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Full text of "Visit to the Holy Land, Egypt, and Italy"

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 

SAN DIEGO 




. 



1 iiat tn flit 




~ 



BY MADAME IDA PFEIFFER. 

LONDON. 

INGRAM COOKE & Co. 
1852. 



VISIT 



HOLY LAND, EGYPT, AND ITALY. 



BY 



MADAME IDA PFEIFFER, 

AUTHOR OF "A WOMAX'S JOUBNBY ROUX'D THB WORLD," " VISIT TO ICBLAJfD," ETC. 



from tlje German 
BY H. W. DULCKEN. 
WITH EIGHT TINTED ENGRAVINGS. 

SECOND EDITION. 



LONDON: 
INGRAM, C O O K E, AND CO. 

227 STRAND. 

1853. 



PRtSTED BY LEVEY. ROBSOH, AXD FK AH KLTH, 
Great New Street and Fetter Lane. 



PKEFACE 



BY THE VIENNA PUBLISHER. 



FOE two centuries the princes and nations of the West were accus- 
tomed to wander towards the land of the morning. In vain was 
the noblest blood poured forth in streams in the effort to wrest 
the country of our heavenly Teacher from the grasp of the infidel ; 
and though the Christian Europe of the present day forbears to 
renew a struggle which, considering the strength that has been 
gradually increasing for the last six hundred years, might prove 
an easy one, we cannot wonder that millions of the votaries of 
Christianity should cherish an earnest longing to wander in the 
paths the Redeemer has trod, and to view with their own eyes the 
traces of the Saviour's progress from the cradle to the grave. 

In the generality of cases, however, the hardships, dangers, 
and difficulties of such a journey were sufficient to overthrow the 
bravest resolution ; and thus the wishes of the majority remained 
unfulfilled. 

Few men were found to possess the degree of strength and 
endurance requisite for the carrying out of such an undertaking ; 



yiii PREFACE. 

but that a delicate lady of the higher classes, a native of Vienna, 
should have the heroism to do what thousands of men failed to 
achieve, seemed almost incredible. 

In her earliest youth she earnestly desired to perform this 
journey ; descriptions of the Holy Land were perused by her with 
peculiar interest, and a book of Eastern travel had more charms 
for her than the most glowing accounts of Paris or London. 

It was not, however, until our Authoress had reached a riper 
age, and had finished the education of her sons, that she suc- 
ceeded in carrying into effect the ardent aspiration of her youth. 

On the 2d of March, 1842, she commenced her journey alone, 
without companions, but fully prepared to bear every ill, to bid 
defiance to every danger, and to combat every difficulty. That 
this undertaking should have succeeded may almost be looked 
upon as a wonder. 

Far from desiring publicity, she merely kept a diary, in order 
to retain the recollections of her tour during her later life, and to 
impart to her nearest relatives the story of her fortunes. Every 
evening, though often greatly exhausted with heat, thirst, and 
the hardships of travel, she never failed to make notes in pencil 
of the occurrences of the day, frequently using a sand-mound or 
the back of a camel as a table, while the other members of the 
caravan lay stretched around her, completely tired out. 

It was in the house of my friend Halm that I first heard of 
this remarkable woman, at a time when she had not yet com- 
pleted her journey ; and every subsequent account of Madame 
Pfeiffer increased my desire to make her acquaintance. 



PREFACE. IX 

In manners and appearance I found her to resemble many 
other women who have distinguished themselves by fortitude, 
firmness of soul, and magnanimity ; and who are in private life 
the most simple and unaffected, the most modest, and conse- 
quently also the most agreeable of beings. 

My request to read our Authoress's journal was granted with 
some timidity ; and I am ready to assert that seldom has a book 
so irresistibly attracted me, or so completely fixed my attention 
from beginning to end, as this. 

The simple and unadorned relation of facts, the candour, 
combined with strong sound sense, which appear throughout, 
might put to shame the bombastic striving after originality of 
many a modern author. The scheme and execution of the work 
are complete and agreeable ; strict truth shines forth from every 
page, and no one can doubt but that so pure and noble a mind 
must see things in a right point of view. This circumstance is 
sufficient in itself to raise the book above many descriptions of 
travel to the Holy Land, whose authors, trusting to the fact that 
their assertions could not easily be disproved, have indulged their 
fancy, seeking to impart interest to their works by the relation of 
imaginary dangers, and by exaggeration of every kind, for the 
sake of gaming praise and admiration. Many such men might 
blush with shame on reading this journal of a simple, truth- 
loving woman. 

After much trouble I succeeded in persuading the Authoress to 
allow her journal to appear in print. 

My efforts were called forth by the desire to furnish the read- 



X PBEFACE. 

ing public, and particularly the female portion, with a very inter- 
esting and attractive, and at the same time a strictly authentic 
picture of the Holy Land, and of Madame Pfeiffer's entire 
journey. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Departure from Vienna Scene on board the steamer Hamburg 
Presburg The " Coronation-mount " Pesth Ofen The steamer 
Galata Mohacs The fortress Peterwardein Discomfort and bad 
management on board the steamer Semlin Belgrade Pancsova 
Austrian soldiers The rock Babakay Drenkova Falls of 
Danube Alt-Orsova The "Iron Gate" Cattle-breeding Cal- 
lafat Vexatious delay 17 



CHAPTER II. 

Giurgewo Interior of the town Braila Sanitary precautions Galatz 
Scarcity of good water Ridiculous fear of the plague The 
steamer Ferdinand Entrance into the Black Sea Stormy wea- 
ther and sea-sickness Arrival at Constantinople Picturesque 
appearance of the city Mosques The dancing Dervishes The 
Sultan and his barge Pera The great and little Campo Wild 
dogs Dirty state of the streets Preparations in case of fire . 32 



CHAPTER III. 

Scutari Kaiks The howling Dervishes The Achmaidon, or place 
of arrows The tower in Galata The bazaar at Constantinople 
Mosques Slave-market The old Serail The Hippodrome 
Coffee-houses Story-tellers Excursion to Ejub Houses, thea- 
tres, and carriages 48 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PAGE 

Walks and drives of the townspeople The " Sweet Waters" Chalce- 
donia Baluklid The great and little Campo Feasts in Con- 
stantinople Anniversary of Mahomet's death Easter holydays 
of the Greeks Gladiators and wrestlers Excursion to Brussa 
Olive-trees Mosques at Brussa Stone bridge Wild dogs Baths 
and mineral springs Return to Constantinople .... 62 

CHAPTER V. 

Contradictory reports Departure from Constantinople on board the 
Archduke John Scene on the steamer Galipoli The Darda- 
nelles Tschenekalesi and Kilidil Bahar The field of Troy Tene- 
dos Smyrna Halizar The date-palm Burnaba The Acropolis 
Female beauty Rhodes Strong fortifications Deserted ap- 
pearance of the town Cyprus 75 



CHAPTER VI. 

Arrival at Beyrout Fellahs Backsheesh Uncomfortable quarters 
Saida Tyre St. Jean d'Acre Csesarea Excursion among the 
ruins Jafla An Eastern family The Indian fig-tree An Orien- 
tal dinner Costume of the women of Jafia Oppressive heat 
Gnats Ramla Syrian convents Bedouins and Arabs Kariet el 
Areb, or Emmaus The scheikh Arrival at Jerusalem . . 91 

CHAPTER VII. 

Residence at Jerusalem Catholic church The "Nuova Casa" Via 
dolorosa Pilate's house The Mosque Omar Herod's house 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre Disturbances at the Greek Easter 
feasts Knights of the Holy Sepulchre Mount of Olives Adven- 
ture among the ruins Mount of Ofience Valley of Jehosaphat 
Siloam Mount Sion Jeremiah's Grotto Graves . 109 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Bethlehem Rachel's grave Convent at Bethlehem Beggars Grotto 
of the Nativity Solomon's cisterns St. John's Franciscan 
church at Jerusalem Mourning women Eastern weddings 
Mish-mish Excursion to the Jordan and the Dead Sea Wilder- 
ness near Jerusalem Convent of St. Saba 123 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER IX. 

PAGE 

Hide through the wilderness to the Dead Sea The Dead Sea The 
river Jordan Horde of Bedouins Arab horses The Sultan's well 
Bivouac in the open air Return to Jerusalem Bethany De- 
parture from Jerusalem Jacob's grave Nablus or Sichem Se- 
basta Costume of Samaritan woman Plain of Esdralon Sagun . 137 



CHAPTER X. 

Arrival at Nazareth Franciscan convent Tabarith Mount Tabor 
Lake of Gennesareth Baths Mount Carmel Grotto of the pro- 
phet Elijah Acre The pacha's harem Oriental women Their 
Hstlessness and ignorance Sur or Tyre .'.'.'. . 152 



CHAPTER XI. 

River Mishmir Saida Arnauts Desert-path Residence of Lady 
Hester Stanhope Beyrout The consul's Uncomfortable quarters 
Sickness The Bazaar Vexatious delays Departure from Bey- 
rout Beautiful views Syrian costumes Damascus Aspect of 
the city House of the consul 167 



CHAPTER XII. 

The bazaar at Damascus The khan Grotto of St. Paul Fanaticism 
of the inhabitants Departure from Damascus The desert Mili- 
tary escort Heliopolis or Balbeck Stupendous ruins Continua- 
tion of our voyage through the desert The plague The Lebanon 
range Cedar-trees Druses and Maronites Importunate beggars 
Thievish propensities of the Arabs . . . . ' . 183 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The Lebanon Druses and Maronites Illness of Herr Sattler Djebel 
or Byblus Rocky passes Dog's-river Return to Beyrout Sick- 
ness Departure for Alexandria Roguery of the captain Disa- 
greeables on board Limasol Alarm of pirates Cowardice of the 
crew Arrival at Alexandria . ... 200 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PAGE 

Alexandria Keeping quarantine Want of arrangement in the quaran- 
tine-house Bad water Fumigating of the rooms Release 
Aspect of the city Departure by boat for Atfe" Mehemet All 
Arrival at Atfe" Excellence of the Nile water Good-nature of 
the Arab women The Delta of the Nile The Libyan desert 
The pyramids Arrival at Cairo ....... 214 

CHAPTER XV. 

Cairo Quarrel with the captain Rapacity of the beggars The cus- 
tom-house The consulate Aspect of Cairo Narrow and crowded 
streets Costumes The mad-house Disgusting exhibition Jo- 
seph's well Palace of Mehemet Ali Dates Mosques at Cairo 
Excursion to the pyramids of Gizeh Gizeh Eggs hatched by ar- 
tificial heat Ascent of the pyramids The sphynx Return to 
Cairo 230 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Christian churches at Cairo The Esbekie-square Theatre Howling 
dervishes Mashdalansher, the birthday of Mahomet Proces- 
sion and religious ceremony Shubra Excursion through the de- 
sert to Suez Hardships of the journey Scenes in the desert 
The camel Caravans Mirage The Red Sea Suez Bedouin 
Camp Quarrel with the camel-driver Departure for Alexandria 245 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Return to Alexandria Egyptian burials Catacombs of Alexandria 
Viceroy's palace Departure from Alexandria The steamer Eu- 
rotas Candia Syra Paros and Antiparos The Morea Fire on 
board Malta Quarantine St. Augustine's church Clergymen 
Beggars Costumes Soldiers Civita Vecchia .... 260 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

The steamer Hercules Syracuse Neapolis Ruins Catanea Convent 
of St. Nicholas Messina The Duke of Calabria Palermo The 
royal palace Church of St. Theresa St. Ignazio Catacombs of 
the Augustine convent Skeletons Olivuzza Royal villa " Fa- 
vorite " St. Rosalia Brutality of the Italian mob Luxuriant 
vegetation Arrival at Naples 272 



CONTENTS. XV 

CHAPTER XIX. 

PAGE 

Sojourn at Naples Sickness Laziness of the people Royal palace 
Rotunda Strada Chiaga and Toledo St. Carlo Theatre Largo 
del Castello Medina Square Marionettes St. Jesu Nuovo St. 
Jesu Maggiore St. Maria di Piedigrotta Public gardens Aca- 
demy " degli Studii" Cathedral of St. Januarius St. Jeronimi 
St. Paula Maggiore St. Chiara Baths of Nero Solfatara Grotto 
"del Cane" Resina Ascent of Vesuvius Caserta . 289 



CHAPTER XX. 

Caserta Costume of the peasants Rome Piazza del Popolo Dogana 
St. Peter's Palaces Borghese, Barberini, Colonna, &c. 
Churches Ancient Rome The Colliseum Departure for Flo- 
rence Bad weather Picturesque scenery Siena Florence 
Cathedral and palaces Departure from Florence Bologna 
Ferrara Conclusion . 308 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



JERUSALEM (FRONTISPIECE). 

NAZARETH (TITLE). 

CHURCHYARD AT SCUTARI ... .48 

THE DEAD SEA ...... 1 3 8 

MOUNT CARMEL ..... l6o 

LEBANON .... 190 

BALBECK .... 194 

ISTHMUS OF SUEZ 257 



VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



ETC. ETC. 



CHAPTER I. 

Departure from Vienna Scene on board the steamer Hamburg Pres- 
burg The " Coronation-mount" Pesth Ofen The steamer Galatcb 
Mohacs The fortress Peterwardein Discomfort and bad manage- 
ment on board the steamer Semlin Belgrade Pancsova Austrian 
soldiers The rock Babakay Drenkova Falls of the Danube Alt- 
Orsova The "Iron Gate" Cattle-breeding Callafat Vexatious 
delay. 

I HAD for years cherished the -wish to undertake a journey to 
the Holy Land; years are, indeed, required to familiarise one 
with the idea of so hazardous an enterprise. When, therefore, 
my domestic arrangements at length admitted of my absence for 
at least a year, my chief employment was to prepare myself for 
this journey. I read many works bearing on the subject, and 
was moreover fortunate enough to make the acquaintance of a 
gentleman who had travelled hi the Holy Land some years be- 
fore. I was thus enabled to gain much oral information and 
advice respecting the means of prosecuting my dangerous pil- 
grimage. 

My friends and relations attempted in vain to turn me from 
my purpose by painting, in the most glowing colours, all the dan- 
gers and difficulties which await the traveller in those regions. 





18 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

" Men," they said, " were obliged gravely to consider if they 
had physical strength to endure the fatigues of such a journey, 
and strength of mind bravely to face the dangers of the plague, 
the climate, the attacks of insects, bad diet, &c. And to think 
of a woman's venturing alone, without protection of any kind, into 
the wide world, across sea and mountain and plain, it was 
quite preposterous/' This was the opinion of my friends. 

I had nothing to advance in opposition to all this but my 
firm unchanging determination. My trust in Providence gave me 
calmness and strength to set my house in every respect in order. 
I made my will, and arranged ah 1 my worldly affairs in such a 
manner that, in the case of my death (an event which I considered 
more probable than my safe return), my family should find every 
thing perfectly arranged. 

And thus, on the 22d of March 1842, I commenced my 
journey from Vienna. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon I drove to the Kaisermuhlen 
(Emperor's Mills), from which place the steamboats start for 
Pesth. I was joyfully surprised by the presence of several of 
my relations and friends, who wished to say farewell once 
more. The parting was certainly most bitter, for the thought 
involuntarily obtruded itself, " Should we ever meet again in this 
world?" 

Our mournful meditations were in some degree disturbed by a 
loud dispute on board the vessel. At the request of a gentleman 
present, one of the passengers was compelled, instead of flying, 
as he had intended, with bag and baggage to Hungary, to return 
to Vienna in company of the police. It appeared he owed the 
gentleman 1300 florins, and had wished to abscond, but was 
luckily overtaken before the departure of the boat. This affair 
was hardly concluded when the bell rang, the wheels began to 
revolve, and too soon, alas, my dear ones were out of sight ! 

I had but few fellow-passengers. The weather was indeed 
fine and mild ; but the season was not far enough advanced to 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 19 

lure travellers into the wide world, excepting men of business, 
and those who had cosmopolitan ideas, like myself. Most of those 
on board were going only to Presburg, or at farthest to Pesth. 
The captain having mentioned that a woman was on board who 
intended travelling to Constantinople, I was immediately sur- 
rounded by curious gazers. A gentleman who was bound to the 
same port stepped forward, and offered his services in case I 
should ever stand in need of them ; he afterwards frequently took 
me under his protection. 

The fine mild weather changed to cold and wind as we got 
fairly out into the great Danube. I wrapped myself in my cloak, 
and remained on deck, in order to see the scenery between Vienna 
and Presburg, which, no doubt, appears lovely enough when na- 
ture is clad in the garment of spring ; but now I only saw leafless 
trees and fallow ground a dreary picture of winter. 

Hamburg with its old castle on a rock, Theben with its re- 
markable fortress, and farther on the large free city of Presburg, 
have all a striking appearance. 

In three hours' time we reached Presburg, and landed in the 
neighbourhood of the Coronation-hill, an artificial mound, on which 
the king must stand in his royal robes, and brandish his sword 
towards the four quarters of the heavens, as a token that he is 
ready to defend his kingdom against all enemies, from whatever 
direction they may approach. Not far from this hill is situate the 
handsome inn called the " Two Green Trees," where the charges 
are as high, if not higher, than in Vienna. Until we have passed 
Pesth, passengers going down the river are not allowed to remain 
on board through the night. 

March 23d. 

This morning we continued our journey at six o'clock. Im- 
mediately below Presburg the Danube divides into two arms, 
forming the fertile island of Schutt, which is about forty-six miles 
long and twenty-eight in breadth. Till we reach Gran the scenery 



20 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

is monotonous enough, but here it improves. Beautiful hills and 
several mountains surround the place, imparting a charm of variety 
to the landscape. 

In the evening, at about seven o'clock, we arrived at Pesth. 
Unfortunately it was already quite dark. The magnificent houses, 
or rather palaces, skirting the left bank of the Danube, and the 
celebrated ancient fortress and town of Ofen on the right, form a 
splendid spectacle, and invite the traveller to a longer sojourn. 
As I had passed some days at Pesth several years before, I now 
only stayed there for one night. 

As the traveller must change steamers here, it behoves him 
to keep a careful eye upon the luggage he has not delivered up 
at the office in Vienna. 

I put up at the " Hunting-horn," a fine hotel, but ridiculously 
expensive. A little back room cost me 45 kreutzers (about one 
shilling and eightpence) for one night. 

The whole day I had felt exceedingly unwell. A violent 
headache, accompanied by nausea and fever, made me fear the 
approach of a fit of illness which would interrupt my journey. 
These symptoms were probably a consequence of the painful ex- 
citement of parting with my friends, added to the change of air. 
With some difficulty I gained my modest chamber, and imme- 
diately went to bed. My good constitution was lucidly proof 
against the attacks of all enemies, and waking the next morn- 
ing, on 

March 24th, 

in tolerable health, I betook myself on board our new steam- 
boat the Galata, of sixty - horse power : this boat did not, 
however, appear to me so tidy and neat as the Marianna, in 
which we had proceeded from Vienna to Pesth. Our journey was 
a rapid one ; at ten o'clock in the morning we were already at 
Feldvar, a place which seems at a distance to be of some magni- 
tude, but which melts away like a soap-bubble on a nearer ap- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 21 

preach. By two o'clock we Lad reached Paks; here, as at all 
other places of note, we stopped for a quarter of an hour. A boat 
rows off from the shore, bringing and fetching back passengers 
with such marvellous speed, that you have scarcely finished the 
sentence you are saying to your neighbour before he has van- 
ished. There is no time even to say farewell. 

At about eight o'clock in the evening we reached the market- 
town of Moha'cs, celebrated as the scene of two battles. The for- 
tress here is used as a prison for criminals. We could distinguish 
nothing either of the fortress or the town. It was already night 
when we arrived, and at two o'clock in the morning of 

March 25th 

we weighed anchor. I was assured, however, that I had lost 
nothing by this haste. 

Some hours afterwards, our ship suddenly struck with so severe 
a shock, that all hastened on deck to see what was the matter. 
Our steersman, who had most probably been more asleep than 
awake, had given the ship an unskilful turn, in consequence of 
which, one of the paddles was entangled with some trunks of trees 
projecting above the surface of the water. The sailors hurried 
into the boats, the engine was backed, and after much difficulty 
we were once more afloat. 

Stopping for a few moments at Dalina and Berkara, we passed 
the beautiful ruin of Count Palffy's castle at about two o'clock. 
The castle of Illok, situate on a hill, and belonging to Prince 
Odescalchi, presents a still more picturesque appearance. 

At about four o'clock we landed near the little free town of 
Neusatz, opposite the celebrated fortress of Peterwardein, the out- 
works of which extend over a tongue of land stretching far out 
into the Danube. Of the little free town of Neusatz we could not 
see much, hidden as it is by hills which at this point confine the 
bed of the river. The Danube is here crossed by a bridge of 
boats, and this place also forms the military boundary of Austria. 



22 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

The surrounding landscape appeared sufficiently picturesque ; the 
little town of Karlowitz, lying at a short distance from the shore, 
among hills covered with vineyards, has a peculiarly good effect. 
Farther on, however, as far as Semlin, the scenery is rather mono- 
. tonous. Here the Danube already spreads itself out to a vast 
breadth, resembling rather a lake than a river. 
^ " ." At nine o'clock at night we reached the city of Semlin, in the 
vicinity of which we halted. Semlin is a fortified place, situated 
at the junction of the Save with the Danube; it contains 13,000 
inhabitants, and is the last Austrian town on the right bank of 
the Danube. 

On approaching Semlin, a few small cannons were fired off 
on board our boat. Unfortunately the steward did not receive 
notice of this event early enough to allow of his opening the win- 
dows, consequently one was shattered: this was a serious mis- 
fortune for us, as the temperature had sunk to zero, and all the 
landscape around was covered with snow. Before leaving Vienna, 
the cabin stove had been banished from its place, as the sun had 
sent forth its mild beams for a few days, and a continuance of 
the warm weather was rashly relied on. On the whole, I would 
not advise any traveller to take a second-class berth on board 
a steamer belonging to the Viennese company. A greater want 
of order than we find in these vessels could scarcely be met 
with. The traveller whose funds will not permit of his paying 
first-class fare will do better to content himself with a third-class, 
i. e. a deck-passage, particularly if he purposes journeying no far- 
ther than Mohacs. If the weather is fine, it is more agreeable 
to remain on deck, watching the panorama of the Danube as it 
glides past. Should the day be unfavourable, the traveller can go, 
without ceremony, into the second-class cabin, for no one makes a 
distinction between the second and third-class places. During the 
daytime, at any rate, it is quite as agreeable to remain on deck 
as to venture below. Travelling down the river from Pesth, the 
women are compelled to pass the night in the same cabin with the 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 23 

men; an arrangement as uncomfortable as it is indecorous. I 
afterwards had some experience of steamers belonging to the 
Austrian Lloyds, on whose vessels I always found a proper sepa- 
ration of the two sexes, and a due regard for the comfort of 
second-class passengers. 

The cold was so severe, that we would gladly have closed 
every window, but for the close atmosphere engendered by the 
number of poor people, mostly Jews, who form the larger portion 
of passengers on board a Hungarian steamer. When the weather 
is unfavourable, these men are accustomed to hasten from then' 
third-class places to those of the second class, where their presence 
renders it immediately desirable to open every outlet for purposes 
of ventilation. What the traveller has to endure on board these 
vessels would scarcely be believed. Uncushioned benches serve 
for seats by day and for beds by night. A separation of the two 
sexes is nowhere attempted, not even on board the Ferdinand, 
in which you enter the Black Sea, and are exposed to the mer- 
ciless attacks of sea- sickness. 

Considering the high rate of passage-money demanded on this 
journey, I really think the traveller might expect better accom- 
modation. The first-class to Constantinople costs 120 florins, a 
the second 85 florins, exclusive of provisions, and without reckon- 
ing the hotel expenses at Presburg. 

March 26th. 

Last night was not a period of rest, but of noise for us travel- 
lers. Not one of us could close his eyes. 

Semlin is a place of considerable importance as a commercial 
town : above 180 cwt. of goods were unloaded here from our ves- 
sel ; and in exchange we took on board coals, wood, and wares of 
various descriptions. The damaged wheel, too, had to be repaired ; 
and every thing was done with so much crashing and noise, 
that we almost imagined the whole steamer was coming to pieces. 
A florin is worth about 2s. Id. 



24 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

Added to this, the cold wind drove in continually through the 
broken pane, and made the place a real purgatory to us. At length, 
at six o'clock in the morning, we got afloat once more. One ad- 
vantage, however, resulted from this fortuitous stoppage : we had a 
very good view of Belgrade, a town of 20,000 inhabitants, situate 
opposite to Semlin. It is the first Turkish fortified city in Servia. 

The aspect of Belgrade is exceedingly beautiful. The fortifi- 
cations extend upwards on a rock from the Danube in the form 
of steps. The city itself, with its graceful minarets, lies half a 
mile farther inland. Here I saw the first mosques and minarets. 
The mosques, as far as I could observe from the steamer, are 
built in a circular form, not very high, and surmounted by a 
cupola flanked by one or two minarets, a kind of high round 
pillar. The loftiest among these buildings is the palace of Prince 
Milosch. From this point our voyage becomes very interesting, 
presenting a rich and varied succession of delightful landscape- 
views. The river is hemmed in on either side by mountains, 
until it spreads itself forth free and unrestrained, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Pancsova, to a breadth of 800 fathoms. 

Pancsova, on the left bank of the Danube, in the territory of 
Banata, is a military station. 

As the stoppages are only for a few moments, h'ttle oppor- 
tunity is afforded of seeing the ulterior of the towns, or of visiting 
most of the places at which we touch. At such tunes all is hurry 
and confusion ; suddenly the bell rings, the planks are withdrawn, 
and the unlucky stranger who has loitered on board for a few 
moments is obliged to proceed with us to the next station. 

At Neusatz this happened to a servant, in consequence of his 
carrying his master's luggage into the cabin instead of merely 
throwing it down on the deck. The poor man was conveyed on 
to Semlin, and had to travel on foot for a day and a half to regain 
his home. A very pleasant journey of two hours from Pancsova 
brought us to the Turkish fortress Semendria, the situation of 
which is truly beautiful. The numerous angles of its walls and 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 25 

towers, built in the Moorish style, impart to this place a peculiar 
charm. As a rule, the Turkish fortresses are remarkable for 
picturesque effect. 

But the villages, particularly those on the Servian shore, had 
the same poverty-stricken look I had frequently noticed in Galicia. 
Wretched clay huts, thatched with straw, lay scattered around ; 
and far and wide not a tree or a shrub appeared to rejoice the eye 
of the traveller or of the sojourner in these parts, under the 
shade of which the poor peasant might recruit his weary frame, 
while it would conceal from the eye of the traveller, in some 
degree, the poverty and nakedness of habitations on which no 
feeling mind can gaze without emotions of pity. 

The left bank of the river belongs to Hungary, and is called 
the " Banat ;" it presents an appearance somewhat less desolate. 
Much, however, remains to be desired ; and the poverty that reigns 
around is here more to be wondered at, from the fact that this 
strip of land is so rich in the productions 'of nature as to have 
obtained the name of the " Garner of Hungary." 

On the Austrian side of the Danube sentries are posted at 
every two or three hundred paces an arrangement which has 
been imitated by the governments on the left bank, and is carried 
out to the point where the river empties itself into the Black Sea. 

It would, however, be erroneous to suppose that these sol- 
diers mount guard in their uniforms. They take up their positions, 
for a week at a time, hi their wretched tattered garments ; fre- 
quently they are barefoot, and their huts look like stables. I 
entered some of these huts to view the internal arrangements. 
They could scarcely have been more simple. In one corner 
I found a hearth ; in another, an apology for a stove, clumsily 
fashioned out of clay. An unsightly hole in the wall, stopped 
\\ith paper instead of glass, forms the window ; the furniture is 
comprised in a single wooden bench. Whatever the inhabitant 
requires in the way of provisions he must bring with him ; for 
this he is allowed by the government to cultivate the land. 



26 "VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

Throughout the Russian territory the soldiers at least wear 
uniform. 

Our journey becomes more and more charming. Frequently 
the mighty river rushes foaming and roaring past the rocks, which 
seem scarcely to allow it a passage; at other times it glides 
serenely onwards. At every turn we behold new beauties, and 
carcely know on which side to turn our eager eyes. Meanwhile 
the ship sails swiftly on, gliding majestically through wildly 
romantic scenery. 

At one o"~clock in the afternoon we reached Pasiest. where 
there is nothing to be seen but a large store of coals for the 
steamers and a few huts. Of the town itself nothing can be 
distinguished. 

A couple of miles below Pasiest we enjoy an imposing spec- 
tacle. It is the solitary rock Babakay, rising from the midst of 
the waters. Together with the beautiful ruin Golumbacz, on the 
Servian shore, it forms a magnificent view. 

March 27th. 

How unfortunate it is that all advantages are so seldom found 
combined ! We are now travelling amid glorious scenery, which 
we hoped should recompense us for the manifold discomforts we 
have hitherto endured ; but the weather is unpropitious. The 
driving snow sends us all into the cabin. The Danube is so 
fiercely agitated by the stormy wind, that it rises into waves Hke 
a sea. We are suffering lamentably from cold ; unable to warm 
ourselves, we stand gazing ruefully at the place where the stove 
stood once upon a time. 

At four o'clock we reached Drenkova without accident, but 
completely benumbed: we hurried into the inn buflt by the steam- 
boat company, where we found capital fare, a warm room, and 
tolerably comfortable beds. This was the first place we had 
reached since leaving Pesth at which we could thoroughly warm 
and refresh ourselves. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 27 

At Drenkova itself there is nothing to be seen but the inn just 
mentioned and a barrack for soldiers. We were here shewn the 
vessel which was wrecked, with passengers on board, in 1839, in 
a journey up the Danube. Eight persons who happened to be in 
the cabin lost their lives, and those only who were on deck were 
saved. 

March 28th. 

Early in the morning we embarked on board the Tiinte, a vessel 
furnished with a cabin. The bed of the Danube is here more and 
more hemmed in by mountains and rocks, so that in some places 
it is not above eighty fathoms broad, and glides with redoubled 
swiftness towards its goal, the Pontus Euxinus or Black Sea. 

On account of the falls which it is necessary to pass, between 
Drenkova and Fetislav, the steamer must be changed for a small 
sailing vessel. The voyage down the stream could indeed be 
accomplished without danger, but the return would be attended 
with many difficulties. The steamers, therefore, remain behind 
at Drenkova, and passengers are conveyed down the river in 
barks, and upivards (since the accident of 1839) in good com- 
modious carriages. 

To-day the cold was quite as severe as it had been yesterday ; 
so that but for the politeness of a fellow -passenger, who lent me 
his bunda (great Hungarian fur), I should have been com- 
pelled to remain in the little cabin, and should thus have missed 
the most interesting points of the Danube. As it was, however, 
I wrapped myself from head to foot in the fur cloak, took my seat 
on a bench outside the cabin, and had full leisure to store my 
memory with a succession of lovely scenery, presenting almost 
the appearance of a series of lake views, which continued equally 
picturesque until we had almost reached Alt-Orsova. 

A couple of miles below Drenkova, near Islas, the sailors sud- 
denly cried, " The first fall !" I looked up in a fever of expec- 
tation. The water was rising in small waves, the stream ran 
somewhat faster, and a slight rushing sound was to be heard. If 



28 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

I had not been told that the Danube forms a waterfall here, I 
should certainly never have suspected it to be the case. Between 
Lenz and Krems I did not find either the rocks or the power of 
the stream much more formidable. We had, however, a high 
tide, a circumstance which diminishes both the danger of the 
journey and the sublimity of the view. The numerous rocky 
points, peering threateningly forth at low tide, among which the 
steersman must pick his way with great care, were all hidden 
from our sight. We glided safely over them, and in about twenty 
minutes had left the first fall behind us. The two succeeding falls 
are less considerable. 

On the Austro-Wallachian side a road extends over a distance 
of fourteen to sixteen miles, frequently strengthened with ma- 
sonry, and at some points hewn out of the solid rock. In the 
midst of this road, on a high wall of rock, we see the celebrated 
"Veteran Cave," one of the most impregnable points on the banks 
of the Danube. It is surrounded by redoubts, and is admirably 
calculated to command the passage of the river. This cave is 
said to be sufficiently spacious to contain 500 men. So far back 
as the time of the Romans it was already used as a point of 
defence for the Danube. Some five miles below it we notice the 
" Trajan's Tablet," hewn out of a protruding rock. 

On the Turco-Servian side the masses of rock jut out so far 
into the stream, that no room is left for a footway. Here the 
famous Trajan's Road once existed. No traces of this work remain, 
save that the traveller notices, for fifteen or twenty miles, holes 
cut here and there hi the rock. In these holes strong trunks of 
trees were fastened ; these supported the planks of which the 
road is said to have been formed. 

At eleven hi the forenoon we reached Alt-Orsova, the last 
Austrian town on the military frontier of Banata or Wallachia. 
We were obliged to remain here for half a day. 

The town has rather a pretty effect, being composed mostly of 
new houses. The house belonging to the steamboat company is 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 29 

particularly remarkable. It is not, however, devoted to the accom- 
modation of travellers, as at Drenkova. Here, as at Presburg and 
Pesth, each passenger is required to pay for his night's expenses, 
an arrangement which I could not help finding somewhat strange, 
inasmuch as every passenger is made to pay twice ; namely, for 
his place on the steamer and for his room in the inn. 

It was Sunday when we arrived, and I saw many people pro- 
ceeding to church. The peasants are dressed tolerably neatly and 
well. Both men and women wear long garments of blue cloth. 
The women have on their heads large handkerchiefs of white 
linen, which hang down their backs, and on their feet stout boots; 
the men wear round felt hats, and sandals made of the bark 
of trees. 

March 29th. 

After having completely refreshed ourselves at the good inn 
called the " Golden Stag," we this morning embarked on a new 
craft, the Saturnus, which is only covered in overhead, and is 
open on all sides. 

So soon as a traveller has stepped upon this vessel he is 
looked upon as unclean, and may not go on shore without keeping 
quarantine : an officer accompanied us as far as Galatz. 

Immediately below Alt-Orsova we entirely quit the Austrian 
territory. 

We are now brought nearer every moment to the most dan- 
gerous part of the river, the " Iron Gate," called by the Turks 
Demir kaju. Half an hour before we reached the spot, the rushing 
sound of the water announced the perilous proximity. Numerous 
reefs of rocks here traverse the stream, and the current runs eddy- 
ing among them. 

We passed this dangerous place in about fifteen minutes. 
Here, at the Iron Gate, the high tide befriended us, as it did at 
the former falls. 

I found these falls, and indeed almost every thing we passed, 
far below the anticipations I had formed from reading descriptions, 



30 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

frequently of great poetic beauty. I wish to represent every 
thing as I found it, as it appeared before my eyes ; without adorn- 
ment indeed, but truly. 

After passing the Iron Gate we come to a village, in the 
neighbourhood of which some fragments of the Trajan's Bridge 
can be discerned at low water. 

The country now becomes flatter, particularly on the left bank, 
where extend the immense plains of Wallachia, and the eye finds 
no object on which it can rest. On the right hand rise terrace- 
like rows of lulls and mountains, and the background is bounded 
by the sharply- denned lines of the Balkan range, rendered cele- 
brated by the passage of the Eussians hi 1829. The villages, 
scattered thinly along the banks, become more and more miserable ; 
they rather resemble stables for cattle than human dwellings. 
The beasts remain hi the open fields, though the climate does not 
appear to be much milder than with us in Austria ; for to-day, 
nearly at the beginning of April, the thermometer stood one de- 
gree below zero, and yesterday we had only five degrees of warmth 
(reckoning by Eeaumur). 

The expeditious and easy manner in which cattle are here de- 
clared to be free from the plague also struck me as remarkable. 
When the creatures are brought from an infected place to one 
pronounced healthy, the ship is brought to some forty or fifty 
paces from the shore, and each animal is thrown into the water 
and driven towards the bank, where people are waiting to receive 
it. After this simple operation the beasts are considered free from 
infectious matter. 

Cattle-rearing seems to be here carried on to a considerable 
extent. Everywhere I noticed large herds of horned beasts and 
many buffaloes. Numerous flocks of goats and sheep also appear. 

On the Saturnus we travelled at the most for two hours, 
after which we embarked, opposite the fortress of Fetislav, on board 
the steamer Zriny. 

At five o'clock in the evening we passed the fortress of Wid- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 31 

din, opposite which we stopped, in the neighbourhood of the town 
of Callafat. It was intended merely to land goods here, and then 
to proceed immediately on our voyage ; but the agent was no- 
where to be found, and so we poor travellers were made the vic- 
tims of this carelessness, and compelled to remain here at anchor 
all night. 

March 30th. 

As the agent had not yet made his appearance, the captain 
had no choice but to leave the steward behind to watch over the 
goods. At half-past six in the morning the engines were at length 
set in motion, and after a very agreeable passage of six hours we 
reached Nicopolis. 

All the Turkish fortresses on the Danube are situated on the 
right bank, mostly amid beautiful scenery. The larger towns and 
villages are surrounded by gardens and trees, which give them a 
very pleasant appearance. The interior of these towns, however, 
is said not to be quite so inviting as one would suppose from a 
distant view, for it is asserted that dirty narrow streets, dilapi- 
dated houses, &c., offend the stranger's sight at every step. We 
did not land at any of these fortresses or towns ; for us the right 
. bank of the river was a forbidden paradise ; so we only saw what 
was beautiful, and escaped being disenchanted. 

Rather late in the evening we cast anchor opposite a village 
of no note. 



CHAPTER II. 

Giurgewo Interior of the town Braila Sanitary precautions Galatz 
Scarcity of good water Ridiculous fear of the plague The steamer 
Ferdinand Entrance into the Black Sea Stormy weather and sea- 
sickness Arrival at Constantinople Picturesque appearance of the 
city Mosques The dancing Dervishes The Sultan and his barge 
Pera The great and little Campo Wild dogs Dirty state of the 
streets Preparations in case of fire. 

March 31st. 

WE started early this morning, and at eight o'clock had already 
reached Giurgewo. This town is situate on the left bank of 
the Danube, opposite the fortress of Rustschuk. It contains 16,000 
inhabitants, and is one of the chief trading towns of Wallachia. 
We were detained here until four o'clock in the afternoon ; for we 
had to unload above 600 cwt. of goods and eight carriages, and 
to take coals on board in exchange. Thus we had time to view 
the interior of this Wallachian city. 

With what disappointed surprise did my fellow-passengers view 
the ugliness of this town, which from a distance promises so much ! 
On me it made but little impression, for I had seen towns pre- 
cisely similar in Galicia. The streets and squares are full of pits 
and holes ; the houses are built without the slightest regard to taste 
or symmetry, one perhaps projecting halfway across the street, 
while its neighbour falls quite into the background. In some 
pkces wooden booths were erected along each side of the street 
for the sale of the commonest necessaries of life and articles of 
food, and these places were dignified by the name of " bazaars." 
Curiosity led us into a wine-shop and into a coffee-house. In both 
of these we found only wooden tables and benches ; there were 
hardly any guests ; and the few persons present belonged to the 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 33 

humblest classes. Glasses and cups are handed to the company 
without undergoing the ceremony of rinsing. 

We purchased some eggs and butter, and went into the house 
of one of the townspeople to prepare ourselves a dish after the 
German fashion. I had thus an opportunity of noticing the inter- 
nal arrangements of a house of this description. The floor of 
the room was not boarded, and the window was only half glazed, 
the remaining portion being filled up with paper or thin bladder. 
For the rest, every thing was neat and simple enough. Even a 
good comfortable divan was not wanting. At four o'clock we 
quitted the town. 

The Danube is now only broad for short distances at a time. 
It is, as it were, sown with islands, and its waters are therefore 
more frequently parted into several streams than united into one. 

In the villages we already notice Greek and Turkish costumes, 
but the women and girls do not yet wear veils. 

Unfortunately it was so late when we reached the fortress of 
Silistria that I could see nothing of it. A little lower down we 
cast anchor for the night. At an early hour on 

April 1st 

we sailed past Hirsova, and at two o'clock stopped at Braila, a 
fortress occupied by the Russians since the year 1828. Here 
passengers were not allowed to land, as they were considered 
infected with the plague; but our officer stepped forward, and 
vouched for the fact that we had neither landed nor taken up any 
one on the right bank of the river ; thereupon the strangers were 
allowed to set foot on terra firma. 

By four o'clock we were opposite Galatz, one of the most 
considerable commercial towns, with 8000 inhabitants, the only 
harbour the Russians possess on the Danube. Here we saw the 
first merchant-ships and barques of all kinds coming from the 
Black Sea. Some sea-gulls also, heralds of the neighbouring ocean, 
soared above our heads. 

c 



34 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

The scene here is one of traffic and bustle ; Galatz being the 
place of rendezvous for merchants and travellers from two quar- 
ters of the globe, Europe and Asia. It is the point of junction of 
three great empires Austria, Russia, and Turkey. 

After the officer had repeated his assurances as at Braila, we 
were permitted to leave the ship. I had a letter of recommenda- 
tion to the Austrian consul, who accidentally came on board ; after 
reading my letter he received me very kindly, and most obligingly 
procured quarters for me. 

The town promises much, but proves to be just such a miser- 
able dirty place as Giurgewo. The houses are generally built 
of wood or clay, thatched with straw ; those alone belonging to 
the consul and the rich merchants are of stone. The finest build- 
ings are the Christian church and the Moldavian hotel. 

Though Galatz lies on the Danube, water for drinking is a 
dear article among the inhabitants. Wells are to be found neither 
in the houses nor in the squares. The townspeople are com- 
pelled to bring ah 1 the water they require from the Danube, which 
is a great hardship for the poor people, and a considerable expense 
for the rich; in winter a small tub of water costs from 10 to 12 
kreutzers (about 4d. or 5rf.) in the more distant quarters of the 
town. At every corner you meet water-carriers, and little wagons 
loaded with tubs of water. Attempts have frequently been made to 
procure this indispensable element by digging ; water has, indeed, 
in some instances gushed forth, but it always had a brackish taste. 

In Galatz we made a halt of twenty -four hours : the delay 
was not of the most agreeable kind, as neither the town itself 
nor its environs offer any thing worthy of remark. Still I always 
think of these days with pleasure. Herr Consul Huber is a po- 
lite and obliging man ; himself a traveller, he gave me many a 
hint and many a piece of advice for my journey. The air of quiet 
comfort which reigned throughout his house was also not to be 
despised by one who had just endured many days of privation ; at 
Herr Huber's I found relief both for body and mind. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 35 

April 2d. 

The scenery round the town is so far from being inviting, that 
I did not feel the least inclination to explore it. I therefore re- 
mained in the town, and went up hill and dowa dale through the 
ill-paved streets. Coffee-houses appear in great abundance ; but if 
it were not for the people sitting in front of them drinking coffee 
and smoking tobacco, no one would do these dirty rooms the 
honour of taking them for places of entertainment. 

In the market and the squares we notice a great prepon- 
derance of the male sex over the female. The former are seen 
bustling about every where, and, like the Italians, perform some 
duties which usually fall to the lot of the softer sex. We notice 
a mixture of the most different nations, and among them a parti- 
cularly large number of Jews. 

The bazaar is overloaded with southern fruits of all kinds. 
Oranges and lemons are seen here in great numbers, like the com- 
monest of our fruits. The prices are of course very trifling. The 
cauliflowers brought from Asia Minor are particularly fine. I 
noticed many as large as a man's head. 

In the evening I was required to repair to the harbour and 
re-embark. 

It is almost impossible to form an idea of the confusion which 
reigns here. A wooden railing forms the barrier between the 
healthy people and those who come from or intend travelling to 
a country infected with the plague. Whoever passes this line 
of demarcation is not allowed to return. Soldiers, officers, go- 
vernment officials, and superintendents, the latter of whom axe 
armed with sticks and pairs of tongs, stand at the entrance to 
drive those forcibly back who will not be content with fair words. 
Provisions and other articles are either thrown over the barrier 
or left in front of it. In the latter case, however, they may not 
be touched until the bearers have departed. A gentleman on the 
" plague" side wished to give a letter to one on the other ; it was 
immediately snatched from his hand and handed across by means 



36 

of a pair of tongs. And all this time such a noise and hubbub is 
going on, that you can scarcely hear the sound of your own voice. 
" Pray hand me over my luggage !" cries one. " Keep farther 
away! don't come near me, and mind you don't touch me!" 
anxiously exclaims another. And then the superintendents keep 
shouting " Stand back, stand back !" &c. 

I was highly entertained by this spectacle; the scene was 
entirely new to me. But on my return, when I shall be one of 
the prisoners, I fear I may find it rather tedious. For this time 
I was not at all hindered in the prosecution of my journey. 

On the whole, these timid precautions seemed to me exceed- 
ingly uncalled for, particularly at a time when neither the plague 
nor any kind of contagious disease prevailed in Turkey. One of 
my fellow-passengers had been banished to our ship on the pre- 
vious day because he had had the misfortune to brush against an 
official on going to see after his luggage. 

At seven o'clock the tattoo is beaten, the grating is shut, and 
the farce ends. We now repaired to the fourth and last steamer, 
the Ferdinand. From first to last we changed vessels six times 
during a journey from Vienna to Constantinople ; we travelled by 
four steamers and twice in boats ; a circumstance which cannot 
be reckoned among the pleasures of a trip down the Danube. 

Though not a large boat, the Ferdinand is comfortable and 
well built. Even the second-class cabin is neatly arranged, and 
a pretty stove diffused a warmth which was peculiarly grateful to 
us all, as the thermometer shewed only six to eight degrees above 
zero. Unfortunately even here the men and women are not sepa- 
rated hi the second-class cabin ; but care is at least taken that 
third-class passengers do not intrude. Twelve berths are arranged 
round the walls, and in front of these are placed broad benches 
well cushioned. 

April 3d. 

At five o'clock in the morning we steamed out of the harbour 
of Galatz. Shortly afterwards basins and towels were handed to 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 37 

us ; a custom totally unknown upon former vessels. For provi- 
sions, which are tolerably good, we are charged 1 fl. 40 kr. per diem. 

Towards ten o'clock we reached Tehussa, a Bessarabian vil- 
lage of most miserable appearance, where we stopped for a quarter 
of an hour ; after which we proceeded without further delay to- 
wards the Black Sea. 

I had long rejoiced in the expectation of reaching the Black 
Sea, and imagined that near its mouth the Danube itself would 
appear like a sea. But as it generally happens in life, " great 
expectations, small realisations," so it was the case here also. 
At Galatz the Danube is very broad ; but some distance from its 
mouth it divides itself into so many branches that not one of them 
can be termed majestic. 

Towards three o'clock in the afternoon we at length entered 
the Black Sea. 

Here the arms of the Danube rush forward from every quar- 
ter, driving the sea tumultuously back, so that we can only dis- 
tinguish hi the far distance a stripe of green. For above an hour 
we glide on over the yellow, clayey, strongly agitated fresh water, 
until at length the boundary is passed, and we are careering over 
the salt waves of the sea. Unfortunately for us, equinoctial gales 
and heavy weather still so powerfully maintained their sway, that 
the deck was completely flooded with the salt brine. We could 
hardly stand upon our feet, and could not manage to reach the 
cabin- door, where the bell was ringing for dinner, without the as- 
sistance of some sailors. 

Several of the passengers, myself among the number, did little 
honour to the cook's skill. We had scarcely begun to eat our 
soup, before we were so powerfully attacked by sea-sickness, that 
we were obh'ged to quit the table precipitately. I laid myself down 
at once, feeling unable to move about, or even to drag myself on 
deck to admire the magnificent spectacle of nature. The waves 
frequently ran so high as to overtop the flue of our stove, and 
from tune to time whole streams of water poured into the cabin. 



38 YISTT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

Aprfl4tk- 

Since yesterday the stain has increased considerably, so that 
we are obliged to hold fast by our cribs to avoid being thrown out 
This misfortune really happened to one of the passengers, who was 
too ffl to hold sufficiently tight. 

As I already felt somewhat better, I attempted to rise, lot 
was thrown in the same instant with such force against a table 
which stood opposite, flat for a long time I felt no inclination to 
try again. There was not the slightest chance of obtaining any 
sleep all night. The dreadful howling of the wind among the 
masts and cordage, the fearful ^Miing of the ship, which seemed 
as though its timbers were starting, the continual jifalfrig and 
rolling, the Ty*fl"g of the heavy cables above us, the cries, orders, 
and flhimfing of the captain and his sailors, all combined to form 
a din which did not allow us to enjoy a moment's rest. In the 
morning, 21 as I felt myself, I managed to gain the deck with the 
help of the steward, and sat down near the steersman to enjoy the 
npnrt of that grandest of nature's phenomena a storm at sea. 

HMRnfr tightly on, I bade defiance to the waves, which broke 
over the ship and wetted me all over, as though to cool my feverish 
heat I could now form a dear and vivid conception of a storm 
at sea. I saw the waves rush fa**"g on, and the ship now div- 
ing into an abyss, and anon rising with the speed of lightning to 
the peak of the highest wave. It was a thrflfing, fearful sight ; 
absorbed in its contemplation, I soon ceased to think of my sickness. 

Late at night the violence of the storm abated in some degree ; 
we could now run in and cast anchor in the harbour of Varna, 
which under ordinary circumstances we should have reached twelve 
hoars sooner. 

April 5tiu 

This morning I lad leisure to admire this fine fortress-town, 
which was besieged and taken by the Russians in 1828. We 
remained here several hours. The upper portion of the ship was 
here loaded with fowl of afl descriptions, to such a degree that the 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 39 

space left for us travellers was exceedingly circumscribed. This 
article of consumption seems to be in great demand in Constanti- 
nople both aniong Turks and Franks ; for our captain assured me 
that his vessel was laden with this kind of ware every time he 
quitted Varna, and that he carried it to Stamboul. 

April 6th. 

The shades of night prevented my seeing one of the finest 
sights in the world, hi anticipation of which I had rejoiced ever 
since my departure from Vienna the passage through the Bos- 
phorus. A few days afterwards, however, I made the excursion 
hi a kaik (a very small and light boat), and enjoyed to my heart's 
content views and scenes which it is totally beyond my descriptive 
power to portray. 

At three o'clock in the morning, when we entered the harbour 
of Constantinople, every one, with the exception of the sailors, lay 
wrapped in sleep. I stood watching on deck, and saw the sun rise 
in its full glory over the imperial city, so justly and universally 
admired. 

We had cast anchor in the neighbourhood of Topona; the 
city of cities lay spread out before my eyes, built on several hills, 
each bearing a separate town, and all blending into a grand and 
harmonious whole. 

The town of Constantinople, properly speaking, is separated 
from Galata and Pera by the so-called " Golden-Horn ;" the 
means of communication is by a long and broad wooden bridge. 
Scutari and Bulgurlu rise in the form of terraces on the Asiatic 
shore. Scutari is surrounded, within and without, by a splendid 
wood of magnificent cypresses. In the foreground, on the top of 
the mountain, lie the spacious and handsome barracks, which can 
contain 10,000 men. 

The beautiful mosques, with their graceful minarets the 
palaces and harems, kiosks and great barracks the gardens, 
shrubberies, and cypress-woods the gaily painted houses, among 



40 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

which single cypresses often rear their slender heads, these, 
together with the immense forest of masts, combine to form an 
indescribably striking spectacle. 

When the bustle of life began, on the shore and on the sea, 
my eyes scarcely sufficed to take in all I saw. The " Golden 
Horn" became gradually covered as far as the eye could reach 
with a countless multitude of kaiks. The restless turmoil of life 
on shore, the passing to and fro of men of all nations and colours, 
from the pale inhabitant of Europe to the blackest Ethiopian, the 
combination of varied and characteristic costumes, this, and much 
more which I cannot describe, held me spell-bound to the deck. 
The hours flew past like minutes, and even the time of debarca- 
tion came much too early for me, though I had stood on deck and 
gazed from three o'clock until eight. 

I found myself richly repaid for all the toils of my journey, 
and rejoiced in the sight of these wonderful Eastern pictures ; I 
could only wish I were a poet, that I might fitly portray the mag- 
nificent gorgeousness of the sight. 

To land at Topona, and to be immediately surrounded by 
hired servants and hamaks (porters), is the fate of every traveller. 
The stranger is no longer master either of his will or his luggage. 
One man praises this km, the other that. a The porters hustle and 
beat each other for your effects, so that the custom-house officers 
frequently come forward with their sticks to restore order. The 
boxes are then searched, a ceremony which can, however, be 
considerably accelerated by a fee of from ten to twenty kreutzers. 

It is very advisable to fix on an hotel before leaving the boat. 
There are always passengers on board who are resident at Con- 
stantinople, or at least know the town well, and who are polite 
enough to give advice on the subject to strangers. By this means 
you rid yourself at once of the greedy servants, and need only tell 
a porter the name of your inn. 

a They receive a dollar from the landlord for every guest whom they 
bring to his house. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 41 

The inns for the Franks (a term used in the East to designate 
all Europeans) are in Pera. I stayed at the hotel of Madame 
Balbiani, a widow lady, in whose house the guests are made com- 
fortable in every respect. Clean rooms, with a beautiful view to- 
wards the sea, healthy, well-selected, and palatable fare, and good 
prompt attendance, are advantages which every one values ; and 
all these are found at Madame Balbianf s, besides constant readi- 
ness to oblige on the part of the hostess and her family. The 
good lady took quite a warm interest in me ; and I can say, with- 
out hesitation, that had not my good fortune led me under her 
roof, I should have been badly off. I had several letters of intro- 
duction ; but not being fortunate enough to travel in great pomp 
or with a great name, my countrymen did not consider it worth 
while to trouble themselves about me. 

I am ashamed, for their sakes, to be obliged to make this con- 
fession ; but as I have resolved to narrate circumstantially not only 
all I saw, but all that happened to me on this journey, I must 
note down this circumstance with the rest. I felt the more deeply 
the kindness of these strangers, who, without recommendation or 
the tie of country, took so hearty an interest in the well-being 
of a lonely woman. I am truly rejoiced when an opportunity 
occurs of expressing my sincere gratitude for the agreeable hours 
I spent among them. 

The distance from Vienna to Constantinople is about 1000 
sea miles. 

KESIDENCE AT CONSTANTINOPLE. THE DANCING DERVISHES. 

I arrived at Constantinople on a Tuesday, and immediately 
inquired what was worth seeing. I was advised to go and see 
the dancing dervishes, as this was the day on which they held 
their religious exercises hi Pera. 

As I reached the mosque an hour too soon, I betook myself in 
the meantime to the adjoining garden, which is set apart as the 
place of meeting of the Turkish women. Here several hundred 



42 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

ladies reclined on the grass in varied groups, surrounded by their 
children and their nurses, the latter of whom are all negresses. 
Many of these Turkish women were smoking pipes of tobacco with 
an appearance of extreme enjoyment, and drinking small cups of 
coffee without milk. Two or three friends often made use of the 
same pipe, which was passed round from mouth to mouth. These 
ladies seemed also to be partial to dainties : most of them were 
well provided with raisins, figs, sugared nuts, cakes, &c., and ate 
as much as the little ones. They seemed to treat their slaves 
very kindly ; the black servants sat among their mistresses, and 
munched away bravely : the slaves are well dressed, and could 
scarcely be distinguished from their owners, were it not for their 
sable hue. 

During my whole journey I remarked with" pleasure that the 
lot of a slave hi the house of a Mussulman is not nearly so hard 
as we believe. The Turkish women are no great admirers of 
animated conversations ; still there was more talking in their 
societies than in the assemblies of the men, who sit silent and half 
asleep in the coffee-houses, languidly listening to the narrations 
of a story-teller. 

The ladies' garden resembles a churchyard. Funeral monu- 
ments peer forth at intervals between the cypresses, beneath which 
the visitors sit talking and joking cheerfully. Every now and 
then one would suddenly start up, spread a carpet beside her com- 
panions, and kneel down to perform her devotions. 

As no one of the male sex was allowed to be present, all were 
unveiled. I noticed many pretty faces among them, but not a 
single instance of rare or striking beauty. Fancy large brilliant 
eyes, pale cheeks, broad faces, and an occasional tendency to cor- 
pulence, and you have the ladies' portrait. Small-pox must still 
be rather prevalent hi these parts, for I saw marks of it on many 
faces. 

The Turkish ladies' costume is not very tasteful. When they 
go abroad, they are completely swathed in an upper garment, 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 43 

generally made of dark merino. In the harem, or in any place 
where men are not admitted, they doff this garment, and also the 
white cloth in which they wrap their heads and faces. Their cos- 
tume consists, properly speaking, of very wide trousers drawn' 
together below the ancle, a petticoat with large wide sleeves, and 
a broad sash round the waist. Over this sash some wear a caftan, 
others only a spencer, generally of silk. On their feet they wear 
delicate boots,, and over these slippers of yellow morocco ; on 
their heads a small fez-cap, from beneath which then: hair fells 
on their shoulders in a number of thin plaits. Those Turks, 
male and female, who are descended from Mahomet, have either 
a green caftan or a green turban. This colour is here held so 
sacred, that scarcely any one may wear it. I would even advise 
the Franks to avoid green in their dresses, as they may expose 
themselves to annoyance by using it. 

After I had had more than an hour's leisure to notice all these 
circumstances, a noise suddenly arose hi the courtyard, which pro- 
duced a stir among the women. I considered from these appear- 
ances that it was time to go to the temple, and hastened to join 
my party. A great crowd was waiting in the courtyard, for the 
Sultan was expected. I was glad to have the good fortune to 
behold him on the very day of my arrival. As a stranger, I was 
allowed, without opposition, a place in the front ranks, a trait of 
good breeding on the part of the Turks which many a Frank 
would do well to imitate. In a Turk, moreover, this politeness 
is doubly praiseworthy, from the fact that he looks upon my poor 
sex with great disrespect ; indeed, according to his creed, we have 
not even a soul. 

I had only stood a few moments, when the Sultan appeared 
on horseback, surrounded by his train. He alone rode into the 
courtyard ; the others all dismounted at the gate, and entered on 
foot. The horse on which the Sultan rode was of rare beauty, 
and, as they told me, of the true Arabian breed ; the saddle-cloth 
was richly embroidered with gold, and the stirrups, of the same 



44 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

precious metal, were in the form of shoes, covered with the finest 
chased work. 

The Sultan is a slender slim-looking youth of nineteen years 
of age, and looks pale, languid, and blase. His features are 
agreeable, and his eyes fine. If he had not abandoned himself at 
so early an age to all the pleasures of the senses, he would, no 
doubt, have grown up a stalwart man. He wore a long cape of 
dark-blue cloth ; and a high fez-cap, with a heron's plume and a 
diamond clasp, decked his head. The greeting of the people, and 
the Sultan's mode of acknowledging it, is exactly as at Vienna, ex- 
cept that here the people at intervals raise a low cry of welcome. 

As soon as the Sultan had entered the temple, all flocked in. 
The men and the Franks (the latter without distinction of sex) 
sit or stand hi the body of the temple. The Turkish women sit 
in galleries, behind such close wire gratings that they are com- 
pletely hidden. The temple, or more properly the hall, is of in- 
considerable size, and the spectators are only separated from the 
priests by a low railing. 

At two o'clock the dervishes appeared, clad in long petticoats 
with innumerable folds, which reached to their heels. Then- heads 
were covered with high pointed hats of white felt. They spread 
out carpets and skins of beasts, and began their ceremonies with a 
great bowing and kissing of the ground. At length the music 
struck up ; but I do not remember ever to have heard a perform- 
ance so utterly horrible. The instruments were a child's drum, 
a shepherd's pipe, and a miserable fiddle. Several voices set up 
a squeaking and whining accompaniment, with an utter disregard 
of time and tune. 

Twelve dervishes now began their dance, if indeed a turning 
round in a circle, while their full dresses spread round them like a 
large wheel, can be called by such a name. They display much 
address in avoiding each other, and never come in contact, though 
their stage is very small. I did not notice any " convulsions," of 
which I had read in many descriptions. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 45 

The ceremony ended at three o'clock. The Sultan once more 
mounted his horse, and departed with Ms train and the eunuchs. 
In the course of the day I saw him again, as he was returning 
from visiting the medical faculty. It is not difficult to get a sight 
of the Sultan ; he generally appears in public on Tuesdays, and 
always on Fridays, the holiday of the Turks. 

The train of the young autocrat presents a more imposing ap- 
pearance when he goes by water to visit a mosque, which he gene- 
rally does on every Friday. Only two hours before he starts it is 
announced in which mosque he intends to appear. At twelve, at 
noon, the procession moves forward. For this purpose two beau- 
tiful barges are hi readiness, painted white, and covered with 
gilded carvings. Each barge is surmounted by a splendid canopy 
of dark-red velvet, richly bordered with gold fringe and tassels. 
The floor is spread with beautiful carpets. The rowers are strong 
handsome youths, clad in short trousers and jacket of white silk, 
with fez-caps on their heads. On each side of the ship there are 
fourteen of these rowers, under whose vigorous exertions the barge 
flies forward over wave and billow like a dolphin. The beauti- 
fully regular movements of the sailors have a fine effect. The cars 
all dip into the water with one stroke, the rowers rise as one man, 
and fall back into their places in the same perfect time. 

A number of elegant barges and kaiks follow the procession. 
The flags of the Turkish fleet and merchant-ships are hoisted, and 
twenty-one cannons thunder forth a salutation to the Sultan. He 
does not stay long injthe mosque, and usually proceeds to visit a 
barrack or some other public building. When the monarch goes 
by water to the mosque, he generally returns also in his barge ; if 
he goes by land, he returns in the same manner. 

The most popular walks in Pera are " the great and little 
Campo," which maybe termed "burying-places in cypress-groves." 
It is a peculiar custom of the Turks, which we hardly find among 
any other nation, that all their feasts, walks, business-transactions, 
and even their dwellings, are in the midst of graves. Every 



46 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

where, in Constantinople, Pera, Galata, &c., one can scarcely 
walk a few paces without passing several graves surrounded by 
cypresses. We wander continually between the living and the 
dead; but within four and twenty hours I was quite reconciled to 
the circumstance. During the night-time I could pass the graves 
with as little dread as if I were walking among the houses of the 
living. Seen from a distance, these numerous cypress-woods give 
to the town a peculiar fairy -like appearance; I can think of 
nothing with which I could compare it. Every where the tall 
trees appear, but the tombs are mostly hidden from view. 

It took a longer time before I could accustom myself to the 
multitude of ownerless dogs, which the stranger encounters at all 
corners, in every square and every street. They are of a pecu- 
liarly hideous breed, closely resembling the jackal. During the 
daytime they are not obnoxious, being generally contented enough 
if they are allowed to sleep undisturbed in the sun, and to devour 
their prey in peace. But at night they are not so quiet. They 
bark and howl incessantly at each other, as well as at the passers- 
by, but do not venture an attack, particularly if you are accom- 
panied by a servant carrying a lantern and a stick. Among them- 
selves they frequently have quarrels and fights, in which they 
sometimes lose their lives. They are extremely jealous if a 
strange dog approaches their territory, namely the street or square 
of which they have possession. On such an intruder they all fell 
tooth and nail, and worry him until he either seeks safety in flight 
or remains dead on the spot. It is therefore a rare circumstance 
for any person to have a house-dog with him in the streets. It 
would be necessary to carry the creature continually, and even 
then a number of these unbidden guests would follow, barking and 
howling incessantly. Neither distemper nor madness is to be 
feared from these dogs, though no one cares for their wants. 
They live on carrion and oflal, which is to be found in abundance 
in every street, as every description r>f filth is thrown out of the 
houses into the road. A few years ago it was considered expe- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 47 

dient to banish these dogs from Constantinople. They were trans- 
ported to two uninhabited islands in the Sea of Marmora, the males 
to one and the females to another. But dirt and filth increased 
in the city to such a degree, that people were glad to have them 
back again. 

The town is not lighted. Every person who goes abroad at 
night must take a lantern with him. If he is caught wandering 
without a lantern by the guard, he is taken off without mercy to 
the nearest watch-house, where he must pass the night. The gates 
of the city are shut after sunset. 

In proportion as I was charmed with the beautiful situation of 
Constantinople, so I was disgusted with the dirt and the offensive 
atmosphere which prevail every where ; the ugly narrow streets, 
the continual necessity to climb up and down steep places in the 
badly-paved roads, soon render the stranger weary of a residence 
in this city. 

Worse than all is the continual dread of conflagration hi which 
we live. Large chests and baskets are kept in readiness in every 
house; if a fire breaks out in the neighbourhood, all valuable 
articles are rapidly thrown into these and conveyed away. It is 
customary to make a kind of contract with two or three Turks, 
who are pledged, in consideration of a trifling monthly stipend, to 
appear hi the hour of danger, for the purpose of carrying the boxes 
and lending a helping hand wherever they can. It is safer by 
far to reckon on the honesty of the Turks than on that of the 
Christians and Greeks. Instances in which a Turk has appropri- 
ated any portion of the goods entrusted to his care are' said to be 
of very rare occurrence. During the first nights of my stay I 
was alarmed at every noise, particularly when the watchman, 
who paraded the streets, happened to strike with his stick upon 
the stones. In the event of a conflagration, he must knock at 
every house-door and cry, " Fire, fire !" Heaven be praised, my 
fears were never realised. 



48 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



CHAPTER III. 

Scutari Kaiks The howling Dervishes The Achmaidon, or place of 
arrows The tower in Galata The Bazaar at Constantinople 
Mosques Slave-market The old Serail The Hippodrome Coffee- 
houses Story-tellers Excursion to Ejub Houses, theatres, and car- 
riages. 

I CHOSE a Friday for an excursion to Scutari, the celebrated 
burying-place of the Turks, in order that I might have an 
opportunity of seeing the " howling dervishes." 

In company with a French physician, I traversed the Bospho- 
rus in a kaik. a We passed by the " Leander's Tower," which 
stands in the sea, a few hundred paces from the Asiatic coast, and 
has been so frequently celebrated in song by the poets. We soon 
arrived at our destination. 

It was with a peculiar feeling of emotion that for the first time 
in my life I set foot on a new quarter of the globe. Now, and 
not till now, I seemed separated by an immeasurable distance from 
my home. Afterwards, when I landed on the coast of Africa, the 
circumstance did not produce the same impression on my mind. 

Now at length I was standing in the quarter of the earth 
which had been the cradle of the human race ; where man had 
risen high, and had again sunk so low that the Almighty had al- 
most annihilated him in his righteous anger. And here in Asia it 
was that the Son of God came on earth to bring the boon of re- 
demption to fallen man. My long and warmly- cherished wish to 
tread this most wonderful of the four quarters of the earth was at 

a Boats built very slenderly, and which have a great knack of upset- 
ting, a circumstance which renders it necessary for the occupant to sit 
like a statue ; the slightest movement of the body, or even of the head or 
arm, draws upon you a reproof from the boatman. 







BUItlAI, PI.ACK AT SCUTAIU. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 49 

length fulfilled, and with God's help I might confidently hope to 
reach the sacred region whence the true light of the world had 
shone forth. 

Scutari is the place towards which the Mussulman looks with 
the hope of one day reposing beneath its shade. No disciple of 
any other creed is allowed to be buried here ; and here, therefore, 
the Mahometan feels himself at home, and worthy of his Prophet. 
The cemetery is the grandest in the world. One may wander 
for hours through this grove of cypresses, without reaching the 
end. On the gravestones of the men turbans are sculptured ; on 
those of the women fruits and flowers : the execution is in most 
cases very indifferent. 

Though neither the chief nor the tributary streets in Scutari 
are even, they are neither so badly paved nor quite so narrow as 
those at Pera. The great barracks, on a height ha the foreground, 
present a splendid appearance, and also afford a delicious view to- 
wards the Sea of Marmora and the inimitably beautiful Bosphorus. 
The barracks are said to contain accommodation for 10,000 men. 

THE HOWLING DEBVISHES. 

At two o'clock we entered the temple, a miserable wooden 
building. Every Mussulman may take part in this religious 
ceremony ; it is not requisite that he should have attained to the 
rank and dignity of a dervish. Even children of eight or nine 
stand up in a row outside the circle of men, to gain an early pro- 
ficiency hi these holy exercises. 

The commencement of the ceremony is the same as with the 
dancing dervishes; they have spread out carpets and skins of 
beasts, and are bowing and kissing the ground. Now they stand 
up and form a circle together with the laymen, when the chief 
begins in a yelling voice to recite prayers from the Koran ; by 
degrees those forming the circle join in, and scream in concert. 
For the first hour some degree of order is still preserved; the 
performers rest frequently to husband then: strength, which will 

D 



50 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

be exerted to the utmost at the close of the ceremony. But then 
the sight becomes as horrible as one can well imagine any thing. 
They vie with one another in yelling and howling, and torture 
their faces, heads, and bodies into an infinite variety of fantastic 
attitudes. The roaring, which resembles that of wild beasts, and 
the dreadful spasmodic contortions of the actors' countenances, ren- 
der this religious ceremony a horrible and revolting spectacle. 

The men stamp with their feet on the ground, jerk their heads 
backwards and forwards, and certainly throw themselves into 
worse contortions than those who are described as having been 
in old times "vexed with a devil." During the exercise they 
snatch the coveiing from their heads, and gradually take off all 
their clothes, with the exception of shirt and trousers. The two 
high priests who stand within the circle receive the garments one 
after another, kiss them, and lay them on a heap together. The 
priests beat time with their hands, and after the garments have 
been laid aside the dance becomes faster and faster. Heavy drops 
of perspiration stand on every brow ; some are even foaming at 
the mouth. The howling and roaring at length reach such a 
dreadful pitch, that the spectator feels stunned and bewildered. 

Suddenly one of these maniacs fell lifeless to the ground. The 
priests and a few from the circle hurried towards him, stretched 
him out flat, crossed his hands and feet, and covered him with a 
-cloth. 

The doctor and I were both considerably alarmed, for we 
thought the poor man had been seized with apoplexy. To our 
surprise and joy, however, we saw him about six or eight minutes 
afterwards suddenly throw off the cloth, jump up, and once more 
take his place in the circle to howl like a maniac. 

At three o'clock the ceremony concluded. I would not advise 
any person afflicted with weak nerves to witness it, for he cer- 
tainly could not endure the sight. I could have fancied myself 
among raving lunatics and men possessed, rather than amidst rea- 
sonable^ beings. It was long before I could recover my compo- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 51 

sure, and realise the idea that the infatuation of man could attain 
such a pitch. I was informed that before the ceremony they 
swallow opium, to increase the wildness of their excitement ! 

The Achmaidon (place of arrows) deserves a visit, on account 
of the beautiful view obtained thence ; the traveller should see it, 
if he be not too much pressed for time. This is the place which 
the Sultan sometimes honours by his presence when he wishes to 
practise archery. 

On an open space stands a kind of pulpit of masonry, from which 
the Sultan shoots arrows into the air without mark or aim. Where 
the arrow falls, a pillar or pyramid is erected to commemorate the 
remarkable event. The whole space is thus covered with a num- 
ber of these monuments, most of them broken and weather-stained, 
and all scattered in the greatest confusion. Not iar from this 
place is an imperial kiosk, with a garden. Both promise much 
when viewed from a distance, but realise nothing when seen from 
within. 

THE TOWER IN GALATA. 

Whoever wishes to appreciate in its fullest extent the charm 
of the views round Constantinople should ascend the tower in 
Oalata near Pera, or the Serasker in Constantinople. According 
to my notion, the former course is preferable. In this tower 
there is a room with twelve windows placed hi a circle, from 
which we see pictures such as the most vivid imagination could 
hardly create. 

Two quarters of the globe, on the shores of two seas united 
by the Bosphorus, lie spread before us. The glorious hills with 
then: towns and villages, the number of palaces, gardens, kiosks, 
and mosques, Chalcedon, the Prince's Islands, the Golden Horn, 
the continual bustle on the sea, the immense fleet, besides the 
numerous ships of other nations, the crowds of people in Pera, 
Galata, and Topana all unite to form a panorama of singular 
beauty. The richest fancy would fail in the attempt to portray 



52 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

such a scene ; the most practised pen would be unequal to the task 
of adequately describing it But the gorgeous picture will be 
ever present to my memory, though I lack the power of present- 
ing it to the minds of others. 

Frequently, and each time with renewed pleasure, I ascended 
this tower, and would sit there for hours, in admiration of the 
works of the created and of the Creator. Exhausted and weary 
with gazing was I each time I returned to my home. I think 
I may affirm that no spot in the world can present such a view, 
or any thing that can be compared with it. I found how right 
I had been in undertaking this journey in preference to any other. 
Here another world lies unfolded before my view. Every thing 
here is new nature, art, men, manners, customs, and mode of 
life. He who would see something totally different from the 
every-day routine of European life in European towns should 
come here. 

THE BAZAAB. 

In the town of Constantinople we come upon a wooden bridge, 
large, long, and broad, stretching across the Golden Horn. The 
streets of the town are rather better paved than those of Pera. 
In the bazaars and on the sea- coast alone do we find an appearance 
of bustle ; the remaining streets are quiet enough. 

The Bazaar is of vast extent, comprehending many covered 
streets, which cross each other in every direction and receive light 
from above. Every article of merchandise has its peculiar alley. 
In one all the goldsmiths have their shops, in another the shoe- 
makers ; in this street you see nothing but silks, in another real 
Cashmere shawls, &c. 

Every dealer has a little open shop, before which he sits, and 
unceasingly invites the passers-by to purchase. Whoever wishes 
to buy or to look at any thing sits down also in front of the booth. 
The merchants are very good-natured and obliging ; they always 
willingly unfold and display their treasures, even when they no- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 53 

tice that the person to whom they are shewing them does not 
intend to become a purchaser. I had, however, imagined the 
display of goods to be much more varied and magnificent than 
I found it ; but the reason of this apparent poverty is that the 
true treasures of art and nature, such as shawls, precious stones, 
pearls, valuable arms, gold brocades, &c., must not be sought in 
the bazaars ; they are kept securely under lock and key in the 
dwellings or warehouses of the proprietors, whither the stranger 
must go if he wishes to see the richest merchandise. 

The greatest number of streets occupied by the followers of 
any one trade are those inhabited by the makers of shoes and slip- 
pers. A degree of magnificence is displayed in their shops such 
as a stranger would scarcely expect to see. There are slippers 
which are worth 1000 piastres* a pair and more. They are 
embroidered with gold, and ornamented with pearls and precious 
stones. 

The Bazaar is generally so much crowded, that it is a work 
of no slight difficulty to get through it ; yet the space in the mid- 
dle is very broad, and one has rarely to step aside to allow a car- 
riage or a horseman to pass. But the bazaars and baths are the 
lounges and gossipping places of the Turkish women. Under the 
pretence of bathing or of wishing to purchase something, they 
walk about here for half a day together, amusing themselves with 
small-talk, love-affairs, and with looking at the wares. 

THE MOSQUES. 

Without spending a great deal of money, it is very difficult to 
obtain admittance into the mosques. You are compelled to take 
out a firmann, which costs from 1000 to 1200 piastres. A guide 
of an enterprising spirit is frequently sufficiently acute to inquire in 
the different hotels if there are any guests who wish to visit the 
mosques. Each person who is desirous of doing so gives four or 

a A piastre is worth about \ld. 



54 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

five colonati b to the guide, who thereupon procures the firmann, 
and frequently clears forty or fifty guilders by the transaction. 
An opportunity of this description to visit the mosques generally 
offers itself several times in the course of a month. 

I had made up my mind that it would he impossible to quit 
Constantinople without first seeing the four wonder-mosques, the 
Aja Sofia, Sultan Achmed, Osmanije, and Soleimanije. 

I had the good fortune to obtain admittance on paying a very 
trifling sum ; I think I should regret it to this day if I had paid 
five colonati for such a purpose. 

To an architect these mosques are no doubt highly interest- 
ing ; to a profane person like myself they offer little attraction. 
Their principal beauty generally consists in the bold arches of the 
cupolas. The interior is always empty, with the exception of 
a few large chandeliers placed at intervals, and furnished with a 
large number of perfectly plain glass lamps. The marble] floors 
are covered with straw mats. In the Sofia mosque we find a few 
pillars which have been brought hither from Ephesus and Baalbec, 
and in a compartment on one side several sarcophagi are depo- 
sited. 

Before entering the mosque, you must either take off your 
shoes or put on slippers over them. The outer courts, which are 
open to all, are very spacious, paved with slabs of marble, and 
kept scrupulously clean. In the midst stands a fountain, at which 
the Mussulman washes his hands, his face, and his feet, before en- 
tering the mosque. An open colonnade resting on pillars usually 
runs round the mosques, and splendid plantains and other trees 
throw a delicious shade around. 

The mosque of Sultan Achmed, on the Hippodrome, is sur- 
rounded by six minarets. Most of the others have only two, and 
some few four. 

The kitchens for the poor, situated in the immediate neigh- 

b About one pound sterling'. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 55 

bourhood of the mosques, are a very praiseworthy institution. 
Here the poor Mussulman is regaled on simple dishes, such as rice, 
beans, cucumbers, &c., at the public expense. I marvelled greatly 
to find no crowding at these places. Another and an equally 
useful measure is the erection of numerous fountains of clear good 
water. This is the more welcome when we remember that the 
Turkish religion forbids the use of all spirituous liquors. At many 
of these fountains servants are stationed, whose only duty is to 
keep ten or twelve goblets of shining brass constantly filled with 
this refreshing nectar, and to offer them to every passer-by, be he 
Turk or Frank. Beer-houses and wine-shops are not to be found 
here. Would to Heaven this were every where the case ! ^How 
many a poor wretch would never have been poor, and how many 
a madman would never have lost his senses ! 
Not far from the Osmanije mosque is the 

SLAVE-MARKET. 

I entered it with a beating heart, and already before I had 
even seen them, pitied the poor slaves. How glad, therefore, was 
I when I found them not half so forlorn and neglected as^ we 
Europeans are accustomed to imagine ! I saw around me friendly 
smiling faces, from the grimaces and contortions of which I could 
easily discover that their owners were making quizzical remarks 
on every passing stranger. 

The market is a great yard, surrounded by rooms, in which 
the slaves live. By day they may walk about in the yard,*pay 
one another visits, and chatter as much as they please. 

In a market of this kind we, of course, see every gradation of 
colour, from light brown to the deepest black. The white slaves, 
and the most beautiful of the blacks, are not however to be seen 
by every stranger, but are shut up in the dwellings of the ^traf- 
fickers in human flesh. The dress of these people is simple in 
the extreme. They either wear only a large linen sheet, which 
is wrapped round them, or some light garment. Even this they 



56 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

are obliged to take off when a purchaser appears. So long as 
they are in the hands of the dealers, they are certainly not kept 
in very good style ; so they all look forward with great joy to the 
prospect of getting a master. When they are once purchased, 
their fate is generally far from hard. They always adopt the 
religion of their master, are not overburdened with work, are 
well clothed and fed, and kindly treated. Europeans also pur- 
chase slaves, but may not look upon them and treat them as such ; 
from the moment when a slave is purchased by a Frank he be- 
comes free. Slaves bought in this way, however, generally stay 
\vith their masters. 

THE OLD SEKAIL 

is, of course, an object of paramount attraction to us Europeans. 
I betook myself thither with my expectations at full stretch, and 
once more found the reality to be far below my anticipations. 
The effect of the whole is certainly grand ; many a little town 
would not cover so much ground as this place, which consists of a 
number of houses and buildings, kiosks, and summer-houses, sur- 
rounded with plantains and cypress-trees, the latter half hidden 
amid gardens and arbours. Everywhere there is a total want of 
symmetry and taste. I saw something of the garden, walked 
through the first and second courtyard, and even peeped into the 
third. In the last two yards the buildings are remarkable for the 
number of cupolas they exhibit. I saw a few rooms and large 
halls quite full of a number of European things, such as furniture, 
clocks, vases, &c. My expectations were sadly damped. The 
place where the heads of pashas who had fallen into disfavour 
were exhibited is in the third yard. Heaven be praised, no 
severed heads are now seen stuck on the palings. 

I was not fortunate enough to be admitted into the imperial 
harem ; I did not possess sufficient interest to obtain a view of it. 
At a later period of my journey, however, I succeeded in viewing 
several harems. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 57 

THE HIPPODROME 

is the largest and finest open place in Constantinople. After those 
of Cairo and Padua, it is the most spacious I have seen any where. 
Two obelisks of red granite, covered with hieroglyphics, are the 
only ornaments of this place. The houses surrounding it are 
built, according to the general fashion, of wood, and painted with 
oil-colours of different tints. I here noticed a great number of 
pretty children's carriages, drawn by servants. Many parents 
assembled here to let their children be driven about. 

Not far from the Hippodrome are the great cisterns with 
the thousand and one pillars. Once on a time this gigantic 
fabric must have presented a magnificent appearance. Now a 
miserable wooden staircase, lamentably out of repair, leads you 
down a flight of thirty or forty steps into the depths of one of 
these cisterns, the roof of wliich is supported by three hundred 
pillars. This cistern is no longer filled with water, but serves as 
a workshop for silk- spinners. The place seems almost as if it had 
been expressly built for such a purpose, as it receives light from 
above, and is cool in summer, and warm during the winter. It is 
now impossible to penetrate into the lower stories, as they are 
either filled with earth or with water. 

The aqueducts of Justinian and Valentinian are stupendous 
works. They extend from Belgrade to the " Sweet Waters," a 
distance of about fourteen miles, and supply the whole of Con- 
stantinople with a sufficiency of water. 

COFFEE-HOUSES STORY-TELLERS. 

Before I bade farewell to Constantinople for the present and 
betook me to Pera, I requested my guide to conduct me to a few 
coffee-houses, that I might have a new opportunity of observing 
the peculiar customs and mode of life of the Turks. I had already 
obtained some notion of the appearance of these places in Giurgewo 
and Galatz ; but in this imperial town I had fancied I should find 



58 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

them somewhat neater and more ornamental. But this delusion 
vanished as soon as I entered the first coffee-house. A wretchedly 
dirty room, in which Turks, Greeks, Armenians, and others sat 
cross-legged on divans, smoking and drinking coffee, was all I 
could discover. In the second house I visited I saw, with great 
disgust, that the coffee-room was also used as a barber's shop; 
on one side they were serving coffee, and on the other a Turk 
was having his head shaved. They say that bleeding is some- 
times even carried on in these booths. 

In a coffee-house of a rather superior class we found one of 
the so-called " story-tellers." The audience sit round in a half- 
circle, and the narrator stands in the foreground, and quietly be- 
gins a tale from the Thousand and One Nights ; but as he con- 
tinues he becomes inspired, and at length roars and gesticulates 
like the veriest ranter among a company of strolling players. 

Sherbet is not drunk in all the coffee-houses ; but every where 
we find stalls and booths where this cooling and delicious beverage 
is to be had. It is made from the juice of fruits, mixed with that 
of lemons and pomegranates. In Pera ice is only to be had in 
the coffee-houses of the Franks, or of Christian confectioners. All 
coffee-house keepers are obliged to buy their coffee ready burnt 
and ground from the government, the monopoly of this article 
being an imperial privilege. A building has been expressly con- 
structed for its preparation, where the coffee is ground to powder 
by machinery. The coffee is made very strong, and poured out 
without being strained, a custom which I could not bring myself 
to like. 

It is well worth the traveller's while to make an 

EXCURSION TO EJUB, 

the greatest suburb of Constantinople, and also the place where 
the richest and most noble of the Turks are buried. 

Ejub, the standard-bearer of Mahomet, rests here in a mag- 
nificent mosque, built entirely of white marble. None but a 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 59 

Mussulman may tread this hallowed shrine. A tolerably good 
view of the interior can, however, be obtained from without, as 
the windows are lofty and broad, and reach nearly to the ground. 
The sarcophagus stands in a hall ; it is covered with a richly em- 
broidered pall, over which are spread five or six " real" shawls. 
The part beneath which the head rests is surmounted by a turban, 
also of real shawls. The chief sarcophagus is surrounded by 
several smaller coffins, in which repose the wives, children, and 
nearest relations of Ejub. Hard by the mosque we find a beau- 
tiful fountain of white marble, surrounded by a railing of gilded 
iron, and furnished with twelve bright drinking- cups of polished 
brass. A Turk here is appointed expressly to hand these to the 
passers-by. A little crooked garden occupies the space behind 
the mosque. The mosques in which the dead sultans are de- 
posited are all built in the same manner as that of Ejub. In- 
stead of the turban, handsome fez-caps, with the heron's feather, 
lie on the coffins. Among the finest mosques is that in which 
repose the remains of the late emperor. In Ejub many very 
costly monuments are to be seen. They are generally surrounded 
by richly-gilt iron railings, their peaks surmounted by the shining 
crescent, and forming an arch above a sarcophagus, round which 
are planted rose-bushes and dwarf cypresses, with ivy and myrtle 
clinging to their stems. It would, however, be very erroneous 
to suppose that the rich alone lie buried here. The poor man 
also finds his nook; and frequently we see close by a splendid 
monument the modest stone which marks the resting-place of the 
humble Mussulman. 

On my return I met the funeral of a poor Turk. If my atten- 
tion had not been attracted to the circumstance, I should have 
passed by without heeding it. The corpse was rolled in a cloth, 
fastened at the head and at the feet, and laid on a board which a 
man carried on his shoulder. At the grave the dead man is once 
more washed, wrapped in clean linen cloths, and thus lowered 
into the earth. And this is as it should be. Why should the pomp 



60 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

and extravagance of man accompany him to his last resting-place ? 
Were it not well if in this matter we abated something of our 
conventionality and ostentation ? I do not mean to say that in- 
terments need be stripped of every thing like ornament ; in all 
things the middle way is the safest. A simple funeral has surely 
in it more that awakes true religious feeling than the pomp and 
splendour which are too frequently made the order of the day in 
these proceedings. In this case are not men sometimes led away 
to canvass and to criticise the splendour of the show, while they 
should be deducing a wholesome moral lesson for themselves, or 
offering up a fervent prayer to the Almighty for the peace of the 
departed spirit ? 

HOUSES THEATEES CAEEIAGES. 

The houses in the whole of Constantinople, in which we may 
include Pera, Topana, &c., are very slightly and carelessly put 
together. No door, no window, closes and fits well ; the floorings 
frequently exhibit gaps an inch in breadth ; and yet rents are very 
high. The reason of this is to be found in the continual danger 
of fire to which all towns built of wood are exposed. Every pro- 
prietor of a house calculates that he may be burnt out in the course 
of five or six years, and therefore endeavours to gain back his 
capital with interest within this period. Thus we do not find 
the houses so well built or so comfortably furnished as in the 
generality of European towns. 

There is a theatre in Pera, which will hold from six to seven 
hundred spectators. At the time of my sojourn there, a company 
of Italian singers were giving four representations every week. 
Operas of the most celebrated masters were here to be heard ; 
but I attended one representation, and had quite enough. The 
wonder is that such an undertaking answers at all, as the Turks 
have no taste for music, and the Franks are too fastidious to be 
easily satisfied. 

The carriages which are, generally speaking, only used by 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 61 

women are of two kinds. The first is in the shape of a balloon, 
finely painted and gilt, and furnished with high wheels. On each 
side is an opening, to enter which the passenger mounts on a wooden 
stool, placed there by the coachman every tune he ascends or 
descends. The windows or openings can be closed with Venetian 
blinds. These carriages contain neither seats nor cushion. Every 
one who drives out takes carpets or bolsters with him, spreads 
them out inside the coach, and sits down cross-legged. A carriage 
of this description will hold four persons. The second species of 
carriage only differs from that already described in having still 
higher wheels, and consisting of a kind of square box, covered in 
at the top, but open on all sides. The passengers enter at the 
back, and there is generally room for eight persons. The former 
kind of vehicle is drawn by one horse in shafts, and sometimes by 
two ; the latter by one or two oxen, also harnessed in shafts, 
which are, however, furnished in addition with a wooden arch 
decorated with flowers, coloured paper, and ribbons. The coach- 
man walks on foot beside his cattle, to guide them with greater 
security through the uneven ill-paved streets, in which you are 
continually either ascending or descending a hill. 

Wagons there are none ; every thing is carried either by 
men, horses, or asses. This circumstance explains the fact that 
more porters are found here than in any other city. These men 
are agile and very strong ; a porter often bears a load of from one 
hundred to a hundred and fifty pounds through the rugged hilly 
streets. Wood, coals, provisions, and building-materials are 
carried by horses and asses. This may be one reason why every 
thing is so dear in Constantinople. 



62 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



CHAPTER IV. 

Walks and drives of the townspeople The " Sweet Waters" Chalcedonia 
Baluklid The great and little Campo Feasts in Constantinople 
Anniversary of Mahomet's death Easter holidays of the Greeks 
Gladiators and wrestlers Excursion to Brussa Olive-trees Mosques 
at Brussa Stone bridge Wild dogs Baths and mineral springs 
.Return to Constantinople. 

ON Sundays and holydays the " Sweet Waters" of Europe are 
much frequented. One generally crosses the Golden Horn, into 
which the sweet water runs, in a kaik. There is, however, another 
way thither across the mountains. 

A large grass-plat, surrounded by trees, is the goal towards 
which the heaving multitude pours. Here are to he seen people 
from all quarters of the globe, and of all shades of colour, reclining 
in perfect harmony on carpets, mats, and pillows, and solacing 
themselves, pipe in mouth, with coffee and sweetmeats. Many 
pretty Jewesses, mostly unveiled, are to be seen among the 
crowd. 

On Friday, the holiday of the Turks, the scene in the Asiatic 
Sweet Waters is just as animated ; and here there is much more 
to interest us Europeans, as the company consists chiefly of 
Turks, male and female. The latter have, as usual, their faces 
covered : the most beautiful feature, the flaming eye, is, however, 
visible. 

The trip across the sea to the Asiatic Sweet Waters is incom- 
parably more beautiful and interesting than the journey to the 
European. We travel up the Bosphorus, in the direction of the 
Black Sea, past the splendid new palace of the Sultan. Though 
this palace is chiefly of wood, the pillars, staircases, and the 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 63 

ground-floor, built of marble of dazzling whiteness, are strikingly 
beautiful. The great gates, of gilded cast-iron, may be called 
masterpieces ; they were purchased in England for the sum of 
8000/. The roof of the palace is in the form of a terrace, and 
round this terrace runs a magnificent gallery, built only of wood, 
but artistically carved. We also pass the two ancient castles 
which command the approach to Constantinople, and then turn 
to the right towards the Sweet Waters. The situation of this 
place is most lovely ; it lies in a beautiful valley surrounded by 
green hills. 

Very interesting is also an excursion to Chalcedonia, a penin- 
sula in the Sea of Marmora, on the Asiatic side, adjoining Scutari. 
We were rowed thither in a two-oared kaik in an hour and a 
quarter. The finest possible weather favoured our trip. A 
number of dolphins gambolled around our boat ; we saw these 
tame fishes darting to and fro in all directions, and leaping into 
the air. It is a peculiar circumstance with regard to these crea- 
tures, that they never swim separately, but always either in pairs 
or larger companies. 

The views which we enjoy during these trips are peculiarly 
lovely. Scutari lies close on our left ; the foreground is occupied 
by mountains of moderate elevation ; and above them, in the far 
distance, gleams the snow- clad summit of Olympus. The unin- 
habited Prince's Island and the two Dog Islands are not the 
most picturesque objects to be introduced in such a landscape. To 
make up for the disadvantage of their presence we have, however, 
a good view of the Sea of Marmora, and can also distinguish the 
greater portion of the city of Constantinople. 

On Chalcedonia itself there is nothing to be seen but a light- 
house. Beautiful grass-plats, with a few trees and a coffee-house, 
are the chief points of attraction with the townspeople. 

An excursion by sea to Baluklid is also to be recommended. 
You pass the entire Turkish fleet, which is very considerable, and 
see the largest ship in the world, the " Mahmud," of 140 guns, 



64 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

built during the reign of the late Sultan Mahmud. Several three- 
deckers of 120 guns, some of them unrigged, and many men-of- 
war mounting from forty to sixty cannons, lie in the harbour. For 
an hour and a half we are riding through the Sea of Marmora, to 
the left of the great quay which surrounds the walls of Constanti- 
nople. Here, for the first time, we see the giant city in all its 
magnificent proportions. We also passed the " Seven Towers," 
of which, however, only five remain standing ; the other two, I 
was told, had fallen in. If these towers really answer no other 
purpose than that of prisons for the European ambassadors during 
tumults or in the event of hostilities, I think the sooner the 
remaining five tumble down the better ; for the European powers 
will certainly not brook such an insult from the Turks, now in the 
day of their decline. 

We disembarked immediately beyond the " Seven Towers,' 3 
and walked for half an hour through long empty streets, then 
out at the town-gate, where the cypress-grove for a time con- 
ceals from our view a large open space on which is built a 
pretty Greek church. I was told that during the holidays at 
Easter such riotous scenes were here enacted that broken heads 
were far from being phenomena of rare occurrence. In the church 
there is a cold spring containing little fishes. A legend goes, that 
on the high days at Easter these poor little creatures swim about 
half fried and yet alive, because once upon a time, when Con- 
stantinople was besieged, a general said that it was no more likely 
that the city could be taken than that fishes could swim about half 
fried. Ever since that period the wonderful miracle of the fried 
fish is said to occur annually at Easter. 

On our return to our kaik, we saw near the shore an enormous 
cuttle-fish, more than fourteen feet in length, which had just been 
taken and killed. A number of fishermen were trying with ropes 
and poles to drag the monster ashore. 

The walks in the immediate neighbourhood of Pera are the 
great and little Campo, and somewhat farther distant the great 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 65 

bridge which unites Topana with Constantinople ; the latter is a 
most amusing walk, during which we can view the life and bustle 
on both shores at the same time. In the little Campo are two 
Frankish coffee-houses, before which we sit quite in European 
fashion on handsome chairs and benches, listening to pleasant 
music, and regaling ourselves with ices. 

FEASTS IN CONSTANTINOPLE. 

During my residence in Constantinople I had the good fortune 
to be present at some very entertaining festivities. The most 
magnificent of these took place on the 23d of April, the anniver- 
sary of Mahomet's death. 

On the eve of this feast we enjoyed a fairy-like spectacle. The 
tops of all the minarets were illuminated with hundreds of little 
lamps ; and as there are a great many of these slender spires, it 
can be readily imagined that this sea of light must have a beauti- 
ful effect. The Turkish ships in the harbour presented a similar 
appearance. At every loop-hole a large lamp occupied the place 
of the muzzle of the cannon. At nine o'clock in the evening, 
salvoes were, fired from the ships ; and at the moment that the can- 
nons were fired, the lamps vanished, flashes of light and gunpowder- 
smoke filled the air ; a few seconds afterwards, as if by magic, the 
lamps had reappeared. This salute was repeated three times. 

The morning of the 23d was ushered in by the booming of 
the cannon. All the Turkish ships had hoisted their flags, and 
garlands of coloured paper were twined round the masts to their 
very tops. 

At nine o'clock I proceeded in the company of several friends 
to Constantinople, to see the grand progress of the Sultan to the 
mosque. As with us, it is here the custom to post soldiers on 
either side of the way. The procession was headed by the officers 
and government officials ; but after every couple of officers or 
statesmen followed their servants, generally to the number of 
twelve or fifteen persons, in very variegated costumes, partly 

E 



66 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

Turkish, partly European, and withal somewhat military ; in feet, 
a perfect motley. Then came the Emperors state-horses, splendid 
creatures, the majority of them of the true Arabian breed, deco- 
rated with saddle-cloths richly embroidered with gold, pearls, and 
precious atones, and proudly moving their plumed heads. Then- 
spirited appearance and beautiful paces excited the admiration of 
all the learned in such matters. They were followed by a num- 
ber of pages on foot ; these pages are not, however, youths, as in 
other countries, but men of tried fidelity. In their midst rode 
the youthful Emperor, wrapped in his cape, and wearing in his 
fez-cap a fine heron's plume, buckled with the largest diamond in 
Europe, As the Sultan passed by, he was greeted by the accla- 
mations of the military, but not of the people. The soldiers closed 
the procession ; but their bearing is not nearly so haughty as that 
of the horses. The reason of this is simple enough no one dares 
look upon the Arabians with an evil eye, but the soldiers are 
entirely subject to the caprice of their ofiicers. I would certainly 
rather be the Sultan's horse than his soldier. 

The uniforms of the officers, in their profusion of gold em- 
broidery, resemble those of our hussars. The privates have very 
comfortable jackets and trousers of blue doth with red trimmings ; 
some have jackets entirely of a red colour. The artillerymen wear 
red facings. Their chaussure is pitiable in the extreme : some 
have boots, not unfrequently decorated with spurs ; others have 
shoes, trodden down at heel and terribly tattered ; and some even 
appear in dippers. All are without stockings, and thus naked feet 
peer forth every where. The position of the men with regard to 
each other is just as irregular ; a little dwarf may frequently be 
seen posted next to a giant, a boy of twelve or fourteen years 
near a grey-headed veteran, and a negro standing next to a white 



At this feast a great concourse of people was assembled, and 
every window was crowded with muffled female heads. 

We had been advised not to be present at this ceremony, as 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 67 

it was stated to be of a purely religious nature, and it was feared 
we should be exposed to annoyance from the fanaticism of the 
Mussulmen. I am glad to say, however, that the curiosity of my 
party was stronger than their apprehensions. We pushed through 
every where, and I had again occasion to feel assured that grievous 
wrong is frequently done the good Turks. Not only was there no 
appearance of a disposition to annoy us, but we even obtained very 
good places without much trouble. 

On their Easter days the Greeks have a feast in the great 
Campo. On all the three holidays, the hamaks (water-carriers 
and porters), after the service is over, march in large numbers to 
the Campo with songs and music, with noise and shouting, waving 
their handkerchiefs in the air. Arrived at their destination, they 
divide into different groups, and proceed to amuse themselves much 
after the manner of other nations. A number of tents are erected, 
where a great deal of cooking and baking is carried on. Larg 
companies are sitting on the ground or on the tombstones, eating 
and drinking in quiet enjoyment. We see a number of swings 
laden with men and children ; on this side we hear the squeaking 
of a bagpipe, on that the sound of a pipe and drum, uttering such 
dismal music that the hearer instinctively puts] a finger into each 
ear. To this music a real bear's dance is going on. Six or eight 
fellows stand in a half circle round the musician, and two leaders 
of these light-toed clodhoppers continually wave their handker- 
chiefs in the air as they stamp slowly and heavily round in a 
circle. The women are allowed to appear at this feast, but may 
neither take part in the swinging nor in the dancing. They there- 
fore keep up a brave skirmishing with the sweetmeats, coffee, and 
delicacies of ah" kinds. The more wealthy portion of the com- 
munity employ these days in riding to Baluklid, to gaze and 
wonder at the miracle of the half-baked and yet living fishes. 

As the Greeks are not so good-natured as the Turks, the 
latter seldom take part in their festivities. Turkish women never 
appear on these occasions. 



68 VISIT TO THE HOLT LA>T>, 

On the 8th of May I saw a truly Turkish fete in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Achmaidon (place of arrows). 

In a plain surrounded on all sides by hills, men of all nations 
formed a large but closely-packed circle. Harasses (gens darme] 
were there to keep order among the people, and several officers 
sat among the circle to keep order among the kavasses. The 
spectacle began. Two wrestlers or gladiators made their appear- 
ance, completely undressed, with the exception of trousers of strong 
leather. They had rubbed themselves all over with oil, so that 
their joints might be soft and supple, and also that their adversary 
should not be able to obtain a firm hold when they grappled to- 
gether. They made several obeisances to the spectators, began 
with minor feats of wrestling, and frequently stopped for a few 
moments in order to husband their strength. Then the battle 
began afresh, and became hotter and hotter, till at length one of 
the combatants was hailed as victor by the shouting mob. He 
is declared the conqueror who succeeds in throwing his opponent 
in such a manner that he can sit down upon him as on a horse. 
A combat of this kind usually lasts a quarter of an hour. The 
victor walks triumphantly round the circle to collect his reward. 
The unfortunate vanquished conceals himself among the spectators, 
scarcely daring to Eft his eyes. These games last for several 
hours ; as one pair of gladiators retire, they are replaced by an- 
other. 

Greek, Turkish, and Armenian women may only be spectators 
of these games from a distance ; they therefore occupy the ad- 
joining heights. For the rest, the arrangements are the same as 
at the Greek Easter feast. People eat, drink, and dance. No 
.signs of beer, wine, or liqueur are to be discovered, and conse- 
quently there is no drunkenness. 

The Turkish officers were here polite enough to surrender the 
best places to us strangers. I had many opportunities of noticing 
the character of the Mussulman, and found, to my great delight, 
that he is much better and more honest than prejudices generally 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 69 

allow us to believe. Even in matters of commerce and business 
it is better to have to do with a Turk than with a votary of any 
other creed, not even excepting my own. 

During my stay at Constantinople (from the 5th of April until 
May 17th) I found the weather just as changeable as in my own 
country ; so much so, in fact, that the temperature frequently 
varied twelve or fourteen degrees within four-and-twenty hours. 

EXCURSION TO BRUSSA. 

The two brothers, Baron Charles and Frederick von Buseck, 
and Hen- Sattler, the talented artist, resolved to make an excur- 
sion to Brussa; and as 'I had expressed a similar wish, they were 
obliging enough to invite me to make a fourth in their party. But 
when it came to the point, I had almost become irresolute. I 
was asked by some one if I was a good rider ; " for if you are 
not," said my questioner, " it would be far better for you not to 
accompany them, as Brussa is four German miles distant from 
Gemlek, and the road is bad, so that the gentlemen must ride 
briskly if they wish to 'reach the town before sundown, starting as 
they would at half-past two in the afternoon, the general hour of 
landing at Gemlek. In the event of your being unable to keep 
up with the rest, you would put them to great inconvenience, or 
they will be compelled to leave you behind on the road." 

I had never mounted a horse, and felt almost inclined to con- 
fess the fact ; but my curiosity to see Brussa, the beautiful town 
at the foot of Olympus, gained the day, and I boldly declared that 
I had no doubt I should be able to keep pace with my companions. 

On the 13th of May we left Constantinople at half-past six 
in the morning, on board a little steamer of forty-horse power. 
Passing the Prince's and Dog Islands, we swept across the Sea of 
Marmora towards the snow-crowned Olympus, until, after a voyage 
of seven hours, we reached Gemlek. 

Gemlek, distant thirty sea miles from Constantinople, is a 
miserable place, but nevertheless does some trade as the harbour 



70 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

of Bithynia. The agent of the Danube Navigation Company was 
civil enough to procure us good horses, and a genuine, stalwart, 
and fierce-looking Turkoman for a guide. This man wore in his 
girdle several pistols and a dagger ; a long crooked scimitar hung 
at his side ; and instead of shoes and slippers, large boots decked 
his feet, bordered at the top by a wide stripe of white cloth, on 
which were depicted blue flowers and other ornaments. His head 
was graced by a handsome turban. 

At half-past two o'clock the horses arrived. I swung myself 
boldly upon my Rosinante, called on my good angel to defend me, 
and away we started, slowly at first, over stock and stone. My 
joy was boundless when I found that I could sit steadily upon my 
horse ; but shortly afterwards, when we broke into a trot, I began 
to feel particularly uncomfortable, as I could not get on at ah 1 with 
the stirrup, which was continually slipping to my heel, while some- 
times my foot slid out of it altogether, and I ran the risk of losing 
my balance. Oh, what would I not have given to have asked 
advice of any one ! But unfortunately I could not do so without 
at once betraying my ignorance of horsemanship. I therefore took 
care to bring up the rear, under the pretence that my horse was 
shy, and would not go well unless it saw the others before it. 
My real reason was that I wished to hide my manoeuvres from 
the gentlemen, for every moment I expected to fall. Frequently 
I clutched the saddle with both hands, as I swayed from side to 
side. I looked forward in terror to the gallop, but to my surprise 
found that I could manage this pace better than the trot. My 
courage brought its reward, for I reached the goal of our journey 
thoroughly shaken, but without mishap. During the tune that 
we travelled at a foot-pace, I had found leisure to contemplate 
the scenery around us. For half the entire distance we ride from 
one valley into another ; as often as a hill is reached, there is a 
limited prospect before the traveller, who has, however, only to 
turn his head, and he enjoys a beautiful view over the Sea of Mar- 
mora. After a ride of two hours and a half we arrived at a little 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 71 

khan, a where we rested for half an hour. Proceeding thence a 
short distance, we reached the last hills ; and the great valley, at 
the end of which Brussa is seen leaning against Olympus, lay 
stretched before our eager eyes, while behind us we could still 
distinguish, far beyond hill and dale, the distant sea skirting the 
horizon. Yet, beautiful as this landscape undoubtedly is, I had 
seen it surpassed in Switzerland. The immense valley which lies 
spread out before Brussa is uncultivated, deserted, and unwatered ; 
no carpet of luxuriant verdure, no rushing river, no pretty village, 
gives an air of life to this magnificent and yet monotonous region ; 
and no giant mountains covered with eternal snow look down 
upon -the plain beneath. Pictures like these I had frequently 
found in Switzerland, in the Tyrol, and also near Salzburg. Here 
I saw, indeed, separate beauties, but no harmonious whole. Olym- 
pus is a fine majestic mountain, forming an extended barrier ; but 
its height can scarcely exceed 6000 feet ; b and during the present 
month it is totally despoiled of its surface of glittering snow. 
Brussa, with its innumerable minarets, is the only point of relief 
to which the eye continually recurs, because there is nothing be- 
yond to attract it. A little brook, crossed by a very high stone 
bridge, but so shallow already in the middle of May as hardly to 
cover our horses' hoofs ; and towards Brussa, a miserable village, 
with a few plantations of olives and mulberry-trees, are the only 
objects to be discovered throughout the whole wide expanse. 
Wherever I found the olive-tree here, near Trieste, and in Sicily, 
it was alike ugly. The stem is gnarled, and the leaves are nar- 
row and of a dingy green colour. The mulberry-tree, with its 
luxuriant bright green foliage, forms an agreeable contrast to the 
olive. The silk produced in this neighbourhood is peculiarly fine 
in quality, and the stuffs from Brussa are renowned far and wide. 

a A khan is a stone building containing a few perfectly empty rooms, to 
receive the traveller in the absence of inns, or shelter against the night air 
and against storm. Generally in these khans a Turk is found, who dis- 
penses coffee without milk to the visitors. 

b Its height is 9100 feet. ED. 



72 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

We reached the town in safety before sunset. It is one of 
the most disagreeable circumstances that can happen to the tra- 
veller to arrive at an Oriental town after evening has closed in. 
He finds the gates locked, and may clamour for admittance in vain. 

In order to gain our inn, we were obliged to ride through the 
greater part of the town. I had here an opportunity of observing 
that it is just as unsightly as the interior of Constantinople. The 
streets are narrow, and the houses built of wood, plaster, and some 
even of stone ; but all wear an aspect of poverty, and at the same 
time of singularity; the gables projecting so much that they 
occupy half the width of the street, and render it completely dark, 
vrhile they increase its narrowness. The inn, too, at which we 
put up, looked far from inviting when viewed from the outside, so 
that we had some dark misgivings respecting the quality of the 
accommodation that awaited us. But in proportion as the out- 
side had looked unpropitious, were we agreeably surprised on 
entering. A neat and roomy courtyard, with a basin of pure 
sparkling water in the midst, surrounded by mulberry-trees, was 
the first thing we beheld. Hound this courtyard were two stories 
of clean but simply-furnished rooms. The fare was good, and we 
were even regaled with a bottle of excellent wine from the lower 
regions of Olympus. 

May 14th. 

Next morning we visited the town and its environs, under 
the guidance and protection of a kavasse. The town itself is of 
great extent, and is reported to contain above 10,000 houses, 
inhabited exclusively by Turks. The population of the suburbs, 
which comprise nearly 4000 houses, is a mixed one of Christians, 
Jews, Greeks, &c. The town numbers three hundred and sixty 
mosques ; but the greater portion of them are so insignificant and 
in such a dilapidated condition, that we scarcely observed them. 

Strangers are here permitted to enter the mosques in company 
of a kavasse. We visited some of the principal, among which 
the Ulla Drchamy may decidedly be reckoned. The cupola of 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 73 

this mosque is considered a masterpiece, and rests upon graceful 
columns. It is open at the top, thus diffusing a chastened light 
and a clear atmosphere throughout the building. Immediately 
beneath this cupola stands a large marble basin, in which small 
fishes swim merrily about. 

The mosque of Sultan Mahomed I. and of Sultan Ildirim 
Bojasid must also be noticed on account of their splendid archi- 
tecture ; the latter, too, for the fine view which is thence obtained. 
In the mosque of Murad I. visitors are still shewn weapons and 
garments which once belonged to that sultan. I saw none of the 
magnificent regal buildings mentioned by some writers. The im- 
perial kiosk is so simple in its appearance, that if we had not 
climbed the hill on which it stands for the sake of the view, it 
would not have been worth the trouble of the walk. 

A stone bridge, roofed throughout its entire length, crosses 
the bed of the river, which has very steep banks, but contains 
very little water. A double row of small cottages, in which silk- 
weavers live and ply their trade, lines this bridge, which I was 
surprised to see here, as its architecture seemed rather to apper- 
tain to my own country than to the East. During my whole 
journey I did not see a second bridge of this kind, either in Syria 
or Egypt. 

The streets are all very dull and deserted, a fact which is 
rather remarkable in a town of 100,000 inhabitants. In most of 
the streets more dogs than men are to be seen. Not only in Con- 
stantinople, but almost in every Oriental town, vast numbers of 
these creatures run about in a wild state. 

Here, as every where, some degree of bustle is to be found in 
the bazaars, particularly in those which are covered in. Beautiful 
and durable silk stuffs, the most valuable of which are kept in 
warehouses under lock and key, form the chief article of traffic. 
In the public bazaar we found nothing exposed for sale except 
provisions. Among these I remarked some small, very unpalat- 
able cherries. Asia Minor is the fatherland of this fruit, but 



74, VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

I did not find it in any degree of perfection either here or at 
Smyrna. 

Brussa is peculiarly rich in cold springs, clear as crystal, which 
burst forth from Mount Olympus. The town is intersected in all 
directions by subterranean canals ; in many streets, the ripple of 
the waters below can be distinctly heard, and every house is pro- 
vided with wells and stone basins of the limpid element ; in some 
of the bazaars we find a similar arrangement. 

On a nearer approach, the appearance of Mount Olympus is 
not nearly so grand as when viewed from a distance. The 
mountain is surrounded by several small lulls, which detract from 
the general effect. 

The baths, distant about a mile from the town, are prettily 
and healthfully situated, and, moreover, abundantly supplied with 
mineral water. Many strangers resort thither to recruit their 
weakened frames. 

The finest among these baths is called Jeni Caplidche. A lofty 
circular hall contains a great swimming bath of marble, above which 
rises a splendid cupola. A number of refracting glasses (six hun- 
dred, they told me) diffuse a magic light around. 

Our journey back to Constantinople was not accomplished en- 
tirely without mishap. One of the gentlemen fell from his horse 
and broke his watch. The saddles and bridles of hired horses are 
here generally in such bad condition that there is every moment 
something to buckle or to cobble up. We were riding at a pretty 
round pace, when suddenly the girths burst, and the saddle and 
rider tumbled off together. I arrived without accident at my desti- 
nation, although I had frequently been in danger of falling from 
my horse without its being necessary that the girth should break. 

The gentlemen were satisfied with my performance, for I had 
never lagged behind, nor had they once been detained on my ac- 
count. It was not until we were safely on board the ship that I 
told them how venturesome I had been, and what terror I had 
undergone. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 75 



CHAPTER V. 

Contradictory reports Departure from Constantinople on board the ArcJt- 
duke John Scene on the steamer Galipoli The Dardanelles 
Tschenekalesi and Kilidil Bahar The field of Troy Tenedos Smyrna 
Halizar The date-palm Burnaba The Acropolis Female beauty 
Rhodes Strong fortifications Deserted appearance of the town 
Cyprus. 

nnHE extremely unfavourable reports I heard from Beyrout and 
-L Palestine caused me to defer my departure from day to day. 
When I applied to my consul for a " firmann" (Turkish passport), 
I was strongly advised not to travel to the Holy Land. The dis- 
turbances on Mount Lebanon and the plague were, they assured 
me, enemies too powerful to be encountered except in cases of 
the most urgent necessity. 

A priest who had arrived from Beyrout about two months 
previously affirmed positively that, in consequence of the serious 
disturbances, even he, known though he was far and wide as a 
physician, had not dared to venture more than a mile from the 
town without exposing himself to the greatest danger. He advised 
me to stay in Constantinople until the end of September, and then 
to travel to Jerusalem with the Greek caravan. This, he said, 
was the only method to reach that city in safety. 

One day I met a pilgrim in a clnu'ch who came from Palestine. 
On my asking his advice, he not only confirmed the priest's report, 
but even added that one of his companions had been murdered 
whilst journeying homeward, and that he himself had been de- 
spoiled of his goods, and had only escaped death through the 
special interposition of Providence. I did not at all believe the 
asseverations of this man ; he related all his adventures with 
such a Baron Munchausen air, assumed probably to excite ad- 



76 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

miration. I continued my investigations on this subject until I 
was at length fortunate enougli to find some one who told an 
entirely different tale. From this I felt assured at least of the 
fact, that it would be almost impossible to learn the true state of 
the case here in Constantinople, and at length made up my mind 
to avail myself of the earliest opportunity of proceeding as far as 
Beyrout, where there was a chance of my getting at the truth. 

I was advised to perform this journey in male attire ; but I 
did not think it advisable to do so, as my short, spare figure would 
have seemed to belong to a youth, and my face to an old man. 
Moreover, as I had no beard, my disguise would instantly have 
been seen through, and I should have been exposed to much an- 
noyance. I therefore preferred retaining the simple costume, con- 
sisting of a kind of blouse and wide Turkish trousers, which I then 
wore. The further I travelled, the more I became persuaded how 
rightly I had acted in not concealing my sex. Every where I 
was treated with respect, and kindness and consideration were 
frequently shewn me merely because I was a woman. On 

May 17th 

I embarked on board a steamboat belonging to the Austrian 
Lloyd. It was called the Archduke John. 

It was with a feeling of painful emotion that I stood on the 
deck, gazing with an air of abstraction at the preparations for the 
long voyage which were actively going on around me. Once 
more I was alone among a crowd of people, with nothing to de- 
pend on but my trust in Providence. No friendly sympathetic 
being accompanied me on board. All was strange. The people, 
the climate, country, language, the manners and customs all 
strange. But a glance upward at the unchanging stars, and the 
thought came into my soul, " Trust in God, and thou art not 
alone." And the feeling of despondency passed away, and soon I 
could once more contemplate with pleasure and interest all that 
was going on around me. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 77 

Near me stood a poor mother who could not bear to part with 
her son. Time after time she folded him in her arms, and kissed 
and blessed him. Poor mother ! wilt thou see him again, or will 
the cold ground be a barrier between you till this life is past ? 
Peace be with you both ! 

A whole tribe of people came noisily towards us ; they were 
friends of the crew, who bounced about the ship from stem to 
stern, canvassing its merits hi comparison with French and Eng- 
lish vessels. 

Suddenly there was a great crowding on the swinging ladder, 
of chests, boxes, and baskets. Men were pushing and crushing 
backwards and forwards. Turks, Greeks, and others quarrelled 
and jostled each other for the best places on the upper deck, and 
in a few moments the whole large expanse wore the appearance 
of a bivouac. Mats and mattresses were every where spread 
forth, provisions were piled up in heaps, and culinary utensils 
placed hi order beside them ; and before these preparations had 
been half completed the Turks began washing their faces, hands, 
and feet, and unfolding their carpets, to perform their devotions. 
In one corner of the ship I even noticed that a little low tent had 
been erected; it was so closely locked, that for a long time I. 
could not discern whether human beings or merchandise lay con- 
cealed within. No movement of the interior was to be perceived, 
and it was not until some days afterwards that I was informed 
by a Turk what the tent really contained. A scheick from the 
Syrian coast had purchased two girls at Constantinople, and was 
endeavouring to conceal them from the gaze of the curious. I 
was for nine days on the same vessel with these poor creatures, 
and during the whole time had not an opportunity of seeing either 
of them. At the debarcation, too, they were so closely muffled 
that it was impossible to discover whether they were white or 
black. 

At six o'clock the bell was rung to warn all strangers to go 
ashore ; and now I could discover who were really to be the com- 



78 VISIT TO THE HOLT LAXD, 

panions of my journey. I had flattered myself that I should find 
several Franks on board, who might be bound to the same desti- 
nation as myself ; but this hope wared fainter and Muter every 
moment, as one European after another left the ship, until at 
length I found myself alone among the strange Oriental nations. 

The anchor was now weighed, and we moved slowly out of 
the harbour. I offered up a short but fervent prayer for pro- 
tection on my long and dangerous voyage, and with a calmed and 
strengthened spirit I could once more turn my attention towards 
my fellow-passengers, who having concluded their devotions were 
sitting at their frugal meal. During the whole time they remained 
on the steamer these people subsisted on cold provisions, such as 
cheese, bread, hard-boiled eggs, anchovies, olives, walnuts, a great 
number of onions, and dried " mishmkli/' a kind of small apricot, 
which instead of being boiled is soaked in water for a few hours. 
In a sailing vessel it is usual to bring a small stove and some wood, 
in order to cook pilau, beans, fowls, and to boil coffee, <fcc. This, 
of course, is not allowed on board a steamboat. 

The beauty of the evening kept me on deck, and I looked with 
a regretful feeling towards the imperial city, until the increasing 
distance and the soft veil of evening combined to hide it from my 
view, though at intervals the graceful minarets were still dimly 
discernible through the mist. But who shall describe my feelings 
of joy when I discovered a European among the passengers? 
Xow I was no longer alone ; in the first moments we even seemed 
fellow-countrymen, for the barriers that divide Europeans into 
different nations fall as they enter a new quarter of the globe. 
We did not ask each other, Are you from England, France, 
Italy ; we inquired, Whither are you going ? and on its appearing 
that this gentleman intended proceeding, like myself, to Jerusalem, 
we at once found so much to talk about concerning the journey, 
that neither of us thought for a moment of inquiring to what 
country the other belonged. We conversed in the universal 
French language, and were perfectly satisfied when we found we 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 79 

could understand each other. It was not until the following day 
that I discovered the gentleman to be an Englishman, and learned 
that his name was Bartlett.* 

In Constantinople we had both met with the same fate. He 
had been, like myself, unable to obtain any certain intelligence, 
either at his consul's or from the inhabitants, as to the feasibility 
of a journey to Jerusalem, and so he was going to seek further 
information at Beyrout. We arranged that we would perform the 
journey from Beyrout to Jerusalem in company, if, indeed, we 
found it possible to penetrate among the savage tribes of Druses 
and Maronites. So now I no longer stood unprotected in the wide 
world. I had found a companion as far as Jerusalem, the goal of 
my journey, which I could now hope to reach. 

I was well satisfied with the arrangements on board. I had 
made up my mind, though not without sundry misgivings, to take 
a second-class berth ; and on entering the steamer of the Austrian 
Lloyd, I discovered to my surprise how much may be effected by 
order and good management. Here the men and the women 
were separately lodged, wash-hand basins were not wanting, we 
fared well, and could not be cheated when we paid for our board, 
as the accounts were managed by the first mate : on the remain- 
ing steamers belonging to this company I found the arrangements 
equally good. 

Crossing the Sea of Mormora, we passed the " Seven Towers," 
leaving the Prince's Islands behind us on the left. 

Early on the following day, 

May 18th, 

we reached the little town of Galipoli, situate on an eminence 
near the Hellespont. A few fragments of ruins in the last stage 
of dilapidation cause us to think of the ages that have fled, as we 
speed rapidly on. We waited here a quarter of an hour to 
increase the motley assemblage on deck by some new arrivals. 

* The well-known artist and author. ED. 



80 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

For the next 20 miles, as far as Sed Babe, the sea is confined 
within such narrow bounds, that one could almost fancy it was a 
channel dug to unite the Sea of Marmora with the Archipelago. 
It is very appropriately called the STKAIT of the Dardanelles. 
On the left we have always the mainland of Asia, and on the 
right a tongue of land belonging to Europe, and terminating at 
Sed Babe. The shores on both sides are desert and bare. It is 
a great contrast to former times, a contrast which every educated 
traveller must feel as he travels hither from the Bosphorus. 
What stirring scenes were once enacted here ! Of what deeds of 
daring, chronicled in history, were not these regions the scene ! 
Every moment brought us nearer to the classic ground. Alas, 
that we were not permitted to land on any of the Greek Islands, 
past which we flew so closely ! I was obliged, perforce, to content 
myself with thinking of the past, of the history of ancient Greece, 
without viewing the sites where the great deeds had been done. 

The two castles of the Dardanelles, Tschenekalesi and Kilidil 
Bahar, that on the Asiatic shore looking like a ruin, while its 
European neighbour wore the appearance of a fortress, let us 
steam past unchallenged. And how shall I describe the emotions 
I felt as we approached the plains of Troy ? 

I was constantly on deck, lest I should lose any portion of 
the view, and scarcely dared to breathe when at length the long- 
wished-for plain came in sight. 

Here it is, then, that this famous city is supposed to have stood. 
Yonder mounds, perchance, cover the resting-places of Achilles, 
Patroclus, Ajax, Hector, and many other heroes who may have 
served their country as faithfully as these, though their names do 
not live hi the page of history. How gladly wouM I have trod- 
den the plain, there to muse on the legends which in my youth 
had already awakened in me such deep and awe-struck interest, 
and had first aroused the wish to visit these lands a desire now 
partially fulfilled ! But we flew by with relentless rapidity. The 
whole region is deserted and bare. It seems as if nature and 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 81 

mankind were mourning together for the days gone by. The in- 
habitants may indeed weep, for they will never again be what 
they once were. 

In the course of the day we passed several islands. In the 
foreground towered the peak of the Hydra, shortly afterwards 
Samothrace rose from the waves, and we sailed close by the island 
of Tenedos. At first this island does not present a striking ap- 
pearance, but after rounding a small promontory we obtained a 
view of the fine fortress skirting the sea ; it seems to have been 
built for the protection of the town beyond. 

After passing Tenedos we lost sight of the Greek islands for a 
short time (the mainland of Asia can always be distinguished on 
our left), but soon afterwards we reached the most beautiful of 
them ah 1 Mytelene, which has justly been sung by many poets 
as the Island of the Fairies. For seven hours we glided by its 
coast. It resembles a garden of olives, orange-trees, pomegranates, 
&c. The view is bounded at the back by a double row of peaked 
mountains, and the town lies nearly hi the midst. It is built in a 
circular form, round a hill, strengthened with fortifications. In 
front the town is girded by a strong wall, and hi the rear extends 
a deep bay. A few masts peered forth and shewed us where the 
bay ended. From this point we saw numerous villages prettily 
situated among the luxuriant shade of large trees. It must be a 
delightful thing to spend the spring-time on this island. 

I remained on deck till late in the night, so charming, so 
rich in varied pictures of verdant isles is this voyage on the 
/Egaean Sea. Had I been a magician, I would have fixed the sun 
in the heavens until we had arrived at Smyrna. Unfortunately 
many a beauteous island which we next morning contemplated 
ruefully on the map was liidden from us by the shades of night. 

May 19th. 

Long before the sun was up, I had resumed my post on deck, 
to welcome Smyrna from afar. 

F 



82 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

A double chain of mountains, rising higher and higher, warned 
us of our approach to the rich commercial city. At first we can 
only distinguish the ancient dilapidated castle on a rock, then the 
city itself, built at the foot of the rock, on the sea-shore ; at the 
back the view is closed by the " Brother Mountains." 

The harbour is very spacious, but has rather the appearance of 
a wharf, with room for whole fleets to anchor. Many ships were 
lying here, and there was evidently plenty of business going on. 

The "Franks' town," which can be distinctly viewed from 
the steamer, extends along the harbour, and has a decidedly 
European air. 

Herr von Cramer had been previously apprised of my arrival, 
and was obliging enough to come on board to fetch me. We at 
once rode to Halizar, the summer residence of many of the citizens, 
where I was introduced to my host's family. 

Halizar is distant about five English miles from Smyrna. 
The road thither is beautiful beyond description, so that one has 
no time to think about the distance. Immediately outside the 
town we pass a large open place near a river, where the camels 
rest, and where they are loaded and unloaded; I saw a whole 
herd of these animals. Their Arab or Bedouin drivers were re- 
clining on mats, resting after their labours, while others were still 
fully employed about their camels. It was a truly Arabian pic- 
ture, and moreover so new to me, that I involuntarily stopped my 
long-eared Bucephalus to contemplate it at my leisure. 

Not far from this resting-place is the chief place of rendezvous 
and pastime of the citizens. It consists of a coffee-booth and a few 
rows of trees, surrounded by numerous gardens, all rich in beau- 
tiful fruit-trees. Charming beyond all the rest, the flower of the 
pomegranate-tree shines with the deepest crimson among the green 
leaves. Wild oleanders bloomed every where by the roadside. 
We wandered through beautiful shrubberies of cypress-trees and 
olives, and never yet had I beheld so rich a luxuriance of vegeta- 
tion. This valley, with its one side flanked by wild and rugged 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 83 

rocks, in remarkable contrast to the fruitful landscape around, has 
a peculiar effect when viewed from the hill across which we ride. 
I was also much amazed by the numerous little troops of from six 
to ten, or even twenty camels, which sometimes came towards us 
with their grave majestic pace, and were sometimes overtaken by 
our fleet donkeys. Surrounded on all sides by objects at once 
novel and interesting, it will not be wondered at that I found the 
time passing far too rapidly. 

The heat is said not to be more oppressive at Smyrna during 
the summer than at Constantinople. Spring, however, commences 
here earlier, and the autumn is longer. This fact, I thought, ac- 
counted for the lovely vegetation, which was here so much more 
forward than at Constantinople. 

Herr von Cramer's country-house stands in the midst of a 
smiling garden ; it is spacious and built of stone. The large and 
lofty apartments are flagged with marble or tiles. In the garden 
I found the first date-palm, a beautiful tree with a tall slender 
stem, from the extremity of which depend leaves five or six feet in 
length, forming a magnificent crown. In these regions and also 
in Syria, whither my journey afterwards led me, the date-palm 
does not attain so great, a height as in Egypt, nor does it bear any 
fruit, but only stands as a noble ornament beside the pomegranate 
and orange trees. My attention was also attracted to numerous 
kinds of splendid acacias ; some of these grew to an immense size, 
as high as the walnut-trees of my own country. 

The villas of the townspeople all strongly resemble each other. 
The house stands in the midst of the garden, and the whole is 
surrounded by a wall. 

In the evening I visited some of the peasants, in company with 
Herr von C. Tliis gentleman informed me that these people 
were very poor, but still I found them decently clad and comfort- 
ably lodged in large roomy dwellings built of stone. Altogether, 
the condition of affairs seems here vastly superior to that in Galicia 
and in Hungary near the Carpatliian mountains. 



84 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

I reckoned the day I spent with this amiable family among 
the most pleasant I had yet passed. How gladly would I have 
accepted their hearty invitation to remain several weeks with 
them ! But I had lost so much tune in Constantinople, that on the 
morning of 

May 20th 

I was compelled to bid adieu to Frau von C. and her dear 
children. Herr von C. escorted me back to Smyrna. We 
took the opportunity of roaming through many streets of the 
Franks' quarter, which I found, generally speaking, pretty and 
cheerful enough, and moreover level and weh 1 paved. The hand- 
somest street is that in which the consuls reside. The houses 
are finely built of stone, and the halls are tastefully paved with 
little coloured pebbles, arranged in the form of wreaths, stars, and 
squares. The inhabitants generally take up their quarters in 
these entrance-halls during the day, as it is cooler there than in 
the rooms. To nearly every house a pretty garden is attached. 

The Turkish town is certainly quite different ; it is built of 
wood, and is angular and narrow ; dogs lie about in the streets, 
just as at Brussa and Constantinople. And why should it be other- 
wise here ? Turks live in all this quarter, and they do not feel the 
necessity of clean and airy dwellings like the fastidious Franks. 

The bazaars are not roofed ; and here also the costlier portion 
of the wares is kept under lock and key. 

It is well worth the traveller's while to make an excursion to 
Bumaha, a place tying on the sea-coast not far from the town, 
and serving, like Halizar, as a retreat for the townspeople during 
the summer. The views in this direction are various, and the 
road is good. The whole appearance of the place is that of a 
very extended village, with all its houses standing in the midst of 
gardens and surrounded by walls. 

From the Acropolis AVC have a fine view in every direction, 
and find, in fact, a union of advantages only met with separately 
elsewhere. 



EGYPT, AXD ITALY. 85 

In Smyrna I found the most beautiful women I had yet seen ; 
and even during my further journey I met with few who equalled, 
and none who surpassed them. These fairy forms are, however, 
only to be sought among the Greeks. The natural charms of 
these Graces are heightened by the rich costume they wear. They 
have a peculiarly tasteful manner of fastening their little round 
fez-caps, beneath which their rich hair falls in heavy plaits upon 
then: shoulders, or is wound with a richly embroidered handker- 
chief round the head and brow. 

Smyrna is, however, not only celebrated as possessing the 
loveliest women, but also as the birthplace of one of the greatest 
men. a Homer, in the Greece of to-day thou wouldst find no 
materials for thine immortal Iliad ! 

At five o'clock in the afternoon we quitted the harbour of 
Smyrna. In this direction the town is seen to much greater 
advantage after we have advanced a mile than Avhen we approach 
it from Constantinople ; for now the Turks' town lies spread in all 
its magnitude before us, whereas on the other side it is half 
hidden by the Franks' quarter. 

The sea ran high, and adverse winds checked the speed of 
our good ship ; but I am thankful to say that, except when the 
gale is very strong, it does not affect my health. I felt perfectly 
well, and stood enjoying the aspect of the waves as they came 
dancing towards our vessel. In Smyrna our company had been 
augmented by the arrival of a few more Franks. 

May 21st. 

Yesterday evening and all this day we Lave been sailing 
among islands. The principal of these were Scio, Samos, and 
Cos, and even these form a desolate picture of bare, inhospitable 
mountains and desert regions. On the island of Cos alone we 
saw a neat town, with strong fortifications. 

Smyrna is one of the cities that claim the honour of being the birth- 
place of Homer. ED. 



86 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

May 22d. 

This morning, shortly after five o'clock, we ran into the superb 
liarbour of Rhodes. Here, for the first tune, I obtained a correct 
notion of a harbour. That of Rhodes is shut in on all sides by 
walls and masses of rock, leaving only a gap of a hundred and 
fifty to two hundred paces in width for the ships to enter. Here 
every vessel can lie in perfect safety, be the sea outside the bar as 
stormy as it may ; the only drawback is, that the entering of this 
harbour, a task of some difficulty in calm weather, becomes totally 
impracticable during a storm. A round tower stands as a protec- 
tion on either side of the entrance to the harbour. The vener- 
able church of St. John and the palace of the Komthur can be 
distinguished towering high above the houses and fortifications. 

Our captain imparted to us the pleasant intelligence that we 
might spend the hours between this and three o'clock in the after- 
noon on shore. Our ship had for some time lain surrounded by 
little boats, and so we lost no time in being conveyed to the land. 
The first thing we did on reaching it was to ask questions concerning 
the ancient site of the celebrated Colossus. But we could gain 
no information, as neither our books nor the people here could 
point out the place to us with certainty ; so we left the coast, to 
make up for the disappointment by exploring the ancient city. 

Rhodes is surrounded with three rows of strong fortifications. 
We passed over three draw-bridges before entering the town. 
We were quite surprised to see the beautiful streets, the well-kept 
houses, and the excellent pavement. The principal street, con- 
taining the houses of the ancient Knights of St. John, is very 
broad, with buildings so massively constructed of stone as almost 
to resemble fortresses. Heraldic bearings, with dates carved in 
stone, grace many of the Gothic gateways. The French shield, 
with the three lilies and the date 1402, occurs most frequently. 
On the highest point in the city are built the church of St.- John 
and the house of the governor. 

All the exteriors seem in such good preservation, that one 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 87 

could almost fancy the knights had only departed to plant their 
victorious banner on the Holy Sepulchre. They have in truth 
departed departed to a better home. Centuries have breathed 
upon their ashes, scattered in all the regions of the earth; But 
their deeds have been chronicled both in heaven and among men, 
and the heroes still live in the admiration of posterity. 

The churches, the house of the governor, and many other 
buildings, are not nearly so well preserved inside as a first glance 
would lead us to imagine. The reason of this is that the upper 
part of the town is but thinly inhabited. A gloomy air of silence 
and vacancy reigns around. We could wander about every where 
without being stared at or annoyed by the vulgar and envious. 
Mr. Bartlett, the Englishman, made a few sketches in his draw- 
ing-book of some of the chief beauties, such as the Gothic gate- 
ways, the windows, balconies, &c., and no inhabitant came to 
disturb him. 

The pavement in the city, and even in the streets around the 
fortifications, consists wholly of handsome slabs of stone, often of 
different colours, like mosaic, and in such good preservation that 
we could fancy the work had been but recently concluded. This 
is certainly partly owing to the fact that no loaded wagon ever 
crushes over these stones, for the use of vehicles is entirely un- 
known in these parts ; every thing is carried by horses, asses, or 
camels. 

Cannons dating from the time of the Genoese still stand upon 
the ramparts. The carriages of these guns are very clumsy, the 
wheels consisting of round discs without spokes. 

From our tower of observation we can form a perfect esti- 
mate of the extent and strength of the fortifications. The city is 
completely surrounded by three lofty walls, which seem to have 
been calculated to last an eternity, for they still stand almost un> 
injured in all their glory. In some places images of the Virgin, 
of the size of life, are hewn out of the walls. 

The neighbourhood of Rhodes is most charming, and almost 



88 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

resembles a park. Many country houses lie scattered throughout 
this natural garden. The vegetation is here no less luxuriant 
than in Smyrna. 

The architecture of the houses already begins to assume a 
ne^ character. Many dwellings have towers attached, and the 
roofs are flat, forming numerous terraces, which are all huilt of 
stone. Some streets in the lower part of the town, inhabited 
chiefly by Jews, are bordered with cannon-balls, and present a 
most peculiar appearance. 

I was also much struck with the costumes worn by the coun- 
try-people, who were dressed quite in the Swabian fashion. It 
was in vain that I inquired the reason of this circumstance. The 
books we had with us gave no information on the subject, and I 
could not ask the natives through my ignorance cf their language. 

By three o'clock in the afternoon we were once more on 
board, and an hour afterwards we sailed out into the open sea. 
To-day we saw nothing further, except a high aud lengthened 
mountain-range on the Asiatic mainland. It was a branch of the 
Taurus. The highest peaks glistened like silver in the evening 
light, enveloped in a garment of snow. 

May 23d. 

To-day our organs of vision had a rest, for we were sailing 
on the high seas. Late in the evening, however, the sailors des- 
cried the mountains of Cyprus looming in the far distance like a 
misty cloud. With my less practised eyes I could see nothing 
but the sunset at sea a phenomenon of which I had had a more 
exalted conception. The rising and setting of the sun at sea is not 
nearly so striking a spectacle as the same phenomenon in a rocky 
landscape. At sea the sky is generally cloudless in the evening, 
and the sun gradually sinks, without refraction of rays or prisma- 
tic play of colours, into its ocean-bed, to pursue its unchanging 
course the next day. How infinitely more grand is this spectacle 
when seen from the " Rigi Kulm"' in Switzerland ! There it is 
really a spectacle, in contemplating which we feel impelled to fall 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 89 

on our knees in speechless adoration, and admire the wisdom of 
the Almighty in his wondrous works. 

May 24th. 

On mounting to the deck this morning at five o'clock I could 
distinguish the island of Cyprus, which looks uglier the nearer we 
approach. Both the foreground and the mountain-peaks have an 
uncomfortable barren air. At ten o'clock we entered the harbour 
of Larnaka. The situation of this town is any thing bnt fine ; the 
country looks like an Arabian desert, and a few unfruitful date- 
palms rise beside the roofless stone houses. 

I should not have gone on shore at all, if Doctor Faaslauc, 
whose acquaintance I had made at Constantinople, and who had 
been appointed quarantine physician here four weeks before my 
departure, had not come to fetch me. The streets of Larnaka are 
unpaved, so that we were obliged literally to wade more than 
ankle-deep in sand and dust. The houses are small, with irre- 
gular window's, sometimes high and sometimes low, furnished with 
wooden grated shutters ; and the roofs are in the form of terraces. 
This style of building I found to be universal throughout Syria. 

Of a garden or a green place not a trace was to be seen. The 
sandy expanse reaches to the foot of the mountains, which viewed 
fivm this direction form an equally barren picture. Behind these 
mountains the appearance of the landscape is said to be very fruit- 
ful ; but I did not penetrate into the interior, nor did I go to Niko- 
sia, the capital of the island, distant some twelve miles from Lar- 
naka. 

Doctor Faaslanc took me to his house, which had an appear- 
ance of greater comfort than I had expected to find, for it con- 
sisted of two spacious rooms which might almost have been termed 
halls. An agreeable coolness reigned every where. 

Neither stoves nor chimneys were to be seen, as winter is here 
replaced by a very mild rainy season. The heat in summer is 
often said to be insiipportable, the temperature rising to more than 
30 Reaumur. To-day it reached 30 in the sun. 



90 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

We drank to my safe return to my country, in real old Cy- 
prian wine. Shall I ever see it again ? I hope so, if my journey 
progresses as favourably as it has hegun. But Syria is a bad 
country, and the climate is difficult to bear ; yet with courage and 
perseverance for my companions, I may look forward to the accom- 
plishment of my task. The good doctor seemed much annoyed 
that he had nothing to offer me but Cyprian wine and a few Ger- 
man biscuits. At this early season fruit is not to be had, and 
cherries do not flourish here because the climate is too hot for 
them. In Smyrna I ate the last for this year. When I re- 
embarked in the afternoon, Mr. Bartlett came with the English 
consul, who wished, he said, to make the acquaintance of a lady 
possessing sufficient courage to undertake so long and perilous a 
journey by herself. His astonishment increased when he was in- 
formed that I was an unpretending native of Vienna. The consul 
was kind enough to offer me the use of his house if I returned by 
way of Cyprus ; he also inquired if he could give me some letters 
of recommendation to the Syrian consuls. I was touched by this 
hearty politeness on the part of a perfect stranger an Englishman 
moreover, a race on whom we are accustomed to look as cold and 
exclusive ! 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. <J1 



CHAPTER VI. 

Arrival at Beyrout Fellahs Backshcesh Uncomfortable quarters Sakla 
Tyre St. Jean d'Acro Ctcsarca Excursion among the nuns 
Jaffa An eastern family The Indian fig-tree An Oriental dinner 
CosLumo of the women of Jaffa Oppressive heat Gnats Ramla 
Syrian convents Bedouins and Arabs Karict cl Arcb, or Emmaus 
The Seheikh Arrival at Jerusalem. 

May 25th. 

rpnis morning I could discern the Syrian coast, which becomes 
JL more glorious the nearer we approach. Beyrout, the goal of 
our voyage, was jealously hidden from our eyes to the very last 
moment. We had still to round a promontory, and then this Eden 
of the earth lay before us in all its glory. How gladly would I 
have retarded the course of our vessel, as we passed from the last 
rocky point into the harbour, to have enjoyed this sight a little 
longer ! One pair of eyes does not suffice to take in this view ; 
the objects are too numerous, and the spectator is at a loss whither 
he should first direct his gaze, upon the town, with its many an- 
cient towers attached to the houses, giving them the air of knights' 
castles upon the numerous country-houses in the shade of lux- 
urious mulberry plantations upon the beautiful valley between 
Beyrout and Mount Lebanon or on the distant mountain-range 
itself. The towering masses of tliis magnificent chain, the pecu- 
liar colour of its rocks, and its snowclad summits, rivetted my atten- 
tion longer than any thing else. 

Scarcely had the anchor descended from the bows, before our 
ship was besieged by a number of small boats, with more noise 
and bustle than even at Constantinople. The half-naked and ex- 
citable Arabs or Fellahs are so ready with offers of service, that 
it is difficult to keep them off. It almost becomes necessary to 



92 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

threaten these poor people with a stick, as they obstinately refuse 
to take a gentler hint. As the water is here very shallow, so that 
even the little boats cannot come quite close to shore, some others 
of these brown forms immediately approached, seized us by the 
arms, took us upon their backs amidst continual shouting and 
quarrelling, and carried us triumphantly to land. 

Before the stranger puts himself into the hands of men of this 
kind, such as captains of small craft, donkey-drivers, porters, &c., 
he will find it a very wise precaution to settle the price he is to 
pay for their services. I generally spoke to the captain, or to 
some old stager among the passengers, on this subject. Even 
when I gave these people double then- usual price, they were not 
contented, but demanded an additional backsheesh (gratuity). It 
is therefore advisable to make the first offer very small, and to 
retain something for the backsheesh. At length I safely reached 
the house of Herr Battista (the only inn in the place), and was 
rejoicing in the prospect of rest and refreshment, when the dismal 
cry of " no room" was raised. I was thus placed in a deplorable 
position. There was no second inn, no convent, no place of any 
kind, where I, poor desolate creature that I was, could find shel- 
ter. This circumstance worked so much on the host's feelings, 
that he introduced me to his wife, and promised to procure me a 
private lodging. 

I had now certainly a roof above my head, but yet I could get 
no rest, nor even command a corner where I might change my 
dress. I sat with my hostess from eleven in the morning until 
five in the afternoon, and a miserably long time it appeared. I 
could not read, write, or even talk, for neither my hostess nor her 
children knew any language but Arabic. I had, however, time to 
notice what was going on around me, and observed that these 
children were much more lively than those hi Constantinople, for 
here they were continually chattering and running about. Ac- 
cording to the custom of the country, the wife does nothing but 
play with the children or gossip with the neighbours, while her 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 93 

husband attends to kitchen and cellar, makes all the requisite pur- 
chases, and besides attending to the guests, even lays the table- 
cloth for his wife and children. He told me that in a week at 
furthest, his wife would go with the children to a convent on the 
Lebanon, to remain there during the hot season of the year. What 
a difference between an Oriental and a European woman ! 

I stilt found the heat at sea far from unendurable ; a soft wind 
continually wafted its cooling influence towards us, and an awning 
had been spread out to shelter us from the rays of the sun. But 
what a contrast when we come to land ! As I sat in the room 
here the perspiration dropped continually from my brow, and now 
I began to understand what is meant by being in the tropics. I 
could scarcely await the hour when I should be shewn to a room 
to change my clothes ; but to-day I was not to have an oppor- 
tunity of doing so, for at five o'clock a messenger came from 
Mr. Bartlett with the welcome intelligence that we could continue 
our journey, as nothing was to be feared from the Druses and 
Maronites, and the plague only reigned in isolated places through 
which it was not necessary that we should pass. He had already 
engaged a servant who would act as cook and dragoman (inter- 
preter) ; provisions and cooking utensils had also been bought, 
and places were engaged on an Arab craft. Nothing, therefore, 
remained for me to do but to be on the sea-shore by six o'clock, 
where his servant would be waiting for me. I was much rejoiced 
on hearing this good news : I forgot that I required rest and a 
change of clothes, packed up my bundle, and hurried to the beach. 
Of the town I only saw a few streets, where there was a great 
bustle. I also noticed many swarthy Arabs and Bedouins, who 
wore nothing but a shirt. I did not feel particularly anxious to 
see Beyrout and its vicinity, as I intended to return soon and visit 
any part I could not examine now. 

Before sunset we had already embarked on board the craft 
that was to carry us to the long-wished-for, the sacred coast of 
Joppa. Every thing was in readiness, and we lacked only the one 
thing indispensable a breeze. 



94 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

No steamers sail between Joppa and Beyrout; travellers 
must be content with sailing vessels, deficient alike as regards 
cleanliness and convenience ; they are not provided with a cabin, 
or even with an awning, so that the passengers remain day and 
night under the open sky. Our vessel carried a cargo of pottery, 
besides rice and corn in sacks. 

Midnight approached, and still we were in harbour, with not 
a breath of wind to fill our sails. 

Wrapping my cloak tightly round me, I lay down on the 
sacks, in the absence of a mattress ; but I was not yet sufficiently 
tired out to be able to find rest on such an unusual couch. So I 
rose again in rather a bad humour, and looked with an evil eye on 
the Arabs lying on the sacks around me, who were not " slumber- 
ing softly," but snoring lustily. By way of forcing myself, if 
possible, into a poetical train of thought, I endeavoured to con- 
centrate my attention on the contemplation of the beautiful land- 
scape by moonlight ; but even this would not keep me from 
yawning. My companion seemed much in the same mood ; for 
he had also risen from his soft couch, and was staring gloomingly 
straight before him. At length, towards three o'clock in the 
morning of 

May 26th, 

a slight breath of wind arose, we hoisted two or three sails, and 
glided slowly and noiselessly towards the sea. 

Mr. B. had bargained with the captain to keep as close to the 
shore as possible, in order that we might see the towns as we 
passed. Excepting in Cscsarea, it was forbidden to cast anchor 
any where, for the plague was raging at Stir (Tyre) and in several 
other places. 

Bargains of this land must be taken down in writing at the 
consulates, and only one-half of the sum agreed should be paid 
in advance ; the other half must be kept in hand, to operate as a 
check on the crew. After eA r ery precaution has been taken, one 
can seldom escape without some bickering and quarrelling. On 
these occasions it is always advisable at once to take high ground, 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 95 

and not to give way in the most trifling particular, for this is the 
only method of gaining peace and quietness. 

Towards seven o'clock in the morning we sailed by the town 
and fortress of Saida. The town looks respectable enough, and 
contains some spacious houses. The fortress is separated from the 
town by a small bay, across which a wooden bridge has been 
built. The fortress seems in a very dilapidated condition ; inany 
breaches are still in the same state in which they were left after 
the taking of the town by the English in 1840, and part of the 
wall has fallen into the sea. In the background we could descry 
some ruins on a rock, apparently the remains of an ancient castle. 

The next place we saw was Sarepta, where Elijah the prophet 
was fed by the poor widow during the famine. 

The Lebanon range becomes lower and lower, while its name- 
sake, the Anti-Lebanon, begins to rise. It is quite as lofty as the 
first-named range, wliich it closely resembles in form. Both are 
traversed by fields of snow, and between them stands a third 
colossus, Mount Hermon. 

Next came the town of Tyre or Stir, now barren and de- 
serted ; for that mighty scourge of humanity, the plague, was raging- 
there to a fearful extent. A few scattered fragments of fortifi- 
cations and numerous fallen pillars lie strewed on the shore. 

And now at length I was about to see places which many 
have longed to behold, but which few have reached. With a 
beating heart I gazed unceasingly towards St. Jean d'Acre, wliich 
I at length saw rising from the waves, with Mount Cannel in the 
background. Here, then, was the holy ground on which the 
Redeemer walked for us fallen creatures ! Both St. Jean d'Acre 
and Mount Carmel can be distinguished a long distance off. 

For a second tune did a mild and calm night sink gently 
on the earth without bringing me repose. How unlucky it is that 
we find it so much harder to miss comforts we have been used to 
enjoy, than to acquire the habit of using comforts to which we have 
been unaccustomed ! Were tliis not the case, how much easier 



96 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

would travelling be ! As it is, it costs us many an effort ere we can 
look hardships boldly in the face. ' But patience !" thought I to 
myself; " I shall have more to endure yet; and if I return safely, 
I shall be as thoroughly case-hardened as any native/' 

Our meals and our beverage were very simple. In the morn- 
ing we had pilau, and in the evening we had pilau ; our drink 
was lukewarm water, qualified with a little rum. 

From Beyrout to the neighbourhood of St. Jean d'Acre, the 
coast and a considerable belt of land adjoining it are sandy and 
barren. Near Acre every tiling changed ; we once more beheld 
pretty country-houses surrounded by pomegranate and orange 
plantations, and a noble aqueduct intersects the plain. Mount 
Carmel, alone barren and unfruitful, stands in striking contrast 
to the beauteous landscape around ; jutting boldly out towards 
the sea, it forms the site of a handsome and spacious convent. 

The town of St. Jean d'Acre and its fortifications were com- 
pletely destroyed during the last war (in 1840), and appear to 
sigh in vain for repairs. The houses and mosques are full of 
cannon-balls and shot-holes. Every tiling stands and lies about 
as though the enemy had departed but yesterday. Six cannons 
peer threateningly from the wall. The town and fortifications 
are both built on a tongue of land washed by the sea. 

May 27th. 

During the night we reached Cscsarea. With the eloquence 
of a Demosthenes, our captain endeavoured to dissuade us from 
our project of landing here ; he pointed out to us the dangers to 
which we were exposing ourselves, and the risks we should run 
from Bedouins and snakes. The former, he averred, were accus- 
tomed to conceal themselves in hordes among the ruins, in order 
to ease travellers of their effects and money; being well aware 
that such spots were only visited by curious tourists with well- 
filled purses, they were continually on the watch, like the robber- 
knights of the good old German empire. " An enemy no less 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 97 

formidable," said the captain, " was to be encountered in the per- 
sons of numerous snakes lurking in the old walls and on the weed- 
covered ground, which endangered the life of the traveller at 
every step." We were perfectly well aware of these facts, having 
gleaned them partly from descriptions of voyages, partly from 
oral traditions ; and so they were not powerful enough to arrest 
our curiosity. The captain himself was really less actuated by the 
sense of our danger, in advising us to abandon our undertaking, 
than by the reflection of the time it lost him ; but he exerted himself 
in vain. He was obliged to cast anchor, and at daybreak to send 
u boat ashore with us. 

Our arms consisted of parasols and sticks (the latter we car- 
ried in order to beat the bushes) ; we were escorted by the cap- 
tain, Ids servant, and a couple of sailors. 

In the ruins we certainly met with a few suspicious-looking 
characters in the shape of wandering Bedouins. As it was too 
late to beat a retreat, we advanced bravely towards them with 
trusting and friendly looks. The Bedouins did the same, and so 
there was an end of this dangerous aftiir. We climbed from one 
fragment to another, and certainly spent more than two hours 
among the rums, without sustaining the slightest injury at the 
hands of these people. Of the threatened snakes we saw not a 
single one. 

Ruins, indeed, we found every where hi plenty. Whole side- 
walls, which appeared to have belonged to private houses, but not 
to splendid palaces or temples, stood erect and almost unscathed. 
Fragments of pillars lay scattered about in great abundance, but 
without capitals, pedestals, or friezes. 

It was with a feeh'ng of awe hitherto unknown to me that I 
trod the ground where my Redeemer had walked. Every spot, 
every building became invested with a double interest. " Per- 
chance," I thought, " I may be lingering within the very house 
where Jesus once sojourned." More than satisfied with my ex- 
cursion. I returned to our bark. 

G 



98 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

By three o'clock in the afternoon we were close under the 
walls of Joppa. To enter this harbour, partially choked up as it 
is with sand, is described as a difficult feat. We were assured 
that we should see many wrecks of stranded ships and boats ; 
accordingly I strained my eyes to the utmost, and could discover 
nothing. We ran safely in ; and thus ended a little journey in 
the course of which I had seen many new and interesting objects, 
besides gaining some insight into the mode of life among the 
sailors. Frequently, when it fell calm, our Arabs would recline 
on the ground in a circle, singing songs of an inconceivably inhar- 
monious and lugubrious character, while they clapped their hands 
in cadence, and burst at intervals into a barking laugh. I could 
not find any thing very amusing in this entertainment ; on the 
contrary, it had the effect of making me feel very melancholy, as 
displaying these good people hi a very idiotic and degrading light. 

The costume of the sailors was simple in the extreme. A 
shirt covered them in rather an imperfect manner, and a handker- 
chief bound round their heads protected them from a coup de soleil. 
The captain was distinguished from the rest only by his turban, 
which looked ridiculous enough, surmounting his half-clad form. 
Their diet consisted of a single warm meal of pilau or beans, eaten 
in the evening. During the day they stayed their appetites with 
bread. Their drink was water. 

The town of Joppa, extending from the sea-shore to the sum- 
mit of a rather considerable and completely isolated hill, has a 
most peculiar appearance. The lower street is surrounded by a 
wall, and appears sufficiently broad ; the remaining streets run up 
the face of the hills, and seem at a distance to be resting on the 
houses below. Viewing the town from our boat, I could have 
sworn that people were walking about on flat house-tops. 

As Joppa boasts neither an inn nor a convent which might 
shelter a traveller, I waited upon the Consul of the Austrian 
Empire, Herr D , who received me very kindly and intro- 
duced me to his family, which comprised his lady, three sons, and 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 99 

three daughters. They wore the Turkish costume. The daugh- 
ters, two of whom were exceedingly beautiful, wore wide trousers, 
a caftan, and a sash round the waist. On their heads they had 
little fez-caps, and their hair was divided into fifteen or twenty 
narrow plaits, interwoven with little gold coins, and a larger one 
at the end of each plait. A necklace of gold coins encircled their 
necks. The mother was dressed in exactly the same way. When 
elderly women have little or no hair left, they make up with arti- 
ficial silk plaits for the deficiencies of nature. 

The custom of wearing coins as ornaments is so prevalent 
throughout Syria, that the very poorest women, girls, and children 
strive to display as many as possible. Where they cannot sport 
gold, they content themselves with silver money ; and where even 
this metal is not attainable, with little coins of copper and other 
baser metals. 

The Consul and his son were also clothed in the Turkish garb ; 
but instead of a turban the father wore an old cocked hat, which 
gave him an indescribably ludicrous appearance. A son and a 
daughter of this worthy patron of the semi-Turkish, semi-European 
garb, had but one eye, a defect frequently met with in Syria. 
It is generally supposed to be caused by the dry heat, the fine 
particles of sand, aud the intense glare of the chalky hills. 

As I reached Joppa early in the afternoon, I proceeded in 
company of the Consul to new the town and its environs. In dirt, 
bad paving, &c., I found it equal to any of the towns I had yet 
seen. The lower street, near the sea, alone is broad and bustling, 
with loaded and unloaded camels passing continually to and fro. 
The bazaar is composed of some miserable booths containing com- 
mon provisions and a few cheap wares. 

The neighbourhood of Joppa is exceedingly fertile. Numerous 
large gardens, with trees laden with all kinds of tropical fruits, and 
guarded by impenetrable hedges of the Indian fig-tree, form a half- 
circle round the lower portion of the town. 

The Indian fig-tree, which I here saw for the first time, has 



VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXI>, 

an odd appearance. From its stem, which is very dwarfish, 
leaves a foot in length, six inches in breadth, and half an inch in 
fftMnBEMj shoot forth. This tree seldom sends forth branches ; 
the leaves grow one out of another, and at the caLtaaafty the fruit 
is formed. Its length is about two or three inches. Ten or twenty 
such figs are frequently found adhering to a single leaf. 

I could not conceive how it happened that in these hot 
countries, without rain to refresh them, the trees all looked so 
healthy and beautiful. This fact, I found, was owing to the 
numerous channels cut through the gardens, which are thus arti- 
ficially irrigated. The heavy dews and cool nights also tend to 
restore the drooping vegetation. One great ornament of our gar- 
dens was, however, totally wanting a lawn with wild flowers. 
Trees and vegetables here grow out of the sandy or stony earth, 
a circumstance hardly noticed at a distance, but which produces a 
disagreeable effect on a near view. Flowers I found none. 

The whole region round Joppa is so covered with sand, that 
one sinks ankle-deep at every step. 

Consul D fulfils the duties of two consulates, the Austrian 

and the French. From both these offices he derives no benefit 
but the honour. By some people this honour would be highly 
valued, but many would rate it at nothing at aH. This family, 
however, seems to have a great idea of honour ; tor the consul's 
office is hereditary, and I found the son of the present dignitary 
already looking forward to filling his place. 

In the evening I was present at a real Oriental entertainment 
in the house of this friendly family. 

Mats, carpets, and pillows were spread out on the terrace of 
the house, and a very low table placed in the centre. Bound this 
the family sat, or rather reclined, cross-legged. I was accommo- 
dated with a chair somewhat higher than the table. Beside my 
plate and that of the Consul were laid a knife and fork, that ap- 
peared to have been hunted out from some lumler closet ; the rest 
ate with a species of natural knife and fork, namely fingers. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 101 

The dishes were not at all to my taste. I hail still too mucj 
of the European about me, and too little appetite, to be able to 
endure what these good people seemed to consider immense 
delicacies. 

The first dish appeared in the form of a delicate pilau, com- 
posed of mutton, cucumbers, and a quantity of spice, which ren- 
dered it more unpalatable to me than common pilau. Then 
followed sliced cucumbers sprinkled with salt ; but as the chief 
ingredients, vinegar and oil, were entirely wanting, I was obliged 
to force down the cucumber as best I could. Next came rice-milk, 
so strongly flavoured with attar of roses, that the smell alone was 
more than enough for me ; and now at length the last course was 
put on the table stale cheese made of ewe's milk, little unpeelod 
girkins, which my entertainers coolly discussed rind and all, and 
burnt hazel-nuts. The bread, which is flat like pancakes, is not 
baked in ovens, but laid on metal plates or hot stones, and turned 
when one side is sufficiently done. It tastes better than I should 
have expected.* 

Our conversation diuing dinner was most interesting. Some 
of the family spoke a little Italian, but this little was pronounced 
with such a strong Greek accent, that I was obliged to guess at 
the greater portion of what was said. No doubt they had to do 
the same with me. The worthy Consul, indeed, affirmed that he 
knew French very well ; but for this evening at least, his memory 
seemed to have given him the slip. Much was spoken, and little 
understood. The same thing is said often to be the case in learned 
societies ; so it was not of much consequence. 

There are many different lauds of cucumber in Syria, where 
they are a favourite dish with rich and poor. I found numerous 
varieties, but none that I found superior to our German one. An- 
other favourite fruit is the water-melon, here called "bastek."' 
These also I found neither larger in size nor better flavoured than 
the melons I had eaten in southern Hungary. 

* Cakes or "scones" in Scotland are ba'ted in the same way. ED. 



102 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

The Consul's house seems sufficiently large ; but the architec- 
tural arrangement is so irregular that the extended area contains 
but few rooms and very little comfort. The apartments are 
lofty and large, extremely ill-furnished, and not kept in the best 
possible order. 

I slept hi the apartment of the married daughter ; but had it 
not been for the beds standing round, I should rather have looked 
upon it as an old store-closet than a lady's sleeping-room. 

May 28th. 

At five o'clock hi the morning Mr. Bartlett's servant came 
to fetch me away, as we were at once to continue our journey. 
I betook myself to the house of the English Consul, where I found 
neither a horse nor any thing else prepared for our departure. It 
is necessary to look calmly upon these irregularities here in the 
East, where it is esteemed a fortunate occurrence if the horses 
and mukers (as the drivers of horses and donkeys are called) 
are only a few hours behind their tune. Thus our horses made 
their appearance at half-past five instead of at four, the hour for 
which they had been ordered. Our baggage was soon securely 
fixed, for we left the greater portion of our effects at Joppa, and 
took with us only what was indispensably necessary. 

As the clock struck six we rode out of the gate of Joppa, and 
immediately afterwards reached a large well with a marble basin. 
Near places of this description a great number of people are 
always congregated, and more women and girls are seen than 
appear elsewhere. 

The dress of females belonging to the lower orders consists 
of a long blue garment fastened roucd the throat, and reaching 
below the ankle. They completely cover the head and face, fre- 
quently without even leaving openings for the eyes. Some fe- 
males, on the other hand, go abroad with their faces totally un- 
covered. These are, however, exceptional cases. 

The women carry their water-pitchers on their head or shoul- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 103 

der, as their ancestors have done for thousands of years, in the 
manner we find represented in the oldest pictures. But unfor- 
tunately I could discover neither the grace in their gait, the dig- 
nity in their movements, nor the physical beauty in their appear- 
ance, that I had been led to expect. On the contrary, I found 
squalor and poverty more prevalent than I had thought possible. 

We rode on amid the gardens, every moment meeting a little 
caravan of camels. Immediately beyond the gardens we descry 
the fruitful valley of Sharon, extending more than eight miles in 
length, and to a still greater distance in breadth. Here and there 
we find villages built on hills, and the whole presents the appear- 
ance of an. extremely fertile and well-populated region. In all 
directions we saw large herds of sheep and goats ; the latter ge- 
nerally of a black or brown colour, with long pendent ears. 

The foreground of the picture is formed by the Judsean moun- 
tains, a range apparently composed of a number of barren rocks. 

A ride of two hours through this plain, which is less sandy 
than the immediate neighbourhood of Joppa, brought us to a 
mosque, where we made halt for a quarter of an hour and ate our 
breakfast, consisting of some hard-boiled eggs, a piece of bread, and 
a draught of lukewarm water from the cistern. Our poor beasts 
fared even worse than ourselves they received nothing but water. 

On leaving this place to resume our journey across the plain, 
we not only suffered dreadfully from the heat, which had reached 
30 Reaumur, but were further persecuted by a species of mi- 
nute gnats, which hovered round us in large swarms, crept into 
our noses and ears, and annoyed us in such a manner that it re- 
quired the utmost of our patience and determination to prevent us 
from turning back at once. Fortunately we only met with these 
tormentors hi those parts where the corn had been cut and was 
still in the fields. They are not much larger than a pin's head, 
and look more like flies than gnats. They are always met with 
in great swarms, and sting so sharply that they frequently raise 
large boils. 



104 VISIT TO TILE HOLY LAND, 

The vegetation was at this season already in so forward a 
state that we frequently passed stubble-fields, and found that the 
wheat had in several cases been already garnered up. Through- 
out the whole of Syria, and in that part of Egypt whither my 
journey afterwards led me, I never once saw com or vegetables, 
wood or stores, carried in wagons ; they were invariably borne by 
horses or asses. In Syria I could understand the reason of this 
proceeding. With the exception, perhaps, of the eight or ten 
miles across the valley of Sharon, the road is too stony and un- 
even to admit the passage of the lightest and smallest carts. In 
Egypt, however, this is not the case, and yet wagons have not 
been introduced. 

A most comical effect was produced when we met long pro- 
cessions of small donkeys, so completely laden with corn, that 
neither their heads nor their feet remained visible. The sheaves 
seemed to be moving spontaneously, or to be propelled by the 
power of steam. Frequently after a train of this kind has passed, 
lofty grey heads appear, surrounded by a load piled up to so great 
a height, that one would suppose large corn-wagons were approach- 
ing rather than the " ship of the desert," the camel. The tra- 
veller's attention is continually attracted to some novel and curious 
object totally dissimilar to any thing he has seen at home. 

Towards ten o'clock we arrived at Eamla, a place situate on 
a little hill, and discernible from a great distance. Before reach- 
ing the town, we had to pass through an olive-wood. Leaving 
our horses beneath a shady tree, we entered the coppice on the 
right : a walk of about a quarter of a mile brought us to the 
" Tower of the Forty Martyrs," which was converted into a 
church during the time of the Knights Templars, and now serves 
as a dwelling for dervishes. It is a complete ruin, and I could 
scarcely believe that it was still habitable. 

We made no stay at Ramla, a place only remarkable for a con- 
vent built, it is said, on the site of Joseph of Arimathea's house. ' 

The Syrian convents are built more like fortresses than like 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 105 

peaceful dwellings. They are usually surrounded by strong and 
lofty walls, furnished with loopholes for cannon. The great gate 
is kept continually closed, and barred and bolted from witliin for 
greater security ; a little postern is opened to admit visitors, but 
even this is only done in time of peace, and when there is no fear 
of the plague. 

At length, towards noon, we approached the mountains of 
Judasa. Here we must bid farewell to the beautiful fruitful valley 
and to the charming road, and pursue our journey through a stony 
region, which we do not pass without difficulty. 

At the entrance of the mountain-chain lies a miserable village; 
near this village is a well, and here we halted to refresh ourselves 
and water our poor horses. It was not without a great deal of 
trouble and some expense that we managed to obtain a little water ; 
for all the camels, asses, goats, and sheep from far and wide were 
collected here, eagerly licking up every drop of the refreshing 
element they could secure. Little .did I think that I should ever 
be glad to quench my thirst with so disgusting a beverage as the 
muddy, turbid, and lukewarm water they gave me from this well. 
We once more filled our leathern bottles, and proceeded with fresh 
courage up the stony path, which quickly became so narrow, that 
without great difficulty and danger we could not pass the camels 
which we frequently met. Fortunately a few camels out of 
every herd are generally provided with bells, so that their ap- 
proach is heard at some distance, and one can prepare for them 
accordingly. 

The Bedouins and Arabs generally wear no garment but a 
shirt barely reaching to the knee. Their head is protected by a 
linen cloth, to which a thick rope wound twice round the head 
gives a very good effect. A few have a striped jacket over their 
shirt, and the rich men or chiefs frequently wear turbans. 

Our road now continues to wind upwards, through ravines 
between rocks and mountains, and over heaps of stones. Here 
and there single olive-trees are seen sprouting from the rocky 



106 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

clifts. Ugly as this tree is, it still forms a cheerful feature in the 
desert places where it grows. Now and then we climbed hills 
whence we had a distant view of the sea. These glimpses increase 
the awe which inspires the traveller when he considers on what 
ground he is wandering, and whither he is hending his steps. 
Every step we now take leads us past places of religious import- 
ance ; every nun, every fragment of a fortress or tower, ahove 
which the rocky walls rise like terraces, speaks of eventful times 
long gone by. 

An uninterrupted ride of five hours over very bad roads, 
from the entrance of the mountain-range, added to the extreme 
heat and total want of proper refreshment, suddenly brought on 
such a violent giddiness that I could scarcely keep myself from 
falling off my horse. Although we had been on horseback for 
eleven hours since leaving Joppa, I was so much afraid that Mr. 
B. would consider me weak and ailing, and perhaps change 
his intention of accompanying me from Jerusalem back to Joppa, 
that I refrained from acquainting him with the condition in which 
I felt myself. I therefore dismounted (had I not done so, I should 
soon have fallen down), and walked with tottering steps beside my 
horse, until I felt so far recovered that I could mount once more. 
Air. B. had determined to perform the distance from Joppa to 
Jerusalem (a sixteen hours' ride) at one stretch. He indeed 
asked me if I could bear so much fatigue ; but I was unwilling to 
abuse his kindness, and therefore assured him that I could manage 
to ride on for five or six hours longer. Fortunately for my repu- 
tation, my companion was soon afterwards attacked with the same 
symptoms that troubled me so much ; he now began to think that 
it might, after all, be advisable to rest for a few hours in the next 
village, especially as we could not hope in any case to reach the 
gates of Jerusalem before sundown. I felt silently thankful for 
this opportune occurrence, and left the question of going on or stop- 
ping altogether to the decision of my fellow-traveller, particularly 
as I knew the course he would choose. Thus I accomplished my 



EGYtT, AJS'D ITALY. 107 

object without being obliged to confess my weakness. In pur- 
suance of tins resolve, we stayed in the neighbouiing village of 
" Kariet el Areb," the ancient Emmaus, where the risen Saviour 
met the disciples, and where we find a ruin of a Christian church 
in a tolerable state of preservation. The building is now used as 
a stable. Some years ago this was the haunt of a famous rob- 
ber, who was scheikh of the place, and let no Frank pass before 
he had paid whatever tribute he chose to demand. Since the 
accession of Mehemet Ali these exactions have ceased both here 
and in Jerusalem, where money was demanded of the stranger for 
admission into the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other sacred 
places. Even highway robberies, which were once on a time of 
daily occurrence among these mountains, are now rarely heard of. 

We took possession of the entrance-hall of a mosque, near which 
a delicious spring sparkled forth from a grotto. Seldom has any 
thing strengthened and refreshed me so much as the water of this 
spring. I recovered completely from my indisposition, and was 
able to enjoy the beautiful evening. 

As soon as the scheikh of the village heard that a party of 
Franks had arrived, he despatched four or five dishes of provisions 
to us. Of all these preparations we could only eat one the but- 
ter-milk. The other dishes, a mixture of honey, cucumbers, hard- 
boiled eggs, onions, oil, olives, &c., we generously bestowed upon 
the dragoman and the muker, who caused them quickly to disap- 
pear. An hour afterwards the scheikh came in person to pay his 
respects. We reclined on the steps of the hall ; and while the men 
smoked and drank coffee, a conversation of a very uninteresting 
kind was kept up, the dragoman acting as interpreter. At length 
the scheikh seemed seized with the idea that we might possibly 
be tired with our journey. He took his leave, and offered un- 
asked to send us two men as sentries, which he did. Thus we 
could go to rest in perfect safety under the open sky in the midst 
of a Turkish village. 

But before we retired to rest, my companion was seized with 



108 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

the rather original idea that we should pursue our journey at mid- 
night. He asked me, indeed, if I was afraid, but at the same 
tune observed, that it would be much safer for us to act upon his 
suggestion, as no one would suspect our departure by such a dan- 
gerous road at midnight. I certainly felt a little afraid, but my 
pride would not allow me to confess the truth ; so our people re- 
ceived the order to be prepared to set out at midnight. 

Thus we four persons, alone and totally unarmed, travelled 
at midnight through the wildest and most dangerous regions. 
Fortunately the bright moon looked smilingly down upon us. and 
illuminated our path so brightly, that the horses earned us with 
firm step over every obstruction. I was, I must confess, grievously 
frightened by the shadows ! I saw living things moving to and 
fro forms gigantic and forms dwarfish seemed sometimes ap- 
proaching us, sometimes hiding behind masses of rock, or sinking- 
back into nothingness. Lights and shadows, fears and anxiety, 
thus took alternate possession of my imagination. 

A couple of miles from our starting-place we came upon a 
brook crossed by a narrow stone bridge. This brook is remark- 
able only as having been that from which David collected the five 
stones wherewith he slew the Philistine giant. At the season of 
my visit there was no water to be seen ; the bed of the stream 
was completely dry. 

About an hour's journey from Jerusalem the valley opens, and 
little orchards give indication of a more fertile country, as well as 
of the proximity of the Holy City. Silently and thoughtfully we ap- 
proached our destination, straining our eyes to the utmost to pierce 
the jealous twilight that shrouded the distance from our gaze. From 
the next hill we hoped to behold our sacred goal ; but " hope de- 
ferred" is often the lot of mortals. "We had to ascend another 
height, and another ; at length the Mount of Olives lay spread 
before us, and lastly JERUSALEM. 



EGYl'T, AN'D ITALV. 109 



CHAPTER VII. 

llc.sMence at Jerusalem Catholic church The "Nuova Casa" Via dolo- 
rosa Pilate's house The Mosque Omar Herod's house Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre Disturbances at the Greek Easter feasts Knights 
of thejHoly Sepulchre Mount of Olives Adventure among the ruins 
Mount of Offence Valley of Jehosaphat Siloam Mount Sion 
Jeremiah's grotto Graves. 

miiE red morning dawn had begun to tinge the sky as we stood 
JL before the walls of Jerusalem, and with it the most beauteous 
morning of my life dawned upon me ! I was so lost in reflection 
and in thankful emotion, that I saw and heard nothing of what 
was passing around me. And yet I should find it impossible to 
describe what I thought, what I felt. My emotion was deep and 
powerful ; my expression of it would be poor and cold. 

At half-past four o'clock in the morning of the 29th May we 
arrived at the " Bethlehem Gate." We were obliged to wait 
half an hour before this gate was opened ; then we rode through 
the still silent and deserted streets of the Nuova Casa (Pilgrim- 
house), a building devoted by the Franciscan friars to the recep- 
tion of rich and poor Roman Catholics and Protestants. 

I left my bai'gage in the room allotted to me, and hastened 
into the church, to lighten the weight on my heart by fervent 
prayer. The entrance into the church looks like the door of a 
private house ; the building is small, but still sufficiently large for 
the Roman Catholic congregation. The altar is richly furnished, 
and the organ is a very bad one. The male and female portions 
of the congregation are separated from each other, the young as 
well as the old, and all sit or kneel on the ground. Chairs there 
are none in this church. The costume of the Christians is pre- 



110 VISIT TO THE HOLT LAXD, 

dsely the same as that of the Syrians. The women wear boots of 
yellow morocco, and over these slippers, which they take off on 
entering the church. In the street their faces arc completely, in 
the church only partially, muffled, and the faces of the girls not 
at all. Their dress consists of a white linen gown, and a large 
shawl of the same miterial, which completely envelopes them. 
They were all cleanly and neatly dressed. 

The amount of devotion manifested hy these people is very 
small ; the most trifling circumstance suffices to distract their at- 
tention. For instance, my appearance seemed to create quite a 
sensation among them, and they made their remarks upon me to 
. one another so openly both by words and gestures, that I found it 
quite impossible to give my mind to seriousness and devotion. Some 
of them pushed purposely against me, and put out their hands to 
grasp my bonnet, &c. They conversed together a good deal, and 
prayed very little. The children behaved no better ; these little 
people ate their breakfast while the service was going on. and oc- 
casionally jostled each other, probably to keep themselves awake. 
The good people here must fancy they are doing a meritorious 
work by passing two or three hours in the church ; no one seems 
to care how this time is spent, or they would assuredly have been 
taught better. 

I had been in the church rather more than an hour when a 
clergyman stepped up to me and accosted me in my native lan- 
guage. He was a German, and, in fact, an Austrian. He pro- 
mised to visit me in the course of a few hours. I returned to the 
Nuova Casa. and now, for the first time, had leisure to examine 
my apartment. The arrangement was simple in the extreme. 
An iron bedstead, with a mattress, coverlet, and bolster, a very 
dingy table, with two chairs, a small bench, and a cupboard, all 
of deal, composed the whole furniture. These chattels, and also 
the windows, some panes of which were broken, may once, hi very 
ancient times, have been clean. The walls were of plaster, and 
the floor was paved with large slabs of stone. Chimneys are no 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. Ill 

more to be found in this country. I did not see any until my 
return to Sicily. 

I now laid myself down for a couple of hours to get a little 
rest; for during my journey hither from Constantinople I had 
scarcely slept at all. 

At eleven o'clock the German priest, Father Paul, visited me, 
in order to explain the domestic arrangements to me. Dinner is 
oaten at twelve o'clock, and supper at seven. At breakfast we 
get coffee without sugar or milk; for dinner, mutton - broth, a 
piece of roast kid, pastry prepared with oil or a dish of cucumbers, 
and, as a concluding course, roast or spiced mutton. Twice in the 
week, namely on Fridays and Saturdays, we have fast- day fare ; 
but if the feast of a particular saint falls during the week, a thing 
that frequently occurs, we hold three fast -days, the one of the 
saint's day being kept as a time of abstinence. The fare on fast- 
days consists of a dish of lentils, an omelette, and two dishes of 
salt fish, one hot and the other cold. Bread arid wine, as also 
these provisions, are doled out in sufficient quantities. But every 
thing is very indifferently cooked, and it takes a long time for a 
stranger to accustom himself to the ever-recurring dishes of mut- 
ton. In Syria oxen and calves are not killed during the summer 
season ; so that from the 19th of May until my journey to Egypt 
in the beginning of September, I could get neither beef- soup 
nor beef. 

In this convent no charge is made either for board or lodging, 
and every visitor may stay there for a whole month. At most it 
is customary to give a voluntary subscription towards the masses ; 
but no one asks if a traveller has given much, little, or nothing 
at all., or whether he is a Roman Catholic, a Protestant, or a 
votary of any other religion. In this respect the Franciscan order 
is much to be commended. The priests are mostly Spamards and 
Italians ; very few of them belong to other nations. 

Father Paul was kind enough to offer his services as my guide, 
and to-day I visited several of the holy places in company with him. 



112 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

We began with the Via Dolorosa, the road which our Lord 
is said to have trodden when for the last tune he wandered as God- 
man on earth, bowed down by the weight of the cross, on his way 
to Golgotha. The spots where Christ sank exhausted are marked 
by fragments of the pillars which St. Helena caused to be attached 
to the houses on either side of the way. Further on we reach 
the " Zwerchgasse," the place whither the Virgin Mary is said to 
have come in haste to see her beloved Son for the last time. 

Next we visited Pilate's house, which is partly a ruin, the 
remaining portion serving as a barrack for Turkish soldiers. I 
was shewn the spot where the " holy stairs " stood, up which our 
Lord is said to have walked. On my return, I saw these stairs 
in the church of S. Giovanni di Laterani. They also pretend to 
shew the place where the Saviour was brought out before the 
multitude by Pilate. A little distance off, in the midst of a dark 
vault, they shew the traveller the stone to which Jesus was bound 
when " they scourged Him." 

We ascended the highest terrace of this house, as this spot 
affords the best view of the magnificent mosque of Omar, stand- 
ing in a large courtyard. With this exterior view the traveller 
is fain to be content ; for the Turks are here much more fanatical 
than those in Constantinople and many other towns, so that an 
attempt to penetrate even into the courtyard would be unsuccessful ; 
the intruder would run the risk of being assailed with a shower 
of stones. But hi proportion as the Turks are strict in the observ- 
ance of their own ceremonies and customs, so they respect those 
Christians who are religious and devotional. 

Every Christian can go with perfect impunity to pray at all 
the places which are sacred in his eyes, without fear of being 
taunted or annoyed by the Turkish passers-by. On the contrary, 
the Mussulman steps respectfully aside ; for even he venerates the 
Saviour as a great prophet, and the Virgin as his mother. 

Not far from Pilate's house stands the building designated as 
that of Herod; it is, however, a complete ruin. The house of 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 113 

the rich man, at whose gate the beggar Lazarus lay, has shared 
the same fate ; but from the ruins one may conclude how magni- 
ficent the building must originally have been. 

In the house of Saint Veronica a stone is pointed out on which 
they shew you a footprint of the Saviour. In another house two 
footprints of the Virgin Mary are exhibited. Father Paul also 
drew my attention to the houses which stood on the spot where 
Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were born. These houses 
are all inhabited by Turks, but any one may obtain admittance 
upon payment of a small fee. 

The following day I visited the church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
The way lies through several narrow and dirty streets. In the lanes 
near the church are booths hike those at Maria Zell in Steiermark, 
and many other places of pilgrimage, where they sell wreaths of 
roses, shells of mother-of-pearl, crucifixes, &c. The open space 
before the church is neat enough. Opposite lies the finest house 
in Jerusalem, its terraces gay with flowers. 

Visitors to this church will do wisely to provide themselves 
with a sufficient number of para, as they may expect to be sur- 
rounded by a goodly tribe of beggars. The church is always 
locked ; the key is in the custody of some Turks, who open the 
sacred edifice when asked to do so. It is customary to give them 
three or four piastres for their pains, with which sum they are 
satisfied, and remain at the entrance during the whole time the 
stranger is in the church, reclining on divans, drinking coffee and 
smoking tobacco. At the entrance of the church we noticed a long 
square stone on the ground ; this is the " stone of anointing." 

In the centre of the nave a little chapel has been built ; it is 
divided into two parts. In the first of these compartments is a 
stone slab encased in marble. This is vehemently asserted to be 
the identical stone on which the angel sat when he announced our 
Lord's resurrection to the women who came to embalm his body. 
In the second compartment, which is of the same size as the first, 
stands the sarcophagus or tomb of the Saviour, of white marble. 

H 



114 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

The approach is by such a low door that one has to stoop exceed- 
ingly in order to enter. The tomb occupies the whole length of 
the chapel, and answers the purpose of an altar. We could not look 
into the sarcophagus. The illumination of this chapel is very grand 
both by night and day ; forty-seven lamps are kept continually 
burning above the grave. The portion of the chapel containing 
the tomb is so small, that when the priest reads mass only two or 
three people have room to stand and listen. The chapel is entirely 
built of marble, and belongs to the Roman Catholics ; but the 
Greeks have the right of celebrating mass alternately with them. 

At the farther end of the chapel the Copts have a little mean- 
looking altar of wood, surrounded by walls of lath. All round the 
chapel are niches belonging to the different religious sects. 

In this church I was also shewn the subterranean niche in 
which Jesus is said to have been a prisoner ; also the niche where 
the soldiers cast lots for our Saviour's garments, and the chapel 
containing the grave of St. Nicodemus. Not far from this chapel 
is the little Roman Catholic church. A flight of twenty-seven 
steps leads downwards to the chapel of St. Helena, where the 
holy woman sat continually and prayed, while she caused search 
to be made for the true cross. A few steps more lead us down to 
the spot where the cross was found. A marble slab points out the 
place. 

Mounting the steps once more, we come to the niche containing 
the pillar to which Jesus was bound when they crowned him with 
thorns. It is called the pillar of scorn. The pillar at which Jesus 
was scourged, apiece of which is preserved in Rome, is also shewn. 

The chapel belonging to the Greeks is very spacious, and may 
almost be termed a church within a church. It is beautifully 
decorated. 

It is very difficult to find the way in this'church, which 
resembles a labyrinth. Now we are obliged to ascend a flight of 
stairs, now again to descend. The architect certainly deserves 
great praise for having mar aged so cleverly to unite all these holy 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 115 

places under one roof; and St. Helena has performed a most 
meritorious action in thus rescuing from oblivion the sacred sites 
in Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth. 

I was told, that when the Greeks celebrate their Easter here, 
the ceremonies seldom conclude without much quarrelling and 
confusion. These irregularities are considerably increased when 
the Greek Easter happens to Ml at the same time as that of the 
Koman Catholics. On these occasions, there are not only nume- 
rous broken heads, but some of the combatants are even frequently 
carried away dead. The Turks generally find it necessary to 
interfere, to restore peace and order among the Christians. What 
opinion can these nations, whom we call Infidels, have of us Chris- 
tians, when they see with what hatred and virulence each sect 
of Christians pursues the other ? When will this dishonourable 
bigotry cease ? 

On the third day after my arrival at Jerusalem, a small 
caravan of six or seven travellers, two gentlemen namely, and 
their attendants, applied for admittance at our convent. An 
arrival of this kind, particularly if the new-comers are Franks, 
is far too important to admit of our delaying the inquiry from what 
country the wanderers have arrived. How agreeably was I sur- 
prised, when Father Paul came to me with the intelligence that 
these gentlemen were both Austrian subjects. What a singular 
coincidence ! So far from my native country, I was thus suddenly 
placed in the midst of my own people. Father Paul was a native 
of Vienna, and the two counts, Berchtold and Salm Reifferscheit, 
were Bohemian cavaliers. 

As soon as I had completely recovered from the fatigues of 
my journey, and had collected my thoughts, I passed a whole 
night in the church of the Holy Sepulchre. I confessed in the 
afternoon, and afterwards joined the procession, which at four 
o'clock visits^ all the places rendered sacred by our Saviour's 
passion ; I carried a wax taper, the remains of which I afterwards 
took back with me into my native country, as a lasting memorial. 



116 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

This ceremony ended, the priests retired to their cells, and the 
few people who were present left the church. I alone stayed 
behind, as I intended to remain there all night. A solemn still- 
ness reigned throughout the church ; and now I was enabled to 
visit, uninterrupted and alone, all the sacred places, and to give 
myself wholly up to my meditations. Truly these were the most 
blissful hours of my life ; and he who has lived to enjoy such hours 
has lived long enough. 

A place near the organ was pointed out to me where I might 
enjoy a few hours of repose. An old Spanish woman, who lives 
like a nun, acts as guide to those who pass a night in the church. 

At midnight the different services begin. The Greeks and Ar- 
menians beat and hammer upon pendent plates or rods of metal ; 
the Roman Catholics play on the organ, and sing and pray aloud ; 
while the priests of other religions likewise sing and shout. A 
great and inharmonious din is thus caused. I must confess that 
this midnight mass did not produce upon me the effect I had anti- 
cipated. The constant noise and multifarious ceremonies are cal- 
culated rather to disconcert than to inspire the stranger. I much 
preferred the peace and repose that reigned around, after the 
service had concluded, to all the pomp and circumstance attend- 
ing it. 

Accompanied by my Spanish guide, I ascended to the Roman 
Catholics' choir, where prayers were said aloud from midnight until 
one o'clock. At four o'clock in the morning I heard several 
masses, and received the Eucharist. At eight o'clock the Turks 
opened the door at my request, and I went home. 

The few Roman Catholic priests who live in the church of the 
Holy Sepulchre stay there for three months at a time, to perform 
the services. During this time they are not allowed to quit the 
church or the convent for a single instant. After the three months 
have elapsed, they are reh'eved by other priests. 

On the 10th of June I was present at the ceremony of admission 
into the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. Counts Zichy, Wratislaw, 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 117 

and Salm Reifferscheit were, at their own request, installed as 
knights of the Sepulchre. The inauguration took place in the chapel. 

The chief priest having taken his seat on a chair of state, the 
candidate for knighthood knelt before him, and took the custom- 
ary oaths to defend the holy church, to protect widows and 
orphans, &c. During this time the priests who stood round said 
prayers. Now one of the spurs of Godfrey de Bouillon was fas- 
tened on the heel of the knight ; the sword of this hero was put 
into his hands, the sheath fastened to his side, and a cross with a 
heavy gold chain, that had also belonged to Godfrey de Bouillon, 
was put round his neck. Then the kneeling man received the 
stroke of knighthood on his head and shoulders, the priests em- 
braced the newly-elected knight, and the ceremony was over. 

A plentiful feast, given by the new- chosen knights, concluded 
the solemnity. 

Distant somewhat less than a mile from Jerusalem is the 
Mount of Olives. Emerging from St. Stephen's Gate, we pass the 
Turkish burial-ground, and reach the spot where. St. Stephen was 
stoned. Not far off we see the bed of the brook Cedron, which 
is at this season of the year completely dried up. A stone bridge 
leads across the brook ; adjoining it is a stone slab where they shew 
traces of the footsteps of the Saviour, as He was brought across 
this bridge from Gethsemane, and stumbled and fell. Crossing 
this bridge, we arrive at the grotto where Jesus sweat blood. 
This grotto still retains its original form. A plain wooden altar 
has been erected there, a few years since, by a Bavarian prince, 
and the entrance is closed by an iron gate. Not far off is Gethse- 
mane. Eight olive-trees are here to be seen that have attained a 
great age ; nowhere else had I seen these trees with such massive 
trunks, though I had frequently passed through whole plantations 
of olives. Those who are learned in natural history assert that 
the olive-tree cannot live to so great an age as to render it possible 
that these venerable trunks existed at the time when Jesus passed 
his last night at Gethsemane in prayer and supplication. As this 



118 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

tree, however, propagates itself, these trees may be sprouts from 
the ancient stems. The space around the roots has been strength- 
ened with masonry, to afford a support to these patriarchal trunks, 
and the eight trees are surrounded by a wall three or four feet in 
height. No layman may enter this spot unaccompanied by a priest, 
on pain of excommunication ; it is also forbidden to pluck a single 
leaf. The Turks also hold these trees in reverence, and would 
not injure one of them. 

Close by is the spot where the three disciples are said to have 
slept during the night of their Master's agony. We were shewn 
marks on two rocks, said to have been footsteps of these apostles ! 
The footsteps of the third disciple we could not discover. A little 
to one side is the place where Judas betrayed his Master. 

The little church containing the grave of the Virgin Mary 
stands near the " Grotto of Anguish." We descend by a broad 
marble flight of fifty steps to the tomb, which is also used as an 
.altar. About the middle of the staircase are two niches with 
altars ; within these are deposited the bones of the Virgin Mar/ s 
parents and of St. Joseph. This chapel belongs to the Greeks. 

From the foot of the Mount of Olives to its summit is a walk 
of three quarters of an hour. The whole mountain is desert and 
sterile ; nothing is found growing upon it but olives ; and from 
the summit of this mountain our Saviour ascended into heaven. 
The spot was once marked by a church, which was afterwards 
replaced by a mosque : even this building is now in ruins. Only 
twelve years ago a little chapel, of very humble appearance, was 
erected here ; it now stands hi the midst of old walls ; but here 
again a footprint of our Lord is shewn and reverenced. On this 
stone it is asserted that He stood before He was taken up into 
heaven. Not far off, we are shewn the place where the fig-tree 
grew that Jesus cursed, and the field where Judas hanged 
himself. 

One afternoon I visited many of these sites, in company with 
Count Berchtold. As we were climbing about the ruins near the 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 119 

mosque, a sturdy goatherd, armed with a formidable bludgeon, 
came before us, and demanded " backsheesh" (a gift, or an alms) 
in a very peremptory tone. Neither of us liked to take out our 
purse, for fear the insolent beggar should snatch it from our 
hands ; so we gave him nothing. Upon this he seized the Count 
by the arm, and shouted out something in Arabic which we could 
not understand, though we could guess pretty accurately what he 
meant. The Count disengaged his arm, and we proceeded almost 
to push and wrestle our way into the open field, which was luckily 
only a few paces off. By good fortune, also, several people 
appeared near us, upon seeing whom the fellow retired. This 
incident convinced us of the fact that Franks should not leave the 
city unattended. 

As the Mount of Olives is the highest point in the neighbour- 
hood of Jerusalem, it commands the best view of the town and its 
environs. The city is large, and lies spread over a considerable 
area. The number of inhabitants is estimated at 25,000. As in 
the remaining cities of Syria, the houses here are built of stone, 
and frequently adorned with round cupolas. Jerusalem is sur- 
rounded by a very lofty and well-preserved wall, the lower portion 
composed of such massive blocks of stone, that one might imagine 
these huge fragments date from the period of the city's capture by 
Titus. Of the mosques, that of Omar, with its lead- covered roof, 
has the best appearance ; it lies hi an immense courtyard, which 
is neatly kept. This mosque is said to occupy the site of Solo- 
mon's temple. 

From the Mount of Olives we can plainly distinguish all the 
convents, and the different quarters of the Catholics, Armenians, 
Jews, Greeks, &c. The " Mount of Offence" (so called on account 
of Solomon's idolatry) rises at the side of the Mount of Olives, 
and is of no great elevation. Of the temple, and the buildings 
which Solomon caused to be erected for his wives, but few frag- 
ments of walls remain. I had also been told that the Jordan 
and the Dead Sea might be seen from this mountain ; but I could 



120 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

distinguish neither, probably on account of a mist which obscured 
the horizon. 

At the foot of the Mount of Olives lies the valley of Jeho- 
saphat. The length of this valley does not certainly exceed three 
miles ; neither is it remarkable for its breadth. The brook Cedron 
intersects this valley ; but it only contains water during the rainy 
season ; at other tunes all trace of it is lost. 

The town of Jerusalem is rather bustling, particularly the 
poor-looking bazaar and the Jews' quarter ; the latter portion of 
the city is very densely populated, and exhales an odour offensive 
beyond description; and here the plague always seizes its first 
victims. 

The Greek convent is not only very handsome, but of great 
extent. Hither most of the pilgrims flock, at Easter-tune to the 
number of five or six thousand. Then they are all herded to- 
gether, and every place is crowded with occupants ; even the 
courtyard and terraces are full. Tin's convent is the richest of 
all, because every pilgrim received here has to pay an exorbitant 
price for the very worst accommodation. It is said that the 
poorest seldom escape for less than four hundred piastres. 

Handsomest of all is the Armenian convent ; standing in the 
midst of gardens, it has a most cheerful appearance. It is asserted 
to be built on the site where St. James was decapitated, an event 
commemorated by numerous pictures in the church ; but most of 
the pictures, both here and in the remaining churches, are bad 
beyond conception. Like the Greeks, the Armenian priests enjoy 
the reputation of thoroughly understanding how to make a harvest 
out of their visitors, whom they are said generally to send away 
with empty pockets. As an amends, however, they offer them a 
great quantity of spiritual food. 

In the valley of Jehosaphat we find many tombs of ancient 
and modern date. The most ancient among these tombs is that of 
Absolom ; a little temple of pieces of rock, but without an entrance. 
The second is the tomb of Zacharias, also hewn out of the rock, and 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 121 

divided within into two compartments. The third belongs to King 
Jehosaphat, and is small and unimportant ; one might almost call 
it a mere block of stone. There are many more tombs cut out of 
the rock. From this place we reach the Jewish burial-ground. 

The little village of Sila also lies in this valley. It is so 
humble, and all its houses (which are constructed of stone) are 
so small, that wandering continually among tombs, the traveller 
would rather take them to be ruined resting-places of the dead 
than habitations of the li ving. 

Opposite this village lies " Mary's Well," so called because the 
Virgin Mary fetched water here every day. The inhabitants of 
Siloam follow her example to this day. A little farther on is the 
pool of Siloam, where our Lord healed the man who was born 
blind. This pool is said to possess the remarkable property, that 
the water disappears and returns several times in the course of 
twenty-four hours. 

At the extremity of the valley of Jehosaphat a small hill rises 
like a keystone ; in this hill are several grottoes, formed either by 
nature or art, which also once served as sepulchres. They are 
called the " rock- graves." At present the greater portion of them 
are converted into stables, and are in so filthy a state that it is 
impossible to enter them. I peeped into one or two, and saw 
nothing but a cavern divided into two parts. At the summit of 
these rock-graves lies the "Field of Blood," bought by the priests 
for the thirty pieces of silver winch Judas cast down in the temple. 

In the neighbourhood of the Field of Blood rises the hill of 
Sion. Here, it is said, stood the house of Caiaphas the high-priest, 
whither our Lord was brought a prisoner. A little Armenian 
church now occupies the supposed site. The tomb of David, also 
situated on this hill, has been converted into a mosque, in which 
we are shewn the place where the Son of Man ate the last Pass- 
over with His disciples. 

The burial-grounds of the Roman Catholics, Armenians, and 
Greeks surround this hill. 



122 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

The " Hill of Bad Counsel," so called because it is said that 
here the judges determined to crucify Christ, rises in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Mount Sion. A few traces of the ruins of Caia- 
phas' house are yet visible. 

The " Grotto of Jeremiah" lies beyond the " Gate of Damas- 
cus," in front of which we found, near a cistern, an elaborately-sculp- 
tured sarcophagus, which is used as a water-trough. This grotto 
is larger than any I have yet mentioned. At the entrance stands 
a great stone, called Jeremiah's bed, because the prophet is said 
generally to have slept upon it. Two miles farther on we come 
to the'graves of the judges and the kings. We descend an open 
pit, three or four fathoms deep, forming the courtyard. This pit 
is a square about seventy feet long and as many wide. On one 
side of this open space we enter a large hall, its broad portal 
ornamented with beautiful sculpture, in the form of flowers, fruit, 
and arabesques. This hall leads to the graves, which run round 
it, and consist of niches hewn hi the rock, just sufficiently large 
to contain a sarcophagus. Most of these niches were choked up 
with rubbish, but into some we could still see; they were all 
exactly alike. These long, narrow, rock-hewn graves reminded 
me exactly of those I had seen in a vault at Gran, hi Hungary. 
I could almost have supposed the architect at Gran had taken the 
graves of the valley of Jehosaphat for his modeL 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 123 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Bethlehem Rachel's grave Convent at Bethlehem Beggars Grotto of 
the Nativity Solomon's cisterns St. John's Franciscan church at 
Jerusalem Mourning women Eastern weddings Mish-mish Excur- 
sion to the Jordan and the Dead Sea Wilderness near Jerusalem 
Convent of St. Saba. 

ON the 2d of June I rode, in the company of Counts Berchtold 
and Salm Reifferscheit and Pater Paul, to Bethlehem. Al- 
though, on account of the bad roads, we are obliged to ride nearly 
the whole distance at a foot-pace, it does not take more than an 
hour and a half to accomplish the journey. The view we enjoy 
during this excursion is as grand as it is peculiar. So far as the 
eye can reach, it rests upon stone ; the ground is entirely com- 
posed of stones ; and yet between the rocky interstices grow fruit- 
trees of all kinds, and grape-vines trail along, besides fields whose 
productions force their way upwards from the shingly soil. 

I had already wondered when I saw the " Karst," near Trieste, 
and the desert region of Gorz ; but these sink into insignificance 
when compared to the scenery of the Judean mountains. 

It is difficult to conceive how these regions can ever have 
been smiling and fertile. Doubtless they have appeared to better 
advantage than at the present period, when the poor inhabitants 
are ground to the bone by their pachas and officers ; but I do not 
think that meadows and woods can ever have existed here to any 
extent. 

On the way we pass a well, surrounded by blocks of stone. 
At this well the wise men from the East rested, and here the 
guiding star appeared to them. Midway between Jerusalem and 
Bethlehem lies the Greek convent dedicated to the prophet Elijah. 



124 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

From hence \ve can see both towns ; on the one hand, the spacious 
Jerusalem, and on the other, the humble Bethlehem, with some 
small villages scattered round it. On the right hand we pass 
" Rachel's grave," a ruined building with a small cupola. 

Bethlehem lies on a hill, surrounded by several others ; with 
the exception of the convent, it contains not a single handsome 
building. The inhabitants, half of whom are Catholics, muster 
about 2500 strong ; many live in grottoes and semi-subterranean 
domiciles, cutting out garlands and other devices in mother-of- 
pearl, &c. The number of houses does not exceed a hundred at 
the most, and the poverty here seems excessive, for nowhere 
have I been so much pestered with beggar children as in this 
town. Hardly has the stranger reached the convent-gates before 
these urchins are seen rapidly approaching from all quarters. One 
rushes forward to hold the horse, while a second grasps the stir- 
rup ; a third and a fourth present then: arm to help you to dis- 
mount ; and in the end the whole swarm unanimously stretch forth 
their hands for " backsheesh." In cases like these it is quite 
necessary to corne furnished either with a multiplicity of small 
coins or with a riding-whip, in order to be delivered in one way 
or another from the horrible importunity of the diminutive mob. 
It is very fortunate that the horses here are perfectly accustomed 
to such scenes ; were this not the case, they would take fright and 
gallop headlong away. 

The little convent and church are both situated near the town, 
and are built on the spot where the Saviour was born. The 
whole is surrounded by a strong fortress-wall, a very low, narrow 
gate forming the entrance. In front of this fortress extends a 
handsome well-paved area. So soon as we have passed through 
the little gate, we find ourselves in the courtyard, or rather in the 
nave of the church, which is unfortunately more than half de- 
stroyed, but must once have been eminent both for its size and 
beauty. Some traces of mosaic can still be detected on the walls. 
Two rows of high handsome pillars, forty-eight in number, intersect 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 125 

the interior ; and the beam-work, said to be of cedar-wood from 
Lebanon, looks almost new. Beneath the high altar of this great 
church is the grotto in which Christ was born. Two staircases 
lead downwards to it. One of the staircases belongs to the Ar- 
menians, the other to the Greeks ; the Catholics have none at all. 
Both the walls and the floor are covered with marble slabs. A 
marble tablet, with the inscription, 

" Hie DE VIBGINE MABIA JESUS CHBISTUS NATUS EST," 

marks the spot whence the true Light shone abroad over the world. 
A figure of a beaming sun, which receives its light from nume- 
rous lamps kept continually burning, is placed in the back-ground 
of this tablet. 

The spot where our Saviour was shewn to the worshipping 
Magi is but few paces distant. An altar is erected opposite, on 
the place where the manger stood in which the shepherds found 
our Lord. The manger itself is deposited in the basilica Santa 
Maria Maggiore, in Rome. This altar belongs to the Roman 
Cathoh'cs. A little door, quite in the back-ground of the grotto, 
leads to a subterranean passage communicating with the convent 
and the Catholic chapel. In this passage another altar has been 
erected to the memory of the innocents slaughtered and buried 
here. Proceeding along the passage we come upon the grave of 
St. Paula and her daughter Eustachia on one side, and that of 
St. Hieronymus on the other. The body of the latter is, however, 
deposited at Rome. 

Like the church of the Holy Sepulclire at Jerusalem, this great 
church at Bethlehem belongs at once to the Catholics, the Arme- 
nians, and the Greeks. Each of these sects has built for itself a 
little convent adjoining the church. 

After spending at least a couple of hours here, we rode two 
miles farther, towards Mount Hebron. At the foot of this moun- 
tain we turned off to the left towards the three cisterns of Solo- 
mon. These reservoirs are very wide and deep, hewn out of the 



126 TISET xo THE HOLY LAND, 

rock, and still partially covered with a kind of cement resembling 
marble in its consistency and polish. We descended into the third 
of these cisterns; it was about five hundred paces long, four hun- 
dred broad, and a hundred deep. 

Not one of these cisterns now contains water ; die aqueducts 
which once communicated with them have entirely vanished. A 
angle rivulet, across which one may easily step, flows beside these 
giant reservoirs. The region around is barren in the extreme. 

On returning to our convent at about two o'clock to par- 
take of our frugal but welcome meal, we were surprised to find 
that another party of travellers, Franks hike ourselves, had ar- 
rived. The new-comers proved to be Count Zichy and Count 
Wratislaw, who had travelled from Vienna to Cairo in company 
with Counts Berchtold and Salm Reifferscheit. At the last-men- 
tioned place the voyagers parted company, one party proceeding 
to Jerusalem by way of Alexandria, Damietta, and Joppa, while 
the other bent their course across the burning sands of Africa to- 
wards Mount Sinai, and thence continued their journey to Jeru- 
salem by land. Here at length they had die pleasure of meeting 
once more. A great and general rejoicing, in which we all joined, 
was the consequence of this event. 

After dinner we once more visited all the holy places in com- 
pany of the new-comers ; we afterwards went to the so-called 
' Milk Grotto," distant about half a mile from our convent. In 
this grotto there is nothing to be seen but a simple altar, before 
which lights are continually burning. It is not locked, and every 
passer-by is at liberty to enter. This place is held sacred not 
only by the Christians, but also by the Turks, who bring many a 
cruise of oil to nil the lamps after they have cleaned them. In 
this grotto the Holy Family concealed themselves before the 
flight into Egypt, and the Virgin for a long time nourished the 
infant Jesus with her milk, from which circumstance die grotto 
derives its name. The women in die neighbourhood believe 
that if diey feel unwell during die time diey are nursing dieir 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 127 

children, they have merely to scrape some of the sand from the 
rocks in this grotto, and to take it as a powder, to regain their 
health. 

Half a mile from this grotto we were shewn the field in which 
the angel appeared to announce the birth of the Redeemerjto the 
shepherds. But our newly-arrived friends were not able to visit 
this spot, They were fain to content themselves with a distant 
view, as it was high time to think of our return. 

ST. JOHN'S. 

On the 4th of June I rode out, accompanied by a guide, to 
the birth-place of St. John the Baptist, distant about four miles 
from Jerusalem. The way to this convent lies through the Beth- 
lehem Gate, opposite the convent of the " Holy Cross," a building 
supposed to stand on the site where the wood was felled^for our 
Saviour's cross ! Not far off, the place was pointed out to^ me 
where a battle was fought between the Israelites and the Philis- 
tines, and where David slew Goliath. 

Situated in a rocky valley, the convent of St. John is, like all 
the monasteries in these lands, surrounded by very strong walls. 
The church of the convent is erected on the spot where the house 
of Zacharias once stood, and a chapel commemorates the'place 
where St. John first beheld the light. The ascent to this chapel 
is by a staircase, where a round tablet of stone bears the in- 
scription, 

" Hie PRECURSOR DOMINI CHRISTI NATUS EST." 

Many events of the prophet's life are here portrayed by sculptures 
in white marble. 

About a mile from the convent we find the " Grotto of Visita- 
tion," where St. Mary met St. Elizabeth. The remains of the 
latter are interred here. 

On the very first day of my arrival at Jerusalem I had made 
some observations, during a visit to the church of St. Francis, 



128 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

which gave me any thing but a high opinion of the behaviour of 
the Catholics here. This unfavourable impression was confirmed 
by subsequent visits to the church, so that at length I felt obliged 
to tell Father Paul that I would rather pray at home than among 
people who seemed to attend to any thing rather than their devo- 
tions. My FranMsh costume seemed to be such a stumbling- 
block in the eyes of these people, that at length a priest came to 
me, and requested that I would make an alteration in my dress, 
or at any rate exchange my straw hat for a veil, in which I could 
muffle my head and face. I promised to discard the obnoxious 
hat and to wear a handkerchief round my head when I attended 
church, but refused to muffle my face, and begged the reverend 
gentleman to inform my fellow-worshippers that this was the first 
tune such a thing had been required of a Frankish woman, and 
that I thought they would be more profitably employed in looking 
at their prayer-books than at me, for that He whom we go to 
church to adore is not a respecter of outward things. In spite of 
this remonstrance, their behaviour remained the same, so that I 
was compelled almost to discontinue attending public worship. 

On great festival -days the high altar of the church of St. 
Francis is very profusely decorated. It is, in fact, almost over- 
loaded with ornament, and sparkles and glitters with a most daz- 
zling brilliancy. Innumerable candles display the lustre of gold 
and precious stones. Foremost among the costly ornaments ap- 
pear a huge gold monstrance presented by the king of Naples, and 
two splendid candelabra, a gift of the imperial house of Austria. 

I happened one day to pass a house, from within which a 
great screaming was to be heard. On inquiring of my companion 
what was the matter, I was informed that some person had died 
in that house the day before, and that the sound I heard was the 
wail of the " mourning women."' I requested admission to the 
room where the deceased lay. Had it not been for the circum- 
stance that a few pictures of saints and a crucifix decorated the 
walls, I could never have imagined that the dead man was a Ga- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 129 

tholic. Several " mourning women" sat near the corpse, uttering 
every now and then such frantic yells, that the neighbourhood 
rang with their din. In the intervals between these demonstra- 
tions they sat comfortably regaling themselves with coffee ; after 
a little time they would again raise their horrible cry. I had seen 
enough to feel excessively disgusted, and so went away. 

I was also fortunate enough to visit a newly-married pair. 
The bride was gorgeously dressed hi a silk under-garment, wide 
trousers of peach- blossom satin, and a caftan of the same material ; 
a rich shawl encircled her waist, and on her feet she wore boots 
of yellow morocco leather; the slippers had been left, according 
to the Turkish fashion, at the entrance of the chamber. An orna- 
mental head-dress of rich gold brocade and fresh flowers completed 
the bride's attire ; her hair, arranged in a number of thin plaits 
and decorated with coins, fell down upon her shoulders, and on 
her neck glittered several rows of ducats and larger gold pieces. 

Costumes of this kind are only seen in the family circle, and 
on the occasion of some great event. Seldom or never are strange 
men allowed to behold the ladies in their gorgeous apparel ; so that 
it is fruitless to expect to see picturesque female costumes in the 
public places of the East. 

After the marriage ceremony, which is always performed 
during the forenoon, the young wife is compelled to sit for the 
remainder of the day in a corner of the room with her face turned 
towards the wall. She is not allowed to answer any question put 
by her husband, her parents, or by any one whatever ; still less is 
she permitted to offer a remark herself. This silence is intended 
to typify the bride's sorrow at changing her condition. 

During my visit, the bridegroom sat next to bis bride, vainly 
endeavouring to lure a few words from her. On my rising to 
depart, the young wife inclined her head towards me, but without 
raising her eyes from the ground. 

In Jerusalem, almost all the women" andfgirls wear veils when 
they go abroad. It was only in church, and in their own houses, 

i 



130 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

that I had an opportunity of Mrly seeing these houris. Among 
the girls I iound many an interesting head ; but the women who 
hare attained the age of twenty-six or twenty-eight years already 
look worn and ugly ; so that here, as in all tropical countries, we 
behold a great number of very plain faces, among which handsome 
ones shine forth at long intervals, like meteors. Thin people are 
rarely met with in Syria ; on the contrary, even the young girls 
are frequently decidedly stout. 

Not far from the bazaar is a great hall, wherein the Turks 
hold their judicial sittings, decide disputes, and pass sentence on 
criminals. Some ordinary-looking divans are placed round the 
interior of this hall, and in one corner a wooden cell, about ten 
feet long, six wide, and eight feet high, has been erected. This 
ceD, furnished with a little door, and a grated hole by way of win- 
dow, is intended for the reception of the criminal during his period 
of punishment. 

Throughout the thirteen days I passed at Jerusalem, I did not 
find the heat excessive. The thermometer generally stood in the 
shade at from 20 to 22, and in the sun at 28 (Reaum.), very 
sddom reaching 30. 

Fruit I saw none, with the exception of the little apricots called 
mish-mish, which are not larger than a walnut, but nevertheless 
have a very fine flavour. It is a pity that the inhabitants of these 
countries contribute absolutely nothing towards the cultivation and 
improvement of their natural productions ; if they would but exert 
themselves, many a plant would doubtless flourish luxuriantly. But 
here thejpeople'do not even know how to turn those gifts to ad- 
vantage which nature has bestowed upon them hi rich profusion, 
and of superior quality; for instance, olives. Worse oil can hardly 
be procured than that which they give you in Syria. The Syrian 
oil and olives can scarcely be used by Europeans. The oil is of a 
perfectly green colour, thick, and disgusting alike to the smell and 
taste ; the olives are generally bkck, a consequence of the negli- 
gent manner hi which they are prepared. The same remark holds 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 131 

good with regard to the wine, which would be of excellent quality 
if the people did but understand the proper method of preparing it, 
and of cultivating the vineyards. At present, however, they adul- 
terate their wine with a kind of herb, which gives it a very sharp 
and disagreeable taste. 

On the whole, the neighbourhood of Jerusalem is very deso- 
late, barren, and sterile. I found the town itself neither more nor 
less animated than most Syrian cities. I should depart from truth 
if I were to say, with many travellers, that it appeared as though 
a peculiar curse rested upon this city. The whole of Judea is a 
stony country, and this region contains many places with environs 
as rugged and barren as those of Jerusalem. 

Birds and butterflies are rarely seen at the present season of 
the year, not only in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, but through- 
out the whole of Syria. Where, indeed, could a butterfly or a bee 
find nourishment, while not a flower nor a blade of grass shoots 
up from the stony earth ? And a bird cannot li ve where there are 
neither seeds nor insects, but must soar away across the seas to 
cooler and more fertile climes. Not only here, but throughout the 
whole of Syria, I missed the delightful minstrels of the air. The 
sparrow alone can find sustenance every where, for he lives in 
towns and villages, wherever man is seen. A whole flock of these 
little twittering birds woke me every morning. 

I was as yet much less troubled by insects than I had anti- 
cipated. With the exception of the small flies on the plain of 
Sharon, and of certain little sable jumpers which seem naturalised 
throughout the whole world, I could not complain of having been 
annoyed by any creature. 

Our common house-flies I saw every where ; but they were not 
more numerous or more troublesome than in Germany. 

EXCUESION TO THE EIVEE JORDAN AND TO THE DEAD SEA. 

To travel with any degree of security in Palestine, Phoenicia, 
&c., it is necessary to go in large companies, and in some places it 



132 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

even becomes advisable to have an escort. The stranger should 
further be provided with cooMng utensils, provisions, tents, and 
servants. To provide all these things would have been a hope- 
less task for me ; I had therefore resolved to return from Jerusa- 
lem as I had come, namely, via Joppa, and so to proceed to Alex- 
andria or Beyrout, when, luckily for me, the gentlemen whom I 
have already mentioned arrived at Jerusalem. They intended 
making several excursions by land, and the first of these was to 
be a trip to the banks of the Jordan and to the Dead Sea. 

I ardently wished to visit these places, and therefore begged 
the gentlemen, through Father Paul, to permit my accompanying 
them on their arduous journey. The gentlemen were of opinion 
that their proposed tour would be too fatiguing for one of my sex, 
and seemed disinclined to accede to my request. But then Count 
Wratislaw took my part, and said that he had watched me during ' 
our ride from Bethlehem to Jerusalem, and had noticed that I 
wanted neither courage, skill, nor endurance, so that they might 
safely take me with them. Father Paul immediately came to me 
with the joyful intelligence that I was to go, and that I had nothing 
to do but to provide myself with a horse. He particularly men- 
tioned how kindly Count Wratislaw, to whom I still feel obliged, 
had interested himself in my behalf. 

The journey to the Jordan and the Dead Sea should never be 
undertaken by a small party. The best and safest course is to 
send for some Arab or Bedouin chiefs, either at Jerusalem or Beth- 
lehem, and to make a contract with them for protection. In con- 
sideration of a certain tribute, these chiefs accompany you hi person, 
with some of their tribe, to your place of destination and back 
again. The Counts paid the two chiefe three hundred piastres, 
with the travelling expenses for themselves and their twelve 
men. 

At three o'clock in the afternoon of the 7th of June our caval- 
cade started. The caravan consisted of the four counts, Mr. Bart- 
lett, a certain Baron Wrede, two doctors, and myself, besides five 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 133 

or six servants, and the two chiefs with the body-guard of twelve 
Arabs. All were strongly armed with guns, pistols, swords, and 
lances, and we really looked as though we sallied forth with the 
intention of having a sharp skirmish. 

Our way lay through the Via Dolorosa, and through St. 
Stephen's Gate, past the Mount of Olives, over hill and dale. 
Every where the scene was alike barren. At first we still saw 
many fruit-trees and olive-trees in bloom, and even vines, but of 
flowers or grass there was not a trace ;' the trees, however, stood 
green and fresh, hi spite of the heat of the atmosphere and the 
total lack of rain. This luxuriance may partly be owing to the 
coolness and dampness which reigns during the night in tropical 
countries, quickening and renewing the whole face of nature. 

The goal of our journey for to-day lay about eight miles dis- 
tant from Jerusalem. It was the Greek convent of " St. Saba in 
the Waste." The appellation already indicates that the region 
around becomes more and more sterile, until at length not a single 
tree or shrub can be detected. Throughout the whole expanse 
not the lowliest human habitation was to be seen. We only 
passed a horde of Bedouins, who had erected their sooty-black 
tents in the dry bed of a river. A few goats, horses, and asses 
climbed about the declivities, laboriously searching for herbs or 
roots. 

About half an hour before we reach the convent we enter 
upon the wilderness hi which our Saviour fasted forty days, and 
was afterwards " tempted of the devil." Vegetation here entirely 
ceases ; not a shrub nor a root appears ; and the bed of the brook 
Cedron is completely dry. This river only flows during the rainy 
season, at which period it runs through a deep ravine. Majestic 
rocky terraces, piled one above the other by nature with such 
exquisite symmetry that the beholder gazes in silent wonder, 
overhang both banks of the stream in the form of galleries. 

A silence of death brooded over the whole landscape, broken 
only by the footfalls of our horses echoing sullenly from the 



134 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

rocks, among which the poor animals struggled heavily forward. 
At intervals some little hirds fluttered above our heads, silently 
End fearfully, as though they had lost their way. At length we 
turn sharply round an angle of the road, and what a surprise 
awaits us ! A large handsome building, surrounded by a very 
strong fortified wall, pierced for cannon in several places, lies 
spread before us near the bed of the river, and rises in the form 
of terraces towards the brow of the hill. From the position we 
occupied, we could see over the whole extent of wall from with- 
out and from within. Fortified as it was, it lay open before our 
gaze. Several buildings, and in front of all a church with a 
small cupola, told us plainly that St. Saba lay stretched below. 

On the farther bank, seven or eight hundred paces from the 
convent, rose a single square tower, apparently of great strength. 
I little thought that I should soon become much better acquainted 
with this isolated building. 

The priests had observed our procession winding down the 
Trill, and at the first knocking the gate was opened. Masters, 
sen-ants, Arabs, and Bedouins, all passed through ; but when my 
turn came, the cry was, " Shut the gate !" and I was shut out, 
with the prospect of passing the night in the open air, a thing 
which would have been rather disagreeable, considering how 
unsafe the neighbourhood was. At length, however, a lay bro- 
ther appeared, and, pointing to the tower, gave me to understand 
that I should be lodged there. He procured a ladder from the 
convent, and went with me to the tower, where we mounted by 
its aid to a little low doorway of iron. My conductor pushed 
this open, and we crept in. The interior of the tower seemed 
spacious enough. A wooden staircase led us farther upwards to 
two tiny rooms, situated about the centre of the tower. One 
of these apartments, dimly lighted by the rays of a lamp, con- 
tained a small altar, and served as a chapel, while the second was 
used as a sleeping-room for female pilgrims. A wooden divan 
was the only piece of furniture this room contained. My con- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 135 

ductor now took his leave, promising to return in a short time 
with some provisions, a bolster, and a coverlet for me. 

So now I was at least sheltered for the night, and guarded 
like a captive princess by bolt and bar. I eould not even have 
fled had I wished to do so, for my leader had locked the creaking 
door behind him, and taken away the ladder. After carefully 
examining the chapel and my neatly -fiirnished apartment hi this 
dreary prison-house, I mounted the staircase, and gained the sum- 
mit of the tower. Here I had a splendid view of the country 
round about, my elevated position enabling me distinctly to trace 
the greater part of the desert, with its several rows of hills and 
mountains skirting the horizon. All these lulls were alike barren 
and naked ; not a tree nor a shrub, not a human habitation, could 
I discover. Silence lay heavily on every thing around, and it 
seemed to me almost as though no earth might here nourish a 
green tree, but that the place was ordained to remain a desert, as 
a lasting memorial of our Saviour's fasting. Unheeded by human 
eye, the sun sank beneath the mountains ; I was, perhaps, the 
only mortal here who was watching its beautiful declining tints. 
Deeply moved by the scene around me, I fell on my knees, to 
offer up my prayers and praise to the Almighty, here in the 
rugged grandeur of the desert. 

But I had only to turn away from the death-like silence, and 
to cast my eye towards the convent as it lay spread out before 
me, to view once more the bustle and turmoil of life. In the 
courtyard the Bedouins and Arabs were employed in ministering 
to the wants of then: horses, bringing them water and food ; be- 
yond these a group of men was seen spreading mats on the ground, 
while others, with their faces bowed to the earth, were adoring, 
with other forms of prayer, the Omnipotent Spirit whose protec- 
tion I had so lately invoked ; others, again, were waslung their 
hands and feet as a preparation for offering up their worship; 
priests and lay brethren passed hastily across the courtyard, 
busied in preparations for entertaining and lodging the numerous 



13G VISIT TO THE HOLY 

guests ; while some of my fellow-travellers stood apart, in earnest 
conversation, and Mr. B. and Count Salm ReifFerscheit reclined 
in a quiet spot and made sketches of the convent. Had a painter 
been standing on my tower, what a picture of the building might 
he not have drawn as the wild Arab and the thievish Bedouin 
leant quietly beside the peaceful priest and the curious European ! 
Many a pleasant recollection of this evening have I borne away 
with me. 

I was very unwilling to leave the battlements of the tower ; 
but the increasing darkness at length drove me back into my 
chamber. Shortly afterwards a priest and a lay brother appeared, 
and with them Mr. Bartlett. The priest's errand was to bring 
me my supper and bedding, and my English fellow-traveller had 
kindly come to inquire if I would have a few servants as a guard, 
as it must be rather a dreary thing to pass a night quite alone in 
that solitary tower. I was much flattered by Mr. Bartletf s polite- 
ness to a total stranger, but, summoning all my courage, replied 
that I was not in the least afraid. Thereupon they all took their 
leave ; I heard the door creak, the bolt was drawn, and the ladder 
removed, and I was left to my meditations for the night. 

After a good nighf s rest, I rose with the sun, and had beat 
waiting some time before my warder appeared with the coffee for 
my breakfast. He afterwards accompanied me to the convent 
gate, where my companions greeted me with high praises ; some of 
them even confessed that they would not like to pass a solitary 
night as I had done. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 137 



CHAPTER IX. 

Hide through the wilderness to the Dead Sea The Dead Sea The river 
Jordan Horde of Bedouins Arab horses The Sultan's well Bivouac 
in the open air Return to Jerusalem Bethany Departure from 
Jerusalem Jacob's grave Nablus or Sichem Sebasta Costume of 
Samaritan women Plain of Esdralon Sagun. 

June 8th. 

AT five o'clock in the morning we departed, and bent our course 
towards the Dead Sea. After a ride of two hours we could 
see it, apparently at such a short distance, that we thought half 
an hour at the most would hring us there. But the road wound 
betwixt the mountains, sometimes ascending, sometimes descend- 
ing, so that it took us another two hours to reach the shore of the 
lake. All around us was sand. The rocks seem pulverised ; we 
ride through a labyrinth of monotonous sand-heaps and sand-hills, 
behind which the robber- tribes of Arabs and Bedouins frequently 
lurk, making this part of the journey exceedingly unsafe. 

Before we reach the shore, we ride across a plain consisting, 
like the rest, of deep sand, so that the horses sink to the fetlocks 
at every step. On the whole of our way we had not met with a 
single human being, with the exception of the horde of Bedouins 
whom we had found encamped hi the river-bed : this was a fortu- 
nate circumstance for us, for the people whom the traveller meets . 
during these journeys are generally unable to resist the temptation 
of seizing upon his goods, so that broken bones are frequently the 
result of such meetings. 

The day was very hot (33 Reaum). We encamped in the 
hot sand on the shore, under the shelter of our parasols, and made 
our breakfast of hard-boiled eggs, a piece of bad bread, and some 
lukewarm water. I tasted the sea-water, and found it much more 



138 VISIT TO THE HOLT LAND, 

bitter, salt, and pungent than any I have met with elsewhere. 
We all dipped our hands into the lake, and afterwards suffered 
the heat of the air to dry them without having first rinsed them 
with fresh water ; not one of us had to complain that this hrought 
forth an itching or an eruption on our hands, as many travellers 
liave asserted. The temperature of the water was 33 Reaum. ; in 
colour it is a pale green. Near the shore the water is to a cer- 
tain extent transparent ; but as it deepens it seems turbid, and the 
eye can no longer pierce the surface. We could not even see far 
across the water, for a light mist seemed to rest upon it, thus pre- 
venting us from forming a good estimate of its breadth. 

To judge from what we could distinguish, however, the Dead 
Sea does not appear to be very broad ; it may rather be termed an 
oblong lake, shut in by mountains, than a sea. Not the slightest 
sign of life can be detected in the water ; not a ripple disturbs its 
sleeping surface. A boat of any kind is of course quite out of the 
question. Some years since, however, an Englishman made an 
attempt to navigate this lake ; for this purpose he caused a boat to 
be built, but did not progress far in his undertaking, a sickness 
came upon him, he-was carried to Jerusalem, and died soon after 
he had made the experiment. It is rather a remarkable fact that, 
up to the present moment, no Englishman has been found who was 
sufficiently weary of his life to imitate his countryman's attempt. 

Stunted fragments of drift-wood, most probably driven to shore 
by tempests, lay scattered every where around. We could, how- 
ever, discover no fields of salt ; neither did we see smoke rising, or 
find the exhalations from the sea unpleasant. These phenomena, 
are perhaps observed at a different season of the year to fiat in 
which I visited the Dead Sea. On the other hand, I saw not 
only separate birds, but sometimes even flights of twelve or fifteen. 
Vegetation also existed here to a certain extent. Not far from the 
shore, I noticed, in a little ravine, a group of eight acicular-leaved 
trees. On tins plain there were also some wild shrubs bearing 
capers, and a description of tafl shrub, not unlike our bramble, 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 139 

bearing a plentiful crop of red berries, very juicy and sweet. We 
all ate largely of them ; and I was the more surprised at find- 
ing these plants here, as I bad found it uniformly stated that 
animal and vegetable life was wholly extinct on the shores of the 
Dead Sea. 

Five cities, of which not a trace now remains, once lay in the 
plain now filled by this sea their names were Sodom, Gomorrah, 
Adama, Zeboin, and Zona. A feeling of painful emotion, mingled 
with awe, took possession of my soul as I thought of the past, and 
saw how the works of proud and mighty nations had vanished 
away, leaving behind them only a name and a memory. It was 
a relief to me when we prepared, after an hour's rest, to quit this 
scene of dreary desolation. 

For about an hour and a half we rode through an enormous 
waste covered with trailing weeds, towards the verdant banks of 
the Jordan, which are known from a distance by the beautiful 
blooming green of the meadows that surround it. We halted in 
the so-called " Jordan- vale," where our Saviour was baptised by 
St. John. 

The water of the Jordan is of a dingy clay-colour ; its course 
is very rapid. The breadth of this stream can scarcely exceed 
twenty-five feet, but its depth is said to be considerable. The 
moment our Arab companions reached the bank, they flung them- 
selves, heated as they were, into the river. Most of the gentle- 
men followed their example, but less precipitately. I was fain to 
be content with washing my face, hands, and feet. We all drank 
to our hearts' content, for it was long since we had obtained water 
so cool and fresh. I filled several tin bottles, which I had brought 
with me for this purpose from Jerusalem, with water from the 
Jordan, and had them soldered down on my return to the Holy 
City. This is the only method with which I am acquainted for 
conveying -water to the farthest countries without its turning putrid. 

We halted for a few hours beneath the shady trees, and then 
pursued our journey across the plain. Suddenly a disturbance 



140 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

arose among our Arab protectors ; they spoke very anxiously with 
one another, and continually pointed to some distant object. On 
inquiring the reason why they were so disturbed, we were told 
that they saw robbers. We strained our eyes in vain ; even with 
the help of good spy -glasses we could discover nothing, and already 
began to suspect our escort of having cried " wolf" without reason, 
or merely to convince us that we had not taken them with us for 
nothing. But in about a quarter of an hour we could dimly dis- 
cern figures emerging, one by one, from the far, far distance. Our 
Bedouins prepared for the combat, and advised us to take the 
opposite road while they advanced to encounter the enemy. But 
all the gentlemen wished to take part in the expedition, and joined 
the Bedouins, lusting for battle. The whole cavalcade rode off 
at a rapid pace, leaving Count Berchtold and myself behind. But 
when our steeds saw their companions galloping off in such fiery 
style, they scorned to remain idly behind, and without consulting 
our inclinations in the least, they ran of at a pace which fairly 
took away our breath. The more we attempted to restrain their 
headlong course, the more rapidly did they pursue their career, 
so that there appeared every prospect of our becoming the first, 
instead of the last, among the company. But when the enemy 
saw such a determined troop advancing to oppose them, they 
hurried off without awaiting our onset, and left us masters of the 
field. So we returned in triumph to our old course ; when suddenly 
a wild boar, with its hopeful family, rushed across our path. Away 
we all went in chase of the poor animals. Count Wratislaw suc- 
ceeded in cutting down one of the young ones with his sabre, and 
it was solemnly delivered up to the cook. No further obstacles 
opposed themselves to our march, and we reached our resting- 
place for the night without adventure of any kind. 

On this occasion I had an opportunity of seeing how the Arabs 
can manage their horses, and how they can throw their spears and 
lances in full career, and pick up the lances as they fly by. The 
horses, too, appear quite different to when they are travelling at 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 141 

their usual sleepy pace. At first sight these horses look any thing 
but handsome. They are thin, and generally walk at a slow pace, 
with their heads hanging down. But when skilful riders mount 
these creatures, they appear as if transformed. Lifting their small 
graceful heads with the fiery eyes, they throw out their slender 
feet with matchless swiftness, and bound away over stock and 
stone with a step so light and yet so secure that accidents very 
rarely occur. It is quite a treat to see the Arabs exercise. Those 
who escorted us good-naturedly went through several of their 
manoeuvres for our amusement. 

From the valley of the Jordan to the " Sultan's Well," in the 
vale of Jericho, is a distance of about six miles. The road winds, 
from the commencement of the valley, through a beautiful natural 
park of fig-trees and other fruit-trees. Here, too, was the first 
spot where the eye was gladdened by the sight of a piece of grass, 
instead of sand and shingle. Such a change is doubly grateful to 
one who has been travelling so long through the barren, sandy 
deserfc 

The village lying beside the Sultan's Well looks most deplor- 
able. The inhabitants seem rather to live under than above the 
ground. I went into a few of these hollows. I do not know how 
else to designate these little stoneheap-houses. Many of them are 
entirely destitute of windows, the light finding its way through the 
hole left for an entrance. The interiors contained only straw-mats 
and a few dirty mattresses, not stuffed with feathers, but with 
leaves of trees. All the domestic utensils are comprised in a few 
trenchers and water-jugs : the poor people were clothed in rags. 
In one corner some grain and a number of cucumbers were stored 
up. A few sheep and goats were roaming about in the open air. 
A field of cucumbers lies in front of every house. Our Bedouins 
were in high glee at finding this valuable vegetable in such abund- 
ance. We encamped beside the well, under the vault of heaven. 

From the appearance of the valley in its present state, it is 
easy to conclude, in spite of the poverty of the inhabitants and the 



142 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

air of desolation spread over the farther landscape, that it must 
once have been very blooming and fertile. 

On the right, the naked mountains extend in the direction of 
the Dead Sea ; on the left rises the hill on which Moses completed 
his earthly career, and from which his great spirit fled to a better 
world. On the face of the mountain three caves are visible, and 
in the centre one we were told the Saviour had dwelt during his 
preparation in the wilderness before undertaking his mission of a 
teacher. High above these caves towers the summit of the rock 
from which Satan promised to give our Lord the sovereignty of all 
the earth if He would fall down and worship him 

Baron Wrede, Mr. Bartlett, and myself were desirous of seeing 
the interior of one of these caves, and started with this intention ; 
but no sooner did one of our Bedouins perceive what we were 
about, than he came running up in hot haste to assure us that the 
whole neighbourhood was unsafe. We therefore turned back, the 
more willingly as the twilight, or rather sunset, was already ap- 
proaching. 

Twilight in these latitudes is of very short duration. At sun- 
rise the shades of night are changed into the blaze of day as sud- 
denly as the daylight vanishes into night. 

Our supper consisted of rather a smoky pilau, which we never- 
theless relished exceedingly ; for people who have eaten nothing 
throughout the day but a couple of hard-boiled eggs are seldom 
fastidious about their fare at night. Besides, we had now beauti- 
ful fresh water from the spring, and cucumbers in abundance, 
though without vinegar or oil. But to what purpose would the 
unnatural mixture have been ? Whoever wishes to travel should 
first strive to disencumber himself of what is artificial, and then he 
will .get on capitally. The ground was our bed, and the dark blue 
ether, with its myriads of stars, our canopy. On this journey we 
had not taken a tent with us. 

The aspect of the heavens is most beautiful here in Syria. By 
day^the whole firmament is of a clear azure not a cloud sullies 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 143 

its perfect brightness ; and at night it seems spangled with a far 
greater numher of stars than in our northern climes. 

Count Zichy ordered the servants to call us betimes in the 
morning, in order that we might set out before sunrise. For once 
the servants obeyed; in fact they more than obeyed, for they 
roused us before midnight, and we began our march. So long as 
we kept to the plain, all went well ; but whenever we were obliged 
to climb a mountain, one horse after another began to stumble and 
to stagger, so that we were in continual danger of falling. Under 
these circumstances it was unauimously resolved that we should 
halt beneath^ the next declivity, and there await the coming day- 
light. 

June 9th. 

At four o'clock the reveille was beaten for the second time. 
We had now slept for three hours in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the Dead Sea, a circumstance of which we were not aware until 
daybreak : not one of our party had noticed any noxious exhala- 
tion arising from the water ; still less had we been seized with 
headache or nausea, an effect stated by several travellers to be 
produced by the smell of the Dead Sea. 

Our journey homewards now progressed rapidly, though for 
three or four hours we were obliged to travel over most formidable 
mountain-roads and through crooked ravines. In one of the val- 
leys we again came upon a Bedouin's camp. We rode up to the 
tents and asked for a draught of water, instead of which these 
people very kindly gave us some dishes of excellent buttermilk. 
In all my life I never partook of any thing with so keen a relish 
as that with which I drank this cooling beverage after my fatiguing 
ride in the ^burning heat. Count Zichy offered our entertainers 
some money, but they would not take it. The chief stepped for- 
ward and shook several of us by the hand in token of friendship ; 
for from the moment when a stranger has broken bread with 
Bedouins or Arabs, or has applied to them for protection, he is 
fe among "their tribe, but they would defend him with 



144 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

life and limb from the attacks of Ms enemies. Still it is not ad- 
visable to meet them on the open plain ; so contradictory are their 
manners and customs. 

We were now advancing with great strides towards a more 
animated, if not a more picturesque landscape, and frequently met 
and overtook small caravans. One of these had been attacked the 
previous evening ; the poor Arabs had offered a brave resistance, 
and had beaten off the foe ; but one of them was lying half dead 
upon his camel, with a ghastly shot- wound hi his head. 

Nimble long-eared goats were diligently searching among the 
rocks for their scanty food, and a few grottoes or huts of stone 
announced to us the proximity of a little town or village. Eight 
thankful were we to emerge safely from these fearful deserts into 
a less sterile and more populous region. 

We passed through Bethany, and I visited the cave hi which 
it is said that Lazarus slumbered before he came forth alive at 
f the voice of the Redeemer. Then we journeyed on to Jerusalem 
by the same road on which the Saviour travelled when the Jewish 
people shewed their attachment and respect, for the last time, by 
strewing olive and palm branches in his way. How soon was 
this scene of holy rejoicing changed to the ghastly spectacle of the 
Redeemer's torture and death ! 

Towards two o'clock in the afternoon we arrived safely at 
Jerusalem, and were greeted with a hearty welcome by our kind 
hosts. 

A few days after my return from the foregoing excursion, I 
left Jerusalem for ever. A calm and peaceful feeling of happiness 
filled my breast ; and ever shall I be thankful to the Almighty 
that He has vouchsafed me to behold these realms. Is this hap- 
piness dearly purchased by the dangers, fatigues, and privations 
attendant upon it ? Surely not And what, indeed, are all the 
ills that chequer our existence here below to the woes endured by 
the blessed Founder of our religion ! The remembrance of these 
holy places, and of Him who lived and suffered here, shall surely 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 145 

strengthen and console me wherever I may be and whatever I 
may be called upon to endure. 



FROM JERUSALEM TO BEYROUT. 

My gentleman-protectors wished to journey from Jerusalem 
to Beyrout by land, and intended taking a circuitous route, by 
way of Nazareth, Galilee, Canaan, &c., in order to visit as many 
of these places as possible, which are fraught with such interest 
to us Christians. They were once more kind enough to admit 
me into their party, and the llth of June was fixed for our 
departure. 

June lltli. 

Quitting Jerusalem at three o'clock in the afternoon, we 
emerged from the Damascus Gate, and entered a large elevated 
plateau. Though this region is essentially a stony one, I saw 
several stubble-fields, and even a few scanty blades of grass. 

The view is very extended ; at a distance of four miles the 
walls of Jerusalem were still in view, till at length the road curved 
round a lull, and the Holy City was for ever hidden from our 
sight. 

On the left of the road, an old church, said to have been 
erected in the days of Samuel, stands upon a hill. 

At six in the evening we reached the little village of Bir, and 
fixed our halting-place for the night in a neighbouring stubble-field. 
During my first journey by land (I mean my ride from Joppa to 
Jerusalem), I had already had a slight foretaste of what is to be 
endured by the traveller in these regions. Whoever is not very 
hardy and courageous, and insensible to hunger, thirst, heat, and 
cold ; whoever cannot sleep on the hard ground, or even on stones, 
passing the cold nights under the open sky, should not pursue his 
journey farther than from Joppa to Jerusalem : for, as we proceed, 
the fatigues become greater and less endurable, and the roads are 
more formidable to encounter; besides this, the food is so bad 

K 



146 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

that we only eat from fear of starvation ; and the only water we 
can get to drink is lukewarm, and offensive from the leathern jars 
in which it is kept. 

We usually rode for six or seven hours at a time without 
alighting even for a moment, though the thermometer frequently 
stood at from 30 to 34 Reaumur. Afterwards we rested for 
an hour at the most; and this halt was often made in the 
open plain, where not a tree was in sight. Refreshment was out 
of the question, either for the riders or the poor beasts, and fre- 
quently we had not even water to quench our burning thirst. 
The horses were compelled to labour unceasingly from sunrise 
until evening, without even receiving a feed during the day's 
journey. The Arabian horse is the only one capable of enduring 
so much hardship. In the evening these poor creatures are re- 
lieved of their burdens, but very seldom of the saddle; for the 
Arabs assert that it is less dangerous for the horse to bear the 
saddle day and night, than that it should be exposed when heated 
by the day's toil to the cold night-air. Bridles, saddles, and stir- 
rups were all in such bad condition that we were in continual 
danger of falling to the ground, saddle and all. In fact, this mis- 
fortune happened to many of our party, but luckily it was never 
attended with serious results. 

June 12th. 

The night was very chilly ; although we slept in a tent, our 
thick cloaks scarcely sufficed to shield us from the night-air. In 
the morning the fog was so dense that we could not see thirty 
paces before us. Towards eight o'clock it rolled away, and a few 
hours later the heat of the sun began to distress us greatly. It is 
scarcely possible to guard too carefully against the effects of the 
heat ; the head should in particular be kept always covered, as 
carelessness in this respect may bring on coup de soleil. I always 
wore two pocket handkerchiefs round my head, under my straw 
hat, and continually used a parasol. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 147 

From Bir to Jabrud, where we rested for a few hours, we 
travelled for six hours through a monotonous and sterile country. 
We had still a good four hours' ride before us to Nablus, our 
resting-place for the night. 

The roads here are bad beyond conception, so that at first the 
stranger despairs of passing them either on foot or on horseback. 
Frequently the way leads up hill and down dale, over great 
masses of rock; and I was truly surprised at the strength and 
agility of our poor horses, wliich displayed extraordinary saga- 
city hi picking out the little ledges on which they could place 
their feet safely in climbing from rock to rock. Sometimes we 
crossed smooth slabs of stone, where the horses were in imminent 
danger of slipping ; at others, the road led us past frightful 
chasms, the sight of which was sufficient to make me dizzy. I 
had read many accounts of these roads, and was prepared to find 
them bad enough ; but my expectations were far surpassed by the 
reality. All that the traveller can do is to trust in Providence, 
and abandon himself to fate and to the sagacity of his horse. 

An hour and a half before we reached the goal of this day's 
journey, we passed the grave of the patriarch Jacob. Had our 
attention not been particularly drawn to this monument, we 
should have ridden by without noticing it, for a few scattered 
blocks of stone are all that remain. A little farther on we enter 
the Samaritan territory, and here is " Jacob's well," where our 
Saviour held converse with the woman of Samaria. The masonry 
of the well has altogether vanished, but the spring still gushes 
forth from a rock. 

Nablus, the ancient Sichem, the chief town of Samaria, con- 
tains four thousand inhabitants, and is reputed to be one of the 
most ancient towns in Palestine. It is surrounded by a strong 
wall, and consists of a long and very dirty street. We rode 
through the town from one end to the other, and past the poor- 
looking bazaar, where nothing struck me but the sight of some 
fresh figs, which were at this early season already exposed for 



148 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

sale. Of course we bought the fruit at once ; but it had a very 
bad flavour. 

A number of soldiers are seen in all the towns. They are 
Arnauts, a wild, savage race of men, who appear to be regarded 
with more dread by the inhabitants than the wandering tribes 
whose incursions they are intended to repress. 

We pitched our tents on a little hill immediately outside the 
town. Few things are more disagreeable to the traveller than 
being compelled to bivouac near a town or village in the East. 
All the inhabitants, both young and old, flock round in order to 
examine the European caravan, which is a most unusual sight 
for them, as closely as possible. They frequently even crowd 
into the tents, and it becomes necessary to expel the intruders 
almost by main force. Not only are strangers excessively an- 
noyed at being thus made a gazing-stock, but they also run a 
risk of being plundered. 

Our cook had the good fortune to obtain a kid only three 
or four days old, which was immediately killed and at once 
boiled with rice. We made a most sumptuous meal, for it was 
seldom we could get such good fare. 

June 13th. 

The morning sun found us already on horseback; we rode 
through the whole of the beautiful valley at the entrance of 
which Nablus lies. The situation of this town is very charming. 
The valley is not broad, and does not exceed a mile and a half 
in length ; it is completely surrounded with low hills. The 
mountain on the right is called Ebal, and that on the left Grissim 
The latter is celebrated as being the meeting-place of the twelve 
tribes of Israel under Joshua; they there consulted upon the 
means of conquering the land of Canaan. 

The whole valley is sufficiently fertile; even the hills are 
in some instances covered to their summits with olive, fig, lemon, 
and orange trees. Some little brooks, clear as crystal, bubble 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. I4U 

through the beautiful plain. We were frequently compelled to 
ride through the water ; but all the streams are at this season of 
the year so shallow, that our horses' hoofs were scarcely covered. 

After gaining the summit of the neighbouring hill, we turned 
round with regret to look our last on this valley; seldom has 
it been my lot to behold a more charming picture of blooming 
vegetation. 

Two hours more brought us to Sebasta, the ancient Samaria, 
which also lies on a lovely hill, though for beauty of situation it 
is not to be compared with Nablus. Sebasta is a wretched village. 
The ruins of the convent built on the place where St. John the 
Baptist was beheaded were here pointed out to us ; but even of 
the ruins there are few traces left. 

Two hours later we reached Djenin, and had now entered 
the confines of Galilee. Though this province, perhaps, no longer 
smiles with the rich produce it displayed in the days of old, it still 
affords a strong contrast to Judaea. Here we again find hedges 
of the Indian fig-tree, besides palms and large expanses of field ; 
but for flowers and meadows we still search in vain. 

The costume of the Samaritan and Galilean women appears 
as monotonous as it is poor and dirty. They wear only a long 
dark-blue gown, and the only difference to be observed in their 
dress is that some muffle their faces and others do not. It would 
be no loss if all wore veils ; for so few pretty women and girls are 
to be discovered, that they might be searched for, like the honest 
man of Diogenes, with a lantern. The women have all an ugly 
brown complexion, then: hair is matted, and their busts lack the 
rounded fulness of the Turkish women. They have a custom of 
ornamenting both sides of the head, from the crown to the chin, 
with a row of silver coins ; and those women who do not muffle 
their faces usually wear as he ad-drcss a handkerchief of blue 
linen. 

Djenin is a dirty little town, which we only entered in con " 
sequence of having been told that we should behold the place 



150 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

where Queen Jezebel fell from the window and was devoured 
by dogs. Both window and palace have almost vanished ; but 
dogs, who look even now as though they could relish such royal 
prey, are seen prowling about the streets. Not only in Con- 
stantinople, but in every city of Syria we found these wild dogs ; 
they were, however, nowhere so numerous as in the imperial 
city. 

We halted for an hour or two outside the town, beside a 
coifee-house, and threw ourselves on the ground beneath the open 
sky. A kind of hearth made of masonry, on which hot water 
was continually in readiness, stood close by, and near it some 
mounds of earth had been thrown up to serve as divans. A ragged 
boy was busy pounding coffee, while his father, the proprietor of 
the concern, concocted the cheering beverage, and handed it round 
to the guests. Straw-mats were spread for our accommodation 
on the earthen divans, and without being questioned we were 
immediately served with coffee and argile". In the background 
stood a large and lofty stable of brickwork, which might have 
belonged to a great European inn. 

After recruiting ourselves here a little, we once more set 
forth to finish our day's journey. Immediately after leaving the 
town, a remarkably fine view opens before us over the great 
elevated plain Esdralon, to the magnificent range of mountains 
enclosing this immense plateau. In the far distance they shewed 
us Mount Carmel, and, somewhat nearer, Mount Tabor. Here, 
too, the mountains are mostly barren, without, however, being 
entirely composed of naked masses of rock. Mount Tabor, stand- 
ing entirely alone and richly clothed with vegetation, has a very 
fine appearance. 

For nearly two hours we rode across the plain of Esdralon, 
and had thus ample leisure to meditate upon the great events that 
have occurred here. It is difficult to imagine a grander battle- 
field, and we can readily believe that in such a plain whole nations 
may have struggled for victory. From the time of Nabucodonosor 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 151 

to the period of the Crusades, and from the days of the Crusades 
to those of Napoleon, armies of men from all nations have assem- 
bled here to fight for their real or imaginary rights, or for the 
glory of conquest. 

The great and continuous heat had cracked and burst the 
ground on this plain to such a degree, that we were in continual 
apprehension lest our horses should catch their feet in one or other 
of the fissures, and strain or even break them. The soil of the 
plain seems very good, and is free from stones ; it appears, how- 
ever, generally to lie fellow, being thickly covered with weeds 
and wild artichokes. The villages are seen in the far distance 
near the mountains. This plain forms part of Canaan. 

We pitched our camp for the night beside a little cistern, near 
the wretched village of Lagun ; and thus slept, for the third night 
consecutively, on the hard earth. 

June 14th. 

To-day we rode for an hour across the plain of Esdralon, and 
once more suffered dreadfully from the stings of the minute gnats 
which had annoyed us so much on our journey from Joppa to 
Eamla. These plagues did not leave us until we had partly 
ascended the mountains skirting the plain, from the summit of 
which we could see Nazareth, prettily built on a hill at the en- 
trance of a fruitful valley. In the background rises the beautiful 
Mount Tabor. 

From the tune we first see Nazareth until we reach the town 
is a ride of an hour and a half; thus the journey from Lagun to 
Nazareth occupies four hours and a half, and the entire distance 
from Jerusalem twenty-six or twenty-seven hours. 



152 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



CHAPTEE X. 

Arrival at Nazareth Franciscan convent Tabarith Mount Tabor Lake 
of Gennesareth Baths Mount Carmel Grotto of the prophet Elijah 
Acre The pacha's harem Oriental women Their listlessness and 
ignorance Sur or Tyre. 

IT was only nine o'clock when we reached Nazareth, and repaired 
to the house for strangers hi the Franciscan convent, where 
the priests welcomed us very kindly. As soon as we had made a 
short survey of our rooms (which resulted in our finding them 
very like those at Jerusalem, both as regards appearance and 
arrangement), we set forth once more to visit all the remark- 
ahle places, and above all the church which contains the Grotto of 
Annunciation. This church, to which we were accompanied by 
a clergyman, was built by St. Helena, and is of no great size. In 
the background a staircase leads down into the grotto, where it is 
asserted that the Virgin Mary received the Lord's message from 
the angel. Three little pillars of granite are still to be seen in 
tins grotto. The lower part of one of these pillars was broken 
away by the Turks, so that it is only fastened from above. On 
the strength of this circumstance many have averred that the pillar 
hangs suspended in air ! Had these men but looked beyond their 
noses, had they only cast then: eyes upwards, they could not 
have had the face to preach a miracle where it is so palpable that 
none exists. A picture on the wall, not badly executed, represents 
the Annunciation. The house of the Virgin is not shewn here, 
because, according to the legend, an angel carried it away to 
Loretto in Italy. A few steps lead to another grotto, affirmed to 
be the residence of a neighbour of the Virgin, during whose ab- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 153 

sence she presided over the house and attended to the duties of 
the absent Mary. 

Another grotto in the town is shewn as "the workshop of 
Joseph ;'' it has been left in its primitive state, except that a plain 
wooden altar has been added. Not far off we find the synagogue 
where our Lord taught the people, thereby exasperating the Phari- 
sees to such a degree, that they wished to cast Hun down from a 
rock outside the city. In conclusion we were shewn an immense 
block of stone on which the Saviour is said to have eaten the Pass- 
over with His disciples (!). 

In the afternoon we went to see " Mary's Well," on the road 
to Tabarith, at a short distance from Nazareth. This well is 
fenced round with masonry, and affords pure clear water. Hither, 
it is said, the Virgin came every day to draw water, and here the 
women and girls of Nazareth may still be daily seen walking to 
and fro with pitchers on their shoulders. Those whom we saw 
were all poorly clad, and looked dirty. Many wore no covering 
on their head, and, what was far worse, their hair hung down in 
a most untidy manner. Then: bright eyes were the only hand- 
some feature these people possessed. The custom of wearing 
silver cobs round the head also prevailed here. 

To-day was a day of misfortunes for me; in the morning, 
when we departed from Lagun, I had already felt unwell. On 
the road I was seized with violent headache, nausea, and feverish 
shiverings, so that I hardly thought I should be able to reach 
Nazareth. The worst of all this was, that I felt obliged to hide 
my illness, as I had done on our journey to Jerusalem, for fear I 
should be left behind. The wish to view all the holy^places in 
Nazareth was also so powerful within me, that I made a great 
effort, and accompanied the rest of my party for the whole day, 
though I was obliged every moment to retire into the background 
that my condition might not be observed. But when we went to 
table, the smell of the viands produced such an effect upon me, 
that I hastily held my handkerchief before my face as though my 



154 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

nose were bleeding, and hurried out. Thanks to my sunburnt 
skin, through which no paleness could penetrate, no one noticed 
that I was ill. The whole day long I could eat nothing ; but 
towards evening I recovered a little. My appetite now also re- 
turned, but unfortunately nothing was to be had but some bad 
mutton-broth and an omelette made with rancid oil. It is bad 
enough to be obliged to subsist on such fere when we are hi 
health, but the hardship increases tenfold when we are ill. How- 
ever, I sent for some bread and wine, and strengthened myself 
therewith as best I might. 

June 15th. 

Thanks be to Heaven, I was to-day once more pretty well. In 
the morning I could already mount my horse and take part hi the 
excursion we desired to make to 



TABAEITH. 

Passing Mary's Well and a mountain crowned bj- some ruins, the 
remains of ancient Canaan, we ride for about three miles towards 
the foot of Mount Tabor, the highest summit of which we do not 
reach for more than an hour. There were no signs of a beaten road, 
and we were obliged to ride over all obstacles ; a course of pro- 
ceeding which so tired our horses, that in half an hour's tune they 
were quite knocked up, so that we had to proceed on foot. After 
much toil and hardship, with a great deal of climbing and much 
suffering from the heat, we gamed the summit, and were repaid 
for the toil of the ascent, not only by the reflection that we stood 
on classic ground, but also by the beautiful view which lay 
spread before our eyes. This prospect is indeed magnificent. We 
overlook the entire plain of Saphed, as far as the shores of the 
Galilean Sea. Mount Tabor is also known by the name of the 
" Mountain of Bliss" here it was that our Lord preached His 
exquisite " Sermon on the Mount."' Of all the hills I have seen hi 
Syria, Mount Tabor is the only one covered to the summit with 



EGYI'T, AND ITALY. li)5 

oaks and carob-trees. The valleys too are filled with the richest 
earth, instead of barren sand ; but in spite of all this the population 
is thin, and the few villages are wretched and puny. The poor 
inhabitants of Syria are wofully ground down; the taxes are 
too high in proportion to the productions of the soil, so that the 
peasants cannot possibly grow more produce than they require for 
their own consumption. Thus, for instance, orchards are not taxed 
in the aggregate, but according to each separate tree. For every 
olive-tree the owner must pay a piastre, or a piastre and a half; 
and the same sum for an orange or lemon tree. And heavily 
taxed as he is, the poor peasant is never safe in saying, " Such 
and such a thing belongs to me." The pacha may shift him to 
another piece 'of land, or drive him away altogether, if he thinks 
it advisable to do so ; for a pacha's power in his province is as 
great as that of the Sultan himself in Constantinople. Porcupines 
are to be met with on Mount Tabor ; we found several of their 
fine horny quills. 

From the farther side of the mountain we descended into 
the beautiful and spacious valley of Saphed, the scene of the 
miracle of the loaves and fishes, and rode on for some hours until 
we reached Tabarith. 

A very striking scene opens before the eyes of the traveller on 
the last mountain before Tabarith. A lovely landscape lies sud- 
denly unrolled before him. The valley sinks deeply down to the 
Galilean Sea, round the shores of which a glorious chain of moun- 
tains rises in varied and picturesque terrace-like forms. Mon- 
beautiful than all the rest, towers in snowy grandeur the mighty 
chain of the Anti-Lebanon, its white surface glittering in the rays 
of the sun, and distinctly mirrored in the clear bosom of the lake. 
Deep down lies the little town of Tabarith, shadowed by palm- 
trees, and guarded by a castle raised a little above it. The 
unexpected beauty of this scene surprised us so much that we 
alighted from our horses, and passed more than half an hour on 
the summit of the mountain, to gaze at our leisure upon the won- 



156 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

ilrous picture. Count S. drew a hurried but very successful 
sketch of the landscape which we all admired so much, though 
its mountains were naked and bare. But such is the peculiar 
character of Eastern scenery; hi Europe, meadows, alps, and 
woods exhibit quite a distinct class of natural beauty. In a 
mountain region of Europe, a sight like the one we were now 
admiring would scarcely have charmed us so much. But in these 
regions, poor alike in inhabitants and hi scenery, the traveller is 
contented with little, and a little thing charms bun. For instance, 
would not a plain piece of beef have been a greater luxury to 
us on our journey than the most costly delicacies at home ? 
Thus we felt also with regard to scenery. 

On entering the town we experienced a feeling of painful 
emotion. Tabarith lay still half hi ruins ; for the dreadful earth- 
quake of 1839 had made this place one of the chief victims of 
its fury. How must the town have looked immediately after 
the calamity, when even now, in spite of the extensive repairs, 
it appears almost like a heap of ruins ! We saw some houses 
that had completely Mien in ; others were very much damaged, 
with large cracks hi the walls, and shattered terraces and towers : 
every where, in short, we wandered among ruins. Above 4000 
persons, more than half of the entire population, are said to have 
perished by this earthquake. 

We alighted at the house of a Jewish doctor, who entertains 
strangers, as there is no inn at Tabarith. I was quite surprised 
to find every thing so clean and neat in this man's house. The 
little rooms were simply but comfortably furnished, the small 
courtyard was flagged with large stones, and round the walls of 
the hall were ranged narrow benches with soft cushions. We 
were greatly astonished at this appearance of neatness and order ; 
but our wonder rose when we made the discovery that the Jews, 
who are very numerous at Tabarith, are not clothed hi the 
Turkish or Greek fashion, but quite bike their brethren in Poland 
and Galicia. Most of them also spoke German. I immediately 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 157 

inquired the reason of this peculiarity, and was informed that all 
the Jewish families resident in this town originally came from 
Poland or Russia, with the intention of dying hi the Promised 
Land. As a rule, all Jews seem to cherish a warm desire to pass 
their last days hi the country of their forefathers, and to be buried 
there. 

We requested our young hostess, whose husband was absent, 
to prepare for us without delay a good quantity of pilau and fowls ; 
adding, that we would hi the mean tune look at the town and 
the neighbouring baths at the Sea of Gennesareth, but that we 
should return hi an hour and a half at the most. 

We then proceeded to the Sea of Gennesareth, which is a 
fresh-water lake. We entered a fisherman's boat, hi order that 
we might sail on the waters where our Lord held once bid the 
winds " be still." We were rowed to the warm springs, which 
rise near the shore, a few hundred paces from the town. On the 
lake all was calm ; but no sooner had we landed than a storm 
arose between the fishermen and ourselves. In this country, if 
strangers neglect to bargain beforehand for every stage with 
guides, porters, and people of this description, they are nearly 
sure of being charged an exorbitant sum in the end. This 
happened to us on our present little trip, which certainly did not 
occupy more than half an hour. We took our seats hi the boat 
without arranging for the fares ; and on disembarking offered the 
fishermen a very handsome reward. But these worthies threw 
down the money, and demanded thirty piastres ; whereas, if we 
had bargained with them at first, they would certainly not have 
asked ten. We gave them fifteen piastres, to get rid of them ; 
but this did not satisfy their greediness ; on the contrary, they 
yelled and shouted, until the Count's servants threatened to restore 
peace and quietness with their sticks. At length the fishermen 
were so far brought to their senses that they walked away, scold- 
ing and muttering as they went. 

Adjoining the warm springs we found a bathing-house, built hi 



158 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

a round form and covered with a cuppb- Here we also met a eon- 
aderable number of pig 1 *; mostly Greeks and Armenians from 
the neighbourhood, who were journeying to Jerusalem. They had 
encamped beside the bathing-house. Half of these people were 
in the water, where a most animated conversation was going on. 
We also wished to enter the building, not for the purpose of 
bathing, but to view the beauty and arrangements of the interior, 
which have been the subject of many laudatory descriptions ; but 
at the entrance such a cloud of vapour came rolling towards us 
that we were unable to penetrate far. I saw enough, however, 
to feel convinced, that in the description of these baths poetry ox 
exaggeration had led many a pen far beyond the bounds of fact. 
Neither the eytarinr of this building, nor the cursory glance I was 
enabled to throw into the interior, excited either my curiosity or 
my astonishment- Seen ft"p" without, these baths resemble % 
snail-sized house buflt in a very mediocre style, and with very 
slender claims to beauty. The interior displayed a large quantity 
of marMe,- for instance, in the floor, the sides of the bath, Ae. 
But marble is not such a rarity in this country that it can raise 
this bathing-kiosk into a wonder-building, or render it worthy of 
ace than a passing glance. I endeavour to see every thing ex- 
actly as it <aanjy before me, and to describe it in my simple diary 
without yH'tyw or ornament. 

At <^gftt o'clock in ijie evening we returned tired and hungry 
to our comfortable quarters, flattering ourselves that we should 
find the plain supper we had ordered a few hours before Banting 
on the covered table, ready for our arrival. But neither in the 
hall nor in the chamber could we find even a table, much less a 
covered one. Half dead with exhaustion, we threw ourselves on 
chaos and benches, looking forward with impatience to the MygBa 
and the welcome rest that was to follow it- Messenger after 
messenger was J TTTrr < "T M ^ to the culinary regions, to inquire if 
the boiled fowls were not yet in an eatable condition. Each time 
we were promised that supper would be ready " in a quarter of 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 159 

an hour," and each time nothing came of it. At length, at ten 
o'clock, a table was brought into the room ; after some time a 
single chair appeared, and then one more ; then came another 
interval of waiting, until at length a clean table-cloth was laid. 
These arrivals occupied the time until eleven o'clock, when the 
master of the house, who had been absent on an excursion, made 
his appearance, and with him came a puny roast fowl. No mi- 
racle, alas, took place at our table like that of the plain of Saphed ; 
we were but seven persons, and so the fowl need only have been 
increased seven tunes to satisfy us all ; but as it was, each person 
received one rib and no more. Our supper certainly consisted of 
several courses brought in one after the other. Had we known 
this, we certainly should soon have arranged the matter, for then 
each person would have appropriated the whole of a dish to him- 
self. Li the space of an hour and a quarter nine or ten little 
dishes made their appearance ; but the portion of food contained 
in each was so small, that our supper may be said to have con- 
sisted of a variety of " tastes." We would greatly have preferred 
two good- sized dishes to all these kickshaws. The dishes were, a 
roast, a boiled, and a baked chicken, a little plate of prepared cu- 
cumbers, an equally small portion of this vegetable in a raw state, 
a little pilau, and a few small pieces of mutton. 

Our host kindly provided food for the mind during supper by 
describing to us a series of horrible scenes which had occurred at 
the time of the earthquake. He, too, had lost his wife and chil- 
dren by this calamity, and only owed his own life to the circum- 
stance that he was absent at a sick-bed when the earthquake took 
place. 

Half an hour after midnight we at length sought our resting- 
places. The doctor very kindly gave up his three little bedrooms 
to us, but the heat was so oppressive that we preferred quartering 
ourselves on the stones hi the yard. They made a very hard 
bed, but we none of us felt symptoms of indigestion after our 
sumptuous meal. 



160 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

Juno 16th. 

' : At five o'clock in the morning we took leave of our host, and 
returned in six hours to Nazareth by the same road on which we 
had already travelled. We did not, however, ascend Mount Tabor 
a second tune, but rode along beside its base. To-day I once 
more visited all the spots I had seen when I Avas so ill two days 
before ; in this pursuit I passed some very agreeable hours. 

June 17th. 

In the morning, at half-past four, we once more bade fare- 
well to the worthy priests of Nazareth, and rode without stopping 
for nine hours and a half, until at two o'clock we reached 



MOUNT CAKMEL. 

It was long since we had travelled on such a good road as 
that on which we journeyed to-day. Now and then, however, a 
piece truly Syrian in character had to be encountered, probably 
lest we should lose the habit of facing hardship and danger. An- 
other comfort was that we were not obliged to-day to endure 
thirst, as we frequently passed springs of good clear water. At 
one tune our way even led through a small oak-wood, a pheno- 
menon almost unprecedented in Syria. There was certainly not 
a single tree in all the wood which a painter might have chosen 
for a study, for they were all small and crippled. Large leafy 
trees, like those in my own land, are very seldom seen in this 
country. The carob, which grows here in abundance, is almost 
the only handsome tree ; it has a beautiful leaf, scarcely larger 
than that of a rose-tree, of an oval form, as thick as the back of a 
knife, and of a beautiful bright green colour. 

Mount Carmel lies on the sea-shore. It is not high, and half 
an hour suffices the traveller to reach its summit, which is crowned 
by a spacious and beautiful convent, probably the handsomest in 
all Palestine, not even excepting the monasteries at Nazareth and 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 101 

Jerusalem. The main front of the building contains a suite of six 
or seven large rooms, with folding-doors and lofty regular windows. 
These rooms, together with several in the wings, are devoted to 
the reception of strangers. They are arranged in European style, 
with very substantial pieces of furniture, among which neither 
sofas nor useful chests of drawers are wanting. 

About an hour after we arrived our reverend hosts regaled us 
with a more sumptuous meal than 'any of which I had partaken 
since my departure from Constantinople. 

In proportion as our fare had been meagre and our accommo- 
dation indifferent at Nazareth and Jerusalem, did we find every 
thing here excellent. In an elegant dining-room stood a large 
table covered with a fine white cloth, on which cut glass and clean 
knives, forks, and china plates gleamed invitingly. A servant in 
European garb placed some capital fast-day fare on the table (it 
was Friday), and a polite priest kept us company ; but not in 
eating, for he rightly considered that such a hungry company 
would not reqiiire any example to fall to. 

During the whole remainder of our journey through Syria 
this convent occupied a green spot in our memory. How capi- 
tally would a few days' rest here have recruited our strength ! 
But the gentlemen had a distant goal before their eyes, and " For- 
ward !" was still the cry. 

After dinner we went down to the sea-shore, to visit the large 
grotto called the " Prophets' school." This grotto has really the 
appearance of a lofty and spacious hall, where a number of dis- 
ciples could have sat and listened to the words of the prophet. 

The grotto in which Elijah is said to have lived is situated in 
a church at the top of the mountain. Mount Carmel is quite bar- 
ren, being only covered here and there with brambles ; but the view 
is magnificent. In the foreground the eye can roam over the 
boundless expanse of ocean, while at the foot of the mountain 
it finds a resting-place in the considerable town of Haifa, lying in 
a fertile plain, which extends to the base of the high mountains, 

L 



162 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

bounded in the distance by the Anti-Libauus, and farther still by 
the Lebanon itself. Along the line of coast we can distinguish 
Acre (or Ptolemais), Sur (Tyre), and Soida (Sidon). 

June 18th. 

This morning we sent our poor over-tired horses on before us 
to Hese, and walked on foot at midday under a temperature of 33 
to Haifas, a distance of more than two miles. Heated and ex- 
hausted to the last degree we reached the house of the Consul, 
who is a Catholic, but seems nevertheless to live quite in Oriental 
feshion. This gentleman is consul both for France and Austria. 
Although he was not at home when we arrived, we were imme- 
diately shewn into the room of state, where we reclined on soft 
divans, and were regaled with sherbet of all colours, green, yellow, 
red, &c., and with coffee flavoured with roses, which we did not 
like. Hookahs (or tchibuks) were also handed round. At length 
the Consul's wife appeared, a young and beautiful lady of an 
imposing figure, dressed in the Oriental garb. She smoked her 
tchibuk with as much ease as the gentlemen. Luckily a brother 
of this lady who understood something of Italian was present, and 
kindly acted as interpreter. I have never found an Oriental 
woman who knew any language but that of her own country. 

After we had rested ourselves, we pursued our journey in a 
boat to Acre. On my road to Jerusalem I had only seen the out- 
side of this monument of the last war, now I could view its inte- 
rior ; but saw nothing to repay me for my trouble. Considering 
how ugly the Turkish towns are even when they are in good pre- 
servation, it may easily be imagined that the appearance of one of 
these cities is not improved when it is full of shot-holes, and the 
streets and interiors of the houses are choked up with rubbish. 
The entrance to the convent lies through the courtyard of the 
Turkish barracks, where there seemed to be a great deal of bustle, 
and where we had an opportunity of noticing how wretchedly clad, 
and still more miserably shod, the Turkish soldiers are. These 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 163 

blemishes are not so much observed when the men are seen singly 
at their posts. 

The convent here is very small, being in fact only a dwelling- 
house to which a chapel is attached. Two monks and a lay bro- 
ther form the whole household. 

Scarcely had I established myself in my room, before a very 
polite lady entered, who introduced herself to me as the wife of 
a surgeon in the service of the pacha here. She stated that her 
husband was at present absent at Constantinople, and added that 
she was in the habit of spending several hours in the convent 
every evening to do the honours of the house ! Tins assertion 
struck me as so strange, that I should certainly have remained 
dumb had not my visitor been a very agreeable, polite French 
lady. As it was, however, we chatted away the evening plea- 
santly together, until the supper-bell summoned us to the refec- 
tory. All that I saw in this convent was hi direct contrast to the 
arrangement of the comfortable establishment of the Carmelites. 
The refectory here is astonishingly dirty ; the whole furniture con- 
sists of two dingy tables and some benches; the table-cloth, plates, 
&c. wore the prevailing livery ; and the fare was quite hi keeping 
with every thing else. We supped at two tables ; the gentlemen 
and the reverend fathers sitting at one, while the French lady and 
myself occupied the other. 

June 19th. 

As we were not to travel far to-day, we did not set out until 
ten o'clock, when we started in company of several Franks who 
were in the pacha's service. They led us into a park by the road- 
side belonging to the mother of the Sultan. Here the pacha usually 
resides during the summer. In half an hour's time we reached 
this park." The garden is rather handsome, but does not display 
many plants except lemon, orange, pomegranate, and cypress trees. 
The display of flowers was not very remarkable ; for not only could 
we discover no rare or foreign plants, but we also missed many 



164 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

flowers which grow plentifully in our gardens at home. A few 
Mosks are here to be seen, but every thing seemed miserably out 
of repair. 

The residence of the pacha, situated outside the gardens, has a 
more inviting appearance. "We paid our respects to his highness, 
who received us very graciously, and caused us to be regaled with 
the usual beverages. No sooner had the high ladies in the harem 
learnt that a FranMsh woman was in their territory, than they 
sent to invite me to visit them. I gladly accepted this invitation, 
the more so as it offered an opportunity of gratifying my curiosity. 
I was conducted to another part of the house, where I stepped into 
a chamber of middle size, the floor of which was covered with 
mats and carpets, while on cushions ranged round the walls re- 
clined beauties of various complexions, who seemed to have been 
collected from every quarter of the globe. One of these women, 
who was rather elderly, appeared to be the pacha's chief wife, for 
all the rest pointed to her. The youngest lady seemed about 
eighteen or nineteen years of age, and was the mother of a child 
eight months old, with which they were all playing as with a doll ; 
the poor little thing was handed about from hand to hand. These 
ladies were dressed exactly like the daughters of the consul at 
Joppa, whose costume I have described. I did not see any signs 
of particular beauty, unless the stoutness of figure so prevalent here 
is considered in that light. I saw, however, a woman with one 
eye, a defect frequently observed in the East. Female slaves 
were there of all shades of colour. One wore a ring through her 
nose, and another had tastefully painted her lips blue. Both mis- 
tresses and slaves had their eyebrows and eyelashes painted black, 
and their nails and the palm of the hand stained a light -brown 
with the juice of the henna. 

The Oriental women are ignorant and inquisitive in the highest 
degree ; they can neither read nor write, and the knowledge of a 
foreign language is quite out of the question. It is very rarely 
that one of them understands embroidering in gold. Whenever I 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 165 

happened to be writing in my journal, men, women, and children 
would gather round me, and gaze upon me and my book with 
many signs and gestures expressive of astonishment. 

The ladies of the harem seemed to look with contempt upon 
employment and work of every kind ; for neither here nor else- 
where did I see them do any tiling but sit cross-legged on carpets 
and cushions, drinking coffee, smoking nargile', and gossiping with 
one another. They pressed me to sit down on a cushion, and 
then immediately surrounded me, endeavouring, by signs, to ask 
many questions. First they took my straw hat and put it upon 
their heads ; then they felt the stuff of my travelling robe ; but 
they seemed most of all astonished at my short hair,* the sight of 
which seemed to impress these poor ignorant women with the idea 
that nature had denied long hair to the Europeans. They asked 
me by signs how this came to pass, and every lady came up and 
felt my hair. They seemed also very much surprised that I was 
so thin, and offered me their nargile, besides sherbet and cakes. 
On the whole, our conversation was not very animated, for we 
had no dragoman to act as interpreter, so that we were obliged 
to guess at what was meant, and at length I sat silently among 
these Orientals, and was heartily glad when, at the expiration of 
an hour, my friends sent to fetch me away. At a later period of 
my journey I frequently visited harems, and sometimes consider- 
able ones ; but I found them all alike. The only difference lay 
in the fact that some harems contained more beautiful women 
and slaves, and that in others the inmates were more richly clad ; 
but every where I found the same idle curiosity, ignorance, and 
apathy. Perhaps they may be more happy than European women ; 
I should suppose they were, to judge from their comfortable figures 
and their contented features. Corpulence is said frequently to pro- 
ceed from a good-natured and quiet disposition ; and their features 
are so entirely without any fixed character and expression, that 

* I had cut my hair quite close, because I was seldom sure of having 
time and.ppportunity during my long journey to dress and plait it properly. 



I do not think these women capable of deep passions or feeling 
either for good or evil. Exceptions are of course to be found 
even among the Turkish women ; I only report what I observed 
on the average. 

This day we rode altogether for seven hours. We passed a 
beautiful orange-grove ; for the greater part of the way our road 
led through deep sand, close by the sea-shore ; but once we had 
to pass a dreadfully dangerous place called the " White Mount," 
one extremity of which rises out of the sea. This once passed, 
we soon come upon the beautiful far-stretching aqueduct which I 
noticed on my journey from Joppa to Jerusalem. It traverses 
a portion of this fnritral plain. 

We could not enter the little town of Sur, the goal of this 
day's journey, as it was closed on account of the plague. We 
therefore passed by, and pitched our tents beside a village, in 
the neighbourhood of which large and splendid cisterns of water, 
hewn in the rock, are to be seen. The superfluous water from 
these cisterns Mis from a height of twenty or thirty feet, and 
after turning a mill-wheel, flows through the vale hi the form of 
a brook. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 167 



CHAPTER XL 

River Mishmir Saida Arnauts Desert-path Residence of Lady Hester 
Stanhope Beyrout The consul's Uncomfortable quarters Sickness 
The Bazaar Vexatious delays Departure from Beyrout Beautiful 
views Syrian costumes Damascus Aspect of the city House of the 
consul. 

June 20th. 

SHORTLY after five this morning we were in our saddles, and a 
few hours afterwards arrived at the beautiful river Mishmir, 
which is as broad as the Jordan, though it does not contain nearly 
so much water. Next to the Jordan, however, this river is the 
largest we find on our journey, besides being a most agreeable object 
in a region so destitute of streams. Its water is pure as crystal. 

In ten hours we reached the town, and at once repaired to 
the convent, as not one of these cities contains an inn. The little 
convent, with its tiny church, is situate at the end of a large court- 
yard, which is so thronged with horses and men, particularly with 
soldiers, that we had great difficulty in forcing our way through. 
When we had at length cleared a passage for ourselves to the 
entrance, we were received with the agreeable intelligence that 
there was no room for us. What was to be done ? We thought 
ourselves lucky in obtaining a little room where we could pass 
the night in a house belonging to a Greek family ; beds were, 
however, out of the question ; we had to lie on the hard stones. 
In the courtyard a kind of camp had been pitched, in which twelve 
state-horses of the Emir* of Lebanon (creatures of the true Arab 
breed) were bivouacking among a quantity of Arnauts. 

The Arnaut soldiers are universally feared, but more by friend 

a This Emir could not maintain his position on Mount Lebanon, and 
was summoned to Constantinople. At the time of our visit they were still 
awaiting his return, though he had been absent more than six months. 



168 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

than foe. They are very turhulent, and behave in an overbearing 
manner towards the people. The Count, my fellow-traveller, was 
even insulted in the street, not by a peasant, but by one of these 
military fellows. These ill-disciplined troops are assembled every 
where, in order that they may be ready to attack whenever a dis- 
turbance occurs between the Druses and Maronites. I consider, 
however, that the Arnauts are much more to be feared than either 
the Druses or the Maronites, through whose territories we after- 
wards journeyed without experiencing, in a single instance, either 
insult or injury. I hardly think we should Lave escaped so well 
had we encountered a troop of these wild horsemen. 

Among all the Turkish soldiers the Arnauts are the best 
dressed ; with their short and full white skirts of linen or lawn, 
and tight trousers of white linen, a scarf round the middle, and a 
white or a red spencer, they closely resemble the Albanians. 

June 21st. 

This was a most fatiguing day, although we did not ride for 
more than ten hours ; but this ten hours' journey was performed 
without even a quarter of an hour's rest, though the thermometer 
stood at 33 Reaumur. Our path lay through a sandy desert, 
about two miles hi breadth, running parallel with the mountain- 
range from Saida to Beyrout. The monotony of the steppe is 
only broken at intervals by heaps of sand. The surface of the 
sand presents the appearance of a series of waves ; the particles 
of which it is composed are very minute, and of a fine yellowish- 
brown colour. A beautiful fertile valley adjoins this desert, and 
stretches towards Mount Lebanon, on whose brown rocky surface 
several villages can be descried. 

This mountain-range has a most imposing appearance. White 
rocks and strata of white sand shine forth from its broad and 
generally barren expanse like fields of snow. 

The residence of the late Lady Hester Stanhope can be seen 
in the distance on the declivity of the mountain. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 109 

During our long ride of ten hours we did not pass a single 
tank, spring, or even pool, and all the river-beds on our way 
were completely dried up by the heat. Not a tree could we see 
that could shelter us for a moment from the glaring heat of the 
sun. It was a day of torment for us and for our poor beasts. 
Two of our brave horses sank from exhaustion, and could go no 
farther, though relieved of their burdens ; we were obliged to leave 
the poor creatures to perish by the wayside. 

At three in the afternoon we at length arrived at Beyrout, 
after having bravely encountered, during ten consecutive days, 
the toil and hardship inseparable from a journey through Syria. 

The distance from Jerusalem to Beyrout is about 200 miles, 
allowing for the circuitous route by way of Tabarith, which tra- 
vellers are not, however, compelled to take. From Jerusalem 
to Nazareth is 54 miles ; from Nazareth across Mount Tabor to 
Tabarith and back again 31 miles; from Nazareth to Mount 
Carmel, Haifas, and Acre, 46 miles ; and from Acre to Beyrout 
69 miles ; making the total 200 miles. 

Our poor horses suffered dreadfully during this journey ; for 
they were continually obh'ged either to climb over rocks, stones, 
and mountains, or to wade through hot sand, in which they sank 
above the fetlocks at every step. It would have been a better 
plan had we only engaged our horses from Jerusalem to Nazareth, 
where we could have procured fresh ones to carry us on to Beyrout. 
We had been told at Jerusalem that it was sometimes impossible 
to obtain horses at Nazareth, and so preferred engaging our beasts 
at once for the whole journey. On arriving at Nazareth we cer- 
tainly discovered that we had been deceived, for horses are always 
to be had there in plenty ; but as the contract was once made, we 
were obliged to abide by it. 

During the ten days of our journey the temperature varied 
exceedingly. By day the heat fluctuated between 18 and 39 
Reaumur ; the nights too were very changeable, being sometimes 
sultry, and sometimes bitterly cold. , 



170 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

BEYROUT 

lies in a sandy plain ; but the mulberry-trees by which it is sur- 
rounded impart to this city an air of picturesque beauty. Still we 
wade every where, in the streets, gardens, and alleys, through 
deep sand. Viewed from a distance, Beyrout has a striking effect, 
a circumstance I had remarked on my first arrival there from 
Constantinople ; but it loses considerably on a nearer approach. I 
did not enjoy walking through the town and its environs ; but it 
was a great pleasure to me to sit on a high terrace in the evening, 
and look down upon the landscape. The dark-blue sky rose 
above the distant mountains, the fruitful valley, and the glittering 
expanse of ocean. The golden sun was still illumining the peaks 
of the mountains with its farewell rays, until at length it sunk 
from view, shrouding every thing in a soft twilight. Then I saw 
the innumerable stars shine forth, and the moon shed its magic 
light over the nocturnal landscape; and that mind can scarcely 
be called human which does not feel the stirring of better feelings 
within it at such a spectacle. Truly the temple of the Lord is 
every where ; and throughout all nature there is a mysterious 
something that tells even the infidel of the omnipresence of the 
Great Spirit. How many beautiful evenings did I not enjoy at 
Beyrout ! they were, in fact, the only compensation for the grievous 
hardships I was obliged to endure during my stay in this town. 

In the inn I could again not find a single room, and was this 
time much more at a loss to find a place of shelter than I had 
been before ; for our host's wife had gone out of town with her 
children, and had let her private house ; so I sat, in the fullest 
sense of the word, " in the street." A clergyman, whose acquaint- 
ance I had made in Constantinople, and who happened just then to 
be at Beyrout, took compassion upon me, and procured me a lodg- 
ing in the house of a worthy Arab family just outside the town. 
Now I certainly had a roof above my head, but I could not make 
myself understood ; for not a soul spoke Italian, and my whole 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 171 

knowledge of Arabic was comprised in the four words : taib, moi, 
sut, mafish beautiful, water, milk, and nothing. 

With so limited a stock of expressions at my command, I 
naturally could not make much way, and the next day I was 
placed in a very disagreeable dilemma. I had hired a boy to 
shew me the way to a church, and explained to him by signs 
that he was to wait to conduct me home again. On emerging 
from the church I could see nothing of my guide. After waiting 
for some time in vain, I was at length compelled to try and find 
my way alone. 

The house in wliich I lived stood in a garden of mulberry- 
trees, but all the houses in the neighbourhood were built in the 
same style, each having a tower attached, in which there is a 
habitable room ; all these dwellings stand in gardens planted with 
mulberry-trees, some of them not separated from each other at all, 
and the rest merely by little sand-lulls. Flowers and vegetables 
are nowhere to be seen, nor is the suburb divided into regular 
streets ; so that I wandered in an endless labyrinth of trees and 
houses. I met none but Arabs, whose language I did not under- 
stand, and who could, therefore, give me no information. So I 
rushed to and fro, until at length, after a long and fatiguing pil- 
grimage, I was lucky enough to stumble on the house I wanted. 
Unwilling to expose myself to such a disagreeable adventure a 
second time, I thought it would be preferable to dwell within the 
town ; and therefore hired the young guide before mentioned to 
conduct me to the house of the Austrian Consul-General Herr 
von A. Unfortunately this gentleman was not visible to such an 
insignificant ' personage as myself, and sent me word that I might 
come again in a few hours. This was a true " Job's message'' 
for me, as far as consolation went. The heat was most oppressive ; 
I had now entered the town for the second time, to be sent once 
more back to the glowing sands, with permission to " come again 
in a few hours." Had I not been uncommonly hardy, I should 
have succumbed. But luckily I knew a method to help myself. 



172 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

I ordered iny little guide to lead me to the house in which the 
wife of Battista the innkeeper had lived. 

During my previous residence at Beyrout I had accidentally 
heard that a French lady lodged in the same house, and occupied 
herself with the education of the children. I went to call on this 
French lady, and was lucky euough to find her ; so I had, at any 
rate, so far succeeded that I had found a being with whom I could 
converse, and of whom I might request advice and assistance. 
My new acquaintance was an extremely cordial maiden lady about 
forty years of age. Her name was Pauline Kandis. My unfor- 
tunate position awakened her compassion so much, that she placed 
her own room at my disposal for the tune being. I certainly saw 
that my present quarters left much to be desired, for my kind 
entertainer's lodging consisted of a single room, divided into two 
parts by several tall chests; the foremost division contained a 
large table, at which four girls sat and stood at their lessons. 
The second division formed a land of lumber-room, redolent of 
boxes, baskets, and pots, and furnished with a board, laid on an 
old tub, to answer the purposes of a table. My condition was, 
however, so forlorn, that I took joyful possession of the lumber- 
room assigned to me. I immediately departed with my boy- 
guide, and by noon I was already installed, with bag and baggage, 
in the dwelling of my kind hostess. But there was no more 
walking for me that day. What with the journey and my morn- 
ing's peregrinations I was so exhausted that I requested nothing 
but a resting-place, which I found among the old chests and 
baskets on the floor. I was right glad to lie down, and court the 
rest that I needed so much. 

At seven o'clock in the evening the school closed. Miss K. 
then took her leave, and I remained sole occupant of her two 
rooms, which she only uses as school-rooms, for she sleeps at her 
brother's house. 

My lodging at Miss K.'s was, however, the most uncomfort- 
able of any I had yet occupied during my entire journey. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 173 

From eight o'clock in the morning until seven at night four or 
five girls, who did any thing rather than study, were continually 
in the room. The whole day long there was such a noise of 
shouting, screaming, and jumping about, that I could not hear the 
sound of my own voice. Moreover, the higher regions of this 
hall of audience contained eight pigeons' nests ; and the old birds, 
which were so tame that they not only took the food from our 
plates, but stole it out of our very mouths, fluttered continually 
about the room, so that we were obliged to look very attentively 
at every chair on which we intended to sit down. On the floor 
a cock was continually fighting with his three wives; and a 
motherly hen, with a brood of eleven hopeful chicks, cackled 
merrily between. I wonder that I did not contract a squint, for 
I was obliged continually to look upwards and downwards lest I 
should cause mischief, and lest mischief should befal me. During 
the night the heat and the stench were almost insupportable ; 
and immediately after midnight the cock always began to crow, 
as if he earned his living by the noise he made. I used to open 
the window every night to make a passage of escape for the heat 
and the foul air, while I lay down before the door, like Napoleon's 
Mameluke, to guard the treasures entrusted to my care. But on 
the second night two wandering cats had already discovered my 
whereabouts ; without the least compunction they stepped quietly 
over me into the chamber, and began to raise a murderous chase. 
I instantly jumped up and drove away the robbers; and from 
that time forward I was obliged to remain in the interior of my 
fortress, carefully to barricade all the windows, and bear my tor- 
ments with what fortitude I might. 

Our diet was also of a very light description. A sister-in-law 
of the good Pauline was accustomed to send in our dinner, wliich 
consisted one day of a thimbleful of saffron-coloured pilau, while 
the next would perhaps bring half the shoulder of a small fish. 
Had I boarded with my hostess, I should have kept fast-day five 
days in the week, and have had nothing to eat on the remaining 



174 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

two. I therefore at once left off dining with them, and used to 
cook a good German dish for myself every day. In the morning 
I asked for some milk, in order to make my coffee after the Ger- 
man fashion. Yet I think that some of our adulterators of milk 
must have penetrated even to Syria, for I found it as difficult to 
obtain pure goats' milk here as to get good milk from the cow in 
my own country. 

My bedstead was formed out of an old chest, and my sole 
employment and amusement was idling. I had not a book to 
read, no table to write on ; and if I once really succeeded in getting 
something to read or made an attempt at writing, the whole tribe 
of youngsters would come clustering round, staring at my book 
or at my paper. It would certainly have been useless to com- 
plain, but yet I could not always entirely conceal the annoyance 
I felt. 

My friends must pardon me for describing my cares so minutely, 
but I only do so to warn all those who would wish to undertake 
a journey like mine, without being either very rich, very high- 
born, or very hardy, that they had much better remain at home. 

As I happened to be neither rich nor high-born, the Consul would 
not receive me at all the first time I called upon lum, although 
the captain of a steamer had been admitted to an audience just 
before I applied. A few days afterwards I once more waited 
upon the Consul, told him of my troubles, and stated plainly how 
thankful I should feel if any one would assist me so far as to pro- 
cure me a respectable lodging, for which I would gladly pay, and 
where I could remain until an opportunity offered to go to Alexan- 
dria ; the worthy Consul was kind enough to reply to my request 
with a shake of the head, and with the comforting admission that 
" he was very sorry for me it was really extremely unfortunate." 
I think the good gentleman must have left all his feeling at home 
before settling in Syria, otherwise he would never have dismissed 
me with a few frivolous speeches, particularly as I assured him 
that I was perfectly well provided with money, and would bear 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 175 

any expense, but added that it was possible to be placed in posi- 
tions where want of advice was more keenly felt than want of 
means. During the whole of my residence at Beyrout, my country- 
man never troubled himself any more about me. 

During my stay here I made an excursion to the grotto, said 
to be the scene of St. George's combat with the dragon ; this 
grotto is situate to the right of the road, near the quarantine-house. 
The ride thither offers many fine views, but the grotto itself is not 
worth seeing. 

Frequently in the evening I went to visit an Arab family, 
when I would sit upon the top of the tower and enjoy the sight 
of the beautiful sunset. 

A very strong military force was posted at Beyrout, consisting 
entirely of Arnauts. They had pitched their tents outside the 
town, which thus wore the appearance of a camp. Many of these 
towns do not contain barracks ; and as the soldiers are not here 
quartered hi private houses, they are compelled to bivouack ha the 
open field. 

The bazaar is very large and straggling. On one occasion I 
had the misfortune to lose myself among its numerous lanes, from 
which it took me some time to extricate myself; I had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing many of the articles of merchandise, and an im- 
mense number of shops, but none which contained any thing very 
remarkable. Once more I found how prone people are to exagge- 
rate. I had been warned to abstain from walking in the streets, 
and, above all, to avoid venturing into the bazaar. I neglected 
both pieces of advice, and walked out once or twice every day 
during my stay, without once meeting with an adventure of any 
kind. 

I had already been at Beyrout ten long, long days, and still 
no opportunity offered of getting to Alexandria. But at the end 
of June the worthy artist Saltier, whose acquaintance I had made 
at Constantinople, arrived here. He found me out, and proposed 
that I should travel to Damascus with Count Berchtold, a French 



176 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

gentleman of the name of De Rousseau, and himself, instead of 
wasting my time here. This proposition was a welcome one to 
me, for I ardently desired to be released from my fowls" nest. 
My arrangements were soon completed, for I took nothing with 
me except some linen and a mattress, which were packed on my 
horse's back. 

JOURNEY FROM BEYROCT TO DAMASCUS, BALBECK, AXD 

MOCXT LEBANON. 

July 1st. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon we were all assembled before 
tLe door of M. Battista's inn, and an hour later we were in our 
saddles hastening towards the town-gate. At first we rode through 
a deep sea of sand surrounding the town; but soon we reached the 
beautiful valley which lies stretched at the foot of the Anti-Libanus, 
and afterwards proceeded towards the range by pleasant paths, 
shaded by pine- woods and mulberry-plantations. 

But now the ascent of the magnificent Anti-Libanus became 
steeper and more dangerous, as we advanced on rocky paths, often 
scarcely a foot in breadth, and frequently crossed by fissures and 
brooklets. Some time elapsed before I could quite subdue my 
fear, and could deliver myself wholly up to the delight of contem- 
plating these grand scenes, so completely new to us Europeans, 
leaving my horse, which planted its feet firmly and without once 
stumbling among the blocks of stone lying loosely on each other, 
to carry me as its instinct directed ; for these horses are exceed- 
ingly careful, being well used to these dangerous roads. We 
could not help laughing heartily at our French companion, who 
could not screw up his courage sufficiently to remain on his horse 
at the very dangerous points. At first he always dismounted when 
we came to such a spot ; but at length he grew weary of eternally 
mounting and dismounting, and conquered his fear, particularly 
when he observed that we depended so entirely on the sagacity 
of our steeds, and gave ourselves completely up to the con- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 177 

templation of the mountains around us. It is impossible adequately 
to describe the incomparable forms of this mountain-range. The 
giant rocks, piled one above the other, glow with the richest 
colours ; lovely green valleys lie scattered between ; while nume- 
rous villages are seen, sometimes standing isolated on the rocks, 
and at others peering forth from among the deep shade of the 
olive and mulberry trees. 

The sun sinking into the sea shot its last rays through the 
clear pure air towards the highest peaks of the mighty rocks. 
Every thing united to form a picture which when once seen can 
never be forgotten. 

The tints of the rocky masses are peculiarly remarkable ; 
exhibiting not only the primary colours, but many gradations, such 
as bluish-green, violet, c. Many rocks were covered with a red 
coating resembling cinnabar, in several places we found small 
veins of pure sulphur, and each moment something new and won- 
derful met our gaze. The five hours which we occupied in riding 
from Beyrout to the village of Elhemsin passed like five minutes. 
The khan of Elhemsin was already occupied by a caravan bring- 
ing wares and fruit from Damascus, so that we had nothing for it 
but to raise our tent and encamp beneath it. 

July 2d. 

The rising sun found us prepared for departure, and soon we 
had reached an acclivity from whence we enjoyed a magnificent 
view. Before us rose the lofty peaks of Lebanon and Anti-Libanus, 
partly covered with snow ; while behind us the mountains, rich in 
vineyards, olive-plantations, and pine-woods, stretched downward 
to the sea-shore. We had mounted to such a height, that the 
clouds soaring above the sea and the town of Beyrout lay far be- 
neath us, shrouding the city from our gaze. 

Vineyards are very common on these mountains. The vines 
do not, however, cling round trees for support, nor are they 
trained up poles as in Austria ; they grow almost mid, the stem 

M 



178 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

shooting upwards to a short distance from the ground, towards 
which the vine then bends. The wine made on these mountains 
is of excellent quality, rather sweet in flavour, of a golden -yellow 
colour, and exceedingly fiery. 

"VWstill continued to climb, without experiencing much incon- 
venience from the heat, up a fearful dizzy path, over rocks and 
stones, and past frightful chasms. Our leathern bottles were here 
useless to us, for we had no lack of water ; from every crevice in 
the rocks a clear crystal flood gushed forth, in which the gorge- 
ously-coloured masses of stone were beautifully mirrored. 

After a very fatiguing ride of five hours we at length reached the 
ridge of the Anti-Libanus, where we found a khan, and allowed 
ourselves an hour's rest. The view from tlu's point is very splen- 
did. The two loftiest mountain-ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Li- 
banus enclose between them a valley which may be about six miles 
long, and ten or twelve broad. Our way led across the moun- 
tain's brow and down into this picturesque valley, through which 
we journeyed for some miles to the village of Maschdalanscher, 
in the neighbourhood of which place we pitched our tents. 

It is, of course, seldom that a European woman is seen in 
these regions, and thus I seemed to be quite a spectacle to the 
inhabitants; at every place where we halted many women and 
children would gather round me, busily feeling my dress, put- 
ting on my straw hat, and looking at me from ah 1 sides, while 
they endeavoured to converse with me by signs. If they hap- 
pened to have any thing eatable at hand, such as cucumbers, 
fruits, or articles of that description, they never failed to offer 
them with the greatest good-nature, and seemed highly rejoiced 
when I accepted some. On the present evening several of these 
people were assembled round me, and I had an opportunity of 
noticing the costume of this mountain tribe. Excepting the 
head-dress, it is the same as that worn throughout all Palestine, 
and indeed in the whole of Syria ; the women have blue gowns, 
and the men white blouses, wide trousers, and a sash: some- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 179 

times the women wear spencers, and the more wealthy among 
them even display caftans and turbans. The head-dress of the 
women is very original, but does not look remarkably becoming. 
They wear on then- foreheads a tin horn more than a foot in 
length, and over this a white haudkercliief, fastened at the back 
and hanging down in folds. This rule, however, only applies to 
the wealthier portion of the community, which is here limited 
enough. The poorer women wear a much smaller horn, over 
which they display an exceedingly dingy handkerchief. During 
working hours they ordinarily divest themselves of these orna- 
ments, as they would render it impossible to carry loads on the 
head. The rich inhabitants of the mountains, both male and 
female, dress in the Oriental fashion ; but the women still retain 
the horn, which is then made of silver. 

The village of Maschdalanscher is built of clay huts thatched 
with straw. I saw many goats and horned cattle, and a good 
store of corn lay piled up before the doors. 

We were assured that the roads through the mountains in- 
habited by the Druses and Maronites were very unsafe, and we 
were strongly urged to take an escort with us; but as we met 
caravans almost every hour, we considered this an unnecessary 
precaution, and arrived safely without adventure of any kind at 
Damascus. 

July 3d. 

This morning we rode at first over a very good road, till at 
length we came upon a ravine, which seemed hardly to afford us 
room to pass. Closer and more closely yet did the rocky masses 
approach each other, as we passed amongst the loose shingle 
over the dry bed of a river. Frequently the space hardly ad- 
mitted of our stepping aside to allow the caravans we met to pass 
us. Sometimes we thought, after having painfully laboured through 
a ravine of this kind, that we should emerge into the open field ; 
but each time it was only to enter a wilder and more desert pass. 



180 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

So we proceeded for some hours, till the rocky masses changed to 
heaps of sand, and every trace of vegetation disappeared. At 
length we had climbed the last hill, and Damascus, " the vaunted 
city of the East," lay before us. 

It is certainly a striking sight when, escaping from the inhos- 
pitable domains of the mountain and the sandhill, we see stretched 
at our feet a great and luxuriant valley, forming in the freshness 
of its vegetation a singular contrast to the desert region around. 
In this valley, amid gardens and trees innumerable, extends the 
town, with its pretty mosques and slender lofty minarets ; but I 
was far from finding the scene so charming that I could have ex- 
claimed with other travellers, " This is the most beauteous spot 
on earth !" 

The plain in which Damascus lies runs on at the foot of the 
Anti-Libanus as far as the mountain of Scheik, and is shut in on 
three sides by sandhills of an incomparably dreary appearance. 
On the fourth side the plain loses itself in the sandy desert. This 
valley is exceedingly well watered by springs descending from all 
the mountains, which we could not, however, see on our approach ; 
but no river exists here. The water rushes forth but to dis- 
appear beneath the sand, and displays its richness only in the 
town and its immediate neighbourhood. 

From the hill whence we had obtained the first view of Da- 
mascus, we have still a good two miles to ride before we reach 
the plantations. These are large gardens of mish-mish, walnut, 
pomegranate, orange, and lemon trees, fenced in with clay walls, 
traversed by long broad streets, and watered by bubbling brooks. 
For a long time we journeyed on in the shade of these fruitful 
woods, till at length we entered the town through a large gate. 
Our enthusiastic conceptions of this renowned^ city were more and 
more toned down as we continued to advance. 

The houses in Damascus are almost all built of clay and earth, 
and many ugly wooden gables and heavy window-frames give a 
disagreeable ponderous air to the whole. Damascus is divided 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 181 

into several parts by gates, which are closed soon after sunset. 
We passed through a number of these gates, and also through the 
greater portion of the bazaar, on our road to the Franciscan con- 
vent. 

We had this day accomplished a journey of more than twenty- 
four miles, in a temperature of 35 to 36 Reaum., and had suf- 
fered much from the scorching wind, which came laden with par- 
ticles of dust. Our faces were so browned, that we might easily 
have been taken for descendants of the Bedouins. This was the 
only day that I felt my eyes affected by the glare. 

Although we were much fatigued on arriving at the convent, 
the first tiling we did, after cleansing ourselves from dust and 
washing our burning eyes, was to hasten to the French and Eng- 
lish consuls, so eager were we to see the interior of some of these 
clay huts. 

A low door brought us into a passage leading to a large yard. 
We could have fancied ourselves transported by magic to the scene 
of one of the fantastic " Arabian Nights," for all the glory of the 
East seemed spread before our delighted gaze. In the midst of 
the courtyard, which was paved with large stones, a large reser- 
voir, with a sparkling fountain, spread a delightful coolness around. 
Orange and lemon trees dipped their golden fruit into the crystal 
flood ; while at the sides flower-beds, filled with fragrant roses, 
balsams, oleanders, &c., extended to the stairs leading to th e 
reception-room. Every tiling seemed to have been done that 
could contribute to ornament this large and lofty apartment, 
which opened into the courtyard. Swelling divans, covered with 
the richest stuffs, lined the walls, which, tastefully ornamented 
with mirrors and painted and sculptured arabesques, and further 
decked with mosaic and gilding, displayed a magnificence of which 
I could not have formed a conception. In the foreground of this 
fairy apartment a jet of water shot upwards from a marble basin. 
The floor was also of marble, forming beautiful pictures in the 
most varied colours ; and over the whole scene was spread that 



182 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

charm so peculiar to the Orientals, a charm combining the 
tasteful with the rich and gorgeous. The apartment in which 
the women dwell, and where they receive their more confidential 
visitors, are similar to the one I have just described, except that 
they are smaller, less richly furnished, and completely open in 
front. The remaining apartments also look into the courtyard ; 
they are simply, but comfortably and prettily arranged. 

All the houses of the Orientals are similar to this one, except 
that the apartments of the women open into another courtyard 
than those of the men. 

After examining and admiring every tiling to our heart's con- 
tent, we returned to our hospitable convent. This evening the 
clerical gentlemen entertained us. A tolerably nice meal, with 
wine and good bread, restored our exhausted energies to a certain 
extent. 

At Beyrout we were quite alarmed at the warnings we re- 
ceived concerning the numbers of certain creeping things we 
should find here in the bedsteads. I therefore betook myself 
to bed with many qualms and misgivings ; but I slept undisturbed, 
both on this night and on the following one. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 183 



CHAPTER XII. 

The bazaar at Damascus The khan Grotto of St. Paul Fanaticism of the 
inhabitants Departure from Damascus The desert Military escort 
Heliopolis or Balbeck Stupendous ruins Continuation of our 
voyage through the desert The plague The Lebanon range Cedar- 
trees Druses and Maronites Importunate beggars Thievish pro- 
pensities of the Arabs. 

July 4th, 

DAMASCUS is one of the most ancient cities of the East, but 
yet we see no ruins ; a proof that no grand buildings ever 
existed here, and that therefore the houses, as they became old 
and useless, were replaced by new ones. 

To-day we visited the seat of all the riches the great bazaar. 
It is mostly covered in, but only with beams and straw mats. 
On both sides are rows of wooden booths, containing all kinds of 
articles, but a great preponderance of eatables, which are sold at 
an extraordinarily cheap rate. We found the " mish-mish" par- 
ticularly good. 

As hi Constantinople, the rarest and most costly of the wares 
are not exposed for sale, but must be sought for in closed store- 
houses. The booths look like inferior hucksters' shops, and each 
merchant is seen sitting in the midst of his goods. We passed 
hastily through the bazaar, in order soon to reach the great 
mosque, situate in the midst of it. As we were forbidden, how- 
ever, not only to enter the mosque, but even the courtyard, we 
were obliged to content ourselves with wondering at the immense 
portals, and stealing furtive glances at the interior of the open 



184 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

space beyond. This mosque was originally a Christian church ; 
and a legend tells that St. George was decapitated here. 

The khan, also situate in the midst of the bazaar, is pecu- 
liarly fine, and is said to be the best in all the East. The high 
and boldly-arched portal is covered with marble, and enriched 
with beautiful sculptures. The ulterior forms a vast rotunda, 
surrounded by galleries, divided from each other, and furnished 
with writing-tables for the use of the merchants. Below in the 
hall the bales and chests are piled up, and at the side are apart- 
ments for travelling dealers. The greater portion of the floor and 
the walls is covered with marble. 

Altogether, marble seems to be much sought after at Damascus. 
Every thing that passes for beautiful or valuable is either entirely 
composed of this stone, or at least is inlaid with it. Thus a pretty 
fountain in a h'ttle square near the bazaar is of marble; and a 
coffee-house opposite the fountain, the largest and most fre- 
quented of any in Damascus, is ornamented with a fe\v small 
marble pillars. But all these buildings, not even .excepting the 
great bathing-house, would be far less praised and looked at if 
they stood in a better neighbourhood. As the case i, however, 
they shine forth nobly from among the clay houses of Damascus. 

In the afternoon we visited the Grotto of St. Paul, lying im- 
mediately outside the town. On the ramparts we were shewn 
the place where the apostle is said to have leaped from the wall 
on horseback, reaching the ground in safety, and taking refuge 
from his enemies in the neighbouring grotto, which is said to 
have closed behind him by miracle, and not to have opened again 
until his persecutors had ceased their pursuit. At present, nothing 
is to be seen of this grotto excepting a small stone archway, 
like that of a bridge. Tombs of modern date, consisting of vaults 
covered with large blocks of stone, are very numerous near this 
grotto. 

We paid several more visits, and every where found great 
pomp of inner arrangement and decoration, varying of course in 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 185 

different houses. We were always served with coffee, sherbet, 
and argils' ; and in the houses of the Turks a dreary conversation 
was canied on through the medium of an interpreter. 

Walks and places of amusement there are none. The number 
of Franks resident here is too small to call for a place of general 
recreation, and the Turk never feels a want of this kind. The 
most he does is to saunter slowly from the bath to the coffee- 
house, and there to kill his tune with the help of a pipe and a 
cup of coffee, staring vacantly on the ground before him. Although 
the coffee-houses are more frequented than any other buildings in 
the East, they are often miserable sheds, being all small, and 
generally built only of wood. 

The inhabitants of Damascus wear the usual Oriental garb, 
but as a rule I thought them better dressed than in any Eastern 
town. Some of the women are veiled, but others go abroad with 
their faces uncovered. I saw here some very attractive counte- 
nances ; and an unusual number of lovely children's heads looked 
at me from all sides with an inquisitive smile. 

In reference to religious matters, these people seem very fana- 
tical ; they particularly dislike strangers. For instance, the painter 
S. wished to make sketches of the khan, the fountain, and a few 
other interesting objects or views. For this purpose he sat down 
before the great coffee-house to begin with the fountain ; but 
scarcely had he opened his portfolio before a crowd of curious 
idlers had gathered around him, who, as soon as they saw his in- 
tention, began to annoy him in every possible way. They pushed 
the children who stood near against him, so that he received a 
shock every moment, and was hindered in his drawing. As he 
continued to work in spite of their rudeness, several Turks came 
and stood directly before the painter, to prevent him from seeing 
the fountain. On his still continuing to persevere, they began to 
spit upon him. It was now high time to be gone, and so INIr. S. 
hastily gathered his materials together and turned to depart. Then 
the rage of the rabble broke noisily forth. They followed the 



186 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

artist yelling and screaming, and a few even threw stones at him. 
Luckily he succeeded in reaching our convent unharmed. 

Mr. S. had been allowed to draw without opposition at Con- 
stantinople, Brussa, Ephesus, and several other cities of the East, 
but here he was obliged to flee. Such is the disposition of these 
people, whom many describe as being so friendly. 

The following morning at sunrise Mr. S. betook himself to 
the terrace of the convent, to make a sketch of the town. Here 
too he was discovered, but luckily not until he had been at work 
some hours, and had almost completed his task ; so that as soon 
as the first stone came flying towards him, he was able quietly to 
evacuate the field. 

July 5th. 

Iii Damascus we met Count Zichy, who had arrived there 
with his servants a few days before ourselves, and intended con- 
tinuing his journey to Balbeck to-day. 

Count Zichy's original intention had been to make an excur- 
sion from this place to the celebrated town of Palmyra, an under- 
taking which would have occupied ten days. He therefore applied 
to the pacha for a sufficient escort for his excursion. This request 
was, however, refused ; the pacha observing, that he had ceased for 
some time to allow travellers to undertake this dangerous journey, 
as until now all strangers had been plundered by the wandering 
Arabs, and in some instances men had even been murdered. The 
pacha added, that it was not in his power to furnish so large an 
escort as would be required to render this journey safe, by en- 
abling the travellers to resist all aggressions. After receiving this 
answer, Count Zichy communicated with some Bedouin chiefs, 
who could not guarantee a safe journey, but nevertheless required 
6000 piastres for accompanying him. Thus it became necessary 
to give up the idea altogether, and to proceed instead to Balbeck 
and to the heights of Lebanon. 

At the hour of noon we rode out of the gate of Damascus 
in company with Count Zichy. The thermometer stood at 40 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 187 

Reaumur. Our procession presented quite a splendid appearance ; 
for the pacha had sent a guard of honour to escort the Count to 
Balbeck, to testify his respect for a relation of Prince M . 

At first our way led through a portion of the bazaar ; after- 
wards we reached a large and splendid street which traverses the 
entire city, and is said to be more than four miles in length. It 
is so broad, that three carriages can pass each other with ease, 
without annoyance to the pedestrians. It is a pity that this 
street, which is probably the finest in the whole kingdom, should 
be so little used, for carriages are not seen here any more than in 
the remaining portion of Syria. 

Scarcely have we quitted this road, before we are riding through 
gardens and meadows, among which the country-houses of the 
citizens lie scattered here and there. On this side of the city 
springs also gush forth and water the fresh groves and the grassy 
sward. A stone bridge, of very simple construction, led us across 
the largest stream in the neighbourhood, the Barada, which is, 
however, neither so broad nor so full of water as the Jordan. 

But soon we had left these smiling scenes behind us, and were 
wending our way towards the lonely desert. We passed several 
sepulchres, a number of which lie scattered over the sandy hills 
and plains round us. On the summit of one of these hills a 
little monument was pointed out to us, with the assertion that it 
was the grave of Abraham. We now rode for hours over flats, 
hills, and ridges of sand and loose stones ; and this day's journey 
was as fatiguing as that of our arrival at Damascus. From twelve 
o'clock at noon until about five in the evening we continued our 
journey through this wilderness, suffering lamentably from the 
heat. But now the wilderness was passed ; and suddenly a pic- 
ture so lovely and grand unfolded itself before our gaze, that we 
could have fancied ourselves transported to the romantic vales of 
Switzerland. A valley enriched with every charm of nature, and 
shut in by gigantic rocks of marvellous and fantastic forms, opened 
at our feet. A mountain torrent gushed from rock to reck, foam- 



188 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

ing and chafing among mighty blocks of stone, which, hurled from 
above, had here found their resting-place. A natural rocky bridge 
led across the roaring flood. Many a friendly hut, the inhabitants 
of which looked forth with stealthy curiosity upon the strange 
visitors, lay half hidden between the lofty walls. And so our 
way continued ; valley lay bordered on valley, and the little river 
which ran bubbling by the roadside led us past gardens and vil- 
lages, through a region of surpassing loveliness, to the great village 
of Zabdeni, where we at length halted, after an uninterrupted ride 
of ten hours and a half. 

The escort which accompanied us consisted of twelve men, 
with a superior and a petty officer. These troopers looked very 
picturesque when, as we travelled along the level road, they went 
through some small manoeuvres for our amusement, rushing along 
on their swift steeds and attacking each other, one party flying 
across the plain, and the other pursuing them as victors. 

The character of these children of nature is, on the whole, a 
very amiable one. They behaved towards us in an exceedingly 
friendly and courteous manner, bringing us fruit and water when- 
ever they could procure them, leading us carefully by the safest 
roads, and shewing us as much attention as any European could 
have done. But their idea of mine and thine does not always 
appear to be very clearly defined. Once, for instance, we passed 
through fields in which grew a plant resembling our pea, on a 
reduced scale. Each plant contained several pods, and each pod 
two peas. Our escort picked a large quantity, ate the fruit with 
an appearance of great relish, and very politely gave us a share of 
their prize. I found these peas less tender and eatable than those 
of my own country, and returned them to the soldier who had 
offered them to me, observing at the same time that I would 
rather have had mish-mish. On hearing this he immediately 
galloped off, and shortly afterwards returned with a whole cargo 
of mish-mish and little apples, which had probably been borrowed 
for an indefinite period from one of the neighbouring gardens. I 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 189 

mention these little circumstances, as they appeared to me to be 
characteristic. On the one hand, Mr. S. had heen threatened 
with the fate of St. Stephen for wishing to make a few sketches ; 
and yet, on the other, these people were so kind and so ready to 
oblige. 

This region produces abundance of fruit, and is particularly 
rich in mish-mish, or apricots. The finest of these are dried; 
while those which are over-ripe, or half decayed, are boiled to a 
pulp in large pots, and afterwards spread to dry on long smooth 
boards, in the form of cakes, about half an inch in thickness. 
These cakes, which look like coarse brown leather, are after- 
wards folded up, and form, together with the dried mish-mish, a 
staple article of commerce, which is exported far and wide. In 
Constantinople, and even in Servia, I saw cakes of this description 
which came from these parts. 

The Turks are particularly fond of taking this dried pulp 
with them on their journeys. They cut it into little pieces, which 
they afterwards leave for several hours in a cup of water to dis- 
solve ; it then forms a really aromatic and refreshing drink, which 
they partake of with bread. 

From Damascus to Balbeck is a ride of eighteen hours. Count 
Zichy wished to be in Balbeck by the next day at noon ; we 
therefore had but a short night's rest. 

The night was so mild and beautiful, that we did not want 
the tents at all, but lay down on the bank of a streamlet, beneath 
the shade of a large tree. For a long time sleep refused to visit 
us, for our encampment was opposite to a coffee-house, where a 
great hubbub was kept up until a very late hour. Small caravans 
were continually arriving or departing, and so there was no chance 
of rest. At length we dropped quietly asleep from very weari- 
ness, to be awakened a few hours afterwards to start once more 

on our arduous journey. 

July 6th. 

We rode without halting for eight hours, sometimes through 



190 VISIT TO THE HOLY 

pleasant valleys, at others over barren unvarying regions, upon 
and between the heights of the Anti-Libanus. At the hour of 
noon we reached the last hill, and 



HELIOPOLIS OH BALBECK, 

the " city of the sun," lay stretched before us. 

We entered a valley shut hi by the highest snow-covered peaks 
of Lebanon and Anti-Libanus, more than six miles in breadth 
and fourteen or sixteen miles long, belonging to Caelosyria. Many 
travellers praise this vale as one of the most beautiful in all 
Syria. 

It certainly deserves the title of the ' most remarkable' valley, 
for excepting at Thebes and Palmyra we may search in vain for 
the grand antique ruins which are here met with ; the title of the 
' most beautifiil' does not, according to my idea, appertain to it. 
The mountains around are desert and bare. The immeasurable 
plain is sparingly cultivated, and still more thinly peopled. With 
the exception of the town of Balbeck, which has arisen from the 
rums of the ancient city, not a village nor a hut is to be seen. 
The com, which still partly covered the fields, looked stunted and 
poor ; the beds of the streams were dry, and the grass was burnt 
up. The majestic ruins, which become visible directly the brow 
of the last hill is gained, atone hi a measure for these drawbacks ; 
but we were not satisfied, for we had expected to see much more 
than met our gaze. 

We wended our way along stony paths, past several quarries, 
towards the rums. On reaching these quarries we dismounted, 
to obtain a closer view of them. In the light hand one lies a 
colossal block of stone, cut and shaped on all sides ; it is sixty feet 
in length, eighteen hi breadth, and thirteen in diameter. This 
giant block was probably intended to form part of the Cyclops wall 
surrounding the Temple of the Sun, for we afterwards noticed 
several stones of equal length and breadth among the ruins. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 191 

Another to the left side of the road was remarkable for several 
grottoes and fragments of rock picturesquely grouped. 

We had sent our horses on to the convent, and now hastened 
towards the ruined temples. At the foot of a little acclivity a wall 
rose lofty and majestic ; it was constructed of colossal blocks of 
rock, which seemed to rest firmly upon each other by their own 
weight, without requiring the aid of mortar. Three of these 
stones were exactly the size of one we had seen in the quarry. 
Many appeared to be sixty feet in length, and broad and thick in 
proportion. This is the Cyclops wall surrounding the hill on which 
the temples stand. A difficult path, over piled-up fragments of 
marble and pieces of rock and rubbish, serves as a natural rampart 
against the intrusion of camels and horses ; and this circumstance 
alone has prevented these sanctuaries of the heathen deities from 
being converted into duty stables. 

When we had once passed tin's obstruction, delight and wonder 
arrested our footsteps. For some moments our glances wandered 
irresolutely from point to point ; we could fix our attention on 
nothing, so great was the number of beauties surrounding us : 
splendid architecture arches rising boldly into the air, supported 
on lofty pillars every thing wore an air so severely classic, and 
yet all was gorgeously elegant, and at the same tune perfectly 
tasteful. 

At first we reviewed every thing in a very hasty manner, for 
our impulse hurried us along, and we wished to take in every 
tiling at one glance. Afterwards we began a new and a more 
deliberate survey. 

As we enter a large open courtyard, our eye is caught by 
numerous pieces of marble and fragments of columns, some of the 
latter resting on tastefully sculptured plinths. Almost every 
thing here is prostrate, covered with rubbish and broken frag- 
ments, but yet all looks grand and majestic in its ruin. We next 
enter a second and a larger courtyard, above two hundred paces 
in length and about a hundred in breadth. Round the walls are 



192 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

niches cut in marble, and ornamented with the prettiest arabesques. 
These niches were probably occupied in former times by statues 
of the numerous heathen gods. Behind these are little cells, the 
dwellings of the priests ; and in the foreground rise six Corinthian 
pillars, the only trace left of the great Temple of the Sun. These 
six pillars, which have hitherto bid defiance to time, devastation, 
and earthquakes, are supposed to be the loftiest and most mag- 
nificent in the world. Nearly seventy feet in height, each pillar 
a rocky colossus, resting on a basement twenty-seven feet high, 
covered with excellent workmanship, a masterpiece of ancient 
architecture, they tower above the Cyclops wall, and look far 
away into the distance giant monuments of the hoary past. 

How vast this temple must originally have been is shewn by 
the remaining pedestals, from which the pillars have fallen, and 
lay strewed around in weather-stained fragments. I counted 
twenty such pedestals along the length of the temple, and ten 
across its breadth. 

The lesser temple, separated from the greater merely by a 
wall, lies deeper and more sheltered from the wind and weather ; 
consequently it is in better preservation. A covered hall, resting 
on pillars fifty feet in height, leads round this temple. Statues of 
gods and heroes, beautifully sculptured in marble, and surrounded 
by arabesques, deck the lofty arches of this corridor. The pillars 
consist of three pieces fastened together with such amazing strength, 
that when the last earthquake threw down a column it did not 
break, but fell with its top buried hi the earth, where it is seen 
leaning its majestic height against a hill. 

From this hall we pass through a splendid portal into the in- 
terior of the little sanctuary. An eagle with outspread wings 
overshadows the upper part of the gate, which is thirty feet in 
height by twenty hi breadth. The two sides are enriched with 
small figures prettily executed, in a tastefully-carved border of 
flowers, fruit, ears of corn, and arabesques. This portal is hi very 
good preservation, excepting that the keystone has slipped from 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 19O 

its place, and hangs threateningly over the entrance, to the terror 
of all who pass beneath. But we entered and afterwards returned 
unhurt, and many will yet pass unharmed like ourselves beneath 
the loose stone. We shall have returned to dust, while the pen- 
dent mass will still see generation after generation roll on. 

This lesser temple would not look small by any means, were 
it not for its colossal neighbour. On one side nine, and on the 
other six pillars are still erect, besides several pedestals from 
which the pillars have fallen. Walls, niches, every thing around 
us, in fact, is of marble, enriched with sculptured work of every 
land. The sanctuary of the Sun is separated from the nave of the 
temple by a row of pillars, most of them prostrate. 

To judge from what remains of both these temples, they 
must originally have been decorated with profuse splendour. The 
costliest statues and bas-reliefs, sculptured in a stone resembling 
marble, once filled the niches and halls, and the remains of tasteful 
ornaments and arabesques bear witness to the luxury which once 
existed here. The only fault seems to have been a redundancy of 
decoration. 

A subterranean vaulted passage, two hundred and fifty paces 
in length and thirty in breadth, traverses this temple. In the 
midst of this walk a colossal head is hewn out of the rocky ceiliug 
representing probably some hero of antiquity. This place is now 
converted into a stable for horses and camels ! 

The little brook Litany winds round the foot of the hill on 
which these ruins stand. 

We had been cautioned at Damascus to abstain from wander- 
ing alone among thes'e temples ; but our interest in all we saw was 
so great that we forgot the warning and our fears, and hastened to 
and fro without the least protection. We spent several hours here, 
exploring every corner, and meeting no one but a few curious in- 
habitants, who wished to see the newly-arrived Franks. Herr S. 
even wandered through the ruins at night quite alone, without 
meeting with an adventure of any kind. 



194 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

I am almost inclined to think that travellers sometimes detail 
attacks by robbers, and dangers which they have not experienced, 
in order to render their narrative more interesting. My journey 
was a very long one through very dangerous regions; on some 
occasions I travelled alone with only one Arab servant, and yet 
nothing serious ever happened to me. 

Heliopolis is in such a ruined state, that no estimate can be 
formed of the pristine size and splendour of this celebrated town. 
Excepting the two temples of the Sun, and a very small building 
in their vicinity, built in a circular form and richly covered with 
sculpture and arabesques, and a few broken pillars, not a trace of 
the ancient city remains. 

The present town of Balbeck is partly built on the site occu- 
pied by its predecessor ; it lies to the right of the temples, and con- 
sists of a heap of small wretched-looking houses and huts. The 
largest buildings in the place are the convent and the barracks ; 
the latter of these presents an exceedingly ridiculous appearance ; 
fragments of ancient pillars, statues, friezes, &c. having been col- 
lected from all sides, and put together to form a modern building 
according to Turkish notions of taste. 

We were received into the convent, but could command no 
further accommodation than an empty room and a few straw mats. 
Our attendant brought us pilau, the every-day dish of the East ; 
but to-day he surprised us with a boiled fowl, buried beneath a 
heap of the Turkish fare. Count Zicby added a few bottles of 
excellent wine from Lebanon to the feast ; and so we sat down to 
dinner without tables or chairs, as merry as mortals need desire 
to be. 

Here, as in most other Eastern towns, I had only to step out 
on the terrace-roof of the house to cause a crowd of old and 
young to collect, eager to see a Frankish woman in the costume 
of her country. Whoever wishes to create a sensation, without 
possessing either genius or talent, has only to betake himself, 
without loss of time, to the East, and he will have his ambition 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 195 

gratified to the fullest extent. But whoever has as great an ob- 
jection to being stared at as I have, will easily understand that I 
reckoned this among the greatest inconveniences of my journey. 

July 7th. 

At five o'clock in the morning we again mounted our horses, 
and rode for three hours through an immense plain, where notliing 
was to be seen but scattered columns, towards the foremost pro- 
montories of the Lebanon range. The road towards the heights 
was sufficiently good and easy ; we were little disturbed by the 
heat, and brooks caused by the thawing of snow-fields afforded 
us most grateful refreshment. In the middle of the day we took 
an hour's nap under the shady trees beside a gushing stream ; then 
we proceeded to climb the heights. As we journeyed onwards 
the trees became fewer and farther between, until at length no 
soil was left in which they could grow. 

The way was so confined by chasms and abysses on the one 
side, and walls of rock on the other, that there was scarcely room 
for a horse to pass. Suddenly a loud voice before us cried, " Halt !" 
Startled by the sound, we looked up to find that the call came 
from a soldier, who was escorting a woman afflicted with the 
plague from a village where she had been the first victim of the 
terrible disease to another where it was raging fearfully. It was 
impossible to turn aside ; so the soldier had no resource but to 
drag the sick person some paces up the steep rocky wall, and then 
we had to pass close by her. The soldier called out to us to 
cover our mouths and noses. He himself had anointed the lower 
part of his face with tar, as a preventive against contagion. 

This was the first plague-stricken person I had seen ; and as 
we were compelled to pass close by her, I had an opportunity of 
observing the unfortunate creature closely. She was bound on 
an ass, appeared resigned to her fate, and turned her sunken eyes 
upon us with an aspect of indifference. I could see no trace of 
the terrible disease, except a yellow appearance of the face. The 



196 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

soldier who accompanied her seemed as cool and indifferent as 
though he -were walking beside a person in perfect health. 

As the plague prevailed to a considerable extent throughout 
the valleys of the Lebanon, we were frequently obliged to go some 
distance out of our way to avoid the villages afflicted with the 
scourge ; we usually encamped for the night in the open fields, 
far from any habitation. 

On the whole long distance from Balbeck to the cedars of 
Lebanon we found not a human habitation, excepting a h'ttle 
shepherd's hut near the mountains. Not more than a mile and a 
half from the heights we came upon small fields of snow. Several 
of our attendants dismounted and began a snow-balling match, 
a wintry scene which reminded me of my fatherland. Although 
we were travelling on snow, the temperature was so mild that not 
one of our party put on a cloak. We could not imagine how it 
was possible for snow to exist in such a high temperature. The 
thermometer stood at 9 Reaumur. 

A fatiguing and dangerous ride of five hours at length brought 
us from the foot to the highest point of Mount Lebanon. Here, 
for the first time, we can see the magnitude and the peculiar con- 
struction of the range. 

Steep walls of rock, with isolated villages scattered here and 
there hike beehives, and built on natural rocky terraces, rise on 
all sides ; deep valleys he between, contrasting beautifully in their 
verdant freshness with the bare rocky barriers. Farther on lie 
stretched elevated plateaux, with cows and goats feeding at inter- 
vals ; and in the remote distance glitters a mighty stripe of bluish- 
green, encircling the landscape like a broad girdle this is the 
Mediterranean. On the flat extended coast several places can be 
distinguished, among which the most remarkable is Tripoli. On 
the right the " Grove of Cedars" lay at our feet. 

. For a long time we stood on this spot, and turned and turned 
again, for fear of losing any part of this gigantic panorama. On 
one side the mountain-range, with its valleys, rocks, and gorges ; 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 197 

on the other the immense plain of Caelosyria, on the verge of which 
the ruins of the Sun-temple were visible, glittering in the noontide 
rays. Then we climbed downwards and upwards, then downwards 
once more, through ravines and over rocks, along a frightful path, 
to a little grove of the far-famed cedars of Lebanon. In this di- 
rection the peculiar pointed formation which constitutes the prin- 
cipal charm of these mountains once more predominates. 

The celebrated Grove of Cedars is distant about two miles 
and a half from the summit of Lebanon ; it consists of between 
five and six hundred trees : about twenty of these are very aged, 
and five peculiarly large and fine specimens are said to have ex- 
isted in the days of Solomon. One tree is more than twenty-five 
feet hi circumference ; at about five feet from the ground it divides 
into four portions, and forms as many good- sized trunks. 

For more than an hour we rested beneath these ancient monu- 
ments of the vegetable world. The setting sun warned us to de- 
part speedily ; for our destination for the night was above three 
miles away, and it was not prudent to travel on these fearful paths 
in the darkness. 

Our party here separated. Count Zichy proceeded with his 
attendants to Huma, while the rest of us bent our course towards 
Tripoli. After a hearty leave-taking, one company turned to the 
right and the other to the left. 

We had hardly held on our way for half an hour, before 
one of the loveliest valleys I have ever beheld opened at our feet 
immense and lofty walls of rock, of the most varied and fantastic 
shapes, surrounded tin's fairy vale on all sides : hi the foreground 
rose a gigantic table-rock, on which was built a beautiful village, 
with a church smiling hi the midst. Suddenly the sound of chimes 
was borne upwards towards us on the still clear air ; they were the 
first I had heard in Syria. I cannot describe the feeling of delicious 
emotion this familiar sound caused in me. The Turkish govern- 
ment every where prohibits the ringing of bells ; but here on the 



198 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

mountains, among the free Maronites, every thing is free. The sound 
of church-bells is a simple earnest music for Christian ears, too 
intimately associated with the usages of our religion to be heard 
with indifference. Here, so far from my native country, they 
appeared like links hi the mysterious chain which binds the Chris- 
tians of all countries in one unity. I felt, as it were, nearer to 
my hearth and to my dear ones, who were, perhaps, at the same 
moment listening to similar sounds, and thinking of the distant 
wanderer. 

The road leading into this valley was fearfully steep. We 
were obliged to make a considerable detour round the lovely 
village of Bscharai ; for the plague was raging there, which made 
it forbidden ground for us. Some distance beyond the village we 
pitched our camp beside a small stream. This night we suffered 
much from cold and damp. 

The inhabitants of Bscharai paid us a visit for the purpose of 
demanding backsheesh. We had considerable difficulty in getting 
rid of them, and were obliged almost to beat them off with sticks 
to escape from their contagious touch. 

The practice of begging is universal in the East. So soon as 
an inhabitant comes in sight, he is sure to be holding out his hand. 
In those parts where poverty is every where apparent, we cannot 
wonder at this importunity ; but we are justly surprised when we 
find it in these fruitful valleys, which offer every thing that man 
can require ; where the inhabitants are well clothed, and where 
their stone dwellings look cheerful and commodious ; where corn, 
the grape-vine, the fig and mulberry tree, and even the valuable 
potato-plant, which cannot flourish throughout the greater part of 
Syria on account of the heat and the stony soil, are found hi 
abundance. Every spot of earth is carefully cultivated and turned 
to the best account, so that I could have fancied myself among the 
industrious German peasantry ; and yet these free people beg and 
steal quite as much as the Bedouins and Arabs. We were obliged 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 199 

to keep a sharp watch on every thing. My riding-whip was stolen 
almost before my very eyes, and one of the gentlemen had his 
pocket picked of his handkerchief. 

Our march to-day had been very fatiguing; we had ridden 
for eleven hours, and the greater part of the road had been very 
bad. The night brought us but little relaxation, for our cloaks 
did not sufficiently protect us from the cold. 



200 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The Lebanon Druses and Maronites Illness of Herr Sattler Djcbcl or 
Byblus Rocky passes DogVriver Return to Beyrout Sickness 
Departure for Alexandria Roguery of the captain Disagreeables on 
board Limasol Alarm of pirates Cowardice of the crew Arrival 
at Alexandria. 

July Sth. 

TO-DAY we quitted our cold hard couch at six o'clock in the 
morning, and travelled agreeably for two hours through this 
romantic valley, which appeared almost at every step in a new 
aspect of increased beauty. Above the village a foaming stream 
bursts from the mighty rocks in a beautiful waterfall, irrigates 
the valley, and then vanishes imperceptibly among the windings 
of the ravine. Brooks similar to this one, but smaller, leapt from 
the mountains round about. On the rocky peaks we seem to be- 
hold ruined castles and towers, but discover with astonishment, as 
we approach nearer, that what we supposed to be nuns are delu- 
sive pictures, formed by the wonderful masses of rock, grouped 
one above the other in the most fantastic forms. In the depths 
on the one side, grottoes upon grottoes are seen, some with their 
entrances half concealed, others with gigantic portals, above which 
the wild rocks tower high ; on the other a rich soil is spread in 
the form of terraces on the rocky cliffs, forming a lovely picture 
of refreshing vegetation. Had I been a painter, it would have 
been difficult to tear me away from the contemplation of these 
regions. 

Below the greater waterfall a narrow stone bridge, without 
balustrades or railing, leads across a deep ravine, through which 
the stream rushes foaming, to the opposite shore. After having 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 201 

once crossed, we enter upon a more inhabited tract of country, and 
travel on between rows of houses and gardens. But many of the 
houses stood empty, the inhabitants having fled into the fields, 
and there erected huts of branches of trees, to escape the plague. 
The IMaronites, the real inhabitants of these mountains, are 
strong people, gifted with a determined will; they cannot be 
easily brought under a foreign yoke, but are ready to defend their 
liberty to the death among the natural strongholds of their rocky 
passes. Their religion resembles that of the Christians, and their 
priests are permitted to marry. The women do not wear veils, 
but I saw few such handsome countenances among them as I 
have frequently observed in the Tyrol. 

On the first mountain-range of Lebanon, in the direction of 
Cselosyria, many Druses are found, besides a few tribes of 
" Mutualis." The former incline to the Christian faith, while 
the latter are generally termed " calf- worshippers." They prac- 
tise their religion so secretly, that nothing certain is known con- 
cerning it ; the general supposition is, however, that they worship 
their deity under the form of a calf. 

Our way led onwards, for about six miles from Bscharai, 
through the beautiful valleys of the Lebanon. Then the smil- 
ing nature changed, and we were again wandering through 
sterile regions. The heat, too, became very oppressive; but 
every thing would have been borne cheerfully had there not been 
an invalid among us. 

Herr Sattler had felt rather unwell on the previous day ; to-day 
he grew so much worse that he could not keep his seat in his 
saddle, and fell to the ground half insensible. Luckily we found 
a cistern not far off, and near it some trees, beneath which we 
made a bed of cloaks for our sick friend. A little water mixed 
with a few drops of strong vinegar restored him to consciousness. 
After the lapse of an hour, the patient was indeed able to resume 
his journey ; but lassitude, headache, and feverish shiverings still 
remained, and we had a ride of many hours before us ere we could 



VEST! TO THE HOLT LAX3, 

our resting-place for the night. From every hill we climbed 
the ocean could be seen at so short a distance that we thought an 
hoar's journeying must bring us there. But each time another 
mountain thrust itself between, which it was necessary to climb. 
So it went on for many hours, till at length we reached a small 
valley with a lofty isolated mass of rock in the midst, crowned by 
mined castle. The approach to this stronghold was by a flight 
of stairs cut in the rock. From this point our journey lay at 
least over a better road, between meadows and fruit-trees, to the 
little town which we reached at night-iall. We had a long and 
weary search before we could obtain for our sick comrade even a 
room, destitute of every appearance of comfort. Poor Herr Sattler, 
more dead than alive, was compelled, after a ride of thirteen 
hours, to take up his lodging on the hard ground. The room was 
perfectly bare, the windows were broken, and the door would not 
lock. We were fain to search for a few boards, with which we 
closed up the windows, that the sick man might at least be shel- 
tered from the current of air. 

I then prepared him a dish of rice with vinegar; this was 
the only refreshment we were able to procure. 

The rest of us lay down in the yard ; but the anxiety we fell 
concerning our sick friend prevented us from sleeping much. He 
exhibited every symptom of the plague ; in this short time his 
countenance was quite changed ; violent headache and exhaustion 
prevented him from moving, and the burning heat added the 
pangs of thirst to his other ills. As we had been travelling for 
the last day and a half through regions where the pestilence pre- 
vailed, it appeared but too probable that Herr Sattler had been 
attacked by it. Luckily the patient himself had not any idea of 
the kind, and we took especial care that he should not read oar 
anxiety hi our countenances. 

July 9th. 

Heaven be praised, Herr Sattler was better to-day, though 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 203 

too weak to continue his journey. As we had thus some time on 
our hands, the French gentleman and I resolved to embark in a 
boat to witness the operation of fishing for sponges, by which a 
number of the poorer inhabitants of the Syrian coast gain their 
livelihood. 

A fisherman rowed us about half a mile out to sea, till he came 
to a place where he hoped to find something. Here he immersed 
a plummet in the sea to sound its depth, and on finding that some- 
thing was to be gained here, he dived downwards armed with a 
knife to cut the sponge he expected to find from the rocks ; and 
after remaining below the surface for two or three minutes, reap- 
peared with his booty. When first loosened from the rocks, these 
sponges are usually full of shells and small stones, which give 
them a very strong and disagreeable smell. They require to be 
thoroughly cleansed from dirt and well washed with sea-water be- 
fore being put into fresh. 

After our little water-party, we sallied forth to see the town, 
which is very prettily situated among plantations of mulberry-trees 
in the vicinity of the sea-coast. The women here are not only 
unveiled, but frequently wear their necks bare ; we saw some of 
them working hi their gardens and washing linen ; they were half 
undressed. We visited the bazaar, intending to purchase a few 
eggs and cucumbers for our dinner, and some oranges for our con- 
valescent friend. But we could not obtain any ; and moderate as 
our wishes were, it was out of our power to gratify them. 

By the afternoon Herr Sattler had so far regained his strength, 
that he could venture to undertake a short journey of ten miles to 
the little town of Djaebbehl. This stage was the less difficult for 
our worthy invalid from the fact that the road lay pleasantly 
across a fruitful plain skirting the sea, while a cool sea-breeze took 
away the oppressiveness of the heat. The majestic Lebanon 
bounded the distant view on the left, and several convents on the 
foremost chain of mountains looked down upon the broad vale. 

We seemed to have but just mounted our horses when we 



204 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

already descried the castle of the town to which we were bound 
rising above its walls, and soon after halted at a large khan in its 
immediate neighbourhood. There were large rooms here in plenty, 
but all were empty, and the unglazed windows could not even be 
closed by shutters. 

Houses of entertainment of this description barely shield the 
traveller from the weather. We took possession of a large entrance- 
hall for our night's quarters, and made ourselves as comfortable as 
we could. 

Count Berchtold and I walked into the town of Djaebbehl 
(Byblus). This place is, as I have already mentioned, surrounded 
by a wall ; it contains also a small bazaar, where we did not find 
much to buy. The majority of dwellings are built hi gardens of 
mulberry-trees. The castle lies rather high, and is still in the 
condition to which it was reduced after the siege by the English 
in 1840 ; the side fronting the ocean has sustained most damage. 
This castle is now uninhabited, but some of the lower rooms are 
converted into stables. Not far off we found some fragments of 
ancient pillars ; an amphitheatre is said to have once stood here. 

July 10th. 

To-day Herr Sattler had quite recovered his health, so that 
we could again commence our journey, according to custom, early 
in the morning. Our road lay continually by the sea-shore. The 
views were always picturesque and beautiful, as on the way from 
Batrun to Djaebbehl ; but to-day we had the additional luxury of 
frequently coming upon brooks which flowed from the neighbour- 
ing Lebanon, and of passing springs bursting forth near the sea- 
shore ; one indeed so close to the sea, that the waves continually 
dashed over it. 

After riding forward for four hours, we reached the so-called 
' Dog's-river," the greatest and deepest on the whole journey. 
This stream also has its origin in the heights of the Lebanon, aud 
after a short course falls into the neighbouring sea. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 205 

At the entrance of the valley where the Dog's-river flowed lay 
a simple khan. Here we made halt to rest for an hour. 

Generally we got nothing to eat during the day, as we 
seldom or never passed a village; even when we came upon 
a house, there was rarely any thing to be had but coffee : we 
were therefore the more astonished to find here fresh figs, cu- 
cumbers, butter-milk, and wine, tilings which in Syria make a 
feast for the gods. We revelled in this unwonted profusion, 
and afterwards rode into the valley, which smiled upon us in 
verdant luxuriance. 

This vale cannot be more than five or six hundred feet in 
breadth. On either side high walls rise towering up ; and on the 
left we see the ruins of an aqueduct quite overgrown with ivy. This 
aqueduct is seven or eight hundred paces in length, and extends 
as far as the spot where the Dog's-river rushes over rocks and 
stones, forming not a lofty, but yet a fine waterfall. Just below 
tliis fall a bridge of Roman architecture, supported boldly on rocky 
buttresses, unites the two shores. The road to this bridge is by a 
broad flight of stone stairs, upon which our good Syrian horses 
carried us in perfect safety both upwards and downwards ; it was 
a fearful, dizzy road. The river derives its name from a stone 
lying near it, which is said to resemble a dog in form. Stones 
and pieces of rock, against which the stream rushed foaming, \ve 
saw in plenty, but none in which we could discover any resem- 
blance to a dog. Perhaps the contour has been destroyed by the 
action of wind and weather. 

Scarcely had we crossed this dangerous bridge when the road 
wound sharply round a rock in the small but blooming valley, 
and we journeyed towards the heights up almost perpendicular 
rocks, and past abysses that overhung the sea. 

The rocky mountain we were now climbing juts far out into 
the sea, and forms a pass towards the territory of Beyrout which 
a handful of men might easily hold against an army. Such a 
pass may that of Thermopylae have been ; . and had these moun- 



206 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

taineers but a Leonidas, they would certainly not be far behind 
the ancient Spartans. 

A Latin inscription on a massive stone slab, and higher up 
four niches, two of which contain statues, while the others display 
similar inscriptions, seemed to indicate that the Romans had 
already known and appreciated the importance of this pass. Un- 
fortunately both statues and writing were so much injured by the 
all-destroying hand of time, that only a man learned in these 
matters could have deciphered their meaning. In our party there 
was no one equal to such a task. 

We rode on for another half-hour, after which the path led 
downwards into the territory of Beyrout ; and we rode quietly 
and comfortably by the sea-side towards this city. Mulberry- 
trees and vineyards bloomed around us, country-houses and villages 
lay half hidden between, and convents crowned the lower peaks of 
the Lebanon, which on this side displays only naked rocks, the 
majority of a bluish-grey colour. 

At a little distance from Beyrout we came upon a second 
giant bridge, similar to that over the Dog's-river. Broad stair- 
cases, on which four or five 'horsemen could conveniently ride 
abreast, led upwards and downwards. The steps are so steep, and 
He so far apart, that it seems almost incredible that the poor 
horses should be able to ascend and descend upon them. We 
looked down from a dizzy height, not upon a river, but upon a dry 
river-bed. 

At five o'clock in the evening we arrived safely at Beyrout ; 
and thus ended our excursion to the " lovely and incomparable 
city of the East," to the world-renowned ruin, and to the vener- 
able Grove of Cedars. Our tour had occupied ten days ; the dis- 
tance was about 180 miles ; namely, from Beyrout to Damascus 
about 60, from Damascus to Balbeck 40, and from Balbeck across 
the Lebanon to Beyrout about 80 miles. 

Of four-footed beasts, amphibious creatures, birds, or insects, 
we had seen nothing. Count Berchtold caught a chameleon, which 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 207 

unfortunately effected its escape from its prison a few days after- 
wards. At night we frequently heard the howling of jackals, but 
never experienced any annoyance from them. We had not to 
complain of the attacks of insects ; hut suffered much from the 
dreadful heat, besides being frequently obliged to endure hunger 
and thirst : the thermometer one day rose to 40. 

In Beyrout I once more put up at the house of the kind 
French lady. The first piece of news I heard was that I had 
arrived twenty-four hours too late, and had thus missed the Eng- 
lish packet-boat ; this was a most annoying circumstance, for the 
boat hi question only starts for Alexandria once a month (on the 
8th or 9th), and at other times it is a great chance if an oppor- 
tunity of journeying thither can be found. On the very next day 
I hastened to the Austrian consulate, and begged the Vice-consul, 
Herr C., to let me know when a ship was about to start for 
Egypt, and also to engage a place for me. I was told that a 
Greek vessel would start for that country hi two or three days ; 
but these two or three days grew into nineteen. 

Never shall I forget what I had to endure hi Beyrout. When 
I could no longer bear the state of things at night hi the Noah's 
ark of my good Pauline, I used to creep through the window on 
to a terrace, and sleep there ; but was obliged each tune to retire 
to my room before daybreak lest I should be discovered. It is 
said that misfortunes seldom happen singly, and my case was not 
an exception to the rule. One night I must have caught cold ; 
for in the morning when I hastened back to my prison, and lay 
down on the bed to recover from the effects of my stone couch, I 
experienced such an acute pain hi my back and hips that I was 
unable to rise. It happened to be a Sunday morning, a day on 
which my kind Pauline did not come to the house, as there was 
no school to keep; and so I lay for twenty-four hours in the 
greatest pain, without help, unable even to obtain a drop of water. 
I was totally unable to drag myself to the door, or to the place 
where the water-jug stood. The next day, I am thankful to say, 



208 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

I felt somewhat better ; my Pauline also came, and prepared me 
some mutton-broth. By the fourth day I was once more up, and 
had almost recovered from the attack. 



JOURNEY FROM BEYROUT TO CAIRO AND ALEXANDRIA. 

It was not until the 28th of July that a Greek brig set sail 
for Alexandria. At ten o'clock in the evening I betook myself 
on board, and the next morning at two we weighed anchor. 
Never haA'e I bid adieu to any place with so much joy as I felt 
on leaving the town of Beyrout ; my only regret was the parting 
from my kind Pauline. I had met many good people during my 
journey, but she was certainly one of the best. 

Unhappily, my cruel fate was not yet weary of pursuing me ; 
and in my experience I fully realised the old proverb of, " out of 
the frying-pan into the fire." On this vessel, and during the tune 
we had to keep quarantine in Alexandria, I was almost worse off 
than during my stay in Beyrout. It is necessary, in dealing with 
the captain of a vessel of this description, to have a written con- 
tract for every thing stating, for instance, where he is to land, 
how long he may stay at each place, &c. I mentioned this feet 
at the consulate, and begged the gentlemen to do what was neces- 
sary ; but they assured me the captain was known to be a man of 
honour, and that the precaution I wished to take would be quite 
superfluous. Upon this assumption, I placed myself fearlessly in 
the hands of the man ; but scarcely had we lost sight of land, 
when he frankly declared that there were not sufficient provisions 
and water on board to allow of our proceeding to Alexandria, 
but that he must make for the harbour of Limasol in Cyprus. I 
was exceedingly angry at this barefaced fraud, and at the loss of 
time it would occasion me, and offered all the opposition I could. 
But nothing would avail me ; I had no written contract, and the 
rest of the company offered no active resistance so to Cyprus we 
went. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 209 

A voyage in an ordinary sailing-vessel, which is not a packet- 
boat, is as wearisome a thing as can be well conceived. The 
lower portion of the ship is generally so crammed with merchan- 
dise, that the deck alone remains for the passengers. This was 
the case on the present occasion. I was obliged to remain con- 
tinually on deck : during the daytime, when I had only my um- 
brella to shield me from the piercing rays of the sun ; at night, 
when the dews fell so heavily, that after an hour my cloak would 
be quite wet through, in cold and in stormy weather. They did 
not even spread a piece of sailcloth by way of awning. This state 
of things continued for ten days and eleven nights, during which 
time I had not even an opportunity to change my clothes. This 
was a double hardship ; for if there is a place above all others 
where cleanliness becomes imperative to comfort, it is certainly on 
board a Greek ship, the generality of which are exceedingly dirty 
and disgusting. The company I found did not make amends for 
the accommodation. The only Europeans on board were two 
young men, who had received some unimportant situation in a 
quarantine office from the Turkish government. The beha- 
viour of both was conceited, stupid, and withal terribly vulgar. 
Then there were four students from Alexandria, who boarded at 
Beyrout, and were going home to spend the vacation good- 
natured but much-neglected lads of fourteen or fifteen years, who 
seemed particularly partial to the society of the sailors, and were 
always talking, playing, or quarrelling with them. The remainder 
of the company consisted of a rich Arab family, with several male 
and female negro slaves, and a few very poor people. And hi 
such society I was to pass a weary time. Many will say that 
this was a good opportunity for obtaining an insight into the 
customs and behaviour of these people ; but I would gladly have 
declined the opportunity, for it requires an almost angelic patience 
to bear such a complication of evils with equanimity. Among the 
Arabs and the lower class of Greeks, moreover, every thing pos- 
sessed by one member of the community is looked upon as public 

o 



VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

property. A knife, a pair of scissors, a drinking -glass, or any 
other small article, is taken from its owner without permission, 
and is given back after use without being cleaned. -On the mat, 
the carpet, or the mattress, which you have brought on board as 
bedding, a negro and his master will lie down ; and wherever a 
vacant space is left, some one is sure to stand or h'e down. Take 
what precautions you may, it is impossible to avoid having your 
person and garments infested by certain very disgusting parasitical 
creatures. One day I cleaned my teeth with a toothbrush ; one 
of the Greek sailors, noticing what I was about, came towards me, 
and when I laid the brush down for an instant, took it up. I 
thought he only wished to examine it ; but no, he did exactly as 
I had done, and after cleaning his teeth returned me my brush, 
expressing himself entirely satisfied with it. 

The diet on board a vessel of this kind is also exceedingly 
bad. For dinner we have pilau, stale cheese, and onions ; in the 
evening"] we get anchovies, olives, stale cheese again, and slu'p- 
biscuit instead of bread. These appetising dishes are placed in 
a tray on the ground, round which the captains (of whom there 
are frequently two or three), the mate, and those passengers who 
have not come furnished with provisions of then* own, take their 
places. I did not take part in these entertainments ; for I had 
brought a few live fowls, besides some rice, butter, dried bread, 
and coffee, and prepared my own meals. The voyage in one 
of these agreeable ships is certainly not very dear, if we do not 
take the discomforts and privations into account ; but these I can 
really not estimate at too high a price. For the voyage to Alex- 
andria (a distance of 2000 sea-miles) I paid sixty piastres ; the 
provisions I took with me cost thirty more ; and thus the entire 
journey came only to ninety piastres. 

In general the wind was very unfavourable, so that we fre- 
quently cruised about for whole nights, and awoke in the morning 
to find ourselves in almost the same position we had occupied the 
previous evening. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 211 

Tliis is one of the most disagreeable impressions, and one 
which can scarcely be described, to be continually driving and 
driving without approaching the conclusion of your journey. To 
my shame I must confess that I sometimes shed tears of regret and 
annoyance. My fellow-passengers could not at all understand why 
I was so impatient ; for, with their constitutional indolence, they 
were quite indifferent as to whether they spent their time for a 
week or a fortnight longer in smoking, sleeping, and idling on 
board or on shore whether they were carried to Cyprus or Alex- 
andria. It was not until the fourth day that we landed at 

LIMASOL. 

This place contains pretty houses, some of which are even 
provided with slated roofs, and resemble European habitations. 
Here, for the first time since my departure from Constantinople, I 
saw a vehicle ; it was not, however, a coach, but simply a wooden 
two-wheeled cart, and is used to transport stones, earth, and 
merchandise. The region around Limasol is barren in the extreme, 
almost like that of Larnaca, except that the mountains are here 
much nearer. 

We stayed in this port the whole of the day ; and now I 
learnt for the first time that the captain had not put hi here so 
much on account of scarcity of provisions, as because he wanted to 
take in wine and endeavour to take in passengers. Of the latter, 
however, none presented themselves. The wine is very cheap ; I 
bought a bottle containing about three pints for a piastre. As soon 
as we were again at sea, our worthy captain gave out that he 
wished to call at Damietta. My patience was at length ex- 
hausted. I called him a cheat, and insisted that he should bend 
his course to no other port than to Alexandria, otherwise I should 
have him brought before a judge if it cost me a hundred piastres. 
This remonstrance produced so much effect upon the captain, that 
he promised me not to cast anchor any where else ; and, marvel- 
lous to relate, he kept his word. 



212 VISIT TO THE HOLY LA>*D, 

One other circumstance occurred during this journey which 
is interesting as furnishing a sample of the heroism of the modern 
Greeks. 

On the 5th of August, about noon, our sailors discovered a two- 
masted ship hi the distance, which altered her course immediately 
on perceiving our vessel, and came sailing towards us. It was at 
once concluded by all that this ship must be a pirate, else why did 
she alter her course and give chase to us ? The circumstance was 
indeed singular ; yet these maritime heroes ought to have been used 
to all kinds of adventures, and not at once to have feared the 
worst, particularly as, so for as I am aware, the pirate's trade is 
very nearly broken up, and attempts of this kind are unprece- 
dented at least in these regions. 

A painter like Hogarth should have been on board our ship, 
to mark the expression of fear and cowardice depicted on the seve- 
ral countenances. It was wonderful to behold how the poor cap- 
tains ran from one end of the ship to the other, and huddled us 
travellers together into a heap, recommending us to sit still and 
keep silence ; how they then hurried away and ran to and fro, 
making signs and gestures, while the pale sailors tumbled after 
them with scared faces, wringing their hands. Any one who had 
not witnessed the scene would think this description exaggerated. 
What would the Grecian heroes of antiquity say if they could 
throw a glance upon their gallant descendants ! Instead of arming 
themselves and making preparations, the men ran about in the 
greatest confusion. We were in this enviable state when the 
dreaded pirate came within gunshot ; and the reason of her ap- 
proach turned out to be that her compass was broken. The whole 
scene at once changed, as though a beneficent fairy had waved 
her wand. The captains instantly recovered their dignity, the 
sailors embraced and jumped about like children, and we poor 
travellers were released from durance and permitted to take part 
in the friendly interview between the two heroic crews. 

The captain who had spokea us asked our gallant leader in 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 213 

what latitude we were, and hearing that we were sailing to Alex- 
andria, requested that a lantern should be hung at the mainmast- 
head, at which he might look as at a guiding-star. 

With the exception of Cyprus, we had seen no land during 
all our weary journey. We could only judge when we arrived 
in the neighbourhood of Damietta by the altered colour of the 
sea ; as far as the eye could reach, the beautiful dark-blue wave 
had turned to the colour of the yellow Nile. From these tokens 
I could judge of the magnitude and volume of that river, which at 
this season of the year increases greatly, and had already been 
rising for two months. 

August 7th. 

At eight o'clock in the morning we safely reached the quay of 
Alexandria. 



214 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Alexandria Keeping quarantine Want of arrangement in the quaran- 
tine house Bad water Fumigating of the rooms Release Aspect of 
the city Departure by boat for Atfe" Mehemet Ali Arrival at Atfe" 
Excellence of the Nile water Good-nature of the Arab women The 
Delta of the Nile The Lybian desert The pyramids Arrival at 
Cairo. 

AT first we could only perceive the tops of masts, behind which 
low objects seemed to be hiding as they rose from the sea. 
In a little time a whole forest of masts appeared, while the objects 
before mentioned took the shape of houses peering forth amongst 
them. At length the land itself could be distinguished from the 
surrounding ocean, and we discerned hills, shrubberies, and gardens 
in the vicinity of the town, the appearance of which is not cal- 
culated to delight the traveller, for a large desert region of sand 
girdles both city and gardens, giving an air of dreariness to the 
whole scene. 

We cast anchor between the lighthouse and the new hospital. 
No friendly boat was permitted to approach and carry us to the 
wished-for shore ; we came from the land of the plague to enter 
another region aflh'cted with the same scourge, and yet we were 
compelled to keep quarantine, for the Egyptians asserted that the 
Syrian plague was more malignant than the variety of the disease 
raging among them. Thus a compulsory quarantine is always 
enforced in these regions, a circumstance alike prejudicial to visi- 
tors, commerce, and shipping. 

We waited with fear and trembling to hear how long a period 
of banishment in the hospital should be awarded us. At length 
came a little skiff, bringing two guardians (servants of the hospital), 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 215 

and with them the news that we must remain in the hospital ten 
days from the period of our entrance, but that we could not dis- 
embark to-day, as it was Sunday. Excepting at the arrival of the 
English packet-boats, the officials have no time to examine vessels 
on Sundays or holidays, a truly Egyptian arrangement. Why 
could not an officer be appointed for these days to take care of 
the poor travellers ? Why should fifty persons suffer for the con- 
venience of one, and be deprived of their liberty for an extra day ? 
We came from Beyrout furnished with a Teshkeret (certificate of 
health) by the government, besides the voucher of our personal 
appearance, and yet we were condemned to a lengthened imprison- 
ment. But Mehemet Ali is far more mighty and despotic in 
Egypt than the Sultan in Constantinople ; he commands, and what 
can we do but obey, and submit to his superior power ? 

From the deck of our ship I obtained a view of the city and 
the desert region around. The town seems tolerably spacious, 
and is built quite in European style. 

Of the Turkish town, which lies in the background, we can 
distinguish nothing; the proper harbour, situate at the opposite 
side of the city, is also invisible, and its situation can only be dis- 
cerned from the forest of masts that towers upwards. The eye is 
principally caught by two high sand-hills, on one of which stands 
Fort Napoleon, while the other is only surmounted by several 
cannon ; the foreground is occupied by rocky ridges of moderate 
elevation, flanked on one side by the lighthouse, and on the other 
by the new quarantine buildings. The old quarantine-house lies 
opposite to the new one. In several places we notice little planta- 
tions of date-palms, which make a very agreeable impression on 
the European, as their appearance is quite new to him. 

August 8th. 

At seven o'clock this morning we disembarked, and were deli- 
vered with bag and baggage at the quarantine-house. I now trod 
a new quarter of the globe, Africa. When I sit calmly down to 



216 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

think of the past, I frequently wonder how it was that my courage 
and perseverance never once left me while I followed out my 
project step by step. This only serves to convince me that, if the 
resolution be firm, things can be achieved which would appeal- 
almost impossible. 

I had expected to find neither comfort not pleasure in the 
quarantine-house, and unfortunately I had judged but too well. 
The courtyard into which we were shewn was closely locked, and 
furnished on all sides with wooden bars ; the rooms displayed only 
four bare walls, with windows guarded in the same manner. It 
is customary to quarter several persons in the same room, and 
then each pays a share of the expense. I requested a separate 
apartment, winch one can also have, but of course at a higher 
charge. Such a thing as a chair, a table, or a piece of furniture, 
was quite out of the question ; whoever wishes to enjoy such a 
luxury must apply by letter to an innkeeper of the town, who 
lends any thing of the kind, but at an enormously high rate. Diet 
must be obtained in the same way. In the quarantine establish- 
ment there is no host, every thing must be procured from without. 
An innkeeper generally demands between thirty and forty piastres 
per diem for dinner and supper. This I considered a h'ttle too 
exorbitant, and therefore ordered a few articles of food through 
one of the keepers. He promised to provide every thing punctu- 
ally ; but I fear he cannot have understood me, for I waited in 
vain, and during the whole of the first day had nothing to eat. On 
the second day my appetite was quite ravenous, and I did not know 
what to do. I betook myself to the room of the Arab family who 
had come in the same ship with me, and were therefore also in qua- 
rantine ; I asked for a piece of bread, for which I offered to pay : 
but the kind woman not only gave me bread, but pressed upon me 
a share of all the provisions she was preparing for her family, and 
would not be prevailed upon to accept any remuneration ; on the 
contrary, she explained to me by signs that I was to come to her 
whenever I wanted any thing. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 217 

It was not until the evening of the second day that, perceiv- 
ing it was hopeless to expect any thing from my stupid messenger, 
I applied to the chief superintendent of the hospital, who came 
every evening at sunset to examine us and to lock us in our 
rooms. I ordered my provisions of him, and from this time for- 
ward always received them in proper time. 

The keepers were all Arabs, and not one of them could under- 
stand or speak any language but their own ; this is also a truly 
Egyptian arrangement. I think that in an establishment of this 
kind, where travellers from all parts of the world are assembled, 
it would at least be advisable to have a person who understands 
Italian, even if he cannot speak it. An individual of this kind 
could easily be obtained ; for Italian, as I afterwards found, is such 
a well-known language throughout the East, but particularly at 
Alexandria and Cairo, that many people are to be met with, even 
among the lowest classes, who understand and can speak it. 

The supply of water is also very badly managed. Eveiy 
morning, immediately after sunrise, a few skins of water are 
brought for the purpose of cleaning the cooking utensils ; at nine 
o'clock in the morning and five in the afternoon a few camels come 
laden with skins of fresh water, which are emptied into two stone 
tanks in the courtyard. Then all fill their cooking and drinking 
vessels, but in such an untidy way that I felt not the slightest 
inclination to drink. One man was ladling out the water with a 
dirty pot, while another dabbled in the tank with his filthy hands ; 
and some even put their dirty feet on the rim and washed them, 
so that some of the water ran back into the tank. This recep- 
tacle is moreover never cleaned, so that dirt accumulates upon 
dirt, and the only way to obtain clear water is by filtering it. 

On the second day of my residence here I was exceedingly 
surprised to observe that the courtyard, the staircases, the rooms, 
&c. were being cleaned and swept with particular care. The 
mystery was soon solved ; the commissioner appeared with a great 
stick, and paused at the threshold of the door to see that the 



218 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

linen, clothes, &c. were hung up to air, the books opened, and the 
letters or papers suspended by strings. No idea can be formed of 
the stupid nervous fear of this commissioner. For instance, on 
passing through the first room on his way to my apartment, he 
saw the stalk of a bunch of grapes lying on the ground. With 
fearful haste he thrust this trifling object aside with his stick, for 
fear his foot should strike against it hi passing ; and as he went he 
continually held his stick in rest, to keep us plague-struck people 
at a respectful distance. 

On the seventh day of our incarceration we were all sent to 
our rooms at nine o'clock in the morning. Doors and windows 
were then locked, and great chafing-dishes were brought, and a 
dreadful odour of brimstone, herbs, burnt feathers, and other in- 
gredients filled the air. After we had been compelled to endure 
this stifling atmosphere for four or five minutes, the windows and 
doors were once more opened. A person of a consumptive habit 
could scarcely have survived this inhuman ordeal. 

On the ninth day the men were drawn up in a row, to undergo 
an examination by the doctor. The old gentleman entered the 
room, with a spy-glass in one hand and a stick in tne other, to 
review the troop. Every man had to strike himself a blow on 
the chest and another in the side ; if he could do this without 
feeling pain, it was considered a sign of health, because the plague- 
spots appear first on these parts of the body. On the same 
day, the women were led into a large room, where a great fe- 
male dragoon was waiting for us to put us through a similar cere- 
mony. Neither men nor women are, however, required to un- 
dress. 

A few hours later we were summoned to the iron grating 
which separated us from the disinfected people. On the farther 
side were seated several officers, to whom we paid the fee for our 
rooms and the keepers the charge was very trifling. My room, 
with attendance, only cost me three piastres per diem. But how 
gladly would every traveller pay a higher price if he could only 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 219 

have a table and a few chairs in his apartment, and an attendant 
who understood what was said to him ! 

So far as cleanliness is concerned, there is nothing to complain 
of; the rooms, the staircases and the courtyard were kept very 
neatly, and the latter was even profusely watered twice a day. 
We were not at all annoyed by insects, and we were but little in- 
commoded by the heat. In the sun the temperature never 
exceeded 33; and in the shade the greatest heat was 22 
Reaumur. 

August 17th. 

At seven o'clock this morning our cage was at length opened. 
Now all the world rushed in ; friends and relations of the voyagers, 
ambassadors from innkeepers, porters, and donkey- drivers, all 
were merry and joyous, for every one found a friend or an ac- 
quaintance, and I only stood friendless and alone, for nobody 
hastened towards me or took an interest in me ; but the envoys 
of the innkeepers, the porters, and donkey- drivers, cruel gene- 
ration that they were, quarrelled and hustled each other for the 
possession of the solitary one. 

I collected my baggage, mounted a donkey, and rode to " Co- 
lombier," one of the best inns in Alexandria. Swerving a little 
from the direct road, I passed " Cleopatra's Needles," two obelisks 
of gramte, one of which is still erect, while the other lies prostrate 
in the sand at a short distance. We rode through a miserable 
poverty-stricken village ; the huts were built of stones, but were 
so small and low that we can hardly understand how a man can 
stand upright in them. The doors were so low that we had to 
stoop considerably in entering. I could not discover any signs of 
windows. And this wretched village lay within the bounds of the 
city, and even within the walls, which inclose such an immense 
space, that they not only comprise* Alexandria itself, but several 
small villages, besides numerous country-houses and a few shrub- 
beries and cemeteries. 



220 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

In this village I saw many women with yellowish-brown coun- 
tenances. They looked wretched and dirty, and were all clothed 
in long blue garments, sitting before then- doors at work, or 
nursing children. These women were employed in basket-making 
and in picking corn. I did not notice any men ;. they were pro- 
bably employed in the fields. 

I now rode forward across the sandy plain on which the 
whole of Alexandria is built, and suddenly, without having passed 
through any street, found myself in the great square. 

I can scarcely describe the astonishment I felt at the scene 
before me. Every where I saw large beautiful houses, with lofty 
gates, regular windows, and balconies, like European dwellings ; 
equipages, as graceful and beautiful as any that can be found in 
the great cities of Europe, rolled to and fro amid a busy crowd of 
men of various nations. Franks, in the costume of their country, 
were distinguished among the turbans and fez-caps of the Ori- 
entals; and tall women, in their blue gowns, wandered amidst 
the half-naked forms of the Arabs and Bedouins. Here a negro 
was running with argile behind his master, who trotted along on 
his noble horse; there Frankish or Egyptian ladies were to be 
seen mounted on asses. Coming from the dreary monotony of the 
quarantine-house, this sight made a peculiar impression upon me. 

Scarcely had I arrived at the hotel before I hastened to the 
Austrian consulate, where Herr von L., the government coun- 
cillor, received me very kindly. I begged this gentleman to let 
me know what would be the first opportunity for me to continue 
my journey to Cairo ; I did not wish to take passage on board an 
English steamboat, as the charge on this vessel for the short dis- 
tance of about 400 sea miles is five pounds. The councillor was 
polite enough to procure me a berth on board an Arabian barque, 
which was to start from Atfe the same evening. 

I also learnt at the consulate, that Herr Sattler, the painter, 
had arrived by the packet-boat a few days previously, and was 
now at the old quarantine-house. I rode out in company with a 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 221 

gentleman to visit him, and was glad to find him looking very 
well. He was just returning from his journey to Palestine. 

I found the arrangements in the old quarantine-building rather 
more comfortable than those in the new ; the establishment is 
moreover nearer the town, so that it is easier to obtain the 
necessaries of life. On my return, my companion was so kind 
as to conduct me through the greater portion of the Turkish 
town, which appeared to be better built and more neatly kept 
than any city of the Turks I had yet seen. The bazaar is not 
handsome ; it consists of wooden booths, displaying only the most 
ordinary articles of merchandise. 

On the same day that I quitted the quarantine-house, I rode in 
the evening to the Kile Canal, which is twenty-four feet broad and 
about twenty-six miles long. A number of vessels lay there, on one 
of which a place had been taken for me (the smaller division of the 
cabin) as far as Atfe, for the sum of fifteen piastres. I at once 
took possession of my berth, made my arrangements for the night 
and for the following day, and waited hour after hour till we 
should depart. Late in the night I was at length told that we 
could not set out to-night at all. To pack up my things again, 
and to set off to walk to the inn, a distance of two miles, and to 
return next morning, would have been a rather laborious proceed- 
ing ; I therefore resolved to remain on board, and sat down among 
the Arabs and Bedouins to eat my frugal supper, which consisted 
of cold provisions. 

Next day I was told every half-hour that we should depart 
immediately, and each tune I was again disappointed. 

Herr von L. had wished to supply me with wine and provisions 
for the passage ; but as I had calculated upon being in Atfe to-day 
at noon, I had declined his offer with many thanks. But now I 
had no provisions ; I could not venture into the town on account 
of the distance, and found it quite impossible to make the sailors 
understand that they were to bring me some bread and baked fish 
from the neighbouring bazaar. At length hunger compelled me 



222 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAITO, 

to venture out alone : I pushed through the crowd, who looked at 
me curiously, but suffered me to pass unmolested, and bought 
some provisions. 

In Alexandria I procured beef and beef-soup, for the first time 
since my departure from Smyrna. In Alexandria and throughout 
the whole of Egypt the white bread is very delicious. 

At four in the afternoon we at length set sail. The time 
had passed rapidly enough with me, for there was a great deal of 
bustle around this canal. Barques came and departed, took in 
or discharged cargo ; long processions of camels moved to and fro 
with their drivers to fetch and carry goods ; the soldiers passed 
by, to the sound of military music, to exercise in the neighbouring 
square ; there was continually something new to see, so that 
when four o'clock arrived, I could not imagine what had become 
of the tune. 

With the exception of the crew, I was the only person on 
board. These vessels are long and narrow, and are fitted up with 
a cabin and an awning. The cabin is divided into two little rooms ; 
the first and larger of these contains two little windows on each 
side. The second and smaller one is often only six feet long by 
five broad. The space under the awning is appropriated to the 
poorer class of passengers and to the servants. It is necessary to 
take on board, besides provisions, a little stove, wood for fuel, 
kitchen-utensils and articles of this kind, a supply of water. The 
water of the Nile is, indeed, very good and thoroughly tasteless, so 
that it is universally drunk hi Alexandria, Cairo, and elsewhere ; 
but it is very turbid and of a yellowish colour, so that it must be 
filtered to render it clear and pure. Thus it happens that even 
on the river we are obliged to take water with us. 

Handsome country-houses with gardens skirt the sides of the 
canal ; the finest of these belongs to a pacha, the son-in-law of 
Mehemet AH. As we passed this palace I saw the Egyptian Na- 
poleon for the first time ; he is a very little old man, with a long 
snow-white beard ; his eyes and his gestures are very animated. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 223 

Several Europeans stood around him, and a number of sen-ants, 
some of them clothed in Greek, others in Turkish costume. 
In the avenue his carriage was waiting, a splendid double-seated 
vehicle, with four beautiful horses, harnessed in the English style. 
The Franks are favourably disposed towards this despot, whose 
subjects cherish a very opposite feeling. His government is very 
lenient to Christians, while the Mussulmen are obliged to bend 
their necks beneath a yoke of iron slavery. 

This view of villas and gardens only lasts for two hours at the 
most. Afterwards we continue our journey to Atfe through a very 
uniform and unsatisfactory region of sandy hills and plains. On 
the right we pass the Mariotic Sea ; and on both sides lie villages 
of a very wretched appearance. 

August 19th. 

At eleven in the forenoon we reached Atfe, and had therefore 
travelled about 180 sea-miles in sixteen hours. Afte is a very 
small town, or rather a mere heap of stones. 

The landing-places were always the scenes of my chief troubles. 
It was seldom that I could find a Frank, and was generally obliged 
to address several of the bystanders before I succeeded in finding 
one who could speak Italian and give me the information I required. 
I requested to be taken at once to the Austrian consulate, where 
this difficulty was usually removed. Tliis was also the case here. 
The consul immediately sent to inquire how I could best get to Cairo, 
and offered me a room in his house in the mean tune. A ship was 
soon found, for Atfe is a harbour of some importance. The canal 
joins the Nile at this pkce ; and as larger vessels are used on the 
stream itself, all goods are transhipped here, so that barques are 
continually starting for Alexandria and Cairo. In a few hours I 
was obliged to re-embark, and had only time to provide myself 
with provisions and a supply of water, and to partake of a sump- 
tuous dinner at the consul's, whose hospitality was doubly grateful 
to me as I had fasted the previous day. The chief compartment 



224 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

of the cabin had been engaged for me, at an expense of 100 piastres. 
On embarking, however, I found that this place had been so filled 
with goods, that hardly a vacant space remained for the poor occu- 
pant. I at once hastened back to the consulate and complained 
of the captain, whereupon the consul sent for that worthy and 
desired him to clear my cabin, and to refrain from annoying me 
during the voyage, if he wished to be paid on our arrival at Cairo. 
This command was strictly obeyed, and until we reached our desti- 
nation I was left in undisturbed possession of my birth. At two 
in the afternoon I once more set sail alone in the company of Arabs 
and Bedouins. 

I would counsel any one who can only make this journey to 
Cairo once in his lifetime to do it at the end of August or the 
beginning of September. A more lovely picture, and one more 
peculiar in its character, can scarcely be imagined. In many places 
the plain is covered as far as the eye can trace by the Nile-sea (it 
can scarcely he called river in its immense expanse), and every 
where little islands are seen rising from the waters, covered with 
villages surrounded by date-palms, and other trees, while in the 
background the high-masted boats, with their pyramidal sails, are 
gliding to and fro. Numbers of sheep, goats, and poultry cover 
the hills, and near the shore the heads of the dark-grey buffaloes, 
which are here found in large herds, peer forth from the water. 
These creatures are fond of immersing their bodies in the cool 
flood, where they stand gazing at the passing ships. Here and 
there little plantations of twenty to thirty trees are seen, which 
appear, as the ground is completely overflowed, to be growing out 
of the Nile. The water here is much more muddy and of a darker 
colour than in the canal between Atfe and Alexandria. The sailors 
pour this water into great iron vessels, and leave it to settle and 
become clearer ; this is, however, of little use, for it remains almost 
as muddy as the river. Notwithstanding this circumstance, how- 
ever, this Nile- water is not at all prejudicial to health ; on the 
contrary, the inhabitants of the valley assert that they possess the 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 225 

best and wholesomest water in the world. The Franks are accus- 
tomed, as I have already stated, to take filtered water with them. 
When the supply becomes exhausted, they have only to put a few 
kernels of apricots or almonds chopped small into a vessel of Nile- 
water to render it tolerably clear within the space of five or six hours. 
I learnt this art from an Arab woman during my voyage on the Nile. 

The population of the region around the Nile must be very 
considerable, for the villages almost adjoin each other. The ground 
consists every where of sand, and only becomes fruitful through 
the mud which the Nile leaves behind after its inundation. Thus 
the luxuriant vegetation here only commences after the waters of 
the Nile have retired. 

The villages cannot be called handsome, as the houses are 
mostly built of earth and clay, or of bricks made of the Nile mud. 
Man, the "crown of creation," does not appear to advantage here; 
the poverty, the want of cleanliness, and rude savage state of the 
people, cannot be witnessed without a feeling of painful emotion. 

The dress of the women consists of the usual long blue gar- 
ment, and the men wear nothing but a shirt reaching to the knee. 
Some of the women veil their faces, but others do not. 

I was astonished at the difference between .the fine strongly- 
built men and the ugly disgusting women and neglected children. 
In general the latter present a most lamentable appearance, with 
laces covered with scabs and sores, on which a quantity of flies 
are continually settling. Frequently also they have inflamed eyes. 

In spite of the oppressive heat, I remained nearly the whole 
day seated on the roof of my cabin, enjoying the landscape, and 
gazing at the moving panorama to my heart's content. 

The company on board could be called good or bad ; bad, be- 
cause there was not a soul present to whom I could impart my 
feelings and sentiments on the marvels of nature around me ; good, 
because all, but particularly the Arab women who occupied the 
little cabin in the forepart of the vessel, were very good-natured 
and attentive to me. 

p 



226 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

They wished me to accept a share of every thing they pos- 
sessed, and gave me a portion of each of their dishes, which gene- 
rally consisted either of pilau, beans, or cucumbers, and which I 
did not find palatable ; when they drank coffee hi the morning, 
the first cup was always handed to me. In return I gave them 
some of my provisions, all of which they liked, excepting the coffee, 
which had milk in it. When we landed at a village, the inhabi- 
tants would inquire by signs if I wished for any thing. I wanted 
some milk, eggs, and bread, but did not know how to ask for them 
in Arabic. I therefore had recourse to drawing ; for instance, I 
made a portrait of a cow, gave an Arab woman a bottle and some 
money, and made signs to her to milk her cow and to fill my 
bottle. In the same way I drew a hen, and .some eggs beside 
her ; pointed to the hen with a shake of my head, and then to the 
eggs with a nod, counting on the woman's fingers how many she 
was to bring me. In this way I could always manage to get on, by 
limiting my wants to such objects as I could represent by drawings. 
When they brought me the milk, and I explained to the Arab 
woman by signs that, after she had finished cooking, I wished 
to have the use of the fire to prepare my milk and eggs, she im- 
mediately took off her pot from the fire and compelled me, in spite 
of all remonstrances, to cook my dinner first. If I walked for- 
ward towards the prow to obtain a better view of the landscape, 
the best place was immediately vacated on my behalf ; and, in 
short, they all behaved in such a courteous and obliging way, that, 
these uncultivated people might have put to shame many a civi- 
lised European. They certainly, however, requested a few favours 
of me, which, I am ashamed to say, it cost me a great effort to 
grant. For instance, the oldest among them begged permission 
to sleep in my apartment, as they only possessed a small cabin, 
while I had the larger one all to myself. Then they performed 
their devotions, even to the preliminary washing of face and feet, 
in my cabin : this I permitted, as I was more on deck than below. 
At first these women called me Mary, imagining, probably, that 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 227 

every Christian lady must bear the name of the Virgin. I told 
them my baptismal name, which they accurately remembered ; 
they told me theirs in return, which I very soon forgot. I men- 
tion this trifling circumstance, because I afterwards was frequently 
surprised at the retentive memory of these people during my 
journey through the desert towards the Red Sea. 

August 21st. 

Although I felt solitary among all the voyagers on the barque, 
these two days passed swiftly and agreeably away. The flatter 
the land grew, the broader did the lordly river become. The vil- 
lages increased in size ; and the huts, mostly resembling a sugar- 
loaf, with a number of doves roosting on its apex, wore an appear- 
ance of greater comfort. Mosques and large country-houses pre- 
sently appeared ; and, in short, the nearer we approached towards 
Cairo, the more distinct became these indications of affluence. The 
sand-hills appeared less frequently, though on the route between 
Atfe and Cairo I still saw five or six large barren places which 
had quite the look of deserts. Once the wind blew directly 
towards us from one of these burning wastes with such an .op- 
pressive influence, that I could easily imagine how dreadful the 
hot winds (chamsir) must be, and I no longer wondered at the 
continual instances of blindness among the poor inhabitants of these 
regions. The heat is unendurable, and the fine dust and heated 
particles of sand which are carried into the air by these winds 
cannot fail to cause inflammation of the eyes. 

Little towers of masonry, on the tops of which telegraphs have 
been fixed, are seen at intervals along the road between Alex- 
andria and Cairo. 

Our vessel was unfortunate enough to strike several times on 
sand-banks, besides getting entangled among the shallows a cir- 
cumstance of frequent occurrence during the time that the Nile is 
rising. On these occasions I could not sufficiently admire the 
strength, agility, and hard-working perseverance of our sailors, 



VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

who were obliged to jump overboard and push off the ship with 
poles, and afterwards were repeatedly compelled to drag it for half 
an hour together through shallow places. These people are also 
very expert at climbing. They could ascend without ratlines 
to the very tops of the slanting masts, and take in or unloose the 
sails. I could not repress a shudder on seeing these poor crea- 
tures hanging betwixt earth and heaven, so far above me that 
they appeared like dwarfs. They work with one hand, while 
they cling to the mast with the other. I do not think that a 
better, or a more active, agile, and temperate race of sailors exists 
than these. Then* fare consists of bread or ship-biscuit in the 
morning, with sometimes a raw cucumber, a piece of cheese, or a 
handful of dates in addition. For dinner they have the same 
diet, and for supper they have a dish of warm beans, or a kind of 
broth or pilau. Roast mutton is a rare delicacy with them, and 
their drink is nothing but the Nile water. 

During the period of the inundation, the river is twice as full 
of vessels as at other tunes. When the river is swollen, the only 
method of communication is by boats. 

On the kst day of this expedition a most beauteous spectacle 
awaited me the Delta ! Here the mighty Nile, which irrigates 
the whole country with the hundreds of canals cut from its banks 
through every region, divides itself into two principal branches, one 
of which fells into the sea at Rosetta, and the other at Damietta. 
If the separate arms of the river could be compared to seas, how 
much more does its united vastness merit the appellation ! 

When I was thus carried away by the beauty and grandeur 
of nature, when I thus saw myself placed in the midst of new 
and interesting scenes, it would appear to me incredible how peo- 
ple can exist, possessing in abundance the gifts of riches, health, 
and leisure time, and yet without a taste for travelling. The 
petty comforts of life and enjoyments of luxury are indeed worth 
more in the eyes of some than the opportunity of contemplating 
the exalted beauties of nature or the monuments of history, and of 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 229 

gaining information concerning the manners and customs of foreign 
nations. Although I was at times very badly situated, and had 
to encounter more hardships and disagreeables than fall to the lot 
of many a man, I would be thankful that I had had resolution 
given me to continue my wanderings whenever one of these grand 
spectacles opened itself before me. What, indeed, are the enter- 
tainments of a large town compared to the Delta of the Nile, and 
many similar scenes ? The pure and perfect enjoyment afforded 
by the contemplation of the beauty of nature is not for a moment 
to be found in the ball-room or the theatre ; and all the ease and 
luxury in the world should not buy from me my recollections of 
this journey. 

Not far from the Delta we can behold the Lybian Desert, 
of which we afterwards never entirely lose sight, though we some- 
times approach and sometimes recede from it. I became conscious 
of certain dark objects in the far distance ; they developed them- 
selves more and more, and at length I recognised in them the 
wonder-buildings of ancient tunes, the Pyramids ; far behind them 
rises the chain of mountains, or rather lulls, of Mokattam. 

Evening was closing in when we at length arrived at Bulak, 
the harbour of Cairo. If we could have landed at once, I might, 
perhaps, have reached the town itself this evening ; as the har- 
bour is, however, always over-crowded with vessels, the captain 
is often compelled to wait for an hour before he can find a place 
to moor his craft. By the time I could disembark it had already 
grown quite dark, and the town-gates were shut. I was thus 
obliged to pass the night on board. 

The journey from Atfe to Cairo had occupied two days and a 
half. This passage had been one of the most interesting, although 
the heat became more and more oppressive, and the burning winds 
of the desert were sometimes wafted over to us. The highest 
temperature at midday was 36, and hi the shade from 24 to 25 
Reaumur. The sky was far less beautiful and clear than in Syria; 
it was here frequently overcast with wliite clouds. 



230 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



CHAPTER XV. 

Cairo Quarrel with the captain Rapacity of the beggars The custom- 
house The consulate Aspect of Cairo Narrow and crowded streets 
Costumes The mad-house Disgusting exhibition Joseph's well 
Palace of Mehemet Ali Dates Mosques at Cairo Excursion to the 
pyramids of Gizeh Gizeh Eggs hatched by artificial heat Ascent 
of the pyramids The sphynx Return to Cairo. 

August 22d. 

npHE aspect of this great Egyptian metropolis is not nearly so 
_L imposing as I had fancied it to be ; its situation is too flat, 
and from on board we can only discern scattered portions of its 
extended area. The gardens skirting the shore are luxuriant and 
lovely. 

At my debarcation, and on the road to the consulate, I met 
with several adventures, which I relate circumstantially, trifling 
as they may appear, in order to give a hint as to the best method 
of dealing with the people here. 

At the very commencement I became involved in a dispute 
with the captain of the vessel. I had still to pay him three dol- 
lars and a half, and gave him four dollars, in the expectation that 
he would return me my change. This, however, he refused to 
do, and persisted in keeping the half-dollar. He said it should 
be divided as backsheesh among the crew ; but I am sure they 
would have seen nothing of it. Luckily, however, he was stupid 
enough not to put the money in his pocket, but kept it open in his 
hand. I quickly snatched a coin from him, and put it into my 
pocket, explaining to him at the same time that he should not 
have it back until he had given me my change, adding that I 
would give the men a gratuity myself. He shouted and stormed, 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 231 

and kept on asking for the money. I took no heed of him, but 
continued quietly packing up my things. Seeing, at length, that 
nothing was to be done with me, he gave me back my half-dollar ; 
whereupon we parted good friends. This affair concluded, I had 
to look about for a couple of asses ; one for myself, and another 
for my luggage. If I had stepped ashore I should have been 
almost torn hi pieces by contending donkey-drivers, each of whom 
would have lugged me hi a different direction. I therefore re- 
mained quietly for a tune hi my cabin, until the drivers ceased to 
suspect that any one was there. In the meantime I had been 
looking upon the shore from the cabin-window, and speculating 
upon which animal I should take; then I quickly rushed out, 
and before the proprietors of the long-eared steeds were aware of 
my intention, I had seized one by the bridle and pointed to an- 
other. This concluded the matter at once ; for the proprietors of 
the chosen animals defended me from the rest, and returned with 
me to the boat to carry my baggage. 

A fellow came up and arranged my little trunk on the back 
of the ass. For this trifling service I gave him a piastre ; but 
observing that I was alone, he probably thought he could soon 
intimidate me into giving whatever he demanded. So he returned 
me my piastre, and demanded four. I took the money, and told 
him (for fortunately he understood a little Italian) that if he felt 
dissatisfied with this reward he might accompany me to the con- 
sulate, where his four piastres would be paid so soon as it ap- 
peared that he had earned them. He shouted and blustered, just 
as the captain had done ; but I remained deaf, and rode forward 
towards the custom-house. Then he came down to three piastres, 
then to two, and finally said he would be content with one, which 
I threw to him. When I reached the custom-house, hands were 
stretched out towards me from all sides ; I gave something to the 
chief person, and let the remaining ones clamour on. When, after 
experiencing these various annoyances, I rode on towards the 
town, a new obstacle arose. My Arab guide inquired whither 



232 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

he should conduct me. I endeavoured in vain to explain to him 
where I wanted to go ; he could not be made to understand me. 
Nothing now remained for me but to accost every well-dressed 
Oriental whom I met, until I should find one who could under- 
stand either French or Italian. The third person I addressed 
fortunately knew something of the latter language, and I begged 
him to tell my guide to take me to the Austrian consulate. This 
was done, and my troubles concluded. 

A ride of three quarters of an hour in a very broad handsome 
street, planted with a double row of a kind of acacia altogether 
strange to me, among a crowd of men, camels, asses, &c., brought 
me to the town, the streets of which are in general narrow. 
There is so much noise and crowding every where, that one would 
suppose a tumult had broken out. But as I approached, the im- 
mense mass always opened as if by magic, and I pursued my way 
without hindrance to the consulate, which lies hidden in a little 
narrow blind alley. 

I went immediately to the office, and presented myself to the 
consul, with the request that he would recommend me a respect- 
able inn of the second class. Herr Chamgion, the consul, inter- 
ested himself for me with heartfelt kindness; he immediately 
despatched a kavasse to an innkeeper whom he knew, paid my 
guide, and recommended the host strongly to take good care of 
me ; in short, he behaved towards me with true Christian kindli- 
ness. His house was ever open to me, and I could go to him with 
any petition I wished to make. It is a real pleasure to me to be 
able publicly once more to thank this worthy man. 

I had been furnished with a letter of recommendation to a 
certain Herr Palm. The consul kindly sent at once for this gen- 
tleman, who soon appeared, and accompanied me to the inn. 

I requested Herr P. to recommend me a servant who could 
either speak Italian or French, and afterwards to tell me the best 
method to set about seeing the lions of the town. Herr P. very 
willingly undertook to do so ; and after the lapse of an hour, the 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 233 

dragoman had already been found, and two asses stood before the 
door to carry me and my servant through the whole town. 

The animated bustle and hum of business in the streets of 
Cairo is very great. I can even say that in the most populous 
cities of Italy I never saw any thing I could compare to it ; and 
certainly this is a bold assertion. 

Many of the streets are so narrow, that when loaded camels 
meet, one party must always be led into a by-street until the 
other has passed. In these narrow lanes I continually encoun- 
tered crowds of passengers, so that I really felt quite anxious, and 
wondered how I should find my way through. People mounted 
on horses and donkeys tower above the moving mass ; but the 
asses themselves appear like pigmies beside the high, lofty-looking 
camels, which do not lose their proud demeanour even under their 
heavy burdens. Men often slip by under the heads of the camels. 
The riders keep as close as possible to the houses, and the mass 
of pedestrians winds dexterously between. There are water-car- 
riers, vendors of goods, numerous blind men groping their way 
with sticks, and bearing baskets with fruit, bread, and other pro- 
visions for sale ; numerous children, some of them running about 
the streets, and others playing before the house-doors ; and lastly, 
the Egyptian ladies, who ride on asses to pay their visits, and 
come in long processions with their children and negro servants. 
Let the reader further imagine the cries of the vendors, the shout- 
ing of the drivers and passengers, the terrified screams of flying 
women and children, the quarrels which frequently arise, and the 
peculiar noisiness and talkativeness of these people, and he can 
fancy what an effect this must have on the nerves of a stranger. 
I was in mortal fear at every step, and on reaching home in the 
evening felt quite unwell ; but as I never once saw an accident 
occur, I at length accustomed myself to the hubbub, and could 
follow my guide where the crowd was thickest without feeling 
uneasy. 

The streets, or, as they may be more properly called, the 



234 VISIT TO THE HOLY LASD, 

lanes of Cairo, are sprinkled with water several times in the day : 
fountains and large vessels of water are also placed every where 
for the convenience of the passers-by. In the broad streets straw- 
mats are hung up to keep off the son's rays. 

The richer class of people wear the Oriental garb, with the 
exception that the women merely have their heads and faces 
wrapped in a light muslin veil ; they wear also a kind of mAntilla 
of black silk, which gives them a peculiar appearance. When 
they came riding along, and the wind caught this garment and 
spread it oat, they looked exactly like bats with outstretched 
wings. 

Many of the Franks also dress in the Oriental style; the 
Fellahs go almost naked, and their women only wear a single 
blue garment. 

Here, as throughout all the East, the rich people are always 
seen on horseback. I was not so much pleased with the Egyptian 
as with the Syrian horses, for the former appeared to me less 
slim and gracefully built. 

The population of Cairo is estimated at 200,000, and is a 
mixed one, consisting of Arabs, Mamelukes, Turks, Berbers, 
Xegroes, Bedouins, Christians, Greeks, Jews, &c. Thanks to the 
powerful arm of Mehemet Ali, they all live peacefully together. 

Cairo contains 25,000 houses, which are as unsightly and 
irregular as the streets. They are built of clay, unburnt bricks, 
and stones, and have little narrow entrances ; the unsymmetrical 
windows are furnished with wooden shutters impenetrable to the 
eye. The interiors are decorated like the houses in Damascus, 
but hi a less costly style ; neither is there such an abundance of 
fresh water at Cairo. 

The Jews' quarter is the most hideous of all ; the houses are 
dirty, and the streets so narrow that two persons can only just 
push by each other. The entire town is surrounded by walls and 
towers, guarded by a castle, and divided into several quarters, 
separated from each other by gates, which are closed after sunset. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 235 

On the heights around Cairo are to be seen some castles from the 
time of the Saracens. 

As I rode to and fro in the town, my guide suddenly stopped, 
bought a quantity of bread, and motioned me to follow him. I 
thought he was going to take me to a menagerie, and that this 
bread was intended for the wild animals. We entered a court- 
yard with windows all round reaching to the ground, and strength- 
ened with iron bars. Stopping before the first window, my ser- 
vant threw in a piece of bread ; what was my horror when I saw, 
instead of a lion or tiger, a naked emaciated old man rush forth, 
seize the bread, and devour it ravenously. I was in the mad- 
house. In the midst of each dark and filthy dungeon is fixed a 
stone, with two iron chains, to which one or two of these wretched 
creatures are attached by an iron ring fastened round the neck. 
There they sit staring with fearfully distorted faces, then- hair 
and beard unkempt, their bodies emaciated, and the marrow of 
life drying up within them. In these foul and loathsome dens 
they must pine until the Almighty in his mercy loosens the chains 
which bind them to their miserable existence by a welcome death. 
There is not one instance of a cure, and truly the treatment to 
which they are subjected is calculated to drive a half-witted per- 
son quite mad. And yet the Europeans can praise Mehemet Ali ! 
Ye wretched madmen, ye poor fellahs, are ye too ready to join 
in tliis praise ? 

Quitting this abode of misery, my dragoman led me to " Jo- 
seph's well," which is deeply hewn out of the rock. I descended 
more than two hundred and seventy steps, and had got half-way 
to the bottom of the gigantic structure. On looking downward into 
its depths a feeling of giddiness came over me. 

The new palace of Mehemet Ali is rather a handsome build- 
ing, arranged chiefly hi the European style. The rooms, or 
rather the halls, are very lofty, and are either tastefully painted 
or hung with silk, tapestry, &c. Large pier-glasses multiply the 
objects around, rich divans are attached to the walls, and costly 



236 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

tables, some of marble, others of inlaid work, enriched with beau- 
tiful paintings, stand in the rooms, in one of which I even noticed 
a billiard-table. The dining-hall is quite European in its cha- 
racter. In the centre stands a large table ; two sideboards are 
placed against one side of the wall, and handsome chairs stand 
opposite. In one of the rooms hangs an oil-painting representing 
Ibrahim Pasha, a Mehemet Ali's son. 

This palace stands in the midst of a little garden, neither re- 
markable for the rarity of the plants it contains, nor for the beauty 
of their arrangement. The views from some of the apartments, 
as well as that from the garden, are very lovely. 

Opposite the palace a great mosque is being built as a mau- 
soleum for Mehemet Ali. The despot probably reckons on having 
some years yet to live, for much remains to be done before the 
beautiful structure is completed. The pillars and the walls of 
the mosque are covered with the most splendid marble, of a yel- 
lowish-white colour. 

The before-mentioned buildings, namely, Joseph's well, the 
palace and gardens, and the mosque, are all situate on a high 
rock, to which a single broad road leads from Cairo. Here we 
behold a threefold sea, namely, of houses, of the Nile, and a sea 
of sand, on which the lofty Pyramids rise in the distance like iso- 
lated rocks. The mountains of Mokattam close the background, 
and a number of lovely gardens and plantations of date-palms 
surround the town. With one glance we can behold the most 
striking contrasts. A wreath of the most luxurious vegetation 
runs round the town, and beyond lies the dreary monotony of the 
desert. The colour of the Kile is so exactly similar to that of 
the sand forming its shores, that at a distance the line of demar- 
cation cannot be traced. 

On my way homewards I met several fellahs carrying large 
baskets full of dates, and stopped one of them, in order to pur- 

a This is a work of the young Viennese artist, Leander Russ, who visited 
Egypt in the year 1832. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 237 

chase some of this celebrated fruit. Unfortunately for me, the 
dates were still unripe, hard, of a brick-red colour, and so un- 
palatable that I could not eat one of them. A week or ten days 
afterwards I was able to procure some ripe ones ; they were of a 
brown colour like the dried fruit, the tender skin could easily be 
peeled off, and I liked them better than dried dates, because they 
were more pulpy and not so sweet. A much more precious fruit, 
the finest production of Egypt and Syria, almost superior to the 
pine-apple in taste, is the banana, which is so delicate that it 
almost melts in the mouth. This fruit cannot be dried, and is 
therefore never exported. Sugar melons and peaches are to be 
had in abundance, but their flavour is not very good. I also 
preferred the Alexandrian grape to that of Cairo. 

The bazaars, through which we rode in all directions, dis- 
played nothing very remarkable in manufactures or in productions 
of nature and art. 

From first to last I spent a week at Cairo, and occupied the 
whole of my time from morning till night in viewing the curi- 
osities of the town. 

I only saw two mosques, that of Sultan Hassan and of Sul- 
tan Amru. Before I was permitted to enter the first of these 
edifices, they compelled me to take off my shoes, and walk in my 
stockings over a courtyard paved with great stones. The stones 
had become so heated by the solar rays, that I was obliged to 
run fast, to avoid scorching the soles of my feet. I cannot give 
an opinion touching the architectural beauty of this building, which 
is built hi such a simple style that none but a connoisseur would 
discover its merits. I was better pleased with the mosque of 
Sultan Amru, which contains several halls, and is supported on 
numerous columns. The mosques ha Cairo struck me as having a 
more ancient and venerable appearance than those of Constanti- 
nople, while the latter, on the other hand, were larger and more 
elegant. 

I also visited the island of Rodda, which is worthy the name of 



VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

a beautiful garden. It lies opposite to old Cairo, on the Nile, and 
is said to be a favourite walk of the townspeople, though I was 
there twice without meeting any one. The garden is spacious, and 
contains all kinds of tropical productions : here I saw the sugar- 
cane, which greatly resembles the stem of the Indian maize ; the 
cotton- tree, growing to a height of five or six feet ; the banana-tree, 
the short-stemmed date-palm, the coffee-tree, and many others. 
Flowers were also there hi quantities which must be cultivated 
with great care in the hothouses of my native country. The whole 
of this collection of plants is very tastefully arranged, and shines 
forth hi the height of luxuriant beauty. Is is customary to lay the 
entire island under water every evening by means of artificial 
canals. This system is universally carried out throughout the 
Egyptian plantations, and is, in fact, the only method by which 
vegetation can be preserved in its freshest green in spite of the 
burning heat. The care of this fairy grove is entrusted to a Ger- 
man ornamental gardener ; unfortunately I was informed of this 
fact too late, otherwise I should have visited my countryman and 
requested an explanation of many things which appeared strange 
to me. 

In the midst of the garden is a beautiful grotto, ornamented 
within and without by a great variety of shells from the Red Sea, 
winch give it a most striking appearance. At this spot, towards 
which many paths lead, all strewed with minute shells instead of 
gravel, Moses is said to have been found in his cradle of bul- 
rushes (?). Immediately adjoining the garden we find a summer 
residence belonging to Mehemet Ali. 

The well shewn as that into which Joseph was thrust by his 
brethren lies about two miles distant from the town, in a village 
on the road to Suez. Half a mile off a very large and venerable 
sycamore-tree was pointed out to me as the one hi the shade of 
which the holy family rested on their way to Egypt ; and a walk 
of another quarter of a mile brings us to the garden of Boghos 
Bey, in the midst of which stands one of the finest and largest 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 239 

obelisks of Upper Egypt : it is still in good condition, and com- 
pletely covered with hieroglyphics. The garden, however, offers * 
nothing remarkable. The ancient city of Heliopolis is said to have 
been built not far off; but at the present day not a vestige of it 
remains. 

The road to this garden already lies partly hi the desert. At 
first the way winds through avenues of trees and past gardens ; 
but soon the vast desert extends to the right, while beautiful 
orange and citron groves still skirt the left side of the path. Here 
we continually meet herds of camels, but a dromedary is a rare 
sight. 

EXCURSION TO THE PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH. 

August 25th, 1842. 

At four in the afternoon I quitted Cairo, crossed two arms of 
the Kile, and a couple of hours afterwards arrived safely at Gizeh. 
As the Nile had overflowed several parts of the country, we were 
compelled frequently to turn out of our way, and sometimes to 
cross canals and ride through water ; now and then, where it was 
too deep for our asses, we were obliged to be carried across. As 
there is no inn at Gizeh I betook myself to Herr Klinger, to . 
whom I brought a letter of recommendation from Cairo. Herr 
K. is a Bohemian by birth, and stands in the service of the 
viceroy of Egypt, as musical instructor to the young military 
band. I was made very welcome here, and Herr Klinger seemed 
quite rejoiced at seeing a visitor with whom he could talk in 
German. Our conversation was of Beethoven and Mozart, of 
Strauss and Lanne. The fame of the bravura composers of the 
present day, Liszt and Thalberg, had not yet penetrated to these 
regions. I requested my kind host to shew me the establish- 
ment for hatching eggs that exists at Gizeh. He immediately 
sent for the superintendent, who happened however to be absent, 
and to have locked up the keys. In this place about 8000 eggs 
are hatched by artificial warmth during the months of March and 



240 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

April. The eggs are laid on large flat plates, which are continu. 
ally kept at an equal temperature by heat applied below the sur- 
face : they are turned several times during the day. As the 
thousands of little chickens burst their shells, they are sold, not by 
number or weight, but by the measure. This egg-hatching house 
has the effect of rendering poultry plentiful and cheap. 

After chatting away the evening very pleasantly I sought my 
couch, tired with my ride and with the heat, and rejoicing at the 
sight of the soft divan, which seemed to smile upon me, and pro- 
mise rest and strength for the following day. But as I was about 
to take possession of my couch, I noticed on the wall a great 
number of black spots. I took the candle to examine what it 
could be, and nearly dropped the light with horror on discovering 
that the wall was covered with bugs. I had never seen such a 
disgusting sight. All hopes of rest on the divan were now effec- 
tually put to flight. I sat down on a chair, and waited until every 
thing was perfectly still ; then I slipped into the entrance-hall, and 
lay down on the stones, wrapped in my cloak. 

Though I had escaped from one description of vermin, I 
became a prey to innumerable gnats. I had passed many un- 
comfortable nights during my journey, but this was worse than 
any tiling I had yet endured. 

However, this was only an additional inducement for rising 
early, and long before sunrise I was ready to continue my journey. 
Before daybreak I took leave of my kind host, and rode with my 
servant towards the gigantic structures. To-day we were again 
obliged frequently to go out of our route on account of the rising 
of the Nile ; owing to this delay, two hours elapsed before -we 
reached the broad arm of the Nile, dividing us from the Lybian 
desert, on which the Pyramids stand, and over which two Arabs 
carried me. This was one of the most disagreeable things that can 
be imagined. Two large powerful men stood side by side ; I 
mounted on their shoulders, and held fast by their heads, while 
they supported my feet in a horizontal position above the waters, 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 241 

which at some places reached almost to their armpits, so that I 
feared every moment that I should sit in the water. Besides 
this, my supporters continually swayed to and fro, because they 
could only withstand the force of the current by a great exertion 
of strength, and I was apprehensive of falling off. This disagree- 
able passage lasted above a quarter of an hour. After wading for 
another fifteen minutes through deep sand, we arrived at the goal 
of our little journey. 

The two colossal pyramids are of course visible directly we 
quit the town, and we keep them almost continually in sight. 
But here the expectations I had cherished were again disap- 
pointed, for the aspect of these giant structures did not astonish 
me greatly. Their height appears less remarkable than it other- 
wise would, from the circumstance that their base is buried hi 
sand, and thus hidden from view. There is also neither a tree 
nor a hut, nor any other object which could serve to display their 
huge proportions by the force of contrast. 

As it was still early in the day and not very hot, I preferred 
ascending the pyramid before venturing into its interior. My 
servant took off my rings and concealed them carefully, telling 
me that this was a very necessary precaution, as the fellows who 
take the travellers by the hands to assist them in mounting the 
pyramids have such a dexterous knack of drawing the rings from 
their fingers, that they seldom perceive their loss until too late. 

I took two Arabs with' me, who gave me their hands, and 
pulled me up the very large stones. Any one who is at all sub- 
ject to dizziness would do very wrong in attempting this feat, for 
he might be lost without remedy. Let the reader picture to him- 
self a height of 500 feet, without a railing or a regular staircase 
by which to make the ascent. At one angle only the immense 
blocks of stone have been hewn in such a manner that they form 
a flight of steps, but a very inconvenient one, as many of these 
stone blocks are above four feet hi height, and offer no projection 
on which you can place your foot in mounting. The two Arabs 

Q 



242 VISIT TO THE HOLY IJLNT), 

ascended first, and then stretched out their hands to pull me 
from one block to another. I preferred climbing over the smaller 
blocks without assistance. In three quarters of an hour's time I 
had gained the summit of the pyramid. 

For a long time I stood lost in thought, and could hardly 
realise the fact that I was really one of the favoured few who are 
happy enough to be able to contemplate the most stupendous and 
imperishable monument ever erected by human hands. At the 
first moment I was scarcely able to gaze down from the dizzy 
height into the deep distance ; I could only examine the pyramid 
itself, and seek to familiarise myself with the idea that I was 
not dreaming. Gradually, however, I came to myself, and con- 
templated the landscape which lay extended beneath me. From 
my elevated position I could form a better estimate of the gigantic 
structure, for here the fact that the base was buried in sand did 
not prejudice the general effect. I saw the Nile flowing for 
beneath me, and a few Bedouins, whom curiosity had attracted 
to the spot, looked hike very pigmies. In ascending I had seen 
the immense blocks of stone singly, and ceased to marvel that 
these monuments are reckoned among the seven wonders of the 
world. 

On the castle the view had been fine, but here, where the 
prospect was bounded only by the horizon and by the Mokattam 
mountains, it is grander by far. I could follow the windings of 
the river, with its innumerable arms and canals, until it melted 
into the far horizon, which closed the picture on this side. Many 
blooming gardens, and the large extensive town with its environs ; 
the immense desert, with its plains and hills of sand, and the 
lengthened mountain-range of Mokattam, all lay spread before 
me ; and for a long time I sat gazing around me, and wishing that 
the dear ones at home had been with me, to share in my wonder 
and delight. 

But now the time came not only to look down, but to descend. 
Most people find this even more difficult than the ascent; but with 



EGYPT, AXD ITALY. 243 

me the contrary was the case. I never grow giddy, and so I 
advanced in the following manner, without the aid of the Arabs. 
On the smaller blocks I sprang from one to the other ; when a 
stone of three or. four feet in height was to be encountered, I let 
myself glide gently down ; and I accomplished my descent with 
so much grace and agility, that I reached the base of the pyramid 
long before my servant. Even the Arabs expressed their pleasure 
at my fearlessness on this dangerous passage. 

After eating my breakfast and resting for a short time, I pro- 
ceeded to explore the interior. At first I was obliged to cross a 
heap of sand and rubbish ; for we have to go downwards towards 
the entrance, which is so low and narrow that we cannot always 
stand upright. I could not have passed along the passage leading 
into the interior if the Arabs had not helped me, for it is so steep 
and so smoothly paved that, in spite of my conductor's assistance, 
I slid rather than walked. The apartment of the king is more 
spacious, and resembles a small hall. On one side stands a little 
empty sarcophagus without a lid. The walls of the chambers and 
of the passages are covered with large and beautifully polished 
slabs of granite and marble. The remaining passages, or rather 
dens, which are shewn here, I did not see. It may be very inte- 
resting for learned men and antiquarians thus to search every 
corner ; but for a woman like myself, brought hither only by an 
insatiable desire to travel, and capable of judging of the beauties 
of nature and art only by her own simple feelings, it was enough 
to have ascended the pyramid of Cheops, and to have seen some- 
thing of its interior. This pyramid is said to be the loftiest of all. 
It stands on a rock 150 feet in height, which is invisible, being 
altogether buried in sand. The height of the vast structure is 
above 500 feet. It was erected by Cheops more than 3000 years 
ago, and 100,000 men are said to have been employed in its con- 
struction for twenty-six years. It is a most interesting structure, 
built of immense masses of rock, fixed together with a great deal 
of art, and seemingly calculated to last an eternity. They look 



244 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

so strong and so well preserved, that many travellers will no doubt 
repair hither in coming generations, and continue the researches 
commenced long ago. 

The Sphynx, a statue of most colossal dimensions, situate at 
no great distance from the great pyramid, is so covered with sand 
that only the head and a small portion of the bust remain \isible. 
The head alone is twenty-two feet in height. 

After walking about and inspecting every thing, I commenced 
my journey back. On the way I once more visited Herr Klinger, 
strengthened myself with a hearty meal, and arrived safely at Cairo 
late in the evening. Here I wished to take my little purse out of 
my pocket, and found that it was gone. Luckily I had only taken 
one collonato (Spanish dollar) with me. No one can imagine what 
dexterity the Bedouins and Arabs possess in the art of stealing. I 
always kept a sharp eye upon my effects, and notwithstanding my 
vigilance several articles were pilfered from me, and my purse 
must also have been stolen during this excursion. The loss was 
very disagreeable to me because it involved that of my box-key. 
I was, however, fortunate in finding an expert Arabian locksmith, 
who opened my chest and made me a new key, on which occa- 
sion I had another opportunity of seeing how careful it is neces- 
sary to be in all our dealings with these people to avoid being 
cheated. The key locked and unlocked my box well, and I paid 
for it; but immediately afterwards observed that it was very 
slightly joined in the middle, and would presently break. The 
Arab's tools still lay on the ground ; I immediately seized one of 
them, and told the man I would not give it up until he had made 
me a new key. It was in vain that he assured me he could not 
work without his tools ; he would not give my money back, and 
I kept the implement : by this means I obtained from him a new 
and a good key. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 245 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Christian churches at Cairo The Esbekie-square Theatre Howling der- 
vishes Mashdalansher, the birthday of Mahomet Procession and 
religious ceremony Shxibra Excursion through the desert to Suez 
Hardships of the journey Scenes in the desert The camel Cara- 
vans Mirage The Red Sea Suez Bedouin camp Quarrel with the 
camel-driver Departure for Alexandria. 

I VISITED many Christian churches, the finest among which was 
the Greek one. On my way thither I saw many streets where 
there can hardly have been room for a horseman to pass. The road 
to the Armenian church leads through such narrow lanes and gates, 
that we were compelled to leave our asses behind; there was 
hardly room for two people to pass each other. 

On the other hand, I had nowhere seen a more spacious square 
than the Esbekie-place in Cairo. The square in Padua is per- 
haps the only one that can compare with it in point of size ; but 
this place looks like a complete chaos. Miserable houses and 
ruined huts surround it ; and here and there we sometimes come 
upon a part of an alley or an unfinished canal. The centre is 
very uneven, and is filled with building materials, sueh as stones, 
wood, bricks, and beams. The largest and handsomest house in 
this square is remarkable as having been inhabited by Napoleon 
during his residence at Cairo : it is now converted into a splendid 
hotel. 

Herr Chamgion, the consul, was kind enough to send me a 
card of invitation for the theatre. The building looks like a pri- 
vate house, and contains a gallery capable of accommodating three 
or four hundred people; this gallery is devoted to the use of 



246 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

the ladies. The performers were all amateurs; they acted an 
Italian comedy in a very creditable manner. The orchestra com- 
prised only four musicians. At the conclusion of the second act the 
consul's son, a boy of twelve years, played some variations on the 
violin very prettily. 

The women, all natives of the Levant, were very elegantly 
dressed ; they wore the European garb, white muslin dresses -with 
their hair beautifully braided and ornamented with flowers. 
Nearly all the women and girls were handsome, with complexions 
of a dazzling whiteness, which we rarely see equalled in Europe. 
The reason of this is, perhaps, that they always stay in their 
houses, and avoid exposing themselves to the sun and wind. 

The following day I visited the abode of the howling der- 
vishes, in whom I took a lively interest since I had seen their 
brethren at Constantinople. The hall, or rather the mosque, in 
which they perform their devotions is very splendid. I was not 
allowed here to stand among the men as I had done at Constan- 
tinople, but was conducted to a raised gallery, from which I could 
look down through a grated window. 

The style of devotion and excitement of these dervishes is 
like that I had witnessed at Constantinople, without being quite 
so wild in its character. Not one of them sank exhausted, and 
the screeching and howling were not so loud. Towards the end 
of their performance many of the dervishes seized a small tam- 
bourine, on which they beat and produced a most diabolical music. 

In the slave-market there was but a meagre selection ; all the 
wares had been bought, and a new cargo of these unfortunates 
was daily expected. I pretended that I wished to purchase a boy 
and a girl, in order to gain admittance into the private department. 
Here I saw a couple of negro girls of most uncommon beauty. I 
had not deemed it possible to find any thing so perfect. Their 
skin was of a velvety black, and shone with a peculiar lustre. 
Their teeth were beautifully formed and of dazzling whiteness, 
their eyes large and lustrous, and their lips thinner than we usually 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 247 

find them among these people. They wore their hair neatly 
parted, and arranged in pretty curls round the head. Poor 
creatures, who knows into what hands they might fall ! They 
bowed their heads in anguish, without uttering a syllable. The 
sight of the slave-market here inspired me with a feeling of deep 
melancholy. The poor creatures did not seem so careless and 
merry as those whom I had seen on the market-place at Constan- 
tinople. In Cairo the slaves seemed badly kept; they lay iu 
little tents, and were driven out, when a purchaser appeared, very 
much in the manner of cattle. They were only partially clothed 
in some old rags, and looked exhausted and unhappy. 

During my short stay at Cairo one of the chief feasts of the 
Mahommedans namely, the Mashdalansher, or birthday of the 
Prophet occurred. This feast is celebrated on a great open space 
outside the town. A number of large tents are erected ; they are 
open hi front, and beneath their shelter all kinds of things are 
carried on. In one tent, Mahommedans are praying ; in another, 
a party of dervishes throw themselves with their faces to the 
ground and call upon Allah ; while in a third, a juggler or story- 
teller may be driving his trade. In the midst of all stood a 
large tent, the entrance to which was concealed by curtains. 
Here the " bayaderes" were dancing ; any one can obtain ad- 
mission by paying a trifling sum. Of course I went in to see 
these celebrated dancers. There were, however, only two pairs ; 
two boys were elegantly clothed in a female garb, richly decorated 
with gold coins. They looked very pretty and delicate, so that I 
really thought they were girls. The dance itself is very mono- 
tonous, slow, and wearisome; it consists only of some steps to 
and fro, accompanied by some rather indecorous movements of the 
upper part of the body. These gestures are said to be very diffi- 
cult, as the dancer must stand perfectly still, and only move the 
upper part of his person. The music consisted of a tambourine, 
a flageolet, and a bagpipe. Much lias been written concerning 
the indecency of these dances ; but I am of opinion that many of 



248 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

our ballets afford much greater cause of complaint. It may, how- 
ever, be that other dances are performed of which the general 
public are not allowed to be spectators ; but I only speak of what 
is done openly. I would also by far prefer a popular festival in the 
East to a fair in our highly-civilised states. The Oriental feasts 
were to me a source of much enjoyment, for the people always 
behaved most decorously. They certainly shouted, and pushed, 
and elbowed each other like an European mob ; but no drunken 
men were to be seen, and it was very seldom that a serious 
quarrel occurred. The commonest man, too, would never think 
of offering an insult to one of the opposite sex. I should feel no 
compunction in sending a young girl to this festival, though I 
should never think of letting her go to the fair held at Vienna 
on St. Bridget's day. 

The people were assembled in vast numbers, and the crowd 
was very great, yet we could pass every where on our donkeys. 

At about three o'clock my servant sought out an elevated 
place for me, for the great spectacle was soon to come, and the 
crushing and bustle had already reached their highest pitch. At 
length a portly priest could be descried riding along on a splendid 
horse ; before him marched eight or ten dervishes with flags 
flying, and behind him a number of men, among whom were also 
many dervishes. In the midst of the square the procession 
halted ; a few soldiers pushed their way among the people, whom 
they forced to stand back and leave a road. Whenever the 
spectators did not obey quickly, a stick was brought into action, 
which soon established order in a most satisfactory manner. 

The procession now moved on once more, the standard-bearers 
and dervishes making all kinds of frantic gestures, as though they 
had just escaped from a madhouse. On reaching the place where 
the spectators formed a lane, the dervishes and several other men 
threw themselves down with their faces to the ground in a long row, 
with their heads side by side. And then oh horror ! the priest 
rode over the backs of these miserable men as upon a bridge. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 249 

Then they all sprang up again as though nothing had happened, and 
rejoined the advancing train with their former antics and grimaces. 
One man stayed behind, writhing to and fro as if his back had 
been broken, but in a few moments' time he went away as un- 
concernedly as his comrades. Each of the actors in this scene 
considers himself extremely fortunate in having attained to such 
a distinction, and this feeling even extends to his relations and 
friends. 

SHUBKA. 

One afternoon I paid a visit to the beautiful garden and country- 
house of the Viceroy of Egypt. A broad handsome street leads 
between alleys of sycamores, and the journey occupies about an 
hour and a half. Immediately upon my arrival I was conducted 
to an out- building, in the yard belonging to which a fine large 
elephant was to be shewn. I had already seen several of these 
creatures, but never such a fine specimen as this. Its bulk was 
truly marvellous ; its body clean and smooth, and of a dark-brown 
colour. 

The park is most lovely ; and the rarest plants are here seen 
flourishing in the open air, in the fulness of bloom and beauty, 
beside those we are accustomed to see every day. On the whole, 
however, I was better pleased with the garden at Rodda. The 
palace, too, is very fine. The ceilings of the rooms are lofty, and 
richly ornamented with gilding, paintings, and marble. The rooms 
appropriated to the viceroy's consort are no less magnificent ; the 
ascent to them is by a broad staircase on each side. On the 
ground-floor is situate the favourite apartment of the autocrat of 
Cairo, furnished in the style of the reception-halls at Damascus. A 
fountain of excellent water diffuses a delicious coolness around. In 
the palace itself we find several large cages for parrots and other 
beautiful birds. What pleased me most of all was, however, the 
incomparable kiosk, lying in the garden at some distance from 
the palace. It is 130 paces long and 100 broad, surrounded by 



250 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

arcades of glorious pillars. This Mosk contains in its interior a 
large and beautiful fountain ; and at the four corners of the building 
are terraces, from which the water falls in the form of little cata- 
racts, afterwards uniting with the fountain, and shooting upwards 
in the shape of a mighty pillar. All things around us, the pan- 
lion and the pillars, the walls and the fountain, are alike covered 
with beautiful marble of a white or light-brown colour ; the pavi- 
lion is even arranged so that it can be lighted with gas. 

From this paradise of the living I rode to the abode of the 
dead, the celebrated " world of graves," which is to be seen in the 
desert. Here are to be found a number of ancient sepulchres, but 
most of them resemble ruins, and to find out their boasted beauty 
is a thing left to the imagination of every traveller. I only ad- 
mired the sepulchre ofMehemet Ali's two sons, in which the bones 
of his wife also rest : this is a beautiful building of stone ; five cupo- 
las rise above the magnificent chambers where the sarcophagi are 
deposited. 

The petrified date-wood lies about eight miles distant from 
Cairo ; I rode out there, but did not find much to see, excepting 
here and there some fragments of stems and^ a few petrifactions 
lying about. It is said that the finest part of this " petrified wood" 
begins some miles away ; but I did not penetrate so far. 

During my residence in Cairo the heat once reached 36 
Heaumur, and yet I found it much more endurable than I had 
expected. I was not annoyed at all by insects or vermin ; but I 
was obliged to be careful not to leave any provisions in my room 
throughout the night. An immense swarm of minute ants would 
seize upon every kind of eatable, particularly bread. One evening 
I left a roll upon the table, and the next morning found it half 
eaten away, and covered with ants within and without. It is here 
an universal custom to place the feet of the tables in little dishes 
filled with water, to keep off these insects. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 251 

EXCURSION TO SUEZ. 

It had originally been my intention to stay at Cairo a week at 
the furthest, and afterwards to return to Alexandria. But the 
more I saw, the more my curiosity became excited, and I felt 
irresistibly impelled to proceed. I had now travelled in almost 
every way, but I had not yet tried an excursion on a camel. I 
therefore made inquiry as to the distance, danger, and expense of 
a journey to Suez on the Red Sea. The distance was a thirty-six 
hours' journey, the danger was said to be nil, and the expense 
they estimated at about 250 piastres. 

I therefore hired two strong camels, one for me, the other for 
my servant and the camel-driver, and took nothing with me in the 
way of pro visions but bread, dates, a piece of roast meat, and hard- 
boiled eggs. Skins of water were hung at each side of the camels, 
for we had to take a supply which would last us the journey and 
during our return. 

If we ride every day for twelve hours, this journey occupies 
six days, there and back. But as I was unable to depart until 
the afternoon of the 26th, and was obliged to be in Alexandria at 
latest by the 30th, in order not to miss the steamer, I had only 
four days and a half to accomplish it in. Thus this excursion 
was the most fatiguing I had ever undertaken. 

At four in the afternoon I rode through the town-gate, where 
the camels were waiting for us ; we mounted them and commenced 
our journey. 

The desert begins at the town-gates, but for the first few 
miles we have a sight of some very fruitful country on the left, 
until at length we leave town and trees behind us, and with them 
all the verdure, and find ourselves surrounded on all sides by a sea 
of sand. 

For the first four or five hours I was not ill-pleased with this 
mode of travelling. I had plenty of room on my camel, and could 
sit farther back or forward as I chose, and had provisions and a 



252 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

bottle of water at my side. Besides this, the heat was not oppres- 
sive ; I felt very comfortable, and could look down from my high 
throne almost with a feeling of pride upon the passing caravans. 
Even the swaying motion of the camel, which causes in some 
travellers a feeling of sickness and nausea like that produced by 
a sea-voyage, did not affect me. But after a few hours I began 
to feel the fatigues and discomforts of a journey of this kind. The 
swinging motion pained and fatigued me, as I had no support 
against which I could lean. The desire to sleep also arose within 
me, and it can be imagined how uncomfortable I felt. But I was 
resolved to go to Suez; and if all my hardships had been iar 
worse, I would not have turned back. I summoned all my for- 
titude, and rode without halting for fifteen hours, from four in the 
afternoon until seven the next morning. 

During the night we passed several trains of camels, some in 
motion, some at rest, often consisting of more than a hundred. 
We were not exposed to the least annoyance, although we had 
attached ourselves to no caravan, but were pursuing our way alone. 

From Cairo to Suez posts are established at every five or six 
hours' journey, and at each of these posts there stands a little 
house of two rooms for the convenience of travellers. These huts 
were built by an English innkeeper established at Cairo ; but they 
can only be used by very rich people, as the prices charged are 
most exorbitant. Thus, for instance, a bed for one night costs a 
hundred piastres, a little chicken twenty, and a bottle of water two 
piastres. The generality of travellers encamp before the house, 
aaid I followed the same plan, lying down for an hour in the sand 
while the camels ate their scanty meal. My health and bodily 
strength are, I am happy to say, so excellent, that I am ready after 
a very short rest to encounter new fatigues. After this hour of 
repose I once more mounted my camel to continue my journey. 

August 27th. 
It may easily be imagined that the whole scene by which we 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 253 

are here surrounded has over it an air of profound and death- 
like stillness. The sea, where we behold nothing but water around 
us, presents more of life to divert the mind. The very rushing 
and splash of the wheels, the bounding waves, the bustle of bend- 
ing or reefing sails, and the crowding of people on the steamer, 
brings varied pictures to temper the monotony around. Even the 
ride through the stony deserts which I had traversed iu Syria has 
not so much sameness, for there we at least hear the tramp of the 
horse and the sound of many a rolling stone ; the traveller's atten- 
tion is, besides, kept continually on the stretch in guiding each step 
that his horse takes, to avoid the risk of a fall. But all this is 
wanting in a journey through a sandy desert. No bird hovers in 
the air, not a butterfly is here to gladden the eye, not even an 
insect or a worm crawls on the ground ; not a living creature 
is, in fact, to be seen, but the little vultures preying on the carcasses 
of fallen camels. Even the tread of the heavy-footed camel is 
muffled by the deep sand, and nothing is ever heard but the moan- 
ing of these poor animals when their driver forces them to lie down 
to take off their burden ; most probably the exertion of stooping 
hurts them. The driver beats the camel on the knee with a stick, 
and pulls its head towards him by a rope fastened to it like a halter. 
During tliis operation the rider must hold very fast in order not to 
fall off, for suddenly the creature drops on its fore-knees, then on 
its liind legs, and at length sits completely down on the ground. 
When you mount the animal again, it becomes necessary to keep 
a vigilant eye upon him, for as soon as he feels your foot on his 
neck he wishes to rise. 

As I have already said, we see nothing on this journey but 
many and large companies of camels, which march one behind the 
other, while their drivers shorten the way with dreary inharmonious 
songs. Half-devoured carcasses of these " ships of the desert" lie 
every where, with jackals and vultures gnawing at them. Even 
living camels are sometimes seen staggering about, which have 
been left to starve by their masters as unfit for further service. 



254 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

I shall never forget the piteous look of one of these poor creatures 
which I saw dragging itself to and fro in the desert, anxiously 
seeking for food and drink. What a cruel being is man ! Why 
could he not put an end to the poor camel's pain hy a blow with 
a knife ? One would imagine that the air in the vicinity of these 
Mien animals was poisoned ; but here this is less the case than it 
would be in more temperate regions, for the pure air and the great 
heat of the desert rather dry up than decompose corpses. 

From the same cause our piece of roast beef was still good on 
the fifth day. The hard-boiled eggs, which my servant packed so 
clumsily that they got. smashed in the very first hour, did not be- 
come foul. Both meat and eggs were shrunk and dried up. On 
the third day the white bread had become as hard as ship-biscuit, 
so that we had to break it up and soak it in water. Our drinking 
water became worse day by day, and smelt abominably of the 
leathern receptacles in which we were compelled to keep it. Until 
we reached Suez our poor camels got not a drop to drink, and 
their food consisted of a scanty meal of bad provender once a day. 

At eight in the morning we set off once more, and rode until 
about five in the afternoon. At about four I suddenly descried 
the Red Sea and its shores. This circumstance delighted me, for 
I felt assured that we should reach the coast in the course of an- 
other hour, and then our laborious journey to Suez would be accom- 
plished. I called to my servant, pointed out the sea to him, and 
expressed my surprise that we had sighted it so soon. He main- 
tained, however, that what I beheld was not the sea, but a fata mor- 
gana. At first I refused to believe him, because the thing seemed 
so real. But after an hour had elapsed we were as far from the sea 
as ever, and at length the mirage vanished ; and I did not behold the 
real sea until six o'clock on the following morning, when it appeared 
in exactly the same way as the phantom of the previous evening. 

At five in the afternoon we at length halted. I lay down on 
the earth completely exhausted, and enjoyed a refreshing sleep 
for more than three hours, when I was awakened by my servant, 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 255 

who informed me that a caravan was just before us, which we 
should do well to join, as the remainder of our road was far 
less safe than the portion we had already traversed. I was at 
once ready to mount my camel, and at eight o'clock we were 
again in motion. 

In a short time we had overtaken the caravan, and our 
camels were placed in the procession, each beast being tethered 
to the preceding one by a rope. It was already quite dark, and 
I could barely distinguish that the people sitting on the camels 
before me were an Arab family. They travelled in boxes resem- 
bling hen-coops, about a foot and a half in height, four feet in 
length, and as many broad. In a box of this kind two or three 
men sat cross-legged ; many had even spread a light tent over their 
heads. Suddenly I heard my name called by a female voice. I 
started, and thought I must be mistaken, for whom in the world 
could I meet here who knew my Christian name? But once 
more a voice cried very distinctly, " Ida ! Ida !" and a servant 
came up, and told me that some Arab women, who had made the 
voyage from Atfe to Cairo in company with me, were seated on 
the first camel. They sent to tell me that they were on their way 
to Mecca, and rejoiced to meet me once more. I was indeed sur- 
prised that I should have made such an impression on these good 
people that they had not forgotten my name. 

To-night I saw a glorious natural phenomenon, which so sur- 
prised me that I could not refrain from uttering a slight scream. 
It may have been about eleven o'clock, when suddenly the sky on 
my left was lighted up, as though every thing were in flames ; a 
great fiery ball shot through the air with lightning speed, and dis- 
appeared on the horizon, while at the same moment the gleam in 
the atmosphere vanished, and darkness descended once more on 
all around. We travelled on throughout the whole of this night. 

August 28th. 

At six o'clock this morning we came in sight of the Red Sea. 



256 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

The mountain-chain of Mokattam can be discerned some time 
previously. Some way from Suez we came upon a well of bad, 
brackish water. Notwithstanding all drawbacks, the supply was 
eagerly hailed. Our people shouted, scolded, and pushed each 
other to get the best places; camels, horses, asses, and men 
rushed pell-mell towards the well, and happy was he who could 
seize upon a little water. There are barracks near this well, and 
soldiers are posted here to promote peace by means of the stick. 

The little town of Suez lies spread out on the sea-shore, and 
can be very distinctly seen from here. The unhappy inhabitants 
are compelled to draw their supplies either from this well, or 
from one on the sea-coast four miles below Suez. In the first 
case the water is brought on camels, horses, or asses; in the 
second it is transported by sea hi boats or small ships. 

The Ked Sea is here rather narrow, and surrounded by sand 
of a yellowish-brown hue ; immediately beyond the isthmus is the 
continuation of the great Libyan Desert. The mountain-range 
of Mokattam skirts the plain on the right, from Cairo to the Red 
Sea. We quite lose sight of this range until within the last ten or 
twelve hours before reaching Suez. The mountains are of mode- 
rate elevation and perfectly bare; but still the eye rests with 
pleasure on the varied forms of the rocks. 

After an hour's rest beside the well, we were still unable to 
procure water for our poor beasts, and hastened, therefore, to 
reach the town. At nine in the morning we were already within 
its walls. Of the town and its environs I can say nothing, 
excepting that they both present a very melancholy appearance, 
as there is nowhere a garden or a cluster of trees to be seen. 

I paid my respects to the consul, and introduced myself to him 
as an Austrian subject. He was kind enough to assign me a room 
in his own house, and would on no account permit me to take up 
my quarters in an inn. It was a pity that I could only converse 
with this gentleman by means of a dragoman ; he was a Greek by 
birth, and only knew the Arabic language and his own. He is 



EGYI'T, AND ITALY. 257 

the richest merchant in Suez (his wealth is estimated at 150,000 
collonati), and only discharges the functions of French and Aus- 
trian consul as an honorary duty. 

In the little town itself there is nothing remarkable to be seen. 
On the sea- coast they shewed me the place where Moses led the 
children of Israel through the Red Sea. The sinking of the tide 
at its ebb is here so remarkable that whole islands are left bare, 
and large caravans are able to march through the sea, as the 
water only reaches to the girths of the camels, and the Arabs and 
Bedouins even walk through. As it happened to be ebb-tide 
when I arrived, I rode through also, for the glory of the thing. 
On these shores I found several pretty shells; but the real 
treasures of this kind are fished out of the deep at Ton, a few 
days' journey higher up. I saw whole cargoes of mother-of-pearl 
shells carried away. 

I remained at Suez until four in the afternoon, and recruited 
my energies perfectly with an excellent dinner, at which tole- 
rably good water was not wanting. The consul kindly gave me 
a bottle, as provision for my journey. He has it fetched from a 
distance of twelve miles, as all the water that can be procured in 
the neighbourhood tastes brackish and salt. In the inn a bottle of 
water costs two piastres. 

The first night of my homeward jomrney was passed partly in 
a Bedouin encampment and partly on the road, in the company of 
different caravans. I found the Bedouins to be very good, obliging 
people, among whom I might wander as I pleased, without being 
exposed to injury. On the contrary, while I was in then: encamp- 
ment they brought me a straw-mat and a chest, hi order that I 
might have a comfortable seat. 

The homeward journey was just as monotonous and weari- 
some as that to Suez, with the additional fact that I had a quarrel 
with my people the day before its termination. Feeling exceed- 
ingly fatigued by a lengthened ride, I ordered my servant to stop 
the camels, as I wished to sleep for a few hours. The rascals 



258 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

refused to obey, alleging that the road was not safe, and that we 
should endeavour to overtake a caravan. This was, however, 
nothing but an excuse to get home as quickly as possible. But I 
was not to be frightened, and insisted that my desire should be 
complied with, telling them moreover that I had inquired of the 
consul at Suez concerning the safety of the roads, and had once 
more heard that there was nothing to fear. Notwithstanding all 
this they would not obey, but continued to advance. I now be- 
came angry, and desired the servant once more to stop my camel, 
as I was fully determined not to proceed another step. 

I told him I had hired both camels and men, and had there- 
fore a right to be mistress ; if he did not choose to obey me, he 
might go his way with the camel-driver, and I would join the first 
caravan I met, and bring him to justice, let it cost me what it 
would. The fellow now stopped my camel, and went away with 
the other and the camel-driver. He probably expected to frighten 
me by this demonstration, and to compel me to follow ; but he 
was vastly mistaken. I remained standing where I was, and as 
often as he turned to look at me, made signs that he might go his 
way, but that I should stay. When he saw how fearless and 
determined I was, he turned back, came to me, made my camel 
kneel down, and after helping me to alight, prepared me a resting- 
place on a heap of sand, w%ere I slept delightfully for five hours ; 
then I ordered my things to be packed up, mounted my camel, 
and continued my journey. 

My conduct astonished my followers to such a degree, that 
they afterwards asked me every few hours if I wished to rest. 
On our arrival at Cairo the camel- driver had not even the heart 
to make the customary demand for backsheesh, and my servant 
begged pardon for his conduct, and hoped that I would not men- 
tion the difference We had had to the consul. 

The maximum temperature during this journey was 43 
Reaumur, and when it was perfectly calm I really felt as if I 
should be stifled. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 259 

This journey from Cairo to Suez can, however, he accom- 
plished in a carriage in the space of twenty hours. The English 
innkeeper established at Cairo has had a very light carriage, with 
seats for four, built expressly for this purpose ; but a place in 
this vehicle costs five pounds for the journey there, and the same 
sum for the return. 

On the following day I once more embarked on board an 
Arabian vessel for Alexandria. Before my departure I had a 
terrible quarrel with the donkey - driver whom I usually em- 
ployed. These men, as in fact all fellahs, are accustomed to 
cheat strangers in every possible way, but particularly with coins. 
They usually carry bad money about with them, which they can 
substitute for the good at the moment when they are paid, with 
the dexterity of jugglers. My donkey-driver endeavoured to play 
me this trick when I rode to the ship ; he saw that I should not 
require his services any more, and therefore wished to cheat me 
as a parting mark of attention. This attempt disgusted me so 
much that I could not refrain from brandishing my whip at him 
in a very threatening manner, although I was alone among a 
number of his class. My gesture had the desired effect; the 
driver instantly retreated, and I remained victor. 

My reader would do me a great wrong by the supposition 
that I mention these circumstances to make a vaunt of my cou- 
rage ; I am sure that the fact of my having undertaken this 
journey alone will be sufficient to clear me from the imputation 
of cowardice. I wish merely to give future travellers a hint as 
to the best method of dealing with these people. Their respect 
can only be secured by the display of a firm will ; and I am sure 
that in my case they were the more intimidated as they had never 
expected to find so much determination in a woman. 



260 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Return to Alexandria Egyptian burials Catacombs of Alexandria Vice- 
roy's palace Departure from Alexandria The steamer Earotas Can- 
dia Syra Paros and Antiparos The Morea Fire on board Malta 
Quarantine St. Augustine's church Clergymen Beggars Cos- 
tumes Soldiers Civita Vecchia. 

September 5th. 

AT five o'clock in the evening of the 2d of September I com- 
menced my j ourney back to Alexandria. During the fortnight 
I remained at Cairo the Nile had continued to rise considerably, 
and the interest of the region had increased in proportion. In 
three days' time I arrived safely at Alexandria, and again put up 
at Colombier's. Two days had still to elapse before the depar- 
ture of the French steam- vessel, and I made use of this time to 
take a closer survey of the town and its environs. 

On my arrival at Alexandria I met two Egyptian funerals. 
The first was that of a poor man, and not a soul foUowed the 
cofiin. The corpse lay hi a wooden box without a lid, a coarse 
blanket had been spread over it, and four men carried the coffin. 
The second funeral had a more respectable air. The coifin, in- 
deed, was not less rude, but the dead man was covered with a 
handsome shawl, and four " mourning women" followed the body, 
raising a most dolorous howl from time to time. A motley crowd 
of people closed the procession. The corpse was laid in the grave 
without the coffin. 

The catacombs of Alexandria are very extensive, and well 
worth a visit. A couple of miles from them we see the celebrated 
plain on which the army of Julius Csesar was once posted. The 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 261 

cistern and batli of Cleopatra were both under water. I could, 
therefore, only see the place where they stood. 

The viceroy's palace, a spacious building inclining to the Eu- 
ropean style, has a pleasing effect. Its interior arrangement is 
also almost wholly European. 

The bazaar contains nothing worthy of remark. The arsenal 
looks very magnificent when viewed from without. It is difficult 
to obtain admission into this building, and you run the risk of 
being insulted by the workmen. The hospital has the appearance 
of a private house. 

I was astonished at the high commission winch is here de- 
manded on changing small sums of money. In changing a col- 
lonato, a coin very much used in this country, and worth about 
two guilders, the applicant must lose from half a piastre to two 
piastres, according to the description of coin he requires. If 
beshliks 3 are taken, the commission charged is half a piastre ; but 
if piastres are wanted, two must be paid. The government 
value of a collonato is twenty piastres ; in general exchange it is 
reckoned at twenty-two, and at the consulate's at twenty-one 
piastres. 

DEPARTURE FROM ALEXANDRIA. 

September 7th. 

At eight o'clock in the morning I betook myself on board the 
French steam-packet Eurotas^ beautiful large vessel of 160-horse 
power. At nine o'clock we weighed anchor. 

The weather was very unfavourable. Though it did not 
rain, we continually had contrary winds, and the sea generally 
ran high. In consequence we did not sight the island of Candia 
until the evening of the third day, four-and-twenty hours later 
than we should have done under ordinary circumstances. 

Two women, who came on board as passengers to Syra, 
were so violently attacked by sea-sickness, that they left the deck 
a A beshlik is worth five piastres in Turkey, and only four in Egypt. 



262 VISIT TO THE HOLT LAND, 

a few hours after we got under weigh, and did not reappear until 
they landed at Syra. A very useful arrangement on board the 
French vessel is the engagement of a female attendant, whose assist- 
ance sometimes hecomes very necessary. Heaven be praised, I had 
not much to fear from the attacks of sea-sickness. The weather 
must be very bad as, for instance, during our passage through the 
Black Sea before my health is affected, and even then I re- 
cover rapidly. During our whole voyage, even when the wea- 
ther was wretched, I remained continually on deck, so that during 
the day-time I could not miss seeing even the smallest islet. On 

September 10th, 

late in the evening, we discovered the island of Candia or Crete, 
and the next morning we were pretty dose to it. We could, 
however, distinguish nothing but bare unfruitful mountains, the 
tallest among which, my namesake ilount Ida, does not look more 
fertile than the rest. On the right loomed the island of Scarpanto. 
We soon left it hi our wake, and also passed the Brothers' Islands, 
and many others, some of them small and uninhabited, besides 
separate colossal rocks, towering majestically into the sea. Soon 
afterwards we passed the islands Santorin and Anaph. 

The latter of these islands is peculiarly beautiful. In the 
foreground a village lies at the foot of a high mountain, with its 
peak surmounted by a little church. On the side towards the 
sea this rock shoots downwards so perpendicularly, that we might 
fancy it had been cut off with a saw. 

Since we had come in sigat of Candia, we had not been sailing 
on the high seas. Scarcely did one island vanish from our view, 
before it was replaced by another. On 

September llth, 

between three and four in the morning, we reached Syra. The 
terrible contrary winds with which we had been obliged to contend 
during almost the whole of our passage had caused us to arrive 



EGYPT, AXD ITALY. 263 

a day behind our time, to make up for wliich delay we only 
stayed half a day here, instead of a day and a half. This was a 
matter of indifference to those of us who were travelling further, 
for as we came from Egypt, we should not have been allowed in 
any case to disembark. Those who landed here proceeded at 
once to the quarantine-house. 

Syra possesses a fine harbour. From our vessel we had a 
view over the whole town and its environs. An isolated moun- 
tain, crowned by a convent and church, the seat of the bishop, 
rises boldly from the very verge of the shore. The town winds 
round this mountain in the form of several wreaths, until it almost 
reaches the episcopal buildings. The background closes with the 
melancholy picture of a barren mountain-chain. A lighthouse 
stands on a little neighbouring island. The quarantine establish- 
ment looks cheerful enough, and is situate at a little distance from 
the town on the sea-shore. 

It was Sunday when we arrived here ; and as Syra belongs to 
Greece, I here heard the sound of bells like those of Mount Lek> 
non, and once more their strain filled me with deep and indescrib- 
able emotion. Never do we think so warmly of our home as 
when we are solitary and alone among strange people hi a far- 
distant land ! 

I would gladly have turned aside from my route to visit 
Athens, which I might have reached in a few hours ; but then I 
should once more have been compelled to keep quarantine, and 
perhaps on leaving Greece the infliction would have to be borne 
a third tune, a risk which I did not wish to run. I therefore 1 
preferred keeping quarantine at Malta, and having done with it at 
once. 

On the same day at two o'clock we once more set sail. This 
day and the following I remained on deck as much as possible, 
bidding defiance to wind and rain, and gazing at the islands as we 
glided past one after another. As one island disappeared, another 
rose in its place. Groups of isolated rocks also rose at intervals, 



264 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

like giants from the main, to form a feature in the changing pano- 
rama. 

On the right, in the far distance, we could distinguish Paros 
and Antiparos, on the left the larger Chennian Isles; and at 
length we passed close to Cervo (Stag's Island), which is par- 
ticularly distinguished by the beauty of its mountain-range. Here, 
as at Syra, we find an isolated mountain, round which a town 
winds almost to its summit. 

September 12th. 

As I came ou deck to-day with the sun, the mainland of the 
Morea was in sight on our right, a great plain, with many vil- 
lages scattered over its surface, and a background of bare hills. 
After losing sight of the Morea we sailed once more on the high 
seas. 

This day might have had a tragical termination for us. I was 
sitting as usual on deck, when I noticed an unusual stir among 
the sailors and officers, and even the commander ran hastily to- 
wards me. Nevertheless I did not dare to ask what had hap- 
pened ; for in proportion as the French are generally polite, they 
are proud and overbearing on board their steamers. I therefore 
remained quietly seated, and contented myself with watching 
every movement of the officers and men. Several descended to 
the coal-magazine, returning heated, blackened by the coals, and 
dripping with water. At length a cabin-boy came hurrying by 
me ; and upon my asking bun what was the matter, he replied in 
a whisper, that fire had broken out in the coal-room. Now I 
knew the whole extent of our danger, and yet could do nothing 
but keep my seat, and await whatever fate should bring us. It 
was most fortunate for us that the fire occurred during the day- 
time, and had been immediately discovered by the engine-man. 
Double chain-pumps were rigged, and the whole magazine was 
laid under water, a proceeding which had the effect of extin- 
guishing the flames. The other passengers knew nothing of our 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 263 

danger ; they were all asleep or sitting quietly in tlie cabins ; the 
sailors were forbidden to tell them what had happened, and even 
my informant the cabin-boy begged me not to betray him. "We 
had three hundredweight of gunpowder on board. 

September 14th. 

We did not come hi sight of land until this evening, when the 
goal of our journey appeared. 

MALTA. 

We cast anchor in the harbour of Lavalette at seven o'clock. 

During the whole of our journey from Alexandria the wind 
had been very unfavourable ; the sea was frequently so agitated, 
that we could not walk across the deck without the assistance of 
a sailor. 

The distance from Alexandria via Syra to Malta is 950 sea- 
miles. We took eight days to accomplish this distance, landing 
only at Syra. The heat was moderate enough, seldom reaching 
28 or 29 Reaumur. 

The appearance of Malta is picturesque ; it contains no moun- 
tains, and consists entirely of hills and rocks. 

The town of Lavalette is surrounded by three lines of fortifi- 
cations, winding like steps up the hill on which the town lies ; the 
latter contains large fine houses, all built of stone. 

September 15th. 

This morning at eight o'clock we disembarked, and were 
marched off to keep quarantine hi the magnificent castle of the 
Knights of St. John. 

This building stands 011 a hill, affording a view over the whole 
island in the direction of Civita Vecchia. We found here a num- 
ber of clean rooms, and were immediately supplied with furniture, 
bedding, &c. by the establishment at a very reasonable charge. 
Our host at once despatched to every guest a bill of fare for 
breakfast and dinner, so that each one can choose what he 



266 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

wishes, without being cheated as to the prices. The keepers here 
are very obliging and attentive ; they almost all know something 
of Italian, and execute any commission with Which they are en- 
trusted punctually and well. The building for the incarcerated 
ones is situate on an elevated plateau. It has two large wings, 
one on each side, one story high, containing apartments each with 
a separate entrance. Adjoining the courtyard is the inn, and 
not far from it the church ; neither, however, may be visited by 
the new-comers. The requisite provisions are procured for them 
by a keeper, who takes them to the purchasers. The church is 
always kept locked. A broad handsome terrace, with a prospect 
over the sea, the town of Lavalette, and the whole island, forms 
the foreground of the picture. This terrace and the ramparts 
behind the houses form very agreeable walks. The courtyard 
of our prison is very spacious, and we are allowed to walk about 
in it as far as a statue which stands in the middle. Until ten 
o'clock at night we enjoy our liberty ; but when this hour arrives, 
we are sent to our respective rooms and locked up. The apart- 
ments of the keepers are quite separate from ours. 

The arrangements of the whole establishment are so good 
and comfortable, that we almost forget that we are prisoners. 
What a contrast to the quarantine-house at Alexandria ! 

If a traveller receives a visitor, he is not separated from his 
guest by ditches and bars, but stands only two steps from him in 
the courtyard. The windows here are not grated ; and though 
our clothes were hung on horses to air, neither we nor our effects 
were smoked out. If it had not been for the delay it caused, I 
should really have spent the eighteen days of my detention here 
very pleasantly. But I wished to ascend Mount Etna, and was a 
fixture here until the 2d of October. 

October 1st. 

The quarantine doctor examined us in a very superficial man- 
ner, and pronounced that we should be free to-morrow. Upon 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 267 

tliis a boisterous hilarity prevailed. The prisoners rejoiced at the 
prospect of speedy release, and shouted, sang, and danced in the 
courtyard. The keepers caught the infection, and all was mirth 
and good-humour until late in the night. 

October 2d. 

At seven o'clock this morning we were released from thral- 
dom. A scene similar to that at Alexandria then took place; 
every one rushed to seize upon the strangers. It is here neces- 
sary that the traveller should he as much upon his guard as in 
Egypt among the Arahs, in the matters of boat-fares, porterage, 
#c. If a bargain is not struck beforehand, the people are most 
exorbitant in their demands. 

A few days before our release, I had made an arrangement 
with an innkeeper for board, lodging, and transport. To-day he 
came to fetch me and my luggage, and we crossed the arm of the 
sea which divides Fort Manuel from the town of Lavalette. 

A flight of steps leads from the shore into the town, past the 
three rows of fortifications rising in tiers above each other. In 
each of these divisions we find streets and houses. The town, 
properly speaking, lies quite at the top ; it is therefore necessary 
to mount and descend frequently, though not nearly so often as 
at Constantinople. The streets are bread and well paved, the 
houses spacious and finely built ; the place of roofs is supplied by 
terraces, frequently parcelled out into little flower-beds, which 
present a very agreeable appearance. 

My host gave me a tiny room, and meals on the same prin- 
ciple coffee with milk morning and evening, and three dishes at 
dinner-time ; but for all tlds I did not pay more than forty -five 
kreutzers, or about one shilling and sixpence. 

The first tiling I did after taking up my quarters here was 
to hasten to a church to return thanks to the Almighty for the 
protection He had so manifestly extended to me upon my long 
and dangerous journey. The first church which I entered at 



268 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

Lavalette was dedicated to St. Augustine. I was particularly 
pleased with it, for since my departure from Vienna I had not 
seen one so neatly or so well built. Afterwards I visited the 
church of St. John, and was much struck with its splendour. 
This building is very spacious, and the floor is completely covered 
with monumental slabs of marble, covering the graves of the 
knights. The ceiling is ornamented with beautiful frescoes, and 
the walls are sculptured from ceiling to floor with arabesques, 
leaves, and flowers, hi sandstone. 

All these ornaments are richly gilt, and present a peculiarly 
imposing appearance. The side-chapels contain numerous monu- 
ments, mostly of white marble, and one single one of black, in 
memory of celebrated Maltese knights. At the right-hand comer 
of the church is the so-called " rose-coloured" chapel. It is hung 
round with a heavy silk stuff of a red colour, which diffuses a 
roseate halo over all the objects around. The altar is surrounded 
by a high massive railing. Two only of the paintings are well 
executed namely, that over the high altar, and a piece repre- 
senting Christ on the cross. The pillars round the altar are of 
marble ; and at each side of the grand altar rise lofty canopies of red 
velvet fringed with gold, reaching almost to the vaulted cupola. 

The uncomfortable custom of carrying chairs to and fro during 
church-tune, which is so universal throughout Italy, begins already 
at Malta. 

The predilection for the clerical profession seems to prevail 
here, as it does throughout Italy ; I could almost say that every 
fifteenth person we meet either is a clergyman or intends to be- 
come one. Children of ten or twelve years already run about in 
the black gown and three-cornered hat. 

The streets are handsome and cleanly kept, particularly the 
one which intersects the town ; some of them are even watered. 
The counters of the dealers' shops contain the most exquisite 
wares ; in fact, every where we find indications that we are once 
more on European ground. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 269 

When we see the Fachiiii here, with their dark worked caps 
or round straw hats, then* short jackets and comfortable trousers, 
with jaunty red sashes round their waists, and then? bold free 
glance, when we contrast them with the wretched fellahs of 
Egypt, and consider that these men both belong to the same class 
in society, and that the fellahs even inhabit the more fruitful 
country, we begin to have our doubts of Mehemet Ali's benignant 
rule. 

The governor's palace, a great square building, stands on a 
magnificent open space; next to it is the library; and opposite, the 
chief guard -house rears its splendid front, graced with pillars. 
The coffee-houses here are very large ; they are kept comfortably 
and clean, particularly that on the great square, which is bril- 
liantly illuminated every evening. 

"Women and girls appear dressed in black ; they are usually 
accustomed to throw a wide cloak over their other garments, and 
wear a mantilla which conceals arms, chest, and head. The face 
is left uncovered, and I saw some very lovely ones smiling forth 
from the black drapery. Rich people wear these upper garments 
of silk ; the cloaks of the poorer classes are made of merino or 
cheap woollen stuffs. 

It was Sunday when I entered Lavalctte for the firsf time. 
Every street and church was thronged with people, all of whom 
were neatly and decently dressed. I saw but few beggars, and 
those whom I met were less ragged than the generality of then? 
class. 

The military, the finest I had ever seen, consisted entirely of 
tall handsome men, mostly Scotchmen. Their uniforms were very 
tasteful. One regiment wore scarlet jackets and white linen 
trousers ; another, black jackets and shoulder-knots, in fact, the 
whole uniform is black, with the exception of the trousers, which 
are of white linen. 

It seemed much more the fashion to drive than to ride here. 
The coaches are of a very peculiar kind, which I hardly think can 



270 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

be found elsewhere. They consist of a venerahle old rattling 
double-seated box, swinging upon two immense wheels, and drawn 
by a single horse in shafts. The coachman generally runs beside 
his vehicle. 

October 3d. 

To-day I drove in a carriage (for the first tune since my 
departure from Vienna, a period of six months and a half) to 
Civita Vecchia, to view this ancient town of Malta, and particu- 
larly the celebrated church of St. Peter and St. Paul. On this 
occasion I traversed the whole length of the island, and had an 
opportunity of viewing the interior. 

Malta consists of a number of little elevations, and is inter- 
sected hi all directions by excellent roads. I also continually 
passed handsome villages, some of them so large that they looked 
like thriving little towns. The heights are frequently crowned 
by churches of considerable extent and beauty; although the 
whole island consists of rock and sandstone, vegetation is suffi- 
ciently luxurious. Fig, lemon, and orange trees grow every where, 
and plantations of the cotton- shrub are as common as potato-fields 
in my own country. The stems of these shrubs are not higher 
than potato-plants, and are here cultivated exactly in the same 
way. I was told that they had been stunted this year by the 
excessive drought, but that in general they grew a foot higher. 

The peasants were every where neatly dressed, and live in 
commodious well-built houses, universally constructed of stone, 
and furnished with terraces in lieu of roofs. 

CIVITA VECCHIA 

is a town of splendid houses and very elegant country-seats. 
Many inhabitants of Lavalette spend the summer here, in the 
highest portion of the island. 

The church of St. Peter and St. Paul is a spacious building, 
with a simple ulterior. The floor is covered merely with stone 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 271 

slabs; the walls are white-washed to the ceiling, but the upper 
portion is richly ornamented with arabesques. A beautiful picture 
hanging behind the high altar represents a storm at sea. The 
view from the hall of the convent is magnificent ; we can overlook 
almost the entire island, and beyond our gaze loses itself in the 
boundless expanse of ocean. 

Near the church stands a chapel, beneath which is St. Paul's 
grotto, divided into two parts : in the first of these divisions we 
find a splendid statue of St. Paul in white marble ; the second was 
the dungeon of the apostle. 

Not far from this chapel, at the extremity of the town, are 
the catacombs, which resemble those at Piorne, Naples, and other 
towns. 

During our drive back we made a little detour to see the gor- 
geous summer-palace and garden of the governor. 

The whole excursion occupied about seven hours. During my 
residence in Malta the heat varied from 20 to 25 Reaumur in 
the stm. 



272 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

The steamer Hercules Syracuse Neapolis Ruins Catanea Convent of 
St. Nicholas Messina The Duke of Calabria Palermo The royal 
palace Church of St. Theresa St. Ignazio Catacombs of the Augus- 
tine convent Skeletons Olivuzza Royal villa "Favorite" St. 
Rosalia Brutality of the Italian mob Luxuriant vegetation Arrival 
at Naples. 

October 4th. 

AT eight o'clock in the evening I embarked on board the Sicilian 
steamer Hercules, of 260-horse power, the largest and finest 
vessel I had yet seen. The officers here were not nearly so 
haughty and disobliging as those on board the Eurotas. Even 
now I cannot think without a smile of the airs the captain of the 
latter vessel gave himself. He appeared to consider that he had 
as good a right to be an admiral as Bruys. 

At ten o'clock we steamed out of the harbour of Lavalette. 
As it was already dark night, I went below and retired to rest. 

October 5th. 

When I hurried on deck this morning I found we were already 
in sight of the Sicilian coast, and oh happiness ! I could distin- 
guish green hills, wooded mountains, glorious dells, and smiling 
meadows, a spectacle I had enjoyed neither in Syria, in Egypt, 
nor even at Malta. Now I thought at length to behold Europe, 
for Malta resembles the Syrian regions too closely to favour the 
idea that we are really in Europe. Towards eleven o'clock we 
reached 

SYRACUSE. 
Unfortunately we could only get four hours' leave of absence. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 273 

As several gentlemen among the passengers wished to devote these 
few hours to seeing all the lions of this once rich and famous town, 
I joined their party and went ashore with them. Scarcely had we 
landed before we were surrounded by a number of sen-ants and a 
mob of curious people, so that we were almost obliged to make 
our way forcibly through the crowd. The gentlemen hired a 
guide, and desired to be at once conducted to a restaurateur, 
who promised to prepare them a modest luncheon within half an 
hour. The prospect of a good meal seemed of more importance in 
the eyes of my fellow-passengers than any thing else. They 
resolved to have luncheon first, and afterwards to take a little walk 
through the city. 

On hearing this I immediately made a bargain with a cicerone 
to shew me what he could in four hours, and went with him, leav- 
ing the company seated at table. Though I got nothing to eat 
to-day but a piece of bread and a few figs, which I despatched on 
the road, I saw some sights which I would not have missed for 
the most sumptuous entertainment. 

Of the once spacious town nothing remains but a very small 
portion, inhabited by 10,000 persons at most. The dirty streets 
were every where crowded with people, as though they dwelt 
out of doors, while the houses stood empty. 

Accompanied by my guide, I passed hastily through the new 
town, and over three or four wooden bridges to Neapolis, the part 
of ancient Syracuse in which monuments of the past are seen hi 
the best state of preservation. First we came to the theatre. This 
building is tolerably well preserved, and several of the stone seats 
are still seen rising in terrace form one above the other. From 
this place we betook ourselves into the amphitheatre, which is finer 
by far, and where we find passages leading to the wild beasts' 
dens, and above them rows of seats for spectators ; all is in such 
good condition that it might, at a trifling expense, be so far re- 
paired as to be made again available for its original purpose. Now 
we proceeded to the " Ear of Dionysius," with which I was parti- 

s 



274 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

cularly struck. It consists of a number of chambers, partly hewn 
out of the rock by art, partly formed by nature, and all opening 
into an immensely lofty hall, which becomes narrower and nar- 
rower towards the top, until it at length terminates in an aper- 
ture so minute as to be invisible from below. To this aperture 
Dionysius is said to have applied his ear, in order to overhear what 
the captives spoke. (This place is stated to have been used as a 
prison for slaves and malefactors.) It is usual to fire a pistol here, 
that the stranger may hear the reverberating echoes. A lofty 
opening, Tumbling a great gate, forms the entrance to these 
rocky passages. Overgrown with ivy, it has rather the appear- 
ance of a bower than of a place of terror and anguish. Several 
of these side halls are now used as workshops by rope-makers, while 
in others the manufacture of saltpetre is carried on. The region 
around is rocky, but without displaying any high mountains. I 
saw numerous grottoes, some of them with magnificent entrances, 
which looked as though they had been cut in the rocks by art. 
In^one^of these grottoes water fell from above, forming a very 
pretty cataract. 

During this excursion the time had passed so rapidly that I 
was soon compelled to think, not of a visit to the catacombs, but of 
my return on board. 

I proceeded to the sea-shore, where the Syracusans have built 
a very pretty promenade, and was rowed back to the steamer. 

Of all the passengers I was the only one who had seen any 
thing of Syracuse ; all the rest had spent the greater part of the 
time allowed them in the inn, and at most had been for a short 
walk in the town. But they had obtained an exceedingly good 
dinner ; and thus we had each enjoyed ourselves in our own way. 

At three o'clock we quitted the beautiful harbour of Syracuse, 
and three hours brought us to 

CATANEA. 

This voyage was one of the most beautiful and interesting 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 275 

that can be imagined. The traveller continually sees the most 
charming landscapes of blooming Sicily ; and at Syracuse we can 
already descry on a clear day the giant Etna rearing its head 
10,000 feet above the level of the sea. 

At six in the evening we disembarked ; but those going far- 
ther had to be on board again by midnight. I had intended to 
remain at Catanea and ascend Mount Etna ; but on making inqui- 
ries I was assured that the season was too far advanced for such 
an undertaking, and therefore resolved to set sail again at mid- 
night. I went on shore in company with a Neapolitan and his 
wife, for the purpose of visiting some of the churches, a few public 
buildings, and the town itself. The buildings, however, were 
already closed, though the exteriors promised much. We could 
only deplore that we had arrived an hour too late, and take a 
walk round the town. I could scarcely wonder enough at the 
bustle in the crowded squares and chief streets, and at the 
shouting and screaming of the people. The number of inhabi- 
tants is about 50,000. The two chief streets, leading in differ- 
ent directions from the great square, are long, broad, and parti- 
cularly well paved with large stone slabs: they contain many 
magnificent houses. The only circumstance which displeased me 
was, that every where, even in the chief streets, the people dry 
clothes on large poles at balconies and windows. This makes the 
town look as though it were inhabited by a race of washerwomen. 
I should not even mind so much if they were clean clothes ; but 
I frequently saw the most disgusting rags fluttering in front of 
splendid houses. Unfortunately this barbarous custom prevails 
throughout the whole of Sicily ; and even in Naples the hanging 
out of clothes is only forbidden in the principal street, the Toledo : 
all the other streets are full of linen. 

Among the equipages, which were rolling to and fro in great 
numbers, I noticed some very handsome ones. Some were stand- 
ing still in the great square, while their occupants amused them- 
selves by looking at the bustle around them, and chatted with 



276 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

friends and acquaintances who crowded round the carriages. I 
found a greater appearance of life here than either at Naples or 
Palermo. 

The convent of St. Nicholas was unfortunately closed, so that 
we could only view its exterior. It is a spacious magnificent 
building, the largest, in fact, in the whole town. We also looked 
at the walks on the sea-shore, which at our first arrival we had 
traversed in haste in order to reach the town quickly. Beautiful 
avenues extend along each side of the harbour; they are, however, 
less frequented than the streets and squares. We had a beautiful 
moonlight night; the promontory of Etna, with its luxurious 
vegetation, as well as the giant mountain itself, were distinctly 
visible in all their glory. The summit rose cloudless and free"; no 
smoke came from the crater, nor could we discover a trace of snow 
as we returned to our ship. We noticed several heaps of lava 
piled upon the sea-shore, of a perfectly black colour. 

Late in the evening we adjourned to an inn to refresh our- 
selves with some good dishes, and afterwards returned to the 
steamer, which weighed anchor at midnight. 

October 6th. 

We awoke in the harbour of Messina. The situation of this 
town is lovely beyond description. I was so charmed with it that 
I stood for a long time on deck without thinking of landing. 

A chain of beautiful hills and huge masses of rock hi the 
background surround the harbour and town. Every where the 
greatest fertility reigns, and all things are in the most thriving 
and flourishing condition. In the direction of Palermo the bound- 
less ocean is visible. 

I now bade farewell to the splendid steamer Hercules, be- 
cause I did not intend to proceed direct to Naples, but to make a 
detour by way of Palermo. 

As soon as I had landed, I proceeded to the office of the 
merchant M., to whom I had a letter of recommendation. I 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 277 

requested Herr M. to procure me a cicerone as soon as possible, 
as I wished to see the sights of Messina, and afterwards to con- 
tinue my journey to Palermo. Herr M. was kind enough to send 
one of his clerks with me. I rested for half an hour, and then 
commenced my peregrination. 

From the steamer Messina had appeared to me a very narrow 
place, but on entering the town I found that I had made quite a 
false estimate of its dimensions. Messina is certainly built in a 
very straggling oblong form, but still its breadth is not incon- 
siderable. 

I saw many very beautiful squares; for instance, the chief 
square, with its splendid fountain ornamented with figures, and a 
bas-relief of carved work in bronze. Every square contains a 
fountain, but we seldom find any thing particularly tasteful. The 
churches are not remarkable for the beauty of their fa9ades, nor 
do they present any thing in the way of marble statues or finely 
executed pictures. 

The houses are generally well built, with flat roofs ; the streets, 
with few exceptions, are narrow, small, and very dirty. An un- 
commonly broad street runs parallel with the harbour, and con- 
tains, on one side at least, some very handsome houses. This is 
a favourite place for a walk, for we can here see all the bustle 
and activity of the port. Several of the palaces also are pretty ; 
that appropriated to the senate is the only one which can be called 
fine, the staircase being constructed entirely of white marble, in a 
splendid style of architecture : the halls and apartments are lofty, 
and generally arched. The regal palace is also a handsome pile. 
In the midst of the town I found an agreeable public garden. 
The Italians appear, however, to choose the streets as places of 
rendezvous, in preference to enclosures of this kind; for every 
where I noticed that the garden- walks were empty, and the streets 
full. But on the whole there is not nearly so much life here as 
at Catanea. In order to obtain a view of the whole of Messina 
and its environs I ascended a hill near the town, surmounted by a 



278 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

Capuchin convent ; here I enjoyed a prospect which I have seldom 
seen equalled. As I gazed upon it I could easily imagine that an 
inhabitant of Messina can find no place in the world so beautiful 
as his native town. 

The promontory against which the town leans is clothed with 
a carpet of the brightest green, planted with fruit-trees of all kinds, 
and enlivened with scattered towns, villages, and country seats. 
Beautiful roads, appearing like white bands, intersect the moun- 
tains on every side in the direction of the town. The background 
is closed by high mountains, sometimes wooded, sometimes bare, 
now rising in the form of alps, now in the shape of rocky masses. 
At the foot of the hills we see the long-drawn town, the harbour 
with its numerous ships, and beyond it groups of alps and rocks. 
The boundless sea flows on the spectator's right and left towards 
Palermo and Naples, while in the direction of Catanea the eye is 
caught by mountains, with Etna towering among them. 

The same evening I embarked on board the Duke of Calabria, 
for the short trip of twelve or fourteen hours to Palermo. This 
steamer has only engines of 80 -horse power, and every thing 
connected with it is small and confined. The first-class accom- 
modation is indeed pretty good, but the second-class places are 
only calculated to contain very few passengers. Though com- 
pletely exhausted by my long and fatiguing walk through Messina, 
I remained on deck, for I could not be happy without seeing 
Strornboli. Unfortunately I could distinguish very little of it. 
We had started from Messina at about six o'clock in the evening, 
and did not come in sight of the mountain until two hours later, 
when the shades of night were already descending ; we were, be- 
sides, at such a distance from it that I could descry nothing but a 
colossal mass rising from the sea and towering towards heaven. 
I stayed on deck until past ten o'clock in the hope of obtaining a 
nearer view of Stromboli ; but we had soon left it behind us in the 
far distance, with other islands which lay on the surface like misty 
clouds. 



EGYPT, A\D ITALY. 279 

October 7th. 

To-day I hastened on deck before sunrise, to see as much as 
possible of the Sicilian coast, and to obtain an early view of Palermo. 
At ten o'clock we ran into the harbour of this town. 

I had been so charmed with the situation of Messina that I 
did not expect ever to behold any thing more lovely ; and yet the 
remembrance of this town faded from my mind when 

PALEBMO 

rose before me, surrounded by magnificent mountains, among which 
the colossal rock of St. Rosalia, a huge slab of porphyry and granite, 
towered high in the blue air. The combination of various colours 
unites with its immense height and its peculiar construction to 
render this mountain one of the most remarkable in existence. Its 
summit is crowned by a temple ; and a good road, partly cut out 
of the rock, partly supported on lofty pillars of masonry, which 
we can see from on board our vessel, leads to the convent of St. 
Rosalia, and to a chapel hidden among the hills and dedicated to 
the same saint. 

At the foot of this mountain lies a gorgeous castle, inhabited, 
as my captain told me, by an English family, who pay a yearly 
rent of 30,000 florins for the use of it. To the left of Palermo 
the mountains open and shew the entrance into a broad and trans- 
cendently beautiful valley, in which the town of Monreal lies with 
magical effect. Several of these gaps occur along the coast, afford- 
ing glimpses of the most lovely vales, with scattered villages and 
pretty country-seats. 

The harbour of Palermo is picturesque and eminently safe. 
The town numbers about 130,000 inhabitants. Here, too, our 
deck was crowded with Fachini, innkeepers, and guides, before 
the anchor was fairly lowered. I inquired of the captain respect- 
ing the price of board and lodging, and afterwards made a bargain 
with a host before leaving the ship. By following this plan I 
generally escaped overcharge and inconvenience. 



280 

Arrived at the inn, I sent to Herr Schmidt, to whom I had 
been recommended, with the request that he would despatch a 
trustworthy cicerone to me, and make me a kind of daily scheme 
of what I was to see. This was soon done, and after hurrying 
over my dinner I commenced my wanderings. 

I entered almost every church I passed on my way, and found 
them all neat and pretty. Every where I came upon picturesque 
villas and handsome houses, with glass doors instead of windows, 
their lower portion guarded by iron railings and forming little bal- 
conies. Here the women and girls sit of an evening working and 
talking to their heart's content. 

The streets of Palermo are far handsomer and cleaner than 
those of Messina. The principal among them, Toledo and Casaro, 
divide the town into four parts, and join in the chief square. The 
.streets, as we pass from one into another, present a peculiar ap- 
pearance, filled with bustling crowds of people moving noisily to 
and fro. In the Toledo Street all the tailors seem congregated 
together, for the shops on each side of the way are uniformly 
occupied by the votaries of this trade, who sit at work half in their 
.houses and half in the street. The coffee-houses and shops are all 
open, so that the passers-by can obtain a full view of the wares 
and of the buyers and sellers. 

The regal palace is the handsomest in the town. It contains 
a gothic chapel, richly decorated ; the walls are entirely covered 
with paintings in mosaic, of which the drawings do not display 
remarkable taste, and the ceiling is over-crowded with decorations 
and arabesques. An ancient chandelier, hi the form of a pillar, 
made of beautiful marble and also covered with arabesques, stands 
beside the pulpit. On holydays an immense candle is put hi this 
candlestick and lighted. 

I wished to enter this chapel, but was refused admittance until 
I had taken off my hat, like the men, and carried it hi my hand. 
This custom prevails hi several churches of Palermo. The space 
in front of the palace resembles a garden, from the number of 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 281 

avenues and beds of flowers with which it is ornamented. Second 
in beauty is the palace of the senate, but it cannot be compared 
with that at Messina. 

The town contains several very handsome squares, hi all of 
which we find several statues and fountains. 

Foremost among the churches the Cathedral must be men- 
tioned; its gothic facade occupies one entire side of a square. 
A spacious entrance-hall, with two monuments, not executed in a 
very fine style of art, leads into the ulterior of the church, which 
is of considerable extent, but built in a very simple style. The 
pillars, two of which always stand together, and the four royal 
monuments at the entrance, are all of Egyptian granite. The 
finest part of the church is the chapel of St. Eosalia on the right, 
not far from the high altar ; both its walls are decorated with 
large bas-reliefs in marble, beautifully executed : one of these re- 
presents the banishment of the plague, and the finding of St. Ro- 
salia's bones. A splendid pillar of lapis-lazuli, said to be the 
largest and finest specimen of this stone in existence, stands be- 
side the high altar. The two basins with raised figures at the 
entrance of the church also deserve notice. The left side of the 
square is occupied by the episcopal palace, a building of no pre- 
tensions. 

Santa Theresia is a smah 1 church, containing nothing remark- 
able except a splendid bas-relief in marble, representing the Holy 
Family, which an Englishman once offered to purchase for an 
immense sum. The neighbouring church of St. Pieta, on the 
contrary, can be called large and grand. The facades are orna- 
mented with pillars of marble, the altar is richly gilt, and hand- 
some frescoes deck the ceiling. St. Domenigo, another fine church, 
possesses, my cicerone assured me, the largest organ in the world. 
If he had said the greatest he had seen, I could readily have be- 
lieved him. 

In St. Ignazio, or Olivazo, near a minor altar at one side, we 
find a painting representing the Virgin and the infant Jesus. The 



282 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

sacristan persisted that this was a work of Kaphael's. The co- 
louring appeared to me not quite to resemble that of the great 
master, but I understand too little of these things to be able to 
judge on such a subject. At any rate it is a fine piece. A few 
steps below the church lies the oratory, which nearly equals it in 
size, and also contains a handsome painting over the altar. " St. 
Augustine" also repays the trouble of a visit; it displays great 
wealth in marble, sculptures, frescoes, and arabesques. " St. Joseph" 
is also rich in various kinds of marble. Several of its large co- 
lumns have been made from a single block. A clear cold stream 
issues from this church. 

I have still to notice the lovely public gardens, which I visited 
after dining with the consul-general, Herr Wallenburg. I cannot 
omit this opportunity of gratefully mentioning the friendly sym- 
pathy and kindness I experienced on the part of this gentleman 
and Ms lady. To return to the gardens, the most interesting 
to me was the botanical, where a number of rare trees and plants 
flourish famously in the open air. 

The catacombs of the Augustine convent are most peculiar ; 
they are situate immediately outside the town. From the church, 
which offers nothing of remarkable interest, a broad flight of stairs 
leads downwards into long and lofty passages cut in the rock, and 
receiving light from above. The skeletons of the dead line the 
walls, in little niches close beside each other; they are clothed 
in a kind of monkish robe, and each man's hands are crossed on 
his chest, with a ticket bearing his name, age, and the date of his 
death depending therefrom. A more horrible sight can scarcely 
be imagined than these dressed-up skeletons and death's-heads. 
Many have still hair on the scalp, and some even beard. The 
niches in which they stand are surmounted by planks displaying 
skulls and bones, and the corridors are crowded with whole rows 
of coffins, their inmates waiting for a vacant place. If the rela- 
tions of one of the favoured skeletons neglect to supply a certain 
number of wax-tapers on All-Saints' day, the poor man is banished 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 283 

from his position, and one of the candidates steps in and occupies 
his niche. 

The corpses of women and girls are deposited in another com- 
partment, and look as though they were lying in state in their 
glass coffins, dressed in handsome silks, with ornamental coifs on 
their heads, ruffs and lace collars round their necks, and silk shoes 
and stockings, which however soon burst, on their feet. A wreath 
of flowers decks the brow of each girl, and beneath all this orna- 
ment the skull appears with its hollow eyes a parody upon life 
and death. 

Whenever any one wishes to be immortalised in this way, 
his friends and relations must pay a certain sum for a place on 
the day of his burial, and afterwards bring wax-tapers every year. 
The body is then laid in a chamber of lime, which remains for 
eight months hermetically closed, until the flesh has been entirely 
eaten away; then the bones are fastened together, dressed, and 
placed in a niche. 

On All-Saints' day these corridors of death are crowded with 
gazers ; friends and relations of the deceased resort thither to 
light candles and perform their devotions. I was glad to have 
had an opportunity of seeing these audience-halls of the dead, but 
still I rejoiced when I hastened upwards to sojourn once more 
among the living. 

From here I drove to Oh' vuzza, to view the Moorish castle of 
Ziza, celebrated for the beauty of its situation and of the region 
around. Not far from the old castle stands a new one, with a 
garden of much beauty, containing also a number of fantastic toys, 
such as little grottoes and huts, hollow trees in which secret doors 
fly suddenly open, disclosing to view a nun, a monk, or some 
figure of the kind, &c. Here I still found a species of date-tree 
growing in the open air ; but the fruit it bears is very small, and 
never becomes completely ripe : this was the last date-tree I saw. 

The royal villa " Favourite," about a mile from the town, is 
situated in a lovely spot. It is built in the Chinese style, with a 



284 VISIT TO THE HOLT LAKD, 

quantity of points, gables, and little bells ; its interior is, however, 
arranged according to European design, in a rich, tasteful, and 
artistic manner. We linger with pleasure in the rooms, each of 
which offers some attractive feature. Thus, for instance, one 
apartment contains beautiful fresco paintings; another, life-size 
portraits of the royal family in Chinese costume ; in a third, the 
effects of damp on walls and Ailing are so accurately portrayed 
that at first I was deceived by the resemblance, and regretted to 
find a room in such a condition among all the pomp and splendour 
around. One small cabinet is entirely inlaid with li ttle pieces of 
all the various kinds of marble that are to be found in Sicily. 
The large tables are made of petrified and polished woods, &c. 
Besides these minor attractions, a much greater one exists in the 
splendid view which we obtain from the terraces and from the 
summit of the Chinese tower. I found it difficult to tear myself 
from contemplating this charming prospect ; a painter would be- 
come embarrassed by the very richness of the materials around 
him. Every thing I had seen from on board here appeared be- 
fore my eyes with increased loveliness, because I here saw it from 
a higher position, and obtained a more extended view. 

An ornamental garden lies close to the palace. It is flagged 
with large blocks of stone, between which spaces are left for earth. 
These beds are parcelled out according to plans, bordered with 
box a foot in height, and arranged so as to form immense leaves, 
flowers, and arabesques ; while in the midst stand vases of natural 
flowers. The park fills up the background; it consists merely 
of a few avenues and meadows, extending to the foot of Mount 
Rosalia. 

This mountain I also ascended. The finest paved street, which 
is sufficiently broad for three carriages to pass each other, winds 
in a serpentine manner round the rocky heights, so that we can 
mount upwards without the slightest difficulty. 

The convent is small and very simply constructed ; the court- 
yard behind it, on the contrary, is exceedingly imposing. It is 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 285 

shut in on all sides by steep walls of rock, covered with clinging 
ivy in a most picturesque manner. On the left we find a little 
grotto containing an altar. In the foreground, on the right, a 
lofty gate, formed by nature and beautified by art, leads into a 
chapel wonderfully formed of pieces of rock and stalactites. A 
feeling of astonishment and admiration almost amounting to awe 
came upon me as I entered. The walls near the chief altar are 
overgrown with a kind of delicate moss of an emerald-green co- 
lour, with the white rock shining through here and there ; and in 
the midst rises a natural cupola, terminating in a point. The 
extreme summit of this dome cannot be distinguished ; it is lost in 
obscurity. Here and there natural niches occur, in which statues 
of saints have been placed. To the left of the high altar I saw 
the monument of St. Rosalia, beautifully executed in white marble. 
She is represented in a recumbent posture, the size of life ; the 
statue rests on a pedestal two feet in height. In the most liighly- 
decorated or the most gorgeous church I could not have felt my- 
self more irresistibly impelled to devotion than in this grand tem- 
ple of nature. 

From the 15th to the 18th of July in every year a great 
feast is held in honour of St. Rosalia, the patron saint of the city, 
in the town and on the mountain. On these days a number of 
people make a pilgrimage to the grotto above described, where 
the bones of the saint were found at a time when the plague was 
raging at Palermo. They were carried with great pomp into the 
town, and from that moment the plague ceased. 

The road from the convent to the temple, built on the summit 
of a rock, and visible to the sailors from a great distance, leads us 
for about half a mile over loose stones. Its construction is ex- 
tremely simple, and not remarkable in any way. In former times 
its summit was decked by a colossal statue of the saint. This 
fell down, and the head alone remained unmutilated. Like the 
statue, the fane is now in ruins, and its site is only visited for the 
sake of the beautiful view. 



286 VISIT TO THE HOLY L-^NT), 

On our way back to the convent, my guide drew my attention 
to a spot where a large tree had stood. Some years before, a 
family was sitting quietly beneath its shade, partaking of a frugal 
meal, when the tree suddenly came crashing down, and caused the 
death of four persons. 

The excursion to St. Kosalia's Hill can easily be made hi four 
or five hours. It is usual to ride up the mountain on donkeys ; 
these animals are, however, so sluggish, compared with those of 
Egypt, that I often preferred dismounting and proceeding on foot. 
The Neapolitan donkeys are just as lazy. 

I wished still to visit Bagaria, the summer residence of many 
of the townspeople. One morning I drove to this lovely spot in 
the company of an amiable Swiss family. The distance from 
Palermo is about two miles and a half, and the road frequently 
winding close to the sea, presents a rich variety of beautiful 
pictures. 

"We went to view the palace of Prince Fascello : the pro- 
prietor appears, however, seldom to reside here, for every thing 
wears an air of neglect. Two halls hi this building are worthy 
of notice ; the walls of the smaller one are covered with figures 
and ornaments, beautifully carved hi wood, with pieces of mirror- 
glass placed between them. The vaulted ceiling is also decorated 
with mirrors, some of which are unfortunately already broken. 

The walls of the larger hall are completely lined with the 
finest Sicilian marble. Above the cornices the marble has been 
covered with thin glass, which gives it a peculiar appearance of 
polish. The immense ceiling of the great hall is vaulted like 
that of the smaller one, and completely covered with mirrors, all 
of them hi good preservation. Both apartments, but particularly 
the large one, are said to have a magical effect when lighted up 
with tapers. 

I spent a Sunday in Palermo, and was much pleased at seeing 
the peasants hi their festive garb, in which, however, I could dis- 
cover nothing handsome ; nor, indeed, any thing peculiar, save the 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 287 

long pendent nightcaps. The men wear jackets and breeches, and 
have the before-mentioned caps on then* heads ; the dress of the 
women is a spencer, a petticoat, and a kerchief of white or coloured 
linen round the head and neck. 

The common people appeared to be neither cleanly nor wealthy. 
The rich are dressed according to the fashions of London, Paris, 
and Vienna. 

In all the Sicilian towns I found the mob more boisterous and 
impudent than in the East, and frequently it was my lot to 
witness most diabolical quarrels and fights. It is necessary to be 
much more on one's guard against theft and roguery among these 
people than among the Arabs and Bedouins. Now I acknow- 
ledge how falsely I had judged the poor denizens of the East 
when I took them for the most thievish of tribes. The people here 
and at Naples were far worse than they. I was doubly pained on 
making this discovery, from the fact that I saw more fasting and 
praying, and more clergymen in these countries than any where 
else. To judge from appearances, I should have taken the Sicilians 
and Neapolitans for the most pious people in the world. But 
their behaviour towards strangers is rude in the extreme. Never 
had I been so impudently stared out of countenance as in these 
Sicilian towns 1 : fingers were pointed at me amidst roars of 
laughter ; the boys even ran after me and jeered at me and all 
because I wore a round straw hat. In Messina I threw this article 
away, and dressed according to the fashion which prevails here 
and in my own country ; but still the gaping did not cease. In 
Palermo it was not only the'street boys who stood still to &aze at 
me, the grandees also did me the same honour, whether I drove 
or walked. I once asked a lady the reason of this, and requested 
to know if my appearance was calculated either to give offence or 
to excite ridicule ; she replied that neither was the case, but that 
the only thing the citizens remarked in me was that I went about 
alone with a servant. In Sicily this was quite an uncommon cir- 
cumstance, for there I always saw two ladies walking together, 



VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

or a lady and gentleman. Now the grand mystery was solved ; 
but notwithstanding this, I did not alter my mode of action, but 
continued to walk quietly about the town with my servant, for I 
preferred being laughed at a little to giving any one the trouble 
of accompanying me about every where. At first this staring 
made me very uncomfortable ; but man can adapt himself to every 
thing, and I am no exception to the rule. 

The vegetation in Sicily is eminent for its luxuriant loveliness. 
Flowers, plants, and shrubs attain a greater height and magnitude 
than we find elsewhere. I saw here numerous species of aloes, 
which we cultivate laboriously in hot-houses, growing wild, or 
planted as hedges around gardens. The stems, from which 
blossoms burst forth, often attain a height of from twenty to thirty 
feet. Their flowering season was already past. 

October 10th. 

After a sojourn of five days I bade farewell to Palermo, and 
took my departure in wet weather. This was the first ram I 
had seen fall since the 20th of April. The temperature remained 
very warm ; on fine days the thermometer still stood at 20 or 
22 Keaumur hi the sun at noon. 

The vessel on which I now embarked was^a royal mail-steamer. 
We left Palermo at noon ; towards evening the sea became rather 
rough, so that the spray dashed over me once or twice, although I 
continually kept near the steersman. 

At the commencement of our journey nothing was to be seen 
but sky and water. But the next day, as we approached the 
Neapolitan coast, island after island rose from the sea, and at 
length the mainland itself could be discerned. Capri was the 
first island we approached closely. Soon afterwards my attention 
was drawn to a great cloud rising towards the sky ; it was a smoky 
column from the glowing hearth of Vesuvius. At length a white 
line glittered on the verge of the horizon, like a band through 
the clear air. There was a joyful cry of " Napoli! Napoli!" and 
Naples lay spread before me. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 289 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Sojourn at Naples Sickness Laziness of the people Royal palace Ro- 
tunda Strada Chiaga and Toledo St. Carlo Theatre Largo del Cas- 
tello Medina square Marionettes St. Jesu Nuovo St. Jesu Mag- 
giore St. Maria di Piedigrotta Public gardens Academy "degli 
Studii" Cathedral of St. Januarius St. Jeronimo St. Paula Maggiore 
St. Chiara Baths of Nero Solfatara Grotto " del Cane" Kesina 
Ascent of Vesuvius Caserta. 

MY imagination was so powerfully excited, I may say over-ex- 
cited, by the accounts I had heard and read concerning this 
fairy city, that here once more my expectations were far from being 
realised. This was, perhaps, partly owing to the circumstance that 
I had already seen Constantinople and had just quitted Palermo, 
the situation of which latter town had so enchanted me that my 
enthusiasm was here confined within very narrow bounds, and I 
felt inclined to prefer Palermo to Naples. 

At two o'clock in the afternoon I landed, and the kind assist- 
ance of Herr Brettschneider at once procured me an excellent room 
iu Santa Lucia, with a prospect of the harbour and the bay, besides 
a view of Vesuvius and the region surrounding it. As usual, I 
\\ished to commence my researches at once ; but already in 
Palermo I had felt an unceasing pain in my side, so that my last 
walks there had been attended with considerable difficulty. 

Here I became really ill, and was unable to quit my room. 
I had a boil on my back, which required the care of the surgeon, 
and kept me in my room for a fortnight, until the fever had 
abated. 

If this misfortune had happened to me in the East, or even 

T 



290 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

while I was in quarantine at Malta, who knows whether I should 
not have been looked upon as having a " plague-boil," and shut 
up for forty days ? 

During my imprisonment here, my only relaxation during the 
hours when I was free from fever and it did not rain, was to sit 
on the balcony, contemplating the beautiful prospect, and looking 
on the bustling, lively populace. The Neapolitans appeared to 
me very ill-behaved, boisterous, and quarrelsome, and seemed to 
entertain a great horror of work. The latter circumstance seems 
natural enough, for they require little for their daily support, and 
we hardly find that the common people any where work more than 
is necessary to shield them from immediate want ; this is particu- 
larly the case in Italy, where the heat is oppressive during the 
day, and the temperature of the evening so agreeable, every one 
wishes to enjoy himself rather than to work. 

I sometimes saw men employ themselves for half a day to- 
gether in pushing bullets with a little stick through a ring fastened 
to the ground : this is one of the most popular games. The 
women are always sitting or standing in front of the houses, 
chattering or quarrelling ; and the children He about in the streets 
all day long. The veriest trifle suffices to breed a quarrel among 
old or young, and then they kick one another with their feet a 
very graceful practice for women or girls ! Even with then: 
knives they are ready on all occasions. 

For making observations on the Neapolitans no better post 
can be chosen than a lodging hi the quarter St. Lucia. The 
fishermen, lazzaroni, and sailors live hi the little side lanes, and 
spend the greater part of the day in the large street of St. 
Lucia, the chief resort both for pedestrians and people on horse- 
back and in carriages. In and about the harbour we find nume- 
rous vendors of oysters and crabs, which they bring fresh from 
the sea. The lazzaroni no longer go about half naked, and the 
common people are dressed hi a decent though not in a picturesque 
manner. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 291 

Here a number of handsome equipages rolled by ; their lady 
occupants were very fashionably attired. 

Even among the better classes it is usual for the men to pur- 
chase all the household necessaries, such as fish, bread, poultry, 
&c. Poultry is very much eaten in Italy, particularly turkeys, 
which are sometimes sold ready cut up, according to weight. On 
Sundays and holydays the shops containing wares and provisions, 
and the meat and poultry stalls, are opened in the same way as on 
a week-day. Throughout all Italy we do not see them closed for 
the observance of a Sunday or holyday. 

On the fifteenth day I had so far recovered that I could begin 
my tour of observation, using, however, certain precautions. 

At first I confined my researches to churches, palaces, and 
the museum, particularly as the weather was unprecedentedly bad. 
It rained, or rather poured, almost every day, and in these cases 
the water rushes in streams out of the by-lanes towards the sea- 
The greater part of Naples is built on an acclivity, and there 
are no gutters, so that the water must force its way along the 
streets : this has its peculiar advantages ; for the side-lanes, which 
are filthy beyond description, thus get a partial cleansing by the 
stream. 

As I am not a connoisseur, it would be foolish in me to attempt 
a criticism upon the splendid productions of art which I beheld 
here, in Rome, and at Florence and other places. I can only 
recount what I saw. 

During my excursions I generally regulated my movements 
according to the divisions and instructions contained in August 
Lewald's hand-book, a work which every traveller will find very 
serviceable and correct. 

I began with the royal palace, which was situate near my 
lodging at St. Lucia, with one front facing the sea, and the other 
turned towards the fine large square. This building contains 
forty-two windows in a row. I could see nothing of its interior 
excepting the richly decorated chapel, as the royal family resided 



292 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

there during the whole time of my stay, and thus the apartments 
were not accessible to strangers. 

Opposite the castle stands the magnificent Eotunda, called also 
the church of San Francesco de Paula. Adjoining this church on 
either side were arcades in the form of a half circle, supported by 
handsome pillars, beneath which several shops are established. 
The roof of the Eotunda is formed by a splendid cupola resting on 
thirty-four marble pillars. The altars, with the niches between, 
occupied by colossal statues, are ranged round the walls, and in 
some instances decorated by splendid modern paintings. A great 
quantity of lapis lazuli has been used in the construction of the 
grand altar. In the higher regions of the cupola two galleries, 
with tasteful iron railings, are to be seen. The entire church, and 
even the confessionals, are covered with a species of grey marble. 
The peculiar appearance of this place of worship is exceedingly 
calculated to excite the visitor's wonder, for to judge from its 
exterior he would scarcely take the splendid building before bun 
for a church. It was built on the model of the famous rotunda at 
Home ; but the idea of the porticoes is taken from St. Peter's. 

Two large equestrian statues of bronze form the ornaments of 
the square before this church. Quitting this square, we emerge 
into the two finest and most frequented streets in the town, 
namely, the Chiaga and Toledo. Not far off is the imposing 
theatre of St. Carlo, said to be not only the largest in Italy, but 
in all Europe. Its exterior aspect is very splendid. A large and 
broad entrance extends in front, with pillars, beneath the shelter of 
which the carriages drive up, so that the spectators can arrive and 
depart without the chance of getting wet. This evening there was 
to be a " particularly grand performance." I entered the theatre, 
and was much struck with its appearance. It contains six tiers, 
all parcelled off into boxes, of which I counted four-and-twenty on 
the grand circle. Each box is almost the size of a small room, 
and can easily accommodate from twelve to fifteen people. A fairy- 
like spectacle is said to be produced when, on occasions of peculiar 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 293 

festivity, the whole exterior is lighted up. Here, as in nearly all 
the Italian theatres, a clock, shewing not only the hours but the 
minutes, is fixed over the front of the stage. A " particular per- 
formance" commences at six o'clock, and usually terminates an 
hour or two before midnight. This evening I saw a little ballet, 
then two acts of an opera, and afterwards a comedy, the whole 
concluding with a grand ballet. It is usual on benefit-nights to 
give a great variety of entertainments in order to attract the 
public ; on these occasions the prices are also reduced one-fifth. 

The greatest square, Largo del Castello, almost adjoins the 
theatre ; it is of an oblong form, and contains many palace-like 
buildings, including the finance and police offices. A pretty spring, 
the water of which falls down some rocks and forms a cascade, is 
also worthy of mention. 

A little to the left we come upon the Medina-square, boasting 
the finest fountain in Naples. Between these two squares, beside 
the sea-shore, lies Castel Nuovo, said to be built quite in the form 
of the Bastille. It is strongly fortified, and serves as a defence- 
for the harbour. This is a very lively neighbourhood. Many an 
hours amusement have I had, watching the motley crowd, parti- 
cularly on Sundays and holydays, when it is frequented by impro- 
visators, singers, musicians, and mountebanks of every description. 

Not far from the harbour is a long street in wlu'ch numerous 
kitchens and many provision-stalls are established. Here I walked, 
in the evenings to see the people assembled round the maccaroni- 
pots : it is advisable, however, to leave watch and purse at home,, 
and even one's pocket-handkerchief is not safe. 

Of the shouting and crowding here no conception can be 
formed. Large kettles are placed in front of the shops, and the 
proprietors sit beside them, plunging a great wooden fork and 
spoon into the cauldron to fill the plates of expectant customers. 
Some eat their favourite dish with fat and cheese, others without, 
according to the state of their exchequer for the tune being ; but 
one and all eat with their fingers. The army of hungry mortals 



294 VISIT TO THE HOLT LAiO), 

seems innumerable ; and during feeding-time the stranger finds no 
little difficulty in forcing a passage, notwithstanding the breadth 
of the street. Not far from this thoroughfare of the people two 
" Punchinellos" are erected. In one of these the Marionettes are 
a foot and a half, and in the other no less than three feet high. 

There is, besides, a theatre for the people, where pieces of 
tragic and comic character are performed, in all of which the 
clown plays a prominent part. The remaining theatres, the 
Nuovo, the Carlini, and others, are about the size of those in the 
Leopold- and Josephstadt at Vienna, and can accommodate about 
800 spectators. Their exteriors and interiors are alike undis- 
tinguished ; but in some of them the singing and playing are 
very creditable. In one of these theatres we are obliged to 
descend instead of to ascend to reach the pit and the first tier 
of boxes. 

Naples contains more than three hundred churches and chapels. 
I visited a number of them, for I entered every church that came 
in my way. St. Fernando, a church of no great size, but of very 
pleasing appearance, struck me particularly. The ceiling of this 
edifice is covered with frescoes, and the walls enriched with marble. 
At the two side altars we find a pair of very fine half-length pic- 
tures of saints. 

St. Jesu Nuovo, another exceedingly handsome church, stands 
on the borders of the Lago Maggiore, and is full of magnificent 
frescoes, surrounded by arabesque borders. The latter appear 
as though they were gilded, and the effect thus produced is re- 
markably fine. This spacious building contains a number of small 
chapels, partitioned off by massive gratings. The great cupola 
is exceedingly handsome, and every chapel boasts a separate one. 

St. Jesu Maggiore does not carry out its appellation, for it is 
a small unpretending church, though some splendid gothic orna- 
ments beautify the exterior. 

St. Maria di Piedigrotta, another little church, is much fre- 
quented, from the feet that the common people place great confi- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 295 

dence in the picture of the Virgin there displayed. The church 
contains nothing worthy of notice. 

The grotto of Pausilipp, a cavern of immense length, now 
called Puzzoli, is not far distant. This grotto, hewn out of a 
rock, is about 1200 paces long, between 50 and GO feet in height, 
and of such breadth that two carriages can easily pass each other. 
A little chapel cut out of the rock occupies the middle of the 
cavern, and both grotto and chapel are illuminated night and day. 
As in the whole of Naples, the pavement here is formed of lava 
from Mount Vesuvius. 

Immediately above the grotto, in the direction of the town, 
we come upon a simple gravestone of white marble the monu- 
ment of the poet Virgil. A long flight of steps leads to the gar- 
den containing this monument : the poet's ashes do not, however, 
rest here ; the spot where he sleeps cannot be accurately deter- 
mined, and this monument is only raised to his memory. The 
prospect from these heights as well repays a visit as the grotto of 
Pausilipp, where we wander for a long time in deep darkness, 
until we suddenly emerge into the broad light of day, to find our- 
selves surrounded by a most lovely landscape. 

The public garden of Naples is also situate in this quarter of 
the town. It extends to the lower portion of the Strada Chiaga, 
is of great length without being broad, and displays a vast num- 
ber of beautiful statues, prospects, and rare plants ; a large and 
handsome street, containing many fine houses, adjoins it on one 
side. I also rode to the Vomero, on which are erected the king's 
pleasure-palace and a small convent. A glorious prospect here 
unfolds itself: Naples with its bay, Puzzoli, and a number of 
beautifid islands, the lake Agnaro, the extinct craters of Solfe- 
tara, Baiae, Vesuvius with its chain of mountains, and the stu- 
pendous ocean, lie grouped, in varied forms and gorgeously blend- 
ing colours, before the gaze of the astonished spectator. Tlu's 
is the place of which the Neapolitans say, with some justice, 
" Hither should men come, and gaze, and die !" 



296 

Still the prospects from St. Rosalia's Mount, and from the 
royal palace Favorita at Palermo, had pleased me better; for 
there the beauties of nature are more crowded together, are nearer 
to the spectator : he can obtain a more complete view of them, 
while in varied gorgeousness they do not yield the palm even to 
the fairy pictures of Naples. 

I more than once spent half a day in the Academy " degli 
Studii," for in this place much was to be seen. The entrance to 
the building is indescribably beautiful ; both the portico and the 
handsome staircases are ornamented with statues and busts exe- 
cuted in most artistic style. A door on the right leads us to a hall 
in which the paintings from Pompeii and Herculaneum are dis- 
played; several of these relics have no small pretensions to beauty, 
and the colours of almost all are still wonderfully bright and fresh. 
In the great hall at the end of the courtyard we find on one side 
the Farnese Hercules, and on the other the Bull, both works of 
the Athenian Glycon. These two antiques, particularly the latter, 
have been in a great measure restored. 

The gallery of great bronzes is considered the first in the 
world, for here we find united the finest works of ancient times. 
So many beautiful creations of art were here brought together, 
that if I attempted a description of them I should not know where 
to begin. 

Opposite the gallery of bronzes is that allotted to the marbles, 
among which a beautiful Venus stands prominently forth. 

In the gallery of Flora, a statue of the same goddess, called 
the Farnese, is also the principal attraction. 

A statue of Apollo playing on the lyre, of porphyry, is the 
greatest masterpiece in the hall of coloured marbles ; while in the 
gallery of the Muses a basin of Athenian porphyry occupies the 
first place. 

In the Adonis room the beautiful Venus Anadyomene en- 
grossed my chief attention ; and in the cabinet of Venus the Venus 
Callipygos forms an exquisite sidepiece to the Venus de Medicis. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 297 

The upper regions of this splendid building contain an exten- 
sive library and a picture-gallery. 

I also paid a visit to the catacombs of St. Januarius, which 
extend three stories high on a mountain, and are full of little 
niches, five or six of which are often found one above the other. 

In the chapel Santa Maria della Pieta, in the palace St. 
Severino, I admired three of the finest and most valuable marble 
statues that can be found any where ; I mean, " Veiled Inno- 
cence," " Malice in a Net," and a veiled recumbent figure of 
Christ. All three are by the sculptor Bernini. 

The largest church in the town is the cathedral dedicated to 
St. Januarius. This structure rests on a hundred and ten columns 
of Egyptian and African granite, standing three by three, em- 
bedded in the walls. The churcli has not a very imposing appear- 
ance. The chief altar, beneath which the body of St. Januarius 
is deposited, is ornamented with many kinds of valuable marble. 
Here I saw a great number of pictures, most of them of consider- 
able merit. The chapel of St. Januarius, also called the " chapel 
of the treasure," is one of the most gorgeous shrines that can be 
conceived. The Neapolitans built it as a thank-offering at the 
cessation of a plague. The cost was above a million of ducats, 
and the wealth of this chapel is greater than that of any church hi 
Christendom. It is built hi a circular form, and all the resources 
of art have been lavished on the decoration of the chief altar. 
Every spot is covered with treasures and works of art, and the 
roof is supported by forty-two Corinthian pillars of dark-red stone. 
All the decorations of the high altar, the immense candelabra and 
massive flower-vases, are of silver. At a grand festival, when 
every thing is richly illuminated, the appearance of thischapel 
must be gorgeous hi the extreme. The head and two bottles of 
the blood of St. Januarius are preserved here ; the people assert 
that this blood liquefies every year. The frescoes on the ceiling 
are splendidly painted ; and on the square before the church is to 
be seen an obelisk surmounted by a statue of St. Januarius. 



298 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

St. Jeronimo lias an imposing appearance when one first enters. 
The whole roof of this church as far downwards as the pillars is 
covered with beautiful arabesques and figures. It also contains 
some fine paintings, and is, besides, renowned for its architecture. 

St. Paula Maggiore, another spacious church, is well worth 
seeing on account of its magnificent arabesques and fresco-paint- 
ings ; besides these it also contains some handsome monuments 
and statues of marble. Two very ancient pillars stand in front of 
this church. 

St. Chiara, a fine large church, offers some fine monuments and 
oil-paintings. 

Among the excursions in the neighbourhood of Naples, that to 
Puzzoli is certainly the most interesting. After passing through 
the great grotto, we reach the ancient and rather important town 
of Puzzoli, with 8000 inhabitants. Cicero called this place a little 
Rome. In the centre of the town stands the church of St. Proculus, 
which was converted from a heathen into a Christian temple, and 
is surrounded by fine-looking Corinthian pillars. 

Remarkable beyond all else is the ruined temple of Seropis. 
Almost the entire magnitude and arrangement of this magnificent 
building can yet be discerned. A few of the pillars that once sup- 
ported the cupola are still erect, and several of the cells, which 
surrounded the temple and were once used as baths, can still be 
seen. Every thing here is of fine white marble. The greater 
portion of the ruin was dismantled, to be used in the construction 
of the royal villa of Caserta. 

The harbour of Puzzoli is related to have been the finest in 
Italy. From this place Caligula had a bridge erected to Baise, 
about 4000 paces hi length. He undertook this gigantic work in 
consequence of a prophecy that was made to him, that he would 
no more become emperor than he could ride to Baiae on horseback. 
This prophecy he confuted, and became emperor. Of the amphi- 
theatre and the colosseum not a tiace remains. A little chapel 
now occupies the site on wlich they stood ; tradition asserts that 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 299 

it is built on the very spot where St. Januarius was thrown to the 
bears. 

Not far from this chapel we are shewn the labyrinth of Dasdalus ; 
several of its winding walks still exist, through which it would be 
difficult to find the way without a cicerone. 

We ascended the hill immediately beyond the city, on which 
some remains of Cicero's villa are yet to be seen : here we enjoyed 
a splendid prospect. 

In this region we continually wander among ruins, and see 
every where around us the relics of the past. Thus a short walk 
brought us from Cicero's villa to the ruins of three temples those 
of Diana, Venus, and Mercury. Of the first, one side and a few 
little cells, called the " baths of Venus," alone remain. Part of 
Venus's temple stands in the rotunda. It was built on acoustic 
principles, so that any one who puts his ear to a certain part of 
the wall can hear what is whispered at the opposite extremity. 
A few fragments of the rotunda were the only trace left of the 
temple of Diana. 

The vapour baths of Nero, hewn out of the rock, consist of 
several passages, into which it is impossible to penetrate far on 
account of the heat. A boy ran to the spring and brought us 
some boiling water ; he returned from his expedition fiery red in 
the face, and covered with perspiration. These poor lads are 
accustomed to remain at the spring until they have succeeded hi 
boiling some eggs ; but I would not allow any such cruelty, and 
did not even wish them to fetch me the water, but Herr Brett- 
schneider would have it so in spite of me. 

From this place we crossed by sea to Baise, where at one tune 
many of the rich people had then: villas. Their proceedings 
here are said, however, to have been of so unmoral a character, 
that at length it was considered wrong to have resided here any 
tune. Every visitor must be enchanted with the fertility of this 
region, and with its lovely aspect. A castle, now used as a bar- 
rack for veterans, crowns the summit of a rock which stands pro- 



300 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

minently forth. A few unimportant traces can still be here dis- 
covered of an ancient temple of Hercules. Some masonry, hi the 
form of a monument, marks the alleged spot where Agrippina was 
murdered and buried by order of her son. 

The immense reservoir built by order of the emperor Augus- 
tus for the purpose of supplying the fleet with fresh water, is situ- 
ate in the neighbourhood of Baias ; it is called Piscina. This 
giant structure contains several large chambers, their roofs sup- 
ported by numerous columns. To view this reservoir we are 
compelled to descend a flight of steps. 

Not fer from the before-mentioned building we come upon the 
" Cento Camarelle," a prison consisting of a multitude of small 
cells. 

On our way back we visited Solfatara, the celebrated crater 
plain, about 1000 feet in length by 800 in breadth, skirted by 
hills. Its volcanic power is not yet wholly extinct ; in several 
places brimstone-fumes (whence the plain derives its name,) are 
still seen rising into the air, which they impregnate with a most 
noxious odour. On striking the ground with a stick a sound 
is produced, from which we can judge that the whole space be- 
neath us is hollow. This excursion is a very disagreeable one ; 
we are continually marching across a mere crust of earth, which 
may give way any moment. I found here a manufactory of brim- 
stone and alum. A little church belonging to the Capuchins, 
where we are shewn a stone on which St. Januarius was decapi- 
tated after the bears had refused to tear him to pieces, stands on 
a hill near the Solfatara. 

Towards evening we reached the " Dog's Grotto." A hunts- 
man from the royal preserve Astroni accompanied us, and fetched 
the man who keeps the keys of the grotto. This functionary soon 
appeared with a couple of dogs, to furnish us with a practical illus- 
tration of the convulsions caused by the foul air of the cavern. 
But I declined the experiment, and contented myself with viewing 
the grotto. It is of small extent, about eight or ten feet long, not 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 301 

more than five in breadth, and six or eight high. I entered the 
cave, and so long as I remained erect felt no inconvenience. So 
soon as I bent towards the ground, however, and the lower stratum 
of ah- blew upon my face, I experienced a most horrible choking 
sensation. 

After we had satisfied our curiosity the huntsman led us to 
the neighbouring hunting-lodge, and to a little lake where a num- 
ber of ducks are fattened. This man spoke of another and a much 
more remarkable grotto, of which he possessed the keys, and which 
he should have great pleasure in shewing us. Though twilight 
was rapidly approaching we determined to go, as the place was not 
far off. The man opened the door, and invited us to enter the 
cavern, advising us at the same tune to bend down open-mouthed, 
as we had done in the Dog's Grotto, and at the same time to fan 
the air upwards with our hands, that we might the better inhale 
it, a proceeding which he asserted to be peculiarly good for the 
digestive organs. His eloquence was so powerful, that we could 
not help suspecting the man ; and it struck us as very strange that 
he was so particularly anxious we should enter the cavern together. 
This, therefore, we refused to do ; and Herr Brettschneider re- 
mained outside with our guide, while I entered alone and did as 
he had directed. Though the lower stratum of air in the Dog's 
Grotto had been highly mephitic, the atmosphere here was more 
stifling still. I rushed forth with the speed of lightning ; and now 
we clearly saw through the fellow's intention. If Herr Brettsclinei- 
der and myself had entered together, he would undoubtedly have 
shut the door, and we should have been stifled in a few moments. 
We did not allow him to notice our suspicions, but merely said 
that we could not spend any more tune here to-day on account 
of the lateness of the hour. Our worthy friend accompanied us 
through a wild and gloomy region, with his gun on his shoulder ; 
and I was not a little afraid of him, for he kept talking about his 
honesty and the good intentions he had towards us. We kept, 
however, close beside him, and watched him narrowly, without 



302 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

betraying any symptom of apprehension ; and at length, to our 
great relief, we gained the open road. 

The royal villa of Portici lies about four "miglia" from 
Naples, and we made an excursion thither by railway. Both 
the palace and the gardens are handsome, and of considerable 
size. Thence we proceeded to Resina. Portici and Resina are 
so closely connected together by villas and houses, that a stranger 
would take them for one place. Beneath Resina lies Hercula- 
neum, a city destroyed seventy-nine years after the birth of our 
Saviour. In the year 1689 a marquis caused a well to be dug hi 
his garden, when, at a depth of sixty -five feet,, the labourers came 
upon fragments of marble with divers inscriptions. It was not 
until 1720 that systematic excavations were made. Even then 
great caution was necessary, as Resina is unfortunately built 
upon Herculaneum, and the safety of the houses became endan- 
gered. 

At Resina we procured torches and a guide, and descended to 
view the subterranean city. We saw the theatre, a number of 
houses, several temples, and the forum. Some fine frescoes are 
still to be distinguished on the walls of the apartments. The 
floors are covered with mosaic ; but still this place does not offer 
nearly so many objects of interest as another winch was over- 
whelmed at the same time Pompeii. 

Pompeii is without doubt the most remarkable city of its land 
that exists. A great portion of the town is surrounded by walls, 
and entire rows of houses, several temples, the theatre, the forum, 
in short a vast number of buildings, streets, and squares lay open 
before us. The more I wandered through the streets and open 
places, the more I involuntarily wondered not to find the inha- 
bitants and labourers employed in repairing the houses ; I could 
hardly realise the idea that so many beautiful houses and well- 
preserved apartments should be untenanted. The deserted aspect 
of this town had a very melancholy effect in my eyes. 

Though a great portion of the town has already been dug out, 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 303 

only three hundred skeletons have been found, a proof that the 
greater portion of the inhabitants effected their escape. 

In many houses I found splendid tesselated pavements, repre- 
senting flowers, wreaths, animals, and arabesques ; even the halls 
and courtyards were decorated with a larger kind of mosaic work. 
The walls of the rooms are plastered over with a description of 
firm polished enamel, frequently looking hike marble, and covered 
with beautiful frescoes. In Sallust's house a whole row of wine- 
jugs still stands in the cellar. In the houses the division of the 
rooms, and the purposes to which the different apartments were 
devoted, can still be distinctly traced. In general they are very 
small, and the windows seldom look out upon the street. Deep 
ruts of carriages can be seen in the streets. All the treasures of 
art which could be removed, such as statues, pictures, &c., were 
carried off to Naples, and placed in the museum there. 

VESUVIUS. 

In the agreeable society of Herr M. and Madame Brett- 
schneider, I rode away from Resina at eleven in the forenoon. A 
pleasant road, winding among vineyards, brought us in an hour's 
time to the neighbourhood of the great lava-field, Torre del Greco. 
It is a fearful sight to behold these grand mounds of lava towering 
in the most various forms around us. All traces of vegetation 
have vanished ; far and wide we can descry nothing but hardened 
masses, which once rushed in molten streams down the mountain. 
A capitally-constructed road leads us, without the slightest fatigue, 
through the midst of this scene of devastation to the usual resting- 
place of travellers, the " Hermitage." 

At this dwelling we made halt, ascended to the upper story, 
and called for a bottle of Lacrimae Christi. The view here, and 
at several other points of our ascent, is most charming. 

The hermit seems, however, to lead any tiling but a solitary 
life, for a day seldom passes on which strangers do not call in to 
claim his attention in proportion as they run up a score. The 



304 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

clerical gentleman is, in fact, no more and no less than a very 
common innkeeper, and partakes of the goodly obesity frequently 
noticed among persons of his class. We stayed three quarters of 
an hour in the domicile of this hermit-host, and afterwards rode 
on towards the heights, along a beautiful road among fields of 
lava. In half an hour's time, however, we were completely shut 
in by lava-fields, and here the beaten track ended. We now dis- 
mounted, and continued our ascent on foot. It is difficult for one 
who has not seen it to picture to himself the scene that lay around 
us. Devastation every where ; lava covering the whole region in 
heaps upon heaps, fantastically piled one on the other. Here a 
huge isolated mound rises, seemingly cut off on all sides from the 
lava around; there we see how a mighty stream once rushed 
down the mountain-side, and cooled gradually into stone. Im- 
mense chasms are filled with lava masses, which have lain here 
for many years cold and motionless, and will probably remain for 
as many more, for their fury has spent itself. 

The lava is of different colours, according as it has been ex- 
posed to the atmosphere for a longer or a shorter period. The 
oldest lava has the hue of granite, and almost its hardness, for 
which reasons it is largely used for building houses and paving 
streets. 

From the place where we left our donkeys we had to climb 
upwards for nearly an hour over the lava before reaching the 
crater. The ascent is somewhat fatiguing, as we are obliged to be 
very careful at every step to avoid entangling our feet among the 
blocks of lava ; still the difficulty is not nearly so great as people 
make out. It is merely necessary to wear good thick boots, and 
then all goes extremely well. The higher we mount, the more 
numerous do the fissures become from which smoke bursts forth. 
In one of these clefts we placed some eggs, which were completely 
boiled in four minutes' time. Near these places the ground is so 
hot that we could not have stood still for many minutes ; still we 
did not get burnt feet or any thing of the kind. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 305 

On reaching the crater we found ourselves enveloped in so 
thick a fog that we could not see ten paces in advance. There 
was nothing for it but to sit down and wait patiently until the 
sun could penetrate the mist and spread light and cheerfulness 
among us. Then we descended into the crater, and approached 
as closely as possible to the place from which the smoky column 
whirls into the air. The road was a gloomy one, for we were 
shut in as in a bowl, and could discern around us nothing but 
mountains of lava, while before us rose the huge smoky column, 
threatening each moment to shroud us in darkness as the wind 
blew it in clouds in our direction. When the ground was struck 
with a stick, it gave forth a hollow rumbling sound like at Solfa- 
tara. In the neighbourhood of the column of smoke we could see 
nothing more than at the edge from which we had climbed down- 
wards a peculiar picture of unparalleled devastation. The cir- 
cumference of the crater seems not to have changed since the visit 
of Herr Lewald, who a few years ago estimated its dimensions 
at 5000 feet. After once more mounting to the brim, we walked 
round a great part of the edge of the basin. 

At the particular desire of Hen* M., who was well acquainted 
with all the remarkable points about the volcano, our guide now 
led the way to the so-called " hell," a little crater which formed 
itself in the year 1834. To reach it we had to climb about over 
fields of lava for half an hour. The aspect of this hell did not 
strike me as particularly grand. An uneven wall of lava sud- 
denly rose fifteen paces in advance of us, with whole strata of 
pure sulphur and other beautifully-coloured substances depending 
from its projecting angles. One of these substances was of a 
snowy-white colour, light, and very porous. I took a piece with 
me, but the next day on proceeding to pack it carefully, I found 
that above half had melted and become quite soft and damp, so 
that I was compelled to throw the whole away. The same thing 
happened to a mass of a red colour that I had brought away with 
me, and which had a beautiful effect, like glowing lava, clinging 

u 



30& VISIT TO THE HOLY LAN~D, 

to the fissures and sides of the rocks. "We held pieces of paper to 
the fissures in this wall, and they immediately heeame ignited. 
Herr M. then threw in a cigar, which also burst into a flame. The 
heat proceeding from these clefts was so great, that we could not 
bear to hold our hands there for an instant. At one place, near 
a fissure, we laid our ears to the ground, and could hear a rushing 
bubbling sound as though water was boiling beneath us. There 
was reafly much to see hi this hell, without the discomfort of 
being enveloped in the offensive sulphurous smoke of the chief 
crater. 

After staying for several hours hi and about the crater we left 
it, and returned by the steep way over the cone of cinders. The 
descent here is almost perpendicular, and we could hardly escape 
with whole skins if it were not for the fact that we sink ankle- 
deep into sand and cinders at every step. 

To avoid falling, it is requisite to bend the body backwards 
and step upon the heeL By observing this precaution, the worst 
that can happen to one is to sit down involuntarily once or twice, 
without danger to life or limb. In twelve minutes we had reached 
the spot where our donkeys stood. We reached Resina during the 
darkness of night, having spent eight hours in our excursion. 

My last trip was to the Castle of Caserta, distant sixteen 
migha from Naples, in the direction of Capua. It is considered 
one of the finest pleasure-palaces in Europe, and I was exceed- 
ingly pleased with its appearance. The building is of a square 
form, with a portico 507 feet long, supported by ninety-eight 
columns of the finest marble. The staircase and halls in the 
upper story alone must have cost enormous sums, as well as the 
chapel on the first floor, which is very rich and gorgeous. The 
saloons and apartments are decorated hi a peculiarly splendid man- 
ner with a multiplicity of frescoes, ofl-paintings, sculptures, gild- 
ings, costly silk-hangings, marbles, &c. A pretty little theatre, 
with well-painted scenery, is to be found hi the palace. The gar- 
den is extensive, particularly as regards length. A hill, from which 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 307 

a considerable stream rushes foaming over artificial rockwork into 
the deeper recesses of the garden, rises at its extremity. Scarcely 
has this river sunk to rest, flowing slowly and majestically through 
a bed formed of large square stones, before it is compelled to form 
another cascade, and another, and one more, until it almost reaches 
the castle, near which a large basin has been constructed, from 
whence the water is led into the town. Seen from the portico, 
these waterfalls have a lovely appearance. From Caserta we drove 
ten miles farther on to the celebrated aqueduct which supplies the 
whole of Naples with water. It is truly a marvellous work. 
Over three stupendous arched ways, one above the other, the ne- 
cessary quantity of water flows into the city. 

This was my last excursion ; on the following day, the 7th of 
November, at three in the morning, I left Naples. Apart from the 
delightful reminiscences of lovely natural scenes, I shall always 
think with pleasure on my sojourn in Naples in connexion with 
Herr Brettschneider and his lady. I was a complete stranger to 
them when I delivered my note of introduction, and yet they at 
once welcomed me as kindly and heartily as though I had belonged 
to their family. How many hours, and even days, did they not 
devote to me, to accompany me sometimes to one place, sometimes 
to another ; how eagerly did they seek to shew me all the riches of 
nature and art displayed in this favoured city ! I was truly proud 
and delighted at having found such friends; and once more do I 
offer them my sincere thanks. 



308 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 



CHAPTER XX. 

Caserta Costume of the peasants Rome Piazza del Popolo Dogana 
St. Peter's Palaces Borghese, Barberini, Colonna, &c. Churches 
Ancient Rome The CoUisenm Departure for Florence Bad weather 
Picturesque scenery Siena Florence Cathedral and palaces 
Departure from Florence Bologna Ferrara Conclusion. 

November 7th. 

I TEA YELLED by the mail-carriage. By seven in the morning 
we were at Caserta, and an hour later at Capua, a pretty 
bustling town on the banks of a river. Our road was most pic- 
turesque ; we drove among vineyards and gardens through the 
midst of a lovely plain. On the right were mountains, increasing 
in number as we proceeded, and imparting a rich variety to the 
landscape. At noon we halted before a lovely inn. From this 
point the country increases in beauty at every step. The heights 
are strikingly fertile, and in the valley an excellent road winds 
amid pleasant gardens. The mountains frequently seem to ap- 
proach as though about to form an impenetrable pass ; while ruins 
crown the summits of the rocks, and give a romantic appearance 
to the whole. At about three o'clock we reached the little town 
of Jeromania, lying in the midst of vegetable-gardens. Above this 
town the handsome convent of Monte Cassino stands on a rock, 
and in its neighbourhood we notice the ruins of an amphitheatre. 

To-day the weather was not in the least Italian, being, on the 
contrary, gloomy and rough, as we generally find it in Austria at 
the same season of the year. Yesterday it was so cold at Naples 
that Mount Vesuvius was covered with snow during several hours. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 309 

The dress of the peasants in these regions is of a more national 
character than I had yet found it. The women wear short and 
scanty petticoats of blue or red cloth, tight-fitting bodices, and 
gaily-striped aprons. Their head-dress consists of a white hand- 
kerchief, with a second above it folded in a square form. The 
men look like robbers ; with their long dark-blue or brown cloaks, 
in which they wrap themselves so closely that it is difficult to get 
a glimpse of their faces, and their steeple-crowned black hats, they 
quite resemble the pictures of the bandits in the Abruzzi. They 
glide about in so spectral a manner, and eye travellers with such 
a sinister look, that I almost became uncomfortable. 

From Jeromania we had still a few miles to travel until we 
entered the Koman territory near Ceprano. 

In Naples, and in fact throughout the whole of Italy, the pass- 
ports are continually called for, a great annoyance to the tra- 
veller. In the course of to-day my passport was " vise" five times, 
making once in every little town through which we had passed. 

It was our fortune at Ceprano to lodge with a very cheating 
host. In tiie evening, when I inquired the price of a bedroom 
and breakfast, they told me a bed would cost two pauls, and 
breakfast half a paul ; but when I came to pay, the host asked 
three pauls for my bed-room, and another for a cup of the worst 
coffee I have ever drunk ; and the whole company was subjected 
to the same extortion. We expostulated and complained, but 
were at length compelled to comply with the demand. 

November 8th. 

The landscape remains the same, but the appearance of the 
towns and villages is not nearly so neat and pretty as in the Nea- 
politan domain. The costume of the peasants is like that worn by 
the people whom we met yesterday, excepting that the women 
have a stiff stomacher, fastened with a red lace, instead of the 
spencer. The dress of the men consists of short knee-breeches, 
brown stockings, heavy shoes, and a jacket of some dark colour. 



310 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

Some wear, in addition to this, a red waistcoat, and a green sash 
round the waist. All wear the conical hat. In cold weather the 
dark bandit's cloak is also seen. 

HOME. 

As we approach Rome the country becomes more and more 
barren ; the mountains recede, and the extended plains have a 
desert, uncultivated look. Towns and villages become so thinly 
scattered, that it seems as though the whole region were depopu- 
lated. The road is rather narrow, and as the country is in many 
places exceedingly marshy ; a great portion of it has been paved. 
For many miles before we enter Rome we do not pass a single 
town or village. At length, some three hours before we reach the 
city, the dome of St. Peter's is seen looming in the distance ; one 
church after another appears, and at length the whole city lies 
spread before us. 

Many ruins of aqueducts and buildings of every kind shewed 
at every step what treasures of the past here awaited us. I was 
particularly pleased with the old town-gate Lateran, by which we 
entered. 

It was already quite dark when we reached the Dogana. I at 
once betook myself to my room and retired to rest. 

I remained a fortnight at Rome, and walked about the streets 
from morning till night. I visited St. Peter's almost every day, 
and went to the Vatican several times. 

All the squares in Rome (and there are a great many) are de- 
corated with fountains, and still more frequently with obelisks. 
The finest is the Piazza del Popolo. To the right rises the terrace- 
liill Picino, rich in pillars, statues, fountains, and other ornaments, 
a favourite walk of the citizens. On this hill, which is arranged 
after the manner of a beautiful garden, we have a splendid view. 
The city of Rome here appears to much greater advantage than 
when we approach it from the direction of Naples. We can see 
the whole town at one glance, with the yellow Tiber flowing 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 311 

through the midst, and a vast plain all around. The background 
is closed by beautiful mountain-ranges, with villas, little towns, 
and cottages on the declivities. But I missed one feature, to which 
I had become so accustomed that the most beautiful view appeared 
incomplete without it the sea. To make up for this drawback, 
we here encounter wherever we walk such a number of ruins, 
that we soon become forgetful of all around us, and live only in the 
past. 

The Piazza del Popolo forms the termination of the three 
principal streets in Rome ; on the largest and finest of these, the 
Corso, many palaces are to be seen. 

The splendid post-office, of white marble, rises on the Colonna 
square. Two clocks are erected on this building ; one with our 
dial, one with the Italian. At night both are illuminated, a very 
useful as well as an ornamental arrangement. The ancient column 
of Antoninus also stands in this square. 

The fa9ade of the Dogana boasts some pillars from the temple 
of Antonius Pius. 

The objects I have just enumerated struck me particularly as 
I wended my way to St. Peter's. I cannot describe how deeply 
I was impressed by the sight of this colossal structure. I need 
only state the fact, that on the first day I entered the cathedral 
at nine in the morning, and did not emerge from its gates until 
tliree in the afternoon. 

I sat down before the pictures in mosaic, underneath the huge 
dome and the canopy ; then I stood before the statues and monu- 
ments, and coidd only gaze in wonder at every thing. 

The expense of building and decorating this church is said to 
have amounted to 45,852,000 dollars. It occupies the site of 
Nero's circus. Two arcades, with four rows of pjllars and ninety- 
six statues, surround the square leading to the church. 

The fa9ade of St. Peter's is decorated with Corintliian pillars, 
and on its parapet stand statues fifty-two feet in height. 

The entrance is so crowded with statues, carved work, and 



312 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

gilding, that several hours may be spent in examining its wonders. 
The traveller's attention is particularly attracted by the gigantic 
gates of bronze. 

I cannot adequately describe the splendour of the interior, nor 
have I seen any thing with which I could compare it. 

The most beautiful mosaics, monuments, statues, carvings in 
bronze, gilded ornaments, in short every tiling that art can pro- 
duce, are here to be found in the highest perfection. Oil-paintings 
alone are excluded. Every thing here is in mosaic ; even the 
cupola displays mosaic work instead of the usual fresco-paintings. 
Immense statues of white marble occupy the niches. 

Beneath the cupola, the finest portion of the building, stands 
the great altar, at which none but the Pope may read mass. Over 
this altar extends a giant canopy of bronze, with spiral pillars 
richly decorated with arabesques. The weight of metal used in 
its construction was 186,392 pounds, and the cost of the gold 
for gilding was 40,000 dollars ; the entire canopy is worth above 
150,000 dollars. The cupola was executed by Michael Angelo ; 
it rests on four massive pillars, each of them furnished with a bal- 
cony. In the interior of these pillars chapels are constructed, 
where the chief relics are kept, and only displayed to the people 
from the balcony at particular times. I was in the church at the 
time when the handkerchief which wiped the drops of agony from 
our Lord's brow, and a piece of the true cross, were shewn. 

The pulpit stands in a very elevated position, and was exe- 
cuted in bronze by Bernini ; 219,161 pounds of metal, and 
172,000 doUars, were spent upon its construction. In the interior 
is concealed the wooden pulpit from which St. Peter preached ; and 
immediately beside this we find a pillar of white marble, said to 
have belonged to Solomon's temple at Jerusalem. 

The lions on the monument of Clement XIII., by Canova, are 
considered the finest that were ever sculptured. 

I was fortunate enough to penetrate into the catacombs of St. 
Peter's, a favour which women rarely obtain, and which I only 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 313 

owed to my having been a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. These cata- 
combs consist of handsome passages and pillars of masonry, which 
do not, however, exceed eight or nine feet hi height. A number 
of sarcophagi, containing the remains of emperors and popes, are 
here deposited. 

The roof of St. Peter's covers an immense area, and is divided 
into a number of cupolas, chambers, and buildings. A fountain 
of running water is even found here. From this roof we have a 
splendid view as far as the sea and the Apennines ; we can descry 
the entire Vatican, which adjoins the church, as well as the Pope's 
gardens. 

I ascended to the ball in the great cupola, where there is no- 
thing to be seen, as there is not the slightest opening, much less a 
window, left hi it. Nothing is to be gained by mounting into this 
dark narrow receptacle but the glory of being able to say, " I 
have been there !" It is far more interesting to look down from 
the windows and galleries of the great cupola into the body of the 
church itself; for then we can estimate the grandeur of the 
colossal building, and the people who walk about beneath appear 
like dwarfs. 

Two noble fountains deck the square in front of St. Peter's, 
and in the midst towers a magnificent obelisk from Heliopolis, 
said to weigh 992,789 pounds. Near this obelisk are two slabs, 
by standing on either of which we can see all the rows of columns 
melted as it were into one. 

My journey to Jerusalem also obtained for me an audience 
of the Pope. His Holiness received me in a great hall adjoining 
the Sixtine Chapel. Considering his great age of seventy-eight 
years, the Pope has still a noble presence and most amiable man- 
ners. He asked me some questions, gave me his blessing, and 
permitted me at parting to kiss the embroidered slipper. 

My second walk was to the Vatican. Here I saw the im- 
mense halls of Eaphael, the staircases of Bramante and Bernini, 
and the Sixtine Chapel, containing Michael Angelo's masterpieces, 



314 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

the world-renowned frescoes. The immense wall behind the high 
altar represents the last judgment, while the ceilings are covered 
with prophets and sybils. 

The picture-gallery contains many works of the great masters, 
as does also the gallery of vases and candelabra. 

The Biga chamber. The biga is an antique carriage of 
white marble, drawn by two horses. 

In the gallery of statues the figure representing Nero as 
Apollo playing on the lyre is the finest. 

In the gallery of busts those of Menelaus and Jupiter pre- 
eminently attract attention. 

The name of the Laocoon cabinet indicates the masterpiece it 
contains, as also the cabinet of the Apollo Belvidere. The latter 
statue was found in Nero's baths at Porto d'Anzio. 

The celebrated torso of the Belvidere, a fragment of Greek 
art, which Michael partly used as his model, is placed in the 
square vestibule. Never was flesh so pliably counterfeited in 
stone as in this masterpiece. 

A long gallery contains a series of tapestries, the designs for 
which were drawn by Raphael. 

The Vatican contains ten thousand rooms, twenty large halls, 
eight large and about two hundred small staircases. 

The Quirinal palace, the summer residence of the Pope, lies 
on the hill of the same name (Monte Cavallo), winch is quite co- 
vered with villas and beautiful houses, on account of the salubrity 
of the air. 

I visited most of the private palaces and picture-galleries. 
The principal are, the Colonna palace, on the Quirinal hill ; and the 
Barberini palace, where we find a portrait of Piaphael's mistress, 
Fornarina, painted by himself, and an original picture of Beatrice 
Cenci by Guidosteri. 

The finest of all the Roman palaces is that of Borghese ; from 
its form, which resembles a piano, this building has obtained the 
name of " il Cembalo di Borghese." The gallery contains six- 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 315 

teen hundred paintings, most of them masterpieces by celebrated 
artists. 

The Farnese palace is remarkable for its architecture, and 
the Stoppani for its architect, Raphael. Besides these there are 
many other palaces. I saw but few villas, for the weather was 
generally bad, and it rained almost every day. 

I visited the Villa Borghese on a Sunday, when there is a 
great bustle here ; for a stream of people on foot, on horseback, 
and in carriages, sets in towards its beautiful park, situate just 
beyond the Piazza del Popolo, in the same way that the crowds 
flock to our beloved "Prater" on a fine day in spring. I also saw 
the Villa Medicis and the Villa Pamfili. The latter boasts a very 
extensive park. 

I took care to visit most of the churches. My plan was to 
go out early in the morning, and to inspect several churches until 
about eleven o'clock, when it was time to repair to the galleries. 
When I went to the principal churches, for instance, those of St. 
John of Lateran, St. Paul, St. Maria Maggiore, St. Lawrence, 
and St. Sebastian, I was always accompanied by a guide specially 
appointed to conduct strangers to the churches. I could fill vo- 
lumes with the description of the riches and magnificence they 
display. 

The 'church of St. John of Lateran possesses the wooden altar 
at which St. Peter is said to have read mass, the wooden table at 
which Jesus sat to eat the last supper, and the heads of the 
disciples Peter and Paul. Near this church, in a building speci- 
ally constructed for it, is the Scala Santa (holy staircase), which 
was brought from Jerusalem and deposited here. This is a flight 
of twenty-eight steps of white marble, covered with boards, which 
no one is allowed to ascend or descend in the regular way, every 
man being required to shuffle up and down on his knees. Near 
this holy stair a common one is built, which it is lawful to ascend 
in the regular way. 

The basilica of St. Paul lies beyond the gate of the same 



316 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

name, in a very insalubrious neighbourhood. It is only just re- 
built, after having been destroyed by fire. 

The basilica Maria Maggiore, in which is deposited the " holy 
gate," has the highest belfry in Rome, and above its portico we 
see a beautiful chamber where the new Pope stands to dispense 
the first blessing among the people. In the chapel of the Crucifix 
five pieces of the wood of the Saviour's manger are preserved in a 
silver urn. 

St. Lorenzo, a mile from the town, is a very plain-looking 
edifice. Here we find the Campo Santo, or cemetery. The 
graves are covered with large blocks of stone. 

St. Bessoriana is also called the church of the Holy Cross of 
Jerusalem, from the fact that a piece of the cross is preserved 
here, besides the letters I. N. R. I., some thorns, and a nail. 

St. Sebastian in the suburbs, one of the most ancient Roman 
churches, is built over the great catacombs, in which 174,000 
Christians were buried. The catacombs are some stories deep, 
and extend over a large area. 

All the above-named basilicas are so empty, and stand on such 
lonely spots, that I was almost afraid to visit them alone. 

The handsome church of Sta. Maria in Trastavare contrasts 
strangely with the quarter of the town in which it lies. This 
part of Rome is inhabited by people calling themselves descendants 
of the ancient Trojans. 

Sta. Maria ad Martyres, or the Rotunda, once the Pantheon 
of Agrippa, is in better preservation than any other monument of 
ancient Rome. The interior is almost hi its pristine condition ; 
it contains no less than fifteen altars. In this church Raphael is 
buried- The Rotunda has no windows, but receives air and light 
through a circular opening hi the cupola. 

The best view of ancient Rome is to be obtained from the 
tower of the Senate-house. From this place we see stretched out 
beneath us, Mount Palatine, the site of ancient Rome ; the Capitol, 
in the midst of the city ; the Quirinal hill (Monte Cavallo), with 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 317 

the summer residence of the Pope ; the Esquiline mount, the 
loftiest of the hills ; Mount Aventine ; the Vatican ; and lastly, 
Monte Testaccio, consisting entirely of broken pottery which the 
Romans throw down here. 

I also paid a visit to the Ponte Publicius, the most ancient 
bridge in Rome, hi the neighbourhood of winch Horatius Codes 
achieved his heroic action ; and the Tullian prison, beneath the 
church of St Joseph of Falignani, where Jugurtha was starved to 
death. The staircase leading up to the building is called " the steps 
of sighs." The Capitol has unfortunately fallen into decay ; we can 
barely distinguish a few remains of temples and other buildings. 

Of the graves of the Scipios I could also discover little more 
than the site ; the subterranean passages are nearly all destroyed. 

The Marsfield is partly covered with buildings, and partly 
used as a promenade. 

Cestius' grave is uncommonly well preserved, and a pyramid 
of lar.ge square stones surrounds the sarcophagus. The aqueducts 
are built of large blocks of stone fastened together without mortar. 
They are now no longer used, as they have partly fallen into 
decay, and some of the springs have dried up. 

The hot baths of Titus are well worthy a visit, though in a 
ruined condition. Here the celebrated Laocoon group was found. 
Near these baths is the great reservoir called the " Seven Halls 
of Titus." 

One of the greatest and best-preserved buildings of ancient 
Rome is the amphitheatre of Flavius, of the Colliseum, once the 
scene of the combats with wild beasts. It was capable of holding 
87,000 spectators. Four stories yet remain. TMs building is 
seen to the greatest advantage by torchlight. I was fortunate 
enough to find an opportunity of joining a large party, and we 
were thus enabled to divide the expense. The triumphal arch 
of Titus, of white marble, covered with glorious sculptures; the 
arches of Septimus Severus, that of Janus, and several other 
antique monuments, are to be seen near the Colliseum. 



318 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAXD, 

The beautiful bridge of St. Angelo, constructed entirely of 
square blocks of stone, leads across the Tiber to the castle of the 
same name, the tomb of Hadrian. The emperor caused this large 
round building to be erected for his future mausoleum. It is built 
of immense stone blocks, and now serves as a fortress and state- 
prison. 

The temple of Marcus Aurelius is converted into the Dogana. 
That of Minerva Medica lies in the midst of a vineyard, and is 
built in the form of a rotunda. The upper part has sunk in. 

There are twelve obelisks in the different public squares of 
Rome, all brought from Egypt. 

I have still to mention the 108 fountains, from which fresh 
water continually spouts into the air. Foremost among them 
in size and beauty is the Fontana TrevL 

I was prevented by the bad weather from making trips to any 
distance, but one afternoon I drove to Tivoli. The road leading 
thither is called the Tiburtinian. After travelling for about six 
miles we become conscious of a dreadfully offensive sulphurous 
smell, and soon find that it proceeds from a little river running 
through the Solfatara. A ride of eighteen Italian miles brought 
us to the town of Tivoli, lying amidst olive-woods on the declivity 
of the Apennines, and numbering about 7000 inhabitants. To- 
wards evening I took a short walk in the town, beneath the pro- 
tection of an umbrella, and was not much pleased. Next morning 
I left the house early, and proceeded first to the temple of Sybilla, 
built on a rock opposite to the waterfall. Afterwards I went to 
view the grotto of Neptune, and that through which the Arno 
flows, rushing out of the cavern to fall headlong over a ledge of 
lofty rocks, and form the cascade of Tivoli. The best view of 
this fall is obtained from the bridge. Besides many pretty minor 
cascades, I saw a number of ruins ; the most remarkable among 
these was the the villa of Mecaenas. 

November 23d. 

At six o'clock this morning I commenced my journey to 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 319 

Florence with a Veturino. Almost the whole distance the weather 
was in the highest degree unfavourable it was foggy, rainy, and 
very cold. A journey through Italy during autumn or winter is 
far from agreeable ; for there are generally cold and rain to be 
encountered, and no warm rooms to be found in the inns, where 
fires are never kindled until after the guests have arrived. And 
the fires they light in the grates are, after all, quite inadequate to 
warm the damp, unaired rooms, and the traveller feels scorched 
and cold almost at the same moment. The floors are all of stone, 
but a few straw-mats are sometimes spread beneath the dining- 
tables. 

The landscape through which we travelled to-day did not 
possess many attractions. For about forty miles, as far as Ron- 
ciglione, we saw neither town nor village. The aspect of Ronci- 
glione is rather melancholy, though it boasts a broad street and 
many houses of two stories. But the latter all have a gloomy 
look, and the town itself appears to be thinly populated. We 
passed the night here. 

According to Italian custom, I had made a bargain with the 
proprietor of our vehicle for the journey, including lodging and 
board. I was well satisfied, for he strictly kept his contract. But 
whoever expects more than one meal a day under an arrangement 
of this sort will find himself grievously mistaken ; the traveller 
who wishes to take any tiling in the morning or in the middle of 
the day must pay out of his own pocket. I found every thing 
here exceedingly expensive and very bad. 

November 24th. 

To-day we passed through some very pretty, though not popu- 
lous districts. In the afternoon we at length reached two towns, 
namely, Viterbo, with 13,000 inhabitants, lying in a fruitful 
plain; and Montefiascone, built on a high hill, and backed by 
lofty mountains, on which a celebrated vine is cultivated. At 
the foot of the hill, near Montefiascone, lies a small lake, and 



320 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

farther on one of considerable size, the Lago de Balsana, with a 
little town of the same name, once the capital of the Volsci. 
An ancient fortress rises in the midst of this town, surrounded by 
tall and venerable houses as with a wreath. 

We had now to cross a considerable mountain, an undertaking 
of some difficulty when we consider how heavily the rain had 
fallen. By the aid of an extra pair of horses we passed safely 
over the miserable roads, and took up our quarters for the night 
in the little village of Lorenzo. We had already reached the 
domain of the Apennines. 

November 25th. 

We had now only a few more hours to travel through the 
papal dominions. The river Centino forms the boundary between 
the States of the Church and Tuscany. The greater portion of 
the region around us gave tokens of its volcanic origin. We saw 
several grottoes and caverns of broken stone resembling lava, 
basaltic columns, &c. 

The Dogana of Tuscany, a handsome building, stands in the 
neighbourhood of Ponte Centino. The country here wears a wild 
aspect ; as far as the eye can stretch, it rests upon mountains of 
different elevations. The little town of Radicofani lies on the 
plateau of a considerable hill, surrounded by rocks and huge blocks 
of stone. A citadel or ancient fortress towers romantically above 
the little town, and old towers look down from the summit of many 
a hill and cliff. The character of the lower mountain-range is 
exceedingly peculiar ; it is split into gaps and fissures in all direc- 
tions, as though it had but recently emerged from the main. 

For many hours we almost rode tlirough a flood. The water 
streamed down the streets, and the wind howled round our car- 
riage with such violence that we seriously anticipated being blown 
over. Luckily the streets hi the Tuscan are better than those in 
the Roman territory, and the rivers are crossed by firm stone 
bridges. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 321 

November 26th. 

To-day our poor Corses had a hard time of it. Up hill and down 
hill, and past yawning chasms, our way lay for a long time through 
a desert and barren district, until, at a little distance from the 
village of Buonconvento, the scene suddenly changed, and a widely- 
extended, hilly country, with heautiful plains, the lovely town of 
Siena, numerous villages great and small, with homesteads and 
handsome farms, and solitary churches built on hills, lay spread 
before us. Every tiling shewed traces of cultivation and opulence. 

Most of the women and girls we met were employed in plait- 
ing straw. Here all wear straw hats men, women, and children. 
At five in the evening we at length reached 

SEENA. 

Our poor horses were so exhausted by the bad rqads of the 
Apennines, that the driver requested leave to make a day's halt 
here. This interruption to our journey was far from being unwel- 
come to me, for Siena is well worthy to be explored. 

November 27th. 

The town numbers 16,000 inhabitants, and is divided almost 
into two halves by a long handsome street. The remaining streets 
are small, irregular, and dirty. The Piazza del Campo is very 
large, and derives a certain splendour of appearance from some 
palaces built in the gothic style. In the midst stands a granite 
pillar, bearing a representation in bronze of Romulus and Remus 
suckled by the she-wolf. I saw several other pillars of equal 
beauty in different parts of the town, while hi Rome, where they 
would certainly have been more appropriate, I did not find a single 
one. AU the houses in the streets of Siena have a gloomy appear- 
ance ; many of them are built h'ke castles, of great square blocks 
of stone, and furnished with loopholes. 

The finest building is undoubtedly the cathedral. Though I 
came from the " city of churches/' the beauty of this edifice struck 
me so forcibly, that for a long time I stood silently regarding it. 



322 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

It is, in truth, considered one of the handsomest churches in Italy. 
It stands on a little elevation in the midst of a large square, and 
is covered outside and inside with white marble. The lofty arches 
of the windows, supported by columns, have a peculiarly fine effect ; 
and the frescoes in the sacristy are remarkable alike for the cor- 
rectness of outline and brilliancy of colour. 

The drawings are said to be by Raphael ; and the freshness 
of colour observed in these frescoes is ascribed to the good qualities 
of the Siena earth. The mass-books preserved in the sacristy con- 
tain some very delicate miniatures on parchment. 

Some of the wards hi the neighbouring hospital are also deco- 
rated with beautiful frescoes, which appear to date from the time 
of Eaphael. 

The grace and beauty of the women of Siena have been ex- 
tolled by many writers. As to-day was Sunday, I attended high 
mass for the purpose of meeting some of these graceful beauties. 
I found that they were present in the usual average, and no more ; 
beauty and grace are no common gifts. 

In the afternoon I visited the promenade, the Prato di Lizza, 
where I found but little company. A fine prospect is obtained 
from the walls of the town. 

November 28th. 

The country now becomes very beautiful. The mountains 
are less high, the valleys widen, and at length hills only appear 
at intervals, clothed with trees, meadows, and fields. In the Tuscan 
dominions I noticed many cypresses, a tree I had not seen since 
my departure from Constantinople and Smyrna. The country 
seems well populated, and villages frequently appear. 

At five in the evening we reached 

FLORENCE, 

but I did not arrive at Madame Mocalti's hotel until an hour and a 
half later ; for the examination of luggage and passes, and other 
business of this kind, always occupies a long time. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 323 

The country round Florence is exceedingly lovely, without 
being grand. The charming Arno flows through the town : it is 
crossed by four stone bridges, one of them roofed and lined with 
booths on either side. Florence contains 8000 houses and 90,000 
inhabitants. The exterior of the palaces here is very peculiar. 
Constructed chiefly of huge blocks of stone, they almost resemble 
fortresses, and look massive and venerable. 

The cathedral is said to be the finest church in Christendom ; 
I thought it too simple, particularly the interior. The walls are 
only whitewashed, and the painted windows render the church ex- 
tremely dark. I was best pleased with the doors of the sacristy, 
with the celebrated works of Luca del Bobbin, and the richly deco- 
rated high altar. 

The Battisterio, once a temple of Mars, with eight very fine 
doors of bronze, which Michael Angelo pronounced worthy to be 
the gates of Paradise, stands beside the cathedral. 

The other principal churches are : St. Lorenzo, also with a 
white interior and grey pillars, containing some fine oil paintings, and 
the chapel of the Medici, a splendid structure, decorated with costly 
stones, and monuments of several members of the royal family. 

St. Croce, a handsome church, full of monuments of eminent 
men, is also called the Italian Pantheon ; the sculptures are beauti- 
ful, and the paintings good. The remains of Michael Angelo rest 
here, and the Buonaparte family possess a vault beneath a side 
chapel. Another chapel of considerable size contains some ex- 
quisite statues of white marble. 

St. Annunciate is rich hi splendid frescoes ; those placed round 
the walls hi the courtyard of the church, and surrounded by a 
glass gallery, are particularly handsome. On the left as we enter 
we find the costly chapel of our Lady " dell' Annunciata," in which 
the altar, the immense candelabra, the angels' and draperies, in 
short every thing is of silver. This wealthy church contains in 
addition some good pictures and a quantity of marble. 

St. Michele is outwardly beautified by some excellent statues. 



324 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

The interior displays several valuable paintings and an altar of 
great beauty, beneath a white marble canopy in the Gothic style. 

St. Spirito contains many sculptures, among which a statue of 
the Saviour in white marble claims particular attention. 

All these churches are rather dark from having stained win- 
dows. 

Foremost among the palaces we may reckon the Palais Pitti, 
built on a little hill. This structure has a noble appearance ; con- 
structed entirely of pieces of granite, it seems calculated to last an 
eternity. Of all the palaces I had seen, this one pleased me most ; 
it would be difficult to find a building in the same style which 
should surpass it. As a rule, indeed, I particularly admired the 
Florentine buildings, which seemed to me to possess a much more 
decided national appearance than the palaces of modern Rome. 

The picture-gallery of this palace numbers five hundred paint- 
ings, most of them masterpieces, among which we find Piaphael's 
Madonna della Sedia. Besides the pictures, each apartment con- 
tains gorgeous tables of valuable stone. 

Behind the palace the Boboli garden rises, somewhat in the 
form of a terrace. Here I found numerous statues distributed 
with much taste throughout charming alleys, groves, and open 
places. From the higher points a splendid view is obtained. 

The palace degli Ufizzi, on the Arno, has an imposing effect, 
from its magnificent proportions and peculiar style of architecture. 
Some of the greatest artistic treasures of the world are united in 
the twenty halls and cabinets and three immense galleries of this 
building. 

The Tribuna contains the Venus de Medicis, found at Tivoli, 
and executed by Cleomenes, a son of Apollodorus of Athens. 
Opposite to it stands a statue of Apollino. 

In the centre* of the hall of the artists' portrait-gallery we 
find the celebrated Medician vase. 

The cabinet of jewels boasts the largest and finest onyx in 
existence. 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 325 

The Palazzo Vecchio resembles a fortified castle. The large 
courtyard, surrounded by lofty arcades, is crowded with paintings 
and sculptures. A beautiful fountain stands in the midst ; and two 
splendid statues, one representing Hercules and the other David, 
adorn the entrance. The glorious fountain of Ammanato, drawn 
by sea-horses and surrounded by Tritons, is not far off. 

In the Gherardeska palace we find a fresco representing the 
horrible story of Ugolino. 

The Palazzo Strozzi should not be left out of the catalogue ; it 
has already stood for 360 years, and looks as though it had been 
completed but yesterday. 

In the Speccola we are shewn the human body and its 
diseases, modelled in wax by the same artist who established a 
similar cabinet at Vienna (in the Josephinum). In the museum of 
natural history stuffed animals and their skeletons are preserved. 

The traveller should not depart without visiting the " work- 
shops for hard stones," where beautiful pictures, table-slabs, &c. 
are put together of Florentine marble. Splendid works are pro- 
duced here ; I saw flowers and fruits constructed of stone which 
would not have dishonoured the finest pencil. The enormous 
table in the palace degli Ufizzi is said to have cost 40,000 ducats. 
Twenty-five men were employed for twenty years in its con- 
struction ; it is composed of Florentine mosaic. This table did 
not strike me particularly ; it appeared overloaded with orna- 
ment. 

Of the environs of Florence I only saw the Grand Duke's 
milk -farm, a pleasant place near the Arno, amid beautiful avenues 
and meadows. 

DEPARTURE FROM FLORENCE. 

December 3d. 

At seven in the evening I quitted Florence, and proceeded in 
the mail-carriage to Bologna, distant about eighty miles. When 
the day broke, we found ourselves on an acclivity commanding a 



326 VISIT TO THE HOLY LAND, 

really splendid view. Numerous valleys, extending between low 
lulls, opened before our eyes, the snow-clad Apennines formed the 
background, and in the far distance shone a gleaming stripe 
the Adriatic sea. At five in the evening of 

December 4th 
we reached Bologna. 

This town is of considerable extent, numbers 50,000 inhabi- 
tants, and has many fine houses and streets ; all of these, how- 
ever, are dull, with the exception of a few principal streets. Beg- 
gars swarm at every corner an unmistakable token that we are 
once more in the States of the Church. 

December 5th. 

This was a day of rest. I proceeded at once to visit the 
cathedral, which is rich hi frescoes, gilding, and arabesques. A 
few oil-paintings are also not to be overlooked. 

In the church of St. Dominic I viewed with most interest the 
monument of King Enzio. 

The picture-gallery contains a St. Cecilia, one of the earlier 
productions of Raphael. 

A fine fountain, with a figure of Neptune, graces the principal 
square. In the Palazzo Publico I saw a staircase up which it is 
possible to ride. 

The most remarkable edifices at Bologna are the two square 
leaning towers at the Porta Romagna. One of these towers is 
five, and the other seven feet out of the perpendicular. Their 
aspect inspired me with a kind of nervous dread ; on standing 
close to the wall to look up at them it really appeared as though 
they were toppling down. In themselves these towers are not 
interesting, being simply constructed of masonry, and not very 
lofty. 

The finest spot in Bologna is the Campo Santo, the im- 
mense cemetery, with its long covered ways and neat chapels, dis- 
playing a number of costly monuments, the works of the first 
modern sculptors. Three large and pleasant spots near these 



EGYPT, AND ITALY. 327 

buildings serve as burial-places for the poorer classes. In one 
the men are interred, in the second the women, and in the third 
the children. 

A hall three miglia in length, resting on 640 columns, leads 
from this cemetery to a little lull, surmounted by the church of 
the Madonna di St. Luca, and from thence almost back into the 
town. The church just mentioned contains a miraculous picture, 
namely, a true likeness of the Virgin, painted by St. Luke after 
a vision. The complexion of this picture is much darker than 
that of the commonest women I have seen in Syria. But faith 
is every thing, and so I will not doubt the authenticity of the pic- 
ture. The prospect from the mountains is exceedingly fine. 

I returned in the evening completely exhausted, and half an 
hour afterwards was already seated hi the post-carriage to pur- 
sue my journey to Ferrara. 

On the whole the weather was unfavourable ; it rained fre- 
quently, and the roads were mostly very bad, particularly in the 
domains of the Pope, where we stuck fast four or five times 
during the night. On one occasion of this kind we were detained 
more than an hour, until horses and oxen could be collected to 
drag us onwards. We were twelve hours getting over these 
fifty-four miles, from six in the evening till the same hour in the 

morning. 

December 6th. 

This morning I awoke at Ferrara, where the carriage was to 
be changed once more. I availed myself of a few spare hours to 
view the town, which, on the whole, rather resembles a German 
than an Italian place. It lias fine broad streets, nice houses, and 
few arched ways in front of them. In the centre of the town 
stands a strong castle, surrounded by fortifications ; this was once 
the residence of the bishop. 

At nine o'clock we quitted this pretty town, and reached the 
Po an hour afterwards. We were ferried across the stream ; and 
now, after a long absence, I once more stood on Austrian ground. 



328 VISIT TO THE HOLT LAXD, ETC. 

We continued our journey through a lovely plain to Rovigo, a 
place possessing no object of interest. Here we stayed to dine, 
and afterwards passed the Adige, a stream considerably smaller 
than the Po. The country between Rovigo and Padua was hidden 
from us by an impenetrable fog, which prevented our seeing fiftv 
paces in advance. At six o'clock in the evening we reached 
Padua, our resting-place for the night. 

Early next morning I hastened onwards, for I had already 
seen Padua, Venice, Trieste, &c. in the year 1840. 

I reached my native town safely and in perfect health, and 
had the happiness of finding that my beloved ones were all well 
and cheerful. 

During my journey I had seen much and endured many hard- 
ships ; I had found very few things as I had imagined them to be 

Friends and relations have expressed a wish to read a descrip- 
tion of my lonely wanderings. I could not send my diary to each 
one ; so I have dared, upon the representations of my friends, and 
at the particular request of the publisher of this book, to tell my 
adventures in a plain unvarnished way. 

I am no authoress ; I have never written anything but letters ; 
and my diary must not, therefore, be judged as a literary pro- 
duction. It- is a simple narration, in which I have described 
every circumstance as it occurred ; a collection of notes which I 
wrote down for private reference, without dreaming that they 
would ever find their way into the great world. Therefore I would 
entreat the indulgence of my kind readers ; for I repeat it no- 
thing can be farther from my thoughts than any idea of thrusting 
myself forward into the ranks of those gifted women who have 
received in their cradle the Muses' initiatory kiss. 



INDEX, 



ABRAHAM, grave of, 187. 

Absalom, tomb of, in the valley of 
Jehosaphat, 120. 

Academy " degli Studii," 296. 

Acbmaidon, or place of arrows, at 
Constantinople, 50. 

Aqueducts, ruins of, near Rome, 
310. 

Acre, 96 ; dilapidated condition of, 
96; convent at, 162. 

Acropolis at Smyrna, 84. 

^Egean Sea, 81. 

Africa, first debarkation on the 
mainland of, 48. 

Alexandria, arrival at, 214 ; ligbt- 
house and hospital at, 214 ; Fort 
Napoleon, 215; quarantine, 215- 
219 ; the great square, 220; Aus- 
trian consulate, 220 ; the old 
quarantine-house, 221 ; Nile ca- 
nal, 221 ; catacombs, 260 ; ba- 
zaar, 261. 

Alt-Orsova, 28. 

Angelo, St., bridge and castle of, 
Rome, 318. 

Anti-Lebanon range, 95 ; ascent of, 
176-178. 

Antiparos, island of, 264% 

Ants at Cairo, 250. 

Apollo Belvidere at Rome, 314. 

Arabs and Bedouins, 91-93; dex- 
terous horsemanship of, HO ; 
politeness and good-nature of the 
women, 226 ; retentive memory 
of, 227. 



Armenian church at Cairo, 2*5. 

Arnauts, 178 ; insolence and bru- 
tality of, 168. 

Arno, the river, 323 ; crossed at 
Florence by four stone bridges, 
323. 

Artichokes, wild, 151. 

Atfe, voyage to, 221 ; harbour of, 
223 ; Austrian consulate at, 223 ; 
animated scene at, 224. 

Augustine, St., catacombs of, at 
Palermo, 282-284. 

Aventine, Mount, Rome, 317. 

BABAKAY, solitary rock rising from 

the Danube, 26. 
[ Backsheesh, or alms demanded in 

the East, 91. 
i Bagaria, 286. 
' Balbeck, or Heliopolis, 100-195; 

majestic ruins at, 191-19 K 
I Baluklid, 63. 

! Baptist, St. John the, convent of, 
j 127. 
Barada, river, 187 ; stone bridge 

over, 187. 

Barge, the Sultan's, 45. 
Bartlett, Mr. 79. 
Bastek, or water-melon, 101. 
Baths near Brussa, 74. 
Bazaar at Constantinople, 52 ; at 

Brussa, 73. 

Bedouins, encounter with, 140 ; 
camp of, 143 ; thieving propen- 
sities of, 188, 244. 



330 



INDEX. 



jar, adventure with a, 120; 
quantity of importunate beggars 
in the East, 124. 

Belgrade, 24 ; mosques and mina- 
rets at, 24. 

Berchtold, Count, 128. 
Bethany, 144. 

Bethlehem, 123-125 ; convent and 
church at, 124. 

Bey rout, 90-93 ; beautiful scenery 
near, 90 ; Battista's inn at, 97 ; 
return to, 1G9 ; scenery around, 
170; residence at the house of 
Miss Kandis, 172-174 ; the con- 
sul, neglect of, 174; sickness at, 
208 ; departure, 208. 

Biga chamber at Rome, 314. 

Bir, 145. 

Bivouac in the open air, 148. 

Black Sea, 37 ; sea-sickness, 38 ; 
stormy weather, 39. 

Boghos Bey, garden of, at Cairo, 
238. 

Bogasid, Ildiriin, mosque of, 112. 

Bologna, a day spent at, 324, 325. 

Borghese Palace, or " il Cembalo 
di Borghese,'' at Rome, 314. 

Bosphorus, the, 39-48 ; beautiful 
scenery around, 40. 

Braila, 33. 

Brussa, excursion to, 69-74; un- 
sightly houses at, 72 ; mosques 
at of Mahomed I., Sultan II- 
dirim Bogasid, &c., 73 ; stone 
bridge, 73. 

Bscharai, village of, 198. 

Bulak, the harbour of, Cairo, 229. 

Burnaba, near Smyrna, 84. 

Butterflies and birds, absence of, in 
the East, 131. 

C..ESARGA, 96; ruins at, 97. 

Caiaphas, house of, 121. 

Cairo, arrival at, 229 ; narrow 
streets, 233. 

Callafat, 31. 

Capitol, the, at Rome, 317. 

Camels. 82 ; used for carrying corn, 
104. 

Carmel, Mount, 95, 150, 160 ; con- 
vent on, 161. 



Carriages, Turkish, 60, 61. 

Catanea, 274. 

Catholic church at Jerusalem, 109, 
110. 

Cedron, brook, 120. 

Cervo, 264. 

Chalcedonia, 63. 

Chamsir, or hot winds of the desert, 
227 ; blindness frequently pro- 
duced by, 227. 

Cities of the plain, 139. 

Civita Vecchia, 270. 

Cleopatra's Needles, 219. 

Coffee-houses at Giurgewo, 32; at 
Constantinople, 57, 58 ; in Pa- 
lestine, 150. 

Colombier's inn at Alexandria, 
219. 

Colonna Palace at Rome, 314. 

Colliseum, the, Rome, 317. 

Constantinople, harbour of, 39 ; 
inns Mde. Balbiani's, &c., 41 ; 
residence at, 40-76 ; narrow and 
badly -paved streets, 57 ; danger 
of conflagration, 47 ; mosques, 
53-55; slave - market, 55-56; 
old Serail, 56 ; hippodrome, 57 ; 
coffeehouses and storytellers, 57; 
houses, theatres, carriages, 60, 
61 ; Sweet Waters, 62, 63 ; feasts, 
65-69; Mahomet's birthday, 65- 
67 ; departure from, 76. 

Convents, Syrian, 101 ; Armenian, 
at Jerusalem, 120 ; at Damascus, 
182. 

Corso, the, at Rome, 311. 
Costumes of Servian peasants, 28 ; 
of Turkish women, 42 ; Syrian, 
98, 99, 102 ; of Arabs and Be- 
douins, 105; Samaritan, 149; 
of Italian peasants, 309. 
Cramer, Herr von, 83. 
Crete, island of, 262. 
Cucumbers a favourite Eastern 

dish, 101, 191. 
Cultivation neglected in the East, 

130. 

Cyclops wall at Heliopolis, 191. 
Cypress-groves at Constantinople, 

46. 
Cyprus, 88 ; wine of Cyprus, 90. 



INDEX. 



331 



D^EDALVS, labyrinth of, 299. 

Dancing-girls, or bayaderes, at Cairo, 
247. 

Dardanelles, the, 80 ; castles of the, 
Tschenekalesi and Kilidil Ba- 
har, 80. 

Damascus, residence at, 180-186; 
scenery around, 180 ; ugly ap- 
pearance of the houses, 181 ; con- 
sul's house, 181 ; bazaar, 183. 

Danube, voyage down the river, 20- 
.36; dangerous navigation of, 21 ; 
sentries posted on the banks, 25 ; 
beautiful scenery, 26 ; falls near 
Islas, 27 ; the Iron Gate, 29. 

Dead Sea, 137-139. 

Dervishes, the dancing, at Constan- 
tinople, 41-45 ; the howling, 49- 
51, 246. 

Desert, voyage through the, to Suez 
on camels, 251 ; dreary monotony, 
253 ; cruelty of camel-drivers, 
253, 254. 

Devotion, want of, at Jerusalem, 
110. 

Devotional ceremony at the Mash- 
dalansher, 248. 

Djaebbehl or Byblus, 204. 

Djenin, 149. 

Dog's Grotto, 300. 

Dogs, wild, at Constantinople, 46 ; 
their habits, 47. 

Dog's river, 204 ; stone bridge over 
the, 205. 

Donkey- drivers, dishonest practices 
of, 259. 

Drenkova, 26 ; wreck of a steamer 
at, in 1839, 27. 

Dry heat in the desert, 254-. 

Druses, inhabitants of Mount Leba- 
non, 201. 

EAR of Dionysius, 273. 

Eggs hatched by artificial heat at 

Gizeh, 239. 

Egyptian funerals, 260. 
Ejub, excursion to, 58, 59. 
Elmhesin, 177. 
Emir of Lebanon, 166. 
En/ in. monument of king, in church 

of St. Dominic at Bologna, 326. 



Esbekie-place at Cairo, 245. 
Esdralon, plain of, 150. 
Esquiline, mount, lofty hill in 

Rome, 317. 
Etna, mount, 276. 
Eustachia, St., altar in honour of, 

125. 
Excursion to the Lake of Genne- 

sareth, 157. 

FAASLANC, Dr., 89. 

Fachini at Malta. 269. 

Fanaticism of the inhabitants of 

Damascus, 185. 
Farnese Palace at Rome, 315. 
Favorite, villa of, 283. 
Feasts, Turkish, 65-69. 
Fellahs, 91. 

Fernando, St., at Naples, 294. 
Ferrara, 326. 

Field of Blood at Jerusalem, 121. 
Fig-tree, Indian, 99. 
Fire on board the Eurotas, 264. 
Flavius, amphitheatre of, or Colli- 

seum, in Rome, 317. 
Florence, 322 ; cathedral at, 323 ; 

speccola at, 325. 
Footprints of the Saviour, 113 ; of 

the disciples, 118. 
Fountains, 108 ; in front of St. 

Peter's at Rome, 313 ; in Rome, 

318. 
Francesco, San, de Paula, Naples, 

292. 

Francis, church of St., at Jerusa- 
lem, 128. 
Funerals,Turkish, perfect simplicity 

of, 59, 60. 

GALATA, the tower in, 5 1 ; beautiful 

prospect to be obtained from, 52. 
Galilee, 149. 
Gallatz, 34 ; scarcity of water at, 

34 ; the bazaar, 35 ; cheap fruit, 

35. 

Galleries at Rome, 314. 
Garden of Boghos Bey at Cairo, 238. 
Gemlek, 69. 
Gennesareth, excursion on the lake 

of, 157; baths at, 158. 
Gethsemane, 117. 



332 



INDEX. 



Gherardeska Palace, with fresco of 
Ugolino, at Florence, 32*. 

Giurgewo, 32. 

Gizeh, excursion to the pyramids of, 
239-244. 

Gnats, 103, 151. 

Golden Horn, 39. 

Golumbacz, ruin on the Servian 
shore, 26. 

Greeks, chapel of the, in church of 
Holy Sepulchre, 114 ; Easter 
ceremonies of, 115; church at 
Cairo, 245. 

Grotto of Annunciation at Naza- 
reth, 152; workshop of Joseph, 
153; Grotto of Anguish, 118; 
of Jeremiah, 121 ; Prophets' 
school, 161 ; of St. George at 
Beyrout, 175 ; of St. Paul at 
Damascus, 184. 

Grove of cedars, 197. 

HAIFA, 162. 

Hainburg, town of, 19. 

Halizar, 82. 

Hamaks, or porters, 40. 

Hebron, Mount, 125. 

Helena, St, 152 ; chapel of, 114. 

Herculaneum, 302. 

Herod's house at Jerusalem, 112. 

Hill of Bad Counsel, 122. 

Hippodrome at Constantinople, 57. 

Hirsova, 33. 

Holy Sepulchre, church of the, 
113, 114; night passed in the 
church, 115, 116 ; order of the, 
installation of knights, 117. 

Horses of the Turkish Emperor, 
66 ; Arabian, 146. 

Host, cheating, at Ceprano, 309. 

Houses at Constantinople, 60, 61. 

Huber, consul, 34. 

IDA, Mount, 262. 

Ignazio, St., or Olivazzo, church 

of, at Palermo, 281. 
Insolence of the camel-drivers, 257. 
Inns, uncomfortable, in Italy, 319. 

JABRUD, 147. 

Jacob's grave and well, 147. 



Januarius, St., catacombs of, 297. 

Jehosaphat, valley of, 120. 

Jeromania, a little town near Na- 
ples, 308. 

Jerusalem, arrival at, 108; resi- 
dence at, 109-145; Nuova Casa 
at. 109; ViaDolorosa, 112; Pi- 
late's house, 112; Mosque of 
Omar, 112; Herod's house, 112; 
Holy Sepulchre, church of the, 
113-116; final departure from, 
145. 

Jesu, St., Nuovo, 294. 

Jewels, cabinet of, at Florence, 324. 

Jews' quarter at Cairo, 234. 

Joppa v town and harbour of, 97- 
101. 

Jordan, excursion to the, 132-136, 
139, 140. 

Joseph's well at Cairo, 238. 

Judges and kings, graves of the, 
122. 

Justice, hall of, at Jerusalem, 130. 

KAIKS, 48, and note. 

Kariet el Kareb, or Emmaus, 106. 

Khans, 71, and note ; at Damascus, 
184. 

Kitchens for the poor at Constanti- 
nople, 55. 

Klinger, Herr, 239. 

LACTUM.F. Christi, 303. 

Lago de Balsana, near Montefias- 

cone, 320. 
Lagun, 151. 

Laocoon cabinet at Rome, 314. 
Lapis lazuli, splendid pillar of, at 

Palermo, 281. 

Largo del Castello, Naples, 293. . 
Larnaka, harbour of, 89. 
Lateran, Roman town-gate of, 310 ; 

church of St. John of, 315. 
Lavalette, 267 - 269 ; St. Augus- 
tine's church, 268. 
Leaning towers near the Porta 

Romagna at Bologna, 326. 
Lebanon range, 95 ; ascent of, 196, 

197. 
Limasol, 211 ; cheapness of wine 

at, 211. 



INDEX. 



333 



Lions by Canova in St. Peter's at 

Rome, 312. 

Litany, the brook, 193. 
Lorenzo, Italian village of, 320. 
Lucia, St., at Naples, 290. 
Lybian Desert, near the Mile, 229. 

MADHOUSE at Cairo, disgusting 

exhibition, 235. 

Malta, 265-271 ; arrival at Lava- 
lette, 26-5 ; castle of Knights of 
St. John, 268 ; Civita Vecchia, 
270; St. Paul's Grotto, 271. 
Marble much prized at Damascus, 
184. 

Maronites living on Mount Leba- 
non, 201. 

Mary the Virgin, house of, 152; 
Mary's well, 153. 

Mary Magdalene, birth-place of, 
113. 

Mary's well, 121. 

Maschdalanscher, village of, 178 ; 
feast of, 247. 

Medici villa at Rome, 315. 

Mehemet A15, appearance of, 222 ; 
despotism of, 223 ; his mauso- 
leum at Cairo, 236. 

Messina, 276-278 ; royal palace, 
277. 

Midnight ride through the desert, 
107, 108. 

Michele, church of St., at Florence, 
324. 

Milk Grotto, 126. 

Mishmir, river, 167. 

Mish-mish, a preparation of apri- 
cots, 130. 

Mob, Italian, 287. 

Mocattam, mountains of, 23G. 

Mohacs, town of, 21. 

Money, changing, high charge for, 
261. 

Montefiascone, 319. 

Monte Cassino, convent of, 308. 

Mosaics at St. Peter's, 312. 

Mosques at Constantinople, 53, 55; 
difficulty of obtaining admission, 
53 ; Sultan Achmed's, 53 ; Aja 
Sofia, Osmanije, Soleimanije, 
54; at Brussa, Mahomet I., Mu- 



rad I., &c. 73 ; Omar at Jerusa- 
lem, 112; of Sultan Hassan and 
Sultan Amou at Cairo, 237. 

Mourning women, 128, 260. 

Mulberry-plantations on Mount Le- 
banon, 206. 

Mutualis, on Mount Lebanon, 201. 

Mytelene, 81. 

NABLUS, 147. 

Naples, 288; Caserta near, 30G- 
308. 

Napoleon's house at Cairo, 245. 

Natural phenomenon in the desert, 
255. 

Nazareth, residence at, 152-160; 
sickness, 153. 

Neusatz, 24. 

Nicholas, convent of St., at Catanea, 
275. 

Nicodemus, St., grave of, 114. 

Nicopolis, 31. 

Nights, cold, in Palestine, 146. 

Nile canal at Alexandria, 221. 

Nile water turbid and discoloured, 
222 ; cleared by throwing in ker- 
nels of apricots or almonds, 225 ; 
Delta of the, 228. 

Nuova Casa at Jerusalem, 109. 

Nuovo, Castel, 293. 

OBELISK from Heliopolis in front of 
St. Peter's at Rome, 313. 

Offence, Mount of, 119. 

Olivuzza and Castle of Ziza, 283. 

Olive-tree, 71, 105; ancient olive- 
trees, 117. 

Olives, Mount of, at Jerusalem, 
117-120. 

Olympus, 63, 71. 

Oriental entertainment at Joppa, 
69; women, ignorance and indo- 
lence of, 164. 

PACS, town of, 21. 

Palace of M ehemet Ali at Cairo, 235. 

Palermo, 279 ; gothic chapel and 

pillar, 280 ; cathedral, 280. 
Palm, Herr, 232. 
Pancsova, 24. 



334 



INDEX. 



Paros and Antiparos, 264. 

Pasiest, 26. 

Passports continually demanded in 
Italy, 309. 

Paul, Father, 111. 

Paula, St, altar in honour of, 125. 

Pausilipp, Grotto of, 295. 

Pera, the women's garden, 42 ; the 
great and little Campo, 45. 

Pesth, city of, 20; Hunting-horn 
inn at, 20. 

Peter's, St., at Rome, 510-313. 

Petrified date-wood near Cairo, 250. 

Pilate's house at Jerusalem, 112. 

Pilau, 100. 

Pillar of Scorn, 114. 

Piscina, reservoir near Baiae, 300. 

Plague,precautions against, atBraila, 
33 ; at Galatz, 35. 

Plague-struck woman at Balbeck, 
196. 

Po, the river, 327. 

Pompeii, 302, 303. 

Popolo, Piazza del, at Rome, 310. 

Portici, villa of, 302. 

Poultry much eaten in Italy, 291. 

Prato di Lizza at Siena, 322. 

Presburg, 19; Coronation- hill at, 
19. 

Prince Fascello, palace of, 286. 

Professional story-tellers at Con- 
stantinople, 57. 

Public gardens at Palermo, 282. 

Pulpit in St. Peter's by Bernini, 
312. 

Puzzoli, 298. 

Pyramids of Gizeh, 240-244 ; ascent 
of, 241 ; splendid view from the | 
summit over the valley of the | 
Nile, 242 ; immense blocks of ' 
stone, 242 ; difficult descent, 243; | 
interior of the great pyramid, j 
243 ; Cheops' pyramid, 243. 

QUARANTINE at Alexandria, 215- 
219; discomfort and privations 
endured, 216, 217 ; inadequate 
supply of water, 217 ; fumigation 
by means of brimstone, 218; ex- 
amination by the doctor, 218 ; 
release, 2LJ>. 



Quirinal palace on Monte Cavallo 
at Rome, 314-316. 

RACHEL'S grave, 124. 
Radicofani, town of, 320. 
Ramla, or Arimathea, 104. 
Rapacity of Egyptian guides, 231. 
Raphael's halls, 313. 
Red Sea, 256, 257 ; shallows near 

Suez, 257. 
Rhodes, 86-88 ; St. John's church 

at, 86 ; ancient cannons at, 87. 
Rome, sojourn at, 310-318; St. 

Peter's, 310,311-313; the Do- 

gana, 310 ; squares, Popolo, &c., 

310 ; catacombs, 313 ; ancient 

Rome, 316. 
Rodda, island of, 237, 238 ; Grotto 

at, 238. 

Roof of St. Peter's, 313. 
Rosalia, St., finding the bones of, 

28 1 ; mount and convent, 284. 
Rotunda, the, at Rome, 316. 
Ruins near Cesarea, 97. 
Rovigo, 328. 

SABA in the Waste, convent of St., 
133-136. 

Saida, 94. 

Sailing-vessel, voyage by, from Bey- 
rout to Alexandria, 209-213; 
company on board, 209. 

Sailors, Eastern, 97, 98 ; cowardice 
of, 212; on the Nile boats tem- 
perate and hard-working, 228. 

Salm Reifferscheit, Count, 126. 

Samaria, or Sebasta, 149. 

Samothrace, 81. 

San Carlo at Naples. 292. 

Sandbanks in the Nile, 227. 

Sarcophagus of Ejub, 59. 

Sarepta, 95. 

Sattler, Herr, illness of, 201, 202. 

Scala Santa, Rome, 315. 

Schiitt, island of, 19. 

Scio, Samos, and Cos, 85. 

Scutari, 49 ; cemetery at, 49. 

Sed Bahe, 80. 

Semendria, Turkish fortress, 24. 

Semlin, 22 ; detention at, 23. 

Serail, the old, at Constantinople, 57. 



INDEX. 



335 



Seropis, temple of, 298. 

Servian villages, poverty of, 25 ; 
fertility of, 25. 

Sharon, valley of, 102, 103. 

Shubra, 279. 

Sherbet, 58. 

Siena, 321. 

Sila, 121. 

Silks of Brussa, 71. 

Siloam, village and pool of, 121. 

Sixtine chapel in the Vatican at 
Rome, 313, 314. 

Slaves, Turkish, 42 ; slave-market at 
Constantinople, 55, 56 ; at Cairo, 
246 ; beautiful negro girls, 246. 

Slippers embroidered with gems, 
worth 1000 piastres, 53. 

Smyrna, 81-85. 

Soldiers, Turkish, 66; Arnauts,148. 

Solfatara, 300. 

Solomon's Temple, pillars said to 
have come from, 312. 

Solomon, cisterns of, 125. 

Sphynx, the, 243. 

Sponge-fishery, 203. 

Stanhope, Lady Hester, residence 
of, 168. 

Steamers the Galata,20; Austrian, 
discomforts of, 22 ; the Austrian 
Lloyds', 23 ; the Tiinte, 27 ; Sa- 
turnus, 30 ; Zriny, 30 ; the Fer- 
dinand, 36 ; the Archduke John, 
75; Eurotas, 261; Hercules,272; 
Duke of Calabria, 278. 

Story-tellers, professional, 57. 

Stromboli, 278. 

Strozzi palace at Florence, 325 ; 
freshness of, 325. 

Suez, excursion through the desert 
to, 251-259 ; town of, 256, '267 ; 
scarcity of water at, 257. 

Sultan, the Turkish, 43-45.. 

Sultan's well, 141. 

Sweet waters at Constantinople, 
62, 63. 

Syra, 262. 

Syracuse, 272-274 ; ancient theatre, 
273 ; ear of Dionysius, 273. 

TABARITH, 154-158 ; earthquake 
at, 159. 



Tabor, Mount, 150. 

Tehussa, 36. 

Telegraphs between Alexandria and 

Cairo, 227. 
Temple of the Sun atBalbeck, 192 ; 

of Marcus Aurelius and Minerva 

in Rome, 318. 
Tenedos, 81 . 
Theatres at Constantinople, 60 ; 

at Cairo, 245, 246. 
Titus, hot baths of, at Rome, 317. 
Tivoli, visit to, 318, 319; villa of 

Mecsenas and grotto of Neptune, 

318. 

Toledo Street at Catanea, 275. 
Topona, landing at, 40. 
Tower of the Forty Martyrs, 104 ; 

night in an isolated, 134-1 36 ; in 

Galata, with beautiful prospect, 

52. 
Trajan's tablet, 28 ; Trajan's road, 

27. 

Tribuna palace at Florence, 324. 
Troy, the plains of, 80, 81. 
Turks, their politeness towards 

strangers, 43. 
Turkish fleet, 64 ; listlessness of the 

Turks, 185. 
Tyre or Sur, 95. 

UFIZZI, palace of, at Florence, 324; 
enormous and valuable table in 
the palace, 323. 

Ugliness of Egyptian women, 225. 

Ugolino, fresco of the story of, in 
the Gherardeski Palace at Flo- 
rence, 325. 

VARNA, 38. 

Vatican, the, Bernini and Bramanti's 

staircases, Sixtine chapel, &c., 

313, 314. 

Vecchio, Palazzo, at Florence, 325. 
Venus de Medicis in the Tribuna 

Palace at Florence, 324. 
Veronika, St., house of, 113. 
Vesuvius, ascent of, 303-306. 
Veteran's cave, 28. 
Via Dolorosa at Jerusalem, 112. 
Viceroy's palace at Alexandria, 222. 
Vienna, departure from, 2. 



336 



Village, wretched, near Jerusalem, 

141. 

Vineyards on the Anti-Libanus, 177. 
Visitation, Grotto of, 127, 128. 
Virgil, monument of, 295. 
Viterbo, 319. 
Vomero at Naples, 295. 

WAGONS not used in the East, 103. 
Wallachian villages, 30 ; cattle, 30. 
WaUenburg, Herr, 282. 
Wedding, Syrian, 129. 
White Mount, 166. 



Widdin, fortress of, 30. 

Wilderness around Jerusalem, 134. 

Workshop of Joseph, 153. 

Workshops for hard stones at Flo- 
rence, containing masterpieces in 
marble, &c., 325. 

" World of graves" at Cairo, 250. 

ZABDENI, 188. 

Zacharias, tomb of, in Valley of 

Jehosaphat, 120. 
Zichy, Count, 126. 



LONDON : 

PE1XTBD BY ROBSOJf, LEVEY, AND PEANKLtS, 
Gnat New fCKil and Fetter I.aiie. 



SOUTHERN I REGIONAL LIBRARY FAOUTY