Yet in the ab3rMy 
That Lucifer with Judas low ingulfe, 
Iiightly he placed us ; nor, there leaning, stay'd ; 
But rose, as in a bark the stately mast 



This Canto treats of the first, and, in part, of the second of 
those rounds, into which the ninth and last, or frozen cir 
cle, is divided. In the former, called Caina, Dante finds 
Camiccione de* Pazzi, who gives him an account of other 
sinners who are there punished ; and in the next, named 
Antenora, he hears in like manner from Bocca degli AblMttl 
who his fellow-sufferers are. 

CoDLo I command rough rhymes and hoarse, to 
That hole of sorrow o'er which every rock [suit 

His firm abutment rears, then might the vein 
Of fancy rise full springing : but not mine « 

Such measures, and with faltering awe I touch 
The mighty theme ; for to descri^ the depth 
Of all the universe, is no emprize 
To jest with, and demands a tongue not used 
To infant babbling.' But let them assist 

1 Jilcide8.'\ The combat between Hercules and Antens it 
adduced by the Poet in his treatise '*De Monarchi&,'* lib. ii., 
as a proof of the judgment of God displayed in the dud, 
accc»rding to the singular superstition of those times. " Cer- 
laniine vero dupliclter Dei judicium aperitur vel ex coUi- 
sione viriuni, sicut fit per duellum pugilum, qui dnelliones 
etiam vocantnr ; vel ex contentione plurium ad altquod sig- 
nam prsvalere conantium, sicut fit per pugnam athletamm 
currentium ad bravium. Primus istorum modorum apad 

E»ntlles figuratus fuit in illo duello Herculis et Antsi, c^jas 
ncaans meminit in quarto Ptiarsalie, et Ovidius In nono do 
renim tiransmntatione." 
* The totojr of Carisenda,} The leaning tower at Ikdogna. 

t ji tongue not used 

Nd da lingua, che chiami mamma, o babbo 

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f08 THE YISaON. l»-« 

My aong) the taneftil maidenf, by whofe aid 

Amphion wall'd in Thebes ; ao with the truth 

My speech shall best accord. Oh ill-starr'd folk» 

Beyond all others wretched ! who abide 

In such a mansion, as scarce thought finds words 

To speak of, better had ye here on earth 

Been flocks, or mountain goats. As down we stood 

In the dark pit beneath the giants' feet, 

But lowiT far than they, and I did gaze 

Still on the lofty battlement, a voice 

Bespake me thus : ** hock how thou walkest TaJBft 

Good heed, thy soles do tread not on the heads 

Of thy poor brethren." Thereupon I tum*d, 

And saw before and underneath my feet 

A lake,' whose frozen surface liker seem'd 

To glass than water. Not so thick a veil 

In winter e'er hath Austrian Danube spread 

O'er his still course, nor Tanais far remote 

Under the chilling sky. RoU'd o'er that mass 

Had Tabemich or Pietnq>ana' fallen. 

Not e'en its rim had creaJt'd . As peeps the firog 

Croaking above the wave, what time in dreams 

The village gleaner oft pursues her toil. 

So, to where modest shame appears,' thus low 

Blue pinch'd and shrined in ice the spirits stood, 

Moving their teeth in shrill note like the stork.^ 

Dante in his treatise "De Vulg. Eloq.," speaking of words 
sot admissible in the loftier, or, as he calls It, tragte style of 
poetry, says : " In quorum nnmero nee pnerilla i»opter suam 
simplicitatem at Blamma et Babbo," lib. U. c vii. 

i Ji lake.] The same torment Is introduced into the Edda, 
eom^Ied in the eleventh and twelfth centories. flee the 
** Song of the Smi,** translated by the Rev. James Beresf(Md, 
London, 1805; and compare Warton's Hist, of Eng. Poetry, 
V. i. dissert, i., and Gray's Posthumous Works, edited by Mr. 
Mathias, v. ii. p. 106. Indeed, as an escape from ** the pen- 
alty of Adam, the sSluon's difference,** forms one of the 
most natural topics of consolation fw the loss of life, so does 
a renewal of that suffering in its fiercest extremes of heat 
and cold bring bef<Nre the imagination of men in general (ex- 
cept indeed the terrors of a self-accusing conscience) the 
liveliest idea of future punishment Refer to Shakspeare and 
Milton in the notes to Canto iii. 82 ; and see Douce*8 lUustm- 
tions of Shakspeare, 8vo. 1807, v. i. p. 182. 

* Tabernieh t Fi'etra^iM.] The one a mountain in Sda* 
vonia, the other in that tract of country called the Garftgnaas, 
not fkr firom Lucca. 

* T» «A«r« moclMt tlumt appeart.] " As high as to the ikes." 
« Jfcsiiy ttetr tutk ta thriU noU lHu ik» flerft.] 

Mettendo i deati In nota di eieogna. 

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It-tt HELL, CAirro XXXIL )M)i 

His face each downward held ; their moath the oohl. 
Their eyes express'd the dolor of their heart 

A. space I look'd around, then at my feet 
Saw two so strictly joined, that of their head 
The very hain were mingled. " Tell me ye, 
Whose bosoms <4ius together press/' said I, 
" Who are ye 7" At that sound their necks they 

And when their looks were Jfted up to me, 
Straightway their eyes, before all moist within, 
Distiird upon their lips, and the frost bound 
The tears betwixt those orbs, and held them there. 
Plank unto plank hath never cramp closed up- 
So stoutly. Whence, like two enraged goats, 
They clash'd together : them such fury seized. 

And one, from whom the cold both ears had reft, 
Exclaun'd, still looking downward : " Why on us 
Dost speculate so long? If thou wouldst know 
Who are these two,^ the valley, whence his wave 
Bisenzio slopes, did for its master own 
Their sire Alberto, and next him themselves. 
They from one body issued : and throughout 
Calna thou ^ayst search, nor find a shade 
More worthy in congealment to be fixM ; 
Not him,' whose breast and shadow Arthur's hand 
At that one blow dissevered ; not Focaccia ;* 
No, not this^ipirit, whose o^eijutting head 
Obstructs my onward view : he bore the name 
Of Mascheroni :* Tuscan if thou be, 

80 Boceaccio, 6. viii. N. 7. **Lo scolar cattiTello quasi d 
cugna divennto si forte batteva i denti.** 

1 ffho are these two.] Alessandru and Napoleone, sons of 
Alberto Albert!, who murdered eacli other. They were pro- 
prietors of the valley of Falterona, where the Bisenslo has 
its source, 'a river that falls into the Arno about six miles 
from Florence. 

s A*oC him.] Mordrec. son of King Arfhar. In the romanee 
of Lancelot of the Lake, Arthur, having discovered the trai- 
torous intentions of his son, pierces him through with the 
stroke of his lance, so that the sunbeam passes through the 

nof Mordreo ; and this disruption of the shadow is no 
t what our Poet alludes to in the text. 

> FbcMeeia.] Focaccia of Cancellieri (the Fistoian tkmily) 
whose atrocious act of revenge against his uncle Is said to 
have given rise to the parties of the Blanchi and Neri, in 
the year 1300. See G. Villani, Hist., Ub. vUi. c. 37, and 
Macchiavelli, HUt, lib. ii. The account of the latter writer 
diflers much from that given by Landino in his Commen- 

* MuehmrmU.] Sassol Bfaseheroni, a Florentine, who alse 
sraideied his ancle. 

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Well knowest who he was. And to cut ahoit 

All farther question, in my form behead 

What once was Camiccione.' I await 

Carlino' here my kinnnan, whose deep gjoilt 

Shall wash out mine.'* A thousand visages 

Then mark'd I, which the keen and eager cdd 

Had shaped into a doggish grin ; whence creeps 

A shivering horror o'er me, at the thought 

Of those frore shallows. While we joumey'd on 

Toward the middle, at whose point unites 

All heavy substance, and I trembling went 

Through that eternal dullness, I know not 

If will" it were, or destiny, or chance, 

But, passing 'midst the heads, my foot did strike 

With violent blow against the face of one. [claim'd 

" Wherefore dost bruise me V* weeping he tx 
** Unless thy errand be some fresh revenge 
For Montaperto,^ wherefore troublest me V* 

I thus : " Instructor, now await me here, 
That I through him may rid me of my doubt: 
Thenceforth what haste thou wilt" The teacher 
And to that shade I spake, who bitterly [paused ; 
Still cursed me in his wrath. " What art thou, speak. 
That railest thus on others?" He replied: 
** Now who art thou, that smiting others' cheeks, 
Through Antenora* roamest, with such force 
As were past sufferance, wert thou living still?" 

** And I am living, to thy joy perchance," 
Was my reply, " if fame be dear to thee, 

I Camieeione.] Camiccione de' Pazzi of Valdamo, by whom 
his kinsman Ubertino was tfeacherously put to death. 

s Carlino.] One of the same family. He betrayed the 
Castel di Piano Travigne, in Valdamo, to the Florentines, 
after the refugees of me Blanca and Ghibelllne party had 
defended it ag^nst a siege for twenty-nine days, in the sum- 
mer of J303. See GU Vulani, lib. viil. c. lii., and Dino Ck>m 
pagni, lib. 11. 

» y v>m.] 

Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or fate. 

MUton, P. £.., b. i. 131 

« Montaperto.] The defeat of the Guelfi at Montaperto, 
occasioned by the treachery of Bocca degli Abbati, who, da- 
ring the engagement, cut off the hand of Giacopo del Vacca 
de* Pazzi, bearer of the Florenthie standard. G. Vlllanl, lib. vi. 
C. Uxx. and Notes to Canto x. This event happened in 1260. 

* jtiUetura.] " So called fh>m Antenor, who, accwding to 
Dictys Cretensls (De Bello Tmj., lib. v.) and Dares Phryglnt 
(Be Excldio Trojs) betrayed Troy his conntry." Lombardu 
See note on Porg., Canto v. 75. Antenm acts this part in 
Boecaccio's FUostrato, and in Chance r*8 Trolliu and Creseldft 

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•»-llf. HELL, Canto XXXn. 91| 

That with the nst I may thy name emoU." 

** The contrary of what I covet most/' 
Said he, ** thou tender^st : hence ! nor vex me mora 
III knowee^ thoa to flatter in thia vale." 

Then ueiiing on his hinder scalp I cried : 
** Name thee, or not a hair shall tarry here/' 

** Rend all away," he answer'd, <- yet for that 
I will not tell, nor show thee, who I am, 
Though at my head thou pluck a thousand times." 

Now I had grasp'd his tresses, and stripped off 
More than one tuft, he barking, with his eyes 
Drawn in and downward, when another cried, 
*' What ails thee, Boccal Sound not loud enough 
Thy chattering teeth, but thou must bark outright 1 
What devil wrings thee ?"— " Now," said I, « be dumb, 
Accursed traitor ! To thy shame, of thee 
True tidmgs will I bear."— «* Off!" he replied ; 
** Tell what thou list : but, as thou scape from hence, 
To speak of him whose tongue hath been so glib. 
Forget not : here he wails &e Frenchman's gold. 
< Him of Duera,'^ thou canst say, * I marked, 
* Where the starved sinners puie.' If thou be ask'd 
What other shade was with them, at thy side 
Is Beccaria,* whose red gorge distam'd 
The biting axe of Florence. Farther on, 
If I misdeem not, Soldanieri' bides. 
With Ganellon,^ and Tribaldello,*^ him 

1 Him of Duera.] Buoso of Cremona, of the fiunily of 
Daent, who waa bribed by Guy de Montfort, to leave a pass 
between Piedmont and Parma, with the defence of which he 
had been intmsted by the Ghibellines, open to the army of 
Charles of Anjon, A. D. 1365, at which the people of Cre- 
mona were so enraged, that they extirpated the whole fiunily. 
6. \111ani, lib. vU. c. iv.^ 

s Beeearia.] Abbot of Vallombrosa, who was the Pope t 
Legate at Florence, where his intrigues in favor of the Ghi- 
bellines being dlKbovered, he was beheaded. I do not find 
the occurrence in Villani, nor do the commentators say to 
what Pope he was legate. By Landino he is reported to 
have been fVom Parma ; by Vellutello, (torn Favia. 

> Soldanieri.] " Gianni Soldanieri,*' sap Villani, Hist., lib. 
vii. c. xiv., ** put himself at the head of the people, in the 
hopes of rising into power, not aware that the result would 
be mischief to the Ghibelline party, and his own ruin ; an 
event which seems ever to have be&llen him who has head- 
ed the populace in Florence."— A. D. 126e. 

* OatuUonA The betrayer of Charlemain, mentioned by 
Archbishop Torpin. He is a common instance of treachery 
«Uh the poets of the middle ages. 
Trop son fol e mal pensant, 
FU valent que Gueneloo. TkOaut, Rot de J^avarf 

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813 THE Vl:^10N. 190-iai 

Who oped Faenza when the people s ept" 

We now had left hun, passing on cur way» 
When I beheld two spirits by the ice 
Pent in one hollow, that the head of one 
Was cowl unto the other ; and, as bread 
Is raven'd up through hunger, the uppermost 
Did so apply his fangs, to Uie other's brain. 
Where the spine joins it. Not more furiously 
On Menalippus' temples Tydeus' gnaw'd. 
Than on that skull and -on its garbage be. 

" O thou ! who show^st so beastly sign of hate 
'Gainst him thou prey'st on, let me hear," said I, 
** The cause, on such condition, that if right 
Warrant thy grievance, knowing who ye are. 
And what the color of his sinning was, 
I may repay thee in the world above. 
If that, wherewith I speak, be moist so long." 


The Poet is told by Coimt UgoUno de* 6herarde«ebi of tbt 
cruel manner In which he and his children were fiunished 
in the tower at Pita, by command of the Archbishop Rof- 
Kieri. He next dlscoiiraes of the third roond, called Ptolo- 
mea, wherein those are panished who have betrayed others 
under the semblance of kindness ; and* amonc these he 
finds the Friar Alberigo de' Manfiredi, who tells him of one 
whose sonl was already tormented in tliat place, thou|:h 
his body appeared still to be alive nfton the earth, beiif 
yielded up to the governance of a fiend. 

His jaws uplifting from their fell repast. 
That sinner wiped them on the hairs o' the head. 
Which he behind had mangled, then began : 
** Thy will obeying, I call up afresh 
Sorrow past cure ; which, but to think of, wring! 
My heart, or ere I tell on *t. But if words, 
That I may utter, shall prove seed to bear 

O new Scariot and new Ganillon, 
O false dissembler, Ax. 

Chancer, Abit»e'« PrietWt Tal0» 
And in the Monke*s Tale, Peter of Spaine. 

• Trihaldello,] Tribaldello de* Manft«di, who was bribei 
to betray the city of Faenza, A. D. 1S83. 6. ViUaai, Ub. viL 
1 TyiMW.] See Statins, Theb., lib. viiL ad 

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•-14. HELL, Canto XXXIIL 913 

Fruit of eternal infamy to him, 

The traitor whom I gnaw at, thou at once 

Shalt see me speak and weep. Who thou mayst h% 

I know not, nor how here below art come : 

But Florentine thou seelnest of a truth, 

When I do hear thee. Know, I was on earth 

Count Ugdino,^ and the Archbishop he 

i CotaU Ugoiine.] ** In the year 1288, in the month of July* 
Pisa was mnch divided by competitors for the sovereignty : 
one party, c<Hnposed of eertaln of the Goelphi, being headed 
by the Jadge Nino di GaUora de* Visconti ; another, consist 
ing of others of the same faction, by the Coant Ugollno de* 
Gherardesehi ; and a third by the Archbishop Rugi^eri degll 
Ubaldini, with the Lanfranchi, Sismondi, Gnalandi. and other 
Ghibelline houses. The Coont Ugolino, to elfect his por- 

ese, united with the Archbishop and his party, and havinc 
trayed Nino, his sister*s son, they contrived that he and 
his followers should either be driven out of Pisa, or their 
persons seized. Nino, hearing this, and not seeing any 
means of defending himself; retired to Calci, his castle, and 
formed an ^Uance with the Florentines and people of Lncca, 
against the Pisans. The Count, before Nino was gtme, in 
order to coyer his treachery, when every thing was settled 
for his expulsion, quitted Pisa, and repaired to a manor of 
his called Settimo ; whence, as soon as he was informed of 
Nino's departure, he returned to Pisa with great rejoicing 
and festivity, and was elevated to the supreme power with 
every demonstration of triumph and honor. But his great- 
ness was not of long continuance. It |4eased the Almighty 
that a total reverse of fortune should ensue, as a punish- 
ment tea his acts of treachery and guilt ; for he was said to 
have poisoned the Count Anselmo da Caprala, his sister's 
son, on account Of the envy and fear excited in his mind by 
the high esteem in which the gracious manners of Anselmo 
were held by the Pisans. The power of the Guelphi being 
so much diminished, the Archbishop devised means to be- 
tray the Count Ugolino, and caused him to be suddenly at- 
tacked in his palace by the fury of the people, whom he had 
exasperated, by telling them that Ugolino had betrayed Pisa, 
and given up their castles to ttie cloieens of Florence and of 
Lucca. He was Immediately compelled to surrender; his 
bastard son and his grandson fell In the assault ; and two of 
his sons, with their two sons also, were conveyed to prison.'* 
G. ViUtmi, lib. viL e. cxz. 

' In the following March, the PUuuu, who had Imfvlsoned 
the Count Ugolino, with two of his sons and two of his 
grandchildren, the offiprlng of his son the Count Guelfo, In 
a tower on the Piazza of the Anzianl, caused the tower to be 
locked, the key thrown into the Amu, and all food to be 
withheld from them. In a few days they died of hunger ; 
but the Count first with loud cries declared his penitence, 
and yet neither priest nor friar was allowed to shrive him 
Ail the five, when dead, were dragged out of the prison, and 
meanly Interred ; and from thenceliivward the tower was 
called the tower of fkmlne, and so shall ever be." md^ 
e. cxxvlL Pioya asserts that Dante, for the sake of poetical 
«fl»ct, has maek mtaepvesentod the real fkcts See his 

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Ruggieri. Why I neighbor him eo dose, 
Now list That through efiect of his ill thoughts 
In him my trust reposing, I was ta'en 
And after murdered, need is not I telL 
What therefore thou canst not have heard, that is. 
How cruel was the murder, shalt thou hear. 
And know if he have wrong'd me. A small grate 
Within that mew, which for my sake the name 
Of famine bears, where others yet must pine, 
Already through its opening several moons' 
Had ^own me, when I slept the evil sleep 
That from the future tore the curtain off 
This one, methought, as master of the sport. 
Rode forth to chase the gaunt wolf, and his whelps, 
Unto the mountain* which forbids the sight 
Of Lucca to the Pisan. With lean brachs 
Inquisitive and keen, before him ranged 
Lanfranchi with Sismondi and GualandL 
After short course the father and the sons 
Seem'd tired and lagging, and methougkt I saw 
The sharp tusks gcae their sides. When I awoke, 
Before the dawn, amid their sleep I heard 
My sons (for they were with me) weep and ask 
For bread. Ri|rht cruel art thou, if no pang 
Thou feel at thmking what my heart foretold ; 
And if not now, why use thy tears to flow? 
Now had they waken'd ; and the hour drew near 
When they were wont to bring us food ; the mind 
Of each misgave him through his dream, and I 
Heard, at its outlet underneath lock'd up 
The horrible tower : whence, uttering not a word 
I look'd upon the visage of my sons. 
I wept not : so all stone I felt within.' 

Veltro Allegorico di Dante. Ed. 1836, p. 28, 9. This would 
render a conjecture, which the same writer elsewhere haz- 
ards, still more imiH'obable ; that the story might have been 
written by Dante when the facts were yet recent, and after- 
wards introduced into his poem Jbid., p. 96. 

Chancer has iMriefly told Ugolino's story. See Monke's 
Tale, Hogeline of Pise. 

1 Several tnoons.] 9Iany editions, and the greater part of 
the MSS., instead of " piu lane," rea!d ** piu Inme ;*' according 
to which reading Ugolino wonld say, that the day had broke, 
and shone through the grated window of the plson, before 
he fell asleep. 

3 Unto the mountain.] The motuitain S. Ginliano between 
Pisa and Lncca. 

> Jill etone I felt wtkin.\ " My heart is tnrnM to stone ; 1 
itiike it, and it hurts my hand." Skak*., Otk^^ act iv. sc. 1 

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48-m HELL, Canto XXXIII. 315 

They wept: and one, my little Anselm, cried, 

< Thou lookest bo ! Father, what ails thee Y Yet 

I shed no tear, nor answer'd all that day 

Nor the next night, until another sun 

Came out upon the world. When a famt beam 

Had to our doleful prison made its way. 

And in four countenances I descried 

The image of my own, on either hand 

Through agony I bit ; and they, who thought 

I did it through desire of feeding, rose 

O' the sudden, and cried, * Father, we ^ould grieve 

* Far less, if thou wouldst eat of us : thou gayest' 

* These weeds of miserable flesh we wear ; 

* And do thou strip them off from us again.' 
Then, not to make them sadder, I kept down 
My spirit in stillness. That day and the next 

> We all were silent Ah, obdurate earth ! 
Why open'dst not upon us ? When we came 
To the fourth day, then Gaddo at my feet 
Outstretched did fling him, crying, * Hast no help 

* For me, my father !* There he died ; and e'en 
Plainly as thou seest me, saw 1 the three 

Fall one by one 'twixt the fifth day and sixth : 
Whence I betook me, now grown blind, to grope 
Over them all, and for three days aloud 
Called on them who were dead. Then, fasUng got 
The mastery of grief." Thus having spoke. 
Once more upon the wretched skull his teeth 
He fastened like a mastiff *s 'gainst the bone, 
Fum and unyielding. Oh, £ou Pisa ! shame 
Of all the people, who their dwelling make 
Li that fair region,' where the Italian voice 

1 Thougavest.] 

Ta ne vestisti 
Ctueste misere carni, e ta le spoglia 
imitated by Filicaja, Canz. ill. 

Di questa Imperial cadaca ipoglia 
Ta, Signer, me vestisti e ta mi spoglia : 
Ben paoi '1 Regno me Ua tu che me '1 destL 
And by Maffei in the Merope : 

Ta disclogleste 
Ctneste misere membra e ta le annodL 
M tkatfair region.] 

Del bel paese 14, dove ^1 si saona. 
Italy, as explained by Dante himself, in his treatise Dt 
Volg. Eloq., lib. i . cap. 8. ** aoi antem 5t dicnnt a prcdictia 
finibas (Janoensiom) Orientalem (Meridionalis Europe par* 
tnn) tenent; videlicet asqae ad promontoriom iUad ItaUa^ 
foa simu Adriaticl maris indplt et Siciliam." 

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916 THE VllSION. OHlli 

Is heard ; siiice that thy neighbors aie so slack 

To punish, from their deep foundations rise 

Capraia and Gorgona,^ and dam up 

The mouth of Amo ; that each soul in theo 

May perish in the waters. Whdt if fame 

Reported that thy castles were betray'd 

By Ugolino, yet no right hadst thou 

To stretch his children on the rack. For them, 

Brigata, Uguccione, and the pair 

Of gentle ones, of whom my song hath told. 

Their tender years, thou modem Thebes, did mako 

Uncapable of guilt. Onward we pass'd. 

Where others, skarf 'd in rugged folds of ice. 

Not on their feet were tum'd, but each reversed. 

There, very weeping suffers not to weep ;' 
For^ at their eyes, grief, seeking passage, finds 
Impediment, and rolling inward turns 
For increase of sharp anguish : the first tears 
Hang cluster'd, and like crystal vizors show, 
Under the socket brimming all the cup. 

Now though the cold had from my face dislodged 
Each feeling, as *i were callous, yet me seem'd 
Some breath of wind I felt. " Whence cometh this," 
Said I, " my Master? Is not here below 
All vapor quenched?" — " Thou shalt be speedily," 
He answer'd, "where thine eyes shall tell thee 
The cause descrying of this airy shower." [whence, 

Then cried out one, in the chUl crust who moum'd: 
" O souls ! so cruel, that the farthest post 
Hath been assign'd you, from this face remove 
The harden'd veil ; that I may vent the grief 
Impregnate at my heart, some little space, 
Ere it congeal again." I thus replied : 
" Say who thou wast, if thou wouldst have mine aid ; ^ 
And if I extricate thee not, far down 
As to the lowest ice may I descend." 

" The friar Alberigo,"' answer'd he, 

1 Qgn-aia and Oorgona.] Small islands near the moatn oi 
the Arno. 

* TherCf very weeping auffem not to weep.l 

Lo pianto stesso li pianger non lascla. 
So Giusto de' Conti. Bella Mano. Son. '* aaanto 11 cieL** 
Che il troppo pianto a me pianger non lassa. 

* The friar Mberigo.] Alberigo de* Manfred! of Faensa 
one of the Frati Godenti, Joyous Friars, who having qtiar 
relied with some of his brotherhood, under pretenee o( wish 
Ing to be reconciled, invited them to a banquet, at the com. 
•liurion of which he called for the Droit, a sifnal fior Ihi 

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117-139 HELL, Canto XXXUL <i7 

** Am I, who from the eril j^sideii pluck'd 

Its fraitsfe, and am here repaid, the date^ 

More luaeioas for my %."—>« Hah!" I exclahn'd, 

** Alt thou too deadr— ^< How in the wotld akft 

It fareth with my body," answer'd he, 

** I am right ignorant Such privilege 

Hath Ptotomea,* that oft-times the soul* 

Dn^ hither, ere by Atropos divorced. 

And that thou mayst wipe out more willmgly 

The glazed tear-drops' that o'erlay mme eyes. 

Know that the soul, that moment she betrays. 

As I did, yields her body to a fiend 

Who after moves and governs it at will. 

Till all its time be ronnded : headlong she 

Falls to this cistern. And perchance above 

Doth yet appear the body <^ a ghost. 

Who here behind me wmten. Him thoa know'sC 

If thou but newly art arrived below. 

The years are many that have paas'd away, 

Since to this £BStnesB Branca Doria' came." 

'* Now," answer'd I, ** methmks thou mockest me , 
For Branca Doria never yet hath died, 
But doth all natural functions of a man, 

anassini to rash In and disnateh those whom he had marked 
for destractton. Hence, adds Landino, it is said p r o v e rbially 
of one who has been stabbed, that he has had some of the 
ftiar Alberigo's fimit 
Thus Polci, MoTf . llacEn c zzv. 

Le flratte amaredl firate Alberioo. 

Ckme DIo rende dataro per ficob 

FkxU degU m§rtit JPttt— i»nrf», I. iv. eap. ilx. 

* Pt9l&m0m.\ This drele is named Ptolomea from Ptolemy 
the son of Abobns, by whom Simon and his sons were mnr^ 
dered, at a great bangnet he had made for them. See 1 Bfao- 
cabeM, ch. zvL Or from Ptolemy, king of Egypt, the be- 
trayer of Pompey the Great 

< Tk4 M|i/.] Chancer seems to allude to this in the fVere*s 
Tale, whMe a fiend assames the person of a yeoman, and 
tolls the Somnnoiir that he shall one day come to a plaee 
where he shaU vnderstand the mystery of snch possessions, 

Bet than VirgUe, while he was on live, 

See Mr. Soathey*s Tkle of Doniea. 

* Tkeglaud Uar-infs.'] 

— sorrow's eye, glazed with Minding tears. 

Skakspeare, Rich, 11^ act iL sc 8. 
■ DrciiM Dmria.l The &mi]y of Doria was po ss es s ed of 
peat infloence in Genoa. Branca is said to have mordered 
hii &theHn4^w, Michel Zanche, introdoced in Canto zziL 
10 ^^ 

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S18 THE VISION. 140-lii 

Eatf, drinkf, and ileeps,^ and putteth taimeut oa"* 

He thui : ** Not yet unto that upper foai 
By th' evil talons goaided, where the pitch 
Tenacious boUa, had Michel Zanche reach'd» 
When tlUs one left a demon in his stead 
In his own body, and of one his kin, 
Who with him treadieoy wrouffht But now pot Ibrtk 
Thy hand, and ope mine eyes?' I oped theni nst 
III manners were best couztesy to him. 

Ah Genoese ! men perrefse in every way. 
With eyery foulness stain'd, why bma the eartik 
Are ye not oancell'd? Such an one of youn 
I with Roma^fna's dariLest qtirit* found, 
As, for his domffs, even now in soul 
Is in Cocyttts phraged, and yet doth i 
In body liill aUye upon the earth. 



In the fourth and last roasd of the ninth circle, those who 
have betnyed their bene&ctors aro wholly covered with 
ice. And in the midst is Lucifer, at whose back Dante 
and Virgil ascend, till by a secret path they reach the snr- 
foce of the other hemisphere of the earth, and once more 
obtain sight of the stars. 

" The bannen^ of Hell's Monarch do come forth 
Toward us ; therefore look," so spake my guide, 
<< If thou discern him." As, when breathes a clouJ 
Heavy and dense, or when the shades-of night 
Fall on our hemisphere, seems view'd from far 
A windmill,^ which the blast stirs briskly round ; 
Such was the fabric then methought I saw. 

To shield me firom the wind, forthwith I drew 
Behind my guide : no covert else was there. 

1 JCots, dHiik$f and »lup$.} 

But »tis a spirit 

Pro, No, wench, it eats and sleeps, and hath such senses 
As we have, such Skaktpeaire^ Tmpettj act L sc t. 

s JUwuigiM*$ darkest tpirit.] The flrlar Alberigo. 

* TkebamMora,] 

Vexilla regis pcod6unt infemL 
A parody of the first verse in a hymn that was sung by the 
ehnrch in praise of the cross. 

« A windmia.} The author of the Caliph Vathek, in the 
notes to diat tale, justfy observes that it is more than proba- 
ble that Don auixote's mistake of the windmills for i^ls 
was suggested to Gervantes by this simile. 

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lt-«7. HELL, Canto XXXIY. 319 

Nofw came I (and with fear I bid my atrain 
Record the marrel) where the eonla were all 
Whelm'd underneath, traniparent, af through gla« 
Pellooid the frail stem. Some prone were laid ; 
Others itood upright, this iqx>n the aoles, 
That on his head, a third with face to feet 
Arch'd like a bow. When to the point we came. 
Whereat my guide was pleased that I should see 
The creature eminent in beauty osce, 
He from before me stepp'd and made me pause. 

** Lo !'' he exclaim'd, " lo Dis ; and lo the place, 
Where thou hast need to arm thy heart with strength.** 

How frozen and how faint I then became, 
Ask me not, reader ! for I write it not ; 
Since words would fail to tell thee of my state. 
I was not dead nor Urinpr.' Think thyself, 
If quick conception wo^ m thee at all. 
How I did feeL That emperor, who sways 
The reahn of sorrow, at mid breast from the ice 
Stood forth ; and I in stature am more like 
A giant,* than the giants are his arms. 
Mark now how great that whole must be, which suits 
With such a part. If he were beautiful 
As he is hideous now, and yet did dare 
To scowl upon his Maker, well from him 
May all our misery flow. Oh what a sight ! 
How passing strange it seem'd, when I md spy 
Upon his head three faces :* one in front 


^ Iw<u not dead nor living.} 

o^r* h ToTj ^tithots, 

o^r* iv ^tv ipiOfiovitivti, 

Etaripideo. Svfpliees, Y. VJ9t MtMnni^n tdJtt, 

tam ibi me nescio quis arrlpit 

Timidam atqoe pavidam, sec viTam nee mortnam. 

PUntuSt CareutiOt act T. sc 8 

* A giant.} 

Nel prime ellma tta eome signoro 
Colli Kiganti ; ed an delle sue bracde 
Piu che nollo di loro d assal maggiore. 

I>)rezzi, B Qjiuidrir., lib. iL cap. L 

* TVm/mm.] It can scarcely be doubted but that Miltoa 
derived his description of Satan, in those line*— 

Each passion dimm'd his &ce 

Thrice changed wiu pale ire, envy and despair. 

P. Z.., b. iv. 144. 
from this passase, eoapled with the remark of Vellatello 
npon it: "The i»t of these sins is anger, which he signifies 
by the red fltce ; the second, represented by that between 
pale and yellow, Is envy,aad not, as others have said, avarice; 

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Of hoe yennilioii, the other two with thk 
Midway each thoulder jiNii'd and at the erett ; 
The riffht 'twizt.wan and yellow seem'd ; the left 
To look on, each as come firom whence olc Nile 
Stoops to the lowlands. Under each shot forth 
Two mighty wings, enormous as became 
A bird so vast Siiils^ never soca I saw 
Outstretch'd on the wide sea. No plnmes had they, 
Bat were in texture like a bat f and these 

and the third, denoted by the black, is a melancholy hnmot 
that caoses a iiian*8 thoughts to be dark and evil, and aveme 
ftom all )oy and tranquillity." 

Lombardi would understand the three facet to tiguiiy the 
three parts of the world then known, in all of which Lucifei 
had his subjects : the red denoting the Europeans, who were 
in the middle ; the yellow, the Asiatics, on. the Tight ; and the 
black, the Africans, who were on the left; arcoirdtng to the 
position of the faces themselves. 

Arn> tton ebbe mai si grande vela, 
Ne hitra nave, come I'ali sue; 
Jie mai tessuta (u. si grande tela. 

JVezzt, // Quadrir^ lib. 11. cap. zix. 

His sail-broad vans 

He spreads for flight. 

Oomnare Spenser, F. Q., b. I. c. zL st 10; Ben Jonson's 
Every Man out of his Humor, v. 7 ; and Fletcher's Prophetess, 
act S, scene 3. 

In his description of Satan, Frezxi has departed not less 

from Dante than our own poet has done ; for he has painted 
him on a high tHh>ne, with a benignant and glad counte- 
nance, yet ftUl of majtBsty, a tri|4e crown on his head, six 

shining wings on his shoulders, and a court thronged with 
giants, centaurs, and mighty captains, besides youths and 
damsels, who are disporting in the neighboring meadows 
with song and dance ; but no sooner does Minerva, who is 
the author's conductress, present her crystal shield, than aA 
this triumph and Jollity is seen through it transformed into 
loathsomeness and horror. There are many touches in this 
lecture that will remind the reader of Milton. 

> Lik« « boL] The description of an i maginary being, whe 
is called Typhnrgo, in the ZodiMcus FtUh has something very 
like this of Dante's Lucifer. 

Ingentem vidi regem, ingentique sedentem 
In scriio^ ciines flammanti stemmate cinctum, 

utrinque patentee 

Aim hnmeris magne, quales vespertilionum 

Membraais eontexte amplis— 

Nudos erat longis sed opertus corpora villis. 

M. PalvHgeiiii, Zod, TiL, Ub. Ix. 
A mlghtv king I might disceme, 

Placed hie on lofty chaire. 
His haire with fyry garland deckt 
Pttft up in fiendish wise. 

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47*68. HELL, Canto XXXIV. 93| 

He flappM i' th* air, that fimn him ianied still 
Three winds, ^idierewith Cocytus to its depth 
Wae frozen. At six eyes he wept : the team 
Adown three chins distiU'4 with bloody foam. 
At eyery month his teeth a sinner champ'd. 
Braised as with ponderous engine ; so tlutt threo 
Were in this guise tormented. But far more 
Than from tluit gnawing, was the f<nemost pancfd 
By the fierce rending, whence oft-times the back 
Was strippM of all its skin. ** That upper spirit, 
Who hath worst punishment," so spake my guide, 
** Is Judas, he that hath his head within 
And plies the feet without .Of th* other two, 
Whose heads are under, from the murky jaw 
Who hangs, is Brutus :' lo ! how he doth writhe 
And speaks not. The other, Cassius, that appears 
So large of limb. But night now reascends ; 
And it is time for parting. All is seen." 

I clipped him round the neck ; for so he bade : 
And noting time and place, he, when the wings 
Enough were oped, caught fast the shaggy sides. 
And down from pile to pile descending stepp'd 

Large wings on him did stow 
Framde like the wings of mnder mice, fce. 

Qoog^t TraiuUUum. 
1 Brutus.] Landino stmggles, but 1 fear in vain, to extri- 
eate Bmtos from the unworthy lot which is here assigned 
him. He maintains, that by Brutas and Cassins are not 
meant the individuals known by those names, but any who 
put a lawful monarch to death. Yet if Cesar was such, the 
consj^rators might be regarded as deserving of their doom. 

** O uomini eccellenti !'* exclaims the commentator, with a 
spirit becoming one who felt that he lived in a free states 
** ed al tatto degni a quali Roma fosse patria, e de* quail res 
teri sempre etema memoria ; legginsi tutte le leggi di qua 
Innque republica bene instituta, e troveremo che a nessnno 
si propose maggior inremio che a chi uccide 11 tiiranno." Cow- 
ley, as conspicuous for his loyalty as for his genius, in an ode 
inscribed with the name of this patriot, which, though not 
free from the usual foults of the poet, is yet a noble one, has 
l^aced his character in the right point of view- 
Excellent Brutus ! of all human race 
The best, till nature was improved by grace. 

If Dante, however, believed Brutus to have been actuated 
by evU inoHtlves in putting C«ar to death, the excellence of 
the patriot's character in other respects would only have 
aggravated hu guilt in that particular. ^'Totias autemL.« 
Jnstitia nulla eapltalior est quam eorum, qui cum mazinM* 
fiOlont id agant, ut vhri boni esse videantnr.** a de Qg^ 

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293 THE VIiaON. «^107 

Between the thick fell and the jagged ice. 

Soon as he reach'd the point, whereat the thigh 
Upon the swellmg of the haunches tarns, 
My leader there, with paip and straggling hard, 
Tum*d round his head where his feet stood before, 
And grappled at the fell as one who monnts ; 
That into hell methought we tnm'd again. 

« Expect that by such stairs as these,'' thns spakt 
The teacher, pantmg like a man forespent, 
" Wo must depart from evil so extreme :" 
Then at a rocky opening issued forth. 
And placed me on the brink to sit, next join'd 
With wary step my side. I raised mine eyes, 
Believing that I Lucifer should see 
Where he was lately left, but saw him now 
With legs held upward. Let the grosser sort, 
Who see not what the point was 1 had pass'd, 
Bethink them if sore toil oppressed me then. 

« Arise," my master cried, " upon thy feet 
The way is long, and much uncouth the road ; 
And now within one hour and half of noon' 
The sun returns." It was no palace-hall 
Lofty and luminous wherein we stood. 
But natural dungeon where ill-footing was 
And scant supply of light " Ere from the abysi 
I separate," thus when risen I began : 
" My guide ! vouchsafe few words to set me fret 
From error's thraldom. Where is now the ice? 
How standeth he in posture thus reversed? 
And how from eve to mora in space so brief 
Hath the sun made his transit?" He in few 
Thus answering spake : " Thou deemest thou art Atk 
On the other side the centre, where I grasp'd 
The abhorred worm that boreth through the woild. 
Thou wast on the other side, so long as I 
Descended ; when I tum'd, thou didst o'eipass 
That point,' to which from every part is dragg'd 
All heavy substance. Thou art now arrived 
Under the hemisphere opposed to that. 

1 mthin one hour and half of noon.] The Poet uses the 
Hebrew manner of compfating the day, according to which 
the third hoar answers to our twelve oxloclc at noon. 

« That point.} Monti observes, that if this passage had 
Chanel to meet the eye of Newton, it might better have 
wakened his thought to conceive the system of attjracti<m, 
than the accidental fiOling of an apple. PropostOf v. lii. p** S 
p, Izxviii. 8<>. 1824. 

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109-133. HELL, Canto XXXUT. 999 

Which the great continent doth oyenpiead. 

And underneath whose canopy expired 

The Man that was bom sinlew, and so lived. 

Thy feet are planted on the smallest sphere, 

Whose other aspect is Judecca. Mom 

Here rises, when there evening sets : and he. 

Whose shiurgy pile we scaled) yet standeth fiz*d, 

As at the rat On this part he fell down 

From heaven ; and th' earth, here prominent befort 

Through fear of hun did veil her with the sea, 

And to our hemisphere retired. Perchance, 

To shun him, was the vacant space left here, 

By what of firm land on this side appears,' 

That sprang' aloofl" There is a place beneath, 

From Belzebub as distant, as extends 

The vaulted tomb f discovered not by sight. 

But by the sound of brooklet, that descends 

This way along the hollow of a rock. 

Which, as it winds with no precipitous course, 

The wave hath eaten. By that hidden way 

My guide and I did enter, to return 

To the fair world : and heedless of repose 

We climVd, he first, I following his steps. 

Till on our view the beautiful hghts of heaven 

Dawn'd through a circular opening in the cave : 

Thence issuing we again beheld the stars. 

1 By what affirm land on tkU tide appear$.\ The moon 
tain of Purgatory. 

* The vaulted Umt.} *« La tomfaa." This wocd is «wd to 
expvets tbe whole defth of the infisnud leglon. 

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TIm foei describes the delight he experienced at issuing • 
littM kefore dawn from the infernal regions, into the pore 
ab that enrroands the isle of Purgatory ; and then relates 
how, taming to the right, he beheld four stars never seen 
before but by our first parents, and met on his left the 
shade of Cato of Utica, who, having warned him and Vir- 
gil what is needM to be done before they proceed on their 
way through Purgatory, disappears; and the two poets 
go towards the shore, where Virgil cleanses Dante*s face 
with the dew, and girds him with a reed, as Cato had com- 

C^iR better waves' to speed her rapid course 
The light bark of my genius lifts the sail, 
Well pleased to leave so cruel sea behind ; 
And of that second tegion will I sing, 
In which the human spirit from sinful blot 
Is purged, and for ascent to Heaven prepares. 

Here, O ye halloVd Nine ! for in your train 
I follow, here the deaden'd strain revive ; 
Nor let Calliope refuse to sound 
A somewhat higher song, of that loud tone 

^ 0*er better wave».\ SoBeml. Oil. Inn., lib. 11.0. L* 
Per coner magcior acqua alza le vele, 
O debU navieSla del mio ingegno. 

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226 THE VISION llHtt 

Which when the wretched biids of chattenngr note* 
Had heard, they of forgnrenen lost all hope. 

Sweet hue of eastern sapphire, that was spread 
0*er the serene aspect of the pure air, 
High up as the first circle,* to mine eyes 
Unwonted joy renewed, soon as I 'scaped 
Forth from the atmosphere of deadly gloom, 
That had mine eyes and bosom fiU'd with grief! 
The ludiant planet,* that to love invites. 
Made all the orient laugh,^ and veil'd beneath 
The Pisces* light,* that in his escort came. 

To the right hand I tum'd, and fix'd my mind 
On the other pole attentive, where I saw 
Four stars* ne'er seen before save by the ken 
Of our first parents.^ Heaven of their rays 

1 Birds of ckatUring note.] For the fable of the danghteis 
of Pieras, who challenged the muses to sing, and were by 
them changed into magpies, see Ovid, Met^ lib. v. fab. 5. 

* The firtt etre^e.] Either, as some suppose, the moon ; 
or, as Lombardi (who likes to be as &r off the rest of the com- 
mentators as possible) will have it, the highest circle of- the 

s Planet.] Venus. 

« Made aU the orient laugh.] Hence Chancer, Enighfs Tale: 

And all the orisont langheth of the sight 
It is somethnes read "orient" 

* The Piaeee* HgJU.] The constellation of the Fish veiled 
by the more lominons body of Venus, then a morning star. 

* Fmr ttart.] Ventori observes that " Dante here speaks 
as a poet and almost in the spirit of prophecy ; or, what it 
more likely, describes the heaven about that pole according 
to his own invention. In our days," he adds, "the cross, 
composed of four stars, three of the second and one of the 
third magnitude, serves as a guide to those who sail ftom 
Europe to the south ; but in the age of Dante these dis«ove« 
ries bad not been made ;" yet it appears probable, that either 
ftom long tradition, or firom the relation of later voyagers, the 
real truth might pot have been unknown to our Poet Sene- 
ca's prediction of the discovery of America may be accounted 
for in a similar manner. But whatever may be thought 
of this, it is certain that the four stars are here symbolical 
of the four cardinal virtues. Prudence. Justice, Fortitude, 
and Temperance. See Canto xzxi. v. 105. M. Artaud men 
tlons a globe constructed by an AraUan in l^pt, with the 
date of the year G33 of the Hegira, correspondiiig to 1^35 
of our era, in which the southern cross is positively mark- 
ed See his Histolre de Dante, ch. jxxi. and zl. 8°. Par 

V Our Jlret parenU.] In the terrestrial paradise, placed, as 
^byon " 

i shall see, by our Poet, on the fununit of Pnigiaory. 

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M-50. PURGATORY, Canto I 897 

Seem'd joymn. O thcra northern lito ! bereft 
Indeed, and widow'd, mice a( theee deprived. 

Am from thk view I had deaated, atraight 
TuminfiT a itttie towarda the other pde, 
There nom whence now the wain^ had diaappeai'dt 
I saw an dd man' atandmg by my side 
Alone, so worthy of reverence in his look, 
That ne'er from son to father more was owed. 
Low down his beard, and mix'd with hoary white 
Descended, like his locks, whichMMtrting, fell 
Upon his breast in double fold. The be^iins 
Of those fonr Imninaries on his face 
So brightly shone, and with snch radiance clear 
Deck'd it, that I beheld hun as the sun. * 

** Say who are ye, that stemming the blind streaUi 
Forth from the eternal prison-hovse have fled?" 
He epoke and moved those venerable plmnes.* 
<< Who hath conducted, or with lantern sure 
Lights yon emerging from the depth of night, 
That makes the infernal valley ever black? 
Are the firm statutes of the dread abyss 
Broken, or in high heaven new laws ordainM, 
That thus, condemn'd, ye to my caves approach?" 

My guide, then laying hold on me, by words 
And intimations given with hand and head, 

1 The KNmi.] Charles's Wiin, or Bodtes. 

* jSnddman.] Gate. 

Becretosqne plos ; his dantem Jiura Catonem. 

Firg. JBiH.t viii. fJTO. 
The commentaton, and Lombardi among the lest, might 
have saved themselves and their readers mnch needless 
trouble if they would have consulted the prose writings of 
Dante with m<»re diligenee. In the Cmivlto, p. Sll, he has 
himself declared his opinion of the illustrioas Roman. 
** Quale nomo/* &c. " What earthly man was more worthy 
to follow God than Catol Certainly none.** And again, 
p. 813: *'Nel nome di cui,** &e. " In whose name, what- 
ever needs be said concerning the signs of nobility may be 
concluded ; for, in him, that nobility displays thaoii aU throogh- 
ont all ages/* 

* VenerdbU plunut.} 

Insperata tn« quum veniet plnma superbie. 


The same metaphor has occuned in Hell, Canto xz. v. 4L 

the plumes, 

That mark*d the better sex. 
It is used by Ford in the Iiady*s Trial, act iv. se. t. 
—-Now the down 
Of softness is exr.hamad tot plames oCaflS. 

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338 THEyiSaON. U-W 

Made my bent knees and eye snbmiesiTe pay 
Due rererence ; then thus to him replied : 

" Not of myaelf I come ; a Dame from heayen 
Descending, him besought me in my charge 
To bring. But since thy will implies, that more 
Our true condition I unfold at large, 
Mine is not to deny thee thy request 
This mortal ne'er hath seen the farthest gloom f 
But erring by his folly had approach*d 
&o near, mat little space was left to turn 
Then, as before I told, I was diiq»atch*d 
To work his rescue ; and no way remain*d 
Save this which I have ta'en. I have displa^d 
Before him all the regions €x( the bad ; 
And purpose now those spirits to display, 
That under thy coipmand are purged from sin. 
How I have brought him would be long to say. 
From high, descends the virtue, by whose aid 
I to thy sight and hearing him have led. 
Now may our coming please thee. In the search 
Of liberty he journeys : that how dear. 
They know who for her sake hate life refused. 
Thou knowest, to whom death tor her was sweet 
In Utica, idiere thou didst leave those weeds,, 
That in the last great day will shine so bri^t 
For us the etemid edicts are unmoved: 
He broathes, and I of Minos am not bound,' 
Abidmg in that circle, where the eyes 
Of thy chaste Marcia^ beam, who still in look 

1 A Dame from heaven.] Beatrice. See Hell, IL 54. 

• Tke fartkett £100$^.] L'altima s«nu 
So Ariosto, O. F., canto xxxiv. st 59. 

Che non ban visto ancor roltUna lera. 
And Filicaja, canto iz. Al S<mno. 

L*altitna lera. 
And Bfr. Mathias, Canzone a Guglieliiio Bofcoe pmneasa alia 
Storia deila Poesia Italiana, p. 13. 

Di morte non vedri rultUna teia. 

• OfMinoeamnatbimiuL] SeeHell,v.i. 
« JlfomcJ 

Da fiedera pritd 

niibata tcwi : da tantam nomen inane 
Connobii ; Uceat tiuniilo acriprisw, Gatonls 
Martla. Luean. Pkart., Ub. IL 344 

Our aathor*8 habit of patting an allegorical Interpietatida 
oa every thing, a habit which appears to have descended to 
that age ftom certain fltthers of the chureh, is nowhere 
more appaient than in his explanation of tliis nassage. See 
OonvitOk pbSU,** Mania Ita vesglne,** *c ''lUida was a 

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»4M. PURGATORY, CAirro L 890 

Phtji thee, O hallow'd i;»irit ! to own her thine. 
Then hy her love we unplore thee, let vm pass 
Hurough thy seven regions ;^ for which, best thanki 
I for thy favor will to her return, 
If mention there below thou not disdain." 

" Marcia so pleasing in my raght was foundi" 
He then to him rejoined, ** while I was there. 
That all she B8k*d me I was fain to grant 
Now that beyond the accuraed stream she dweUs» 
She may no longer move me, by that law,' 
Which was ord^un'd me, when I esued thence. 
Not so, if Dame from heaven, as thou sayst, 
Moves and directs thee ; then no flattery needs. 
Enough for me that in her name thou ask. 
Go therefore now : and with a slender reed' 
See that thou duly gird him, and his face 
Lave, till all scurdid stain thou wipe from thenoe. 
For not %ith eye, by any cloud obscured, 
Would it be seemly before him to come, 
Who stands the foremost minister in heaven. 
This islet all around, there far beneath. 
Where the wave beats it, on the oozy bed 
Produces store of reeds. No other plant, 
Cover'd with leaves, or hardened in its stalk. 
There lives, not bending to the water's sway. 
After, this way return not ; but the sun 
Will show you, that now rises, where to take* 
The mountain in its easiest ascent." 

He disappear*d ; and I myself upraised 

virgin, and in that state she siipiifies childhood ; then she 
came to Cato, and in that state, she represents yonth ; she 
then bare children, hy whom are represented the virtues that 
we have said belong to that age." Dante would surely have 
d(Ae well to remomber his own rule laid down in the Do 
Monarch., lib. i^. ** Advertendum, Ace** *'Ck>nceming the 
mystical sense it must be observed that we may err In two 
ways, either by seeing it where it is not, or by taking it other- 
wise than it ought to be taken." 

> Throuj^h tkf seven r^ons,] The seven rounds of Pnr^ 
(Ktoiy, in which the seven capital sins are punished. 

s By that law.} When he was delivered by Christ fkom 
limbo, a change of afibcticmB accompanied h^ change of 

s jS slender reed.} The reed is here supposed; with sufB- 
eient probaUUty, to be meant for a type of slmirticity and 

* Wkere to take.} "Prendere il monte,** a reading which 
Lombardi claims for his fitvorite Nldobeatina edition, is also 
found in LandiB0*8 of »8i. 

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930 THE TISION. ie»-]3i 

SpeechlMS, and to my guide retiring ckw. 
Toward him tnm'd mine eyea. He thus began : 
'* My son ! observant thou my steps pnisue. 
We most retreat to rearward ; for that way 
The champain to its low extreme dedines." 

The dawn had diased the matin hour of jHime, 
Which fled before it, so that from afar 
I spied the trembling of the ocean stream.^ 

We traverMd the deserted plain, as one 
Who, wander'd from his track, thhiks every step 
Trodden in vain till he regain the path. 

When we had come, where yet the tender dew 
Strove with the suit, and in a place where fresh 
The wind breathed o*er it, wbke it slowly dried ; 
Both hands extended on the watery grass 
My master placed, in graceful act and kind. 
Whence I, of his intent before apprized, 
Stretch'd out to hun my cheeks suffused with team 
There to my visage he anew restored 
That hue which me dun shades oi hell oonoeal'd 

Then on the solitary riiore arrived, 
That never sailing on its waters saw 
Man that could a^r measure back his course. 
He girt me in such manner as had pleased * 

EUm who instructed ; and O strange to tell * 
As he selected every humble plant, 
Wherever one was pluck'd, another* there « 

Resembling, straightway in its place arose. 


Tbey behold a vessel under condact of an angel, coming 
over the waves with spirits to Puimtory, among whom, 
when the passengers have landed, Dante reeogmses his 
friend Casella; but, while thev are entertained by hin 
with a song, they hear Cato exclaiming against their negli- 
gent loiterhig, and at that rebuke hasten forwards to tas 

1 I spied the trembling of the ocean ttream,} 
Conobbi il trem<dar della marina. 
80 TriBsino in the Sofonisbo. 

E resta in tremolar J*onda marina. 

And Fortlgnerra, Ricdardetto, canto iz. st 17. 

■ vlsto il tremolar della i 

• Jiwtier.} From Viig. JEn^ lib. vi. 143 

Frimo avolso non delkit alter. 

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IHM. PURGATORY, Canto II. 231 

Now had the sun^ to that horizon reached. 
That coven, with the most exalted point 
Of its meridian circle, Salem's walls ; 
And night, that opposite to him her orb 
Rounds, from the stream of Ganges issued forth. 
Holding the scales,' that from her hands are dropp'd 
When she reigns highest :' so that where I was, 
Aurora's white and vermeil-tinctured cheek 
To orange tum'd^ as she in age increased. 

Meanwhile we linger'd by the water's brink.- 
Like men,' who, musing on their road, in thought 
Journey, while motionless the body rests. 
When lo ! as, near upon the hour of dawn, 
Through the thick vapors* Mara with fiery beam 
Glares down in west, over the ocean floor ; 
So seem'd, what once again I hope to view, 
A light, so swiftly coming through the sea. 
No winged course might equal its career. 
From which when for a space I had withdrawn 
Mine eyes, to make inquiry of my guide. 
Again I look'd, and saw it grown in size 
And brightness : then on either side appear'd 
Somethmg, but what I knew not, of bright hue. 
And by degrees from underneath it came 
Another. My preceptor silent yet 

1 JVVto had tA0 gun.] Dante was now antipodal to Jenua- 
.em ; so that while the .sun was setting with respect to that 
place, which he supposes to be the middle of the inhabited 
earth, to him it was rising. See Routh^s BeliquUe Sacrs, 
torn. iU. p. 356. 

So Fazio degll Uberti, Dittamondo, lib. vi. cap. vi 

questo monte 4 qnello 

Ch* in laezzo 11 mondo aponto si divisa. 

9 The seales.] The constellation Libra. 

» When she reigns highest.] "Qnando soverchia" Is (ao 
cording to Ventori, whom I have followed) '* when the an 
tumnal equinox is passed.** Lombardi supposes it to mean 
** when the nights begin to increase, that is, after the sum- 
mer solstice.*' 

* To orange ttirn'd.] "L'aurora gii di vermlglia comin- 
eiava apjraressandosi 11 sole a divenir rancia.** Boccaccio, 
Decam., G. iU., at the beginning. See notes to Hell, zxiU. 101 

* Like men.] Che va col cnore e col corpo diniora. 
So Frezzi : 

E mentre 11 corpo posa, col cor varca- 

n Quadrir^ lib. Iv. cap. 8 

* Through the thick vapors.] So In the Convlto, p. fS. 
** Esse pare, Ace** ** He (Miars) appears more or less inflamed 
with beat, according to the thickness or rarity of the vapon 
that follow him.*» 

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932 THE VISION. S6-ii 

Stood, while the brightnew, that we fint cli8eeni*d» 
Open'd the form of wings : then when he knew 
The pilot, cried aloud, " Down, down ; bend low 
Thy kneee ; behold God's angel : fold thy hands 
Now shalt thoa see true ministers indeed. 
Lo ! how all human means he sets at naught ; * 
So that nor oar he needs, nor other sail 
Except his wings,' between such distant rirores. 
Lo ! how straight up to heaven he holds them lear^dj 
Wumowing the air* with those eternal plumes. 
That not &e mortal hairs fall ;^or change.*' 

As more and more toward us came, more bright 
Appealed the bird of €rod, not could the eye 
Endure his splendor near : I mine bent down 
He drove ashore in a small bark so swift 
And light, that in its course no wave it drank. 
The heavenly steersman at the prow was seen, 
Visibly written Blessed in his Xooka. 
Withm, a hundred spirits and more there sat 

« In Exitu« Israel de Egypto," 
All with one voice together sang, with what 
In the remainder oi that hymn is writ. 
Then soon as with the sign of holy cross 
He blessM them, they at once leap'd out on land . 
He, swiftly as he came, jetum'd. The crew, 
There left, appear*d astounded with the place, 
Gazing around, as one who sees new sights. 

From every side the sun darted his beams. 
And with his arrowy radiance^ from mid heaven 

^ Except hit wingt.l Hence Milton : 

Who after came firom earth, sailing arrived 
Wafted by angels. P. Z^ b. iii. ver. 531 

* Wimtmoing tlU mir,} 

Tiattando raers ccm I'eteme panne. 
80 FUicaJa, cans. viil. st. 11. 

Ma trattar Taere coll* etame plnme 

* In ExUu,] " When Israel came cat of Egypt.*' Fs. exlv 

* With kit arrowf radiance,] So Milton: 

— and now went fwth the mom : 

tbom before her vanish'd night, 

Shot through with urient beams. P. jL., b. tL ver. 15. 
This has been regarded by some critics as a conceit, Into 
Which Milton was betrayed by the Italian poets ; but It is In 
Imth anth<nized by one of the cwrectest of the Grecians. 
*0u al6\a vD| ivapi^oniva 
rUrUi Kamvdlu re, ^Xoyt^usvp 

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5S-«6. PURGATORY, Canto IL 839 

Had chased the Capricorn, when that strange trihe. 
Lifting their eyes toward us: " If ye know, 
Declare what path will lead us to the mount*' 

Them Virgil answer'd : " Ye suppose, perchancoi 
Us well acquainted with this place : but here. 
We, as younelyes, are strangers. Not long erst 
We came, before you but a Tittle space. 
By other road so rough and hard, that now 
The ascent will seem to us as play." The spirits, 
Who from my breathing had perceived I liyed. 
Grew pale with wonder. As the multitude 
Flock round a herald sent with olive branch. 
To hear what news he brings, and in their hast»> 
Tread one another down ; e'en so at sight 
Of me those happy spirits were fix'd, each one 
Forgetful of its errand to depart 
Where, cleansed from sin, it might be made all fair 

Then one I saw darting before the rest 
With such fond ardor to embrace me, I 
To do the like was moved. O shadows vain ! 
Except in outward semblance : thrice my hands^ 
I clasp'd behind it, they as oft retum'd 
Empty into my breast again. Surprise 
I need must think was painted in my looks. 
For that the shadow smiled and backward drew. 
To follow it I hastened, but with voice 
Of sweetness it enjoin'd me to desist. 
Then who it was I knew, and pray'd of it. 
To talk with me it would a little pause. 
It answer'd : '* Thee as in my mortal frame 
I loved, so loosed from it I love thee still, 
And therefore pause : but why walkest thou here?" 

Ecco dinanri a te fVi|^ repents 
Saettata la notte. 

MariMt, Son, al Sig, CXnthio Jildobrandin». 
1 TTtriee «y kamdg.] 

Ter conatits M cello dare brachia eircimi, 
Ter ihistra comiNrensa manus efiVigit imago ; 
Par levibns ventis volncrique similHma somno. 

Firg' 'MiUf 11. 794. 
Compare Homer, Od., xi. 305. 

The ineident in the text is pleasantly alluded to in (hat de 
lightfU book, the Capricci del Botaio of Gelli, (Opere. Milan. 
1805, V. ii. p. 96,) of which there is an English translation 
entitled **The FeariVill Fancies of the Florentine Cooper. 
Written in Toscane, by John Baptist Gelli, one of the free 
stndie of Florence. And for recreation translated into Eng* 
Ushb W. Barker.** &>.LondnlS». 

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** Not without pnipose once more to ntuni» 
Thou find'st me, my Casella,^ where I am,' 
JFoumeymg this way," I eaid : " but how of thee 
Hath so much time been lost?"* He answer'd 

*< No outrage hath been done to me, if he,^ 
Who when and whom he chooses takes, hath oft 
Denied me passage here ; since of just will 
His will he makes. These three months past^ in- 
He, whoso chose to enter, with free leave [deed, 
Hath taken ; whence I wandering by the shore* 
Where Tiber's wave grows salt, of hun gainM kmd 
Admittance, at that river's mouth, toward which 
His wings are pointed ; for there always throng 
All such as not to Acheron descend." 

Then I : "If new law taketh not from thee 
Memory or custom of love-tuned song, 

1 My Casella,] A Flarentine, celebrated for his skill in 
music, "in whose company,** says Landino, ** Dante often 
recreated his spirits, wearied by severer stadies.** See Dr. 
Barney's History of Music, vol. ii. cap. iv. p. 322. Milton 
has a fine allusion to this meeting in his sonnet to Henry 

Dante shall give fame leave to set thee higher 
Than his Casella, whom he wooed to sing, 
Met in the ndlder shades of Porgatory. 

* Where I am.] "LA dove io son." Lombard! under- 
stands this difierently: "Not without porpose to . return 
again to the earth, where I am ; that is, where I usually 
dwell." . •-. 7 

* Hath 80 nmcA ^xme been loeU} There is some uncertainty 
in this passage. If we read 

Ma a te com* era tanta terra tolta 1 
with the Nidobeatina and Aldine editions, and many MSS., 
it signifies " Why art thou deprived of so desirable a region 
as that of Purgatory 1 why dost thou not hasten to be cleansed 
of thy sinsi** If with the AcademicJans della Crusca, we 

Diss *io, ma a te come tant* ora h tolta 1 
whicn is not destitute of authority to support it, and which 
has the advantage over the other, as it marks Dante*8 
speech from Casella*s, then it must mean as I have trans- 
lated it, "Why hast thou lost so much time in arriving 
here 1** Lombard!, who Is for the former reading, supposes 
Casella to be just dead; those who prefer the latter, sup- 
pose him to have been dead for some years, but now only just 

* He,] The conducting angel. 

* Theee three menthe poet.] Since the time of the Jubilee, 
during which ail spirits not condemned to eternal ponish 
ment were supposed to pass over to Purgatory as soon as they 

* The thoreJ] Ostia 

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163-126. PURGATORY, Gamtu II. i35 

That whilom all my cares had power to saage ; 
Please thee therewith a little to console 
My spirit, that encmnber'd with its frame, 
Tntvelling so far, of pain is overcome." 

" Love, that dkcooraes in my thoughts,"* he then 
Began in such soft accents, that within 
The sweetness thrills me yet My gentle guide. 
And all who came with him, so well were pleased. 
That seem'd naught else might in then: thoughta 
have room. 

Fast fix'd in mute attention to his notes 
We stood, when lo ! that old man venerable 
Exclaiming, " How is this, ye tardy spuits ? 
What negligence detams you loitering here? 
Run to the mountam to cast off those scales. 
That from your eyes the sight oi God conceaL" 

As a wild flock of pigeons, to their food 
Collected, blade or tares, without their pride 
Accustomed, and in still and quiet sort. 
If aught alarm them, suddenly desert 
Their meal, assail'd by more important care ; 
So I that new-come troop beheld, the song 
Deserting, hasten to the mountain's side, 
As one' who goes, yet, where he tends, knows not. 

Nor with less hurried step did we depart 


Onr Poet, perceiving no shadow except that cast by his own 
body, is fearfiil that Yirgil has deserted him; but he is 
fireed from that error, and 'both arrive together at the 
foot of the mountain : on finding it too steep to climb, 
they inquire the way from a troop of spirits 'that are 
coining towards them, and are by them shown which is 
the easiest ascent. Manfredi, king of Naples, who is 
one of these spirits, bids Dante inform his daughter 
Costanza, queen of Aragon, of the manner in which he 
had died. 

Them sudden flight had scattei^d o*er the plain, 
Tum'd towards the mountain, whither reason's voice 

1 " Lave^ that dUcourse* in my tko%ighU.^*\ 

" Amor che nella mente mi ragiona.'* 
The first verse of a canzone in the Convito of Dante, which 
he again cites in his treatise de Vnlg. Eloq., lib. ii. cap. 6. 

s Ji» one,'\ CkHn* uom, che va, ne sa dove rieaca. 

CkMne chi va, ni sa dove camina. 

R Qtuulnr., lib. 1. cap. 3. 

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336 THE VISION. 3-9i 

Drives us : I, to my faithful company 
Adhering, left it not. For how, of lum 
Deprived, might I have sped? or who, besidei 
Would o*er the mountainous tract have led my steps? 
He, with the hitter pang of self-remorse, 
SeemM smitten. O clear conscience, and upright ! 
How doth a little failing wound thee sore.^ 

Soon as his feet desisted (slackening pace) 
From haste, that mars all decency of act,' 
My mind, that in itself before was wrapt. 
Its thought expanded, as with joy restored ; 
And full against the steep ascent I set 
My face, where highest' to heaven its top o'erflowi 

The sun, that flared behind, with ruddy beam 
Before my fonn was broken ; for in me 
His rays resistance met I tumM aside 
With fear of being left, when I beheld 
Only before myself the ground obscured. 
When thus my solace, turning him around, 
Beq>ake me kindly : " Why distrustest thou? 
Believest not I am^ith thee, thy sure guide? 
It now is evening there, where buried Ues 
The body in which 1 cast a shade, removed 
To Naples* from Brundnsium*s wall. Nor thou 
Marvel, if befcM^ me no shadow fall. 
More than that in the skyey element 
One ray obstructs not other. To endure 
Torments of heat and cold extreme, like frames 

^ Hov doth a little failing wound thee 8ore.'\ 
Ch' era al c<»r picciol &llo amaro mono. 

Tas80t O, L^ canto z. st 59. 
s Haste^ that tnars all decency of ai^.\ Aristotle, in hit 
Physiog., c. iii., reckons it among the ivai^oSf wiintiay " the 
signs of an impudent man ;'* that he is ir rati iuv4aeotP ^^f 
** quick in his motions." Compare Sophocles, Electra, 878. 
Td Kdofitov ludttoa, 
Joy, mv dear sister, Wings my quick retom, 
And with more speed than decency allows. Potter. 
s TFhere higheet] Lombard! proposes, with some hesita. 
tlon, a different meaning from that which has hitherto been 
affixed to the words, 

Che *nyerso *I ciel piii alto si dislaga ; 
and would construe them, " that raises itself higher than 
every other mountain above vhe sea:*' "sopra Tallagamento 
delle aequo del mare.'* The coi^ture is at least insenioos, 
and has obtained new force by the arguments of Monti in 

4 To JiTaplee.] Virgil died at Brundoslnm, from whenes 
Us body is said to have been removed to Naples. 

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Sl-41 PURGATORY, Ciirro m. S87 

That Tirtae hath dwpoeed, which, how it woi^ 
Wiik not to us should be revealed. Ihmao, 
Who hopes our reason may that q»ce explore. 
Which holds three perM>ns in one substance knit. 
Seek not the wherefore, race of human kind ; 
Could ye have seen the whole, no need had been 
For Mary to bring forth. Moreover, ye 
Have seen such men desiring fruitlessly ;^ 
To whose desires, repose would have been given* 
That now but serve them for eternal griet 
I speak of Plato, and the Stagirite, 
And others many more." And then he bent 
Downwards his forehead, and in troubled mood* 
Broke off his qieech. Meanwhile we had arrived 
Far as the mountain's foot, and there the rock 
Found of so steep ascent, that nimblest steps 
To climb it had been vain. The most remote. 
Most wild, untrodden path, in all the tract 
'Twixt Lerice and Tnrbia,' were to this 
A ladder, easy and open of access. [chnes f* 

** Who knows on which hand now the steep de« 
My master said, and paused ; '* so that he may 
Ascend, who joumep without aid of wing?" 
And while, with looks directed to the ground. 
The meaning of the pathway^ he explored. 
And I gaxed upward round the stony height ; 
On the left hand appear'd to us a troq> 
Of spirits, that toward us moved their steps ; 
Yet moving seem'd not, they so slow approached. 

I thus my guide addressM : ** Upraise thine eyes : 

I Detiringfrwitletslif.'] Bee Hell, Canto iv. 39. 

s Jn troubled mood.] Beeanse he himself (VlrgU) was 
among the nnmber m spizitB who thai desired without 

* ' Twixt Leriee and Turbui.] At that time the two extre- 
mities of the Genoese repablic ; the former on the east, the 
latter on the west A very ingenioos writer has had occa- 
sion, for a diflforent purpose, to roenti<Hi one (^ these places as 
remarkably seclnded by its mountainoos situation. "On an 
eminence among the mountains, between the two little cities, 
Nice and Monaco, is tHe village of TcrMa, a name fomoed 
fiom the Greek rpSwaia." Mitford on the Harmonf of Lam* 
gnage^ sect xv. p. 351, 3d edit 

* T%9 ntuting of (JUpcUAwoy.] Lombard! reads, 

— tenea 1* viso basso, 
Esaminando del cammin la mente, 
and explains it, ** he bent down his foce, his mind being oeca 
fried with considering their way to ascend the mountain.** f 
ioabt much whether the words can bear that constructii>a. 

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S88 THE VISION. ei-99 

ho I that way aome, ei whom thou ma3r8t ebtam 
Counsel, if of thyself thou find'st it not'* [plied.* 

Straightway he looked, and with free i^ech^e* 
« Let UB tend thither : they but softly come. 
And thou be firm in hope, my son beloved." 

Now was that crowd firom us distant as far, 
(When we some thousand steps,' I say, had pass'd) 
As at a throw the nervous arm could fling ; 
When all drew backward on the massy crags 
Of the steep bank, and firmly stood unmoved. 
As one, who walks in doubt, might stand to look. 

** O spirits perfect ! O already chosen !" 
Virgil to them began : ** by that blest peace, 
WUch as I deem, is for you all prepared, 
iLstruct us where the mountain low declines, 
So that attempt to mount it be not vain. 
For who knows most, him loss of time most grieves." 

As sheep,' that step from forth their fold, by one. 
Or pairs, or three at once ; meanwhile the rest 
Stand fearfully, bending the eye and nose 
To ground, and what the foremost does, that do 
The others, gathering round her if she stops. 
Simple and quiet, nor the cause discern ; 
So saw I moving to advance the first. 
Who of that fortunate crew were at the head. 
Of modest mien, and graceful in their gait 
When they before me had beheld th6 hght 
From my right side fall broken on the ground. 
So that die shadow reached the cave ; they 8topp*d» 
And somewhat back retired : the same did all 
Who followed, though unweeting of the cause 

" UnaskM of you, yet freely I confess. 
This is a human body which ye see. 
That the sun's light is broken on the ground. 
Marvel not : but believe, that not without 
Virtue derived from Heaven, we to climb 
Over this wall aspire." So them bespake 

1 Jfhen.we some thousand statm.] Mr. Cariyle puts a query 
to my former translation of this passage. It was eertainlf 

3 Jis she^.] The imitative natore of these animals sup- 
plies our Poet with another comparison, in his Ck)nvito., p.'34, 
**Qaesti sono da chiamare pecore,*' &c. *'These may be 
called flocks of sheep and not men ; for if one sheep should 
throw himself down a precipice of a thousand feet, all the 
rest would follow ; and if one for any cause in passing a road 
should leap, all the rest would do the some, though they saw 
Bothing to leap over ** 

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99-111. PURGATORY, Canto HI. 939 

My maiter ; and that virtaons tribe rejoin'd : 
** Tam, and before you there the entrance lies ," 
Makmgr a signal to us with bent hands. 

Then of them one began : " Whoe'er thou art, 
Who joumey'st thus this way, thy visage turn ; 
Think if me elsewhere thou hast ever seen." 

I towards him tum'd, and with fix'd eye beheld. 
Comely and fair, and gentle of aspect 
He seem'd, but on one brow a gash was mark'd. 

When humbly I disclaim*d to have beheld 
Him ever : ** Now behold !" he said, and show*d 
High on his breast a wound : then smiling spake. 

'* I am M anfredi,' grandson to the Queen 
Custanza :* whence I pray thee, when retvim'd, 

1 MoMfredi.] King of Naples and Sicily, and the nataral 
s<Mi of Frederick IL He was lively and agreeable in hit 
maanert, and delighted in poetry, mosic, and dancing. Bat 
he was loxarioos and ambitioas, void of religion, and in his 
philosophy an Epicnrean. See G. Villani, lib. vi. cap. xlvii., 
and Mr. Mathias^s Tiraboschi, vol. i. p. 99. He fell in the 
battle with Charles of Anjon, in 13615, alluded to in Canto 
xxviiL of Hell, ver. 13, or rather in that which ensoed in the 
coorse of a few days at Benevento. Bat the successes of 
Charles were so rapidly followed np, that our author, exact 
as he generally is, might not have thought it necessary to 
distingt^h ^em In point of time ; for this seems the best 
method of reconciling some little apparent inconsistency be- 
tween him and the annalist. ''Dying excommunicated, 
King Charles did not allow of his beii^ buried in sacred 
ground, but he was interred near the bridge of Benevento ; 
and on his grave there was cast a stone by every one of the 
army, whence there was formed a great mound of stones. 
But smne have said, that afterwards, by command of the 
Pope, the Bishop of Cosenza took up his bodv, and sent it 
out of the kingdom, because it was the land or the church : 
and that it was buried by the river Verde, on the borders of 
the Idngdom and of Qampagna. This, however, we do not 
affirm.*' O. Villani, Hist, Ub. vii. cap. 9. Manfiredi and his 
fother are spoken of by our Poet in his De Vulg. Eloq., lib. i. 
cap. 13, with singular commendation. " Siquldem illustres,*' 
fcc. "Those illustrioTu worthies, Frederick the Emperor, 
and his well-born son Manfiredi, manifested their nobility and 
uprightness of form, as long as fortune remained, by follow- 
ing pursuits worthy of men, and disdained those which are 
suited only to brutes. Such, therefore, as were of a lofty 
spirit, and graced with natural endowments, endeavored to 
walk in the track which the majesty of such great princes 
had marked out for them: so that whatever was in their 
time attempted by eminent Italians, first made its appearance 
in the court of crowned sovereigns ; and because Sicily was 
a royal throne, it came to pass that whatever was produced 
in the vernacular tongue by our predecessors was called Sic! 
lian; which neither we n(Nr our posterity shall be able to 

k] See Paradise, Canto Ui. 191. 

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940 THE VISION. llA-lll 

To my fair daughter' go, the parent glad 
Of Aragonia an^ Sicilia's pride ; 
And of the truth mform her, if of me 
Aught else be told. When by two mortal blows 
My frame was shattered, I betook myself 
Weeping to him, who of free will forgives. 
My sins were horrible : but so wide arms 
Hath goodness infinite, that it receives 
All who turn to it Had this text divine 
Been of Cosenza's shepherd better scann*d, 
Who then by Clemenr on my hunt was set. 
Yet at the bridge's head my bones had lain. 
Near Benevento, by the heavy mole 
Protected ; but the rain now drenches them. 
And the wind drives, out of the kingdom's boundSf 
Far as the stream of Verde,' where, with lights 
Extinguished, he removed them from their bed. 
Yet by their curse we are not so destroy'd. 
But that the eternal love may turn, while hope* 
Retams her verdant blossom. True it is, 
That such one as in contumacy dies 
Against the holy church, though he repent. 
Must wander thirty-fold for all the time 
In his presumption passed ; if such decree 
Be not by prayers of good men shorter m^e. 
Look therefore if thou canst advance my bliss ; 
Revealing to my good Costanza, how 
Thou hast beheld me, and beside, the terms 
Laid on me of that interdict ; for here 
By means of those below much profit comes.*' 

1 JUjf fair daughter J] Costanza, the daughter of Bfuiftedl, 
and wife of Peter III., kinff of Aragon, by whom she was 
mother to Frederick, king of Sicily, and James, king of Ara- 
gon. With the latter of these she was at Rome 1S96. 8ee 
6. VUlani, lib. viil. cap. 18, and Notes to Canto vii. 
s CUment.] Pope Clement IV 

• Tke Hream of Verde.} ArivernearAscoli, that falls into 
the Tronto. The ** extinguished lights** formed part of the 
eeremony at the interment of one excommnBieated. 
Passa la mora di Ifanfirft, cui lava 

U Verde. 

merti, DiUamonde, lib. Ui. eap. L, as 
corrected by PerttesiL 
« Bope,] 

Mentre che la speranza ha fior del verde. 
So Tasso, O. L., Canto xix. at. 53. 

— ~ infin che verde 6 fior di speme 

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M PURGATORY, Camiy) iV. 941 


Dante and VirgU aseend the mountain of Pnrgatoiy, by a 
steep and narrow path pent in on each side by rock, UU 
they reach a part of it that opens Into a ledge or cornice. 
There seating themselves, and turning to the east, Dante 
wonders at seeing the sun on their left, the cause of which 
is explained to him by Virgil ; and wliile they continue 
their discourse, a voice addresses them, at which they turn, 
and find several spirits behind the rock, and among the rest 
one named Belacqua, who had been Icnown to our Poet mi 
earth, and who tells that he is doomed to linger there on 
account of his having delayed his repentance to the last 

Whsn* by sensations of delight or pain, 
That any of our faculties hath seized. 
Entire the soul collects herself, it seems 
She is intent upon that power alone ; 
And thus the error is disproved, which holds 
The soul not singly lighted in the breast 
And therefore whenas aught is heard or seen, 

> Ifhm.] It must be owned the beginning of tliis Canto is 
somewhat dt>scure. Vellutello refers, for an elucidation of it, 
to the reasoning of Statins in the twenty-fifth Canto. Per- 
haps some illustration may be derived firom the following 
passage in the Summa Tlieologiae of Thomas Aquinas. *' Some 
say tliat in addition to the vegetable soul, which was present, 
from the first, there supervenes another soul, which is the 
sensitive, and again, in addition to that, another, which is 
the intellective. And so there are in man three souls, one of 
which exists potentially with regard to another : but this hat 
been already disproved. And accordingly others say that 
that same soul, which at first was merely vegetative, is, 
through action of the seminal virtue, carried forward till it 
reaches to that point, in which, being still the same, it never- 
theless becomes sensitive ; and at length the same by an ul- 
terior prop«ssi<» is led on till it becmnes intellective; not, 
indeed, through the seminal virtue acting in it, but by virtue 
of a superior agent, that is, God, enlightening it from with- 
out." (This opinion he next proceeds to confute.) ** Dicunt 
ergo quidam qubd supra animam vegetabilem, qua prime in- ' 
erat, supervenit alia anima, quse est sensitiva, supra illam 
Itemm alia que est intellective. Et sic stmt in homine tres 
anims, quarum una est in potentia ad aiiara, quod supra im- 
pobatum est Et ideo alii dicunt, qubd ilia .eadem anima, 
^ue prime fuit vegetativa tantum, postmodum per actionem 
virtutis, qua est in semine, perducitur ad hoc, ut ipsa eadem 
fiat sensitiva; et •tandem ipsa eadem perducitur ad hoc, ut 
ipsa eadem fiat intellective, non quidem per virtutem acti- 
vam seminis, sed per virtutem superioris agentis, scilicet Del 
deforis illnstrantis.** Thorn. Jiquin. Opera. Edit. Venet., 1^95, 
torn. X.; Swmma Theolog. Ima Para., Quattio cxviU. jirt, ii 
Bee also Lettere di Fra Guittone, 4«. Roma, 1745, p. 15 ; and 
Ronth*0 note on the Gorglas of Plato p.45L 

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Tniit firmly keeps the soul toward it tnm'd 
Time pasKs, and a man perceives it not 
For that, whereby we hearken, is one power; 
Another that, which the whole spirit hath : 
This is as it were bound, while that is free. 

This found I true by proof, hearing that i^>irit« 
And wondering ; for full fifty steps' aloft 
The sun had measured, unobserved of me. 
When we arrived where all with one accord 
The spuits shouted, ** Here is what ye ask." 

A larger aperture oft-times is stopp'd. 
With forked stake of thorn by villager, 
When the ripe grape imbrowns, than was the palh« 
By which my guide, and I behind him close. 
Ascended solitary, when that troop 
Departing left us. On SanleoV road 
Who journeys, or to Noli' low descends. 
Or mounts Bismantua's^ height, must use his &et ; 
Bni here a man had need to fly, I mean 
With the swift wing* and plumes of high desire, 
Conducted by his aid, who gave me hope. 
And with light furnished to direct my way. 

We through the broken rock ascended, close 
Pent on each side, while underneath the ground 
Ask*d help of hands and feet. When we arrived 
Near on Uie highest ridge of the steep bank. 
Where the plain level opened, I exclaim'd, 
" O Master ! say, which way can we proceed." 

He answer'd, ** Let no step of thme recede. 
Behind me gain the mountain, till to us 
8ome practSed guide appear." That eminence 
Was lofty, that no eye might reach its point ; 
And the side proudly rising, more than line* 
From the mid quadrant to the centre drawn. 
I, wearied, thus began : " Parent beloved ! 
Turn and behold how I remain alone. 
If thou stay not" — " My son !" he straight repli«a^ 

1 fStU fifty atqfs.'] Three honra and twenty minutes, fifteen 
decrees being reckoned to an honr. 

*Sanl«o.} A fortress on the summit of Montefeltro. The 
sitnation is described by Troya, Veltro Allegorico, p. 11. It 
is a consirfcaoiis object to traveiiers along the cornice on the 
riviera di Genoa. 

* JVWt.] In the Genoese tenritory, between Finale and Sar 

* Bitmantua. A steep mountain in the territory of Reiglow 

• With the »io^mW'] Compare Paradise, Canto xxxiuTn. 

• More than line.\ ft was much nearer to being perpendle- 
tilar than horizontal 

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PURGATORY, Cabt/o IV. 343 

*' Thvm far put forth thy strength ;" and to a traek 
Pointed, that, on this side projectmg, round 
Circles the hill. His words so spurr'd me on, 
That I, behind him, clambering, forced myself, 
Till my feet press'd the circuit plain beneath. 
There both together seated, tum*d we round 
To eastward, whence was our ascent : and oft 
Many beside have with delight looked back. 

First on the nether snores I tum'd mme eyes. 
Then raised them to the sun, and wondering mark'd 
That from the left' it smote us. Soon perceived 
That poet sage, how at the car of light 
Amazed' I stood, where 'twixt us and the north 
Its course it entered. Whence he thus to me : 
" Were Leda's ofl^ring* now in company 
Of that broad mirror, that high up and low 
Imparts his light beneath, thou mightst behold 
The hiddy Zodiac nearer to the Beais 
Wheel, if its ancient course it not forsook. 
How that may be, if thou wouldst think ; withm 
Pondering, imagine Sion with this mount 
Placed on the earth, so that to both be cme 
Horizon, and two hemispheres apart. 
Where lies the path^ that Phadton ill knew 
To guide his erring chariot : thou wilt see* 

1 fVom the left.] Yellatello observes an imitatioii of Lucaa 
In this passage : 

Iffnotam vobis, Arabes, venistis in orbem, 
Umbras mirati nemorom non ire sinistras. 

Phars., lib. iiL 848. 

s Amaxed.] He wonders that belns turned to the east he 
thoold see the snn on his left, since in all the regions on this 
tide of the tropic of Cancer it is seen on the right of one 
who turns his face towards the east; not recollecting that 
he was now antipodal to Europe, from whence he had leea 
the snn taking an opposite course. 

« fVere Leda*» offspring.] '■* At the constellation of the 
Gemini is nearer the Bears than Aries is, it is certain that if 
the sun, instead of being in Aries, had been in Gemini, both 
the snn and that pcwtion of the Zodiac made .' ruddy* by the 
tun, would have been seen to * wheel nearer to the Bears.* 
By the 'ruddy Zodiac* must necessarily be understood that 
portion of the Zodiac affected or made red by the sun; 
for the whole of the Zodiac never changes, nor appears to 
ehange, with respect to the remainder of the heavens.'*— 

*7%epath.] The ecliptic 

* TlMt wiU »ee.] *' If you consider that this moimtain of 
Purgatory, and that of Sion, are anUpodai to each other, yott 
will perceive that the son must rise on opposite sides of tlis 
lespeetive eminences,** 

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344 THE VISION. 70-M» 

How of necoflsity by this, on one, 

He passes, while by that on the other side ; 

If with that clear view thine mtellect attend." 

<< Of truth, kmd teacher !" I exclaun'd, « so doai 
Aught saw I never, as I now discern. 
Where seemM my ken to fail, that the mid oH>' 
Of the supernal motion (which m terms 
Of art is call'd the Equator, and remains 
Still 'twixt the sun and winter) for the cause 
Thou hast assigned, from hence toward the north 
Departs, when those, who m the Hebrew land 
Were dwellers, saw it towards the warmer part 
But if it please thee, I would gladly know. 
How far we have to journey : for the hill 
Mounts higher, than this sight of mine can mount*' 

He thus to me : " Such is this steep ascent, 
That it is ever difficult at first, 
But more a man proceeds, less evil grows.' 
When pleasant it shall seem to thee, so much 
That upward going shall be easy to thee 
As in a vessel to go down the tide. 
Then of this path thou wilt have reachM the end. 
There hope to rest thee from thy toil. No more 
I answer, and thus far for certain know.*' 
As he his words had spoken, near to us - 
A voice there sounded : " Yet ye first perchance 
May to repose you by constraint be led." 
At sound thereof each tum'd ; and on the left 
A huge stone we beheld, of which nor I 
Nor he before was ware. Thither we drew ; 
And there were some, who m the shady place 
Behind the rock were standmg, as a man 
Through idleness might stand. Among them one. 
Who seem*d to be much wearied, sat him down, 
And with his arms did fold his knees about. 
Holding his face between them downward bent 

" Sweet Sir !" I cried, « behold that man who 
Himself more idle than if lazmess [showa 

Were sister to hun." Straight he tum*d to us. 

1 TAot the mid ori.] " That the equator (which is always 
ritoated between that part where, when the snn Is, he causes 
summer, and the other where his absence produces winter 
recedes from this mountain towards the north, at the time 
when the Jews inhabiting Mount Sion saw it depart towards 
the south.'*— /.omftardt. 

s But more « mqn jiroMcds, /ess §9il grove.] Beeause ts 
ftseending he gets rid of the weight of hu sins. 

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lir-135 PURGATORY, Giirro TV. f^$ 

And, o*er the thigh lifUng his face, observed. 
Then in these accents spake : ** Up then, proceed; 
Thou valiant one." Straight who it was I knew ; 
Nor could the pam I felt (for want of breath 
Still somewhat urged me) hinder my approach. 
And when I came to him, he scarce his head 
Uplifted, saying, " Well hast thou discerned. 
How from the left the sun his chariot leads." 

His lazy acts and broken words my lips 
To laughter somewhat moved ; when I began : 
** Belacqua,^ now for thee I grieve no more. 
But tell, why thou art seated upright there. 
Waitest thou escort to conduct thee hence? 
Or blame I only thine accustomed ways?" 
Then he : " My brother ! of what use to mount, 
When, to my suffering, would not let me pass 
The bird of God,* who at the ported sits? 
Behooves so long that heaven first bear me round 
Without its limits, as in life it bore ; 
Because I, to the end, repentant sighs 
DelayM ; if prayer do not aid me first, 
That riseth up from heart which lives in grace 
What other kmd avails, not heard in heaven?" 

Before me now the poet, up the mount 
Ascending, cried : " Haste thee : for see the sun 
Has touch'd the point meridian ; and the night 
Now covers with her foot Marocco's shore."' 

1 Bdacqua.] Concerning this man, the c<mimentaton 
afibrd no inforntation, . except that in the margin of the 
Monte Cassino MS. there is found this brief notice of him : 
** Iste Belacqna faittoptimus magister citharamm, et leuto- 
rom, et irfgrissimus homo in operibos mundi sicnt in operibas 
animc." "This Belacqna was an excellent master of the 
harp and lute, but very negligent in his aflaira, both spiritoal 
and temporal." Lettera di Eustazio Ditearekeo ad Angtlm 
8i4iein0. 4to. Roma. 1801. 

s Tke Hrd of Ood.] Here are two other leadinn, ^ Uscier* 
and "Angel," "Usher" and "Angel" of God. 

s Maneeo*a ahvre.] Caopre la notte gi4 eol pii Maroceo. 
Hence, perhaps, Bfilton : 

Damasco, or Marocco, or Trebisond. 

Instead of Morocco, as he elsewhere calls it : 
Morocco and Algiers and Tremisen. 

Jt the vowels were to change ptaces, the vene wonld \m 
^"' ibe spoiled. 

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i^ THE VISION. um 


They meet with others, who had defened their lepentaai;* 
till thev were overtaken by a yiolent death, when soflteient 
space being allowed them, they were then saved; and 
among these, Giacopo del Cassero, Buonconte da Monte- 
feltro, and Pia, a lady of Sienna. 

Now had I left those spirits, and pursued 
The steps of my conductor ; when behind, 
Pointing the finger at me, one exclaimed : 
" See, how it seems as if the light not shone 
From the left hand^ of him beneath,' and he, 
As livmg, seems to be led on." Mine eyes, 
I at that sound reverting, saw them gaze, 
Through wonder, first at me ; and then at me 
And the light broken underneath, by turns. * 
" Why are thy thoughts thus riveted," my guide 
Exclaimed, " that thou hast slacked thy pace ? or how 
Imports it thee, what thin^ is whisper'd here 7 
Come after me, and to their babblings leave 
The crowd. Be as a tower,' that, mmly set. 
Shakes not its top for any blast that blows. 
He, m whose bosom thought on thought shoots out. 
Still of his aim is wide, in that the one 
Sicklies and wastes to naught the other's strength.** 

What other could I answer, save " I come 7" 
I said it, somewhat with that color tmged. 
Which oft-times pardon meriteth for man. 

Meanwhile traverse along the hill there came, 
A little way before us, some who sang 
The " Miserere" in responsive strains. 
When they perceived that through my body I 
Gave way not for the rays to pass, their song 

1 It seems as if the light not shone 
Fhm. the left hand.} The snn was, therefore, on the right 
of our travellers. For, as before, when seated and loolmig 
to the east flrom whence they had ascended, the son was on 
their left ; so now that they have risen and are again going 
forward, it must be on the opposite side of them. 

s Cf him beneoth.\ Of Dante, who was following YirgUnp 
the mountain, and therefore was the lower of the two. 

* Be as a tower.} Sta come tonre ferma. 
9o Bemi, Orl. Inn., lib. i. canto xvi. st. 48. 

In quel doe piedl sta fermo il gigaate 
Com* una torre in mezto d'lm castellob 
And Milton, P. L, b. i. 501. 

Stood like a tower. 

^Digitized by 


■7-63. PURGATORY. Canto V. 347 

Straight to a long and hoaise ^claim they changed ; 
And two of them, in guise of messengers, 
Ean on to meet us, and inquiring ask'd : 
'* Of your c<nidition we would gladly learn/' 

To them my guide. " Ye may return, and bear 
Tidings to them who sent you, that his fhune 
Is real flesh. If, as I deem, to view 
His shade they paused, enough is answered them : 
Him let them honor : they may prize him welL" 

Ne'er saw I fiery vapors' with such speed 
Cut through the serene air at fall of night, 
Nor August's clouds athwart the setting sun, 
That upward these did not in shorter space 
Return ; and, there arriving, with the rest 
Wheel back on us, as with loose rein a troop. 

'* Many," exclaim'd the bard, " are these, who 
Around us : to petition thee, they come. [throng 
Go therefore on, and listen as thou go'st" 

" O spirit ! who go'st on to blessedness. 
With the same limbs that clad thee at thy birth," 
Shouting they came : ** a little rest thy step. 
Look if thou any one among our tribe 
Hast e'er beheld, that tidings of him there' 
Thou mayst report Ah, wherefore go'st thou on? 
Ah, wherefore tarriest thou not? We all 
By violence died, and to our latest hour 
Were sinners, but then wam'd by light from heaven ; 
So that, repenting and forgiving, we 
Did issue out of life at peace ^nth God, 
Who, with desire to see him, fills our heart." 

Then I : "*The visages of all I scan, 
Yet none of ye remember. But if aught 
That I can do may please you, gentle spirits ! 
Speak, and I will perform it ; by that peace* 
Which, on the steps of guide so excellent 
Following, from world to world, intent I seek " 

In answer he began : *< None here distrusts 

1 AV«r 8aio I fiery vapors.} Imitated by Taaso, G. L^ 
eanto ziz. st. 62. 

Tal suol fendendo liqnido sereno 
Stella cader della graa madre in seno. 
And by mtan, P. L., b. iv. 558. 

Swift as a shooting star 

In antomn thwarts the night, when vapors fired 
Im]Hress the air. 
Oompare Statins, Theb., 1. OS. 

nicet ligne Jovis, lapsisque dtat^ astrls* 
There.1 Upon the earth. 

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.948 THE VISION. M-«t 

Thy kindneM, though not promised with au oath ; 
So as the will fail not for want of power. 
Whence I, who sole before the others qieak. 
Entreat thee, if thou ever see that land^ 
Which lies between Romagna and the realm 
Of Charles, that of thy courtesy thou pray 
Those who inhabit Fano, that for me 
Their adorations duly be put up, 
By which I may pur^e off my grievous sms. 
From thence I came? But the deep passages. 
Whence issued out the blood' wherem I dwelt. 
Upon my bosom in Antenor's land^ 
Were made, where to be more secure I thought 
The author of the deed was.Este's prince, 
Who, more than right could warrant, with his wrath 
Pursued me. Had I towards M ira fled, 
When overtaken at Oriaco, still 
Might I have breathed. But to the marsh I sped ; 
And in the mire and rushes tangled there 
Fell, and beheld my life-blood float the plain.** 
Then said another : ** Ah ! so may the wish. 
That tEikes thee o'er the ifk>untain, be fulfill'd. 
As thou shalt graciously give aid to mine. 
Of Montefeltro I f Buonconte I : 
Giovanna* nor none else have care for me ; 
Sorrowing with these I therefore go.'* I thus: 
" From Campaldmo's field what force or chance 

1 TluU land.] The Marca d*Ancona, between R<»nagna 
and Apulia, the kingdom of Charies of Anjou. 

3 From tkenee I came.] Giaccpo del Cassero, a citizen of 
Fano, who having spoken ill of Azzo da Este, Marqnis of 
Ferrara, was by his orders pnt to death. Giacopo was over 
taken by the assassins at Oriaco, a place near the Brenta, 
ftom whence if he had fled towards Mira, higher up on that 
river, instead of making for the marsh on the sea-shore, he 
might have escaped. 

* The blood.] Supposed to be the seat of life. 

* Jlntator't land.] The city of Padna, said to be founded 
hy Anten<Nr.— This implies a reflection on the Padnans. Seo 
Hell, xxxii. 89. Thos G. Villani calls the Venetians " the 
perfidious descendants from the blood of Antenor, the be 
trayer of Ws country, Troy." Lib. xi. cap. 89 

* OfMonUfdtro L] Buonconte (son of Guide da Monte- 
feltro, whom we have had Iq the twenty-seventh Canto of 
Hell) fell in the battle of Campaldino, (1289,) fighting on the 
side of the Aretini. In this engagement onr Poet took a dis- 
tiugnished part, as we have seen related in his life. Sts Fazio 
degii Uberti, Dittamondo, lib. ii. cap. xziz. 

* CTMoanno.] EitbOT the wife, or a kinswoman of Buoa 

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•1-WO. PURGATORY, Canto V. 249 

Drew thee, that ne'er thy sepulture was known?" 

" Oh !'' answer'd he, " at Casentino's foot 
A stream there courseth, named Archiano, sprung 
In Apennine above the hermit's seat' 
E'en where its name is cancell'd,* them came I, 
Pierced in the throat,* fleeing away on foot, 
And bloodybig the plain. Here sight and speech 
Fail'd me ; and, finishing with Mwy*B name, 
I fell, and tenantlesa my flesh remain'd. 
I will report the truth ; which thou again 
Tell to the livmg. Me God's angel took,* 
While he of hell exclaim'd : * O thou from heaven ! 
*'Say wherefore hast thou robb'd me ? Thou of him 

* Th' eternal portion bear'st with thee away, 

* For one poor tear' that he deprives me of. 
' But of the other, other rule I make.' 

" Thou know'st how in the atmosphere collects 
That vapor dank, returning into water 
Soon as it mounts where cold condenses it 
That evil will,' which in his intellect 
Still follows evil, came ; and raised the wind 
And smoky mist, by virttie of tlie power 
Given by his nature. Thence the valley, soon 
As day was spent, he cover'd q'er with cloud. 
From Pratomagno to the mountain range f 
And stretch'd the sky above ; so that the air 
Impregnate changed (o water. Fell the rain ; 
And to the losses came all that the land 
Contain'd not ; and, as mightiest streams are wont, 
To the great river, with such headlong sweep. 

1 T7te hermiVa seat."] The hermitage of CamaldoU. 
s Where its name is cancelled.] That is, between Bibbiena 
and Poppi, where the Archiano falls into the Amo. 

* Tlroat.J In the former editions it was printed " heut.** 
Ifr. Cariyle has observed the error. 

* Me OoiTs angel took.] Cum autem finem vitee explesset 
servas Dei aspiciens vidit diabolum Fimul et Angelum ad 
animam stantem ac nnom qaemque illam sibi tollere fesU- 
Bantem. Alherici Visio^ $ 18. 

» For one poor tear.} Visum est quod angelus Domini la- 

ehrimas quas dives ille fuderat in ampulla tenerSt Al' 

heriei Fisio, $ 18. 

* That evil toill.] The devil. Lombard! refer* us to Alber- 
tas Magnus, de Potentift Demonnm. Tliis notion of the Evil 
Bp\xit having power over the elements, appears to have arisen 
from his being termed the 'prince of the air,* in the New 

* Urom Pratomagno to the mounUiin range.} From Prato- 
magno, now called Prato Veechio (which divides the Yalr 
daino from Casentino) as fiur as to the Apennine. 

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350 rHE V.SION. 1S1-13S 

Rash'd, that naught stayed its coune. My stifl^'l 
Laid at hki mouth, the fell Arohiano found, [framo; 
And dash'd it into Amo ; from my breast 
Loosening the cross, that of myaeU I made 
When overcome with pain. He hurl*d me on, 
.AJong the banks and bottom of his coune ; 
Then in his muddy spoils encircling wrapp'd." 

" Ah ! when thou to the world shalt be retuni*d» 
And rested after thy long road," so spake 
Next the third spuit ; " then remember me. 
I once was Pia.' Sienna gave me life ; 
Maremma took it from me. That he knows. 
Who me with jewelFd ring had first espoused." 


Many besides, who are in like case with those sfxAen of la 
the last Canto, beseech our Poet to obtain for them the 
prayers of their friends, when he shall be returned to this 
world. This moves him to express a doubt to his guide, 
how the dead can be profited by the prayers of the living ; 
for the solution of which doubt he is referred to Beatrice 
Afterwards he meets with Sordello the Mantuan, whose 
afi^ction, shown to Virgil his countryman, leads Dante to 
break forth into an invective against the unnatural diii 
sions with which Italy, and more especially Florence, was 

When from their game of dice men separate, 
He who hath lost remains in sadness fii^'d. 
Revolving in his mind* what luckless throws = 
He cast: but, meanwhile, all the company 
Go with the other ; one before him runs, 
And one behind hb mantle twitches, one 
Fast by his side bids him remember him. 
He stopB not ; and each one, to whom his hand 
Is stretch'd, well knows he bids him stand aside ; 

1 Pia.] She is said to have been a Siennese lady, of the 
fkmily of Tolommei, secretly made away with by her hus- 
band Nello della Pietra of the same city, in Maremma, where 
he had some possessions. 

> Revolving in kit mind."] 

■ Riman dolente 
Ripetendo le volte, e triste impara. 

Lombard! explains this : "That the loser remains by him 
self, and taking up the dice easts them over again, as if to 
learn how he may throw the numbers he could vdsh to come 
up.** There is something very natural in this ; bat whether 
the aeuki can be fiibrly deduced ftom the words, is anottet 

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10-25. PURGATORY, Canto VI. 351 

And thus* he from the press defends hunselfl 
E'en sach was I in that close-crowding throng ; 
And turning so my face around to all, 
And promising, I 'scaped from it with pains. 

Here of Arezzo him^ I saw, who fell 
By Ghino's cruel arm ; and him beside,' 
Who in his chase was swallowed by the frtream. 
H^re Frederic Novello,* with his hand 
Stretched forth, entreated ; and of Pisa he,' 
Who put the good Marzuco to such proof 
Of constancy. Count Orso' I beheld ; 
And from its frame a soul dismissed for spite 
And enyy, as it said, but for no crime ; 
I speak of Peter de la Brosse '? and here, 

> And thvs.'\ The late Archdeacon Fisher pointed out to 
me a passage in the Novela de la Gitanilia of Cervantes, 
Ed. Valentia, 1797, p. 12, ttom which it appears that it was 
asual for money to be given to bystanders at play by win- 
ners; and as he well remarked: "Dante is uerefore do- 
scribing, with his nsnal power of observation, what he had 
often seen, the shuffling, boon-denying exit of the snccessfbl 

3 Of Arezzo him.] Benincasa of Arez20, eminent for hit 
skill m jurisprudence, who having condemned to death Tur- 
rkjio da Turrita, brother of Ghino di Tacco, for his robberies 
ill Maremma, was murdered by Ghino, in an apartment of his 
own house, in the presence of many witnesses. Ghino was 
nut only suffered to escape in safety, but (as the commenta- 
tor inform us) obtained so high a reputation by the liberality 
with which he was accustomed to dispense the fruits of his 
plunder, and treated those who fell into his hands with so 
mdch courtesy, that he was afterwards invited to Rome, and 
kidghted by Boniface VIII. A story is told of him by Boo- 
caucio, G. z. N. 2. 

• Him beside.} Clone, or Ciacco de' Tarlatti of Arezzo. He 
is said to have been carried by his horse into the Arno, and 
theje drowned, while he was in pursuit of certain of his en- 

• Frederic J^oveUo.] Son of the Conte Guido da BattlfoUe, 
and slain by one of the family of Bostoli. 

6 Of Pisa he.] Farinata de' Scornigiani of Pisa. Hit fk- 
ther Marzuco, who had entered the order of the Fratl Minori, 
so entirely overcame the feelings of resentment, that he even 
kissed the hands of the slayer of his son, and, as he was 
following the funeral, exhorted his kinsmen to reconciliation. 
The eighteenth and thirtieth in the collection of Guittone 
d'Arezzo's Letters are addressed to Marzuco. The latter is 

• Count Orso.] Son of Napoleone da Cerbaia, slain by 
Alberto da Mangona, his uncle. 

t Peter de la Brosse.] Secretary of Philip IlL of France 
The courtiers, envying the high place which he held in the 
king's fovor, prevailed on Mary of Brabant to chaxge him 
fliliely with an attempt upon her person ; to which supposed 
crime he suffered death. 

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While she yet lives, that Lady of Brabant, 

Let her beware ; lest for so false a deed 

She herd with worse than these. When I was fr ee d 

From all those spirits, who pray'd for others' prayen 

To hasten on their state of blessedness ; 

Straight I began : " O thou, my luminary ! 

It seems expressly in thy text^ denied, 

That heaven's supreme decree can ever bend 

To supplicaticm ; yet with this design 

Do these entreat Can then their hope be vain T 

Or is thy saying not to me reveal'd?" 

He thus to me : " Both what I write is plaint 
And tneee deceived not in their hope ; if well 
Thy mind cimsider, that the sacred height 
Of judgment* doth not stoop, because love's flame 
In a short moment all fulfils, which he. 
Who sojourns here, in right should satisfy. 
Besides, when I this point concluded thus, 
By praying no defect could be supplied ; 
Because the prayer had none access to God. 
Yet in this deep suspicion rest thou not 
Contented, unless she assure thee so. 
Who betwixt truth and mind infuses light ; 
I know not if thou take me right ; I mean 
Beatrice. Her thou shalt behold above,* 
Upon this mountain's crown, fair seat of joy." 

Then I : '' Sir ! let us mend < ur speed ; for now 
I Ure not as before : and lo ! the hilT 

So say the Italian commentators. Henaalt represents the 
matter very differently: ** Pierre de la Brosse, formerly bar- 
ber to St Louis, afterwards the favorite of Philip, fearing 
the too great attachment of the king for his wife Mary, ae 
coses this princess of having poisoned Louis, eldest son of 
Philip, by his first marriage. This calumny is discovered by 
a nun of Nlvelle in Flanders. La Brosse is hnng." Ahr^k 
C:hron., 1275, &c. The Deputati, or those deputed to wnte 
annotations on the Decameron, suppose that Boccaccio, in 
the Giomata, 11. Novella 9, took the story Arom this passage 
in Dante, only concealing the real names and chanpng the 
incidents in some parts, in order not to wound the feelings 
of those whom, as it was believed, these incidents had m 
lately befkllen. Ediz. Giunti, 1573, p. 40. 

1 /» tkf UxL\ He refers to Virgil, iEn., lib. vi. 378. 
Desine fkta de(km fleet! sperare preeando. 

a jt^ #flcr«rf height 

Cf judgment.] 
00 Shakspeare, Measure for Measure, act ii. se. & 
If he, which is the top of Judgment. 

* 4iMM.] See Pnigat, c zxx. v. 33. 

^ Tk» hulJ] It was now past the iioob. 

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»-7» PURGATORY. Ciirto VL S58 

Stretches its shadow far." He answei'd thus : 
** Our progress with this day shall be as much 
As we may now diq>atch ; but otherwise' 
Than thou supposest is the truth. For there 
Thou canst not be, ere thou once more behold 
Him back returning, who behmd the steep 
Is n«w BO hidden, that, as erst, his beam 
Thou dost not break. But lo ! a epint there 
Stands solitary, and toward us looks : 
It will instruct us in the speediest way.*' 

We soon approach'd it O thou Lombard spirit ! 
How didst thou stand, in high abstracted mood. 
Scarce moving with dow dignity thine eyes. 
It spoke not aught, but let us onward pavy 
Eyeing us as a lion on his watch.^ 
But Virgil, with entreaty mild, advanced, 
Requesting it to show the best ascent 
It answer to his question none retum'd ; 
But of our country and our kind of life 
Demanded. When my courteous guide began, 
" Mantua," the shadow, m itself alworb'd,' 
Rose towards us from the place in which it stood. 
And cried, ** Mantuan ! I am thy countryman, 
Sordello.'" Each the other then embraced. 

1 Eyeing ut as a lion on Ms vatch.] 

A guisa di leon qaando si posa. 
A line taken by Tasso, 6. L., can. z. st 56. 

s The shadovty in itself obsorb*d.] I had before translated 
**The solitary shadow;" and have made the alteration in 
consequence of Monties just remark on the original, that 
entta in se romita does not mean "solitary," bnt ** collected, 
concentrated in itself." Bee his Proposta under ** Romito.** 
Vellntello had shown him the way to this interpretation, 
when he explained the words by tutta in se raccotta e sola. 
Petrarch applies the expression to the spirit of Lanra, when 
departing from the body. See his Triumph of Death, cap. L 

* Sordello.] The historv of Bordello's life is wrapped in the 
obscniity of romance^ That he distinguished himself by his 
skill in Provencal poetry is certain ; and many feats of mili- 
tary prowess have been attributed to him. It is probable 
that he was bom towards the end of the twelfth, and liied 
about the middle of the succeeding century. Tirabofctii. 
who terms him the most illustrious of all the Provencal 
poets of his age, has taken much pains to sift all the notices 
he could collect relating to him, and has particularly ex- 
posed the fabulous narrative which Platina has introduced 
on ttiis subject in his history of Mantua. Honorable men- 
tion of his name is made by our Poet in the treatise de 
YiUf. Eloq., lib. i. cap. 15, wliere it is said that, remarkable 
M he was for eloquence, he deserted the vernacular langnaft 

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S54 THEYiaON. 7«-« 

Ah, dayudi Italy ! thou inn of grief!' 
Vessel without a pilot in loud stonn ! 
Lady no longer of fair provinces, 
But brothel-house impure ! this gentle spirit, 
Even from the pleasant sound of his dear land 
Was prompt to greet a fellow-citizen 
With such glad cheer: while now thy living onesF 
In thee abide not without war ; and one 
Malicious gnaws another ; ay, of those 
Whom the same wall and the same moat contains. 
Seek, wretched one ! around thy sea-coasts wide ; 
Then homeward to thy bosom turn ; and mark. 
If any part of thee sweet peace enjoy. 
What boots it, that thy reins Justinian's hand* 
Refitted, if thy saddle be unpress'd ? 
Naught doth he now but aggravate thy shame. 
Ah, people ! thou obedient still shouldst live. 
And in the saddle let thy Csosar sit. 
If well thou markedst that which God commands..^ 

Look how that beast to fellness hath relapsed. 
From having lost correction of the spur, 
Since to the bridle thou hast set thine hand. 

of his own country, not only in his poems, but In every other 
kind of writing. Tiraboschi had at first concluded him to 
be the same writer whom Dante elsewhere (De Vulg. £loq., 
lib. ii. c. 1.3) calls Gottus Mantuanus, but afterwards gave 
up that opinion to the authority of the Conte d'Arco and 
the Abate Bettinelli. By Bastero, in his Crusca Provenzale, 
Ediz. Roma, 1734, p. H among Bordello's MS. poems in 
the Vatican are mentioned *'Canzoni, Tenzoni. tk>bbole,** 
and various ** Serventesi," particularly one in the form of a 
funeral song on the death of Blancas, in which the poet 
reprehends all the reigning princes in ChristendcMn. This 
last was well suited to attract the notice of our author. 
Mention of Bordello will recur in the notes to the Paradise, 
c. ix. V. 33. Bince this note was written, many of Bordello** 
poems have been brought to light by the industry of M. Rav 
Douard in his Choix des Poesies des Troubadours and his 
Lexique Roman. 
» Thou inn ofgritf.] 

S* io son d'ogni doI<ne ostello e chiave. 

F'ita J^uova di DanU^ p. S85. 

Thou most beauteous inn, 

Why should hard-favor'd grief be lodged in thee ? 

Shakapeare, Richard ILy act v. sc. 1. 
< Thy living one»»'\ Compare Milton, P. L., b. ii. 496, &c. 

* Juttinian*9 hand.] " What avails it that Justinian deliv 
ered thee from the Goths and reformed thy laws, if thou art 
BO longer under the control of his successors in the empire V 

* T%at which God conmandt.} He alludes to the precept— 
" Sender xuntoCmwt the thlngi ^hich are Cesar's." 

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««-n6. PURGATORY, Canto VL 255 

O German Albert !* who abandon*8t her 

That is grown savage and unmanageable, 

When thou shouldst clasp her flanks with forked LeeUh 

Just judgment from the stars fall on thy blood ; 

And be it strange and manifest to all ; 

Such as may strike thy successor* with dread ; 

For that thy sire* and thou have sufler'd thus, 

Through greedinjss of yonder realms detained. 

The garden of the empire to run waste. 

Come, see the Capuiets and Montagues,^ 

The Filippeschi and Monaldi,* man 

Who carest for naught ! those sunk in grief, and these 

With dire suspicion rack'd. Come, cruel one ! 

Come, and behold the oppression of the nobles. 

And mark their injuries ; and thou mayst see 

What safety Santafiore can supply.' 

Come and behold thy Rome,^ who calls on thee. 

Desolate widow, day and night with moans, 

" My Cesar, why dost thou desert Iny side V* 

1 O German Albert /] The Emperor Albert I. succeeded < 
Adolphus in 1298, and was murdered in 1308. See Par., 
Canto xix. 114. 

> Thy successor.] The successor of Albert was Henry of 
Luzemburgh, bV whose interposition in the a&irs of Italy 
our Poet hoped to have been reinstated in his native city. 

* 7%y sire.] The Emperor Bodolph, too intent on increas- 
ing his power in Germany to give much of his thoughts to 
Italy, " the garden of the empire." 

* Captdets and Montagiies.] Our ears are so familiarized 
to the names of these rival houses in the language of Shak- 
speare, that I have used them instead of the "Montecchi" 
and " Cappelletti." They were two powerftil Ghibelline 
families of Verona. In some parts of that play, of which 
they form the leading characters, our great dramatic poet 
seems to have been not a little indebted to the Hadriana of 
Luigi Groto, commonly called II cieco d' Adria. See Walker's 
Historical Memoir on Italian Tragedy, 4to. 1799, $ L p. 49. 

B filippeschi and Monaldi.] Two other rival families in 

* fFhat safety Santafiore can supply.] A place between 
Pisa and Sienna. What he alludes to is so doubtful, that it 
is not certain whether we should not read " come si cura**— 
"How Santafiore is governed." Perhaps the event related 
in the note to v. 58, canto zi. may be pointed at. 

T Come and behold thy Rome.] Thus in the Latin Epistle to 
the Cardinals, which has been lately discovered in the Lan- 
rentian library, and has every appearance of being Dante*^B : 
** Romam urbem, nunc utroque lumine destitntam, nunc Han- 
nibali nednm aliis miserandam, solam sedentem et viduam, 
pront superius proclamatur, qualis est, pro modulo nostra 
imaginis, ante mortales oculos affigatis omnes." Opeie minocl 
di Dante, torn. iU. ; P** il. p. 870, 12o Fir. 184a 

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S56 THE VISION. 117*-1« 

Come, and behold what love among thy people: 
And if no pity teaches thee for va, 
Come, and blush for thine own report For me» 
If it be lawful, O Ahnighty Power! 
Who wast in earth for our sakes crucified, 
Are thy just eyes tum*d elsewhere ? or is this 
A preparation, in the wondrous depth 
Of thy sage counsel made, for some good end* 
Entirely from our reach of thought cut off? 
So are the Italian cities all o'erthronsfd 
With tyrants, and a great MarcellusTmade 
Of every petty factious villager. 

My Florence ! thou mayst well remain unmoved 
At this digression, which afiects not thee : 
.Thanks to thy people, who so wisely speed. 
Many have justice in their heart, that long 
Waiteth for counsel to direct the bow, 
Or ere it dart unto its aim: but thine 
Have it on theif lip's edge. Many refuse' 
To bear the common burdens : readier thine 
Answer uncalled, and cry, " Behold I stoop !" 

Make thyself glad, for thou hast reason now, 
Thou wealthy ! thou at peace ! thou wisdom-franghll 
Facts best will witness if I speak the truth. 
Athens and Lacedsemon, who of old 
Enacted laws, for civil arts renown'd, 
Made little progress in improving life 
Towards thee, who usest such nice subtlety. 
That to the middle of November scarce 
Reaches the thread thou in October weavest 
How many times within thy memory. 
Customs, and laws, and coins, and offices 
Have been by thee renew'd, and people changed 

If thou remember*st well and canst see clear, 
Thou wilt perceive thyself like a sick wretch,' 

1 Marcellus.] Un Marcel diTents 

Ogni villan che parteggiando viene. 
Repeated by Alamanni in his Coltivazione, lib. i. 

He SHTobably means the Marcelliu who opposed Julias 

s Many r^tuc] He appears to have been of Plaio*s mind, 
that in a commonwealth of worthy inen, place and power 
wonld be as much declined as they are now songht after and 
eoveted. Ktviwvgiu wdXit ivSp6v kfyaB&v i< yiwoiTo^ ntpi* 

s A siek wretek.} Imitated by the Cardiiial de PoUgnae la 

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m,153. PUROiTORT, Canto Vn. Wl 

Who findi BO rest upon her down, hut olt 
Shifting her side, 8lM>rt respite seeks from pain. 


rhe approach of night hindering farther ascent, Sordello con* 
dnct> onr Poet apart to an eminence, fW>ni whence they 
behold a pleasant recess, In form of a flowery valley, scorp- 
ed out of the monntain ; where are many famous splribk 
and among them the Emperor Rodolph, Ottocar, Xing or 
Bohemia, Philip III. of France, Henry of Navarre, Peter III 
of Anigon, Charles I. of Naples, Henjy IIL df En^and, anA 
William, Marquis of Montferrat. 

After their courteous greetings joyfully 
Seven times exchanged, Sordello hackward drew 
Exclaiming, ** Who are ye 1" — " Before this mount 
By spirits worthy of ascent to God*^ 
Was sought, my bones had by Octavius' care 
Been buried. I am Vurgil ; for no sin 
Deprived of heaven, except for lack of faith." 
So answer'd him in few my gentle guide. 

As one, who aught before him suddenly 
Beholding, whence his wonder riseth, cries, 
•* It is, yet is not," wavering in belief; 
Such he appear'd ; then downward bent his eyes, • 
And, drawing near with reverential step, 
Caugnt mm, where one of mean estate might clasp 
His lord.* « Glory of Latium !" he exclaimed, 
** In whom our tongue its utmost power displayed ; 
Boast of my honor'd birth-place ! what desert' 
Of mme, what favor, rather, undeserved, 
Shows thee to me? If I to hear that voice 
Am worthy, say if from below thou comest, [orb 
And from what cloister's pale." — " Through eveiy 

Cea tectum peragrat membris languentibus i^r, 
In latns altcme Isevom deztramqne recnmbens : 
Nee jnvat: inde oculos tollit rosupinus in altum: 
Nnsquam Inventa quies ; semper qncsita : quod Ull 
Primum in deliciis Aierat, mox torquet et angit: 
Nee morbnm saoat, nee fallit tsdia morbi. 

* Where one of mean estate might clasp 

His lord.] So Ariosto, Orl. F., c xxiv. st. 19. 

E Tabbracciaro, ove il maggior s^abbracda, 

Ck>l capo nudo e col ginocchio chino. 

■ What desert.] So Frezzi : 

Unal grazia, o qual destin m* ha flttto degno 
Che io ti vegria. • 11 Quadrir.fVLb.t9 cap. A 

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Of that sad region," be replied, << thos far 

Am I airived, by beayenly inflaence led : 

And with such aid I come. Not for my doing,' 

But for not doing, have I lost the sight 

Of that high Sun, whom thou desirest, and who 

By me too late was known. There is a place* 

There underneath, not made by torments sad. 

But by dun shades alone ; where mourning's voice 

Sounds not of anguish sharp, but breathes in ngfas 

There I with little innocents abide. 

Who by death's fangs were bitten, ere exempt 

From human taint There I with those abide. 

Who the three holy virtues* put not on, 

But understood the rest,^ and without blame 

Follow'd them all But, if thou know'st, and eanst* 

Direct us how we soonest may arrive. 

Where Purgatory its true beginning takes.** 

He answered Uius : " We have no certain place 
Assigned us : upwards I may go, or round. 
Far as I can, I jom thee for thy guide. 
But thou beholdest now how day declmes ; 
And upwards to proceed by night, our power 
Excels : therefore it may be well to choose 
A place of pleasant sojourn. To the right 
Some spuits sit apart retired. If thou 
, Consentest, I to these will lead thy steps : 
And thou wilt know them, not without delight." 

" How chances this?" was answer'd : " whoso wish'd 
To ascend by night, would he be thence debarred 
By other, or through his own weakness fail?" 

The good Sordello then, along the ground 
Trailing his finger, spoke : " Only this Ime* 
Thou shalt not overpass, soon as the sun 
Hath disappear'd ; not that aught else impedes 
Thy going upwards, save the shades of night 
These, with the want of power, perplex the will. 
With them thou haply mightst return beneath. 
Or to and fro around the mountain's side 
Wander, while day is in the horizon shut" 

1 Jfotfor my doing.] I am indebted to the Idndness of llr 
Lyell for pointing oat to me that three lines of the ori^nal 
were here omitted in the former editions of this transUtion. 

t There it a place.] Limbo. See Hell, Canto It. 34. 

* The three holy vtrtuesA Faith, Hope, and Charity. 

* 7%e reeU] Pradence, Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance 
ft Onlf this line.] '' Walk while ye have the light, lest dark- 

aess come upon you ; for he that walketh in dariiness, know- 
eth not whither he goeth.** John xU. 35. 

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UreSk PURGATORY, Canto YIL 259 

My master straiglit, as wondering at his speeeh, 
Exclaim'd : ** Then lead us quickly, where thou saysi 
That, while we stay, we may enjoy delight" 

A little space we were removed from thence, 
When I perceived the mountain hoUow'd out, 
Even as large valleys^ hollow'd out on earth. 

" That way," the escorting spirit cried, " we go. 
Where in a bosom the high bank recedes : 
And thou await renewal of the day." 

Betwixt the steep and plain, a crooked path 
Led us traverse into the ridge's side. 
Where more than half the sloping edge ezjNres. 
Refulgent gold, and silver thrice refined, 
And scarlet grain and ceruse, Indian wood* 
Of lucid dye serene,- fresh emeralds* 
But newly broken, by the herbs and flowers 
Placed in that fair recess, in color all 
Had been surpassed, as great surpasses less. 
Nor nature only there lavished her hues. 
But of the sweetness* of a thousand smells 
A rare and undistinguished fragrance made. 

" Salve Regina,"* on the grass and flowers, 

1 w9« large valleys.j Viatores enim per viam rectam dam 
anjbulant, campum juxta viam cernentes spatiosom et pal- 
chram, oblitique itineris dicunt intra se iter per campom istom 
fociamns, &c. Alberiei FUiOj $ 28. 
s JndioM taood.] 

Indico legno lucido e serene. 
It is a little uncertain what is meant by this. Indigo, al- 
thoagh it is extracted from an herb, seems the most likely. 
Monti in his Proposta maintains it to be ebony. 
* Dre9h emerald*.'} 

Under foot the violet, 
Crocus, and hyacinth with rich inlay 
Broider'd the ground, morecolor*d than with stone 
Of eostUest emblem. MUtoUf P. L.y b. iv. 703L 

Zaffir, mbini, oro, topazj, e perle, 
E diamanti, e crisoliti e giacinti 
Potriano i fieri assimigliar, che per le 
Liete piagge v*avea I'aura dlplnti ; 
Si verdi rerbe, che potendo averle 
Qua giu me foran gli smeraldi vinti. 

AriottOy Orl. Fur.y Canto xxziv. st 4il 
4 T%e gwetitMtt.l 

E quella ai fieri, ai ponii, e alia verznra 
Gli odor diversi depredando giva, 
E di tntti faceva una mistura, 

Che di soaviti Talma notriva. Ibid. st. 51 

A Balve Regina.} The beginning Qf a prayer to the Yirgin 

It is sufficient here to observe, that in similar instances I shall 

either preserve the original Latin words or translate them, at 

it may seem best to suit the purpose of the verse. 

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Here chanting, I beheld those spirits sit, 
Who not beyond the valley could be seen. 

" Before the westering sun sink to his bed," 
Began the Mantuan, who our steps had tum*d» 
** *Mid those, desire not that I lead ye on. 
For from this eminence ye shall discern 
Better the acts and visages of all, 
Than, in Uie nether vale, among thorn mix'd 
He, who sits high above the rest, and seems 
To have neglected that he should have done. 
And to the others' song moves not his lip. 
The £mperor Rodolph^ call, who might have heai'd 
The wounds whereof fair Italy hath died, 
So that by others she revives but slowly. 
He, who with kindly visage comforts him, 
Sway'd in that country,^ where the water springs. 
That Moldaw's river to the Elbe, and Elbe 
Rolls to the ocean : Ottocar* his name : 
Who in his swaddling clothes was of more worth 
Than Winceslaus his son, a bearded man, 
Pamper'd with rank luxuriousness and ease. 
And that one with the nose depress'd,^ who close 
In counsel seems with him of gentle look,* 
Flying expired, withering the lily's flower. 
Look there, how he doth knock against his breast! 
The other ye behold, who for his cheek 
Makes of one hand a couch, with frequent sighs. 
They are the father and the father-m-law 
Of Gallia's bane :• his vicious life they know 

• 1 Tie Emperor Rodolph.] See the last Canto, v. 104. H« 
died in 1291. 
9 T%at country.] Bohemia. 

* Ottoear.] King of Bohemia, who was killed in the battle 
of Marchfield, foaght with Rodolph, Angnst 26, 1278. Win- 
ceslaus II. his son, who succeeded him in the kingdom of 
Bohemia, died in 1305. The latter is again taxed with lnxa> 
ry in the Paradise, xlx. 123. 

* 7%a« one with the nose depreae^d.] Philip HI. of France, 
&ther of Philip IV. He died in 1285, at Perpignan, in his re- 
treat from Aragon. 

* Him of gentle look.} Henry of Navarre, father of Jane 
married to PMlip IV. of France, whom Dante calls *'mal di 
Francia"— " 6allia*8 bane.'* 

* Oailia*9 bane.] G. Villani, lib. vii. cap. 146, speaks with 
equal resentment of Philip IV. " In 1291, on the night of 
the calends of May, Philip le Bel, King of France, by advice 
of Biccio and Musciatto Franzesi, ordered all the Italians; 
who were in his country and realm, to be seissed, under pre- 
tence of seizing the money-lenders, but thus he caused the 
good merchants also to be seized and ransomed; for whiek 

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lia-12». PURGATORY, Canto VII. j361 

And foul ; thence comes the grief that rends them 
" He 80 robust of limb,^ who measure keeps 
In song with him of feature prominent,' 
With every virtue bore his girdle braced. 
And if that stripUng,' who behind him sits. 
King after him had lived, his virtue then 
From vessel to like vessel had been pour'd ; 
Which may not of the other heirs be said. 
By James and Frederick^ his realms are held ; 
Neither the better heritage obtains. 
Rarely* into the branches of the tree 

he was mnch blamed and held in great abhorrence. And 
from thenceforth the realm of France fell evermore into deg- 
radation and decline. And it is observable, that between 
the taldLg of Acre and this seizure in France, the merchants 
of Florence received great damage and ruin of their prop- 

> J7e, 90 robust of limb.\ Peter III., called the Great, King 
of Aragon, who died in 1285, leaving four sons, Alonzo, 
James, Frederick, and Peter. The two former succeeded 
him in the kingdom of Aragon, and Frederick in that of 
SicUy. See 6. Viliani, lib. vU. cap. 102, and Mariana, lib jdv. 
cap. 9. 

He is ennn.erated among the Provencal poets by MilloL 
Hist Litt des Troubadours, torn. iii. p. 150. 

* Him of feature prominent.] " Dal maschio naso'*—" with 
the masculine nose.** Charles I. King of Naples, Count of 
Aqkra, and brother of St. Louis. He <ued in 1284. 

The annalist of Florence remarks, that " there had been 
no sovereign of the house of France, since the time of Char- 
lemagne, by whom Charles was surpassed, either in military 
renown and prowess, or in the lofklness of his understand- 
In^*' G. Viliani, Ub. vii. cap. 94. We shall, however, find 
many of his actions severely reprobated in the twentieth 

* That ttripling.] Either (as the old commentators sup- 
pose) Alonzo III. King of Aragon, the eldest son of Peter III, 
who died in 1291, at the age of twenty-seven ; or, according 
to Venturl, Peter the youngest son. The former was a young 
INrlnce of virtue sufficient to h»ve justified the eulogium and 
the hopes of Dante. See Mariana, lib. xiv. cap. 14. 

* By Jame* and Frederick.] See note to Canto ilL 113. 
» Rardy.] 

Full well can the wise poet of Florence, 
That hlght Dantes, speake in this sentence ; 
Lo ! in such manner rime is Dantes tale. 
Full selde uprtseth by his branches smale 
Prowesse of man, for God of his goodnesse 
Well that we claim of him our gentlenesse : 
Fw of our elders may we nothing claime 
Bat temporal thing, that men may hurt and maime. 

Ckaueer^ Wife of Satk4*9 TaU, 
Oonpaie Homer, Od., b. ii v. 970, Pindar, Nem^ zi. 48, and 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

962 THE VISION 13^138 

Doth human worth mount up : and so ordains 

He who bestows it, that as his free gift 

It may be call'd. To Charles* my words apply 

No less than to his brother in the song ;• 

Which Pouille and Provence now wiUi grief confe« 

So much that plant degenerates from its seed, 

As, more than Beatrix and Margaret, 

Costanza' still boasts of her valorous spouse. 

" Behold the king of simple life and plain, 
Harry of England,' sitting there alone : 
He through his branches better issue* spreads. 

" That one, who, on the ground, beneath the M«t| 
Sits lowest, yet his gaze directs aloft. 
Is William, that brave Marquis,* for whose cauae. 
The deed of Alexandria and his war 
Makes Montferrat and Canavese weep." 

1 7\» Charles.] "Al Nasuto"—" Charles H. King of Na- 
ples, is no less inferior to his father Charles I., than James 
and Frederick to theirs, Peter in." See Canto xz. 78, and 
Paradise, Canto xix. 1525. 

* Costama.] Widow of Peter m. She has been already 
mendoned in the third Canto, v. 112. By Beatrix and Mar- 
nuret are probably meant two of the daughters of Raymond 
Berenger, Count of Provence ; the latter married to St. Louis 
of France, the former to his brother, Charles of Anjou, Kii% 
of Naples. See Paradise, Canto vi. 135. Dante therefore con- 
siders Peter as the most illustrious of the three monarchs. 

> Harry of England.] Henry III. The contemporary an 
nalist speaks of this king in similar terms. 6. Viliani, lib. v. 
cap. 4. "From Richard was horn Henry, who reigned after 
him, who was a plain man and of good folth, but of little 
Murage." With the exception of the last part of the sen- 
tence, which must be changed fw its opposite, we might well 
ima^ne ourselves to be reading the character of our present 
venerable monarch, (A. D. 1819.) Fazio degli Ubertl, Ditta- 
raondo, 1. iv. cap. xzv., where he gives the characters of our 
Norman kings, speaks less respectfully of Henry. CapitoU 
zxiil-xxv. lib. iv., of tliis neglected poem appear to deserve 
the notice of our antiquarians. 

* Better issue.] Edward I.; of whose glory our Poet was 
perhaps a witness, in his visit to England. ** From the said 
Henry was born the good King Edward, who reinis in our 
times, who has done great things, whereof we shall make 
mention in due place." G. VUlanif ibid. 

B William,that Wave Marquis.] William, Marquis of Mont- 
ferrat, was treacherously seized by his own subjects, at Ales- 
sandria, in Lombardy, A. D. 1290, and ended his life in prison. 
Bee 6. viliani, lib. vii. cap. 135. A war ensued between the 
people of Alessandria and those of Montferrat and the Caiiai> 
"' ' '^ now a part of Piedmont. 

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M9 PURGATORY, Canto VIH. 363 


Two angels, with flaming swords broken at the points, de- 
scend to keep watch over the valley, into which Virgil 
and Dante entering by desire of Bordello, our Poet meets 
with joy the spirit of Nino, the judge of Gallnra, one who 
was well known to him. Meantime three exceedingly 
bright stars appear near the pole, and a serpent creeps 
subtly into the valley, bat flees at hearing the approach of 
those angelic guards. Lastly, <k>nrad Malaspina predicts 
to our Poet his future banishnoient. 

Now was the hour that wakens fond desire 
In men at sea, and melts their thouj^htful heut 
Who in the mom have bid sweet friends farewell, 
And pilgrim newly on his road with love 
Thrills, if he hear the vesper bell from far,^ 
That seems to mourn for the expiring day :* 
When I, no longer takmg heed to hear. 
Began, with wonder, from those spirits to mark 
One risen from its seat, which with its hand 
Audience implored. Both palms it jomM and raised^ 
Fixmg its steadfast gaze toward the east. 
As telling God, " I care for naught beside." 

" Te Lucis Ante,"* so devoutly then 
Came from its lip, and in so soft a strain. 
That all my sense* in ravishment was lost 
And the rest after, softly and devout, 
FoUow'd through all the hymn, with upward gaze 
Directed to the bright supernal wheels. [keen : 

Here, reader!* for the truth make thine («yes 

* Hear the vesper bell from far.] 

I hear the far-ofl'corfeu sound. Milton* s Peiueros0, 
S That seems to mourn for the expiring' day.] 
The curfew tolls the knell'of parting day. 

Gray's Elegy, 

glorno-H^he si muore 

is flrom Statins : 

Jam moriente die. Sylv., I. iv. 6. 3. 

> Te Lucis Jlnte.] **Te lucis ante terminum,'* says Lom- 
bard!, is the first verse of the hymn sung by the church in 
the last part of the sacred oflice termed compiota, a service 
which our Chaucer calls *' complin." 

* All my sense.] 

Fece me a me usclr di mente. 

Me snrpuerat mlhi. Herat. Gtrm., lib. iv. od. 13. 

* Here^ reader!] Lombardi*s explanation of this passage, 
by which the c(»nmentat(Nrs have been much perplexed, 
though it may be thought rather too subtile and flne-spun, 
like the veil itself spoken of in the text, cannot be denied 
the praise of extraordinary ingenuity. "This admonitloa 
•r the poet to his reader,'* he observes, " seems to relat* It 

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264 THE VISION. S(M4; 

For of so snbtle texture is this veil, 

That thou with ease mayst pass it through uikznark'd 

I saw that gentle band silently next 
Look up, as if in expectation held, 
Pale and in lowly guise ; and, from on hi^, 
I saw, forth issuing descend beneath. 
Two angels, with two flame-illuinined swords, 
Broken and mutilated of their points. 
Green as the tender leaves but newly bom. 
Their vesture was, the which, by wings as green 
Beaten, they drew behmd them, fann'd in air. 
A little over us one took his stand ; 
The other lighted on the opposing hill ; 
So that the troop were in the midst contained. 

Well I descried the whiteness on their heads 
But in their visages the dazzled eye 
Was lost, as faculty^ that by too much 
Is overpowered. " From Mary's bosom both 
Are come," exclaim'd Sordello, " as a guard 
Over the vale, 'gainst him, who hither tends, 
The serpent" Whence, not knowing by which path 
He came, I tum'd me round ; and closely press'*!, 
All frozen, lo my leader's trusted side. 

Sordello paused not : " To the valley now 
(For it is time) let us descend ; and hold 

what has been before said, thut these spirits sang the whdia 
of the hymn * Te lucis ante tenninam' throughout, even that 
second strophe of it— 

Procnl recedant somnia, 

Et noctioin phantasroata, 

Hostemque nostrum comprime, 

Ne poliuantor corpora ; 
and he must imply, that these souls, being ineorporeal, did 
not offer up tUs petition on their own account, but on ours, 
who are vet in this worid ; a^ he afterwards malces those othet 
spirits, who repeat the Pater Noster, expressly declare, whea 
after that inrayer they add, 

This last petition, dearest Lcnrd ! is made 
Not for ourselves, Ace. Canto zl. 

As, iherefore, if we look through a very fine veil, the sight 
easily passes on, without perceiving it, to objects that lie on 
the other side ; so here the poet fears that our mind*s eye 
may insensibly pass on to contemplate these spirits, as if they 
were praying for the relief of their own wants ; without dis- 
covering the veil of our wants, with wlilch they invest them* 
■elves in the act of offering up this prayer.'* 
» wf # f acuity. 1 

My earthly by his heavenly overpower*d 

As with an object, that exeels the sense, 

Denied and spent. JI(t/(#n,P.i^l>.vlU.4SX 

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49-73 PURGATORY, Canto VIII. 265 

ConTefse ^ith those great shadows : haply much 
Their sight may please ye." Only three steps down 
Methinks I measured, ere I was beneath, 
And noted one who look'd as with desire 
To know mQ. Time was now that air grew dun ; 
Yet not so dim, that, 'twixt his eyes and mine, 
It cleared not up what was concealed before. 
Mutually towards each other we aHyanced. 
Nino, thou courteous judge !^ what joy I felt, 
When I perceived thou wert not with the bad. 

No salutation kind on either part 
Was left unsaid. He then inquired : " How 'ong, 
Since thou arrivedst at the mountain's foot, 
Over the distant waves?" — ** Oh !" answer'd I, 
*< Through the sad seats of wo this mom I came ; 
And still in my finst life, thus journeying on, 
The other strive to gain." Soon as they heard 
My words, he and Sordello backward drew, 
As suddenly amazed. To Virgil one, 
The other to a spirit tum'd, who near 
Was seated, crying: " ConraM^ up with speed: 
Come, see what of his grace high God hath wiird." 
Then turning round to me : <* By that rare mark 
Of honor, which thou owest to him, who hides 
So deeply his first cause it hath no ford ; 
When thou shalt be beyond the vast of waves, 
Tell my Giovanna,' that for me she call 
There, where reply to innocence is made. 
Her mother,^ I believe, loves me no more ; 

1 JVtno, thou courteous judge.'] Nino di Gallnra de* Viscontl, 
nephew to Coant Ugoiino cfe* Gherardeschi} and betrayed by 
him. See Notes to Hell, Canto xxxiii. 

* Conrad.] Currado, father to Marcello Malaspina. 

* My Oiovanna.] The daughter of Nino, and wife of Rie- 
eardo da Camino of Trevigi, concerning whom see Paradise. 
c. ix. 43. 

* Her mother.] Beatrice, Marchioness of Este, wife of 
Nino, and after his death married to Galeazzo de* Visconti 
of Miian. It is remarked by Lombard!, that the time v/hlch 
Dante assigns to this Journey, and conseimentiv to (his col- 
loquy with Nhio Visconti, the beginning, that is, of April, is 
prior to the time which Bernardino Corio, in his hLntory of 
Milan, part the second, fixes for the nuptials of Beatrice 
with Galeazzo ; for he records her having been betrothed to 
that prince after the May of this year, (1300,) and her having 
been solemnly espoused at Modena on the 29th of Jane. 
Besides, however, the greater credit due to Dante, on ac- 
count of his having lived at the time when these events 
happened, another circumstance in his favor is the d!screp> 
ancy remarked by Giovambatista Giraldi (Commentor. deile 
cose di Feiraia) in those writers by whom the history of 



S66 THE VISION. 74-f» 

Since 8he has changed the white and wimpled folds* 

Which ahe is doom'd once more with grief to wish. 

By her it easily may be perceived, 

How long in woman lasts the flame of loye» 

If sight and tonch do not relume it ofL 

For her so fair a burial will not make 

The viper,' which calls Milan to the field, 

As had been madiD by shrill Gallura's bird.'" 

He q>oke, and in his visage took the stamp 
Of that right zeal, which with due temperature 
Glows in the bosom. My insatiate eyes 
Meanwhile to heaven had travelled, even there 
Where the bright stais are slowest, as a wheel 
Nearest the asde ; when my guide inquired : 
« What there aloft, my son, has caught thy gazef ' 

I answer'd : " TTie three torches,* with which aer« 
The pole is all on fire." He then to me : 
" The four resplendent stars, thou saw'st this mom, 
Are there beneath ; and these, risen in their stead." 

While yet he spoke, Sordello to himself 
Drew him, and cried « " Lo there our enemy!" 
And with his hand pointed that way to look. 

Along the side, where barrier none arose 
Around the little vale, a serpent lay, 
Such haply as gave Eve the bitter food.* 
Between the grass and flowers, the evil snake 

Beatrice's life has been recorded. Notbing can set the 
general accuracy of our Poet, as to historical ihcts, in a 
stronger point of view, than the difficulty there is in con- 
victing him of even so slight a deviation from it as is h«e 

1 7%ff white and wimpled folds.] The weeds of widow- 

* The viper. "{ The arms of Galeazzo and the ensign of the 

* ShriU Oallura*M bird.} The cock was the ensign of 6al- 
lura, Nino's i»ovince in Sardinia. Hell, zzii. 80, and notes. 
It is not known whether Beatrice had any fhrther cause to 
regret her nuptials with Galeazzo, than a certain shame 
which appears, however unreasonably, to have attached to a 
second marriage. 

* 7»« three torches.'} The three evangelical virtues. Faith, 
Hope, and Chari^. These are supposed to rise in the even- 
ing, in order to denote their belonging to the contemplative; 
as the four others, which are made to rise in the morning^ 
were probably intended to signify that the cardinal virtues 
belong to the active life : or perhaps it may mark the succes- 
sion, in order of time, of the Gospel to the heathen system of 

* Such haply 09 gave Eve the hitter food.} CcMnpaie Milton's 
description of that serpent in the ninth book of the Paradise 

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lW-134. PURGATORY, Canto VIIL 487 

Came on, reverting <^t his lifted head ; 
And, as a beast that smooths its polish^ coat, 
Licking liis back I saw not, nor can tell, 
How those celesUai falcons from their seat 
Moved, but in motion each one well descried. 
Hearing the air cut by their verdant plumes. 
The serpent fled ; and, to their stations, back 
The angels up retum'd with equal flight 

The spirit, (who to Nino, when he call'd. 
Had come,) from viewing me with fixed ken, 
ThFiugh all that conflict, loosen'd not his sight 

** So may the lamp,^ which leads thee up on hight 
Fmd, in thy free resolve, of wax so much. 
As may suffice thee to the enamell'd height," 
It ttms began : ** If any certain news 
Of Valdimagra' and the neighbor part 
Thou know'st, tell me, who once was mighty there. 
They call'd me Conrad Malaspina ; not 
That old one ;• but from him I sprang. The love 
I bore my people is now here refined." 

" In your domains," I answered, " ne'er was I. 
But, through all Europe, where do those men dwell, 
To whom their glory is not manifest ? 
The fame, that honors your illustrious house, 
Proclauns the nobles, and proclauns the land ; 
So that he knows it, who was never there. 
I swear to you, so may my upward route 
Prosper, your honor'd nation not impairs 
The value of her coflfer and her sword. 
Nature and use give her such privilege. 
That while the world is twisted from his coune 
By a bad head, she only walks aright, 
Aiid has the evil way in scorn." He then : 
" Now pass thee on : seven times the tired sua* • 
Revisits not the couch, which with four feet 

1 Maff the lamp.] " May the tfiviDe grace find so hearty a 
eo-operation on the part of thy own will, as shall enable thee 
to ascend to the terrestrial paradise, which is on the top of 
this mountain." 

s VMimagra.] See Hell, Canto xxiv. 144, and notes. 

* That old one.] An ancestor of Conrad Malaspina, who 
was also of that name. 

* Seven timea the tired «tm.] " The sun shall not enter into 
the consteUation of Aries seven times more, befor^ thou shalt 

. have still better cause for the good opinion thou exiuressest 
of Valdimagra, in the kind reception thou shalt there meet 
with." Dante was hospitably received by the Blareheso 
Maroello, or Moieilo Malas^na, during his baniahriient, A.D 

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968 THE VISION. 13S-i3S 

The forked Aries covere, ere that Idnd 
Opinion shall be nail'd into thy brain 
With stronger nails than other's speech ca'i drive ; 
If the sure course of judgment be not stay'd " 



Dsnto is carried up the mountain, aaleep and draamlng, by 
Lucia ; and, on wakening, finds himself, two hours alter 
sunrise, witli Virgil, near the gate of Purgatory, through 
which they are admitted by the angel deputed by Saint 
Peter to keep it. 

Now the fair consort of Tithonus old/ 
Arisen from her mate's beloved arms, 
Look'd palely o'^r the eastern cliff; her brow> 
Lucent with jewels, slitter'd, set in sign 
Of that chill animal, who with his train 
Smites fearful nations : and where then we were, 
Two steps of her ascent the night had pass'd ; 
And now the third was closing up its wing,* 

1 JVO10 the fair contort of Tithon%u old.} 

La eoncubina di Titone antico. 
80 Tassoni, Secchia Rapita, c viii. st. 15. 

La puttanella del canuto amante. 
Venturi, after some of the old commentators, interprets this 
to mean an Aurora, or dawn of the moon ; but this seems 
highly improbable. From what follows it may be coi^ec- 
tured, tliat our Poet intends us to understand that it was now 
near the break of day. 

s Of thai chUl animal.) The scorpion. 

* The third va$ elottng m ito ving.] The night being 
divided into four watches, I think he may mean tliat thS 
third was past, and tlie fourth and last was begtm, so tliat 
there might be some faint glimmering of morning twiliglit; 
and not merely, as Lombardi supposes, that the third watek 
was drawing towards its close, which would still leave aa 
insurmountable difficulty in the first verse. At the begla- 
ning of Canto xv. our Poet makes the evening commence 
three hours befcnre sunset, and he may now consider the 
dawn as beginning a^ the same distance uom sunrise. Those 
who would i^ave the flawn, spoken of in the first verse of tlM 
present Canto, to signify the rising of the moon, construe 
the ** two steps <^ her ascent which the night had pass'd,'* Inte 
as many hours, and not watches ; so as to piake it now about 
the third hour of the night. The old Latin annotator on the 
Monte Cassino MS. alone, as idur as I know, supposing the 
division made by St. Isidore (Oris., lib. 5) of the night into 
•even parts to be adopted by our Poet, concludes that it WM 

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9-84, PURGATORY, Canto IX. 9^9 

When I, who had bo much of Adam with me, 
Sank down upon the grass, overcome with sleep, 
There where all five^ were seated. In that hour, 
When near the dawn the swallow her sad lay, 
Remembermg haply ancient grief,' renews ; 
And when our minds, more wanderers from the flesl^ 
And less by thought restrain'd, are, as 't were, full 
Of holy divination in their dreams ; 
Then, in a vision, did I seem to view 
A golden-feather'd eagle* in the sky. 
With open wings, and hovering for descent ; 
And I was in that place, methought, from whence 
Young Ganymede, from his associates *reft. 
Was suatch'd aloft to the high consistory. 
" Perhaps," thought I within me, " here alone 
He strikes his quarry, and elsewhere disdains 

the third of these ; and he too, therefore, is for the Innu 
dawn. Rosa Morando ingenuously confesses, that to him 
the whole passage is " non esplicabile o almeno difficiUlmo,** 
inexplicable, or, at best, extremely difficnlt. 

1 ^UJive.] Virgil, Dante, Sordello, Nino, and Corrado Ma- 

' Rememberii^ haply ancient grief.] Prc^e having been 
changed into a swallow after the outrage done her by Tereus. 
See Ovid, Metam., lib. vi. 

* Jl golden-feather* d eagle.] So Chaucer, in the House of 
Fame, at the conclnsion of the first book. and beginning of 
tiie second, represents himself carried up by the **grim 
pawes*' of a golden eagle. Much of his description is closely 
imitated from Dante :— 

Methought I saw an eagle sore. 

It was of golde and shone so bright, 
That never sawe men soche a s^ht. 

The House ofthm4,h, L 
This eagle, of which I have yon tolde, 
That with fethirs shone al of golde, 
Whiche that so hie gan to sore, 
I gan beholdin more and more 
To seen her beautee and the W(mder, 
But never was that dente of thonder, 
Ne that thinge that men callin foudre, 
That smite sometime a toure to pondre, 
And in his swifte comminge brend. 
That so swithe gan downwarde discende 
As this foule whan that it behelde, 
That I a roume was in the felde> 
And with his grim pawes stronge, 
Within his sliarpe nailis longe, 
Me fleyng at a swappe he hent, Ice. Ibid. b. ii 
''Avis Candida columbs similis adveniens per 

eomam caidtis suo me ore apprehendens ferre sublimen eepit.** 

MbarUi FiMVt ( 1. 

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270 THE \1SI0N. fa-m. 

To pounce upon the prey." Therewith, it 8eem*dt 

A little wheeling in his aery tour, 

Terrible as the lightning, rush'd he down, 

And snatch'd me upward even to the fire. 

There both, I thought, the eagle and myself, 

Did bum ; and so intense the imagined flames. 

That needs my sleep was broken off. As erst 

Achilles shook himself, and round him roU'd 

His waken'd eyeballs, wondering where he was, 

Whenas his mother had from Chiron fled 

To Scyros, with him sleeping in her arms ; 

(There* whence the Greeks did after sunder him 

E'en thus I shook me, soon as from my face 

The slumber parted, turning deadly pale, 

Like one ice -struck with dread. Sole at my side 

My comfort stood : and the bright sun was now 

More than two hours aloft : and to the sea 

My looks were tum'd. " Fear not," my master crie^ 

" Assured we are at happy point. Thy strength 

Shrink not, but rise dilated. Thou art come 

To Purgatory now. Lo ! there the cliff 

That circling bounds it. Lo ! the entrance there, 

Where it doth seem disparted. Ere the dawn 

Usher*d the daylight, when thy wearied soul 

Slept in thee, o'er the flowery vale beneath 

A lady came, and thus bespake me : * I 

Am Lucia.'' Suffer me to take this man. 

Who slumbers. Easier so his way shall speed.' 

Sordello and the other gentle shapes 

Tarrying, she bare thee up : and, as day shone, 

This summit reach'd : and I pursued her steps. 

Here did she place thee. First, her lovely eyes 

That open entrance show'd me ; then at once 

S!ie vanished with thy sleep." Like one, whose doubti 

Are chased by certainty, and terror turn'd 

To comfort on discovery of the truth. 

Such was the change in me : and as my guide 

Beheld me fearless, up along the cliff 

He moved, and I behind him, towards the height. 

Reader ! thou markest how my theme doth rise ; 
Nor wonder therefore, if more artfully 
I prop the structure. Nearer now we drew. 
Arrived whence, in that part, where first a breach 
As of a wall appeared, I could descry 

1 There.] Bfr. Darley has noted the omission of this line in 
the preceding editions. 
* Lucia.\ See Hell, c. ii. 97, and Paradise, c. zzzii. 223. 

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09-106. PURGATORY, Canto IX. 271 

A portal, and three steps beneath, that led 

For inlet there, of difierent color each ; 

And one who watch'd, but spake not yet a word. 

As more and more mine eye did stretch its view* 

I mark'd him seated on the highest step, 

In visage such, as past my power to bear. 

Grasp'd in his hand, a naked sword glanced back 

The rays so towards me, that I oft in vain 

My sight directed. " Speak, from whence ye stand ;** 

He cried: " What would ye? Where is your escort? 

Take heed your coming upward harm ye not." 

" A heavenly dame, not skilless of these things," 
Replied the instructor, " told us, even now, 
* Pass that way : here the gate is.* " — '* And may shoj 
Befriending, prosper your ascent," resumed 
The courteous keeper of the gate : " Come then 
Before our steps." We straightway thither came. 

The lowest stair' was marble white, so smooth 
And polish'd, that therein my mirror'd form 
Distmct I saw. The next of hue more dark 
Than sablest grain, a rough and singed block, 
Crack'd lengthwise and across. The third, that lay 
Massy above, seem'd porphyry, that flamed 
Red as the life-blood spouting from a vein. 
On this God's angel either foot sustained. 
Upon the threshold seated, which appeared 
A rock of diamond. Up the trinal steps 
My leader cheerly drew me. " Ask," said he, 
" With humble heart, that he unbar the bolt" 

Pioui^ly at his holy feet devolved 
I cast me, praying him for pity's sake 
That he would open to me ; but first fell 
Thrice on my bosom prostrate. Seven times* 
The letter, that denotes the inward stain. 
He, on my forehead, with the blunted point 
Ol'his drawn sword, inscribed. And " Look," he cried, 
'* When enter'd, that thou wash these scars away." 

Ashes, or earth ta'en dry out of the ground, 

1 TAe lotoett stcUr.] By the white step is meant the dis- 
tinctness with which the consciences of the penitent reflects 
his offences; by the burnt and cracked one, his contrition 
on their accomnt; and by that of porphyry, the fervor with 
which he resolves on the future pursuit of piety and virtue. 
Hence, no doubt, Milton describing ** the gate of heaven.** 
P. L., b. ill. 516. 

Each stair mysteriously was meant. 

t Seven times.] Seven F's, to denote the seven sins (Pec- 
cata) of which he was to be cleansed in his passage througfa 


872 THE VISION. 107-191 

Were of one color with the robe he wore. 
From underneath that vestment forth he drew 
Two keys,' of metal twain : the one was gold. 
Its fellow silver. With the pallid first, 
And next the bumish'd, he so ply'd the gate. 
As to content me welL " Whenever one 
Faileth of these, that in the key-hole straight 
It turn not, to this alley then expect 
Access in vain." Such were the words he spake 
" One is more precious :' but the other needs 
Skill and sagacity, large share of each. 
Ere its good task to disengage the ki:ot 
Be worthily performed. From Peter theac 
I hold, of him instructed that I err 
Rather in opening, than in keeping fast ; 
So but the suppliant at my feet implore." 

Then of that hallow'd gate he thrust the door. 
Exclaiming, " Enter, but this warning hear : 
He forth again departs who looks behind." 

As in the hinges of that sacred ward 
The swivels turn'd, sonorous metal strong, 
Harsh was the grating ;' nor so surlily 
Roar'd the Tarpeian,* when by force bereft 
Of good Metellus, thenceforth from his loss 

> 7\oo keys.] Lombardi remarks, that painters ha>« 
usnaliy drawn Saint Peter with two keys, the one of go»d 
and the other of silver ; but that Niccolo Alemannl, in iwis 
Dissertation de Parietinls Lateranensibus, produces instajicos 
of his being reiwesented with one key, and with three. We 
have here, however, not Saint Peter, bat an angel deiHited 
by him. 

3 One ig more preciout.] The Rolden key denotes tlie divine 
anthority by which the priest absolves the sinners : th« sil- 
ver exi»esses the learning and judgment requisite for to* due 
discharge of that office. 

* HavMh was the £ratinf.'] 

On a sudden open fly 

With impetuous recoil and larring sound 
Th* infernal doors, and on their hinges grata 
Harsh thunder. MUton, P / , ». 11 b83. 

* The T\uT9eian.] 

Protlnns abdncto patuemnt templa Metello. 

Tunc mpes Tarpeia sonat : magnoque reclusas 

Testatur stridore fores : tunc conditus Imo 

Eruitur templo mnltls intactus ab annis 

Romani census populi, Ace. Lueaitt Ph., lib. iil. 157. 

The tribune with unwilling steps withdrew, 

While impious hands the rude assault renew; 

The brazen gates with thundering strokes resound 

And the l^a^ieian mountain rings around. 

At length the sacred storehouse, open laid, 

The hoarded wealth of ages past display*d. Roio$» 

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131-138. PURGATORY, Cmro X. 278 

To leannoM domn'd. Attenthrely I tum*d, 

Loatening the thunder that first issued forth ; 

And ** We praise thee, O God," methou^ht I heardi 

In accents blended with sweet melody. 

The strains came o'er mine ear, e*en as the sound 

Of choral voices, that in solemn chant 

With orgoD} mingle, and, now high and clear 

Come swelling, now float indistinct away. 



Being admitted at the gate of PiiTgat(»y, om Poe/i aseend a 
winding path up the rock, till they reach an open and level 
space that extends each way ronnd the monntain. On the 
side that rises, and which is of white marble, are seen art- 
fully engraven many stories of humility, which while they 
are contemplating^ there approach the souls of those who 
expiate the sin or pride, and who are bent down beneath 
the weight of heavy stones. 

When we had pass'd the threshold of the gate, 
(Which the soul's ill affection doth disuse. 
Making the crooked seem the straighter path) 
I heard its closing sound. Had^mine eyes tum'd, 
For that offence what plea might have avail'd ? 

We mounted up the riven rock, that wound' 
On either side alternate, as the wave 

1 Organ.] Organs were used in Italy as early as in the sixth 
century. See Tiraboschi, Stor. della Lett. Ital., 4to. vol. iii. 
lib. iii. cap. i. $11, where the followins description of that 
instrument is quoted from Casslodorus, in Psalm. 150:— "Or- 

Snum itaque est quasi turris diversis fistulis fabricata, quibns 
in follium vox copiosissima destinatur, et ut eam modulatlo 
decora componat, Unguis quibusdam ligneis ab interiore parte 
construitur, quas disciplinabiliter Magistrorum digiti repri- 
mentes grandisonam efficiunt et suavisonam cantilenam." If 
I remember right there is a passage in the Emperor Julian's 
V'ritings, which shows that the organ was not unknown in 
his time. 

s TViat toound.] Venturl justly observes, that the PadiQ 
d* Aquino has misrepresented the sense of this passage in hll 

dabat ascensum tendentibus ultra 

Scissa tremensque silex, tenuique erratica motu. 
The verb '^muover" is used in the same signification in th« 
Inferno, Canto xviil. 21. 

Cosi da imo della roccia scogli 

from the rock's low base 

Thus flinty paths advanced 
Ia neither place is actual motioa intended to ^ ezivesae^ 

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574 THE VISION. 8-1^ 

Flies and advances. '* Here some little art 
Behooves us/' said my leader, " that our stepi 
Observe the varying flexure of the path." 

Thus we so slowly sped, that with cleft orb 
The moon once more o'erhangs her watery conch. 
Ere we that strait have threaded. .But when free, 
We came, and open, where the mount above 
One solid mass retires ; I spent with toil,^ 
And both uncertain of the way, we stood, 
Upon a plain more Lonesome than the roads 
That traverse desert wilds. From whence the brink 
Borders upon vacuity, to foot 
Of the steep bank that rises still, the space 
Had measured thrice the stature of a man : 
And, distant as mine eye could wing its flight, 
To leftward now and now to right <£spatch'd. 
That cornice equal in extent appeared. 

Not yet our feet had on that smnmit moved, 
When I discover'd that the bank, around, 
Whose proud uprising all ascent denied. 
Was marble white ; and so exactly wrought 
With quaintest sculpture, that not there alone 
Had Polycletus, but e'en nature's self 
Been shamed. The angel, (who came down to earth 
With tidings of the peace so many years 
Wept for in vain, that oped the heavenly gates 
From their long interdict) before us seem'd, 
In a sweet act, so sculptured to the life, 
He look'd no silent image. One had sworn 
He had said ** Hsdl !"^ for she was imaged there. 
By whom the key did open to God's love ; 
And in her act as sensibly impress'd 
That word, " Behold the handmaid of the Lord," 
As figure seal'd on wax. '* Fix not thy mind 
On one place only," said the guide beloved,- 
Who had me near hun on that part where lies 
The heart of man. My sight forthwith I tum'd. 
And mark'd, behind the virgin mother's form, 

1 / tpent vith toU,} Dante only was wearied, because he 
only had the weight of a bodily frame to encumber him. 

s Hail.] On whom the angel Hail 

Bestow*d, the holy salutation used 
Long after to blest Mary, second Eve. 

Milton, P. Z.., V. 387. 
^ The basso relievo on the border of the second rock In 
Purgatory, furnished the idea of the Annunziata, painted by 
Marceilo Venustl from his (Miehael Angelo's) design in this 
•aciisty of St. Giov. Latexan.*' fkitlh Zecture iii., note. 

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4&-m. PURGATORY, Canto X. ^75 

Upon that side where he that moved me stood, 
Another story graven on the rock. 

I paas'd athwart the hard, and drew me near, 
That it might stand more aptly for my view. 
There, in me self-same marble, were engraved 
The cart and kine, drawing the sacred ark. 
That from unbidden office awes mankmd.' 
Before it came much people ; and the whole 
Parted in seven quires. One sense cried ** Nay,** 
Another, " Yes, they sing." Like doubt arose 
Betwixt the eye and smell, from the curl'd fame 
Of incense breathing up the well-wrought toil. 
Preceding* the blest vessel, onward came 
With light dance leaping, girt in humble guise, 
Israers sweet harper : in that hap he seem'd 
Less, and yet more, than kingly. Opposite, 
At a great palace, from the lattice forth 
LookM Michol, like a lady full of scorn 
And sorrow. To behold the tablet next. 
Which, at the back of Michol, whitely shone, 
I moved me. There, was storied on the rock 
The exalted glory of the Roman prince. 
Whose mighty worth moved Gregory* to earn 
His mighty conquest, Trajan the Emperor.* 

i ThatfnnnunbiddeinfffieeawM mankind.] "And when they 
came to Nachon's threshing-floor, Uzzah pat forth his hand to 
the ark of God, and took hold of it; for the oxen shook it." 

" And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzzah ; 
and God smote him there for hb error ; and there he died by 
the ark of God.*' 2 Sam. c. vi. 7. 

* Preceding.} " And David danced before the Lord with 
all his might ; and David was girded with a Unen ephod.*' 
8 Sam. vi. 14« 

' Oregory.'\ St Gregory's prayers are said to have deliver- 
ed Trajan from hell. See Paradise, Canto zx. 40. 

« Trajan the Emperor.] For this story, Landino refers to 
two writers, whom he calls " Helinando," of France, by whom 
he means Elinand, a monk and chronicler, in the reign of 
Philip Aagnstos, and " Polycrato," of £agland, by whom is 
meant John of Salisbury, author of the Polycraticus de Cu- 
rialium Nugis, in the twelfth centnry. The passage in the 
text I find nearly a translation frmn that worlc, lib. v. c. 8. 
The original appears to be in Dio Cassius, where it is told of 
the Emperor Hadrian, lib. Lrix. iu(\u ywpaiicitf «. r. X. 
** when a woman appeared to him with a suit, as he was on 
a Journey, at first he answered her, 'I have no leisure ;' but 
she cryins out to him, * then reign no longer,^ he turned about, 
and heara her cause." Lombard! refers also to Johannes Di« 
aconus. Vita S. Gregor., lib. U. cap. 44; the Euchologyof 
the Greeks, cap. 96; and St Thomas Aquinas Sup^em. 
QoBuL 73, art 5 ad 5. Compare Fazio dc^li Uberti, Ditta- 
mondo, Ub. iL cap 9, 

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976 THE VKION. 70-loi 

A widow at hb bridle stood, attired 

In tears and mourning. Round about Uiem troop*d 

Full throng of knights ; and overhead in gold 

The eagles floated,* struggling with the wind. 

The wretch appeared amid all these to say : 

** Grant vengeance, Sire ! for, wo beshrew this heaiti 

My son is murder'd." He replying seem'd : 

" Wait now till I return." And she, as one 

Made hasty by her grief: " O Sire ! if thou 

Dost not return ?" — " Where I am, who then is, 

May right thee." — " What to thee » other's good. 

If thou neglect thy own ?" — " Now comfort thee ;** 

At length he answers. '< It beseemeth well 

My duty be perform'd, ere I move hence : 

So justice wills ; and pity bids me stay." 

He, whose ken nothing new surveys, produced 
That visible speaking, new to us and strange, 
The like not found on earth. Fondly I gazed 
Upon those patterns of meek humbleness. 
Shapes yet more precious for their artist's sake ; 
When " Lo !" the poet whisper'd, " where this way, 
(But slack their pace) a multitude advance. 
These to the lofty steps shall guide us on." 

Mme eyes, though bent on view of novel sights. 
Their loved allurement, were not slow to turn. 

Reader ! I would not that amazed thou miss 
Of thy good purpose, hearing how just God 
Decrees our debts be cancell'd. Ponder" not 
The form of suffering. Think on what succeeds: 
Think that, at worst, beyond the mighty doom 
It cannot pass. " Instructor !" I began, 
'' What I see hither tending, bears no trace 
Of human semblance, nor of aught beside 
That my foil'd sight can guess." He answering thus : 
** So courb'd to earth, beneath their heavy terms 
Of torment stoop they, that mine eye at first 
Struggled as thine. But look intently thither ; 
And (Sseutangle with thy laboring view, 
What, underneath those stones, a{^roacheth : now, 
E'en now, mayst thou discern the pangs of each." 

1 The eagles floated.} See Perticari*8 Letter on this passage 
Opere, vol. ill. p. ^553. £d. Bel. 1823. The eagles were r 
metal ; not worked on a standard, as Villanl supposed. 

• Ponder.] This is, in truth, an unanswerable objecti(» 
the doctrine of Purgatory. It ts difficult to conceive how 
best can meet death witbont horror, if they believe itmv 
followed by immediate and Intense sul&iing. 

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U0-1S4. PURGATORY, Caitpo X. 977 

Chratiaiis and proud ! O poor and wretched ones ' 
That, feeblti in the mmd*s eye, lean your trust 
Upon unstaid perreneaeas: know ye not 
That we are worms, yet made at last to form 
The wmged insect,* unp'd with angel plumes. 
That to heaven's justice unobstructed soars? 
Why buoy ye up aloft your unfledged souls? 
Abcartive* then and shapeless ye remain. 
Like the untimely embryon of a worm. 

As, to support' incumbent floor or roof, 
For corbel, is a figure sometimes seen. 
That crumples up its knees unto its breast ; 
With the feign'd posture, stirring ruth unfeigned 
In the beholder's fancy ; so I saw 
These fashion'd, when I noted well their giuse. 

1 7%e winded inteet] L'angelica fkrfidla. 

The batterfly was an axcient and well-known symbol c^ 
the hnraan soiu. Venturi cites some lines fhnn the Canzoni 
Anacreontiche of Magatotti, in which this passage is imi^ 

3 Abortive.] The word in the (Miglnal is entomata. Some 
critics, and Salvini among^ the rest, have supposed that 
Dante, finding in a vocabnlary the Greek word fyro^a with 
the article rl placed after it to denote its gender, mistook 
them for one w<u'd. From this error he is well excnlpated 
by Rosa Morando in a passage quoted by Lombard! from 
the Osserv. Parad. III., where it is shown that the Italian 
word is formed, for the sake of the verse, in analogy with 
some others used by onr Poet; and that Redi himself, an 
excellent Greek scholar and a very accurate writer, has 
even in prose, where such licenses are less allowable, thus 
lengthened it. It may be considered as some proof of our 
amhor's acquaintance with the Greek language, that in the 
Convito, p. 26, he finds fault with the version of Aristotle's 
EtUcs made by Taddeo d'Alderotto, the Florentine physi* 
clan; and that in the treatise de Monarchic, lib. i. p. 110, he 
quotes a Greek word from Aristotle himself. On the other 
hand, he speaks of a passage in the same writer being doubt* 
All, on acconht of its being differentlv interpreted in two 
different translations, a new and an ola one. Convito, p. 75. 
And fOT the word " antentin," he refers to a vocabulary com- 
Diled by Uguccione Bentivma of Pisa, a MS. that is, per- 
haps, still remaining, as Cinelli, in his 31S. history of Tuscan 
writers referred to by Blscioni in the notes on the Convito, 
p. 143, speaks of it as being preserved in the library of S. 
Francesco at Cesena. After all, Dante*s knowledge of Greek 
most remain as questionable as Shakspeare's of that Ian* 
goage and of Latin. 

' j9«, to sujmort.] Chillingworth, cap. vi. $ 54, speaks d 
** those cronching anticks, which seem in sreat buildings to 
labor under the weight they bear." And Lord Shaftesbury 
lias a similar illostration in his Essay on Wit and Homoi^ 

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878 THE VISION. lS5-ltt 

Each, as his back was laden, came indeed 
Or more or less contracted ; and it seem'd 
As he, who showed most patience in his look, 
Wailinf ezclaim'd : ** 1 can endure no more " 


After a prayer uttered by the spirits, who were spoken of ia 
the last Canto, Virril inquires the way upwards, and is 
answered by one, who declares himself to have been On»- 
berto, son of the Count of Santafiore. Next our Poet dis- 
tinguishes Oderigi, the illuminator, who discourses on the 
vanity of worldly fame, and points out to him the soul of 
Provenzano Salvani. 

** THOU Almighty Father !' who dost make 
The heavens thy dwelling, not in bounds confined. 
But that, with love intenser, there thou vieVst 
Thy primal efiluence ; haliow'd be thy name: 
Join; each created being, to extol 
Thy might ; for worthy humblest thanks and praiw 
Is thy blest Spirit May thy kmgdom's peace 
Come unto us ; for we, unless it come. 
With all our striving, thither tend in vam. 
As, of their will, the angels unto thee 
Tender meet sacrifice, circling thy throne 
With loud hosannas ; so of theirs be done 
By sauitly men on earth.- Grant us, this day. 
Out daily manna, without which, he roams 
Through this rough desert retrograde, who most 
Toils to advance his steps. As we to each 
Pardon the evil done us, pardon thou 
Benign, and of our merit take no count 
'Gainst the old adversary, prove thou not 
Our virtue, easily subdued ; but free 
From his incitements, and defeat his wiles. 
This last petition, dearest Lord ! is made 
Not for ourselves ; since that were needless now ; 
But for their sakes who after us remam.*' 

Thus for themselves and us good speed imploringt 
fhose spirits went beneath a weight like that 

1 O thou Almighty Fhther.} The first four lines are bor- 
rowed by Pnlci, Moig. Magg., c. vi. 

Dante in his * Credo' has again versified the Lord's Prayer, 
if indeed the * Credo* be Dante's, which some have doubted; 
and in the preface to AUac^'s Ctdlection it is ascribed to Anr 
tODlo di Fenaia. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

9M5 PURGATORY, Camto XL 879 

We sometimes feel in dreams ; all, sore beset, 
But with unequal anguish ; wearied all ; 
Round the first circuit ; purging as they go 
The world's gross darlmess oS. In our l^hoof 
If there vows still be offer'd, what can here 
For them be voVd and done by such, whose wilhi 
Have root of goodness in them ?* Well beseems 
That we should help them wash away the stains 
They carried hence ; that so, made pure and light. 
They may spring upward to the starry spheres. 

** Ah ! 80 may mercy-temper'd justice rid 
Your burdens speedily ; that ye have power 
To stretch your wing, which e'en to your desire 
Shall lift you ; as ye show us on which hand 
Toward the ladder leads the shortest way. 
And if there be more passages than one, 
Instruct us of that easiest to ascend: 
For this man, who comes with me, and bears yet 
The charge of fleshly raiment Adam left him. 
Despite his better will, but slowly mounts." 
From whom the answer came unto these words, 
Which my guide spake, appeared not ; but *twas sai(| 
" Along the bank to rightward come with us ; 
And ye shall find a pass that mocks not toil 
Of living man to climb : and were it not 
That I am hinder'd by the rock, wherewith 
This arrogant neck is tamed, whence needs I stoop 
My visage to the ground ; him, who yet lives. 
Whose name thou speak'st not, him I fain would view ; 
To mark if e'er I knew him, and to crave 
His pity for the fardel that I bear. 
I was of Latium ;' of a Tuscan bom, 
A mighty one : Aldobrandesco's name, 
My sire's, I know not if ye e'er have heard* 
My old blood and forefathers' gallant deeds 
Made me so haughty, that I clean forgot 
The common mother ; and to such excess 
Wax'd in my scorn of all men, that I fell. 
Fell therefore ; by what fate. Sienna's sons. 

• Suck, whose wills 

Have root of goodness in them.] The Poet has' before 
told OS, that there are do others on earth whose prayers avail 
to shorten the pains of those who are in Purgatory. 

* / was of Latium.^ Ombcrto, the son of Gugilehno Aldo- 
brandesco, Count of Santafiore, in the territory of Sienna. 
His arrogance provoked his countrymen to such a pitch of 
Airy agtdnst mm, that he was murdered by them at Ca» 

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880 THE VISION. «-» 

Each child in Campagnatico, can toll. 
I am Omberto: not me, only, pride 
Hath injured* but my kindred ail involved 
In mischief with her. Here my lot ordains 
Under this weight to groan, till I appease 
God*s angry justice, since I did it not 
Among the living, here among the dead.'* 

Listening I bent my visage down : and one 
(Not he who spake) twisted beneath the weight 
That urged him, saw me, knew me straight, and 
Holding his eyes with difficulty fixM [callM ; 

Intent upon me, stooping as I went 
Companion of their way. ** O I" I exclaim'd. 
** Art thou not Oderigi ?* art not thou 
Agobbio's glory, glory of that art 
Which they of Paris call the limner's skill?" 

" Brother !" said he, " with tints, that gayer maul9f 
Bolognian Franco's* pencil lines the leaves. 
His all the honor now ; my light obscured. 
In truth, I had not been thus courteous to him 
The while I lived, through eagerness of zeal 
For that pre-eminence my heart was bent on. 
Here, of such pride, the forfeiture is paid.' 
Nor were I even here, if, able still 
To sin, I had not tum'd me unto God. 
O powers of man ! how vain your glory, nipp'd 
E'en in its height of verdure, if an age 
Less bright succeed not* Cimabue^ thought 

1 Oderifi.] The illnniinator, or miniature painter, a friend 
of Giotto and Dante. 

* Bolognian FV-aneo.] Franco of Bologna, wko is said to 
have been a pnpil of Oderigl*8. 

* The forfeiture is paid.] 

Di tal superfoia qui si paga il fio. 
80 in the Inferno, c. xxvii. 135. 

' in che si paga il fto. 
And Ariosto, Orl. For., c. xxii. 59. 

Prostate old, che qui si paga 11 fio. 

4 jf an age 

Leae bright euceeed not.] If a generation of men do not 
follow, among whom none exceeds or equals those who have 
immediately preceded them. *' Etati grosse ;" to which Volpl 
remarlcs a similar expression in Boilean. 

Viilon sAt le premier, dans ces si^cles grossien, 
TMbrouiUer Tart confhs de nos vieux romanciers. 

^rt Poetique^ ch. i. 

* Oiwuibue.] Giovanna Cimabne, the restorer of painting, 
was bom at Florence, of a noble family, in 1340, and died is 
1900. The passage in the text is an allusion to his epitaph. 

Grodidit at Cimabos pictura castra tenere, 
Sic tenoit vivens : nunc tenet astia polL 

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•4-96. PURGATORY, Canto XI. 281 

To lord it over painting's field ; and now 
The cry is Giotto's,' and his name eclipsed. 
Thus hath one Guide from the other^ snatch d 

^ 1%fi cry it Oiotto^s.} In Giotto we have a proof at how 
early a period the fine arts were encouraged in Italy. His 
talents were discovered by Cimabne, while he was tending 
sheep for his father in the neighborhood of Florence, and 
he was afterwards patronised by Pope Benedict XI. and 
Robert King of Naples ; and enjoyed the society and friend- 
ship of Dante, whose likeness he hsis transmitted to posterity 
He died in 1336, at the age of 60. 

« One Outdo from the other.\ Guide Cavalcanti, the fHqnd 
of our Fuet, (see Hell, Canto oc. 59,) had eclipsed the literary 
fame of Guide Gninicelli, of a noble family in Bologna, whom 
we shall meet with in the twenty-sixth Canto, and of whom 
firequent and honorable mention is made by our Poet in his 
treatise de Vulg. Eloq. GuinicelU died in 1276, as is proved 
by Fantnzzi, on the Bologniaa writers, tom. iv. p. 345. See 
Mr. Mathias's Tiraboschi, tom. i. p. 110. There are more of 
6uinicein*8 poems to be found in Allacci*s Collection, than 
Tiruboschi, who tells us he had not seen it, supposed. From 
these I have selected two, which appear to me singularly 
pathetic. It must however be observed, that the former of 
them is attributed in the Vatican MS. 3213, to Cino da Pistoia, 
as Bottari informs us in the notes to Lettere di Fra Guittone 
d'Arezzo, p. 171. Many of Cavalcanti's writings, hitherto 
in MS., are said to be publishing at Florence. See Esprit des 
Joumanx, Jan., 1813. [They were edited there in that year, 
but not for sale, by Antonio Cicciaporci, as I learn from 
Gamba's Testi di Lingua Ital., 272.J 

Noi provamo ch* in questo cieco mondo 
Ciascun si vive in angosciosa doglia, 
Ch' in onni avversita ventura *i tira. 
Beata 1' alma che lassa tal pondo. 
E va nel ciel, dove ^ compita zoglia, 
Zoglioso cor far de corrotto e dira. 
Or dunque di chel vostro cor sospira 
Che rallegrar si dS del sue migliore, 
Che Die, nostro signore, 
Volse di lei, come avea I'angel detto, 
Fare il ciel perfetto. 
Per nuova cosa ognl santo la mira : 
Ed ella sta d'avante alia salute ; 
Ed in ver lei parla ogni vertute. 

Allacci, Ediz. Jfdpolij 1661 p. 97& 

By proof, in this blind mortal world, we know, 
That each one Ijves in grief and sore annoy ; 
Such ceaseless strife of fortune we sustain. 
Blessed the soul, that leaves this weight below 
And goes its way to heaven, where it hath joy 
Entire, without a touch of wrath or pain. 
Now then what reason hath thy heart to sigh, 
That should be glad, as for desire iVilQlI'd, 
That God, our sovereign, willM 
She, as He told His angel, should be given 
To bless and perfect heaven 1 

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S88 THE VISION 97,1 

Tho lettered p^ize : and he, perhaps, k bom,' 
Who shall dnve either from their nest The 

Each saint looks on her with admiring eye ; 
And she stands ever in salvation's sight ; 
And every virtae bends on her its light 

Ck)nforto gi& conforto Tamor chiama, 
E pieti i»ega per Dio, &tti resto ; 
Or V* inchinate a si dolce pregfaiera ; 
Spogliatevi di qaesta vesta grama, 
Da che voi sete per ragion nchiesto. 
Che I'nomo per dolor more e dispera. 
Ck>n voi vedeste poi la bella ciera. 
Be v' accogliesse morte in disperanza, 
De si grave pesanza 
Traete il vostro cor ormai per Dio, 
Che non sia cosi rio 
Yer Talma vostra che ancora spiera 
Vederla in ciel e star nelle sue braccia, 
Donque spene dh ccmfortar vi piaccia. 

AUaeei^ Edit. Jfapdi^ 1661, p. 38IL 

** Comfort thee, ccunfort thee,** exclaimeth Love ; 

And Pity by thy God adjures thee " rest :** 

Oh then incline ye to such gentle prayer ; 

Nor Reason's plea should ineffectual prove, 

Who bids ye lay aside this dismal vest : 

For man meets death through sadness and despair. 

Among you ye have seen a face so fair : 

Be this in mortal mourning some relief. 

And, for more balm of grief. 

Rescue thy spirit from its heavy load, 

Reniembering thy God ; 

And that in heaven thou hopest again to share 

In sight of her, and with thine arms to fold : 

Hope then ; nor of this comfort quit thy hold. 

To these, I will add a sonnet by the same writer, from the 
poems printed with the Bella Mano of Giusto de* Conti. Edii. 
1715, p. 167. 

lo vo dal ver la mia donna laudare, 

£ rassembraria alia rosa, ed al ^lia 

Piu che Stella Diana splende, e pare, 

Cib che lassu d hello a lei somiglio. 
Verdi rivere a lei rassemturo, Tare, 

Tutto color di pcnrpora, e vermiglio, 

Oro, ed argento, e ricche jrioie preclare , 

Medesmo amor per lei ramna miglio. 
Passa per via adoma, e si gentile, 

Cui bassa oi^oglio, a cui dona salute, 

£ fal di nostra fe, se non la crede. 
E non le pub appressare, uom che sia vile, 

Ancor ve ne dirb maggior vertute, 

Nullo uom pub mal pensar flnchd la vede. 

I would from truth my lady*s praise supply, 
Resembling her to lily and to rose ; 
Brighter than morning's lucid star she shows 
And fkir as that which fairest is on high. 

1 For note, see i 8B4. 

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M» 100. PURGATORY, Camto XL 88S 

Of woridly fame is bat a blast of wind, 

That blows from divene points, and shifts its namoy 

To the blae wave, I liken her, and sky, 
All color that with pink and crimson glows, 
Gold, silver, and rich stones : nay, lovelier grows 
E'en love himself, when she is standing by. 

She passeth on so gracious and so mild, 
One*s pride is quench'd. and one of sick is welt : 
And they believe, who (torn the fUth did err; 

And none may near her come by harm dafiled. 
A mightier virtue have I yet to tell ; 
No man may think of evil, seeing her. 

The two following sonnets of Guide Cavalcantl may enabls 
the reader to form some judgment whether Dante had snlll- 
rlent reason for preferring him to his prodecessor. GuinicelU 

lo temo che la mia disawentura 

Non faccia si ch* io dico io mi dispero, 

Perb ch' io sento nel cor un penseiro, 

Che fa tremar la mente di panra. 
E par ch' ei dica : Amor non t'assicura 

In guisa che tu possa di leggiero 

Alia tua donna si contare il vero, 

Che m(Nrte non ti ponga In sua fignnu 
Delia gran doglia, che I'anima sente, 

Si parte dallo core un tal sospiro 

Che va dicendo : spiritei Ibggite ; 
Ailor null' uom, che sia pietoso, miro ; 

Che consulasse mia vita dolente, 

Dicendo : spiritei non vi partite. 

Anecdota Literaria ex MSS. Codicibu9 eruta 
£diz. Roma, (no year,) v. ill. p. 45% 

I fear lest my mischance may so prevail, 
lliat it may make me of myself desfMir. 
For, my heart searching, I discover there 
A thought that makes the mind with terror quail. 

It says, meseemeth, " Love shall not avail 
To strengthen thee so much, that thou shalt dare 
Tell her, thou lovest, thy passion or thy prayer. 
To save from power of death thy visage pale." 

Through the thread sorrow that o'erwhelms my soul, 
There issues from my bo8<Hn such a sigh. 
As passeth, crying; ''Spirits, flee away." 

And then, when I am fidnting in my dole, 
No man so merciful there standeth by. 
To comfort me, and answer, " Spirits, stay.** 

Belt& di donna, e di saccente core, 

E cavaiieri armati, che sian genti, 

Cantar d'aagelli, e ragionar d'amore, 

Adomi legni in mar, mrti e correnti : 
Aria serena, quando appar I'albore, 

E bianca neve scender senza venti, 

Rivera d'acqua, e prato d'ogni fiore, 

Oru, e argento, azurro in omamenti : 
C^ che pub la beitate, e la valenza 

Delia mia donna in suo gentil coragglo. 

Par che lassembia vile a chi do goarda. 

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£84 THE VISION 101-lH 

Shifting the point it blows from. Shalt thou moro 

Live in the mouths of mankind, if thy flesh 

Part shriveird from thee, than if thou hadst died 

Before the coral and the pap were left ; 

Or e'er some thousand years have pass'd? and thai 

Is, to eternity compared, a space 

Briefer than is the twinkling of an eye 

To the heaven's slowest orb. He there, who treadi 

So leisurely before me, far and wide 

Through Tuscany resounded once ; and now 

Is m Sienna scarce with whispers named : 

There was he sovereign, when destruction caught 

The maddenmg rage of Florence, in that day 

Proud as she now Is loathsome. Your renown 

Is as the herb, whose hue doth come and go ; 

And his might withers it, by whom it sprang 

Crude from the lap of earth." I thus to him : 

^* True are thy sayings : to my heart they breathe 

The kindly spirit of meekness, and allay 

What tumors' rankle there. But who is he, [pliedj 

Of whom thou spakest but now?" ** This," he re- 

** Is Provenzano. He is here, because 

He reach'd, with grasp presumptuous, at the sway 

Of all Sienna. Thus he still hath gone, 

K tanto ha piu d*offni altra conoscenza, 
auanto lo Ciel di questa terra ^ maggio, 
A simii di natora ben non tarda. 

La Bella Mano e Rinu Jintiche. Ediz. Fir., 1715, p. 1S8 
Whatso is fair in lady's face or mind. 

And gentle knights caparisoned and gay, 
Singing of sweet birds unto love inclined, 

And gallant barks that cut the watery way; 
The white snow Mling without any wind, 
The cloudless sky at break of early day. 
The crystal stream, with flowers the meadow lined, 

Bilver, and gold, and azure for array : 
To him that sees the beauty and the worth 
Whose power doth meet and in my lady dwell, 
All seem as vile, their price and lustre gone. 
And, as the heaven is higher than the earth, 
So she in knowledge dpth each one excel, 
Not slow to good in nature like her own. 
1 H«t perhaps, it hom.'\ Some imagine, with much i»ob- 
ability, that Dante here augurs the greatness of his own po< 
etical reputation. Others have absurdly fancied that he 
prophesies the glory of Petrarch. But Petrarch was not yet 
bom. Lombard! doubto whether it is not spoken generally 
of human vicissitudes. 
• H%xt twmor».\ 

Apt words have power to swage 
Tne tomors of a troubled mind. 

JKtf (oi»'« Stmatfn JlgmUtt9 

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It5-143. PURG ATORlf , Cant > XD. 285 

Thus goetb neyer-resting, since ho died. 

Bach is the acquittance rendered back of him* 

Who, in the mortal life, too much hath dared." 

I then : *' IS soul, that to life's verge delays 

Repentance, linger in that lower space. 

Nor hither mount, (unless good prayers befriend) 

Or ever* time, long as it lived, he past ; 

How chanced admittance was vouchsafed to him?^ 

** When at his glory's topmost height," said he» 
' Refpect of dignity all cast aside. 
Freely he fix'd him on Sienna's plain, 
A suitor* to redeem his sufifering friend, 
Who languish'd in the prison-house of Charles ; 
Nor, for his sake, refused through every vein 
To tremble. More I will not say ; and dark, 
I know, my words are ; but thy neighbors soon* 
Shall help thee to a comment on the text 
This is the work, that from these limits freed him." 



Dante being desired by Virgil to look down on the gronnd 
which they are treading, observes that it is wrought over 

1 Or ever.] This line was omitted in the former editicms, at 
Mr. Lyell has pointed out to me. 

s ^ aMitor.] Provenzano Salvani hnmbled himself so &r 
for the sake of one of his friends, who was detained in cai>- 
tivity by Charles I. of Sicily, as personally to supplicate the 
people of Sienna to contribute the sum required by the king 
for his ransom : ana this act of self-abasement atoned for his 
ceneral ambition and pride. He fell in the battle of Vald 
^Elsa, wherein the Florentines discomfited the Siennese in 
lune, 1269. 6. Villani relates some curious particulars of his 
fate. **Messer Provenzano Salvani, the lord and conductor 
of the army, was taken, and his head cut off and carried 
throush all the camp fixed upon a lance. And well was ac- 
complished the prophecy and revelation made to him by the 
Devil by way of witchcraft, but he understood it not; for 
having c<nnpelled him to answer how he should succeed in 
the said engagement, he told him lyingly: 'Thou shaltgo, 
fight, conquer not, die in the battle, and thy head shall be &e 
highest in the camp.' And he thought to have the victory, 
atad firom these words thought to remain master of all, and 
noted not the &llacy, where he said * conquer not, die.' And 
therefore it is great folly to trust such counsel as that of the 
Devil." lib. vU. cap. 31. 

* Tly neighbors soon.) *' Thou wilt know In the time of 
thy banishment, which in near at hand, what it is to solicit 
favors of others, and * tremble tiirough e^ery vein,* lest they 
shmdd be reAued thee. ' 

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Sto THE VISION. !-« 

with imafery exhibition various instaates 4>f pride re* 
corded in. histoiv and fame. They leave the first cornice, 
and are ushered to the next by an angel who points out 
the way. 

With equal pace, as oxen in the yoke, 
I, with that laden spirit, joumey*d on, 
Long as the mild instructor suffered me ; 
But, when he bade me quit him, and proceed, 
(For " Here," said he, " behopves with sail and oan 
Each man, as best he may, push on his bark") 
Upright, as one disposed for speed, I raised 
My body, still in thought submissive bow'd. 

I now my leader's track not loth pursued ; 
And each had shown how light we fared along, 
When thus he wam'd me: "Bend thine eyesight 
For thou, to ease the way, shalt find it good [down 
To ruminate the bed beneath thy feet" 

As, in memorial of the buried, drawn 
(Jpon earth-level tombs, the sculptured form 
Of what was once, appears, (at sight whereof 
Tears often stream forth, by remembrance waked. 
Whose sacred stings the piteous often feel) 
So saw I there, but vnih more curious skill 
Of portraiture o'erwrought, whatever of space 
From forth the mountain stretches. On one part 
Him I beheld, above all creatures erst 
Created noblest, lightening fall from heaven : 
'On the other side, with bolt celestial pierced, 
Briareus ; cumbering earth he lay, tlu-ough dint 
Of mortal ice-stroke. The Thymbrasan god,* 
With Mars,^ I saw, and Pallas, round their sire, 
Arm'd still, and gazing on the giants* limbs 
Strewn o'er the ethereal field. Nimrod I saw : 
At foot of the stupendous work he stood, 
A% if bewilder'd, lookmg on the crowd 
Leagued in his proud attempt on Sennaar's plain.* 

> The 7TiymbraaHgod.\ Apollo. 
Si modo, quern perhibes, pater est Thymbnens Apollo. 
Firg.f Oeorg.^ iv. 323. 
• Mart.} 

With snch a grace, 
The giants that attempted to scale heaven. 
When they lay dead on the Phiegnean plain, 
Man did appear to Jove. 
Beaumont and FleUher. The Prophetees^ act ii. ae. 9. 
s Mennaar's ^ain^ 

The builders such of Babel on the plain 

Of Sennaar. MUUm, P. L,,h.m,4ttl 

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J3-68. PURGATORY, CAMToXn. 887 

O Niobe ! in what a trance of wo 
Thee I beheld, upon that highway drawn, 
Seven sons on either side thee slam. O Saul ! 
How p;haflUy didst thou look, on thine own sword 
Expiring, m Gilboa, from that hour 
Ne'er visited with rain irom heaven, or dew 

O fond Arachne ! thee I also saw. 
Half spider now, in anguidi, crawling up 
The unfinished web thou weavedst to thy bane 

Rehoboam !' here thy shape doth seem 
Lowering no more defiance ; but fear-smote, 
With none to chase him, in his chariot whirled. 

Was shown beside upon the solid floor. 
How dear Alcmson* forced his mother rate 
That ornament, in evil hour received : 
How, in the temple, on Sennacherib' fell 
His sons, and how a corpse they left him there. 
Was shown the scath, and cruel mangling made 
By Tomyris* on Cyrus, when she cried, 
" Blood thou didst thirst for : take thy fill of blood.** 
Was shown how routed in the battle fled 
The Assyrians, Holofemes* slain, and e*en 
The relics of the carnage. Troy I mark'd, 
In ashes and in caverns. Oh ! how fallen. 
How abject, Ilion, was thy semblance there. 

What master of the pencil or the style* [mad« 
Had traced the shades and lines, that might have 
The subtlest workman wonder 7 Dead, the dead ; 
The living seem'd alive : with clearer view, 
His eye beheld not, who beheld the truth. 
Than mine what I did tread on, while I went 
Low bending. Now swell out, and with stiff necks 
Pass on, ye sons of Eve ! veil not your looks, 
Lest they descry the evil of your path. 

1 noted not (so busied was my thought) 
How much we now had circled of the mount ; 

1 O Rehoboam.] 1 Kings, xU. 18. 

s JilcauBon.} Virg^ JEn., lib. vi. 445, and Homer, Od., xL 33S. 

* SeMutekerib.] 2 Kings, xix. 37. 

* Tomyrio.] Capot Cyri ampntatiim in utrem bnmano san- 
guine repletom coiyici Begina jabet cum hac exprobations 
cmdelitatis, Satia te, inqoit, sanguine qnem sitisti, ctUusqus 
insatiabilis semper fUsti. JMttn., lib. i. cap. & 

^Holofemet.] Judith, xiiL 

* What matter of the peneU or the et^e.} 

inimitable on earth 

By model, or by ihading pencil drawn. 


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388 THE VISION. 69-104. 

And of his courae yet mote the Bun had spent ; 
When he, who with still wakeful caution w^nt, 
Admonished : ** Raise thou up thy head : for know 
Time is not now for slow suq>en6e. Behold, 
That way, an an^el hasting towards us. Lo, 
Where duly the sixth handmaid* doth return 
From service on the day. Wear thou, in look 
And gesture, seemly grace of reverent awe ; 
That gladly he may rorward us aloft. 
Consider that this day ne'er dawns again." 

Time's loss he had so often wam'd me 'gainst, 
I could not miss the scope at which he aim'd. 

The goodly shape approach'd us, snowy white 
In vesture, and with visage casting streams 
Of tremulous lustre like the matin star. 
His arms he opeu'd, then his wings ; and spake : 
" Onward ! the steps, behold, are near ; and now 
The ascent is without difficulty gain'd." 

A scanty few are they, who, when they hear 
Such tidings, hasten. O, ye race of men ! 
Though bwm to soar, why suffer ye a wmd 
So slight to baffle ye ? He led us on 
Where the rock parted ; here, against my front, 
Did beat his whigs ; then promised I should fa^ 
In safety on my way. As to ascend 
That steep, upon whose brow the chapel stands,* 
(O'er Rubaconte, looking lordly down 
On the well-guided city^ up the right 
The unpetuous rise is broken by the steps 
Carved in that old and simple age, when still 
The registry^ and label rested safe ; 
Thus is the acclivity relieved, which here, 
Precipitous, from the other circuit falls : 
But, on each hand, the tall clifi* presses close. 

As, entering, there we tum'd, voices, in strain 
Inefiable, sang : " Blessed^ are the poor 

^ The sixth handmaid.] Compare C«Ato zxii. 116. 

* The ehapd ttandt.] The ehorch of San Miniate in Flor 
ence, situated on a height that overlooks the Amo, where it 
is crossed by the bridge Rnbaconte, so called from Messer 
Rubaconte da Mandella, of Milan, chief magistrate of Flor- 
ence, by whom the bridge was founded in IS^. See G. VU- 
lani, lib. vi. cap. 27. 

s The well-guided city.'] This is said ironically of Florence. 

* The regietry.] In allusion to certain instances of fraud 
committed in Dante's time with respect to the public accounts 
and measures. See Paradise, Canto xvi. 103. 

* BleeeedA " Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theln it the 
kingdom of heaven." Matth* v. 3. 

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PURGATORY, Canto XllL 389 

In spirit'' Ah ! how far unlike to these 
The straits of hell : here songs to usher us^ 
There shrieks of wa We climb the holy st&in 
And lighter to myself by far I seem'd 
rhan on the plain before ; whence thus I spake : 

* Say, master, of what heavy thing have I 

Been lightened ; that scarce aught the sense of toil 
Affects me journeying?" He in few replied: 

* When sin's broad characters/ that yet remain 
Upon thy temples, though well nigh effaced, 
8hall be, as one is, all clean razed out ; 

Then shall thy feet by heartiness of will 

Be so overcome, they not alone shall feel 

No sense of labor, but delight much more 

Shall wait them, urged along their upward way." 

Then like to one, upon whose head is placed 
Somewhat he deems not of, but from the becks 
Of others, as they pass him by ; his hand 
Lends therefore help to assure him, searches, findf^ 
And well performs such office as the eye 
Wants power to execute ; so stretching forth 
The fingers of my right hand, did I find 
Six only of the letters, which his sword. 
Who bare the keys, had traced upon my brow. 
The leader, as he mark'd mine action, smiled. 


They gain the second cornice, where the sin of envy Jt 

Surged; and having proceeded a little to the right, they 
ear voices nttered by invisible spirits recounting famous 
examples of charity, and next behold the shades, or souls, 
of the envious clad in sackcloth, and having their eyes 
sewed up with an iron thread. Among these Dante finds 
Sapia, a Siennese lady, from whom he learns the cause of 
her being there. 

We reached the summit of the scale, and stood 
Upon the second buttress of that mount 
Which healeth him who climbs. A cornice there, 
Like to the former, girdles round the hill ; 
Save that its arch, with sweep less ample, bends. 

Shadow, nor image there, is seen : sdl smooth 

1 Sin's bread eharaetera.] Of the seven P's, that denoted 
tl^.e same number of sins (Peccata) where'if he was to be 
cleansed, (see Canto ix. 100,) the first had now vanished in 
ctmsequence of his having passed the pUtce where the sin » 
pride, the diief of then^ was expiated. 

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900 TU£ VISION. l^-H 

The rampart and the path, reflecting naught 
But Uie rock*s sullen hue. ** If here we wait. 
For some to question/* said the bard, << I fear 
Our choice may haply meet too long delay." 

Then fixedly upon the sun his eyes 
He fastened ; made his right the central pcnnt 
From whence to move ; and tum'd the left aside 
" O pleasant light, my confidence and hope ! 
Conduct us thou," he cried, ** on this new way, 
Where now I venture ; leading to the bourn 
We seek. The universal world to thee 
Owes warmth and lustre. If no other cause 
Forbid, thy beams should ever be our guide." 

Far, as is measured for a mile on euth. 
In brief space had we joumey'd ; such prompt will 
Impeird ; and towards us flying, now were heard 
Spirits invisible, who courteously 
Unto love's table bade the welcome guest 
The voice, that first flew by, called forth aloud, 
" They hav6 no wine ;*** so on behind us passed. 
Those sounds reiterating, nor yet lost 
In the faint distance, when another came 
Crying, " I am Orestes,"* and alike 
Wing*d its fleet way. " O father !" I exclaim'd, 
" What tongues are these ?" and as I questioned, lo . 
A third exclaiming, " Love ye those have wrong*d 
you."* [scourge* 

" This circuit," said my teacher, ** knots the 
For envy ; and the cords are therefore drawn 
By charity's correcting hand. The curb 
Is of a harsher sound ; as thou shalt hear 
(If I deem rightiy) ere thou reach the pass, 
Where pardon sets them free. But fix thine eyes 
Intently through the air ; and thou shait see 
A multitude before thee seated, each , 

Along the shelving grot" Then more than erst 

I If.] "I 

. 'UnleM there be some urgent neoMslty for tmveUiiii 
ly nuht, the day-light should be pcefened for that pnrpoie.'* 

s They have no wtne.] John U. 3. These words of the Vlr- 
jln are referred to as an instance of charity. 

* Orettet.] Alluding to his friendship with Pylades. 

* Love ffo tkooe have w^ong^d you.] *'But I say unto you. 
Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to 
them that hate you, and pray for them which desf^tefuly use 
you, and persecute you." Matt. v. 44. 

* The scourge.} ** The chastisement of envy consists la. 
hearing examples of the opposite virtue, chari^. As a coiH 
and restraint on this vice, you will presently hear very dtf 
fineat sounds, those of threatening and punishment'* 

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PURGATORY, Canto XTO. 201 

I oped nunfr ejta ; before me viewed ; and asw 
Shadoiwft with; ganaenta dark as was the rack } 
And when we pase'd a little foith^ I heard 
A crying, " Blessed Mary ! pray for us, 
Michael and Feter! ail ye saintiy host l**^ 

I do not think there walks on earth this day 
Man so remorseless, that lie had not yeam'd 
With pity at the sight that next I saw. 
Mine eyes a load of sorrow teemM, when: now 
I stood so near them, tiiat Uieir semblances 
Came clearly to my view. Of sackcloth vils 
Their covering seem'd ; and, on his shoulder, ana 
Did stay another, leaning ; and all leaned 
Against the cliff E'en thus the blind and posr^ 
Near the confessicmals, to crave an alms. 
Stand, each his head upon his fellow's swik ; 
So most to stir compassion^ not by sound 
Of words alone, but that which moves not lean* 
The sight of misery. And as never beam 
Of noon-day visiteth the eyeless man, 
E'en so was heaven a niggard unto these 
Of bis f&ft light : for, through the orbs of all, 
A thread of wire, impiercing, knits them up, 
As for the taming of a haggard hawk. 

It were a wrong, methought, to pass and look 
On others, yet myself the v^\e unseen. 
To my sage counsel therefore did I turn. 
He knew the meaning of the mute appeal> 
Nor waited for my questionings but said : 
" Speak ; and be brief, be subtile m thy words.'* 

On that part of the cornice, whence no rim 
Engarlands its steep fall, did Virgil come ; 
On the other side me were the i^irits, their cheeks 
Bathing devout with penitential tears. 
That through the dread impalement forced a way. 

I tum'd me to them, and " O shades !" said I, 
" Assured that-to your eyes unveil'd shall shine 
The lofty light, sole object of your wish, 
So may heaven's grace^ clear whatsoe'er of foam 

> So map heaven's^ grace.] 

So toeto gmzia risolva le scMome 
Di Yostra coscienza, si che chiaro 
Per esso Menda cMla mente il fioine. 
This is a fine moral, and finely expressed. ITnleM the^ etm^ 
sdeaee be cleared ftom its impurity, which it can only tho- 
■oof^y be by an inflneaoe ftom idiovB, the mind itaalf cannot 
Mt finely and dasdit **IfyewlUdoUswill,yes]ialliQUM» 
•f the doQtrine.** 

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893 THE VISION 81-114 

Floats turbid on the conBcience,, tl at thenceforth 

Ttie stream of mmd roll limpid from its source ; 

As ye declare (for so shall ye impart 

A boon I dearly prize) if any soul 

Of Latium dwell amouj^ ye : and perchance 

That soul may profit, if 1 learn so much." 

** My brother ! we are, e&ch one, citizens 
Of one true city.' Any, thou wouldst say, 
Who lived a stranger in Italia's land." 

So heard I answering, as appeared, a voice 
That onward came some space from whence I st^ed 

A spirit I noted, m whose look was mark'd 
Expectance. Ask ye how ? The chin was raised 
As in one reft of sight. " Spirit," said I, 
<< Who for thy rise art tutoring, (if thou be 
That which didst answer to me) or by place, 
Or name, disclose thjrself, that I may know thee.** 

" I was," it answered, ** of Sienna : here 
I cleanse away with these the evil life. 
Soliciting with tears that He, who is. 
Vouchsafe hun to us. Though Sapia* named. 
In sapience I excelled not ; gladder far ^ 
Of other's hurt, than of the good befell me. 
That thou m9.yei own I now deceive thee not, 
Hear, if my folly were not as I speak it 
When now my years sloped waning down the arch, 
It so bechanced, my fellow-citizens 
Near CoUe met their enemies in the field ; 
And I pray'd Grod to grant what He had willed.' 
rhere were they vanquish^, and betook themselves 
Unto the bitter passages of flight. 
I mark'd the hunt ; and waxing out of bounds 
In gladness, lifted up my shameless brow. 
And, like the merlin^ cheated by a gleam, 

1 CUitens 

Of one true eity.J " For here we have no continuing city 
bnt we seelc one to come.** Heb. ziiL 14. 

* Sqpia.] A lady of Sienna, who living in exile at Ck>lle. 
was BO overioyed at a defeat which her conntrymen snstainea 
near that place, that she declared nothing more was wanting 
to. make W die contented. The Latin annotaUMr on the 
Monte Cassino MS. says of this lady: "ftiit uxor D. Cinii de 
Figezo de Senis.** 

> AtuI Iprafd Ood to grant what He had mlTi,} Fhat her 
countrymen should be Mfeated in battle. 

^ TTU merlinJ] The stinry of the merlin is, that having 
been induced by a i^eam of fine weather in the winter to 
escape from his master, he was soon oppressed by the rigor 
of the season. 

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115-145. PURGATORY, Cantj) XUI. 293^ 

Cried, * It is over. Heaven ! I fear thee not ' 

Upon my rerge of life I wish'd for peace 

With God ; nor yet repentance had supplied 

What I did lack of duty, were it not 

The hermit Piero,' touched with charity, 

In his devout oraisons thought on me. 

But who art thou that (juestion'st of our state. 

Who go*st, as I believe, with lids unclosed, 

And breathest in thy talk ?'* — ** Mine eyes,** said It 

'* May yet be here ta*en from me ; but not long ; 

For they have not ofifended grievously 

With envious glances. But the wo beneath* 

Urges my soul with more exceeding dread. 

That nether load already weighs me down." 

She thus : " Who then, among us here aloft, 
Hath brought thee, if thou weenest to return?" 

" He," answered I, " who standeth mute beside me. 
I live : of me ask therefore, chosen spirit ! 
If thou desire I yonder yet should move 
For thee my mortal feet" — ** Oh !" she replied, 
" This is so strange a thing, it is great sign 
That God doth love thee. Therefore with thy prayer 
Sometime assist me : and, by that I crave, 
Which most thou covetest, that if thy feet 
E*er tread on Tuscan soil, thou save my fame 
Amongst my kindred. Them shalt thou behold 
With that vain multitude,' who set their hope 
On Telamone's haven ; there to fail 
Confounded, more than when the fancied stream 
They sought, of Dian call'd : but they, who lead 
Their navies, more than ruin'd hopes shall mourn." 

> The kermit Piero.] Piero Fettinagno, a holy hermit of 

* The wo heneath.] Dante felt that he was mnch mate 
rabject to the sin of pride, than to that of envy; and this is 
just what we shoold have concluded of a mind sach as his. 

* That vain mtUtitudeJ] The Siennese. See Hell, c. xxlz. 
118. **■ Their acquisition of Telamone, a seaport on the con 
fines of the Maremma, has led them to conceive hopes of 
becoming a naval power : but this scheme will prove as chi- 
merical as their former plan for the discovery of a sabterra« 
neons stream under their city.** Why they gave the appel 
lation of Diana to the imagined stream, Venturi says he 
:«aves it to the antiquaries of Sienna to conjecture. 

* They, vho lead.] The Latin note to the Monte Cassino 
BIS. informs us, that those who were to command the fleets 
<tf the Siennese, in the event of their becoming a naval power, 
lost their lives during their employment at Telamone, throogk 
dte pestilent air of the Marenuna, which lies near that place 

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9M .1'HE \£8I0N hM 


Onr Poet on thto second cornlee finds tdso the sools of Chydo 
del Duca of Brettinoio, and Rinieri da Calboll of Romafoa ; 
the latter of whom, hearing that he comes from the bank! 
of the Amo, Inveighs against the degeneracy of all those 
who dwell in the cities visited by that stream ; and tte 
former, in liiie manner, against the £nbabitants of Ro- 
magna. On leaving these, our Poets hear voices recordiof 
noted instances of envy. 

" Say,* who is he around our mountain wmds. 
Or ever death has pruned his wing for flight ; 
That opes his eyes, and covers them at will?** 

" I know not who he is, but know thus much ; 
He comes not singly. Do thou ask of him, 
For thou art nearer to him ; and take heed, 
Accost him'' gently, so that he may speafcx" 

Thus on the right two spuits, bending each 
Toward the other, talk'd of me ; then both 
Addressing me, their faces backward lean'd. 
And thus the one' began : " O soul, who yet 
Pent in the body, tendest towards the sky ! 
For charity, we pray thee, comfort us ; 
Recounting whence thou comest, and who thou art : 
For thou dost make us, at the favour shown thee. 
Marvel, as at a thing that ne'er hath been." 

" There stretches through the midst of Tuscany,*' 
I straight began, " a brooklet,* whose well-head 
Springs up in Falterona ; with his race 
Not satisfied, when he some hundred miles 
Hath measured. From his banks bring I this frame 

1 Say.] The two spirits who thus speak to each other are, 
Guido del Duca of Brettinoro, and Rinieri da Calboli of Ro 

9 Accost him.] It is worthy of remark, that the Latin an- 
notator on the Monte Cassino MS. agrees with Landino in 
reading " a colo," instead 3f "accolo," and interprets it as ho 
does: "Nil aliud vnlt auctor dicere de colo, nisi qnod cum 
interroget Ita dulclter ut respondeat (sic) eum ad colum, ia 
est quad tantnm respondeat ar.ctor eis qnod animns eorum 
remaneat in qniete et non in snspenso." " The author means 
to say, that the spirit should intern^te him courteously, 
that he may return such an answer as shall put a period to 
their suspense." Still I have retained my translation of the 
common reading generally supposed to be put by syncope for 
** accoglilo,*' " accost him." 

s The one.] Guido del Duca. 

* A brooklet.] The Amo, that riws in Falterona, a monn- 
lain in the Apennine. Its course is a hundred and twenty 
■lies, according to 6. Villani, who traces It acc ur a tel y. 

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»-53. PURGATORY. Cufro XIV. 2M 

To tell you who I am were words miaBpexit : 
For yet my name scarce sounds on rumor's lip.** 

" If well I do incoiporate with my thought 
The meanmg of thy speech," said he, who firrt 
Addressed me, " thou dost speak of Aino's wave." 

To whom the other :* ** Why hath he concealed 
The title of that river, as a man 
Doth of some horrible thing ?" The spirit, who 
Thereof was questioned, did acquit him thus : 
'* I know not : but 'tb fitting well the name 
Should perish of that vale ; for from the source,' 
Where tetnns so plenteously the Alpine steep 
Maim'd of Pelorus," (that doth scarcely pass* 
Beyond that limit,) even to the point 
Where unto ocean is restored what heaven [streams, 
Drains from the ezhaustless store for aU earth's 
Throughout the space is virtue worried down, 
As 't were a snake, by all, for mortal foe ; 
Or through disastrous influence on the place. 
Or else oiktortion of misguided wills 
That custom goads to evil : whence in those. 
The dwellers in that miserable vale, 
Nature is so transform'd, it seems as they 
Had shared of Circe's feeding. 'Midst brute swine* 
Worthier of acorns than of other food 
Created for man's use, he shapeth first 
His obscure way ; then, sloping onward, finds 
Curs,* snarlers more in spite than power, from whom 
He turns with scorn aside : still journeying down. 
By how much more the cursed and luckless foss'' 
Swells out to largeness, e'en so much it finds 
Dogs turning into wolves." Descending still 

1 The other.] Rinieri da Calboli. 

« FVom the source.] " From the rise of the Amo in that 
'Alpine steep,' the Apennlne, Arom whence Pelorns in Sicily 
was torn by a convulsion of the earth, even to the point 
where the same river unites its waters to the ocean, Virtue 
is persecuted by all." 

s Maim'd of Pelorus.] Virg., Ma.^ lib. ill. 414. Lacan, 
Fhars., lib. iii. 438. 

A hill 

Tom from Pelorus. XUton, P. Z.., b. i. 232. 

^ That doth seareely pass.] " Peloros is in few places higher 
than Falterona, where the Amo springs." LomtMurdi explains 
this differently, and, I ^ink, erroneously 

B * Midst brute swine.] The people of Casentinc. 

* Curt.] The Amo leaves Arezzo about four miles to th« 


V Fbss.] So in his anger he terms the Amo. 

* Wolves.] The Florentines. 

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296 THE VISION. s-i-M 

Through yet more hollow eddies, next he meets 

A race of foxes,' so replete with craft, 

They do not fear that skill can master it. 

Nor will I cease because my words are Leaid* 

By other ecus than thme. It shall be well 

For this man,' if he keep in memory 

What from no erring spirit I reveal. 

Lo ! I behold thy grandson,^ that becomes 

A hunter of those wolves, upon the shore 

Of the fierce stream ; and cows them all with dread. 

Their flesh, yet living, sets he up to sale. 

Then, like an aged l^ast, to slaughter dooms. 

Many of life he reaves, himself of worth 

And goodly estimation. Smear'd with gore, 

Mark how he issues from the rueful wood ; 

Leaving such havoc, that in thousand years 

It spreads not to prime lustihood again." 

As one, who tidings hears of wo to come. 
Changes his looks perturb'd, from whate'er part 
The peril grasp him ; so beheld I change 
That spirit, who had tum'd to listen ; struck 
With sadness, soon as he had caught the word. 

His visage, and the other's speech, did raise 
Desire in me to know the names of both ; 
Whereof, with meek entreaty, I inquired. 

The shade, who late address'd me, thus resumed 
" Thy wish imports, that I vouchsafe to do 
For thy sake what thou wilt not do* for mine. 
But, since God's will is that so largely shhie 
His grace in thee, I will be liberal too. 
Guide of Duca know then that I am. 
Envy so parch'd my blood, that had I seen 
A felk>w-man made joyous, thou hadst mark'd 
A livid paleness overspread my cheek. 
Such harvest reap I of the seed I sow'd. 
O man ! why place* thy heart where there doth need 
Exclusion of participants m good? 

1 Fhxes.] The Pisans. 

s My words are keard.\ It should be recollected thatGaido 
Btill addressea himself to Rinieri. 

* For this man.] ** For Dante, who has told as that he 
comes from the banks of Arno." 

* !7%y grandson.] Fulcieri da Calboli, grandson of Rinien 
da Calboli who is here spoken to. The atrocities predicted 
came to pass in 1302. See 6. Villani, lib. viii. c. !^. 

* What thou wilt not do.] Dante having declined telling 
him his name. See v. 5!2. 

* Why p^MM.] This will be explained in the ensning Canta 

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W-101. PURGATORY, Canto XIV. 2^7 

This is Rinieri's spirit ; this, the boast 
And honor of the house of Calboli ; 
Where of his worth no herita^ remains. 
Nor his the only blood, that hath been stripped, 
('Twixt Po, the mount, the Reno, and the shore^) 
Of all that truth or fancy^ asks for bliss : 
But, m those limits, such a growth has sprung 
Of rank and venom'd roots, as long would mock 
Slow culture's toil. Where is good Lizio ?' where 
Manardi, Traversaro, and Carpigna?* 
O bastard slips of old Romagna's line ! 
When in Bologna the low artisan. 
And in Faenza yon Bemardin* sprouts, 
A gentle cion from ignoble stem. 
Wonder not, Tuscan, if thou see me weep. 
When I recall to mind those once loved names. 
Guide of Prata,' and of Azzo him" 

1 ' Twixt Po, thA mount, the Reno, and the shore.] The boon 
daries of Romagna. 

a Fancy.] **TrastalIo.** duadrio, In the notes on the sec 
ond of the Salmi Penitenziall of our author, understands this 
In a higher sense, as meaning that joy which results from aa 
easy and constant practice of virtue. See Opere di Dante, 
Zatta ediz. torn. iv. part ii. p. 193. And he is followed by 

* Lizio.] Lizio da Valbona introduced into Boccaccio*8 
Decameron, G. V. N. 4. 

* Manardi, Traversaro, and Carpigna.] Arrigo Manardi of 
Faenza, or, as some say, of Brettinoro ; Pier Traversaro, lord 
of Ravenna ; and Gnido di Carpigna of Montefeltro. 

* In Bologna the low artisan.] One who had been a me- 
chanic, named Laml)ertaccio, arrived at almost supreme 
power in Bolegna. 

Quando in Bologna nn Fabro si rallinia : 
Q,uando in Faenza un Bemardin di Fosco. 
The pointing and the marginal note of the Monte Cassino 
MS. entirely change the sense of these two lines. There is a 
mark of interrogation added to each ; and by way of answer 
to both there is written, ** Quasi dicat numquam.'* Fabro is 
made a proper name, and it is said of him : " Iste fuit Dom. 
Faber de Lambertaciis de Bononia;** and Benvennto da 
Imola calls him "Nobilis Miles.'* I have not ventured to 
. alter the translation so as to make it accord with this inter- 
pretation, as it must have been done in the face, I believe, 
of nearly all the editions, and, as far as may be gathered 
firom the silence of Lombard!, of the MSS. also which that 
commentator had consulted. But those, who wish to see 
more on the subject, are referred to Monties Proposta, torn. ilL 
p»« 2, under the word " Rallignare.'* 

* Yon Bemardin.] Bemardin di Fosco, a man of low on 
gin, but great talents, who governed at Faenza. 

' FraUL] A place between Faenza and Ravenna. 

* Of Alto him,] UgoUno^ of the Ubaldinl family in Tas- 

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^298 THE YlSICm. 106-11*. 

That dwelt with us ;^ T^oso* and lus troi/p. 
With Travenaro*8 house and Anastagto's,' 
(Each race disherited ;) and beside these, 
The Udies* and die kni^its, the toils and eaae. 
That wttch*d ns into lo^ and courtesy- ;' 
Where now such maliee reigns in recreant heartSL 
O Brettinoro !* wherefore tarriest still. 

1 With us."] Lombardi claims the reading, " nmco,'* instead 
of " vo$co," " with us," instead of " with yrm," for lite £ivar- 
ite edition ; bat it is also in Landino's of 1488. 

< TSgnoso.] Federigo Tignoso of Rimini. 

* TVaversaro^s haute amd Ana9tagio'».'\ Two noble £uniUef 
of Ravenna. See v. 100. She, to whom Dryden has given 
the name of Honoria, in the fliMe so admirably paraphjfased 
from Boceacdo, was of the fimner : her lover and the spectre 
were of the Anastagi family. See Canto xxviiL JO. 

* Tlu ladiesj ^.] 

Le donne, eri cavalier, gli af&nni, e gU agl 
Che ne *nvogliava amore e cortesia. 
These two lines express the tme spirit of chivalry. " Agi** 
is understood, by the commentators whom I have consulted, 
to mean " the ease procured for others by Uie exertions of 
knight-errantry.** But surely it signifies the alternation of 
ease with labor. Venturi is of opinion that the opening of 
the Orlando Furioso— 

Le donne, i cavalier, Tarme, gli amori, 

Le cortesie, Taadaci imprese io canto, 
originates in this passage. 

* Courtesy.] " Cortesia e onestade,** &c. Qmv/to, p. 65. 
** Courtesy and honor are all one ; and because Anciently 
virtue and good manners were usual in courts, as the con- 
trary now is, this term was derived from thence : courtesy 
was as much as to say, custom of courts ; which WOTd, if it 
were now taken firom courts, especially those of Itidy, would 
be no other than turpitude," ^turpezza." 


Which oft is sooner found in lowly sheds 
With smoky rafters, than In tapstry hails 
And courts of inrinces, where it first was named, 
And yet is most pretended. MUtan, ComiuM, 

Marino has exceeded his usual extravagance In his play 
oo this word. 

Ma come pub vero diletto ? b come 
Vera quiete altrui donar la Corte 1 
Le di^ la Cortesia del proinrio nome 
Solo il principio, 11 fine ha della Morte. 

Jidone^ c. 
« O Brettinoro.] A beautifUly situated castle in Bonrngna, 
the hospitable residence of <3uido del Duoa, who is here 
speaking. Landino relates, that there were Several of this 
family, who, when a stranger 'axrlved among them oou' 
tended with tme another by whom b» should be entertained* 
and HiKt in older to end this dispute, they set sp a plllai 
with as many rings as there were fkthers of families aoMag 

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.15-134. PURGATORY, Canto XIV. 299 

Since foriu of thee thy family hath gone» 
And many, hating evil, join'd thr>ir steps? 
Well doeth he, tht X bids his lineage cease 
Bagnacavallo ;^ Castracaro ill, 
And Conio woise,^ who care to propagate 
A race of Counties* from such blood as thein 
Well shall ye also do, Pagani,^ then 
When from among you hies your demon child ; 
Not so howe'er," £at thenceforth there remam 
True proof of what ye were. O Hugolin,* 
Thou sprung of Fantolini's ILie I thy name 
Is safe : since none is look'd for after thee 
To cloud its lustre, warping from thy stock. 
But, Tuscan ! go thy ways ; for now I take 
Far more delight in weeping, than in words. 
Such"' pity for your sakes hath wrung my heart" 
We knew those gentle spinta, at parting, heard 
Our steps. Their silence therefore, of our way, 
Assured us. Soon as we had quitted them, 
Advancing onward, lo I a voice, that seem'd 

them, a ring being assigned to each, and that accordingly as 
a stranger on his arrival hung his horse's bridle on one or 
other of these, he became his guest to whom the ring be- 

1 BagnaeavaUo.l A castle between Imola and Ravenna 

» Caatrewiro ilh 

And Conio worse,] Both in Romagna 

* Counties.) I have used this word here for " Ck>tuits," as 
it is in Shakspeare. 

4 Poffani.'] The Pagan! were lords of Faenza and Lnola. 
One of them, Machinardo, was named the Demon, from his 
Ireachery. See Hell, Canto xzvii. 47, and note. 

» A*** so howler.] "Yet your offiiprlng will be stained 
with some vice, and will not afford true proof of the worth 
of your ancestors." 

* Huffolin.] Ugolino Ubaldinl, a noble and virtnons person 
in Faenza, who, on accomit of his age probably, was not 
likely to leave any ofispring behind him. He is enomerated 
among the poets by Crescimbeni, and by Tiraboschi, Mr. 
Mathias's edit., vol. L p. 143 ; and Perticari cites a beautiful 
little poem by him in the Apologia di Dante, parte ii. c 27, 
but with so little appearance of antiquity that nothing less 
than the assurance of so able a critic could induce one for a 
moment to receive it as genuine. 

7 Sueh.} Here again the Nidobeatina edition adopted by 
liombardi, and the Monte Cassino MS., dUbr fiFom the oon- 
mon reading, and both have 

Si m* ha nostra region la m«ite stretta 

Our country's sorrow has sc wmag-my heact 


ffi m* ha vostia x«i^loii, Jce. 

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300 'rHE VISION. 135-151 

Like YolleyM lightning, when it rives the air« 
Met us, and shouted, ** Whosoever finds 
Will slay me ;"* then fled from us, as the bolt 
Lanced sudden from a downward-rushing cloud. 
When it had gi^ren short truce unto our hearing, 
Behold the other with a crash as loud 
As the quick-following thunder : " Mark in me 
A.glauros,' tum'd to rock." I, at the sound 
Retreating, drew more closely to my guide. 
Now in mute stillness rested all the air ; 
And thus he spake : ** There was the galling bit,' 
Which* should keep man within his boundary. 
But your old enemy so baits the hook. 
He drags you eager to him. Hence nor curb 
Avails you, nor reclaiming call. Heaven calls,* 
And, round about you wheeling, courts your gaze 
With everlasting beauties. Yet your eye 
Turns with fond doting still upon the earth. 
Therefore He smites you who discemeth alL" 


An angel invites them to ascend the next steep. On their 
way Dante sn^ests certain doubts, which are resolved by 
Viip] ; and, when they reach the third cornice, where the 
sin of anger is purged, our Poet, in a kind of walcing dream 
beholds remarkable instances of patience ; and soon after 
they are enveloped in a dense fog. 

As much" as Hwixt the third hour's close and dawn, 
Appeareth of heaven's sphere, that ever whirls 

1 Whosoever finds 

Will slay me.] The words of Cain, Gen. iv. 14 
^Jiglauros.\ Ovid. Met, lib. U. fab. 12. 
« Thera was the galling hitj. Referring to what had been 
before said, Canto xiil. 35. The commentators remark the 
unusual word *' camo," which occurs here in the original : 
but they have not observed, I believe, that Dante himself 
uses it in the De Monarchi&, lib. iii. p. 155. For the Greek 
word x^l^'^^ B^ & fragment by S. Petrus Alex, in Routh*s 
Rellquie Sacre, vol. iii. p. 342, and note. 

4 Whidi.] Mr. Darley has noticed the omission of this line 
In the former editions. 
* Heemem calls.} 

Or ti soUeva a plik beata spene, 
Bilrando il del, che ti si volve intomo 
Immortal ed adomo. Petrarea, Canione. I^v0pmumii9» 
^Jismueko] It wanted three hours of sunset. 

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As itsstleflfl as an infant in his play ; 

So much appeared remaining to the sun 

Of his slope journey towards the western goal. 

Evenmg was there, and here the noon of night; 
And full upon our forehead smote the beams. 
For round the mountain, circling, so our path 
Had led us, that toward the sunset now. 
Direct we joumey*d ; when I felt a weight 
Of more exceeding splendor, than before. 
Press on my front The cause unknown, amaze 
Possess'd me ; and both hands* against my brows 
Lifting, I interposed them, as a screen. 
That of its gorgeous superflux of light 
Clips the diminish'd orb. As when the ray,* 
Striking on water or the surface clear 
Of mirror, leaps unto the opposite part, 
Ascending at a glance,' e'en as it fell. 
And as much^ differs from the stone, that falls 
Through equal space, (so practic skill hath shown ;) 
Thus, with refracted light, before me seem'd 
The ^und there smitten ; whence, in sudden haste* 
My sight recoil'd. " What is this, sire beloved ! 
'Gainst which I strive to shield the sight in vam V 
Cried I, " and which toward us moving seems?** 

" Marvel not, if the family of heaven," 
He answer'd, ** yet with dazzling radiance dim 
Thy sense. It is a messenger who comes, 

> Both ha7ids.\ 
Baislng his hana to save the dazzled sense. 

S<nUhey*s 7%a/aAa, b. xU. 

* j3s when the ray.] 

Sicut aqne trenralum labris abi Itunen aSnis 
Sole repercassum, aut radiantis imagine lun», 
Omnia pervolitat late loca, Jamque sub auras 
Erigitnr, summique ferit laquearia tectL 

Oompare ApoU. Rhodius, iiL 755. 

* Jiseending at a glance.] 

dnod simul ac [wimnm sub divo splendor aqual 

Fonitnr: extemplo, cobIo stellante, serena 

Bidera respondent In aqnft radiantia mnndi. 

Jamne vides igitnr, quam parvo tempcne imago 

^theris ex oris ad terraroni accidat oras. 

X,«(cr«t, Ub. iv. SIS. 
^ And 09 much.] Lcnnbardi, I think justly, observes that 
this does not refer to the length of time which a stone is in 
foiling to the gronud, but to the perpendicular line which 
it describes when faliinc, as contrasted with the ancle ti 
kieidence fbrmed by li^t reflected ftom water or nam a 


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303 TH£ VISION 3<M« 

Inviting mun^s ascent Such sights eie long. 

Not grieToos, shall impart to thee delight, 

As t% perc^Uon is by nature wrcmg^ 

Up to their pitch." The blessed angel, soou 

As we had reach'd him, hail'd us with glad voioe ! 

« Here enter on a ladder far less steep 

Than ye have yet encoonter'd." We forthwith 

Ascending, heard behind us chanted sweet, 

<^ Blessed the merciful,"^ and " Happy thou. 

That conquer'sf Lonely each, my guide ^nd I9 

Pursued our u^ard way ; and as we went. 

Some profit from his words I hoped to win, 

And thus of him inquiring, framed my speech : 

« What meant Romagna's spirit,^ when he ^ake 

Of bliss exclusive, with no partner shared V* 

He straight replied : " No wonder, since he knowsi 
What sorrow waits on his own worst defect. 
If he chide others, that they less may mourn. 
Because ye point your wishes at a mark. 
Where, by communion of possessors, part 
Is lessen'd, envy bloweth up men's sighs. 
No fear of that might touch ye, if the love 
Of higher sphere exalted your desire. 
For there,* by how much more they call it our^f 
So much propriety of each in good 
Increases more, and heighten'd charity 
Wraps that fair cloister in a brighter flame." 

■" Now lack I satisfaction more," said I, 
** Than if thou hadst been silent at the first ; 
And doubt more gathers on my laboring thought. 
How can it chance, that good distributeid. 
The many, that possess it, makes more rich. 
Than if 't were shared by few ?" He answering thus * 
** Thy mmd, reverting still to thmes of earth, 
Strikes darkness from true l^^ht. The highest good 
Unlinuted, ineffable, doth so speed 
To love, as beam to lucid body darts, 

i Blessed the merctful.} Matt. v. 7. 

s Romagna*s spiriL] Guido del Dnea, of Brottinoro, whom 
we have Been, in the preceding canto. 

> J^ there.] Landino has han cited, in addition to 8e- 
nsea and Boetiva, the two followinf apposite ixissaget tinm 
Aagiutine and Saint Gfogory : " NoUo modo it minor acce- 
4eBte consiNrtio possefsio bcmitatis, qnam tanto latins qnaato 
copcordins indivldua socionun possidet cacitas.*' jitigmatim* 
4sm9UaUD§i, **anl&cibaainvidl0 ean«daiideiat,iUam 

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f>m PURGATCHIT, Camto XV 303 

GiTiiigr as much of afdsr as it finds. 
The sempitenial effloeiice streams tkn^ 
Spreading, wherever charity extends. 
So that & more aspirants to that bhss 
Are muttiptied, more good is there to lovi), 
And more is loved ; as mirrors, that refiect. 
Each unto other, propagated iig^t. 
If these my words avail not to allay 
Thy thirstnig, Beatrice thou shait see, 4 

Who of this want, and of all elae thou hast. 
Shall rid thee to the full Provide but th<m,' 
That from thy temples may be soon erased« 
E'en as the two alnady, those five scars. 
That, when they pain thee worst, then kindliest hoaL" 
** Thou/' I had said, " contenfst me f when I saw 
The other round was ffain'd, and wondering eyes 
Did keep me mute. There suddenly I seem'd 
By an ecstatic vision wrapt away ; 
Ajid in a teazle saw, metheught, a crowd 
Of many persons ; and at the entrance stood 
A dame,^ whose sweet demeanor did express 
A mother's love, who said, "Chikl ! why hast thou 
Dealt with us thus ? Behold thy sire and I 
Sorrowing have sought Uiee ;'' and so held her peace ; 
Aim! straight the vision fled. A female next 
Appeared before me, down whose visage courwd 
Those waters, that grief forces out from one 
By deep resentment stung, who seem'd to say: 
" If thou, Pisistratus, be IcMrd indeed 
Over this city,* named with such debate 
Of adverse gods, and whence each science spai^cles. 
Avenge thee of those arms, whose bold embnee 
Hath daip'd our daughter;'' and to her, meseemM, 
Benign and meek, wkh visage undisturb'd. 
Her sovereign spake : <<^How shall we those reqsite* 
Who wish us e^, if we thus cond^nn 
The man that kyves us ?" After that I saw 

1 Provide but tkeuJ] "Take heed that thou be healed of 
the five remaining ;iln8, as thoa already art of the two, 
namely, pride and envy.** 

* A dame.] Lake, ii. 48. 

> Over tJUe ettv.] Athens, named after *A0i$mv, Minerva, la 
eonseqaence of her having produced a more valuable gift for 
It in the olive, than Neptune had done in the horse. 

* How ehaJU we tkoee requiU.\ The answer of Pisistratus 
Ihe tyrant to his wife, when she ui^ him to inflict the imn- 
Munent of death on a yoong man, who, li^lamed with love 
Ibr his daughter, had snatched a kiss from faerinpubUe. Ths 
stoi7lsliaMb7^atartaiMailji«,4ib t 1 

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304 THE VISION. lo«-i43 

A multitude, in fury burning, day 
With stones a stripling youth,^ and shout amain 
•* Destroy, destroy ;" and him I saw, who bow'd 
Heavy with death unto the ground, yet made 
His eyes, unfolded upward, gates to heaven, 
Praying forgiveness of the .^dmighty Sire, 
Amidst that cruel conflict, on his foes, 
With looks that win compassion to their aim. 

Soon as my spirit, from her airy flight 
Retnmmg, sought again the things whose truth 
Depends not on her shaping, I observed 
She had not roved to falsehood m her dreams. 

Meanwhile the leader, who might see I moved 
As one who struggles to shake off his sleep. 
Exclaimed : ** What ails thee, that thou canst not hold 
Thy footmg firm ; but more than half a league 
Hast travell'd with closed eyes and tottering gait. 
Like to a man by wine or sleep o'ercharged V* 

" Beloved father ! so thou deign," said I, 
" To listen, I will tell thee what appear'd 
Before me, when so fail'd my sinking steps." 

He thus : '' Not if thy countenance were mask'd 
With hundred vizards, could a thought of thine, 
How small soe'er, elude me. What thou saw'st 
Was shown, that freely thou mightst ope thy heart 
To the waters of peace, that flow diffused 
From their etemid fountain. I not ask'd. 
What ails thee ? for such cause as he doth, who 
Looks only with that eye, which sees no more. 
When spiritless the body lies ; but ask'd^ 
To give fresh vigor to thy foot. Such goads. 
The slow and loitering need ; that they be found 
Not wanting, when their hour of watch returns." 

So on we joumey'd, through the evening sky 
Gazmg mtent, far onward -as our eyes. 
With level view, could stretch against the bright 
Vespertine ray : and lo ! by slow degrees 
GaUiering, a fog made towards us, dark as night 
There was no room for 'scaping ; and that mist 
Bereft us, both of sight and tlie pure air. 


Am they proceed through the mist, they hear the voices ot 
spirits praying. Bfarco Lombardo, one of these, poiatt 

ijiMriplitigyoutk.] The protomartyr Stephen. 

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A-^ PURGATORY, Canto XVL 305 

oat to Dante the error of such as impate onr aetkms to ae 
cessity ; explains to him that man is endued with freo will ; 
and shows that much of human depravity results from 
the undue mixture of spiritual and temptual authority in 

Hell's dunnest gloom, or night unlustrous, daric. 
Of every planet 'reft, and pall'd in clouds, 
Did never spread before the sight a veil 
In thickness like that fog, nor to the sense 
So palpable aud gross. Entering its shade. 
Mine eye endured hot with unclosed lids ; 
Which marking, near me drew the faithful ga'dc^ 
Offering me his shoulder for a stay. 

As the blind man behind his leader walks, 
Lest he should err, or stumble unawares 
On what might harm him or perhaps destroy ; 
I joumey'd through that bitter air and foul, 
Still listening to my escort's warning voice, 
** Look that from me thou part not." Straight I heard 
Voices, and each one seem'd to pray for peace, 
And for compassion, to the Lamb of God 
That taketh sins away. Their prelude still 
Was " Agnus Dei ;" and through all the choir, 
One voice, one measure ran, that perfect seem'd 
The concord of their song. " Are these I hear 
Spirits, O master?" I exclaim'd ; and he, 
** Thou aim'st suright : these loose the bonds of wrath." 

** Now who art thou, that through our smoke dost 
cleave, ^ 

And speak'st of us, as thou' thyself e'en yet 
Dividedst time by calends ?" So one voice 
Bespake me ; whence my master said, " Reply ; 
And ask, if upward hence the passage lead." 

" O being ! who dost make thee pure, to stand 
Beautiful once more in thy Maker's sight ; 
Along with me : and thou shalt hear and wonder.' 
Thuri'l, whereto the spirit answering spake: 
'< Long as 'tis lawfuKfor me, shall my steps 
Follow on thine ; asd since the cloudy smoke 
Forbids the seeing, hearing m its stead 
Shall keep us join'd." I then forthwith began : 
** Yet in my mortal swathing, I ascend 
To higher regions ; and am hither como 
Thorough the feariful agony of hell. 
And, if so largely God hath doled his grace, 
That, clean beside all modem precedent, 

> JSa thou,] *'As\f thou wert still living.** 

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300 I^IE VISION. 41-71 

He wills me to behold his kingly state ; 
From me conceal not who thou wast, ere death 
Had loosed thee ; but instruct me : and instruct 
If rightly to the pass I tend ; thy words 
The way directing, as a safe escort." 

« I was of Lombardy, and Marco call'd :' 
Not inexperienced of the world, that worth 
I still affected, from which all have tum'd 
The nerveless bow aside. Thy course tends right 
Unto the summit :" and, replying thus. 
He added, " I beseech thee pray for me. 
When thou shalt come aloft" And I to him: 
** Accept my faith for pledge I will perform 
What thou requirest Yet one doubt remains. 
That wrings me sorely, if I solve it not 
Smgly before it urg^d me, doubled now 
By thine opinion, when I couple that [other 

With one elsewhere^ declared; each strengthening 
The world indeed is even so forlorn ' 
Of all good, as thou speak'st it, and so swancs 
With every evil. Yet, beseech thee, pomt 
The cause out to me, that myself may see. 
And unto others show it : for in heaven 
One places it, and one on earth below." 

Then heaving forth a deep and audible sigh, 
" Brother !" he thus began, " the world is blind ; 
And thou in truth comest from it Ye, who live, 
Do so each cause refer to heaven above, 
E'en as its motion, of necessity, 
Drew with it all that moves. If this were so,' 

1 I was ofLombardVj and Marco called.] A Venetian gen- 
tleman. ** Iiombardo/* both was his surname, and denoted 
the country to which he belonged. G. Villani, lib. vii cap. 
120, terms him *' a wise and worthy courtier." 

Benvennto da Imola, says Landino, relates of him, that 
being Imprisoned and not able to pay the price of his ransom, 
he applied by letter to his friend Riccardo da Camino, lord of 
Trevigi, for relief. Riccardo set on foot a contribution among 
several nobles of Lombardy for the purpose ; of which when 
Marco was informed, he wrote bacic with much indignation 
to Riccardo, that he had rather die than remain under obliga- 
tions to so many benefactors. It is added that Riccardo then 
riid the whole out of his own pnrw. Of this generous man 
have occasion to speak again in the notes to Canto viii. 71, 
and to Par. Canto ix. 48. 

* Elsewhere.] He refers to what Guide del Duca had said 
in the fourteenth Canto, concerning the degeneracy of his 

I ](f thie were so.] Mr. Crowe, in his Lewesdon Hill, has 
expressed similar sentiments with much energy. 

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W-90. PURGATORY. Cahto XVI. 807 

Free choice in yua were none ; nor juetioe would 
There should be joy for virtue, wo for ilL 
Your movements have their primal bent from heaven ; 
Not all : yet said I all ; what then ensues? 
Light have ye still to follow evil or ^ood, 
And of the will free power, which, if it stand 
Firm and unwearied in Heaven's first assay, 
Conquers at last, so it be cherished well, 
Triumphant over alL To might'er force,' 
To better nature subject, ye abide 
Free, not constrained by that which forms in yon 
The reasoning mind uninfiuenced'of the stars. 
If then the present race of mankind err. 
Seek in younelves the cause, and find it there. 
Herein thou shalt confess me no false spy. [holds 
" Forth from his plastic hand, who charm'd be- 
Her image ere she yet exist, the soul 
Comes l&e a babe, that wantons sportively,' 
Weeping and laughing in its wayward moods ; 
As artleoB, and as ignorant of aught. 

Of this be rare, 

Where freedom is not, there no virtue is : 
If there be none, this world is all a cheat, 
And the divine stability of heaven 
(That assured seat for good men after death) 
Is bnt a transient clond, displayed so fair 
To cherish virtaons hope, but at our need 
Eludes the sense, and fools our honest faith, 
Vanishing in a lie, &c. 

So, also, Frezzi, in his anadriregio. 

Or sappi ben che Dlo ha dato il fVeno 
A vol di vol ; e, «e non fosse questo, 
Llbero arbltrio in vol sarebbe meno. Lib. il. cap. .. 

There Is much more on this subject at the conclusion of the 
eighth Capltolo of this book. Compare also Origen. in Gene- 
sin. Patmm Gnecor., vol. xi p. 14. Werceburgi 1783, 8vo., 
and Tertullian, Contra Marcionem, lib. il. p. 458. LntetUe, 
1641, fol. 

A very noble passage on the Areedom of the will occurs In 
the first book De Monarchic, beginning, ** Et humanum ge* 
BUS, potlssimnm llbernm, optime se habet.** *'Tbe human 
race, when most completely free, is in its highest state of ex- 

» To mightier force.] ^Though ye are sutiject to a higher 
power than that of the heavenly constellations, even to fio 
power of the great Creator himself, yet ye are still left in lAe 
possession of liberty.** 

s Like a babe^ that wajUona sportively. I This reminds ns id 
ttie Emperor Hadrian*s verses to his departing soal. 
Animula vagula blandula, dec 

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308 THE VISION 91-111 

Save that her Maker being one who dw ^ 
With gladness ever, willingly she turns 
To whatever yields her joy. Of some slight good 
The flavor soon she tastes ; and, snared by Uiat, 
With fondness she pursues it ; if no guide 
Recall, no rein direct her wandering course. 
Hence it behooved, the law should be a curb ; 
A. sovereign hence behooved, whose piercmg view 
Might mark at least the fortress^ and main tower 
Of the true city. Laws indeed there are : 
But who is he observes them ? None ; not he. 
Who goes before, the shepherd of the flock, 
Who* chews the cud but doth not cleave the hoot 
Therefore the multitude, who see their guide 
Strike at the very good they covet most, 
Feed there and look no further. Thus the cause 
Is not corrupted nature in yourselves. 
But ill-conducting, that hath tum'd the world 
To evil. Rome, that tum'd it unto good. 
Was wont to boast two suns,' whose several beams 
Cast light on either way, the world's and God*s. 
One since hath quench'd the other ; and the sword 
Is grafted on the crook ; and, so conjoined, 
Each must perforce decline to worse, unawed 
By fear of other. If thou doubt me, mark 

1 The fortress.] Justice, the most necessary virtae in the 
chief niHgistrate, as the commentators for the most part ex- 
plain it : and it appears manifest from all our Poet says in 
nis first boolc De Monarchic, concerning the authority of the- 
temporal Monarch and concerning Justice, that they are 
right. Yet Lombardi understands the law here spoken of to 
be the law of God ; the sovereign, a spiritual ruler, and the 
true eity, the society of true believers ; so that thefortrest, 
according to him, denotes the principal parts of Christiaa 

s fVho.} He compares the Pope, on account of the union 
of the temporal with the spiritual power in his person, to an 
unclean beast in the Levitical law. " The camel, because he 
cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean 
unto you.'* Levit. xi. 4. 

s Two tuns.] The Emperor and the Bishop of Rome 
There is something similar to this in the De Monarchic, 
lib. iii. p. 138. *' They say first, according to that text in 
Genesis, that God made two great lights, the greater light 
and the lesser, the one to rule the day, and the other the 
night ; then, that as the moon, which is the lesser light, has 
no brightness, except as she receives it firom the sun, so 
neither has the temporal kingdom authoritv, except what 
it receives firom the spiritual government.*' The fallacy 
of which reasoning (if such it can be called) he i»oceed« lo 

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114-13G. PURGATORY, Canto XVI. 30$ 

The blade : each h6rb is judgred of by its seed. 
That land,' througrh which Adice and the Po 
Their waters roll, was once the residence 
Of courtesy and valor, ere the day* 
That frown'd on Frederick ; now secure nc ay ptm 
Those limits, whosoe'er hath left, for shamef 
To talk with good men, or come near their haunts. 
l*hree aged ones are still found there, in whom 
The old time' chides the new : these deem it lonfi^ 
Ere God restore them to a better world : 
The good Gherardo ;* of Palazzo he, 
Conrad ;* and Guide of Castello,* named 
In Gallic phrase more fitly the plain Lombard. 
On this at last conclude. The church of Rome, 
Mixing two governments that ill assort, 
Hath miss'd her footing, fallen into the mire,^ 
And there herself and burden much defiled.'' 
" O Marco !" 1 replied, " thine argfuments 
Convince me: and the cause I now discern. 
Why of the heritage no* portion came 
To Levi's offspring. But resolve me this : 

1 That land.] Lombardy. 

* Ere the day.] Before the Emperor Frederick II. was de- 
feated before Parma, in 1248. 6. YUlani, Ub. vi. cap. 3S. 

> Tie old time.] L'antica etL 

It is silly sooth, 

And dallies with the innocence of love^ 
Like the old age. 

Shakspearef Tweiflk Kigkty act U. so. 4. 

* The good Oherardo.] Gherardo dl Camlno, of Trevlri. 
He is honorably mentioned in our Poet*s Convito, p. I'HI. 
** Let us suppose that Gherardo da Camino had been the 
grandson of tlie meanest hind that ever drank of the Sile or 
the Cagnano, and that his grandfather was not yet forgotten ; 
who will dare to say that Gherardo da Camino was a mean 
man, and who will not agree with me in calling him noble 1 
Certainly no one, however raresamptuous. Will deny this ; for 
such he was, and as such let him ever be remembered.** 
TiralKMchi supposes him to have been the same Gherardo 
with whom the Provencal poets were used to meet a hospit- 
able reception. "This is probably that same Gherardo, who, 
together with his sons, so early as before the year 1254, gave 
a kind and hospitable reception to the Provencal poets.*' 
Mr. Mathia8*s edition, torn. i. p. 137. 

» Ckmradi^ Currado da Palazzo, a gentleman of Brescia. 

* Quido of CaeteUo.] Of Reggio. All the Italians were 
called Lombards by the French. 

^ Fallen into the mire.] There is a passage resembling this 
hi the De Vulg. Eloq., lib. iL cap. 4. "Ante omnia ergo 
dicimm unumquemque debere materia pondus proprlis ha 
meris excipere aequale, ne f<Hrte humerorum nimio pravatara 
virtntem in OBnimi cespitaie necesse niV* 

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Who that CUierardo is, that as thicm sayst 
Is left a sample of (he peririi'd race, 
And for rebuke to this untoward age 1" 

<* Either thy words," said he, " deceiye, or else 
Are meant to try me ; that thou, q^eaking Tuseaiiy 
Appear%t not to have heard of good Gheraido ; 
The sole addition that, by which I know him ; 
Unless I borrowed from his daughter Gala^ 
^Lnother name to grace him. God be with you^ 
I bear you company no more. Behdd [waaL 

The dawn with white ray glimmering through the 
I must away — the angel comes^-ere he 
Appear." He said, and would not hear me mom. 


The Poet hunm fhnn tiiat thicl^ vapor; and soon after his 
&iicy represents to him in lively portraiture some notwi 
examples of anger. This imagination is dissipated by tha 
appearance of an angel, who marshals them onward to the 
fourth c<miice, on which the sin of gloominess or indiflbr- 
ence is purged ; and here Virgil shows him that this vice 
proceeds from a defect of love, and that all love can be 
only of two sorts, either natural, or of the soul ; of which 
sorts the former is always right, but the latter may err 
either in respect of object or of degree. 

Call to remembrance, reader, if thou e'er 
Hast on an Alpine height^ been ta'en by cloud, 

1 His daughter Gma.] A lady equally admired for her 
modesty, the beauty of her person, and the excellency of her 
talents. Gaia, says Tiraboschi, may perhaps lay claim to Uie 
praise of having been the first among the Italian ladies, by 
whom the vernacular poetry was cultivated. This appears 

Slthough no one has yet named her as a poetess) from the 
R. Commentary on the Commedia of Dante, by Giovanni 
da Serravalle, auerwards bishop of Fermo, where, comment- 
ing on Canto xvi. of the Pui^tory, he says : " De istft Gaj4 
filiA dloti boni Gerard!, possent dici mults laudes, quia fuit 
prudens domina, literata. magni consilii, et magns prudentiaB, 
maxima) pulchritudlnis, qum scivit bene loqui rhytmatice in 

*OnanMpineheigkL] "Nell'alpe." Although the Alps, 
as Landino remarks, are properly those mountains which 
divide Italy from France, yet from them all high mountains 
are in the Tuscan language, though not in the Latin, termed 
Alps. Milton uses the word thus generally in Uie Samsxm, 

Nor breath of venud air fhmi anowy Alp. 
And this i» a suAoient answer to tiie charge of improprfety, 
which is brought by Doctor Johnson, on ^e intfoduction of if 
tato that drama. See the BamUer, No^ 140^ 

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»4N. PURGATORY, Canto tVU, 311 

Through which thoa saVst no better thaa the mde 

Doth trough opacous membrane ; then, whene'er 

The watery vapors dense began to melt 

Into thin air, how faintly the sun's sphere 

Seem'd wading through them : so thy nimble thought 

May image, Irow at first I rebeheld 

The sun, that bedward now his couch o'erfanng. 

Thus, with my leader's feet still equalling pace, 
From forth that cloud I came, when now expired 
The parting beams from off the nether shores. 
« O quick' and forgetive power ! that sometimes dost 
So rob us of ourselves, we take no mark 
Though round about us thousand trumpets clang ; 
What moves thee, if the senses stir not? Light 
Moves thee from heaven, spontaneous, self-inform'd ; 
Or, likelier, gliding down with swift illapee 
By will divine. Portray'd before me came 
The traces of her dire impiety. 
Whose form was changed mlo the bird, that most 
Delights itself in songr and here my Ynind 
Was inwardly so wrapt, it gave no place 
To aught that ask'd admittance from without 

' — ^— 7^ birdt ^kat most 
Delights itself in sonf.] I cannot think with Vellntello, 
that the swallow is here meant. Dante probably alludes to 
the story of Philomela, as it is fonnd in IIomer*8 Odyssey, 
b. xix. 518, ratiier than as later poets have told it *' She In- 
tended to slay the son of her husband's brother Amphion, 
incited to it by the envy of his wife, who had six children, 
while herself had only two, but through mistake slew her 
own son Itylus, and for her punishment was transformed by 
Jupiter into a nightingale.*' Cowper's note on this passage. 
In speaking of the nightingale, let me observe, that while 
some have considered its song as a melancholy, and others 
as a cheerfhl one, Chiabrera appears^ to have come neaxest 
tlie truth, when he says, in the Alcippo, act i. sc 1. 
Nonmai si stanca d'iterar le note, 
O gioconde o dogliose, 
Al sentir dilettose. 
Unwearied still reiterates her lays. 
Jocund and sad, delightfal to the ear. 
See a very pleasing letter on this sul^t by a late illus- 
trious statesman. JIddress to the reader prefixed to Fbx^s Nit- 
torff of James IL, Edit, 1808, p. xii. ; and a beautiful poem by 
Mr. Coleridge. I know not whether the following lines by « 
neglected poet have yet been noticed, as showing the diver* 
flty of oj^ons that have prevailed respecting the song of 
this bird. 

The cheeiAal birds 

With sweetest notes to sing their Maker's inaise, 
Among the which, the merrie nightingale 
yViih swete and swete, her breast a^nst a thorn, 
Binget oat all night Fallans, TaU of Ttoo Swmnm 

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Next shower'd into my fantasy a shape 
As of one crucified/ whose visage spake 
Fell rancor, malice deep, wherein he died ; 
And round him Ahasuerus the g^reat king ; 
Esther his bride ; and Mordecai the just, 
Blameless in word and deed. As of itself 
That unsubstantial coinage of the brain 
Burst, like a bubble,* when the water fails 
That fed it ; in my vision straight uprose 
A damseP weeping loud, and cried, ** O que^n ! 

mother ! wherefore has intemperate ire ' 
Driven thee to loathe thy being? Not to lose 
Lavinla, de^erate thou hast slain thyself. 
Now hast thou lost me. I am ahe^. whose tears 
Mourn, ere I fall, a mother's timeless end." 

E'en as a sleep breaks off, if suddenly 
New radiance strike upon the closed lids, 
The broken slumber quivering ere it dies ;* 
Thus, from before me, sunk that imagery, 
Vanishing, soon as on my face there struck 
The light, outshining far our earthly beam. 
As round I tum'd me to sun^y what place 

1 had arrived at, ** Mere ye mount :" exclaim'd 
A voice, that other purpose left me none^ 
Save will so eager to behold who spake, 

I could not choose but gaze. As 'ibre the sun. 
That weighs our vision down, and veils his form 
In light transcendent, thus my virtue fail'd 
Unequal. " This is Spirit from above, 
Who marshals us our upward way, unsought ; 
And in his own light shrouds' him. As a man 
Doth for himself, so now is done for us. 

1 One crucified.] Haman. See the book of Esther, c. vU. 
" In the Lu'&etta of Haman, we owe the sablime conception 
of his figure (by Michael Angelo) to this passage." fhueli, 
Lecture ui. note, 
s Like a bubble.] 

The earth hath bubbles, as the water has, 
And these are of them. 

Shaktpearey Macbeth, act i. sc. ilL 
s A damsel.] Lavinia, monming for her mother ^Amata 
who, impelled by grief and indignation for the sapposea 
death of Tamus, destroyed herself. JEn., lib. xii. 595. 

* The broken slumber quivering ere it dies.] Venturi sug- 
gests that this bold and unusual metaphor may have been 
formed on that in VirgU. 

Tempus erat quo prima qules mortalibus mgAM 
Indpit, et dono divftm gratissima serpit 

- ,lib.lLi(» 

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«7-»3. PURGATORY, Canto XVH. m 

For whoso waits imploriilg, yet sees need 

Of his prompt aidance, sets himself prepared 

For blunt denial, ere the suit be made. 

Refuse we not to lend a ready foot 

At such inviting : haste we to ascend, 

Before it darken : for we may not then, 

Till mom again return/' So spake my guide ; 

And to one ladder both address'd our steps ; 

And the first stair approaching, I perceived 

Near me as 't were the waving of a wing, 

That fann'd my face, and whisper'd : " Blessed they, 

The peace-makers :* they know not evil wrath." 

Now to such height above our heads were raised 
The last beams, foUow'd close by hooded night, 
That many a star on all sides tliroudi the ^oom 
Shone out. " Why partest from me, O my strength ?" 
So with myself I communed ; for I felt 
My o'ertoird smews slacken. We had reach'd 
The summit, and were fix'd like to a bark 
Arrived at land. And waiting a short space. 
If aught should meet mine ear in that new round, - 
Then to my guide I tum'd, and said : " Loved siie ! 
Declare what guilt is on this circle purged. 
If our feet rest, no need thy speech should pause." 

He thus to me : " The love' of good, whate'er 
Wanted of just proportion, here fulfils. 
Here plies afresh the oar, that loiter'd ill. 
But that thou mayst yet clearlier understand. 
Give ear unto my words ; and thou shalt cull 
Some fruit may please thee well, from this delay. 

" Creator, nor created being, e'6r. 
My son," he thus began, " was without love. 
Or natural,' or the free spirit's growth. 
Thou hast not that to learn. The natural still 
Is without error : but the other swerves. 
If on ill object bent, or through excess 
Of vigor, or defect. While e°er it seeks^ 

1 Tke peaee-maker».] "Blessed are the peace-makers, for 
they shall be called the children of God." MaU^ v. 9. 

s The love.] "A defect in our love towards God, or lake- 
warmness in piety, is here removed." 

* Or Ttatural.] Lombardi refers to the Convito, Canz. 1 
Tratt S, cap. 3, Where this subjeet ki diffiisely treated by our 

* IVhile e*er it teeks.] SoFrezzi: 

S s*egli i ben, che d*altro ben dipenda, 
Non 8*ami quasi per se esistente, 
Be vnoi, che quando 6 tolto, non t*oflrenda. 

- ^ S Q^adrir., Ub iL cap. 14 

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The pimal bleanngs,^ or with measore dae 

The inferior,' no deligh^ , that flows from it. 

Partakes of ilL But let it warp to evil, 

Or with more ardor than behooves, or less, 

Parsae the good ; the thing created then 

Works 'gainst its Maker. Hence thou must iii^» 

That love is germin of each virtue in ye. 

And of each act no less, that merits pain. 

Now* since it may not be, but love intend 

The welfare mainly of the thing it loves. 

All from self-hatred are secure ; and since 

No being can be thought to exist apart. 

And independent of the first, a bar 

Of equal force restrains from hating that 

'* Grant the distmction just ; and it remains 
The evil must be another's, which is loved. 
Three ways such love is gendef'd in your clay. 
There b* who hopes (his neighbor's worth depress'd) 
Pre-eminence himself ; and covets hence. 
For his own greatness, that another fall. 
There is* who so much feare the loss of power, 
Fame, favor, glory, (should his fellow mount 
Above him,) and so sickens at the thought, 
He loves their opposite : and there is he," 
Whom wrong or insult seems to gall and shame, 
That he doth thirst €or vengeance ; and such needs 
Must doat on other's evil. Here beneath, 
This threefold love is moum'd.^ Of the other sort 
Be now instructed ; that which follows good. 
But with disorder'd and irregular course. 

** All indistinctly apprehend a bliss, 

This Capitolo, which describes the punishment of those 
who give way to inordinate grief for the loss of their kindred, 
Ss marked by much power of imagination and a sublime 

^ The prifMl blessings.} Spiritual good. 

« 7%e inferior.} Temporal good. 

* JVow.J "It is impossible for any being, either to hale 
Itself, or to hate the First Cause of all, by which it exists. 
We can therefore only rejoice in the evil which befiUls others,** 

* There is.} The proud. 

• T^ereis.] 

, The envious. 

< There is he} The resentful. 
T This tkretfold Urns is vunanCd.} Frezzi alludes to this 

Snperbia pnote essere In tre modi ; 
Bi come si dimostra dalla Mnsa, 
La qual hai letta, e che tn tanto lodl. 

n Q:Mdrir.f lib. ilL cap. %. 

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19H37. PURGATORY, Canto XVIH. Jlft 

On which the soul may rest ; the hearts of all 
Yearn after it ; and to that wished bourn 
All therefore strive to tend. If ye behold, 
Or seek it, with a love remiss and lax ; 
This cornice, after just repenting, lays 
Its penal torment on ye. Other good 
There is, where man finds not his happme« : 
It is not true fruition ; not that ble^t 
Essence, of every good the branch and root 
The love too lavishly bestow'd on this, 
Along three circles^ over us, is moum'd. " 
Account of that division tripartite 
Expect not, fitter for thine own research.** 


Virgil disconnes farther concerning the nature of love. Thea 
a mulUtade of spirits rasli by ; two of whom in van of the 
rest, record instances of zeal and fervent affection, and 
another who was abbot of San Zeno in Verona, declares 
himself to Virgil and Dante; and lastly follow other spirito, 
shouting forth memorable examples of the sin for which 
they suffer. The Poet, punuing his meditations, fklls into 
a dreamy slumber. 

The teacher ended,' and his high discourse 
Concluding, earnest in my looks inquired 
If I appeared content ; and I, whom still 
Unsatod thirst to hear him urged, was mute. 
Mute outwardly, yet inwardly I said ! 
" Perchance my too much questioning oSenda.** 
But he, true father, mark'd the secret wish 
By diffidence restrained ; and, speaking, gave 

^ Along three circles.'] According to the allegorical com- 
mentators, as Ventnrl has observed. Reason is reiuresented 
under the person of Vii^l, and Sense under that of Dante. 
The former leaves to the latter to discover for itself the three 
carnal sins— avarice, gluttony, and libidinousness ; having 
already declared the- nature of the spiritual sins— pride, envy, 
anger, and indifference, or lukewarmness In piety, which 
the Italians call ocodta, from the Greek word iia^tay and 
which Chaucer vainly endeavored to naturalize in our lan< 

Siage. See the Persone's Tale. Lomlwurdi refers to Thomas 
quinas, Ifj. 1., Quest 73, Art. S, for the division here made 
by our Poet. 

s The teacher ended.] Compare Plato, Protagoras, v. ill. p. 
193, Bin. edit^ UpuTaydpas fth rootOra ic.rJk. ApoU. Rhod. 
I i. 513, and MUton, P. L., b. viii. 1. 
The angel ended, and in Adam*s ear 
8o charming left his voice, that he awhile 
lliooght him still speaking, stUl stood fii'd to hear 

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Me boldnen thus to speak : " Master ! my sij^t 
Gathera so lively virtue from thy beams, 
That all, thy words convey, distinct is seen. 
Wherefore I pray thee, father, whom this heart 
Holds dearest, thou wouldst deign by proof t' unfold 
That love, from which, as from their source, thou 

All good deeds and their opposite." He then : 
" To what I now disclose be thy clear ken 
Directed ; and thou plainly shalt behold [self es 

How much those blind have err'd, who make thexn- 
The guides of men. The soul, created apt 
To love, moves versatile which way soe'er 
Aught pleasing prompts her, soon as she is waked 
By pleasure into act Of substance true 
Your apprehension^ forms its counterfeit ; 
And, in you the ideal shape presenting. 
Attracts the soul's regard. If she, thus drawn. 
Incline toward it ; love is that inclining, 
And a new nature knit by pleasure in ye. 
Then, as the fire points up, and mounting seeks 
His birthplace and his lasting seat, e'en Uius 
Enters the captive soul into desire. 
Which is a spiritual motion, that ne'er rests 
Before enjoyment of the thhig it loves. 
Enough to show thee, how the truth from those 
Is hidden, who aver all love a thing 
Praiseworthy in itself ; although perhaps* 

1 Yow afijfrekeMio%,\ It is literally, ** Tour apprehensiTS 
finally derives intension from a thing really ezistinf, and 
displays that intension within yon, so that it makes the soul 
tnm to it*' The commentators labor in explaining this ; bat 
whatever sense they have elicited, may, I think, be resolved 
into the words of the translation in the text. 

« P0rAap«.J " Our author,** Venturi observes, " nses the 
language of the Peripatetics, which denominates the kii^ of, as determinable by many differences, natUr. Love, 
then, in kind, perhaps, appears good ; and it is said perhap»t 
because, strictly speaking, in kind there is neither good nor 
bad. neither praiseworthy nor blameable." To this, Lom 
bardi adds, that what immediately follows, namely, that 
** every mark is not good althongh the wax be so,'* answers 
to this inter]n«tatlon. For the wax is inrecisely as the deter- 
minable matter, and the mark or impression as the deter- 
mining form ; and even as the wax, which is either good or 
at least not bad, may, by being imprinted by a bad figure, 
acquire the name of bad ; so may love be said generally to 
be good or at least not bad, and acquire the name of bad by 
being determined to aik imflt object. " As the wax takes all 
shapes, and yet is wax still at the bottom ; the H (twoKtk 

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PlJRGATORy, Camto XVIIL 317 

Iti matter seem still good. Yet if the wax 
Be good, it follows not the impression must** 

"What love b,** I retum'd, " thy words, O guide ! 
And my own docile mind, reveaL Yet thence 
New doubts have sprang. For, from without, if lore 
Be offered to us, and the spirit knows 
No other footing ; tend she right or wrong, 
Is no desert of hers." He answering thus : 
« What reason here discovers, I have power 
To show thee : that which lies beyond, expect 
From Beatrice, faith not reason's task. 
Spirit,^ substantial form, with matter join'd, 
Not in confusion mix'd, hath in itself 
Specific virtue of that union bom. 
Which is not felt except it work, nor proved 
But through effect, as vegetable life 
By the green leal From whence his intellect 
Deduced its primal notices of things, 
Man therefore knows not, or his appetites 
Their first affections ; such in you, as zeal 
In bees to gather honey ; at the first. 
Volition, meritmg nor blame nor praise. 
But o'er each lower faculty supreme, 
That, as she list, are summoned to her bar. 
Ye have that virtue' in you, whose just voice 
Uttereth counsel, and whose word should keep 
The threshold of assent. Here is the source. 
Whence cause of merit in you is derived ; 
E'en as the affections, good or ill, she takes. 
Or severs," winnow'd as the chaff Those men,* 

fiwov still is wax ; so the soul transported in so many several 
passions of joy, fear, hope, sorrow, anger, and the like, has 
tar its general gronndwork of all this. Love.** Henry More, 
Discourse xvL This passa|e in the most philosophical of 
oar theologians, may serve for an answer to the objection of 
those who blame Collins for not having brought in Love 
among the " Passions** in his exqoisite ode. 

A SpiriL] The homan soul, which difiers from that<tf brates, 
Inasmuch as though united with the body it has a separate 
existence of its own. 

> T%at virtue.] Reason. 

* Or severs.] Lest the reader of the original should be mis- 
led, it is right to warn him that the word " vigliare** must not 
be confounded with *' vagliare** to winnow, and strictly means 
" to separate from the straw what remains of the grain after 
the threshing.** The process is distinctly described in the 
notes on the Decameron, p. 77, Ediz. Giunti, 1573, where this 
passage is referred to. 

* TTkose men.] The great moral philosophers among tl»e 

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318 THE VISION. e&-^ 

Who, reasoning, went to depth profooncest, mark'd 

That mnate freedom ; and were thence induced 

To leave their moral teaching to the world. 

Grant then, that from necessity arise 

All love that glows within you ; to dismiss 

Or harbor it, the power is m yourselves. 

Remember, Beatrice, in her style, 

Denominates free choice by eminence 

The noble virtue ; if in talk with thee 

She touch upon that theme." The moon, well nigh 

To midnight hoiur belated, made the stars 

Appear to wink and fade ; and her broad disk 

Seem'd like a crag* on fire, as up the vault* 

That course she joumey'd, which the sun then warmsf 

When they of Rome behold hun at his set 

Betwixt Sardinia and the Corsic isle. 

And now the weight, that hung upon my thought, 

Was lighten'd by the aid of that clear spirit. 

Who raiseth Andes* above Mantua's name. 

i^therefore, when my questions had obtained 

Solution plain and ample, stood as one 

Musing in dreamy slumber ; but not long 

Slumber'd ; for suddenly a multitude. 

The steep abeady turning from behind, 

Rush'd on. With fury and like random rout, 

As echoing on their shores at midnight heard 

Ismenus and Asopus,^ for his Thebes 

If Bacchus' help were needed ; so came these 

Tumultuous, curvmg each his rapid step, 

1 j3 erag.] I have preferred the reading of Landino, schef 
rion^ " crag,'* conceiving it to be more poetical than secchion^ 
" buclcet," which is the common reading. The same cause, 
the vapors, which the conunentatcnrs say might give the ap- 
pearance of increased magnitude to the moon, might also 
make her seem broken at her rise. Lombardl explains it dif- 
ferently. The moon being, as he says, in the fifth night of 
her wane, has exactly the figure of a brazen bucket, round at 
the bottom and open at top ; and, if we suppose it to be 
all on fire, we shall have, beside^ the form of the moon, her 
color also. There is a simile in one of Fieldlng*8 novels very 
like this, but so ludicrous that I am unwilling to disturb tli.8 
reader's gravity by inserting it. 

* Vpthe vauii.} The moon passed with a motion opposite 
to that of the heavens, through the constellaUon of the Scor- 
pion, in which the sun is, when to those who are in Rome he 
appears to set between the Isies of Corsica and Sardini]t. 

s Ande*.] Andes, now Pietola, made more famous than 
Mantua, near which it is' situated, by having been the birth- 
place of Vligil. 

* Jtmeru* ani AMopua.'l Riven near Thebes. 

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95-128. PURGATORY, Canto XVni. 319 

By eagerness impelPd of holy love. 

Soon they overtook us ; with such swiftness moved 
The mighty crowd. Two spirits at their head 
Cried, weepmg, " Blessed Mary* sought with haste 
The hilly region. Caesar,' to subdue 
Ilerda, darted in Marseilles his sting. 
And flew to Spam." — " Oh, tany Hot : away !" 
The others shouted ; " let not time be lost 
Through slackness of affection. Hearty zeal 
To serve reanimates celestial grace." 

^ O ye ! in whom intenser fervency 
Haply supplies, where lukewarm erst ye faiPd, 
Slow or neglectful, to absolve your part 
Of good and virtuous ; this man, who yet lives, 
(Credit my tale, though strange) desires to ascend 
So morning rise to light us. Therefore say 
Which hand leads nearest to the rifted rock." 

So spake my guide ; to whom a shade retum'd : 
" Come after us, and thou shalt find the cleft. 
We may not linger : such resistless will ' 
Speeds our unwearied course. Vouchsafe us then 
Thy pardon, if our duty seem to thee 
Discourteous rudeness. In Verona I 
Was abbot* of San Zeno, when the hand 
Of Barbarossa grrasp'd Imperii' sway, 
That name ne'er utter'd without tears in Milan. 
And there is he,* hath one foot in his grave. 
Who for that monastery ere long shall weep, 
Ruing his power misused : for that his son, 
Of body ill compact, and worse in mind, 
And bom in evil, he hath set in place 
Of its true pastor." Whether more he s{>ake, 
Or here was mute, I know not : he had sped 
E'en now so far beyond us. Yet thus much 

1 Mary.] " And Mary arose in those days, and went into 
the hill-conntry with haste, into a city of Jada ; and en- 
tered into the hoosa of Zacharias, and saluted Elisabeth.*' 
Luke, i. 39, 40. 

3 Cmsar.] See Lncan, Phars., lib. ilL and iv., and Cssar de 
Bello Civili, lib. i. Caesar ieft Brutus to romplete the siege 
of Marseilles, and hastened on to the attack of Afranins 
and Petreios, the generals of Pompey, at Ilerda (Lerida) in 

> Mbot.} Alberto, abbot of San Zeno In Verona, when 
Frederick I. was emperor, by whom Milan was besieged and 
rednced to ashes, in 1162. 

* There U A«.] Alberto della Scala, Lord of Verona, who 
had made his natoral son abbot of San Zeno. 

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320 THE VISION. 139-14S 

I heard, and in remembrance treasured it 

He then, who never fail'd me at my need, 
Cried, ** Hither turn. Lo ! two with sharp remoiM 
Chiding their sin." In rear of all the troop 
These shoated : " First they died,' to whom the AM 
Open'd, or ever Jordan saw his heirs : 
And they,' who ^ith iBneas to the end 
Endured not sufiering, for their portion chose 
Life without glory." Soon as they had fled 
Past reach of sight, new thought within me rose 
By others foUow'd fast, and each unlike 
Its fellow : till led on from thought to thought. 
And pleasured with the fleeting train, mine eye 
Was closed, and meditation changed to dream 



The Poet, after describing bis dream, relates how, at the stun 
moning of ah angel, he ascends n^ith Vii^l to the fifth cor 
nice, where tbe sin of avarice is cleansed, and where ht 
finds Pope Adrian the Fifth. 

It was the hour,* when of diurnal heat 
No reliques chafe the cold beams of the moon, 
O'erpower'd by earth, or planetary sway 
Of Saturn : and the geomancer^ sees 
His Greater Fortune up the east ascend, 
Where gray dawn checkers first the shadowy cone ; 
When, lore me in my dream, a woman's shape' 

1 Firtt t/Uf died.] The Israelites^ who, on account c ' their 
disobedience, died before reaching the (Hromlsed land. 

« jjjwi tkeif.] Those Trojans, who, wearied with their voy 
age, chose rather to remain in Sicily with Acestes, than ae 
company JBneas to Italy. Firg. JEn., lib. v. 

* The hour.] Near the dawn. 

* The ge^maneer.] The geomancers, saya Landino, when 
they divined, drew a figore consisting of sixteen marks, named 
ftom so many stars which constitute the end of Aqnarius and 
the beginning of Pisces. One of these they called " the 
greater fortune.** Chaucer has imitated this in a descripUon , 
of morning, (Troilus and Creseide, b. iii.) for he did not find 
it in hit original, Boccaccio's FUostrato :— 

But when tbe cocke, commune astrologer, 
6an on his brest to bete, and after crowe, 
And Lucifer the dayis messMiger 
6an for to rise, and out his bemis throwe. 
And estward rose, to him that could it knows, 
Fortnna Major. 

* A wman** thape.] Woridly happiness. This aUefoiv 
' I OS of the ** Choice of Hercttlet.'* 

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»-37. PURGATORY, Canto XIX 321 

There came, with lips that stammer'd, eyes ailant. 
Distorted feet, hands maim'd, and color pale. 

I loc^'d upon her : and, as sunshine cheers 
Limbs numb'd by nightly cold, e'en thus my look 
Unloosed her tongue ; next, in brief space, her fomi 
Decrepit raised erect, and faded face 
With love's own hue' illumed Recovering speech. 
She forthwith, warbling, such a strain began. 
That I, how loth soe'er» could scarce have held 
Attention from the song. " I," thus she sang, 
" I am the Syren, she, whom mariners 
On the wide sea are wilder'd when they hear : 
Such fulness of delight the listener feels. 
I, from his course, Ulysses* by my lay 
Enchanted drew. Whoe'er frequents me once. 
Parts seldom : so I charm him, and his heart 
Contented knows no void." Or ere her mouth 
Was closed, to shame her, at my side appear'd 
A dame* of semblance holy. With stem voice 
She utter'd : " Say, O Virgil ! who is this ?" 
Which hearing, he approach'd, with eyes still bent 
Toward that goodly presence: the other seized her. 
And, her rob^ tearing, open'd her before. 
And show'd the belly to me, whence a smell. 
Exhaling loathsome, waked me. Round I tum'd 
Mine eyes: and thus the teacher : " At the least 
Three times my voice hath call'd thee. Rise, begone. 
Let us the opening find where thou mayst pass. ' 

I straightway rose. Now day, pour'd down from 
Fill'd all the circuits of the sacred mount ; [high, 

1 Love*9 own hue."] 

A smile that g1ow*d 

Cele^al rosy red, love's proper hue. 

MUton, P. Z,., b. viii. 619. 

fades pulcherrima tunc est, 

Quum porphyriaco variatur Candida rubro. 
Cluid color hie roseus sibi vult t designat aroorem : 
dnippe amor est igni slmilis ; flammasqne mbentes 
Ignis habere solet. 

PalingeHii TLodiacu* FittBy lib. zii. 

* Ulyaaet.'] It is not easy to determine why Ulysses, cojt- 
trary to the authority of Homer, is said to have been drawn 
aside firom his course by the song of the Syren. No improba 
ble way of accounting for the contradiction is, to suppose that 
she is here rejN'esented as purposely deviating from the truth. 
Or Dante may have followed some legend of the middle ages, 
in whkh the wanderings of Ulysses were represented other* 
wise than in Hcnuer. 

* A doMie.'i Philosophy, or perliaiM Truth 


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33d THE VISION. 38-« 

And as we joiimey*d, on our shonlder smote 

The eaily ray. I follow'd, stooping low 

My forehead, as a man, overcharged with thougnty 

Who bends him to the likeness of an arch 

That midway spans the flood ; when thus I heaidy 

" Come, enter here," in tone so soft and mild, 

As never met the ear on mortal strand. 

With swan-like wings dispread and pointing up. 
Who thus had spoken marshallM us along, 
Where, each side of the solid masonry. 
The sloping walls retired ; then mov^ his plumes, 
And fanning us, affirmed that those, who mourn,' 
Are blessed, for that comfort shall be theirs. 

** What aileth thee, that still thou look'st to earth'/* 
Began my leader ; while the angelic shape 
A little over us his station took. 

" New vision," I replied, " hath raised in me 
Surmisings strange and anxious doubts, whereon 
My soul intent allows no other thought 
Or room, or entrance." — '* Hast thou seen," said he, 
** That old enchantress, her, whose wiles alone 
The spirits o*er us weep for? Hast thou seen 
How man may free him of her bonds ? Enough. 
Let thy heels spurn the earth f and thy raised ken 
Fix on the lure, which heaven's eterbal King 
Whirls in the rolling spheres." As on his feet 
The falcon* first looks down, then to the sky 
Turns, and forth stretches eager for the food, 
That woos him thither ; so the call I heard : 
So onward, far as the dividing rock 
Gave way, I joumey'd, till the plain was reached. 

> Who mourn.] "Blessed are they that monm; for they 
fhall be comforted.*' Matt, v. 4. 

3 Let thy heel* spurn the earth.] This is a metaphor froin 
hawking, though less apparent than in the lines that follow. 
■ Thefaieon.] 

Poi come fa '1 falcon, qnando si move, 
Cosi Omilti al cielo alzb la vista. 

J^ezzi, n Quadrir.t lib. iv. cap. v. 
lo vidi poi color tatti levare 
Inverso il clelo, come fa '1 falcone, 
duando la preda sua prende in su Tare. 

Ibid^y cap. xUL 
One of our periodical critics has remarked, that Dante most 
have loved hawking ; and " that he paints his bird always to 
the life.»' Edinburgh Review, No. Iviii. p. 472. In the same 
manner Mr. Blomfield supposes that JBschylua was addicted 
to fishing, because he often takes his metaphors firom fishiM 
nets. See that gentleman's notes to the Pers». Gloesar., v. 430. 

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69-105. PURGATORY, Canto XIX. 323 

On the fifth circle when T stood at large, 
A race appeared before me, on the ground 
All downward lying prone and weeping sore. 
" My soul* hath cleaved to the dust," I heard 
With sighs so deep, they well-nigh choked the words. 

" O ye elect of God ! whose penal woes 
Both hope and justice mitigate, direct 
Towards the steep rising our uncertain way.*' 

" If ye approach secure from this our doom, 
Prostration, and would urge your course with speed. 
See that ye still to rightward keep the brink." 

So them the bard besought ; and such the words, 
Beyond us some short space, in answer came. 

I noted what remain'd yet hidden from thee? i* 
Thence to my liege's eyes mine eyes I bent, 
And he, forthwith interpreting their suit, 
Beckon'd his glad assent Free then to act 
As pleased me, I drew near, and took my stand 
Over that shade whose words I late had mark'd. 
And, " Spirit I" I said, " in whom repentant tears 
Mature that blessed hour whenlhou with God 
Shalt find acceptance, for a while suspend 
For me that mightier care. Say who thou wast ; 
Why thus ye grovel on your beUies prone ; 
And if, in aught, ye wish my service there. 
Whence living I am come." He answering spake : 
" The cause why Heaven our back toward his cope 
Reverses, shalt thou know : but me know first, 
The successor of Peter,' and the name . 
And title of my lineage, from that stream^ 
That 'twixt Chiaveri and Siestrl draws 
His limpid waters through the lowly glen. 
A month and little more by proof I leam'd 
With what a weight that robe of sovereignty 
Upon his shoulder rests, who from the mire 
Would guard it ; that each other fardel seems 
But feathers in the balance. Late, alas ! 

1 MfftovZ.] "My soul cleaveth to the dost: quicken thott 
nie according to thy word." Psalm cxix. 25. 

> / noted what remained yet hidden from them.} They were 
ignorant, it appeared, whether Dante was come there to be 
purged of his sins. 

« The sueeeetor of Peter.] Ottobuono, of the fiunily of Pl- 
eschi. Counts of Lavagno, died thirty-nine days after he bfr 
came pope, with the title of Adrian v., in 1376. 

* That stream.} The river Lavagno, in the Genoese tOTti« 
torv; to the east of which territory are situated Siestrl and 

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324 THE VISION. 10C-13t 

Was my conyeraion : but, when I became 

Rome's pastor, I discern'd at once the dream 

And cozenage of life ; saw that the heart 

Rested not there, and yet no prouder height 

Lured on the climber : wherefore, of that life 

No more enamor'd, in my bosom love 

Of purer being kindled. For till then 

I was a soul in misery, alienate 

From God, and covetous of all earthly things ; 

Now, as thou seest, here punish'd for my doting. 

Such cleansing from the taint of avarice, 

Do spirits, converted, need. This mount inflicts 

No direr penalty. E'en as our eyes 

Fastened below, nor e*er to loftier clime 

Were lifted ;^ thus hath justice levelled us. 

Here on the earth. As avarice quenched our love 

Of good, without which is no working ; thus 

Here justice holds us prison'd, hand and foot 

Chained down and bound, while heaven's just Loxd 

shall please. 
So Ion? to tarry, motionless, outstretched." 

My knees I stoop'd, and would have spoke ; but he. 
Ere my beginning, by his ear perceived 
I did him reverence ; and " What cause," said he, 
"Hath bow'd thee thus ?"—« Compunction," I re- 
« And inward awe of your high dignity." [join'd, 

" Up," he exclaim'd, " brother ! upon thy feet 
Arise ; err not :' thy fellow-servant I, 
(Thine and all othera') of one Sovereign Power. 
If thou hast ever mark'd those holy sounds 
Of gospel truth, * nor shall be given in marriage,** 
Thou mayst discern the reasons of my speech. 
Go thy ways now ; and linger here no more. 
Thy tarrying is a let unto &e tears. 
With which I hasten that whereof thou spakest* 

1 Were lifted.] Rosa Morando and Lombardl are very ■•• 
vera on Veninrra perplexity occasioned by the word " aderse." 
They have ncme of them noticed Landino's reading of 
''apene.'* Edis. 1484. 

s Err not] *' And I fsU at Ills feet to worship him. And 
he said onto me, See thou do it not : I am thy fellow-servant, 
and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus.** Rev. 

• JV«r BhfoUhe given in fMrriage.} **Since in this state we 
neither marry nor are given in marriage, I am no l(mger the 
sponse of the chnrdi, and therefore no longer retain my tat 
mer dignity.*' See JMott., zziL 30. 

< TkatwIuTtfthm tpaksaU] See v. 80. 

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140-143 PURGATORY, Canto XX dd& 

I have on earth a kmswoman ;^ her name 
Alagia» worthy in herself, bo ill 
Example of our house corrupt her not : 
And she is all remaineth of me there." 


Among those on the fifth cornice, Hugh Capet records llhw* 
trious examples of voluntary poverty &;id of bounty ; then 
tells who himself is, and speaks of his descendants on th4 
French throne ; and, lastly, adds some noted instances of 
avarice. When he has ended, the mountain shakes, and 
all tne spirits sini: *' Glory to God.** 

Tll strives the will, 'gainst will more wise that strives : 
His pleasure therefore to mine own preferred, 
I drew the sponge' yet thirsty from the wave. 

Onward I moved : he also onward moved, 
Who led me, coasting still, wherever place 
Along the rock was vacant ; as a man 
Walks near the battlements on narrow waU. 
For those on the other part, who drop by drop 
Wring out their all-infecting malady. 
Too closely press the verge. Accursed be thou, 
Inveterate wolf !' whose gorge ingluts more prey, 
Than every beast beside, yet is not filFd ; 
So bottomless thy maw. — ^Ye spheres of heaven ! 
To whom there are, as seems, who attribute 
All change in mortal state, when is the day 
Of his appearing,^ for whom fate reserves 
To chase her hence? — ^With wary steps and slow 
We pass'd ; and I attentive to the* shades. 
Whom piteously I heard lament and wail ; 
And, 'midst the wailing, one before us heard 
Cry out " O blessed Virgin !** as a dame 
In the sharp pangs of childbed ; and " How poor 
Thou wast," it added, " witness that low roof 
Where thou didst lay thy sacred burden down. 
O good Fabricius I* thou didst virtue choose 

1 j9 kinstDoman.] Alagia is said to have been the wife of 
the Marchese Marcello Malaspina, one of the Poet's protectors 
dnrlng his exile. See Canto vUi. 133. 

> I drew the 8ponge.\ "I did not persevere in my inqniiiet 
from the spirit, though still anxious to learn more." 

• Wolf.i Avarice. ^ 

^ Of hia appearing."] He is thought to allude to Can Grande 
dellaScala. See Hell, canto 1. 98. 

* fhirtetM.] So our anthor in the second book of the De 
Monarehift, p. 121. ''Nonne Fabridum, &c.*> ''Has nol 

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326 TH£ VISION. S6-S1 

With poverty, before great wealth with viee." 

The words bo pleased me, that desire to know 
The spirit, from whose lip they seem'd to come, 
Did draw me onward. Yet it spake the gift 
Of Nicholas,' which on the maidens he 
Bonnteons bestow'd, to save their youthful prime 
Unblemish'd. " Spirit ! who dost speak of deeds 
So worthy, tell me who thou wast,*' I said, 
" And why thou dost with single voice renew 
Memorial of such praise. That boon vouchsafed 
Haply shall meet reward ; if I return 
To finish the short pilgrimage of life, 
Still speeding to its close on restless wing.*' 

" I," answered he, " will tell thee ; not for help, 
Which thence I look for ; but that in thyself 
Grace so exceeding shines, before thy time 
Of mortal dissolution. I was root^ 
Of that ill plant, whose shade such poison shedK 
O'er all the Christian land, that seldom thence 
Good fruit is gather'd. Vengeance soon should comef 
Had Ghent and Douay, LiUe and Bruges power ;* 
And vengeance I of heaven's great Judge implore. 
Hugh Capet was I bight : from me descend 
The Philips and the Louis, of whom France 
Newly is govem'd : bom of one, who plied 
The slaughterer's trade* at Paris. When the race 

Fabricins given as another example of resisting avarice, 
when, poor as he was, he preserved his faith to the repablic, 
and rejected with scorn a great som of gold that was offered 
him 1 Oar Poet in the sixth book records tliis, when he saya^ 
— Parvoqae potentem 

Compare Petrarch, Tr. della Fama, c. i. 

Un Cario ed un Fabricio assai piu belli 

Con la lor poverti, che Mida e Crasso 

Con r<»ro ond* a vbrtu Airon rubelli. 
1 JSTieholtu.] The story of Nicholas is, that an angel hav 
Ing revealed to him that the &ther of a family was so impov- 
erished as to resolve on exposing the chastity of his three 
daughters to sale, he threw In at the window of their house 
three bags of money, containing a sufficient portion for each 
of them, 
s Root.\ Hugh Capet, ancestor of Philip IV. 

* Had Ohent and Douay, LiUe and Brvgea power.] ThetP 
elties had lately been seized by Philip IV. The spirit is made 
to intimate the approaching defeat of the French army by the 
Flemings, in the battle of Courtrai, which happened in 1903- 

* The elaughtertr'e trade.] This reflection on the birth of 
his ancestor, induced Francis L to ihrbid the reading of Dante 
in his dominions. Hugh Capet, who came to the throne 
of Fhuice in 987, was however the grandson of Robert, who 

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PURGATORY, Canto XX. 337 

Of ancient k'ngs had yanish'd (all save one^ 
Wrapp'd up in sable weeds) within my gripe 
I found the reins of empire, and such powers 
Of new acquirement^ with full store of friends. 
That soon the widow'd circlet of the crown 
Was girt upon the temples of my son,* 
He, from whose bones the anointed race begins. 
Till the great dower of Provence* had removed 
The stauis,^ that yet obscured our lowly blood. 
Its sway indeed was narrow ; but howe'er 
It wrought no evil : there, with force and lies. 
Began its rapine : after, for amends,' 
Poitou it seized, Navarre and Gascony.' 

was the brother of Endes, King of France in 888 ; and it may, 
therefore, well be questioned, whether by Beccalo di Parigi 
is meant literally one who carried on the trade of a batcher, 
at Paris, and whether the sanguinary disposition of Hugh 
Capet's father is not stigmatized by this opprobrious appeiki' 
tion. See Cancellieri, Osservazioni, &c., Roma, 1814, p. 6. 

> ^11 save one.] The posterity of Charlemagne, the second 
race of French monarchs, had failed, with the exception of 
Charles of Lorraine, who is said, on account of the melan- 
choly temper of his mind, to have always clothed himself in 
black. Venturi suggests tliat Dante may have confounded 
him with Childeric III^ the last of the Merovingian, or first 
race, who was deposed and made a monlc in 751. 

9 My son.] Hugh Capet caused his son Robert to be 
crowned at Orleans. 

« The great dower of Provence.] Louis IX. and his brother 
Charles of Anjon, married two of the four daughters of Ray- 
mond Berenger, Count of Provence. See Par., c. vi. 135. 

* The stains.] Lombardi understands this differently from 
all the other commentators with whom I am acquainted. 
The word " vergogna" he takes in the sense of " a praise- 
worthy shame of doing ill ;*' and according to him, the trans- 
lation should run thus : 

The shame that yet i-estrainM my race from ill. 
By " Provenza" he understands the estates of Toulouse, the 
dowry of the only daughter of Raymond, Count of Toulouse, 
married to a brother of Louis IX. 

ft For amends.] This is ironical. 

e Poitou it seized, J^avarre and Oascony.] I venture to read-^ 
Potti e Navarra prese e Guascogna, 
instead of 

Ponti e Normandia prese e Gnascc^a. 
Seized Ponthieu, Normandy and Gascogny. 
Landino has " Potti," and he is probably right : for Poitoa 
was annexed to the French crown by Philip IV. See He • 
nault, Abr6ge Chron., A. D. 1283, &c. Normandy had been 
united to it long before by Philip Augustus, a circumstance 
of which it is difficult to imagine that Dante should have 
been ignorant ; but Philip IV., says Henault, ibid., took the 
title of King of Navarre : and the subjugation of Navarrs 

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328 THE VISION. 65, 66 

To Italy came Chailes ; and for amends, 
Yomig Conradine,' an innocent victim, slew ; 

Is also alluded to in the Paradise, Canto zix. 140. In 1303^ 
Pliilip IV. summoned Edward I. to do him homage for tlie 
duchy of Gascogny, wliich he had conceived the design of 
seizing. See 6. Villani, lib. viU. cap. iv. 

The whole passage has occasioned much perplexity. I 
cannot witlihold from my readers the advantage of an at- 
tempt made to unravel it by the late Archdeacon Fisher, 
which that gentleman, though a stranger, had the goodness 
to communicate to me in the following terms : '* I am en- 
couraged to offer yon an elucidation of a passage, with the 
interpretation of which I was never yet satisfied. As it goes 
to establisli the accuracy of two very happy conjectures 
which you have made at Purg. xx. 66, yon will perhaps £m- 
give me, if my notion a little militates against your solution 
of tiie difficulty. The passage is as follows : 

r fed radice della mala pianta, 
Che la terra Cristiana tntta aduggia, 
Bi che buon frutto rado se ne schlanta. 
Ma se Doagio, Guanto, Lilla, e Bruggia 
Potesser, tosto ne saria vendetta: 
Ed io la cheggio a lui, che tutto giuggia 

Mentre che la gran dote Provenzale 
Al sangue mio non tolse la vergogna, 
Poco valea, ma pur non facea male. 
Li comincib con forza e con menzogna 
La sua rapina ; e poscia, per amTmenda, 
Potti e Navarra prese, e Guascogna. 

It IS my persuasion that the stanzas I have copied are ons 
passage, continuous in its sense, interrupted only by a pa 
renthesis of four stanzas, which are introduced as necessary 
to the political solution of the meaning. Again, I think that 
my quoted stanzas refer to only one person, and that Philip 
IV. of France. He is depicted by both the phrases, mala 
pianta, and sangue mio. I do not find that Louis IX. ob 
tained any part of Provence by dowry, owing to his marriage 
with the daughter of the prince of that country ; at least no- 
thing equivalent to the words la gran dote P.'ovenzale. 1 
suppose the stanzas quoted to depict tbe three great events 
in the life of Piiilip IV. He married, during the life of his 
father, the heiress of the kingdom of Navarre, and also of 
the duchy of Champagne. Philip obtained at once the soV' 
ereignty of both these dowries, and left to his son Pliilip V. 
the title of King of France and Navarre. On the accession 
of Philip IV. to the throne, he became embroiled with the 
English respecting the duchy of Guienne, which, after having 
changed masters frequently, was then in the possession of 
Edward I. The word Guienne included Poitou and Gascony, 
and was generally the country termed by Ceesar, Aquitania. 
By perfidy, and the childish ignorance of Edmund, the brother 

or Edward I^ Philip got possession of Guienne The 

duchy of Champagne, now annexed to the crown of France, 
lying adjacent to that of Flanders, Philip next endeavored 
to lay hands on that fief: and failing in treacherous nego 
tiation, he carried a cruel and murderous war into the low 
CDuntneSy and laid them desolate. His progress was stopped 

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«7-77. PURGATORY, Canto XX. 339 

And sent the angelic teachei* back to heaven, 
Still for amends. I see the time at hand, 
That forth fr»m France invites another Charles' 
To make himself and kindred better known. 
UnarmM he issues, saving with that lance, 
Which the arch-traitor tilted with •* and that 
fte carries with so home a thiast, as rives 
The bowels of poor Florence. No increase 
Of territory hence, but sin and shame 
Shall be his guerdon ; and so much the more 
As he more lightly deems of such foul wrong. 

by the Flemings at the battle of CJourtrai, and he was soon 
after compelled to surrender Guienne to the English kin^ 
and t^nake peace with bis nnmeroos enemies. 

'* Now to these three leading epochs of Philip's life, the 
Poet seems to allude. Doagio, Guanto, Lilla e Bmggia refer 
to his desolating war in Flanders ; Vendetta, to the battle of 
Conrtrai ; la gran dote Provenzale, to the dowry of the king- 
dom of Navarre and the duchy of Champagne ; forza e men- 
togna, to his conduct respecting Guienne with its two sister 
lurovinces, as yon so convincingly coi\jectured, Fotti e Guas- 

^ Toung' Ck)nradine.\ Charles of Anjou put Conradino to 
death in 1368, and became King of Naples. See Hell, Canto 
xxviii. 16, and note. Compare Fazio degli Uberti. Dittamon- 
do, lib. 11. cap. xxix. 

« The angelic teacher.] Thomas Aquinas. He was reported 
to have been poisoned by a physician, who wished to ingra- 
tiate himself with Charles of Anjou. " In the year 1323^ at 
the end of July, by the said Pope John and by his cardinals, 
was canonized at Avignon Thomas Aquinas, of the order of 
Saint Dominic, a master in divinity and philosophy, a man 
most excellent in all science, and who expounded the sense 
of scripture better than any one since the time of Augiutin. 
He lived In the time of Charles I. King of Sicily ; auditing 
to the council at Lyons, it is said that he was killed by a 
physician of the said king, who put poison for him into some 
sweetmeats, thinking to ingratiate himself with King Charles, 
because he was of the lineage of the lords of Aquino, who 
had rebelled against the king, and doubting lest he should 
be made cardinal : whence the church of God received great 
damage. He died at the abUey of Fossanova, in Campagua.** 
O. ViUani, lib. iz. cap. 218. We shall find him in the Para- 
dise, Canto X. 

» Another Ckarlee.] Charles of Valois, brother of Philip 
IV., was sent by Pope Boniface VHI. to settle the disturbed 
state of Florence. In consequence of the measures he adopt- 
ed for that purpose, our Poet and his fVlends were condemned 
to exile and death.* See G. Villanl, lib. viii. c. xlvlli. 

■ Wia that lancet 

Which the arch-traitor tilted with.] 

con la lancla 

Con la qua! giostrb Giuda. 
If I remember right, in one of the old romances, Jndat li 
represented tilting with our Saviour. 

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330 THE VISION. ';8-t» 

I see the other,' (who a prisoner late 
Had stepped on shore) exposing to the mart 
His daughter, whom he bargains for, as do 
The Corsairs for their slaves. O avarice ! 
What canst thou more, who hast subdued oar blood 
So wholly to thyself, they feel no care 
Of their own flesh? To hide with direr ^uilt 
Past ill and future, lo ! the flower-de-luc^ 
Enters Alagna ; in his Vicar Christ 
Himself a captive, and his mockery 
Acted agauL Lo ! to his holy lip 
The vinegar and gall once more applied ; 
And he 'twizt living robbers doom'd to Ueed. 
Lo ! the new Pilate, of whose cruelty 
Such violence cannot fill the measure up, ^ 
With no decree to sanction, pushes on 
Into the temple' his yet eager sails. 
« O sovereign Master !^ when shall I rejoice 

1 The other.] Charles, King of Naples, the eldest son of 
Charles of Ank>a, having, contrary to the directions of his 
father, engaged with Roggier de Laorbi, the admiral of Peter 
of Aragon, was made pmoner, and carried into Sicily, June, 
1284. He afterwards, in consideration of a large sum of 
money, married his daughter to Azzo Vm. Marquis of Fer- 
rara. I take Lauria to be the hero meant by Petrarch in his 
Triumph of Fame, 

duel di Luria seguiva 11 Saladino. Cap. ii. v. 151. 

Of whom Biagioli says in a note, "^on so chi sia, e n<m 
trovo n^ vivo nd morto chi mel dica.*' *' I know not who he 
is, and I find no one alive or dead to tell me." Mariana, lib. 
zivA:ap. 10, calls Lauria *' a brave captain, signalized by his 
former victories." See also the seventh book of G. Villani's 
history, and Boccaccio*s Decameron, 6. 5, N. 6 ; where he Is 
named Ruggieri deir Oria. 

* 7%« Jlower-de-luee.] Boniface VTII. was seized at Alagna 
in Campagna, by the order of Philip IV. in the year 1303, and 
soon after died of grief. 6. Villani, lib. viii. cap. 63. *' As it 
pleased God, the heart of Boniface being petrified with grief, 
through the injury he had sustained, when he came to Rome, 
he fell into a strange malady, fcff he gnawed himself as one 
Drantic, and in this state expired." His character is strongly 
drawn by the annalist in the next chapter. Thus, says Lan* 
dino, was verified the prophecy of Celestine respecting him, 
that he should enter on the popedom like a fox, reign like a 
lion, and die like a dog. 

> Into the temple.y ft is uncertain whether oiir Poet alludes 
still to the event mentioned in the preceding note, or to the 
destruction of the order of the Templars in 1310, but the 
latter appears more probable. 

* O toverei^ Master.] Lombard!, who rightly corrects Ven- 
tnri*s explanation of this passage, with which I will not 
trouble the reader, should have acknowiedsed, if he was con- 
scioas of it, that his own Interpretation of it was the lama 

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9«-133. PURGATORY, Canto XX. 331 

To see the vengeance, which thy wrath, well-ple) 
In secret silence broods? — ^While daylight lasts, 
So long what thon didst hear^ of her, sole spouse 
Of the Great Spirit, and on which thou tum'dst 
To me for comment, is the general theme 
Of all our prayers : but, when it darkens, then 
A different strain we utter ; then record 
Pygmalion,' whom his gluttonous thirst of gold 
Made traitor, robber, parricide : the woes 
Of Midas, which his greedy wish ensued, 
Marked for derision to all future times: 
And the fond Achan,* how he stole the prey. 
That yet he seems by Joshua's ire pursued. 
Sapphira with her husband next we blame ; 
And praise the forefeet, that with furious ramp 
Spum*d Heliodorus.^ AH the mountam round 
Rings with the infamy of Thracia's king,* 
Who slew his Phrygian charge : and last a shout 
Ascends: * Declare, O Crassus !* for thou know'st. 
The flavor of thy gold.' The voice of each 
Now high, now low, as each his impulse prompts. 
Is led through many a pitch, acute or grave. 
Therefore, not singly, I erewhile rehearsed 
That blessedness we tell of in the day : 
But near me, none, beside, his accent raised.*' 
From him we now had parted, and essay'd 
With utmost efforts to surmount the way ; 
When I did feel, as nodding to its fall, 

as that before given by Vellutello : " When, O Lord, shaH I 
behold that vengeance accomplished, which "being already 
determined in thy secret jndgment, thy retributive justice 
even now contemplates with delight 1'* 
I What thou didst hear.] See v. 21. 
s PfgmalionJl 

Hie Sycharam 

Impios ante aras, atque aori cscus amore, 
Clam ferro incautom snperat. 

Firg". JEn^i 1. 1. 350. 

* Aehan."] Joshua, vli. 

^ Heliodorus.] " For there appeared anto them an horse, 
with a terrible rider upon him, and adorned with a very fair 
covering, and he ran fiercely and smote at Heliodorus with 
his fore feet'* 2 .Vocco^cm, iii. 25. 

* TTkrada'a hiitgr.] Polymnestor, the murderer of Polydo- 
ms. Hell, Canto XXX. 19. 

* Cratsua.] Marcus Crassus, who fell miserably in the 
Parthian war. See Appian. Parthica. 

E vidi Ciro phi di sangue avaro, 

Che Crasso d*oro, e i*uno e I'altro n ebbe 

Tanto, che pprve a ciascheduno amaro. PetrareA 

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332 THE VISION. 124-U\ 

The niountaia tremble ; whence an icy chill 
Seized on me, as on one to death convey'd. 
So shook not Delos, when Latona there 
Couch'd to bring forth the twin-bom eyes of heaven 

Forthwith from every side a shout arose 
So vehement, that suddenly my guide [thee." 

Drew near, and cried : " Doubt not, while I conduct 
" Glory !" all shouted, (such the sounds mine ear 
GatherM from those, who near me sweird the sounds,) 
" Glory in the highest be to God." We stood 
Immoveably suspended, like to those. 
The shepherds, who first heard in Bethlehem's field 
That song : till ceased the trembling, and the soAg 
Was ended: then our hallow'd path resumed, 
Eying the prostrate shadows, who renewed 
Their custom'd mourning. Never in my breast 
Did ignorance so struggle with desire 
Of knowledge, if my memory do not err. 
As in that moment ; nor through haste dared I 
To question, nor myself could aught discern. 
So on I fared, in thoughtfulness and dread. 


The two poets are overtaken by the spirit of Btatias, wAo» 
being cleansed, is on his way to Paradise, and who explains 
the caase of the mountain shaking, and of the hymn ; his 
joy at beholding Virgii. 

The natural thurst, ne'er quench'd but from the 
Whereof the woman of Samaria craved, [well* 

Excited ; haste, along the cumber'd path, 
After my guide, impelled ; and pity moved 
My bosom for the Vengeful doom though }\uL 
When lo ! even as Luke' relates, that Chnst 
Appeared unto the two upon their way, 
New-risen from his vaulted grave ; to us 
A shade appear'd, and after us approach'd, 
Contemplating the crowd bedeath its feet. 
We were not ware of it ; so first it spake, 
Saying, " God give you peace, my brethren !" then 
Sudden we tum'd : and Virgil such salute, 
AfT fitted that kind greeting, gave ; and cried : 

> 7^ lodl.] " The woman saith unto him, Sir, give iiio 
Uiis water, that I thirst not.** JohHt iv. 15. 
« Luke,} Chapter xxiv. 13. 

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*' Peace in the blesMd council be t\ty lot, 

Awarded by that righteous court which me 

To everlasting banishment exiles." [while 

" How !" he exclaimed, nor from his speed mean- 
Desisting ;* " If that ye be spirits whom God 
Vouchsafes not room above ; who up the height 
Has been thus far your guide V* To whom the bard : 
" If thou observe the tokens,' which this man, 
Traced by the finger of the angel, bears ; 
'Tis plain that in the kingdom of the just [wheel 
He needs must share. But sithence she,* whose 
Spins day and night, for him not yet had drawn 
That yam, which on the fatal distaff piled, 
Clotho apportions to each wight that breatlies ; 
His soul, that sister id to mine and thine. 
Not of herself could mount ; for not like ours 
Her ken : whence I, from forth the ample gulf 
Of hell, was ta'en, to lead him, and will lead 
Far as my lore avails. But, if thou know. 
Instruct us for what cause, the mount erewhile 
Thus shook, and trembled : wherefore all at once 
SeemM shouting, even from his wave-wash*d foot." 

Thus questioning so tallied -with my wish, 
The thirst did feel abatement of its edge 
E*en from expectance. He forthwith replied . 
" In its devotion, naught irregular 
This mount can witness, or by punctual rule 
Unsanction'd ; here from every change exempt, 
Other than that, which heaven in itself 
Doth of itsel^eceive,^ no influence 
Can reach us. Tempest none, shower, hail, or bnow, 
Hoar frost, or dewy moistness, higher falls 
Than that brief scale of threefold steps : thick clouds, 
Nor scudding rack, are ever seen: swift glance 

i nor from hi* speed meamehUe 

Deeieting.] The unintelligible reading of almost all the 
editions here (but not of all, as Lombardi would lead ns to 
suppose, except his favorite Nidobeatina) is 

E perchd andate forte 1 
Vellutello has also that which is no doubt the right : 
£ parte andava forte. 
' 7^ toketu.] The letter P for Peccata, sins, inscribed upon 
his forehead by the Angel, in order to his being cleared of 
them in his passage through Purgatory to Paradise. 
* She.} Lachesis, one of the three f^tes. 
— ■ tJkotf lohich keave% in itself 

Doth of itself receive.] Ventori, I think rightiy, hit«n««« 
this to be light. 

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334 THE VISION. 4»*8l 

Ne*er lightens ; nor Thamnantian^ Iris gleams, 

That yonder often shifts on each side heaven. 

Vapor adust doth never mount above 

The highest of the trinal stairs, whereon 

Peter's vicegerent stands. Lower perchance. 

With iTdrious motion rock'd, trembles the soil: 

But here, through wind in earth's deep hollow pent* 

I know not how, yet never trembled : then 

Trembles, when any spirit feels itself 

So purified, that it may rise, or move 

For rismg ; and such loud acclaim ensues. 

Purification, by the will alone. 

Is proved, that free to change society 

Seizes the soul rejoicing in her will. 

Desire of bliss is present from the first ; 

But strong propension hinders, to that wish* 

By the just ordinance of heaven opposed ; 

Propension now as eager to fulfil 

The allotted torment, as erewhile to sin. 

And I, who in this punishment had lain 

Five hundred years and more, but now have felt . 

Free wish for happier clime. Therefore thou fek'iil 

The mountain tremble ; and the spirits devout 

Heard'st, over all his limits, utter praise 

To that lieee Lord, whom I entreat their joy 

To hasten. Thus he spake : and, since the draught 

Is grateful ever as the thirst is keen, 

No words may speak my fulness of content 

" Now," said the mstructor sage, " I see the net* 
That takes ye here ; and how the toiL^pure loosed ; 
Why rocks the mountain, and wny ye rejoice. 
Vouchsafe, that from thy lips I next may learn 
Who on the earth thou wast ; and wherefore here, 

1 Tkaumaniian.] Figlia di Tanmante. 

Qdwiiavros Qvydnip. Hesiod. T^lec^^TSO. 

Compare Plato, Theiet., v. ii. p. 76. Bip. edit. Virg. iEn., iz.5; 
and Spenser, Faery Claeen, b. v. c iii. st. 25. 

Fair is Thaomantias in her crystal gown. 


* To that wish,] Lombardi here alters the sense by reading 
with the Nidobeatina, " con tal voglia," instead of " contra 
vogUa," and explains it : " With the same ineffsctoal will, 
with which man was contrary to sin, while he resolved on 
•inning, even with the same, wonid he wish to rise from his 
torment in Purgatory, at the same time that through inclina- 
tion to satisfy Uie divine Justice he yet remains there.*' 

* I tee the net.] "I perceive that ye are detained here by 
your wish to satisfy the divine justice ** 

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«»-110. PURGATORY, Cantu XXL 335 

So many an agre, wert prostrate."—-" In that time, 
When the good Titua,* with Heaven's King to help, 
Avenged those piteous gashes, whence the blood 
By Judas sold did issue ; with the name' 
Most lasting and most honor'd, there, was I 
Abundantly renown'd," the shade replied, 
** Not yet with faith endued. So passing sweet 
My vocal spirit ; from Tolosa,' Rome 
To herself drew me, where I merited 
A myrtle garland^ to inwreath my brow 
Statius they name me stilL Of Thebes I sang. 
And next of great Achilles ; but i' the way 
. Feil* with the second burden. Of my flame 
Those sparkles were the seeds, which I derived 
From the bright fountain of celestial fire 
That feeds unnumber'd lamps ; the song I mean 
Which sounds JSneas' wanderings : that the breast 
I hung at ; that the nurse, from whom my veins 
Drank inspiration : whose authority 
Was ever sacred with me. To have lived 
Coeval with the Mantuan, I would bide 
The revolution of another sun 
Beyond my stated years in banishment" 

The Mantuan, when he heard him, tum*d to me ; 
And holding silence, by his countenance 
Enjom'd me silence : but the power, which wills. 
Bears not supreme control : laughter and tears 
Follow so closely on the passion prompts them, 
They wait not for the motions of the will 

> When the good THtus.] When it was so ordered by the 
divine Providence that Titus, by the destraction of Jerusalem, 
should avenge the death of our Saviour on the Jews. 

s 7%e name."] The name of Poet 

s FVom Tolosa.] Dante, as many others have done, con- 
founds Statius the poet, who was a Neapolitan, with a rheto- 
rician of the same name, who was of Tolosa, or Thoulouse. 
Thus Chaucer, Temple of Fame, b. iii. 

The Tholason, that height Stace. 
And Boccaccio, as cited by Lombard! : 

E Stazio di Tolosa ancoracaro. Amoros. Via. Cani.&» 

* A myrtle garland.} 

Gt vos, O lauri, carpam, et te, prozima myrte. 

Firg. Eel., 11. 
aual vaghezza di lauro? o qual dl mirto ? Petrarea, 
Yet once more, O ye laurels, and once more 
Ye myrtles brown. JUUtont LyeidM^* 

* FbUJ] Statins lived to write only a small part of the 

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336 THE VISION. 111-137 

In natures most sincere. I did but smile,* 
As one who winks ; and thereapon the shade 
Broke off, and peered into mine eyes, where best 
Our looks interpret ** So to good event 
Mayst thou conduct such great emprize," he cried 
** Say, why across thy visage beam'd, but now. 
The ^gfatuing of a smile." On either part 
Now am I straiten'd ; one conjures me speak, 
The other to silence binds me : whence a sigh 
I utter, and the «gh is heard. " Speak on," 
The teacher cried : " and do not fear to speak ; 
But tell him what so earnestly he asks." 
Whereon I thus: ** Perchance, O ancient spirit I 
Thou marvell'st at my smiling. There is. room 
For yet more wonder. He, who gruides my ken 
On high, he is that Mantuan, led by whom 
Thou didst presume of men and gods to sing. 
If other cause thou deem'dst for which I smiled. 
Leave it as not the true one ; and believe 
Those words, thou spakest of him, indeed the cause.** 
Now down he bent to embrace my teacher's feet ; 
But he forbade him : " Brother ! do it not : 
Thou art a shadow, and behold'st a shade." 
He, rising, answer'd thus : " Now hast thou proved 
The force and ardor of the love I bear thee. 
When I forget we are but things of air, 
And, as a substance, treat an empty shade." • 



Dante, Virgil, and Statins mount to the sixth cornice, where 
the sin of gluttony is cleansed, tlie two Latin Poets dis- 
coursing by the way. Turning td the riglit, they find a tree 
hung with sweet-smelling fruit, and watered by a shower 
that issues from the roclc. Voices are heard to proceed from 
among the leaves, recording examples of temperance 

Now we had left the angel, who had tum'd 
To the sixth circle our ascending step ; 
One gash from off my forehead razed ; while they, 
Whose wishes tend to justice, shouted forth, 
« Blessed !**« and ended with " I thirst:" and I, 

^ I did but §mile.] " I smiled no more than one would do 
who wished by a smile to intimate his consciousness of any 
thing to another person.'* 

s Blessed.] " Blessed be they which do hunger and thifst 
after righteousness, fcnr they shall be filled." Matt, v. 6l 

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•-4I. PURGATORY Canto XXH. 337 

Mora nimble than along the other straits, 
So journe/d, that, without the sense of toil, 
I followed upward the swift-footed shades ; 
When Virgil thus began : *' Let its pure flamo 
From virtue flow, and love can never fail 
To warm another's bosom, so the light 
Shme manifestly forth. Hence, from that hour» 
When, 'mongst us in the purlieus of the deep/ 
Came down the spirit of Aqmnum*s bard,' 
Who told of thine afifection, my good will 
Hath been for thee of quality as strong 
As ever link'd itself to one not seen. 
Therefore these stairs will now seem short to me. 
But tell me : and, if too secure, I loose 
The rem with a friend's license, as a friend 
Forgive me, and speak now as with a friend: 
How chanced it covetous desire could find 
Place in that bosom, 'midst such ample store 
Of wisdom, as thy zeal had treasured there ?" 

First somewhat moved to laughter by his wo^xls. 
Statins replied : " Each syllable of thine 
Is a dear pledge of love. Things oft appear. 
That minister false matter to our doubts. 
When their true causes are removed from sight. 
Thy question doth assure me, thou believest 
I was on earth a covetous man ; perhaps 
Because thou found'st me in that circle placed. 
ICnow then I was too wide of avarice : 
And e'en for that excess, thousands of moons 
Have wax'd and waned upon my sufferings. 
And were it not that X with heedful care 
Noted, where thou exclaim'st as if in ire 
With human nature, < Why,' thou cursed thirst 
Of gold ! dost not with juster measure guide 
The appetite of mortals?' I had met 
The fierce encounter* of the voluble rock. 
Then was I ware that, with too ample wing, 
The hands may haste to lavishment ; and tum'd 

> Jiquinum^s bard.] Juvenal had celebrated his contempo- 
•vy, Statius, Sat viL 83; thonch some eritics imagine UuU 
there is a secret derision couched under his praise. 

s Why.] Uuid non nKNrtalla pectora cogis, 

Aurl sacra fiunes 1 Firg, JEn,, lib. lii. 57. 

Ventnri supposes that Dante might have mistaken the 
meaning of the word »aera^ and construed it " holy,** instead 
of "cursed.** But I see no necessity for having recourse to 
so improbable a conjecture. 

* J%$fieret MMounCer.] See Hell, Canto rii. 96. 


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338 THE VISION. 44-m 

Am from my other ovil, so from thk » 

In penitence. How many from their grave 

Shall with Bham locks' arise, who living, ay, 

And at life's last extreme, of this offence. 

Through ignorance, did not repent ! And knoWf 

The fault, which lies direct from any sin 

In level opposition, here, with that. 

Wastes its green rankness on one common heap 

Therefore, if I have heen with those, who wail 

Their avarice, to cleanse me ; through reverse 

Of their transgression, such hath been my lot" 

To whom the sovereign of the pastoral song . 
" While thou didst smg that cruel warfare waged 
By the twin sorrow of Jocasta*s womb,* 
From thy discourse with Clio' there, it seems 
As faith had not been thine ; without the which. 
Good deeds suffice not And if so, what sun 
Rose on thee, or what candle pierced the dark, 
Tliat thou didst after see to hoise the sail, 
And follow where the fisherman had led?" 

He answering thus: " By thee conducted first, 
I enter'd the Parnassian grots, and quaflTd 
Of the clear spring ; illumined fiist by thee, 
Open'd mine eyes to God. Thou didst, as one. 
Who, journeying through the darkness, bears a light 
Behind, that pr&ts not himself, but makes 
His followers wise, when thou ezclaimedst, * Lo ' 
A renovated world,^ Justice retum'd, 
Times of primeval innocence restored, 
And a new race descended from above.' 
Poet and Christian both to thee I owed. 
Tliat thou mayst mark more cleariy what I trace, 
My hand shall stretch forth to inform the Imes 
With livelier coloring. Soon o'er all the world, 
By messengers from heaven, the true belief 

> With »hom loeka.'l See Hell, Canto vii. 58. 
s The tvnn sorrow of JocoMUit womi.] Eteoclef and Poly 
» WWi aio.} 
Unem nrins heromn Clio dabU ? immodicnm im 
T)'dea 1 laurigeii snbitos an vatis hiatus 1 

StaLf Thebaid., L 4A. 
^ A renovated world.] 
Mafniu ab hitegro ssclonim nascitor ordo. 
Jam ledit et Virgo ; redeont Saturaia regna ; 
Jam nova progenies coelo demittitor alto. 

Firr. Ed.^ iv. & 
For the application of Viigirs prophecy to the incamatloiH 
•ee Natalis Alexander, Hist Eccl., Sec. i. Dissert. 1. Paii^ 
1679, V. i. p. 106. 

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7^105. PURGATORY, Canto XXII. 339 

Teem'd now prolific ; and that word of tliinoi 

Accordant, to the new instructors chimed- 

Induced by which agreement, I was wont 

Resort to them ; and soon their sanctity 

So won upon me, that, Domitian's rage 

Pursuing them, I mlx'd my tears with theirs ; 

And, while on earth I stay'd, still succor'd them ; 

And their most righteous customs made me scorn 

All sects besides. Before' I led the Greeks, 

In tuneful fiction, to the streams of Thebes, 

I was baptized ; but secretly, through fear, 

Remained a Christian, and conformed long tima 

To Pagan 'rites. Four centuries and more, 

I, for that lukewarmness, was fain to pace 

Round the fourth circle. Thou then, who hast raised 

The covering which did hide such blessing from me, 

While much of this ascent is yet to climb, 

Say, if thou know, where our old Terence' bides, 

CaBcilius,' Plautus, Varro ;* if condemned 

They iwell, and in what province of the deep." 

" These," said my guide, " with Persius and myself. 

And others many more, are with that Greek,' 

Of mortals, the most cherishM by the nine. 

In the first ward* of darkness. There, oft-times, 

We of that mount hold converse, on whose top 

For aye our nurses live. We have the bard 

Of PeUa,' and the Teian," Agatho,» 

1 Btfore.] Before I had composed the Thebaid. 
s Our old Terence.] ** Antico," which is found in many o* 
the old editions, seems preferable to " amico." 

s CtBeiliut.r Cfleciliiis Statins, a Latin comic poet, of whose 
works some fragments only renuiin. Onx Poet had Horace in 
his eye. 

IHcitnr Afrani toga convenisse Menandro, 
Ptantns ad exemplar Bicnli raroperare Bpicharmi, 
Vincere Cecilius gravitate, Terentius arte. 

EpieUt lib. il. 1. 

* Varro.] "ftnam multa pene omnia tradidit Varro." 
Quintflian. Instit. Orat^ lib. zli. " Vix aperto ad phllosophiam 
aditn, primus M. Varro vetemm omninm doctissimns." Bar 
iolet. de liberis reete irutit. Edit. Lugd. 1 S33, p. 137. 

* That Oreek.] Homer. 

• In the first ward.] In Limbo. • 
T The bard 

OfPella.] Euripides. 

8 The Teian.] Euriplde v' 6 nosco e Anacreonte. 

The Monte CassinoMS. reads ** Antifonte*' " Antlpho," In 
stead of *' Anacreonte." Dante probably knew little more of 
these Greek writers than the names. 

• JtfotAo.] Chaucer, speaking of the Daisy as a reiiiesentar 
tUm 01 Alcestis, refers to Agaton : 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

340 THE YlSIOrr. lOMIt 

Simouidefl, and many a Grecian else 

Ingarlanded with lanrel. Of thy train.' 

Antigone is there, Delphile, 

Argia, and as sorrowful as erst 

Ismene, and who showM Langia's waye ^ 

Deldamia with her sisters there, 

And bUnd Tiresias* daughter,' and the bride 

No wonder it thoiwh Jove her stelUfie, 

As telUth AgaUm ux her goodnesse. 

Legende of Chad Women. 
And Mr. Tjrrwhitt tells ns that ** he has nothing to say of this 
writer except that one of the same name is qnoted in the 
Prol. to the tragedie of Camblses by Thomas Preston. There 
is no reason," he adds, ** for supposing with Gloss. Ur. that a 
philosopher of Samos is meant, or any of the Agathoes of 
antiquity." I am inclined, however, to believe that Chancer 
most have meant Agatho, the dramatic writer, whose name, 
at least, appears to have been familiar in the middle ages; 
for, besides the mention of him in the text, he is quoted by 
Dante in the Treatise De Monarchic, Ub. ilL **Deus per nun- 
cinm fkcere non potest, genita non esse, genita, Juxta sen- 
tentiam Agathonis." Tlie original is to be found in Aristotle, 
Ethic. Nicom., lib. vi. c. 2. 

MtfMV yif ah'oV xai 9ei( vrtpttrKtrai 
*jL.yhriTa mutv &99* (2y J mpayftha, 

Agatho is mentioned by Xenophon in his Symposium, by 
Plato in the Protag<Mras, and in the Banquet, a favc^te 
book with our author, and by Aristotle in his Art of Poetry, 
where the foliowine remarltable passage occurs respecting 
him, firom which I wUl leave it to the reader to decide whether 
it is possible that the allusion in Chancer might have arisen : 
iv Mats ith Iv ^ S6o t&> yvtaplfuav Itrrlv iwofLdrtAVf rd 6k 
i\Xa wcvoiriiiiva' h htais ii oidiv' olov h t^ *Ayd$uvos 
*Av0e(. hfioltas yip h rofirtp rd rs xpdyiiara Kal ri 
ivSnara vevofi^rai, xal ohiiv ^rrov thi^patvti. Edit. M94, 
p. 33. ** There are, however, some tragedies, in which one 
or two of the names are historical, and the rest feigned ; 
there are even s<nne, in which none of the names are hisrori* 
cal ; such is Agatho's tragedy called Tko Flower; fw in ihaC 
all is invention, both incidents and names ; and yet it pleases ** 
Jlrietotie'e 7VMtt«s on Po«try, by Thomas Twining, 8vo Edit 
1813, vol. i. p. 128. 
1 Of tky train.] " Of those celebrated in thy Poem." 
s FTke ekoto'd Jjangi^e wave.] Hypsipile. See note to 
Canto xxvi. v. ^. 

s Tvreaiae^ iaav^fhier^ Dante, as some have thou^t, had 
forgotten thnt he had placed Manto, the daughter of Tiresias, 
among the sorcerers. See Hell, Canto zx. Vellutello endeavors, 
rather awkwardly, to reconcile the apparent inconsistency, 
by observing, that although she was placed there as a sinner, 
yet, as one of famous memory, she had also a place among 
)he worthies in Limbo 

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U3-138. PURGATORY, Canto XXIL 341 

Sea-bom of Peleiu."' Either poet now 
Was silent ; and no longer by the ascent 
Or the steep walls obstructed, round them cast 
Inquiring eyes. Four handmaids' of the day 
Had finished now their office, and the fifth 
Was at the chariot-beam, directmg still 
Its flamy point aloof ; when thus my guide : 
'* Methinks, it well behooves us to the brink 
Bend the right shoulder, circuiting the mount. 
As we have ever used." So custom there 
Was usher to the road ; the which we chose 
Less doubtful, as that worthy shade' complied. 

They on before me went : I sole pursued, 
Listenmg their speech, that to my thoughts contey'd 
Mysterious lessons of sweet poesy. 
But soon they ceased ; for midway of the road 
A tree we found, with goodly fruitage hung, 
And pleasant to the smell : and as a fir, 
Upward from bough to bough, less ample spreads ; 
So downward this less ample spread \* that none, 
Methinks, aloft may climb. Upon the side, 
That closed our path, a liquid crystal fell 
From the steep rock, and through the sprays above 
Streamed showering. With associate step the bards 
Drew near the plant ; and, from amidst the leaves, 
A voice was heard : ** Ye shall be chary of me ;" 

Lombardi, or rather the Delia Crusca academiciani, exciue 
our author better, by observing that Tiresias had a daughter 
named Daphne. See Diodoms Biculas, lib. iv. $ 66. I have 
here to aclcnowledge a commtinication made to me by the 
learned writer of an anonymous letter, who observes that 
Bfanto and Daphne are only different names for the same 
person ; and that Servins, in his Commentary on the JSneld, 
X. 196, says, that some make Manto the prophetess to be a 
daughter of Hercules. 
1 7%ebride 

Sea-bom of Peleus,] Thetis. 
3 Fbur handnuuds.] Compare Canto xU. v. 74. 
s 7%at worthy shade.} Statins. 

* Downward this less ample spread.] The early commenta 
tors understand that this tree had its root upwtad and the 
boughs downward; and this opinion, however derided by 
their successors, is not a little countenanced by the imitation 
of Frexzi, who lived so near the time of our Poet : 
Su dentro al cielo avea la sua radice, 
B gitt inverse terra i rami spande. 

// Qttoinr., lib. Ir. cap 1 
— It had in heaven 
Its root above, and downward to the earth 
Blietch'd forth the branches. 

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843 1H£ VISION. iS^Uk 

And after added : '* Mary took more thouj^it 
For joy and honor of the nuptial feast, 
Than for herself, who answers now for yon. 
The women of old Rome' were satisfied 
With water for their beverage. Daniel' fed 
On pulse, and wisdom gain'd. The primal age 
Was beautiful as gold : and hunger then 
Made acorns tasteful ; thirst, each riyulet 
Run nectar. Honey and locusts were the food 
Whereon the Baptist in the wilderness 
Fed, and that eminence of glory reached 
And greatness, which th' Evangelist records.** 


They are overtaken liy the spirit of Forese, who had beea a 
friend of oar Poet's on earth, and who now inveighs bit* 
terly against the immodest dress of their countrywomen at 

On the green leaf mine eyes were fix*d, like his 
Who throws away his days in idle chase 
Of the diminutive birds, when thus I heard 
The more than father warn me : *< Son ! our tune 
Asks thriftier using. Linger not : away." 

Thereat my face and steps at once I tum'd 
Toward the sages, by whose converse cheer'd 
I joumey'd on, and felt no toil : and lo ! 
A sound of weeping, and a song: '< My lips,^ 

> Mary took more thoughL] " The blessed virgin, who an- 
swers fat yon now in heaven, when she said to Jesus, at the 
marriage in Cana of Galilee, *they have no wine,* regarded 
not the gratification of her own taste, bat the honor of the 
nuptial banquet** 

s Th« women of old Rome.] See Valerius Maximas,l.iLcL 

* Danid.] " Then said Daniel to Melzar, whom the prince 
of the eunuchs had set over Itamiel, Hananiah, Michael, and 
Azariah, Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days ; and 
let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink.** Danielj i. 

'*Thus Melzar took away the portion of their meat, and the 
^Ine that they should drink : and gave them pulse. As for 
tliese four children, God gare them knowledge and skill In 
all learning and wisdom : and Daniel had understanding in 
all visions and dreams." Jbi<Lt 18, 17. 

* Mf l^.} " O Lord, open thou my lips ; and my mouth 
%hall show forth thy praise.*' Ptatm U. 15. 

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10-37. PURGATORY, Canto XXIH. 343 

O Lord !" and these so mingled* it gave birth 
To pleasure and to pain. " O Sire beloved! 
Siy what is this I hear." Thus I inqmred. 

" Spurits," said he, " who, as they go, perchance^ 
Theur debt of duty pay." As on their road 
The thoughtful pilgrims, overtaking some 
Not known unto them, turn to them, and look, 
But stay not ; thus, approaching &om behind 
With speedier motion, eyed us, as they pass'd, 
A crowd of spirits, silent and devout. 
The eyes^ of each were dark and hollow ; pale 
Their visage, and so lean withal, the bones 
Stood staring through the skin. I do not think 
Thus dry and meager Erisicthon show'd, 
When pinch'd by sharp-set famine to the quick. 

" Lo !" to myself I mused, ** the race, who lost 
Jerusalem, when Mary' with dire beak 
Prey*d on her child." The sockets seem'd as rings,* 
From which the gems were dropp'd. Who reads the 
Of man upon his forehead, there the M [name^ 

Had traced most plainly. Who would deem, that 
Of water and an apple could have proved [scent 
Powerful to generate such pining want. 
Not knowing how it wrought? While now I stood, 
Wondering what thus could waste them, (for the cause 
Of their gaunt hoUowness and scaly rind 
Appeared not,) lo ! a spirit tum'd lus eyes 
In their deep-sunken celb, and fastened them 

1 7%« eyes.] Compare Ovid, Metam., lib. viii. 801. 
Hirtns erat crinis ; cava lamina, pallor in ore : 

Dara cutis, per qnam spectari viscera possent : 
Ossa sub incurvis ezstabant arida lombis. 
s When Mary.] Josephos, de Bello Jnd., lib. vil. c, xzi. p 
95L Ed. Genev., fol. 1611. The shocking story is well told. 

• Rinfe.] 

Senza fior prato o senza gemma aniello. 

Petrarca, Son. Laseiata haif morte. 
O ring of which the rnbie Is outfall. 

Chaueert TntUue and Oreeeidey b. v 

In this hatit 

Met I my father with his bleeding rings, 
Their precious stones new lost 

Shakepeare^ Leavj act v. scene 3 

* Who reads the name.] " He who pretends to distinguish 
the letters which form OMO in the features of the human 
&ce, might easiiy have traced but the M on their emaciated 
countenances." The temples, nose, and forehead are sup- 
posed to represent this letter ; and the eyes the two O^f 
placed within each side of it 

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344 THE VISION. m-T^ 

On me, then cried with Tehemence aloud : 
** What grrace is this vouchsafed me ?" By his look* 
I ne'er had recognised him : but the voice 
Brought to my Imowledge what his cheer conceal' d 
Remembrance of his alter'd lineaments 
Was kindled from that spark ; and I agnized 
The visage of Forese.' " Ah ! respect 
This wan and leprous-wither'd skin/' thus he 
Suppliant unplored, *< this macerated flesh. 
Speak to me truly of thyself. And who 
Are those twain spirits, that escort thee there 7 
Be it not said thou scom'st to talk with me. ' 

" That face of thine," I answer'd him, " which dead 
I once bewaii*d, disposes me not less 
For weeping, when I see it thus transformed. 
Say then, by H'>aven, what blasts ye thus? The 
I wonder, ask not speech from me : unapt [whilsl 
Is he to speak, whom other will employs." 

He thus : " The water and the plant, we pass'd* 
With power are gifted, by the eternal will 
Infused ; the which so pines me. Every spirit. 
Whose song bewails his gluttony indulged 
Too grossly, here in hunger and in thirst 
Is purified. The odor, which the fruit. 
And spray that showers upon the verdure, breathCf 
Inflames us with desire to feed and drink. 
Nor once alone, encompassing our route, 
We come to add fresh fuel to the pain : 
Pain, said I ? solace, rather : for that will. 
To the tree, leads us, by which Christ was led 
To call on Eli, joyful, when he paid 
Our ransom from his vein." I answering thus ; 
♦* Forese ! from that day, in which the world 
For better life thou changedst, not five years 
Have circled. If the power' of smning more 
Were first concluded in thee, ere thou knewest 
That kindly grief which re-espouses us 
To God, how hither art thou come so soon? 

> JFbrete.J One of the brothers of Piccarda ; he who is asctB 
spoken of in the next Canto, and introduced in the ParadUse 
Canto iii. Cionacci, in his Storia della Beata Umiiiana, 
Parte iv. cap. i., is referred to by Lombard!, in order to show 
that Forese was also the brother of Corso Donatio our aathor*s 

S^litical enemy. See next Canto, v. 81. Tiraboschi, after 
rescimbeni. enuronrates him among the Tuscan poets. Stor. 
della Poes. It, r. L p. 139. 

^ If the power .] "If thou didst delay thy repentance to the 
lut, when thou hadst lost the power of sinning, how happeai 
It thou art arrived here so early 1" 

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T6-M. PURGATORY, Canto XXm. 345 

I ihongfat to find thee lower.^ there, where time 
Is recompense for time." He straight replied : 
** To drink up the sweet wormwood of afiRiction 
I have been brought thus early, by the tears 
Streamed down my NellaV cheeks. Her prayeif 

Her sighs have drawn me from the coast, where oil 
Expectance lingers ; and have set me free 
From the other circles. In the sight of God 
So much the dearer is my widow prized. 
She whom I loved so fondly, as she ranks 
McTe smgly eminent for virtuous deeds. 
The tract, most barbarous of Sardinia's isle,* 
Hath dames more chaste, and modester by far. 
Than that wherem I left her. O sweet brother ! 
What wouldst thou have me say?^ A time to come 
"Stands full within my view, to which this hour 
Shall not be counted of an ancient date. 
When from the pulpit shall be loudly wam*d 
The unblushing dames of Florence,* lest they bare 
Unkerchief 'd bosoms to the common gaze. 
What savage women hath the world e'er seen. 
What Saracens,* for whom there needed scourge 
Of spiritual or other discipline. 
To force them walk with covering on their limbs? 

1 Lttoer.] In the Ante-Pnrgatory. See Canto iL 

ajfyJVetfa.] The wife of Forese. 

s The tract, most barbamnu of Sardinia** i»U.] The Bar- 
hagia is a part of Sardinia, to which that name was given, on 
account or the nncivilized state of its inliabitants, who are 
said to have gone nearlymaked. 

* Wkatwouldatthoukav$me9ayl\ The interrogative, which- 
LomlMirdi wonld dismiss from this place, as unmeaning and 
•aperflnoos, appears to me to be Che natural result of a deep 
feeling, and to prepare us for the invective that follows. v 

* The wMuMhing dames of Florence.] Landino's note ex- 
hibits a curious instance of the changeableness of his coun- 
trywomen. He even goes beyond the acrimony of the original. 
**In those days,*' says the commentatcNr, *'no less than in 
ours, the Florentine ladles exposed the neck and bosom, a 
dress, no doubt, more suitable to a harlot than a matron. But, 
as they changed soon after, insomuch that they wore collars 
up to the chin, covering the whole of the neck and throat, so 
have I hopes they will change again ; not indeed so much 
lirom motives of decency, as through that fickleness which 
pervaa<»( 3very action of their lives.** 

* Saracen*.\ "^hls word, during the middle ages, was in- 
discriminately applied to Pagans and Mahometans ; in short, 
to all nations (except the Jews) who did not profess Chris- 
tianity.'* Jff-. EUit*e apedment of Early Engliek Metricai 
Jtotnancett voL L p. 19G, (a note^) Load. 8vo. idttS. 

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340 rHE VISION. hMhVm 

But did they see, the shamelesB ones, what Heaven 
Wafts on swift wing toward them while I speak, 
Their months w«re oped for howling : they shall tasN 
Of sorrow (unless foresight cheat me here) 
Or ere the cheek of him be clothed with down. 
Who is now rock'd with lullaby* asleep. 
Ah I now,* my brother, hide thyself no more : 
Thou seest' how not I alone, but all. 
Gaze, where thou yeil'st the intercepted sun.'' 
Whence I replied : " If thou recall to mind 
What we were once together, even yet 
Remembrance of those days may grieve thee sore. 
Thai I fonook that life, was due to him 
Who there precedes me, some few evenings past, 
When she was round, who shines with sister lamp 
To his that glisters yonder," and I show'd 
The sun. " 'Tis he, who through profbundest night' 
Of the true dead has brought me, with this flesh 
As true, that follows. From that gloom the aid 
Of his sure comfort drew me on to climb. 
And, climbing, wind along this mountain-steep. 
Which rectifies in you whatever the world 
Made crooked and depraved. I have his word, 
That he will bear me company as far 
As till I come where Beatrice dwells: 
But there must leave me. Virgil is that spuit. 
Who thus hath promised," and I pointed to him ; 
" The other is that shade, for whom so late 
Your realm, as he arose, exulting, shook 
Through every pendent cliff and rocky bound." 


Forese points out several others by name .who are here, like 
himself, purifying themselves from the vice of gluttony ; 
and, among the rest, Baonaggianta of Lucca, with whom 
our Poet converses. Forese then predicts the violent end 
of Dante*s political enemy, Corso Donati ; and, when he 
has quitted them, the Poet, in company with Statius and 
Virgil, arrives at another tree, from whence issue voices . 

Colui che mo si consola con nanna. 
** Nanna** is said to have been the sound with which the Flo- 
rentine women hushed their children to sleep. 

3 Tk0u teesL] Thou sees t how we wonder that thou art 
Aere in a Uvlog body. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

iHW. PURGATORY, Canto XXIV. 347 

that record ancient examples of glattony ; and proceeding 
forwards, tliey are directed by an angel whicli way to 
ascend to tlie next cornice of the mountain. 

Our journey was not slacken'd by our talk, 
Nor yet our talk by journeying. Still we spake, 
And urged our travel stoutly, like a ship 
When the wind sits astern. The shadowy forms, 
That seem'd things dead and dead again, drew in 
At their deep-delved orbs rare wonder of me, 
Perceiving I had life : and I my words 
Continued, and thus spake : " He journeys^ up 
Perhaps more tardily than else he would, 
For others' sake. But tell me, if thou know*st. 
Where is Piccarda ?* Tell me, if I see 
Any of mark, among this multitude 
Who eye me thus." — " My sister (she for whom, 
'Twixt beautiful and good,' I cannot say 
Which name was fitter) wears e'en now her crown, 
And triumphs in Olympus." Saying this. 
He added : " Since spare diet* hath so worn 
Our semblance out, 'tis lawful here to name 
Each one. This," and his finger then he raised, 
* Is Buonaggiunta," — Buonaggiunta, he 

1 He journeys.] The soul of Statins perhaps proceeds more 
slowly, in order that he may enjoy as kmg as possible the 
company of Virgil, 
a Piccarda.] See Paradise, Canto ilL 
' * Tuixt beautiful and good.] 

Tra bella e onesta 

Qual fu piu, lascib in dubbio. 

PetrarcOj Son* Ripensando a qud, 
*Dia.] Dieta. 

And dieted with fasting every day. 

Spenser, F. Q., b. i. c. 1. st 2G. 

Spare fast that oft with gods doth diet. 

Milton^ R Penserose 

Bumaggiunta.] Buonaggiunta Urbiclani, of Lucca 
** There is a canzone by this poet, printed in the collection 
made by the Glunti, (p. 209,) and a sonnet to Guide Guini' 
celli in that made by Corbinelli, (p. 169,) fh>m which we col- 
lect that he lived not about 1230, as Quadrio supposes, (t. ii. 
p. 159,) but towards the end of the thirteenth century Ck>n- 
eeming other poems by Buonaggiunta, that are preserved in 
MS. in some libraries, Crescimbeni may be consulted.** Tir 
raboschiy Mr. Mathias*s ed., V. i. p. 115. Three of these, a 
canzone, a sonnet, and a ballata, have been published in the 
Anecdota Literaria ex MSS. Ck)dicibus eruta, 8vo. Roma, (no 
yeai%) v. iii. p. 453. He is thus mentioned by our author in 
his Treatise de Vulg. Eloq., lib. i. cap. xiii. **Next let xa 
come to the Tuscans, who, made senseless by their folly, 
arrogaatiy assume to themselves the tftie of a vemacalaf 

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S48 THE TlSIOlf . tl-ti 

Of Lacca: and that face beyond him, pierced 
Unto a leaner fineness than the rest, 
Had keeping of the church ; he was of Toon, 
And purges by wan abstinence away 
Bolsena's eels and cups of museadel "' 

diction, more excellent than the rest ; nor are the Ttdgaraloae 
mbled by this wild opinion, but many famous men have 
maintained it, as Guittone d* Arezzo, who never addicted him- 
self to the polished 8ty\9 of the court, Buonantunta of Lacca, 
Gallo aC Pisa, Mino Mocato of Sienna, and BruDetto of Flo* 
rence, whose compositions, if there shall be leisure for exam- 
ining them, will be found not to be in the diction of the court, 
bat fai that of their respective cities.*' 

As a specimen of Buonacgiunta's manner, the reader wLl 
take the following Sonnet from Corbinelirs CoUecti(Hi added 
to the Bella Mano :— 

Q,xuA Q<Hno h in su la rota per Ventura, 
Non si rallegri, perch^ sia innalzato ; 
Che qnando pid si mostra chiara, e pwa, 
Allor si gira, ed hallo disbassato. 
E nullo prato ha si firesca verdura, 
Che li snoi Haiti non cangino stato ; 
£ <|aesto saccio, ehe avvien per natora 
Piu grave cade, chi piii d montato. 
Non si dee nomo troppo rallegrare 

Di gran grandezza, n^ tenere spene ; 
Che egli i gran doglia, allegrezza folUre: 
Anzi si debbe molio umiliajre : 

Non far soperchio, perche aggia gran bene ; 
Che ogni nnonte a valle dee venire. 
La BMa Mom e Rime jintichet edit. Firemen 1715, p. 170 
What man is raised on Fortune's wheel aloft, 

Let him not triumph in his bliss elate ; 
For when she smiles with visage fair and soft. 

Then whirls she round, reversing his estate. 
fVesh was the verdure in the sunny croft. 

Yet so<m the wither'd flowerets met their fote ; 
And thines exalted most, as chanceth oft. 

Fall nrom mi high to earth with ruin great. 
Therefore ought none too greatly to rejoice 
In greatness, nor too.fost his hope to hold: 
For one, that triumphs, great pun is to fkO. 
But liwly meekness is the wiser choice ; 

And he must down, that is too proud and bold : 
For every mountain stoopeth to the vale. 
> H9 wa» of 7\wr«.] Blmon of Tours became pope iritb 
the tiUe of Ifartin IV. U> 1981, and died in 1985. 

* BoUmta^t etla and eups of mn*tadel.\ The Nldobeatlna 
edition and the Mmite Cassino BIS. agree in reading 

L'angtiille dl Bolsena in la vemaccia ; 
from which it would seem, that Martin the Fourth refined so 
mudi on epicurism as to luive his eels killed by being put into 
the wine called vemaccia, in order to heighten their flavor. 
The Latin annotator on the MS. relates, that the followlsg 
epitaph was inscribed on the sepulchre of the pope : 
Gandent angoilla, qvod mortaus hie Jacet lUey 
'^iqioaniDO' .---^ -_ 

Qai qiaan uorte leat ezcpiiabat eas. 

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He ■how'd me many others, one by one 
And all, as they were named, eeem'd well content ; 
For no dark gesture I discem'd in any. 
I saw, through hunger, Ubaldino^ grmd 
His teeth on emptiness ; and Boniface,' 
That waved the crosier* o'er a numerous flock: 
I saw the Marquis,^ who had time erewhile 
To swill at Forii with less drought ; yet so, 
Was one ne'er sated. I howe'er, like him 
That, gazing 'midst a crowd, singles out one* 
So singled lum of Lucca ; for methought 
Was none amongst them took such note of me. 
Somewhat I hea^ him whisper of Grentucca:* 
The sound was indistinct, and murmur'd there,* 
Where juMice, that so strips them, fix'd her sting. 

** Spirit !" said I, ** it seems as thou wouldst fain 
&>eak with me. Let me hear thee. Mutual wish 
To conyerse prompts, which let us both indulge." 

He, answering, straight began : " Woman is bom» 
Whose brow no wimple shades yet,'' that shall make 

1 Dbaldino.} Ubaldino degU Ubaldlnl, of Pila, in the Flor 
entlne territory. 

3 Bonifaee.] Archbishop of Ravenna. By Ventori he if 
called Bonifazlo de* Fieschit a Genoese ; by VellatellOt the 
son of the above-mentioned Ubaldini; and by Landino> 
Francioso, a Frenchman. 

> Crosier.] It is uncertain whether the word "rocco," hi 
the original, means a " crosier" or a " bishop^s rochet," that 
is, his episcopal gown. In support of the latter interpreta* 
tion Lombardl cites Du Fre3ne*8 Glossary, article Roccos. 
** Rochettum hodie vocant vestem linteam episcoporum . . • 
quasi parvum roccnm ;'* and ezpl^ns the verse^ 

Che pasture col rocco molte genti : 

"who, from the revenues of his bishopiick, 8Upp(»rted hi 
luxury a large train of dependants." If the reader wishes to 
learn more on the subject, he is referred to Monti's Proposta, 
«nder the word ** Rocco." 

• The MatquU.] The Marchese de* Rigogliosi, of ForlL 
When his butler told him it was commonly reported in the 
city that he did nothing but drink, he is said to have answered : 
** And do you tell them that I am always thirsty." 

• OeHtueea,] Of this lady it is thought that our Poet 
became enamored during hii exile. See note to Canto 

• Tkere,\ In the throat, the part in which they felt the 
tonnent inflicted by the divine Justice. 

« ] 


1 Wkoteimo nowimpU tkadegf^} <' Who has nqt yai 
osnimed the diess of a woman." 


My city please thee, blame it as they laay.* 
Go then with this forewarning. If aught else 
My whisper too implied, the event shsill tell. 
But say, if of a truth I see the man 
Of that new lay the inventor, which begins 
With * Ladies, ye that con the lore of love/ '*• 

To whom I thus : " Count of me but as one. 
Who am the scribe of love ; that, when he breathes, 
Take up my pen, and, as he dictates, write." 

" Brother !" said he, " the hind'rance which once 
The notary,' with Guittone^ and myself, [held 

1 Blame it as they may.] See Hell, Canto xxL 39. 

s Ladies y ye that eon the lore of love.] 

Donne ch* aveto intelletto d'amore. 
The first verse of a canzone in onr author's Vita Nuova. 

* The notary.] Jacopo da Lentino, called the Notary, a 
poet of these times. He was probably an Apulian : for Papte 
(De Vnlg. Eloq., lib. i. cap. 12,) quoting a verse which belongs 
to a canzone of his, published by the Giunti, without men- 
tioning the TiTiter's name, terms him one of " the illustrious 
Apuiians,** inrefulgentes Apull. See Tiraboschi. Mr. Ma^ 
thias's edit. vol. i. p. 137. Crescimbeni (lib. i. Delia Volg. 
Foes., p. 72, 4to ed. 1698) gives an extract from one of his 
poems, {Nrintedin Allacci's Collection, to show that the whim- 
sical ccnnpositions called " Ariette," are not of modem in- 
vention. His poems have been collected among the Poeti 
del primo secolo della Lingua Italiana, 2 vol. 8vo. Firenze, 
J816. They extend from p. 249 to p. 319 of the first volume. 

« OtUttone.] Fra Guittone, of Arezzo, holds a distin- 
guished place in Italian literature, as, besides his poems 
printed in the Collection of the Giunti, he has left a collec- 
tion of letters, forty in number, which afibrd the earliest 
specimen of that kind of writing in the language. They were 
published at Rome in 1743, with learned illustrations by 
Giovanni Bottari. He was also the first who gave to the 
sonnet its regular and legitimate form, a species of composi- 
tion in which not only his own countrymen, but many of the 
best poets in all the cultivated languages of modem Europe, 
have since so much delighted. 

Guittone, a native of Arezzo, was the son of Viva di Mi- 
chele. He was of the order of the " Frati Godenti," of which 
an account may be seen in the notes to Hell, Canto xxiii. 
In the year 1293 he founded a monastery of the order of 
Camaldoli, in Florence, and died in the following year. 
Tiraboschi, ibid. p. 119. Dante, in the Treatise de Vulg. 
Eloq., lib. i. cap. 13, (see note to v, 20, aoove,) and lib. U. cap. 
0, blames him for preferring the plebeian to the more courtly 
style ; and Petrarch twice places him in the company of our 
Poet. Triumph of Love, cap. iv., and Son. Par. Sec. " Sen- 
Buccio mio.'l The eighth book in the collection of the old 
poets published by the Giunti in 1527, consists of sonnets and 
eanzoni by Guittone. They axe marked by a peculiar so- 
lemnity of manner, of which the ensuing sonnet will aflbrd a 
proof and an example : 

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fj-W. PURGAJTORY, Canto XXTV. 361 

Short of that new and sweeter style* I hear, 
Is now disclosed : I see how ye your plumes [tion, 
Stretch, as the mditer guides them ; which, no ques- 
Ouis did not. He that seeks a grace beyond, 
Sees not the dbtance parts one style from other.** 
And, as contented, here he held his peace 

lAe as the birds,'' that winter near the Nile, 
In squared regiment direct their course. 
Then stretch themselves m file for speedier flight ; 
Thus all the tribe of spirits, as they tum'd . . 

Their visage, faster fled, nimble alike 
Through leanness and desire. And as a man, 
Tired with the motion of a trotting steed,* 
Slacks pace, and stays behind his company, 

(Sran placer Signer mio, e gran desire 

Harei d*essere avanti al divin trono, 

Dove si prenderi pace e perdono. 

Di 8U0 ben fatto e d'(^ni suo fallire ; 
E gran placer harel hor di sentire • 

Quella sonante tromba e qnei gran suono, 

£ d'udir dire : hora venuti sono, 

A chi dar pace, a chi cradei martire. 
Qnesto tutto vorrei caro slgnore ; 

Perch^ fia scritto a ciaschedun nel volto 

Q,ael chd gi^ tenne ascoso deatro al core : 
Allhor vedrete a la mia fronte awolto 
■ Un brieve, che dirA ; che '1 crudo amore 

Per voi me prese, e mai non m' ha disciolto. 

Great joy it were to me to join ihe throng, 

That thy celestial throne, O Lord, surround. 
Where perfect peace and pardon shall be founds 
Peace for good doings, pardon for the wrong : 
Great joy to hear the vault of heaven prolons 
That everlasting trumpet's mighty sound. 
That shall to each award their final bound. 
Wailing to these, to those the blissful song. 
All this, dear Lord, were welcome to my soul. 
For on his brow then every one shall bear 
Inscribed, what late was hidden in the heart; 
And round my forehead wreath'd a letter'd scroll 
Shall in this tenor mv sad fate declare : 
" Love's bondman I from him might never part." 
Bottari doubts whether some of the sonnets attributed to 
Guittone in the Rime Antiche are by that writer. See his 
notes to Lettere di Fra Guittone, p. 135. 

1 That new and sweeter style.] He means the style intro- 
duced in our Poet's time. 

« TheMrds.l Hell, Canto v. 46. Euripides, Helena, 1495^ 
and Statins, Theb., lib. v. 12. 

» Tiredwithtkemotionofa trotting steed.] I have followel 
Venturi's explanation of this passage. Others understand 

di trottare e lasso, 

of the fatigue produced by running. 

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350 THE TISIOM. n-m 

Till his o'eiteeathed IxmgB keep temperate time ; 
£*en 80 Foreee let that holy crew 
Proceed, behind them lingering at my side, 
And saying : *' When sh^ I again behold thee 7^ 

** How long my life may last," said I, ** I know nots 
This know, how soon soeyer I return, 
My wishes will before me haye arriyed: 
Sithence the place,* where I am set to liye, 
Is, day by day, more scoop'd of all its good ; 
And dismal ruin seems to threaten it" 

** Go now," he cried : <Mo ! he,' whose guilt is most, 
Passes before my yision, dragg'd at heels 
Of an infuriate beast Toward the yale. 
Where guilt hath no redemption, on it speeds. 
Each step increasing swiftness on the last ; 
Until a blow it strikes, that leayeth him 
A corse most yilely ahatter'd. No long space 
Those wheels haye yet to roll," (therewith his eyes 
Look'd uj^to heayen,) *< ere thou shalt plainly see 
That which my words may not more plainly telL 
I quit thee : time is precious here : I lose 
Too much, thus measuring my pace with thine." 

As from a troop of well-rankM chiyalry. 
One knight, more enterprinng than the rest. 
Pricks forth at gallop, eager to display 
His prowess in the firat encounter proyed ; 
So parted he from us, with lengthened strides ; 
And left me on the way with those twain spirits. 
Who were such mighty marshals of the world. 

When he beyond us had so fled, mine eyes 
No nearer reached him, than my thought his words ; 
The branches of another fruit, thick hung. 

1 Tike place.] Florence. 

s He.] Cano Donati was suspected of aiming at the soy* 
ereignty of Florence. To escape the fury of his fellow-citi- 
zens, he fled away on horseback, bat fiUling, was overtaken 
and slain, A. D. 1306. The contemporary annalist, after lega- 
ting at length the circumstances or his fote, adds, ** that he 
was one of the wisest and most valorous knights, the best 
speakei, the most expert statesman, the most renowned and 
enterprising man of his age in Italy, a comely knight, and of 
graceful carriage, bat very worldly, and in his time had 
formed many conspiracies in Florence, and entered into many 
scandalous practices for the sake of attaining state and lord- 
ship." 6. Villani, lib. viiL cap. 96. The character of Corso 
is forcibly drawn by another of his ccmtemporaries, Dino 
Compagni, lib. ill. Moratori, Rer. Ital. Script., tom. ix. p. 533. 
Gaittone d*Axes»>*t seventh Letter is addressed to him. U 

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I03-148. PUB6AT0RY, Canto XXIV. 3tt 

And bloomingr fresh, appeared. E'en as our steps 
TumM thither ; not far off, it rose to view. 
Beneath it were a multitude, that raised 
Their hands, and shouted forth I know not what 
Unto the boughs ; like greedy and fond brats. 
That beg, and answei: none obtain from him. 
Of whom they beg ; but more to draw them on, 
He, at arm's length, the object of their wish 
Above them holSn aloft, and hides it not 

At length, as undeceived, they went their way : 
And we approach the tree, whom vows and tears 
Sue to in vain ; the mighty tree. " Pass on. 
And come not near. Stands higher up the wood. 
Whereof Eve tasted : and from it was ta'en [came. 
This plant" Such sounds from midst the thicketff 
^Whence I, with either bard, close to the side 
That rose, paas'd forth beyond. " Remember,'' next 
We heard, ** those unblest creatures of the cloudS}^ 
How they their twyfold bosoms, overgorged. 
Opposed in fight to Theseus : call to mind 
The Hebrews,' how, effeminate, they stoop'd 
To ease their thirst ; whence Gideon's ranks were 
As he to Madian' march'd adown the hills." [thinn'<d. 

Thus near one border coasting, still we heard 
The sins of gluttony, with wo erewhile 
Regruerdon'd. Then along the lonely path,^ 
Once more at large, full thousand paces on 
We travell'd, each contemplathre and mute? 

" Why pensive journey so ye three alone ?" 
Thus suddenly a voice exclaim'd : whereat 
I shook, as doth a scared and paltry beast ; 
Then raised my head, to look from whence it came 

Was ne'er, in furnace, glass, or metal, seen 
So bright and glowing red, as was the shape 
I now beheld. ** If ye desire to mount," 
He cried ; " here, must ye turn. This way he goes, 
Who goes in quest of peace." His countenance 
Had daizled me ; and to my guides I faced 
Backward, like one who walks as sound directs. 

As when, to harbinger the dawn, springs up 

1 Creatures of the douda.] The Centaurs Ovid, Bfet, Il\ 
JUL feb. 4. 

* The Hebrewa.] Judges, vii 

* To Madian.'l 

The matchless Gidecm in porsnit 
Of Madiao and her vanqnish'd kings. 

Milton^ Sanuom JgomaUi, 

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354 THE VISION. j«3-lfl 

On frwhen'd win? the air of May^ and breathes 
Of fragrance, all impregn'd with herb and flowen ; 
E*en such a wind I felt upon my front 
Blow gently, and the moving of a wing 
Perceived, that, moving, sh^ ambroeid smell ; 
And then a voice : ** Blessed are they, whom grace 
Doth so illume, that appetite in them 
Exhaleth no inordinate desire, 
Still hungering as the rule of temperance wills '* 


VirgU and Statiiu resolve -scmie doubts that have ariseo ii^ 
the mind of Dante ih)m what he had just seen. They aUr 
arrive on the seventh and last cornice, where the sin of hi 
* continence is purged in fire ; and the spirits of those suffer 
ing therein are heard to record illustrious instances 0/ 
' chastity. 

It was an hour, when he who climbs, had need 
To walk uncrippled : for the snn^ had now 
To Taurus the meridian curcle left, 
■And to the Scorpion left the night As one. 
That makes no pause, but presses on his road> 
What#^r betide him, if some urgent need 
Impel yjo entered we'' upon our way, 
One before other ; for, but singly, none 
That steep and narrow scale admits to climb. 

E'en as the young stork lif 3th up his wing 
Through wish to fly, yet ventures not to quit 
The nest, and drops it ; so in me desha 
Of questioning my guide arose, and fell, 
Arriving even to the act that marks 
A man prepared for speech. Him all our haste 

1 The «vn.J The sun had passed the meridian two hours, 
and that meridian was now occupied by the constellation of 
Taurus, to which as the Scorpion is opposite, the latter con* 
ttellation was consequently at the meridian of night. 
« So entered toe.] 

Davanti a me andava la mia gulda : 
E poi lo dletro per una via stretta 
S^;uendo lei come mia scorta fida. 

F)rezzij 11 Quadrir., lib. ii. cap. S. 
The good prelate of Foligno has followed our Poet so closely 
throughout this Capltolo, that it would be necessary to tran- 
scribe almost the whole of it in order to show how much he 
has copied. These verses of his own may well be applied t» 
him on tlie occasion. 

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1»-4S. PURGATORY, Canto XXV. 355 

Re8train*d not ; but thus spake the sire beloved : 
'* Fear not to speed the shafti' that on thy lip 
Stands trembling for its flight." Encouraged thus, 
I straight began : " How there can leanness come,' 
Where is no want of nourishment wO feed ?" 

" If thou," he answerM, " hadst remember'd thee. 
How Meleager' with the wasting brand 
Wasted alike, by equal fires consumed ; 
This would not trouble thee : and hadst thou thought, 
How in the mirror* your reflected form 
With mimic motion vibrates ; what now seems 
Hard, had appeared no harder than the pulp 
Of summer-fruit mature. But that thy will 
In certamty may find its full repose, 
Lo Statins here ! on him I call, and pray 
That he would now be healer of thy wound." 

" If, in thy presence, I unfold to him 
The secrets of heaven's vengeance, let me plead 
Thine own injunction to exculpate me." 
So Statins answered, and forthwith began : 
«* Attend my words, O son, and in thy mind 
Receive them ; so shall they be light to clear 
The doubt thou offer'st Blood, concocted well, 
Which by the thirsty vems is ne'er imbibed. 
And rests as food superfluous, to be ta'en 
From the replenish'd table, in the heart 
Derives efiectual vhlue, that informs 

1 Fear not to speed the shaft.] " Fear not to utter the W(»ds 
that are already at the tip of thy tongue." 

rioXXd nh ipruirhs 

rXwtrffa fioi ro^ev/iar' ixei inpl xdwv 

KsXaifiaai. Pindar, Itthm., v. GO. 

Full many a shaft of sonnding rhyme 

Stands trembling on my lip 

Their glory to declare. 

> How there eon leanness eome.] ** How can spirits, that 
need not corporeal noorishment, be snbject to leanness T* 
This question gives rise to the following explanation of Sta- 
tins respecting the formation of the human body fh)m the 
first, its junction with the soul, and the passage of the Hitter 
to another world. 

s Meleager.] Virgil reminds Dante that, as Meleager was 
wasted away by the decree of the Fates, and not through 
want of blood ; so by the divine appointment, there may be 
leanness where there is no need of nourishment. 

* In the mirror.] As the reflection of a form in a mirror is 
modified In agreement with the modification of the form it- 
self; so the sonl, separated from the earthly body, Impresses 
the image or ghost of that body with its owi afifections 

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156 THE VISION. 43-n 

The leveral hHman limbs, as being that 

Which passes through the Teins itself to make them 

Yet more concocted it descends, where shame 

Forbids to mention : and from thence distills 

In natural vessel on another's blood. 

There each unite together ; one disposed 

To endure, to act the other, through that power 

Derived from whence it came ;' and bemg met. 

It 'gins to work, coagrulating first ; 

Then vivifies what its own substance made 

Consist With animation now indued. 

The active virtue (difiering from a plant 

No further, than that this is on the way, 

And at its limit that) continues yet 

To operate, that now it moves, and feels. 

As sea-sponge' clinging to the rock : and there 

Assumes the organic powers its seed convey'd. 

This is the moment, son ! at which the virtue, 

That from the generating heart proceeds. 

Is pliant and expansive ; for each limb 

Is in the heart by forgeful na^ture plann'd. 

How babe' of animal becomes, remains 

For thy considering. At this point, more wise. 

Than thou, has err'd,* making the soul disjoin'd 

From passive intellect, because he saw 

No organ for the latter's use assign'd. 

" Open thy bosom to the truth that comes 
Know, soon as in the embryo, to the brain 
Articulation is complete, then turns 
The primal Mover witk a smile of joy 
On such great work of nature ; and imbreathes 
New spirit replete with vutue, that what here 

1 JVmr vhenee it eanu.\ ''Rrom the heart,** as Lombaida 
rightly interprets it. 

s j9« sea-gpongre.] The fcetns is in this stage a KoSphyte. 

s Babe.] By " fante,'* which is here rendered '* babe.** Is 
meant "the human creature.'* **The creature that is dls 
tinguished from others by its faculty of speech,** Just ai 
Homer calls men, 

ytvtai fttp6xia¥ ivOp^ntv. 
* More vise, 
Than tho% has err'd.] Averroes Is said to be here meant 
Ventnri refers to his commentary on Aristotle, De Anim., 
lib. iiL cap. 5, for the opinion that there is only one universal 
mtellect <Nr mind pervading every individual of the human 
race. Much of the knowledge disfriayed by our Poet in the 
inresent Canto, appears to have been derived from the medl- 
eat work of Aveiroei called the CoUiget, Ub. iL f. 10. Yen 
1490, fol 

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TS-IU. PURGATORY, Ciirro XXV. . 357 

Actiye it finds, to its own substance draws ; 
And forais an individual soul, that lives, 
And feels, and bends reflective on itself. 
And that thou less mayst marvel at the word, 
Mark the sun*s heat ;^ how that to wine doth change) 
Mix'd with the moisture filtered through the vine. 

** When Lachesis hath spun the thread,' the soul 
Takes with her both the human and divine, 
Memory, intelligence, and will, in act 
Far keener than before ; the other powers 
Inactive all and mute. No pause allow*d. 
In wondrous sort self-moving, to one strand 
Of those, where the departed roam, she falls : 
Here learns her destined path. Soon as the place 
Receives her, round the plastic virtue beams, 
Distinct as in the living limbs before : 
And as the air, when saturate with showers, 
The casual beam refracting, decks itself 
With many a hue ; so here the ambient air 
Weareth that form, which influence of the soul 
Imprints on it : and like the flame, that where 
The fire moves, thither follows ; ^, henceforth, 
The new form on the spuit follows still : 
Hence hath it semblance, and is shadow call'd, 
, With each sense, even to the sight, endued : [sighs. 
Hence speech is ours, hence laughter, tears, and 
Which thou mayst oft have witness d on the mount 
The obedient shadow fails not to present 
Whatever varying passion moves within us. 
And this the cause of what thou marvell'st at*' 

Now the last flexure of our way we reach'd ; 
And to the right hand turning, other care 
Awaits us. Here the rocky precipice 
Hurls forth redundant flames ; and from the rim 
A blast up-blown, with forcible rebuff 
Driveth them back, sequester'd from its bound. 

Behooved us, one by one, along the side. 
That bordered on the void, to pass ; and I 
Fear'd on one hand the fire, on the other fear*d 

1 Mark the tun*» heat.] Redi and Tlraboschi (Mr. Mathias't 
cd^ V. ii. p. 36) have considered thia ai an anticipation 01 a 
profound discovery of Galileo's in natural philosophy; bat it 
Is in reality taken from a passage in Cicero ** de Senectnte,** 
where, speaidng of the grape, he says, *' qnc, et sncco ierrm et 
calore soils af^iescens, pnmo est peracerba gnstato, deinde 
matnrata dnlcescit.'* 

s Ifhem LaehetiM hath tywm th$ thread] When a inan*t 
Ife on earth is at an end 

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t58 . THE VISION. 114-133 

Headlong to fall : when thiM the instnietor wam*d 
" Strict rein must in this place direct the eyes. 
A little fwenrmg^ and the way is loet." 

Then from Hm boeom of the burning mass, 
•< O God of mercy !''* heard I sung, and felt 
No lea desire to turn And when I saw 
Spirits along the flame proceeding, I 
Between their footsteps and mine own was fain 
To share by turns my view. At the hymn's close 
They shouted loud, " I do not know a man f 
Then in low yoice again took up the stram ; 
Which once more ended, " To the wood," they criedi 
" Ran Dian, and drave forth Calhsto* stung 
With Cytherea's poison :" then retum'd 
Unto their song ; then many a pair extoU'd, 
Who lived in virtue chastely and the bands 
Of wedded love. Nor from that task, I ween, 
Surcease they ; whilesoe'er the scorching fire 
Enclasps them. Of such skill appliance needs, 
To medicine the wound that healeth last^ 


The spirits wonder at seeing the shadow cast by the body of 
Dante on the flame as he passes it This moves one of 
them to address him. It proves to be Guido Goinicelli, the 
Italian poet, who points out to him the spirit of Aniaiilt 
Daniel, the Proven9al, with whom he also speaks. 

WmLB singly thus along the rim we walk'd,' 
Oft the good master wam'd me : " Look thou weU. 
Avail it that I caution thee." The sun 
Now all the western clime irradiate changed 
From azure tinct to white ; and, as I pass'd, 
My passing shadow made the umber'd flame 

1 " O Ood of mertw.*'] ** Snmms Dens dementis.*' 

The beginning of the hymn sung on the Sabbath at matins, 

as it stands in the ancient breviaries ; for in the modem it is 

** snmms parens dementis." Lombardi. 

* I do not know a man.] Lnlce, i. 34. 

s CaUitto.] See Ovid, Met., iib. ii. fab. 5. 

* THe woundy that koaleth last.] The marginal note in the 
Monte Cassino MS. on this passage is : " idest ultima litera 
que denotat ultimnm peccatum mortale ;*' and the editor 
lemarics, that Dante in these last two verses admonishes him- 
self, and lu himself all those gniltv of carnal sin, in what man- 
ner the wonnd, inflicted by it, and expressed by the last P. on 
bis forehead, may b6 healed 

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Bum ruddier. ' At so strange a sight I mark'd 
That many a spirit marveird on his way. 

This bred occasion first to speak of me. 
** He seems/' said they, " no insubstantial frame :" 
Then, to obtain what certamty they might, 
Stretch'd towards me, careful not to overpass 
• The burning pale. " O thou ! who followest 
The others, haply not more slow than they, 
But^moved by reverence ; answer me, who bum 
In thirst and fire : ngr I alone, but these 
All for thine answer do more thirst, than doth 
Indian or ^thiop for the cooling stream. 
Tell us, how is it that thou mak'st thyself 
A wall against the sun, as thou not yet 
Into the inextricable toils of death 
Hadst enter'd ?" Thus spake one ; and I had straight 
Declared me, if attention had not tum*d 
To new appearance. Meeting these, there came, 
Midway the bummg path, a crowd, on whom 
Earnestly gazing, from each part I view 
The shadows all press forward, severally 
Each snatch a hasty kiss, and then away. 
E'en so the emmets, 'mid their dusky troops, 
Peer closely one at other, to spy out 
Their mutual road perchance, and how they thrive. 

That friendly greeting parted, ere dispatch 
Of the first onward step, from either tribe 
Loud clamor rises : those, who newly come. 
Shout ** Sodom and Gomorrah !" these, " The cow 
PasiphsB enter'd, that the beast she woo'd 
Might rush unto her luxury." Then as cranes, 
That part towards the Riphsean mountains fly, 
Part towards the Lybic sands, these to avoid 
The ice, and those the sun ; so hasteth off 
One crowd, advances the other ; and resume 
Their first song, weeping, and their several shout.' 

Again drew near my side the very same. 
Who had erewhile besought me ; and their looks 
Mark'd eagerness to listen. I, who twice 
Their will had noted, spake : " O spirit^ secure. 
Whene'er the time Ihay be, of peaceful end ; 
My limbs, nor crade, nor in mature old age. 
Have I left yonder : here they bear me, fed 
With blood, and sinew-strung. That I no more 
May live in blindness, hence I tend aloft. 

^ T%tir first aonft^ vupingy and tkHr severai $hout.] See 
the last Canto, v, 118, and v. 123. 

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S0O THE VISION. 59-«> 

There is a dame on high, who wun for ni 

This grace, by which my mortal through your realm 

I bear. But may your utmost wish soon meet 

Such full fruition, that the orb of heayen. 

Fullest of love, and of most ample ^>ace, 

Receive you ; as ye tell (upon my page 

Henceforth to stand recorded) who ye are ; 

And what this multitude, that at your backs 

Have pass'd behind us." As one, mountain-bredf 

Rugged and clownish, if some city's walls 

He chance to enter, round him stares agape. 

Confounded and struck dumb ; e'en such ai^ar'd 

Each spirit But when rid of that amaze, 

(Not long the mmate of a noble heart,') 

He, who before had questioned, thus resumed : 

" O blessed ! who, for death preparing, takest 

Experience of our limits, in thy bark ; 

Their crime, who not with us proceed, was that 

For which, as he did triumph, CaMar* heard [cnr 

The shout of 'queen,' to taunt him. Hence thea 

Of < Sodom,' as they parted ; to rebuke 

Themselves, and aid the burning by their shame 

Our sinning was Hermaphrodite : but we, 

Because the law of human kind we broke, 

Followmg like beasts our vile concupiscence, 

Hence parting from them, to our own disgrace 

Record the name of her, by whom the beast 

In bestial tire was acted. Now our deeds 

Thou know'st, and how we sinn'd. If thou by namn 

1 Amate^ 

(A*0£ long the inmate of a noble heart.)] 


Lo qnal negU altl cor tosto s'attuta. 
rhof Speroni : 

lo stupore 

Lo qnal dagli alti cor tosto si parte. Cahaee. 

He does not say that wonder is not natural t> a lofty mind, 
for it is the very principle of Icnowlodge. ,^d\a y^P ^<Ao- 
96fo9 roZro rl ir<i0o(, rd Oav/id^ctv, oh y^P iAAv dpx^ 
fi\oo9^ias1iaiT4. Plato, Theat. Edit. Bipont, torn. ii. p. 76; 
bnt that it is not of long continuance in such a mind. On 
this subject it is well said by Doctor Hortley : " Wonder, 
connected with a principle of rational curiosity, is the source 
of all knowledge and discovery, and it is a principle even of 
piety: but wonder, which ends in wonder, and is satisfied 
with wonder, is the quality of an idiot." Sermons^ vol. i. p 
837. Compare Aristotle, Metaph., lib. i. p. 335, Edit. Sylb. 
The above passace tram Plato is adduced by Clemens AleZ' 
and., Strom., lib. ii. sect 9. 

s Cm»ar.] For the opprobrium cast on Coear't eflfemlnacy 
see Snetonios, Julius Cosar, c. 49. 

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81-111 PURGATORY, CAurt) XXVI. 36 1 

Woaldst ha{>iy know us, time permits not now 

To tell so much, nor can I. Of myself 

Learn what thou wiahest. Guinicelli' I ; 

Who having truly sorrow'd ere my last. 

Already cleanse me." With such pious joy, 

As the two sons upon their mother gazed 

From sad Lycurgus' rescued ; such my joy 

(Save that I more repressed it) when I heard 

From his own lips the name of him pronounced, 

Who was a father to me, and to those 

My betters, who have ever used the sweet 

And pleasant rhymes of love. So naught I heard* 

Nor spake ; but long time thoughtfully I went, 

Gazing on him ; and, only for the fire, 

Approach'd not nearer. When my eyes were fed 

By looking on him ; with such solemn pledge, 

As forces credence, I devoted me 

Unto his service wholly. In reply 

He thus bespake me : " What from thee I hear 

Is graved so deeply on my mind, the waves 

Of Lethe shall not wash it off, nor make 

A whit less lively. But as now thy oath 

Has seal'd the truth, declare what cause impels 

That love, which both thy looks and speech bewray." 

" Those dulcet lays," I answer'd ; " which, as long 
As of our tongue the beauty does not fade. 
Shall make us love the very ink that traced them." 

** Brother !" he cried, and pointed at the shade 
Before him, " there is one, whose mother speech 
Doth owe to him a fairer ornament. 
He' in love ditties, and the tales of prose, 

* Ouiniedli.] See Note to Canto xi. 96. 
« Lyeurffus.] Statius, Theb., lib. iv. and v. Hypsipile had 
left her infant chaise, the son of Lycnrgus, on a bank, where 
it was destroyed by a serpent, when she went to show the 
Argive army the river of Langia : and, on her escaping the 
eflbcts of Lycnrgus's resentment, the joy her own chlldrea 
felt at the sight of her was such, as onr Poet felt on behold- 
ing his predecessor Guinicetli. 

The incidents are beautifally described in Statins, and seem 
to have made an impression on Dante, for he before (Canto 
xxil. 110) characterizes Hypsipile as her— 
Who show'd Langla's wave, 
s He.] The united testimony of Dante, and of Petrarch, 
|Aace» Arnault Daniel at the head of the Provencal poets. 
— — pol v'era un drappello 
Dl portamenti e di volgari strani : 
Fra tutti 11 primo Amaldo Daniello 
Gran maestro d*amor ch' a la sna terra 
Anccr fit on<a col rao dir nnovo e bcliu. 

^ Petrareoj TVionfo SAmon, c. I?. . 


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Withont a inral stands ; and lets the fools 

That he was bom of po(»r bat noUe parents, at the castle of 
Ribeyrac in P^riford, and that he was at the Enclish court, is 
ttie amoont <^ Millot*s infonnation concerning him, (torn, ii 
p. 479.) The account there given of liis writings is not much 
more satls&ctory, and the criticism on them most go for little 
better than nothing. It is to be regretted tliat we have not an 
opportunity of jndBng for ourselves of his *' love ditties and 
bis tales of prose.** 

Vers! d*amore e prose di roman:d 
Our Poet ftequentiy cites him in the work De Vulgar! Eao> 
quio. In the second chapter of the second book, he Is in- 
stanced as one ** who had treated of love ;** and in the tenth 
chapter, he is said to have used in almost all his canzoni a 
particular kind of stanza, the sestine, which Dante had fol- 
lowed iix one of his own canzoni, beginning, 

Al poco giomo ed al gran cerchio d*<nnbFa. 
This stanza is termed by Gray, **both in sense and sound, a 
very mean composition.'* Oray'a WorJu^ 4to. Lend. 1814, 
vol. ii. p. 33. According to Cresclmbeni, (Delia Volg. Poes., 
lib. i. p. 7, ed. 1698,} he died in 1189. Arnault Daniel was not 
soon forsotten; for Ausias March, a Catalonian, who was 
himself mstlngnished as a Provencal poet in the middle of the 
fifteenth century, makes honorable mention of him in some 
verses, which are quoted by Bastero in his Crusca Proven 
zale, Ediz. Roma. 1724, p. 75. 

Envers alguns a^o miracle par ; 
Mas sin's membram d*en Amau Daniel 
E de aquels que la terra los es vel, 
Sabrem Amor vers nos que pot donar. 

To some this seems a miracle to be ; 

But if we Arnault Daniel call to mind, 

And those beside, whom earthly veil doth bind, 

We then the mighty power of love shall see. 

Since this note was written, M. Raynonard has made na 
better acquainted with the writings and history of the Pro- 
vencal poets. I have much pleasure In citing the following 
particnuurs respecting Arnault Daniel from his Cholx des Po 
Ssies des Troubadours, torn. il. pp. 318, 319. 

" L*autorit6 de Dante suifirait pour nous convainore qu* Ar 
naud Daniel avait compost plnsieurs romans. Mais 11 reste 
■ne preuve positive de Pezistence d'un roman d'Amaud 
Daniel ; c'est celui de Lancelot du Lac, dont la traduction fVit 
fkite, vers la fin du treizldme si^de, en allemand, par Ulrich 
de Zatehitschoven, qui nomme Amand Daniel c(»nme Tauteur 

" Le Tasse, dans l*un de ses ouvrages,* s*ezprime en ces 
termes, an si^et des romans composes par les troubadours : 

<< £ romanzi furono detti quel poemi, o piu tosto quelle 

(•) Des eztraits de cette traduction allemande ont 4ti 

(J) DiscoTso sopra 11 parere flttto del Signor Fr. Patrido, etCi, 
•dit fol. torn. iv. p. 810. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

lis. PURGATORY, Canto XXVI. 36 

Talk on, who think the songster of LimogeiE^ 

Istoric &volose, che farono seritte nella lingua de* Provenzali 
o de* Castigliani ; le quali non si scrivevano in veni, ma in 
orosa, come alcnni hanno osservato prima da me, perchi 
Dante, parlando d* Arnaldo Daniello, disse : 

Versi d*amore e prose di romanzi, etc. 

Enfin Pnlci, dans son Morgante Maggiore« nomme Amaod 
Daniel comme autenr d*im ruman de Renaud : 
Dopo costui venne il famoso Arnaldo 
Che molto diligenteniente ha scritt^f 
E investigb le opre di Kinaldo, 
De le gran cose che fece in Egitto, etc.** 

Morgante Maggiore, Canto xxvii. ott. 80 

See also Raynouard, torn. v. 30. 

1 The songster of Limoges.] Giraud de Bomeil, of Sldeoil 
a castle in Limoges. He was a Troubadour, much admired 
and caressed in his day, and appears to have been in favor 
with the monarchs of Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon. 
Giraud is mentioned by Dante in a remarkable passage of the 
De Vulg. Eloq., lib. ii. cap. 2. '* As man is endowed with a 
triple soul, vegetable, animal, and rational, so he walks in a 
triple path. Inasmuch as he is vegetable, he seeks utility, 
in which he has a common nature with plants ; inasmuch as 
he ;s animal, he seeks for pleasure, in which he participates 
with brutes ; inasmuch as he is rational, he seeks for honor, 
in which he is either alone, or is associated with the angels. 
Whatever we do, appears to be done through these three 
principles,'* &c.— '*With respect to utility, we shall find on a 
minute inquiry that the primary object with all who seek it, 
is safety ; with regard to pleasure* love is entitled to the first 
place ; and as to honor, no one will hesitate in assijipiing the 
same pre-eminence to virtue. These three then, sa&ty, love, 
virtue, appear to be three great subjects, which ought to 
be treated, with most grandeur; that is, those things which 
chiefly pertain to these, as courage in arms, ardency of love, 
and the direction of the will : concerning which alone we 
shall flnd on inquiry that illustrious men have composed 
their poems in the vernacular tongues : Bertrand de Bom, of 
arms ; Arnault Daniel, of love ; Giraud de Bomeil, of recti- 
tude ; Cino da Pistoia, of love ; his friend,'* (by whom he 
means himself,) **of rectitude; but I find no Italian as yet 
who has treated of arms." Giraud is again quoted in the 
sixth chapter ok this book. The following notice respecting 
him is found in Gray*s posthumous Works, 4to. Lcmd. 1814, 
▼ol. ii. p. 33. ** The canzone is of very ancient date, the in- 
vention of it being ascribed to Girard de Bomeil of the school 
of Provence, who died in 1178. He was of Limoges, and was 
called U Maestro de* Trovatori." That he was distinguished 
bv this title (a circumstance that, perhaps, induced Danle to 
vindicate the superior claims of Arnault Daniel) is mentioned 
by Bastero in his Crusca Provenzale, Ediz. Roma, p. 84, where 
we find the following list of his MS. poems preserved in the 
Vatican, and in the library of S. Lorenzo at Florence. *' Una 
tenzone col Re d' Aragona ; e un Serventese contra Cardaillac, 
e diverse Oanzoni massimamente tre pel ricuperamento del 
8. Sepolero, o dl Terra Santa, ed alcune col titolo di Cante- 
fete, eiod plcciole cantari, owero canzonette.** The li^t 
Which these and similar writings might €^\^ sot only on tlM 

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364 THE VISION 114-1» 

O'ertops him. Rumor and the p(^ar yoiee 

They look to, more than truth ; and so confirm 

Opinion, ere by art or reason taught 

Thus many of the elder time cri^ up 

Guittone,* giving^ him the prize, till truth 

By strength of numbers vanquish'd. If thou own 

So ample privilege, as to have gain'd 

Free entrance to the cloister, whereof Christ 

Is Abbot of the college ; say to him 

One paternoster for me, far as needs* 

For dwelleiB in this world, where power to sin 

No longer tempts us.** Haply to make way 

For one that follow'd next, when that was said, 

He vanished through the fire, as through the wayn 

A fish, that glances diving to the deep. 

I, to the spirit he had shown me, drew 
A little onward, and besought his name, 
For which my heart, I said, kept gracious room. 
He frankly thus began : " Thy courtesy* 

events, but still more on the manners of a most Interestlni 
period of history, would surely, without taking into the ac- 
count any merit they may possess as poetical compositions, 
render them objects well deserving of more curiosity than 
they appear to have hitherto excited in the public mind. 
Many of his poems are still remaining in MS. According to 
Nostradamus he died in 1278. Millot, Hist. Lltt. des Troub., 
tom. ii. p. 1, and 23. But I suspect that there is some error 
In this date, and that he did not live to so late a period. 
Some of his poems have since been published by Raynouard 
Poesies des Troubadours, tom. iii. p. 304, &c. 

1 Onittone.] See Canto xxiv. 56. 

3 Fhr a» needs.^ See Canto xi. 23. 

> Tkf courtesy.] Arnault is here made to speak in his own 
tongue, the Provencal. According to Dante, (De Vulg. Eloq., 
lib. i. c. 8,) the Provencal was one language with the Span- 
ish. What he says on this subject is so curious, that the 
leader will perhaps not be displeased if I give an abstract 
of it. 

He first makes three great divisions of the European Ian 
gnages. **One of these extends firom the mouths of the 
Danube, or the lake of Mcotis, to the western limits of Eng- 
land, and is bounded by the limits of the French and Italians, 
and by the ocean. One idiom obtained over the whole of 
this space : but was afterwards subdivided into the Sclavo- 
nian, Hungarian, Teutonic, Saxon, English, and the vernacu- 
lar tongues of several other people, one sign remaining to 
all, that they use the affirmative io, (our English ay.) The 
whole of Europe, bMinning fhom the Hungarian limits and 
stretching towards the east, has a second idimn, which 
reaches still ftirther than the end of Europe, info Asia. This 
is the Greek. In all that remains of Europe, there is a third 
tdimn, subdivided into three dialects, which may be severally 
dlstingoished by the use of the affirmatives, m, oU, and §i 

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IW,134. PURGATORY, Canto XXVL 365 

60 wins on me, I have nor power nor will 
To hide me. I am Arnault ; and with songSi 

the first spoken by the Spaniards, the next by the French, 
the third by the Latins, (or Italians.) The first occupy the 
western part of southern Europe, beginning from the limits 
of the Geneose. The third occupy the eastern part from the 
said limits, as far, that is, as to the promontory of Italy, 
where the Adriatic sea begins, and to Sicily. The second 
are in a manner northern, with respect to these, for they 
have the Grermans to the east and north, on the west (hey 
are (ouaded by the English sea and. the mountains of Aia- 

Son, and on the south by the people of Provence and the 
oclivity of the Apennine." 

Ibid. o. X. " Each of these three," he observes, " has its 
own claims to distinction. The excellency of the French 
language consists in its being best adapted, on account of its 
facility and agreeableness, to prose narration, (quicquid re- 
dactum, sive inventum est ad vulgare prosaicum, suum est ;) 
and lie instances the books compiled on the gests of the Tro- 
jans and Romans, and the delightful Adventures of King 
Arthur, with many other histories and works of instruction. 
The Spanish (or Provenjal) may boast of its having pro- 
duced such as first cultivated in this, as in a more peiifect 
and sweet language, the vernacular poetry: among whom 
are Tierre d'Auvergne, and others more ancient.' The privi- 
leges of the Latin, or Italian, are two ; first, that it may 
reckon for its own those writers who have adopted a more 
sweet and subtile style of poetry. In the number of whom are 
Cino da Pistoia and his firiend ; and the next, that its writers 
seem to adhere to certain general rules of grammar, and in 
so doing give it, in the opinion of the intelligent, a very 
weighty pretension to preference." Since the last edition of 
this book, it has appeared that Mr. Gray understood by the 
words " Grammatics, quae communis est ;" • " the Latin or 
mother-tongue," and not, as I have rendered them, " general 
rules of grammar." In this latter sense, however, the word 
•* Grammatica" has been used twice before in the Treatise de 
Vulg. Eloq., though it is certainly afterwards applied in the 
sense in which Gray took it. See the edition of Gray's 
Works, for which we are so much indebted to Mr. Mathias, 
4to. liondon, 1814, vol. ii. p. 35. We learn from our author's 
Vita Nuova, p. 358, that there were no poetic compositions 
in the Provencal or Italian, more than one hundred and fifty 
years Ixifore the Vita Nuova was written; and that the first 
who w/ote in the vernacular languages, wrote to make him • 
self understood by a lady. M. Raynouard supposed the tex* 
of all the editions to be miserably corrupted in thii place, and 
took much pains to restore it. I will add the passage as that 
learned writer concluded it to have come from the hand of 

"Tan m'abelUs vostre cortes deman, 
Ch' ieu non me pnese ni m voil a vos colnrire ; 
Jeu sui Amautz, che plor e vai cantan ; 
Ckmsiros, vei la passada follor, 
E vel jauzen lo joi qu'esper denan ; 
Ar^ vos prec, per aquella valor 
One us guida al som sens freich e sens colina, 
tkfvefSDB. vos atenprar ma dolor. 

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Sorely waymentiiig for my folly past, 
Thorough this ford of fire I wade, and seo 
The day, I hope for, smiling in my view. 
I pray ye by the worth that guides ye up 
Unto the summit of the scale, in time 
Remember ye my sufferings." With such words 
He disappear'^ in the refining flame. 


An augel sends them forward throngh the fire to the last 
ascent, which leads to the terrestrial Paradise, situated on 
the summit of the mountain. They have not proceeded 
many steps on their way upward, when the foil of night 
hinders them from going further ; and our Poet, who has 
lain down with Virgil and Statins to rest, beholds in a 
dream two females, figuring the active and contemplative 
life. With the return of morning, they reach the height; 
and here Virgil gives Dante full liberty to use his own 
pleasure and judgment in the choice of his way, till he 
shall meet with Beatrice. 

Now was the sun^ so stationed, as when first 
His early radiance quivers on the heights. 
Where streamed his Maker's blood ; while Libra hangs 
Above Hesperian Ebro ; and new fires, 
Meridian, flash on Ganges' yellow tide. 

" Tant me plait votre courtoise demande, — que Je ne puis 
ni ne me veux 4 vous cacher ;— je suis Amaud, qui pleure 
et va chantant ;— «oncieux, je vols la pass^e folle,— et vols 
joyeux le bonheur, que j'espere k I'avenir; — ^maintenant je 
vous prie, par cette vertu— qui vous guide au sommet, sans 
firoid et sans chaud ;— qu*il souvienne k vous de soulager ma 

** II n'ost pas nn des nombrenx manuscrits de la Divina 
Commedia, nas une des Editions mulUpli6es qui en ont 4t6 
donn^es, qui ne pr6sente dans les vers que Dante prdie an 
troubadoiu: Amaud Daniel, un texte d^ngnrA et devenu, de 
copie en copie, presque inintelligible. 

" Cependant j'ai pens6 qu'il n'6tait pas impossible de r6ta- 
blir le texte de ces vers, en comparant avec soin, dans les 
manuscrits de Dante que possddent les d^pdts publics de 
Paris, toutes les variantes qu'ils pouvaient foumir, et en les 
choisissant d*aprds les regies grammaticales et les notions 
lexicographiques de la langne des troubadours. Mon espoir 
n'a point 6t6 tromp^, et sans aucun secours conjectural, sans 
aucun d^placement nl changement de mots, je suis parvenu, 
par le simple choix des variantes, & retrouver le texte primitif 
tel qnUl a dft ^tre produit par Dante." 

Raynouard. Lexique Roman., torn. i. p. xlii. S"., Par. 1830. 

* 7!l< sun.] At Jerusalem it was dawn, in Spain midnight, 
MNi In India noonday, while It was sunset in Purgatory. 

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•-«. PURGATORY, Canto XXVH. 367 

So day was Binking, when the angel of God 
A^iear'd before us. Joy was in his mien. 
Forth of the flame he stood upon the Inink ; 
And with a voice, whose lively clearness far 
Surpassed our human, " Blessed* are the pure 
In heart,'* he sang : then near him as we came, 
'* Go ye not further, holy qiirits V* he cried, 
** Ere the fire pierce you : enter in ; and list 
Attentive to the song ye hear from thence.** 

I, when I heard lus saying, was as one 
Laid in the grave.' My hands together dasp'd, 
And upward stretehing, on the fire I looked 
And busy fancy conjured up the forms 
Erewhile beheld alive consumed in flames. 

The escorting spirits tum'd with ffentle looks 
Toward me ; and the Mantuan spiuLO : ** My son. 
Here torment thou mayst feel, but canst not death. 
Remember thee, remember thee, if I 
Safe e'en on Geryon brought thee ; now I come 
More near to Grod, wilt thou not trust me now? 
Of this be sure ; though in its womb that flame 
A thousand years contain'd thee, from thy head 
No hair shoiUd perish. If thou doubt my truth. 
Approach ; and with thy hands thy vesture's hem 
Streteh forth, and for thyself confirm belief! 
Lay now all fear, oh ! lay all fear aside. 
Turn hither, and come onward undismay'd.'* 

I still, though conscience urged, no step adyancea. 

When still he saw me fix'd and obstinato) 
Somewhat disturb'd he cried : ** Mark now, my son« 
From Beatrice thou art by this wall 
Divided" As at Thisbe's name the eye 

I Blessed.] Matt. V. 81 
» ■ ■■■ As one 
LaM in ike ^rovtf.] 

Quale k colnl che nella fossa d ummo. 
iKnnbardi UDderstands this of a man who is taken to exeeu 
tion in the manner described in Hel!, c ziz. 52. *'Oo!al/ 
he thinks, cannot be property applied to a corse. Yet Bob' 
caccio*s imitation confirms die opinion of the other com 
mentators : — 

Essa era tale, a gnardaria nel viso, 
Qnal donna mfiNrta alia fossa p(vtata. 

n FUostrato, p. V. st 83 
Which Chancer has thus translated : — 

She was right soche to sene in her visage, 
As is that wight that men on bere ybinoe. 

TVot/M 0Md Qreseidef b. iv. 

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368 THE VISION. 38^ 

Of Pyramus wm open'd, (when life ebb'd 
Fast from his veins) and took one partmg glance, 
While vermeil dyed the molberry ;^ thus I tom'd 
To my sage guide, relenting, when I heard 
The name that springs for ever in my breast 

He shook his forehead ; and, " How long," he saidf 
** Linger we now?** then smiled, as one would smile 
Upon a child that eyes the fruit and yields. 
Into the fire before me then he walk'd ; 
And Statius, who erewhile no little space 
Had parted us, he pray'd to come behind. 
I would have cast me into molten glass 
To cool me, when I entered ; so intense 
Raged the conflagrant mass. The sire beloved. 
To comfort me, as he proceeded, still 
Of Beatrice talk'd. ** Her eyes,** saith he, 
** E'en now I seem to view.** From the other side 
A voice, that sang, did guide us ; and the voice 
Following, with heedful ear, we issued forth, [heard, 
There where the path led upward. " Come,*'^ we 
" Come, blessed of my Father.** Such the soimds. 
That hail'd us from within a light, which shone 
So radiant, I could not endure the view. 
" The sun,'* it added, ** hastes : and evening comes. 
Delay not : ere the western sky is hung 
* With blackness, strive ye for the pass." Our way 
Upright within the rock arose, and faced 
Such part of heaven, that fh)m before my steps 
The beams were shrouded of the sinking sun. 
Nor many stairs were overpast, when now 
By fading of the shadow we perceived 
The sun behind us couch*d ; and ere one face 
Of darkness o*er its measureless expanse 
Involved the horizon, and the night her lot 
Held individual, each of us had made 
A stair his pallet ; not that will, but power, 
Had fail'd us, by the nature of that mount 
Forbidden further travel. As the goats, 
That late have skipp'd and wanton*d rapidly 
Upon the craggy cliffs, ere they had ta'en 
Their supper on the herb, now silent lie 
And ruminate beneath the umbrage brown, 
While noonday rages ; and the goatherd leans 
Upon his staff*, and leanmg watches them : , 

I WhtU vermeil dyed the mulberry.] Ovid Metam., lib 
Iv. 125. 
• Ckmu.] Matt, xzv 34. 

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«-117. PURGATORY. Canto XXVII. Z^ 

And as the fwain, that lodges out all night 
In quiet by his flock, lest beast of prey 
Disperse them : even so all three abode, 
I as a goat, and as the shepherds they, 
Close pent on either side by shelving rock. 

A little glimpse of sky was seen above ; 
Yet by that Uttle I beheld the stars, 
In magnitude and lustre shining forth 
With more than wonted glory. As I lays 
Gazing on them, and in tiiat fit of musing, 
Sleep overcame me, sleep, that bringeth oft 
Tidings of future hap. About the hour, 
As I believe, when Venus from the east 
First lightened on the mountain, she whose orb 
Seems alway glowing with the fire of love, 
A lady young and beautiful, I dream'd. 
Was passing o*er ajea ; and, as she came, 
Methought I saw her ever and anon 
Bending to cull the flowers ; and thus she sang 
" Know ye, whoever of my name would ask. 
That I am Leah :^ for my brow to weave 
A garland, these fair hands unwearied ply. 
To please me' at the crystal mirror, here 
I deck me. But my sister Rachel, she' 
Before her glass abides the livelong day, 
Her radiant eyes beholding, charm'd no less, 
Than I with this delightful task. Her joy 
In contemplation, as in labor mine.'* 

And now as glimmering dawn appeared, that breaks 
More welcome to the pilgrim still, as he - 
Sojourns less distant on his homeward way, 
Darkness from all sides fled, and with it fled 
My slumber ; whence I rose, and saw my guide 
Already risen. " That delicious fruit. 
Which through so many a branch the zealous care 
Of mortals roams in quest of, shall this day 

1 / am Leah.] By Leah is nnderstood the active life, as 
Rachel figures the contemplative. Michel Angelo has made 
these allegorical personages the subject of two stataes on the 
monument of Julius II. in the church of S. Pietru in VincolQ. 
See Mr. Dnppa*s Life of Michel Angelo, Sculpture viiLandz., 
and p. 347. 

* To pUa$e me.] "For the sake of that enjoyment which 
I shall have in beholding my God fkce to face, I thus exercise 
myself in good works." 

* 8keA **Hef delight is in admiring in her minor, that is, 
in the Sapfeme Being, the light, or knowledge, that He voneh- 
■albs her.** 

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370 THE VISION. 118-ia 

Appease thy hunger." Such the words I htard 
From Virgil's Up ; and never greeting heard. 
So pleasant as the sounds. Within me straight 
Desire so grew upon desire to mount, 
Thenceforward at each step I felt the wings 
Increasing for my flight When we had run 
0*er all the ladder to its topmost round, 
As there we stood, on me the Mantuan fix'd 
His eyes, and thus he spake : '^ Both fires, my m«» 
The temporal and eternal, thou hast seen ; 
And art arrived, where of itself my ken 
No further reaches. I, with skill and art. 
Thus far have drawn thee. Now thy pleasure take 
For guide. Thou hast o'ercome the steeper way, 
Overcome' the straiter. Lo ! the sun, that darts 
His heam upon thy forehead : lo ! the herb,^ 
The arborets and flowers, which of itself 
This land pours forth profuse. Till those bright eyei^ 
With gladness come, which, weepuig,made me haste 
To. succor thee, thou mayst or seat thee down. 
Or wander where thou wilt. Elpect no more 
Sanction of warning voice or sign from me. 
Free of thy own arbitrement to choose. 
Discreet, judicious. To distrust thy sense 
Were henceforth error. I invest thee then 
With crown and mitre, sovereign o'er thyself." 



Daute wanders throngh the forest of the terrestrial Paradise, 
till he Is stopped by a stream, on the other side of which 
he beholds a fair lady* culling flowers. He speaks to her ; 
and she, in reply, expiains to him certain tnings toaching 
the nature of that place, and tells that the water, which 
flows between them, is here called Lethe, and in another 
place has the name of Ennoe. 

"i L0I the herb.1 ** In alinm campnm transit t 

Ipse vero campus splendidus, suavis ac decoms quanta mag- 
nltudinis, quanta gloria, quanteqne sit pulchritndlnis, nuUa 
lingua, nullusque sermo, potest enarrare: plenns est enim 
omni Jucunditate, et gandio, et latitia. Ibi lilicHram, et rosa 
rum odor, ibi odoramentomm omnium redolet firagrantia, 
bl n-annc, omninmque etemarum deiidamm redundat almn- 
iantia. In hi^us camni medio paradlsos est** J Uhtri d 
Vitio, $ 90. 

* TlkMe bright aye* -1 The eyes of Beatrice 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

1-94. PURGATORY, Camto XXVIH. 371 

TuRouoH that celestial forest, whose thick shade 
With lively greenness the new-springing day 
Attempered, eager now to roam, and search 
Its limits nrand, forthwith I left the bank ; 
Along the ehampain leisnrely my way 
Punning, o*er the ground, that on all sides 
Delicious odor breUhed. A pleasant tir,^ 
That intermitted never, never ve^d. 
Smote on my temples, gently, as a whid 
Of softest influence : at which the sprays, 
Obedient all, lean'd trembling to that part' 
Where first the holy mountain casts h» shade ; 
Yet were not so disorder'd, but that still 
Upon their top the feather'd quiristeni* 
Applied their wonted art, and with full joy 
Welcomed those hours of prime, and warbled sloill 
Amid the leaves, that to their jocund lays 
Kept tenor ; even as from branch to bnmch, 
Along the pmy forests on the shore 
Of Chiassi,^ toOb the gathering melody, 
When Eolus hath from his cavern loosed 
The dripping south. Already had my stqis, 
Though slow, so far into that ancient wood 
Transported me, I could not ken the place 


Cantaa fra i rami gU angeUetti va^, 
Azzarri, e bianchi, e verdi, e lossi, e glalli ; 
Monnoranti rascelll, e ched laghi 
Di limpldezza vineono i cristalli. 
Una dole* aura, ehe ti par che vagfai 
A nn mode sempie, e oal tno ttU non ftUi, 
Facea si Taria tremolar d*intomo, 
Che non potea nojar calor del giomo. 

Jlriotto, OH. fkr., c. zzziv. st 50. 
Therewith a wlnde, nnnethe It might be less, 
Abide in the levis grene a noise soft, . 
AccOTdant to the ^nUs song on loft 

Chaucer, The AssemKe ofFndet. 
• To ihatpart.1 The west. 

s Th* feather d auir%»ter$.\ Imitated by Boccaccio, Flair 
aetta, lib. iv. " Odi i quemli nccelli,'* &c.— " Hear the qiier»- 
loas birds plaining wiUi sweet songs, and the boughs tiemlH 
ling, and, moved by a gentle wind, as it were keeping tenctt 
to their notes.** 

^ Chia»$i,'\ This is the wood where the scene of Boecae* 
cio*8 snblimert story (taken entirely firran Elinand, as I leai^ 
in the notes to the Decameron, Ediz. Ginnti, 1533; p. 68^ iji 
laid. See Dec, 6.5, N. 8, and Dryden's Theodore and ^oaov 
ria. Our Poet perhaps wandered in U dndng his aM» wMi 
€iUdo Novello oa Polenta. 

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Where I had eiiter*d ; when, behold ! my path 
Was bounded by a rill, which, to the left, 
With little rippling waters bent the grass 
That issued fh>m its brink. On earth no wave 
How clean soe'er, that would not seem to have 
Some mixture in itself, compared with this, 
Transpicuous clear ; yet darkly on it roll'd, 
Darkly beneath perpetual gloom, which ne'er 
Admits or sun or moonlight there to shme. 

My feet advanced not ; but my wondering eyes 
Pass'd onward, o*er the streamlet, to survey 
The tender May-bloom, flushed through many a hue. 
In prodigal variety : and there. 
As object, rismg suddenly to view. 
That from our bosom every thought -beside 
With the rare marvel chases, I l^held 
A lady* all alone, who, singing, went, 
And culling flower fh>m flower, wherewith her way 
Was all o'er painted. ** Lady beautiful ! 
Thou, who (if looks, that use to speak the heart. 
Are worthy of our trust) with love*s own beam 
Dost warm thee," thus to her my speech I framed ; 
** Ah ! please thee hither towards the streamlet bend 
Thy steps so near, that I may list thy song. 
Beholding thee and this fair place, methiaks, 
I call to mind where wandePd and iiow look'd 
Proserpine, in that season, when her child 
The mother lost, and she the bloomy spring." 

As when a lady, turning in the dance, 
Doth foot it featly, and advances scarce 
One step before the other to the ground ; 
Over the yellow and vermilion flowers 
Thus tum*d she at my suit, most maiden-like. 
Veiling her sober eyes ; and came so near, 
That I distmctly caught the dulcet sound. 
Arriving where the limpid waters now 

>j9 ladjf.] Most of the commentaton . snppoee, that by 
this lady, who in the last Canto is called Matilda, is to bo 
understood the Coantess Matilda, who endowed the holy see 
with the estates called the Patrimony of St. Peter, and died 
in 1115. See 6. Villani, lib. iv. cap. xx. But it seems more 
IHTobabie that she should be intended for an allegorical per- 
sonage. Venturi accordingly supposes that she represents ' 
ttue acdve life. Bat, as Lombardi Justly observes, we have 
had tlrat alr^y shadowed fwth in the character of Leah; 
and he therefore sn^ests, that by Matilda may be understood 
that aflfoction which we ought to bear towards the holy 
ehurch, and for whkli the lady above meatioaed was so id> 

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•1-100. PURGATORY. Camto XXVIH. 373 

Laved the green swerd, her eyes she deign'd to ruMy 
That shot such splendor on me, as I ween 
Ne'er glanced from Cytherea's, when her son 
Had spsd has keenest weapons to her heart 
Upon the opposite bank she stood and smiled ; 
As through her graceful fingers shifted still 
The intermingling dyes, winch without seed 
That lofty land unbosoms. By the stream 
Three paces only were we sunder'd : yet, 
The Hellespont, where Xerxes pass'd it o*er, 
(A curb for ever to the pride of raan,^ 
Was by Leander not more hateful held 
For floating, with inhospitable wave, 
'Twixt Sestus and Abydos, than by me 
That flood, because it gave no passage thence. 

" Strangers ye come ; and haply in this placet 
That cradled human nature in her birth, 
Wondering, ye not without suspicion view 
My smiles : but that sweet strain of psalmody, 
* Tif[>u, Lord ! hast made me glad," will give ye light. 
Which may unoloud your minds. And thou, who 

The foremost, and didst make thy suit to me, 
Say if aught else thou wish to hear : for I 
Came prompt to answer every doubt of thme." 

She spake ; and I replied : ** I know not how* 
To reconcile this wave, and rustling sound 
Of forest leaves, with what I late have heard 
Of opposite report" She answering thus : 
** I wUl unfold the cause, whence that proceeds. 
Which makes thee wonder ; and so purge the cloud 
That hath enwrapp'd thee. The First Good, whose 
Is only in himself, created man, [joy 

For happiness ; and gave this goodly place, 
His ple(%e and earnest of eternal peace. 
Favor'd thus highly, through his own defect 
He fell ; and here made short sojourn ; he fell, 
And, for the bitterness of sorrow, changed 
Laughter unblamed and ever-new delight 
That vapors none, exhaled from earth beneath. 
Or from the waters, (which, wherever heat 

1 Jl curb for ever to tAtf pride of man.] Because Xerxes had 
been so hambled, when he was compelled to repass the Hel- 
lespont in one small bark, after having a little before crcrsed 
with a prodigioos army, In the hopes of snbdoing Greece. 

s TTkoUt Lord! htut made mm glad.] Psalm xdL4. 

s Jkn0» not koto 1 See Canto xzL 45. 

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Attracts them, follow,) might ascend thus far 

To yex man's peaceful state, this mountain rose 

So high toward the heayeu, nor fears the rage 

Of elements contending ;' from that part 

Exempted, where the gate his limit bars. 

Because the circumambient air, throughout, 

With its first impulse circles still, unless 

Aught mterpose to check or thwart its course ; 

Upon the summit, which on eyery side 

To visitation of the impassive air 

Is open, doth that motion strike, and makes 

Beneath its siliray the umbrageous wood resound : 

And in the shaken plant such power resides, 

That it impregnates with its efficacy 

The voyanng breeze, upon whose subtle plume 

Thatf waned, flies abroad ; and the other land,' 

Receiving, (as 'tis worthy in itself. 

Or in the cUme, that warms it,) doth conceive ; 

And from its womb produces many a tree 

Of various virtue. This when thou hast heardk 

The marvel ceases, if in yonder earth 

Some plant, without apparent seed, be found 

To fix its fibrous stem. And further learn, 

That with prolific foison of all seeds 

This holy plain is fill'd, and in itself 

Bears fruit that ne'er was pluck'd on other soif 

" The water, thou behold'st, springs not from. «ein 
Restored by vapor, that the cold converts ; 
As stream that intermittently repairs 
And spends his pulse of hfe ; but issues forth 
From fountain, solid, undecaymg, sure : 
And, by the iiHll omnific, full supply 
Feeds whatsoe'er on either side it pours ; 
On this, devolved with power to take away 
Remembrance of offence ; on that, to bring 
Remembrance back of every good deed done. 
From whence its name of Lethe on this part ; 

1 Ofelewtentt eontendinf.] Id the Dittamondo of Fhxie 
DegU Uberti» 1. i. cap. zi., there is a description of the terres- 
trial Paradise* in which the poet has had Dante before him. 

> The other Umd.] The continent, inhabited by the living, 
and separated fh)m Purgatory by the ocean, is allbcted (and 
that diversely, aecording to the natpre of the soil, or the cli- 
Biate) by a vlrtae, or efficacy, conveyed to it by the winds 
firom plants growing in the terrestrial Paradise, which is situ- 
ated on the summit of Purgatory ; and this is the cause why 
some plant! are found on earth without any apparent seed to 
produce them. 

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I3&-153. PURGATORY Camto XXIX. 375 

Ou the oth^, Ennoe : both of which most Gni 

Be tasted, ere it work ; the last exceeding 

All flavors else. Albeit thy thirst may now 

Be w^l c<mtented, if I here break off, 

No more revealing ; yet a con^lary 

I freely give beside : nor deem my words 

Less grateful to thee, if they somewhat pass 

The stretch of promise. They, whose verae of yum 

The golden age recorded, and its bliss, 

Ou the Parnassian mountain,* of this place 

Perhaps had dream'd. Here was man guiltless ; hero 

Perpetual spring,' and every fruit ; and this 

The far-famed nectar.'* Turning tq the bards. 

When she had ceased, I noted in their looks 

A smile at her conclusion ; then my face 

Again directed to the lovely dame. 


The lady, who ia a following Canto is called Matilda, moves 
along the side of the stream in a contrary direction to the 
current, and Dante keeps equal pace with her on the oppo- 
site bank. A marvellous sight, preceded by music, af^iiean 
in view. 

Singing,' as if enamor*d, she resumed 
And closed the song, with " Blessed they* whose sins 
Are cover'd." Like the wood-nymphs then, that 
Singly across the sylvan shadows ; one [tripp'd 

Eager to view, and one to 'scape the sun ; 
So moved she on, against the current, up 
The verdant rivage. I, her mincing step 
Observing, with as tardy step pursued. 

Between us not an hundred paces trod, 
The bank, on each side bending equally, 
Gave me to face the orient Nor our way 
Far onward brought us, when to me at once 

^ On the Panuutian numntatn.] 

In bicipiti somniasse Pamasso. PertkUt ProL 

< Perpetual tpring.] 

Vet erat teternnm, placidiqne tepentibns auris 
Mnlcebant zephyri natos sine semine flores. 

Flumina jam lactis, jam finmina nectaris ibant 

Ovid, Metam., lib. i. v. Ut 
* Singing.] Cantava come fosse innamorata. 

Chudo Caealcanii, Poeti del frimo eeeolo, v S; p.S63» 
« Blessed Oey.] Psalm zxzii. 1 

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S76 THE Vision. 19-if 

She tam'd, and cried: *'My brother, look, u^i 

And lo ! a sadden lustre ran across [hearker '' 

Through the great forest on all parts, so iuight, 

I doubted whether lightnmg were abroad ; ^ 

But that, expiring ever in the spleen 

That doth unfold it, and this during still, 

And waxing still in splendor, made me questioa 

What it might be : and a sweet melody 

Ran through the lummons air. Then did I chide, 

With warrantable zeal, the hardihood 

Of our first parent ; for that there, where earth 

Stood in obedience to the heavens, she only. 

Woman, the creature of an hour, endured not 

Restramt of any veil, which had she borne 

Devoutly, joys, inefiable as these, 

Had from the first, and long time since, been mmft. 

While, through that wilderness of primy sweets 
That never fade, suspense I walk'd, and yet 
Expectant of beatitude more high ; 
Before us, like a blazing fire, the air 
Under the green boughs glow'd ; and, for a song, 
Distinct the sound of melody was heard. 

ye thrice holy virgins ! for your sakes 
If e'er I sufier'd hunger, cold, and watching, 
Occasion calls on me to crave your bounty. 
Now through my breast let Helicon his stream 
Four copious, and Urania^ with her choir 
Arise to aid me ; while the verse unfolds 
Things, that do almost mock the grasp of thought 

Onward a i^ace, what seem'd seven trees of gold 
The intervening distance to mine eye 
Falsely presented ; but, when I was come 
So near them, that no lineament was lost 
Of those, with which a doubtful object, seen 
' Remotely, plays on the misdeeming sense ; 
Then did the faculty, that ministers 
Discourse to reason, these for tapers of gold' 

1 Urania.] Landino observes, that iatendin% to slag ot 
heavenly things, he rightly invokes Urania. Thus Milton : 

Descend fh)m Heaven, Urania, by that name 
If rightly thou art call'd. P. i., b. vU. 1. 

9 Tapers of gold.] See Rev. i. 12. The Commentatcnrs an 
not agreed whether the seven sacraments of the Church, or 
the seven gifts of the Spirit are intended. In his Convito, 
our author says : *' Because these gifts proceed from inefl&bie 
charity, and divine charity is appropriated to the Holy Spirit, 
hence, also, it is that they are called gifts of the Holy Spirit, 
the which, as Isaiah distinguishes them, aie seven.** P. 180 

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50-75. PURGATORY, Canto XXIX. 377 

Distingaish ; and i' the singing trace the sonnd 
** Hosanna." Above, their beauteous garniture 
.Fleuned with more ample lustre, than the moon 
Through cloudless sky at midnight, in her noon. 

I tum'd me, full of wonder, to my guide ; 
And he did answer with a countenance 
Charged with no less amazement : whence my vie^ 
Reverted to those lofty things, which came 
So slowly moving towards us, that the bride 
Would have outstripp'd them on her bridal day. 

The lady call'd aloud : ** Why thus yet burns 
Affection in thee for these living lights. 
And dost not look on that which follows them ?" 

I straightway mark'd a tribe behind them walk. 
As if attendant on their leaders, clothed 
With raiment of such whiteness, as on earth 
Was never. On my left, the watery gleam 
Borrowed, and gave me back, when there I look'dj 
As in a mirror, ray left side portray'd. 

When I had chosen on the river's edge 
Such station, that the distance of the stream 
Alone did separate me ; there I stay'd 
My steps for clearer prospect, and beheld 
The flames go onward, leaving," as they went, 
The air behind them painted as with trail 
Of liveliest pencils ;' so distinct were mark'd 

1 The bride.} 

£ come va per via sposa novella 
A passi rari, e porta gli occhi bassi 
Con faccia veigognosa, e non faveila. 

J^ezzi, H Quadrir.t lib. i. cap. 16 
• Leaving.} 

Lasciando dietro a se Taer dipinto. 
Che lascia dietro a se Taria dipinta. 

Mr. Malhias^s Ode to Mr. JWcAo^t, 

Oray*s Worke^ vol. i. p. 532. 

« PeneiU.] Since this translation was made, Perticarl has 
affixed another sense to the word " pennelli," which he in- 
terprets "pennons" or "streamers." Monti, in his Pro- 
posta, highly applauds the discovery. The conjectnre loses 
something of its probability, if we read the whole passage, 
not as Monti gives it, but as it stands in Landino's edition 
of 1484. 

Et vidi le fiamelle andar davante 

lasciando drieto a se laire dipinto 

che di tratti pennegli havea sembiante 
Slche 11 sopra rimanea distinto 

di sette liste tntte in que color! 

onde & larcho el sole & delia eldnto 



All thoM seven listed colors,^ whence the Ban 
Maketh his bow, and Cynthia her zone. 
These stieamingr gonfalons did flow beyond 
My vision ; and ten pacee,^ as I gness, 
Parted the outermost Beneath a sky 
So beautiful, came four and twenty elders,* 
By two and two, with flower-de-luces crown'd. 
All sang one song : " Blessed be thou^ among 
The daughters of Adam ! and thy loveliness 
Blessed for ever !" After that the flowers, 
And the fresh herblets, on the (^posite brink, 
Were free from that elected race ; as light 
In heaven doth second light, came after them 
Four* anunals, each crown'd with verdurous leaf. 
With six wings each was plumed ; the plumage full 
Of eyes ; and the eyes of Argus would be such. 
Were they endued with life. Reader ! more rhymes 
I will not waste in shadowing forth their form : 
For other need so straitens, that in this 
I may not give my bounty room. But read 
Ezekiel ;* for he paints them, from the north 
How he beheld them come by Chebar's flood, 
In whirlwind, cloud, and fire ; and even such 
As thou shalt find them character'd by him, 

1 Listed colors,} 

Di sette liste tntte in quel colori, &c. 

a bow 

CoDsi^ciioiu with three listed colors gay. 

MUton, P. L,, b. zL 865. 

* Ten paces.] For an explanation of the allegorical mean- 
ing of tills myaterions procession, Ventnri refers those, "who 
wontd see in the dark," to the commentaries of Landino, 
Vellntello, and others ; and adds, that it is evident the Poet 
has accommodated to his own fancy many sacred images ia 
the Apocalypse. In Yassari^s Life of Giotto, we learn thai 
Dante recommended that book to his firiend, as affording fit 
subjects for his pencil. 

* Fifur and twenty elders.} " Upon the seats I saw four and 
twenty elders sitting." Reo. iv. 4. 

* Blessed he thou.} " Blessed art thon among wcnnen, and 
blessed is the fruit of thy womb." Luke^ 1. 42. 

s F\mr.} The four evangelists. 

* Eiekid.} '* And I looked, and behold, a whirlwind came 
out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself, and 
a brightness was about it, and out of the midst thereof as the 
color of amber, out of the midst of the fire. 

'* Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four 
nving creatures. And this was their appearance; they had 
tie likeness of a man. 

" And every one had four feces, and every one had foof 
Wings." JBzfJfcieJ, i. 4-6. 

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loa-in. PURGATORY, Canto XXTX. |79 

Here were they ; save as to the pennons : there. 
From him departing, John^ accords with me. 

The space, surrounded by the four, enclosed 
A car triumphal ^ on two wheels it came, 
Drawn at a Gryphon's* neck ; and he above 
Stretch'd either wing uplifted, 'tween the midst 
And the three listed hues, on each side, three ; 
So that the wings did cleave or injure none y 
And out of sight they rose. The members, fai 
As he was bird, were golden ; white the rest, 
With vermeil intervein'd. So beautiful^ 
A car, in Rome, ne'er graced Augustus* pomp. 
Or Africanus' : e'en the sun's itself 
Were poor to this ; that chariot of the sun, 
Erroneous, which in blazing ruin fell 
At Tellus' prayer* devout, by the just doom 
Mysterious of all-seemg Jove. Three nymphs,*- 
At the right wheel, came circling in smooth dance : 

1 John.] " And the four beasts had each of them six wings 
about him." Rev. iv. 8. " Allter senas alas propter senarii 
nnmeri perfectlonem positum arbitror; quia in sexta etate, Id 
est adveniente plenitudine temporum, ha:c Apostolus peracta 
commemorat ; in novissimo enim animall conclusit omnia." 
PrimasH, Jiwuttini disctpulif Episcopi CommenL, lib. guinqua 
in JSpocal., Ed. Basil, 1544. *' With this hiterpretation it is 
very consonant that Ezekiel discovered in these animals only 
four wings, because his prophecy does not extend beyond the 
fourth age ; beyond that is the end of the synagogue and 
the calling of the Gentiles : whereas Dante beholdin| them 
in the sixth age, saw them with six wings, as did Saint John." 

3 .a tar triumphal.] Either the Christian church, or per^ 
haps the Papal chair. 

* Oryphon.] Under the gryphon, an imaginary creature, 
the fore-part of which is an eagle, and the .hinder a lion, is 
shadovred forth the union of the divine and human nature in 
Jesus Christ. 

* So beautiful.] 

E certo qnando Rmna piii onore 
Di carro trionfale a Scipione 
Fece, non fu cotal, nh di splendore 
Passato fu da quello, il qual Fetone 
Abbandonb per soverchio tremore. 

Boecaecio, Teseide, lib. Ix. 8t. 31 
Thus in the Quadriregio, lib. i. cap. 5. 
Mai vide Roma carro trionfante 
Quanto era questo bel, ne vedr4 uncuanco. 
» TWluM' prayer.] Ovid, Met^ lib. ii. v. 279. 

* TTiree nymphs.] I'he three evangelical virtues : the first 
Charity, the next Hope, and the third Faith. Faith may be 
produced by charity, or charity by faith, but the inducement! 
w» hope miut arise either fh>m one or other of these. 

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S80 THE VISION. 11M41 

The one so ruddy, that her form had scarce 
Been known withm a furnace of clear flame ^ 
The next did look, as if the flesh and bones 
W«re emerald ; snow new-fallen seem'd the third. 
Now seem'd the white to lead, the ruddy now ; 
And from her song who led, the others took 
Their measure, swift or slow. At the other whee1» 
A band quaternion,' each in purple clad, 
Advaneed with festal step, as, of them, one 
The rest conducted ;' one, upon whose front 
Three eyes were seen. In rear of all this g^oap. 
Two old men' I beheld, dissimilar 
In raiment, but in port and gesture like. 
Solid and mainly grave ; of whom, the one 
Did show himself some favor'd counsellor 
Of the great Coan,^ him, whom nature made 
To. serve the costliest creature of her tribe : 
His fellow mark'd an opposite intent ; 
Bearing a sword, whose glitterance and keen edgo. 
E'en as I view'd it with the flood between, 
Appaird me. Next, four others' I beheld. 
Of humble seeming : and, behind them all, 
One single old man,' sleeping as he came, 
With a shrewd visage. And these seven, each 

1 A band quatemioTu] The four moral or cardinal Tirtoeai 
of whom Prudence directs the others. 

« One 

The rest conducted.} Prudence, described with three eyes, 
because she regards the past, the present, and the fature. 

* Two old men.] Saint Luke, the physician, characterized 
as the writer of the Acts of the Apostles, and Saint Paul, le- 
presented with the sword, on account, as it shonld seem, of 
the power of liis style. 

* Of the great Cktan.] Hippocrates, ** whom nature made for 
the benefit of her fiiTorite creature, man.** 

» Fhut others.] " The commentattwrs,** says Venturi, " sup- 
pose theae four to be the four evangelists ; bat I shonld rather 
take them to bo four prf ncipal doctOTS of the church." Yet 
both Landino and VeUutello ezraessly call them the authors 
of the epistles, James, Peter, John, and Jude. 

* One single old man.] As some say, St John, under his 
character of the author of the Apocalypse. But, in the poem 
attribnted to Giacopo, the son of our Poet, which in some 
MSS. and io one of the earliest editions, accompanies the 
original of this work, and is descriptive of its plan, this old 
Vian is said to be Moses. 

W\ vecchio, ch* era dietro a tutti loro, 
Fa Moyse. 

And the old man, who was behind them all. 
Was Moses. 
Bee No. 3459 of the Harl. MSS. in the Pritish Museum. - 

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148-150. PURGATORY, Canto XXX. 381 

Like the first troop were habited ; but wore 
No Iflud of lilies on their temiples wreathed. 
Rather, with roses and each vermeil flower, 
A sight, but little distant, might have sworn. 
That they were all on fire* above their brow. 

When as the car was o'er against me, straight 
Was heard a thundering, at whose voice it seem'd 
. The chosen multitude were stayed ; for there, 
With the first ensigns, made they solemn halt 


Beatrice descends from heaven, and rebukes the Poet 

Soon as that polar light,^ fair ornament 
Of the first heaven, which hath never known 
Setting nor rising, nor the shadowy veil 
Of other cloud than sin, to duty there 
Each one convoying, as that lower doth 
The steersman to his port, stood firmly fix'd ; 
Forthwith the samtly tribe, who in the van 
Between the Gryphon and its radiance came, 
Did turn them to the car, as to their rest: 
And one, as if commission'd from above. 
In holy chant thrice shouted forth aloud ; 
'* Come,* spouse ! from Libanus :" and all the leit 
Took up the song. — At the last audit, so 
The blest shall rise, from forth his cavern each 
Upliftmg lightly his new-vested flesh ; 
As, on the sacred litter, at the voice 
Authoritative of that elder, sprang 
A hundred ministers and messengers 
Of life eternal. *' Blessed* thou, who comest !" 

lAUonJt^.] So Giles Fletcher— 

•The wood's late wintry head 
With flaming primroses set all on fire. 

ChrisVs Triumph after Death. 

3 That polar lu^ht.] The seven candlesticks of gold, which 
he calls the polar light of heaven itself, because they per- 
form the same office for Christians that the polar star does 
for mariners, in guiding them to their port 

* Ctmi«.] ** Come with me firom Ijebanon, my spouse, with 
me, from Lebanon.'* Seng of Solomoni iv. 8. 

« Bleooed,} *' Blessed is he that coraeth in tlie name of th« 
Laid.'* Jlfott.zzi.9. 

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S8S THE YKK)N. 9i-ai 

And, << Oh r tbey eried, " from full handi^ seatter y« 
Unwitherin^ lilies i* and, so saying, cast # 
Flowers over head and roond them on all sides. 

I have beheld, ere now, at break of day. 
The eastern clime all roseate ; and the ricy 
Opposed, one deep and beautifdl serene ; 
And the son's face so shaded, and with mists 
Attemper'd, at his rising, that the eye 
Long while endured the sight : thus, in a cloud 
Of m>wera,' that frcji those hands angelic roM, 
And down within and outside of the car 
Fell showering, in white veil with olive wreathed* 
A virgin in my view appeared, beneath 
Green mantle, robed in hne of living flame : 
And' o'er my spirit, tiiat so long a time 
Had from her presence felt no dmddering dread. 
Albeit mine eyes discem'd her not, there movei} 
A hidden virtue from her, at whose touch 
The power of ancient love^ was strong within me 

^Fnmf%illluMd».\ Maaibos date Ulia plenis. 

VWg^ M%^ lib. vL 8B4 

« J% a elond 

OfJUneert.} Dentro una nuvola di fioii. 
— ningontque rosanim. 
Floribos, ombrantes matrem, itc Lueretiu$, lib. IL 

Eve separate he spies, 

Veird in a cloud of fragrance, wliere she stood. 

And Thomson, in his Invocation to Spring : 

veil*d in a shower 

Of shadowing roses, on our plains descend, 
s And,] In the first edition it stood thus : 
And o'er my spirit, that in former days 
WItliin hor presence liad abode so long. 
No shuddering terror crept Bfine eyes no taon 
Had knowledge of her ; yet there moved fh>m her 
A hidden virtue, at whose touch awaked, &c. 
And this was a translation of the common reading, which has 
** con la sua inresenza," instead of "che alia siu inesenza,'* 
and a ftili stop instead of a comma after *' iniflnto.'* As I 
have little doin)t but that the reading of the Nidobeatina 
edition and tliat of many MSS. is right in this instance, I 
have altered the version as it now stands in the text, which 
still perhaps needs some explanation. His spirit, which had 
been so long una wed by the presence of Beatrice, (for she had 
been ten years dead,) now felt, through a secret influence 
proceeding Arom her, its ancient love revived, though hii 
light had not yet distinguished her. 
* 7%$ power tf ancieiU love.] 

D'antlco amor senti la gran potenca. 
b> sento si d*amor la gran possansa. 

DvUe, OnuMivl 

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l»-76. PURGATORY, Canto XXX. 38S 

No sooner on my vision streaming, smote 
The heavenly influence, which, years past, and e'en 
In childhood, thriU'd me, than towards Virgil I 
Tum'd me to leftward ; pantmg, like a habe, 
That flees for refuge to his mother's breast, 
If aught have terrmed or work'd him wo : 
And would have cried, " There is no dram of bloodf 
That doth not quiver in me. The old flame^ 
Throws out clear tokens of reviving fire/' 
But Virgil had bereaved us of hunself ; 
Virgil, my best-loved father ; Virgil, he 
To whom I gave me up for safety : nor* 
All, our prime mother lost, avail'd to save 
My undew'd cheeks from blur of soiling tears. 

" Dante ! weep not, that Vu-gil leaves thee ; nay, 
Weep thou not yet : behooves &ee feel the edge 
Of other sword ; and thou shalt weep for that/* 

As to the prow or stem, some admiral 
Paces the deck, inspiriting his crew. 
When 'micHhe sail^ards all hands ply aloof; 
Thus, on the left side of the car, I saw 
(Turning me at the sound of mine own name. 
Which here I am compelled to register) 
The vugin station'd, who before appeared 
Veil'd in that festive shower angelical. 

Towards me, across the stream, she bent her eyei 
Though from her brow the veil descending, bound 
With foliage of Minerva, sufler'd not 
That I beheld her clearly : then with act 
Full royal, still insultmg o'er her thrall. 
Added, as one who, speaking, keepeth back 
The bitterest saying, to condude the speech : 
** Observe me welL I am, in sooth, I am 
Beatrice. What ! and hast thou deign'd at last 
Approach the mountain? Knewest not, O man ! 
Thy happiness is here ?" Down fell mme eyes 
On the clear fount ; but there, myself espying, 
Recoil'd, and sought the greenswerd ; such a weiglit 

SvegUa d'antieo aioor la gran possanza. 

4to. 1814, vol. i. p. 

Mr, JUdtkitu*s Ods to Mr.MekoU, GrenTs IVorkM, 


Agnosco veteris vettigia flammc. 

Fir£r. JEn^ lib. iv. 23. 
Ccmosco t segni dell* antieo taoco, 

OiuMto tW Contit La Bella Maito, 
• AVr.] ^Hot all the beauties of the tenestrial Pwradlie, 
1b which I was, were tdiBcieiit to allay my griet*' 

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384 THE VISION. 77 loa. 

Of sh&me was on my forehead. With a mien 

Of that stem majesty, which doth surround 

A mother's presence to her awe-struck child, 

She look'd ; a flavor of such bitterness 

Was mingled in her pity. There her words 

Brake off; and suddenly the angels sang, 

" In thee, O gracious liord ! my hope hath been :" 

But* went no farther than, " Thou, Lord ! hast set 

My feet in ample room." As snow, that lies, 

Amidst the living rafters' on the back 

Of Italy, congeal'd, when drifted high 

And closely piled by rough Sclavonian blasts ; 

Breathe but the land whereon no shadow falls,* 

And straightway melting it distils away, 

Like a fire-wasted taper : thus was' I, 

Without a sigh or tear, or ever these 

Did sing, that, with the chiming of heaven's sphere* 

Still in their warbling chune : but when the strain 

Of dulcet symphony express'd for me 

Their soft compassion, more tka]^ could the words, 

•* Virgin ! why so consumest him ?" then, the ice,* 

Congeal'd about my bosom, tum'd itself 

To spirit and water ; and with anguish forth 

Gush'd, through the lips and eyelids, from the heart 

Upon the chariot's same edge' still she stood, 
Immoveable ; and thus address'd her words 
To those bright semblances with pity touch'd : 
" Ye in the eternal day your vigils keep ; 
So that nor night nor slumber, with close stealth, 
Conveys from yoij a smgle step, in all 

i But.\ They sang the thirty-first Psalm, to the end of the 
eighth verse. What follows in that Psalm would not have 
Slated the place or the occasion. 

» The living rafters.l " Vive trartri." The leafless woods 
on the Apennine. 

Fraxineeque trabes. ^'"'VT-j •35it., lib. vl. 181. 


Trabibosque obscnnis acernis. IbitLf lib. iz. 87. 

s T%e land whereon no thadoto falls.} '* When the wind 
blows from off Africa, where, at the time of the eqninoz, 
bodies, being under the equator, cast little or no shadow ; or, 
in other werds, when the wind is south." 

* The ice.] Milton has transferred this conceit, ttiongh 
scarcely worth the pains of removing, into one of his Italian 
poems, Son. v. 

> Same edge.] The Nidobeatina edition, and many MSS. 
here read ** delta coscia," instead of " destra,** o ^^ dritta cot- 
eia ;" and it is probable from what has gone UMfc, that tiM 
"brmer is the right reading. See v. 60. 

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107-144. PURGATORY, Caivto XXX. 3Ba 

The goingB on of time ; thence, with more heed 

I shape mine answer, for his ear intended, 

Who there stands weeping ; that the sorrow now 

May equal the transgression. Not alone 

Through operation of the mighty orhs. 

That mark each seed to some predestined aim, 

As with aspect or fortunate or ill 

The constellations meet ; but through benign 

Largess of heavenly graces, which ram down 

From such a height as mocks our vision, this man 

Was, in the fresmiess of his being,^ such. 

So gifted virtually, that in him 

All better habits wondrously had thrived. 

The more of kj^dly strength is in the soil. 

So much doth evil seed and lack of culture 

Mar it the more, and make it run to wildness. 

These looks sometime upheld him ; for I show'd 

My youthful eyes, and led him by their light 

In upright walking. Soon as I had reach'd 

The threshold of my second age,^ and changed 

My mortal for immortal ; then he left me, 

And gave himself to others. When from flesh 

To spirit I had risen, and increase 

Of beauty and of virtue circled me, 

I was less dear to him, and valued less. 

His steps were tum'd into deceitful ways. 

Following false images of good, that make 

No promise perfect. Nor avail'd me aught 

To sue for inspirations, with the which, 

I, both in dreams of night, and otherwise. 

Did call him back ; of them, so little reckM him. 

Such depth he fell, that all device was short 

Of his preserving, save that he should view 

The children of perdition. To this end 

I visited the purlieus of the dead : 

And one, who hath conducted him thus high. 

Received my supplications urged with weepiiig 

It were a breaking of God's hig^ decree, 

1 IwUufreaknets of kit heing.l 

Nella soa vita naova. 
Bomb suppose our Poet allades to the work so called, writt^ 
in his youth. 

s Tk€ tknthold of my oeeond are.} In the Convlto, oar Poet 
malces a division of human life into four ages, the first of 
which lasts till the twenty-fifth year. Beatrice, therefbif, 
Muned ftom this life to a better, about that period. See th* 
Ufa of Dante prefixed. 


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B86 THE VISION. ' M5»14t 

If Lethe ifaoiild be pav'd, and inch food^ tasted* 
Without the coet of eome repentant tear." 



Beatrice condnnefl her reprehension of Dante, who ccmfesMi 
his errrar, and foils to the gnmnd: coming to himself 
again, he is by Matilda drawn tiirongh the waters of 
I^the, and jnesented first to the four virgins who figuM 
the cardinal virtoes ; these in their turn lead him to the 
Gryphon, a symbol of our Saviour ; and the three Tirdni, 
reprasenting the evangelical virtues, intercede for him 
with Beatnee, that she would display to him her fecond 

« O THOU !" her words she thus without delay 
Resuming, tum'd their pomt on me, to whom 
They, with but lateral edge,' seem'd harsh before : 
*' Say thou, who stand'st beyond the holy stream, 
If this be true. A charge, so grievous, needs 
Thine own avowal." On my faculty 
Such strange amazement hung, the voice expired 
Imperfect, ere its organs grave it birth. 

A little space reframing, then she cfpake : 
** What dost thou muse on 7 Answer me. The wave 
On thy remembrances of evil yet 
Hath done no injury." A mingled sense 
Of fear and of confmnon, from my lips 
Did such a " Yea" produce, as needed help 
Of vision to interpret. As when breaks, 
In act to be discharged, a cross-bow bent 
Beyond its pitch, both nerve and bow o'erstretch'd ; 
The flagging weapon feebly hits the mark : 
Thus, tears and sighs forth gushmg, did I burst 
Beneath the heavy load : and thus my voice 
Was slackened on its way. She straight began : 
" When my desire mvited thee to love 
The good, which sets a bound to our aspinngs ; 
What bar of thwarting foss or Unked chain 
Did meet thee, that thou so shouldst quit the hqpe 
Of further progress.? or what bait of ease. 
Or promise of allurement, led thee on 
Elsewhere, that thou c^lsewhere shouldst rather wait V* 

1 Such food.] The oblivion of sins. 

> With but lateral edge.] The words of Beatrice, when boI 
addressed directly to himself, but spoken to the angel of hin^ 
Dante had thought sufficiently harsh. 

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S»-58. PURGATORY, Canto XXXI. 387 

A bitter sigh I drew, then scarce found roice 
To answer ; hardly to these sounds my lips 
Gave utterance, wailing : ** Thy fair looks withdrawn « 
Things present, with deceitful pleasures, tum'd 
My steps aside." She answering spake : " Hadst thoQ 
Been silent, or denied what thou avow'st. 
Thou hadst not hid thy sin the more ; such eye 
Obserress it But whene'er the sinner's cheek 
Breaks forth into the precious>streaming teais 
Of self-accusing, in our court the wheel 
Of justice doth run counter to the edge.* 
Ilowe'er, that thou mayst profit by thy shame 
For errors past, and that henceforth more strength 
May arm thee, when thou hear'st the Syren-voice ; 
Lay thou aside the motive to this grief, 
And lend adentive ear, while I unfold 
How opposite a way my buried flesh 
Should have impell'd thee. Never didst thou spy, 
In art or nature, aught so passing sweet, 
As were the limbs that in their beauteous frame 
Enclosed me, and are scatter'd now in dust 
If sweetest thing thus fail'd thee with my death. 
What, afterward, of mortal, should thy wish . 
Have tempted? When thou first hadst felt the dart 
Of perishable things, in my departing 
For better realms, thy wing thou shoiddst have pruned 
To follow me ; and never stooped again. 
To 'bide a second blow, for a slight girl,' 

1 Counter to the ed^e.] " The Weapons of divine justice are 
blunted by the confession and sorrow of the offender.** 

s Far a eligktgirl.^ ** Danielle and Yentarl say that this 
alludes to Gentucca of Lucca, mentioned in the twenty- 
fourth Canto. They did not, however, observe that Buonag- 
giinta there gives us to understand that Dante Icnew not if 
Gen^cca were then in the world, and that Beatrice is now 
reprehending him for past and not for future errors.** Thus 
Lombardi. Pelli (Memor., p. 57) acquaints us that Corbinelll, 
m the Life of Dante, added to the edition of the De Vulg. 
Eloq., sajTS the name of this lady was " Pargoletta.*' But the 
intimation, as Pelli Justly remarks, can scarcely be deemed 
authentic The annotator on the Monte Cassino MS. gives a 
verv difl^nt turn to the allusion. " Qxxm proca ftiit,** Ace 
**ThLs was either a mistress ; or else it is put for the poetic 
art, as when he says in a certain song: 

lo mi son pargoletta bella e nnova 
which rebuke of Beatrice*s may be delivered in the person of 
many theologians dissuading nom poetry and other worldly 
seleBces ; a rebuke that should be directed against tiioee who 
teed the poets to gratify tlieir own inclination, and not fat 
the lake of instruction, that they may deftat the errors of 

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Or other gaud as tranaiAnt and as vain. 
The new and inexperienced bird^ awaits, 
Twice it may be, or thrice, the fowler's aim ; 
Bat in the sight of one whose plumes are full, 
In vam the net is spread, the arrow wing'd." 

I stood, as children silent and ashamed 
Stand, listening, with their eyes upon the earth. 
Acknowledging their fault, and self-condemn'd 
And she resumed : " If, but to hear, thus pains thes ; 
Raise thou thy beard, and lo ! what sight shall do * 

With less reluctance yields a sturdy holm. 
Rent from its fibres by a blast, that blows 
From off the pole, or from larbas' land,* 
Than I at her behest my visage raised : 
And thus the face denoting by the beard.* 
£ mark'd the secret stmg her words convey'd. 

No sooner lifted I mine aspect up, 
Than I perceived^ those primal creatures cease 
Their flowery sprinkling ; and mine eyes beheld 
(Yet unassured and wavering m their view) 
Beatrice ; she, who towards the mystic shape, 
That joins two natures in one form, had tum*d : 
And, even under shadow of her veil. 
And parted by the verdant rill that flow'd 
Between, in loveliness she seem'd as much 
Her former self-surpassing, as on earth 
All others she surpassed. Remorseful goads 
Shot sudden through me. Each thing else, the m«r« 

the Gentiles.*' It remains to be considered whether our 
Poet's marriage with Gemma de* Dtniati, and the difficnltiet 
In which that engacement involved him, may not be the oIh 
ject of Beatrice's dufrfeasure. 

1 Bird.] ** Sorely in vain the net is spread in the sight ol 
%ny bird." Prov. i. 17. 

s JVcm larbtu' land.] The south. 

* Tkt beard.) **l perceived, that when she desired me to 
false my beard, instead of telling me to lift np mv head, a se- 
vere reflection was implied on my want of that wisdom which 
shoold accompany the age of manhood." 

* Than I perceived.] I had before translated this diflte^ 
ently, and in agreement with those editions which read, 

Posarsi quelle belle creatore 

Da l<no apparsion. 
Instead of 

Posarsi quelle prime creature 

Da lOTO aspersion, 
for which reading I am indebted to Lombard!, who derives 
It firom the Nliobeatina edition. By the ** primal ereatiuet* 
are meant the angels, who were scattering the flowers oa 

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85-lW. PURGATORY, Canto XXXI. 38» 

Its love had late begrailed me, now the more 
Was loathsome. On my heart so keenly smote 
The bitter consciousness, that on the ground 
O'erpower*d I fell : and what my state was then, 
She knows, who was the cause. When now my 

Flow*d back, returning outward from the heart. 
The lady,' whom alone I first had seen, 
I found above me. " Loose me not," she cried : 
«( Loose not thy hold :" and lo ! had dragged me high 
As to my neck into the sfiream ; while she. 
Still as she drew me after, swept along. 
Swift as a shuttle, bounding o'er the wave. 

The blessed shore approaching, then was heard 
So sweetly, " Tu asperges me,*'^ that I 
May not remember, much less tell the sound. 

The beauteous dame, her arms expanding, claq>'d 
My temples, and immerged me where 'twas fit 
The wave should drench me f and, thence raising up, 
Within the fourfold dance of lovely nymphs 
Presented me so laved ; and with their arm 
They each did cover me. *< Here are we nymphs. 
And in the heaven are stars." Or ever earth 
Was visited of Beatrice, we, 
Appointed for her handmaids, tended on her. 
We to her eyes will lead thee : but the light 
Of gladness, that is in them, well to scan. 
Those yonder three,^ of deeper ken than ours. 
Thy sight shall quicken.*' Thus began their song : 
And then they led me to the Gryphon's breast, 
Where, tum'd toward us, Beatrice stood. 
" Spare not thy vision. We have station'd thee 
Before the emeralds,' whence love, erewhile, 

1 Tlulady.] MaUlda. 

3 Tu. agperget ««.] ** Forge me with hyssop, and I shall 
be clean ; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.'* P«. 
li. 7. Sans by the choir, while the priest is sprinkling the 
people with holy water. 

* And in the heaven are etare.} See Canto L 34. 

* Those yonder three.] Faith, hope, and charity. 

* The emeralde.} The eyes of Beatrice. The author of 
Qlnstrations of Shakspeare, 8vo., 1807, vol. il. p. 193, hat 
referred to old writers, by whom the efrithet green is given 
to eyes, as by the early French poets, and by Shakspeare, 
Romeo and Juliet, act ill. sc 5. 

—^ an eagle, madam, 

Hath not so green, so qoiclc, so fkir an eye. 

Mr. Donee's coqjectue, that eyes of this color are much 

less common now than fonnerly, is not so (wobable as that 

writers, and especially poets, should at timet be somewhat 

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390 THE VI^ON. IVhl^ 

Hath drawn his weapons on thee.** As they qmkai 

A thousand fervent wishes riveted 

Mine eyes upon her beaming eyes, that stood. 

Still fix'd toward the Gryphon, motionless. 

As the sun strikes a minor, even thus 

Within those orbs the twyfold being shcme ; 

For ever varying, in one £ffure now 

Reflected, now m other. Reader ! muse 

How wondrous in my sight it seem'd, to mark 

A thing, albeit steadfast in itself. 

Yet in its imaged semblance mutable. 

Full of amaze, and joyous, while my soul 
Fed on the viand, whereof still desire 
Grows with satiety ; the ether three. 
With gesture that declared a loftier line. 
Advanced : to their own carol, on they came 
Dancing, in festive ring angelical. 

" Turn, Beatrice !'* was their song : " Oh ! turn 
Thy saintly sight on tMs thy faithful one. 
Who, to behold thee, many a wearisome pace 
Hath measured. Gracious at our prayer, vouchsafe 
Unveil to him thy cheeks ; that he may mark 
Thy second beauty, now coaceaVd," O splendor I 
O sacred light eternal ! who is he. 
So pale witii musing in Pierian shades. 
Or with that fount so lavishly imbued. 
Whose spirit should not fail him in the essay 
To represent thee such as thou didst seem, 
When under cope of the still-chimmg heaven 
Thou gavest to open air thy charms reveal'd? 


Dante ia warned not to gaze too fixedly on Beatrice. Vhe 
procession moves on, accompanied by Matilda, Statins, and 
Dante, till they reach an exceeding lofty tree, where d'ven 
strange chances befall. 

Mink eyes with such an eager coveting 
Were bent to rid them of their ten years' thirst,^ 
No other sense was waking : and e'en they 

loose and general in applying terms expressive of fiolor, 
whereof an instance may be seen in some ingenious remarks 
byMr.BlomfieldonthewordicvilMo;. JEschyliPenm Edit 
1814, Glossar., p. 107. 
' TlUiMtmffear»*tlUrH.] Beatrice had been dead ten yean 

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*-37 PURGATORY, Canto XXXIL 391 

Were fenced on either side from heed of aught ; 

So tangled, in its customed toils, that smile 

Of saintly brightness drew me to itself: 

When forcibly, toward the left, my sight 

The sacred virgins tum'd ; for from their lips 

I heard the warning soondB : " Too fix'd a gaze !'" 

Awhile my Vision labor'd ; as when late 
Upon the overstrained eyes Uie sun hath smotA * 
*But soon,' to lesser object, as the view 
Was now recovered, (lesser in respect 
To that excess of sensible, whence late 
I had perforce been sundered,) on their right 
I mark'd that glorious army wheel, and turn. 
Against the sun and sevenfold lights, their front. 
As when, then: bucklers for protection raised, 
A well-ranged troop, with portly banners curl'd^ 
Wheel circling, ere the whole can change their 
E'en thus the goodly regiment of heaven, [ground ; 
Proceeding, all did pass us, ere the car 
Had sloped his beam. Attendant at the wheels 
The damsels tum'd ; and on the Gryphon moved 
The sacred burden, with a pace so smooth. 
No feather on him trembled. The fair dame. 
Who through the wave had drawtf me, companied 
By Statins and myself, pursued the wheel, 
Whose orbit, rolUng, mark'd a lesser arch, [blame. 

Through the high wood, now void (the more her 
Who by the serpent was beguiled) I pass'd. 
With step in cadence to the harmony 
Angelic Onward had we moved, as far. 
Perchance, as arrow at three several flights 
Full wing'd had sped, when from her station down 
Descended Beatrice. With one voice 
All murmured ** Adam ;" circling next a plant* 

1 7bo JWd a gau.\ The allegorical interpretation of Yel- 
latello, whether it be considered as justly inferrible firom tlie 
text or not, conveys so usefhl a lesson, that it deserves oar 
notice. "The understanding is sometimes so intentiy en- 
gaged in contemplating the light of divine truth in the Scrip- 
tures, that it becomes dazzled, and is made less capable of 
attaining such knowledge, than if it had sought aAer it with 
greater moderation." 

* Bvt soon,} As soon as his sight was recovered, so as to 
bear the view of that glorious inrocession, which, splendid as 
it was, was yet less so than Beatrice, by whom his vision had 
been overpowered, Bui, 

* A ptont.] Lombardi has coi^tnred, with much proba- 
bility, that this tree is not (as preceding commentators had 
iupposed) merely intended to represent the tree of knowledge 

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Despoird of flowora and leaf, on every boagfa. 
Its treases/ spreading more' as more they rose, 
Were such, as 'midst their forest wilds, for height, 
The Indians' might have gazed at. " Blessed thou. 
Gryphon !* whose beak hath never pluek'd that tree 
Pleasant to taste : for hence the appetite 
Was warp'd to evil." Round the stately trunk 
Thus shouted forth the rest, to whom retum'd ^ 

The animal tvnce-gender'd : ** Yea ! for so 
The generation of the just are saved." 
And turning to the chariot-pole, to foot 
He drew it of the widow'd branch, and bound 
There, loft unto the stock^ whereon it grew. 

As when large floods ^f radiance* from above 
Stream, with that radiance minted, which ascendf 
Next after setting of the scaly sign. 
Our plants then burgein, and each wears anew 
His wonted colors, ere the sun have yoked 

of good and evil, bot that the Roman empire is figured by iL 
Among the maxims maintained by our Poet, as the sams 
commentator observes, were these : that one monarchy had 
been willed by Providence, and was necessary for universal 
peace ; and that this monarchy, by right of justice and by 
the divine ordinance, belonged to the Roman people only. 
His Treatise de Monarchic was written indeed to inculcate 
these maxims, and to prove that the temporal monarchy de- 
pends immediately on God, and should be kept as distinct as 
possible from the authority of the pope. 

> Its tresses.] " I saw, and behold, a tree in the midst of 
»he earth, and the height thereof was great." Damd, iv. 10. 
s The Indians.] 

duos oceuio proprior gerit India lucos. 

Ftr^. Qeorg.^ lib. li. 122. 

Such as at this day to Indians known. 

MiUmt, P. L., b. ix. 1103. 

• Blessed thou, 

OryphonI] Our Saviour*s submission to the Roman em- 
pire appears to be intended, and particularly his injunction, 
** to render unto Caesar the things that ate C«sar*s." 

• Thers, lesft unts the stock.] Dante here seems, 1 think, 
to intimate what he has attempted to prove at the conclusioa 
of the second book de Monarchic ; namely, that our Saviour, 
by his suflfering under the sentence, not of Herod, but of 
Pilate, who was the delegate of the Roman empen»r, acknow- 
ledged and confirmed the suinremacy of that empercnr over 
the whole world ; for if, as he argues, all mankind were be- 
come sinners through the sin of Adam, no punishment, that 
was inflicted by one who had a right of jurisdiction over 
less than the whole human race, could have been sufl9cient • 
to satisfy for the sins of all men. See note to Paradise, c. 

• tVhm large Jloods of retdianee.] When tlie smi enten 
Into Aries, (he constellation next to that of the Fish. 

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8»-95. PURGATORY,. Camto XXXD. 39S 

Beneath another star his flamy steeds ; 
Thus pnttui^ forth a hue more faint than rose, 
And deeper than the violet, was renewed 
The plant, erewhile in all its branches bare. 
Unearthly was the hymn, which then arose. 
I understood it not, nor to the end 
Endured the harmony. Had I the skill 
To pencil forth how closed the unpitying eyes* 
Slumbering, when Syrinx warbled, (eyes that paid 
So dearly for their watching) then, like painter, 
That with a model paints, I might design 
The manner of my falling into sleep. 
But feign who will the* slumber cunningly, 
I pass it by to when I waked ; and tell. 
How suddenly a flash of splendor rent 
The curtain of my sleep, and one cries out, 
** Arise : what dost thou?" As the chosen three, 
.On Tabor's moimt, admitted to behold 
The blossoming of that fair tree,' whose fruit 
Is coveted of angels, and doth make 
Perpetual feast in heaven ; to themselves 
Returning, at the word whence deeper sleeps' 
Were br(«en, they their tribe diminish'd saw ; 
Both Moses and Elias gone, and changed 
The stole their master wore ; thus to myself 
Returning, over me beheld I stand 
The piteous one,* who, cross the stream, had brought 
My steps. " And where," all doubting, I exclaim'd, 
« Is Beatrice?"—" See her," she replied, 
'< Beneath the fresh leaf, seated on its root 
Behold the associate choir, that circles ler. 
The others, with a melody more sweet 
And more profound, journeying to higher realms, 
Upon the Gryphon tend." If there her words 
Were closed, I know not ; but mine eyes had now 
Ta'en view of her, by whom all other thoughts 
Were barr'd admittance. On the very ground 
Alone she sat, as she had there been left 
A guard upon the wain, which I beheld 
Bound to the twyform beast The seven nymphs 

1 The unpitying epea.j See Ovid, Met., lib. i. 689. 
s T%e UoBaoming of that fait tree.] Ova Sayionr's transfiga- 
ration. " As the apple-tree among the trees of the wood, so 
* is my beloved among the sons." Solotnon*s Seng, 11 3. 

* Demer sleqis.] The sleep of death, in the instance <^ the 
roler or the Synagogue's daughter and of Lazarus. 

* ThspiUm$ MM.J MatUda. 

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394 THE .VISION. vft-139 

Did make themielTeB a cloister rmcid ab.Mtt her ; 
And, in their handn, upheld thoee lights^ secure 
From blast septentrion and the gosty south. 

** A little while thou shalt be forester here ;. 
And citizen shalt be, for eyer with me. 
Of that true Rome,* wherein Christ dwells a Roman 
To profit the misguided world, keep now 
Thine eyes upon the car ; and what thoa seest. 
Take heed thou write, returning to that place.*** 

Thus Beatrice : at whose feet inclined 
Devout, at her behest, my thought and eyes, 
I, as she bade, directed. Never fire. 
With so swift motion, forth a stormy cloud 
Leap*d downward from the welkin's forthest bound, 
As I beheld the Inrd of Jove^ descend 
Down through the tree ; and, as he rush'd, the rind 
Disparting crush beneath him ; buds much more, 
And leaflets. On the car, with all his might 
He struck ;* whence, staggering, like a ship it reel'd, 
At random driven, to starboard now, overcome. 
And now to larboard, by the vaulting waves. 

Next, springing up mto the chariot's womb, 
A fox* I saw, witii hunger seeming pined* 
Of all good food. But, for his ugly sins 
The saintly maid rebukmg him, away 
Scampering he tum'd, fast as his hide-bound corpse 
Would bear him. Next, from whence bef<Hre he came 
I saw the eagle dart into the hull 
O' the car, cuod leave it with his feathers lined :* 
And then a voice, like that which issues forth 
From heart Vith smrow rived, did issue forth 
From heaven, and, ** O poor bark of mine !" it cried, 
** How badly art thou freighted." Then it seem'd 
That the earth q>en'd, between either wheel ; 
And I beheld a dragon'' issue thence, 

1 Thoae lights.} The tapers of gold. 

* Of that true Rome.] Of heaven. 

* Jh that place. | To the earth. 

« The bird of Jove.) This, which Is Imitated frmn Ezekiel 
xvli. 3, 4, is typical of the persecutions which the church sus- 
tained rrom the Roman emperors. 

• A fot.] By the fox probably is represented the treachery 
(^ the heretics. 

• mth hit feathera lined.] In allusion to the donaHons 
made by Constantine to the church. 

v Ji dragon.] Probably Mahomet ; Ibr what Lombaidl odbis 
(o the eontnury is tu firom latUftetay. 

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iai-157. PURGATORY, Canto XXXin. 3OT 

That through the chariot 'fix'd his forked train ; 
And like a wasp, that draggeth back the sting, 
So drawing forth his baleful train, he dragg'd 
Part of the bottom forth ; and went his way 
Exulting. What remained, as lively turf 
With green herb, so did clothe itself with plumes,^ 
Which haply had, with purpose chaste and kind. 
Been offered ; and therewith were clothed the wheels* 
Both one and other, and the beam, so quickly, 
A sigh were not breathed sooner. Thus transform'd, 
The holy structure, through its several parts. 
Did put forth heads ;* three on the beam, and onQ 
On every side : the first like oxen hom'd ; 
But with a single horn upon their front. 
The four. Like monster, sight hath never seen. 
O'er it' methought there sat, secure as rock . 
On mountain's lofty top, a shameless whore. 
Whose ken roved loosely round her. At her side^ 
As 'twere that none might bear her off, I saw 
A giant stand ; and ever and anon 
They mingled kisses. But, her lustful eyes 
Chancing on me to wander, that fell minion 
Scourged her from head to foot all o'er ; then full 
Of jealousy, and fierce with rage, unloosed 
The monster, and dragg'd on,^ so far across 
The forest, that from me its shades alone 
Shielded the harlot and the new-form'd brute. 



AAer a hymn sung, Beatrice leaves the tree, and takes with 

her the seven virgins, Matilda, Statins, and Dante. She 

> With plumes.] The increase of wealth and temporal do- 
minion, which followed the supposed gift of Constantine. 

* Heiads.] By the seven head«, it is supposed with snfll- 
eient probability, are meant the seven capital sins: bytbe 
three with two horns, pride, anger, and avarice, i^|iurioas bo'Ji 
to man himself and tor his neighbor : by the four with one 
horn, gluttony, gloominess, concuiriscence, and envy, hnrtftil, 
at least in their primary etfoctSy chiefly to him who is guilty 
of them. Vellntello refers to Rev. xvii. Landino, who is 
followed by LombardijUnderstuids the seven heads to sigai^ 
the seven sacraments, and the ten horns the ten cominand- 
meiits. Compare Hell, c ziz. 112. 

* O'er U.\ The harlot is thought to represent the state of 
the church under Boniface VJII., and die giant to figure 

* Dragg'd on.] Tberemoval of the pc^*s resideBee flfom 
Rome to Avignon is pdnled at. 

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fhen daricly iiredicts to oar Poets some fntnre events. Last* 
ly, the whole band arrive at the fountain, from whence the 
two streams, Lethe and Eanoe, separating, flow diflferent 
ways ; and Matilda, at tne desire of Beatrice, causes ffur 
Poet to drink of the latter stream. 

** The heathen,* Lord ! are come :** responsiye thus, 
The trmal now, and now the virgin hand 
Quaternion, their sweet psahnody began, 
Weeping ; and Beatrice listened, sad | 

And sighing, to the song, in such a mood, 
That Mary, as she stood beside the cross, [place 
Was scarce more changed. But when they gave her 
To speak, then, risen upright on her feet, 
She, with a color glowing bright as fire. 
Did answer : " Yet a little while,* and ye 
Shall see me not ; and, my beloved sisters ! 
Again a little while, and ye shall see me" 

Before her then she marshallM all- the seven ; . 
And, beckoning only, motion'd me, the dame, 
And that remaining sage,' to follow her. 

So on she passed ; and had not set, I ween, 
Her tenth step to the ground, when, with mine eyef , 
Her eyes encoimter'd ; and, with visage mild, 
" So mend thy pace," she cried, " that if my words 
Address thee, thou mayst still be aptly placed 
To hear them." Soon as duly to her side 
I now had faasten'd : " Brother I" she began, 
<* Why makest thou no attempt at^iuestioning, 
As thus we walk together?" Like to those 
Who, speaking with too reverent an awe 
Before their betters, draw not forth the voice 
Alive unto their lips, befell me then 
That I in sounds imperfect thus began : 
" Lady ! what I have need of, that thou know'st ; 
And what will suit my need." She answering thus 
" Of fearfulness and shame, I will that thou 
Henceforth do rid thee ; that thou speak no more, 
As one who dreams.^ Thus far be taught of me : 
The vessel which thou saw'st the serpent break, 

1 Tke heathe*.'] ** O God, the heathen are come into thins 
inheritance.** P»alm Ixxix. 1. 

* Tet a little wHle.] " A little while, and ye shall not see 
roe ; and again a little whUe, and ye shall see me." Jaknt 
zvl. 16. 

* That remaining »a£e.] Statins 

*ja*9ne vha dretmt.] Imitated by Petrarch, L. L s. 41. 
■ Be parole fU« 
SonoUnpeifette e quMi d*iioin che sogna. 

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35-50. PURGATORY, Camto XXXUI. 397 

Was, and is not :' let him» who hath the blame» 
Hope not to scare God's vengeance with a sop.' 
Without an heir for ever shall not be 
That eagle,* he, who left the chariot plumed, 
Which monster made it first and next a prey 
Piamly I view, and therefore speak, the stars 
• E'en now approaching, whose conjunction, free 
From all impediment and bar, brings on 
A season, in the which, one sent from Grod, 
(Five hundred, five, and ten, do mark him out) 
That foul one, and the accomplice of her guilt. 
The giant, both, shall slay. And if perchance 
My saying, dark as Themis or as Sphinx, 
Fail te persuade thee, (since like them it foils 
The intellect with blindness,) yet ere long 
Events shall be the Naiads,^ that will solve 

1 Was, and i§ noU\ "The beast that was, and is not' 
Rev., xviL 11. 

* Hope not to start Ooffs vengeance trith a sop.} " Let not 
him who hath occasioned the destraction of the church, that 
vessel which the serpent brake, hope to appease the anger of 
the Deity by any outward acts of religions, or rather super 
stitious ceremony; snch as was tha^ in oar Poet's time, 
performed by a murderer at Florence, who imagined himself 
secure from vengeance, if he ate a' sop of bread in wine upon 
the grave of the person murdered, within the space of nine 

* TTkat eagle.] He prognosticates that the Emperor of 
Germany will not always continue to submit to the usurpa- 
tions of the Pope, and foretells the coming of Henry VlL 
Dake of Luxemlnirgh, signified by the numerical Mures 
DVX ; or, as Lombardi supposes, of Can Grande della Scala, 
appointed the leader of the GhibelUne forces. It is unneces- 
sary to point out the imitatioa of the Apocalypse in the man- 
ner of this prophecy. 

Troya assigns reasons for appl^ng the prediction to Ugue 
clone della Fagglola, rather than to Henry or Can Grande. 
VelUt> Allegorico di Dante, Edlz. 1886, p. 143. But see my 
note, H. i. 103. 

* 71« AVusif.] Dante, it is observed, has been led into a 
mistake by a cormptioa in the text of Ovid's Metam., 1. vlL 
757, where he found— 

Carmina Naiades non intelleeta prionun 

instead of 

Carmina Lalades noa intelleeta inri(Mrum 

as it has been since eorrected by Heinsius. 

Lombardi, after Rosa Moranda, questions the proprietv of 
this emendation, and refers to Pansanlas,where " tM Nymplis** 
Me spoken of at ezpoimden of oracles, for a vindicatioBof th« 
poet* s aMUiaey. 

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308 THE VISION. Sl-n 

This knotty ikMUb , and no damage light* 

On flock or field. Take heed ; a[nd as these wovdf 

By me are uttered, teach them even so. 

To those who lire that life, which is a race 

To death : and when thou writest them, keep in mind 

Not to conceal how thou hast seen the plant, 

That twice* hath now been spoil'd. This whoso robs, , 

Hiis whoso plucks, with blasphemy of deed 

Sins agamst God, who for his use alone 

Creating hallowM it For taste of this. 

In pam and in desire, five thousand years* 

And upward, the first soul did yearn for him 

Who punish'd in himself .the fatal gust 

'* Thy reason slumbers, if it deem this hei^t, 
And summit thus mverted,^ of the i^ant. 
Without due cause : and were not vainer thoughts. 
As Elsa's numbing waters,* to thy soul, 
And their fond pleasures had not dyed it dark 
As Pyramus the mulberry ; thou hadst seen,* 
In such momentous curcumstance alone, 
God's equal justice morally implied 
In the forbidden tree. But since I mark thee, 
In understanding, harden'd into stone. 

Should the reader blaioe me tat not departing from the 
error of the original, (if error It be,) he may snbstitote 
Events shall be the (Edlpos will solve, ice, 
1 JV*0 damage light.] 

Protinas Aonlls immissa est belloa Tbebis, 
Cessit et exitio mnltis ; pecorique sibique 
Rmricole pavere feram. Ovid^ ihid, 

s ThDtee.] First by the eagle and next by the giant See 
the last Canto, v. 110, and v. 154. 

• Fiv$ thousand fears.] That such was the opinion of the 
church, Lombard! shows by a reference to Baronios. Martyr. 
Rom., Dec. S5. Anno a creatione mnndi, onando a principio 
creavit Dens coelum et terram, qninqnies millesimo eenteslmc 
nonagesimo— Jesns Christos— conceptns. Edit Col. Agripp., 
4to, 1610, p. 858. 

< Inverted.] The branches, unlike those of other trees, 
spreading more widely the higher they rose. See the last 
Canto, V. 39. 

• Elsa*s numHng waters.] The Elsa, a little stream, which 
flows into the Amo about twenty miles below Florence, is 
said to possess a petrifying qnaUty. Fazio degU Uberti, at the 
conclusion of Cap. viii L 3, of the Dlttamondo, mentions a 
successfhl experiment he lutd himself made of the property 
here attributed to it 

• 1%suhadst sesnA This is obscure. But it would seem as 
If he meant to incaicate his fovorite doctrine of the invlo- 
toUlity of the empire, and of the care taken by Provldeiioe Is 
protect it 

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74-92. PURGATORY, Canto XXXm. 390 

And, to that hardness, spotted too and stamM, 

So that thine eye is dazzled at my word ; 

I will, that, if not written, yet at least 

Painted thou take it in thee, for the cause, [palm.*' 

That one brings home his staff inwreath'd with 

I thus : ** As wax by seal, that changeth not 
Its impress, now is stamped my brain by thee. 
But wherefore soars thy wish'd-for speech so high 
Beyond my sight, that loses it the more. 
The more it strains to reach it ?" — " To the end 
That thou mayst know," she answerM straight, " the 
That thou hast foUow'd ; and how far behmd, [school, 
When following my discourse, its learning halts : 
And mayst behold your art,^ from the divine 
As distant, as the disagreement is [orb." 

'Twixt earth and heaven's most high and rapturous 

" I not remember," I replied, ** that e'er 
I was estranged from thee ; nor for such fault 
Doth conscience chide me." Smilmg she retum'd : 

1 Tliat one brings home kU staff inwreath'd vith palm.\ 
'* For the same cause that the palmer, returning from Pales* 
tine, brings home his staff, or bourdon, bound with palm,** 
that is, to show where he has been. 

Che si reca *1 bordon di palma cinto. 

" It is to be understood," says our Poet in the Vita Nnova« 
** that people, who go on the service of the Most High, are 
probably named in three ways. They are named palmers^ 
inasmuch as they go beyond sea, A-om whence they oAen 
bring back the palm. Inasmnch as they go to the house of 
Galicia, they are called pilgrims ; because the sepulchre of 
8t James was iiirther mm his country than that of any 
other Apostle. They are called Bomei," (for which I know 
of no other word we have in English except Roamert,) *' in- 
asmuch as they go to Rome." p. 275. 

** In regard to the word bourtUm^ why it has been applied to 
a pilgrim's staff, it is not easy to guess. I believe, however, 
that this hame has been g^ven to such sort of staves, because 
pill^ms usually travel and perform their pilgrim^es on foot, 
their staves serving them instead of horses or mules, then 
called bourdons and burdones, by writers in the middle ages." 
Mr. Johnes'B Translation ofJoinville's Memoirs, Dissertation 
xv^ by M. du Cange, p- 152, 4to edit. 

The word is thrice used by Chaucer in the Romaimt of the 

9 Mayst btkold your art.} The second persons, singular and 
{Aural, are here used intentionally by our author, the one 
referring to himself alone, the second to mankind in general. 
Compare Hell, xi. 107. But I will follow the example of 
Bmnek, who, in a note on a passage in the Philoctetes of 
Sophocles, V. 309, where a similar distinction requires to be 
made, says that it would be lidicaloaB to multiply tnitaaeef 
la a matter lo well known. 

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400 THE VISION. 93-12t 

« If thon canst not remember, call to mind • 
How lately thou hast drunk of Lethe's waye ; 
And, sure as smoke doth indicate a flame, 
In that forgetfuInesB itself conclude 
Blame from thy alienated will incurred. 
•From henceforth, verily, my words shall be 
As naked, as will suit them to appear 
In thy unpractised view." More sparkling now» 
And with retarded course, the sun possessM 
The circle of mid-day, that varies still 
As the aspect varies of each several clime ; 
When, as one, sent in vaward of a troop 
For escort, pauses, if perchance he spy 
Vestige of somewhat strange and rare ; so paused 
The sevenfold band, arriving at the verge 
Of a dun umbrage hoar, such as is seen. 
Beneath green leaves and gloomy branches, oft 
To overbrow a bleak and alpine cUS. 
And, where they stood, before them, as it seem'd. 
I, Tigris and Euphrates' both, beheld 
Forth from one fountain issue ; and, like friends, 
Linger at parting. " O enlightening beam ! 
O glory of our kind ! beseech thee say 
What water this, which, from one source derived 
Itself removes to distance from itself?" 

To such entreaty answer thus was made : 
« Entreat Matilda, that she teach thee this." 

And here, as one who clears himself of blame 
Imputed, the fair dame retum'd : " Of me 
He this and more hath leamM ; and I am safe 
That Lethe's water hath not hid it from him." 

And Beatrice : *' Some more pressing care. 
That oft the memory 'reaves, perchance hath matae 
His mind's eye dark. But lo, where Eunoe flow»- / 

1 SopmuedJ] Lombard! imagines that the seven nirmplM. 
who represent the foor cardinal and the three evaagetjcal 
▼irtnes, are made to stop at the verge of the shade, becaoM 
retirement is the fhend of every virtaoos quality and spMtoal 
' /, TigriM and Eupkrate*.] 

dnaque capnt rapido toliit cam Tigride magnus 
Euphrates, tiuos non diversis fontibns edit 
Persis. Luean.^ Phar».f lib. IIL 358. 

Tigris et Euphrates uno se fonte resolvunt. 

Boetiua de Consol, Philosophy lib. v. Metr L 

1& oltre ond* esce 

D^im medesimo fonte Eofrate e Tigre. 

Potrarcii, Son. MU Fmteri^ 4ni 

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I27-I4a. PURGATORY, Canto XXXUI. 401 

Lead thither ; and, as thou art wont, revive 

His fainting virtue." As a courteous spirit, 

That profiers no excuses, but as soon . 

As he hath token of another's will, 

Makes it his own ; when she had ta*en me, thus 

The lovely maiden moved her on, and call'd 

To Statins, with an air most lady-like : 

" Come thou with him." Were further space allow'di 

Then, Reader ! might I sing, though but in part, 

That beverage, with whose sweetness I had ne'er 

Been sated. But, since all the leaves are full. 

Appointed for this second strain, mine art 

With warning bridle checks me. I retum'd 

From the most holy wave, regenerate. 

E'en as new plants renew'd* with foliage new. 

Pure and made apt for mounting to the stars. 

1 Renewed ] 

come piante novelle 

Rinnovellate'da novella fh)nda. 

80 new this new-borne knight to battle new did rise. 

Spejuer^ Fhenf Queene^ b. i. c. xi. st. 34. 
** Rinnovellate** is another of those words which Chancer 
in vain endeavored to introduce into our language from the 
Italian, unless it be supposed that he rather borrowed it from 
the French. •' Certes ones a yere at the lest way It is lawftil 
to ben honseled, fot sothely ones a yere all things in the earth 
lenorelen.** The Perwu^s Date. 

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The Pcet ascends with Beatrice towards the first heaven; 
and is, by her, resolved of certain doabts which arise in hlf 

Hi8 glory, by whose might all things are moved, 
Pierces the universe,' and in one part 
Sheds more resplendence, elsewhere less. In heaven 
That largeliest of his light partakes, was I, 
Witness of things, which, to relate again, 
Surpasseth power of hun who comes from thence ; 
For that, so near approaching its desure, 
Our intellect is to such depth absorbed, 
That memory cannot follow. Nathless all, 
That in my thoughts I of that sacred realm 
Could store, shall now^ be matter of my song. 
-— _ »_ 

^ Pierces the univeree.'] Per l*aniverso penetra, 9cc. 

his magnetic beam, that gently warms 

The universe, and to each inward part 
With gentle penetration^ thongh unseen, 
Shoots invirible virtne ev*n to the deep. 

Milton, P. L., b. ill 5M 
* Shall now.] Sar& ora materia del mio canto. 

Shall be the copious matter of my song. 

b. iii. 413. 

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404 THE VISION, lS-30 

Benigu Apollo !^ this last labor aid ; 
And make me such a vessel of thy worth. 
As thy own laurel claims, of me beloved. 
Thus far* hath one of steep Parnassus' brows 
Sufficed me ; henceforth, there is need of both 
For my remaining enterprise. Do thou* 
Enter into my bosom, and there breathe 
So,* as when MarsyaS* by thy hand Was diagg'd 
Forth from his limbs, unsheathed. O power divine I 
If thou to me of thine impart so much, 
That of that happy realm the shadowM form 
Traced in my thoughts I may set forth to vit w ; 
Thou shalt behold me of thy favor'd tree 
Come to the foot, and crown myself with leaves : 
For U that honor thou, and my high theme 
Will fit me. If but seldom, mighty Sire ! 
To grace his triumph, gathers thence a wreath 
Cassar, or bard,* (more shame for human wills 
Depraved,) joy to' the Delphic god must sjuing 

^ Benign Apollo.] Chancer has Smitmted this invocatios 
very closely, at the beginning of the Third Booke of Fame. 
If, divine vertue, thou 
Wilt helpe roe to shewe now 
That in my head ymarked is, 

Thon Shalt see me go as blive 
Unto the next lanrer I see. 
And kisse it, for it is thy tree. 
Now entre Uion my breast anone. 

3 Tkuafar.] He appears to mean nothing more than that 
this part of his poem will require a greater exertion of his 
powers than the former. 

* Do thou.] Make me thine Instrument ; and, through me, 
ntter such sound as when thon didst contend with Mp*- 

* Marsyas.] Ovid, Met, lib. vi. fab. 7. Compare Boccac^ 

cio. II Filocopo., lib. v. p. 35. v. 11. Ediz. Fir. 1723. " £^lt 
nel mlo petto entrl,** ice.—** May he enter my bosom, and m 
my voi*^ sound like his own, when hie made that daring mor 

tal deserve to come forth unsheathed ftom his limbs." 
* Gmot, or bard ] So Petrarch, Son. Par. TMma. 

• Arbor vittorlo&x trlonfele, 

Onor d* Imperauorl e dl poetL 

And Frezzl. n Qoadrlr., lib. ill. cap. 14. 
— — - alloro, 
Che imperatorl e* poetl corona. 

And Spenser. F. Q., b. i. c. 1, st. 9. 

The laurel, meed of mighty conqueronn, 
And poets sage. 

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nsx PARADISE, Canto I. 405 

From the Peneian foliage, when one breast 
Is with such thirst inspired. From a small spark' 
Great flame hath risen : after me, perchance, 
Others with better voice may pray, and gain. 
From the CyrrhsBan city, answer kmd. 

Through divers passages, the world's bright lamp 
Rises to mortals ; but tlu*ough that' which joins 
Four circles with the threefold cross, in best 
Course, and in happiest constellation* set, 
He comes ; and, to the worldly- wax, best gives 
Its temper and impression. Morning there,^ 
Here eve was well nigh by such passage made ; 
And whiteness had o'erspread that hemisphere. 
Blackness the other part ;'when to the lefL^ 
I saw Beatrice tum*d, and on the sun 
Gazing, as never eagle fix'd his ken. 
As from the first a second beam* is wont 
To issue, and reflected upwards rise. 
Even as a pilgrim bent on his return ; 
So of her act, that through the eyesight pass'd 
Into my fancy, mine was form'd : and straight, 
Beyond our mortal wont, I fix'd mine eyef 
Upon the sun. Much is allow'd us there, 

^ Fhfm a tmall tpark.] 

— roXXdv r' 8ptt n^p i^ iAg 
'LicipiMToi ivOopdv itffTuffCv CXay. 

Upon the mountain from one spark hath leapt 
The fire, that hath a mighty forest bnm'd. 

Pindar, Pytk, liL 07. 
s Tlirougk tkoL'] ** Where the fonr circles, the hoiiEon, the 
aodlac, the equator, and the equinoctial colore join ; the last 
three Intersectinc each other so as to form three crosses, at 
may be seen In the armillary sphere." 

* In happiest eonsteUation.'] Aries. Some understand the 
planet Venus by the " miglior stella." 

* Morning there.'] It was morning where he then was, and 
about eventide on the earth. 

^ To the l^t."] Being in the opposite hemisphere to oon^ 
Beatrice, that she may behold the rising sun, turns herself to 
the left. 

* Ae from the iirgt a eeeond beam.] " Like a reflected sun 
beam,*' which he ciunpares to a pilgrim hastening hone- 

Ne simil tanto mat raggio secondo 

Dal prime usci. FUicaja, canz. zv. st 4. 

fficnt vlr in peregrinatione constitutus, <Mnni studio, om 
nlque conatn doroum redire festinat, ac retrorsum non resph 
cit sed ad domum, quam reliquerat, reverti desiderat. Alberie% 

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409 • THE VISION. S«-qi 

That here exeeedi our power ; thanki to the |daee 
Made' for the dwelUng^ of the hnman kind 

I snfl^d it not long ; and yet so long, 
That I beheld it bickering iparin around, 
As iron that comes boiling from the fire.* 
And suddenly upon the day appeared* 
A day new-risen ; as he, who hath the power, 
Had with another sun bedeck'd the sky. 

Her eyes fast fix'd on the eternal wheels,* 
Beatrice stood unmoyed ; and I with ken 
Fix'd upon her, ih>m upward gaze removed, 
At her aspect, such inwardly became 
As Glaucus,* when he tasted of the herb 
That made him peer among the ocean gods : 
Words may not tell of that transhuman change ; 
And thextfore let the example serve, though weak« 
For those whom grace hath better proof in store. 

> Made.] And therefore best adapted, says Veatiuri, to the 
good temperament and vigor of the hnman body and its fae- 
nities. The Poet speaks of the terrestrial paradise where he 
then was. 

s j9« iron that comes hotline from the Jire.\ Ardentem; et 
scintillas emittentem, ae si ferrum cum de fornace trahitnr. 
Mberiei Vieioy $ 5. This simile is repeated, $ 16. 

SoMUton. P. L., b. iU. 594. 

— As glowing iron with fire. 

* Upon the day affear'd.] 

If the heaven had ywonne 

All new of God another sunne. 

Chancer^ Ftrei Booke of Faimie, 
E par ch* aggionga nn altro sole al cielo. 

Arioeio^ Q. F., c. z. it 109. 
Ed eeeo an Instro lampeggiar ^ Intonio 
Che sole a sole agglonse e giomo a giomo. 

Marinot jidone^t c zL St. 27. 
dnando a paro col sol ma pin Incente 
L*angelo gU appari snll* oiiente. 7W««, O. Z.., c. i. 

seems another mom 

Ri8*n on mid-noon. Milton, P. Z.., b. v. 311. 

Cknnpare Euripides. Ion. 1550. ^AvO^Xiov itf6mntovn 

* Eternal whede.] The heavens, eternal, and always cir- 

* Jl» OUuutuM.] Ovid., Met., Ub. ziU. &b. 9. Plato, In the 
tenth book of the Repablic, makes a very noble comparison 
tmm Glaucns, bat applies it differently. Edit Bipont, voL 
vii. p. 317. Berkeley appears not to have been aware of the 
passage, when he says that *'Procliis compares the sool, in 
oer descent invested with growinc prejndices, to Glaueus 
diving to the bottom of the sea, and: there contracting divers 
eoats of sea-weed, coral, and shells, wUeh stick close to him, 
%nd conceal his tme shape.** Sirie.; Ed. 1744, p. 151. 

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71-108 PARADISE, Canto I. 407 

If ^ I were only what thou didst create, 
Then newly, Love ! by whom the heayen is ruled ; 
Thou know'st, who by thy light didst bear me up. 
When as the wheel which thou dost oyer guide, 
Desired Spirit ! with its harmony,* 
Tempered of thee and measured, charm*d mine ear 
Then seem'd to me so much of heayen' to blaze 
With the sun's flame, that rain or flood ne'er made 
A lake so broad. The newness of the sound. 
And that great light, inflamed me with desbre. 
Keener than e'er was felt, to know their cause. 

Whence she, who saw me, clearly as myself, 
To calm my troubled mmd, before I ask'd, 
Open'd her lips, and gracious thus began : 
<< With false imagination thou thyself 
Makest dull ; so that thou seest not the thing. 
Which thou hadst seen, had that been shaken oiC 
Thou art not on the earth as thou believest ; 
For lightning, scaped from its own proper place. 
Ne'er ran, as thou hast hither now retum'd." 

Although diyested of my first-raised doubt 
By those brief words accompanied with smiles. 
Yet in new doubt was I entangled more. 
And said : '* Already satisfied, I rest 
From admiration deep ; but now admire 
How I aboye those lighter bodies rise." 

Whence, after utterance of a piteous sigh. 
She towards me bent her eyes, with such a look, 
As on her phrensied child a mother casts ; 
Then thus began : " Among themselves all things 
Have order ; and from hence the form,^ which makes 
The universe resemble' God. In this 

> If.] **Thoii. O divine Spirit, Imowest whether I had not 
risen above my human nature, and were not merely such as 
Ibon hadst then fonned ine.** 

* Mtammtif.] The hannony of the spheres. 

And after that the melodle herd he 
That Cometh of thilke speris thryis three, 
That welles of mnsike ben and melodie 
In this world here, and cause of hannonie. 

Ckaueert Tke AnsenMe of FMiet* 
— — — In their motion hannony divine 
So smooths her channinc tones, that God*s own ear 
listens delighted. MUton, P. L^ b. v. 827. 

* 8o muck of 1uaaoem,\ Tlie sphere of fire, as Lombardi well 

^RromhomcetJuft/rm.l This older it Is, that gives to the 
«Biverse the form of unity, and therefora of resemblanee is 
Qod. . 

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408 THE VISION. 103-lli 

The higher creatures see the printed stepi 
Of that eternal worth, which is the end 
Whither the line is drawn.' All natures lean. 
In this their order, diversely ; some more, 
Some less approaching to their primal source. 
Thus they to different havens are moved on 
Through the vast sea of being, and each one 
With instinct given, that bears it m its course : 
This to the lunar sphere directs the fire ; 
This moves the hearts of mortal animals ; 
This the brute earth together knits, and bmds. 
Nor only creatures, void of intellect, 
Are aim'd at by this bow ; but even those, 
That have intelligence and love, are pierced. 
That Providence, who so well orders all. 
With her own light makes ever cahn the heaven,' 
In which the substance, that hath greatest speed,' 
Is tum'd : and thither now, as to our seat 
Predestined, we are carried by the force 
Of that strong cord, that never looses dart 
But at fair aim and glad. Yet b it true. 
That as, oft-times, but ill accords the form 
To the design of art, through sluggishness^ 

1 JVkither the line is drawn.] All things, as they have 
their beginning fh>m the Supreme Being, so are they referred 
to Him again. 

s The heaven.] The empyrean, which is always motioii 

* The enhtanee, that hath greatest speed.] The .primnm 

* T%ronffh sluggishness.] 

Perch' a risponder la materia k Bcnrda. 
So Filicaja, canz. vi. st. 9. 

Perche a risponder la discordia h sorda. 

** The workman hath in his heart a purpose, he carrieth in 
mind the whole form which his w(m1c should have ; there 
wanteth not in him skill and desire to bring his labor to the 
best effect ; only the matter, which he hath to work on, is 
unframable." ^Hooker's Eccl. Polity, b. v. $ 9. 

Our Poet, in his De Monarchic, has expressed the same 
thought more fully. " Sciendum, &c.," lib. ii. p. 115. *' We 
must know, that as art Is found in a triple degree, in the 
mind that is of the artist, in the instrument, and in the 
matter formed by art. so we may contemplate nature also in 
a triple degree. For nature is in the mind of the first mover, 
who is God ; then in heaven, as in an instrument, by means 
of which the similitude of the eternal goodness is unfolded 
In variable matter: and, as the artist being perfect, and the 
instrument in the best order, if there is any fault in the form 
of art, it Is to be imputed only to the matter; so, since God 
reaches to the end of perfection, and his instrument, which 
VI heaven, is not in any wise deficient of due perfectton, (jak 

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190-137. PARADISE, Canto II. 40ft 

Of unreplying matter ; so this courae^ 
Is sometimes quitted by the creature, who 
Hath power, directed thus, to bend elsewhere ; 
As from a cloud the fire is seen to fall, 
From its origfinal impulse warp'd, to earth. 
By vicious fondness. Thou no more admire 
Thy soarincr, (if I rightly deem,) than lapse 
Of torrent downwards fiiom a mountain's height 
There would* in thee for wonder be more cause, 
If, free of hinderance, thou hadst stay'd below, 
As living fire unmoved upon the earth.'' 
So sud, she tum'd toward the heaven her face. 



Dante and his celestial guide enter the moon. The e&use of 
the spots or shadows, which appear in that body, is ex- 
plained to him. 

All ye, who in small bark' have foUowmg sail'd, 
Eager to listen, on the adventurous track 
Of my proud keel, that singing cuts her way. 
Backward return with speed, and your own shores 
Revisit ; nor put out to open sea, 
Where losing me, perchance ye may remain 
Bewilder'd in deep maze. The way I pass, 
Ne'er yet was run : Minerva breathes the gale ; 
Apollo guides me ; and another Nine, 

appears from what we know by philosophy concerning heay^ 
en) it remaineth that wliatever malt is in inferior things, is a 
fanlt of the matter worked on, and clean beside the Intentloa 
of God and of heaven.*' 

1 Tlt« course.] Some beings, abusing the liberty gtvea 
them by God, are repugnant to the order established by Him. 
> TTkere teould.] Hence, perhaps, Milton : 

in our proper moUon we ascend 

Up to oar native seat : descent and fall 
To as were adverse. P. Z.., b. IL v. 77. 

• Jn nuUl bMTk.] 

Ck>a la barchetta mia cantando in rima. 

Ptdeif Mwg, Magg.y c. xxviU. 
lo me n*andrb eon la barchetta mia, 
Qaaoto I'acqaa comp<Mrta on picciol legna MAs 

Ch^y, shall my little bark attendant sail 1 
^ ^ Pqim, X*»ay o% Man^ Ep. iv 

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410 IHE VISiON. «r^ 

To my rapt Bigfat, the aictic beams leyeaL 
Ye other few who have oatstretch'd the neck 
Timely for food of angels, on which here 
They live, yet never know satiety ; 
Through the deep brine ye fearless may pat out 
Your vessel ; marking well the furrow broad 
Before you in the wave, that on both sides 
Equal returns. Those, glorious, who pass'd o'er 
To Colchos, wonder'd not as ye will do, 
When they saw Jason following the plough. 

The increate perpetual thirst,' that draws 
Toward the realm of Grod's own form, bore us 
Swift almost as the heaven ye behold. 

Beatrice upward gazed, and I on her ; 
And in such space as on the notch a dart 
Is placed, then loosen'd flies, I saw myself 
Arrived, where wondrous thing engaged my right 
Whence she, to whom no care of mine was hid. 
Turning to me, with aspect glad as fair, 
Bespake me : << Gratefully durect thy mind 
To Grod, through whom to this first star^ we come.*' 

Meseem'd as if a cloud had cover'd us. 
Translucent, solid, firm, and polish'd bright. 
Like adamant, which the sun's beam had smit 
Within itself the ever-during pearl 
Received us ; as the wave a ray of light 
Receives, and rests unbroken. If I then 
Was of coiporeal frame, and it transcend 
Our weaker thought, how one dimension thus. 
Another could endure, which needs must be 
If body enter body ; how much more 
Must the desire iimame us to behold 
That essence, which discovers by what means 
God and our nature join'd ! There will be seen 
That, which we hold through faith ; not shown by 
But in itself intelligibly plain, [proofs 

E'en as the truth' that man at first believes. 

1 The inereate perpOual tktrtt.] The desire of celestial 
beatitude, natural to tlie souL 

* This first star,] The moon. 

s E'en as the truth,] '*IAke a truth, that does not need 
demonstration, trat is self-evident." Tlius Plato, at the con- 
clusion of the Sixth Book of the Republic, lays down ibar 
ivinciples of information in the human mind : ** 1st, intuittcm 
of selfevident truth, v6ri<ris; 3d, demonstration by reasoning, 
iidwoia; 3d, belief «^n testimony, vtans; 4th, probability, or 

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4T-7», PARADISE, Canto n. 411 

I aiiswer*d: ** Lady ! I with thoughls deyrat. 
Such as I best can fhune, give thanks to hun. 
Who hath removed me from the mortsd world. 
But tell, I pray thee, whence the gloomy spots 
Upon this body, which below on earth 
Give rise to talk of Cam' in fabling quamt?" 

She somewhat smiled, then spake : ** If mortals erf 
In their opinion, when the key of sense 
Unlocks not, surely wonder's weapon keen 
Ought not to pierce thee : since thou find'st» the wingi 
Of reason to pursue the senses' flight 
Are short. But what thy own thought is, declare." 

Then I : " What various here above appeaoi. 
Is caused, I deem, by bodies dense or rare.'*' 

She then resumed : " Thou certainly wilt see 
In falsehood thy belief o'erwhelm'd, if well 
Thou listen to the arguments which I 
Shall bring to face it The eighth sphere displays 
Numberless lights,' the which, in kmd and size, 
May be remarked of different aspects : 
If rare or dense of that were cause alone, 
One single virtue then would be m all ; 
Alike distributed, or more, or less. 
Different virtues needs must be the fruits 

coQjeetore, cI«ao£a.'* I cannot resist adding a passage to the 
like effect from Hooker*s Ecclesiastical Polity, b.ii. $7. ''The 
truth is, that the mind of man desireth evermore to know 
the tmth, ace<»rding to the most infallible certainty which 
the nature of things can yield. The greatest assurance 
generally with all men, is that which we have by plain as- 
pect ana intuitive beholding. Where, we cannot attain unto 
this, there what appeareth to be true, by strong and invinci- 
Ue demonstration, such as wherein it is not by any way 
possible to be deceived, thereunto the mind doth neces- 
sarily assent, neither is it in the choice thereof to do other- 
wise. And in case these both do fail, then which way 
greatest probability leadetb, thither the mind doth evermore 

1 CSstn.] Compare HeU, Canto xz. 123, an^nota. 

* By bodies detue or rare.] Lombard! observes, that the 
Ofrinion respecting the spots in the moon, which Dante repre- 
sents himself as here yielding to the arguments of Beatrice, 
is iNTofessed by our author in the Convito, so that we may 
conclude that work to have been composed before" this por- 
tion of the Divina Commedia. ** The shadow in the ^oon 
Is nothing else but the rarity of its body, which hinders the 
rays of the sun from terminating and being reflected, as in 
Other ports of it." P. 70. 

s J^mioriooo lighU.] The fixed stars, which diflbr both is 

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418 THE YISIC^. n-^M» 

Of formal prindples ; and theie, stye one,^ 

Will by thy reasoning be destroy'd. Beside, 

If rarity weie of that dude the eaose, 

Which thou inquirest, either in some part 

That planet must throughout be void, mnr fed 

With its own matter; or, as bodies share 

Their fat and leanness, in like manner this 

Must m its volume change the leaves.* The first. 

If it were true, had through the sun's eclipse 

Been manifested, by tranqiarency 

Of liffht, as through aught rare beside efiiiBed 

But wis is not Therefore remams to see 

The other cause : and, if the other fall. 

Erroneous so nrast prove what seem'd to thee. 

If not from side to side this rarity 

Pass through, there needs must be a limit, whence 

Its contrary no farther lets it pass. 

And hence the beam, that from wiUiont proceeds, 

Must be pour'd back ; as color comes, through ^laai 

Reflected, which behind it lead conceals. 

Now wilt thou say, that there of murkier hue. 

Than in the other part, the ray is shown. 

By being thence refracted farther back. 

From this perplexity will free thee soon 

Experience, if thereof thou trial make. 

The fountain whence your arts derive their streoaos 

Three mirrors shalt thou take, and two remove 

From thee alike ; and more remote the third, 

Betwixt the former pair, shall meet thine eyes ; 

Then tum'd toward them, cause behind thy back 

A light to stand, that on the three shall shine. 

And thus reflected come to thee from alL 

Though that, beheld most distant, do not stretch 

A space so ample, yet in brightness thou 

Wilt own it equalling the rest But now, 

1 Save one.] '^ Except that inrinciple of rarity and demny* 
ness which th«n hast assigned.*' By ^formal principle^** 
frmcipjfeTmalU are meant ** constitcient or essential caiues.** 
Milton, in imitati<ni of this passage, introduces the anml 
arguing with Adam rewpeeting the causes of the spots on um 
moon. But, as i late French translator of the Paradise, H 
Artaud, Well remarks, his reasmiing is physical ; that of Dante 
partly metaphysical and partly theologic 

Whence in her visage round those spots, nnpnrged 
Vapors not yet into her substance tnm*d. 

MUton, P. Z,., b. V 490. 

s CJumge the leaves.] Would, like leaves of parchment, bs 
darker in some part than others. 

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lt»-190 PARADISE, Ca^tto n. 413 

As under snow the ground, if the wann ray 

Smites it, remains dismantled of the hue 

And cold, that cover'd it before ; so thee 

Dismantled in thy mind, I will inform 

With light so lively, that the. tremulous beam 

Shall quiver where it falls. Within the heaven,*' 

Where peace divine inhabits, circles round 

A body, in whose virtue lies the being 

Of all that it contains. The following heaven, 

That hath so many lights, this being divides. 

Through difierent essences, from it distinct, 

And yet contained within it. The other orbs 

Their separate distinctions variously 

Dispose, for their own seed and produce apt 

Thus do these organs of the world proceed, 

As thou beholdest now, from step to step ; 

Their influences from above deriving. 

And thence transmitting downwards. Mark me well; . 

How through this passage to the truth I ford. 

The truth thou lovest ; that thou henceforth, alone, 

Mayst know to keep the shallows, safe, untold 

" The virtue and motion of the sacred orbs. 
As mallet by the workman's hand, must needs 
By blessed movers' be inspired. This heaven,' 
Made beauteous by so many luminaries. 
From the deep spirit,^ that moves its circling sphere. 
Its image takes and impress as a seal : 
And as the soul, that dwells within your dust. 
Through members different, yet together form'dy 
In different powers resolves itself; e'en so 
The intellectual efficacy unfolds 
Its ^roodness multiplied throughout the stars ; 
On Its own unity revolving stilL 
Diflferent virtue* compact different 

1 JViikin th$ heaven.] Aceofdiog to our Poet*8 syaleiii, 
there are ten heavens. The heaven, " where peace divine 
Inhabits,'* is the empyrean ; the body within it, that ** chcles 
round," is the primom mobile ; " the following heaven," that 
of the fixed stars ; and ** the other orbs," the seven lower 
heavens, are Saturn, Japiter, Mars, the San, Venus, Mercury 
and the Moon. Thus Milton, P. L., b. iii. 481 : 

They pass the planets seven, and pass the fix*d, 
And that crystalline sphere whose balance weighs 
The trepidation talk'd, and tliat first moved. 

* By hUssed movere,] By angels. 

* TTkis h«a9«».} The heaven of fixed stars. 

* T%e deep apirit.'l The moving angel. 

* DifftmU vtrtiM.] *' There is one glory of the sun, aii4 
Aaother glory of tbe moon, and another glory of the stars: Ibr 

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414 THE VISION 1«^1« 

Makes with the precious body it enlivens, 

With which it knits, as life in yon is knit 

From its original nature full of joy, 

The virtue mingled* through the body Klines, 

As joy through pupil of the living eye. 

From hence proceeds that which from light to li|^ 

Seems different, and not from dense or rare. 

This is the formal cause, that generates, 

Proportion'd to its power, the dusk or clear." 


In the moon Dante meets with Piccarda, the sister of Forese, 
who tells him that this planet is allotted to those, who, 
after having made profession of chastity and a religions 
life, had been compelled to violate their vows ; and she 
then points out to him the spirit of the Empress Ckwtanza. 

That sun,' which erst with love my bosom warm'd, 
Had of fair truth unveiFd the sweet aspect, 
By proof of right, and of the false reproof; 
Aiid I, to own myself convinced and free 
Of doubt, as much as needed, raised my head 
Erect for speech. But soon a sight appeared. 
Which, 80 intent to mark it, held me fix'd. 
That of confession I no longer thought 

As through translucent and smooth glass, or wave 
Clear and uimioved, and flowing not so deep 
As that its bed is dark, the shape returns 
So faint of our impictured lineaments. 
That, on white forehead set, a pearl as strong 
Comes to the eye ; such saw I many a face. 
All stretch'd to speak ; from whence I straight con- 
Delusion' opposite to that, which raised, [ceived. 
Between the man and fountain, amorous flame. 

otie star differeth firom another star in glory.** 1 Cor., zv 41 
The words are nearly Plato*s, whom St. Paul seems to 
have had in view throughout this part of his argument. 
Wa fth [ivrdms'] ^XtoV /tta St, csXi/jvijS' fila i^, tQv 
xdhTttv darptav k, r. X. Eidnomis., Ed. Bip. v. iz. p. S62. 

1 The virtue mingled.] Virg. ^n., lib. vi. 724. 
Principle coelom, &c 

s 7%at 9un.\ Beatrice. 

s Delusion.} " An error the contrary to that of Narcissus ; 
because he mistook a shallow for a substance ; I, a substanco 
iiir a shadow.** 

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18-60. PARADISE, Canto H. 416 

Sudden, as I perceiyed them, deeming these 
Reflected semblances, to see of whom 
They were, I tnin'd mine eyes, and nothing saw ; 
Then tom'd them back, directed on the light 
Of my sweet guide, who, smiling, shot for£ beams 
From her celestial eye^ " Wonder not thou," 
She cried, *< at this my smiling, when I see 
Thy childish judgment ; since not yet on truth 
It rests the foot, but, as it still is wont. 
Makes thee fall back in unsound yacancy. 
True substances are these, which thou behold'st. 
Hither throu^ failure of their vow exiled. 
But speak thou with them ; listen, and belieye, 
That the true light, which fills them with desu«» 
Permits not from its beams their feet to stray." 

Straight to the shadow, which for conyerse seem'd 
Most earnest, I addressed me ; and began. 
As one by oyer-eagemess perplex'd : 
« O sphit, bom for joy ! who. in the rays 
Of life eternal, of that sweetness know'st 
The flavor, which, not tasted, passes far 
All apprehensi<m ; me it well would please, 
If thou wouldst tell me of thy name, and this 
Your station here." Whence she with kindness prompt, 
And eyes glistering with smiles: " Our charity, 
To any wuh by justice introduced. 
Bars not the door ; no more than she above, 
Who would have all her court be like herself. 
I was a virgin sister in the earth : 
And if thy mind observe me well, this form, 
With such addition graced of loveliness. 
Will not conceal me long ; but thou wilt know 
Piccarda,^ in the tardiest sphere thus placed, 
Here 'mid these other blessed also blest, 
Our hearts, whose his\ affections bum alone 
With pleasure from the Holy Spirit conceived, 
Admitted to his order, dwell in joy. 
And this condition, which appears so low, 
Is for this cause assigned us, diat our vows 
Were, in some part, neglected and made void." 

Whence I to her replied : ** Somethmg divino 
Beams in your countenances wdhdrous fair ; 
From former knowledge quite transmuting you. 

> Piuarda,] The sister of Corso Donati, and of Forese, 
whom we have seen in the Pnigatorv, Canto xxiii. Petraieb 
has been supposed to allude to th!s lady in his Trinmidi of 
Chastity, v. 100, Ate 

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Therefore to recollect was I so idow. 
But what thou sayst hath to my memory 
Giveo DOW such aid, that to retrace your forms 
Is easier. Yet inform me, ye, who here 
Are happy ; long ye for a higher place, 
More to behold, and more in love to dwell 7" 

She with those other spirits gently smiled ; 
Then answer'd with such gladness, that she seem'd 
With love's first flame to glow : " Brother ! our wiL 
Is, in composure, settled by the power 
Of charity, who makes us will alone 
What we possess, and naught beyond desire : 
If we shoidd wish to be exalted more. 
Then must our wishes jar with the high will 
Of him, who sets us here ; which in these orbs 
Thou wilt confess not possible, if here 
To be in charity must needs befall, 
And if her nature well thou contemplate. 
Rather it is inherent in this state 
Of blessedness, to keep ourselves within 
The divine will, by which our wills with his 
Are one. So that as we, from step to step,- 
Are placed throughout this kingdom, pleases all. 
Even as our Kii\g, who in us plants his will ; 
And in his will is our tranquillity : 
It is the mighty ocean, whither tends 
Whatever it creates and nature makes.'' 

Then saw I clearly how each spot in heaven 
Is Paradise, though with like gracious dew 
The supreme virtue shower not over all. 

But as it chances, if one sort of food 
Hath satiated, and of another still 
The appetite remains, that this is ask'd, 
And thanks for that retum'd ; e'en so did I, 
In word and motion, bent from her to learn 
What web it was,^ through which she had not drawn 
The shuttle to its point She thus began : 
" Exalted worth and perfectness of life 
The Lady' higher up inshrine in heaven, 
By whose pure laws upon your nether earth 

1 rHuU web it IPO*.] "What vow of religious life It was 
that she had been hindere<nroin completing, had been com 
pelled to break.** 

* Tk« Ladjf.] St. Clare, the foundress of the order called 
after hor. She was born of opulent and noble parents at 
AssisI, in 1193, and died in 1253. See Biogr. Univ., t. i. p. 591^ 
8vo. Paris, 1813. 

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IM-m. tARADlBE, Canto ill 417 

The robe and YtH they wear ; to that intent, 
That e'en till death they may keep watch, or sleep. 
With theur great bridegroom, who accepts each yow» 
Which to his gracious pleasure loye conforms. 
I from the world, to follow her, when young 
ESscaped ; and, in her vestas mantling me. 
Made promise of the way her sect enjoins. 
Thereafter men, for ill than geod more apt, 
Forth snatch*d me from the pleasant cloister's pale. 
God knowB^ how, after that, my life was framed. 
This other splendid shape, which thou behold'sl 
At my right side, burning with all the light 
Of this our orb, what of myself I tell 
May to herself apply. From her, like me 
A sister, with like violence were torn 
The saintly folds, that shaded her fair brows. 
E'en when she to the world again was brought 
In spite of her own will and better wont. 
Yet not for that the bosom's ipward veil 
Did she renounce. This is the lummary 
Of mighty Constance,' who from that loud blast, 

I Ood ktunes.} Rodolfo da Tossignano, Hist. Seraph. Rellg. 
P. i. p. 138, as cited by Lombardi, relates the following le- 
gend of Piccarda : — " Her brother Ck>rso, inflamed with rage 
against his virgin sister, having joined with him Farinata, 
an in&mons assassin, and twelve other abandoned ruffians, 
entered (he monastery by a ladder, and carried away his 
sister forcibly to his own house ; and then tearing on her 
religious habit, compelled her to go in a secular garment to 
her nuptials. Before the spouse of Christ came together 
with her new husband, she knelt down before a crucifix and 
recommended her virginity to Christ. Soon after her whole 
body was smitten with leprosy, so as to strike grief and 
horror into the beholders ; and thus in a few days, through 
the divine disposal, she imssed with a palm of virginity to 
the Lcmi.*' Perhaps, adoB the worthy Franciscan, our Poet 
not being able to certUy himself entirely of this occurrence^ 
has chosen to pass it over discreetly, by making Piccarda 
God knows how, after that, my life was framed. 

* Constance.] Daughter of Ruggieri, king of Sicily. Who 
being taken by force out of a monastery where she had pro- 
fessed, was married to the Emperor Henry VI. and by him 
was mother to Frederick IL She was fifty years old or more 
at the time, and ''becatise it was not credited that she could 
have a child at that age, she was delivered in a pavilion, and 
it was given out that any lady who pleased was at liberty 
to see her. Many came, and saw her ; and the suspicion 
ceased." Rie4n'dano Malatpina in Mnratori, Rer. It, Scrtpt^f 
t viii. p. 939 ; and O. Filkau, in the same words, Hist.^ lib. v. 

The fVench translator above-mentioned speaks of her hav 
Ing poisoned her hitsband. The death of Henry VI. is re 

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4ld THE VISION. ISti^lA* 

Which blew the aeoond^ over Soabia's realm. 
That power produced, which was the thud and last." 

She ceaaed firom further talk, and then began 
« Ave Maria" singing; and with that song 
Vanished, as heavy substanee through deep wav« 

Mine eye, that, far as it was capable. 
Pursued her, when in dimness she was lost, 
Tum'd to the mark where greater want imp^'dy 
And bent on Beatrice all its gaze. 
But she, as lightning, beamM iqwn my lo<^; 
So that the sight sustam'd it not at fint 
Whence I to question her became less prompt 



While they still continne in the moon, Beatrice remoTes oer 
tain donbts which Dante had conceived respecting the 
place assigned to the blessed, and respecting the will ab- 
■olate or conditional. He inqaires whether it is possible te 
make satisflMtion for a vow brolcen. 

Bktwken two kuMls of food,' both equally 
Remote and tempting, first a man might die 
Of hunger, ere he one could freely choose. 
E*en so would stand a lamb between the maw 
Of two fierce wolves, in dread of both alike : 
E'en 80 between two deer* a dog would stand. 
Wherefore, if I was silent, fault nor praise 
I to myself impute ; by equal doubts 
Held in suspense ; smce of necessity 

corded in the Chronicon Sicilie, bv an anonymous writer. 
(Moratori, t. z.) bat not a word of his having been poisoned 
by Constance ; and Ricordano Malaspina even mentions her 
decease as happening before that of her husband, Henry V.» 
tot so this author, with some others, terms hith. 

1 The BtemuLl Henry VI... son of Frederick I., was the 
second emperor of the faonse of Suabia ; and his son Fred- 
erick n. '* the third and last.** 

s Bettoeen two kinds of food.] *' SI aliqna dico simt penitas 
ffqualla, non magls movetur homo ad nnnm qiam ad allud ; 
■lent fameiicas, si habet cibum seqnaliter appetibilem iik dUk 
versis partibas, et secundum equalem dlstantlam, non magUi 
movetur ad nnnm qnam ad alteram.'* Thomas Jlquhuu, 
gumm. Theology i"* ix^ Partis, anestio. ziii. Art vl 
* Between, two dur.} 

Tigris at, auditis, diversi valle da<Hiim. 
Extimolata fiune, mogitibos armentomm, 
Nescl*. ntr^ potios mat, et mere ardet utroque. 

Oe*^ MoUm^ lib. v. WL 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

10-31. PARADISE, Canto IV. 410 

It happened. Silent was I, yet desire 
Was painted in my looks ; and thus I spake 
My wish more earnestly than langfuage could. 

As Daniel,^ when the haughty kmg he freed 
From ire, that spurr'd him on to deeds unjust 
And violent ; so did Beatrice then. 

** Well I discern/' she thus her words addre8B*d» 
*< How thou art drawn by each of these desires f 
So that thy anxious thought is in itself 
Bound up and stifled, nor breathes freely forth. 
Thou argruest : if the good intent remain ; 
What reason that another's violence 
Should 'stint the measure of my fair desert? 

" Cause too thou find'st for doubt, in that it seemsi 
That spirits to the stars, as Plato' deem'd. 
Return. These are the questions which thy will 
Urge equally ; and therefore I, the first. 
Of that* will treat which hath the more of gall.* 
Of seraphim* he who is most enskied, 
Moses and Samuel, and either John, 
Choose which thou wilt, nor even Marjr's self, ■ 
Have not in any other heaven theur seats. 

1 Daniel.] See Daniel, li. Beatrice did for Dante what 
Daniel did for Nebuchadnezzar, when he freed the king from 
the uncertainty respecting his dream, which had enraged 
him against the Chaldeans. Lombardi conjectures that " Fe 
si Beatrice" should be read, instead of ''Fessi Beatrice;*' 
and his conjecture has since been confirmed by the Monte 

t By each of these detires.l His desire to have each of the 
doubts, wliich Beatrice mentions, resolved. 

» Plato.'] nvarHaai Si k. r. X. Plato, Timcus, v. ix. p. 396 
Edit BIp. '* The Creator, when he had firamed the universe, 
distributed to the stars an equal number of souls, appointing 
to each soul its several star." 

* Of that] Plato's ophiion. * 

B Which hath the more of gall.] Which is the more dan- 

* Of Seraphim,] " He among the Seraphim who is most 
nearly united with Ck>d, Moses, Samuel, and both the Johns, 
the Baptist and the Evangelist, dwell not in any other heaven 
than ao those spirits whom thou hast just beheld ; nor does 
even the blessed Virgin herself dwell in any other: nor Is 
their existence either longer or shorter than that of these 
■piritB." She flrat resolves his doubt whether souls do not 
letum to their own stars, as he had read in the Timeens of 
Plato. Angels, then, and beatified spirits, she declares, dwell 
all and eternally together, only parteking more or less of the 
divine glory, In the empvrean ; although, in condescension to 
human understanding, they appear to have difibrent ipheres 
allotted to them. 

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Than have those wpinia which bo late thou saw*!! ; 

Nor more or fewer years exist ; but all 

Make the first circle' beauteous, diversely 

Partaking of sweet life, as more or less 

Afflation of eternal bliss pervades them. 

Here were they shown thee, not that fate aasigiit 

This for their sphere, but for a sign to thee 

Of that celestisd farthest from the height 

Thus needs, that ye may apprehend, we speak : 

Since from things sensible alone ye learn 

That, which, digested rightly, after turns 

To intellectual. For no other cause 

The scripture, condescending graciously 

To your perception, hands and feet' lo God 

Attributes, nor so means : and holy church 

Doth represent with human countenance 

Gabriel, and Michfi.el, and him who made 

Tobias whole.' Unlike what here thou seest, 

The judgment of Timeus,^ who affirms 

Each soul restored to its particular star ; 

Believing it to have been taken thence. 

When nature gave it to inform her mould : 

Yet to appearance 1^ intention is 

Not what his words declare : and so to shun 

Derision, haply thus he hath disguised 

His true opinion.' If his meaning be, 

* 7*« ^rst circle.] The empyrean. 

* JIandt and feet.] ThosMUton:— 

What sormoiuits the reach 

Of human sense, I shall delineate%o, 
By likening spiritoal to corporeal f<Mrm8, 
As shall express them best. P. Z*., b. v. 575. 

These passages, rightly considered, may tend to remove the 
scruples of some, who are offisnded by any attempts at repre* 
senting the Deity In pictures. 

• Him who made 

Tobias whole.] 
Raphael, the sociable spirit, that deignM 
To travel with Tobias, and secured 
His marriage with the seven times wedded maid. 


* THmtBue.] In the Ck)nvito, p. 92, our author again refers 
to the Timeus of Plato, on the subject of the mundane sys- 
tem ; but it is in order to give the preference to the opinion 
respecting it held by Aristotle. 

> Hie true mnuion,] In like manner, our learned Stilling- 
fleet has professed himself " somewhat inclinable to think 
that Plato knew more of the lapse of mankind than he would 
openly discover, and for that end disguised it a(^r his usual 
manner in that hirpothesis of pre-ejdstence.'* Orutines S» 
ere, b. liL c iii. $ 15 

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Sft-91 PARADI8E,<:AinoIY. 481 

That to the influenouijr of these orbs revert 
The honor and the blame in human acts, 
Perchance he doth not wholly miss the truth* 
This principle, not understood aright, 
Erewhile perverted well nigh all the world ; 
So that it fell to fabled names of Jove, 
And Mercury, and Mars. That other doubt. 
Which moves thee, is less harmful ; for it brings 
No peril of removing thee from m^ 

** That, to the eye of man,* 6ur justice seems 
Unjust, is arsrument for faith, and not 
For heretic declension. But, to the end 
This truth* may stand more clearly in your view, 
I will content thee even to thy wish. 

** If violence be, when that which suflfers, naught 
Consents to that which forceth, not for this 
These spirits stood exculpate. For the will. 
That wUls not, still survives unquench'd, and doth, 
As nature doth in fire, though violence 
Wrest it a thousand times ; for, if it yield 
Or more or less, ao far it follows force. 
And thus did these, when they had power to seek 
The hallowed place agam. In them, had will 
Been perfect, such as once upon the bars 
Held Laurence' firm, or wrought in Scsevola^ 
To his own hand remorseless ; to the path, [back, 
Whence they were drawn« their steps had hastened 
When liberty retum'd : but in too few. 
Resolve, so steadfastt dwells. And by these words 
If duly weigh'd, that argument is void. 
Which oft might Kave perplexed thee still. But now 
Another question thwarts thee, which, to solve. 
Might try thy patience without better aid. 
I have, no doubt, instiird into, thy mind. 
That blessdd spirit may not lie ; since near 

> TkaJt, totkeejfeof man.] ** That the ways of divine Jns- 
tlco are often inscnitable to man, oaght rather to be a motive 
to faitli than an inducement to heresy.'* Such appears to mo 
the most satisfactory expianation of the passage. 

< Tki» truth.] That it is no impeachment of 6od*s justice, 
if merit he lessened through compulsion of others, without 
any fkllnre of good intention on the part of the meritorious. 
After all, Beatrice ends by admitting that there was a defect 
in the will, which hindered Constance and the others from 
seising the first opportunity, that oflbied itself to them, of re* 
turning to the monastic life. 

• Laurence.} Who suffered martyrdom In the third centOT]^ 

*Scmv0la.\ See Liv. Hist, D.1, lib. ILia 

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The 0oiirce of pronal tnith it dwells for aye ; 
And thou mtghtst after of Piccarda learn 
That Constance held afiection to the veil ; 
So that she seems to contradict me here. 
Not seldom, brother, it hath chanced for men 
To do what they had g^ladly left undone ; 
Yet, to shun peril, they have done amiss : 
E'en as Alcmeon,' at his father's* suit 
Slew his own mother ;' so made pitiless. 
Not to lose pity. On this point bethink thee. 
That force and will are blended in such wise 
As not to make the offence excusable. 
Absolute will agrees not to the wrong ; 
But inasmuch as there is fear of wo 
From non-compliance, it agrees. Of will* 
Thus absolute, Piccarda spake, and I 
Of the other ; so that both have truly said." 

Such was the flow of that pure rill, that wt H'd 
From forth the fountam of all truth ; and such 
The rest, that to my wandering thoughts I found. 

** O thou, of primal love the prime delight, 
Goddess !*' I straight replied, " whose lively words 
Still shed new heat and vigor through my soul ; 
Affection fails me to requite thy grace 
With equal sum of gratitude : be his 
To recompense, who sees and can reward thee. 
Well I discern, that by that truth* alone 
EnUghten'd, beyond which no truth may roam. 
Our mind can satisfy her thuvt to know : 
Therein she resteth, e'en as in his lair 
The wild beast, soon as she hath reach'd that bound 
And she hath power to reach it ; else desire 
Were given to no end. And thence doth doubt 
Spring, like a shoot, around the stock of truth ; 
And it is nature which, from height to hei^t. 
On to the smnmit prompts us. This invites, 

i^lemmon.'] Ovid, Met, Ub. iz. f. 10. 

— Ultnsqae parente parentem 
NatoSf erit ftcto plus et scelentos eodem. 

* His father's. Amphiar&os. 

* His ownmotksr.] Eriphyle. 

« Of wiU.] **What Pieearda asserts of Constance, thai 
the retained her afibction to the monastie life, is said abso- 
lately and without relation to circumstances; and thati 
which I aflirm, is spoken of tlie will conditionaUy and le- 
■pectively ; so that our apparent diffuence is without asf 

•TTkMt truik,} The nght of diTtne truth 

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kH^tm. PARAI»SEk Canto V. 433 

This doth aasare me, Lady t veyerently 

To ask thee of another truth, that yet 

I0 dark to me. I fain would know, if man 

By other woriu well d<Mie may bo supply 

The failure of his tows, that in your seale 

They lack not weight" I spake ; and on mo straight 

Beatrice look'd, with eyes that shot forth sparks 

Of love celestial, in such copious stream, 

That, virtue sinking in me overpowered, 

I tum'd ; and downward bent, confused, my sight 


The qaestion proposed in the last Canto is answered. Dante 
ascends with Beatrice to the planet Mercury, which is the 
second heaven ; and here he finds a mnititude of spirits* 
one of whom offers to satiny him of any thing he nmy de- 
sire to Icnow from them. 

" If beyond earthly wont,* the flame of love 
Illume me, so that I o*ercome thy power 
Of vision, marvel not : but learn the cause 
In that perfection of the sight, which, soon 
As apprehending, hasteneth on to reach 
The good it apprehends. I well discern. 
How in thine intellect already shines 
The light eternal, which to view alone 
Ne'er fails to kindle love ; and if aught elBe 
Your love seduces, 'tis but that it shows 
Some ill-mark'd vestige of that primal beam. 

" This would'st thou know : if failure of the vow 
By other service may be so supplied. 
As from self-question to assure the sod." 

Thus she her words, not heedless of my wish, 
Began ; and thus, as one who breaks not off 
Di&course, continued in her saintly strain. 
" Supreme of gifts,' which God, creating, gave 

1 If beyond earthly wont.] Dante having been unable to sus- 
tain the splendor of Beatrice, as we have seen at the end of 
the last Canto, she tells him to attribate hef increase of bright- 
ness to the place in which they were. 

* Supreme of gifts.] So in the De Monarchii, lib. i. p. 107 
and 108. "Si ergo judicium moveat," &c. **If then the 
judgment altogether mive the appetite, and is in no wise 
inrevented by it, it is free. But if the judgment be moved by 
the appetite in any way preventing it, it cannot be free : be^ 
csttte It acts not of itself but )s led captive by another. And 

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484 THE VISION. l»-« 

Of his free bounty, aigii moBt eirideiit 
Of goodness, and in Us account most prized, 
Was liberty of will ; the boon, wherevritb* 
All intellectual creatures, and them sole, 
He hath endow'd. Hence now thou mayst infer 
Of what high worth the vow, which so is framed. 
That when man offers, God well pleased accepts: 
For in the compact between God and him, 
This treasure, sucb as I describe it to thee. 
He makes the victim ; and of his own act 
What compensation therefore may he find ? 
If that, whereof thou hast oblation made. 
By using well thou think'st to consecrate, 
Thou wouldst of theft* do charitable deed. 
Thus I resolve thee of the greater pomt 

" But forasmuch as holy church, herein • 

Dispensing, seems to contradict the truth 
I have discovered to thee, yet behooves 
Thou rest a little longer at the board, 
Ere the crude aliment which thou hai^ ta'en. 
Digested fitly, to nutrition turn. 
Open thy mind to what I now unfold ; 
And give it inward keeping. Knowledge comes 
Of learning well retained, unfruitful else. 

" This sacrifice, in essence, of two things' 
Consisteth : one is that, whereof 'tis made ; 
The covenant, the other. For the last. 
It ne'er is cancelled, if not kept : and hence 
I spake, erewhile, so strictly of its force. 
For this it was enjoin'd the Israelites,' 

hence it is that bmtes cannot have firee jadginent, becatise 
their judgments are always prevented by appetite. And 
hence it may also appear manifest, that intellectnal sob 
stances, whose wills are immutable, and likewise souls sepa- 
rated from the body, and departing from it well and holily, 
lose not the liberty of choice on account of the immntabinty 
of the will, but retain it most perfectly and powerfully. This 
being discerned, it is again plain, that this liberty or princi 
pie of ali our liberty, is the greatest good conferred on human 
nature by God ; because by this very thing we are here made 
happy, as men ; by this we are elsewhere happy, as divine 

1 Thou wouldst of tk^.] "Licet ftir de ftnrto," fcc. D§ 
Monarchid, lib. 11. p. 123. ''Although a thief should out of 
that which he has stolen give help to a poor man, yet is that 
not to be called almsgiving.** 

« 7\oo thtTigs.] The one, the substence of the vow, as of 
a single life for instance, or of keej^hg fast; the other, the 
compact, or form of it. 

* U wa$ ayoin^d the IsraeHteaJ] See Lev. c zii. and zzvli 

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PARADISE, Canto V. 4^5 

Thoug^h leaye were given them, as thou know'st, to 

The offering, still to ofl^r. The other part, [change 

The matter'and the substance of the vow, 

May well be such, as that, without offence, 

It may for other substance be exchanged. 

But, at his own discretion, none may shift 

The burden on his shoulders ; unreleased 

By either key,* the yellow and the white. 

Nor deem of any change, as less than vain, 

If the last bond^ be not within the new 

Included, as the quatre in the six. 

No satisfaction therefore can be paid 

For what so precious in the balance weighs, 

That all in counterpoise must kick the l^am. 

Take then no vow at random : ta'en, with faith 

Preserve it ; yet not bent, as Jephthah once, 

Blindly to execute a rash resolve. 

Whom better it had suited to e^tclaim, 

* I have done ill,' than to redeem his pledge 

By doing worse : or, not unlike to him 

In folly, that great leader of the Greeks ; 

Whence, on the altar, Iphigenia moum'd 

Her virgin beauty, and hath since made mourn 

Both wise and siitaple, even all, who hear 

Of 60 fell sacrifice. Be ye more staid, 

O Christians ! not, like feather, by each wind 

Removeable ; nor think to cleamse yourselves 

In every water. Either testament. 

The old and new, is yours : and for yomr guide, 

The shepherd of the church. Let this suffice 

To save you. When by evil lust ^nticed, 

Remember ye be men, not senseless beasts ; 

Nor let the Jew, who dwelleth m your streets, 

Hold you in mockery. Be not, as the Iamb, 

That, fic^e wanton, leaves its mother's milk, 

To dally with itself in idle play." 

Such were the words that Beatrice spake : 
These ended, to that region,* where the world 

1 Either kep.] Pnigatory, Canto ix. 106. 

* ^the lust bM«Q If the thing sabstitnted be not far mors 
precioos than that which is released. 

* THat re^on."] As some explain it, the east: according 
to others, the equinoctial line. Lombardi supposes it t9 
mean that she looked upwards. Monti, in his Proposta, 
rvol. 3, pt« 3, p. Ixxix. Bfilan, 18260 has adduced a passage 
from our author's Ck>nvito, which fixes the sense. Dico ao- 
cora, che quanto U Cielo 6 piu presso al cerchio equatore, 
tanto i piu mobile per comparazione alii suoi; perocchd ha 

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426 THE VKiON. 87*1SII 

If Uveliest, foil of .ond desire she tam'd. 

Though mainly prompt Jiew qnestion to propoM» 
Her nlence and changed look did keep nle dumb 
And as the arrow, ere the cord is still, 
Leapeth onto its mark ; so on we sped 
Into the second realm. There I beheld 
The dame, so joyoos, enter, that the orfo 
Grew brighter at her smiles ; and, if the star 
Wero mored to gladness, what then was my eheer« 
Whom natore hath made apt for every change ' 

As in a qoiet and clear lake the fish, 
If aoght approach them from withoot, do draw 
Towards it, deeming it their food ; so drew 
Foil more than thoosand splendors towards os ; 
And in each one was heard : *< Lo ! one arrived 
To moltiply oor loves V* and as each came. 
The shadow, streaming forth effol^nce new, 
Witness'd aogmented joy. Here, Reader ! think. 
If thoo didst miss the seqoel of my tale, 
To know the rest how sorely thoo wooldst crave 
And thoo shalt see what vehement desire 
Possess'd me, soon as these had met my view. 
To know their state. ** O bom in happy boor ! 
Thoo, to whom grace voochsafes, or ere thy close 
Of flc«hly warfare, to behold the thrones 
Of that eternal triomph ; know, to os 
The light commonicated, which throogh heaven 
Expatiates withoot boond. Therefore, if aoght 
Thoo of oor beams wooldst borrow for thine aid. 
Spare not ; and, of Oor radiance, take thy fill." 

Thos of those piteoos spirits one bespake me ; 
And Beatrice next : " Say on ; and trost 
As onto gods." — ** How in the light sopreme 
Thoo harbor'st, and from thence the votoe bring'st. 
That, sparkling in thme eyes, denotes thy joy, 
I mark : but, who thoo art, am still to seek ; 
Or wherefore, worthy spuit ! for thy lot ' 
This sphere' assigned, that oft from mortal ken 
Is veil'd by others beams." I said ; and tum'd 
Toward the lostre, that with greeting kind 
ErewhLe had hailM me. Forthwith, brighter far 
Than erst, it wax'd : and, as himself the son 

piik movimeiito, e piii attoaliti, e plik vita, o piik fanna, e piA 
toeea di qoello, ehe i fopra se, e per conaegnente pin virtno- 
•o. p.48. 

» Tkf» sphere.) The planet Mercury, which, being nearest 
to the sun, Is oftenest hidden by that luminary. 

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139-134. PARADISE, Cantc VL 497 

Hides througrh excess of light, when his wann gaze- 
Hath on the mantle of thick yapora prey'd ; 
Within its proper ray the saintly shape 
Was, through increase of gladness, thus concealed ; 
And, shrouded so in splendor, answer'd me, 
E'en "as the tenor of my song declares. 



rhe spirit, who had offered to satisfy the inquiries of Dante, 
declares himself to be the Emperor Justinian ; and after 
speaking of his own actions, recounts the victories, be- 
fore him, obtained under ttie Roman Eagle. He then 
informs our Poet that the soul of Romeo the {Algrim is in 
the same star. 

** After that Constantino the eagle tum'd' 
Against the motions of the heaven, that roll'd 
Consenting with its course, when he of yore, 
Lavinia's spouse, was leader of the flight ; 
A hundred years twice told and mere,' his seat 
At Europe's extreme point,^ the bird of Jove 
Held, near the mountains, whence he issued first ; 
Tnere under shadow of his sacred plumes 
Swaying the world, till through successive hands 
To mine he came devolved. CsBsar I was ; 
And am Justinian ; destined by the will 
Of that prime love, whose influence I feel. 
From vain excess to clear the mcumber'd laws.* 

1 When hit warm gaze.] When the sun has dried up the 
vapors that shaded his br^htness. 

* ^fter that Onutantine the eagle turned.} Constantine, in 
transferring the seat of empire from Rome to Byzantium, 
carried the eagle, the Imperial ensign, from the west to the 
east, ^neas, on the contrary, had, with better augury, 
moved along with the san*8 course, when he passed fironi 
Troy to Italy. 

s A hundred vearstwiee told andikore.] The Emperor Con- 
stantine entered Byzantium in 334 ; and Justinian began his 
reign in 537 

* Jit Eurepe^e extreme point.] Constantinople being situ- 
ated at the extreme of Europe, and on the borders of Asia, 
near those mountains in the neighborhood of Troy, from 
whence the first founders of Rome had emigrated. 

> TV dear the ineumber*d laws.] The code of laws was 
abridged and reformed by Justinian. 

Giustiniano son io, disse il primajo, 
Che *1 troppo e *\ van secai for delle leggi, 
Ora soggette aO* arme e al denajo. 

fWzzt, // Q^adr^r^ lib. Iv. cap. 19 

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IS8 THiS YlJSiON. 14-M 

Or ere that work- engaged me, I did hold 

In Christ oue nature only ;' with sach faith 

Contented. But the hlened Agapete,' 

Who was chief shepherd, he with warning voice 

To the true faith recalled me. I believed 

His words: and what he taught, ncjw plainly leot 

As thou in every contradiction seest 

The true and false opposed. Soon as my feet 

Were to the church reclaim'd, to my great task. 

By inspiration of God's grace impelled, 

I gave me wholly ; and consign'd mine arms 

To Belisarius, with whom heaven's right hand 

Was link'd in such conjointment, 'twas a sign 

That I should rest To thy first question thus 

I shape mine answer, which were ended here, 

But that its tendency doth prompt perforce 

To some addition ; that thou well mayst mark, 

What reason on each side they have to plead, 

By whom that holiest banner is withstood, 

Both who pretend its power* and who cppose.^ 

** Beginning from that hour, when Pallas died* 
To give it rule, behold the valorous deeds 
Have made it worthy reverence. Not unknown* 
To thee, how for three hundred years and more 
It dwelt m Alba, up to those fell lists 

1 In Chriat one nature ordy.] Jnstinian is said to have been 
a follower of the heretical opinions held by Entyches, " who 
taught that In Christ there was bat one nature, viz. that of 
the Incarnate word.** JUaeUune's MoMhettHy torn. 11. cent. v. 
p. 11. cap. v. $ 13. 

* Affapete."] " Agapetns, Bishop of Rome, whose Scheda 
Kegia, addressed to the Emperor Justinian, procured him a 
place among the wisest and most judicious writers of this 
century.*' thid., cent. vL p. 11. cap. ii. $ 8. Compare Fasio 
degU Ubertl, Dittamondo, 1. ii. cap. zvi. 

* fVho pretend iU power.} The qhibelUnes 

* And vho oppose.] The Guelphs. 

B Pallaedied.] See Virgil, .£n., lib. x. 

Jfot nnknovm.] In the second book of his treatise De 
Monarchic, where Dante endeavors to prove that'the Roman 
people had a right to govern the world, he refers to theli 
conquests and successes in nearly the same order as in this 
passage. **The Roman,** he affirms, "might tmly say, as 
the Apoctre did to Timothy, There is laid up for me a crown 
of righteousness ; laid up, that is, in the eternal providence 
of God.** p. 131. And again: "Now It is manifest, that by 
duel (perdnellnm) the Roman people acquired the Empire; 
therefore they acquired It by right, to prove which is the mala 
purpose of the present book.** p. 132. 

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SMt. PARAllfSE, CAirro Vt 4M 

Where, for its sake, were met the riy&l three ;* 
Nor aug^ht onknowu to thee, which it achieved 
Down* from the Sabines' wrong to Locrece' wo ; 
Wiih its eeyen kings conqaeriiig the nations round ; 
Nor all it wrought, by Rcmaan worthies borne 
'Gainst Brennus and the Epirot prince,' and hosts 
Of -single chiefs, or states in league combined 
Of social warfare : hence, Torquatus stem. 
And QuintiuS* named of his neglected locks. 
The DecU, and the Fabii hence acgnired 
Their fame, which I with duteous zeal embalm.* 
By it the pride of Arab hordes^ was qnell'd. 
When they, led on by Hannibal, o'eipass'd