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Full text of "Visitor's guide and history of San Antonio, Texas : from the foundation (1869) to the present time with the story of the Alamo"

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From the Foundation (1689) 
to the Present Time with 

The 5tory of the Alamo 


Fourth Edition Revised and Enlarged 

Published By 

Bookseller and Stationer 

Commercial Printing 


[Copyright 1913] 

Copyright 1913 by 

San Antonio, Texas 





Realizing that previous publications on the subjects 
treated herein have not been as complete as they 
should have been, and that there is a great demand 
for such work as is here presented for the perusal 
of the thousands who visit this city each season, 
this work is respectfully submitted by 


Grand Old 5an Antonio 

Character of the people, social 
life, numerous clubs and soci- 
eties, past greatness and great- 
er future, premier health resort, 
scholastic advantages, all the 
churches, amusements, sports, 
newspapers, Military Head- 
quarters of Department of Tex- 
as, Commercialiand Manufac- 
turing Notes, Etc. 



EDUCTIVE, charming, ever old but always 
new, progressive, enterprising, prosperous, 
and presenting many opportunities for suc- 
cessful human endeavor, San Antonio, the city of 
greatest historic import of any in the Union, termed 
the "Sunset City" on account of the golden splendor 
of her skies and climate, is probably the most inter- 
esting of all of the Southern Cities on the North 
American Continent. 

Located in a zone where the temperature and genial 
climate bears favorable comparison with that of any 
part of the world and surpasses that of any other city 
in the South, she has many other attractions which 
cause countless thousands to visit her and see her 
quaint and compelling attractions and enjoy them. 


Her's is a cosmopolitan population, where fraternize 
the men and women of all of the world's nations, where 
all of the different tongues utter all of the language 
spoken on both hemispheres. The costumes and cus- 
toms are as quaint and unique as are to be seen in any 
other city on the ''"footstool." The architecture is 
composite, blending the ancient and modern in strong 
and admirable contrast. Her populace exceeds in 
number that of any other city in the expansive State 
of which she is the greatest metropolis. There are 
now at least one hundred and fifty thousand people 
residing permanently in the corporate limits of San 
Antonio, in addition to the many thousands in her 
thickly populated suburbs. 


The city limits, as defined by charter, is thirty-six 
square miles in extent. This space is embraced in a 
circle whose diameter is six miles. Its center is at 
the old San Fernando Cathedral, one of the interesting 
and historic buildings, whose twin towers and moresque 
cupola are conspicuous and noteworthy objects. Be- 
yond the corporate confines are many spacious sub- 
divisions containing additional population enhancing 
the total so as to place the number of inhabitants far 
in excess of that of any other city in the Lone Star 

Situated in a fertile and verdant valley, watered by 
two splendid streams finding their source, one just 
beyond and the other just inside of, the city limits, 
her location is ideal. The streets in the city and sub- 
divisions exceed a thousand miles of highway, much 
of it in excellent condition. She has more than one 
hundred miles of paved and macadam streets and more 
are being added. These are in most cases flanked 
by splendid sidewalks of concrete, and others are being 
laid in remote as well as central portions of the city. 


Ranging from over six hundred to nearly eight hun- 
dred feet above sea level, the lowest in the valley and 
the highest the summit of the hills, her altitude is suf- 
ficient to make her atmosphere pure and free from 
the humidity consequent upon lower levels and without 
the disadvantage incident to very high altitudes. This 
elevation is deemed and has been proven to be, the 
very best for good health, the air being perfectly pure 
and free from any contamination rendering her im- 
mune from any epidemic, unless imported disease of 
extraordinary character. 

Her people are cleanly and keep their city so. Her 
health authorities are efficient and vigilant, always 
using efficient preventive sanitary measures. 


Her salubrious climate restores to health those af- 
flicted with any malady when not in the last extrem- 
ity of some incurable one. 


San Antonio extracts her public water supply from 
several hundred artesian wells having depths ranging 
from six hundred to over two thousand feet. The 
water is the purest of any to be found anywhere. Most 
of it is cold and free from mineral except lime, a great 
health-giving element. The others are mineral and 
thermal wells located at various places in and near 
the city. These latter are as efficient as the hot 
waters at Hot Springs or elsewhere, in curing any 
skin, blood, or other malady benefitted by thermal 
immersion. The temperature of the mineral waters 
range from 98 to 106 degrees Fahrenheit. Most not- 
able of the thermal wells are those at Terrell's San 
Jose addition, Dullnig's Ranch, Steve's and the 
Southwestern Asylum, from which latter the "Hot 
Wells" derives it's supply. The thermal water is im- 
pregnated strongly with sulphur and is tinctured with 
other medicinal minerals. Thousands of patients af- 
flicted with rheumatism and other diseases come to 
San Antonio and are cured by these mineral waters 
and remain permanently cured. 


Notwithstanding the large number of persons com- 
ing too late to be cured of diseases with which they 
are afflicted, the death rate of San Antonio is excep- 
tionally low, being less than any other city of her size 
in the Union. She has many able, learned and scien- 
tific physicians and surgeons who cope successfully 
with all of the diseases and affliction they are con- 
fronted with, brought to them by people coming to 
this Mecca of Health and security against sickness. 



No city in the world has as many public parks and 
breathing places as San Antonio. These range in 
size from small spaces of triangular and quadrangular 
shapes, whose sides are less than fifty feet in length, 
to immense forests whose boundaries contain miles 
of area. All of the parks are beautiful and admirably 
kept. Three of them, the Brackenridge, San Pedro, 
and Mahncke, are the most spacious, containing im- 
mense trees of great age and beauty, many fine plants, 
shrubbery and flowers. In Brackenridge Park there 
is a small herd of buffalo, among the last of their 
race, a considerable number of elk, and a greater num- 
ber of deer, all roaming unconfined except for the en- 
closure barriers. There are also numerous acquatic 
birds in this park, among them swans, geese and ducks, 
and a very large number of peacocks of magnificent 
plumage. There are about forty parks, all told. 

In San Pedro Park there are also numerous speci- 
mens of waterfowl, as well as fish of many varieties. 
Waterfowl which have been domesticated, abound at 
West End Lake, the largest sheet of water near the 
city, although Mitchell's Lake, eleven miles south, is 
much larger and is filled most of the year with wild 
waterfowls, principally ducks, geese and cranes. Game 
of the bird and mammal varieties are to be found in 
considerable quantities within short distances from the 
city. During the hunting seasons, much successful 
sport is enjoyed by the hunters and fishermen, the 
streams and lakes being well stocked with fish. 

The principal plazas or public squares of the city 
are parked and planted with a profusion of flowers, 
shrubs and trees. Palms, graceful and symetrical, 
sway in unison with the balmy breezes wafted over 
the city, while the fragrance of the roses, violets and 
other sweeted bloom, permeates the air and is enjoyed 
by all passing through or near these parks. Among 
the plaza parks are those in Alamo, Camden, Madison, 

Franklin, Main, Military, Paschal, Milam, Maverick, 
Travis, Washington and other plazas or public squares. 
One of San Antonio's greatest charms is her parks. 
They compare in point of size and beauty favorably 
with the parks of New York, Washington City or any 
other city in the United States, unless it be the Golden 
Gate Park of San Francisco, which is larger and has 
more trees and flowers in it than any other. 

Some of these parks are amusement resorts, among 
these being Electric, Exposition, Madarasz and others 
where all of the latest devices for outdoor amusement 
are to be found. San Antonio also has several fine 
baseball parks, two of them being used for professional 
and league team games. She also boasts a park known 
as "The Ostrich Farm/' where these mammoth birds 
are on exhibition. 


Many lofty and spacious buildings are to be found, 
some of them coming under the category of "sky 
scrapers," being many stories high. Principal among 
these are the office buildings, the Bedell, the Moore, 
Hicks, Gunter, Gibbs, Swearingen, Prudential Insur- 
ance, Frost and others, while among the mercantile 
structures of immense height and size are the Stowers, 
Rand, Gunter Hotel, St. Anthony Hotel, Joske, Menger 
Hotel, St. James Hotel and others. 


This city contains many immense and comfortable 
hotel structures and buildings for boarding houses, 
apartments and flats. Most prominent of these are 
the Gunter, which is the largest, the St. Anthony, sec- 
ond in size, the Menger, St. James, Bexar, Maverick, 
Angelus, Crockett, Travis, Southern, Maverick, Alamo, 
Savoy hotels, Terrell, Yale, Columbia, American, 
Hutchins, Presnal and other flats and apartments as 
well as innumerable boarding, lodging and rooming 


Many of the large club house buildings also rent 
apartments to members and others, among them being 
the San Antonio, Travis, and others. 

There are many social organizations which own 
either spacious, handsome, or venerable and comforta- 
ble buildings, among these being the Elks, Hermann 
Sons, Casino, Odd Fellows, Masons, Turners, and oth- 
ers, while a number of others rent fine structures 
which they have fitted up admirably, among these 
being the Eagles, Moose, Owls, Catholic Knights of 
Columbus, Beavers, Red Men, Knights of Pythias, 
Woodmen of the World, Modern Woodmen and others. 

Among the most handsome of the public buildings 
are the Court House, on Main, the City Hall, on Mili- 
tary Plaza, the City Market House and Auditorium, 
on Paschal and Milam Plazas, and the Federal building 
on Alamo Plaza, Avenues D and E. The Court House, 
which is red sand stone, is of commanding appearance, 
the City Hall is of soft white limestone, is attractive, 
standing in the center of the plaza, while the Federal 
building, which is a replica of an old Rhenish castle 
and also built of limestone, is symmetrical and im- 

Two of the railway depots, the Union, or Southern 
Pacific and M. K. & T. railway, and the International 
& Great Northern Railway stations, are large and 
handsome edifices. 


Although San Antonio is proud of present prestige 
and probably destined to become a greater city than 
she is today, she possesses the charm of past glorious 
grandeur that no other city in the world can hold com- 
parison to. There is no spot on earth where there are 
more objects of historic merit and none comparable 
to those she possesses in point of chivalric luster and 
sublimity. One spot alone holds the distinction of 
being the place where the sublimest spectacles of valor 


ever enacted were given as examples to all posterity. 
Others are almost as memorable. All of them are 
well worthy of admiration and preservation. 

All of them deserve perpetuation as monuments to 
those who bought civilization and maintained it with 
their blood, but most conspicuous of them all is what 
is best known as the Alamo, but which was the old 
Franciscan Mission of San Antonio de Valero, named 
jointly for the Franciscan Friars who founded it 
and for the Spanish Viceroy, the Duke de Valero. 
This was a group of buildings, some of them still stand- 
ing on what is known as Alamo Plaza, the name Alamo 
being derived from the Alamos, or cottonwood trees 
that grew near by. 


Among the quaint characteristics of this city is the 
blending of the ancient with the modern. The archi- 
tecture of composite character, comports with the cos- 
mopolitan population. Some of the buildings, San Fer- 
nando Cathedral, for instance, a portion of which was 
destroyed by fire in the '60's of the last century, pre- 
sents this spectacle, one portion being of very mod- 
ern architecture, while the other is that of the Mor- 
esque. Other buildings, both public and private, pre- 
sent similar characteristics, while edifices of most mod- 
ern architecture adjoin those of very ancient construc- 
tion and style. Perhaps no other city in the South, 
unless it be New Orleans, possesses this peculiarity. 
The contrast in these different styles of architecture 
serves to emphasize and if anything, enhance the 
beauty of the ancient which are not the loftiest, but 
the most massive and durable, most of them having 
withstood the storms of several centuries and ready 
if not replaced with cheaper and more fragile ones, to 
withstand those of future ages. 
While the architecture is interesting and quaint, the 
populace is still more so. The Aborigines having 


either been succeeded or absorbed by the Latin races 
early in the history of the place, it is natural to expect 
the Spanish and French would form the principal ele- 
ment of the population, and it is true that those who 
speak the Castillian tongue do exceed in number other 
inhabitants, but those speaking it are not the Spanish, 
but the Mexican race, who predominate, and the mem- 
bers of it are descended principally from the Indians 
of Mexico or Texas. Just now, San Antonio, being a 
refuge for many thousands of political exiles from the 
Republic of Mexico, has a much greater proportion of 
that element of population than ever, but under ordi- 
nary circumstances the Mexican predominates. But 
the tongues of almost all of the nations of earth may 
be heard upon her streets, in her markets and plazas 
for the city is full of foreigners from everywhere on 
the "footstool." The costumes are as various as the 
tongues spoken and as kaleidoscopic as they are pictur- 
esque. This is another charm not visible in any other 
Southern city of the United States except New Orleans. 

Caste is also sharply defined in several nationalities 
and racial distinctions always closely drawn, between 
the Caucasian and the African. 

Among the Mexicans there are two well-defined 
castes, the Hidalgos, or Caballeros, which is the patri- 
cian, and the peon, or laboring class. The former 
always is educated and refined and generally wealthy, 
while the latter is ignorant and always poor and often 
dissolute, but always polite and obliging. 


The present pastimes of the Republic of Mexico were 
those which obtained in San Antonio up to less than 
half a century ago, and some of them are still surrep- 
titiously practiced. Bull fighting was formerly the 
great sport of the populace, but was suppressed in 
the early seventies of the last century. Cock fighting 
was then, as before, one of the main attractions and 
brutal spectacles of this barbarous pitting of fowls 


against each other in deadly combat was to be wit- 
nessed in public on several of the days of the week, 
until prohibited by statute and the statute, to some ex- 
tent, enforced. Even now it is practiced to a greater or 
less extent in the strictly Mexican quarter of the city, 
and can be and is witnessed by those interested in such 
shocking spectacles. 


Celebrations of American historic and patriotic ap- 
niversaries by Americans in San Antonio are usually 
more honored in the breach than in the observance, and 
when such anniversaries are commemorated, they are 
observed by foreigners who have been naturalized. In 
the days when the old volunteer fire department ex- 
isted and flourished, its members, principally Germans, 
always observed the anniversary of the birth of Wash- 
ington. The Fourth of July is sometimes, but not 
regularly, celebrated by the Americans. Texans have 
memorial exercises at the grave of Ben R. Milam on 
the anniversary of the fall of the Alamo, but the Mexi- 
can and the Negro elements of the populace invariably 
celebrate, the former the anniversary of Mexican inde- 
pendence from Spain: "El Diez y seis de Septiembre, 
and "El Cinco de Mayo," the vanquishing of Maximill- 
ian, while the Negroes celebrate the 19th of June, 
which is the anniversary of the manumission of the 
slaves by Lincoln's proclamation, both the Mexican and 
the Negro celebrations having pageantry of creditable 
character connected with them. 

But possibly the greatest of the celebrations in San 
Antonio is that of the anniversary of the battle of San 
Jacinto, on April 21, or at least, it was formerly cele- 
brated on that day, but since the celebration has de- 
veloped into a season of spring festivity lasting for 
six days and concluding, regardless of date, with the 
feature of the celebration formerly allotted to the San 


Jacinfo anniversary and known as the "Bajttl of 
Flowers." This celebration will be alluded to in an- 
other part of this guide. 


Notwithstanding the cosmopolitan character of her 
populace, San Antonio, for her size, is an extraordi- 
narily orderly place. Although several hundred sa- 
loons exist and flourish, drunkenness is seldom seen 
among the pedestrians on the streets, and crime is not 
often encountered by the authorities. The laws are 
enforced, all elements of the population seem industri- 
ous, although, as everywhere, there are some idle and 
dissolute characters with whom the police have to 
deal and do cope with successfully. Most of the in- 
habitants are temperate, and most of them fortunate 
enough to be employed at legitimate pursuits. 

Of course, all of the professions are represented, 
but the physicians, attorneys and pastors predominate. 
But mercantile pursuits far outnumber the professional 
and in them are engaged and employed many of the 
city's busy thousands. 

Both the city and the county governments are con- 
ducted admirably, notwithstanding the political con- 
tentions and unrest incident to frequent elections. All 
of the officials of both branches are courteous and com- 
petent, administering the affairs of each respectively 
in an admirable manner. 


San Antonio, ever since her foundation, has been 
a city of commercial importance, and her people have 
possessed wealth. She has now eighteen banks, either 
National, State or private, with an aggregate capital of 
$10,000,000 and deposits exceeding $20,000,000. Her 
clearing house statements show her to stand at the 
head of Texas cities financially, her wealth being great 
and constantly increasing. While doing a large ex- 


port trade with the Republic of Mexico, she also is the 
base of supply for an immense surrounding section 
and furnishes subsistence not only to her own and 
other private populations, but to thousands of soldiers 
of the United States army, and hundreds of thousands 
of visiting tourists who annually visit and spend some 
time here. 


There are over two hundred manufacturing indus- 
tries here, giving employment to many artisans and 
laborers and distributing wealth and products about 
a large area of territory. But notwithstanding those 
already here, there is still room for other successful 
manufactures to be established. Among thoso *hat 
would prove profitable and utilize the natural raw pro- 
ducts of this region, are cotton and woolen factories 
and mills, tanneries, shoe factories, hat factories, pa- 
per mills, utilizing the fibre of the cacti, fruit preserv- 
ing plants, and various others, too numerous to men- 


Recent discoveries of crude oil in the immediate vi- 
cinity of San Antonio establish the fact that there is a 
supply of that mineral liquid that is likely to satisfac- 
torily solve the fuel problem. Such discoveries also 
show the field not to be confined to a single locality, 
but /to extend for considerable distance in various 

Coal in considerable quantities is also found compar- 
atively close to this city, and furnishes economical 
fuel. Wherever coal and oil exist it is more than 
likely that natural gas exists. It has been struck 
here, although thus far in small quantity, but there is 
strong hope of its being found in abundant supply to 
answer all the needs of this city, it haying been se- 
cured at neighboring cities. This Us likely to add 
greatly to San Antonio's value as a manufacturing 
city, as well as a desirable residence locality. 



This city is admirably equipped with educational 
features, facilities and possesses many advantages in 
such regard. Besides the liberal funds set aside by 
the State and derived from the sale of public lands, 
the State has an immense school fund derived from 
scholastic taxation, both State and municipal. 

A tax sufficient to yield $5 per capita is levied and 
collected by the State and cities and is spent on the 
education of the pupils of the county and city public 
schools in Texas. 

In San Antonio there are over thirty public schools, 
which includes two high schools, and the standard of 
education here is high, ranking favorably with that of 
any city in the Union. In those thirty city public schools 
there are 344 teachers, whose salaries aggregate $300,- 
000 per annum, and they instruct 14,434 pupils. The 
city school board has recently expended the sum of $70,- 
000 for a new school building on Prospect Hill and the 
county commissioners have recently erected a new 
county public school on Alamo Heights, of handsome 


In addition to the city and county public schools in 
San Antonio and Bexar county, there are thirty-one 
private schools in San Antonio and surrounding sub- 
divisions, with a total daily attendance of not less than 
5,000 pupils. 

Various religious denominations, among them the 
Catholic, Episcopal, Lutheran, Baptist, Methodist and 
Jewish, have established and maintain educational in- 
stitutions, enjoying large patronage, many pupils com- 
ing from Mexico and other distant localities. 

Prominent among these educational institutions are 
the Ursuline Convent, Lady of the Lake Convent, In- 
carnate Word Convent, St. Theresa's and St. Mary's 
parochial schools, St. Joseph's, St. John's and St. Peter 
Clavier Catholic schools, St. Mary's and St. Louis Col- 

leges ,the Seminary of the Oblate Fathers for the edu- 
cation of the Catholic clergy. St. Mary's Hall, or the 
Bishop Elliott's Memorial Institute, Dr. Harrison's 
San Antonio Academy and School for Young Ladies, 
Bon Avon, Peacock's and West Texas Military Acade- 
my, and there are numerous other educational institu- 
tions, affording excellent opportunities for the educa- 
tion of the young. 


San Antonio is equally rich in religious institutions. 
Almost all denominations are represented, having con- 
gregations and nearly all of them their own places of 
worship. The seats of the sees of several faiths are 
located here. The Catholic, Episcopal and Methodist 
Bishops reside in San Antonio, these being Bishops 
Shaw, Johnston and Muzon. 

The Catholics have fifteen churches and chapels, in- 
cluding their Cathedral, San Fernando, these all being 
inside the city limits, and several others in the suburbs 
nearby and including the old Franciscan Missions in 
which the ceremony of the mass is celebrated. The 
Episcopalians f have, including their cathedral of St. 
Mark's, eight 'churches, chapels and missions in the 
city limits and several in the subdivisions beyond. 
The Methodists have eighteen churches, chapels and 
missions. The Baptists have ten churches, chapels, 
etc., while the Presbyterians have ten, the Campbell- 
ites, or Christians, five, the Lutherans five, Christian 
Scientists, Evangelists and other Christian denomina- 
tions each have churches, and the Israelites have three 
temples, or places of worship. These do not include 
the Negro churches. The Negroes are represented in 
various religious denominations, but, principally in the 
Baptist and Methodist. They have located, in dif- 
ferent parts of the city, a dozen or more of their 
churches which are to be found always well filled. 


All of the leading fraternal organizations are rep- 
resented in San Antonio. The Masonic owns its tem- 
ple and contemplates erecting a Scottish Rite temple. 
Both the Scottish and the York Rite branches of 
Masonery are represented. The Odd Fellows have two 
lodges, one of them, San Antonio No. 11, owns its own 
building, as do the Sons of Hermann, which has nu- 
merous lodges. The Red Men, Eagles, Owls, Elks, 
Moose, Pythians, Woodmen and various other frater- 
nal bodies, hold regular meetings here, and most of 
them have considerable membership and wealth. Many 
of them have female branches or auxiliaries, which 
also have regular meetings. 


In addition to the fraternal organizations which have 
social features, there are numerous strictly social or- 
ganizations, and some patriotic and social associations, 
combining considerable membership and great activity. 

Of these may be mentioned the United Confederate 
Veterans, Daughters of the Confederacy, Daughters of 
the Texas Republic, Grand Army of the Republic, Wo- 
men's Relief Corps, Colonial Dames, Women's Club, 
San Antonio Press Club, Bohemian Scribblers, Auth- 
ors' Club, San Antonio Club, Casino, Turn Verein, 
Beethoven Maennerchor, San Antonio Schutzenverein, 
Travis Club, Catholic Knights' Club, Country Club, Au- 
tomobile Club, Scientific Society, three volunteer mili- 
tary organizations, as well as the British, French, 
Irish, Poles, German, Schweitzer and Mexican social 
and benevolent associations, all having considerable 


San Antonio has numerous places of public amuse- 
ment. Among these are the theaters, these being the 


Grand Opera House, Beethoven Hall, The Plaza, Ma- 
jestic, Orpheum, Princess, Royal, Empire, Star, and 
too many motion picture drama resorts to enumerate. 
For intellectual recreation and research the Carnegie 
Library is open every day and night and interesting 
lectures are given there. 


Besides those previously mentioned, the French col- 
ony celebrates the fall of the Bastille on July 14 every 
year with appropriate ceremonies and exercises, but 
the greatest public festivities are those incident to the 
Fiesta San Jacinto, or Spring Carnival, and its con- 
comitant pageantry, culminating in the parade and 
"Flower Battle." In this pageant numerous civic and 
military organizations participate. Many vehicles of 
various character are handsomely decorated and these 
handsome equipages contain beautiful women and 
girls garbed in gala attire, the scene forming a poem 
of color and beauty challenging admiration. 

This festival, which occurs in the Spring and gen- 
erally during the latter part of the month of April, at- 
tracts thousands of visitors to the city in addition to 
the ordinary population and from a commercial, as 
well as an artistic and social standpoint, is always a 
great success. 

This celebration has been the means of widely ad- 
vertising San Antonio, her Spring Carnival being al- 
most as well and favorably known as the New Orleans 
Mardi Gras carnivals. 


.... San Antonio has six railroads running into and 
out of the city and has connections with six others. 
Those reaching the city are the Southern Pacific, In- 
ternational & Great Northern, Aransas Pass, Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas, San Antonio & Gulf, and San An- 
tonio, Uvalde & Gulf, while those connecting with 


these lines are the Frisco, Cotton Belt, St. Louis, 
Brownsville & Mexico, Artesian Belt, St. Louis & Iron 
Mountain, and Texas & Pacific, which reach here 
through those connecting directly with the city. Ex- 
tensions and other railways will very probably reach 
San Antonio shortly. A new road to connect her with 
Fredericksburg and intervening territory is being 
built and completion expected this summer, while an 
English syndicate is figuring on building another rail- 
way from San Antonio to the Mexican Gulf, propos- 
ing terminals at Port Aransas and Corpus Christi. 

San Antonio's railway connections, both present 
and future, render her an important railway center, 
those already in operation adding greatly to her com- 
merce and wealth and furnishing competitive trans- 
portation facilities. 

All of the roads centering here have Mexican- con- 
nections, two of them going directly to the Mexican 
border and one of these reaching it at two different 


San Antonio has numerous periodicals and publica- 
tions. Among her daily papers are the Express, a 
morning publication, which also has a semi-weekly 
edition, is Independent Democratic; Light-Gazette, an 
afternoon paper, Independent in politics, and the Freie 
Presse Fur Texas, printed in German, weekly and In- 
dependent in in politics. 

Among the weekly publications are the Southern 
Messenger (Catholic), Texas Staatz Zeitung, Dis- 
patch (Labor Organ), El Regidor, El Imparcial, El 
Latigo, Katholische Rundschau, Texas Stockman and 
Farmer, Railroad World, and a patent inside or syndi- 
cate service for various weekly publications. 

While the monthly magazines are the Texas Field 
and National Guardsman, Investor and Southwest 
Farmer, Texas Free Mason, The Texas Baptist and 


All of these possess literary value, as well as con- 
siderable circulation. 

San Antonio has always been considered a city of 
intellectuality and culture, and this fact is evidenced 
in her publications. 


San Antonio's History 

From its original foundation in 
1689 to the present time, with 
all interesting details involved 
in the tragic 




TRIFE and peace have succeeded each other 
and alternated as far back as the history of 
San Antonio can be traced. The flags of six 
different Nations have floated over her citadel, some 
of them several times. But long before the standard 
of any civilized Nation waved above her battlements 
and buildings she was under the sway of mankind. 
Her aboriginal inhabitants were of the type which 
characterized North and Central America, but it is 
difficult to say which particular tribe was the first to 
congregate here, for the reason that those aborigines, 
all known under the indefinite term of Indians, were 
nomadic and wandered over vast regions, their prin- 
cipal quest being the wild game of the plains, the prai- 
ries and the forests. But that many came and lin- 
gered here long, if not indefinitely, is probable from 
the fact that until long after the coming of the white 
man, game abounded in this immediate environment 
and in quantities sufficient to sustain very many o 

Even the very earliest inhabitants possessed some 
civilization. They constructed habitations of a per- 
manent character, fashioning them from sun-dried 
bricks, or adobe, and thatching them with the thule, 
or flags, growing in profusion along the streams and 
sheets of water hereabouts, and supplementing the 
structural work with rough ashler stone broken from 
strata along the water courses, this being soft lime- 
stone, hardening after exposure to the atmosphere. 

The settlements in this immediate vicinity were 
quite populous, and there seems to have been several 
of them, one each located at the headwaters of the 


San Antonio and San Pedro streams, another at the 
head of the Leon, some twenty miles above, and oth- 
ers in adjacent and surrounding localities, wherever 
there was an abundance of flowing water. 

These aborigines seem to have been somewhat 
skilled in the making and burning of pottery, as well 
as the shaping of flint stone into arrow and spear 
heads. Likewise they knew the value of precious 
minerals and metals, and made ornaments of gold and 
silver. They even understood the fashioning of useful 
articles from copper, although their work was crude 
and coarse. Specimens have been found in mounds 
and caves wherein the corpses of the early inhabitants 
were buried with their possessions, as was their cus- 
tom, these specimens showing quite a large number 
of articles for domestic or warfare use, as well as for 

Some of the inhabitants dwelt in excavations made 
into the sides of eminences or cliffs along the water 
courses, some of which are still to be seen in the 
vicinity of the head of the San Antonio River, while 
others dwelt in the many spacious caves found in this 
vicinity, notable near Leon Springs. In these speci- 
mens of pottery, sculpture of crude character and 
articles of stone, for hostile use, have been found. 

It is not only possible, but very probable, that the 
early inhabitants were of Aztec (or Tpltec) ancestry 
or origin, and that as their numbers increased their 
settlements spread until they included what now com- 
prises portions of the city limits of San Antonio that 
were afterward taken over by the foreign invaders. 
One tribe of Indians, a large and very powerful one, 
known as the Natchez, or Netche, ranged from the 
Rio Grande to the Mississippi Rivers, and included 
numerous subdivisions, the principal one of which 
was the Tejas, or Texas Indians, from which it is 
claimed the State derives its name, and whose central 
settlements were about where San Antonio is now. 
There are various definitions given the term "Texas," 


but the generally accepted one is that of "Paradise," 
or "Eden," probably the epithet used by the aboriginal 
discoverers when they found this seductive region and 
the then limpid and superabundant waters flowing 
from the various springs and forming the many 
streams hereabouts. The term seems subsequently 
to have been applied to the aboriginal inhabitants. 
San Antonio then, in all likelihood, could well have 
been alluded to as either an "Eden" or a "Para- 


The term "Tejas" is said to have been used in the 
sense of a welcome greeting given by the original in- 
habitants found here to the Conquistadores from Spain 
and by the latter used as a name for the inhabitants. 
Alonzo de Leon was the first foreigner known to have 
visited here. This was in the year 1670, and it was 
on May 15th of that year that, in the name of his 
master the King of Spain, he took formal possession 
of it, he and his train having been received with hos- 
pitality and courtesy by those then dwelling here. 
De Leon had in his train some Franciscan Friars, 
headed by the Padre Damien Marquenet, and to them 
is ascribed the founding of the first Catholic Mission 
and civilized settlement, San Francisco, or San Fer- 
nando de Tejas, at the head springs of the San Pedro. 
This fact is disputed, although this locality is the 
most logical one to have been then selected, the In- 
dians then being friendly and the water supply 

After the coming of De Leon the next advent of 
Spaniards was that of Don Domingo de Terran de Los 
Keyes, who was the Governor of the State of Texas 
and Coahuila, who is said to have been compelled, on 
account of hostility of the aboriginal inhabitants, to 
have the original mission abandoned and removed. 
Terran did not tarry long after establishing, together 


with other Franciscian Friars, another mission which 
they called San Francisco de la Espada, or St. Francis 
of the Sword. 

It was Don Jose de Ramon who planted the first 
permanent settlement here, re-establishing the aban- 
doned mission at the head of the San Pedro, and call- 
ing it the Mission of San Antonio de Valero. He 
also established the Presidio, or fort of San Antonio, 
making it the capital of the province of Be jar, or 
Bexar, the Mission of San Antonio de Valero, or the 
Alamo, being subsequently removed to the present lo- 
cation on Alamo Plaza, where it acquired the distinc- 
tion of being one of the most famous places in the 
history of chivalry. 

Soon after settlements by the Spaniards and Fran- 
ciscan priests, became numerous about the site of this 
city. La Villita, or the small settlement on the south 
side of the river was established and there were sev- 
eral other Pueblos, or settlements, subsequently es- 
tablished, but it appears almost incontrovertible that 
the Pueblo de los Indies, or Indian settlement, at the 
head of the San Pedro and known as the Spanish 
settlement of San Antonio de Valero, was the first, or 
nucleus, of all others. Early official reports made 
by the Viceroy of Spain in Mexico dated in December, 
1693, confirm this and have not been controverted. 


The French, under St. Denis came here, construct- 
ing a military road from Presidio to San Antonio in 
1714, civilization expanding, notwithstanding the fre- 
quent and sanguinary struggles for possession between 
Spain and France, in which ultimately Spain tri- 
umphed, to be herself vanquished by Mexico. 

The pious and famous Franciscan Padre, Antonio 
Marjil, came out from Castille with a band of mis- 
sionaries and established the other Catholic missions 
hereabouts and the Indians were rapidly brought un- 

der civilization and flourishing communities followed. 
These different missions will be alluded to in other 
parts of this guide. 


The next advent of Spaniards grew out of a visit of 
the Marquis de Casa Fuerte, or Strong House, a Mex- 
ican Viceroy of Spain, who became interested in the 
locality and was so favorably prepossessed with it 
that he induced his monarch to send oat a colony 
from the Canary Islands, consisting of the heads of 
thirteen different families and three widows, all of 
noble lineage and entitled to be known as the grandees 
of Spain, and the males to the prefix of Don to their 
names. They came here at the conclusion of hostilities 
between Spain and France, in 1733, at which time the 
two royal houses of Spain and Austria had blended, 
the Marquis de Aguyo had been replaced by a newly 
created Duke de Be jar and Viceroy. The name of the 
place was changed to San Antonio de Be jar, and the 
citadel to San Fernando de Austria, in honor of Fer- 
dinand III, the King of Spain. 

Among those who constituted these colonists were 
the three widows, Donna Maria de Betancourt, Donna 
Josefa Garza, and Donna Maria Rodriguez, the broth- 
ers De Armas, all bachelors, two men named Juan 
Leal, one known as Alvarez and the other Goraz, 
Juan Curbelo de Los Santos, Manuel de Niz, Antonio 
and Juan Rodriguez, Salvador Rodriguez, Jose Padron, 
Jose Cabrero and Maria Rodriguez, widow of Juan 
Cabrera, Mariana Melanado, Francisco de Arocha, 
Vicente Alvarez Travieso, Juan Delgado, Jose Antonio 
Perez, Maria Rodriguez de Grandillo. Shortly after 
the arrival of these and their being awarded grants 
of land in and around San Antonio, also came the 
families of Losoyo, Cervantes, relatives of the author 
of Don Quixote, Pena, Del Valle, Caravajal, Hernan- 
dez, Nunez, Valdez, Musquiz, Montez de Ocha, Garcia, 


Urutea, Menchaca, Chavez, Barrera, Musquiz, Yturri, 
Gortari, Villareal, De Zavala, Saucedo, Saenz, Zambra- 
no, Rivas and others, and still later the family of Jose 
Cassini, Italians, who changed their names to Cassia- 
no, a Spanish name, one of whom married the widow 
of the former Governor, Antonio Cordero. 

Previous to the coming of the Canary Islanders 
the city had been laid out, but in a very irregular 
manner. The streets and plazas had been defined 
and named. 


The first city charter was granted to this city in 
1733 by the Spanish crown. The place then had a 
regular garrison of 117 Spanish soldiers, commanded 
by Don Antonio de Almazon, whose army rank was 
that of captain. 

The seat of government then was on Military Plaza, 
the barracks of the soldiers being ranged along the 
north side, while the civil and military officials had 
their offices and quarters on the west side of that 
plaza. The east side was given over to the Catholic 
clergy and the south side to settlers. 


In the edifices on the west side of Military Plaza, 
in which the Governor, or his representatives, was 
quartered, is still to be seen carved into the keystone 
of the flat arch above the portal the blended coats of 
arms of Spain and Austria, this place having been the 
official residence of Governor Don Antonio Cordero, 
who was deposed and is said to have been beheaded, 
while others claim that he escaped and resided in 
Mexico until he died a natural death. 

No Americans settled in San Antonio for nearly a 
century after the coming of the Canary Islanders. 
The first ones seen here were survivors of an expedi- 
tion headed by the Irishman, Captain Phillip Nolan. 


The American Explorer, Zebulon Pike, visited here 
in 1807, and was entertained by the authorities. He 
reported finding then a settlement of two thousand 
persons, principally Spaniards and Indians. 


While prior to that time there had been several 
minor insurrections, and some executions for disloyalty 
to Spain, it is probable that the first revolution of 
any great importance was that headed by a cer- 
tain Captain Juan Bautista Casas, at that time one of 
the officers of the Garrison, whose cause was support- 
ed by the soldiers who mutinied, seizing and incarcer- 
ating the commander, Col. Don Manuel Saucedo, and 
Lieut. Col. Simon Herera, both of whom had been 
Spanish Governors here, and confining them in the 
Mission of San Antonio de Valero, or the Alamo. 
Later he sent them to Laredo under guard. Casas 
sent expeditions to La Bahia anl Nacogdoches Mis- 
sions to arrest the garrison commanders there, but 
meanwhile offended the Catholic clergy, one of whom, 
Father Juan Manuel Zambrano, organized a revolu- 
tion against him at a junta or secret meeting of the 
prominent citzens of the Pueblo, among those at this 
meeting being himself, chosen president, Jose Antonio 
Saucedo, secretary, Ignacio Perez, Miguel Musquiz, 
Antonio Saenz, Luciano Garcia, Erasmo Seguin, Louis 
Galan, Manuel Barera, Vicente Gortari, Gabino Del- 
gado, and Juan Jose Zambrano, who after two months' 
effort, secretly secured the support of the soldiers, 
who had become disgusted at the conduct of Casas. 
The latter was apprehended on a charge of treason 
and placed in the same prison where he had first in- 
carcerated Hereta and Saucedo. On May 14 of that 
year he was arraigned before a summary military 
tribunal, but succeeded in having his case transferred 
to Monclova, Mexico, where in June, 1811, he was 
placed on trial, convicted and condemned to die as a 
traitor by being shot in the back. He was so executed, 


after which his head was severed from the body and 
brought here and displayed from the top of a tall 
pole in the center of Military Plaza where the City 
Hall now stands. His estate was confiscated. 


The next active hostility was that of the Magee 
expedition, when under the leadership of a Major 
Kempner, a body of invaders attacked and defeated 
the garrison under General Saucedo, who marched 
out to meet them and came in contact on the Rosillo 
creek, this engagement having been known as the 
Battle of the Rosillo. Following close upon this en- 
gagement was the murder of loyal Spanish and other 
citizens by Delgado. 


The next engagement grew out of the Mexican 
revolution against Spain by the Priest, Hidalgo, who 
lost his life, but whose cause finally prevailed. The 
Mexican and foreign citizens here revolted and the 
Spanish General, Elisondo, was sent, in June, 1813, 
to take from them the city and made a demand upon 
them formally to surrender it within twenty-four 
hours. During the night an American, Captain Perry, 
organized a force with Captains Menchaca and Gu- 
tierez, who while the Spanish forces were alseep, 
secretly crept upon, attacked and almost annihilated 
them on the banks of the Alazan, killing and wounding 
many and taking the others prisoners, but a small 
remnants of the Spaniards, with their leader, being 
able to escape and make their way back to Mexico. 

This victory made the American and Mexican par- 
ticipants overconfident. Another expedition was or- 
ganized against them by the Spaniards in August of 
that same year, headed by the Spanish General, Ar- 
redondo and aided by Elisondo and a stronger force 
than the preceding expedition. 


It camped on the Medina, forming an ambuscade, 
V-shaped, into which the San Antonians incautiously 
marched, making the mistake of attacking outside in- 
stead of awaiting attack in their own city and strong- 
hold, which could easily have been held by concerted 

The local forces were commanded by General To- 
ledo, and Colonel Perry was second in command. There 
were 300 Americans and 600 Mexicans to combat a 
force nearly thrice their number. The combat was 
short, sharp and decisive. The local force was routed 
and fled in confusion back to the city, followed by the 
victors who only halted long enough on the banks of 
the Medina to execute 170 prisoners by summarily 
shooting them. 

On entering San Antonio Arredondo arrested 300 
male and 400 female inhabitants, the women being 
either the wives or other relatives of the revolution- 
ists who had fought the Spaniards. The male prison- 
ers were crowded so closely into a single structure 
that 18 of them perished from suffocation the same 
night. He also summarily executed a number of oth- 
ers. The women were subjected to many insults and 
indignities and were, a large number of them, impris- 
oned in a quaint old structure known as the "Quinta" 
on Dwyer Avenue, and which was afterward the first 
Texas postoffice. There the women were compelled to 
shell, grind and make into "tortillas," or corn cakes, 
24 bushels of corn per day for food for Arredondo's 
soldiers. Finally one of the women prisoners rebelled 
at an insult offered her personally by Arredondo and 
offered to fight a duel with him. One of the Spanish 
priests then interceded on behalf of the women and 
they were released, but not before an attack had been 
made on the soldiers guarding the Quinta, several of 
whom were thrown into the river flowing back of it 
and drowned. Ultimately all prisoners were released, 
but the property of many of them was confiscated 
and numerous lawsuits have grown out of titles to 


property involved in these confiscations, the most 
notable one of which was the case known as the "Sa- 
briego" suit. 

The Mexicans triumphed in Mexico over the Span- 
iards and inaugurated a government of their own 
which brought San Antonio under its domination. No 
more hostilities occurred here from that time except 
defenses against hostile Indians, until the revolution of 
the Texans against the Mexicans. 


Moses Austin, who had been given a grant of land 
by the Mexican government, undertook to establish a 
colony for its settlement and cultivation. He endeav- 
ored under his grant to locate it, but the Mexican au- 
thorities, regarding with suspicion the advent of Amer- 
icans, caused Austin for a time to forego his enter- 
prise. Later the Baron of Bastrop, who had been 
given a similar grant, joined Austin in the undertak- 
ing, but unfortunately Moses Austin died before ac- 
complishing his purpose. He was succeeded by his 
son, Stephen Fuller Austin, and the colony came to 
Texas the latter part of 1821. It located near where 
Brenham, in Washington County, now is and not very 
far from the old town of Washington. 


The colonists were persecuted, harrassed and insult- 
ed by the Mexicans, who overtaxed them exorbitantly, 
seized their arms, leaving them defenseless among hos- 
tile Indians, with whom the Mexicans were in league. 
The Austinites were so goaded that they determined 
to resist future oppression. Meanwhile Santa Anna, 
the Mexican dictator, had overthrown the Constitu- 
tional government of Mexico, under whose grants the 
Austinites were operating and under whose flag they 
were marshaled as "Constitutionalists." Up to that 

time there had been no attempt and probably no in- 
tention, of establishing a separate government, but 
the success of Santa Anna left them no option. 

San Antonio had ceased to be the capital, which had 
been changed back to Coahuila and next to Saltillo. 
This caused those having business with the assessor 
of taxes to travel over 600 miles, during all of which 
time they were exposed to attack by Indians, who, 
during a period of less than ten years had murdered 
nearly 100 persons traveling between this city and 
points in Mexico. 


Among the early American settlers was James 
Bowie, an adventurer, a man of handsome appear- 
ance, engaging manners, and of superior personal 
courage, who had not been long here before he won 
the affection and secured the hand of Ursulla Vera- 
mendi, the beautiful daughter of Juan Martin de Ver- 
amendi, the dominant governor. 

Bowie was a native of Tennessee, but had made his 
home prior to coming to Texas with his brother, Resin 
P. Bowie, at Natchez, Mississippi. Both of the Bowies 
seem to have been lured here by a quest for an old 
abandoned gold and silver mine, said to be located not 
far from where the town of San Angelo now is. They 
vainly sought it, were attacked by Indians, and had to 
fight their way, which they did successfully, back to 
San Antonio. Bowie's brother Resin, returned to Mis- 
sissippi, but James Bowie remained here. When the 
Texas revolution broke out he joined the forces of 
Austin, was given a commission of Colonel and en- 
listed the support of his illustrious father-in-law, but 
unfortunately Governor Veramendi was recalled to 
Mexico and superceded by Barera. Bowie's wife ac- 
companied her father, and both she and her father 
died of an epidemic of either smallpox or cholera. 



The tyrant, Santa Anna, meanwhile had become very 
vicious and oppressive. Hating the American colo- 
nists, he issued orders for the arrest and imprisonment 
of William Barret Travis, I. M. Carvajahl, R. M. Wil- 
liamson, Morley Baker, Francis W. Johnson, Jose Zam- 
brano and Lorenzo de Zavala, who had especially in- 
curred his displeasure. De Zavalla was a Spaniard. 
He was the first vice president of the Texas Republic 
and the grandfather of Miss Adina de Zavala, a patri- 
otic San Antonio lady, who has endeavored to save 
from destruction historic structures and landmarks 
that have either been destroyed or threatened with de- 

Ugartachea was the Mexican general in command of 
San Antonio when the Texans first banded together 
and remained in command until he was succeeded here 
in command by the brother-in-law of Santa Anna, De 
Cos. Active hostilities between the Constitutionalists 
and the Dictator's forces were precipitated by De Cos 
soon after his arrival. 


The people of Gonzales had a small brass cannon, 
known as a "four-pounder," that being the weight of 
the ball it chambered. This they had used successfully 
in defense against the Indians for some time. De Cos 
sent a strong detachment f rom- San Antonio to Gon- 
zales after this piece of artillery. This detachment 
halted on the opposite bank of the river and sent over 
a demand for the cannon. This demand was refused 
defiantly and the soldiers sent for it were told to "come 
and take it if they could." They attempted to do so, 
but were repulsed and fled promptly back from whence 
they came, reporting to Cos their disaster. This was 
the first act of open rebellion by the Constitutionalists, 
but it committed them to a campaign of hostilities and 


forced the resolution to attempt to take San Antonio 
from Santa Anna's soldiery, which, numbering about 
3000, then garrisoned this city. 

Against it were 600 men. Austin organized in Octo- 
ber, 1835, for this purpose. They were placed under 
the joint command of Colonel James Bowie and Cap- 
tain J. W. Fannin. They marched to the old Mission 
Espada and went into camp, from whence they sent a 
flag of truce to Cos to demand his capitulation. De 
Cos was expecting reinforcements and already had a 
much superior force, so he refused to recognize the 
messengers of Austin. This refusal caused almost im- 
mediate warfare. 


Cos had sent a strong force of cavalry towards the 
camp of Austin's command. They had reached and 
bivouacked at the Mission Concepcion. On October 28, 
a small force of only ninety men had been sent by Aus- 
tin under Bowie and Fannin to reconnoiter. On the 
morning of that day they found themselves surrounded 
by the Mexicans, who also had two cannon. The Mexi- 
cans demanded immediate and unconditional surrend- 
er. Bowie sternly refused. He issued the command 
to his men to charge and attack. This surprised the 
Mexicans completely. In the fierce encounter which 
followed, 60 of the 400 Mexicans were killed outright 
and 40 wounded, while but one of the Texans, Richard 
Andrews, was slain, and only seven wounded. 

Leaving their cannon, throwing down their arms 
and other impediments, the Mexicans fled. Later the 
Mexicans were permitted, under a flag of truce, to 
remove their dead and wounded. Both opposing forces 
remained inactive for nearly a month, Cos still await- 
ing reinforcements, although he had men enough, 
properly handled, to have exterminated the Texans. 


Ever on the alert to intercept the reinforcements 
expected by the Mexicans, the Constitutionalists kept 
watch outside of the city. On November 26 they saw 
a considerable force of soldiers, about 100 in number, 
sent out to cut grass for forage for Mexican horses. 
In the grey dawn enveloping them, the Constitution- 
alists mistook those for the expected reinforcements 
coming to Cos, fell upon them suddenly and unexpect- 
edly and chased them into a ravine. Cos sent out re- 
inforcements from the city to succor them, the latter 
forces greatly exceeding the Constitutionalists, who 
again were victorious, suffering the loss of a single 
soldier killed and but two wounded, while the Mexicans 
had fifty killed and a large number wounded. 


Stephen F. Austin had been given a commission by 
the United States Government and resigned his com- 
mand, being at the time quite ill. He retired and Ed- 
ward Burleson, a brave and brilliant man, succeeded 
to the command of the Constitutionalist force. Burle- 
son believed that to attack De Cos in San Antonio would 
have been folly and had resolved to await reinforce- 
ments that were expected to come from New Orleans 
and other cities and States, two companies, the Tigers 
and Louisiana Grays, already being with his command. 
But the inactivity in the Constitutional camp bred dis- 
cord. Many of the troops openly announced unless an 
attack was made upon San Antonio very soon, that 
they would march from the field. Bowie, Burleson and 
others endeavored to dissuade them and for a time 
seemed to succeed, but Samuel A. Maverick, Erasmus 
(Deaf) Smith and Johnson came from San Antonio 
into camp, which then had been changed to the Old 
Molino Blanco, or White Mill, located on the San An- 
tonio river, near Oakland street, on property now 
owned by H. P. Drought. These messengers brought 

tidings that gave hope of success and Ben Milam, who, 
up to then had been rather an inconspicuous figure in 
the ranks, arose and began a spirited and stirring ha- 
rangue, concluding with the famous sentence: 

"Who Will Follow Old Ben Milam Into San Antonio?" 

More than two-thirds of the force responded by sur- 
rounding him and declaring their intention of joining 
him. This was on December 3, 1835, and instant prep- 
aration for the attack was made. Burleson still deemed 
it rash, but was overridden. He finally acquiesced, 
but gave the lead to Milam, Morris, Maverick and 
Johnson, who proceeded at once to marshal the force 
which was finally augmented by the entire organiza- 
tion joining. But a small portion was held in reserve at 
the mill, while the attacking force moved in three col- 
umns. Milam and Major Morris moved west of the 
river, while Johnson's command moved east of it and 
towards the Alamo Mission, to make a feint attack, 
while the main body was attacking the principal por- 
tion of the city. The attack, although sudden, was not 
entirely unexpected. The resistance was stern and 
stubborn. The Constitutionalists had to fight their 
way from house to house. Morris and Milam, who had 
captured the Garza House, were to effect a junction 
at Veramendi Palace on Soledad street. On December 
7, Milam, with Maverick at his side, had reached the 
Veramendi, when he was killed by a shot fired by a 
sharpshooter stationed either in a tall cypress tree 
overlooking the place or on the roof of a building near- 
by. Milam fell into Maverick's arms and expired. He 
was carried into the Veramendi and his death kept 
secret from all except those who had witnessed it. Cos 
was also ignorant of it. He had retreated to the east 
side of the river, into La Vilita, and had taken up his 
headquarters there, still vainly expecting reinforce- 

Victory was achieved as Milam fell. The acclama- 
tions of his men were the last sounds heard by Mi- 

lam as he sank into the slumber of death. Cos sur- 
rendered to Johnson and Morris. He was permitted 
to retire with his force and their arms on condition 
that he would not again contend against the Texans. 
He did not keep his pledge, as subsequent recitals will 

Milam was secretly buried near where he fell. His 
body remained in its first grave for twelve years 
when it was removed to its present last resting place 
near the center of Milam Square. There it was re- 
buried with the rites of the Masonic fraternity of 
which he had been a member, this funeral being on a 
very cold day when there had been a considerable 
snow fall. 


Travis, Bowie and Bonham were in San Antonio. 
Fannin had gone to Goliad and had taken quarters 
with his command in the old Mission La Bahia. Bur- 
leson, Jack and other prominent personalities in the 
capture of San Antonio had gone among them. Mave- 
rick and Juan Antonio Navarro, the two latter having 
been sent as delegates to the convention to be held 
in Washington, de Zavala being there already. This 
left an inconsequential force to garrison San Antonio 
and hold it against attack. 

News of the approach of a large force of Mexicans 
had been received here and transmitted to General 
Sam Houston, who had become the commander-in-chief 
of the Texas forces and was at Gonzales. On receiv- 
ing it and learning the strength of the approaching in- 
vading force Houston sent orders to Travis, who was 
in command at San Antonio, to evacuate the place 
and join him. 

About this time David Crockett, a former Tennessee 
Congressman and a very picturesque character ar- 
rived, taking up his quarters with the garrison, whom 
he joined. Crockett was given a command and fre- 

quently made stirring speeches, being a natural ora- 
tor. Travis' force was then occupying the barracks 
formerly used by the Mexicans and Spaniards on Mili- 
tary and Main Plazas. 

Meanwhile Houston evacuated Gonzales and with 
his army retreated east of the Colorado river, and 
some of those who had been at Gonzales with Hous- 
ton, twenty-seven in number, left Gonzales and march- 
ed into the Alamo mission to which the Texans had 
moved, driving with them sixty beeves and carrying 
considerable corn, some artillery and its ammunition 
in limited quantity and some powder and lead. The 
old chapel, or church, was used for a magazine. 
Arched openings in the Monastery portion were closed 
and it was used as a barracks. Cannon were placed 
within the enclosure, upon the roof of the Monastery 
and one of the Southwestern portions of the Chapel 
roof which part had not previously fallen in. Two 
other cannon were placed on platforms inside the 
church at the eastern extremity. 

Green B. Jemison, who had previously been an en- 
sign in the United States Navy, planned the defenses, 
closed the openings most likely to be breeched and di- 
rected the engineering work, sending to General Sam 
Houston a plat of his proposed defenses. 


Santa Anna had drawn closer and closer to the 
doomed defenders. His forces came in two columns, 
one from Laredo, where they had crossed the Rio 
Grande, headed by himself, and the other from Mata- 
moras, from where they had crossed that stream. San- 
ta Anna's combined troops effected a junction near the 
Concepcion Mission and marched into San Antonio 
over the ford at the foot of Navarro street, going 
into the western portion of the city, reaching here 
near sundown on February 22nd, 1836. 

Santa Anna made his headquarters in the old 
Yturri building at the northeast corner of Main Ave- 


nue and Main Plaza and hoisted his flag over the San 
Fernando Cathedral dome, then the loftiest edifice in 
that section of the city. He sent a message to Travis 
to unconditionally surrender, giving him six hours 
within which to do so, and to get all non-combatants 
out of the Alamo Mission. Travis' immediate reply 
was a well directed shot from the cannon he personal- 
ly commanded. This shot struck and knocked down 
the flag that Santa Anna had ordered hoisted on the 
San Fernando church, greatly incensing the dictator, 
who replaced it with a black flag. Meanwhile Travis 
wrote a proclamation, which he had read to his men, 
in which he announced his determination to remain 
where he was and perish if succor did not come to 
him. He stepped out in front of his men. With his 
sword he drew a line, saying: "All who will stay 
with me, step forward over this line. All who wish 
to leave remain where they are." All crossed over but 
one. Bowie directed that the cot on which he was, 
be carried over to where Travis was, Bowie being too 
weak to rise from it and walk over. The only one 
who failed to follow to Travis' side of the line was a 
person named Rose, who during the night was let out 
of a window, which was opened and quickly closed be- 
hind him. Rose was never afterward heard from, and 
it is highly probable he fell into the hands of Mexican 
soldiers watching the place and perished at their 
hands. Crockett is said to have urged Rose to re- 
main, fight and die with the others. Up to that time 
Rose had fought bravely as any of the rest and it was 
a surprise to his companions when Rose failed to cross 
over with them. 

The siege was hard and fierce, only interrupted by 
short periods of rest during which the firing on both 
sides ceased for brief spells, when the defenders were 
too exhausted to reload and fire and had to sleep. 
But always the defenders were on guard, watching 
their defenses and exposed portions. During the night 
of Saturday, March 5, Santa Anna called a council of 


all of his staff commanders and announced to them 
that at dawn of the following morning the final as- 
sault would be made, and that no quarter was to be 
shown to any adult male found in the garrison group. 
During several preceeding days he had permitted false 
information of a threatened attack to reach the garri- 
son, so as to keep them awake and to exhaust them. 
Travis and his men had but scant rest during the ten 
days they were defending the place. On Sunday 
morning with bands playing the "Deguillo" or "No 
Quarter" air, and flags flying, Santa Anna's troops 
marched in full force. Thrice they had assailed the 
place and been hurled back after the Tolucca battalion 
had made a breech in the north wall of the enclosure 
adjoining the Monastery on the northwest corner of 
that structure. Scaling ladders had been applied and 
those of the Mexicans who had manned them had fall- 
en back dead under the true aim of the defenders. 
Santa Anna personally urged and swore at his men. 
Travis was killed by a musket ball just as he had 
fired the last charge he had from his cannon as he 
exhausted his ammunition. He fell dead athwart his 
cannon on the Monastery roof. 


For an hour and a half the unequal struggle lasted. 
But the ammunition of the defenders, both for can- 
non and small arms, was then exhausted. Even then 
with their rifles clubbed, with beams and whatever 
other weapons they could wield, knives, swords or 
anything they could secure, they fought to the last. 
The women and children and some fifteen or twenty 
of the men sought refuge in the church into which 
Bowie's cot had been carried, and it was there the last 
stand was made after Crocket had perished in the 
open space between the Monastery and the church and 
almost in front of the church door, falling at the top 
of a heap of Mexican soldiers whom he had slain with 
his clubbed rifle. He was shot by one of the Mexi- 


cans just as he was dealing a death blow to another. 

Bowie died fighting on his cot, using his famous 
knife, made from a file, after exhausting all of his pis- 
tol ammunition. Lieutenant Dickenson, of the United 
States army, who with his wife and child, was in the 
Alamo, was among those who perished in the church, 
these two, Bowie and he, being the only ones of prom- 
inence known to have died in the church. Within 
twenty minutes after the Mexicans had effected an 
entrance into the church after killing all of the oth- 
ers in and about the Monastery and other portions 
of the church of the Mission premises, every male 
person over the age of ten years had been slain. The 
women, ten or twelve; of the children, eight in num- 
ber, were spared, among these being the wife and child 
of Lieutenant Dickenson, the latter being known as 
the "babe of the Alamo." Among the other women 
and children were the widow of a Mexican soldier, Es- 
parza, and her 8-year-old son, Enrique. The latter, 
now a very old man, is living in San Antonio, and in 
all likelihood is the only survivor of the Alamo. Mrs. 
JAlsberry, who afterwards married Jose Penaloza, was 
another of the women saved and spared, and Madam 
Candalaria, claimed to have been in the Alamo Mission 
during its siege and fall. 

But all who defended it fell. There were no sur- 
vivors of this combat. It has been truly said: 

"Thermopalae had her messenger of defeat. The 
Alamo had none." 

Besides the Americans and other Texans there 
were eight or ten Mexican sympathizers who had 
joined and remained with them, fighting to the last, 
and died with them. 


According to the roster, the following names of 
those who perished there, while defending the Alamo 
Mission were: 


Commanders: Col. James Bowie, Kentucky; Lieut. 
Col. W. B. Travis, South Carolina. 

Aide de Camp: Charles Despalier. 

Lieutenant Adjutant: J. G. Baugh. 

Master of Ordnance: Robert Evans (Ireland). 

Lieutenant Quartermaster: Elias Melton. 

Assistant Quartermasters: Anderson and Burnell. 

Sergeant Major: Williamson. 

Surgeons : D. Michison, Amos Pollard, Thompson. 

Colonels: J. Washington, Tennessee; J. B. Bonham, 
South Carolina. 

Captains: Forsyth, New York; Harrison, Tennes- 
see; William Blazeley, Louisiana; W. C. M. Baker, 
Mississippi; S. B. Evans, W. R. Carey, S. C. Blair, 
Texas; Gilmore, Tennessee; Robert White. 

Lieutenants: Almaron Dickenson, John Jones, Lou- 
isiana (N. O. Greys) ; George C. Kimbell. 

Ensign: Green B. Jemison, South Carolina. 

Privates: David Crockett, Texas; E. Nelson, Nacog- 
doches; Nelson, Texas; W. H. Smith, Georgia; 
Lewis Johnson, Pennsylvania ; E. T. Mitchell, Georgia ; 
F. Desangue, Pennsylvania; Thruston (or Thurston), 
Kentucky; Moore, Christopher Parker, Mississippi; 
C. Huskell (or Haskell) Moses Rose, Texas; John 
Blair, Texas; Kiddison (or Kedeson), Wm. Wells, 
Tennessee; E. Cummings, Pennsylvania; Valentine 
(or Vuluntine) , Cockran, S. Hallaway, Isaac White, 
Day, Robert Muselman, New Orleans; Robert 
Grossman, New Orleans; I. G. Garrett, New Orleans; 
Robert B. Moore, New Orleans; Richard Starr, Eng- 
land; Richard Dimkin, England; W. Linn, Massachu- 
setts; Hutchinson, W. Johnson, Pennsylvania; E. 
Nelson, Geo. Tumlinson, William Deardoff, Daniel 
Bourne, England; Ingram, England; W. T. Lewis, 
Wales; Chas. Zanco, Denmark; Jas. L. Ewing, Robert 
Cunningham, S. Burns, Ireland ; George Neggin, South 
Carolina; Robinson, Scotland; Harris, Ken- 
tucky; John Flanders, Isaac Ryan, Opelousas; David 
Wilson, Texas; John M. Hayes, Tennessee; Stuart, 


Navidad, Texas; W. K. Simpson, New Orleans; W. D. 
Southerland, Texas; D. W. Howell, New Orleans; 
Butler, Chas. B. Smith, McGregor, Scotland; 
Rusk, Hawkins, Ireland; Samuel Holloway, 
Brown, T. Jackson, Ireland, Johnson Linley, Mecahjah 
r Autrey, Lewis Duel. 

There was also the Gonzales contingent, who en- 
tered the Alamo on the eighth day of the seige, under 
command of Lieutenant Kimbell. These were James 
George, Dolphin Ward, Tom Jackson, G. W. Cottle, 
Andrew Kent, Thos. R. Miller, Isaac Baker, William 
King, Jesse McCoy, Claiborne Wright, William Fish- 
back, Isaac Millsapps, Galba Fuqua, John Davis, Al- 
bert Martin, William Fuhbach (or Fabaigh), John, 
B. A. M. Thomas, John G. King, Isaac Durst, M. L. 
Sewell, Robert White, A. Devault, John Harris, Da- 
vid Kent, and William E. Summers, who also perished. 
It is stated that an American, D. W. Cloud, perished 

Elijio Losoya, Jose M. Cabrera, the two Esparzas, 
father and son, Jose Maria Ximenes and a man named 
Jacinto, as well as several other Mexican men whose 
names do not appear on the list, who were either em- 
ployes of the garrison, or members of it, likewise died 
there during its siege and fall. 


It was a terrible slaughter and merciless savagery 
butchery done under the pretext of warfare. When it 
was done the disposition of the dead was almost as 
summary as their deaths had been accomplished. The 
corpses of the defenders were placed on two funeral 
pyres, each sixty feet long and ten feet high, located 
on what was then known as the Alameda, each on op- 
posite sides of it. One pyre was where the Ludlow 
house, and the building adjoining it on the East now 
stand. The other pyre occupied a portion of the site 
of the recently erected Halff building on East Com- 
merce street almost diagonally opposite. 


Alternate layers of wood and corpses were placed 
and the whole saturated with grease, principally tal- 
low, after which the torch was applied to the two 
pyres. They burned for three days, during which 
time the bodies of the brave and immortal heroes were 
so completely incinerated that nothing of them was 
left but a few of the bones and parts of several 
skulls. The wind scattered the ashes to all points of 
the compass. 

Some of the bones were buried, but no one seems 
to know exactly where, although some ascribe the 
spot to the place where the remains of Gillespie and 
Walker, killed in Mexico in an expedition that oc- 
curred some time later. Others claim that they were 
placed in a single coffin and buried in San Fernando 
Cathedral, beneath the portion near the altar, but the 
records of this church do not disclose such informa- 
tion. Those bones, which were buried, in all likeli- 
hood, were interred very close to the pyres and at the 
spots indicated, such as were given burial being frag- 

While the slaughter of the Texans had been com- 
plete they did not die before dealing terribly with 
their executioners' forces. Santa Anna's force is 
said to have amounted to between six and seven thou- 
sand picked men and seasoned soldiers, of whom fully 
two thousand were killed outright or so badly wounded 
they died soon after, for the aim of the Texans was 
sure, and they wasted but little of their ammunition. 

After the battle Santa Anna was confronted not 
only with the problem of disposing of his dead oppon- 
ents which he did as described, summarily, but of get- 
ting rid of his own slain. At first attempts were 
made to bury them, but the task was so huge that 
most of the bodies of the Mexican troops were thrown 
into the San Antonio river, and for days choked its 
flow and lodged in its bends, causing a great stench 
that permeated the atmosphere for days and even 
weeks after the siege was over. 


Santa Anna, in his official reports, endeavored to 
create the impression that his loss had been small and 
was greatly exceeded by that of his adversaries. He 
even went so far as to give the number of the Tex- 
ans slain as 600 when there were less than 200 of 
them in the town. He placed his own loss at less than 
a hundred, although the Alcalde Ruiz, who had charge 
of the disposition of the dead Mexicans, gave their 
number as exceeding 2000. 


Santa Anna detached a portion of his force, which 
he placed under the command of Ugartachea and sent 
them almost immediately after the fall of the Alamo 
to Goliad to deal similarly with the force of Texans 
there under Captain J. W. Fannin. Under false pre- 
tenses Fannin's men were lured from their fortress 
and after being surrounded on the prairie surrender- 
ed, under assurance of Ugartachea of being treated 
as prisoners of war and allowed to return to their 
homes, but the next day after the surrender, all but 
a very small number, less than twenty, were taken 
out and massacred, having first been disarmed. 


Santa Anna rested in San Antonio for a short time, 
during which he obtained reinforcements and was re- 
joined by Ugartachea. Then he marched with his 
combined columns in pursuit of the retreating Tex- 
ans commanded by Houston. 

Four days before the fall of the Alamo, the Con- 
vention held at the town of Washington had declared 
Texas a free and independent nation and Republic 
with Burnett as President and de Zavala as vice presi- 

But soon after the holding of this convention the 
news of the disaster at San Antonio and Goliad was 


received, and the seat of government removed from 
Washington to Harrisburg. Houston's army had 
reached the Brazos and crossed that stream, Santa 
'Anna having gained on him. Santa Anna annihilated 
the small settlement of Anahuac and proceeding on so 
closely pressing Houstons army that it by forced 
marches with difficulty reached the bayou of San Ja~ 
cinto, beyond which Houston's troops which had be- 
come mutinous, refused to longer retreat. 

President Burnet had narrowly escaped capture in 
flight from Harrisburg in a small boat to Galveston. 
Fortunately Houston's quartermaster, Raquet, had 
captured from Santa Anna' train a considerable quan- 
tity of provisions and some beeves, this being the first 
food the Texans had eaten for two days during their 
retreat. Houston rode up and down their line, ha- 
ranguing them and promising them to give them all 
the fighting they wanted within a few hours. He 
began to make preparations for battle. Over-confi- 
dent, Santa Anna took his usual afternoon siesta, as 
did his staff and most of his soldiers. The others 
were busy with camp, culinary and other routine 
duties not of military character. They were very 
loosely guarding their camp. Sherman and Lamar, 
receiving Houston's permission, made a feint with 
cavalry to draw a charge from the enemy, who fell 
into the trap and charged close up to Houston's lines, 
when the Texans opened up on them with two pieces 
of artillery known as the "Twin Sisters," hurling the 
Mexicans back upon their own camp in confusion. 
The Texans followed them in close pursuit, shouting 
their battle-cry: "Remember the Alamo!" "Remem- 
ber Goliad!" The Mexicans were awakened from 
slumber, and most of them fled in confusion into the 
swamps and morasses. Many were killed and wound- 
ed and the balance taken prisoners, except a very 
small force which escaped and swiftly marched back 
to San Antonio. The victory of the Texans was com- 
plete. Three days later Santa Anna, disguised in a 


dirty white suit and straw hat, was captured and 
brought in. Houston was being dressed when Santa 
Anna was brought before him. Santa Anna made a 
weak attempt to explain the butchery at the Alamo and 
the massacre at Goliad. Houston's staff and soldiers 
clamored for Santa Anna's execution, but Houston 
magnanimously spared Santa Anna's life, released him 
on his parole and permitted him to go, after Santa 
Anna had recognized the new Texas Repuolic. But 
Santa Anna, as his brother-in-law Cos had done be- 
fore, and was captured again at San Jacinto, broke 
his parole and agreement and did not remain idle 
long. He and the shattered remnants of his power- 
ful army of fully 4,000 men, which had been defeated 
by about 700 Texans, went back to Mexico, from 
whence Santa Anna sent his legions back again to 
San Antonio. 


Meanwhile, the Indians had become very trouble- 
some. They had murdered many settlers, carried off 
their stock and some of their children, and were get- 
ting bolder all the time. They had violated three 
different promises to restore the captives after re- 
ceiving ransom money, ammunition and other gifts. 
On March 18, 1840, sixty-five Comanche Indians came 
into San Antonio, bringing with them three children 
captives, Mary Lockhart, a white boy named Webster, 
and a Mexican boy, and claimed the ransom that had 
been promised if they should return all of the captives 
they had taken. They were told they must bring 
in all of the captives, and that until they did so seven 
of their chiefs and warriors would be held as hostages. 
Immediately they set upon the whites and slew several 
before the latter realized the turn affairs had taken. 
The whites then began to shoot down the Indians, 
who were attempting to escape, and killed most of 
them, except some squaws and the hostages being 


held, very few escaping. One squaw was sent back to 
notify the tribe of what had occurred and to tell its 
head to return the balance of the captives. When the 
squaw appeared and told the tidings, the Indians set 
upon all of the captives, but two, who had been 
adopted by childless chiefs, slew them and were so 
incensed against the Texans after that they never at- 
tempted to enter into any other treaty with them at 
San Antonio, and never came back except on forays. 


Defeat had rankled in the breasts of Santa Anna 
and his cohorts. They had been very bitter over the 
loss of territory and still claimed all Texas west of 
the Colorado River. In 1842 a force of 600 men, 
under Vasquez, was mustered by Santa Anna and sent 
back to San Antonio, with instructions to recapture 
this city. Vasquez and his troops arrived on March 
5, 1842, and demanded of Colonel Jack Hays, in com- 
mand of the Texas garrison, the surrender of San 
Antonio. Hays' force was so much smaller than that 
of Vasquez it was deemed prudent for it to retire and 
permit Vasquez to take formal possession, which these 
Mexicans did. They did not molest the citizens or 
their property and only remained two days, or long 
enough to rest their force, when they retired and 
returned to Mexico, doubtless realizing it would not 
take long for the Texans to send a force sufficient to 
drive them out or capture the invaders. 

No more Mexican troops came back to San Antonio 
until September, 1842, when, on the 10th of that 
month the Mexican General Waul, or Woll, arrived 
with a force of 1,500. The day was foggy and the 
inhabitants did not realize the immense disparity in 
numbers between themselves and the enemy. The 
Texans fired on the Mexicans, killing twelve and 
wounding several, whereupon Waul promptly sent 
Colonel Carasco under a flag of truce to demand the 
immediate and unconditional surrender of the city. 


Samuel A. Maverick, Sr., Jones and Van Ness were 
cent out to parley with Carasco and Waul, who would 
hear no explanation and held them prisoners. The 
ans were very indignant and, mustering as many 
men as they could, marched out and were attacked by 
the Mexicans. In the brief engagement that followed 
the Texans were enabled to escape without serious 
loss, after inflicting heavy loss on Waul's troops, who 
entered the city. 

The Texans camped in a ravine near the Salado 
and Waul sent out a large force next morning to at- 
tack and dislodge them. 


This force intercepted and attacked a force of thir- 
ty-three Texans under the command of Captain Daw- 
son on their way to join forces with Captain Caldwell. 
Dawson and most of his men were killed in the fight 
that then occurred, only two of Dawson's men escap- 
ing, but they killed many of the Mexicans. Dawson, 
who had fought at San Jacinto, raised a flag of truce 
to make terms of surrender, but the Mexicans would 
not recognize the flag and slew those bearing it and 
all others they encountered. 


Maverick, Jones, Twohig, Trueheart, Van Ness and 
some sixty other well-known citizens and officials of 
San Antonio were arrested, marched off on foot next 
day by Waul and his troops to Mexico. They were 
placed in Perote Prison, where they were held for 
more than two years and until their release was 
finally secured through the instrumentality of the 
American Ambassador, General Waddy Thompson, 
Twohig, one of them, having cleverly made his escape 
with several others by tunneling through the stone 


wall, swimming the moat and taking a carriage to 
Vera Cruz, from whence he took passage on a vessel 
and got away. 

Meanwhile, "Big Foot" Wallace and several San 
Antonians, who had joined what was known as "the 
Mier expedition/* had been captured by the Mexicans 
and carried to the prison at Mier, where a lottery of 
life and death was held. For every ten white beans 
placed in a small sack a black bean was placed, the 
total number of beans placed in the sack equaling the 
total number of the prisoners. Those who drew the 
white beans were given their lives, but the ones who 
drew the black ones suffered death. Wallace drew a 
white bean, but magnanimously gave it to a boy pris- 
oner, who had drawn a black one. His act of chiv- 
alry won such admiration that Wallace, too, was 
given his life. A monument erected at La Grange, 
from which place several members of the Mier expe- 
dition went to death, honors the memory and contains 
the names of all of those who perished in this terrible 


Texas remained a nation nine years and in 1845 was 
annexed by consent of her people to the United States 
as one of her states. Out of this annexation and resent- 
ment of it by Mexico and frequent depredations by 
Mexico upon the people and property of this state the 
United States reluctantly w as embroiled and precipi- 
tated the Mexican war, which lasted for nearly three 
years. During this war but two of the prominent en- 
gagements were fought on Texas soil. These were the 
battles of Palo Alto, or "Tall Tree," and Resaca de la 
Palma, or the "Palm Tree Bayou," both between Point 
Ysabel and Brownsville, on the Mexican border, and in 
both of which the United States was victorious, as in all 
other prominent battles of that war on Mexican soil. 

Mexico was compelled to cede to the United States 


not only all of the territory previously wrested from her 
by the Texans, but upper California, Arizona and New 

Up to this time San Antonio had been under the 
Spanish, French, the Constitutionalist, the Mexican and 
the Texas Republic flags and then came under the 
United States "Star Spangled Banner." 


Among the states to early secede from the American 
Federation was the Lone Star State, and San Antonio 
went then under the star and bar flag of the Southern 
Confederacy. The Federal commander, General Twiggs, 
surrendered the city to the Confederate Commissioners, 
Maverick, Devine and Luckett, being permitted to 
march his force out with their arms. Many of the 
United States army officers stationed in Texas had pre- 
viously resigned their commands and joined those of 
the Confederacy, most prominent among these being 
Robert E. Lee, Albert Sidney Johnston, Hood and Van 
Dorn, who became general officers and conspicuous 
figures in history. Lee and Johnston had been sta- 
tioned in San Antonio and left here to join the forces 
of the Confederacy. 

By a singular coincidence the last battle of the Civil 
War, as the first one in the Mexican War had been, 
was fought on Texas soil and the two battlefields were 
but very few miles apart, both near Point Ysabel. The 
last battle, which resulted in success for the Confed- 
erates, took place nearly three weeks after Lee had 
surrendered to Grant at Appomatox, of which fact the 
Confederate forces were ignorant and probably the 
Federals as well, the successful Confederate command- 
er, Colonel "Rip" Ford, receiving the tidings of the 
downfall of the Confederacy by courier several days 
after his victory, the news coming by courier, there 
then being no telegraphic communication in that re- 



While there was no fighting in San Antonio during 
it, she contributed very prominent contingents to the 
Spanish-American War. It was here that the Rough 
Riders, Colonel Roosevelt's command, was organized, 
as were the First Texas United States Volunteer Cav- 
alry and the Thirty-third U. S. Volunteer Infantry, 
both commanded by Colonel Luther R. Hare and the 
latter figuring prominently in the Philippine campaign. 
The Belknap Rifles and San Antonio Zouaves formed 
two very conspicuous and active companies in the First 
Texas U. S. Volunteer Infantry in Cuba and several of 
the regiments of regulars were recruited to full strength 
here before going to the field during that brief but de- 
cisive campaign. Garesche Ord, the brave young offi- 
cer who was treacherously stabbed by a Spaniard while 
giving him a drink from Ord's canteen, as the latter 
bent over the Spaniard, was a San Antonian. The first 
troops to fight in the Philippines were soldiers sent 
from San Antonio. In proportion to her population she 
contributed more troops to this war than did any other 
city of the Union, just as she had during the Civil War. 


The Famous Missions 


The Alamo 
Mission Concepcion 
Mission 5an Jose 
Mission 5an Juan 
Mission De La Lspada 
5an Fernando Cathedral 




All of the old missions located in this vicinity were 
established by the Franciscan Friars, monks of the 
Catholic faith, who came to this vicinity first about 
1690 or 1691. The Alamo, or Mission of San Antonio 
de Valero, being the first one founded. Its history has 
been previously given in this Guide. 

There is a chain of these old Missions along the San 
Antonio river extending all the way from San Antonio 
as far as Kef ugio, the Mission of La Bahia, at Goliad, 
being the most historic after the Alamo, on account of 
being the place where Fannin's force was located and 
from whence its members were marched out to be mas- 
sacred shortly after the garrison of the Alamo had been 


The title of this mission is El Mission de la Nuestra 
Senora de la Concepcion Purissima de Acuna, having 
been named after the Virgin Mary and the Spanish 
Viceroy, Don Juan de Acuna. It is generally alluded to 
as the Second Mission, the Alamo being the first. It 
was built in 1731, the style of architecture in it, as in 
all others, having originally been Moresque. It faces 
the west and has twin towers, each with belfries. Above 
the main portal the coat of arms is contained in a tri- 
angle. The stone work is covered with cement. The 
altar is of stone and there is a large baptismal fount in 
the south room near the main entrance. This building, 
as has been the case with all^of its companions, the other 
missions groups, has been denuded of most of its orna- 
mental features by the impious hands of vandals who 
have carried away many of the characteristic objects. 


The church of this mission is joined by a pile of other 
buildings in which the monks and their protoges lodged 
and worked. A large irrigation ditch ran through the 
grounds and watered the soil which was tilled by them* 
The entire establishment was originally surrounded by 
a high stone wall, which was a protection against hos- 
tile Indians, as well as a means of holding the live stock 
and separating them from the gardens and crops. Ir- 
rigation was extensively practiced in those days. The 
monks raised all of their own vegetables and also mar- 
keted the surplus in the settlements about them. 

Numerous engagements occurred in and around this 
and the other missions in this vicinity, most of them 
having been encounters with hostile Indians. Some 
of them were conflicts between the Spaniards and 
French, and others occurred during the war between 
the Texans and Mexicans, the most memorable of the 
latter having been the battle described in a previous 

The force of Ugartachea, one of Santa Anna's 
generals, camped there on the way to San Antonio 
and when it came to Goliad. The Texans camped 
there during several periods of their revolution. It 
is two and a half miles below the city and east of the 
San Antonio River. 


or the third mission, whose proper title is "El Mission 
de San Jose de Aguayo," is named for St. Joseph and 
the Spanish governor, the Marquis de Aguayo. It 
was originally the most beautiful of all of these mis- 
sions. It was designed by the famous Spanish archi- 
tect and sculptor, Huisar. There was a profusion of 
statuary representing the Holy Family in niches on 
the front, as well as in the interior of the church, but 
vandals either destroyed or carried away all of them 
and almost everything else they could take away. 
This mission was founded in 1720, but was not com- 



< u 

u 5 


pleted until 1728. It is situated on the west side of 
and about half a mile from the San Antonio River. 
It is about six miles south of San Antonio. A window 
in the the south wall is considered the most beautiful 
specimen of architecture in the United States and has 
been copied in many modern structures. Most of the 
buildings forming the group comprising this mission 
are of stone and concrete, but a portion of it, consist- 
ing of a series of numerous arches, is made of red 
brick, probably the first kiln-baked brick ever manu- 
factured hereabouts. The clay from which they were 
made came undoubtedly from the vicinity of the Me- 
dina River, about seven miles distant. 

This mission has a single tower, which was origi- 
nally reached by a massive oak spiral stairway, which 
has disappeared (and is said to have been stolen and 
sold to someone in New York for $1,000). There was 
also a cedar ladder, which likewise has been stolen 
and has gone, no one knows where. This tower was 
used as a lookout to avoid surprises by Indians. It 
was used for this purpose as late as 1878 of the last 
century. From it an excellent view of San Antonio 
and the surrounding country can be obtained, but it 
is difficult now to reach the tower. This mission had 
the largest church of any except the chapel of the 
Alamo had, but the church is now in ruins and the 
mass is celebrated in one of the smaller rooms. There 
is a settlement of about 200 inhabitants around it, 
nearly all of them Mexicans, who labor in the fields 
or are teamsters in the vicinity. 


The next, or fourth, mission is that whose title is 
"El Mission de San Juan de Capistrano," named for 
St. John and founded in 1716. It is in a ruinous state, 
but enough of the group, and especially the chapel, is 
left to show its original contour. It is in the river 
valley and almost on the edge of the San Antonio 


River's west bank, near what was formerly Berg's 
Mill, about nine miles south of San Antonio. 


The fifth, or last, of the old Franciscan missions, 
in the immediate vicinity of San Antonio, is the one 
about eleven miles south of the city and also on the 
west side of the river, and known as the Espada Mis- 
sion. Its proper title is the Mission of St. Francis of 
the Sword ("San Francisca de Espada"). It is said 
originally to have been located on the Medina River, 
about three miles west of its present location, and to 
have been built there in 1698, but this is not authenti- 
cated by the records of the Catholic Church. It was 
built on its present site in 1716, destroyed by the In- 
dians, and rebuilt in 1730. It is in a very dilapidated 
state, and Bishop Shaw, the Catholic bishop of the 
San Antonio diocese, is making efforts to secure the 
restoration and preservation of this and all of the 
other missions named which belong to the church. If 
this can be done, a grand work will have been accom- 
plished. These missions should be zealously guarded 
against the hands of relic-hunters and other vandals. 

The four missions below the city can be reached 
either by hacks or autos. Large tourist cars make 
regular trips to them daily, twice a day, and the mis- 
sions are open to the public. Accompanying these 
tourist automobiles are persons who attempt to give 
the histories of the missions, but what they do not 
know about San Antonio and her missions and their 
history is amazing. One of the glaring misstatements 
is that these missions are connected by underground 
tunnels. All of the missions have cellars, or under- 
ground chambers, but none of them are connected by 
subterranean chambers or passages. Occasionally, 
when excavations are made in and around the city, 
conduits are found, 'which were originally the ditches 
(or acequias) used for irrigation purposes in the city 


and at and around the missions. These ditches were 
all walled and the bottoms lined with stone to keep 
them from eroding. These ditches have been mis- 
taken for underground passages, about which numer- 
ous grewsome and purely imaginary stories have been 

A Catholic church, which has been confounded with 
the missions, is the old San Fernando Church, now 
the Catholic Cathedral. Originally it was all of Mo- 
resque architecture, but the front portion was de- 
stroyed by fire. When that portion was rebuilt, mod- 
ern and composite architecture was substituted. The 
church presents the novel spectacle of the blending of 
the two styles. One portion of the edifice dates back 
to the year 1732, while the other is a little over half 
a century old; and part of it, one of the towers, has 
not been built more than a double decade. 

It is the geographical center of the city of San An- 
tonio, and from its original single tower the flags of 
Spain, France, Mexico, and first the red and then the 
black flag of Santa Anna floated. Beneath its altar 
some of the church dignitaries and Spanish officials 
were buried many years ago. The remains of some of 
these still repose there. The interior of this church 
is handsome. It has several specimens of sculpture 
and many paintings of sacred subjects, and the main 
altar is an artistic piece of workmanship. The other 
subsidiary altars are also ornamented elaborately, and 
this is the largest and handsomest of all of the many 
Catholic churches in San Antonio. In it are kept the 
Catholic baptismal and funeral records of the city 
parishioners of this church for the past century and 
three-quarters. For many years the priests and the 
bishops lived in rooms above the rear portion of the 
church, but when Bishop J. C. Neraz succeeded Bishop 
Pellicer the residence of the priests was removed to 
where St. Theresa's School on Dwyer Avenue now is. 
Bishop Shaw has his residence at Santa Rosa In- 



What is known as "El Capilla de las Miragolas" or 
"Chapel of Miracles" is another quite interesting place 
for visitors to inspect. It is located on Ruiz Street 
not far from San Pedro Creek and North Laredo 
Street. It can be reached by the West End car line, 
leaving the car as it turns into Ruiz Street. Many 
miracles are ascribed to this old Chapel. Formerly it 
was located on Dolorosa Street near Main Plaza, but 
the property on which it was originally situated was 
sold in the sixty's of the last century. Soon after- 
wards it was removed to its present location. There 
at all times devotees may be seen in attitudes of 
prayer supplicating for some Devine gift for them- 
selves or others. Many valuable votive offerings 
have been made to this Chapel by persons whose pray- 
ers have been said to have been answered or should 
have been desirous of having them granted. The 
structure is small, not more than thirty feet in 
breadth and forty feet in length. Its altar ornaments 
are handsome. Candles constantly burn on the altars, 
these candles being votive offerings of the pious flock 
in attendance. 


One of the very interesting objects to be seen in 
the vicinity of San Antonio is the old aqueduct built 
by the Spanish monks to carry water from one of the 
irrigation ditches across and above the San Antonio 
River. This aqueduct, or flume, is located about ten 
miles below the city and a short distance this side of 
the Espada Mission. It is between that mission and 
the San Juan Mission, and is in a good state of repair. 

In the days when the missions were founded, and 
for many years thereafter, water was much more valu- 
able about here than land. The land then only became 
valuable by reason of the service performed by the 


system of acequias, or irrigation ditches, in furnishing 
water for use in connection with the cultivation of the 
land. The irrigation ditches took water from the San 
Antonio River and the San Pedro, both of which were 
then great, bold streams, furnishing many millions of 
gallons of water per day to these acequias, besides the 
immense flow that formed their main volume. 

The system of ditches was elaborate and efficient, 
furnishing not only aqueduct and ditch an abundance 
of water for the communities in the missions proper, 
but for the settlements around them and about the 
city. Cultivation by means of this irrigation was car- 
ried on extensively and many vegetable products were 
profitably grown. 

Each tract of land along the ditches had water 
rights, entitling the owner to so many hours of water 
service during the month ; and these water rights were 
very valuable. The tolls for the water service were 
collected by the Spanish Government, later by the 
Mexican and finally by the Texas and local officials. 
The cultivation of various substances by artificial 
means was practiced in San Antonio until the water 
supply was sapped so that the river and ditches al- 
most ceased to flow and the volume of the flow shrunk 
to insignificance. The ditches were then pronounced 
a menace to public health. Most of them were aban- 
doned and filled up. Much of the land that was culti- 
vated by means of irrigation in San Antonio was con- 
verted into city lots and dwellings and other buildings 
erected on them. Wherever irrigation is now con- 
ducted in and around the city, it is done by means of 
artesian wells. The artesian wells have entirely sup- 
planted the irrigation ditches. The artesian wells 
furnish water for all purposes, household as well as 
cultivation, and the old irrigation ditches have become 
but a memory. 

The ditches were in use before San Antonio had any 
other waterworks system. The water then was pure and 
undefiled. It was as clear and sparkling as crystal. 


People drank it and used it in connection with culi- 
nary purposes. It was a very serious offense to cast 
any object into the river, the creek or any of the 
ditches, and such offense was always punished by 
heavy fine and frequently by imprisonment. The 
volume of all the streams was so large, and the flow 
so bold, that they purified themselves and kept sweet 
and healthful. 

A profusion of fruits and an abundance of vege- 
tables grew wherever irrigation was practiced, and 
those who cultivated them made excellent profits. For- 
merly San Antonio raised all of the vegetables and 
fruits sold in her markets. 

Many beautiful flowers grew along the banks of the 
streams and irrigation ditches. They were fragrant 
and delighted the people on whose premises they 
grew, as well as the passerby. 

The principal ditches were the Madre (or Mother 
ditch) , the Upper and Lower Labor ditches, the Apa- 
latchie, the Alazan, the Flores Street, the Alamo, the 
San Pedro and others, which, together with their lat- 
erals or branches, formed a system aggregating sev- 
eral hundred miles in length. 

It seems a great pity that such a mammoth and 
magnificent system has been almost entirely obliter- 
ated. These ditches added considerably to the reve- 
nue of the city, as well as to the profit of those own- 
ing property contiguous to them. But they are gone 
irretrievably. Only the ruins of them are to be seen 
occasionally. Formerly they defined boundary lines, 
which are apt to become confused since these ditches 
have been filled and their sources effaced. 

There was a charm about them that can not be re- 
placed, even by the artesian waterflow. The older in- 
habitants associate them with recollections of pros- 
perity that prevailed during the time when the ditches 
and purses of the populace both were full. 



The families of the settlers from the Canary Islands 
were allotted grants for residences around the three 
sides of the Main Plaza and the east and south sides 
of the Military Plaza. The north side of the Main, as 
well as the north and west sides of the Military Plazas, 
having originally been reserved for the residences and 
establishments of the military forces and the civil and 
military officials of the city during the Spanish and 
Mexican dominations. 

The original name given the Main Plaza was that 
of "El Plaza de las Islas," or the Plaza of the Islands, 
in honor of those who came from the Canaries. Among 
the old Spanish families who lived about the Military 
Plaza, or "Plaza de las Armas," were the Flores, Del- 
gados, Perez, Rodriguez, Urrutia and Bargas; while 
about the Main Plaza lived the descendants of the 
Bethancpurts, Arochas, Cubelos, Leals, Guardos, An- 
ieze, Alina, D'Armas, Montez de Ocha, Rosas, Mar- 
tinez, Bustillos, De Sotos, Yturri, Granados and Bar- 
rera, and others. Most of their houses have disap- 
peared and given place to modern structures, but there 
are still a very few of the original and ancient adobe 
structures of the Spaniards, but they are doomed to 
soon disappear. 

None of the original Spanish structures are left on 
Alamo Plaza except the portions of the Alamo Mis- 
sion still standing, on the east side and at the north- 
east corner, all others having given way to the modern 
edifices filling that ancient plaza. 

Fragments of the early homes of the American 
residents remain in some quarters of the city. Among 
these is what is left of the old Jaques residence, at 
the corner of Soledad and Travis Streets, which was 
also the home of the Cupples family. 

The old house formerly owned by Don Antonio 
Chavez, bearing the shot and bullet marks of the 
combat between Milam's and Cos* forces, is still stand- 


ing at Obraje and North Flores Streets, and some few 
other old residences yet remain as they originally were 
built. But most of them have vanished like the Vera- 
medi Palace, the home of the Garzas, and the dwellings 
of other old-time residents. 


Originally the city cemetery of San Antonio was 
located where Milam Square now is. At first it was 
devoted exclusively to burial of Catholics, who com- 
prised then almost the entire population, but later the 
remains of Ben R. Milam and others of different re- 
ligious faiths were placed there. For a long time this 
was considered so far out of town as to render it 
unsafe for a small number of persons to go there, 
on account of the pernicious activity of Indians. But 
later, as the city grew, the Catholics removed many 
of their dead from this locality to the San Fernando 
Cemetery, west of the Alazan Creek and about a mile 
and a quarter southwest of San Fernando Cathedral. 
Later on the Catholics established another cemetery in 
the eastern portion of the city and called it St. Mary's 
Cemetery, it having been established by the members 
of the congregation of St. Mary's Church, although 
the dead of St. Joseph's and other Catholic churches 
are buried there. 




Historical sketch of Military Headquarters 
of Department of Texas, varied sec- 
tions, Hospital, Chapel donated 
by citizens, Arsenal, Ltc. 




Military matters have always figured prominently at 
San Antonio, ever since the coming of the Spaniards, 
who were the first to recognize it as a strategic point. 
Its importance in this regard has been appreciated by 
the United States Government ever since the Mexican 
War. Troops have been mustered and maintained and 
often mobilized here for emergencies. For some years 
the Government, from 1849 to 1878, leased from the 
Catholic Church the old Alamo Mission as a depot for 
military supplies. The old Vance property, where the 
Gunter Hotel now is, was where the barracks were 
until the United States made its first purchase of 
property on what is known as Government Hill. The 
first barracks built by the Government were of lum- 
ber and erected in the rear of the quarters of the 
Department Commander, back from Grayson Street, 
while the Quartermaster's quadrangle was the first 
depot for supplies constructed. Originally, the Gov- 
ernment invested about $100,000 in the barracks and 
depot. Later it acquired what is termed "the Upper 
Post." Then the name, Fort Sam Houston, was 
given the army post here, and by this title it has been 
known ever since. Later it acquired a large tract of 
land directly north of the Department officers' quar- 
ters and the Quartermaster's quadrangle, and still 
later the large tract directly east of the Cavalry and 
Artillery barracks, and has converted the latter into 
an immense maneuver ground and camp site for the 
troops in cases of emergency. It also purchased in 
the vicinity of Leon Springs a large tract of land for 
military maneuvers and target practice. The Govern- 


ment has something like $10,000,000 invested in land 
and buildings in and about San Antonio. The first 
military structure built here by the United States Gov- 
ernment was the Arsenal on South Flores Street, 
erected shortly after the close of the Civil War. Prior 
to that time the arsenal had been located near the 
river south of Houston Street, back of where the Book 
Building now stands. The military headquarters had 
been in the Veramendi Palace. Later it was in the 
French Building at Dolorosa Street and Dwyer Ave- 
nue, and finally in the Maverick Hotel, from whence 
it was removed to the present location when the quad- 
rangle was built. Until the advent of railroads, many 
military posts on the frontier were garrisoned, this 
being necessary on account of incursions by predatory 
savages and desperadoes infesting that region. The 
railways was the great civilizers that drove away the 
red man and the bad man. Then it became the policy 
of Uncle Sam to concentrate troops here for use when 
needed at other points to which they can be dis- 
patched by rail. 

During the Spanish-American War, San Antonio 
was a very important recruiting station. Just before 
that period the military department of Texas had been 
abolished and the department headquarters removed 
to Atlanta. Soon after the Spanish-American cam- 
paign the department was restored. Recently, San 
Antonio has become the headquarters of a military 
division instead of a brigade headquarters. 

The United States Government expends a great deal 
of money here for provisions and other supplies of 
various kinds for its troops and animals. It also pays 
out several millions yearly to the troops and civilian 
employes on duty in connection with the military serv- 
ice here, most of this money being spent in the city of 
San Antonio. 


Among the most interesting spectacles to be seen 

here are the parades, guard mounts and other mili- 
tary functions held at Fort Sam Houston, which are 
greatly enjoyed by the thousands of spectators who 
witness them. Most of them can be seen without hav- 
ing to walk very far from the street cars, but when 
they are held on the grand parade grounds, autos and 
other vehicles carry the visitors to the vicinity where 
they occur. 

Usually, there is a general muster and grand review 
at the end of each month, given on the maneuver 
grounds, when all of the troops on duty, several thou- 
sand in number and of all arms of the service, are 
paraded and march in review before the division com- 

Many military chieftains who have acquired world- 
wide fame have served in San Antonio and at the 
frontier posts west and south of here. Among them 
have been Generals Zachariah Taylor, Harney, U. S. 
Grant, Fred D. Grant, David Twiggs, Robert E. Lee, 
Kirby Smith, Hood, Albert Sydney Johnston, Merritt, 
Worth, Reynolds, E. O. C. Ord, Shafter, Mackenzie, 
Stanley, Phil Sheridan, W. T. Sherman, Lawton, 
Wheaton, MacArthur, Zenas, Bliss, McKibbin, Gra- 
ham, Whitesidese, Hare, J. G. C. Lee and others. 

Prior to and during the Madero Mexican revolution 
10,000 troops of various arms of the service were 
quartered here and remained for several months. They 
maneuvered extensively and were equipped with sup- 
plies necessay for actual warfare. Among the most 
interesting features of the maneuvers were the avia- 
tion scouts of the Signal Corps branch of the service. 
The first dispatches to be carried in regular military 
service by aeroplane were those taken between San 
Antonio and Leon Springs. Signaling from aeroplanes 
was also done satisfactorily, and also photographing 
from them at high altitudes. 

Always the military in San Antonio figures in her 
pageantry, giving color and brilliance to it and add- 


ing to its spectacular effects. One of the very impor- 
tant elements in the city's existence is the military 

San Antonio is soon to become the largest military 
post in the Union. Even now she is only second in 
size to the largest. When an additional purchase of 
property, soon to be made, has been accomplished, her 
military area will be greater than any other. 




To Laurel Heights, Head 
of the River, Government 
Hill, the Hot Wells and 
other suburban resorts 




San Antonio has very many beautiful suburbs. Most 
of them are accessible by street car. All of them are 
accessible by auto, and all are interesting. Many of 
them are very beautiful and well worthy of visiting. 
Probably the most beautiful of all of the suburban 
additions to San Antonio is Alamo Heights. It is 
northeast of the city and just above the head of the 
San Antonio River. It is traversed by the Alamo 
Heights- West End car line and is reached by way of 
River Avenue and by passing Brackenridge Park. 

There are several fine driveways to and through it. 
Among these is the fine roadway through Bracken- 
ridge Park and over the Heights to the Olmos. These 
driveways are shaded by the forest oaks and other 
trees that grow in the park and on the Heights. One 
of the drives leads to the Country Club and its golf 
grounds. Another fine driveway reaching Alamo 
Heights by the Country Club is one going out over 
New Braunfels Avenue. There are many handsome 
residences in this suburb. From it a splendid view of 
San Antonio can be obtained and also an excellent one 
of the military posts and parade grounds. 


Another very handsome subdivision is Laurel 
Heights. It is at a considerable elevation above the 
city and affords an excellent view of the city and 
valley below. In it are very many handsome resi- 
dences of wealthy persons, and it is traversed by 


many fine drives and roadways. It is reached by the 
San Pedro Street car line. There is also an extension 
car line to "Summit" addition, where the Catholic 
Ecclesiastical Educational Institute is located. 

On the way to Laurel Heights, Tobin Hill is reached 
either by the San Pedro or the Tobin Hill lines, and is 
another interesting suburb, containing many hand- 
some residences and traversed by many good streets 
and driveways. Camden Square, a very handsome 
twin park, is along the line of the latter car system 
and is one of the beauty spots of that portion of the 
city proper. All of Tobin Hill lies within the city 
limits, but much of Laurel Heights is beyond it. 

Beacon Hill is another of the suburbs in the north- 
ern portion of the city, which is a beautiful and in- 
teresting one. It is northwest of San Antonio, and 
most of it lies beyond the city limits. It is reached 
by the Beacon Hill-Nolan Street line, and contains 
many handsome modern residences. There are several 
fine driveways through it, among these being the Fred- 
ericksburg Road. The city has built some fine streets 
in the lower portion of Beacon Hill, and the residents 
of that suburb have constructed some on their own 
account. The Blanco City Road passes through the 
extreme eastern portion of this suburb and west of 
Alamo Heights and Laurel Heights, there being a fine 
loop driveway, enabling anyone in an automobile to 
visit all three of these suburbs. 

One of the very interesting suburbs is West End, 
on the West End-Alamo Heights line. In this addi- 
tion the large and placid lake, that is filled with many 
specimens of waterfowl, is situated. In this suburb 
there are several educational institutions and some 
handsome dwellings. It is also reached by a drive- 
way that passes through the southern portion of it. 

West of the city and south of West End is the Lake- 
view Addition, which also contains a small lake and 
some handsome residences. It is reached by auto, and 
from it an excellent view of the city is obtained. From 


there Prospect Hill can be reached by the Lakeview 
car line extention. It is south of Lakeview and is also 
on the Southern Pacific, M., K. & T. and I. & G. N. 
railway lines ; has some handsome residences, presents 
a fine view of the city below and is an interesting 
place to ride through. 

South of the city and west of the San Pedro is 
another interesting suburb. It is known as Collins 
Gardens, where irrigation by means of artesian wells 
has been practiced for several years with considerable 
success, but the gardens are being converted into lots 
and residences are being built on them. It is reached 
by the Collins Gardens-Highland Park car line. 

West of the San Antonio River, and south of San 
Antonio, are two interesting suburbs. One of these is 
known as Harlandale and the other as Terrell's Wells, 
or San Jose Addition, which are reached by the South 
Heights and Harlandale lines and the latter by an 
extension to Terrell's Wells. Terrell's Wells and Har- 
landale furnish splendid thermal and medicinal water, 
and this spot is very popular with invalids afflicted 
with muscular and cutaneous diseases. The Pleasan- 
ton and Sommerset Roads, both good country roads, 
pass close to these wells, and the Corpus Christi Road 
passes through Harlandale. 

Palm Heights is another new suburb in the same 
vicinity and reached by the Collins Gardens-Highland 
Park car line and the Sommerset Road. 

Below Harlandale is the San Jose Mission, which is 
on what is called the Southern Loop. This loop is a 
very popular drive for tourists in autos. It connects 
with the Roosevelt Avenue, the Presa Street and the 
San Juan-San Jose county roads and the Corpus 
Christi, Pleasanton and Sommerset Roads. Both the 
San Jose and San Juan Missions are erached over it, 
and the Conception Mission can also be reached either 
going or returning over this loop. 

By going out South Presa Street, the Hot Wells, 
Scheuermeyer's or Exposition Park, the Southwestern 

Insane Asylum and the Missions San Juan and Es- 
pada can be reached, there being a fine driveway for 
autos over this road, which is known as the San Juan 
Road. The Exposition Park, Hot Wells and the Asy- 
lum can be reached by the Hot Wells street car line, 
which also passes the International Fair Grounds, ad- 
joining Riverside Park. Riverside Park has been cut 
up into residence properties, but the International 
Fair Grounds are still kept open to the public and con- 
tain a splendid double race track, where auto speeding 
is permitted. 

East of the Fair Grounds is the Highland Park sub- 
division, reached by the Highland Park-Collins Gar- 
dens line. It has some handsome residences in it and 
is an interesting portion of the city. 

South Heights, just north of Highland Park, and on 
the South Heights and South Flores Street car line, 
is a very handsome suburb and considered one of the 
healthiest in the city, as the air reaches it during the 
prevailing southeast breezes from the Gulf before 
passing over any of the balance of the city. In it are 
some pretty parks and handsome dwellings. 

East End is another interesting suburb. There is a 
branch line connecting it with South Heights, and 
there is connection between this suburb and the city 
via the Southern Pacific, M., K. & T. and I. & G. N. 
railway car lines. It is beyond the beautiful ceme- 
teries in the eastern portion of the city and is not very 
far from the Salado Creek. Numerous driveways tra- 
verse Highland Park, South Heights and East End. 

There are also numerous county roads which con- 
nect with city streets and which afford fine driveways, 
reaching Mitchell's Lake, St. Hedwig, Elmendorf, 
Southton, Helotes, Selma, Castroville, the Medina dam 
(the latter a colossal storage tank impounding the 
Medina River), Pleasanton, La Coste, Van Ormy and 
other nearby places which tourists may desire to visit 
in autos. 

There are over 4,000 public and private automobiles 

in San Antonio, and riding in these cars is a very 
popular method of transportation here. 

Autos can be hired at various stands on the plazas 
and streets and at various garages, the prices being 
proportionate to the distances to be traveled and the 
means of the passengers to pay. 

During portions of the year the Traction Company 
puts on sightseeing cars, which traverse the principal 
suburbs and points of interest in the city. These cars 
usually make two trips a day, and the charge is fifty 
cents for the trip of about twenty-five miles. Sight- 
seeing autos also run regularly to some of the inter- 
esting portions of the city, charging fifty cents, sev- 
enty-five cents and a dollar, according to the distance 
traveled and time spent in the journey. 

Hacks and carriages can be hired by tourists, and 
all points visited. The hacks cost a dollar and a half 
per hour for each passenger carried where. hacks are 
hired by the hour. 


Alamo Mission Group On Alamo Plaza; reached 
by all street cars except West End, River Avenue, Hot 
Wells and San Fernando and suburban lines. All cars 
except suburban give transfers to Alamo Plaza. 

Alamo Heights Northeastern part of city; Alamo 
Heights- West End car line. 

Army Post (Fort Sam Houston) On Government 
Hill; Army Post-San Pedro line. 

Brackenridge Park On River Avenue; West End- 
Alamo Heights car line. 

Country Club On edge of Alamo Heights and the 
army maneuver grounds; on Cow Street; reached by 
Alamo Heights- West End car line. 

City Hall On Military Plaza ; reached by the South 
Heights-Harlandale, South Flores-South Heights, Col- 
lins Gardens-Highland Park, and S. P., M., K. & T. 
and I. & G. N. Railway car lines. 


Cordero Palace, where coats-of-arms of Spain and 
Austria are blended on flat arch of portal on west 
side of Military Plaza; reached by same car lines as 
traverse Military Plaza, above mentioned. 

County Court House, built of red sandstone On 
south side of Main Plaza; reached by S. P., M., K. & 
T. and I. & G. N. Railway, Hot Wells, South Heights- 
South Flores and Harlandale, Collins Garden and 
Highland Park car lines. 

Old County Court House On Soledad Street, be- 
tween Commerce and Veramendi Streets; reached by 
same cars as new Court House; is near where Vera- 
mendi Palace formerly stood and also close to old 
Garza house, recently demolished to give way to the 
Rand Building. 

Old Cupples Home Corner of Travis and Soledad 
Streets; one block north of all car lines and directly 
on Tobm-Hill and San Pedro lines. 

Old Chavez House Corner of Obraje and North 
Flores Streets ; on Beacon Hill line. 

Concepcion Mission On Roosevelt Avenue, one-half 
mile west of Hot Wells car line; reached by auto or 
hack and sightseeing autos. 

Bedell Building On Avenue C near Houston Street, 
half a block from all car lines on Houston Street and 
directly on Army Post-San Pedro and Alamo Heights- 
West End car lines; adjoins Moore Building, and is its 

Electric Park Adjoins San Pedro Park; reached by 
San Pedro and Beacon Hill car lines. 

Exposition Park (formerly Scheuermeyer's Park) 
On South Presa Street and South Loop; reached by 
Hot Wells lines. 

Fair Grounds, adjoining former Riverside Park, 
one-half mile below Second or Concepcion Mission; 
reached by Hot Wells car line. 

Federal Building and Postoffice on Alamo Plaza, 
Avenues D and E Reached by Nolan Street-Beacon 
Hill, Tobin Hill, Aransas Pass, S. P., M., K. & T.- 


I. & G. N. Railway, South Heights, South Flores and 
Harlandale, Collins Gardens-Highland Park street car 

Frost Building At Southwest corner of Houston 
Street and Main Avenue; reached by all cars on 
Houston Street except Hot Wells, Tobin Hill and San 
Pedro lines. 

Gibbs Building Corner Houston Street, Avenue D 
and Alamo Plaza; reached by same cars as the Fed- 
eral Building. 

Hicks Building Reached by all cars on Houston 
Street except San Fernando and Hot Wells lines. 

Espada Mission On South Loop, eleven miles be- 
low city ; reached by auto or carriage. 

ArsenalOn South Flores Street; reached by the 
South Flores-South Heights, Harlandale, Collins Gar- 
dens-Highland Park car lines. 

Gunter Hotel and Gunter Office Building Houston 
and St. Mary's Streets; all Houston Street car lines 
except San Fernando. 

Bexar Hotel Houston and Jefferson Streets; all 
Houston Street car lines except San Fernando and Hot 
Wells car lines. 

Alamo Hotel On Alamo Plaza; reached by all car 
lines traversing Alamo Plaza. 

Beethoven Hall On South Alamo near East Nueva 
Street; Tobin Hill, S. A. & A. P., and Collins Gardens- 
Highland Park car lines. 

Grand Opera House On Alamo Plaza and Crockett 
Street ; reached by all cars traversing Alamo Plaza. 

Light (newspaper) Crockett Street, opposite the 
Opera House. 

Masonic Temple Comer Crockett and Losoya; half 
a block from all Alamo Plaza street cars. 

Losoya Hotel Losoya Street, between Crockett and 
Commerce; one block from all Alamo Plaza street 
car lines. 


Daily Express Building (newspaper) Corner of 
Crockett and Navarro Streets; on Hot Wells street 
car line. 

Dullnig's Hot Wells On Goliad Road, eight miles 
southeast of city; fine thermal and mineral waters, 
petroleum and natural gas wells; reached by auto or 
carriage ; is two miles east of end of Hot Wells street 
car line. 

Harlandale On Corpus Christi Road, outside of the 
city limits; on South Flores-Harlandale street car 

Palm Heights Near Collins Gardens; reached by 
Collins Gardens-Highland Park car line; outside of the 
city limits. 

I. & G. N. Railway Depot On Houston and Medina 
Streets; on West End- Alamo Heights and the g. P., 
M., K. & T.-I. & G. N. Railway lines; one mile west 
of Main Plaza. 

Stowers and Glower Twin Buildings Corner Hous- 
ton Street and Main Avenue; tallest buildings in the 
city; reached by all car lines except Hot Wells line. 

Rand Building Occupies square bounded by Hous- 
ton, Soledad, Veramendi Street and Main Avenue; 
largest building in city; reached by every car line in 
the city. 

Book Building On Houston Street and the San 
Antonio River ; reached by all Houston Street car lines 
except San Fernando line. 

Menger Hotel On Alamo Plaza; reached by all the 
street cars traversing Alamo Plaza. 

Plaza Theater On Alamo Plaza, in Conroy Build- 
ings; reached by all Alamo Plaza car lines. 

Joske Bros. Building At the corner of South Alamo 
and Commerce Streets; reached by all car lines tra- 
versing Alamo Plaza except Nolan Street and Beacon 
Hill lines. 

Wolff & Marx Store Soon to be removed to Rand 
Building; at present on South Alamo Street near 


Alamo Plaza and Commerce Street; reached by all 
the Alamo Plaza cars except Nolan Street-Beacon Hiil 

S. Wolfson's and Washer Bros. Stores At the cor- 
ner of Commerce and South Alamo Streets; reached 
by all cars traversing East Commerce and South 
Alamo Streets. 

Nic Tengg's Book Store West Commerce Street, 
between Navarro and Corcoran Streets ; one-half block 
from Hot Wells line. 

San Antonio National Bank, Alamo National Bank, 
Groos National Bank and City National Bank All on 
West Commerce Street, and all on or near Hot Wells 
car line. 

Commercial National Bank Corner of Soledad and 
Commerce Streets; reached by all cars traversing the 
east side of Main Plaza. 

Frost National Bank Corner of Main Plaza and 
Trevino Street ; reached by all car lines traversing the 
west side of Main Plaza. 

Citizens' Bank and Trust Company In Gunter Ho- 
tel Building on Houston Street; reached by all Hous- 
ton Street car lines except San Fernando line. 

State Bank and Trust Company Hicks Building on 
Houston Street; reached by all Houston Street cars 
except Hot Wells and San Fernando lines. 

West Texas Bank and Trust Company In Moore 
Building on Houston Street; reached by all Houston 
Street car lines except San Fernando and Hot Wells. 

American Bank and Trust Company On Alamo 
Plaza next to Opera House; reached by all Alamo 
Plaza car lines except Nolan Street-Beacon Hill line. 

Empire Theater Corner of St. Mary's and Houston 
Streets ; reached by all cars except San Fernando. 

Princess Theater Formerly Orpheum; all Houston 
Street car lines except San Fernando. 

Royal Theater Houston Street near Empire and 
opposite Princess; reached by all Houston Street car 
lines except San Fernando. 

Star Theater Houston Street near Royal Theater; 
reached by all cars except San Fernando. 

San Fernando Cathedral Situated on west side of 
Main Plaza and east side of Military Plaza, north side 
of Trevino and south side of Galvan Streets; reached 
by all cars traversing Main Plaza. 

City Market House and Auditorium On Paschal 
Square and Milam Square; is principal convention hall 
and largest market in the city; chile stands surround 
it, and hay and wood are marketed on square west of 
it; reached by S. P., M., K. & T. and I. & G. N. cars 
and within a block of Alamo Heights-West End line 
and San Fernando line. 

S. P. and M., K. & T. Railway DepotOn East 
Commerce and Walnut Streets; is union station of 
those two railways ; reached by S. P., M., K. & T. and 
I. & G. N. Railway car line ; is a very large and hand- 
some station. 

S. A. & A. P. Railway Depot On Aransas and 
South Flores Streets; reached by Tobin Hill- Aransas 
Pass Railway line, Collins Gardens-Highland Park, 
South Flores-South Heights and Harlandale car lines. 

S. A., U. & G. Railway Station In Palm Heights; 
reached by Collins Gardens- Highland Park car line. 

Swearingen Building At the corner of Alamo Plaza 
and Houston Street; reached by all Houston Street car 
lines except San Fernando Street line. 

Viaducts There are three of these, built by the 
Southern Pacific Railway for the purpose of per- 
mitting traffic to pass above or under its tracks; the 
first is at Nolan and Walnut Streets, and permits 
traffic to pass below the railway tracks; it is of con- 
crete, resembling a tunnel; it is traversed by the 
Nolan Street-Beacon Hill cars. 

The second is a block north of the first and is at 
Hays and Walnut Streets, traffic passing above the 
railway tracks; this is a very high bridge and is of 
steel and concrete; it is one block from the Nolan 
Street-Beacon Hill car line. 


The other viaduct is along New Braunfels Avenue, 
and extends two blocks from Sherman to Duval 
Street, passing above the repair tracks and yard of 
the Southern Pacific Railway at a great height; below 
it, at Olive and Duval Streets, is a smaller viaduct 
passing above the single track of the same railway. 
The nearest car line to any of these two viaducts is 
the Nolan Street-Beacon Hill line on Pine Street. The 
one on New Braunfels Avenue is of steel and concrete, 
and that on Olive Street is of wood. Good views of 
the city are to be obtained from the Hays Street, the 
New Braunfels Avenue and the Olive Street viaducts, 
and all of these structures are well worth visiting. 



What Electric Cars to 
take to reach important 
and interesting points. 




The Army Post and San Pedro lines run from the top 
of Government Hill down Grayson to Austin Street, 
along Austin to Tenth Street. Thence to Avenue C and 
along the avenue to Houston Street. It goes along Hous- 
ton Street to Soledad and north on Soledad to Dallas, 
where it turns west and goes to the intersection of Main 
avenue and San Pedro Avenue. Going north, it goes 
along San Pedro Avenue, turns east and goes along Lo- 
cust to Main avenue and north along Main avenue to 
Russell, west along Russell to Howard Street, north 
along Howard to Magnolia and west along Magnolia 
back to San Pedro Avenue, down San Pedro and past 
San Pedro Park to Main Avenue, through Main Avenue 
back to Houston Street, east along Houston Street to 
Avenue C, north along Avenue C to Tenth, east on 
Tenth to Austin, north on Austin to Mason, east on 
Mason to New Braunfels and north up New Braunfels 
to Grayson. 

The Alamo Heights-West End car line starts at 
West End on Indiana Street; runs along that street 
and along the the edge of the West End Lake to Ban- 
dera; north up to the end of Bandera Street; then 
back south along Bandera Street to Ruiz Street; east 
on Ruiz Street to Medina Street; south on Medina to 
Houston Street; east on Houston Street to Avenue C; 
north on Avenue C into River Avenue ; north on River 
Avenue into Broadway, and around the loop on Alamo 
Heights back to River Avenue, and thence back over 
the same route as mentioned. 

The Nolan Street and Beacon Hill line commences 
at the intersection of Pine and Mason Streets; runs 


south along Pine to Nolan Street; east along Nolan 
into Nacogdoches; south along Nacogdoches to Hous- 
ton Street; west along Houston to North Flores 
Street; north up North Flores Street to Summit Ave- 
nue; west along Summit to Grant; south on Grant to 
the Fredericksburg Road; thence back to North 
Flores; south on North Flores to Loustenau Alley; 
through this alley to Main Avenue, and south on Main 
Avenue to Houston Street, and back over Houston 
Street over the previously described route. 

The Tobin Hill line commences on the edge of the 
rock quarries in the northern part of the city at Hill- 
crest ; runs in King's Court to Jones Avenue ; through 
Jones Avenue to Kendall Street; thence west and 
north to Locust Street; west along Locust to Mc- 
Culloch; south on McCulloch to Brooklyn; south on 
Brooklyn to Camden ; west along Camden to San Pedro 
Avenue into Main Avenue; south along Main Avenue 
to Houston; east along Houston to South Alamo; 
south along Alamo, and southwest along South Alamo 
Street to Aransas Street, and out Aransas Street to San 
Antonio & Aransas Pass Railway depot; returning, it 
goes over Aransas, South Alamo and Houston Streets 
back^to Soledad Street; north along Soledad to Dallas 
Street; thence east to Brooklyn, and over Brooklyn to 
McCulloch and Locust Streets and back to King's 
Court and Hillcrest over the first-named portion of 
this route. 

The San Fernando route commences at the inter- 
section of Houston and Main Avenue; runs west to 
Pecos Street; south along South Pecos Street to South 
Laredo; thence to Paral; along Paral to Apache and 
to end of line at Union Stock Yards; it returns over 
the same route. 

The Summit line connects with the San Pedro-Army 
Post line at Howard and Huisache Streets, and runs 
north and south out Howard Street to King's High- 
way; across Summit Avenue, and back over the same 


The San Jose line is an independent line, connect- 
ing with the South Flores and Harlandale line on 
South Flores Street and Corpus Christi Road; runs 
west from Corpus Christi Road and connects with 
a hack line to Terrell's Wells. 

The Harlandale-South Heights line commences in 
Harlandale on the Corpus Christi Road; runs north 
along that road and over the Arroya Piedra into 
South Flores Street in Beanville; thence north up 
South Flores Street to Military Plaza, turning east 
at Dolorosa Street into Main Plaza and around the 
north and east sides of Main Plaza into Soledad 
Street; thence north to Houston Street; east along 
Houston Street to Alamo Plaza and South Alamo 
Street; south to Goliad Street; east along Goliad 
Street to Peach Street; along Peach to Victoria Street; 
thence east to Hackberry, to Aransas Avenue; north 
on Aransas to Porter Street, and thence on Gervers 
Street to the end of the line ; and back over the same 

The Harlandale-South Heights line connects at 
Gervers Street with the East End line, which runs 
around a loop from the intersection with the South 
Heights line and along New Braunfels Avenue, Dil- 
worth Avenue, Iowa Street, Walters Street and North 
Commerce Street, where it connects with the Southern 
Pacific, M., K. & T. and I. & G. N. railway line. 

The Southern Pacific and M., K. & T. depots and 
I. & G. N. depot lines run from the intersection of 
New Braunfels and East Commerce Streets west 
along Commerce to South Alamo Street; east along 
Alamo Street and Alamo Plaza into Houston Street; 
west along Houston Street to Main Avenue; south on 
Main Avenue across the west side of Main Plaza to 
Dolorosa Street; west along Dolorosa Street to Buena 
Vista Street; west along Buena Vista Street to San 
Saba Street; thence north to West Commerce Street, 
and out West Commerce Street to the end of the line 
on Prospect Hill ; back again over the same route. 


In Lakeview this line connects with the Lakeview 
line, which makes a loop commencing at West Twen- 
tieth, running to Delgado and thence to Twenty-fourth 
and back to Commerce Street. 

On Beacon Hill the Los Angeles Heights connects 
at Grant Avenue and Summit with the Beacon Hill 
line and runs north on Grant to North, and thence to 
Capitol Street, and thence to the end of the line; re- 
turning over the same route. 

The Highland Park-Collins Gardens line commences 
in Collins Gardens at St. Elmo Street; runs north 
along St. Elmo to Marian Street to the right of way 
of the San Antonio, Uvalde & Gulf Railway, and 
thence to the depot of that railway; thence along the 
right-of-way of that railway to Nogalitos Street, and 
thence into South Flores Street; north along South 
Flores Street to Dolorosa; east on Dolorosa and 
through Main Plaza and along the east side of that 
plaza into Soledad Street; north along Soledad Street 
into Houston Street; east along Houston Street to 
South Garden Street; thence out Pereida Street to 
South Presa Street, and south along South Presa to 
Buckingham Avenue; thence to Hackberry; along 
Hackberry to Rigsby and Rigsby to Olive, and thence 
to Walters, and out Walters to the end of the line; 
returning, goes over the same route. 

The Hot Wells line commences at Houston and Na- 
varro Streets; runs south along Navarro across the 
San Antonio River at Crockett and Navarro Streets 
and again at Market and Villita Streets, where it 
goes into Garden Street; and south on Garden Street 
to Pereida Street, where it goes into South Presa 
Street, and south on South Presa to the end of the 
line at Exposition Park, Hot Wells and Southwestern 
Insane Asylum, where it makes a loop and returns 
into South Presa Street. Coming back, it traverses 
this street to Pereida, thence to Garden; north along 
Garden to East Nueva Street, crossing the San An- 
tonio River at Nueva Street, and coming into Dwyer 


Avenue; going north along Dwyer Avenue, the east 
side of Main Plaza into Soledad Street, it returns to 
Houston Street and thence back to Navarro and Hous- 
ton Streets. 

All car lines run along Houston Street, which is the 
main thoroughfare of the city, and on which many 
of the tall and fine buildings of the city are located.